Science.gov

Sample records for cisalhamento vertical em

  1. THE VERTICAL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albert, Stephen L.; Spencer, Jeffrey B.

    1994-01-01

    'THE VERTICAL' computer keyboard is designed to address critical factors which contribute to Repetitive Motion Injuries (RMI) (including Carpal Tunnel Syndrome) in association with computer keyboard usage. This keyboard splits the standard QWERTY design into two halves and positions each half 90 degrees from the desk. In order to access a computer correctly. 'THE VERTICAL' requires users to position their bodies in optimal alignment with the keyboard. The orthopaedically neutral forearm position (with hands palms-in and thumbs-up) reduces nerve compression in the forearm. The vertically arranged keypad halves ameliorate onset occurrence of keyboard-associated RMI. By utilizing visually-reference mirrored mylar surfaces adjustable to the user's eye, the user is able to readily reference any key indicia (reversed) just as they would on a conventional keyboard. Transverse adjustability substantially reduces cumulative musculoskeletal discomfort in the shoulders. 'THE VERTICAL' eliminates the need for an exterior mouse by offering a convenient finger-accessible curser control while the hands remain in the vertically neutral position. The potential commercial application for 'THE VERTICAL' is enormous since the product can effect every person who uses a computer anywhere in the world. Employers and their insurance carriers are spending hundreds of millions of dollars per year as a result of RMI. This keyboard will reduce the risk.

  2. Vertical bounce of two vertically aligned balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2007-11-01

    When a tennis ball rests on top of a basketball and both drop to the floor together, the tennis ball is projected vertically at high speed. A mass-spring model of the impact, as well as air track data, suggest that the tennis ball should be projected at relatively low speed. Measurements of the forces on each ball and the bounce of vertically aligned superballs are used to resolve the discrepancy.

  3. Vertical axis wind turbines

    DOEpatents

    Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  4. Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Homicz, Greg

    2002-04-01

    Blade fatigue life is an important element in determining the economic viability of the Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT). VAWT-SAL Vertical Axis Wind Turbine- Stochastic Aerodynamic Loads Ver 3.2 numerically simulates the stochastic (random0 aerodynamic loads of the Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) created by the atomspheric turbulence. The program takes into account the rotor geometry, operating conditions, and assumed turbulence properties.

  5. Offset vertical radar profiling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witten, A.; Lane, J.

    2003-01-01

    Diffraction tomography imaging was applied to VRP data acquired by vertically moving a receiving antenna in a number of wells. This procedure simulated a vertical downhole receiver array. Similarly, a transmitting antenna was sequentially moved along a series of radial lines extending outward from the receiver wells. This provided a sequence of multistatic data sets and, from each data set, a two-dimensional vertical cross-sectional image of spatial variations in wave speed was reconstructed.

  6. Traumatic vertical atlantoaxial dislocation.

    PubMed

    Payer, M; Wetzel, S; Kelekis, A; Jenny, B

    2005-08-01

    We present a case of traumatic vertical atlantoaxial dislocation of 16 millimetres with a fatal outcome. We hypothesize that this extremely rare traumatic vertical atlantoaxial dislocation results from insufficiency of the C1/C2 facet capsules after rupture of the tectorial membrane and the alar ligaments.

  7. Vertical axis windmill

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.S.

    1980-04-08

    A vertical axis windmill is described which involves a rotatable central vertical shaft having horizontal arms pivotally supporting three sails that are free to function in the wind like the main sail on a sail boat, and means for disabling the sails to allow the windmill to be stopped in a blowing wind.

  8. Micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.P.; Sommargren, G.E.; McConaghy, C.F.; Krulevitch, P.A.

    1999-10-19

    A micromachined vertical actuator utilizing a levitational force, such as in electrostatic comb drives, provides vertical actuation that is relatively linear in actuation for control, and can be readily combined with parallel plate capacitive position sensing for position control. The micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator provides accurate movement in the sub-micron to micron ranges which is desirable in the phase modulation instrument, such as optical phase shifting. For example, compact, inexpensive, and position controllable micromirrors utilizing an electrostatic vertical actuator can replace the large, expensive, and difficult-to-maintain piezoelectric actuators. A thirty pound piezoelectric actuator with corner cube reflectors, as utilized in a phase shifting diffraction interferometer can be replaced with a micromirror and a lens. For any very precise and small amplitudes of motion, micromachined electrostatic actuation may be used because it is the most compact in size, with low power consumption and has more straightforward sensing and control options.

  9. Micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Abraham P.; Sommargren, Gary E.; McConaghy, Charles F.; Krulevitch, Peter A.

    1999-10-19

    A micromachined vertical actuator utilizing a levitational force, such as in electrostatic comb drives, provides vertical actuation that is relatively linear in actuation for control, and can be readily combined with parallel plate capacitive position sensing for position control. The micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator provides accurate movement in the sub-micron to micron ranges which is desirable in the phase modulation instrument, such as optical phase shifting. For example, compact, inexpensive, and position controllable micromirrors utilizing an electrostatic vertical actuator can replace the large, expensive, and difficult-to-maintain piezoelectric actuators. A thirty pound piezoelectric actuator with corner cube reflectors, as utilized in a phase shifting diffraction interferometer can be replaced with a micromirror and a lens. For any very precise and small amplitudes of motion` micromachined electrostatic actuation may be used because it is the most compact in size, with low power consumption and has more straightforward sensing and control options.

  10. Vertical axis wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Cubbers, J.

    1993-07-13

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described comprising: a vertically extending axle supported for rotation about a vertical axis; a series of wind vanes arranged around said axle; support means supporting each of said wind vanes on said axle, each of said wind vanes comprising a substantially flat main panel section of flexible material draped vertically by said support means to extend in a circumferential direction; each of said wind vanes including at least one pocket comprised of a substantially flat overlayer panel of flexible material overlying the outside of said wind vane flexible material panel section and attached thereto along a vertical side by a seam and also attached thereto along the top and bottom, but unattached along the other side to form a normally closed pocket which is able to flare open when wind is blowing from the unattached side thereof and thereby catch said wind, said pocket collapsing when wind blows from the attached side of said overlayer by said overlayer panel again overlying said main panel section.

  11. [Duane vertical surgical treatment].

    PubMed

    Merino, M L; Gómez de Liaño, P; Merino, P; Franco, G

    2014-04-01

    We report 3 cases with a vertical incomitance in upgaze, narrowing of palpebral fissure, and pseudo-overaction of both inferior oblique muscles. Surgery consisted of an elevation of both lateral rectus muscles with an asymmetrical weakening. A satisfactory result was achieved in 2 cases, whereas a Lambda syndrome appeared in the other case. The surgical technique of upper-insertion with a recession of both lateral rectus muscles improved vertical incomitance in 2 of the 3 patients; however, a residual deviation remains in the majority of cases. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. A vertical cephalometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Alió Sanz, Juan J; Iglesias Conde, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    Correctly assessing open-bite malocclusions has remained problematic because clinicians have not had entirely reliable methods of determining the exact amount of skeletal and dental contributions to the problem. A new cephalometric technique, the vertical cephalometric analysis, offers orthodontists a system that precisely identifies the percentage of skeletal and dentoalveolar components that open-bite patients have. The vertical cephalometric analysis offers a discriminating diagnostic method for evaluating, diagnosing, and treatment planning for patients with open bite. This technique will allow clinicians to classify patients with accuracy, as well as to establish prognoses and select therapies.

  13. Aiding Vertical Guidance Understanding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feary, Michael; McCrobie, Daniel; Alkin, Martin; Sherry, Lance; Polson, Peter; Palmer, Everett; McQuinn, Noreen

    1998-01-01

    A two-part study was conducted to evaluate modern flight deck automation and interfaces. In the first part, a survey was performed to validate the existence of automation surprises with current pilots. Results indicated that pilots were often surprised by the behavior of the automation. There were several surprises that were reported more frequently than others. An experimental study was then performed to evaluate (1) the reduction of automation surprises through training specifically for the vertical guidance logic, and (2) a new display that describes the flight guidance in terms of aircraft behaviors instead of control modes. The study was performed in a simulator that was used to run a complete flight with actual airline pilots. Three groups were used to evaluate the guidance display and training. In the training, condition, participants went through a training program for vertical guidance before flying the simulation. In the display condition, participants ran through the same training program and then flew the experimental scenario with the new Guidance-Flight Mode Annunciator (G-FMA). Results showed improved pilot performance when given training specifically for the vertical guidance logic and greater improvements when given the training and the new G-FMA. Using actual behavior of the avionics to design pilot training and FMA is feasible, and when the automated vertical guidance mode of the Flight Management System is engaged, the display of the guidance mode and targets yields improved pilot performance.

  14. Vertical shaft windmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grana, D. C.; Inge, S. V., Jr. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A vertical shaft has several equally spaced blades mounted. Each blade consists of an inboard section and an outboard section skew hinged to the inboard section. The inboard sections automatically adjust their positions with respect to the fixed inboard sections with changes in velocity of the wind. This windmill design automatically governs the maximum rotational speed of shaft.

  15. Vertical orbital dystopia.

    PubMed

    Tan, S T; Ashworth, G; Czypionka, S; Poole, M D; Briggs, M

    1996-06-01

    Many pathologic processes may lead to vertical orbital dystopia. We reviewed 47 consecutive cases seen over a 13-year period. Twenty-nine patients underwent eye leveling procedures to improve cosmesis, 2 of these by camouflage procedures and 27 by orbital translocation. Ten patients had 16 secondary operations. There was one death, serious complications occurred in 3 patients, and nuisance complications occurred in 20 others. Seven patients developed diplopia postoperatively, and in 6 patients it was troublesome. In these, it resolved fully in 2 patients, improved to be of no consequence in 2, and in the remaining 2 troublesome symptoms persisted requiring inferior oblique muscle recession in 1. Binocular vision was never restored when not present preoperatively, and in 3 patients temporary loss occurred. There was an overall modest but significant improvement in appearance after surgery. It is concluded that vertical orbital translocation is rewarding and worthwhile.

  16. 'Endurance' All Around Vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 360-degree view of the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity was taken on the rover's 171st sol on Mars (July 17, 2004). It was assembled from images taken by the rover's navigation camera at a position referred to as 'site 33.' Opportunity had driven 11 meters (36 feet) into 'Endurance Crater.' The view is a vertical projection with geometrical seam correction.

  17. Hilly Surroundings (vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 360-degree view of the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit was taken on the rover's 189th sol on Mars (July 15, 2004). It was assembled from images taken by the rover's navigation camera at a position referred to as Site 72, which is at the base of the 'West Spur' portion of the 'Columbia Hills.'' The view is presented in a vertical projection with geometrical seam correction.

  18. Protective Vertical Shelters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-29

    on Generic MX Structures" by John Betz. 5. (AFCMD/82-013) "Finite Element Dynamic Analysis of th, DCT-2 Models" by Barry Bingham . 61 (AFCMD/82-017) "MX...facility to define the HEST structure for the GOVS tests. A SAMSON dynamic finite-element computer code provided pretest predictions of strdsses and...as piecewise linear, elastic- plastic materials. TEST DESCRIPTION Shel ter Models The generic MX vertical shelter is basically a large, reinforced

  19. Vertical bloch line memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R. (Inventor); Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor); Wu, Jiin-chuan (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A new read gate design for the vertical Bloch line (VBL) memory is disclosed which offers larger operating margin than the existing read gate designs. In the existing read gate designs, a current is applied to all the stripes. The stripes that contain a VBL pair are chopped, while the stripes that do not contain a VBL pair are not chopped. The information is then detected by inspecting the presence or absence of the bubble. The margin of the chopping current amplitude is very small, and sometimes non-existent. A new method of reading Vertical Bloch Line memory is also disclosed. Instead of using the wall chirality to separate the two binary states, the spatial deflection of the stripe head is used. Also disclosed herein is a compact memory which uses vertical Bloch line (VBL) memory technology for providing data storage. A three-dimensional arrangement in the form of stacks of VBL memory layers is used to achieve high volumetric storage density. High data transfer rate is achieved by operating all the layers in parallel. Using Hall effect sensing, and optical sensing via the Faraday effect to access the data from within the three-dimensional packages, an even higher data transfer rate can be achieved due to parallel operation within each layer.

  20. 'Endurance' Untouched (vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This navigation camera mosaic, created from images taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on sols 115 and 116 (May 21 and 22, 2004) provides a dramatic view of 'Endurance Crater.' The rover engineering team carefully plotted the safest path into the football field-sized crater, eventually easing the rover down the slopes around sol 130 (June 12, 2004). To the upper left of the crater sits the rover's protective heatshield, which sheltered Opportunity as it passed through the martian atmosphere. The 360-degree view is presented in a vertical projection, with geometric and radiometric seam correction.

  1. Multicolored Vertical Silicon Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Kwanyong; Wober, Munib; Steinvurzel, P.; Schonbrun, E.; Dan, Yaping; Ellenbogen, T.; Crozier, K. B.

    2011-04-13

    We demonstrate that vertical silicon nanowires take on a surprising variety of colors covering the entire visible spectrum, in marked contrast to the gray color of bulk silicon. This effect is readily observable by bright-field microscopy, or even to the naked eye. The reflection spectra of the nanowires each show a dip whose position depends on the nanowire radii. We compare the experimental data to the results of finite difference time domain simulations to elucidate the physical mechanisms behind the phenomena we observe. The nanowires are fabricated as arrays, but the vivid colors arise not from scattering or diffractive effects of the array, but from the guided mode properties of the individual nanowires. Each nanowire can thus define its own color, allowing for complex spatial patterning. We anticipate that the color filter effect we demonstrate could be employed in nanoscale image sensor devices.

  2. A World Vertical Network.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    and continental levelling nets into a unifiled World Vertical Network. OD ,~ 173 OITON F I OV 5 I OSOLEI tnc las 9if led SECURITY CLASSIP CATION O T...rp,0p,Xp is T(P) = V(P) - U (P) (2.2) The gravity potential of the Earth is W(P) = V(P) + ((P) (2.3) where o ( P) = w rp’ cos 2 Op corresponds to the...is, therefore, A W(P,Q) = U(P) + T(P) + 0 (P) - U(Q) - T(Q) - o (Q) (2.4) With both P and Q on the Earth’s surface, the uncertainties in the calculated

  3. Direct Observation of Ultralow Vertical Emittance using a Vertical Undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Wootton, Kent

    2015-09-17

    In recent work, the first quantitative measurements of electron beam vertical emittance using a vertical undulator were presented, with particular emphasis given to ultralow vertical emittances [K. P. Wootton, et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams, 17, 112802 (2014)]. Using this apparatus, a geometric vertical emittance of 0.9 #6;± 0.3 pm rad has been observed. A critical analysis is given of measurement approaches that were attempted, with particular emphasis on systematic and statistical uncertainties. The method used is explained, compared to other techniques and the applicability of these results to other scenarios discussed.

  4. Observation of picometer vertical emittance with a vertical undulator.

    PubMed

    Wootton, K P; Boland, M J; Dowd, R; Tan, Y-R E; Cowie, B C C; Papaphilippou, Y; Taylor, G N; Rassool, R P

    2012-11-09

    Using a vertical undulator, picometer vertical electron beam emittances have been observed at the Australian Synchrotron storage ring. An APPLE-II type undulator was phased to produce a horizontal magnetic field, which creates a synchrotron radiation field that is very sensitive to the vertical electron beam emittance. The measured ratios of undulator spectral peak heights are evaluated by fitting to simulations of the apparatus. With this apparatus immediately available at most existing electron and positron storage rings, we find this to be an appropriate and novel vertical emittance diagnostic.

  5. National EMS Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Sayre, M R; White, L J; Brown, L H; McHenry, S D

    2002-01-01

    Now, more than ever before, the spirit of the emergency services professional is recognized by people everywhere. Individuals from every walk of life comprehend the reality of the job these professionals do each day. Placing the safety of others above their own is their acknowledged responsibility. Rescue and treatment of ill and injured patients are their purpose as well as their gratification. The men and women who provide prehospital care are well aware of the unpredictable nature of emergency medical services (EMS). Prehospital care is given when and where it is needed: in urban settings with vertical challenges and gridlock; in rural settings with limited access; in confined spaces; within entrapments; or simply in the street, exposed to the elements. Despite the challenges, EMS professionals rise to the occasion to do their best with the resources available. Despite more than 30 years of dedicated service by thousands of EMS professionals, academic researchers, and public policy makers, the nation's EMS system is treating victims of illness and injury with little or no evidence that the care they provide is optimal. A national investment in the EMS research infrastructure is necessary to overcome obstacles currently impeding the accumulation of essential evidence of the effectiveness of EMS practice. Funding is required to train new researchers and to help them establish their careers. Financial backing is needed to support the development of effective prehospital treatments for the diseases that drive the design of the EMS system, including injury and sudden cardiac arrest. Innovative strategies to make EMS research easier to accomplish in emergency situations must be implemented. Researchers must have access to patient outcome information in order to evaluate and improve prehospital care. New biomedical and technical advances must be evaluated using scientific methodology. Research is the key to maintaining focus on improving the overall health of the

  6. Coupled resonator vertical cavity laser

    SciTech Connect

    Choquette, K.D.; Chow, W.W.; Hou, H.Q.; Geib, K.M.; Hammons, B.E.

    1998-01-01

    The monolithic integration of coupled resonators within a vertical cavity laser opens up new possibilities due to the unique ability to tailor the interaction between the cavities. The authors report the first electrically injected coupled resonator vertical-cavity laser diode and demonstrate novel characteristics arising from the cavity coupling, including methods for external modulation of the laser. A coupled mode theory is used model the output modulation of the coupled resonator vertical cavity laser.

  7. ON-LINE TOOLS FOR PROPER VERTICAL POSITIONING OF VERTICAL SAMPLING INTERVALS DURING SITE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation presents on-line tools for proper vertical positioning of vertical sampling intervals during site assessment. Proper vertical sample interval selection is critical for generate data on the vertical distribution of contamination. Without vertical delineation, th...

  8. Vertical landing on an asteroid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harel, D.; Geulman, M.

    1992-01-01

    This work is concerned with the final approach phase and vertical landing on an asteroid with a power-limited, electrically propelled spacecraft. With gravitational effects taken into account, a new solution to the fuel optimal vertical landing on an asteroid was obtained. In this solution, the spacecraft commanded acceleration is explicitly expressed as a function of vehicle velocity and time to go. Based on qualitative methods of analysis, the guidance strategy and the resulting trajectories were studied. It is shown that these fuel-optimal trajectories effectively assure a vertical soft landing on the asteroid. Results of numerical simulations for the vertical landing, starting from an elliptical orbit are presented.

  9. Vertical allometry: fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Iftekhar; Boxenbaum, Harold

    2014-04-01

    In pharmacokinetics, vertical allometry is referred to the clearance of a drug when the predicted human clearance is substantially higher than the observed human clearance. Vertical allometry was initially reported for diazepam based on a 33-fold higher human predicted clearance than the observed human clearance. In recent years, it has been found that many other drugs besides diazepam, can be classified as drugs which exhibit vertical allometry. Over the years, many questions regarding vertical allometry have been raised. For example, (1) How to define and identify the vertical allometry? (2) How much difference should be between predicted and observed human clearance values before a drug could be declared 'a drug which follows vertical allometry'? (3) If somehow one can identify vertical allometry from animal data, how this information can be used for reasonably accurate prediction of clearance in humans? This report attempts to answer the aforementioned questions. The concept of vertical allometry at this time remains complex and obscure but with more extensive works one can have better understanding of 'vertical allometry'. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. 4. VIEW OF VERTICAL BORING MACHINE. (Bullard) Vertical turning lathe ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF VERTICAL BORING MACHINE. (Bullard) Vertical turning lathe (VTL). Machining the fixture for GE Turboshroud. G.S. O'Brien, operator. - Juniata Shops, Machine Shop No. 1, East of Fourth Avenue at Third Street, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  11. Vertical 2D Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotsch, Bettina V.

    2015-07-01

    Graphene's legacy has become an integral part of today's condensed matter science and has equipped a whole generation of scientists with an armory of concepts and techniques that open up new perspectives for the postgraphene area. In particular, the judicious combination of 2D building blocks into vertical heterostructures has recently been identified as a promising route to rationally engineer complex multilayer systems and artificial solids with intriguing properties. The present review highlights recent developments in the rapidly emerging field of 2D nanoarchitectonics from a materials chemistry perspective, with a focus on the types of heterostructures available, their assembly strategies, and their emerging properties. This overview is intended to bridge the gap between two major—yet largely disjunct—developments in 2D heterostructures, which are firmly rooted in solid-state chemistry or physics. Although the underlying types of heterostructures differ with respect to their dimensions, layer alignment, and interfacial quality, there is common ground, and future synergies between the various assembly strategies are to be expected.

  12. Vertically reciprocating auger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etheridge, Mark; Morgan, Scott; Fain, Robert; Pearson, Jonathan; Weldi, Kevin; Woodrough, Stephen B., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The mathematical model and test results developed for the Vertically Reciprocating Auger (VRA) are summarized. The VRA is a device capable of transporting cuttings that result from below surface drilling. It was developed chiefly for the lunar surface, where conventional fluid flushing while drilling would not be practical. The VRA uses only reciprocating motion and transports material through reflections with the surface above. Particles are reflected forward and land ahead of radially placed fences, which prevent the particles from rolling back down the auger. Three input wave forms are considered to drive the auger. A modified sawtooth wave form was chosen for testing, over a modified square wave or sine wave, due to its simplicity and effectiveness. The three-dimensional mathematical model predicted a sand throughput rate of 0.2667 pounds/stroke, while the actual test setup transported 0.075 pounds/stroke. Based on this result, a correction factor of 0.281 is suggested for a modified sawtooth input.

  13. The School Library Vertical File.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallwood, Carol

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the maintenance of vertical files in the school library. Topics covered include circulation, weeding, using materials for special displays, acquiring materials, policies on advertising and controversial issues, cross-references, subject headings, introducing students to vertical files, beginning a collection, and preservation. (MES)

  14. Latitude and longitude vertical disparity

    PubMed Central

    Read, Jenny C. A.; Phillipson, Graeme P.; Glennerster, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The literature on vertical disparity is complicated by the fact that several different definitions of the term “vertical disparity” are in common use, often without a clear statement about which is intended or a widespread appreciation of the properties of the different definitions. Here, we examine two definitions of retinal vertical disparity: elevation-latitude and elevation-longitude disparity. Near the fixation point, these definitions become equivalent, but in general, they have quite different dependences on object distance and binocular eye posture, which have not previously been spelt out. We present analytical approximations for each type of vertical disparity, valid for more general conditions than previous derivations in the literature: we do not restrict ourselves to objects near the fixation point or near the plane of regard, and we allow for non-zero torsion, cyclovergence and vertical misalignments of the eyes. We use these expressions to derive estimates of the latitude and longitude vertical disparity expected at each point in the visual field, averaged over all natural viewing. Finally, we present analytical expressions showing how binocular eye position – gaze direction, convergence, torsion, cyclovergence, and vertical misalignment – can be derived from the vertical disparity field and its derivatives at the fovea. PMID:20055544

  15. Measuring Growth with Vertical Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Derek C.

    2013-01-01

    A vertical score scale is needed to measure growth across multiple tests in terms of absolute changes in magnitude. Since the warrant for subsequent growth interpretations depends upon the assumption that the scale has interval properties, the validation of a vertical scale would seem to require methods for distinguishing interval scales from…

  16. Measuring Growth with Vertical Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Derek C.

    2013-01-01

    A vertical score scale is needed to measure growth across multiple tests in terms of absolute changes in magnitude. Since the warrant for subsequent growth interpretations depends upon the assumption that the scale has interval properties, the validation of a vertical scale would seem to require methods for distinguishing interval scales from…

  17. The Gains from Vertical Scaling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Derek C.; Domingue, Ben

    2013-01-01

    It is often assumed that a vertical scale is necessary when value-added models depend upon the gain scores of students across two or more points in time. This article examines the conditions under which the scale transformations associated with the vertical scaling process would be expected to have a significant impact on normative interpretations…

  18. Vertical bloch line memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, R.; Wu, J.; Stadler, H.

    1990-01-01

    Vertical Bloch Line (VBL) memory is a recently conceived, integrated, solid-state, block-access, VLSI memory which offers the potential of 1Gbit/sq cm real storage density, gigabit per second data rates, and sub-millisecond average access times simultaneously at relatively low mass, volume, and power values when compared to alternative technologies. VBL's are micromagnetic structures within magnetic domain walls which can be manipulated using magnetic fields from integrated conductors. The presence or absence of VBL pairs are used to store binary information. At present, efforts are being directed at developing a single-chip memory using 25Mbit/sq cm technology in magnetic garnet material which integrates, at a single operating point, the writing, storage, reading, and amplification functions needed in a memory. This paper describes the current design architecture, functional elements, and supercomputer simulation results which are used to assist the design process. The current design architecture uses three metal layers, two ion implantation steps for modulating the thickness of the magnetic layer, one ion implantation step for assisting propagation in the major line track, one NiFe soft magnetic layer, one CoPt hard magnetic layer, and one reflective Cr layer for facilitating magneto-optic observation of magnetic structure. Data are stored in a series of elongated magnetic domains, called stripes, which serve as storage sites for arrays of VBL pairs. The ends of these stripes are placed near conductors which serve as VBL read/write gates. A major line track is present to provide a source and propagation path for magnetic bubbles. Writing and reading, respectively, are achieved by converting magnetic bubbles to VBL's and vice versa. The output function is effected by stretching a magnetic bubble and detecting it magnetoresistively. Experimental results from the past design cycle created four design goals for the current design cycle. First, the bias field ranges

  19. Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

    2012-12-18

    A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

  20. Vertically scanned laser sheet microscopy.

    PubMed

    Dong, Di; Arranz, Alicia; Zhu, Shouping; Yang, Yujie; Shi, Liangliang; Wang, Jun; Shen, Chen; Tian, Jie; Ripoll, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Laser sheet microscopy is a widely used imaging technique for imaging the three-dimensional distribution of a fluorescence signal in fixed tissue or small organisms. In laser sheet microscopy, the stripe artifacts caused by high absorption or high scattering structures are very common, greatly affecting image quality. To solve this problem, we report here a two-step procedure which consists of continuously acquiring laser sheet images while vertically displacing the sample, and then using the variational stationary noise remover (VSNR) method to further reduce the remaining stripes. Images from a cleared murine colon acquired with a vertical scan are compared with common stitching procedures demonstrating that vertically scanned light sheet microscopy greatly improves the performance of current light sheet microscopy approaches without the need for complex changes to the imaging setup and allows imaging of elongated samples, extending the field of view in the vertical direction.

  1. Vertical Beam Polarization at MAMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlimme, B. S.; Achenbach, P.; Aulenbacher, K.; Baunack, S.; Bender, D.; Beričič, J.; Bosnar, D.; Correa, L.; Dehn, M.; Distler, M. O.; Esser, A.; Fonvieille, H.; Friščić, I.; Gutheil, B.; Herrmann, P.; Hoek, M.; Kegel, S.; Kohl, Y.; Kolar, T.; Kreidel, H.-J.; Maas, F.; Merkel, H.; Mihovilovič, M.; Müller, J.; Müller, U.; Nillius, F.; Nuck, A.; Pochodzalla, J.; Schoth, M.; Schulz, F.; Sfienti, C.; Širca, S.; Spruck, B.; Štajner, S.; Thiel, M.; Tioukine, V.; Tyukin, A.; Weber, A.

    2017-04-01

    For the first time a vertically polarized electron beam has been used for physics experiments at MAMI in the energy range between 180 and 855 MeV. The beam-normal single-spin asymmetry An, which is a direct probe of higher-order photon exchange beyond the first Born approximation, has been measured in the reaction 12C (e → , e ‧)12C . Vertical polarization orientation was necessary to measure this asymmetry with the existing experimental setup. In this paper we describe the procedure to orient the electron polarization vector vertically, and the concept of determining both its magnitude and orientation with the available setup. A sophisticated method has been developed to overcome the lack of a polarimeter setup sensitive to the vertical polarization component.

  2. RHIC VERTICAL AC DIPOLE COMMISSIONING.

    SciTech Connect

    BAI,M.; DELONG,J.; HOFF,L.; PAI,C.; PEGGS,S.; PIACENTINO,J.; OERTER,B.; ODDO,P.; ROSER,T.; SATOGATA,T.; TRBOJEVIC,D.; ZALTSMAN,A.

    2002-06-02

    The RHIC vertical ac dipole was installed in the summer of 2001. The magnet is located in the interaction region between sector 3 and sector 4 common to both beams. The resonant frequency of the ac dipole was first configured to be around half of the beam revolution frequency to act as a spin flipper. At the end of the RHIC 2002 run, the ac dipole frequency was reconfigured for linear optics studies. A 0.35 mm driven betatron oscillation was excited with the vertical ac dipole and the vertical betatron functions and phase advances at each beam position monitor (BPM) around the RHIC yellow ring were measured using the excited coherence. We also recorded horizontal turn-by-turn beam positions at each BPM location to investigate coupling effects. Analysis algorithms and measurement results are presented.

  3. Measurements of vertical bar Vcb vertical bar and vertical bar Vub vertical bar at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Rotondo, M.

    2005-10-12

    We report results from the BABAR Collaboration on the semileptonic B decays, highlighting the measurements of the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements Vub and Vcb. We describe the techniques used to obtain the matrix element |Vcb| using the measurement of the inclusive B {yields} Xclv process and a large sample of exclusive B {yields} D*lv decays. The vertical bar Vub vertical bar matrix elements has been measured studying different kinematic variables of the B {yields} Xulv process, and also with the exclusive reconstruction of B {yields} {pi}({rho})lv decays.

  4. Vertical motion simulator familiarization guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danek, George L.

    1993-01-01

    The Vertical Motion Simulator Familiarization Guide provides a synoptic description of the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) and descriptions of the various simulation components and systems. The intended audience is the community of scientists and engineers who employ the VMS for research and development. The concept of a research simulator system is introduced and the building block nature of the VMS is emphasized. Individual sections describe all the hardware elements in terms of general properties and capabilities. Also included are an example of a typical VMS simulation which graphically illustrates the composition of the system and shows the signal flow among the elements and a glossary of specialized terms, abbreviations, and acronyms.

  5. Waves, circulation and vertical dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellor, George

    2013-04-01

    Longuet-Higgins and Stewart (J Fluid Mech 13:481-504, 1962; Deep-Sea Res 11:529-562, 1964) and later Phillips (1977) introduced the problem of waves incident on a beach, from deep to shallow water. From the wave energy equation and the vertically integrated continuity equation, they inferred velocities to be Stokes drift plus a return current so that the vertical integral of the combined velocities was nil. As a consequence, it can be shown that velocities of the order of Stokes drift rendered the advective term in the momentum equation negligible resulting in a simple balance between the horizontal gradients of the vertically integrated elevation and wave radiation stress terms; the latter was first derived by Longuet-Higgins and Stewart. Mellor (J Phys Oceanogr 33:1978-1989, 2003a), noting that vertically integrated continuity and momentum equations were not able to deal with three-dimensional numerical or analytical ocean models, derived a vertically dependent theory of wave-circulation interaction. It has since been partially revised and the revisions are reviewed here. The theory is comprised of the conventional, three-dimensional, continuity and momentum equations plus a vertically distributed, wave radiation stress term. When applied to the problem of waves incident on a beach with essentially zero turbulence momentum mixing, velocities are very large and the simple balance between elevation and radiation stress gradients no longer prevails. However, when turbulence mixing is reinstated, the vertically dependent radiation stresses produce vertical velocity gradients which then produce turbulent mixing; as a consequence, velocities are reduced, but are still larger by an order of magnitude compared to Stokes drift. Nevertheless, the velocity reduction is sufficient so that elevation set-down obtained from a balance between elevation gradient and radiation stress gradients is nearly coincident with that obtained by the aforementioned papers. This paper

  6. Spatial Distribution of Vertical Shear

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    Gulf Stream ring. The dotted line is at 150 dbars ... A-31 V’ i LIST OF FIGURES (Continued) Page Figure A.31 As in Figure A.. except for YVETE sta...of mean N(solid lne) and mean S 2 ’(+ marks) for selected YVETE stations. The indvidual points represent non- ?verlap ing 50in vertical a~erages of the

  7. Vertical integration and market power

    SciTech Connect

    Maddigan, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    One of the continuing debates of industrial organization surrounds the importance of market structure in determining a firm's performance. This controversy develops naturally from the difficulties in measuring the relevant variables and the hazards of statistical analysis. The focus of this empirical study is the relationship between vertical integration, as an element of market structure, and market power, as a component of a firm's performance. The model presented in this paper differs from previous efforts because vertical integration is measured by the Vertical Industry Connections (VIC) index. VIC is defined as a function of the relative net interactions among the industries in which a firm operates, and is calculated by use of the national input-output tables. A linear regression model is estimated by means of a random sample of firms selected from the Standard and Poor's COMPUSTAT data base for 1963, 1967, and 1972. Combined cross-sectional, time-series methods are employed. The dependent variable is the price-cost margin; the independent variables include not only VIC, but also the concentration ratio, diversification index, value of assets, capital-output ratio, and sales growth. The results indicate that VIC is significant in increasing the price-cost margin, and thus support the hypothesis that vertical integration is a strategy to enhance market power. 1 figure, 3 tables.

  8. Vertical Launch Alignment Transfer Apparatus.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A launch mechanism for vertically launching missiles carried in launch tubes disposed in a pod . The launch mechanism includes apparatus for... pod and v-groove elements are secured in the launch tubes and oriented to the northfinder. Rods are secured on opposite sides of each missile and are

  9. Physics and the Vertical Jump

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offenbacher, Elmer L.

    1970-01-01

    The physics of vertical jumping is described as an interesting illustration for motivating students in a general physics course to master the kinematics and dynamics of one dimensional motion. The author suggests that mastery of the physical principles of the jump may promote understanding of certain biological phenomena, aspects of physical…

  10. Vertical Instability at IPNS RCS.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.; Brumwell, F. R.; Dooling, J. C.; Harkay, K. C.; Kustom, R.; McMichael, G. E.; Middendorf, M. E.; Nassiri, A.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2008-01-01

    The rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) of the intense pulsed neutron source (IPNS) at ANL accelerates > 3.0 times 10{sup 12} protons from 50 MeV to 450 MeV with 30-Hz repetition frequency. During the acceleration cycle, the rf frequency varies from 2.21 MHz to 5.14 MHz. Presently, the beam current is limited by a vertical instability. By analyzing turn-by-turn beam position monitor (BPM) data, large- amplitude mode 0 and mode 1 vertical beam centroid oscillations were observed in the later part of the acceleration cycle. The oscillations start in the tail of the bunch, build up, and remain localized in the tail half of the bunch. This vertical instability was compared with a head-tail instability that was intentionally induced in the RCS by adjusting the trim sextupoles. It appears that our vertical instability is not a classical head-tail instability [1]. More data analysis and experiments were performed to characterize the instability.

  11. Vertical reactor coolant pump instabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    The investigation conducted at the Tennessee Valley Authority's Sequoyah Nuclear Power Plant to determine and correct increasing vibrations in the vertical reactor coolant pumps is described. Diagnostic procedures to determine the vibration causes and evaluate the corrective measures taken are also described.

  12. Vertical Sextants give Good Sights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Mark

    Many texts stress the need for marine sextants to be held precisely vertical at the instant that the altitude of a heavenly body is measured. Several authors lay particular emphasis on the technique of the instrument in a small arc about the horizontal axis to obtain a good sight. Nobody, to the author's knowledge, however, has attempted to quantify the errors involved, so as to compare them with other errors inherent in determining celestial position lines. This paper sets out to address these issues and to pose the question: what level of accuracy of vertical alignment can reasonably be expected during marine sextant work at sea ?When a heavenly body is brought to tangency with the visible horizon it is particularly important to ensure that the sextant is held in a truly vertical position. To this end the instrument is rocked gently about the horizontal so that the image of the body describes a small arc in the observer's field of vision. As Bruce Bauer points out, tangency with the horizon must be achieved during the process of rocking and not a second or so after rocking has been discontinued. The altitude is recorded for the instant that the body kisses the visible horizon at the lowest point of the rocking arc, as in Fig. 2. The only other visual clue as to whether the sextant is vertical is provided by the right angle made by the vertical edge of the horizon glass mirror with the horizon. There may also be some input from the observer's sense of balance and his hand orientation.

  13. Verticality perception during off-vertical axis rotation.

    PubMed

    Vingerhoets, R A A; Van Gisbergen, J A M; Medendorp, W P

    2007-05-01

    During prolonged rotation about a tilted yaw axis, often referred to as off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR), a percept of being translated along a conical path slowly emerges as the sense of rotation subsides. Recently, we found that these perceptual changes are consistent with a canal-otolith interaction model that attributes the illusory translation percept to improper interpretation of the ambiguous otolith signals. The model further predicts that the illusory translation percept must be accompanied by slowly worsening tilt underestimates. Here, we tested this prediction in six subjects by measuring the time course of the subjective visual vertical (SVV) during OVAR stimulation at three different tilt-rotation speed combinations, in complete darkness. Throughout the 2-min run, at each left-ear-down and right-ear-down position, the subject indicated whether a briefly flashed line deviated clockwise or counterclockwise from vertical to determine the SVV with an adaptive staircase procedure. Typically, SVV errors indicating tilt underestimation were already present at rotation onset and then increased exponentially to an asymptotic value, reached at about 60 s after rotation onset. The initial error in the SVV was highly correlated to the response error in a static tilt control experiment. The subsequent increase in error depended on both rotation speed and OVAR tilt angle, in a manner predicted by the canal-otolith interaction model. We conclude that verticality misjudgments during OVAR reflect a dynamic component linked to canal-otolith interaction, superimposed on a tilt-related component that is also expressed under stationary conditions.

  14. Kinematic Fitting of Detached Vertices

    SciTech Connect

    Mattione, Paul

    2007-05-01

    The eg3 experiment at the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector aims to determine the existence of the $\\Xi_{5}$ pentaquarks and investigate the excited $\\Xi$ states. Specifically, the exotic $\\Xi_{5}^{--}$ pentaquark will be sought by first reconstructing the $\\Xi^{-}$ particle through its weak decays, $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda\\to\\pi^{-}$. A kinematic fitting routine was developed to reconstruct the detached vertices of these decays, where confidence level cuts on the fits are used to remove background events. Prior to fitting these decays, the exclusive reaction $\\gamma D\\rightarrow pp\\pi^{-}$ was studied in order to correct the track measurements and covariance matrices of the charged particles. The $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ decays were then investigated to demonstrate that the kinematic fitting routine reconstructs the decaying particles and their detached vertices correctly.

  15. Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The exploration of the vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. The consortium has submitted over 25 different designs for the Fermilab organized MPW run organized for the first time.

  16. Vertical distribution of Arctic methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tukiainen, Simo; Karppinen, Tomi; Hakkarainen, Janne; Kivi, Rigel; Heikkinen, Pauli; Tamminen, Johanna

    2017-04-01

    In this study we show the vertical distribution of atmospheric methane (CH4) measured in Sodankylä, Northern Finland. The CH4 profiles are retrieved from the direct Sun FTS measurements using the dimension reduction retrieval method. In the retrieval method, we have a few degrees of freedom about the profile shape. The data set covers years 2010-2016 (from February to November) and altitudes 0-40 km. The retrieved FTS profiles are validated against ACE satellite measurements and AirCore balloon measurements. The total columns derived from the FTS profiles are compared to the official TCCON XCH4 data. A vertically resolved methane data set can be used, e.g., to study stratospheric methane during the polar vortex.

  17. Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning, and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. For the first time, Fermilab has organized a 3D MPW run, to which more than 25 different designs have been submitted by the consortium.

  18. NASA-Ames vertical gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, P. H.

    1984-01-01

    A national facility, the NASA-Ames vertical gun range (AVGR) has an excellent reputation for revealing fundamental aspects of impact cratering that provide important constraints for planetary processes. The current logistics in accessing the AVGR, some of the past and ongoing experimental programs and their relevance, and the future role of this facility in planetary studies are reviewed. Publications resulting from experiments with the gun (1979 to 1984) are listed as well as the researchers and subjects studied.

  19. Management of paretic vertical deviations.

    PubMed

    Archer, Steven M

    2011-01-01

    Paretic vertical deviations are characterized by complex patterns of incomitance that make them some of the most challenging strabismus problems to treat. Optimum results are obtained by performing surgery on those muscles, selected from among the eight cyclovertical muscles in the two eyes, that minimize the incomitance. In superior oblique paresis the additional factors of torticollis and torsion need to be addressed and aberrant regeneration can alter the surgical plan in third nerve paresis.

  20. Vertical Gun Test Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-18

    phosphate (TBP) as a chemical agent simulant in a maximum of six vertical gun experiments to be conducted at the Energetic Materials Research and... phosphate . Using either of Ka-Bandprocess, with 2 these two substances would not achieve the test objectives of realistically simulating the threat. In...resources, geology and soils , hazardous materials and hazardous waste, health and safety, land use, noise, socioeconomics and environmental justice

  1. NASA-Ames vertical gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, P. H.

    1984-01-01

    A national facility, the NASA-Ames vertical gun range (AVGR) has an excellent reputation for revealing fundamental aspects of impact cratering that provide important constraints for planetary processes. The current logistics in accessing the AVGR, some of the past and ongoing experimental programs and their relevance, and the future role of this facility in planetary studies are reviewed. Publications resulting from experiments with the gun (1979 to 1984) are listed as well as the researchers and subjects studied.

  2. Mated vertical ground vibration test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivey, E. W.

    1980-01-01

    The Mated Vertical Ground Vibration Test (MVGVT) was considered to provide an experimental base in the form of structural dynamic characteristics for the shuttle vehicle. This data base was used in developing high confidence analytical models for the prediction and design of loads, pogo controls, and flutter criteria under various payloads and operational missions. The MVGVT boost and launch program evolution, test configurations, and their suspensions are described. Test results are compared with predicted analytical results.

  3. Prophylaxis of vertical HBV infection.

    PubMed

    Pawlowska, Malgorzata; Pniewska, Anna; Pilarczyk, Malgorzata; Kozielewicz, Dorota; Domagalski, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    An appropriate management of HBV infection is the best strategy to finally reduce the total burden of HBV infection. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is responsible for more than one third of chronic HBV infections worldwide. Because HBV infection in infancy or early childhood often leads to chronic infection, appropriate prophylaxis and management of HBV in pregnancy is crucial to prevent MTCT. The prevention of HBV vertical transmission is a complex task and includes: universal HBV screening of pregnant women, administration of antivirals in the third trimester of pregnancy in women with high viral load and passive-active HBV immunoprophylaxis with hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin in newborns of all HBV infected women. Universal screening of pregnant women for HBV infection, early identification of HBV DNA level in HBV-infected mothers, maternal treatment with class B according to FDA antivirals and passive/active anti-HBV immunoprophylaxis to newborns of HBV-positive mothers are crucial strategies for reducing vertical HBV transmission rates. Consideration of caesarean section in order to reduce the risk of vertical HBV transmission should be recommend in HBV infected pregnant women with high viral load despite antiviral therapy or when the therapy in the third trimester of pregnancy is not available.

  4. Bimanual-vertical hand movements.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jay C; Cohen, Matthew L; Williamson, John; Burtis, Brandon; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2011-07-01

    Patients often demonstrate attentional and action-intentional biases in both the transverse and coronal planes. In addition, when making forelimb movements in the transverse plane, normal participants also have spatial and magnitude asymmetries, but forelimb spatial asymmetries have not been studied in coronal space. Thus, to learn if when normal people make vertical movements they have right-left spatial and magnitude biases, seventeen healthy, blindfolded volunteers had their hands (holding pens) placed vertically in their midsagittal plane, 10 inches apart, on pieces of paper positioned above, below, and at eye-level. Participants were asked to move their hands together vertically and meet in the middle. Participants demonstrated less angular deviation in the below-eye condition than in the other spatial conditions, when moving down than up, and with their right than left hand. Movements toward eye level from upper or lower space were also more accurate than movements in the other directions. Independent of hand, lines were longer with downward than upward movements and the right hand moved more distance than the left. These attentional-intentional asymmetries may be related to gravitational force, hand-hemispheric dominance, and spatial "where" asymmetries; however, the mechanisms accounting for these asymmetries must be ascertained by future research.

  5. [Vertical fractures: apropos of 2 clinical cases].

    PubMed

    Félix Mañes Ferrer, J; Micò Muñoz, P; Sánchez Cortés, J L; Paricio Martín, J J; Miñana Laliga, R

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the study is to present a clinical review of the vertical root fractures. Two clinical cases are presented to demonstrates the criteria for obtaining a correct diagnosis of vertical root fractures.

  6. Vertical separation of the two beams

    SciTech Connect

    Heifets, S.

    1985-10-01

    The author discusses the problem of design of insertion points on the SSC, and in particular keeping the length necessary for them under control. Here he considers the possibility of having vertically separated beams, without a vertical dispersion suppressor.

  7. Adaptive regularization joint inversion of marine CSEM and MT data in vertically anisotropic stratified structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, M.; Li, Y.

    2016-12-01

    In inversion and interpretation of industrial EM data sets, it can be sufficient in a number of situations by assuming isotropy, however, the presence of electric anisotropy in the earth' s crust, due to thin layer interbedding or grain alignments in the sediments can significantly alter the response measured in the EM receiver. Ignoring anisotropy in interpreting marine CSEM data may lead to a distorted image of seabed conductivity structures, even misinterpretation. We present a joint inversion method for frequency domain marine CSEM data and MT data in vertically anisotropic stratified media. The inversion approach is based on the Gauss-Newton scheme. Due to the influence of ocean currents, the transmitter antenna will appear tilting and rotating. Applying superposition principle of electromagnetic field, we extend the scheme of Loseth and Ursin (2007) for calculating CSEM fields from a horizontal dipole source (HED) and/or a vertical dipole source (VED) in stratified media with vertical anisotropy to the general case of arbitrary orientation dipole source. The partial derivatives of the electromagnetic fileds (CSEM data) with respect to both the horizontal and vertical resistivity and apparent resistivity (MT data) with respect to the horizontal resistivity are analytically calculated. Based on the relationship between the horizontal resistivity and the vertical resistivity of the inversion model, an adaptive selection method for regularization factors is proposed to balance the effects of the data misfit and the structural constraint.

  8. Vertically aligned nanostructure scanning probe microscope tips

    DOEpatents

    Guillorn, Michael A.; Ilic, Bojan; Melechko, Anatoli V.; Merkulov, Vladimir I.; Lowndes, Douglas H.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2006-12-19

    Methods and apparatus are described for cantilever structures that include a vertically aligned nanostructure, especially vertically aligned carbon nanofiber scanning probe microscope tips. An apparatus includes a cantilever structure including a substrate including a cantilever body, that optionally includes a doped layer, and a vertically aligned nanostructure coupled to the cantilever body.

  9. Vertical Lift - Not Just For Terrestrial Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A

    2000-01-01

    Autonomous vertical lift vehicles hold considerable potential for supporting planetary science and exploration missions. This paper discusses several technical aspects of vertical lift planetary aerial vehicles in general, and specifically addresses technical challenges and work to date examining notional vertical lift vehicles for Mars, Titan, and Venus exploration.

  10. 46 CFR 108.160 - Vertical ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vertical ladders. 108.160 Section 108.160 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Means of Escape § 108.160 Vertical ladders. (a) Each vertical ladder must...

  11. 46 CFR 108.160 - Vertical ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vertical ladders. 108.160 Section 108.160 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Means of Escape § 108.160 Vertical ladders. (a) Each vertical ladder must...

  12. A design for vertical crossing insertions

    SciTech Connect

    Garren, A.

    1985-10-01

    A crossing insertion designed for an SSC with vertically separated 1-in-1 beam lines is presented in this note. The author supposes that the beam lines consist of separate magnets in separate cryostats separated by about 70 cm. He then describes the design, where vertical separation is done with four vertical dipoles producing a steplike beam line.

  13. Analysis of vertical interconnection measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karner, F. A.

    The paper examines the predominance of the effects that measurement points, geometries, and alignment have on the interpretation of measured values of contact resistance of vertical interconnections in multilayer electronic packages. It is concluded that: (1) four-terminal measurements for contact resistance are misleading; (2) measured values are mostly a function of structural geometry; (3) simulation in two dimensions and subsequent synthesis is a good predictor in three-dimensional simulations; (4) the dual-contact site is a good alignment aid and contact-resistance indicator; and (5) the measured resistance value should only be used as a reference, and not as an indicator of good or bad.

  14. Vertical jumping and signaled avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Cándido, Antonio; Maldonado, Antonio; Vila, Jaime

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports an experiment intended to demonstrate that the vertical jumping response can be learned using a signaled-avoidance technique. A photoelectric cell system was used to record the response. Twenty female rats, divided equally into two groups, were exposed to intertrial intervals of either 15 or 40 s. Subjects had to achieve three successive criteria of acquisition: 3, 5, and 10 consecutive avoidance responses. Results showed that both groups learned the avoidance response, requiring increasingly larger numbers of trials as the acquisition criteria increased. No significant effect of intertrial interval was observed. PMID:16812559

  15. ?Vertical Sextants give Good Sights?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richey, Michael

    Mark Dixon suggests (Forum, Vol. 50, 137) that nobody thus far has attempted to quantify the errors from tilt that arise while observing with the marine sextant. The issue in fact, with the related problem of what exactly is the axis about which the sextant is rotated whilst being (to define the vertical), was the subject of a lively controversy in the first two volumes of this Journal some fifty years ago. Since the consensus of opinion seems to have been that the maximum error does not necessarily occur at 45 degrees, whereas Dixon's table suggests that it does, some reiteration of the arguments may be in order.

  16. Laser tracking for vertical control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Peter; Torrence, Mark; Pavlis, Erricos; Kolenkiewicz, Ron; Smith, David

    1993-01-01

    The Global Laser Tracking Network has provided LAGEOS ranging data of high accuracy since the first MERIT campaign in late 1983 and we can now resolve centimeter-level three dimensional positions of participating observatories at monthly intervals. In this analysis, the station height estimates have been considered separately from the horizontal components, and can be determined by the strongest stations with a formal standard error of 2 mm using eight years of continuous observations. The rate of change in the vertical can be resolved to a few mm/year, which is at the expected level of several geophysical effects. In comparing the behavior of the stations to that predicted by recent models of post-glacial rebound, we find no correlation in this very small effect. Particular attention must be applied to data and survey quality control when measuring the vertical component, and the survey observations are critical components of the geodynamic results. Seasonal patterns are observed in the heights of most stations, and the possibility of secular motion at the level of several millimeters per year cannot be excluded. Any such motion must be considered in the interpretation of horizontal inter-site measurements, and can help to identify mechanisms which can cause variations which occur linearly with time, seasonally, or abruptly.

  17. Making Tracks on Mars (vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has been making tracks on Mars for seven months now, well beyond its original 90-day mission. The rover traveled more than 3 kilometers (2 miles) to reach the 'Columbia Hills' pictured here. In this 360-degree view of the rolling martian terrain, its wheel tracks can be seen approaching from the northwest (right side of image).

    Spirit's navigation camera took the images that make up this mosaic on sols 210 and 213 (Aug. 5 and Aug. 8, 2004). The rover is now conducting scientific studies of the local geology on the 'Clovis' outcrop of the 'West Spur' region of the 'Columbia Hills.' The view is presented in a vertical projection with geometrical seam correction. Scientists plan for Spirit to take a color panoramic image from this location.

  18. Vertical deformation and absolute gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Ming; Hager, Bradford H.

    2001-08-01

    Crustal deformation in the Greenland and Antarctic areas is strongly influenced by both postglacial rebound and contemporary mass redistribution. We explore the relationship between the displacement field and the gravitational disturbance for a viscoelastic Maxwell Earth with an arbitrary radial viscosity profile. We seek to determine whether the effects of viscous relaxation in the memory of surface mass change can be separated from the effects of present day mass variation by combined measurements of vertical displacement and absolute gravity when the viscosity profile in the Earth's interior is unknown. Our conclusion is positive. Specifically, the non-elastic effects can be reduced substantially by combined measurements of displacement and gravity change for a Maxwell viscoelastic Earth regardless of its radial viscosity profile. The underlying physics has nothing to do with the mathematical structure of viscous relaxation modes. Rather, it is due to the fact that the non-elastic response of a Maxwell Earth is nearly incompressible.

  19. 5-foot Vertical Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1932-01-01

    The researcher is sitting above the exit cone of the 5-foot Vertical Wind Tunnel and is examining the new 6-component spinning balance. This balance was developed between 1930 and 1933. It was an important advance in the technology of rotating or rolling balances. As M.J. Bamber and C.H. Zimmerman wrote in NACA TR 456: 'Data upon the aerodynamic characteristics of a spinning airplane may be obtained in several ways; namely, flight tests with full-scale airplanes, flight tests with balanced models, strip-method analysis of wind-tunnel force and moment tests, and wind-tunnel tests of rotating models.' Further, they note: 'Rolling-balance data have been of limited value because it has not been possible to measure all six force and moment components or to reproduce a true spinning condition. The spinning balance used in this investigation is a 6-component rotating balance from which it is possible to obtain wind-tunnel data for any of a wide range of possible spinning conditions.' Bamber and Zimmerman described the balance as follows: 'The spinning balance consists of a balance head that supports the model and contains the force-measuring units, a horizontal turntable supported by streamline struts in the center of the jet and, outside the tunnel, a direct-current driving motor, a liquid tachometer, an air compressor, a mercury manometer, a pair of indicating lamps, and the necessary controls. The balance head is mounted on the turntable and it may be set to give any radius of spin between 0 and 8 inches.' In an earlier report, NACA TR 387, Carl Wenzinger and Thomas Harris supply this description of the tunnel: 'The vertical open-throat wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics ... was built mainly for studying the spinning characteristics of airplane models, but may be used as well for the usual types of wind-tunnel tests. A special spinning balance is being developed to measure the desired forces and moments with the model simulating the actual

  20. Vertical jump coordination: fatigue effects.

    PubMed

    Rodacki, André Luiz Felix; Fowler, Neil E; Bennett, Simon J

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the segmental coordination of vertical jumps under fatigue of the knee extensor and flexor muscles. Eleven healthy and active subjects performed maximal vertical jumps with and without fatigue, which was imposed by requesting the subjects to extend/flex their knees continuously in a weight machine, until they could not lift a load corresponding to approximately 50% of their body weight. Knee extensor and flexor isokinetic peak torques were also measured before and after fatigue. Video, ground reaction forces, and electromyographic data were collected simultaneously and used to provide several variables of the jumps. Fatiguing the knee flexor muscles did not reduce the height of the jumps or induce changes in the kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographic profiles. Knee extensor fatigue caused the subjects to adjust several variables of the movement, in which the peak joint angular velocity, peak joint net moment, and power around the knee were reduced and occurred earlier in comparison with the nonfatigued jumps. The electromyographic data analyses indicated that the countermovement jumps were performed similarly, i.e., a single strategy was used, irrespective of which muscle group (extensor or flexors) or the changes imposed on the muscle force-generating characteristics (fatigue or nonfatigue). The subjects executed the movements as if they scaled a robust template motor program, which guided the movement execution in all jump conditions. It was speculated that training programs designed to improve jump height performance should avoid severe fatigue levels, which may cause the subjects to learn and adopt a nonoptimal and nonspecific coordination solution. It was suggested that the neural input used in the fatigued condition did not constitute an optimal solution and may have played a role in decreasing maximal jump height achievement.

  1. Plasma vertical stabilisation in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribov, Y.; Kavin, A.; Lukash, V.; Khayrutdinov, R.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Loarte, A.; Snipes, J. A.; Zabeo, L.

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the progress in analysis of the ITER plasma vertical stabilisation (VS) system since its design review in 2007-2008. Two indices characterising plasma VS were studied. These are (1) the maximum value of plasma vertical displacement due to free drift that can be stopped by the VS system and (2) the maximum root mean square value of low frequency noise in the dZ/dt measurement signal used in the VS feedback loop. The first VS index was calculated using the PET code for 15 MA plasmas with the nominal position and shape. The second VS index was studied with the DINA code in the most demanding simulations for plasma magnetic control of 15 MA scenarios with the fastest plasma current ramp-up and early X-point formation, the fastest plasma current ramp-down in a divertor configuration, and an H to L mode transition at the current flattop. The studies performed demonstrate that the VS in-vessel coils, adopted recently in the baseline design, significantly increase the range of plasma controllability in comparison with the stabilising systems VS1 and VS2, providing operating margins sufficient to achieve ITER's goals specified in the project requirements. Additionally two sets of the DINA code simulations were performed with the goal of assessment of the capability of the PF system with the VS in-vessel coils: (i) to control the position of runaway electrons generated during disruptions in 15 MA scenarios and (ii) to trigger ELMs in H-mode plasmas of 7.5 MA/2.65 T scenarios planned for the early phase of ITER operation. It was also shown that ferromagnetic structures of the vacuum vessel (ferromagnetic inserts) and test blanket modules insignificantly affect the plasma VS.

  2. The EM-POGO: A simple, absolute velocity profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terker, S. R.; Sanford, T. B.; Dunlap, J. H.; Girton, J. B.

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic current instrumentation has been added to the Bathy Systems, Inc. POGO transport sondes to produce a free-falling absolute velocity profiler called EM-POGO. The POGO is a free-fall profiler that measures a depth-averaged velocity using GPS fixes at the beginning and end of a round trip to the ocean floor (or a preset depth). The EM-POGO adds a velocity profile determined from measurements of motionally induced electric fields generated by the ocean current moving through the vertical component of the Earth's magnetic field. In addition to providing information about the vertical structure of the velocity, the depth-dependent measurements improve transport measurements by correcting for the non-constant fall-rate. Neglecting the variable fall rate results in errors O (1 cm s-1). The transition from POGO to EM-POGO included electrically isolating the POGO and electric-field-measuring circuits, installing a functional GPS receiver, finding a pressure case that provided an optimal balance among crush-depth, price and size, and incorporating the electrodes, electrode collar, and the circuitry required for the electric field measurement. The first EM-POGO sea-trial was in July 1999. In August 2006 a refurbished EM-POGO collected 15 absolute velocity profiles; relative and absolute velocity uncertainty was ˜1cms-1 and 0.5-5 cm s-1, respectively, at a vertical resolution of 25 m. Absolute velocity from the EM-POGO compared to shipboard ADCP measurements differed by ˜ 1-2 cm s-1, comparable to the uncertainty in absolute velocity from the ADCP. The EM-POGO is thus a low-cost, easy to deploy and recover, and accurate velocity profiler.

  3. EMS Student Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogle, Patrick

    This student guide is one of a series of self-contained materials for students enrolled in an emergency medical services (EMS) training program. Discussed in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: the purpose and history of EMS professionals; EMS training, certification and examinations (national and state certification and…

  4. Thrust Vectoring to Eliminate the Vertical Stabilizer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    THRUST VECTORING TO ELIMINATE THE VERTICAL STABILIZER THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering of the Air Force Institute of...qualities is shown to be 1 rad/sec. I i~ i 2i, THRUST VECTORING TO ELIMINATE THE VERTICAL STABILIZER I. Introduction There is increasing concern ove" he...the height of the cockpit will not help very much and would reduce the pilot’s visibility. Reduction of the size or elimination of the vertical

  5. Developmental asymmetries between horizontal and vertical tracking.

    PubMed

    Grönqvist, Helena; Gredebäck, Gustaf; Hofsten, Claes von

    2006-05-01

    The development of the asymmetry between horizontal and vertical eye tracking was investigated longitudinally at 5, 7, and 9 months of age. The target moved either on a 2D circular trajectory or on a vertical or horizontal 1D sinusoidal trajectory. Saccades, smooth pursuit, and head movements were measured. Vertical tracking was found to be inferior to horizontal tracking at all age levels. The results also show that the mechanisms responsible for horizontal and vertical tracking mutually influence one another in the production of 2D visual pursuit. Learning effects were observed within-trials but no transfer between trials was found.

  6. Degradation in vertical cavity lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrick, Robert Wallace

    Vertical Cavity Lasers (VCLs) are rapidly being adopted as low-cost sources in data communications links. It is thus important that we understand how VCLs age, if we are to be able to extend their lifetime to meet the desired reliability standards. We focus primarily on the widely-commercialized top-emitting, proton-implanted design, with GaAs quantum wells, and emitting at 850 nm. We also provide extensive characterization of 680 nm GaInP-quantum-well proton-implanted VCLs. A brief discussion is provided regarding the degradation in 980 nm etched pillar VCLs, and 980 and 850 nm oxide-aperture VCLs. Surprisingly, a number of major differences are noted between the degradation behavior of traditional stripe lasers (which lase in the plane of the active region), and vertical cavity lasers (which lase perpendicular to the active region). The primary degradation mechanism in VCLs appears to be related to passivation of the dopants in the center of the lasers, which forces current out toward the device edges, where it is not useful in the lasing process. In the final stages of device degradation, dislocations appear not only in the active regions, but also surprisingly in the p-mirrors above the active region. The driving mechanism for this degradation process is discussed in detail. Extensive characterization, including cathodoluminescence (CL), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL), electroluminescence (EL), electron beam induced current (EBIC), and scanning probe techniques are used to shed light on the nature and causes of the aging process. In spite of valid reasons for concern about the potential degradation rates of VCLs, we do not observe dark-line defects in the proton-implanted lasers which are our main research focus, and the lasers appear to be relatively insensitive to damage to the die edges or facets, in contrast to stripe lasers. Further, the proton implant appears not to participate in the aging process as had been expected

  7. EM International. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  8. Stability of vertical magnetic chains.

    PubMed

    Schönke, Johannes; Fried, Eliot

    2017-02-01

    A linear stability analysis is performed for a pair of coaxial vertical chains made from permanently magnetized balls under the influence of gravity. While one chain rises from the ground, the other hangs from above, with the remaining ends separated by a gap of prescribed length. Various boundary conditions are considered, as are situations in which the magnetic dipole moments in the two chains are parallel or antiparallel. The case of a single chain attached to the ground is also discussed. The stability of the system is examined with respect to three quantities: the number of balls in each chain, the length of the gap between the chains, and a single dimensionless parameter which embodies the competition between magnetic and gravitational forces. Asymptotic scaling laws involving these parameters are provided. The Hessian matrix is computed in exact form, allowing the critical parameter values at which the system loses stability and the respective eigenmodes to be determined up to machine precision. A comparison with simple experiments for a single chain attached to the ground shows good agreement.

  9. Vertical combustor for particulate refuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, P. M.; Carlson, L.

    1981-03-01

    A one-dimensional model is constructed of a vertical combustor for refuse particle combustion in order to analyze it for waste energy recovery. The three components of the model, fuel particles, inert solid particles and the gaseous mixture are described by momentum, energy, and mass conservation equations, resulting in three different flow velocities and temperatures for the medium. The gaseous component is further divided into six chemical species that evolve in combustion at temperatures below about 1367 K. A detailed description is given of the fuel particle combustion through heating, devolatilization, and combustion of the volatile gas in the boundary layer, return of the flame sheet to the fuel surface, and char combustion. The solutions show the combustor to be viable for U.S. refuse which consists of combustibles that can be volatilized up to 85 to 95% below 1366 K. Char combustion, however, is found to be too slow to be attempted in the combustor, where the fuel residence time is of the order of 2 s.

  10. The Ames Vertical Gun Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karcz, J. S.; Bowling, D.; Cornelison, C.; Parrish, A.; Perez, A.; Raiche, G.; Wiens, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    The Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) is a national facility for conducting laboratory- scale investigations of high-speed impact processes. It provides a set of light-gas, powder, and compressed gas guns capable of accelerating projectiles to speeds up to 7 km s(exp -1). The AVGR has a unique capability to vary the angle between the projectile-launch and gravity vectors between 0 and 90 deg. The target resides in a large chamber (diameter approximately 2.5 m) that can be held at vacuum or filled with an experiment-specific atmosphere. The chamber provides a number of viewing ports and feed-throughs for data, power, and fluids. Impacts are observed via high-speed digital cameras along with investigation-specific instrumentation, such as spectrometers. Use of the range is available via grant proposals through any Planetary Science Research Program element of the NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) calls. Exploratory experiments (one to two days) are additionally possible in order to develop a new proposal.

  11. Stability of vertical magnetic chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönke, Johannes; Fried, Eliot

    2017-02-01

    A linear stability analysis is performed for a pair of coaxial vertical chains made from permanently magnetized balls under the influence of gravity. While one chain rises from the ground, the other hangs from above, with the remaining ends separated by a gap of prescribed length. Various boundary conditions are considered, as are situations in which the magnetic dipole moments in the two chains are parallel or antiparallel. The case of a single chain attached to the ground is also discussed. The stability of the system is examined with respect to three quantities: the number of balls in each chain, the length of the gap between the chains, and a single dimensionless parameter which embodies the competition between magnetic and gravitational forces. Asymptotic scaling laws involving these parameters are provided. The Hessian matrix is computed in exact form, allowing the critical parameter values at which the system loses stability and the respective eigenmodes to be determined up to machine precision. A comparison with simple experiments for a single chain attached to the ground shows good agreement.

  12. Vertical two chamber reaction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Blaugher, Richard D.

    1999-03-16

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

  13. Vertical two chamber reaction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Blaugher, R.D.

    1999-03-16

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is disclosed. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

  14. HL-20 Vertical Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The HL-20 space taxi, Langley's candidate personnel launch system, is one of several designs being considered by NASA as a complement to the Space Shuttle. Human factors studies, using Langley volunteers as subjects, have been ongoing since March 1991 to verify crew seating arrangements, habitability, ingress and egress, equipment layout and maintenance and handling operations, and to determine visibility requirements during docking and landing operations. Langley volunteers, wearing flight suits and helmets, were put through a series of tests with the craft placed both vertically and horizontally to simulate launch and landing attitudes, The HL-20 would be launched into a low orbit by an expendable rocket and then use its own propulsion system to boost itself to the space station. Following exchange of crews or delivery of small payload, the HL-20 would return to Earth like the space shuttle, making a runway landing near the launch site, The full-scale engineering research model of the HL-20 design was constructed by students and faculty at North Carolina State University and North Carolina A&T State University with the Mars Mission Research Center under a grant from NASA Langley.

  15. Rupture of vertical soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rio, Emmanuelle

    2014-11-01

    Soap films are ephemeral and fragile objects. They tend to thin under gravity, which gives rise to the fascinating variations of colors at their interfaces but leads systematically to rupture. Even a child can create, manipulate and admire soap films and bubbles. Nevertheless, the reason why it suddenly bursts remains a mystery although the soap chosen to stabilize the film as well as the humidity of the air seem very important. One difficulty to study the rupture of vertical soap films is to control the initial solution. To avoid this problem we choose to study the rupture during the generation of the film at a controlled velocity. We have built an experiment, in which we measure the maximum length of the film together with its lifetime. The generation of the film is due to the presence of a gradient of surface concentration of surfactants at the liquid/air interface. This leads to a Marangoni force directed toward the top of the film. The film is expected to burst only when its weight is not balanced anymore by this force. We will show that this leads to the surprising result that the thicker films have shorter lifetimes than the thinner ones. It is thus the ability of the interface to sustain a surface concentration gradient of surfactants which controls its stability.

  16. Stability of vertical magnetic chains

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    A linear stability analysis is performed for a pair of coaxial vertical chains made from permanently magnetized balls under the influence of gravity. While one chain rises from the ground, the other hangs from above, with the remaining ends separated by a gap of prescribed length. Various boundary conditions are considered, as are situations in which the magnetic dipole moments in the two chains are parallel or antiparallel. The case of a single chain attached to the ground is also discussed. The stability of the system is examined with respect to three quantities: the number of balls in each chain, the length of the gap between the chains, and a single dimensionless parameter which embodies the competition between magnetic and gravitational forces. Asymptotic scaling laws involving these parameters are provided. The Hessian matrix is computed in exact form, allowing the critical parameter values at which the system loses stability and the respective eigenmodes to be determined up to machine precision. A comparison with simple experiments for a single chain attached to the ground shows good agreement. PMID:28293135

  17. Vertical Files in Midlands Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillis, John G.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews survey responses from 127 nonmedical academic libraries in Nebraska, Iowa, and Kansas regarding their vertical files (e.g., acquisitions, weeding, size, nature, collection management, frequency of use, maintenance of statistics, types of users, circulation, and security), reporting that 109 had vertical files, with most emphasizing topics…

  18. Vertical Hegelianism and Beyond: Digital Cinema Editing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Roger B.

    Cinema as an art and communication form is entering its second century of development. Sergei Eisenstein conceived of editing in horizontal and vertical terms. He saw vertical editing patterns primarily as the synchronization of simultaneous image and sound elements, particularly music, no create cinematic meaning by means of the relationship…

  19. 33 CFR 84.19 - Vertical sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... required intensity of electric lights as fitted shall be maintained on the horizontal. (d) In the case of... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.19 Vertical sectors. (a) The vertical sectors of electric lights as fitted, with the exception of lights on sailing vessels underway...

  20. 33 CFR 84.19 - Vertical sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... required intensity of electric lights as fitted shall be maintained on the horizontal. (d) In the case of... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.19 Vertical sectors. (a) The vertical sectors of electric lights as fitted, with the exception of lights on sailing vessels underway...

  1. 33 CFR 84.19 - Vertical sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... required intensity of electric lights as fitted shall be maintained on the horizontal. (d) In the case of... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.19 Vertical sectors. (a) The vertical sectors of electric lights as fitted, with the exception of lights on sailing vessels underway...

  2. 33 CFR 84.19 - Vertical sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... required intensity of electric lights as fitted shall be maintained on the horizontal. (d) In the case of... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.19 Vertical sectors. (a) The vertical sectors of electric lights as fitted, with the exception of lights on sailing vessels underway...

  3. 33 CFR 84.19 - Vertical sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... required intensity of electric lights as fitted shall be maintained on the horizontal. (d) In the case of... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.19 Vertical sectors. (a) The vertical sectors of electric lights as fitted, with the exception of lights on sailing vessels underway...

  4. Teaching Students the Verticality of Technical Documentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Peter J.

    1992-01-01

    Advocates making technical writing courses more vertical in structure by including an extensive study of at least one specific form of technical documentation. Examines how students can gain experience in the vertical process by designing, writing, testing, and producing user manuals for on-campus cooperative education clients. Lists the benefits…

  5. Vertical constituent transport in the mesosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobel, Darrell F.; Summers, Michael E.; Bevilacqua, Richard M.; Deland, Matthew T.; Allen, Mark

    1987-01-01

    Ground-based microwave spectroscopy measurements of mesospheric CO and H2O vertical mixing ratio profiles are used to infer vertical mixing rates in the upper mesosphere. The CO and H2O data consistently imply vertical eddy diffusion coefficients in the 70- to 85-km region of 100,000-200,000 sq cm/s during spring through summer at midlatidues. Although chemical acceleration of vertical transport is substantial for O and O3, below the mesopause, the divergences of their associated fluxes are modest, with at most a factor of 2 effect on the concentrations of O and O3 for measured variability in gravity wave activity. Comparison of Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) O3 data with model results reinforces the conclusions of slow vertical mixing in the upper mesosphere as a consequence of the reduced HO(x) catalytic loss of odd oxygen. The changes in chemical rate constants recommended by Rusch and Eckman (1985), in conjunction with slow vertical mixing, yield good agreement with SME O3 data. The slow vertical mixing deduced in this study is consistent with upper limits obtained from studies of the mesospheric heat budget and could be construed as evidence for an advectively controlled mesosphere. A comparison of the vertical eddy diffusion coefficients for momentum stresses, constituent transport, and heat transport suggests that the eddy Prandtl number must be of order 10.

  6. Vertical constituent transport in the mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobel, Darrell F.; Summers, Michael E.; Bevilacqua, Richard M.; Deland, Matthew T.; Allen, Mark

    1987-06-01

    Ground-based microwave spectroscopy measurements of mesospheric CO and H2O vertical mixing ratio profiles are used to infer vertical mixing rates in the upper mesosphere. The CO and H2O data consistently imply vertical eddy diffusion coefficients in the 70- to 85-km region of 100,000-200,000 sq cm/s during spring through summer at midlatidues. Although chemical acceleration of vertical transport is substantial for O and O3, below the mesopause, the divergences of their associated fluxes are modest, with at most a factor of 2 effect on the concentrations of O and O3 for measured variability in gravity wave activity. Comparison of Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) O3 data with model results reinforces the conclusions of slow vertical mixing in the upper mesosphere as a consequence of the reduced HO(x) catalytic loss of odd oxygen. The changes in chemical rate constants recommended by Rusch and Eckman (1985), in conjunction with slow vertical mixing, yield good agreement with SME O3 data. The slow vertical mixing deduced in this study is consistent with upper limits obtained from studies of the mesospheric heat budget and could be construed as evidence for an advectively controlled mesosphere. A comparison of the vertical eddy diffusion coefficients for momentum stresses, constituent transport, and heat transport suggests that the eddy Prandtl number must be of order 10.

  7. Vertical Integration, Monopoly, and the First Amendment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Timothy J.

    This paper addresses the relationship between the First Amendment, monopoly of transmission media, and vertical integration of transmission and content provision. A survey of some of the incentives a profit-maximizing transmission monopolist may have with respect to content is followed by a discussion of how vertical integration affects those…

  8. Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmsen, Carl W.; Temkin, Henryk; Coldren, Larry A.

    2002-01-01

    1. Introduction to VCSELs L. A. Coldren, C. W. Wilmsen and H. Temkin; 2. Fundamental issues in VCSEL design L. A. Coldren and Eric R. Hegblom; 3. Enhancement of spontaneous emission in microcavities E. F. Schubert and N. E. J. Hunt; 4. Epitaxy of vertical-cavity lasers R. P. Schneider Jr and Y. H. Young; 5. Fabrication and performance of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers Kent D. Choquette and Kent Geib; 6. Polarization related properties of vertical cavity lasers Dmitri Kuksenkov and Henryk Temkin; 7. Visible light emitting vertical cavity lasers Robert L. Thornton; 8. Long-wavelength vertical-cavity lasers Dubrakovo I. Babic, Joachim Piprek and John E. Bowers; 9. Overview of VCSEL applications Richard C. Williamson; 10. Optical interconnection applications and required characteristics Kenichi Kasahara; 11. VCSEL-based fiber-optic data communications Kenneth Hahn and Kirk Giboney; 12. VCSEL-based smart pixels for free space optoelectronic processing C. W. Wilmsen.

  9. [Vertical zonation of mountain landscape: a review].

    PubMed

    Sun, Ran-Hao; Chen, Li-Ding; Zhang, Bai-Ping; Fu, Bo-Jie

    2009-07-01

    Vertical gradient of mountain landscape is about 1000 times of its horizontal gradient, and hence, only using landscape pattern index is quite difficult to reflect the landscape regularity along vertical gradient. Mountain altitudinal belt is a kind of classic geographic models representing the vertical differentiation of landscape, being of significance in geographic and ecological researches. However, the discrete expression pattern and the inaccuracy of the borderlines of mountain vertical belts limit the roles of mountain vertical belt in accurately describing landscape pattern in regional scale and in explaining ecological processes. This paper reviewed the research progress and existing problems on mountain altitudinal belt, put forward a suggestion of using modern information technology to establish a comprehensive and continuous mountain landscape information chart, and discussed the framework and prospect of the establishment of the chart, which would have reference value for accurately describing mountain landscape pattern and explaining specific ecological processes, and promote the further improvement of the methodology for mountain ecological research.

  10. Neptune Clouds Showing Vertical Relief

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-29

    NASA's Voyager 2 high resolution color image, taken 2 hours before closest approach, provides obvious evidence of vertical relief in Neptune's bright cloud streaks. These clouds were observed at a latitude of 29 degrees north near Neptune's east terminator. The linear cloud forms are stretched approximately along lines of constant latitude and the sun is toward the lower left. The bright sides of the clouds which face the sun are brighter than the surrounding cloud deck because they are more directly exposed to the sun. Shadows can be seen on the side opposite the sun. These shadows are less distinct at short wavelengths (violet filter) and more distinct at long wavelengths (orange filter). This can be understood if the underlying cloud deck on which the shadow is cast is at a relatively great depth, in which case scattering by molecules in the overlying atmosphere will diffuse light into the shadow. Because molecules scatter blue light much more efficiently than red light, the shadows will be darkest at the longest (reddest) wavelengths, and will appear blue under white light illumination. The resolution of this image is 11 kilometers (6.8 miles per pixel) and the range is only 157,000 kilometers (98,000 miles). The width of the cloud streaks range from 50 to 200 kilometers (31 to 124 miles), and their shadow widths range from 30 to 50 kilometers (18 to 31 miles). Cloud heights appear to be of the order of 50 kilometers (31 miles). This corresponds to 2 scale heights. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00058

  11. Sonic Anemometer Vertical Wind Speed Measurement Errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochendorfer, J.; Horst, T. W.; Frank, J. M.; Massman, W. J.; Meyers, T. P.

    2014-12-01

    In eddy covariance studies, errors in the measured vertical wind speed cause errors of a similar magnitude in the vertical fluxes of energy and mass. Several recent studies on the accuracy of sonic anemometer measurements indicate that non-orthogonal sonic anemometers used in eddy covariance studies underestimate the vertical wind speed. It has been suggested that this underestimation is caused by flow distortion from the interference of the structure of the anemometer itself on the flow. When oriented ideally with respect to the horizontal wind direction, orthogonal sonic anemometers that measure the vertical wind speed with a single vertically-oriented acoustic path may measure the vertical wind speed more accurately in typical surface-layer conditions. For non-orthogonal sonic anemometers, Horst et al. (2014) proposed that transducer shadowing may be a dominant factor in sonic flow distortion. As the ratio of sonic transducer diameter to path length and the zenith angle of the three transducer paths decrease, the effects of transducer shadowing on measurements of vertical velocity will decrease. An overview of this research and some of the methods available to correct historical data will be presented.

  12. Leveraging EMS and VPP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Elements of EMS  International Standards Organization ( ISO ) 14001 , Environmental Management Systems  The Key Elements of EMS: - Policy - Planning...wingman-- ON and OFF duty Fully Conforming vs. Fully Implemented  “Fully Conforming”  Meets standards established in ISO 14001  ESOH council...e n c e Every airman looking out for his wingman-- ON and OFF duty EMS & VPP Commonalities Environmental Management System ISO 14001 : 2004 Voluntary

  13. Methods of testing parameterizations: Vertical ocean mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tziperman, Eli

    1992-01-01

    The ocean's velocity field is characterized by an exceptional variety of scales. While the small-scale oceanic turbulence responsible for the vertical mixing in the ocean is of scales a few centimeters and smaller, the oceanic general circulation is characterized by horizontal scales of thousands of kilometers. In oceanic general circulation models that are typically run today, the vertical structure of the ocean is represented by a few tens of discrete grid points. Such models cannot explicitly model the small-scale mixing processes, and must, therefore, find ways to parameterize them in terms of the larger-scale fields. Finding a parameterization that is both reliable and plausible to use in ocean models is not a simple task. Vertical mixing in the ocean is the combined result of many complex processes, and, in fact, mixing is one of the less known and less understood aspects of the oceanic circulation. In present models of the oceanic circulation, the many complex processes responsible for vertical mixing are often parameterized in an oversimplified manner. Yet, finding an adequate parameterization of vertical ocean mixing is crucial to the successful application of ocean models to climate studies. The results of general circulation models for quantities that are of particular interest to climate studies, such as the meridional heat flux carried by the ocean, are quite sensitive to the strength of the vertical mixing. We try to examine the difficulties in choosing an appropriate vertical mixing parameterization, and the methods that are available for validating different parameterizations by comparing model results to oceanographic data. First, some of the physical processes responsible for vertically mixing the ocean are briefly mentioned, and some possible approaches to the parameterization of these processes in oceanographic general circulation models are described in the following section. We then discuss the role of the vertical mixing in the physics of the

  14. Composite resonator vertical cavity laser diode

    SciTech Connect

    Choquette, K.D.; Hou, H.Q.; Chow, W.W.; Geib, K.M.; Hammons, B.E.

    1998-05-01

    The use of two coupled laser cavities has been employed in edge emitting semiconductor lasers for mode suppression and frequency stabilization. The incorporation of coupled resonators within a vertical cavity laser opens up new possibilities due to the unique ability to tailor the interaction between the cavities. Composite resonators can be utilized to control spectral and temporal properties within the laser; previous studies of coupled cavity vertical cavity lasers have employed photopumped structures. The authors report the first composite resonator vertical cavity laser diode consisting of two optical cavities and three monolithic distributed Bragg reflectors. Cavity coupling effects and two techniques for external modulation of the laser are described.

  15. Effects of vertical rotation on Arabidopsis development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A. H.; Chapman, D. K.; Dahl, A. O.

    1975-01-01

    Various gross morphological end points of Arabidopsis development are examined in an attempt to separate the effects of growth on the horizontal clinostat into a component caused by rotation alone and another component caused by the altered position with respect to the direction of the g-vector. In a series of tests which involved comparisons between vertical stationary plants, vertical rotated plants, and plants rotated on clinostats, certain characters were consistently influenced by vertical rotation alone. The characters for which this effect was statistically significant were petiole length and leaf blade width.

  16. Vertical Motions of Oceanic Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clague, D. A.; Moore, J. G.

    2006-12-01

    lasting a few hundred thousand years as the island migrates over a broad flexural arch related to isostatic compensation of a nearby active volcano. The arch is located about 190±30 km away from the center of volcanic activity and is also related to the rejuvenated volcanic stage on the islands. Reefs on Oahu that are uplifted several tens of m above sea level are the primary evidence for uplift as the islands over-ride the flexural arch. At the other end of the movement spectrum, both in terms of magnitude and length of response, are the rapid uplift and subsidence that occurs as magma is accumulated within or erupted from active submarine volcanoes. These changes are measured in days to years and are of cm to m variation; they are measured using leveling surveys, tiltmeters, EDM and GPS above sea level and pressure gauges and tiltmeters below sea level. Other acoustic techniques to measure such vertical movement are under development. Elsewhere, evidence for subsidence of volcanoes is also widespread, ranging from shallow water carbonates on drowned Cretaceous guyots, to mapped shoreline features, to the presence of subaerially-erupted (degassed) lavas on now submerged volcanoes. Evidence for uplift is more limited, but includes makatea islands with uplifted coral reefs surrounding low volcanic islands. These are formed due to flexural uplift associated with isostatic loading of nearby islands or seamounts. In sum, oceanic volcanoes display a long history of subsidence, rapid at first and then slow, sometimes punctuated by brief periods of uplift due to lithospheric loading by subsequently formed nearby volcanoes.

  17. Juno at the Vertical Integration Facility

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-03

    At Space Launch Complex 41, the Juno spacecraft, enclosed in an Atlas payload fairing, was transferred into the Vertical Integration Facility where it was positioned on top of the Atlas rocket stacked inside.

  18. Vertical Feature Mask Feature Classification Flag Extraction

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-28

    ... Feature Mask Feature Classification Flag Extraction This routine demonstrates extraction of the feature type information stored in a ... Vertical Feature Mask Feature Classification Flag Extraction routine  (5 KB) Interactive Data Language (IDL) is available from  ...

  19. 30. BEARING SHOE / VERTICAL / DIAGONAL / UPPER AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. BEARING SHOE / VERTICAL / DIAGONAL / UPPER AND LOWER CHORD DETAIL OF DECK TRUSS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Abraham Lincoln Memorial Bridge, Spanning Missouri River on Highway 30 between Nebraska & Iowa, Blair, Washington County, NE

  20. 23. INCLINED END POST / VERTICAL / DIAGONAL / PORTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. INCLINED END POST / VERTICAL / DIAGONAL / PORTAL BRACING DETAIL. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Abraham Lincoln Memorial Bridge, Spanning Missouri River on Highway 30 between Nebraska & Iowa, Blair, Washington County, NE

  1. Vertical Water Vapor Distribution at Phoenix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Lemmon, M. T.

    2016-09-01

    The Phoenix SSI camera data along with radiative transfer modeling are used to retrieve the vertical water vapor profile. Preliminary results indicate that water vapor is often confined near the surface.

  2. Geometry independence of three-string vertices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeno, Masahiro

    1989-01-01

    The geometry independence of three-string vertices in both HIKKO's and Witten's string field theories is examined. A careful regularization shows that the anomaly which has been reported by Morris and Mañes vanishes.

  3. Vertical axis wind turbine. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hollrock, R.H.

    1983-06-01

    The work reported consisted of the fabrication and whirl testing of a vertical axis wind turbine. Problems are reported in blade fabrication and balancing. It is planned to provide speed control with a water agitator. (LEW)

  4. Vertical stratification in arthropod spatial distribution research.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E

    2013-11-01

    Spatial heterogeneity within individual host trees is often overlooked in surveys of phytophagous arthropod abundance and distribution. The armored scale Aulacaspis yasumatsui is controlled by the predator Rhyzobius lophanthae to a greater degree on leaves at 75-cm height than on leaves at ground level within its host tree Cycas micronesica. The direct influence of elevation on the predator indirectly generates vertical heterogeneity of the scale insect. Arthropod sampling schemes that fail to include all strata within the vertical profile of the host tree species may generate misleading outcomes. Results indicate that sub-meter increments can reveal significant differences in vertical distribution of phytophagous insects, and that inclusion of observations on other organisms that interact with the target arthropod may illuminate determinants of vertical heterogeneity.

  5. Vertically stabilized elongated cross-section tokamak

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, George V.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a vertically stabilized, non-circular (minor) cross-section, toroidal plasma column characterized by an external separatrix. To this end, a specific poloidal coil means is added outside a toroidal plasma column containing an endless plasma current in a tokamak to produce a rectangular cross-section plasma column along the equilibrium axis of the plasma column. By elongating the spacing between the poloidal coil means the plasma cross-section is vertically elongated, while maintaining vertical stability, efficiently to increase the poloidal flux in linear proportion to the plasma cross-section height to achieve a much greater plasma volume than could be achieved with the heretofore known round cross-section plasma columns. Also, vertical stability is enhanced over an elliptical cross-section plasma column, and poloidal magnetic divertors are achieved.

  6. [Vertical transmission of HTLV-1 in Peru].

    PubMed

    Alarcón Villaverde, Jorge; Romaní Romaní, Franco; Montano Torres, Silvia; Zunt, Joseph R

    2011-03-01

    Human type 1 T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1) infection has been described in many areas of the world, including Caribbean countries, Japan, Africa, Oceania and South America. In this review we define the endemicity of HTLV-1 in the country proposing four epidemiological criteria. Then we discuss the core subject of the review, which is the vertical transmission of HTLV-1. This mechanism is one of the main forms of transmission in our country. Within the development of this particular topic, we present an estimated rate of vertical transmission and the risk factors associated to vertical transmission based on an exhaustive review of the national and international literature. This review pretend to provide a first approach to the vertical transmission of HTLV-1, an aspect poorly studied in our country.

  7. Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Foundation parameter study

    SciTech Connect

    Lodde, P.F.

    1980-07-01

    The dynamic failure criterion governing the dimensions of prototype Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Foundations is treated as a variable parameter. The resulting change in foundation dimensions and costs is examined.

  8. Seismic vertical array analysis for phase decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Kunikazu; Sasatani, Tsutomu

    2008-08-01

    We propose a vertical array analysis method that decomposes complex seismograms into body and surface wave time histories by using a velocity structure at the vertical array site. We assume that the vertical array records are the sum of vertically incident plane P and S waves, and laterally incident Love and Rayleigh waves. Each phase at the surface is related to that at a certain depth by the transfer function in the frequency domain; the transfer function is obtained by Haskell's matrix method, assuming a 1-D velocity structure. Decomposed P, S and surface waves at the surface are estimated from the vertical array records and the transfer functions by using a least-squares method in the frequency domain; their time histories are obtained by the inverse Fourier transform. We carried out numerical tests of this method based on synthetic vertical array records consisting of vertically incident plane P and S waves and laterally incident plane Love and Rayleigh waves. Perfect results of the decomposed P, S, Love and Rayleigh waves were obtained for synthetic records without noise. A test of the synthetic records in which a small amount of white noise was added yielded a reasonable result for the decomposed P, S and surface waves. We applied this method to real vertical array records from the Ashigara valley, a moderate-sized sedimentary valley. The array records from two earthquakes occurring at depths of 123 and 148 km near the array (epicentral distance of about 31 km) exhibited long-duration later phases. The analysis showed that duration of the decomposed S waves was a few seconds and that the decomposed surface waves appeared a few seconds after the direct S-wave arrival and had very long duration. This result indicated that the long-duration later phases were generated not by multireflected S waves, but by basin-induced surface waves.

  9. Analysis of the direction of plasma vertical movement during major disruptions in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukash, Victor; Sugihara, Masayoshi; Gribov, Yuri; Fujieda, Hirobumi

    2005-12-01

    The plasma movement in the upward direction (away from the X-point) after the thermal quench (TQ) of major disruptions in ITER is favourable for the machine design, since the downward movement causes larger electromagnetic (EM) load due to the induced eddy and halo currents. Vertical directions of plasma movement after the TQ in ITER are investigated using the predictive mode of the DINA code. Three dominant parameters in determining the direction of plasma movement are identified: (i) the rate of plasma current quench (plasma temperature after the TQ), (ii) the width of plasma current mixing area just after the TQ (change of the internal plasma inductance li) and (iii) the initial vertical position of plasma column before the TQ. It is shown that the reference ITER plasma moves upwards after the TQ, if the electron temperature after the TQ is less than 10 eV and the drop of li does not exceed 0.2 for the present reference initial vertical position (55.5 cm above the centre of the machine). It is also shown that the operational domain leading to the upward movement is considerably large for disruptions with fast current quench, which could generate quite severe EM load due to the induced eddy current combined with the induced halo current if the movement is downwards.

  10. Effect of vertical motion on current meters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kallio, Nicholas A.

    1966-01-01

    The effect of vertical motion on the performance of current meters at various stream velocities was evaluated to determine whether accurate discharge measurements can be made from a bobbing boat. Three types of current meters--Ott, Price, and vane types--were tested under conditions simulating a bobbing boat. A known frequency and amplitude of vertical motion were imparted to the current meter, and the related effect on the measured stream velocity was determined. One test of the Price meter was made under actual conditions, using a boat and standard measuring gear. The results of the test under actual conditions verified those obtained by simulating the vertical movements of a boat. The tests show that for stream velocities below 2.5 feet per second the accuracy of all three meters is significantly affected when the meters are subjected to certain conditions of vertical motion that can occur during actual field operations. Both the rate of vertical motion and the frequency of vertical oscillation affect the registration of the meter. The results of these tests, presented in the form of graphs and tables, can be used as a guide to determine whether wind and stream flow are within an acceptable range for a reliable discharge measurement from a boat.

  11. SOFIS FTS EM test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soucy, Marc-Andre A.; Levesque, Luc E.; Tanii, Jun; Kawashima, Takahiro; Nakajima, Hideaki

    2003-04-01

    The Solar Occultation FTS for Inclined-orbit Satellite (SOFIS) is a solar occultation Fourier transform spectrometer developed by the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) in Japan for the Global Change Observation Mission-A1 (GCOM-A1) satellite. GCOM-A1 will be placed in a 650 km non-sun-synchronous orbit, with an inclination angle of 69 degrees. ABB-Bomem is a sub-contractor of NTSpace (NEC-Toshiba Space) for the design and manufacturing of the FTS Engineering Model of SOFIS. SOFIS measures the vertical profile of the atmospheric constituents with 0.2 cm-1 spectral resolution for the spectral range covering 3-13 μm. The atmospheric vertical resolution of SOFIS is 1 km. The target of SOFIS measurements is a global distribution of O3, HNO3, NO2, N2O, CH4, H2O, CO2, CFC-11, CFC-12, ClONO2, aerosol extinction, atmospheric pressure and temperature. NTSpace in Japan is the prime contractor of SOFIS. The spectrometer is an adapted version of the classical Michelson interferometer using an optimized optical layout and moving retro-reflectors. A solid-state laser diode operating at 1550 nm is used as metrology source of the interferometer. Its highly folded optical design results in a high performance instrument with a compact size. SOFIS FTS implements high performance control techniques to achieve outstanding speed stability of the moving mechanism. This paper describes the test activities of the SOFIS-FTS Engineering Model (EM) and preliminary results. The performances of the FTS are presented in terms of key parameters like signal-to-noise ratio, modulation efficiency and stability. Spectra acquired are shown and test methodology and analyses are presented. Lessons learned during assembly, integration and testing are described as well as improvements planned to be implemented in the Flight Model.

  12. Interventions for dissociated vertical deviation

    PubMed Central

    Hatt, Sarah R; Wang, Xue; Holmes, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Background The term “strabismus” describes misalignment of the eyes. One or both eyes may deviate inward, outward, upward, or downward. Dissociated vertical deviation (DVD) is a well-recognized type of upward drifting of one or both eyes, which can occur in children or adults. DVD often develops in the context of infantile- or childhood-onset horizontal strabismus, either esotropia (inward-turning) or exotropia (outward-turning). For some individuals, DVD remains controlled and can only be detected during clinical testing. For others, DVD becomes spontaneously “manifest” and the eye drifts up of its own accord. Spontaneously manifest DVD can be difficult to control and often causes psychosocial concerns. Traditionally, DVD has been thought to be asymptomatic, although some individuals have double vision. More recently it has been suggested that individuals with DVD may also suffer from eyestrain. Treatment for DVD may be sought either due to psychosocial concerns or because of these symptoms. The standard treatment for DVD is a surgical procedure; non-surgical treatments are offered less commonly. Although there are many studies evaluating different management options for the correction of DVD, a lack of clarity remains regarding which treatments are most effective. Objectives The objective of this review was to determine the effectiveness and safety of various surgical and non-surgical interventions in randomized controlled trials of participants with DVD. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2015, Issue 8), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to August 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to August 2015), PubMed (1948 to August 2015), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (1982 to August 2015), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com) (last searched 3

  13. Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing-End Detail - Cumberland Covered Bridge, Spanning Mississinewa River, Matthews, Grant County, IN

  14. EMS in the pueblos.

    PubMed

    Vigil, M A

    1994-02-01

    Imagine creating a movie by excerpting scenes from "Dances With Wolves," splicing it with footage from "Code 3" or "Emergency Response" and then flavoring the script with the mystery of a Tony Hillerman novel. A film producer would probably find it quite difficult to choreograph a finished product from such a compilation of material. To hundreds of Native American EMS providers, however, such a movie is played out every day in Indian country. And with this movie come some real-life problems, including trauma, which is the number-one cause of premature death among Native Americans. But a high trauma rate is just one of the challenges facing tribal EMS responders. There's also prolonged response and transport, the problems involved in maintaining the unique culture and standard of care, the challenges of tribal EMS administration and EMS education of Native American students, and the unsure future of Native American EMS. Beyond that, there's the fact that EMS is a s unique to each Indian reservation as are the cultures of the native peoples who reside on these lands. Yet while no two systems are alike, most tribal EMS providers face similar challenges.

  15. A Physician's Perspective On Vertical Integration.

    PubMed

    Berenson, Robert A

    2017-09-01

    Vertical integration has been a central feature of health care delivery system change for more than two decades. Recent studies have demonstrated that vertically integrated health care systems raise prices and costs without observable improvements in quality, despite many theoretical reasons why cost control and improved quality might occur. Less well studied is how physicians view their newfound partnerships with hospitals. In this article I review literature findings and other observations on five aspects of vertical integration that affect physicians in their professional and personal lives: patients' access to physicians, physician compensation, autonomy versus system support, medical professionalism and culture, and lifestyle. I conclude that the movement toward physicians' alignment with and employment in vertically integrated systems seems inexorable but that policy should not promote such integration either intentionally or inadvertently. Instead, policy should address the flaws in current payment approaches that reward high prices and excessive service use-outcomes that vertical integration currently produces. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  16. Vertical orbital dystopia--surgical correction.

    PubMed

    Edgerton, M T; Jane, J A

    1981-02-01

    The surgical correction of vertical malpositions of the human eye has been made relatively safe and reliable by recent surgical techniques. The authors define this condition as vertical orbital dystopia and review the etiology of this deformity in 38 recent consecutive cases that were surgically treated at the Craniofacial Anomalies Center of The University of Virginia. Some new and useful tests are described that are of value to the plastic surgeon in analysis of the facial deformity and in planning the appropriate surgical procedure to correct the vertical dystopia of one or both eyes. Several cases are illustrated that describe the principal surgical methods of moving the eye up or down without loss of vision. The vertical eye shifts in this series have been in the range of 2 to 3 mm to over 22 mm. No loss of vision was produced by these corrections. The most common difficulties and complications of orbital dystopia corrections are described. The implications of this type of surgery in terms of visual physiology are suggested. The authors conclude that surgical correction of vertical orbital dystopias is possible, safe, and rewarding to the patients. However, they advise that the correction is best performed in young children and by a specially trained team of plastic surgeons, neurosurgeons, and ophthalmologists.

  17. Thermal Impacts of Vertical Greenery Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safikhani, Tabassom; Abdullah, Aminatuzuhariah Megat; Ossen, Dilshan Remaz; Baharvand, Mohammad

    2014-12-01

    - Using vertical greenery systems to reduce heat transmission is becoming more common in modern architecture. Vertical greenery systems are divided into two main categories; green facades and living walls. This study aims to examine the thermal performance of vertical greenery systems in hot and humid climates. An experimental procedure was used to measure indoor temperature and humidity. These parameters were also measured for the gap between the vertical greenery systems and wall surfaces. Three boxes were used as small-scale rooms. Two boxes were provided with either a living wall or a green facade and one box did not have any greenery (benchmark). Blue Trumpet Vine was used in the vertical greenery systems. The data were recorded over the course of three sunny days in April 2013. An analyses of the results showed that the living wall and green facade reduced indoor temperature up to 4.0 °C and 3.0 °C, respectively. The living wall and green facade also reduced cavity temperatures by 8.0 °C and 6.5 °C, respectively.

  18. Reconstructing the vertical profile of humidity on the basis of the vertical profile of temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bazlova, T. I.

    1974-01-01

    The vertical profile of humidity in the atmosphere is developed on the basis of the vertical profile of temperature using an empirical formula linking changes in humidity with changes in temperature and altitude. The atmosphere is divided into three layers by altitude, since the condition for the formation of humidity varies with altitude.

  19. Vertical modelling: Analysis of competing risks data with missing causes of failure.

    PubMed

    Nicolaie, M A; van Houwelingen, H C; Putter, H

    2015-12-01

    We propose vertical modelling as a natural approach to the problem of analysis of competing risks data when failure types are missing for some individuals. Under a natural missing-at-random assumption for these missing failure types, we use the observed data likelihood to estimate its parameters and show that the all-cause hazard and the relative hazards appearing in vertical modelling are indeed key quantities of this likelihood. This fact has practical implications in that it suggests vertical modelling as a simple and attractive method of analysis in competing risks with missing causes of failure; all individuals are used in estimating the all-cause hazard and only those with non-missing cause of failure for relative hazards. The relative hazards also appear in a multiple imputation approach to the same problem proposed by Lu and Tsiatis and in the EM algorithm. We compare the vertical modelling approach with the method of Goetghebeur and Ryan for a breast cancer data set, highlighting the different aspects they contribute to the data analysis.

  20. Kinematics of horizontal and vertical caterpillar crawling.

    PubMed

    van Griethuijsen, Linnea I; Trimmer, Barry A

    2009-05-01

    Unlike horizontal crawling, vertical crawling involves two counteracting forces: torque rotating the body around its center of mass and gravity resisting forward movement. The influence of these forces on kinematics has been examined in the soft-bodied larval stage of Manduca sexta. We found that crawling and climbing are accomplished using the same movements, with both segment timing and proleg lift indistinguishable in horizontal and vertical locomotion. Minor differences were detected in stride length and in the delay between crawls, which led to a lower crawling speed in the vertical orientation. Although these differences were statistically significant, they were much smaller than the variation in kinematic parameters between animals. The ability of Manduca to crawl and climb using the same movements is best explained by Manduca's relatively small size, slow speed and strong, controlled, passive grip made possible by its proleg/crochets.

  1. Hydraulic induced instability on a vertical service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosmans, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    The case history contained provides insight toward the mechanical and hydraulic behavior of a vertical pump. It clearly demonstrates the need for measurements on the rotor at or near the impeller area. The results are reported of an analysis on a service water pump. This pump is typical of the water pumps used throughout the power generation industry. Although little is known of the mechanical behavior of vertical pumps because of difficulty in modeling the rotor system, recent developments in the application of submersible proximity transducers have made possible the measurement of pump dynamics under operating conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the proper selection and installation of vibration-monitoring transducers as well as to measure the effects of imbalance, misalignment, and hydraulics on the performance and reliability of vertical pumps. In addition, the cause of shaft failures on this pump was to be determined.

  2. Liquid storage tanks under vertical excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Philippacopoulos, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    Until recently, the hydrodynamic effects on liquid storage tanks induced by an earthquake excitation were basically treated for the horizontal component of the earthquake. Recent studies, however, showed that the hydrodynamic effects due to the vertical component of an earthquake may be significant. In these studies the tank is assumed to be fixed at the bottom. This paper is concerned with the hydrodynamic behavior of liquid storage tanks induced by vertical earthquake input excitation. First, the fluid-tank system is treated as a fixed-base system and a simple formula is obtained for the coupled fluid-structure natural frequency. Second, additional interaction effects due to the foundation flexibility on the fluid-tank system are investigated. It is concluded that the foundation flexibility may have a significant effect on the hydrodynamic behavior of the liquid storage tanks under a vertical ground shaking.

  3. THE VERTICAL COMPONENT OF THE SUPERGRANULAR MOTION

    SciTech Connect

    Duvall, T. L. Jr.; Birch, A. C.

    2010-12-10

    Supergranules are observed at the solar photosphere as a cellular horizontal flow pattern with flow diverging from cell centers and converging on cell boundaries. Clark and Johnson calculated that mass conservation leads to an expected vertical flow of only 10 m s{sup -1}, which has been difficult to observe. In the present work, Doppler images near the disk center from Michelson Doppler Imager are averaged about locations of cell centers to obtain the necessary signal-to-noise ratio to see the vertical flow. It is found that, for an average over 1100 cell centers, there is a 10 m s{sup -1} upflow at cell center and a 5 m s{sup -1} downflow at the cell boundaries, confirming the previous estimate. The rms vertical flow is 4 m s{sup -1}, smaller than Giovanelli's upper limit of 10 m s{sup -1}.

  4. Purification process for vertically aligned carbon nanofibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Cattien V.; Delziet, Lance; Matthews, Kristopher; Chen, Bin; Meyyappan, M.

    2003-01-01

    Individual, free-standing, vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes or nanofibers are ideal for sensor and electrode applications. Our plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition techniques for producing free-standing and vertically aligned carbon nanofibers use catalyst particles at the tip of the fiber. Here we present a simple purification process for the removal of iron catalyst particles at the tip of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers derived by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The first step involves thermal oxidation in air, at temperatures of 200-400 degrees C, resulting in the physical swelling of the iron particles from the formation of iron oxide. Subsequently, the complete removal of the iron oxide particles is achieved with diluted acid (12% HCl). The purification process appears to be very efficient at removing all of the iron catalyst particles. Electron microscopy images and Raman spectroscopy data indicate that the purification process does not damage the graphitic structure of the nanotubes.

  5. Turbulence in vertical axis wind turbine canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinzel, Matthias; Araya, Daniel B.; Dabiri, John O.

    2015-11-01

    Experimental results from three different full scale arrays of vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) under natural wind conditions are presented. The wind velocities throughout the turbine arrays are measured using a portable meteorological tower with seven, vertically staggered, three-component ultrasonic anemometers. The power output of each turbine is recorded simultaneously. The comparison between the horizontal and vertical energy transport for the different turbine array sizes shows the importance of vertical transport for large array configurations. Quadrant-hole analysis is employed to gain a better understanding of the vertical energy transport at the top of the VAWT arrays. The results show a striking similarity between the flows in the VAWT arrays and the adjustment region of canopies. Namely, an increase in ejections and sweeps and decrease in inward and outward interactions occur inside the turbine array. Ejections are the strongest contributor, which is in agreement with the literature on evolving and sparse canopy flows. The influence of the turbine array size on the power output of the downstream turbines is examined by comparing a streamwise row of four single turbines with square arrays of nine turbine pairs. The results suggest that a new boundary layer forms on top of the larger turbine arrays as the flow adjusts to the new roughness length. This increases the turbulent energy transport over the whole planform area of the turbine array. By contrast, for the four single turbines, the vertical energy transport due to turbulent fluctuations is only increased in the near wake of the turbines. These findings add to the knowledge of energy transport in turbine arrays and therefore the optimization of the turbine spacing in wind farms.

  6. Top-down vertical itemset mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrabi, Mohammad Karim; Ghods, Vahid

    2015-03-01

    Vertical itemset mining is an important frequent pattern mining problem with broad applications. It is challenging since one may need to examine a combinatorial explosive number of possible patterns of items of a dataset in a traditional horizontal algorithm. Since high dimensional datasets typically contain a large number of columns and a small number of rows, vertical itemset mining algorithms, which extract the frequent itemsets of dataset by producing all combination of rows ids, are a good alternative for horizontal algorithms in mining frequent itemsets from high dimensional dataset. Since a rowset can be simply produced from its subsets by adding a new row id to a sub rowset, many bottom up vertical itemset mining algorithms are designed and represented in the literature. However, bottom up vertical mining algorithms suffer from a main drawback. Bottom-up algorithms start the process of generating and testing of rowsets from the small rowsets and go on to the larger rowsets, whereas the small rowsets cannot produce a frequent itemsets because they contain less than minimum support threshold number of rows. In this paper, we described a new efficient vertical top down algorithm called VTD (Vertical Top Down) to conduct mining of frequent itemsets in high dimensional datasets. Our top down approach employed the minimum support threshold to prune the rowsets which any itemset could not be extracted from them. Several experiments on real bioinformatics datasets showed that VTD is orders of magnitude better than previous closed pattern mining algorithms. Our performance study showed that this algorithm outperformed substantially the best former algorithms.

  7. European Vertical Reference System Influence in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celms, A.; Reķe, I.; Ratkevičs, A.

    2015-11-01

    Till 1 December, 2014, in Latvia the heights were determined in Baltic Normal Height System 1977. The national height system is determined by the Cabinet of Ministers and internal laws. Now for the change of the national height system to reconcile it with the European Vertical Reference System, amendments to the laws and regulations have been developed, but so far only the amendment to the Geospatial Information Law is in force, the amendment to the regulation of the Cabinet of Ministers is still not approved. This amendment declares the Latvia Height System based on the European Vertical Reference System in Latvia as the national height system. For height transformation, there is a transformation formula for each European country. After calculations it is seen that height difference between Baltic Normal Height System 1977 and European Vertical Reference System depends on point location in the territory (coordinates). This unequal height difference between both height systems will cause unequal height values on border connection points between Baltic countries. The aim of the research is to evaluate the European Vertical Reference System in Latvia. To reach the aim the following tasks are set: 1) to evaluate the components of transformation formulas; 2) using the transformation formulas to calculate height differences between Baltic Normal Height System 1977 and the European Vertical Reference System realization EVRF2007 for the territory of Latvia and also between Baltic Normal Height System 1977 and the Latvia Normal Height System; 3) to get height differences in the European Vertical Reference System on the borderlines of Latvia - Estonia and Latvia - Lithuania.

  8. Vertical stability, high elongation, and the consequences of loss of vertical control on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Kellman, A.G.; Ferron, J.R.; Jensen, T.H.; Lao, L.L.; Luxon, J.L.; Skinner, D.G.; Strait, E.J.; Reis, E.; Taylor, T.S.; Turnbull, A.D. ); Lazarus, E.A. ); Lister, J.B. )

    1990-09-01

    Recent modifications to the vertical control system for DIII-D has enabled operation of discharges with vertical elongation {kappa}, up to 2.5. When vertical stability is lost, a disruption follows and a large vertical force on the vacuum vessel is observed. The loss of plasma energy begins when the edge safety factor q is 2 but the current decay does not begin until q {approximately}1.3. Current flow on the open field lines in the plasma scrapeoff layer has been measured and the magnitude and distribution of these currents can explain the observed force on the vessel. Equilibrium calculations and simulation of this vertical displacement episode are presented. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Concepts for generating optimum vertical flight profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Algorithms for generating optimum vertical profiles are derived and examined. These algorithms form the basis for the design of onboard flight management concepts. The variations in the optimum vertical profiles (resulting from these concepts) due to variations in wind, takeoff weight, and range-to-destination are presented. Further considerations for mechanizing two different onboard methods of computing near-optimum flight profiles are then outlined. Finally, the results are summarized, and recommendations are made for further work. Technical details of optimum trajectory design, steering requirements for following these trajectories, and off-line computer programs for testing the concepts are included.

  10. CIRSS vertical data integration, San Bernardino study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodson, W.; Christenson, J.; Michel, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The creation and use of a vertically integrated data base, including LANDSAT data, for local planning purposes in a portion of San Bernardino County, California are described. The project illustrates that a vertically integrated approach can benefit local users, can be used to identify and rectify discrepancies in various data sources, and that the LANDSAT component can be effectively used to identify change, perform initial capability/suitability modeling, update existing data, and refine existing data in a geographic information system. Local analyses were developed which produced data of value to planners in the San Bernardino County Planning Department and the San Bernardino National Forest staff.

  11. Tissue Engineering for Vertical Ridge Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Patel, Neel; Kim, Beomjune; Zaid, Waleed; Spagnoli, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    This article provides an overview of basic tissue engineering principles as they are applied to vertical ridge defects and reconstructive techniques for these types of deficiencies. Presented are multiple clinical cases ranging from office-based dentoalveolar procedures to the more complex reconstruction of postresection mandibular defects. Several different types of regenerative tissue constructs are presented; either used alone or in combination with traditional reconstructive techniques and procedures, such as maxillary sinus augmentation, Le Fort I osteotomy, and microvascular free tissue transfer. The goal is to also familiarize the reconstructive surgeon to potential future strategies in vertical alveolar ridge augmentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Photochemistry and vertical mixing. [in Uranus atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atreya, S. K.; Sandel, B. R.; Romani, P. N.

    1991-01-01

    Earth-based observations relevant to the question of photochemistry and vertical mixing are discussed. Phytolysis of methane, the only known photochemically active volatile in the Uranian atmosphere, produces heavier hydrocarbons, the most abundant of which are ethane, acetylene, and the polyacetylenes. Unlike Jupiter and Saturn, these hydrocarbon products condense at the low temperatures prevalent in the middle atmosphere. Contrary to the pre-Voyager notion that the atmosphere of Uranus is remarkable clear, it is found that the aerosols are widely and extensively distributed. Despite its photodestruction, methane remains stable in the Uranian atmosphere. The vertical mixing on Uranus is found to be the least efficient of any of the planetary atmospheres.

  13. Vertical hydrodynamic focusing in glass microchannels.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tony A; Hosoi, A E; Ehrlich, Daniel J

    2009-01-08

    Vertical hydrodynamic focusing in microfluidic devices is investigated through simulation and through direct experimental verification using a confocal microscope and a novel form of stroboscopic imaging. Optimization for microfluidic cytometry of biological cells is examined. By combining multiple crossing junctions, it is possible to confine cells to a single analytic layer of interest. Subtractive flows are investigated as a means to move the analysis layer vertically in the channel and to correct the flatness of this layer. The simulation software (ADINA and Coventor) is shown to accurately capture the complex dependencies of the layer interfaces, which vary strongly with channel geometry and relative flow rates.

  14. Sediment Vertical Flux in Unsteady Sheet Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, T.; Jenkins, J. T.; Liu, P. L.

    2002-12-01

    In models for sediment suspension, two different boundary conditions have been employed at the sediment bed. Either the sediment concentration is given or the vertical flux of sediment is specified. The specification of the latter is usually called the pick-up function. Recently, several developments towards a better understanding of the sediment bed boundary condition have been reported. Nielson et al (Coastal Engineering 2002, 45, p61-68) have indicated a better performance using the sediment vertical flux as the bed boundary condition in comparisons with experimental data. Also, Drake and Calantoni (Journal of Geophysical Research 2001, 106, C9, p19859-19868) have suggested that in the nearshore environment with its various unsteady flow conditions, the appropriate sediment boundary conditions of a large-scale morphology model must consider both the magnitude the free stream velocity and the acceleration of the flow. In this research, a small-scale sheet flow model based on the two-phase theory is implemented to further study these issues. Averaged two-phase continuum equations are presented for concentrated flows of sediment that are driven by strong, fully developed, unsteady turbulent shear flows over a mobile bed. The particle inter-granular stress is modeled using collisional granular flow theory and a two-equation closure for the fluid turbulence is adopted. In the context of the two-phase theory, sediment is transported through the sediment vertical velocity. Using the fully developed sediment phase continuity equation, it can be shown that the vertical velocity of the sediment must vanish when the flow reaches a steady state. In other words, in fully developed conditions, it is the unsteadiness of the flow that induces the vertical motion of the sediment and that changes the sediment concentration profile. Therefore, implementing a boundary condition based on sediment vertical flux is consistent with both the two-phase theory and with the observation

  15. Integrated asymmetric vertical coupler pressure sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyat, Isa; Kocabas, Askin; Akcag, Imran; Aydinli, Atilla

    2004-08-01

    Design and analysis of a novel pressure sensor based on a silicon-on-insulator asymmetric integrated vertical coupler is presented. The coupler is composed of a single mode low index waveguide and a thin silicon slab. Wavelength selective optical modulation of asymmetric vertical coupler is examined in detail. Its potential for sensing applications is highlighted as an integrated optical pressure sensor which can be realized by standard silicon micro-fabrication. Sensitivity of transmission of such couplers on refractive index change of silicon slab ensures that they are good candidates for applications requiring high sensitivities.

  16. Vertical high-precision Michelson wavemeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, A.; de Urquijo, J.; Mendoza, A.

    1993-01-01

    We have designed and tested a traveling, Michelson-type vertical wavemeter for the wavelength measurement of tunable continuous-wave lasers in the visible part of the spectrum. The interferometer has two movable corner cubes, suspending vertically from a driving setup resembling Atwood's machine. To reduce the fraction-of-fringe error, a vernier-type coincidence circuit was used. Although simple, this wavemeter has a relative precision of 3.2 parts in 109 for an overall fringe count of about 7×106.

  17. Vertical Vergence Adaptation Produces an Objective Vertical Deviation That Changes With Head Tilt

    PubMed Central

    Irsch, Kristina; Guyton, David L.; Ramey, Nicholas A.; Adyanthaya, Rohit S.; Ying, Howard S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To document the cyclovertical ocular motor mechanism used for vertical fusion in healthy subjects, and to explore whether vertical vergence training in healthy individuals can produce objectively confirmed vertical deviations that change with head tilt, revealing a basic mechanism that can produce a pattern of misalignment in an otherwise normal ocular motor system that is similar to superior oblique muscle paresis (SOP). Methods. Seven subjects with normal orthoptic examinations were adapted to vertical image disparities using our tilting haploscopic eye-tracking apparatus presenting concentric circle targets without torsional cues. Static eye positions were recorded with head straight and when tilted 45 degrees to the left and right, during both binocular and monocular viewing. Results. Vertical fusional vergence was accompanied by a cycloversion, with the downward-moving eye intorting and the upward-moving eye extorting, implicating primary involvement of the oblique extraocular muscles. After adaptation to the slowly increasing vertical target separation, all subjects developed a temporary vertical deviation in the straight ahead position that increased with head tilt to one side and decreased with head tilt to the other side. Conclusions. These results not only show that head-tilt–dependent changes in vertical deviation are not necessarily pathognomonic for SOP, but also, and more importantly, suggest mechanisms that can mimic SOP and suggest a possible role for vertical vergence training in reducing deviations and thus the amount of head tilt required for fusion. Ultimately, vertical vergence training may provide an adjunct or alternative to extraocular muscle surgery in selected cases. PMID:23572100

  18. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of the...

  19. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of the...

  20. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of the...

  1. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of the...

  2. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of the...

  3. 46 CFR 190.10-15 - Vertical ladders not accepted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vertical ladders not accepted. 190.10-15 Section 190.10... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 190.10-15 Vertical ladders not accepted. (a) Vertical ladders... vertical ladder may be used as the second means of escape. ...

  4. 46 CFR 92.10-15 - Vertical ladders not accepted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vertical ladders not accepted. 92.10-15 Section 92.10-15... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 92.10-15 Vertical ladders not accepted. (a) Vertical ladders and.... However, where it is demonstrated that the installation of a stairway would be impracticable, a vertical...

  5. 46 CFR 72.10-15 - Vertical ladders not acceptable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vertical ladders not acceptable. 72.10-15 Section 72.10... AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 72.10-15 Vertical ladders not acceptable. (a) Vertical ladders and.... However, where it is demonstrated that the installation of a stairway would be impracticable, a vertical...

  6. Estimating object depth using a vertical gradient metal detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marble, Jay; McMichael, Ian; Reidy, Denis

    2008-04-01

    Object depth is a simple characteristic that can indicate an object's type. Popular instruments like radar, metal detectors, and magnetometers are often used to detect the presence of a subsurface object. The next question is often, "How deep is it?" Determining the answer, however, is not as straight forward as might be expected. This paper explores the determination of depth using metal detectors. More specifically, it looks at a popular metal detector (the Geonics EM61) and makes use of its vertically separated coils to generate a depth estimate. Estimated depths are shown for UXO and small surface clutter from flush buried down to 48". Ultimately a statistical depth resolution is determined. An alternative approach is then considered that casts the depth determination problem as one of classification. Only two classes are considered important "deep" and "shallow". Results are shown that illustrate the utility of the classifier approach. The traditional estimator can provide a depth estimate of the object, but the classifier approach can distinguish between small shallow, large deep, and large shallow object classes.

  7. Multi-frequency electromagnetic sounding tool EMS. Archaeological discoveries. Case stories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Zeid, N.; Balkov, E.; Chemyakina, M.; Manstein, A.; Manstein, Y.; Morelli, G.; Santarato, G.

    2003-04-01

    EMS is the new patented tool for shallow-depth (up to 7 m) induction frequency sounding. The tool is developed in Institute of Geophysics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy, Novosibirsk, RUSSIA. Few years of application of EMS prototypes in archaeological prospection gave us the well described picture of possibilities and limitations of EM sounding for archaeological purpose. We would like to present several archaeological case stories including paleolitic, bronze and iron ages, antique and medieval targets discovery. The cases include complex geophysical works using GPR, Vertical DC sounding and magnetometry together with EM sounding. Archaeological proofs of geophysical prospection will be presented. The last September in Italy we have done the comparative work at few Italian archaeological sites. The second EMS prototype has been compared with commercially available tools for EM prospection such as EM mappers, georadars and DC electrical resistivity tomography. In the comparison EMS feature good noise immunity, high sensibility and resolution. In some cases only EMS data shows the buried targets and it was proved immediately by excavation. The researches were done with financial support of RFBR grant # 00-06-80421

  8. A Simple Vertical Slab Gel Electrophoresis Apparatus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, J. B.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive, easily constructed, and safe vertical slab gel kit used routinely for sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis research and student experiments. Five kits are run from a single transformer. Because toxic solutions are used, students are given plastic gloves and closely supervised during laboratory…

  9. Vertical nontransovarial transmission of Bartonella in fleas.

    PubMed

    Morick, Danny; Krasnov, Boris R; Khokhlova, Irina S; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Gottlieb, Yuval; Harrus, Shimon

    2013-09-01

    Pathogens use diverse pathways to infect host populations by vertical and/or horizontal routes. Horizontal transmission of bacteria belonging to the Bartonella genus via haematophagous vectors is well known. Vertical transmission of Bartonella species was also suggested to occur but its routes remain to be unveiled. In a previous study, we showed the absence of transovarial transmission of Bartonella species OE 1-1 in Xenopsylla ramesis fleas, and that fleas feeding on Bartonella-positive jirds produced Bartonella-positive gut voids. This current study aimed to investigate whether vertical nontransovarial transmission of Bartonella occurs in fleas. For this aim, the X. ramesis-Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 model was used. Four groups of fleas including Bartonella-positive and Bartonella-negative female fleas and larval offspring had access to either Bartonella-negative or Bartonella-positive gut voids and faeces. Sixteen per cent of flea offspring that had access to Bartonella-positive faeces and gut voids became Bartonella positive. Our findings demonstrate that Bartonella-positive flea faeces and gut voids are proper infection sources for flea larvae and indicate that vertical nontransovarial transmission of bartonellae occurs in fleas. This information broadens our understanding of Bartonella transmission routes in flea vectors and enlightens pathways of bartonellae transmission and maintenance in flea populations in nature.

  10. Oblique patterned etching of vertical silicon sidewalls

    SciTech Connect

    Burckel, D. Bruce; Finnegan, Patrick S.; Henry, M. David; Resnick, Paul J.; Jarecki, Jr., Robert L.

    2016-04-05

    A method for patterning on vertical silicon surfaces in high aspect ratio silicontopography is presented. A Faraday cage is used to direct energetic reactive ions obliquely through a patterned suspended membrane positioned over the topography. The technique is capable of forming high-fidelity pattern (100 nm) features, adding an additional fabrication capability to standard top-down fabrication approaches.

  11. Modeling vertical coral connectivity and mesophotic refugia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holstein, Daniel M.; Paris, Claire B.; Vaz, Ana C.; Smith, Tyler B.

    2016-03-01

    Whether mesophotic reefs will behave as refugia for corals threatened by global climate change and coastal development depends on vertical exchange of larvae between diverse habitats. Here we use a biophysical model of larval dispersal to estimate vertical connectivity of a broadcasting ( Orbicella faveolata) and a brooding ( Porites astreoides) species of coral in the US Virgin Islands. Modeling predicts subsidy to shallow areas by mesophotic larvae of both species based on local hydrology, adult reproductive characteristics, larval traits, and a wide range of scenarios developed to test depth-sensitive factors, such as fertilization rates and post-settlement survivorship. In extreme model scenarios of reduced fertilization and post-settlement survivorship of mesophotic larvae, 1-10 % local mesophotic subsidy to shallow recruitment is predicted for both species, which are demographically significant. Although direct vertical connectivity is higher for the broadcaster, the brooder demonstrates higher local multigenerational vertical connectivity, which suggests that local P. astreoides populations are more resilient than those of O. faveolata, and corroborates field studies. As shallow habitat degrades, mesophotic-shallow subsidy is predicted to increase for both species. This study is the first of its kind to simulate larval dispersal and settlement between habitats of different depths, and these findings have local, regional, and global implications for predicting and managing coral reef persistence in a changing climate.

  12. Vertically aligned biaxially textured molybdenum thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Rahul; Riley, Michael; Lee, Sabrina; Lu, Toh-Ming

    2011-09-15

    Vertically aligned, biaxially textured molybdenum nanorods were deposited using dc magnetron sputtering with glancing flux incidence (alpha = 85 degrees with respect to the substrate normal) and a two-step substrate-rotation mode. These nanorods were identified with a body-centered cubic crystal structure. The formation of a vertically aligned biaxial texture with a [110] out-of-plane orientation was combined with a [-110] in-plane orientation. The kinetics of the growth process was found to be highly sensitive to an optimum rest time of 35 seconds for the two-step substrate rotation mode. At all other rest times, the nanorods possessed two separate biaxial textures each tilted toward one flux direction. While the in-plane texture for the vertical nanorods maintains maximum flux capture area, inclined Mo nanorods deposited at alpha = 85 degrees without substrate rotation display a [-1-1-4] in-plane texture that does not comply with the maximum flux capture area argument. Finally, an in situ capping film was deposited with normal flux incidence over the biaxially textured vertical nanorods resulting in a thin film over the porous nanorods. This capping film possessed the same biaxial texture as the nanorods and could serve as an effective substrate for the epitaxial growth of other functional materials.

  13. Vertical pump with free floating check valve

    DOEpatents

    Lindsay, Malcolm

    1980-01-01

    A vertical pump with a bottom discharge having a free floating check valve isposed in the outlet plenum thereof. The free floating check valve comprises a spherical member with a hemispherical cage-like member attached thereto which is capable of allowing forward or reverse flow under appropriate conditions while preventing reverse flow under inappropriate conditions.

  14. Vertical Alveolar Ridge Augmentation by Distraction Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, N. Nanda; Ravindran, C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Compromised alveolar ridge in vertical and horizontal dimension is a common finding in patients visiting practitioners for dental prosthesis. Various treatment modalities are available for correction of deficient ridges among which alveolar distraction osteogenesis is one. Aim To study the efficacy of alveolar distraction osteogenesis in augmentation of alveolar ridges deficient in vertical dimension. Materials and Methods Ten patients aged 16 to 46 years with deficient alveolar ridge underwent ridge augmentation in 11 alveolar segments using the distraction osteogenesis method. For each patient a custom made distraction device was fabricated. The device was indigenously manufactured with SS-316 (ISO 3506). Results The vertical bone gain reached more than 10mm without the use of bone transplantation. Certain complications like incorrect vector of distraction, paresthesia, pain and loss of transport segment were encountered during the course of the study. Conclusion Alveolar vertical distraction osteogenesis is a reliable and predictable technique for both hard and soft tissue genesis. Implant placement is feasible with primary stability in neogenerated bone at the level of the distracted areas. PMID:26816991

  15. Viewing Vertical Objects with an Overhead Projector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the use of an overhead projector for the deflection of a vertical image to a screen. Describes three demonstrations: magnetizing of a steel ball bearing and paper clip; convection currents of a hot liquid within a cold liquid; and oscillation of concentrated salt solution into fresh water. (YP)

  16. Sexual and vertical transmission of visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Turchetti, Andreia P; Souza, Tayse D; Paixão, Tatiane A; Santos, Renato L

    2014-04-15

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important zoonosis caused by Leishmania infantum, which has in the domestic dog its principal vertebrate host. VL is usually transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies, however atypical routes of transmission have been described. In this review we discuss the the role of sexual and vertical transmissions, and their role in the maintenance of VL in canine populations.

  17. Electrostatic comb drive for vertical actuation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A. P., LLNL

    1997-07-10

    The electrostatic comb finger drive has become an integral design for microsensor and microactuator applications. This paper reports on utilizing the levitation effect of comb fingers to design vertical-to-the-substrate actuation for interferometric applications. For typical polysilicon comb drives with 2 {micro}m gaps between the stationary and moving fingers, as well as between the microstructures and the substrate, the equilibrium position is nominally 1-2 {micro}m above the stationary comb fingers. This distance is ideal for many phase shifting interferometric applications. Theoretical calculations of the vertical actuation characteristics are compared with the experimental results, and a general design guideline is derived from these results. The suspension flexure stiffnesses, gravity forces, squeeze film damping, and comb finger thicknesses are parameters investigated which affect the displacement curve of the vertical microactuator. By designing a parallel plate capacitor between the suspended mass and the substrate, in situ position sensing can be used to control the vertical movement, providing a total feedback-controlled system. Fundamentals of various capacitive position sensing techniques are discussed. Experimental verification is carried out by a Zygo distance measurement interferometer.

  18. Vertical boring mill capacity is increased

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. J.

    1968-01-01

    Commercially available vertical boring mill with a nominal capacity to 27 feet in diameter of workpiece has been modified in-shop to handle work up to 36 feet in diameter. Capacity was increased by adding extension saddles to the mill support columns on each side.

  19. Viewing Vertical Objects with an Overhead Projector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the use of an overhead projector for the deflection of a vertical image to a screen. Describes three demonstrations: magnetizing of a steel ball bearing and paper clip; convection currents of a hot liquid within a cold liquid; and oscillation of concentrated salt solution into fresh water. (YP)

  20. Vertical Integration: Teachers' Knowledge and Teachers' Voice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrie, L.

    1995-01-01

    Traces the theoretical basis for vertical integration in early school years. Contrasts transmission-based pedagogy with a higher level of teacher control, and acquirer-based pedagogy with a higher level of student control. Suggests that early childhood pedagogy will be maintained when teachers are able to articulate their pedagogical knowledge and…

  1. Vertical Integration Spurs American Health Care Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Richard C.

    1986-01-01

    Under new "managed health care systems," the classical functional separation of risk taker, claims payor, and provider are vertically integrated into a common entity. This evolution should produce a competitive environment with medical care rendered to all Americans on a more cost-effective basis. (CJH)

  2. Vertical Alveolar Ridge Augmentation by Distraction Osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Rajat; Kumar, N Nanda; Ravindran, C

    2015-12-01

    Compromised alveolar ridge in vertical and horizontal dimension is a common finding in patients visiting practitioners for dental prosthesis. Various treatment modalities are available for correction of deficient ridges among which alveolar distraction osteogenesis is one. To study the efficacy of alveolar distraction osteogenesis in augmentation of alveolar ridges deficient in vertical dimension. Ten patients aged 16 to 46 years with deficient alveolar ridge underwent ridge augmentation in 11 alveolar segments using the distraction osteogenesis method. For each patient a custom made distraction device was fabricated. The device was indigenously manufactured with SS-316 (ISO 3506). The vertical bone gain reached more than 10mm without the use of bone transplantation. Certain complications like incorrect vector of distraction, paresthesia, pain and loss of transport segment were encountered during the course of the study. Alveolar vertical distraction osteogenesis is a reliable and predictable technique for both hard and soft tissue genesis. Implant placement is feasible with primary stability in neogenerated bone at the level of the distracted areas.

  3. Vertical Nitrate Fluxes in the Oligotrophic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Marlon R.; Harrison, W. Glen; Oakey, Neil S.; Hebert, David; Platt, Trevor

    1986-11-01

    The vertical flux of nitrate across the thermocline in the upper ocean imposes a rigorous constraint on the rate of export of organic carbon from the surface layer of the sea. This export is the primary means by which the oceans can serve as a sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. For the oligotrophic open ocean regions, which make up more than 75% of the world's ocean, the rate of export is currently uncertain by an order of magnitude. For most of the year, the vertical flux of nitrate is that due to vertical turbulent transport of deep water rich in nitrate into the relatively impoverished surface layer. Direct measurements of rates of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation, coupled with highly resolved vertical profiles of nitrate and density in the oligotrophic eastern Atlantic showed that the rate of transport, averaged over 2 weeks, was 0.14 (0.002 to 0.89, 95% confidence interval) millimole of nitrate per square meter per day and was statistically no different from the integrated rate of nitrate uptake as measured by incorporation of 15N-labeled nitrate. The stoichiometrically equivalent loss of carbon from the upper ocean, which is the relevant quantity for the carbon dioxide and climate question, is then fixed at 0.90 (0.01 to 5.70) millimole of carbon per square meter per day. These rates are much lower than recent estimates based on in situ changes in oxygen over annual scales; they are consistent with a biologically unproductive oligotrophic ocean.

  4. Atlantis OMS Pods and Vertical Stabilizer

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-09

    S135-E-006375 (9 July 2011) --- Without the sun's being temporarily available to highlight space shuttle Atlantis' cargo bay and vertical stabilizer, the spacecraft barely shows through as a silhouette in this image photographed from the aft flight deck. The thin blue line of Earth?s atmosphere is the dominant feature in the photo. Photo credit: NASA

  5. Vertical root fractures and their management

    PubMed Central

    Khasnis, Sandhya Anand; Kidiyoor, Krishnamurthy Haridas; Patil, Anand Basavaraj; Kenganal, Smita Basavaraj

    2014-01-01

    Vertical root fractures associated with endodontically treated teeth and less commonly in vital teeth represent one of the most difficult clinical problems to diagnose and treat. In as much as there are no specific symptoms, diagnosis can be difficult. Clinical detection of this condition by endodontists is becoming more frequent, where as it is rather underestimated by the general practitioners. Since, vertical root fractures almost exclusively involve endodontically treated teeth; it often becomes difficult to differentiate a tooth with this condition from an endodontically failed one or one with concomitant periodontal involvement. Also, a tooth diagnosed for vertical root fracture is usually extracted, though attempts to reunite fractured root have been done in various studies with varying success rates. Early detection of a fractured root and extraction of the tooth maintain the integrity of alveolar bone for placement of an implant. Cone beam computed tomography has been shown to be very accurate in this regard. This article focuses on the diagnostic and treatment strategies, and discusses about predisposing factors which can be useful in the prevention of vertical root fractures. PMID:24778502

  6. A Vertical Approach to Math Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gojak, Linda

    2012-01-01

    In the current era of mathematics standards, whether they are Common Core State Standards or other state standards, effective vertical mathematics teams offer an opportunity for teachers to grow professionally through shared experiences, for leadership to grow among the faculty, and for the school to change its perspective on the teaching and…

  7. A Simple Vertical Slab Gel Electrophoresis Apparatus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, J. B.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive, easily constructed, and safe vertical slab gel kit used routinely for sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis research and student experiments. Five kits are run from a single transformer. Because toxic solutions are used, students are given plastic gloves and closely supervised during laboratory…

  8. 46 CFR 108.160 - Vertical ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vertical ladders. 108.160 Section 108.160 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT... fitted with a cage or ladder safety device meeting ANSI Standard 14.3 (1974) for fixed ladders. (d) No...

  9. Oblique patterned etching of vertical silicon sidewalls

    DOE PAGES

    Burckel, D. Bruce; Finnegan, Patrick S.; Henry, M. David; ...

    2016-04-05

    A method for patterning on vertical silicon surfaces in high aspect ratio silicontopography is presented. A Faraday cage is used to direct energetic reactive ions obliquely through a patterned suspended membrane positioned over the topography. The technique is capable of forming high-fidelity pattern (100 nm) features, adding an additional fabrication capability to standard top-down fabrication approaches.

  10. Neurofibromatosis type II presenting as vertical diplopia.

    PubMed

    Sokwala, Ahmed; Knapp, Christopher; Gottlob, Irene

    2004-09-01

    Neurofibromatosis type II (NF II) is rare and most commonly presents with hearing loss, tinnitus and/or vestibular disturbance in the third decade of life. The authors describe a rare case presenting with NF II with vertical diplopia due to IV(th) nerve palsy. The patient was otherwise asymptomatic despite multiple extensive lesions on MRI.

  11. A Vertical Approach to Math Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gojak, Linda

    2012-01-01

    In the current era of mathematics standards, whether they are Common Core State Standards or other state standards, effective vertical mathematics teams offer an opportunity for teachers to grow professionally through shared experiences, for leadership to grow among the faculty, and for the school to change its perspective on the teaching and…

  12. Vertical motions in the equatorial middle atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisman, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    A single station vertical velocity equation which considers ageostrophic and diabatic effects derived from the first law of thermodynamics and a generalized thermal wind relation is presented. An analysis and verification procedure which accounts for measurement and calculation errors as well as time and space continuity arguments and theoretical predictions are described. Vertical velocities are calculated at every kilometer between 25 and 60 km and for approximately every three hours for the above diurnal period at Kourou (French Guiana), Fort Sherman (Panama Canal Zone), Ascension Island, Antigua (British West Indies) and Natal (Brazil). The results, plotted as time series cross sections, suggest vertical motions ranging in magnitude from 1 or 2 cm/sec at 30 km to as much as 15 cm/sec at 60 km. Many of the general features of the results agree well with atmospheric tidal predictions but many particular features suggest that both smaller time scale gravity waves (periods less than 6 hours) and synoptic type waves (periods greater than 1 day) may be interacting significantly with the tidal fields. The results suggest that vertical motions can be calculated for the equatorial middle atmosphere and must be considered a significant part of the motion for time scales from 8 to 24 hours.

  13. The Vertical Limit of State Sovereignty

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time...comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1 . REPORT DATE 00 JUN 2005 2. REPORT TYPE N/A... 1 - Chapter I: Territorial Sovereignty - - - - - - - - - - - - 5 -- Vertical Sovereignty

  14. Project Plan for Vertical Lift Machine

    SciTech Connect

    Ellsworth, G F

    2002-08-05

    This document describes the Project Plan for the development and manufacture of a Vertical Lift Machine. It is assumed by this project plan that the Vertical Lift Machine will be developed, designed, manufactured, and tested by a qualified vendor. LLNL will retain review and approval authority for each step given in this project plan. The Vertical Lift Machine is a single linear axis positioning device capable of lifting objects vertically at controlled rates and positioning them repeatedly at predetermined heights, in relation to other objects suspended from above, for high neutron multiplication experiments. Operation of the machine during the experiments is done remotely. The lift mechanism shall accommodate various platforms (tables) that support the objects to be raised. A frame will support additional subassemblies from above such that the lower subassembly can be raised close to and/or interface with those above. The structure must be stiff and motion of the table linear such that radial alignment is maintained (e.g. concentricity). The safe position for the Vertical Lift Machine is the lift mechanism fully retracted with the subassemblies fully separated. The machine shall reside in this position when not in use. It must return to this safe condition from any position upon failure of power sources, open safety interlocks, or operator initiated SCRAM. The Vertical Lift Machine shall have the capability of return to the safe position with no externally applied power. The Vertical Lift Machine shall have dual operator interfaces, one near the machine and another located in a remote control room. Conventional single key, key-lock switching shall be implemented to lock out the control interface not in use. The interface at the machine will be used for testing and ''dry running'' experimental setup(s) with inert subassemblies (i.e. Setup Mode). The remote interface shall provide full control and data recording capability (i.e. Assembly Mode). The control system

  15. Vertical Acoustic Arrays in the Deep Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, F.

    2002-12-01

    The R/P FLIP has made possible the deployments of vertical arrays to study sound propagation and ambient noise in the deep ocean in ways never before possible from existing research vessels. Long vertical arrays can be deployed without the flow noise contamination from platform motion, long a bane for making such studies. The vertical stability of FLIP combined with the deep mooring capability developed by Earl D. Bronson made it possible to deploy multi-element arrays beginning with a versatile 20 element array with variable spacing developed by Bill Whitney in Fred Spiess's group. The 20 element array consisted of bungee mounted hydrophones in metal cages at either uniform spacing or variable spacing to meet directivity or other requirements. It was assembled on station in the vertical and deployed to the desired depths for the elements. Gerald Morris at MPL conducted ambient noise studies using variable spacing of the elements to below the critical depth as well as in the water column above. Vic Anderson used it for his DIMUS processing system for detecting low level signals masked by ambient noise. As a 500 meter array, I used it for a series of CONTRACK (Continuous Tracking of signals at long range) experiments to resolve multipaths so they wouldn't interfere with one another. The VEKA vertical array developed by Rick Swenson of NORDA was deployed in very deep (below 3300 m) water by Dan Ramsdale of NORDA using the winch and double lay armored cable on FLIP, the same cable system for the MPL 20 element array. In my group Bruce Williams designed a rapidly deployable array to study vertical anisotropy of ambient noise as a function of range from near shore shipping via downslope conversion in a series of 48 hours FLIP stations 350, 1000 and 1500 miles from the Pacific coast. A short 120 element array, 1000 meters long, was built by John Hildebrands's group for a test of matched field processing and the SLICE experiment in acoustic tomography research of Peter

  16. Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Vertical Cylinder Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Alan; Kennedy, Kriss J.; Gill, Tracy R.; Tri, Terry O.; Toups, Larry; Howard, Robert I.; Spexarth, Gary R.; Cavanaugh, Stephen; Langford, William M.; Dorsey, John T.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Architecture Team defined an outpost scenario optimized for intensive mobility that uses small, highly mobile pressurized rovers supported by portable habitat modules that can be carried between locations of interest on the lunar surface. A compact vertical cylinder characterizes the habitat concept, where the large diameter maximizes usable flat floor area optimized for a gravity environment and allows for efficient internal layout. The module was sized to fit into payload fairings for the Constellation Ares V launch vehicle, and optimized for surface transport carried by the All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer (ATHLETE) mobility system. Launch and other loads are carried through the barrel to a top and bottom truss that interfaces with a structural support unit (SSU). The SSU contains self-leveling feet and docking interfaces for Tri-ATHLETE grasping and heavy lift. A pressurized module needed to be created that was appropriate for the lunar environment, could be easily relocated to new locations, and could be docked together in multiples for expanding pressurized volume in a lunar outpost. It was determined that horizontally oriented pressure vessels did not optimize floor area, which takes advantage of the gravity vector for full use. Hybrid hard-inflatable habitats added an unproven degree of complexity that may eventually be worked out. Other versions of vertically oriented pressure vessels were either too big, bulky, or did not optimize floor area. The purpose of the HDU vertical habitat module is to provide pressurized units that can be docked together in a modular way for lunar outpost pressurized volume expansion, and allow for other vehicles, rovers, and modules to be attached to the outpost to allow for IVA (intra-vehicular activity) transfer between them. The module is a vertically oriented cylinder with a large radius to allow for maximal floor area and use of volume. The modular, 5- m-diameter HDU vertical habitat

  17. Effect of gravity on vertical eye position.

    PubMed

    Pierrot-Deseilligny, C

    2009-05-01

    There is growing evidence that gravity markedly influences vertical eye position and movements. A new model for the organization of brainstem upgaze pathways is presented in this review. The crossing ventral tegmental tract (CVTT) could be the efferent tract of an "antigravitational" pathway terminating at the elevator muscle motoneurons in the third nerve nuclei and comprising, upstream, the superior vestibular nucleus and y-group, the flocculus, and the otoliths. This pathway functions in parallel to the medial longitudinal fasciculus pathways, which control vertical eye movements made to compensate for all vertical head movements and may also comprise the "gravitational" vestibular pathways, involved in the central reflection of the gravity effect. The CVTT could provide the upgaze system with the supplement of tonic activity required to counteract the gravity effect expressed in the gravitational pathway, being permanently modulated according to the static positions of the head (i.e., the instantaneous gravity vector) between a maximal activity in the upright position and a minimal activity in horizontal positions. Different types of arguments support this new model. The permanent influence of gravity on vertical eye position is strongly suggested by the vertical slow phases and nystagmus observed after rapid changes in hypo- or hypergravity. The chin-beating nystagmus, existing in normal subjects with their head in the upside-down position, suggests that gravity is not compensated for in the downgaze system. Upbeat nystagmus due to brainstem lesions, most likely affecting the CVTT circuitry, is improved when the head is in the horizontal position, suggesting that this circuitry is involved in the counteraction of gravity between the upright and horizontal positions of the head. In downbeat nystagmus due to floccular damage, in which a permanent hyperexcitation of the CVTT could exist, a marked influence of static positions of the head is also observed. Finally

  18. Adaptation of the vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex in cats during low-frequency vertical rotation.

    PubMed

    Fushiki, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Motoyoshi; Shojaku, Hideo

    2017-04-27

    We examined plastic changes in the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) during low-frequency vertical head rotation, a condition under which otolith inputs from the vestibular system are essential for VOR generation. For adaptive conditioning of the vertical VOR, 0.02Hz sinusoidal pitch rotation for one hour about the earth's horizontal axis was synchronized with out-of-phase vertical visual stimulation from a random dot pattern. A vertical VOR was well evoked when the upright animal rotated around the earth-horizontal axis (EHA) at low frequency due to the changing gravity stimulus and dynamic stimulation of the otoliths. After adaptive conditioning, the amplitude of the vertical VOR increased by an average of 32.1%. Our observations showing plasticity in the otolithic contribution to the VOR may provide a new strategy for visual-vestibular mismatch training in patients with otolithic disorders. This low-frequency vertical head rotation protocol also provides a model for investigating the mechanisms underlying the adaptation of VORs mediated by otolith activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Velocity Field in a Vertical Foam Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiwert, Jacopo; Kervil, Ronan; Nou, Soniraks; Cantat, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    The drainage of vertical foam films governs their lifetime. For a foam film supported on a rectangular solid frame, when the interface presents a low resistance to shear, the drainage dynamics involves a complex flow pattern at the film scale, leading to a drainage time proportional to the frame width. Using an original velocimetry technique, based on fluorescent foam films and photobleaching, we measure the horizontal and vertical components of the velocity in a draining film, thus providing the first quantitative experimental evidence of this flow pattern. Upward velocities up to 10 cm /s are measured close to the lateral menisci, whereas a slower velocity field is obtained in the center of the film, with comparable downwards and horizontal components. Scaling laws are proposed for all characteristic velocities, coupling gravitational effects, and capillary suction.

  20. Lunar vertical-shaft mining system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Introne, Steven D. (Editor); Krause, Roy; Williams, Erik; Baskette, Keith; Martich, Frederick; Weaver, Brad; Meve, Jeff; Alexander, Kyle; Dailey, Ron; White, Matt

    1994-01-01

    This report proposes a method that will allow lunar vertical-shaft mining. Lunar mining allows the exploitation of mineral resources imbedded within the surface. The proposed lunar vertical-shaft mining system is comprised of five subsystems: structure, materials handling, drilling, mining, and planning. The structure provides support for the exploration and mining equipment in the lunar environment. The materials handling subsystem moves mined material outside the structure and mining and drilling equipment inside the structure. The drilling process bores into the surface for the purpose of collecting soil samples, inserting transducer probes, or locating ore deposits. Once the ore deposits are discovered and pinpointed, mining operations bring the ore to the surface. The final subsystem is planning, which involves the construction of the mining structure.

  1. Coupled Resonator Vertical Cavity Laser Diode

    SciTech Connect

    CHOQUETTE, KENT D.; CHOW, WENG W.; FISCHER, ARTHUR J.; GEIB, KENT M.; HOU, HONG Q.

    1999-09-16

    We report the operation of an electrically injected monolithic coupled resonator vertical cavity laser which consists of an active cavity containing In{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}As quantum wells optically coupled to a passive GaAs cavity. This device demonstrates novel modulation characteristics arising from dynamic changes in the coupling between the active and passive cavities. A composite mode theory is used to model the output modulation of the coupled resonator vertical cavity laser. It is shown that the laser intensity can be modulated by either forward or reverse biasing the passive cavity. Under forward biasing, the modulation is due to carrier induced changes in the refractive index, while for reverse bias operation the modulation is caused by field dependent cavity enhanced absorption.

  2. Laser drilling of vertical vias in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, W. D.; Gassman, R. A.; Keicher, D. M.

    1993-08-01

    Any advance beyond the density of standard 2D Multichip Modules (MCM) will require a vertical interconnect technology that can produce reliable area array interconnection with small feature sizes. Laser drilled vertical vias have been controllably produced in standard silicon (Si) wafers down to 0.035mm (0.0014 inches) in diameter. Several laser systems and their system parameters have been explored to determine the optimum parametric set for repeatable vias in Si. The vias produced have exhibited clean smooth interior surfaces with an aspect ratio of up to 20:1 with little or no taper. All laser systems used, their system parameters, design modifications, theory of operation, and drilling results are discussed.

  3. Vertical-Substrate MPCVD Epitaxial Nanodiamond Growth.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Yan-Kai; Zhang, Jingyuan Linda; Lu, Haiyu; Ishiwata, Hitoshi; Dahl, Jeremy; Carlson, Robert M K; Yan, Hao; Schreiner, Peter R; Vučković, Jelena; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Melosh, Nicholas; Chu, Steven

    2017-03-08

    Color center-containing nanodiamonds have many applications in quantum technologies and biology. Diamondoids, molecular-sized diamonds have been used as seeds in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth. However, optimizing growth conditions to produce high crystal quality nanodiamonds with color centers requires varying growth conditions that often leads to ad-hoc and time-consuming, one-at-a-time testing of reaction conditions. In order to rapidly explore parameter space, we developed a microwave plasma CVD technique using a vertical, rather than horizontally oriented stage-substrate geometry. With this configuration, temperature, plasma density, and atomic hydrogen density vary continuously along the vertical axis of the substrate. This variation allowed rapid identification of growth parameters that yield single crystal diamonds down to 10 nm in size and 75 nm diameter optically active center silicon-vacancy (Si-V) nanoparticles. Furthermore, this method may provide a means of incorporating a wide variety of dopants in nanodiamonds without ion irradiation damage.

  4. Ultimately short ballistic vertical graphene Josephson junctions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Kim, Sol; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Much efforts have been made for the realization of hybrid Josephson junctions incorporating various materials for the fundamental studies of exotic physical phenomena as well as the applications to superconducting quantum devices. Nonetheless, the efforts have been hindered by the diffusive nature of the conducting channels and interfaces. To overcome the obstacles, we vertically sandwiched a cleaved graphene monoatomic layer as the normal-conducting spacer between superconducting electrodes. The atomically thin single-crystalline graphene layer serves as an ultimately short conducting channel, with highly transparent interfaces with superconductors. In particular, we show the strong Josephson coupling reaching the theoretical limit, the convex-shaped temperature dependence of the Josephson critical current and the exceptionally skewed phase dependence of the Josephson current; all demonstrate the bona fide short and ballistic Josephson nature. This vertical stacking scheme for extremely thin transparent spacers would open a new pathway for exploring the exotic coherence phenomena occurring on an atomic scale. PMID:25635386

  5. Vertical trapezius musculocutaneous flap: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Othon N; Chrisostomidis, Chrisostomos I; Georgiou, Panagis N; Frangoulis, Marios B; Zapantis-Fragos, Menelaos K; Champsas, Grigorios G

    2005-01-01

    From 1986 to 2001, 17 patients (aged 26-77 years) were treated using the vertical trapezius musculocutaneous flap. A two-stage procedure was used in 7 and a single-stage island flap in 10. The donor site was closed directly in all patients. Mean length of hospital stay was 16 days (range 12-25). There was no operative mortality. Complications were one partial flap necrosis and two seromas of the donor site, complicated by infection. With a minimum follow-up of more than two years, our study confirms the usefulness of the vertical trapezius musculocutaneous flap in head and neck reconstructive surgery. It is a reliable, thin flap of uniform thickness, which carries hairless skin. The length and thickness of its pedicle allows excellent mobility. The main disadvantage of the flap is the complete sacrifice of the muscle necessary for total mobilisation of the flap, and the intraoperative repositioning of the patient.

  6. Vertically Integrated Multiple Nanowire Field Effect Transistor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Hyun; Kang, Min-Ho; Ahn, Dae-Chul; Park, Jun-Young; Bang, Tewook; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Hur, Jae; Lee, Dongil; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2015-12-09

    A vertically integrated multiple channel-based field-effect transistor (FET) with the highest number of nanowires reported ever is demonstrated on a bulk silicon substrate without use of wet etching. The driving current is increased by 5-fold due to the inherent vertically stacked five-level nanowires, thus showing good feasibility of three-dimensional integration-based high performance transistor. The developed fabrication process, which is simple and reproducible, is used to create multiple stiction-free and uniformly sized nanowires with the aid of the one-route all-dry etching process (ORADEP). Furthermore, the proposed FET is revamped to create nonvolatile memory with the adoption of a charge trapping layer for enhanced practicality. Thus, this research suggests an ultimate design for the end-of-the-roadmap devices to overcome the limits of scaling.

  7. Vertical Landing Aerodynamics of Reusable Rocket Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonaka, Satoshi; Nishida, Hiroyuki; Kato, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Inatani, Yoshifumi

    The aerodynamic characteristics of a vertical landing rocket are affected by its engine plume in the landing phase. The influences of interaction of the engine plume with the freestream around the vehicle on the aerodynamic characteristics are studied experimentally aiming to realize safe landing of the vertical landing rocket. The aerodynamic forces and surface pressure distributions are measured using a scaled model of a reusable rocket vehicle in low-speed wind tunnels. The flow field around the vehicle model is visualized using the particle image velocimetry (PIV) method. Results show that the aerodynamic characteristics, such as the drag force and pitching moment, are strongly affected by the change in the base pressure distributions and reattachment of a separation flow around the vehicle.

  8. Extreme wave runup on a vertical cliff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, Francesco; Dutykh, Denys; Dudley, John M.; Dias, FréDéRic

    2013-06-01

    Wave impact and runup onto vertical obstacles are among the most important phenomena which must be taken into account in the design of coastal structures. From linear wave theory, we know that the wave amplitude on a vertical wall is twice the incident wave amplitude with weakly nonlinear theories bringing small corrections to this result. In this present study, however, we show that certain simple wave groups may produce much higher runups than previously predicted, with particular incident wave frequencies resulting in runup heights exceeding the initial wave amplitude by a factor of 5, suggesting that the notion of the design wave used in coastal structure design may need to be revisited. The results presented in this study can be considered as a note of caution for practitioners, on one side, and as a challenging novel material for theoreticians who work in the field of extreme wave-coastal structure interaction.

  9. Transitions Within a Vertically Confined Plasma Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Ke; Hyde, Truell

    2004-10-01

    Dusty plasmas consist of an ionized gas containing small (usually negatively charged) particles. Dusty plasmas are of interest in both astrophysics and space physics as well as in research in plasma processing and nanofabrication. In this work, the formation of plasma crystals confined in an external one-dimensional parabolic potential well is simulated for a normal experimental environment employing a computer code called BOX_TREE. Such crystals are layered systems, with each layer a 2D lattice composed of grain particles. The number of layers is dependent in part upon the external potential parameter. The transition from 1 to 2 layers is specifically analyzed with dispersion relations for the vertical dust lattice wave obtained at the transition point and the transition shown to be induced by the vertical dust lattice instability.

  10. Congenital paralytic vertical talus. An anatomical study.

    PubMed

    Specht, E E

    1975-09-01

    Dissections of the feet of a three-month-old infant with paralytic congenital vertical talus secondary to lumbar myelomeningocele were compared with a dissection of a normal foot. The major differences appeared to be absence of the plantar intrinsic muscles and dorsal dislocation of the talonavicular joint. It is postulated that the pathological process begins as a failure of the intrinsic muscles to oppose the unbalanced, active dorsiflexion forces of the anterior crural muscles. This imbalance then allows disruption of the talonavicular joint, mechanically the least stable joint in the mid-part of the foot. All dorsiflexion forces acting on the ankle then become ineffective and plantar flexion forces serve only to pull the calcaneus and talus into equinus, causing a "vertical" talus. Treatment must be directed at reducing the talonavicular dislocation, correcting the equinus deformity of the hind part of the foot, and substituting for the undeveloped plantar intrinsic muscles.

  11. Cephalometric estimation of vertical dimension of occlusion.

    PubMed

    Orthlieb, J D; Laurent, M; Laplanche, O

    2000-09-01

    The literature does not establish a single proven method for determining lower facial height, which is called the Vertical Dimension of Occlusion (VDO), and the concept of a vertical comfort range is generally accepted. This study aimed to test the statistical significance of correlations of mandibular shape versus lower facial height in occlusion, using cephalometric measurements. Correlations for 505 consecutive healthy adults were calculated between angles that estimate the lower facial height and angles that estimate the mandibular shape. The mandibular angle (gonial) showed a higher coefficient of correlation (r = 0.691) than the inferior gonial angle. The dispersion remained large, i.e. r2 = 0.478. Cephalometric measurements, despite theirs imperfections, could help the practitioner to understand what the best course of treatment would be in order to obtain a lower facial height in occlusion showing a skeletal harmony with the mandibular shape.

  12. Laser drilling of vertical vias in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W.D.; Gassman, R.A.; Keicher, D.M.

    1993-08-01

    Any advance beyond the density of standard 2D Multichip Modules (MCM) will require a vertical interconnect technology that can produce reliable area array interconnection with small feature sizes. Laser drilled vertical vias have been controllably produced in standard silicon (Si) wafers down to 0.035mm (0.0014 inches) in diameter. Several laser systems and their system parameters have been explored to determine the optimum parametric set for repeatable vias in Si. The vias produced have exhibited clean smooth interior surfaces with an aspect ratio of up to 20:1 with little or no taper. All laser systems used, their system parameters, design modifications, theory of operation, and drilling results are discussed.

  13. Experimental Studies in Helicopter Vertical Climb Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKillip, Robert M., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Data and analysis from an experimental program to measure vertical climb performance on an eight-foot model rotor are presented. The rotor testing was performed using a unique moving-model facility capable of accurately simulating the flow conditions during axial flight, and was conducted from July 9, 1992 to July 16, 1992 at the Dynamic Model Track, or 'Long Track,' just prior to its demolition in August of 1992. Data collected during this brief test program included force and moment time histories from a sting-mounted strain gauge balance, support carriage velocity, and rotor rpm pulses. In addition, limited video footage (of marginal use) was recorded from smoke flow studies for both simulated vertical climb and descent trajectories. Analytical comparisons with these data include a series of progressively more detailed calculations ranging from simple momentum theory, a prescribed wake method, and a free-wake prediction.

  14. EMS in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Ramalanjaona, Georges; Brogan, Gerald X

    2009-02-01

    Mauritius lies in the southwest Indian Ocean about 1250 miles from the African coast and 500 miles from Madagascar. Mauritius (estimated population 1,230,602) became independent from the United Kingdom in 1968 and has one of the highest GDP per capita in Africa. Within Mauritius there is a well established EMS system with a single 999 national dispatch system. Ambulances are either publicly or privately owned. Public ambulances are run by the Government (SAMU). Megacare is a private subscriber only ambulance service. The Government has recently invested in new technology such as telemedicine to further enhance the role of EMS on the island. This article describes the current state of EMS in Mauritius and depicts its development in the context of Government effort to decentralise and modernise the healthcare system.

  15. EMS -- Error Message Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, P. C. T.; Chipperfield, A. J.; Draper, P. W.

    This document describes the Error Message Service, EMS, and its use in system software. The purpose of EMS is to provide facilities for constructing and storing error messages for future delivery to the user -- usually via the Starlink Error Reporting System, ERR (see SUN/104). EMS can be regarded as a simplified version of ERR without the binding to any software environment (e.g., for message output or access to the parameter and data systems). The routines in this library conform to the error reporting conventions described in SUN/104. A knowledge of these conventions, and of the ADAM system (see SG/4), is assumed in what follows. This document is intended for Starlink systems programmers and can safely be ignored by applications programmers and users.

  16. RADIALLY MAGNETIZED PROTOPLANETARY DISK: VERTICAL PROFILE

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, Matthew; Thompson, Christopher

    2015-11-10

    This paper studies the response of a thin accretion disk to an external radial magnetic field. Our focus is on protoplanetary disks (PPDs), which are exposed during their later evolution to an intense, magnetized wind from the central star. A radial magnetic field is mixed into a thin surface layer, wound up by the disk shear, and pushed downward by a combination of turbulent mixing and ambipolar and ohmic drift. The toroidal field reaches much greater strengths than the seed vertical field that is usually invoked in PPD models, even becoming superthermal. Linear stability analysis indicates that the disk experiences the magnetorotational instability (MRI) at a higher magnetization than a vertically magnetized disk when both the effects of ambipolar and Hall drift are taken into account. Steady vertical profiles of density and magnetic field are obtained at several radii between 0.06 and 1 AU in response to a wind magnetic field B{sub r} ∼ (10{sup −4}–10{sup −2})(r/ AU){sup −2} G. Careful attention is given to the radial and vertical ionization structure resulting from irradiation by stellar X-rays. The disk is more strongly magnetized closer to the star, where it can support a higher rate of mass transfer. As a result, the inner ∼1 AU of a PPD is found to evolve toward lower surface density. Mass transfer rates around 10{sup −8} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} are obtained under conservative assumptions about the MRI-generated stress. The evolution of the disk and the implications for planet migration are investigated in the accompanying paper.

  17. Inverse scattering problem for quantum graph vertices

    SciTech Connect

    Cheon, Taksu; Turek, Ondrej; Exner, Pavel

    2011-06-15

    We demonstrate how the inverse scattering problem of a quantum star graph can be solved by means of diagonalization of the Hermitian unitary matrix when the vertex coupling is of the scale-invariant (or Fueloep-Tsutsui) form. This enables the construction of quantum graphs with desired properties in a tailor-made fashion. The procedure is illustrated on the example of quantum vertices with equal transmission probabilities.

  18. Predicting Vertical Motion within Convective Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Heever, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    Convective storms are both beneficial in the fresh water they supply and destructive in the life-threatening extreme weather they produce. They are found throughout the tropics and midlatitudes, vary in structure from isolated to highly organized systems, and are the sole source of precipitation in many regions of Earth. Convective updrafts and downdrafts plays a crucial role in cloud and precipitation formation, latent heating, water vapor transport, storm organization, and large-scale atmospheric circulations such as the Hadley and Walker cells. These processes, in turn, impact the strength and longevity of updrafts and downdrafts through complex, non-linear feedbacks. In spite of the significant influence of convective updrafts and downdrafts on the weather and climate system, accurately predicting vertical motion using numerical models remains challenging. In high-resolution cloud-resolving models where vertical motion is normally resolved, significant biases exist in the predicted profiles of updraft and downdraft velocities, at least for the limited cases where observational data have been available for model evaluation. It has been suggested that feedbacks between the vertical motion and microphysical processes may be one cause of these discrepancies, however, our understanding of these feedbacks remains limited. In this talk, the results of a small field campaign conducted over northeastern Colorado designed to observe storm vertical motion and cold pool characteristics within isolated and organized deep convective storms will be described. High frequency radiosonde, radar and drone measurements of a developing through mature supercell storm updraft and cold pool will be presented and compared with RAMS simulations of the same supercell storm. An analysis of the feedbacks between the storm dynamical and microphysical processes will be presented, and implications for regional and global modeling of severe storms will be discussed.

  19. Vertical flight path steering system for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is a vertical flight path angle steering system for aircraft, utilizing a digital flight control computer which processes pilot control inputs and aircraft response parameters into suitable elevator commands and control information for display to the pilot on a cathode ray tube. The system yields desirable airplane control handling qualities and responses as well as improvements in pilot workload and safety during airplane operation in the terminal area and under windshear conditions.

  20. A national review of vertical HIV transmission.

    PubMed

    Forbes, John C; Alimenti, Ariane M; Singer, Joel; Brophy, Jason C; Bitnun, Ari; Samson, Lindy M; Money, Deborah M; Lee, Terry C K; Lapointe, Normand D; Read, Stanley E

    2012-03-27

    Prevention of vertical HIV transmission has evolved significantly in Canada over the last two decades. The aim of this analysis is to describe the surveillance programme used, rate of vertical HIV transmission and changing epidemiology of HIV-affected pregnancies in Canada. National perinatal HIV surveillance programme. From 1990, annual retrospective data was collected on demographic and clinical characteristics of HIV-infected mothers and their infants referred to 22 participating sites across Canada either before/during pregnancy or within 3 months after delivery. Factors impacting HIV transmission and demographic features were explored. Two thousand, six hundred and ninety-two mother-infant pairs were identified. The overall rate of vertical HIV transmission was 5.2%, declining to 2.9% since 1997. The rate of transmission for mothers who received HAART was 1%, and 0.4% if more than 4 weeks of HAART was given. Forty percent of women delivered by caesarean section, with no difference in transmission rate compared with vaginal delivery for women treated with HAART (1.4 vs. 0.6%, P = 0.129) but significant risk reduction for those who did not receive HAART (3.8 vs. 10.3%, P = 0.016). Black women were the largest group; proportions of black and aboriginal women increased significantly over time (P < 0.001 for both). Heterosexual contact was the most common risk category for maternal infection (65%), followed by injection drug use (IDU) (25%). Vertical HIV transmission in Canada has decreased dramatically for women treated with HAART therapy. All pregnant women should be evaluated for HIV infection and programmes expanded to reach vulnerable populations including aboriginal, immigrant and IDU women.

  1. Vertical Carbon Nanotube Device in Nanoporous Templates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maschmann, Matthew Ralph (Inventor); Fisher, Timothy Scott (Inventor); Sands, Timothy (Inventor); Bashir, Rashid (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A modified porous anodic alumina template (PAA) containing a thin CNT catalyst layer directly embedded into the pore walls. CNT synthesis using the template selectively catalyzes SWNTs and DWNTs from the embedded catalyst layer to the top PAA surface, creating a vertical CNT channel within the pores. Subsequent processing allows for easy contact metallization and adaptable functionalization of the CNTs and template for a myriad of applications.

  2. Spirit 360-Degree View, Sol 388 (vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on Spirit's 388th martian day, or sol (Feb. 4, 2005). Spirit had driven about 13 meters (43 feet) uphill toward 'Cumberland Ridge' on this sol. This location is catalogued as Spirit's Site 102, Position 513. The view is presented in a vertical projection with geometric and brightness seam correction.

  3. Understanding Vertical Jump Potentiation: A Deterministic Model.

    PubMed

    Suchomel, Timothy J; Lamont, Hugh S; Moir, Gavin L

    2016-06-01

    This review article discusses previous postactivation potentiation (PAP) literature and provides a deterministic model for vertical jump (i.e., squat jump, countermovement jump, and drop/depth jump) potentiation. There are a number of factors that must be considered when designing an effective strength-power potentiation complex (SPPC) focused on vertical jump potentiation. Sport scientists and practitioners must consider the characteristics of the subject being tested and the design of the SPPC itself. Subject characteristics that must be considered when designing an SPPC focused on vertical jump potentiation include the individual's relative strength, sex, muscle characteristics, neuromuscular characteristics, current fatigue state, and training background. Aspects of the SPPC that must be considered for vertical jump potentiation include the potentiating exercise, level and rate of muscle activation, volume load completed, the ballistic or non-ballistic nature of the potentiating exercise, and the rest interval(s) used following the potentiating exercise. Sport scientists and practitioners should design and seek SPPCs that are practical in nature regarding the equipment needed and the rest interval required for a potentiated performance. If practitioners would like to incorporate PAP as a training tool, they must take the athlete training time restrictions into account as a number of previous SPPCs have been shown to require long rest periods before potentiation can be realized. Thus, practitioners should seek SPPCs that may be effectively implemented in training and that do not require excessive rest intervals that may take away from valuable training time. Practitioners may decrease the necessary time needed to realize potentiation by improving their subject's relative strength.

  4. Electrically floating, near vertical incidence, skywave antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Allen A.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Tremblay, Paul A.; Mays, Belva L.

    2014-07-08

    An Electrically Floating, Near Vertical Incidence, Skywave (NVIS) Antenna comprising an antenna element, a floating ground element, and a grounding element. At least part of said floating ground element is positioned between said antenna element and said grounding element. The antenna is separated from the floating ground element and the grounding element by one or more electrical insulators. The floating ground element is separated from said antenna and said grounding element by one or more electrical insulators.

  5. The distinctive vertical heterophoria of dyslexics

    PubMed Central

    Quercia, Patrick; Quercia, Madeleine; Feiss, Léonard J; Allaert, François

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we looked for the presence of vertical heterophoria (VH) in 42 dyslexic children (22 males and 20 females) aged 118.5±12.9 months who were compared with a control group of 22 nondyslexic children (eleven males and eleven females) aged 112±9.8 months. Dyslexics presented a low-level (always <1 prism diopter) VH combined with torsion. This oculomotor feature clearly separates the dyslexic group from the normal readers group. It is independent of the type of dyslexia. The essential feature of this VH is a lability that appears during specific stimulation of sensory receptors involved in postural regulation. This lability is demonstrated using a vertical Maddox test conducted under very specific conditions in which postural sensors are successively stimulated in a predetermined order. A quantitative variation in this VH may be seen during the Bielchowsky Head Tilt Test, which reveals hypertonia of the lower or upper oblique muscles. Vertical orthophoria can be achieved by placing low-power prisms asymmetrically within the direction of action of the superior or inferior oblique muscles. The selection of power and axis is not only guided by elements of the eye examination but also from observation of postural muscle tone. All these elements suggest that the VH could be of postural origin and somehow related to the vertical action of the oblique muscles. VH and torsion are not harmful per se. There is no statistical relationship between their level and the various parameters used to assess the reading skills of dyslexic children. VH and torsion could be a clinical marker of global proprioceptive dysfunction responsible for high-level multisensory disturbances secondary to poor spatial localization of visual and auditory information. This dysfunction might also explain the motor disorders concomitant to dyslexia. PMID:26445526

  6. Vertical Lift - Not Just For Terrestrial Flight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    Cassini space mission will reach Saturn’s orbit and release the Huygens probe (descending via parachute) into Titan’s atmosphere. The Huygens ...is outside the official mission scope). This accomplishment will likely come from future missions post- Cassini / Huygens . The use of vertical lift...from HST) With the arrival of the Cassini / Huygens spacecraft to Saturn and Titan in 2004 -- and the anticipated science and outreach bonanza from this

  7. GOES-R Rotation to Vertical

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-15

    Team members assist as the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) is prepared for lifting to the vertical position on an “up-ender” inside the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida near NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. GOES-R will be the first satellite in a series of next-generation NOAA GOES Satellites. The spacecraft is to launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket in November.

  8. GOES-R Rotation to Vertical

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-15

    Team members assist as the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) is raised and prepared for lifting to the vertical position on an “up-ender” inside the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida near NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. GOES-R will be the first satellite in a series of next-generation NOAA GOES Satellites. The spacecraft is to launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket in November

  9. GOES-R Rotation to Vertical

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-15

    Team members check the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) after it was lifted to the vertical position on an “up-ender” inside the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida near NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. GOES-R will be the first satellite in a series of next-generation NOAA GOES Satellites. The spacecraft is to launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket in November.

  10. GOES-R Rotation to Vertical

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-15

    Team members are securing the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) in the vertical position on an “up-ender” inside the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida near NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. GOES-R will be the first satellite in a series of next-generation NOAA GOES Satellites. The spacecraft is to launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket in November.

  11. GOES-R Rotation to Vertical

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-15

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) has been secured in the vertical position on an “up-ender” inside the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida near NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. GOES-R will be the first satellite in a series of next-generation NOAA GOES Satellites. The spacecraft is to launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket in November.

  12. GOES-R Rotation to Vertical

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-15

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) is lifted to the vertical position on an “up-ender” inside the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida near NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. GOES-R will be the first satellite in a series of next-generation NOAA GOES Satellites. The spacecraft is to launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket in November.

  13. GOES-R Rotation to Vertical

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-15

    Team members assist as the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) is raised and prepared for lifting to the vertical position on an “up-ender” inside the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida near NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. GOES-R will be the first satellite in a series of next-generation NOAA GOES Satellites. The spacecraft is to launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket in November.

  14. GOES-R Rotation to Vertical

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-15

    Team members monitor the progress as the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) is lifted to the vertical position on an “up-ender” inside the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida near NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. GOES-R will be the first satellite in a series of next-generation NOAA GOES Satellites. The spacecraft is to launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket in November.

  15. GOES-R Rotation to Vertical

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-15

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) is raised to the vertical position on an “up-ender” inside the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida near NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. GOES-R will be the first satellite in a series of next-generation NOAA GOES Satellites. The spacecraft is to launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket in November.

  16. Flow boiling in vertical down-flow

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, T.; Fighetti, C.; Reddy, G.; Yang, B.; Jafri, T.; McAssey, E.; Qureshi, Z.

    1989-12-31

    An experimental program has been conducted to investigate the onset of Ledinegg instability in vertical down-flow. For three size uniformly heated test sections with L/D ratios from 100 to 150, the pressure drop under subcooled boiling conditions has been obtained for a wide range of operating parameters. The results are presented in non-dimensional forms which correlate the important variables and provide techniques for predicting the onset of flow instability. 3 refs.

  17. Flow boiling in vertical down-flow

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, T.; Fighetti, C.; Reddy, G.; Yang, B.; Jafri, T. ); McAssey, E. ); Qureshi, Z. )

    1989-01-01

    An experimental program has been conducted to investigate the onset of Ledinegg instability in vertical down-flow. For three size uniformly heated test sections with L/D ratios from 100 to 150, the pressure drop under subcooled boiling conditions has been obtained for a wide range of operating parameters. The results are presented in non-dimensional forms which correlate the important variables and provide techniques for predicting the onset of flow instability. 3 refs.

  18. The distinctive vertical heterophoria of dyslexics.

    PubMed

    Quercia, Patrick; Quercia, Madeleine; Feiss, Léonard J; Allaert, François

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we looked for the presence of vertical heterophoria (VH) in 42 dyslexic children (22 males and 20 females) aged 118.5±12.9 months who were compared with a control group of 22 nondyslexic children (eleven males and eleven females) aged 112±9.8 months. Dyslexics presented a low-level (always <1 prism diopter) VH combined with torsion. This oculomotor feature clearly separates the dyslexic group from the normal readers group. It is independent of the type of dyslexia. The essential feature of this VH is a lability that appears during specific stimulation of sensory receptors involved in postural regulation. This lability is demonstrated using a vertical Maddox test conducted under very specific conditions in which postural sensors are successively stimulated in a predetermined order. A quantitative variation in this VH may be seen during the Bielchowsky Head Tilt Test, which reveals hypertonia of the lower or upper oblique muscles. Vertical orthophoria can be achieved by placing low-power prisms asymmetrically within the direction of action of the superior or inferior oblique muscles. The selection of power and axis is not only guided by elements of the eye examination but also from observation of postural muscle tone. All these elements suggest that the VH could be of postural origin and somehow related to the vertical action of the oblique muscles. VH and torsion are not harmful per se. There is no statistical relationship between their level and the various parameters used to assess the reading skills of dyslexic children. VH and torsion could be a clinical marker of global proprioceptive dysfunction responsible for high-level multisensory disturbances secondary to poor spatial localization of visual and auditory information. This dysfunction might also explain the motor disorders concomitant to dyslexia.

  19. Ozone vertical distribution in Mars polar atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komitov, B.

    On the basis of an ultraviolet spectrum obtained over the north polar region of Mars by Mariner-9, the vertical profile of the ozone density is calculated. A density maximum is found at about 25 km height over the surface of the planet. Its value is about 1×1010molecules cm-3. The obtained result is compared to the results obtained by other authors.

  20. Radially Magnetized Protoplanetary Disk: Vertical Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Matthew; Thompson, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    This paper studies the response of a thin accretion disk to an external radial magnetic field. Our focus is on protoplanetary disks (PPDs), which are exposed during their later evolution to an intense, magnetized wind from the central star. A radial magnetic field is mixed into a thin surface layer, wound up by the disk shear, and pushed downward by a combination of turbulent mixing and ambipolar and ohmic drift. The toroidal field reaches much greater strengths than the seed vertical field that is usually invoked in PPD models, even becoming superthermal. Linear stability analysis indicates that the disk experiences the magnetorotational instability (MRI) at a higher magnetization than a vertically magnetized disk when both the effects of ambipolar and Hall drift are taken into account. Steady vertical profiles of density and magnetic field are obtained at several radii between 0.06 and 1 AU in response to a wind magnetic field Br ˜ (10-4-10-2)(r/ AU)-2 G. Careful attention is given to the radial and vertical ionization structure resulting from irradiation by stellar X-rays. The disk is more strongly magnetized closer to the star, where it can support a higher rate of mass transfer. As a result, the inner ˜1 AU of a PPD is found to evolve toward lower surface density. Mass transfer rates around 10-8 M⊙ yr-1 are obtained under conservative assumptions about the MRI-generated stress. The evolution of the disk and the implications for planet migration are investigated in the accompanying paper.

  1. Vertical Vergence Calibration for Augmented Reality Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    and graph- ical depictions, the problem becomes more difficult. A vertical dis- parity in the graphics causes diplopia for users trying to fuse the...graphical and real environments, forcing one to fuse may cause diplopia (double vision) for the other. This will inhibit understanding the merged...focus. (We used a real crosshair that was nearly identical to our graphics, in order to minimize clutter.) If the user experiences diplopia in the graph

  2. Engineering high-performance vertical cavity lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Lear, K.L.; Hou, H.Q.; Hietala, V.M.; Choquette, K.D.; Schneider, R.P. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    The cw and high-speed performance of vertical cavity surface emitting laser diodes (VCSELs) are affected by both electrical and optical issues arising from the geometry and fabrication of these devices. Structures with low resistance semiconductor mirrors and Al-oxide confinement layers address these issues and have produced record performance including 50% power conversion efficiency and modulation bandwidths up to 20 GHz at small bias currents.

  3. Nonlinear convection in unbounded vertical channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahmurov, Rishad; Hadji, Layachi

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the linear and weakly nonlinear solutions to a convection problem that was first studied by Ostroumov in 1947. The problem pertains to the stability of the equations governing convective motion in an infinite vertical fluid layer that is heated from below. Ostroumov's linear stability analysis yields instability threshold conditions that are characterized by zero wavenumber for the Fourier mode in the vertical direction and by eigenfunctions that are independent of the vertical coordinate. Thus, any undertaking at determining the supercritical nonlinear solutions and their stability through a small amplitude expansion fails. This failure is attributed to the fact that the nonlinear interaction of the linear modes vanish identically. In this paper, we put forth exact and stable similarity type solutions to the Ostroumov problem. These solutions are characterized by the same linear threshold conditions as Ostroumov's solutions. Moreover, we are able to extend the analysis to the supercritical regime through a small amplitude analysis to obtain steady two-dimensional solutions for a small range of Prandtl numbers. These solutions are found to be stable to general two-dimensional, time-dependent disturbances.

  4. Sunrise enhancement of equatorial vertical plasma drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Libo; Zhang, Ruilong; Le, Huijun

    2016-04-01

    Sunrise enhancement in vertical plasma drift over equatorial regions is not discernible in the statistical picture compared with the significant enhancement during dusk hours. In this report, it is the first time to investigate the occurrence of the dawn enhancement in the equatorial ionospheric vertical plasma drift from ROCSAT-1 observations during geomagnetic quiet times. The dawn enhancements occur most frequently in June solstice and least frequently in December solstice. The statistical survey shows that the occurrence depends on the magnetic declination. The enhancement has the strongest amplitude in regions near 320° longitude and peaks during June solstice. The dawn enhancement reaches its peak after the sunrise in conjugated E regions. Furthermore, it is found that the dawn enhancement is closely related to the difference between the sunrise times in the conjugated E regions (sunrise time lag). The dawn enhancement occurs easily in regions with a large sunrise time lag. Moreover, we will report the effects of the sunrise enhancement of vertical plasma drift on the equatorial ionosphere as indicated from the observations and model simulations. We thanks National Central University of Taiwan providing the ROCSAT-1 data. The Ap and F107 indices are obtained from the National Geophysical Data Center (http://spidr.ngdc.noaa.gov/spidr/). This research is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (41231065), the Chinese Academy of Sciences project (KZZD-EW-01-3), National Key Basic Research Program of China (2012CB825604) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (41321003).

  5. Rotation of vertically oriented objects during earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinzen, Klaus-G.

    2012-10-01

    Vertically oriented objects, such as tombstones, monuments, columns, and stone lanterns, are often observed to shift and rotate during earthquake ground motion. Such observations are usually limited to the mesoseismal zone. Whether near-field rotational ground motion components are necessary in addition to pure translational movements to explain the observed rotations is an open question. We summarize rotation data from seven earthquakes between 1925 and 2009 and perform analog and numeric rotation testing with vertically oriented objects. The free-rocking motion of a marble block on a sliding table is disturbed by a pulse in the direction orthogonal to the rocking motion. When the impulse is sufficiently strong and occurs at the `right' moment, it induces significant rotation of the block. Numeric experiments of a free-rocking block show that the initiation of vertical block rotation by a cycloidal acceleration pulse applied orthogonal to the rocking axis depends on the amplitude of the pulse and its phase relation to the rocking cycle. Rotation occurs when the pulse acceleration exceeds the threshold necessary to provoke rocking of a resting block, and the rocking block approaches its equilibrium position. Experiments with blocks subjected to full 3D strong motion signals measured during the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake confirm the observations from the tests with analytic ground motions. Significant differences in the rotational behavior of a monolithic block and two stacked blocks exist.

  6. Human sensitivity to vertical self-motion.

    PubMed

    Nesti, Alessandro; Barnett-Cowan, Michael; Macneilage, Paul R; Bülthoff, Heinrich H

    2014-01-01

    Perceiving vertical self-motion is crucial for maintaining balance as well as for controlling an aircraft. Whereas heave absolute thresholds have been exhaustively studied, little work has been done in investigating how vertical sensitivity depends on motion intensity (i.e., differential thresholds). Here we measure human sensitivity for 1-Hz sinusoidal accelerations for 10 participants in darkness. Absolute and differential thresholds are measured for upward and downward translations independently at 5 different peak amplitudes ranging from 0 to 2 m/s(2). Overall vertical differential thresholds are higher than horizontal differential thresholds found in the literature. Psychometric functions are fit in linear and logarithmic space, with goodness of fit being similar in both cases. Differential thresholds are higher for upward as compared to downward motion and increase with stimulus intensity following a trend best described by two power laws. The power laws' exponents of 0.60 and 0.42 for upward and downward motion, respectively, deviate from Weber's Law in that thresholds increase less than expected at high stimulus intensity. We speculate that increased sensitivity at high accelerations and greater sensitivity to downward than upward self-motion may reflect adaptations to avoid falling.

  7. Vertical tectonics at an active continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houlié, N.; Stern, T. A.

    2017-01-01

    Direct observations of vertical movements of the earth's surface are now possible with space-based GPS networks, and have applications to resources, hazards and tectonics. Here we present data on vertical movements of the Earth's surface in New Zealand, computed from the processing of GPS data collected between 2000 and 2015 by 189 permanent GPS stations. We map the geographical variation in vertical rates and show how these variations are explicable within a tectonic framework of subduction, volcanic activity and slow slip earthquakes. Subsidence of >3 mm/yr is observed along southeastern North Island and is interpreted to be due to the locked segment of the Hikurangi subduction zone. Uplift of 1-3 mm/yr further north along the margin of the eastern North Island is interpreted as being due to the plate interface being unlocked and underplating of sediment on the subduction thrust. The Volcanic Plateau of the central North Island is being uplifted at about 1 mm/yr, which can be explained by basaltic melts being injected in the active mantle-wedge at a rate of ∼6 mm/yr. Within the Central Volcanic Region there is a 250 km2 area that subsided between 2005 and 2012 at a rate of up to 14 mm/yr. Time series from the stations located within and near the zone of subsidence show a strong link between subsidence, adjacent uplift and local earthquake swarms.

  8. Vertical variations of coral reef drag forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asher, Shai; Niewerth, Stephan; Koll, Katinka; Shavit, Uri

    2016-05-01

    Modeling flow in a coral reef requires a closure model that links the local drag force to the local mean velocity. However, the spatial flow variations make it difficult to predict the distribution of the local drag. Here we report on vertical profiles of measured drag and velocity in a laboratory reef that was made of 81 Pocillopora Meandrina colony skeletons, densely arranged along a tilted flume. Two corals were CT-scanned, sliced horizontally, and printed using a 3-D printer. Drag was measured as a function of height above the bottom by connecting the slices to drag sensors. Profiles of velocity were measured in-between the coral branches and above the reef. Measured drag of whole colonies shows an excellent agreement with previous field and laboratory studies; however, these studies never showed how drag varies vertically. The vertical distribution of drag is reported as a function of flow rate and water level. When the water level is the same as the reef height, Reynolds stresses are negligible and the drag force per unit fluid mass is nearly constant. However, when the water depth is larger, Reynolds stress gradients become significant and drag increases with height. An excellent agreement was found between the drag calculated by a momentum budget and the measured drag of the individual printed slices. Finally, we propose a modified formulation of the drag coefficient that includes the normal dispersive stress term and results in reduced variations of the drag coefficient at the cost of introducing an additional coefficient.

  9. Vertical vorticity at a free surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Paul W.

    2016-11-01

    The concept of surface vorticity is developed as a necessary consequence of the discontinuity of flow at the fluid surface. The construct provides the proper boundary conditions for a vortex-dynamical description of surface waves. It is shown that the perturbed free surface in general possesses vertical vorticity, even when the underlying flow is irrotational and the fluid is ideal. This resolves a paradox pointed out by Umeki, who discovered irrotational surface waves with surface rotation in the horizontal plane. A dynamical equation for vertical vorticity at the free surface is derived and interpreted physically. The traditional idea that vortex lines terminate at fluid boundaries is shown to be unphysical and is amended to include surface vorticity. The extension of vertical surface vorticity into the bulk is connected with particular topological structures, such as plughole vortices, breaking waves, and Klein's Kaffeelöffel. This analysis generalizes boundary-layer vorticity theory to the free surface in the ideal limit. The analogy between surface vorticity on an ideal liquid and sheet currents at the surface of a superconductor is described. Work done as a Visiting Fellow at the Australian National University.

  10. Diffusion weighted vertical gradient and spin echo.

    PubMed

    Engström, Mathias; Bammer, Roland; Skare, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    In this work, diffusion weighting and parallel imaging is combined with a vertical gradient and spin echo data readout. This sequence was implemented and evaluated on healthy volunteers using a 1.5 and a 3 T whole-body MR system. As the vertical gradient and spin echo trajectory enables a higher k-space velocity in the phase-encoding direction than single-shot echo planar imaging, the geometrical distortions are reduced. When combined with parallel imaging such as generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition, the geometric distortions are reduced even further, while also keeping the minimum echo time reasonably low. However, this combination of a diffusion preparation and multiple refocusing pulses during the vertical gradient and spin echo readout, generally violates the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill condition, which leads to interferences between echo pathways. To suppress the stimulated echo pathway, refocusing pulses with a sharper slice profiles and an odd/even crusher variation scheme were implemented and evaluated. Being a single-shot acquisition technique, the reconstructed images are robust to rigid-body head motion and spatially varying brain motion, both of which are common sources of artifacts in diffusion MRI.

  11. Vertical and horizontal seismometric observations of tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambotte, S.; Rivera, L.; Hinderer, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tidal signals have been largely studied with gravimeters, strainmeters and tiltmeters, but can also be retrieved from digital records of the output of long-period seismometers, such as STS-1, particularly if they are properly isolated. Horizontal components are often noisier than the vertical ones, due to sensitivity to tilt at long periods. Hence, horizontal components are often disturbed by local effects such as topography, geology and cavity effects, which imply a strain-tilt coupling. We use series of data (duration larger than 1 month) from several permanent broadband seismological stations to examine these disturbances. We search a minimal set of observable signals (tilts, horizontal and vertical displacements, strains, gravity) necessary to reconstruct the seismological record. Such analysis gives a set of coefficients (per component for each studied station), which are stable over years and then can be used systematically to correct data from these disturbances without needing heavy numerical computation. A special attention is devoted to ocean loading for stations close to oceans (e.g. Matsushiro station in Japon (MAJO)), and to pressure correction when barometric data are available. Interesting observations are made for vertical seismometric components; in particular, we found a pressure admittance between pressure and data 10 times larger than for gravimeters for periods larger than 1 day, while this admittance reaches the usual value of -3.5 nm/s 2/mbar for periods below 3 h. This observation may be due to instrumental noise, but the exact mechanism is not yet understood.

  12. Vertically integrated flow in stratified aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strack, Otto D. L.

    2017-05-01

    We present a set of continuous discharge potentials that can be used to determine the vertically integrated flow in stratified aquifers. The method applies to cases where the boundaries are vertical and either the hydraulic head is given, or the boundary is a seepage face, or the integrated discharge is given. The approach is valid for cases of given recharge through the upper and/or lower boundaries of the aquifer. The method is valid for any values of hydraulic conductivity; there are no limitations of the contrast for the method to be valid. The flows in the strata may be either confined or unconfined, and locally perched conditions may exist, but the effect of capillarity is not included. The hydraulic head is determined by applying the Dupuit-Forchheimer approximation. The main advantage of the approach is that very complex conditions in stratified aquifer systems, including locally perched conditions and extremely complex flow systems can be treated in a relatively straight forward approach by considering only the vertically integrated flow rates. The approach is particularly useful for assessing groundwater sustainability, as a model to be constructed prior to developing a fully three-dimensional numerical model.

  13. A Vertically Integrated Junctionless Nanowire Transistor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Hyun; Hur, Jae; Kang, Min-Ho; Bang, Tewook; Ahn, Dae-Chul; Lee, Dongil; Kim, Kwang-Hee; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-03-09

    A vertically integrated junctionless field-effect transistor (VJ-FET), which is composed of vertically stacked multiple silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with a gate-all-around (GAA) structure, is demonstrated on a bulk silicon wafer for the first time. The proposed VJ-FET mitigates the issues of variability and fabrication complexity that are encountered in the vertically integrated multi-NW FET (VM-FET) based on an identical structure in which the VM-FET, as recently reported, harnesses a source and drain (S/D) junction for its operation and is thus based on the inversion mode. Variability is alleviated by bulk conduction in a junctionless FET (JL-FET), where current flows through the core of the SiNW, whereas it is not mitigated by surface conduction in an inversion mode FET (IM-FET), where current flows via the surface of the SiNW. The fabrication complexity is reduced by the inherent JL structure of the JL-FET because S/D formation is not required. In contrast, it is very difficult to dope the S/D when it is positioned at each floor of a tall SiNW with greater uniformity and with less damage to the crystalline structure of the SiNW in a VM-FET. Moreover, when the proposed VJ-FET is used as nonvolatile flash memory, the endurance and retention characteristics are improved due to the above-mentioned bulk conduction.

  14. Lunar and Vertical Distribution of Myctophidae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsarin, S.

    The Myctophidae are the most numerous of the mesopelagic fishes in all oceans. Daily vertical migrations which connected with nutrition and energy exchange, are charac- teristic feature of the myctophids behavior. Myctophidae in main during the nighttime basic feed. There are two ecological groups of Myctophidae on the type of vertical migrations. (Some scientists select the third intermediate group). Superficial (nyc- toepipelagic) myctophids are species, which during the nighttime arrive at surface of water. Layer myctophids are fishes, which are located in the main pycnocline (thermo- and halocline) and enter into composition of fauna of sound scattering layers (SSL) during the nighttime. However lunar light is hardly influenced on the upper bound of myctophids localization during the night. Agrees Barham (1970) all Myctophidae are divided on two morphoecological types: active and inactive. These types differ on morphology, on a response on light, under the contents of lipids into organism. To the first type concern all superficial Myctophidae and majority of myctophids of the night zone of pycnocline, including the most numerous genus - Diaphus. To an inactive type concern myctophids of the second genus on number of species from the family - Lam- panyctus. Superficial Myctophidae do not achieve the surfaces of water for want of vertical migrations for want of maximum and intensive lunar light. They are located in SSL. Inactive layer myctophids are in this case located deeper than main SSL. Lunar light practically does not influence on remaining active layer Myctophidae.

  15. Longitudinal variability of black carbon vertical profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, J. P.; Weinzierl, B.; Samset, B. H.; Perring, A. E.; Dollner, M.; Heimerl, K.; Markovic, M. Z.; Ziemba, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosol contributes substantially to both climate forcing and climate forcing uncertainty. An important source of this uncertainty derives from the difficulty in predicting BC's global abundance and vertical distribution. Here we present a multi-year record of black carbon (BC) vertical concentration profiles from both sides of the Atlantic, obtained from airborne Single Particle Soot Photometers (SP2s) flown on the NASA DC-8, and the DLR Falcon research aircraft from the CONCERT, ACCESS, DC3, SEAC4RS, and SALTRACE campaigns. The measurements constrain the relative rates of BC transport/removal from, and zonal mixing in, the upper troposphere, as well as the range of BC loadings in these regions. They also constrain the time-rates of change of BC loads in altitudes at which it is a highly efficient (although sparse) climate forcer, and a relatively long-lived aerosol tracer. We find that concentration of BC in the upper troposphere can vary by a factor 10. Over the Northern mid-latitudes concentrations are however consistent to a fraction of this range over wide longitudinal ranges, over month-long timescales. The data show that BC becomes zonally mixed here starting at 500 hPa and extending to near the tropopause. These results imply broader value than previously associated with measured vertical profiles in constraining global scale BC loadings aloft.

  16. Vertical Movements On The Norwegian Atlantic Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendriks, B. W. H.; Andriessen, P. A. M.

    In order to better constrain the pattern and timing of the post-Caledonian vertical movements in northern Scandinavia, the apatite fission track dataset of Hendriks and Andriessen (2002, in press) has recently been expanded with additional AFT data and a whole new set of (U-Th)/He data. Hendriks and Andriessen (2002) found an increase of AFT ages from the Norwegian Atlantic margin (mostly Cretaceous AFT ages) to the continental interior (Devonian AFT ages). Further north, along the Barents Sea margin, AFT ages were much less variable (Triassic - Carboniferous). Because of the unique low -temperature sensitivity of the (U-Th)/He technique, with ages referrering to temperatures of ~50 to ~70°C, we can now track thermal histories in northern Scandinavia into the Paleocene. The reconstuct ed denudation history in many ways is different from that of Southern Norway (Rohrman, 1995). There, rapid Triassic - Jurassic and slow Cretaceous - Paleogene exhumation were followed by domal style postrift uplift on a regional scale in the Neogene. In contrast, Mesozoic - Cenozoic exhumation of northern Scandinavia was strongly assymetric, with the most and latest denudation on the Norwegian Atlantic margin. Also, large Neogene vertical movements here are restricted to the area of the strong negative gravity anomaly in Nordland. Away from this area, the latest phase of exhumation is a late Cretaceous- Paleogene event. This is especially clear from the (U -Th)/He ages, varying between 111 +/- 16 Ma (for the same sample the AFT age is 220 +/- 25 Ma, mean track length 12.9 µm) and 57 +/- 2 Ma (AFT age 254 +/- 21 Ma, mean track length 13.9 µm) on a vertical profile in the area of maximum elevation in the Northern Scandes (~ Northern Caledonides). Jurassic - early Cretaceous denudation (applying a geotherm of ~ 30°C/km, which has been calculated directly from the vertical profile) is about 1 +/- 0.5 km. Along the Norwegian Atlantic margin (onshore), there is considerable variation in

  17. 24. PIN CONNECTION AT VERTICAL AND BOTTOM CHORD ON CAMELBACK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. PIN CONNECTION AT VERTICAL AND BOTTOM CHORD ON CAMELBACK THROUGH TRUSS. VERTICAL AND BOTTOM CHORD MADE OF HAND-FORGED EYE BARS - New River Bridge, Spanning New River at State Route 623, Pembroke, Giles County, VA

  18. A Vertical Grid Module for Baroclinic Models of the Atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, John B

    2008-04-01

    The vertical grid of an atmospheric model assigns dynamic and thermo- dynamic variables to grid locations. The vertical coordinate is typically not height but one of a class of meteorological variables that vary with atmo- spheric conditions. The grid system is chosen to further numerical approx- imations of the boundary conditions so that the system is terrain following at the surface. Lagrangian vertical coordinates are useful in reducing the numerical errors from advection processes. That the choices will effect the numercial properties and accuracy is explored in this report. A MATLAB class for Lorentz vertical grids is described and applied to the vertical struc- ture equation and baroclinic atmospheric circulation. A generalized meteo- rolgoical coordinate system is developed which can support σ, isentropic θ vertical coordinate, or Lagrangian vertical coordinates. The vertical atmo- spheric column is a MATLAB class that includes the kinematic and ther- modynamic variables along with methods for computing geopoentials and terms relevant to a 3D baroclinc atmospheric model.

  19. Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Joint, Vertical Cross Bracing End Detail - Ceylon Covered Bridge, Limberlost Park, spanning Wabash River at County Road 900 South, Geneva, Adams County, IN

  20. 19. VERTICAL VIEW, FROM DECK, SHOWING CONNECTION OF CENTER TRUSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VERTICAL VIEW, FROM DECK, SHOWING CONNECTION OF CENTER TRUSS TENSION BARS, DIAGONAL TENSION RODS, AND LATTICE-JOINED VERTICAL CHANNELS - Lenox Bridge, Spanning Obion River, Rural Road S8025, Lenox, Dyer County, TN

  1. 22. Top Lateral Bracing & Top Chord, Vertical Tension Member ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Top Lateral Bracing & Top Chord, Vertical Tension Member 6, end Vertical Compression Members 5 & 4; South Swing Span; looking N. - Pacific Shortline Bridge, U.S. Route 20,spanning Missouri River, Sioux City, Woodbury County, IA

  2. ostglacial rebound from VLBI Geodesy: On Establishing Vertical Reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argus, Donald .

    1996-01-01

    I propose that a useful reference frame for vertical motions is that found by minimizing differences between vertical motions observed with VLBI [Ma and Ryan, 1995] and predictions from postglacial rebound predictions [Peltier, 1995].

  3. ostglacial rebound from VLBI Geodesy: On Establishing Vertical Reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argus, Donald .

    1996-01-01

    I propose that a useful reference frame for vertical motions is that found by minimizing differences between vertical motions observed with VLBI [Ma and Ryan, 1995] and predictions from postglacial rebound predictions [Peltier, 1995].

  4. A multi-layer vertically integrated model with vertical dynamics and heterogeneity for CO2 sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, B.; Bandilla, K.; Keilegavlen, E.; Doster, F.; Celia, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Mathematical models with different level of complexity are needed to address a range of engineering questions on security issues of CO2 sequestration, which has been proposed as a promising strategy for carbon mitigation. Among this wide range of mathematical models, a family of vertically integrated models has been developed. These models are usually based on a vertical equilibrium (VE) assumption, which states that due to strong buoyancy, CO2 and brine segregate instantaneously and reach a hydrostatic pressure distribution in the vertical dimension. Such VE models are accurate and computationally efficient as long as the VE assumption is valid. By comparing VE models with a full three-dimensional model for a series of practical problems, Court et al. (2012) found that there are a number of cases for which the VE model is not applicable, especially when the geological formations have relatively low vertical permeability, on the order of 10 milliDarcy or lower. To overcome the VE limitation, Guo et al. (2014) have developed a vertically integrated model for homogeneous formations that relaxes the VE assumption and accounts for vertical dynamics of CO2 and brine. Though, limited to homogeneous formations, this model has a much wider applicability compared to VE models while maintains much of the VE model's computational efficiency. In this contribution, we extend the vertically integrated model of Guo et al. (2014) to deal with the horizontally layered systems to include vertical heterogeneities. Each layer of the system can have different material properties but is assumed to be homogeneous within the layer. Such horizontally layered systems are of high practical relevance because of the depositional history of the geological formations. We develop coupling conditions between the layers and use a similar algorithm of Guo et al. (2014) to solve the individual layers. The end result is a model capable of dealing with vertical geological heterogeneities while still

  5. Adsorption to fish sperm of vertically transmitted fish viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, D.; Pascho, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    More than 99 percent of a vertically transmitted fish rhabdovirus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus, was removed from suspension in less than 1 minute by adsorption to the surface membrane of sperm from two genera of salmonid fishes. The vertically transmitted, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus adsorbed to a lesser degree, but no adsorption occurred with a second fish rhabdovirus that is not vertically transmitted. Such adsorption may be involved in vertical transmission of these viruses.

  6. Vertical Structure and Vertical Evolution of Halogen Activation Events Observed by Autonomous Buoys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, W. R.; Peterson, P.; Burd, J.

    2015-12-01

    Heterogeneous reactions on saline surfaces release reactive halogen species in the Arctic during late winter / spring (Feb--May). These reactive halogens drastically alter the photooxidative environment, removing ozone and oxidizing mercury and hydrocarbons. Both the snowpack and suspended particles / blowing snow possess surfaces that can sustain this chemistry, leading to variations in reactive halogen vertical profiles and temporal evolution of those profiles. This chemistry also occurs in a typically stable (inverted) atmospheric structure that hinders vertical mixing, limiting the vertical extent of snowpack influence. In this presentation, Multiple-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAXDOAS) of bromine monoxide (BrO) along with optimal estimation inversions are used to measure the vertical structure of BrO. The effective mixing height of the BrO layer varies with atmospheric stability, and an event is shown where a shallow but highly concentrated layer of surface BrO encounters sea-ice-lead-induced convection that vertically mixes the BrO higher, initially diluting the surface concentration. Over time, the surface concentration recovers and the now thicker layer grows to a higher column density of BrO. Understanding of the relationship between BrO event intensity and meteorological situations can help to understand BrO chemistry and remote sensing and assist in prediction of how reactive halogens may respond to a changing Arctic climate.

  7. Diel Vertical Migration Thresholds of Karenia brevis (Dinophyceae).

    EPA Science Inventory

    Light and nutrient availability change throughout dinoflagellate diel vertical migration (DVM) and/or with subpopulation location in the water column along the west Florida shelf. Typically, the vertical depth of the shelf is greater than the distance a subpopulation can vertical...

  8. 49 CFR 179.14 - Coupler vertical restraint system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... section shall be achieved by verification testing of the coupler vertical restraint system in accordance... be equipped with couplers having this vertical restraint capability. (b) Test verification. Except as... section; (2) The testing apparatus shall simulate the vertical coupler performance at the mating...

  9. 49 CFR 179.14 - Coupler vertical restraint system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... section shall be achieved by verification testing of the coupler vertical restraint system in accordance... be equipped with couplers having this vertical restraint capability. (b) Test verification. Except as... section; (2) The testing apparatus shall simulate the vertical coupler performance at the mating...

  10. Vertically oval corneas in a child with holoprosencephaly.

    PubMed

    Lee, Esther S; Wasserman, Barry N; Saslow, Judy G; Schnur, Rhonda E; Levin, Alex V

    2012-07-17

    Vertically oval-shaped corneas are an uncommon ophthalmic finding. The normal human cornea has an oval shape, but is wider in the horizontal dimension. The etiology of vertically oval corneas is unclear. This report presents a case of bilateral vertical oval corneas in a male infant with semilobar holoprosencephaly.

  11. Are all types of vertical information created equal?

    PubMed

    Weisberg, Steven M; Newcombe, Nora S

    2013-10-01

    The vertical component of space occurs in two distinct fashions in natural environments. One kind of verticality is orthogonal-to-horizontal (as in climbing trees, operating in volumetric spaces such as water or air, or taking elevators in multilevel buildings). Another kind of verticality, which might be functionally distinct, comes from navigating on sloped terrain (as in traversing hills or ramps).

  12. Effect of vertical integration on the utilization of hardwood resources

    Treesearch

    Jan Wiedenbeck

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of vertical integration in promoting the efficient utilization of the hardwood resource in the eastern United States was assessed during a series of interviews with vertically integrated hardwood manufacturers in the Appalachian region. Data from 19 companies that responded to the 1996 phone survey indicate that: 1) vertically integrated hardwood...

  13. Diel Vertical Migration Thresholds of Karenia brevis (Dinophyceae).

    EPA Science Inventory

    Light and nutrient availability change throughout dinoflagellate diel vertical migration (DVM) and/or with subpopulation location in the water column along the west Florida shelf. Typically, the vertical depth of the shelf is greater than the distance a subpopulation can vertical...

  14. Mechanical design of NASA Ames Research Center vertical motion simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelbert, D. F.; Bakke, A. P.; Chargin, M. K.; Vallotton, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    NASA has designed and is constructing a new flight simulator with large vertical travel. Several aspects of the mechanical design of this Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) are discussed, including the multiple rack and pinion vertical drive, a pneumatic equilibration system, and the friction-damped rigid link catenaries used as cable supports.

  15. The Impact of Vertical Scaling Decisions on Growth Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Derek C.; Weeks, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    Most growth models implicitly assume that test scores have been vertically scaled. What may not be widely appreciated are the different choices that must be made when creating a vertical score scale. In this paper empirical patterns of growth in student achievement are compared as a function of different approaches to creating a vertical scale.…

  16. Correction of neglected vertical talus deformity in an adult.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-02-18

    Congenital vertical talus is an uncommon foot deformity that is characterised by a fixed dorsal dislocation of the navicular on the talar head and neck. Left untreated, a congenital vertical talus causes significant long-term disability. We present a case of neglected vertical talus in a middle-aged woman who was successfully treated with resection of the talar head and tendon transfers.

  17. Vertical deformation at western part of Sumatra

    SciTech Connect

    Febriyani, Caroline Prijatna, Kosasih Meilano, Irwan

    2015-04-24

    This research tries to make advancement in GPS signal processing to estimate the interseismic vertical deformation field at western part of Sumatra Island. The data derived by Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) from Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG) between 2010 and 2012. GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) software are used to process the GPS signal to estimate the vertical velocities of the CGPS station. In order to minimize noise due to atmospheric delay, Vienna Mapping Function 1 (VMF1) is used as atmospheric parameter model and include daily IONEX file provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) as well. It improves GAMIT daily position accuracy up to 0.8 mm. In a second step of processing, the GLOBK is used in order to estimate site positions and velocities in the ITRF08 reference frame. The result shows that the uncertainties of estimated displacement velocity at all CGPS stations are smaller than 1.5 mm/yr. The subsided deformation patterns are seen at the northern and southern part of west Sumatra. The vertical deformation at northern part of west Sumatra indicates postseismic phase associated with the 2010 and 2012 Northern Sumatra earthquakes and also the long-term postseismic associated with the 2004 and 2005 Northern Sumatra earthquakes. The uplifted deformation patterns are seen from Bukit Tinggi to Seblat which indicate a long-term interseismic phase after the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake and 2010 Mentawai earthquake. GANO station shows a subsidence at rate 12.25 mm/yr, indicating the overriding Indo-Australia Plate which is dragged down by the subducting Southeast Asian Plate.

  18. The Temporal Structure of Vertical Arm Movements

    PubMed Central

    Gaveau, Jérémie; Papaxanthis, Charalambos

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates how the CNS deals with the omnipresent force of gravity during arm motor planning. Previous studies have reported direction-dependent kinematic differences in the vertical plane; notably, acceleration duration was greater during a downward than an upward arm movement. Although the analysis of acceleration and deceleration phases has permitted to explore the integration of gravity force, further investigation is necessary to conclude whether feedforward or feedback control processes are at the origin of this incorporation. We considered that a more detailed analysis of the temporal features of vertical arm movements could provide additional information about gravity force integration into the motor planning. Eight subjects performed single joint vertical arm movements (45° rotation around the shoulder joint) in two opposite directions (upwards and downwards) and at three different speeds (slow, natural and fast). We calculated different parameters of hand acceleration profiles: movement duration (MD), duration to peak acceleration (D PA), duration from peak acceleration to peak velocity (D PA-PV), duration from peak velocity to peak deceleration (D PV-PD), duration from peak deceleration to the movement end (D PD-End), acceleration duration (AD), deceleration duration (DD), peak acceleration (PA), peak velocity (PV), and peak deceleration (PD). While movement durations and amplitudes were similar for upward and downward movements, the temporal structure of acceleration profiles differed between the two directions. More specifically, subjects performed upward movements faster than downward movements; these direction-dependent asymmetries appeared early in the movement (i.e., before PA) and lasted until the moment of PD. Additionally, PA and PV were greater for upward than downward movements. Movement speed also changed the temporal structure of acceleration profiles. The effect of speed and direction on the form of acceleration

  19. Compact polarization sensors with vertically integrated photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onat, Bora M.; Ulu, Goekhan; Unlu, M. Selim

    1997-12-01

    We describe a new method of sensing the linear polarization of light in a single mesa device structure by vertically integrating two photodetectors. The monolithic architecture eliminates the need for several discrete components, such as polarization filters and beam splitters, thus reducing critical alignment requirements and cost for various optical systems. Applications include the simplification of reading heads in magneto-optical (MO) data storage devices and constructing imaging arrays for polarization vision. In imaging, polarization sensing can extract additional information from a scene otherwise not noticeable to the human eye, facilitating remote sensing, material classification, and biological imaging. The operation principle of our vertical cavity polarization detector (VCPD) is based on a resonant cavity enhanced (RCE) photodetector, being vertically integrated with a conventional photodetector. The RCE detector is constructed by integrating a thin absorption region into an asymmetric Fabry-Perot cavity. The top reflector is formed by the semiconductor air interface, while the bottom mirror is a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR). For off-normal incidence of light, the reflectivity of the semiconductor-air interface and DBR are significantly different for TE (s) and TM (p) polarizations. Thus the RCE detector provides resonance enhancement for TE, capturing the TE polarized light in the top detector. For TM polarized light, both reflectivities are small, therefore, light is transmitted to and absorbed in the bottom detector. A large contrast in TE/TM response of the top and bottom detectors is achieved and the linear polarization can be computed from their relative responses. Experimental results displaying good agreement with simulation results have been recently achieved and are presented.

  20. Enhancement of Condensation on a Vertical Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Rencai; Hatanaka, Tsutomu; Nishio, Shigefumi

    In previous study, the characteristic of the condensation heat transfer on the dispersed vertical surface were investigated experimentally for the application of the finned surface to the thermoelectric generator utilizing boiling and condensation as the electrodes of the thermoelectric module. A prediction model for this diapered finned surface was proposed, based on Adamek-Webb model of the condensation on a finned tube. In this study, a condensation heat transfer experiment on a vertical dispersed finned surfaces using FC5312 was carried out, in order to enhance the condensation heat transfer coefficient by optimizing the fin size on a dispersed heat transfer surface. The object of the experiment was limited to the rectangular fin with the height of 3 mm. Experimental parameters were the temperature difference, the fin groove width, the fin thickness and the dispersing size on the vertical direction. As the results, it was found from the experiment that the dependence of the condensation heat transfer coefficient on the dispersed size is controlled by the fin groove width. That is, the condensation heat transfer coefficient will increase for a smaller fin groove width and will decrease for a larger fin groove width, with decreasing of the dispersing size. Moreover, there is an optimum fin thickness at which the condensation heat transfer coefficient becomes the maximum in the case of constant fin groove width for both size of the fin groove width. This effect of the fin thickness is more significant for the smaller fin groove width. Further, the prediction values exhibit a good agreement with the experimental data in the present experiment.

  1. Vertical Flume Testing of WIPP Surrogate Waste Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrick, C. G.; Schuhen, M.; Kicker, D.

    2012-12-01

    considering inventory, changes in the underground environment, and theoretical and experimental results. The recipes represent the degraded waste in its weakest condition; simulating 50, 75, and 100% degradation by weight. The percent degradation indicates the anticipated amount of iron corrosion and decomposition of cellulosics, plastics, and rubbers. Samples were die compacted to two pressures, 2.3 and 5.0 MPa. Testing has established that the less degraded the surrogate material is and the higher the compaction stress it undergoes, the stronger the sample is. The 50% degraded surrogate waste material was accepted for use in obtaining input parameters for another WIPP PA model by a conceptual model peer review panel and the EPA. The use of a 50% degraded surrogate waste in vertical flume testing would provide an improved estimate of the waste shear strength and establish consistency between PA models in the approach used to obtain input parameters. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. This research is funded by WIPP programs administered by the Office of Environmental Management (EM) of the U.S Department of Energy.

  2. Vertical Flume Testing of WIPP Surrogate Waste Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrick, C. G.; Schuhen, M.; Kicker, D.

    2013-12-01

    considering inventory, changes in the underground environment, and theoretical and experimental results. The recipes represent the degraded waste in its weakest condition; simulating 50, 75, and 100% degradation by weight. The percent degradation indicates the anticipated amount of iron corrosion and decomposition of cellulosics, plastics, and rubbers. Samples were die compacted to two pressures, 2.3 and 5.0 MPa. Testing has established that the less degraded the surrogate material is and the higher the compaction stress it undergoes, the stronger the sample is. The 50% degraded surrogate waste material was accepted for use in obtaining input parameters for another WIPP PA model by a conceptual model peer review panel and the EPA. The use of a 50% degraded surrogate waste in vertical flume testing would provide an improved estimate of the waste shear strength and establish consistency between PA models in the approach used to obtain input parameters. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. This research is funded by WIPP programs administered by the Office of Environmental Management (EM) of the U.S Department of Energy.

  3. Propulsion systems for vertical flight aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, A.

    1990-01-01

    The present evaluation of VTOL airframe/powerplant integration configurations combining high forward flight speed with safe and efficient vertical flight identifies six configurations that can be matched with one of three powerplant types: turboshafts, convertible-driveshaft lift fans, and gas-drive lift fans. The airframes configurations are (1) tilt-rotor, (2) folded tilt-rotor, (3) tilt-wing, (4) rotor wing/disk wing, (5) lift fan, and (6) variable-diameter rotor. Attention is given to the lift-fan VTOL configuration. The evaluation of these configurations has been conducted by both a joint NASA/DARPA program and the NASA High Speed Rotorcraft program. 7 refs.

  4. Silicon vertical microstructure fabrication by catalytic etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Mao-Jung; Yang, Chii-Rong; Chang, Chun-Ming; Chu, Nien-Nan; Shiao, Ming-Hua

    2012-08-01

    This study presents an effective, simple and inexpensive process for forming micro-scale vertical structures on a (1 0 0) silicon wafer. Several modified etchants and micro-patterns including rectangular, snake-like, circular and comb patterns were employed to determine the optimum etching process. We found that an etchant solution consisting of 4.6 M hydrofluoric acid, 0.44 M hydrogen peroxide and isopropyl alcohol produces microstructures at an etching rate of 0.47 µm min-1 and surface roughness of 17.4 nm. All the patterns were transferred faithfully to the silicon substrate.

  5. Vertical-Screw-Auger Conveyer Feeder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, Otis (Inventor); Vollmer, Hubert J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A conical feeder is attached to a vertically conveying screw auger. The feeder is equipped with scoops and rotated from the surface to force-feed regolith the auger. Additional scoops are possible by adding a cylindrical section above the conical funnel section. Such then allows the unit to collect material from swaths larger in diameter than the enclosing casing pipe of the screw auger. A third element includes a flexible screw auger. All three can be used in combination in microgravity and zero atmosphere environments to drill and recover a wide area of subsurface regolith and entrained volatiles through a single access point on the surface.

  6. Vertical Isolation for Photodiodes in CMOS Imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata

    2008-01-01

    In a proposed improvement in complementary metal oxide/semi conduct - or (CMOS) image detectors, two additional implants in each pixel would effect vertical isolation between the metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) and the photodiode of the pixel. This improvement is expected to enable separate optimization of the designs of the photodiode and the MOSFETs so as to optimize their performances independently of each other. The purpose to be served by enabling this separate optimization is to eliminate or vastly reduce diffusion cross-talk, thereby increasing sensitivity, effective spatial resolution, and color fidelity while reducing noise.

  7. Vertical distribution of acetonitrile in the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingels, J.; Nevejans, D.; Arijs, E.

    1985-01-01

    The presence of acetonitrile in the atmosphere was confirmed by results of surface and stratospheric investigations. Stratospheric measurements give mixing ratios typically decreasing with height from 3 ppt at 25 km to 0.5 ppt at 40 km. Measurements at the Earth's surface are less unanimous, although a ground level background mixing ratio of a few times 10 ppt seems realistic. Measurements are compatible with a small global surface source of acetonitrile and a small tropospheric loss. The vertical distribution of acetonitrile presented in consistent with general knowledge of its atmospheric chemistry.

  8. Long wavelength vertical cavity surface emitting laser

    DOEpatents

    Choquette, Kent D.; Klem, John F.

    2005-08-16

    Selectively oxidized vertical cavity lasers emitting near 1300 nm using InGaAsN quantum wells are reported for the first time which operate continuous wave below, at and above room temperature. The lasers employ two n-type Al.sub.0.94 Ga.sub.0.06 As/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors each with a selectively oxidized current aperture adjacent to the active region, and the top output mirror contains a tunnel junction to inject holes into the active region. Continuous wave single mode lasing is observed up to 55.degree. C.

  9. OH vertical column abundance - Tropical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Clyde R.; Minschwaner, Kenneth R.; Burnett, Elizabeth B.

    1990-09-01

    Measurements of the vertical column abundance of atmospheric hydroxyl (OH) have been made during the period 1987-1989 at the National Weather Service (NWS) station at Moen, Truk, Federated States of Micronesia (7 deg N, 152 deg E). A total of 384 independent data sets was obtained. Tropical OH abundance levels average about 22 percent above corresponding mid-latitude values, with OH levels during late winter and early spring up to 50 percent above those observed at 40 deg N. Stratospheric wind and temperature data obtained from the daily NWS radiosonde data are examined for correlations with the OH results.

  10. OH vertical column abundance - Tropical measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, Clyde R.; Minschwaner, Kenneth R.; Burnett, Elizabeth B.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of the vertical column abundance of atmospheric hydroxyl (OH) have been made during the period 1987-1989 at the National Weather Service (NWS) station at Moen, Truk, Federated States of Micronesia (7 deg N, 152 deg E). A total of 384 independent data sets was obtained. Tropical OH abundance levels average about 22 percent above corresponding mid-latitude values, with OH levels during late winter and early spring up to 50 percent above those observed at 40 deg N. Stratospheric wind and temperature data obtained from the daily NWS radiosonde data are examined for correlations with the OH results.

  11. Flow effects in a vertical CVD reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, G. W.; Hariharan, S. I.; Carnahan, R.

    1992-01-01

    A model is presented to simulate the non-Boussinesq flow in a vertical, two-dimensional, chemical vapor deposition reactor under atmospheric pressure. Temperature-dependent conductivity, mass diffusivity, viscosity models, and reactive species mass transfer to the substrate are incorporated. In the limits of small Mach number and small aspect ratio, asymptotic expressions for the flow, temperature, and species fields are developed. Soret diffusion effects are also investigated. Analytical solutions predict an inverse relationship between temperature field and concentration field due to Soret effects. This finding is consistent with numerical simulations, assisting in the understanding of the complex interactions amongst the flow, thermal, and species fields in a chemically reacting system.

  12. Low-Level Flight Simulation: Vertical Cues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    The ASPT visual s’ester Soiftware autoematic’ally droips the’m freim the scene- at altitudes above 2000 fe’et AGI.) In an attempt to make the cue’s...8217 vertical (V) field of view. The ASPT has a - 15’ view o er the nose. - 370 over the left side, and - 15’ over the right side. (The aircraft field of...simulation, the ASPT /F-16 provided several instructional features that were used in this study. A video display of the HUD (Figures 1 and 21 and forward

  13. Vertical Cable Seismic Survey for Hydrothermal Deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Tsukahara, H.; Shimura, T.

    2012-04-01

    The vertical cable seismic is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. This type of survey is generally called VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic). Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. Our first experiment of VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN in November 2009 for a feasibility study. Prestack depth migration is applied to the 3D VCS data to obtain a high quality 3D depth volume. Based on the results from the feasibility study, we have developed two autonomous recording VCS systems. After we carried out a trial experiment in the actual ocean at a water depth of about 400m and we carried out the second VCS survey at Iheya Knoll with a deep-towed source. In this survey, we could establish the procedures for the deployment/recovery of the system and could examine the locations and the fluctuations of the vertical cables at a water depth of around 1000m. The acquired VCS data clearly shows the reflections from the sub-seafloor. Through the experiment, we could confirm that our VCS system works well even in the severe circumstances around the locations of seafloor hydrothermal deposits. We have, however, also confirmed that the uncertainty in the locations of the source and of the hydrophones could lower the quality of subsurface image. It is, therefore, strongly necessary to develop a total survey system that assures a accurate positioning and a deployment techniques

  14. Opportunity View on Sol 397 (vertical)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-03-17

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on the 397th martian day, or sol, of its surface mission (March 6, 2005). Opportunity had completed a drive of 124 meters (407 feet) across the rippled flatland of the Meridiani Planum region on the previous sol, but did not drive on this sol. This location is catalogued as Opportunity's site 48. The view is presented here as a vertical projection with geometric and brightness seam correction. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA07463

  15. Vertical distribution of acetonitrile in the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingels, J.; Nevejans, D.; Arijs, E.

    1985-01-01

    The presence of acetonitrile in the atmosphere was confirmed by results of surface and stratospheric investigations. Stratospheric measurements give mixing ratios typically decreasing with height from 3 ppt at 25 km to 0.5 ppt at 40 km. Measurements at the Earth's surface are less unanimous, although a ground level background mixing ratio of a few times 10 ppt seems realistic. Measurements are compatible with a small global surface source of acetonitrile and a small tropospheric loss. The vertical distribution of acetonitrile presented in consistent with general knowledge of its atmospheric chemistry.

  16. Spirit's View on Sol 107 (vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This vertical projection was assembled from images taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 107 (April 21, 2004) at a region dubbed 'site 32.' Spirit is sitting east of 'Missoula Crater,' no longer in the crater's ejecta field, but on outer plains. Since landing, Spirit has traveled almost exclusively over ejecta fields. This new landscape looks different with fewer angular rocks and more rounded, vesicle-filled rocks. Spirit will continue another 1,900 meters (1.18 miles) along this terrain before reaching the western base of the 'Columbia Hills.'

  17. Vertical orbital dystopia: definition, classification and treatment.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, S A; Sassani, R

    1995-01-01

    Correction of vertical orbital dystopia is an important component part of providing facial symmetry in a number of conditions of varied etiology having facial imbalance and asymmetry. The most important step is the initial one of making a proper diagnosis, since some conditions represent globe dystopia rather than true orbital dystopia, and can be treated by extracranial procedures. However, if an intracranial procedure is felt indicated, it adds to the safety rather than the complexity of the procedure, and one should not hesitate advocating this to the patient.

  18. Bistable Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-30

    734-736 (9 April, 1992). 7. D.L. Huffaker, C. Lei, D.G. Deppe, C.J. Pinzone , J.G. Neff, and R.D. Dupuis, "Controlled Spontaneous Emission in Room... Pinzone , J.G. Neff, and R.D. F-) Dupuis, "Effect on Spontaneous Emission of Quantum Well Placement in a Short Vertical Cavity", Appl. Phys. Lett., to...be published. ........ ........ 9. C. Lei, C.J. Pinzone , Z. Huang, D.L. Huffaker, D.G. Deppe, J.G. Neff, and R.D. Dupuis, "Room Temperature Spontaneous

  19. Supersaturation of vertically propagating internal gravity waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindzen, Richard S.

    1988-01-01

    The usual assumption that vertically propagating internal gravity waves will cease growing with height once their amplitudes are such as to permit convective instability anywhere within the wave is reexamined. Two factors lead to amplitude limitation: (1) wave clipping associated with convective mixing, and (2) energetic constraints associated with the rate at which the wave can supply energy to the convection. It is found that these two factors limit supersaturation to about 50 percent for waves with short horizontal wavelengths and high relative phase speeds. Usually the degree of supersaturation will be much less. These factors also lead to a gradual, rather than sudden, cessation of wave growth with height.

  20. Oceanography. Vertical mixing in the ocean.

    PubMed

    Webb, D J; Suginohara, N

    2001-01-04

    The thermohaline circulation of the ocean results primarily from downwelling at sites in the Nordic and Labrador Seas and upwelling throughout the rest of the ocean. The latter is often described as being due to breaking internal waves. Here we reconcile the difference between theoretical and observed estimates of vertical mixing in the deep ocean by presenting a revised view of the thermohaline circulation, which allows for additional upwelling in the Southern Ocean and the separation of the North Atlantic Deep Water cell from the Antarctic Bottom Water cell. The changes also mean that much less wind and tidal energy needs to be dissipated in the deep ocean than was originally thought.

  1. [Functional analysis of the vertical semicircular canal using vertical plane swing test and study of its normal values].

    PubMed

    Peng, Xin; Sun, Qing; Li, Na; Yang, Li-jun; Dai, Jing; Shan, Xi-zheng

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to set up a method to analyze the vertical semicircular canal function and study the normal values of the vertical semicircular canal function using the vertical plane swing test. A prospective analysis of 100 normal persons (aged from 18 to 59 years), who were treated by using the vertical plane swing test with the newly developed automatic vestibular function diagnosis and therapy system (SRM-IV). These persons were rotated 180° at a sinusoidal speed (acceleration 45°/s, maximum speed 90°/s) in the vertical semicircular canal plane. Using a PC, evoked vertical nystagmus was analyzed in order to evaluate the excitability of vertical semicircular canals, including the number and the duration of nystagmus, the slow phase velocity and other parameters. Meanwhile, the all persons were divided into two groups, order and younger than 45 years respectively. In the test procedure, with the two pairs of the right anterior vertical semicircular canal and left posterior vertical semicircular canal (RALP) as well as the left anterior vertical semicircular canal and the rear right vertical semicircular canals (LARP), the average slow phase velocity of the vertical nystagmus and the canal paresis (CP) of the two pairs of vertical semicircular canals were calculated using PC and SPSS13.0 software for statistical analysis. There was no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). The general CP of RALP was 10.2% ± 7.1%, and LARP was 10.4% ± 6.2%. The normal CP range of the vertical semicircular canal in the health group was identified (idea: ≤ 20%; normal high: 20% - 25%). The 180° vertical plane sinusoidal swing method is effective in functional analysis of the vertical semicircular canal, it is expected to be reliably used in clinical treatment.

  2. Vertical datum standardisation: a fundamental step towards a global vertical reference system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, L.

    2013-05-01

    One of the most important problems of modern geodesy is the definition and realisation of a global vertical reference system, which unifies, with high accuracy (at least 1 cm-level), the existing classical height datums; i.e. all existing physical heights (or geopotential numbers) have to be referred to one and the same equipotential surface, defined and realised in a global frame. The basic approach proposed at present to achieve this so-called vertical datum unification is based on the combination of physical heights (orthometric or normal heights) derived from levelling (reduced by gravity effects) with those computed from gravimetric (quasi-) geoid models and ellipsoidal heights. However, the combination of these heights "as they are" reflects the inconsistencies included in the height determination; for instance: 1) different ellipsoid parameters in gravity and geometry; 2) different tide systems; 3) different hypotheses for the estimation of orthometric heights and gravimetric geoid models; 4) different reference epochs with unknown height changes in time; 5) systematic errors over long distances in levelling; 6) different reductions for Earth-, ocean-, atmospheric tides, ocean and atmospheric loading, post-glacial rebound, etc. These inconsistencies mislead the vertical datum unification and limit the reliability of the global vertical reference system realisation to the m-level. In order to advance in the homogenisation of the input data and procedures for the solution of the vertical datum problem with a high and reliable accuracy, the Working Group "Vertical Datum Standardisation" was established for the term 2011-2015 by the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG), jointly with the IAG Commission 1 (Reference Frames), IAG Commission 2 (Gravity Field), and the International Gravity Field Service (IGFS). This contribution presents objectives, achievements, and coming challenges of this Working Group.

  3. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for flip-chip packaged vertical optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keefe, Sean S.; Schaff, William J.; Eastman, Lester F.

    1994-06-01

    Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) have been fabricated and studied as the optical sources in a vertical optical interconnect application. The VCSELs are to replace LEDs that are currently used in a proof-of-concept demonstration. The advantages of VCSELs ares better power efficiency as sources, higher optical powers, focused beam output, monochromatic operation, and higher modulation bandwidth. The VCSELs used in this project are the first to implement continuously sinusoidally graded interface mirrors grown by molecular beam epitaxy. material parameters, device results, and interconnect implications are presented.

  4. Free-flight model investigation of a vertical-attitude VTOL fighter with twin vertical tails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grafton, S. B.; Anglin, E. L.

    1975-01-01

    Free-flight tests were conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel to determine the stability and control characteristics of a vertical-attitude VTOL fighter having twin vertical tails and a pivoted fuselage forebody (nose-cockpit) arrangement. The flight tests included hovering flights and transition flights from hover to conventional forward flight. Static force tests were also made to aid in the analysis of the flight tests. The model exhibited satisfactory stability and control characteristics, and the transition from hovering flight to conventional forward flight was relatively smooth and straightforward.

  5. The EM Earthquake Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

    2013-12-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two

  6. Determinants of Arbovirus Vertical Transmission in Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Lequime, Sebastian; Paul, Richard E.; Lambrechts, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Vertical transmission (VT) and horizontal transmission (HT) of pathogens refer to parental and non-parental chains of host-to-host transmission. Combining HT with VT enlarges considerably the range of ecological conditions in which a pathogen can persist, but the factors governing the relative frequency of each transmission mode are poorly understood for pathogens with mixed-mode transmission. Elucidating these factors is particularly important for understanding the epidemiology of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) of public health significance. Arboviruses are primarily maintained by HT between arthropod vectors and vertebrate hosts in nature, but are occasionally transmitted vertically in the vector population from an infected female to her offspring, which is a proposed maintenance mechanism during adverse conditions for HT. Here, we review over a century of published primary literature on natural and experimental VT, which we previously assembled into large databases, to identify biological factors associated with the efficiency of arbovirus VT in mosquito vectors. Using a robust statistical framework, we highlight a suite of environmental, taxonomic, and physiological predictors of arbovirus VT. These novel insights contribute to refine our understanding of strategies employed by arboviruses to persist in the environment and cause substantial public health concern. They also provide hypotheses on the biological processes underlying the relative VT frequency for pathogens with mixed-mode transmission that can be tested empirically. PMID:27171170

  7. Vertical Profiling of Air Pollution at RAPCD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newchurch, Michael J.; Fuller, Kirk A.; Bowdle, David A.; Johnson, Steven; Knupp, Kevin; Gillani, Noor; Biazar, Arastoo; Mcnider, Richard T.; Burris, John

    2004-01-01

    The interaction between local and regional pollution levels occurs at the interface of the Planetary Boundary Layer and the Free Troposphere. Measuring the vertical distribution of ozone, aerosols, and winds with high temporal and vertical resolution is essential to diagnose the nature of this interchange and ultimately for accurately forecasting ozone and aerosol pollution levels. The Regional Atmospheric Profiling Center for Discovery, RAPCD, was built and instrumented to address this critical issue. The ozone W DIAL lidar, Nd:YAG aerosol lidar, and 2.1 micron Doppler wind lidar, along with balloon- borne ECC ozonesondes form the core of the W C D instrumentation for addressing this problem. Instrumentation in the associated Mobile Integrated Profiling (MIPS) laboratory includes 91 5Mhz profiler, sodar, and ceilometer. The collocated Applied particle Optics and Radiometry (ApOR) laboratory hosts an FTIR along with MOUDI and optical particle counters. With MODELS-3 analysis by colleagues in the National Space Science and Technology Center on the UAH campus and the co- located National Weather Service Forecasting Office in Huntsville, AL we are developing a unique facility for advancing the state of the science of pollution forecasting.

  8. Control system for a vertical axis windmill

    DOEpatents

    Brulle, Robert V.

    1983-10-18

    A vertical axis windmill having a rotating structure is provided with a series of articulated vertical blades whose positions are controlled to maintain a constant RPM for the rotating structure, when wind speed is sufficient. A microprocessor controller is used to process information on wind speed, wind direction and RPM of the rotating structure to develop an electrical signal for establishing blade position. The preferred embodiment of the invention, when connected to a utility grid, is designed to generate 40 kilowatts of power when exposed to a 20 mile per hour wind. The control system for the windmill includes electrical blade actuators that modulate the blades of the rotating structure. Blade modulation controls the blade angle of attack, which in turn controls the RPM of the rotor. In the preferred embodiment, the microprocessor controller provides the operation logic and control functions. A wind speed sensor provides inputs to start or stop the windmill, and a wind direction sensor is used to keep the blade flip region at 90.degree. and 270.degree. to the wind. The control system is designed to maintain constant rotor RPM when wind speed is between 10 and 40 miles per hour.

  9. Thunderstorm vertical velocities estimated from satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, R. F.; Fenn, D. D.

    1979-01-01

    Infrared geosynchronous satellite data with an interval of 5 min between images are used to estimate thunderstorm top ascent rates on two case study days. A mean vertical velocity of 3.4 m/sec for 23 clouds is calculated at a height of 8.7 km. This upward motion is representative of an area of approximately 10 km on a side. Thunderstorm mass flux of approximately 2 times 10 to the 8th power kg/sec is calculated, which compares favorably with previous estimates. There is a significant difference in the mean calculated vertical velocity between elements associated with severe weather reports (omega = 4.9 m/sec) and those with no such reports (2.4 m/sec). Calculations were made using a velocity profile for an axially symmetric jet to estimate the peak updraft velocity. For the largest observed omega value of 7.8 m/sec the calculation indicates a peak updraft of approximately 50 m/sec.

  10. Seismic Behaviour of Vertical Mass Isolated Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Nekooei, M.; Ziyaeifar, M.

    2008-07-08

    In this paper, the seismic behaviour of vertical mass isolated structures against the earthquake is studied. These structures are assumed to be consisted of two subsystems. Mass subsystem possesses low lateral stiffness but carries the major part of mass of the system. Stiffness subsystem, however, controls the deformation of the mass subsystem and attributes with much higher stiffness. The isolator layer is, therefore, located in between the mass and the stiffness subsystems and assumed to be a viscous damper layer. The analytical model used for this investigation is a dual mass-spring model which is an extended form of the three element Maxwell model. In this study, the ability of mass isolation techniques in reducing earthquake effects on buildings with two approaches, parametric and numerical approaches, is shown. In the parametric approach, by definition an isolation factor for structure and determination the dynamic characteristics of system, the relative optimum value of the isolator damping coefficient is obtained. The results provide an insight on role of relative stiffness and mass ratio of the two subsystems. Finally, in the numerical approach, the spectral responses of these structures due to the earthquake are investigated. The results show a noticeable decrease in earthquake input force to vertical mass isolated structures in comparison with non-isolated structures.

  11. Effective solidity in vertical axis wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Colin M.; Leftwich, Megan C.

    2016-11-01

    The flow surrounding vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) is investigated using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV). This is done in a low-speed wind tunnel with a scale model that closely matches geometric and dynamic properties tip-speed ratio and Reynolds number of a full size turbine. Previous results have shown a strong dependance on the tip-speed ratio on the wake structure of the spinning turbine. However, it is not clear whether this is a speed or solidity effect. To determine this, we have measured the wakes of three turbines with different chord-to-diameter ratios, and a solid cylinder. The flow is visualized at the horizontal mid-plane as well as the vertical mid-plane behind the turbine. The results are both ensemble averaged and phase averaged by syncing the PIV system with the rotation of the turbine. By keeping the Reynolds number constant with both chord and diameter, we can determine how each effects the wake structure. As these parameters are varied there are distinct changes in the mean flow of the wake. Additionally, by looking at the vorticity in the phase averaged profiles we can see structural changes to the overall wake pattern.

  12. Vertical transmission of HIV-an update.

    PubMed

    Lala, Mamatha M; Merchant, Rashid H

    2010-11-01

    One of the greatest successes in AIDS research to date has by far been the discovery of successful interventions that interrupt the transmission of HIV from mother to child. It is however important to note that these successes have occurred largely in countries with great resources and the least burden of perinatal transmission of HIV. In the developing world wherein currently 95% of vertical transmission of HIV occurs, it is highly condemnable that still every minute an infected infant is said to be born in spite of the fact that vertical transmission is largely preventable, mainly because translating knowledge into practice is not always possible or feasible; This has led to a continuous growing numbers of children with HIV, thereby making pediatric HIV a looming problem rapidly draining the already burdened health care system of these countries. It is the need of the hour to appropriately address the challenges to achieve zero percent transmission of HIV from an infected mother to her child thereby giving a hope for an AIDS-free new generation worldwide.

  13. Spaceborne Radar Measurements of Rainfall Vertical Velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Im, Eastwood; Tanelli, Simone; Giuli, Dino; Durden, Stephen L.; Facheris, Luca

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies the performance of a spaceborne precipitation radar in measuring vertical Doppler velocity of rainfall. As far as a downward pointing precipitation radar is concerned, one of the major problems affecting Doppler measurement at the nadir direction arises from the Non-Uniform Beam-Filling effect (NUBF). That is, when significant variation in rain rate is present within the radar IFOV (Instrument Field of View) in the along track direction. the Doppler shift caused by the radial component of the horizontal speed of the satellite is weighted differently among the portions of IFOV. The effects of this non-uniform weighting may dominate any other contribution. Under this condition, shape, average value and width of the Doppler spectrum may not be directly correlated with the vertical velocity of the precipitating particles. However, by using an inversion technique which over-samples the radar measurements in the along track direction, we show that the shift due to NUBF can be evaluated, and that the NUBF induced errors on average fall speed can be reduced.

  14. Vertical Slot Convection: A linear study

    SciTech Connect

    McAllister, A.; Steinolfson, R.; Tajima, T.

    1992-11-01

    The linear stability properties of fluid convection in a vertical slot were studied. We use a Fourier-Chebychev decomposition was used to set up the linear eigenvalue problems for the Vertical Slot Convection and Benard problems. The eigenvalues, neutral stability curves, and critical point values of the Grashof number, G, and the wavenumber were determined. Plots of the real and imaginary parts of the eigenvalues as functions of G and {alpha} are given for a wide range of the Prandtl number, Pr, and special note is made of the complex mode that becomes linearly unstable above Pr {approximately} 12.5. A discussion comparing different special cases facilitates the physical understanding of the VSC equations, especially the interaction of the shear-flow and buoyancy induced physics. Making use of the real and imaginary eigenvalues and the phase properties of the eigenmodes, the eigenmodes were characterized. One finds that the mode structure becomes progressively simpler with increasing Pr, with the greatest complexity in the mid ranges where the terms in the heat equation are of roughly the same size.

  15. Vertical Slot Convection: A linear study

    SciTech Connect

    McAllister, A. ); Steinolfson, R. ); Tajima, T. . Inst. for Fusion Studies)

    1992-11-01

    The linear stability properties of fluid convection in a vertical slot were studied. We use a Fourier-Chebychev decomposition was used to set up the linear eigenvalue problems for the Vertical Slot Convection and Benard problems. The eigenvalues, neutral stability curves, and critical point values of the Grashof number, G, and the wavenumber were determined. Plots of the real and imaginary parts of the eigenvalues as functions of G and [alpha] are given for a wide range of the Prandtl number, Pr, and special note is made of the complex mode that becomes linearly unstable above Pr [approximately] 12.5. A discussion comparing different special cases facilitates the physical understanding of the VSC equations, especially the interaction of the shear-flow and buoyancy induced physics. Making use of the real and imaginary eigenvalues and the phase properties of the eigenmodes, the eigenmodes were characterized. One finds that the mode structure becomes progressively simpler with increasing Pr, with the greatest complexity in the mid ranges where the terms in the heat equation are of roughly the same size.

  16. Vertical transmission research at the Retrovirus Conference.

    PubMed

    Cadman, J

    1998-03-01

    Researchers have seen a dramatic drop in mother-to-child HIV transmissions due to medical breakthroughs and the role of AZT. ACTG protocols 076 and 185 provided further information on the association between maternal viral load and vertical transmission. Dr. Lynne Mofenson of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development at the National Institutes of Health followed treatment-naive and treatment-experienced pregnant women through a three-part AZT regimen. The regimen was administered during the last two-thirds of pregnancy, during delivery, and to the newborn for six weeks. The studies showed that transmission took place across all levels, however, the women taking AZT reduced vertical transmission by two-thirds at each viral load level. Dr. Mofensen concluded that reducing viral load to low levels in pregnant women receiving AZT treatment will further reduce transmission. Other studies presented at the 5th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections concluded that predicting HIV transmission based on maternal viral load is more accurate for groups of untreated, rather than treated, mothers. In Thailand, a short-course treatment alternative of administering AZT near the end of gestation and during delivery, but not to the newborn, showed a 51 percent reduction in the rate of transmission. Although not proven, it is assumed that this is the period when most transmission occurs.

  17. High vertical resolution crosswell seismic imaging

    DOEpatents

    Lazaratos, Spyridon K.

    1999-12-07

    A method for producing high vertical resolution seismic images from crosswell data is disclosed. In accordance with one aspect of the disclosure, a set of vertically spaced, generally horizontally extending continuous layers and associated nodes are defined within a region between two boreholes. The specific number of nodes is selected such that the value of a particular characteristic of the subterranean region at each of the nodes is one which can be determined from the seismic data. Once values are established at the nodes, values of the particular characteristic are assigned to positions between the node points of each layer based on the values at node within that layer and without regard to the values at node points within any other layer. A seismic map is produced using the node values and the assigned values therebetween. In accordance with another aspect of the disclosure, an approximate model of the region is established using direct arrival traveltime data. Thereafter, the approximate model is adjusted using reflected arrival data. In accordance with still another aspect of the disclosure, correction is provided for well deviation. An associated technique which provides improvements in ray tracing is also disclosed.

  18. Diagnosis of vertical motion from VAS retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, Henry E.; Funk, Theodore W.

    1987-01-01

    Satellite-derived temperature profiles are used to determine if reliable estimates of synoptic-scale vertical motion can be obtained from the adiabatic, vorticity, and omega equation techniques. The period of study contains a short-wave trough over the Midwest and a convective outbreak over the middle Mississippi River Valley. Satellite soundings are available at 1-3 h intervals at five times. The emphasis is on assessing the strengths and weaknesses of the three vertical motion procedures, and determining the effects of short-interval observations on the calculations. Results show that the quasi-geostrophic omega equation provided patterns and magnitudes most consistent with observed weather events and 12 h radiosonde-derived motions. The vorticity method produced less satisfactory results, while adiabatic motions were unacceptable. The time derivative term dominated adiabatic motions and was a major influence in the vorticity method. Unrealistic temperature tendencies resulted from the retrieval algorithm; i.e., a diurnal temperature bias extended upwards to 500 mb, and there was a compensating effect at higher levels.

  19. Enhancement of Condensation on a Vertical Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Rencai; Hatanaka, Tsutomu; Nishio, Shigefumi

    In previous study, the characteristic of the condensation heat transfer on the dispersed vertical surface were investigated experimentally for the application of the finned surface to the thermoelectric generator utilizing boiling and condensation as the electrodes of the thermoelectric module. A prediction model for this diapered finned surface was proposed, based on Adamek-Webb model of the condensation on a finned tube. In this study, a condensation heat transfer experiment on a vertical dispersed finned surfaces using FC5312 was carried out, in order to enhance the condensation heat transfer coefficient by optimizing the fin size on a dispersed heat transfer surface. Experimental parameters were the fin width, thickness, height and the dispersed fin length. As the results, it was found from the experiment there was a dispersed fin length corresponding to the condensation at the maximum and its value was 1.75 mm. As the characteristic, the condensation changed from slowly increasing to rapidly increasing and then decreasing at a steep grade, with decreasing the dispersed fin length. In addition, the fin height did not affect this optimum dispersed fin length and the dispersed fin length affects the dependence of the condensation on different fin thickness. Further, the prediction values have a good agreement with the experimental data except the case of short dispersed fin length.

  20. Potential versus actual contribution of vertical transmission to pathogen fitness

    PubMed Central

    Kover, P. X.; Dolan, T. E.; Clay, K.

    1997-01-01

    Theory predicts that virulent parasites cannot be maintained at high prevalence if they are only vertically transmitted. However, parasites with high rates of vertical transmission that cause severe reduction in host fitness have been reported. Atkinsonella hypoxylon is a fungal pathogen capable of both vertical and horizontal transmission that drastically reduces its host's fitness. In contrast with theoretical predictions, field and laboratory observations suggested that the primary mechanism of transmission was vertical. Using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers, we investigated the effective contribution of vertical and horizontal transmission to the genetic structure of three natural populations of A. hypoxylon. We found high genotypic diversity and low linkage disequilibrium, indicating that most established genotypes are derived from horizontally transmitted, sexual spores. The low contribution of vertical transmission to the parasite's fitness despite its high potential might be due to lower establishment of cleistogamous seeds (through which vertical transmission occurs) or lower vigour of vertically transmitted fungal genotypes. Low establishment of vertically infected hosts might explain the persistence of virulent parasites with high apparent vertical transmission. Our results suggest that caution must be taken when using the potential for vertical transmission to make predictions about the evolution of parasite virulence.

  1. Vertically Velocity Characteristics of Oceanic Convection.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgensen, David P.; Lemone, Margaret A.

    1989-03-01

    Oceanic cumulonimbus updraft and downdraft events observed in the Western Pacific during the TAMEX program by NOAA P-3 research aircraft are analyzed and discussed. The basic dataset consists of flight-level data from 10 missions in the Taiwan region during May and June 1987. The 1 Hz time series of vertical velocity is used to define convective updrafts using the criteria that the velocity must be continuously positive for at least 0.5 km and exceed 0.5 m s1 for 1 s. A subset of the strongest drafts, termed cores, are defined as events that exceed 1 m s1 for 0.5 km. Downdrafts and downdraft cores are defined analogously. The statistics are from a total of 12 841 km of flight legs and consist of 359 updrafts and 466 downdrafts at altitudes from 150 m to 6.8 km MSL. The populations of average vertical velocity, maximum vertical velocity, diameter, and mass transport for both drafts and cores are approximately log-normally distributed, consistent with the results of previous studies of convective characteristics in other locations. TAMEX drafts and cores are comparable in size and strength with those measured in GATE and hurricanes but much weaker than those measured in continental thunderstorms.The median core updraft was less than 3 m s1, implying a time scale for ascent from cloud base to the freezing level of about 35 min. The microphysical implications of the low updraft rates are illustrated by comparing vertical profiles of radar reflectivity for TAMEX with those in other regions. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that the oceanic convection that was studied in GATE, hurricanes, and TAMEX is dominated by warm rain coalescence processes and that a large fractional rainout occurs below the freezing level. The rapid reduction of cloud water and radar reflectivity above the freezing level, as well as observations of abundant ice particles in all but the strongest updraft cores at temperatures just below 0°C, implies a rapid conversion of cloud water and

  2. EMS & the DEA.

    PubMed

    Beeson, Jeff; Ayres, Chris

    2010-01-01

    It's clear that EMS medical directors and management staff must be vigilant in their oversight of implementation, administration and monitoring of controlled substances within their agencies to best serve the public and avoid running afoul of investigation and incurring significant penalties. Those potentially affected by the need for individual registrations of both emergency vehicles and central inventory systems should carefully monitor upcoming developments in the interpretation od DEA regulations.

  3. Direct Observation of Ultralow Vertical Emittance using a Vertical Undulator - presentation slides

    SciTech Connect

    Wootton, Kent

    2015-09-17

    Direct emittance measurement based on vertical undulator is discussed. Emittance was evaluated from peak ratios, the smallest measured being 𝜀𝑦 =0.9 ±0.3 pm rad. The angular distribution of undulator radiation departs from Gaussian approximations, a fact of which diffraction-limited light sources should be aware.

  4. Vertical and Interfacial Transport in Wetlands (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Variano, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this work is to understand the fluxes connecting the water column, substrate, and atmosphere in wetland environments. To do this, analytical, numerical, and laboratory models have been used to quantify the hydrodynamic contributions to vertical fluxes. A key question is whether the hydrodynamic transport can be modeled as a diffusivity, and, if so, what the vertical structure of this diffusivity is. This question will be addressed in a number of flow types and for a number of fluxes. The fluxes of interest are heat, sediment, dissolved gases (such as methane and oxygen) and other dissolved solutes (such as nutrients and pollutants). The flows of interest include: unidirectional current, reversing flow (under waves, seiches, and tides), wind-sheared surface flows, and thermal convection. Rain and bioturbation can be important, but are not considered in the modeling work discussed herein. Specifically, we will present results on gas transport at wind-sheared free surface, sediment transport in unidirectional flow, and heat transfer in an oscillating flow cause by a seiche. All three of these will be used to consider the question of appropriate analytical models for vertical transport. The analytic models considered here are all 1D models that assume homogeneity in the horizontal plane. The numerical models use finite element methods and resolve the flow around individual vegetation stems in an idealized geometry. Laboratory models discussed herein also use an idealized geometry. Vegetation is represented by an array of cylinders, whose geometry is modeled after Scirpus spp. wetlands in Northern California. The laboratory model is constructed in a way that allows optical access to the flow, even in dense vegetation and far from boundaries. This is accomplished by using fluoropolymer plastics to construct vegetation models. The optical access allows us to employ particle image velocimetry (PIV) and planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) to measure

  5. Vertical land motion of Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melbourne, T. I.; Montillet, J. P.; Szeliga, W. M.

    2015-12-01

    We use GPS measurements from 400 stations located throughout the Pacific Northwest to estimate steady-state vertical land motion for the purpose of constraining relative sea level rise projections. Vertical motions are typically only a few percent of horizontal rates and the same order of magnitude as current sea level rise rates, so may either ameliorate or exacerbate future climate impacts. We use data from receivers operating from 1994 through 2015, each with at least three years of continuous daily measurements. Furthermore, daily position time series resulting from the processing of two GPS centers, namely the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and the Pacific Northwest Geodetic Array (PANGA), are considered throughout this study. The goal is two fold: the dissemination into the scientific community of the difference in processing between these two centers, and the level of agreement between the estimated crustal for future sea-level studies in the Pacific Northwest. We model both target and reference frame receiver trajectories as a superposition of discrete processes comprising steady-state tectonic motion, annual and bi-annual sinusoids exhibiting stationary phase and amplitude that reflect both local hydrology as well as artifacts introduced through satellite clock and orbit corrections, and discrete offsets due to known earthquakes (with Mw > 6) and hardware changes. Qualitatively, Vancouver Island shows long-term uplift of ~2 mm/year, consistent with both interseismic strain accumulation from the Juan de Fuca subduction along the coast and post-glacial rebound inland, and consistent with earlier reports based on few stations and shorter time series. Further south, coastal uplift rates transition to near-zero south of Pacific Beach, and remain low southward to Cape Blanco. Vertical motion is more heterogeneous throughout Puget Sound, but most regions show subsidence of ~0.5 - 1 mm/yr. The predominant subsidence throughout Puget Sound, where the

  6. Predicting vertical jump height from bar velocity.

    PubMed

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s(-2)). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r(2) = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r(2) = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key pointsVertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer.The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s(-2) and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement.Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance.

  7. Predicting Vertical Jump Height from Bar Velocity

    PubMed Central

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s-2). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r2 = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r2 = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key points Vertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer. The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s-2 and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement. Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance. PMID:25983572

  8. Debris Flow Models With Vertical Redistribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcelwaine, J. N.; Kowalski, J.

    2011-12-01

    The destructive power of debris flows is enormous and hence there is a need for quantitative models that can accurately describe their behavior and predict their flow paths, heights, velocities and corresponding impact pressures. The dynamics of a debris flows is effected by the pore pressure, which can be measured in experiments and in the field, but existing theories to not model this well. We introduce a new class of shallow debris flow models that includes an equation for the vertical distribution of material and show how this gives predictions of the pore pressure and can effect flow mobility. Debris flows exhibit different flow forms depending on water and solid concentration, particle size distribution and the topography of the flow path. The complex interplay between the fluid and solids of a whole range of different grain sizes leads to physical phenomena such as the development of a front with large boulders, lateral levee formation and, due to a varying fraction of particles being in suspension, an effective basal fluid pressure that can exceed the pure fluids hydrostatic pressure. Large scale debris flow data of the Illgraben torrent, Switzerland, show that a varying basal fluid pressure is characteristic for the snout of debris flows with a granular front and significantly affects basal shear stresses. A comprehensive mathematical debris flow model that explains all the observed phenomena will be extremely complicated; if it is achievable at all. However, promising approaches exist that successfully describe some of the effects in simple situations. Yet the observed basal fluid pressure data in granular front flows is not explained satisfactorily up to this point. One reason for this is that any change of the effective basal fluid pressure is associated with an internal redistribution of the solids above, and hence is caused by relative motion between the phases within the flowing body. However, this inter-component slip is usually neglected in the

  9. Vertical tail buffeting of fighter aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, B. H. K.

    2000-04-01

    Vertical tail buffeting at high angles of attack is a phenomenon associated with the impact of vortical flows generated by the aircraft on the fins. This poses a serious problem for both single- and twin-tail fighter aircraft from the point of view of combat maneuverability and structural integrity. The research activities to understand the flow physics with an aim to alleviate buffet loads were quite intense during the period from the late 1970s to the early 1990s. Most of the investigations were carried out on the F/A-18 mainly because of two international programs involving countries that operate the F/A-18 in their air force. This review begins with a description of the water tunnel experiments showing some flow visualization results of the leading-edge extension (LEX) burst vortical flows. Wind tunnel studies on a 1/9 scale F/A-18 model in Australia, a 1/6.65 scale model in the United Kingdom, a 6% scale model in Canada, 12%, 16% and full-scale models in the United States are summarized. Scale effects can be deduced from the various sub- and full-scale models tested. Flight test results conducted on the High Alpha Research Vehicle in the United States and on an instrumented CF-18 test aircraft in Canada are presented. The accuracy of analytical methods utilizing wind tunnel data to predict buffet loads at flight conditions is discussed. The use of CFD to compute vertical fin buffeting is challenging and requires a large amount of computing power. A brief exposure to the methodology is given and results from the only available computational case study carried out by NASA Ames are compared with wind tunnel and flight test data. A short introduction to statistical non-stationary effects is given. Hysteresis effect of the LEX vortex burst on the buffet loads is discussed, and a statistical non-stationary buffet prediction method is outlined. This review provides a useful reference to the results collected from the High Alpha Technology Program, The Technical

  10. Estimating tropical vertical motion profile shapes from satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, L. E.; Handlos, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The vertical structure of tropical deep convection strongly influences interactions with larger scale circulations and climate. This research focuses on investigating this vertical structure and its relationship with mesoscale tropical weather states. We test the hypothesis that vertical motion shape varies in association with weather state type. We estimate mean state vertical motion profile shapes for six tropical weather states defined using cloud top pressure and optical depth properties from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project. The relationship between vertical motion and the dry static energy budget are utilized to set up a regression analysis that empirically determines two modes of variability in vertical motion from reanalysis data. We use these empirically determined modes, this relationship and surface convergence to estimate vertical motion profile shape from observations of satellite retrievals of rainfall and surface convergence. We find that vertical motion profile shapes vary systematically between different tropical weather states. The "isolated systems" regime exhibits a more ''bottom-heavy'' profile shape compared to the convective/thick cirrus and vigorous deep convective regimes, with maximum upward vertical motion occurring in the lower troposphere rather than the middle to upper troposphere. The variability we observe with our method does not coincide with that expected based on conventional ideas about how stratiform rain fraction and vertical motion are related.

  11. Evidence for vertical ozone redistribution since 1967

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furrer, R.; Döhler, W.; Kirsch, H.-J.; Plessing, P.; Görsdorf, U.

    1993-03-01

    Long-term measurements of the ozone concentration in the vicinity of the city of Berlin have been performed with ground based Dobson spectrophotometers and balloon borne systems. The respective experiments cover the past 24 years. All data have been reevaluated and corrected towards uniform calibration standards, leading to the longest European data set of total column density, altitude-dependent ozone partial pressures and the corresponding temperatures. Smoothing algorithms unravel significant long-term trends. The analysis shows an increase of ozone concentration within the middle stratosphere (below 31 km height) as well as in the troposphere over the past 24 years. On the contrary, ongoing ozone depletion in the lower stratosphere has been found. The large scale vertical redistribution of atmospheric ozone in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere seems to be in agreement with model calculations and trend predictions that have their roots in changes of the chemical composition and the ozone photochemistry due to anthropogenically induced trace gas concentrations.

  12. Evidence for vertical ozone redistribution since 1967

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furrer, R.; Döhler, W.; Kirsch, H.-J.; Plessing, P.; Görsdorf, U.

    1993-01-01

    Long-term measurements of ozone concentration in the vicinity of the city of Berlin have been performed with ground-based Dobson spectrophotometers and balloon borne systems. The respective experiments cover the past 24 yr. All data have been re-evaluated and corrected towards uniform calibration standards, leading to the longest lasting European data set of total column density, altitude-dependent ozone partial pressures and the corresponding temperatures. Smoothing algorithms reveal significant longterm trends. The analysis shows an increase of ozone concentration within the middle stratosphere (below 31 km height) as well as in the troposphere over the past 24 yr. On the contrary, ongoing ozone depletion in the lower stratosphere became evident. The large scale vertical redistribution of atmospheric ozone in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere seems to be in agreement with model calculations and trend predictions that have their roots in changes of the chemical composition and the ozone photochemistry due to anthropogenically induced tracer gas concentrations.

  13. Vertical axis wind turbine control strategy

    SciTech Connect

    McNerney, G.M.

    1981-08-01

    Early expensive in automatic operation of the Sandia 17-m vertical axis research wind turbine (VAWT) has demonstrated the need for a systematic study of control algorithms. To this end, a computer model has been developed that uses actual wind time series and turbine performance data to calculate the power produced by the Sandia 17-m VAWT operating in automatic control. The model has been used to investigate the influence of starting algorithms on annual energy production. The results indicate that, depending on turbine and local wind characteristics, a bad choice of a control algorithm can significantly reduce overall energy production. The model can be used to select control algorithms and threshold parameters that maximize long-term energy production. An attempt has been made to generalize these results from local site and turbine characteristics to obtain general guidelines for control algorithm design.

  14. Vertical transmission of the Ohdo blepharophimosis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mhanni, A A; Dawson, A J; Chudley, A E

    1998-05-01

    Ohdo blepharophimosis syndrome (OBS) is a multiple congenital anomalies-mental retardation syndrome composed of blepharophimosis, ptosis, dental hypoplasia, partial deafness, and mental retardation. Previously reported cases of OBS have been sporadic except for the report by Ohdo et al. [1986, J Med Genet 23:242-244] that described two affected sisters and a first cousin favoring autosomal recessive inheritance. The original report by Ohdo et al. [1986] may reflect nonpenetrance of an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder or genetic heterogeneity of OBS. We report on a child and the mother who have blepharophimosis, ptosis, dental anomalies, mild hearing loss, and mental retardation. Chromosome analysis in both showed a balanced paracentric inversion of the long arm of chromosome 9, which was also present in two phenotypically normal sibs of the mother. This is the first report of vertical transmission of OBS suggestive of autosomal dominant inheritance. X-linked dominant and mitochondrial inheritance are other possible modes of inheritance.

  15. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818 (Vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends.

    This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top.

    The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view.

    The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  16. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1687 (Vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on the 1,687th Martian day, or sol, of its surface mission (Oct. 22, 2008).

    Opportunity had driven 133 meters (436 feet) that sol, crossing sand ripples up to about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The tracks visible in the foreground are in the east-northeast direction.

    Opportunity's position on Sol 1687 was about 300 meters southwest of Victoria Crater. The rover was beginning a long trek toward a much larger crater, Endeavour, about 12 kilometers (7 miles) to the southeast.

    This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

  17. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive (Vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009).

    This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top.

    The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches).

    The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock.

  18. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798 (Vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top.

    This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

    The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches).

    The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  19. Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Mesh Generator

    SciTech Connect

    2014-01-24

    VAWTGen is a mesh generator for creating a finite element beam mesh of arbitrary vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWT). The software accepts input files specifying tower and blade structural and aerodynamic descriptions and constructs a VAWT using a minimal set of inputs. VAWTs with an arbitrary number of blades can be constructed with or without a central tower. Strut connections between the tower and blades can be specified in an arbitrary manner. The software also facilitates specifying arbitrary joints between structural components and concentrated structural tenns (mass and stiffness). The output files which describe the VAWT configuration are intended to be used with the Offshore Wind ENergy Simulation (OWENS) Toolkit software for structural dynamics analysis of VAWTs. Furthermore, VAWTGen is useful for visualizing output from the OWENS analysis software.

  20. Ultrahigh efficiencies in vertical epitaxial heterostructure architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Fafard, S. E-mail: simon.fafard@azastra.com; Proulx, F.; York, M. C. A.; Arès, R.; Aimez, V.; Valdivia, C. E.; Wilkins, M. M.; Hinzer, K.; Masson, D. P.

    2016-02-15

    Optical to electrical power converting semiconductor devices were achieved with breakthrough performance by designing a Vertical Epitaxial Heterostructure Architecture. The devices are featuring modeled and measured conversion efficiencies greater than 65%. The ultrahigh conversion efficiencies were obtained by monolithically integrating several thin GaAs photovoltaic junctions tailored with submicron absorption thicknesses and grown in a single crystal by epitaxy. The heterostructures that were engineered with a number N of such ultrathin junctions yielded an optimal external quantum efficiencies approaching 100%/N. The heterostructures are capable of output voltages that are multiple times larger than the corresponding photovoltage of the input light. The individual nanoscale junctions are each generating up to ∼1.2 V of output voltage when illuminated in the infrared. We compare the optoelectronic properties of phototransducers prepared with designs having 5 to 12 junctions and that are exhibiting voltage outputs between >5 V and >14 V.

  1. The ergonomics of vertical turret lathe operation.

    PubMed

    Pratt, F M; Corlett, E N

    1970-12-01

    A study of the work load of 14 vertical turret lathe operators engaged on different work tasks in two factories is reported. For eight of these workers continuous heart rate recordings were made throughout the day. It was shown that in four cases improved technology was unlikely to lead to higher output and certain aspects of posture and equipment manipulation were major contributors to the limitations on increased output. The role of the work-rest schedule in increasing work loads was also demonstrated. Improvements in technology and methods to reduce the extent of certain work loads to enable heavy work to be done in shorter periods followed by light work or rest periods are given as means to modify and improve the output of these machines. Finally, the direction for the development of a predictive model for man-machine matching is introduced.

  2. Stability of vertical and horizontal axis Levitrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelis, M. M.; Taylor, D. B.

    2015-11-01

    The stability of the new horizontal axis Levitron3 is compared with that of the vertical axis device. The rotation frequency ranges are similar because they are determined by the same precessional micro-trap, for which some theory is given. But the macro-trap of the horizontal axis system gives it far greater mechanical stability. Field-line studies allow this to be more easily visualized. The greater stability allows for educational experiments which could only be contemplated with the old Levitron: driven precession and nutation and motion along the field lines. These experiments illustrate some very fundamental space dynamics and several other topics. The enhanced stability may also lead to electro-mechanical applications.

  3. Vertical Analysis of Martian Drainage Basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepinski, T. F.; OHara, W. J.

    2003-01-01

    We have performed a vertical analysis of drainage basins on Mars that were computationally extracted from DEMs based on the MOLA data. Longitudinal profiles of main streams are calculated and the slope-area relation is established for 20 basins coming from assorted martian locations. An identical analysis is done for 19 terrestrial river basins. Our results show that, in comparison to terrestrial basins, martian basins have more linear longitudinal profiles, more frequent existence of knickpoints, predominance of asymmetric location of the main stream in the basin, and smaller values of concavity exponent. This suggests a limited role for surface runoff on the global scale. However, two basins extracted from the slopes of martian volcanoes show a strong similarity to terrestrial basins, indicating a possible local role for the process of surface runoff.

  4. Vertical integration and optimal reimbursement policy.

    PubMed

    Afendulis, Christopher C; Kessler, Daniel P

    2011-09-01

    Health care providers may vertically integrate not only to facilitate coordination of care, but also for strategic reasons that may not be in patients' best interests. Optimal Medicare reimbursement policy depends upon the extent to which each of these explanations is correct. To investigate, we compare the consequences of the 1997 adoption of prospective payment for skilled nursing facilities (SNF PPS) in geographic areas with high versus low levels of hospital/SNF integration. We find that SNF PPS decreased spending more in high integration areas, with no measurable consequences for patient health outcomes. Our findings suggest that integrated providers should face higher-powered reimbursement incentives, i.e., less cost-sharing. More generally, we conclude that purchasers of health services (and other services subject to agency problems) should consider the organizational form of their suppliers when choosing a reimbursement mechanism.

  5. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818 (Vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends.

    This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top.

    The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view.

    The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  6. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1687 (Vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on the 1,687th Martian day, or sol, of its surface mission (Oct. 22, 2008).

    Opportunity had driven 133 meters (436 feet) that sol, crossing sand ripples up to about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The tracks visible in the foreground are in the east-northeast direction.

    Opportunity's position on Sol 1687 was about 300 meters southwest of Victoria Crater. The rover was beginning a long trek toward a much larger crater, Endeavour, about 12 kilometers (7 miles) to the southeast.

    This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

  7. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798 (Vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top.

    This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

    The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches).

    The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  8. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive (Vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009).

    This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top.

    The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches).

    The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock.

  9. Biochemical Functionalization of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibres

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, Benjamin L; McKnight, Timothy E; Melechko, Anatoli Vasilievich; Simpson, Michael L; Doktycz, Mitchel John

    2006-01-01

    Because of their unique physical and chemical properties, vertically aligned carbon nanofibres (VACNFs) show promise in improving current analytical measurement techniques. Chemical functionalization schemes will be necessary to fully realize this promise. Functionalization of the VACNFs with biomolecules or other species can impart specific chemical or physical properties. We report on two methods for immobilizing biomolecules on the surface of VACNFs. One attachment scheme makes use of a class of heterocyclic aromatic dye compounds to specifically adsorb onto VACNFs. The second scheme involves covalently coupling biomolecules through cross-linking to carboxylic acid sites on the sidewalls of the carbon nanofibres. The observed adsorption and covalent coupling properties are consistent with the physical structure and chemical characteristics of the VACNFs.

  10. Integrated Vertical Bloch Line (VBL) memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, R. R.; Wu, J. C.; Stadler, H. L.

    1991-01-01

    Vertical Bloch Line (VBL) Memory is a recently conceived, integrated, solid state, block access, VLSI memory which offers the potential of 1 Gbit/sq cm areal storage density, data rates of hundreds of megabits/sec, and submillisecond average access time simultaneously at relatively low mass, volume, and power values when compared to alternative technologies. VBLs are micromagnetic structures within magnetic domain walls which can be manipulated using magnetic fields from integrated conductors. The presence or absence of BVL pairs are used to store binary information. At present, efforts are being directed at developing a single chip memory using 25 Mbit/sq cm technology in magnetic garnet material which integrates, at a single operating point, the writing, storage, reading, and amplification functions needed in a memory. The current design architecture, functional elements, and supercomputer simulation results are described which are used to assist the design process.

  11. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Tsukahara, H.; Ishikawa, K.

    2012-12-01

    The vertical cable seismic is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. This type of survey is generally called VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic). Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. Our first experiment of VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN in November 2009 for a feasibility study. Prestack depth migration is applied to the 3D VCS data to obtain a high quality 3D depth volume. Based on the results from the feasibility study, we have developed two autonomous recording VCS systems. After we carried out a trial experiment in the actual ocean at a water depth of about 400m and we carried out the second VCS survey at Iheya Knoll with a deep-towed source. In this survey, we could establish the procedures for the deployment/recovery of the system and could examine the locations and the fluctuations of the vertical cables at a water depth of around 1000m. The acquired VCS data clearly shows the reflections from the sub-seafloor. Through the experiment, we could confirm that our VCS system works well even in the severe circumstances around the locations of seafloor hydrothermal deposits. We have carried out two field surveys in 2011. One is a 3D survey with a boomer for a high-resolution surface source and the other one for an actual field survey in the Izena Cauldron an active hydrothermal area in the Okinawa Trough. Through these surveys, we have confirmed that the

  12. [The hyoid bone and vertical dimension].

    PubMed

    Doual, A; Léger, J L; Doual, J M; Hadjiat, F

    2003-09-01

    Located at the center of the neck and the pharyngeal column and, thanks to its attachments, tied to the base of the skull, to the mandible, to the tongue, to the larynx, and to the scapular belt, the hyoid bone is intimately related to an extensive tendino-muscular complex. From this strategic position, the hyoid bone participates in all functional and nutritional activities of the oro-facial complex. Heavily involved in the physiology of the pharyngeal column, it appears to enjoy a remarkable stability in relation to its surrounding structures as it participates in the critical process of vertical ontogenetic development. Deceptively simple in its shape and location it is anything but. While it would be easy to scorn it as a vestigial organ of little importance, the hyoid bone is actually an ancient witness of the evolution of the first human vertebrae and a vestige of the 2nd and 3rd brachial arches. Like a toy buffeted by powerful groups of muscles and tendons, the hyoid bone occupies a crossroads position where it is solicited by many vital functions, the most critical of which is respiration. Its functional behavior seems to have evolved considerably over the course of phylogeny. By piecing together the conceptions of many authors, we can conclude that the similarities--and, later, the differences--existing between the human fetus and those of other primates, and, then between young children and young primates, are related to an essentially different status quo, which modifies the delicate equilibrium of the pharyngeal region. In metamorphosing from a sagittal equilibrium to one that is vertical, this very status quo maintains an open respiratory airway during each time frame, continuously permitting the articulation and modulation of sounds, particularly during the vertical period. The hyoid bone is unpaired, in a mid-line position, symmetrical, and located just below the mandible with which it shares, to an astonishing extent, certain morphological

  13. Vertical and rotational motion of mahogany seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camposano, A. V. C.; Virtudes, N. C.; Otadoy, R. E. S.; Violanda, R.

    2015-06-01

    Starting with a set of basic assumptions and with the application of well-known Newtonian physics, a theoretical model has been established for the flight of the mahogany winged seed. Using a high-speed camera, we successfully confirmed that the mahogany winged seed attains a vertical and rotational terminal velocity. From our model the mahogany seed has a terminal speed of 1.45 m/s. The experimental value of the terminal velocity on the average is 1.47 m/s (only about 1% error). The experimental value of the angular velocity was found to be around 54.33 rad/s, about 14% error compared to the predicted terminal velocity of 47.5 rad/s. The high predictable nature of a mahogany's terminal velocity can facilitate the biologist's study of mahogany mass seed dispersal.

  14. Aberrations of a horizontal-vertical depolarizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, Stephen C.; Chipman, Russell A.; Hillman, Lloyd W.

    1992-01-01

    Ray-trace equations for uniaxial birefringent materials are used here to derive third-order estimates for aberrations that are produced in imaging through uniaxial plates and horizontal-vertical (HV) depolarizers. An HV depolarizer is a spatial pseudodepolarizer; it converts a uniform input polarization state into a continuum of spatially varying polarization states in an output beam. An HV depolarizer consists of two birefringent wedges whose crystal axes are crossed at 90 deg. The interface between the wedges is included, which leads to a spatially varying retardance that provides the spatial pseudodepolarization. In HV depolarizers, spherical aberration, astigmatism, and image doubling are the principal aberrations for on-axis objects. Only spherical aberration occurs in isotropic plates, while the presence of birefringent wedges introduces astigmatism and image doubling. It is shown that image separation is proportional to the magnitude of the retardance variation.

  15. Ultrahigh efficiencies in vertical epitaxial heterostructure architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fafard, S.; York, M. C. A.; Proulx, F.; Valdivia, C. E.; Wilkins, M. M.; Arès, R.; Aimez, V.; Hinzer, K.; Masson, D. P.

    2016-02-01

    Optical to electrical power converting semiconductor devices were achieved with breakthrough performance by designing a Vertical Epitaxial Heterostructure Architecture. The devices are featuring modeled and measured conversion efficiencies greater than 65%. The ultrahigh conversion efficiencies were obtained by monolithically integrating several thin GaAs photovoltaic junctions tailored with submicron absorption thicknesses and grown in a single crystal by epitaxy. The heterostructures that were engineered with a number N of such ultrathin junctions yielded an optimal external quantum efficiencies approaching 100%/N. The heterostructures are capable of output voltages that are multiple times larger than the corresponding photovoltage of the input light. The individual nanoscale junctions are each generating up to ˜1.2 V of output voltage when illuminated in the infrared. We compare the optoelectronic properties of phototransducers prepared with designs having 5 to 12 junctions and that are exhibiting voltage outputs between >5 V and >14 V.

  16. Multispectral imaging with vertical silicon nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyunsung; Crozier, Kenneth B.

    2013-01-01

    Multispectral imaging is a powerful tool that extends the capabilities of the human eye. However, multispectral imaging systems generally are expensive and bulky, and multiple exposures are needed. Here, we report the demonstration of a compact multispectral imaging system that uses vertical silicon nanowires to realize a filter array. Multiple filter functions covering visible to near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths are simultaneously defined in a single lithography step using a single material (silicon). Nanowires are then etched and embedded into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), thereby realizing a device with eight filter functions. By attaching it to a monochrome silicon image sensor, we successfully realize an all-silicon multispectral imaging system. We demonstrate visible and NIR imaging. We show that the latter is highly sensitive to vegetation and furthermore enables imaging through objects opaque to the eye. PMID:23955156

  17. Analytical model for a vertical buoyant jet

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.W.

    1980-10-01

    An analytical model for a round and two-dimensional turbulent buoyant jet which is discharged vertically into a stagnant ambient is developed. The buoyant jet is considered to have three separate zone models which are matched to form a complete solution. The velocity field is determined for the entire jet and plume regions by the use of an eddy viscosity which varies along the axis of the jet. The centerline decay of buoyancy is determined throughout and the results are compared to existing numerical codes. The model is applied to the disposal of carbon dioxide enriched seawater. The results can be used to provide design information for minimizing or maximizing the dilution of a discharge by the receiving environment.

  18. Matrix model and dimensions at hypercube vertices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, A. Yu.; Morozov, A. A.; Popolitov, A. V.

    2017-07-01

    We consider correlation functions in the Chern-Simons theory (knot polynomials) using an approach in which each knot diagram is associated with a hypercube. The number of cycles into which the link diagram is decomposed under different resolutions plays a central role. Certain functions of these numbers are further interpreted as dimensions of graded spaces associated with hypercube vertices, but finding these functions is a somewhat nontrivial problem. It was previously suggested to solve this problem using the matrix model technique by analogy with topological recursion. We develop this idea and provide a wide collection of nontrivial examples related to both ordinary and virtual knots and links. The most powerful version of the formalism freely connects ordinary knots/links with virtual ones. Moreover, it allows going beyond the limits of the knot-related set of ( 2, 2)-valent graphs.

  19. Vertical Localization of the Malar Prominence

    PubMed Central

    Kaptein, John S.; Markarian, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Background: During reconstruction or augmentation, it is important to localize the malar complex in a symmetrical and aesthetically pleasing position. Few studies have determined the location of this feature and none related the location to gender, age, or ethnicity. Some of these have attempted to relate the position to the aesthetically pleasing Golden Ratio φ. Methods: We assessed the vertical location of the malar prominence relative to other facial landmarks, determined consistency among individuals, and compared this with values used in artistry. Study population consisted of a convenience sample of 67 patients taken from an otolaryngology practice at a large urban medical center. Coordinates of the malar prominence were referenced to distinct facial landmarks from which the ratio of chin-to-malar prominence to chin-to-eye canthus was determined. Results: Average chin-to-malar prominence distance was 0.793 ± 0.023 (SD) of the chin-to-eye canthus distance. Variability due to the specific image chosen [coefficient of variation (CV) = 1.19%] and combined inter/intrareader variability (CV = 1.71%) validate the methodology. Variability among individuals (CV = 2.84%) indicates population consistency. No difference was found between gender and age groups or between whites and Hispanics. Individuals of other/unknown ethnicities were within the range common to whites and Hispanics. Our population’s value is not different from the value of 0.809 used in artistry, which is based on the Golden Ratio φ. Conclusions: The vertical position of the malar prominence is consistent among individuals, is clinically well-approximated by the value based on the Golden Ratio, and may be useful as a reference for surgical reconstruction or augmentation. PMID:26180712

  20. Vertical structure of recent Arctic warming.

    PubMed

    Graversen, Rune G; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Tjernström, Michael; Källén, Erland; Svensson, Gunilla

    2008-01-03

    Near-surface warming in the Arctic has been almost twice as large as the global average over recent decades-a phenomenon that is known as the 'Arctic amplification'. The underlying causes of this temperature amplification remain uncertain. The reduction in snow and ice cover that has occurred over recent decades may have played a role. Climate model experiments indicate that when global temperature rises, Arctic snow and ice cover retreats, causing excessive polar warming. Reduction of the snow and ice cover causes albedo changes, and increased refreezing of sea ice during the cold season and decreases in sea-ice thickness both increase heat flux from the ocean to the atmosphere. Changes in oceanic and atmospheric circulation, as well as cloud cover, have also been proposed to cause Arctic temperature amplification. Here we examine the vertical structure of temperature change in the Arctic during the late twentieth century using reanalysis data. We find evidence for temperature amplification well above the surface. Snow and ice feedbacks cannot be the main cause of the warming aloft during the greater part of the year, because these feedbacks are expected to primarily affect temperatures in the lowermost part of the atmosphere, resulting in a pattern of warming that we only observe in spring. A significant proportion of the observed temperature amplification must therefore be explained by mechanisms that induce warming above the lowermost part of the atmosphere. We regress the Arctic temperature field on the atmospheric energy transport into the Arctic and find that, in the summer half-year, a significant proportion of the vertical structure of warming can be explained by changes in this variable. We conclude that changes in atmospheric heat transport may be an important cause of the recent Arctic temperature amplification.

  1. Gravity dependence of subjective visual vertical variability.

    PubMed

    Tarnutzer, A A; Bockisch, C; Straumann, D; Olasagasti, I

    2009-09-01

    The brain integrates sensory input from the otolith organs, the semicircular canals, and the somatosensory and visual systems to determine self-orientation relative to gravity. Only the otoliths directly sense the gravito-inertial force vector and therefore provide the major input for perceiving static head-roll relative to gravity, as measured by the subjective visual vertical (SVV). Intraindividual SVV variability increases with head roll, which suggests that the effectiveness of the otolith signal is roll-angle dependent. We asked whether SVV variability reflects the spatial distribution of the otolithic sensors and the otolith-derived acceleration estimate. Subjects were placed in different roll orientations (0-360 degrees, 15 degrees steps) and asked to align an arrow with perceived vertical. Variability was minimal in upright, increased with head-roll peaking around 120-135 degrees, and decreased to intermediate values at 180 degrees. Otolith-dependent variability was modeled by taking into consideration the nonuniform distribution of the otolith afferents and their nonlinear firing rate. The otolith-derived estimate was combined with an internal bias shifting the estimated gravity-vector toward the body-longitudinal. Assuming an efficient otolith estimator at all roll angles, peak variability of the model matched our data; however, modeled variability in upside-down and upright positions was very similar, which is at odds with our findings. By decreasing the effectiveness of the otolith estimator with increasing roll, simulated variability matched our experimental findings better. We suggest that modulations of SVV precision in the roll plane are related to the properties of the otolith sensors and to central computational mechanisms that are not optimally tuned for roll-angles distant from upright.

  2. EM Sounding Characterization of Soil Environment toward Estimation of Potential Pollutant Load from Non-point Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Y.; Ide, J.; Somura, H.; Morisawa, T.

    2010-12-01

    A multi-frequency electro-magnetic (EM) sounding method was applied to agriculture fields to investigate the characteristics of non-point pollution load. Soil environmental properties such as differences in land management were analyzed with electrical conductivity (EC) maps. In addition, vertical EC profiles obtained from EM soundings were compared with EC in drainage ditch or river water. As results, surface soil EC maps successfully extracted the differences in land management affected by fertilizer application. Moreover, surface EC at the vertical profiles strongly related with drainage ditch or river EC, showing most of the EC in the water was explained by surface EC maps at the EM sounding data. The proposed method has strength in obtaining EC data without sampling river water, the situation we sometimes experienced at the field survey.

  3. Vertical profiles of BC direct radiative effect over Italy: high vertical resolution data and atmospheric feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Močnik, Griša; Ferrero, Luca; Castelli, Mariapina; Ferrini, Barbara S.; Moscatelli, Marco; Grazia Perrone, Maria; Sangiorgi, Giorgia; Rovelli, Grazia; D'Angelo, Luca; Moroni, Beatrice; Scardazza, Francesco; Bolzacchini, Ezio; Petitta, Marcello; Cappelletti, David

    2016-04-01

    Black carbon (BC), and its vertical distribution, affects the climate. Global measurements of BC vertical profiles are lacking to support climate change research. To fill this gap, a campaign was conducted over three Italian basin valleys, Terni Valley (Appennines), Po Valley and Passiria Valley (Alps), to characterize the impact of BC on the radiative budget under similar orographic conditions. 120 vertical profiles were measured in winter 2010. The BC vertical profiles, together with aerosol size distribution, aerosol chemistry and meteorological parameters, have been determined using a tethered balloon-based platform equipped with: a micro-Aethalometer AE51 (Magee Scientific), a 1.107 Grimm OPC (0.25-32 μm, 31 size classes), a cascade impactor (Siuotas SKC), and a meteorological station (LSI-Lastem). The aerosol chemical composition was determined from collected PM2.5 samples. The aerosol absorption along the vertical profiles was measured and optical properties calculated using the Mie theory applied to the aerosol size distribution. The aerosol optical properties were validated with AERONET data and then used as inputs to the radiative transfer model libRadtran. Vertical profiles of the aerosol direct radiative effect, the related atmospheric absorption and the heating rate were calculated. Vertical profile measurements revealed some common behaviors over the studied basin valleys. From below the mixing height to above it, a marked concentration drop was found for both BC (from -48.4±5.3% up to -69.1±5.5%) and aerosol number concentration (from -23.9±4.3% up to -46.5±7.3%). These features reflected on the optical properties of the aerosol. Absorption and scattering coefficients decreased from below the MH to above it (babs from -47.6±2.5% up to -71.3±3.0% and bsca from -23.5±0.8% up to -61.2±3.1%, respectively). Consequently, the Single Scattering Albedo increased above the MH (from +4.9±2.2% to +7.4±1.0%). The highest aerosol absorption was

  4. Entropy Constraints on Vertical Heat Transport and Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, W.; Liu, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Vertical heat transport by evaporation and condensation is a key process in transferring energy from the surface of the Earth to the atmosphere. Although this process has been studied for a long time, thermodynamic constraints on this process and on the vertical structures of the atmosphere are still poorly understood and quantified. In this work, we use a simple 1D vertical energy-entropy climate model to investigate this issue. Especially, we explore the roles of the entropy-rated constraints in determining vertical heat transport and atmospheric vertical structures. The sensitivities of the vertical distributions of atmospheric temperature, the energy and entropy fluxes to the variation of solar radiation are also discussed.

  5. Decoration of vertical graphene with aerosol nanoparticles for gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Shumao; Guo, Xiaoru; Ren, Ren; Zhou, Guihua; Chen, Junhong

    2015-08-01

    A facile method was demonstrated to decorate aerosol Ag nanoparticles onto vertical graphene surfaces using a mini-arc plasma reactor. The vertical graphene was directly grown on a sensor electrode using a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method. The aerosol Ag nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple vapor condensation process using a mini-arc plasma source. Then, the nanoparticles were assembled on the surface of vertical graphene through the assistance of an electric field. Based on our observation, nonagglomerated Ag nanoparticles formed in the gas phase and were assembled onto vertical graphene sheets. Nanohybrids of Ag nanoparticle-decorated vertical graphene were characterized for ammonia gas detection at room temperature. The vertical graphene served as the conductance channel, and the conductance change upon exposure to ammonia was used as the sensing signal. The sensing results show that Ag nanoparticles significantly improve the sensitivity, response time, and recovery time of the sensor.

  6. Infants' sensitivity to vertical disparity for depth perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuruhara, Aki; Kaneko, Hirohiko; Kanazawa, So; Otsuka, Yumiko; Shirai, Nobu; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

    2013-05-01

    Both horizontal and vertical binocular disparities produce depth perception in adults. In developmental studies, infants aged around 4 to 6 months were shown to perceive depth from horizontal disparity. However, infants' sensitivity to vertical disparity has not been shown clearly. To examine the sensitivity in infants, this study measured preferential looking behavior of infants aged 20 to 27 weeks. Results showed a significant preference for the stimulus with vertical disparity, providing the first evidence of infants' sensitivity to vertical disparity. The infants in the same age group did not show preference for stimulus with horizontal disparity when the stimulus were comparable to the stimulus with vertical disparity, while their sensitivity to horizontal disparity was confirmed with the stimuli used in a previous study. Our results would suggest that properties in processing horizontal and vertical disparities are different in infancy, and that the sensitivity to horizontal disparity are still premature in 27 weeks after birth.

  7. Why do Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Professionals Leave EMS?

    PubMed

    Blau, Gary; Chapman, Susan A

    2016-12-01

    The objective was to determine why Emergency Medical Technician (EMT)-Basics and Paramedics leave the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) workforce. Data were collected through annual surveys of nationally registered EMT-Basics and Paramedics from 1999 to 2008. Survey items dealing with satisfaction with the EMS profession, likelihood of leaving the profession, and likelihood of leaving their EMS job were assessed for both EMT-Basics and Paramedics, along with reasons for leaving the profession. Individuals whose responses indicated that they were not working in EMS were mailed a special exit survey to determine the reasons for leaving EMS. The likelihood of leaving the profession in the next year was low for both EMT-Basics and Paramedics. Although overall satisfaction levels with the profession were high, EMT-Basics were significantly more satisfied than Paramedics. The most important reasons for leaving the profession were choosing to pursue further education and moving to a new location. A desire for better pay and benefits was a significantly more important reason for EMT-Paramedics' exit decisions than for EMT-Basics. Given the anticipated increased demand for EMS professionals in the next decade, continued study of issues associated with retention is strongly recommended. Some specific recommendations and suggestions for promoting retention are provided. Blau G , Chapman SA . Why do Emergency Medical Services (EMS) professionals leave EMS? Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(Suppl. 1):s105-s111.

  8. Robotic platform for traveling on vertical piping network

    DOEpatents

    Nance, Thomas A; Vrettos, Nick J; Krementz, Daniel; Marzolf, Athneal D

    2015-02-03

    This invention relates generally to robotic systems and is specifically designed for a robotic system that can navigate vertical pipes within a waste tank or similar environment. The robotic system allows a process for sampling, cleaning, inspecting and removing waste around vertical pipes by supplying a robotic platform that uses the vertical pipes to support and navigate the platform above waste material contained in the tank.

  9. Learning to Read Vertical Text in Peripheral Vision

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Ahalya; Legge, Gordon E.; Wagoner, Gunther Harrison; Yu, Deyue

    2014-01-01

    Purpose English–language text is almost always written horizontally. Text can be formatted to run vertically, but this is seldom used. Several studies have found that horizontal text can be read faster than vertical text in the central visual field. No studies have investigated the peripheral visual field. Studies have also concluded that training can improve reading speed in the peripheral visual field for horizontal text. We aimed to establish whether the horizontal vertical differences are maintained and if training can improve vertical reading in the peripheral visual field. Methods Eight normally sighted young adults participated in the first study. Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) reading speed was measured for horizontal and vertical text in the central visual field and at 10° eccentricity in the upper or lower (horizontal text), and right or left (vertical text) visual fields. Twenty-one normally sighted young adults split equally between 2 training and 1 control group participated in the second study. Training consisted of RSVP reading either using vertical text in the left visual field or horizontal text in the inferior visual field. Subjects trained daily over 4 days. Pre and post horizontal and vertical RSVP reading speeds were carried out for all groups. For the training groups these measurements were repeated 1 week and 1 month post training. Results Prior to training, RSVP reading speeds were faster for horizontal text in the central and peripheral visual fields when compared to vertical text. Training vertical reading improved vertical reading speeds by an average factor of 2.8. There was partial transfer of training to the opposite (right) hemifield. The training effects were retained for up to a month. Conclusions RSVP training can improve RSVP vertical text reading in peripheral vision. These findings may have implications for patients with macular degeneration or hemianopic field loss. PMID:25062130

  10. Chain purse-string suture used to shorten the vertical incision in vertical breast reduction.

    PubMed

    Karacı, S; Kose, R; Baykan, H; Ozkose, M

    2013-02-01

    Reduction mammaplasty is one of the most frequently performed operations in plastic surgery. Breast scarring can be troublesome for both the patient and the surgeon. This report offers an easy method for suturing a vertical incision that provides a better shape in final breast appearance. In this study, 10 patients with an average age of 33 years (range, 27-44 years) underwent short-scar medial pedicle breast reduction. For the patients who underwent a medium reduction (401-800 g), after the excision of sufficient glandular and skin tissue, the vertical incision was closed as follows. Loose subcuticular sutures were placed, starting from the top of the incision and proceeding toward its bottom. In the distal corner of the incision, counterpart suturing was performed out through the opposite direction before the wound was approximated. In this way, the suture chain was completed. At the top of the incision, the sutures were pulled tight to gather the skin in a short vertical scar. The patients were followed up on the average for 12 months after the surgery. The majority of the patients were sufficiently satisfied with the results of the operations, including the scar length and the final appearance. Pseudoptosis did not occur. The findings show that the reported technique is an improvement over the existing vertical incision method by allowing for faster and simpler closure and resulting in a better breast shape and scar length. The bidirectional continuous suture is performed as a purse string in the longitudinal incision. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  11. Equatorial waves in a stratospheric GCM - Effects of vertical resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boville, Byron A.; Randel, William J.

    1992-01-01

    It is noted that equatorially trapped wave modes, e.g., Kelvin and Rossby-gravity waves, are thought to play a critical role in forcing the quasi-biennial oscillation of the lower tropical stratosphere. The ability of a GCM to simulate these waves is examined and the changes in the wave properties as a function of the vertical resolution of the model are investigated. The dependence of the equatorial wave simulation of vertical resolution is examined utilizing three experiments with vertical grid spacings of about 2.8, 1.4, and 0.7 km. At high vertical resolution, the simulated waves are shown to agree with the available observations.

  12. 7. VIEW NORTHWEST, DETAIL VERTICAL SUPPORT SYSTEM, STRINGER, CONNECTIONS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW NORTHWEST, DETAIL VERTICAL SUPPORT SYSTEM, STRINGER, CONNECTIONS AND TRAFFIC DECK - Hagerstown Road Bridge, Spanning Little Cotoctin Creek at Old Hagerstown Road, Middletown, Frederick County, MD

  13. Length perception of horizontal and vertical bisected lines.

    PubMed

    Charras, Pom; Lupiáñez, Juan

    2010-03-01

    In an inverted T figure, the vertical line is largely overestimated (Avery and Day in J Exp Psychol 81:376-380, 1969). This vertical overestimation results from the vertical and bisection biases. Line orientation biases length perception in the sense that the vertical line of a L shape is perceived as longer than the horizontal line of the same physical length. In the inverted T figure, the vertical line is overestimated because of its orientation but also because the horizontal line is bisected. In the current study, we used various two-line configurations to investigate the role of bisection a/symmetry in line length perception and its interaction with the vertical bias. Experiment 1 showed that symmetry and asymmetry of bisection have different consequences on line length perception, as previously shown by Wolfe et al. (Percept Psychophys 67:967-979, 2005). Experiments 2 focused on the relation between the vertical and bisection biases by manipulating orthogonally line orientation and bisection a/symmetry. The results provided evidence that bisection can prevent the manifestation of the vertical bias, so that when the two lines are bisected, vertical lines are not anymore overestimated. These results are discussed in the light of recent findings claiming that saccades could play an essential role in length perception.

  14. Modelling HIV-RNA viral load in vertically infected children.

    PubMed

    Gray, Linsay; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2004-03-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) ribo-nucleic acid (RNA) viral load is a measure of actively replicating virus and is used as a marker of disease progression. For a thorough understanding of the dynamics of the evolution of the virus in the early life of HIV-1 vertically infected children, it is important to elucidate the pattern of HIV-RNA viral load over age. An aspect of assay systems used in the quantification of RNA viral load is that they measure values above particular cut-off values for detection, below which the assays used are not sufficiently sensitive. In this way, measurements are potentially left-censored. Recent adult studies suggest that to adequately model RNA pattern over age, it is necessary to account for within-subject correlation, due to repeated measures, and censoring. The aim of this study, therefore, was to establish whether it is necessary to use complex methods to allow for repeated measures within individuals and censoring of the HIV-RNA viral load in children enrolled in a cohort study. The approach involved the identification of an appropriate model for the basic pattern of RNA viral load by age and subsequent assessment of various estimation procedures accounting for repeated measures and censoring in different ways. Methods developed by Hughes involving the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm and the Gibbs sampler were taken as the benchmark for comparison of simpler alternatives. Other approaches considered involve linear mixed-effects and ordinary least squares in which censoring is dealt with informally by taking the cut-off value as absolute or taking the mid-point between cut-off and zero. Fractional polynomials provided a substantially superior approach for modelling the dynamics of viral load over age compared to conventional polynomials or change-point models. Allowing for repeated measures was necessary to improve the power of the likelihood ratio tests required to establish the final model, but methods beyond taking

  15. Muscle activation history at different vertical jumps and its influence on vertical velocity.

    PubMed

    Kopper, Bence; Csende, Zsolt; Sáfár, Sándor; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Tihanyi, József

    2013-02-01

    In the present study we investigated displacement, time, velocity and acceleration history of center of mass (COM) and electrical activity of knee extensors to estimate the dominance of the factors influencing the vertical velocity in squat jumps (SJs), countermovement jumps (CMJs) and drop jumps (DJs) performed with small (40°) and large (80°) range of joint motion (SROM and LROM). The maximum vertical velocity (v4) was 23.4% (CMJ) and 7.8% (DJ) greater when the jumps were performed with LROM compared with SROM (p < 0.05). These differences are considerably less than it could be expected from the greater COM and knee angular displacement and duration of active state. This small difference can be attributed to the greater deceleration during eccentric phase (CMJ:32.1%, DJ:91.5%) in SROM than that in LROM. v4 was greater for SJ in LROM than for SJ in SROM indicating the significance of the longer active state and greater activation level (p < 0.001). The difference in v4 was greater between SJ and CMJ in SROM (38.6%) than in LROM (9.0%), suggesting that elastic energy storage and re-use can be a dominant factor in the enhancement of vertical velocity of CMJ and DJ compared with SJ performed with SROM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reconstruction of the vertical electron density profile based on vertical TEC using the simulated annealing algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chunhua; Yang, Guobin; Zhu, Peng; Nishioka, Michi; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Zhou, Chen; Song, Huan; Lan, Ting; Zhao, Zhengyu; Zhang, Yuannong

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a new method to reconstruct the vertical electron density profile based on vertical Total Electron Content (TEC) using the simulated annealing algorithm. The present technique used the Quasi-parabolic segments (QPS) to model the bottomside ionosphere. The initial parameters of the ionosphere model were determined from both International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) (Bilitza et al., 2014) and vertical TEC (vTEC). Then, the simulated annealing algorithm was used to search the best-fit parameters of the ionosphere model by comparing with the GPS-TEC. The performance and robust of this technique were verified by ionosonde data. The critical frequency (foF2) and peak height (hmF2) of the F2 layer obtained from ionograms recorded at different locations and on different days were compared with those calculated by the proposed method. The analysis of results shows that the present method is inspiring for obtaining foF2 from vTEC. However, the accuracy of hmF2 needs to be improved in the future work.

  17. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Tsukahara, H.; Shimura, T.

    2011-12-01

    In 2009, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology(MEXT) started the survey system development for Hydrothermal deposit. We proposed the Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS), the reflection seismic survey with vertical cable above seabottom. VCS has the following advantages for hydrothermal deposit survey. (1) VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey in limited area. (2) It achieves high-resolution image because the sensors are closely located to the target. (3) It avoids the coupling problems between sensor and seabottom that cause serious damage of seismic data quality. (4) Because of autonomous recording system on sea floor, various types of marine source are applicable with VCS such as sea-surface source (GI gun etc.) , deep-towed or ocean bottom source. Our first experiment of 2D/3D VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN, in November 2009. The 2D VCS data processing follows the walk-away VSP, including wave field separation and depth migration. Seismic Interferometry technique is also applied. The results give much clearer image than the conventional surface seismic. Prestack depth migration is applied to 3D data to obtain good quality 3D depth volume. Seismic Interferometry technique is applied to obtain the high resolution image in the very shallow zone. Based on the feasibility study, we have developed the autonomous recording VCS system and carried out the trial experiment in actual ocean at the water depth of about 400m to establish the procedures of deployment/recovery and to examine the VC position or fluctuation at seabottom. The result shows that the VC position is estimated with sufficient accuracy and very little fluctuation is observed. Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo took the research cruise NT11-02 on JAMSTEC R/V Natsushima in February, 2011. In the cruise NT11-02, JGI carried out the second VCS survey using the autonomous VCS recording system with the deep towed source provided by

  18. Vertically homogeneous stationary tornado-type vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutkevich, P. B.; Rutkevych, P. P.

    2010-05-01

    Tornado is regarded as one of the most dangerous atmosphere phenomena. The tornado phenomenon has been intensively studied so far, however, there is still no established and accepted theory of how tornadoes form, an uncertainty still exists concerning extreme winds and pressure drops in tornadoes. It is commonly accepted that it is possible to describe tornado from the set of nonlinear hydrodynamical equations, however, it is still unclear which non-linear processes are responsible for its formation. Nonlinear terms in the system are associated with either centrifugal force, or entropy transport, or transport of humidity. It appears that the amount and spatial distribution of precipitation with the convection are important indicators of the weather phenomena associated with a particular storm. The low-precipitation supercells that produce relatively little precipitation and yet show clear visual signs of rotation. Low-precipitation supercells occur most often near the surface dryline and, owing to the sparse precipitation and relatively dry environments with little cloudiness. Low-precipitation storms are frequently non-tornadic and many are non-severe despite exhibiting persistent rotation. On the other hand, the so-called high-precipitation storms are characterized by substantial precipitation within their mesocyclonic circulations. When high-precipitation storms have a recognizable hook radar echo, reflectivity in the hook is comparable to those in the precipitation core. High-precipitation supercells are probably the most common form of supercell and produce severe weather of all types including tornadoes. Therefore, in this work we consider a hydrodynamic system with only one nonlinear term associated with atmosphere humidity, which yields energy to the system. The tornado vortex is usually to a good approximation cylindrical so we use cylindrical geometry and homogeneity in vertical direction. In this case the problem reduces to a system of ordinary

  19. A vertical coarse approach scanning tunneling microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drevniok, Benedict

    A Pan-style scanning tunneling microscope (STM), with a vertical coarse approach mechanism, was designed, built and tested. The microscope will be operated in ultra-high vacuum and also at cryogenic temperatures (8 K) inside a continuous flow cryostat. Fundamental differences in operating principle exist between the new microscope and the beetle-type inertial sliders [1] that have been the mainstay of the group for the last eight years. While Pan-style microscopes do already exist [2], they remain challenging to build, and an active area of research [3]. This system represents a bold departure from well-trodden paths, and will greatly expand the range of experiments that our group can perform. The operating principles of inertial piezoelectric motors are detailed. Design guidelines for a piezoelectric motor are given, and used in the design of the vertical coarse approach motor. A simple, inexpensive implementation for creating waveforms with an extremely fast fall time is discussed. Motor performance is tested, and a minimum step size of 20nm is found for frequencies ranging from 0 Hz to 3 kHz. The motor operates with high dynamic range: individual 20nm steps can be taken, as well as being able to move at a velocity of 0.4mm s-1. Little is known about the vibrational properties of Pan-style microscopes. Vibrational testing of the microscope revealed the expected scanner bending mode at 1.6 kHz (above the scanner bending mode of our beetles at 1.2 kHz), and a complicated response signal above this frequency. Custom extension springs for an eddy-current damping system are built and tested. A low resonant frequency of 1.8 Hz is found, which is ideal for the application. Initial testing of the STM in ambient conditions is performed on two different surfaces. A moire supermesh [4] with periodicity 3nm is observed on a highly-oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface, and agrees well with previously published results. Using a flame-annealed Gold on mica surface, a low

  20. Vertical Cable Seismic Survey for SMS exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, Eiichi; Murakami, Fumitoshi; Tsukahara, Hotoshi; Mizohata, Shigeharu

    2014-05-01

    The Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS) survey is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by sea-surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. Because the VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed it for the SMS survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We have been developing the VCS survey system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. We carried out several VCS surveys combining with surface towed source, deep towed source and ocean bottom source. The water depths of these surveys are from 100m up to 2100 m. Through these experiments, our VCS data acquisition system has been also completed. But the data processing techniques are still on the way. One of the most critical issues is the positioning in the water. The uncertainty in the positions of the source and of the hydrophones in water degraded the quality of subsurface image. GPS navigation system is available on sea surface, but in case of deep-towed source or ocean bottom source, the accuracy of shot position with SSBL/USBL is not sufficient for the very high-resolution imaging. We have developed a new approach to determine the positions in water using the travel time data from the source to VCS hydrophones. In 2013, we have carried out the second VCS survey using the surface-towed high-voltage sparker and ocean bottom source in the Izena Cauldron, which is one of the most promising SMS areas around Japan. The positions of ocean bottom source estimated by this method are consistent with the VCS field records. The VCS data with the sparker have been processed with 3D PSTM. It gives the very high resolution 3D volume deeper than two

  1. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System (3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Tsukahara, H.; Mizohata, S.; Ishikawa, K.

    2013-12-01

    The VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic) is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. We carried out several VCS surveys combining with surface towed source, deep towed source and ocean bottom source. The water depths of the survey are from 100m up to 2100m. The target of the survey includes not only hydrothermal deposit but oil and gas exploration. Through these experiments, our VCS data acquisition system has been completed. But the data processing techniques are still on the way. One of the most critical issues is the positioning in the water. The uncertainty in the positions of the source and of the hydrophones in water degraded the quality of subsurface image. GPS navigation system are available on sea surface, but in case of deep-towed source or ocean bottom source, the accuracy of shot position with SSBL/USBL is not sufficient for the very high-resolution imaging. We have developed another approach to determine the positions in water using the travel time data from the source to VCS hydrophones. In the data acquisition stage, we estimate the position of VCS location with slant ranging method from the sea surface. The deep-towed source or ocean bottom source is estimated by SSBL/USBL. The water velocity profile is measured by XCTD. After the data acquisition, we pick the first break times of the VCS recorded data. The estimated positions of

  2. High-resolution Vertical Profiling of Ocean Velocity and Water Properties Under Hurricane Frances in September 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, T. B.; D'Asarp, E. A.; Girton, J. B.; Price, J. F.; Webb, D. C.

    2006-12-01

    In ONR's CBLAST Hurricane research program observations were made of the upper ocean's response to Hurricane Frances. Three EM-APEX floats (velocity sensing versions of Webb Research APEX floats) and two Lagrangian floats were deployed north of Hispaniola from a C-130 aircraft ahead of Hurricane Frances in September 2004. The EM-APEX floats measured T, S and V over the upper 500 m starting about a day before the storm's arrival. The Lagrangian floats measured temperature and salinity while following the three- dimensional boundary layer turbulence in the upper 40 m. One EM-APEX float was directly under the track of the storm's eye, another EM-APEX and two Lagrangian floats went in about 50 km to the right of the track (where the surface winds are strongest) and the third float was about 100 km to the right. The EM-APEX floats profiled for 10 hours from the surface to 200 m, then continued profiling between 35 and 200 m with excursions to 500 m every half inertial period. After 5 days, the EM-APEX floats surfaced and transmitted the accumulated processed observations, then the floats profiled to 500 m every half inertial period until recovered early in October aided by GPS and Iridium. The float array sampled in unprecedented detail the upper-ocean turbulence, momentum, and salt and heat changes in response to the hurricane. The buildup of surface gravity waves in advance of the storm was also observed in the velocity profiles, with significant wave heights of up to 11 m. Rapid acceleration of inertial currents in the surface mixing layer (SML) to over 1 m/s stimulated vertical mixing by shear instability at the SML base, as indicated by low Richardson numbers and SML deepening from about 40 m to 120 m under the strongest wind forcing. Surface cooling of about 2.5 C was primarily due to the SML deepening and entrainment of colder water, with a small contribution from surface heat flux. Intense inertial pumping was observed under the eye, with vertical excursions of

  3. Evidence for vertical ozone redistribution since 1967

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furrer, R.; Doehler, W.; Kirsch, H.-J.; Plessing, P.; Goersdorf, U.

    1992-12-01

    Long-term measurements of ozone concentration in the vicinity of the city of Berlin have been performed with ground-based Dobson spectrophotometers and balloon borne systems. The respective experiments cover the past 24 yr. All data have been re-evaluated and corrected towards uniform calibration standards, leading to the longest lasting European data set of total column density, altitude-dependent ozone partial pressures and the corresponding temperatures. Smoothing algorithms reveal significant long-term trends. The analysis shows an increase of ozone concentration within the middle stratosphere (below 31 km height) as well as in the troposphere over the past 24 yr. On the contrary, ongoing ozone depletion in the lower stratosphere became evident. The large scale vertical redistribution of atmospheric ozone in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere seems to be in agreement with model calculations and trend predictions that have their roots in changes of the chemical composition and the ozone photochemistry due to anthropogenically induced tracer gas concentrations.

  4. Absolute Position Encoders With Vertical Image Binning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    2005-01-01

    Improved optoelectronic patternrecognition encoders that measure rotary and linear 1-dimensional positions at conversion rates (numbers of readings per unit time) exceeding 20 kHz have been invented. Heretofore, optoelectronic pattern-recognition absoluteposition encoders have been limited to conversion rates <15 Hz -- too low for emerging industrial applications in which conversion rates ranging from 1 kHz to as much as 100 kHz are required. The high conversion rates of the improved encoders are made possible, in part, by use of vertically compressible or binnable (as described below) scale patterns in combination with modified readout sequences of the image sensors [charge-coupled devices (CCDs)] used to read the scale patterns. The modified readout sequences and the processing of the images thus read out are amenable to implementation by use of modern, high-speed, ultra-compact microprocessors and digital signal processors or field-programmable gate arrays. This combination of improvements makes it possible to greatly increase conversion rates through substantial reductions in all three components of conversion time: exposure time, image-readout time, and image-processing time.

  5. Premixed flame propagation in vertical tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazakov, Kirill A.

    2016-04-01

    Analytical treatment of the premixed flame propagation in vertical tubes with smooth walls is given. Using the on-shell flame description, equations for a quasi-steady flame with a small but finite front thickness are obtained and solved numerically. It is found that near the limits of inflammability, solutions describing upward flame propagation come in pairs having close propagation speeds and that the effect of gravity is to reverse the burnt gas velocity profile generated by the flame. On the basis of these results, a theory of partial flame propagation driven by a strong gravitational field is developed. A complete explanation is given of the intricate observed behavior of limit flames, including dependence of the inflammability range on the size of the combustion domain, the large distances of partial flame propagation, and the progression of flame extinction. The role of the finite front-thickness effects is discussed in detail. Also, various mechanisms governing flame acceleration in smooth tubes are identified. Acceleration of methane-air flames in open tubes is shown to be a combined effect of the hydrostatic pressure difference produced by the ambient cold air and the difference of dynamic gas pressure at the tube ends. On the other hand, a strong spontaneous acceleration of the fast methane-oxygen flames at the initial stage of their evolution in open-closed tubes is conditioned by metastability of the quasi-steady propagation regimes. An extensive comparison of the obtained results with the experimental data is made.

  6. Vertical landscraping, a big regionalism for Dubai.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Dubai's ecologic and economic complications are exacerbated by six years of accelerated expansion, a fixed top-down approach to urbanism and the construction of iconic single-phase mega-projects. With recent construction delays, project cancellations and growing landscape issues, Dubai's tower typologies have been unresponsive to changing environmental, socio-cultural and economic patterns (BBC, 2009; Gillet, 2009; Lewis, 2009). In this essay, a theory of "Big Regionalism" guides an argument for an economically and ecologically linked tower typology called the Condenser. This phased "box-to-tower" typology is part of a greater Landscape Urbanist strategy called Vertical Landscraping. Within this strategy, the Condenser's role is to densify the city, facilitating the creation of ecologic voids that order the urban region. Delineating "Big Regional" principles, the Condenser provides a time-based, global-local urban growth approach that weaves Bigness into a series of urban-regional, economic and ecological relationships, builds upon the environmental performance of the city's regional architecture and planning, promotes a continuity of Dubai's urban history, and responds to its landscape issues while condensing development. These speculations permit consideration of the overlooked opportunities embedded within Dubai's mega-projects and their long-term impact on the urban morphology.

  7. Reef structure determined from vertical seismic profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Blackway, C.V.; Keho, T.; Turpening, R.M.; Omnes, G.

    1986-08-01

    MIT has access to a test borehole near a producing (Silurian) reef in Manistee County, Michigan. Data from a multi-offset vertical seismic profiling (VSP) experiment were analyzed and compared to a three-dimensional seismic survey. With the strong reflection at the B-salt/A-2 carbonate interface, they are able to image the reef. The salt and evaporite layers in the A-1 and A-2 formations off the reef give a double reflection that is also used for imaging. The offset VSPs cover three azimuths, two in the direction of the reef and one off the reef, which allow us to compare results on and off the reef. First, a one-dimensional velocity structure was determined from the zero offset VSP data using a waveform inversion. These velocity results compared favorably with the full waveform sonic data. Using these velocities, a model was constructed for VSP migration. The migration algorithm is a Kirchoff migration based on paraxial ray tracing. The reef image from this migration is in good agreement with the three-dimensional seismic survey.

  8. Functionalization of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Snyders, Rony; Colomer, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Summary This review focuses and summarizes recent studies on the functionalization of carbon nanotubes oriented perpendicularly to their substrate, so-called vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs). The intrinsic properties of individual nanotubes make the VA-CNTs ideal candidates for integration in a wide range of devices, and many potential applications have been envisaged. These applications can benefit from the unidirectional alignment of the nanotubes, the large surface area, the high carbon purity, the outstanding electrical conductivity, and the uniformly long length. However, practical uses of VA-CNTs are limited by their surface characteristics, which must be often modified in order to meet the specificity of each particular application. The proposed approaches are based on the chemical modifications of the surface by functionalization (grafting of functional chemical groups, decoration with metal particles or wrapping of polymers) to bring new properties or to improve the interactions between the VA-CNTs and their environment while maintaining the alignment of CNTs. PMID:23504581

  9. Mudflow rheology in a vertically rotating flume

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Jr., Robert R.; Westphal, Jerome A.; Jobson, Harvey E.; ,

    1990-01-01

    Joint research by the U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Missouri-Rolla currently (1990) is being conducted on a 3.05 meters in diameter vertically rotating flume used to simulate mudflows under steady-state conditions. Observed mudflow simulations indicate flow patterns in the flume are similar to those occurring in natural mudflows. Variables such as mean and surface velocity, depth, and average boundary shear stress can be measured in this flume more easily than in the field or in a traditional tilting flume. Sensitive variables such as sediment concentration, grain-size distribution, and Atterberg limits also can be precisely and easily controlled. A known Newtonian fluid, SAE 30 motor oil, was tested in the flume and the computed value for viscosity was within 12.5 percent of the stated viscosity. This provided support that the data from the flume can be used to determine the rheological properties of fluids such as mud. Measurements on mud slurries indicate that flows with sediment concentrations ranging from 81 to 87 percent sediment by weight can be approximated as Bingham plastic for strain rates greater than 1 per second. In this approximation, the yield stress and Bingham viscosity were extremely sensitive to sediment concentration. Generally, the magnitude of the yield stress was large relative to the change in shear stress with increasing mudflow velocity.

  10. Vertical Distribution of Water at Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Lemmon, M. T.

    2011-01-01

    Phoenix results, combined with coordinated observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter of the Phoenix lander site, indicate that the water vapor is nonuniform (i.e., not well mixed) up to a calculated cloud condensation level. It is important to understand the mixing profile of water vapor because (a) the assumption of a well-mixed atmosphere up to a cloud condensation level is common in retrievals of column water abundances which are in turn used to understand the seasonal and interannual behavior of water, (b) there is a long history of observations and modeling that conclude both that water vapor is and is not well-mixed, and some studies indicate that the water vapor vertical mixing profile may, in fact, change with season and location, (c) the water vapor in the lowest part of the atmosphere is the reservoir that can exchange with the regolith and higher amounts may have an impact on the surface chemistry, and (d) greater water vapor abundances close to the surface may enhance surface exchange thereby reducing regional transport, which in turn has implications to the net transport of water vapor over seasonal and annual timescales.

  11. Vertical Shear of the Galactic Interstellar Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benjamin, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    The detection of UV absorption, 21 cm, H alpha and other diffuse optical emission lines from gas up to ten kiloparsecs above the plane of the Milky Way and other galaxies provides the first, opportunity to probe the rotational properties of the ionized "atmospheres" of galaxies. This rotation has implications for our understanding of the Galactic gravitational potential, angular momentum transport in the Galactic disk, and the maintenance of a Galactic dynamo. The available evidence indicates that gas rotates nearly cylindrically up to a few kiloparsecs. This is in contrast to the expectation that there should be a significant gradient in rotation speed as a function of height assuming a reasonable mass model for the Galaxy. For example, for a vertical cut at galactocentric radius R = 5 kpc in NGC 891 by Rand, the rotation speed is observed to drop by approximately 30 kilometers per second from z = 1 to 5 kpc and is expected to drop by 80 kilometers per second. Magnetic tension forces may resolve this discrepancy. Other possibilities will be examined in the near future.

  12. The vertical oscillations of coupled magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kewei, Li; Jiahuang, Lin; Yang, Kang Zi; Liang, Samuel Yee Wei; Wong Say Juan, Jeremias

    2011-07-01

    The International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide, annual competition for high school students. This paper is adapted from the winning solution to Problem 14, Magnetic Spring, as presented in the final round of the 23rd IYPT in Vienna, Austria. Two magnets were arranged on top of each other on a common axis. One was fixed, while the other could move vertically. Various parameters of interest were investigated, including the effective gravitational acceleration, the strength, size, mass and geometry of the magnets, and damping of the oscillations. Despite its simplicity, this setup yielded a number of interesting and unexpected relations. The first stage of the investigation was concerned only with the undamped oscillations of small amplitudes, and the period of small amplitude oscillations was found to be dependent only on the eighth root of important magnet properties such as its strength and mass. The second stage sought to investigate more general oscillations. A numerical model which took into account magnet size, magnet geometry and damping effects was developed to model the general oscillations. Air resistance and friction were found to be significant sources of damping, while eddy currents were negligible.

  13. Investigation of dust vertical dispersion relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Jie; Qiao, Ke; Hyde, Truell

    2007-11-01

    The dust acoustic wave (DAW) was first theoretically predicted in 1990 by Rao et al. [Ref] and later observed experimentally by Barkan, et al. [Ref. 2], Pieper and Goree [Ref. 3] and others. The charge on the dust, Debye length and various other fundamental complex plasma parameters can be obtained experimentally through measurement of the DAW. Since under normal laboratory conditions, ordered structures formed within a complex plasma are generally two dimensional in nature, the majority of experiments to date examining such a system's dispersion relationships have been conducted on the horizontal plane. We will present an experimental method providing for a vertical dispersion relationship measurement, and present corresponding data. References [1]. N. N. Rao, P. K. Shukla, and M. Y. Yu, ``Dust-acoustic waves in dusty plasmas,'' Planet. Space Sci. 38, 543-546 (1990). [2]. A. Barkan, R. L. Merlino, and N. D'Angelo, ``Laboratory observation of the dust-acoustic wave mode,'' Phys. Plasmas, 2, 3563-3565, 1995. [3]. J. B. Pieper, J. Goree, ``Dispersion of Plasma Dust Acoustic Waves in the Strong-Coupling Regime,'' Phys. Rev. Lett., 77, 3137-3140, 1996.

  14. Morpheus Vertical Test Bed Flight Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Jeremy; Devolites, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Morpheus Project has developed and tested a prototype planetary lander capable of vertical takeoff and landing, that is designed to serve as a testbed for advanced spacecraft technologies. The lander vehicle, propelled by a LOX/Methane engine and sized to carry a 500kg payload to the lunar surface, provides a platform for bringing technologies from the laboratory into an integrated flight system at relatively low cost. Morpheus onboard software is autonomous from ignition all the way through landing, and is designed to be capable of executing a variety of flight trajectories, with onboard fault checks and automatic contingency responses. The Morpheus 1.5A vehicle performed 26 integrated vehicle test flights including hot-fire tests, tethered tests, and two attempted freeflights between April 2011 and August 2012. The final flight of Morpheus 1.5A resulted in a loss of the vehicle. In September 2012, development began on the Morpheus 1.5B vehicle, which subsequently followed a similar test campaign culminating in free-flights at a simulated planetary landscape built at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility. This paper describes the integrated test campaign, including successes and setbacks, and how the system design for handling faults and failures evolved over the course of the project.

  15. Drop motion induced by vertical vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartori, Paolo; Quagliati, Damiano; Varagnolo, Silvia; Pierno, Matteo; Mistura, Giampaolo; Magaletti, Francesco; Massimo Casciola, Carlo

    2015-11-01

    We have studied the motion of liquid drops on an inclined plate subject to vertical vibrations. The liquids comprised distilled water and different aqueous solutions of glycerol, ethanol and isopropanol spanning the range 1-39 mm2 s-1 in kinematic viscosities and 40-72 mN m-1 in surface tension. At sufficiently low oscillating amplitudes, the drops are always pinned to the surface. Vibrating the plate above a certain amplitude yields sliding of the drop. Further increasing the oscillating amplitude drives the drop upward against gravity. In the case of the most hydrophilic aqueous solutions, this motion is not observed and the drop only slides downward. Images taken with a fast camera show that the drop profile evolves in a different way during sliding and climbing. In particular, the climbing drop experiences a much bigger variation in its profile during an oscillating period. Complementary numerical simulations of 2D drops based on a diffuse interface approach confirm the experimental findings. The overall qualitative behavior is reproduced suggesting that the contact line pinning due to contact angle hysteresis is not necessary to explain the drop climbing.

  16. Learning styles in vertically integrated teaching.

    PubMed

    Brumpton, Kay; Kitchener, Scott; Sweet, Linda

    2013-10-01

    With vertical integration, registrars and medical students attend the same educational workshops. It is not known whether these learners have similar or different learning styles related to their level of education within the medical training schema. This study aims to collect information about learning styles with a view to changing teaching strategies. If a significant difference is demonstrated this will impact on required approaches to teaching. The VARK learning inventory questionnaire was administered to 36 general practice registrars and 20 medical students. The learning styles were compared as individuals and then related to their level of education within the medical training schema. Students had a greater preference for multimodal learning compared with registrars (62.5 per cent versus 33.3 per cent, respectively). More than half of the registrars preferred uni or bimodal learning modalities, compared with one-third of the medical students. The present workshop format based on visual and aural material will not match the learning needs of most learners. This small study has shown that the majority of medical students and registrars could have their learning preferences better met by the addition of written material to the workshop series. Surprisingly, a significantly larger number of medical students than registrars appeared to be broadly multimodal in their learning style, and this warrants further research. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. ATLAS LTCS Vertically Challenged System Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Deepak; Garrison, Matt; Ku, Jentung

    2014-01-01

    Re-planning of LTCS TVAC testing and supporting RTA (Receiver Telescope Assembly) Test Plan and Procedure document preparation. The Laser Thermal Control System (LTCS) is designed to maintain the lasers onboard Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) at their operational temperatures. In order to verify the functionality of the LTCS, a thermal balance test of the thermal hardware was performed. During the first cold start of the LTCS, the Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) was unable to control the laser mass simulators temperature. The control heaters were fully on and the loop temperature remained well below the desired setpoint. Thermal analysis of the loop did not show these results. This unpredicted behavior of the LTCS was brought up to a panel of LHP experts. Based on the testing and a review of all the data, there were multiple diagnostic performed in order to narrow down the cause. The prevailing theory is that gravity is causing oscillating flow within the loop, which artificially increased the control power needs. This resulted in a replan of the LTCS test flow and the addition of a GSE heater to allow vertical operation.

  18. Engineering design of vertical test stand cryostat

    SciTech Connect

    Suhane, S.K.; Sharma, N.K.; Raghavendra, S.; Joshi, S.C.; Das, S.; Kush, P.K.; Sahni, V.C.; Gupta, P.D.; Sylvester, C.; Rabehl, R.; Ozelis, J.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Under Indian Institutions and Fermilab collaboration, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are jointly developing 2K Vertical Test Stand (VTS) cryostats for testing SCRF cavities at 2K. The VTS cryostat has been designed for a large testing aperture of 86.36 cm for testing of 325 MHz Spoke resonators, 650 MHz and 1.3 GHz multi-cell SCRF cavities for Fermilab's Project-X. Units will be installed at Fermilab and RRCAT and used to test cavities for Project-X. A VTS cryostat comprises of liquid helium (LHe) vessel with internal magnetic shield, top insert plate equipped with cavity support stand and radiation shield, liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) shield and vacuum vessel with external magnetic shield. The engineering design and analysis of VTS cryostat has been carried out using ASME B&PV Code and Finite Element Analysis. Design of internal and external magnetic shields was performed to limit the magnetic field inside LHe vessel at the cavity surface <1 {micro}T. Thermal analysis for LN{sub 2} shield has been performed to check the effectiveness of LN{sub 2} cooling and for compliance with ASME piping code allowable stresses.

  19. Thermal convection in vertically suspended soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie

    In normal fluids, a temperature difference can create a density difference. In the presence of the gravitational field, denser fluid will fall and lighter fluid will rise, causing fluid motion known as thermal convection. This type of convection can occur on different scales, from a single growing crystal to mantle movement inside the earth. Although many experiments have been conducted in unstably stratified fluids, there have been few laboratory experiments studying convective turbulence in stably stratified fluids, which is more common in nature. Here I present a two-dimensional (2D) convection in a stably stratified vertical soap film. It was found that the interaction between the gravitational potential energy, due to the 2D density fluctuation, and the kinetic energy is important. This interplay between the two energy sources manifests itself in the statistical properties of velocity and 2D density fluctuations in the system. Our experimental findings shed new lights to a turbulent system that strongly couples to a non-passive field.

  20. Free convective condensation in a vertical enclosure

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.J.; Peterson, P.F.; Corradini, M.L.; Pernsteiner, A.P.

    1995-09-01

    Free convective condensation in a vertical enclosure was studied numerically and the results were compared with experiments. In both the numerical and experimental investigations, mist formation was observed to occur near the cooling wall, with significant droplet concentrations in the bulk. Large recirculation cells near the end of the condensing section were generated as the heavy noncondensing gas collecting near the cooling wall was accelerated downward. Near the top of the enclosure the recirculation cells became weaker and smaller than those below, ultimately disappearing near the top of the condenser. In the experiment the mist density was seen to be highest near the wall and at the bottom of the condensing section, whereas the numerical model predicted a much more uniform distribution. The model used to describe the formation of mist was based on a Modified Critical Saturation Model (MCSM), which allows mist to be generated once the vapor pressure exceeds a critical value. Equilibrium, nonequilibrium, and MCSM calculations were preformed, showing the experimental results to lie somewhere in between the equilibrium and nonequilibrium predictions of the numerical model. A single adjustable constant (indicating the degree to which equilibrium is achieved) is used in the model in order to match the experimental results.

  1. A theoretical analysis of vertical flow equilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Yortsos, Y.C.

    1992-01-01

    The assumption of Vertical Flow Equilibrium (VFE) and of parallel flow conditions, in general, is often applied to the modeling of flow and displacement in natural porous media. However, the methodology for the development of the various models is rather intuitive, and no rigorous method is currently available. In this paper, we develop an asymptotic theory using as parameter the variable R{sub L} = (L/H){radical}(k{sub V})/(k{sub H}). It is rigorously shown that present models represent the leading order term of an asymptotic expansion with respect to 1/R{sub L}{sup 2}. Although this was numerically suspected, it is the first time that is is theoretically proved. Based on the general formulation, a series of models are subsequently obtained. In the absence of strong gravity effects, they generalize previous works by Zapata and Lake (1981), Yokoyama and Lake (1981) and Lake and Hirasaki (1981), on immiscible and miscible displacements. In the limit of gravity-segregated flow, we prove conditions for the fluids to be segregated and derive the Dupuit and Dietz (1953) approximations. Finally, we also discuss effects of capillarity and transverse dispersion.

  2. A theoretical analysis of vertical flow equilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Yortsos, Y.C.

    1992-01-01

    The assumption of Vertical Flow Equilibrium (VFE) and of parallel flow conditions, in general, is often applied to the modeling of flow and displacement in natural porous media. However, the methodology for the development of the various models is rather intuitive, and no rigorous method is currently available. In this paper, we develop an asymptotic theory using as parameter the variable R{sub L} = (L/H){radical}(k{sub V})/(k{sub H}). It is rigorously shown that present models represent the leading order term of an asymptotic expansion with respect to 1/R{sub L}{sup 2}. Although this was numerically suspected, it is the first time that is is theoretically proved. Based on the general formulation, a series of models are subsequently obtained. In the absence of strong gravity effects, they generalize previous works by Zapata and Lake (1981), Yokoyama and Lake (1981) and Lake and Hirasaki (1981), on immiscible and miscible displacements. In the limit of gravity-segregated flow, we prove conditions for the fluids to be segregated and derive the Dupuit and Dietz (1953) approximations. Finally, we also discuss effects of capillarity and transverse dispersion.

  3. Vertical Distribution of Vibrationally Excited Hydroxyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grygalashvyly, Mykhaylo; Becker, Erich; Sonnemann, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge about the vertical distribution of the vibrationally excited states of hydroxyl (OH*) is important for the interpretation of airglow measurements with respect to dynamical processes in the mesopause region. We derive an approximate analytical expression for the distribution of OH* that highlights the dependence on atomic oxygen and temperature. In addition, we use an advanced numerical model for the formation and relaxation of OH* and investigate the distributions of the different vibrationally exited states of OH*. For the production of OH*, the model includes the reaction of atomic hydrogen with ozone, as well as the reaction of atomic oxygen with hydroperoxy radicals. As loss processes we include 1) deactivation by atomic oxygen, molecular oxygen, and molecular nitrogen, 2) spontaneous emission, and 3) loss due to chemical reaction with atomic oxygen. All these processes take the dependence on the vibrational number into account. The quenching by molecular and atomic oxygen is parameterized by a multi-quantum relaxation scheme. This diagnostic model for OH* has been implemented as part of a chemistry-transport model that is driven by the dynamics simulated with the KMCM (Kühlungsborn Mechanistic general Circulation Model). Numerical results confirm that emission from excited states with higher vibrational number is weaker and emanates from higher altitudes. In addition we find that the OH*-peak altitudes depend significantly on season and latitude. This behavior is mainly controlled by the corresponding variations of atomic oxygen and temperature, as is also confirmed by the aforementioned approximate theory.

  4. Vertical barriers with increased sorption capacities

    SciTech Connect

    Bradl, H.B.

    1997-12-31

    Vertical barriers are commonly used for the containment of contaminated areas. Due to the very small permeability of the barrier material which is usually in the order of magnitude of 10-10 m/s or less the advective contaminant transport can be more or less neglected. Nevertheless, there will always be a diffusive contaminant transport through the barrier which is caused by the concentration gradient. Investigations have been made to increase the sorption capacity of the barrier material by adding substances such as organoclays, zeolites, inorganic oxides and fly ashes. The contaminants taken into account where heavy metals (Pb) and for organic contaminants Toluole and Phenantrene. The paper presents results of model calculations and experiments. As a result, barrier materials can be designed {open_quotes}tailor-made{close_quotes} depending on the individual contaminant range of each site (e.g. landfills, gasworks etc.). The parameters relevant for construction such as rheological properties, compressive strength and permeability are not affected by the addition of the sorbents.

  5. Microfluidic dielectrophoretic sorter using gel vertical electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jason; Nelson, Edward L.; Li, G. P.; Bachman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We report the development and results of a two-step method for sorting cells and small particles in a microfluidic device. This approach uses a single microfluidic channel that has (1) a microfabricated sieve which efficiently focuses particles into a thin stream, followed by (2) a dielectrophoresis (DEP) section consisting of electrodes along the channel walls for efficient continuous sorting based on dielectric properties of the particles. For our demonstration, the device was constructed of polydimethylsiloxane, bonded to a glass surface, and conductive agarose gel electrodes. Gold traces were used to make electrical connections to the conductive gel. The device had several novel features that aided performance of the sorting. These included a sieving structure that performed continuous displacement of particles into a single stream within the microfluidic channel (improving the performance of downstream DEP, and avoiding the need for additional focusing flow inlets), and DEP electrodes that were the full height of the microfluidic walls (“vertical electrodes”), allowing for improved formation and control of electric field gradients in the microfluidic device. The device was used to sort polymer particles and HeLa cells, demonstrating that this unique combination provides improved capability for continuous DEP sorting of particles in a microfluidic device. PMID:24926390

  6. Identified EM Earthquake Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for

  7. Measuring verticality perception after stroke: why and how?

    PubMed

    Pérennou, D; Piscicelli, C; Barbieri, G; Jaeger, M; Marquer, A; Barra, J

    2014-01-01

    About 80 papers dealing with verticality after stroke have been published in the last 20years. Here we reviewed the reasons and findings that explain why measuring verticality perception after stroke is interesting. Research on verticality perception after stroke has contributed to improve the knowledge on brain mechanisms, which build up and update a sense of verticality. Preliminary research using modern techniques of brain imaging has shown that the posterior lateral thalamus and the parietal insular cortex are areas of interest for this internal model of verticality. How they interact and are critical remains to be investigated. From a clinical standpoint, it has now been clearly established that biases in verticality perception are frequent after a stroke, causing postural disorders. Measuring the postural vertical with the wheel paradigm has allowed elucidating the mechanisms of lateropulsion, leading or not to a pushing. Schematically, patients with a hemispheric stroke align their erect posture with an erroneous reference of verticality, tilted to the side opposite the lesion. In patients with a brainstem stroke lateropulsion is usually ipsilesional, and results rather from a pathological asymmetry of tone, through vestibulo-spinal mechanisms. These evolutions of concepts and measurement standards of verticality representation should guide the emergence of rehabilitation programs specifically dedicated to the sense of verticality after stroke. Indeed, several pilot studies using appropriate somatosensory stimulation suggest the possibility to recalibrate the internal model of verticality biased by the stroke, and to improve uprightness. Vestibular stimulations seem to be less relevant and efficient. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Vertical resolution of baroclinic modes in global ocean models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, K. D.; Hogg, A. McC.; Griffies, S. M.; Heerdegen, A. P.; Ward, M. L.; Spence, P.; England, M. H.

    2017-05-01

    Improvements in the horizontal resolution of global ocean models, motivated by the horizontal resolution requirements for specific flow features, has advanced modelling capabilities into the dynamical regime dominated by mesoscale variability. In contrast, the choice of the vertical grid remains a subjective choice, and it is not clear that efforts to improve vertical resolution adequately support their horizontal counterparts. Indeed, considering that the bulk of the vertical ocean dynamics (including convection) are parameterized, it is not immediately obvious what the vertical grid is supposed to resolve. Here, we propose that the primary purpose of the vertical grid in a hydrostatic ocean model is to resolve the vertical structure of horizontal flows, rather than to resolve vertical motion. With this principle we construct vertical grids based on their abilities to represent baroclinic modal structures commensurate with the theoretical capabilities of a given horizontal grid. This approach is designed to ensure that the vertical grids of global ocean models complement (and, importantly, to not undermine) the resolution capabilities of the horizontal grid. We find that for z-coordinate global ocean models, at least 50 well-positioned vertical levels are required to resolve the first baroclinic mode, with an additional 25 levels per subsequent mode. High-resolution ocean-sea ice simulations are used to illustrate some of the dynamical enhancements gained by improving the vertical resolution of a 1/10° global ocean model. These enhancements include substantial increases in the sea surface height variance (∼30% increase south of 40°S), the barotropic and baroclinic eddy kinetic energies (up to 200% increase on and surrounding the Antarctic continental shelf and slopes), and the overturning streamfunction in potential density space (near-tripling of the Antarctic Bottom Water cell at 65°S).

  9. Anisotropic 3D inversion of towed streamer EM data from the Troll West oil province (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, J.; Midgley, J.; Zhdanov, M. S.; ENDO, M.

    2013-12-01

    Obviating the need for ocean bottom receivers, the towed streamer EM system enables CSEM data to be acquired simultaneously with seismic over very large areas in frontier and mature basins for higher production rates and more cost effective than conventional marine CSEM. The towed streamer EM data are currently processed and delivered as a spectrum of frequency-domain responses. We apply a 3D anisotropic inversion methodology for towed streamer EM data that includes a moving sensitivity domain. Our implementation is based on the 3D contraction integral equation method for computing the EM responses and Fréchet derivatives, and uses the re-weighted regularized conjugate gradient method for minimizing the objective functional with focusing regularization. We present an actual case study for the 3D anisotropic inversion of towed streamer EM data from the Troll West oil province in the North Sea, and demonstrate our ability to image the Troll West Oil and Gas Provinces. We conclude that 3D anisotropic inversion of the data from the current generation of towed streamer EM system can adequately recover both the vertical and horizontal resistivities in anisotropic hydrocarbon-bearing formations.

  10. Measurements of vertical air currents in the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, K O

    1931-01-01

    To summarize, the experiments with balloons, sailplanes and light airplanes conducted thus far, reveal the vertical velocities of the air to be primarily dependent on the vertical temperature distribution. Stable stratifications result in up-and-down currents forced by the contour of the ground, which are readily recognized in flight and, if need be, may be avoided.

  11. 19. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF INTERMEDIATE VERTICAL PENNSYLVANIA PETIT TRUSS WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF INTERMEDIATE VERTICAL PENNSYLVANIA PETIT TRUSS WITH CASTLE ROCK IN BACKGROUND. JUNCTION OF INTERMEDIATE VERTICAL AND TOP CHORD WITH STABILIZING LATERAL STRUT ABOVE AND SWAY STRUT BELOW. ORIGINAL PAIRED DIAGONAL EYE BARS LATER REINFORCED WITH TIE ROD - New River Bridge, Spanning New River at State Route 623, Pembroke, Giles County, VA

  12. On the origin of vertical line bisection errors.

    PubMed

    Post, Robert B; O'Malley, Meagan D; Yeh, Teresa L; Bethel, Jayme

    2006-01-01

    Four experiments examined the biases of individual subjects when attempting to bisect vertical lines, and tested various hypotheses concerning the origin of vertical bisection errors (VBEs). In each experiment, individual differences on the vertical line bisection task were compared to individual differences on another task to evaluate whether the tasks were systematically related. In the first experiment, VBEs were found not to correlate with horizontal line bisection errors (HBEs). In the second experiment, VBEs were found not to correlate with the size of the horizontal-vertical illusion (HVI). In the third experiment, VBEs were found not to correlate with differences in perceived length of vertical lines presented in the upper and lower visual fields that were displaced horizontally. In the fourth experiment, VBEs were found to correlate with bisection errors of an open vertical interval. The results of the first three studies are counter to various hypotheses of the origins of vertical bisection errors. The last experiment suggests that lines, per se, are unnecessary for VBEs. Rather, it is important that the upper and lower segments of the stimulus that are judged to be equal on vertical bisection tasks are co-extensive.

  13. Human visual and vestibular heading perception in the vertical planes.

    PubMed

    Crane, Benjamin T

    2014-02-01

    Heading estimation has not previously been reported in the vertical planes. This is a potentially interesting issue because although distribution of neuronal direction sensitivities is near uniform for vertical headings, there is an overrepresentation of otolith organs sensitive to motion in the horizontal relative to the vertical plane. Furthermore, thresholds of horizontal motion perception are considerably lower than those of vertical motion which has the potential to bias heading perception. The current data from 14 human subjects (age 19 to 67) measured heading estimation in response to vestibular motion of 14 cm (28 cm/s) over a 360° of headings at 5° intervals. An analogous visual motion was tested in separate trials. In this study, earth and head vertical/horizontal were always aligned. Results demonstrated that the horizontal component of heading was overestimated relative to the vertical component for vestibular heading stimuli in the coronal (skew) and sagittal (elevation) planes. For visual headings, the bias was much smaller and in the opposite direction such that the vertical component of heading was overestimated. Subjects older than 50 had significantly worse precision and larger biases relative to that of younger subjects for the vestibular conditions, although visual heading estimates were similar. A vector addition model was fit to the data which explains the observed heading biases by the known distribution of otolith organs in humans. The greatly decreased precision with age is explained by the model with decreases in end organ numbers, and relatively greater loss of otoliths that are sensitive to vertical motion.

  14. Proposed technique for vertical alignment of a crane's cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gera, J., Jr.

    1969-01-01

    Proposed vertical alignment technique senses the attitude of a cranes cable and displays any deviation from the vertical. The system consists of a detector assembly fixed to the boom and a display scope located in the cabin. It has potential application with either fixed-boom cranes or gantries.

  15. Experimental Vertical Stability Studies for ITER Performance and Design Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, D A; Casper, T A; Eidietis, N; Ferrera, M; Gates, D A; Hutchinson, I H; Jackson, G L; Kolemen, E; Leuer, J A; Lister, J; LoDestro, L L; Meyer, W H; Pearlstein, L D; Sartori, F; Walker, M L; Welander, A S; Wolfe, S M

    2008-10-13

    Operating experimental devices have provided key inputs to the design process for ITER axisymmetric control. In particular, experiments have quantified controllability and robustness requirements in the presence of realistic noise and disturbance environments, which are difficult or impossible to characterize with modeling and simulation alone. This kind of information is particularly critical for ITER vertical control, which poses some of the highest demands on poloidal field system performance, since the consequences of loss of vertical control can be very severe. The present work describes results of multi-machine studies performed under a joint ITPA experiment on fundamental vertical control performance and controllability limits. We present experimental results from Alcator C-Mod, DIII-D, NSTX, TCV, and JET, along with analysis of these data to provide vertical control performance guidance to ITER. Useful metrics to quantify this control performance include the stability margin and maximum controllable vertical displacement. Theoretical analysis of the maximum controllable vertical displacement suggests effective approaches to improving performance in terms of this metric, with implications for ITER design modifications. Typical levels of noise in the vertical position measurement which can challenge the vertical control loop are assessed and analyzed.

  16. The Subjective Visual Vertical: Validation of a Simple Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesio, Luigi; Longo, Stefano; Rota, Viviana

    2011-01-01

    The study sought to provide norms for a simple test of visual perception of verticality (subjective visual vertical). The study was designed as a cohort study with a balanced design. The setting was the Rehabilitation Department of a University Hospital. Twenty-two healthy adults, of 23-58 years, 11 men (three left handed) and 11 women (three left…

  17. Competency-Based Route to Vertical Curriculum Articulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Laura; And Others

    What competency-based instruction is and how it can help improve vertical articulation between the curriculum of secondary and postsecondary vocational-technical education programs in Minnesota is the focus of this booklet. Explanation consists of responses to the following questions: (1) What is vertical curriculum articulation? (2) What is…

  18. Effects of Vertical Scaling Methods on Linear Growth Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Pui-Wa; Zhao, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Vertical scaling is necessary to facilitate comparison of scores from test forms of different difficulty levels. It is widely used to enable the tracking of student growth in academic performance over time. Most previous studies on vertical scaling methods assume relatively long tests and large samples. Little is known about their performance when…

  19. 15. Detail showing lower chord pinconnected to vertical member, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail showing lower chord pin-connected to vertical member, showing floor beam riveted to extension of vertical member below pin-connection, and showing brackets supporting cantilevered sidewalk. View to southwest. - Selby Avenue Bridge, Spanning Short Line Railways track at Selby Avenue between Hamline & Snelling Avenues, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  20. Collaborative Inquiry and Vertical Team Teaching: Implications for Literacy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciampa, Katia; Gallagher, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this collective case study was to explore the resultant effects of vertical team teaching and collaborative inquiry on elementary (Grade 8) and secondary (Grade 9) educators' literacy instructional and assessment practices. Key elements of the program included collaborative inquiry and vertical team teaching. The findings of this…

  1. Effects of Vertical Scaling Methods on Linear Growth Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Pui-Wa; Zhao, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Vertical scaling is necessary to facilitate comparison of scores from test forms of different difficulty levels. It is widely used to enable the tracking of student growth in academic performance over time. Most previous studies on vertical scaling methods assume relatively long tests and large samples. Little is known about their performance when…

  2. 33 CFR 118.160 - Vertical clearance gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vertical clearance gauges. 118.160 Section 118.160 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.160 Vertical clearance gauges. (a) When necessary for...

  3. 33 CFR 118.160 - Vertical clearance gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vertical clearance gauges. 118.160 Section 118.160 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.160 Vertical clearance gauges. (a) When necessary for...

  4. Competency-Based Route to Vertical Curriculum Articulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Laura; And Others

    What competency-based instruction is and how it can help improve vertical articulation between the curriculum of secondary and postsecondary vocational-technical education programs in Minnesota is the focus of this booklet. Explanation consists of responses to the following questions: (1) What is vertical curriculum articulation? (2) What is…

  5. Vertical Heterophoria and Susceptibility to Visually-induced Motion Sickness

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Danielle N.; Bedell, Harold E.

    2013-01-01

    Motion sickness is reported to be a common symptom in patients with vertical heterophoria. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between vertical phoria and susceptibility to motion sickness in a non-clinical sample of 43 subjects. Vertical phoria was measured with a Maddox rod after 30 s of occlusion. To evaluate susceptibility to motion sickness, subjects read text while sitting inside a rotating optokinetic drum for 10 min. Subjects rated their level of motion sickness at 1 min intervals during drum rotation and the magnitude of 13 motion-sickness symptoms after drum rotation ended. The magnitude of vertical phoria ranged from 0 to 2.13 prism diopters (pd) with a mean of 0.46 pd and correlated significantly with both the maximum rating of motion sickness during drum rotation and the summed symptom score following rotation. A vertical phoria of 0.75 pd discriminated best between subjects with low vs. high summed motion-sickness-symptom scores (p < 0.0001). Introducing a prism to artificially increase the phoria of 12 subjects with vertical phorias < 0.75 pd increased motion-sickness symptoms in only 1 subject. Prisms that reduced the phoria of subjects with vertical phorias > 0.75 pd reduced motion-sickness symptoms in 2 of the 4 subjects tested. The results confirm an association between vertical phoria and motion sickness, but suggest the relationship may not be causal. PMID:22390327

  6. 9. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE VERTICAL FURNACE BUILDING (PART ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE VERTICAL FURNACE BUILDING (PART OF MACHINE SHOP No. 2). TWO FURNACES, WITH THEIR SUPPORT FRAMEWORK, ARE VISIBLE TO THE RIGHT. THE TALL STRUCTURE IN THE CENTER TOWARD THE BACKGROUND IS THE VERTICAL QUENCH TOWER. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Machine Shop No. 2, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  7. A vertical handoff decision algorithm based on ARMA prediction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ru; Shen, Jiao; Chen, Jun; Liu, Qiuhuan

    2011-12-01

    With the development of computer technology and the increasing demand for mobile communications, the next generation wireless networks will be composed of various wireless networks (e.g., WiMAX and WiFi). Vertical handoff is a key technology of next generation wireless networks. During the vertical handoff procedure, handoff decision is a crucial issue for an efficient mobility. Based on auto regression moving average (ARMA) prediction model, we propose a vertical handoff decision algorithm, which aims to improve the performance of vertical handoff and avoid unnecessary handoff. Based on the current received signal strength (RSS) and the previous RSS, the proposed approach adopt ARMA model to predict the next RSS. And then according to the predicted RSS to determine whether trigger the link layer triggering event and complete vertical handoff. The simulation results indicate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the RSS-based scheme with a threshold in the performance of handoff and the number of handoff.

  8. A vertical handoff decision algorithm based on ARMA prediction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ru; Shen, Jiao; Chen, Jun; Liu, Qiuhuan

    2012-01-01

    With the development of computer technology and the increasing demand for mobile communications, the next generation wireless networks will be composed of various wireless networks (e.g., WiMAX and WiFi). Vertical handoff is a key technology of next generation wireless networks. During the vertical handoff procedure, handoff decision is a crucial issue for an efficient mobility. Based on auto regression moving average (ARMA) prediction model, we propose a vertical handoff decision algorithm, which aims to improve the performance of vertical handoff and avoid unnecessary handoff. Based on the current received signal strength (RSS) and the previous RSS, the proposed approach adopt ARMA model to predict the next RSS. And then according to the predicted RSS to determine whether trigger the link layer triggering event and complete vertical handoff. The simulation results indicate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the RSS-based scheme with a threshold in the performance of handoff and the number of handoff.

  9. Theoretic base of Edge Local Mode triggering by vertical displacements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. T.; He, Z. X.; Wang, Z. H.; Wu, N.; Tang, C. J.

    2015-05-01

    Vertical instability is studied with R-dependent displacement. For Solovev's configuration, the stability boundary of the vertical instability is calculated. The pressure gradient is a destabilizing factor which is contrary to Rebhan's result. Equilibrium parallel current density, j// , at plasma boundary is a drive of the vertical instability similar to Peeling-ballooning modes; however, the vertical instability cannot be stabilized by the magnetic shear which tends towards infinity near the separatrix. The induced current observed in the Edge Local Mode (ELM) triggering experiment by vertical modulation is derived. The theory provides some theoretic explanation for the mitigation of type-I ELMS on ASDEX Upgrade. The principle could be also used for ITER.

  10. Doppler Lidar Vertical Velocity Statistics Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Newsom, R. K.; Sivaraman, C.; Shippert, T. R.; Riihimaki, L. D.

    2015-07-01

    Accurate height-resolved measurements of higher-order statistical moments of vertical velocity fluctuations are crucial for improved understanding of turbulent mixing and diffusion, convective initiation, and cloud life cycles. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility operates coherent Doppler lidar systems at several sites around the globe. These instruments provide measurements of clear-air vertical velocity profiles in the lower troposphere with a nominal temporal resolution of 1 sec and height resolution of 30 m. The purpose of the Doppler lidar vertical velocity statistics (DLWSTATS) value-added product (VAP) is to produce height- and time-resolved estimates of vertical velocity variance, skewness, and kurtosis from these raw measurements. The VAP also produces estimates of cloud properties, including cloud-base height (CBH), cloud frequency, cloud-base vertical velocity, and cloud-base updraft fraction.

  11. Steerable vertical to horizontal energy transducer for mobile robots

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Fischer, Gary J.; Feddema, John T.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a steerable vertical to horizontal energy transducer for mobile robots that less complex and requires less power than two degree of freedom tilt mechanisms. The present invention comprises an end effector that, when mounted with a hopping actuator, translates along axis (typically vertical) actuation into combined vertical and horizontal motion. The end effector, or foot, mounts with an end of the actuator that moves toward the support surface (typically a floor or the earth). The foot is shaped so that the first contact with the support surface is off the axis of the actuator. Off-axis contact with the support surface generates an on-axis force (typically resulting in vertical motion) and a moment orthogonal to the axis. The moment initiates a horizontal tumbling motion, and tilts the actuator so that its axis is oriented with a horizontal component and continued actuation generates both vertical and horizontal force.

  12. Impact of Vertical Wind Shear on Tropical Cyclone Rainfall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, Dan; Marchok, Tim

    2014-01-01

    While tropical cyclone rainfall has a large axisymmetric component, previous observational and theoretical studies have shown that environmental vertical wind shear leads to an asymmetric component of the vertical motion and precipitation fields. Composites consistently depict a precipitation enhancement downshear and also cyclonically downwind from the downshear direction. For consistence with much of the literature and with Northern Hemisphere observations, this is subsequently referred to as "Downshear-Left". Stronger shear magnitudes are associated with greater amplitude precipitation asymmetries. Recent work has reinforced the prior findings, and explored details of the response of the precipitation and kinematic fields to environmental vertical wind shear. Much of this research has focused on tropical cyclones away from land, to limit the influence of other processes that might distort the signal related to vertical wind shear. Recent evidence does suggest vertical wind shear can also play a major role in precipitation asymmetries during and after landfall.

  13. The oceanic vertical pump induced by mesoscale and submesoscale turbulence.

    PubMed

    Klein, Patrice; Lapeyre, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    The motivation to study the vertical exchanges of tracers associated with mesoscale eddies is that the mean concentration of most oceanic tracers changes rapidly with depth. Because mesoscale processes may transport these tracers vertically, biogeochemists hypothesized that these vertical exchanges may strongly affect global tracer budgets. This hypothesis has motivated a large number of biogeochemical studies that we review here by focusing on the significant advances that have been achieved and the remaining issues and uncertainties. The main question that emerges concerns the importance of the submesoscales (10 km in the horizontal) in these vertical exchanges. Independently, in the past decade, fluid dynamicists examined the three-dimensional properties of submesoscales generated by a mesoscale (100 km in the horizontal) turbulent eddy field. We review their results and discuss how the vertical exchanges associated with these submesoscales may answer the issues raised by biogeochemical studies and inspire future directions.

  14. Theoretic base of Edge Local Mode triggering by vertical displacements

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z. T.; He, Z. X.; Wang, Z. H.; Wu, N.; Tang, C. J.

    2015-05-15

    Vertical instability is studied with R-dependent displacement. For Solovev's configuration, the stability boundary of the vertical instability is calculated. The pressure gradient is a destabilizing factor which is contrary to Rebhan's result. Equilibrium parallel current density, j{sub //}, at plasma boundary is a drive of the vertical instability similar to Peeling-ballooning modes; however, the vertical instability cannot be stabilized by the magnetic shear which tends towards infinity near the separatrix. The induced current observed in the Edge Local Mode (ELM) triggering experiment by vertical modulation is derived. The theory provides some theoretic explanation for the mitigation of type-I ELMS on ASDEX Upgrade. The principle could be also used for ITER.

  15. Hydrodynamics of a vertical hydraulic fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    1987-03-24

    We have developed a numerical algorithm, HUBBERT, to simulate the hydrodynamics of a propagating vertical, rectangular fracture in an elastic porous medium. Based on the IFD method, this algorithm assumes fracture geometry to be prescribed. The breakdown and the creation of the incipient fracture is carried out according to the Hubbert-Willis theory. The propagation of the fracture is based on the criterion provided by Griffith, based on energy considerations. The deformation properties of the open fracture are based on simple elasticity solutions. The fracture is assumed to have an elliptical shape to a distance equal to the fracture height, beyond which the shape is assumed to be parallel plate. A consequence of Griffith's criterion is that the fracture must propagate in discrete steps. The parametric studies carried out suggest that for a clear understanding of the hydrodynamics of the hydraulic fracture many hitherto unrecognized parameters must be better understood. Among these parameters one might mention, efficiency, aperture of the newly formed fracture, stiffness of the newly formed fracture, relation between fracture aperture and permeability, and well bore compliance. The results of the studies indicate that the patterns of pressure transients and the magnitudes of fracture length appear to conform to field observations. In particular, the discrete nature of fracture propagation as well as the relevant time scales of interest inferred from the present work seem to be corroborated by seismic monitoring in the field. The results suggest that the estimation of least principal stress can be reliably made either with shut in data or with reinjection data provided that injection rates are very small.

  16. 'Victoria Crater' from 'Duck Bay' (Vertical Projection)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars rover Opportunity edged 3.7 meters (12 feet) closer to the top of the 'Duck Bay' alcove along the rim of 'Victoria Crater' during the rover's 952nd Martian day, or sol (overnight Sept. 27 to Sept. 28), and gained this vista of the crater. The rover's navigation camera took the seven exposures combined into this mosaic view of the crater's interior. This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months.

    The far side of the crater is about 800 meters (one-half mile) away. The rim of the crater is composed of alternating promontories, rocky points towering approximately 70 meters (230 feet) above the crater floor, and recessed alcoves, such as Duck Bay. The bottom of the crater is covered by sand that has been shaped into ripples by the Martian wind. The rocky cliffs in the foreground have been informally named 'Cape Verde,' on the left, and 'Cabo Frio,' on the right.

    Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed. The great lure of Victoria is an expectation that the thick stack of geological layers exposed in the crater walls could reveal the record of past environmental conditions over a much greater span of time than Opportunity has read from rocks examined earlier in the mission.

    This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

  17. Spirit Near 'Stapledon' on Sol 1802 (Vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera for the images assembled into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,802nd Martian day, or sol, (January 26, 2009) of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars. North is at the top.

    This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

    Spirit had driven down off the low plateau called 'Home Plate' on Sol 1782 (January 6, 2009) after spending 12 months on a north-facing slope on the northern edge of Home Plate. The position on the slope (at about the 9-o'clock position in this view) tilted Spirit's solar panels toward the sun, enabling the rover to generate enough electricity to survive its third Martian winter. Tracks at about the 11-o'clock position of this panorama can be seen leading back to that 'Winter Haven 3' site from the Sol 1802 position about 10 meters (33 feet) away. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about one meter (40 inches).

    Where the receding tracks bend to the left, a circular pattern resulted from Spirit turning in place at a soil target informally named 'Stapledon' after William Olaf Stapledon, a British philosopher and science-fiction author who lived from 1886 to 1950. Scientists on the rover team suspected that the soil in that area might have a high concentration of silica, resembling a high-silica soil patch discovered east of Home Plate in 2007. Bright material visible in the track furthest to the right was examined with Spirit's alpha partical X-ray spectrometer and found, indeed, to be rich in silica.

    The team laid plans to drive Spirit from this Sol 1802 location back up onto Home Plate, then southward for the rover's summer field season.

  18. Buoyant miscible displacement flows in vertical pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiri, A.; Larachi, F.; Taghavi, S. M.

    2016-10-01

    The displacement flow of two miscible Newtonian fluids is investigated experimentally in a vertical pipe of long aspect ratio (δ-1 ≈ 210). The fluids have a small density difference and they have the same viscosity. The heavy displacing fluid is initially placed above the light displaced fluid. The displacement flow is downwards. The experiments cover a wide range of the two dimensionless parameters that largely describe the flow: the modified Reynolds number (0 ≤ Ret⪅800) and the densimetric Froude number (0 ≤ Fr ≤ 24). We report on the stabilizing effect of the imposed flow and uncover the existence of two main flow regimes at long times: a stable displacement flow and an unstable displacement flow. The transition between the two regimes occurs at a critical modified Reynolds number " separators=" R et | Critical , as a function of Fr. We study in depth the stable flow regime: First, a lubrication model combined with a simple initial acceleration formulation delivers a reasonable prediction to the time-dependent penetrating displacing front velocity. Second, we find two sub-regimes for stable displacements, namely, sustained-back-flows and no-sustained-back-flows. The transition between the two sub-regimes is a marginal stationary interface flow state, which is also well predicted by the lubrication model. The unstable regime is associated to instabilities and diffusive features of the flow. In addition, particular patterns such as front detachment phenomenon appear in the unstable flow regime, for which we quantify the regions of existence versus the dimensionless groups.

  19. 'Victoria Crater' from 'Duck Bay' (Vertical Projection)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars rover Opportunity edged 3.7 meters (12 feet) closer to the top of the 'Duck Bay' alcove along the rim of 'Victoria Crater' during the rover's 952nd Martian day, or sol (overnight Sept. 27 to Sept. 28), and gained this vista of the crater. The rover's navigation camera took the seven exposures combined into this mosaic view of the crater's interior. This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months.

    The far side of the crater is about 800 meters (one-half mile) away. The rim of the crater is composed of alternating promontories, rocky points towering approximately 70 meters (230 feet) above the crater floor, and recessed alcoves, such as Duck Bay. The bottom of the crater is covered by sand that has been shaped into ripples by the Martian wind. The rocky cliffs in the foreground have been informally named 'Cape Verde,' on the left, and 'Cabo Frio,' on the right.

    Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed. The great lure of Victoria is an expectation that the thick stack of geological layers exposed in the crater walls could reveal the record of past environmental conditions over a much greater span of time than Opportunity has read from rocks examined earlier in the mission.

    This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

  20. Spirit Near 'Stapledon' on Sol 1802 (Vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera for the images assembled into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,802nd Martian day, or sol, (January 26, 2009) of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars. North is at the top.

    This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

    Spirit had driven down off the low plateau called 'Home Plate' on Sol 1782 (January 6, 2009) after spending 12 months on a north-facing slope on the northern edge of Home Plate. The position on the slope (at about the 9-o'clock position in this view) tilted Spirit's solar panels toward the sun, enabling the rover to generate enough electricity to survive its third Martian winter. Tracks at about the 11-o'clock position of this panorama can be seen leading back to that 'Winter Haven 3' site from the Sol 1802 position about 10 meters (33 feet) away. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about one meter (40 inches).

    Where the receding tracks bend to the left, a circular pattern resulted from Spirit turning in place at a soil target informally named 'Stapledon' after William Olaf Stapledon, a British philosopher and science-fiction author who lived from 1886 to 1950. Scientists on the rover team suspected that the soil in that area might have a high concentration of silica, resembling a high-silica soil patch discovered east of Home Plate in 2007. Bright material visible in the track furthest to the right was examined with Spirit's alpha partical X-ray spectrometer and found, indeed, to be rich in silica.

    The team laid plans to drive Spirit from this Sol 1802 location back up onto Home Plate, then southward for the rover's summer field season.

  1. Vertical Diffusivities of Active and Passive Tracers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V. M.; Cheng, Y.; Howard, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    The climate models that include a carbon-cycle need the vertical diffusivity of a passive tracer. Since an expression for the latter is not available, it has been common practice to identify it with that of salt. The identification is questionable since T, S are active, not passive tracers. We present the first derivation of the diffusivity of a passive tracer in terms of Ri (Richardson number) and Rq (density ratio, ratio of salinity over temperature z-gradients). The following results have emerged: (a) The passive tracer diffusivity is an algebraic function of Ri, Rq. (b) In doubly stable regimes (DS, partial derivative of T with respect to z > 0, partial derivative of S with respect to z < 0), the passive scalar diffusivity is nearly the same as that of salt/heat for any values of Rq < 0 and Ri > 0. (c) In DC regimes (diffusive convection, partial derivative of T with respect to z < 0, partial derivative of S with respect to z < 0, Rq > 1), the passive scalar diffusivity is larger than that of salt. At Ri = O(1), it can be more than twice as large. (d) In SF regimes (salt fingers, partial derivative of T with respect to z > 0, partial derivative of S with respect to z > 0, Rq < 1), the passive scalar diffusivity is smaller than that of salt. At Ri = O(1), it can be less than half of it. (e) The passive tracer diffusivity predicted at the location of NATRE (North Atlantic Tracer Release Experiment) is discussed. (f) Perhaps the most relevant conclusion is that the common identification of the tracer diffusivity with that of salt is valid only in DS regimes. In the Southern Ocean, where there is the largest CO2 absorption, the dominant regime is diffusive convection discussed in (c) above.

  2. A Vertical Differential Configuration in GPR prospecting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persico, Raffaele; Pochanin, Gennadiy; Varianytsia-Roshchupkina, Liudmyla; Catapano, Ilaria; Gennarelli, Gianluca; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    small objects and interfaces. This configuration can be labeled as a vertical differential configuration. At the conference, the reconstruction capabilities of this differential GPR configuration system will be discussed by means of an analysis of the problem based on a properly designed microwave tomographic inversion approach. The proposed approach exploits the Born approximation and faces the imaging as the solution of a linear inverse scattering problem. In this way, the problem of the local minima is avoided [7] and it is possible to impose some regularization to the problem in an easy way problem [8-9]. At the conference, a theoretical analysis of the mathematical propserties of the scattering operator under the vertical differential configuration will be presented showing that, with respect to the horizontal differential configuration, the vertical one allows to reject the direct coupling between the antennas but not the coupling of the antennas occurring through the air-soil interface. On the other hand, the filtering properties of the operator at hand con be considered, let say, less severe in some cases. At the conference, both some numerical and experimental results will be shown. References [1] R. Persico, F. Soldovieri, "Effects of the background removal in linear inverse scattering", IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens, vol. 46, pp. 1104-1114, April 2008. [2] L. Gurel, U. Oguz, "Three-Dimensional FDTD modeling of a ground penetrating radar", IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens, vol. 38, pp. 1513-1521, July 2000. [3] L. Gurel, U. Oguz, "Optimization of the transmitter-receiver separation in the ground penetrating radar", IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propag., vol. 51, no 3, pp. 362-370, March 2003. [4] R. Persico, F. Soldovieri, "A microwave tomography approach for a differential configuration in GPR prospecting", IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propag., vol. 54, pp. 3541 - 3548, 2006. [5] Y.A. Kopylov, S.A. Masalov, G.P. Pochanin, "The way of isolation between transmitting

  3. Metrics of hurricane-ocean interaction: vertically-integrated or vertically-averaged ocean temperature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, J. F.

    2009-05-01

    The ocean thermal field is often represented in hurricane-ocean interaction by a metric termed the upper Ocean Heat Content (OHC), the vertical integral of ocean temperature in excess of 26°C. High values of OHC have proven useful for identifying ocean regions that are especially favorable for hurricane intensification. Nevertheless, it is argued here that a more direct and robust metric of the ocean thermal field may be afforded by a vertical average of temperature, in one version from the surface to 100 m, a typical depth of vertical mixing by a mature hurricane. OHC and the depth-averaged temperature, dubbed T100, are well correlated over the deep open ocean in the high range of OHC, OHC≥75 kJ cm-2. They are poorly correlated in the low range of OHC, ≤50 kJ cm-2, in part because OHC is degenerate when evaluated on cool ocean temperatures ≤26°C. OHC and T100 can be qualitatively different also over shallow continental shelves: OHC will generally indicate comparatively low values regardless of the ocean temperature, while T100 will take on high values over a shelf that is warm and upwelling neutral or negative, since there will be little cool water that could be mixed into the surface layer. Some limited evidence is that continental shelves may be regions of comparatively small sea surface cooling during a hurricane passage, but more research is clearly required on this important issue.

  4. The Subjective Visual Vertical and the Subjective Haptic Vertical Access Different Gravity Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Lindsey E.; Makooie, Bobbak; Harris, Laurence R.

    2015-01-01

    The subjective visual vertical (SVV) and the subjective haptic vertical (SHV) both claim to probe the underlying perception of gravity. However, when the body is roll tilted these two measures evoke different patterns of errors with SVV generally becoming biased towards the body (A-effect, named for its discoverer, Hermann Rudolph Aubert) and SHV remaining accurate or becoming biased away from the body (E-effect, short for Entgegengesetzt-effect, meaning “opposite”, i.e., opposite to the A-effect). We compared the two methods in a series of five experiments and provide evidence that the two measures access two different but related estimates of gravitational vertical. Experiment 1 compared SVV and SHV across three levels of whole-body tilt and found that SVV showed an A-effect at larger tilts while SHV was accurate. Experiment 2 found that tilting either the head or the trunk independently produced an A-effect in SVV while SHV remained accurate when the head was tilted on an upright body but showed an A-effect when the body was tilted below an upright head. Experiment 3 repeated these head/body configurations in the presence of vestibular noise induced by using disruptive galvanic vestibular stimulation (dGVS). dGVS abolished both SVV and SHV A-effects while evoking a massive E-effect in the SHV head tilt condition. Experiments 4 and 5 show that SVV and SHV do not combine in an optimally statistical fashion, but when vibration is applied to the dorsal neck muscles, integration becomes optimal. Overall our results suggest that SVV and SHV access distinct underlying gravity percepts based primarily on head and body position information respectively, consistent with a model proposed by Clemens and colleagues. PMID:26716835

  5. The Subjective Visual Vertical and the Subjective Haptic Vertical Access Different Gravity Estimates.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Lindsey E; Makooie, Bobbak; Harris, Laurence R

    2015-01-01

    The subjective visual vertical (SVV) and the subjective haptic vertical (SHV) both claim to probe the underlying perception of gravity. However, when the body is roll tilted these two measures evoke different patterns of errors with SVV generally becoming biased towards the body (A-effect, named for its discoverer, Hermann Rudolph Aubert) and SHV remaining accurate or becoming biased away from the body (E-effect, short for Entgegengesetzt-effect, meaning "opposite", i.e., opposite to the A-effect). We compared the two methods in a series of five experiments and provide evidence that the two measures access two different but related estimates of gravitational vertical. Experiment 1 compared SVV and SHV across three levels of whole-body tilt and found that SVV showed an A-effect at larger tilts while SHV was accurate. Experiment 2 found that tilting either the head or the trunk independently produced an A-effect in SVV while SHV remained accurate when the head was tilted on an upright body but showed an A-effect when the body was tilted below an upright head. Experiment 3 repeated these head/body configurations in the presence of vestibular noise induced by using disruptive galvanic vestibular stimulation (dGVS). dGVS abolished both SVV and SHV A-effects while evoking a massive E-effect in the SHV head tilt condition. Experiments 4 and 5 show that SVV and SHV do not combine in an optimally statistical fashion, but when vibration is applied to the dorsal neck muscles, integration becomes optimal. Overall our results suggest that SVV and SHV access distinct underlying gravity percepts based primarily on head and body position information respectively, consistent with a model proposed by Clemens and colleagues.

  6. Characterization of vertical mixing in oscillatory vegetated flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdolahpour, M.; Ghisalberti, M.; Lavery, P.; McMahon, K.

    2016-02-01

    Seagrass meadows are primary producers that provide important ecosystem services, such as improved water quality, sediment stabilisation and trapping and recycling of nutrients. Most of these ecological services are strongly influenced by the vertical exchange of water across the canopy-water interface. That is, vertical mixing is the main hydrodynamic process governing the large-scale ecological and environmental impact of seagrass meadows. The majority of studies into mixing in vegetated flows have focused on steady flow environments whereas many coastal canopies are subjected to oscillatory flows driven by surface waves. It is known that the rate of mass transfer will vary greatly between unidirectional and oscillatory flows, necessitating a specific investigation of mixing in oscillatory canopy flows. In this study, we conducted an extensive laboratory investigation to characterise the rate of vertical mixing through a vertical turbulent diffusivity (Dt,z). This has been done through gauging the evolution of vertical profiles of concentration (C) of a dye sheet injected into a wave-canopy flow. Instantaneous measurement of the variance of the vertical concentration distribution ( allowed the estimation of a vertical turbulent diffusivity (). Two types of model canopies, rigid and flexible, with identical heights and frontal areas, were subjected to a wide and realistic range of wave height and period. The results showed two important mechanisms that dominate vertical mixing under different conditions: a shear layer that forms at the top of the canopy and wake turbulence generated by the stems. By allowing a coupled contribution of wake and shear layer mixing, we present a relationship that can be used to predict the rate of vertical mixing in coastal canopies. The results further showed that the rate of vertical mixing within flexible vegetation was always lower than the corresponding rigid canopy, confirming the impact of plant flexibility on canopy

  7. On the centrality of vertices of molecular graphs.

    PubMed

    Randić, Milan; Novič, Marjana; Vračko, Marjan; Plavšić, Dejan

    2013-11-05

    For acyclic systems the center of a graph has been known to be either a single vertex of two adjacent vertices, that is, an edge. It has not been quite clear how to extend the concept of graph center to polycyclic systems. Several approaches to the graph center of molecular graphs of polycyclic graphs have been proposed in the literature. In most cases alternative approaches, however, while being apparently equally plausible, gave the same results for many molecules, but occasionally they differ in their characterization of molecular center. In order to reduce the number of vertices that would qualify as forming the center of the graph, a hierarchy of rules have been considered in the search for graph centers. We reconsidered the problem of "the center of a graph" by using a novel concept of graph theory, the vertex "weights," defined by counting the number of pairs of vertices at the same distance from the vertex considered. This approach gives often the same results for graph centers of acyclic graphs as the standard definition of graph center based on vertex eccentricities. However, in some cases when two nonequivalent vertices have been found as graph center, the novel approach can discriminate between the two. The same approach applies to cyclic graphs without additional rules to locate the vertex or vertices forming the center of polycyclic graphs, vertices referred to as central vertices of a graph. In addition, the novel vertex "weights," in the case of acyclic, cyclic, and polycyclic graphs can be interpreted as vertex centralities, a measure for how close or distant vertices are from the center or central vertices of the graph. Besides illustrating the centralities of a number of smaller polycyclic graphs, we also report on several acyclic graphs showing the same centrality values of their vertices.

  8. Airborne EM for mine infrastructure planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijns, Chris

    2016-08-01

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys with near-surface vertical resolution provide rapid and comprehensive coverage of a mine site ahead of infrastructure planning. In environments of sufficient electrical conductivity contrast, the data will map variations in the depth to bedrock, providing guidance for expected excavation depths for solid building foundations, or mine pre-strip volumes. Continuous coverage overcomes the severe areal limitation of relying only on drilling and test pits. An AEM survey in northern Finland illustrates the success of this approach for guiding the placement of a mine crusher and related infrastructure. The cost of the EM data collection and interpretation is insignificant in comparison to the US$300 million capital cost of the mine infrastructure. This environment of shallow glacial cover challenges the limits of AEM resolution, yet analysis of subsequently collected three-dimensional (3D) surface seismic data and actual pre-strip excavation depths reinforces the predictive, but qualitative, mapping capability of the AEM. It also highlights the need to tune the modelling via petrophysics for the specific goal of the investigation, and exposes the limitations of visual drill core logging.

  9. Longitudinal Differences of Ionospheric Vertical Density Distribution and Equatorial Electrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yizengaw, E.; Zesta, E.; Moldwin, M. B.; Damtie, B.; Mebrahtu, A.; Valledares, C.E.; Pfaff, R. F.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate estimation of global vertical distribution of ionospheric and plasmaspheric density as a function of local time, season, and magnetic activity is required to improve the operation of space-based navigation and communication systems. The vertical density distribution, especially at low and equatorial latitudes, is governed by the equatorial electrodynamics that produces a vertical driving force. The vertical structure of the equatorial density distribution can be observed by using tomographic reconstruction techniques on ground-based global positioning system (GPS) total electron content (TEC). Similarly, the vertical drift, which is one of the driving mechanisms that govern equatorial electrodynamics and strongly affect the structure and dynamics of the ionosphere in the low/midlatitude region, can be estimated using ground magnetometer observations. We present tomographically reconstructed density distribution and the corresponding vertical drifts at two different longitudes: the East African and west South American sectors. Chains of GPS stations in the east African and west South American longitudinal sectors, covering the equatorial anomaly region of meridian approx. 37 deg and 290 deg E, respectively, are used to reconstruct the vertical density distribution. Similarly, magnetometer sites of African Meridian B-field Education and Research (AMBER) and INTERMAGNET for the east African sector and South American Meridional B-field Array (SAMBA) and Low Latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network (LISN) are used to estimate the vertical drift velocity at two distinct longitudes. The comparison between the reconstructed and Jicamarca Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) measured density profiles shows excellent agreement, demonstrating the usefulness of tomographic reconstruction technique in providing the vertical density distribution at different longitudes. Similarly, the comparison between magnetometer estimated vertical drift and other independent drift observation

  10. Solution chemistry approach to fabricate vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on gold wires: towards vertically integrated electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flavel, Benjamin S.; Yu, Jingxian; Ellis, Amanda V.; Quinton, Jamie S.; Shapter, Joseph G.

    2008-11-01

    A monolayer of hexadecyltrichlorosilane, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane or 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane was self-assembled onto a p-type silicon (100) substrate to provide a resist for electrochemical anodization with an atomic force microscope cantilever. Silane treatment of the oxide nanostructures created by anodization lithography allowed for the creation of a chemically heterogeneous surface, containing regions of -NH2 or -SH surrounded by -CH3 functionality. These patterned regions of -NH2 or -SH provided the point of attachment for citrate-stabilized gold colloid nanoparticles, which act as 'seed' particles for the electro-less deposition of gold. This has allowed the creation of gold wires on a silicon surface. Carbon nanotubes, with high carboxylic acid functionality, were vertically immobilized on the patterned gold wires with the use of a cysteamine monolayer and a condensation reaction. Such a material may prove useful in the creation of future vertically integrated electronic devices where it is desirable for electron transport to be in three dimensions and this electron transport is demonstrated with cyclic voltammetry.

  11. Neutrino mass hierarchy, vacuum oscillations, and vanishing vertical bar U{sub e3} vertical bar

    SciTech Connect

    Gouvea, Andre de; Jenkins, James; Kayser, Boris

    2005-06-01

    Is the relatively isolated member of the neutrino mass spectrum heavier or lighter than the two closely-spaced members? This question--the character of the neutrino mass hierarchy--is of great theoretical interest. All previously identified experiments for addressing it via neutrino oscillations require that the currently unknown size of the U{sub e3} element of the leptonic mixing matrix (parameterized by the unknown {theta}{sub 13} mixing angle) be sufficiently large, and will utterly fail in the limit {theta}{sub 13}{yields}0. For this reason, we explore alternative oscillation approaches that would still succeed even if {theta}{sub 13} vanishes. We identify several alternatives that require neither a nonzero vertical bar U{sub e3} vertical bar nor the presence of significant matter effects (even if the latter are unavoidable in the case of long-baseline, Earth-based experiments). All include multiple percent-level neutrino oscillation measurements, usually involving muon-neutrino (or antineutrino) disappearance and very long baselines. We comment on the degree of promise that these alternative approaches show.

  12. Effects of Loaded Squat Exercise with and without Application of Superimposed EMS on Physical Performance.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Nicolas; Zinner, Christoph; Doermann, Ulrike; Kleinoeder, Heinz; Mester, Joachim

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a multiple set squat exercise training intervention with superimposed electromyostimulation (EMS) on strength and power, sprint and jump performance. Twenty athletes from different disciplines participated and were divided into two groups: strength training (S) or strength training with superimposed EMS (S+E). Both groups completed the same training program twice a week over a six week period consisting of four sets of the 10 repetition maximum of back squats. Additionally, the S+E group had EMS superimposed to the squat exercise with simultaneous stimulation of leg and trunk muscles. EMS intensity was adjusted to 70% of individual pain threshold to ensure dynamic movement. Strength and power of different muscle groups, sprint, and vertical jump performance were assessed one week before (pre), one week after (post) and three weeks (re) following the training period. Both groups showed improvements in leg press strength and power, countermovement and squat jump performance and pendulum sprint (p < 0.05), with no changes for linear sprint. Differences between groups were only evident at the leg curl machine with greater improvements for the S+E group (p < 0.05). Common squat exercise training and squat exercise with superimposed EMS improves maximum strength and power, as well as jumping abilities in athletes from different disciplines. The greater improvements in strength performance of leg curl muscles caused by superimposed EMS with improvements in strength of antagonistic hamstrings in the S+E group are suggesting the potential of EMS to unloaded (antagonistic) muscle groups. Key pointsSimilar strength adaptations occurred after a 6 week 10 RM back squat exercise program with superimposed EMS (S+E) and 10 RM back squat exercise (S) alone.Specific adaptations for S+E at the leg curl muscles were evident.S and S+E improved SJ, CMJ and pendulum sprint performance.No improvement occurred in linear sprint

  13. Effects of Loaded Squat Exercise with and without Application of Superimposed EMS on Physical Performance

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz, Nicolas; Zinner, Christoph; Doermann, Ulrike; Kleinoeder, Heinz; Mester, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a multiple set squat exercise training intervention with superimposed electromyostimulation (EMS) on strength and power, sprint and jump performance. Twenty athletes from different disciplines participated and were divided into two groups: strength training (S) or strength training with superimposed EMS (S+E). Both groups completed the same training program twice a week over a six week period consisting of four sets of the 10 repetition maximum of back squats. Additionally, the S+E group had EMS superimposed to the squat exercise with simultaneous stimulation of leg and trunk muscles. EMS intensity was adjusted to 70% of individual pain threshold to ensure dynamic movement. Strength and power of different muscle groups, sprint, and vertical jump performance were assessed one week before (pre), one week after (post) and three weeks (re) following the training period. Both groups showed improvements in leg press strength and power, countermovement and squat jump performance and pendulum sprint (p < 0.05), with no changes for linear sprint. Differences between groups were only evident at the leg curl machine with greater improvements for the S+E group (p < 0.05). Common squat exercise training and squat exercise with superimposed EMS improves maximum strength and power, as well as jumping abilities in athletes from different disciplines. The greater improvements in strength performance of leg curl muscles caused by superimposed EMS with improvements in strength of antagonistic hamstrings in the S+E group are suggesting the potential of EMS to unloaded (antagonistic) muscle groups. Key points Similar strength adaptations occurred after a 6 week 10 RM back squat exercise program with superimposed EMS (S+E) and 10 RM back squat exercise (S) alone. Specific adaptations for S+E at the leg curl muscles were evident. S and S+E improved SJ, CMJ and pendulum sprint performance. No improvement occurred in linear

  14. Vertical nystagmus: clinical facts and hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Pierrot-Deseilligny, C; Milea, D

    2005-06-01

    The pathophysiology of spontaneous upbeat (UBN) and downbeat (DBN) nystagmus is reviewed in the light of several instructive clinical findings and experimental data. UBN due to pontine lesions could result from damage to the ventral tegmental tract (VTT), originating in the superior vestibular nucleus (SVN), coursing through the ventral pons and transmitting excitatory upward vestibular signals to the third nerve nucleus. A VTT lesion probably leads to relative hypoactivity of the drive to the motoneurons of the elevator muscles with, consequently, an imbalance between the downward and upward systems, resulting in a downward slow phase. The results observed in internuclear ophthalmoplegia suggest that the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) is involved in the transmission of both upward and downward vestibular signals. Since no clinical cases of DBN due to focal brainstem damage have been reported, it may be assumed that the transmission of downward vestibular signals depends only upon the MLF, whereas that of upward vestibular signals involves both the MLF and the VTT. The main focal lesions resulting in DBN affect the cerebellar flocculus and/or paraflocculus. Apparently, this structure tonically inhibits the SVN and its excitatory efferent tract (i.e. the VTT) but not the downward vestibular system. Therefore, a floccular lesion could result in a disinhibition of the SVN-VTT pathway with, consequently, relative hyperactivity of the drive to the motoneurons of the elevator muscles, resulting in an upward slow phase. UBN also results from lesions affecting the caudal medulla. An area in this region could form part of a feedback loop involved in upward gaze-holding, originating in a collateral branch of the VTT and comprising the caudal medulla, the flocculus and the SVN, successively. Therefore, it is suggested that the main types of spontaneous vertical nystagmus due to focal central lesions result from a primary dysfunction of the SVN-VTT pathway, which becomes

  15. VERTICAL BEAM SIZE CONTROL IN TLS AND TPS.

    SciTech Connect

    KUO, C.C.; CHEN, J.R.; CHOU, P.J.; CHANG, H.P.; HSU, K.T.; LUO, G.H.; TSAI, H.J.; WANG, D.J.; WANG, M.H.

    2006-06-26

    Vertical beam size control is an important issue in the light source operations. The horizontal-vertical betatron coupling and vertical dispersion were measured and corrected to small values in the TLS 1.5 GeV storage ring. Estimated beam sizes are compared with the measured values. By employing an effective transverse damping system, the vertical beam blow-up due to transverse coherent instabilities, such as the fast-ion beam instability, was suppressed. As a result, the light source is very stable. In NSRRC we are designing an ultra low emittance 3-GeV storage ring and its designed vertical beam size could be as small as a few microns. The ground and mechanic vibration effects, and coherent instabilities could spoil the expected photon brightness due to blow-up of the vertical beam size if not well taken care of. The contributions of these effects to vertical beam size increase will be evaluated and the counter measures to minimize them will be proposed and reported in this paper.

  16. Estimating Vertical Groundwater Velocities Using Groundwater Thermal Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arriaga, M. A.; Leap, D. I.; Petruccione, J. L.

    2007-05-01

    An understanding of vertical groundwater flow through unconsolidated deposits is a component for predicting fate and transport of contaminants in the saturated zone. Groundwater movement through heterogeneous glacial deposits common to northern Indiana (USA) provided a test setting for determining if measured vertical groundwater thermal gradients could aid in calculating vertical groundwater velocity estimates. Field procedure was conducted by collecting stratified groundwater temperatures from a series of cased monitoring wells previously advanced through glacial till and outwash sedimentary sequences. Groundwater thermal gradients (temperature-depth profiles) were plotted and matched using automated computer modeling software (Microsoft Excel Solver) with published type curves to derive a dimensionless parameter for estimating vertical groundwater velocities. Data results matched predictions, to include an increase in vertical groundwater velocities during the seasonally wetter Spring; and, higher calculated vertical groundwater velocities for the finer-grained till aquitards when compared to aquifers comprised of coarser-grained outwash deposits. This study shows promise and has gathered interest both in the scientific community and environmental consulting practice for estimating vertical migration rates of contaminants (specifically those affected by advection) within the saturated zone. Government agencies or consultants, for instance, could also potentially apply this estimation technique to measure and map localized recharge rates for developing more accurate wellhead protection zones.

  17. Subjective visual vertical after treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Maristela Mian; Ganança, Maurício Malavasi; Caovilla, Heloisa Helena

    2016-09-28

    Otolith function can be studied by testing the subjective visual vertical, because the tilt of the vertical line beyond the normal range is a sign of vestibular dysfunction. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is a disorder of one or more labyrinthine semicircular canals caused by fractions of otoliths derived from the utricular macula. To compare the subjective visual vertical with the bucket test before and immediately after the particle repositioning maneuver in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. We evaluated 20 patients. The estimated position where a fluorescent line within a bucket reached the vertical position was measured before and immediately after the particle repositioning maneuver. Data were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Before repositioning maneuver, 9 patients (45.0%) had absolute values of the subjective visual vertical above the reference standard and 2 (10.0%) after the maneuver; the mean of the absolute values of the vertical deviation was significantly lower after the intervention (p<0.001). There is a reduction of the deviations of the subjective visual vertical, evaluated by the bucket test, immediately after the particle repositioning maneuver in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Subjective Visual Vertical and Postural Capability in Children Born Prematurely

    PubMed Central

    Bucci, Maria Pia; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette; Trousson, Clémence; Baud, Olivier; Biran, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We compared postural stability and subjective visual vertical performance in a group of very preterm-born children aged 3-4 years and in a group of age-matched full-term children. Materials and Methods A platform (from TechnoConcept) was used to measure postural control in children. Perception of subjective visual vertical was also recorded with posture while the child had to adjust the vertical in the dark or with visual perturbation. Two other conditions (control conditions) were also recorded while the child was on the platform: for a fixation of the vertical bar, and in eyes closed condition. Results Postural performance was poor in preterm-born children compared to that of age-matched full-term children: the surface area, the length in medio-lateral direction and the mean speed of the center of pressure (CoP) were significantly larger in the preterm-born children group (p < 0.04, p < 0.01, and p < 0.04, respectively). Dual task in both groups of children significantly affected postural control. The subjective visual vertical (SVV) values were more variable and less precise in preterm-born children. Discussion-Conclusions We suggest that poor postural control as well as perception of verticality observed in preterm-born children could be due to immaturity of the cortical processes involved in the motor control and in the treatment of perception and orientation of verticality. PMID:25790327

  19. Response of ramus following vertical lengthening with distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tuzuner-Oncul, Aysegul Mine; Kisnisci, Reha S

    2011-09-01

    Vertical lengthening of the mandibular ramus is considered to be one of the least stable surgical procedures in the management of musculoskeletal maxillofacial deformities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of the mandibular ramus following vertical lengthening by means of distraction osteogenesis. This study included eight non-syndromic adult patients with temporomandibular joint ankylosis. The vertical height deficiency of the mandibular ramus and the ramus/condyle unit on the affected side were simultaneously reconstructed by transportation of a bone segment using distraction osteogenesis following gap arthroplasty. Lateral and posteroanterior (PA) cephalograms taken postoperatively before active distraction, at the completion of distraction and 6, 12, 24 months after distraction, were compared to evaluate the changes of the ramus height. In all cases the vertical ramus and ramus/condyle unit height loss were successfully reconstructed by distraction osteogenesis. There was no relapse in the amount of height gained by distraction osteogenesis at the 24 months follow-up review (p>0.05). Acute one stage vertical lengthening of the mandibular ramus is considered to be one of the least stable musculoskeletal procedures with relapse being a significant adverse outcome. In this clinical study gradual vertical lengthening of the ramus through ramus/condyle unit distraction osteogenesis has maintained the initial vertical ramus height gained for 24 months.

  20. Skeletal muscle abnormalities and genetic factors related to vertical talus.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Laura J; Gurnett, Christina A; Connolly, Anne M; Pestronk, Alan; Dobbs, Matthew B

    2011-04-01

    Congenital vertical talus is a fixed dorsal dislocation of the talonavicular joint and fixed equinus contracture of the hindfoot, causing a rigid deformity recognizable at birth. The etiology and epidemiology of this condition are largely unknown, but some evidence suggests it relates to aberrations of skeletal muscle. Identifying the tissue abnormalities and genetic causes responsible for vertical talus has the potential to lead to improved treatment and preventive strategies. We therefore (1) determined whether skeletal muscle abnormalities are present in patients with vertical talus and (2) identified associated congenital anomalies and genetic abnormalities in these patients. We identified associated congenital anomalies and genetic abnormalities present in 61 patients affected with vertical talus. We obtained abductor hallucis muscle biopsy specimens from the affected limbs of 11 of the 61 patients and compared the histopathologic characteristics with those of age-matched control subjects. All muscle biopsy specimens (n = 11) had abnormalities compared with those from control subjects including combinations of abnormal variation in muscle fiber size (n = 7), type I muscle fiber smallness (n = 6), and abnormal fiber type predominance (n = 5). Isolated vertical talus occurred in 23 of the 61 patients (38%), whereas the remaining 38 patients had associated nervous system, musculoskeletal system, and/or genetic and genomic abnormalities. Ten of the 61 patients (16%) had vertical talus in one foot and clubfoot in the other. Chromosomal abnormalities, all complete or partial trisomies, were identified in three patients with vertical talus who had additional congenital abnormalities. Vertical talus is a heterogeneous birth defect resulting from many diverse etiologies. Abnormal skeletal muscle biopsies are common in patients with vertical talus although it is unclear whether this is primary or secondary to the joint deformity. Associated anomalies are present in 62

  1. Vertical fine structure observations in the eastern equatorial Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, S.P.

    1981-11-20

    Measurements of vertical displacement and horizontal velocity finestructure near the equator at 110/sup 0/W in the eastern Pacific Ocean are reported. Profiles were scaled to a constant Bruent-Vaeisaelae frequency ocean (N/sub 0/ = 1 cph) in accordance with a WKBJ approximation. A total of 57 CTD casts between 3/sup 0/N and 3/sup 0/S taken during five cruises in 1979 were analyzed. Results show an equatorial enhancement of vertical displacement is similar variance for vertical wavelengths longer than 50 sdbar (stretched decibars). This enhancement is similar to that which has been reported at 125/sup 0/W and 179/sup 0/E. Difference between locations can be accounted for by the observed temporal variability at 110/sup 0/W. Coherence between vertical displacement profiles separated in time by dealys of 2 hours to 120 hour indicate that the high wave number structures were largely associated with time scales of 4 days and less. Meridionally, vertical structures longer than 300 sdbar were coherent within 50 km of the equator. We interpret this vertical displacement fine structure enhancement as high wave number equatorially trapped inertial-gravity waves. The velocity fine structure measurements in July 1979 also indicate equatorially enhanced horizontal kinetic energy for vertical wave lengths longer than 100 sdbar. The velocity structures persisted over the 56 hour of measurement and appeared to have longer time scales than the vertical displacements. Meridional energy measurement and appeared to have longer time scales than the vertical displacements. Meridional energy exceeded zonal energy; however, the two components were coherent. We interpret these velocity structures as inertial-gravity waves which were produced off the equator and are propagating through the equatorial region.

  2. EPA LABORATORIES IMPLEMENT EMS PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper highlights the breadth and magnitude of carrying out an effective Environmental Management System (EMS) program at the U.S. EPA's research and development laboratories. Federal research laboratories have unique operating challenges compared to more centralized industr...

  3. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with vertical alternating magnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Lari, Robert J.; Praeg, Walter F.; Turner, Larry R.; Battles, James E.; Hull, John R.; Rote, Donald M.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for containing molten metal using a magnet producing vertical alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the vertical alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the vertical alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel.

  4. Consistent vertical and horizontal resolution. [for internal gravity waves study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindzen, Richard S.; Fox-Rabinovitz, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Simple physical relations (namely, the Rossby ratio between vertical and horizontal scales in quasi-geostrophic flow and the dispersion relation for internal gravity waves) are used to estimate the vertical resolution consistent with a given horizontal resolution. Using these relations it is found that virtually all large scale models and observing systems have inadequate vertical resolution. In models, the excess horizontal resolution can lead to increased model 'noise' rather than improved accuracy. In observing systems, the finer horizontal scales can be severely misrepresented.

  5. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with vertical alternating magnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Lari, R.J.; Praeg, W.F.; Turner, L.R.; Battles, J.E.; Hull, J.R.; Rote, D.M.

    1988-06-17

    An apparatus for containing molten metal using a magnet producing vertical alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent to the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the vertical alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the vertical alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel. 8 figs.

  6. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with vertical alternating magnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Lari, R.J.; Praeg, W.F.; Turner, L.R.; Battles, J.E.; Hull, J.R.; Rote, D.M.

    1990-12-04

    An apparatus is disclosed for containing molten metal using a magnet producing vertical alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the vertical alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the vertical alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel. 9 figs.

  7. Beyond vertical integration--Community based medical education.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Emma Margaret

    2006-11-01

    The term 'vertical integration' is used broadly in medical education, sometimes when discussing community based medical education (CBME). This article examines the relevance of the term 'vertical integration' and provides an alternative perspective on the complexities of facilitating the CBME process. The principles of learner centredness, patient centredness and flexibility are fundamental to learning in the diverse contexts of 'community'. Vertical integration as a structural concept is helpful for academic organisations but has less application to education in the community setting; a different approach illuminates the strengths and challenges of CBME that need consideration by these organisations.

  8. Flow Split of Churn Flow at a Vertical Impacting T,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    Barnea, D. and Dukler , A.E. (980). "Modelling flow pattern .transitions for steady upwards gas liquid flow in vertical tubes", (AIChE Journal Vol. 26...churn flow at a vertical impacting T DTIC 4 ELECTE B J Azzopardi, A Purvis and A H Govan JAU I1MD COPYRIGHT ANO REPRODUCTION fn lies about copyriqht ant...FLOW SPLIT OF CHURN FLOW AT A VERTICAL IMPACTING T B. J. Azzopardi, A. Purvi:’ and A. H. Govan ABSTRACT Measurements have been made of the flow split

  9. A Compact Vertical Scanner for Atomic Force Microscopes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Hong; Shim, Jaesool; Lee, Dong-Yeon

    2010-01-01

    A compact vertical scanner for an atomic force microscope (AFM) is developed. The vertical scanner is designed to have no interference with the optical microscope for viewing the cantilever. The theoretical stiffness and resonance of the scanner are derived and verified via finite element analysis. An optimal design process that maximizes the resonance frequency is performed. To evaluate the scanner’s performance, experiments are performed to evaluate the travel range, resonance frequency, and feedback noise level. In addition, an AFM image using the proposed vertical scanner is generated. PMID:22163492

  10. A compact vertical scanner for atomic force microscopes.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hong; Shim, Jaesool; Lee, Dong-Yeon

    2010-01-01

    A compact vertical scanner for an atomic force microscope (AFM) is developed. The vertical scanner is designed to have no interference with the optical microscope for viewing the cantilever. The theoretical stiffness and resonance of the scanner are derived and verified via finite element analysis. An optimal design process that maximizes the resonance frequency is performed. To evaluate the scanner's performance, experiments are performed to evaluate the travel range, resonance frequency, and feedback noise level. In addition, an AFM image using the proposed vertical scanner is generated.

  11. An electrical bio-chip to transfer and detect electromagnetic stimulation on the cells based on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Rafizadeh-Tafti, Saeed; Haqiqatkhah, Mohammad Hossein; Saviz, Mehrdad; Janmaleki, Mohsen; Faraji Dana, Reza; Zanganeh, Somayeh; Abdolahad, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    A highly sensitive impedimetric bio-chip based on vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes (VAMWCNTs), was applied in direct interaction with lung cancer cells. Our tool provided both inducing and monitoring the bioelectrical changes in the cells initiated by electromagnetic (EM) wave stimulation. EM wave of 940MHz frequency with different intensities was used. Here, wave ablation might accumulate electrical charge on the tips of nanotubes penetrated into cell's membrane. The charge might induce ionic exchanges into the cell and cause alterations in electrical states of the membrane. Transmembrane electrostatic/dynamic states would be strongly affected due to such exchanges. Our novel modality was that, the cells' vitality changes caused by charge inductions were electrically detected with the same nanotubes in the architecture of electrodes for impedance measurement. The responses of the sensor were confirmed by electron and florescent microscopy images as well as biological assays. In summation, our method provided an effective biochip for enhancing and detecting external EM stimulation on the cells useful for future diagnostic and therapeutic applications, such as wave-guided drug-resistance breakage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Knowledge of obstetricians about the vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus].

    PubMed

    Conceição, Joseni Santos da; Diniz-Santos, Daniel Rui; Ferreira, Cibele Dantas; Paes, Fernanda Nunes; Melo, Clotildes Nunes; Silva, Luciana Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Vertical transmission is responsible for 35%-40% of the new cases of hepatitis B worldwide and it is associated with an increased risk of chronic hepatitis B, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. To describe obstetricians' knowledge on the recommended measures to the diagnosis of the infection by the hepatitis virus B in pregnant women and to prevent the transmission of this infection to the babies of infected mothers. Obstetricians registered at the 'Sociedade de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia da Bahia', Salvador, BA, Brazil were randomly selected and invited to answer a questionnaire with questions regarding their academic formation, workplace, contact with medical students and their practices about the hepatitis virus B. Individuals who were not currently working as obstetricians or were not living in the state of Bahia were excluded from the study. Data were analyzed with the EpiInfo software with a 95% confidence interval. Three hundred and one obstetricians answered the questionnaire: 90.3% of them recognized that the hepatitis virus B could be transmitted vertically and 81.7% routinely screened their patients for hepatitis virus B infection during prenatal consultations; 66.0% considered HBsAg the best serological marker to be employed on the screening. Only 13.0% systematically recommended the vaccination against hepatitis virus B and the administration of immunoglobulin to the newborns of infected mothers in the first 12 hours of life. The frequency of correct answers about the vertical transmission of hepatitis virus B, the best serological marker for screening and the management of infected mothers and their newborns was higher among professionals who had the 'Título de Especialista em Ginecologia e Obstetrícia (TEGO)' than among the remaining ones (P = 0.018, P = 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively). We observed that the knowledge of the obstetricians about the diagnosis and management of hepatitis virus B infection during pregnancy is not adequate

  13. Influence of short incompatible practice on the Simon effect: transfer along the vertical dimension and across vertical and horizontal dimensions.

    PubMed

    Conde, Erick F Q; Fraga-Filho, Roberto Sena; Lameira, Allan Pablo; Mograbi, Daniel C; Riggio, Lucia; Gawryszewski, Luiz G

    2015-11-01

    In spatial compatibility and Simon tasks, the response is faster when stimulus and response locations are on the same side than when they are on opposite sides. It has been shown that a spatial incompatible practice leads to a subsequent modulation of the Simon effect along the horizontal dimension. It has also been reported that this modulation occurs both along and across vertical and horizontal dimensions, but only after intensive incompatible training (600 trials). In this work, we show that this modulatory effect can be obtained with a smaller number of incompatible trials, changing the spatial arrangement of the vertical response keys to obtain a stronger dimensional overlap between the spatial codes of stimuli and response keys. The results of Experiment 1 showed that 80 incompatible vertical trials abolished the Simon effect in the same dimension. Experiment 2 showed that a modulation of the vertical Simon effect could be obtained after 80 horizontal incompatible trials. Experiment 3 explored whether the transfer effect can also occur in a horizontal Simon task after a brief vertical spatial incompatibility task, and results were similar to the previous experiments. In conclusion, we suggest that the spatial arrangement between response key and stimulus locations may be critical to establish the short-term memory links that enable the transfer of learning between brief incompatible practices and the Simon effects, both along the vertical dimension and across vertical and horizontal dimensions.

  14. Cenozoic vertical movements in Northwest Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, S. B.

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of the interdisciplinary project CENMOVE is to unravel the causal relations and relative importance of Cenozoic tectonics in NW Europe, eustasy and climate. The approach of the project revolves around 1) isotopic profiling in Paleocene sediments in the eastern North Sea area, 2) thermochronometry in Southern Norway and Southern Sweden, 3) receiver function analysis in southern Norway and 4) integrated numerical modelling. Furthermore, the results from many years of basin analysis in the North Sea area and on the Norwegian Shelf are included, as well as general geological and geophysical information from the Fennoscandian and North Atlantic areas. The vertical movements in the area work on two length scales: 1) the regional scale involves uplift of land areas (e.g. S. Norway, E. Greenland, and Scotland) and subsidence of adjacent basin areas (the Norwegian Shelf and the North Sea); 2) the local scale involves the dynamics of narrow inversion zones such as the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone, Sole Pit High and domes on the Norwegian Shelf. Our working hypothesis comprise the following: The continuous basin subsidence is a function of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic mantle and lithosphere processes, including e.g. the Middle Jurassic plume in the North Sea region and lithospheric stretching in the North Atlantic and in the North Sea. Changes of in-plane stress in the region are a function primarily of the African-European collision and the opening of the North Atlantic and govern the inversion of inherited weak zones in the continental lithosphere. Inversion movements occur during the primary compressional events and later in the form of post-compressional rebound of both the inversion zones and the associated marginal troughs. The uplift of western Fennoscandia, Scotland, and eastern Greenland may have been caused by destabilisation and drop off of the deep lithospheric root beneath these areas, triggered by the Iceland mantle plume. This scenario involved transient

  15. GROUND WATER SAMPLING FOR VERTICAL PROFILING OF CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate delineation of plume boundaries and vertical contaminant distribution are necessary in order to adequately characterize waste sites and determine remedial strategies to be employed. However, it is important to consider the sampling objectives, sampling methods, and sampl...

  16. 11. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical tensile members between panels nine end ten of Moody Bridge - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

  17. 8. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical member at the third panel point north from south abutment of Moody Bridge. - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

  18. 9. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical tensile members at the fifth panel point north from south abutment of Moody Bridge. - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

  19. 10. DETAIL OF JUNCTION BETWEEN LOWER CHORD, VERTICAL LACED CHANNEL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL OF JUNCTION BETWEEN LOWER CHORD, VERTICAL LACED CHANNEL, FLOOR BEAM, EYE BAR, AND U-BOLT. WEST ABUTMENT. - River Road Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek in Spring Creek Township, Hallton, Elk County, PA

  20. View down into vertical flame channel of Test Stand 'A' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View down into vertical flame channel of Test Stand 'A' from superstructure. Wooden platform open side faces west. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand A, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  1. 24. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, MOTOR ROOM, OFF VERTICAL DEFLECTOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, MOTOR ROOM, OFF VERTICAL DEFLECTOR SHEAVE, MOTOR, BRAKE, PINION SHAFT, DRIVE WHEEL. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  2. 22. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, MOTOR ROOM, VERTICAL DEFLECTOR SHEAVE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, MOTOR ROOM, VERTICAL DEFLECTOR SHEAVE, MOTORS. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  3. 23. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, MOTOR ROOM, VERTICAL DEFLECTOR SHEAVE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, MOTOR ROOM, VERTICAL DEFLECTOR SHEAVE, MOTORS. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  4. Remotely operated gripper provides vertical control rod movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutter, E.; Koch, L. J.

    1968-01-01

    Remote actuation of a gripper shaft affects vertical engagement between a drive shaft and control rod. A secondary function of the gripper is to provide remote indication of positive completion of the gripping or ungripping operation.

  5. 15. Detail view of connection between vertical posts and deck ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail view of connection between vertical posts and deck beam. Jack Boucher, photographer, 1983 - Neshanic Station Lenticular Truss Bridge, State Route 567, spanning South Branch of Raritan River, Neshanic Station, Somerset County, NJ

  6. 18. OPERATOR'S SIDE OF 48' MILL STAND SHOWING DIALS, VERTICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. OPERATOR'S SIDE OF 48' MILL STAND SHOWING DIALS, VERTICAL ROLL SCREWDOWN, AND VIEW THROUGH HOUSING TO PINION STAND. Martin Stupich, Photographer, 1989. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 48" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  7. Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing vertical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing vertical posts on concrete footing with diagonal timber bracing and wire bracing. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  8. 49 CFR 179.14 - Coupler vertical restraint system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS... tank car shall be equipped with couplers capable of sustaining, without disengagement or material... coupler (or simulated coupler) having only frictional vertical force resistance at the mating interface...

  9. 19. Typical lower chord tension member, vertical lattice and diagonal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Typical lower chord tension member, vertical lattice and diagonal eye bat pinning. View is at north side of 3rd span looking west. - Cleves Bridge, Spanning Great Miami River on U.S. Highway 50, Cleves, Hamilton County, OH

  10. VIEW OF PROCESS DEVELOPMENT PILE (PDP) TANK TOP, WITH VERTICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PROCESS DEVELOPMENT PILE (PDP) TANK TOP, WITH VERTICAL ELEMENTS IN BACKGROUND, LEVEL 0’, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  11. 20. DETAIL OF VERTICAL POWER HACKSAW, POWER HACKSAW (NOT ORIGINAL), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL OF VERTICAL POWER HACKSAW, POWER HACKSAW (NOT ORIGINAL), AND TWIST-DRILL GRINDER (L TO R) LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - W. A. Young & Sons Foundry & Machine Shop, On Water Street along Monongahela River, Rices Landing, Greene County, PA

  12. 12. DETAIL VIEW OF NORTHEAST CORNER, SHOWING HIP VERTICAL, INCLINED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL VIEW OF NORTHEAST CORNER, SHOWING HIP VERTICAL, INCLINED END POST, AND UPPER CHORD - Kennan-Jump River Bridge, Spanning South fork of Jump River on County Highway "N", Kennan, Price County, WI

  13. 6. Detail, vertical guides adjacent to east portal of Tunnel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail, vertical guides adjacent to east portal of Tunnel 28, view to southwest, 135mm lens with electronic flash fill. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 28, Milepost 134.75, Applegate, Placer County, CA

  14. Glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and OMS pods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This 35mm frame, photographed as the Space Shuttle Columbia was orbiting Earth during a 'night' pass, documents the glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods of the spacecraft.

  15. 't Hooft vertices, partial quenching, and rooted staggered QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, Claude; Golterman, Maarten; Shamir, Yigal; Sharpe, Stephen R.

    2008-06-01

    We discuss the properties of 't Hooft vertices in partially quenched and rooted versions of QCD in the continuum. These theories have a physical subspace, equivalent to ordinary QCD, that is contained within a larger space that includes many unphysical correlation functions. We find that the 't Hooft vertices in the physical subspace have the expected form, despite the presence of unphysical 't Hooft vertices appearing in correlation functions that have an excess of valence quarks (or ghost quarks). We also show that, due to the singular behavior of unphysical correlation functions as the massless limit is approached, order parameters for nonanomalous symmetries can be nonvanishing in finite volume if these symmetries act outside of the physical subspace. Using these results, we demonstrate that arguments recently given by Creutz - claiming to disprove the validity of rooted staggered QCD - are incorrect. In particular, the unphysical 't Hooft vertices do not present an obstacle to the recovery of taste symmetry in the continuum limit.

  16. Glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and OMS pods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This 35mm frame, photographed as the Space Shuttle Columbia was orbiting Earth during a 'night' pass, documents the glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods of the spacecraft.

  17. 22. PIN CONNECTION AT JUNCTURE OF INTERMEDIATE VERTICAL WITH BOTTOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. PIN CONNECTION AT JUNCTURE OF INTERMEDIATE VERTICAL WITH BOTTOM CHORD ON PENNSYLVANIA PETIT TRUSS. HYDRAULICALLY FORGED EYES ON ROLLED STOCK. - New River Bridge, Spanning New River at State Route 623, Pembroke, Giles County, VA

  18. GROUND WATER SAMPLING FOR VERTICAL PROFILING OF CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate delineation of plume boundaries and vertical contaminant distribution are necessary in order to adequately characterize waste sites and determine remedial strategies to be employed. However, it is important to consider the sampling objectives, sampling methods, and sampl...

  19. 1. GENERAL VIEW. OVERHANG, PAINTED RED, HAS VERTICAL SIDING AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW. OVERHANG, PAINTED RED, HAS VERTICAL SIDING AND FADED PAINTINGS OF FARM ANIMALS: COW, DONKEYS AND HORSE. - De Turck House, Barn, State Route 662 vicinity, Oley Township, Oley, Berks County, PA

  20. INTERIOR OF WEST SPAN LOOKING WEST (SHADOW OF VERTICAL LAPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF WEST SPAN LOOKING WEST (SHADOW OF VERTICAL LAPS PLACED ON ZONE III; ASPHALT ZONE IX) - Honey Run Bridge, Spanning Butte Creek, bypassed section of Honey Run Road (originally Carr Hill Road), Paradise, Butte County, CA