Science.gov

Sample records for citrate dextrose solution

  1. Identification of highly concentrated dextrose solution (50% dextrose) extravasation and treatment--a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Sarah L; Brady, William; Mahmoud, Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    Treatment for significant hypoglycemia includes administration of dextrose containing agents, including 50% dextrose (D50%W) intravenously. Significant extravasation of D50%W can lead to complications, including skin and soft tissue injury, loss of limb, or death. The aim of this case report, using an interdisciplinary team approach, explores extravasation protocols as well as literature review, is to provide information about the proper use of hyaluronidase in patients with D50%W extravasations. A 46-year-old African American man presented to the emergency department (ED) after blood glucose level was initially 13 mg/dL. Emergency medical service established a large bore intravenous (IV) line in the right antecubital vein and administered a total of 50 g of D50%W. Upon arrival to the ED, the patient's level of consciousness had significantly improved. After arrival to the ED, the patient started complaining of pain in his right arm, near the site of the IV line insertion. On inspection, the IV site was grossly infiltrated. Hospital protocols for hyperosmolar infiltration were used. Extravasation is a common medical complication of infused medications and needs to be properly identified and treated. The multitude of skills from nursing, medicine, and pharmacy ensures that extravasation is managed appropriately and effectively to ensure safety to patients. Recognition, communication, and awareness of the institutional guidelines on how to treat infiltration and extravasation should be encouraged in all ED and intensive care unit medical personnel who deal with a variety of infusions and IV medications that have serious implications if not treated correctly.

  2. Gender and chronological age affect erythrocyte membrane oxidative indices in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) blood bank storage condition.

    PubMed

    Erman, Hayriye; Aksu, Uğur; Belce, Ahmet; Atukeren, Pınar; Uzun, Duygu; Cebe, Tamer; Kansu, Ahmet D; Gelişgen, Remisa; Uslu, Ezel; Aydın, Seval; Çakatay, Ufuk

    2016-07-01

    It is well known that in vitro storage lesions lead to membrane dysfunction and decreased number of functional erythrocytes. As erythrocytes get older, in storage media as well as in peripheral circulation, they undergo a variety of biochemical changes. In our study, the erythrocytes with different age groups in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) storage solution were used in order to investigate the possible effect of gender factor on oxidative damage. Oxidative damage biomarkers in erythrocyte membranes such as ferric reducing antioxidant power, pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance, protein-bound advance glycation end products, and sialic acid were analyzed. Current study reveals that change in membrane redox status during blood-bank storage condition also depends on both gender depended homeostatic factors and the presence of CPDA-1. During the storage period in CPDA-1, erythrocytes from the male donors are mostly affected by free radical-mediated oxidative stress but erythrocytes obtained from females are severely affected by glyoxidative stress.

  3. Supplementation of total parenteral nutrition solutions with ferrous citrate.

    PubMed

    Sayers, M H; Johnson, D K; Schumann, L A; Ivey, M F; Young, J H; Finch, C A

    1983-01-01

    Daily infusion of a total parenteral nutrition (TPN) formulation containing 1 liter of 5.5% Travasol provides less than 0.1 milligrams of iron. By comparison, a formulation which includes a liter of 10% Travamin provides 2 milligrams of iron per day. To meet iron requirements in patients infusing formulations containing Travasol, iron was added as ferrous citrate. In in virto experiments, 74% of this iron was available to transferrin. In seven patients in whom in vivo availability was tested by red cell incorporation, the mean availability was 81%. Ferrous citrate is recommended as a safe, effective additive to TPN solutions for adult patients requiring iron supplements.

  4. Hydrogen profiles of dobutamine hydrochloride and fentanyl citrate solutions according to intravenous administration systems, temperature, and luminosity conditions.

    PubMed

    Barros, Daniele Porto; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso; Pedreira, Mavilde da Luz Gonçalves; Peterlini, Maria Angélica Sorgini

    2014-01-01

    Factors such as temperature, light exposure, drug concentration, ionic strength, time of infusion, and duration of drug association can influence the effectiveness of pharmacological solutions, which can compromise the solutions' quality, resulting in unstable solutions and drug incompatibility. The aim of this study was to determine the pH of solutions of dobutamine hydrochloride, fentanyl citrate, and their combination in 5% dextrose in water (D5W) under various light exposures and temperature conditions over time. The analysis was performed by measuring the pH of the substances in both pharmacological (commercial) preparations and in D5W under dark fluorescent light in the presence or absence of sunlight exposures, intravenous apparatus packaging (clear and amber burettes), and temperature (22°C and 37°C). Samples were collected immediately after preparation and after 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 24 hours of exposure to the various conditions; data were analyzed using mean standard deviations. Of the 260 pH values obtained, 50 (19.2%) were from commercial preparations and 210 (80.8%) from solutions exposed to various experimental conditions. Significant pH differences were found among the vials of the commercial preparation drugs. The largest pH value difference (0.88) was observed for fentanyl citrate, in which a pH increase of 0.88 (4.23 ± 0.62) was observed. The combination of drugs in D5W resulted in more acidic values than those of fentanyl citrate and of D5W and fentanyl citrate in D5W, but they were closer to what was observed for the solution of dobutamine hydrochloride in D5W. This solution was more acidic than fentanyl citrate diluted in D5W. The lower acidity of fentanyl citrate had a minor influence on the final pH of the combined drug solution in D5W. Under most conditions, the drug solutions kept at 22°C had pH values that were more acidic and less variable. Temperature was a major factor controlling the chemical behavior of the solutions analyzed

  5. Study of Maxwell–Wagner (M–W) relaxation behavior and hysteresis observed in bismuth titanate layered structure obtained by solution combustion synthesis using dextrose as fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Subohi, Oroosa; Shastri, Lokesh; Kumar, G.S.; Malik, M.M.; Kurchania, Rajnish

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: X-ray diffraction studies show that phase formation and crystallinity was reached only after calcinations at 800 °C. Dielectric constant versus temperature curve shows ferroelectric to paraelectric transition temperature (T{sub c}) to be 650 °C. Complex impedance curves show deviation from Debye behavior. The material shows a thin PE Loop with low remnant polarization due to high conductivity in the as prepared sample. - Highlights: • Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} is synthesized using solution combustion technique with dextrose as fuel. • Dextrose has high reducing capacity (+24) and generates more no. of moles of gases. • Impedance studies show that the sample follows Maxwell–Wagner relaxation behavior. • Shows lower remnant polarization due to higher c-axis ratio. - Abstract: Structural, dielectric and ferroelectric properties of bismuth titanate (Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12}) obtained by solution combustion technique using dextrose as fuel is studied extensively in this paper. Dextrose is used as fuel as it has high reducing valancy and generates more number of moles of gases during the reaction. X-ray diffraction studies show that phase formation and crystallinity was reached only after calcinations at 800 °C. Dielectric constant versus temperature curve shows ferroelectric to paraelectric transition temperature (T{sub c}) to be 650 °C. The dielectric loss is very less (tan δ < 1) at lower temperatures but increases around T{sub c} due to structural changes in the sample. Complex impedance curves show deviation from Debye behavior. The material shows a thin PE Loop with low remnant polarization due to high conductivity in the as prepared sample.

  6. Compatibility and stability of potassium chloride and magnesium sulfate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and 5% dextrose injeciton solutions.

    PubMed

    Quay, I; Tan, E

    2001-01-01

    The compatibility and stability of 80 mmol/L potassium chloride and 16 mmol/L magnesium sulfate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and in 5% dextrose injection solutions at 22 deg C have been studied by means of a Beckman Clinical Chemistry Analyzer Synchron CX5 Delta. The infusions were stable for 24 hours at 22 deg C. The results from both diluents showed an average of +/-5% fluctuations in concentration. None of the samples appeared to form visible precipitation or to change in color or clarity.

  7. Closed circuit recovery of copper, lead and iron from electronic waste with citrate solutions.

    PubMed

    Torres, Robinson; Lapidus, Gretchen T

    2017-02-01

    An integral closed circuit hydrometallurgical process is presented for base metal recovery from electronic waste. The leaching medium consists of a sodium citrate solution, from which base metals are retrieved by direct electrowinning, and the barren solution is recycled back to the leaching stage. This leaching-electrowinning cycle was repeated four times. The redox properties of the fresh citrate solution, as well as the leach liquors, were characterized by cyclic voltammetry to determine adequate conditions for metal reduction, as well as to limit citrate degradation. The leaching efficiency of electronic waste, employing the same solution after four complete cycles was 71, 83 and 94% for copper, iron and lead, respectively, compared to the original leach with fresh citrate solution.

  8. Struvite crystal growth inhibition by trisodium citrate and the formation of chemical complexes in growth solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prywer, Jolanta; Mielniczek-Brzóska, Ewa; Olszynski, Marcin

    2015-05-01

    Effect of trisodium citrate on the crystallization of struvite was studied. To evaluate such an effect an experiment of struvite growth from artificial urine was performed. The investigations are related to infectious urinary stones formation. The crystallization process was induced by the addition of aqueous ammonia solution to mimic the bacterial activity. The spectrophotometric results demonstrate that trisodium citrate increases induction time with respect to struvite formation and decreases the growth efficiency of struvite. The inhibitory effect of trisodium citrate on the nucleation and growth of struvite is explained in base of chemical speciation analysis. Such an analysis demonstrates that the inhibitory effect is related with the fact that trisodium citrate binds NH4 + and Mg2+ ions in the range of pH from 7 to 9.5 characteristic for struvite precipitation. The most important is the MgCit- complex whose concentration strongly depends on an increase in pH rather than on an increase in citrate concentrations.

  9. Stabilizing effect of citrate buffer on the photolysis of riboflavin in aqueous solution

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Iqbal; Sheraz, Muhammad Ali; Ahmed, Sofia; Kazi, Sadia Hafeez; Mirza, Tania; Aminuddin, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    In the present investigation the photolysis of riboflavin (RF) in the presence of citrate species at pH 4.0–7.0 has been studied. A specific multicomponent spectrophotometric method has been used to assay RF in the presence of photoproducts during the reactions. The overall first-order rate constants (kobs) for the photolysis of RF range from 0.42 to 1.08×10–2 min−1 in the region. The values of kobs have been found to decrease with an increase in citrate concentration indicating an inhibitory effect of these species on the rate of reaction. The second-order rate constants for the interaction of RF with total citrate species causing inhibition range from 1.79 to 5.65×10–3 M−1 min−1 at pH 4.0–7.0. The log k–pH profiles for the reactions at 0.2–1.0 M citrate concentration show a gradual decrease in kobs and the value at 1.0 M is more than half compared to that of k0, i.e., in the absence of buffer, at pH 5.0. Divalent citrate ions cause a decrease in RF fluorescence due to the quenching of the excited singlet state resulting in a decrease in the rate of reaction and consequently leading to the stabilization of RF solutions. The greater quenching of fluorescence at pH 4.0 compared to that of 7.0 is in accordance with the greater concentration of divalent citrate ions (99.6%) at that pH. The trivalent citrate ions exert a greater inhibitory effect on the rate of RF photolysis compared to that of the divalent citrate ions probably as a result of excited triplet state quenching. The values of second-order rate constants for the interaction of divalent and trivalent citrate ions are 0.44×10–2 and 1.06×10–3 M–1 min–1, respectively, indicating that the trivalent ions exert a greater stabilizing effect, compared to the divalent ions, on RF solutions. PMID:25755977

  10. Aggregation Kinetics of Citrate and Polyvinylpyrrolidone Coated Silver Nanoparticles in Monovalent and Divalent Electrolyte Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Khanh An; Chen, Kai Loon

    2011-01-01

    The aggregation kinetics of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) that were coated with two commonly used capping agents—citrate and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)—were investigated. Time-resolved dynamic light scattering (DLS) was employed to measure the aggregation kinetics of the AgNPs over a range of monovalent and divalent electrolyte concentrations. The aggregation behavior of citrate-coated AgNPs in NaCl was in excellent agreement with the predictions based on Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek (DLVO) theory, and the Hamaker constant of citrate-coated AgNPs in aqueous solutions was derived to be 3.7 × 10-20 J. Divalent electrolytes were more efficient in destabilizing the citrate-coated AgNPs, as indicated by the considerably lower critical coagulation concentrations (2.1 mM CaCl2 and 2.7 mM MgCl2 vs. 47.6 mM NaCl). The PVP-coated AgNPs were significantly more stable than citrate-coated AgNPs in both NaCl and CaCl2, which is likely due to steric repulsion imparted by the large, non-charged polymers. The addition of humic acid resulted in the adsorption of the macromolecules on both citrate- and PVP-coated AgNPs. The adsorption of humic acid induced additional electrosteric repulsion that elevated the stability of both nanoparticles in suspensions containing NaCl or low concentrations of CaCl2. Conversely, enhanced aggregation occurred for both nanoparticles at high CaCl2 concentrations due to interparticle bridging by humic acid clusters. PMID:21630686

  11. Citrate-Coated Silver Nanoparticles Interactions with Effluent Organic Matter: Influence of Capping Agent and Solution Conditions.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Leonardo; Aubry, Cyril; Cornejo, Mauricio; Croue, Jean-Philippe

    2015-08-18

    Fate and transport studies of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) discharged from urban wastewaters containing effluent organic matter (EfOM) into natural waters represent a key knowledge gap. In this study, EfOM interfacial interactions with AgNPs, and their aggregation kinetics were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and time-resolved dynamic light scattering (TR-DLS), respectively. Two well-characterized EfOM isolates, i.e., wastewater humic (WW humic) and wastewater colloids (WW colloids, a complex mixture of polysaccharides-proteins-lipids), and a River humic isolate of different characteristics were selected. Citrate-coated AgNPs were selected as representative capped-AgNPs. Citrate-coated AgNPs showed a considerable stability in Na(+) solutions. However, Ca(2+) ions induced aggregation by cation bridging between carboxyl groups on citrate. Although the presence of River humic increased the stability of citrate-coated AgNPs in Na(+) solutions due to electrosteric effects, they aggregated in WW humic-containing solutions, indicating the importance of humics characteristics during interactions. Ca(2+) ions increased citrate-coated AgNPs aggregation rates in both humic solutions, suggesting cation bridging between carboxyl groups on their structures as a dominant interacting mechanism. Aggregation of citrate-coated AgNPs in WW colloids solutions was significantly faster than those in both humic solutions. Control experiments in urea solution indicated hydrogen bonding as the main interacting mechanism. During AFM experiments, citrate-coated AgNPs showed higher adhesion to WW humic than to River humic, evidencing a consistency between TR-DLS and AFM results. Ca(2+) ions increased citrate-coated AgNPs adhesion to both humic isolates. Interestingly, strong WW colloids interactions with citrate caused AFM probe contamination (nanoparticles adsorption) even at low Na(+) concentrations, indicating the impact of hydrogen bonding on adhesion. These results suggest

  12. A new strategy to stabilize oxytocin in aqueous solutions: I. The effects of divalent metal ions and citrate buffer.

    PubMed

    Avanti, Christina; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Setyaningsih, Dewi; Hawe, Andrea; Jiskoot, Wim; Visser, Jan; Kedrov, Alexej; Driessen, Arnold J M; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; Frijlink, Henderik W

    2011-06-01

    In the current study, the effect of metal ions in combination with buffers (citrate, acetate, pH 4.5) on the stability of aqueous solutions of oxytocin was investigated. Both monovalent metal ions (Na(+) and K(+)) and divalent metal ions (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Zn(2+)) were tested all as chloride salts. The effect of combinations of buffers and metal ions on the stability of aqueous oxytocin solutions was determined by RP-HPLC and HP-SEC after 4 weeks of storage at either 4°C or 55°C. Addition of sodium or potassium ions to acetate- or citrate-buffered solutions did not increase stability, nor did the addition of divalent metal ions to acetate buffer. However, the stability of aqueous oxytocin in aqueous formulations was improved in the presence of 5 and 10 mM citrate buffer in combination with at least 2 mM CaCl(2), MgCl(2), or ZnCl(2) and depended on the divalent metal ion concentration. Isothermal titration calorimetric measurements were predictive for the stabilization effects observed during the stability study. Formulations in citrate buffer that had an improved stability displayed a strong interaction between oxytocin and Ca(2+), Mg(2+), or Zn(2+), while formulations in acetate buffer did not. In conclusion, our study shows that divalent metal ions in combination with citrate buffer strongly improved the stability of oxytocin in aqueous solutions.

  13. Gold/silver core-shell 20 nm nanoparticles extracted from citrate solution examined by XPS

    SciTech Connect

    Engelhard, Mark H.; Smith, Jordan N.; Baer, Donald R.

    2016-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles of many types are widely used in consumer and medical products. The surface chemistry of particles and the coatings that form during synthesis or use in many types of media can significantly impact the behaviors of particles including dissolution, transformation and biological or environmental impact. Consequently it is useful to be able to extract information about the thickness of surface coatings and other attributes of nanoparticles produced in a variety of ways. It has been demonstrated that X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) can be reliably used to determine the thickness of organic and other nanoparticles coatings and shells. However, care is required to produce reliable and consistent information. Here we report the XPS spectra from gold/silver core-shell nanoparticles of nominal size 20 nm removed from a citrate saturated solution after one and two washing cycles. The Simulation of Electron Spectra for Surface Analysis (SESSA) program had been used to model peak amplitudes to obtain information on citrate coatings that remain after washing and demonstrate the presence of the gold core. This data is provided so that others can compare use of SESSA or other modeling approaches to quantify the nature of coatings to those already published and to explore the impacts particle non-uniformities on XPS signals from core-shell nanoparticles.

  14. Chemical controls on uranyl citrate speciation and the self-assembly of nanoscale macrocycles and sandwich complexes in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Basile, M; Unruh, D K; Gojdas, K; Flores, E; Streicher, L; Forbes, T Z

    2015-03-28

    Uranyl citrate forms trimeric species at pH > 5.5, but exact structural characteristics of these important oligomers have not previously been reported. Crystallization and structural characterization of the trimers suggests the self-assembly of the 3 : 3 and 3 : 2 U : Cit complexes into larger sandwich and macrocyclic molecules. Raman spectroscopy and ESI-MS have been utilized to investigate the relative abundance of these species in solution under varying pH and citrate concentrations. Additional dynamic light scattering experiments indicate that self-assembly of the larger molecules does occur in aqueous solution.

  15. A Taurolidine-Citrate-Heparin Lock Solution Effectively Eradicates Pathogens From the Catheter Biofilm in Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Zwiech, Rafał; Adelt, Maria; Chrul, Sławomir

    2016-01-01

    Catheter-related bacteremia (CRB) is a typical complication of hemodialysis catheter use. Catheter lumen colonization by pathogens is regarded as a direct cause of CRB. Once settled, the catheter biofilm increases the risk of developing infection, thus necessitating insertion replacement and antibiotic treatment. The study assessed the self-sufficient efficacy of taurolidine-citrate-heparin lock solution in eradicating catheter biofilm bacteria and keeping it sterile in patients on hemodialysis. Twenty-nine chronic patients on hemodialysis with tunneled and nontunneled catheters locked with a heparin filling (the mean time of heparin lock use -30.1 ± 2.0 days) and subsequently converted to a taurolidine-citrate-heparin filling were included. Peripheral vein and catheter lumen blood cultures were obtained before the filling change and after taurolidine-citrate-heparin lock use (mean time 33.8 ± 7.6 days). Twenty-four participants with tunneled and nontunneled catheters locked with taurolidine-citrate-heparin filling served as the control group. During the heparin-locking period, CRB was diagnosed in 3 cases (only nontunneled catheters). The catheter blood cultures findings were positive in 23 patients (10 temporary and 13 permanent catheters), whereas both the catheter and peripheral vein blood cultures were sterile in 3 of 29 subjects (only permanent catheters). Irrespective of catheter type (tunneled or nontunneled), repeated culture revealed no pathogens in any of the 23 patients with initial positive catheter blood culture, after the use of taurolidine-citrate-heparin filling. No positive blood culture was noted in the control group. The taurolidine-citrate-heparin lock solution effectively eradicated pathogens from nontunneled and tunneled catheter biofilms and helped to maintain catheter lumen sterility.

  16. Performance characteristics of an ion chromatographic method for the quantitation of citrate and phosphate in pharmaceutical solutions.

    PubMed

    Jenke, Dennis; Sadain, Salma; Nunez, Karen; Byrne, Frances

    2007-01-01

    The performance of an ion chromatographic method for measuring citrate and phosphate in pharmaceutical solutions is evaluated. Performance characteristics examined include accuracy, precision, specificity, response linearity, robustness, and the ability to meet system suitability criteria. In general, the method is found to be robust within reasonable deviations from its specified operating conditions. Analytical accuracy is typically 100 +/- 3%, and short-term precision is not more than 1.5% relative standard deviation. The instrument response is linear over a range of 50% to 150% of the standard preparation target concentrations (12 mg/L for phosphate and 20 mg/L for citrate), and the results obtained using a single-point standard versus a calibration curve are essentially equivalent. A small analytical bias is observed and ascribed to the relative purity of the differing salts, used as raw materials in tested finished products and as reference standards in the analytical method. The assay is specific in that no phosphate or citrate peaks are observed in a variety of method-related solutions and matrix blanks (with and without autoclaving). The assay with manual preparation of the eluents is sensitive to the composition of the eluent in the sense that the eluent must be effectively degassed and protected from CO(2) ingress during use. In order for the assay to perform effectively, extensive system equilibration and conditioning is required. However, a properly conditioned and equilibrated system can be used to test a number of samples via chromatographic runs that include many (> 50) injections.

  17. PRODUCTION OF UNIFORMLY SIZED SERUM ALBUMIN AND DEXTROSE MICROBUBBLES

    PubMed Central

    Borrelli, Michael J.; O’Brien, William D.; Bernock, Laura J.; Williams, Heather R.; Hamilton, Eric; Wu, Jonah; Oelze, Michael L.; Culp, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Uniformly-sized preparations with average microbubble (MB) diameters from 1 µm to 7 µm were produced reliably by sonicating decafluorobutane-saturated solutions of serum albumin and dextrose. Detailed protocols for producing and size-separating the MBs are presented, along with the effects that changing each production parameter (serum albumin concentration, sonication power, sonication time, etc.) had on MB size distribution and acoustic stability. These protocols can be used to produce MBs for experimental applications or serve as templates for developing new protocols that yield MBs with physical and acoustic properties better suited to specific applications. Size stability and ultrasonic performance quality control tests were developed to assure that successive MB preparations perform identically and to distinguish the physical and acoustic properties of identically sized MBs produced with different serum albumin-dextrose formulations and sonication parameters. MBs can be stored at 5°C for protracted periods (2 weeks to one year depending on formulation). PMID:21689961

  18. Taurolidine-citrate lock solution (TauroLock) significantly reduces CVAD-associated grampositive infections in pediatric cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Arne; Ammann, Roland A; Wiszniewsky, Gertrud; Bode, Udo; Fleischhack, Gudrun; Besuden, Mette M

    2008-01-01

    Background Taurolidin/Citrate (TauroLock™), a lock solution with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity, may prevent bloodstream infection (BSI) due to coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS or 'MRSE' in case of methicillin-resistant isolates) in pediatric cancer patients with a long term central venous access device (CVAD, Port- or/Broviac-/Hickman-catheter type). Methods In a single center prospective 48-months cohort study we compared all patients receiving anticancer chemotherapy from April 2003 to March 2005 (group 1, heparin lock with 200 IU/ml sterile normal saline 0.9%; Canusal® Wockhardt UK Ltd, Wrexham, Wales) and all patients from April 2005 to March 2007 (group 2; taurolidine 1.35%/Sodium Citrate 4%; TauroLock™, Tauropharm, Waldbüttelbrunn, Germany). Results In group 1 (heparin), 90 patients had 98 CVAD in use during the surveillance period. 14 of 30 (47%) BSI were 'primary Gram positive BSI due to CoNS (n = 4) or MRSE (n = 10)' [incidence density (ID); 2.30 per 1000 inpatient CVAD-utilization days]. In group 2 (TauroLock™), 89 patients had 95 CVAD in use during the surveillance period. 3 of 25 (12%) BSI were caused by CoNS. (ID, 0.45). The difference in the ID between the two groups was statistically significant (P = 0.004). Conclusion The use of Taurolidin/Citrate (TauroLock™) significantly reduced the number and incidence density of primary catheter-associated BSI due to CoNS and MRSE in pediatric cancer patients. PMID:18664278

  19. Structural characterization of environmentally relevant ternary uranyl citrate complexes present in aqueous solutions and solid state materials.

    PubMed

    Basile, Madeline; Unruh, Daniel K; Flores, Erin; Johns, Adam; Forbes, Tori Z

    2015-02-14

    Organic acids are important metal chelators in environmental systems and tend to form soluble complexes in aqueous solutions, ultimately influencing the transport and bioavailability of contaminants in surface and subsurface waters. This is particularly true for the formation of uranyl citrate complexes, which have been utilized in advanced photo- and bioremediation strategies for soils contaminated with nuclear materials. Given the complexity of environmental systems, the formation of ternary or heterometallic uranyl species in aqueous solutions are also expected, particularly with Al(iii) and Fe(iii) cations. These ternary forms are reported to be more stable in aqueous solutions, potentially enhancing contaminant mobility and uptake by organisms, but the exact coordination geometries of these soluble molecular complexes have not been elucidated. To provide insight into the nature of these species, we have developed a series of geochemical model compounds ([(UO(2))(2)Al(2)(C(6)H(4)O(7))(4)](6-) (U(2)Al(2)), [(UO(2))(2)Fe(2)(C(6)H(4)O(7))(4)](6-) (U(2)Fe(2)-1) and [(UO(2))(2)Fe(2)(C(6)H(4)O(7))(4)(H(2)O)(2)](6-) (U(2)Fe(2)-2) and [(UO(2))(2)Fe(4)(OH)(4)(C(6)H(4)O(7))(4)](8-) (U(2)Fe(4))) that were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and vibrational spectroscopy. Mass spectroscopy was then employed to compare the model compounds to species present in aqueous solutions to provide an enhanced understanding of the ternary uranyl citrate complexes that could be relevant in natural systems.

  20. 21 CFR 168.110 - Dextrose anhydrous.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dextrose anhydrous. 168.110 Section 168.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners...

  1. 21 CFR 168.111 - Dextrose monohydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dextrose monohydrate. 168.111 Section 168.111 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners...

  2. 21 CFR 168.110 - Dextrose anhydrous.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dextrose anhydrous. 168.110 Section 168.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners...

  3. 21 CFR 168.111 - Dextrose monohydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dextrose monohydrate. 168.111 Section 168.111 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners...

  4. 21 CFR 168.110 - Dextrose anhydrous.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dextrose anhydrous. 168.110 Section 168.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners...

  5. 21 CFR 168.111 - Dextrose monohydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dextrose monohydrate. 168.111 Section 168.111 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners...

  6. 21 CFR 168.110 - Dextrose anhydrous.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dextrose anhydrous. 168.110 Section 168.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners...

  7. 21 CFR 168.110 - Dextrose anhydrous.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dextrose anhydrous. 168.110 Section 168.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners...

  8. Reduction of Fe(III) chelated with citrate in an NOx scrubber solution by Enterococcus sp. FR-3.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Liu, Nan; Cai, Ling-Lin; Jiang, Jin-Lin; Chen, Jian-Meng

    2011-02-01

    Biological reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II) is a key step in nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) removal by the integrated chemical absorption-biological reduction process. NO(x) removal efficiency strongly depends on the concentration of Fe(II) in the scrubbing liquid. In this study, a newly isolated strain, Enterococcus sp. FR-3, was used to reduce Fe(III) chelated with citrate to Fe(II). Strain FR-3 reduced citrate-chelated Fe(III) with an efficiency of up to 86.9% and an average reduction rate of 0.21 mM h(-1). SO(4)(2-) was not inhibitory whereas NO(2)(-) and SO(3)(2-) inhibited cell growth and thus affected Fe(III) reduction. Models based on the Logistic equation were used to describe the relationship between growth and Fe(III) reduction. These findings provide some useful data for Fe(III) reduction, scrubber solution regeneration and NO(x) removal process design.

  9. Inhibition of precipitation of carbonate apatite by trisodium citrate analysed in base of the formation of chemical complexes in growth solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prywer, Jolanta; Olszynski, Marcin; Mielniczek-Brzóska, Ewa

    2015-11-01

    Effect of trisodium citrate on the precipitation of carbonate apatite is studied. The experimental series are performed in the solution of artificial urine. The investigations are related to infectious urinary stones formation as carbonate apatite is one of the main components of this kind of stones. To mimic a real infection in urinary tract the aqueous ammonia solution was added to the solution of artificial urine. The spectrophotometric results demonstrate that trisodium citrate increases induction time with respect to carbonate apatite formation and decreases the efficiency of carbonate apatite precipitation. The inhibitory effect of trisodium citrate on the precipitation of carbonate apatite is explained in base of chemical speciation analysis. Such an analysis demonstrates that the inhibitory effect is mainly related with the fact that trisodium citrate binds Ca2+ ions and causes the formation of CaCit- and Ca10(PO4)6CO3 complexes. Trisodium citrate binds Ca2+ ions in the range of pH from 6 to 9.5 for which carbonate apatite is favored to be formed.

  10. Experiences with Continuous Venovenous Hemofiltration using 18mmol/L predilution Citrate anticoagulation and a Phosphate Containing Replacement Solution

    PubMed Central

    Jeffrey, Yuen Henry; Hoi-Ping, Shum; Kit Hung, Anne Leung; Chung-Ling, Lam; Wing-Wa, Yan; King-Yiu, Lai

    2017-01-01

    Context: Regional citrate anticoagulation for continuous renal replacement therapy is associated with a longer filter-life, less bleeding events and improved mortality. Problems associated with using Prismocitrate 10/2 solution in continuous renal replacement therapy, include hypomagnesemia, hypophosphatemia and the need for additional bicarbonate infusion. Aims: This study uses the new Prismocitrate 18/0 solution for improved buffer balance and Phoxilium solution for a more favourable electrolyte profile. Settings and Design: A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) using Prismocitrate 18/0 and Phoxilium in our 21-bed ICU was conducted from March to July 2014. Methods and Material: Continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) was performed at fixed rate by using Prismocitrate 18/0 predilution at 1250 ml/hour, a blood flow rate of 110 ml/min and post-replacement with Phoxilium at 1250 ml/hr. CVVH was run for 72 h or until filter clotting, transportation, or achievement of the clinical target. Statistical Analysis Used: The results were displayed as the median with the interquartile range (IQR). The trend in pH, electrolytes, and base excess are shown using a standard box plot. All analyses were performed by the Statistical Package for Social Science for Windows, version 17 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Forty-five CVVH episodes were analysed. The median circuit lifetime was 44 h (interquartile range, IQR 29-55). Metabolic alkalosis, hypophosphatemia and hypomagnesemia occurred in 8.3%, 3.5% and 40.2% of the blood samples, respectively. No patient developed hypokalemia or citrate toxicity. Conclusions: This new CVVH regime is safe and easy to administer for critically ill patients. PMID:28197045

  11. Inhibition of precipitation of carbonate apatite by trisodium citrate analysed in base of the formation of chemical complexes in growth solution

    SciTech Connect

    Prywer, Jolanta; Olszynski, Marcin; Mielniczek-Brzóska, Ewa

    2015-11-15

    Effect of trisodium citrate on the precipitation of carbonate apatite is studied. The experimental series are performed in the solution of artificial urine. The investigations are related to infectious urinary stones formation as carbonate apatite is one of the main components of this kind of stones. To mimic a real infection in urinary tract the aqueous ammonia solution was added to the solution of artificial urine. The spectrophotometric results demonstrate that trisodium citrate increases induction time with respect to carbonate apatite formation and decreases the efficiency of carbonate apatite precipitation. The inhibitory effect of trisodium citrate on the precipitation of carbonate apatite is explained in base of chemical speciation analysis. Such an analysis demonstrates that the inhibitory effect is mainly related with the fact that trisodium citrate binds Ca{sup 2+} ions and causes the formation of CaCit{sup −} and Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}CO{sub 3} complexes. Trisodium citrate binds Ca{sup 2+} ions in the range of pH from 6 to 9.5 for which carbonate apatite is favored to be formed. - Highlights: • Trisodium citrate (TC) increases induction time of carbonate apatite (CA) formation. • TC decreases the efficiency of CA precipitation. • The inhibitory effect of TC is explained in base of chemical speciation analysis. • The inhibitory effect is mainly related with the fact that TC binds Ca{sup 2+} ions. • TC binds Ca{sup 2+} ions in the range of pH from 6 to 9.5 for which CA is formed.

  12. Sr-90 Immobilization by Infiltration of a Ca-Citrate-PO4 Solution into the Hanford 100-N Area Vadose Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, Jim E.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Oostrom, Mart; Williams, Mark D.; Vermeul, Vince R.

    2008-01-11

    This project was initiated to develop a strategy for infiltration of a Ca-citrate-PO4 solution in order to precipitate apatite [Ca6(PO4)10(OH)2] in desired locations in the vadose zone for Sr-90 remediation. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated that infiltration of a Ca-citrate-PO4 solution into sediments at low and high water saturation results in citrate biodegradation and formation of apatite. The citrate biodegradation rate was relatively uniform, in spite of the spatial variability of sediment microbial biomass, likely because of microbial transport processes that occur during solution infiltration. The precipitate was characterized as hydroxyapatite, and the Sr-90 substitution into apatite was shown to have a half-life of 5.5 to 16 months. 1-D and 2-D laboratory infiltration experiments quantified the spatial distribution of apatite that formed during solution infiltration. Slow infiltration in 2-D experiments at low water saturation show the apatite precipitate concentrated in the upper third of the infiltration zone. More rapid 1-D infiltration studies show the apatite precipitate concentrated at greater depth.

  13. [Gastric emptying and metabolic acidosis. III. Study of gastric retention of a sodium citrate solution using an experimental model of metabolic acidosis in rats].

    PubMed

    Baracat, E C; Collares, E F

    1992-01-01

    The gastric emptying of sodium citrate solution 0.25 mEq/ml was studied in rats with metabolic acidosis induced by orogastric infusion of 0.5 M ammonium chloride solution. Two control groups were used: one infused with 0.5 M sodium chloride and the other with water. The 3 solutions content was 2 ml/100 g weight of the animal. Six hours after the infusion, there was a moderate metabolic acidosis in the group with ammonium citrate. This 6 hour interval marked the beginning of the gastric emptying study. The test meal (sodium citrate 0.25 mEq/ml) was utilized containing 6 mg% red fenol as a marker. The gastric emptying of sodium citrate was studied at 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes after the infusion, and the results showed no differences between the 3 groups. The data suggest that the duodenal receptors to pH were more effective do determine the pattern of gastric response than the acidosis.

  14. Investigation of Possible Maillard Reaction Between Acyclovir and Dextrose upon Dilution Prior to Parenteral Administration.

    PubMed

    Siahi Shadbad, Mohammad Reza; Ghaderi, Faranak; Hatami, Leila; Monajjemzadeh, Farnaz

    2016-12-01

    In this study the stability of parenteral acyclovir (ACV) when diluted in dextrose (DEX) as large volume intravenous fluid preparation (LVIF) was evaluated and the possible Maillard reaction adducts were monitored in the recommended infusion time. Different physicochemical methods were used to evaluate the Maillard reaction of dextrose with ACV to track the reaction in real infusion condition. Other large volume intravenous fluids were checked regarding the diluted drug stability profile. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and mass data proved the reaction of glucose with dextrose. A Maillard-specific high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used to track the reaction in real infusion condition in vitro. The nucleophilic reaction occurred in diluted parenteral preparations of acyclovir in 5% dextrose solutions. The best diluent solution was also selected as sodium chloride and introduced based on drug stability and also its adsorption onto different infusion sets (PVC or non PVC) to provide an acceptable administration protocol in clinical practices. Although, the Maillard reaction was proved and successfully tracked in diluted solutions, and the level of drug loss when diluted in dextrose was reported to be between 0.27 up to 1.03% of the initial content. There was no drug adsorption to common infusion sets. The best diluent for parenteral acyclovir is sodium chloride large volume intravenous fluid.

  15. Sequestration of Sr-90 Subsurface Contamination in the Hanford 100-N Area by Surface Infiltration of a Ca-Citrate-Phosphate Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, James E.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Oostrom, Martinus; Moore, R. C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Williams, Mark D.; Zhong, Lirong; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; McKinley, James P.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Covert, Matthew A.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Garcia, Ben J.

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a method to emplace apatite precipitate in the 100N vadose zone, which results in sorption and ultimately incorporation of Sr-90 into the apatite structure. The Ca-citrate-PO4 solution can be infiltrated into unsaturated sediments to result in apatite precipitate to provide effective treatment of Sr-90 contamination. Microbial redistribution during solution infiltration and a high rate of citrate biodegradation for river water microbes (water used for solution infiltration) results in a relatively even spatial distribution of the citrate biodegradation rate and ultimately apatite precipitate in the sediment. Manipulation of the Ca-citrate-PO4 solution infiltration strategy can be used to result in apatite precipitate in the lower half of the vadose zone (where most of the Sr-90 is located) and within low-K layers (which are hypothesized to have higher Sr-90 concentrations). The most effective infiltration strategy to precipitate apatite at depth (and with sufficient lateral spread) was to infiltrate a high concentration solution (6 mM Ca, 15 mM citrate, 60 mM PO4) at a rapid rate (near ponded conditions), followed by rapid, then slow water infiltration. Repeated infiltration events, with sufficient time between events to allow water drainage in the sediment profile can be used to buildup the mass of apatite precipitate at greater depth. Low-K heterogeneities were effectively treated, as the higher residual water content maintained in these zones resulted in higher apatite precipitate concentration. High-K zones did not receive sufficient treatment by infiltration, although an alternative strategy of air/surfactant (foam) was demonstrated effective for targeting high-K zones. The flow rate manipulation used in this study to treat specific depths and heterogeneities are not as easy to implement at field scale due to the lack of characterization of heterogeneities and difficulty tracking the wetting front over a large

  16. Nanoscale zero-valent iron for the removal of Zn2+, Zn(II)-EDTA and Zn(II)-citrate from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Kržišnik, Nina; Mladenovič, Ana; Škapin, Andrijana Sever; Škrlep, Luka; Ščančar, Janez; Milačič, Radmila

    2014-04-01

    The parameters which influence the removal of different zinc (Zn) species: Zn(2+), Zn(II)-EDTA and Zn(II)-citrate from aqueous solutions by nanoparticles of zero-valent iron (nZVI) were investigated at environmental relevant pH values. Untreated, surface modified and silica-fume supported nZVI were applied at different iron loads and contact times to Zn solutions, which were buffered to pH 5.3, 6.0 and 7.0. The results revealed that pH, the type of nZVI, the iron load, the contact time, and the Zn species all had a significant influence on the efficiency of removal. Zn(2+), Zn(II)-EDTA and Zn(II)-citrate were the most effectively removed from aqueous solutions by untreated nZVI. Zn(2+) removal was governed mainly by adsorption onto precipitated iron oxides. Complete removal of Zn(2+) and Zn(II)-citrate was obtained at all pH values investigated. The removal of strong Zn(II)-EDTA complex was successful only at acidic pH, which favored degradation of Zn(II)-EDTA. Consequently, the released Zn(2+) was completely removed from the solution by adsorption onto iron oxides.

  17. Photophysics of Fe(III)-tartrate and Fe(III)-citrate complexes in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozdnyakov, Ivan P.; Kolomeets, Alexander V.; Plyusnin, Victor F.; Melnikov, Alexey A.; Kompanets, Victor O.; Chekalin, Sergey V.; Tkachenko, Nikolai; Lemmetyinen, Helge

    2012-03-01

    Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy was used to determine the photophysical processes of Fe(III) complexes with citric and tartaric acids ([Fe(Cit)] and [Fe(tart)]+) in aqueous solutions. The excitation of the complexes in the charge transfer bands is followed by formation of an intermediate absorbance decaying with two characteristic times. The shorter time constant (0.2, 0.4 ps) is ascribed to vibrational cooling and solvent relaxation of Frank-Condon excited state of corresponding complex and the second time constant (1.4, 40 ps) is assigned to superposition of internal conversion to the ground state and formation of the long-lived Fe(II) radical complex. The competition of these processes determines the quantum yield of photolysis of Fe(III)-carboxylates.

  18. The Effect on Serum Ionic Magnesium of Exchange Transfusion with Citrated as Opposed to Heparinized Blood

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Prakash C.; Denton, Ronald L.; Harpur, Eleanor; Stern, Leo; Sugden, Donald L.

    1967-01-01

    Serum Mg++ levels before, during, and after replacement transfusion were determined in 20 newborn infants. In 10 infants exchanged with acid-citrate-dextrose (ACD) blood, the level fell from 1.75 ± 0.16 mEq./l. to 0.99 ± 0.16 mEq./l. By contrast, levels in 10 infants exchanged with two types of heparinized blood were unchanged: the pre-exchange values were 1.59 ± 0.11, and the postexchange levels were 1.59 ± 0.08 mEq./l. Mean values for donor bloods were 0.42 ± 0.07 mEq./l. with ACD blood, and 1.45 ± 0.03 mEq./l. with heparinized blood. In vitro studies involving the addition of known amounts of citrate to standard Mg++ solutions demonstrated that the citrate caused a reduction of ionic magnesium. It is proposed that the fall in serum Mg++ when ACD blood is used for exchange transfusion is the combined result of Mg++ binding by the citrate, and the dilution effect of the relatively large proportion of anticoagulant to blood (1:3) used with the ACD mixture. PMID:6066819

  19. Hanford 100N Area Apatite Emplacement: Laboratory Results of Ca-Citrate-PO4 Solution Injection and Sr-90 Immobilization in 100N Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, James E.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Moore, Robert C.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Williams, Mark D.; Girvin, Donald C.; McKinley, James P.; Truex, Michael J.; Phillips, Jerry L.

    2007-10-01

    This report summarizes laboratory scale studies investigating the remediation of Sr-90 by Ca-citrate-PO4 solution injection/infiltration to support field injection activities in the Hanford 100N area. This study is focused on experimentally testing whether this remediation technology can be effective under field scale conditions to mitigate Sr-90 migration 100N area sediments into the Columbia River. Sr-90 is found primarily adsorbed to sediments by ion exchange (99% adsorbed, < 1% in groundwater) in the upper portion of the unconfined aquifer and lower vadose zone. Although primarily adsorbed, Sr-90 is still considered a high mobility risk as it is mobilized by seasonal river stage increases and by plumes of higher ionic strength relative to groundwater. This remediation technology relies upon the Ca-citrate-PO4 solution forming apatite precipitate [Ca6(PO4)10(OH)2], which incorporates some Sr-90 during initial precipitation and additionally slowly incorporates Sr-90 by solid phase substitution for Ca. Sr substitution occurs because Sr-apatite is thermodynamically more stable than Ca-apatite. Once the Sr-90 is in the apatite structure, Sr-90 will decay to Y-90 (29.1 y half-life) then Zr-90 (64.1 h half-life) without the potential for migration into the Columbia River. For this technology to be effective, sufficient apatite needs to be emplaced in sediments to incorporate Sr and Sr-90 for 300 years (~10 half-lives of Sr-90), and the rate of incorporation needs to exceed the natural groundwater flux rate of Sr in the 100N area. A primary objective of this study is to supply an injection sequence to deliver sufficient apatite into subsurface sediments that minimizes initial mobility of Sr-90, which occurs because the injection solution has a higher ionic strength compared to groundwater. This can be accomplished by sequential injections of low, then high concentration injection of Ca-citrate-PO4 solutions. Assessment of low concentration Ca-citrate-PO4, citrate-PO4

  20. In Vitro Assessment of the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Optimized Nitroglycerin-Citrate-Ethanol as a Nonantibiotic, Antimicrobial Catheter Lock Solution for Prevention of Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections

    PubMed Central

    Reitzel, Ruth A.; Hirsh-Ginsberg, Cheryl; Murray, Kimberly; Chaftari, Anne-Marie; Hachem, Ray; Raad, Issam

    2016-01-01

    The rapid, broad-spectrum, biofilm-eradicating activity of the combination of 0.01% nitroglycerin, 7% citrate, and 20% ethanol and its potential as a nonantibiotic, antimicrobial catheter lock solution (ACLS) were previously reported. Here, a nitroglycerin-citrate-ethanol (NiCE) ACLS optimized for clinical assessment was developed by reducing the nitroglycerin and citrate concentrations and increasing the ethanol concentration. Biofilm-eradicating activity was sustained when the ethanol concentration was increased from 20 to 22% which fully compensated for reducing the citrate concentration from 7% to 4% as well as the nitroglycerin concentration from 0.01% to 0.0015% or 0.003%. The optimized formulations demonstrated complete and rapid (2 h) eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa, MDR Klebsiella pneumoniae, MDR Enterobacter cloacae, MDR Acinetobacter baumannii, MDR Escherichia coli, MDR Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Candida albicans, and Candida glabrata biofilms. The optimized NiCE lock solutions demonstrated anticoagulant activities comparable to those of heparin lock solutions. NiCE lock solution was significantly more effective than taurolidine-citrate-heparin lock solution in eradicating biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida glabrata. The optimized, nonantibiotic, heparin-free NiCE lock solution demonstrates rapid broad-spectrum biofilm eradication as well as effective anticoagulant activity, making NiCE a high-quality ACLS candidate for clinical assessment. PMID:27297475

  1. An efficient and ultrasensitive rhodamine B-based reversible colorimetric chemosensor for naked-eye recognition of molybdenum and citrate ions in aqueous solution: Sensing behavior and logic operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavallali, Hossein; Deilamy-Rad, Gohar; Parhami, Abolfath; Hasanli, Nahid

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we manifest a novel rhodamine B (RhB) based colorimetric chemosensor for molybdenum and citrate ions (Cit3-) in an absolutely aqueous media. It has been identified as highly sensitive probe for Mo6+ which responds at 4.0 nmol L-1 concentration levels. RhB while combined with Mo6+ in aqueous solution displays a color changing from pink to purple which could be quickly dissociated by the addition of citrate in this system so that reversible color changes from purple to pink can be achieved. The comparison of this method with some other methods for citrate indicates that this is the only method which can detect citrate in aqueous solution by color changes. This chemosensor can be applied for quantification of citrate with a linear range covering from 1.67 × 10-7 to 1.22 × 10-5 M and a detection limit of 2.0 × 10-8 M. Moreover, the response of the chemosensor toward Mo6+ and citrate is fast. In addition, based on above sensing mechanism, an IMPLICATION logic operation can be achieved using Mo6+ ion and Cit3- as the inputs, making RhB a promising candidate for further applications in molecular logic devices and also indicates that RhB is suitable for the detection of Mo6+ and Cit3- ions in real samples.

  2. An efficient and ultrasensitive rhodamine B-based reversible colorimetric chemosensor for naked-eye recognition of molybdenum and citrate ions in aqueous solution: sensing behavior and logic operation.

    PubMed

    Tavallali, Hossein; Deilamy-Rad, Gohar; Parhami, Abolfath; Hasanli, Nahid

    2015-03-15

    In this paper we manifest a novel rhodamine B (RhB) based colorimetric chemosensor for molybdenum and citrate ions (Cit(3-)) in an absolutely aqueous media. It has been identified as highly sensitive probe for Mo(6+) which responds at 4.0 nmol L(-1) concentration levels. RhB while combined with Mo(6+) in aqueous solution displays a color changing from pink to purple which could be quickly dissociated by the addition of citrate in this system so that reversible color changes from purple to pink can be achieved. The comparison of this method with some other methods for citrate indicates that this is the only method which can detect citrate in aqueous solution by color changes. This chemosensor can be applied for quantification of citrate with a linear range covering from 1.67×10(-7) to 1.22×10(-5) M and a detection limit of 2.0×10(-8) M. Moreover, the response of the chemosensor toward Mo(6+) and citrate is fast. In addition, based on above sensing mechanism, an IMPLICATION logic operation can be achieved using Mo(6+) ion and Cit(3-) as the inputs, making RhB a promising candidate for further applications in molecular logic devices and also indicates that RhB is suitable for the detection of Mo(6+) and Cit(3-) ions in real samples.

  3. Influence of the anions on the N-cationic benzethonium salts in the solid state and solution: Chloride, bromide, hydroxide and citrate hydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradies, Henrich H.; Reichelt, Hendrik

    2016-06-01

    The crystal structures of the hydrated cationic surfactant benzethonium (Bzth) chloride, bromide, hydroxide, and citrate have been determined by X-ray diffraction analysis and compared with their structures in solution well above their critical micelle concentration. The differences in the nature of the various anions of the four Bzth-X materials lead to unique anion environments and 3-D molecular arrangements. The water molecule in the monoclinic Bzth-Cl or Bzth-Br forms is hydrogen bonded to the halides and particularly to the hydrogens of the methoxy groups of the Bzth moiety notwithstanding the weak Brønsted acidity of the methoxy hydrogens. The citrate strongly interacts with the hydrogens of the methoxy group forming an embedded anionic spherical cluster of a radius of 2.6 Å. The Bzth-OH crystallizes in a hexagonal lattice with two water molecules and reveals free water molecules forming hydrogen bonded channels through the Bzth-OH crystal along the c-axis. The distances between the cationic nitrogen and the halides are 4.04 Å and 4.20 Å, significantly longer than expected for typical van der Waals distances of 3.30 Å. The structures show weakly interacting, alternating apolar and polar layers, which run parallel to the crystallographic a-b planes or a-c planes. The Bzth-X salts were also examined in aqueous solution containing 20% (v/v) ethanol and 1.0 % (v/v) glycerol well above their critical micelle concentration by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The [1,1,1] planes for the Bzth Cl or Br, the [0,0,2] and [1,1,0] planes for the Bzth-citrate, the [2,-1,0] planes and the [0,0,1] planes for the Bzth-OH found in the crystalline phase were also present in the solution phase, accordingly, the preservation of these phases are a strong indication of periodicity in the solution phase.

  4. Reduction of neonatal pain following administration of 25% lingual dextrose: a randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Nimbalkar, Somashekhar; Sinojia, Ankit; Dongara, Ashish

    2013-06-01

    Neonates experience painful procedures during routine care. Orally administered, sweet tasting solutions are commonly used in management of neonatal pain. We conducted a double-blind randomized control trial in neonates admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Shri Krishna Hospital, Karamsad-Gujarat-India, of lingual administration of 25% dextrose vs. no intervention, to evaluate reduction of pain following oropharyngeal infant feeding tube insertions. Pain was assessed using Premature Infant Pain Profile score. Almost all the patients in the control group (98%) experienced moderate-to-severe pain as compared with the intervention group (71%). Mean Premature Infant Pain Profile score was statistically significantly lower in the intervention group (8.21) as compared with control group (10.31). (p < 0.001, 95% CI 1.090-3.102). Lingual 25% dextrose is an effective analgesic for relieving pain during orogastric tube insertion.

  5. Hypocaloric enteral nutrition protects against hypoglycemia associated with intensive insulin therapy better than intravenous dextrose.

    PubMed

    Kauffmann, Rondi M; Hayes, Rachel M; VanLaeken, Amanda H; Norris, Patrick R; Diaz, Jose J; May, Addison K; Collier, Bryan R

    2014-11-01

    Intensive insulin therapy treats hyperglycemia but increases the risk of hypoglycemia. Typically, intravenous dextrose is given to prevent hypoglycemia; however, enteral nutrition is preferred. We hypothesized that the provision of hypocaloric enteral nutrition would protect against hypoglycemia. A retrospective analysis was performed evaluating patients treated with intensive insulin therapy comparing the use of enteral nutrition versus a dextrose-only intravenous solution. Nutrition in the 2 hours before each blood glucose test was assessed, and the association with hypoglycemia (50 mg/dL or less) evaluated. Risk of hypoglycemia as a function of nutrition type and rate was estimated by multivariable regression. A total of 26,140 blood glucose tests were collected on 1289 patients. Hypoglycemia occurred in 6.4 per cent of patients. In regression models, enteral nutrition was the strongest protective factor against hypoglycemia (P < 0.001) with the largest risk reduction (steepest portion of the curve) occurring at 60 per cent goal. Hypocaloric enteral nutrition showed a greater risk reduction than a peripheral dextrose-only intravenous solution alone. In the setting of intensive insulin therapy, the provision of enteral nutrition, even if hypocaloric, is sufficient to protect against hypoglycemia. Future prospective studies should evaluate the efficacy of enteral nutrition in reducing the risk of hypoglycemia and whether lower rates of hypoglycemia correspond to improved outcomes.

  6. Hypocaloric Enteral Nutrition Protects Against Hypoglycemia Associated with Intensive Insulin Therapy Better Than Intravenous Dextrose

    PubMed Central

    Kauffmann, Rondi M.; Hayes, Rachel M.; Vanlaeken, Amanda H.; Norris, Patrick R.; Diaz, Jose J.; May, Addison K.; Collier, Bryan R.

    2015-01-01

    Intensive insulin therapy treats hyperglycemia but increases the risk of hypoglycemia. Typically, intravenous dextrose is given to prevent hypoglycemia; however, enteral nutrition is preferred. We hypothesized that the provision of hypocaloric enteral nutrition would protect against hypoglycemia. A retrospective analysis was performed evaluating patients treated with intensive insulin therapy comparing the use of enteral nutrition versus a dextrose-only intravenous solution. Nutrition in the 2 hours before each blood glucose test was assessed, and the association with hypoglycemia (50 mg/dL or less) evaluated. Risk of hypoglycemia as a function of nutrition type and rate was estimated by multivariable regression. A total of 26,140 blood glucose tests were collected on 1289 patients. Hypoglycemia occurred in 6.4 per cent of patients. In regression models, enteral nutrition was the strongest protective factor against hypoglycemia (P < 0.001) with the largest risk reduction (steepest portion of the curve) occurring at 60 per cent goal. Hypocaloric enteral nutrition showed a greater risk reduction than a peripheral dextrose-only intravenous solution alone. In the setting of intensive insulin therapy, the provision of enteral nutrition, even if hypocaloric, is sufficient to protect against hypoglycemia. Future prospective studies should evaluate the efficacy of enteral nutrition in reducing the risk of hypoglycemia and whether lower rates of hypoglycemia correspond to improved outcomes. PMID:25347500

  7. Incompatibility of Contrast Medium and Trisodium Citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Delcour, Christian Bruninx, Guy

    2013-02-15

    To test the compatibility of trisodium citrate, a catheter lock solution, with iodinated contrast medium. Iohexol, iobitridol, iodixanol, ioxaglate, ioxithalamate, iomeprol, and iopromide were tested. In all tests, 2 ml of contrast medium were mixed with 2 ml of trisodium citrate solution. Iodixanol and ioxaglate provoked a highly viscous gluelike precipitation when mixed with trisodium citrate. A brief transient precipitate was observed with iohexol, iomeprol, and ioxithalamate. Permanent precipitation occurred with iobitridol and iopromide. One must be aware of the potential for precipitation when contrast medium is mixed with trisodium citrate solution. Before trisodium citrate solution is injected, the catheter should be thoroughly flushed with saline if a contrast medium has previously been injected through it.

  8. Effects of citrate and NaCl on size, morphology, crystallinity and microstructure of calcium phosphates obtained from aqueous solutions at acidic or near-neutral pH.

    PubMed

    Mekmene, Omar; Rouillon, Thierry; Quillard, Sophie; Pilet, Paul; Bouler, Jean-Michel; Pezennec, Stéphane; Gaucheron, Frédéric

    2012-05-01

    Precipitation of calcium phosphates occurs in dairy products and depending on pH and ionic environment, several salts with different crystallinity can form. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of NaCl and citrate on the characteristics of precipitates obtained from model solutions of calcium phosphate at pH 6·70 maintained constant or left to drift. The ion speciation calculations showed that all the starting solutions were supersaturated with respect to dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and hydroxyapatite (HAP) in the order HAP>OCP>DCPD. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses of the precipitates showed that DCPD was formed at drifting pH (acidic final pH) whereas poor crystallised calcium deficient apatite was mainly formed at constant pH (6·70). Laser light scattering measurements and electron microscopy observations showed that citrate had a pronounced inhibitory effect on the crystallisation of calcium phosphates both at drifting and constant pH. This resulted in the decrease of the particle sizes and the modification of the morphology and the microstructure of the precipitates. The inhibitory effect of citrate mainly acted by the adsorption of the citrate molecules onto the surfaces of newly formed nuclei of calcium phosphate, thereby changing the morphology of the growing particles. These findings are relevant for the understanding of calcium phosphate precipitation from dairy byproducts that contain large amounts of NaCl and citrate.

  9. Theoretical spectroscopic studies and identification of metal-citrate (Cd and Pb) complexes by ESI-MS in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoli, Alexandre C.; Carvalho, Ruy; Freitas, Matheus P.; Ramalho, Teodorico C.; Mancini, Daiana T.; Oliveira, Maria C.; de Varennes, Amarílis; Dias, Ana

    2015-02-01

    The combined use of ESI-MS, FTIR-ATR and theoretical calculations for the determination of metal-citrate (metal = Cd and Pb) structures are reported. Mass spectrometry allowed to determine the stoichiometry 1:1 and 2:1 of the complexes, corroborating the theoretical calculations. The species found in the ratio 2:1 had their molecular structures readjusted, since the deprotonation of citric acid differed from what was simulated. The calculations of thermodynamic stability (ΔH0(aq.)) for the complexes obtained by B3LYP/LANL2DZ were more exoenergetic than those found by PM6. However, for both methods, the stability of the complexes follows a trend, that is, the lowest-energy isomers in PM6 are also the most stable in B3LYP/LANL2DZ. The infrared analysis suggested that carboxyl groups are complexation sites and hydrogen bonds can help in the stability of the complexes. The vibrational frequencies in B3LYP/LANL2DZ had a good correlation with the experimental infrared results.

  10. 21 CFR 520.550 - Dextrose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.550 Dextrose/glycine... therapy. Oral therapy in these cases is too slow. Animals which cannot drink after initial...

  11. 77 FR 47370 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Intent To Rescind...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ..., sodium citrate, and potassium citrate in their unblended forms, whether dry or in solution, and regardless of packaging type. The scope also includes blends of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium... acid, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate constitute 40 percent or more, by weight, of the blend....

  12. [Development of identification method for isopropyl citrate].

    PubMed

    Furusho, Noriko; Ohtsuki, Takashi; Tatebe-Sasaki, Chiye; Kubota, Hiroki; Sato, Kyoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    In Japan's Specification and Standards for Food Additive, 8th edition, two identification tests involving isopropyl citrate for detecting isopropyl alcohol and citrate are stipulated. However, these identification tests use mercury compound, which is toxic, or require a time-consuming pretreatment process. To solve these problems, an identification test method using GC-FID for detecting isopropyl alcohol was developed. In this test, a good linearity was observed in the range of 0.1-40 mg/mL of isopropyl alcohol. While investigating the pretreatment process, we found that isopropyl alcohol could be detected using GC-FID in the distillation step only, without involving any reflux step. The study also showed that the citrate moiety of isopropyl citrate was identified using the solution remaining after conducting the distillation of isopropyl alcohol. The developed identification tests for isopropyl citrate are simple and use no toxic materials.

  13. Efficacy and Safety of a Citrate-Based Protocol for Sustained Low-Efficiency Dialysis in AKI Using Standard Dialysis Equipment

    PubMed Central

    Regolisti, Giuseppe; Cademartiri, Carola; Cabassi, Aderville; Picetti, Edoardo; Barbagallo, Maria; Gherli, Tiziano; Castellano, Giuseppe; Morabito, Santo; Maggiore, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives A simple anticoagulation protocol was developed for sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) in patients with AKI, based on the use of anticoagulant citrate dextrose solution formulation A (ACD-A) and standard dialysis equipment. Patients’ blood recalcification was obtained from calcium backtransport from dialysis fluid. Design, setting, participants, & measurements All patients treated with SLED (8- to 12-hour sessions) for AKI in four intensive care units of a university hospital were studied over a 30-month period, from May 1, 2008 to September 30, 2010. SLED interruptions and their causes, hemorrhagic complications, as well as coagulation parameters, ionized calcium, and blood citrate levels were recorded. Results This study examined 807 SLED sessions in 116 patients (mean age of 69.7 years [SD 12.1]; mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of 23.8 [4.6]). Major bleeding was observed in six patients (5.2% or 0.4 episodes/100 person-days follow-up while patients were on SLED treatment). Citrate accumulation never occurred, even in patients with liver dysfunction. Intravenous calcium for ionized hypocalcemia (< 3.6 mg/dl or < 0.9 mmol/L) was needed in 28 sessions (3.4%); in 8 of these 28 sessions (28.6%), low ionized calcium was already present before SLED start. In 92.6% of treatments, SLED was completed within the scheduled time (median 8 hours). Interruptions of SLED by impending/irreversible clotting were recorded in 19 sessions (2.4%). Blood return was complete in 98% of the cases. In-hospital mortality was 45 of 116 patients (38.8%). Conclusions This study protocol affords efficacious and safe anticoagulation of the SLED circuit, avoiding citrate accumulation and, in most patients, systematic calcium supplementation; it can be implemented with commercial citrate solutions, standard dialysis equipment, on-line produced dialysis fluid, and minimal laboratory monitoring. PMID:23990164

  14. Activity of urokinase diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection and stored in glass or plastic syringes.

    PubMed

    Patel, J P; Tran, L T; Sinai, W J; Carr, L J

    1991-07-01

    The effects of the diluent, the container, the i.v. set, and the drug concentration on the adsorption of urokinase to i.v. administration systems were studied, along with the compatibility of urokinase with plastic and glass syringes. Solutions of urokinase 1500 and 5000 IU/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and 5% dextrose injection in glass and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) containers were sampled at 2 and 30 minutes. Administration sets were attached to PVC containers containing the urokinase-5% dextrose injection solutions, and samples were collected at 90 and 150 minutes. Glass and polypropylene syringes containing urokinase 5000 IU/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection were sampled at 0, 4, 8, and 24 hours. Urokinase activity was measured by an in vitro clot lysis assay. No urokinase diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride injection adsorbed to glass or PVC containers. For urokinase 1500 IU/mL in 5% dextrose injection, a loss of 15% to 20% occurred almost instantaneously in PVC containers; additional losses to the infusion sets were minimal. However, for urokinase 5000 IU/mL in 5% dextrose injection, no losses were observed in the PVC systems. No drug loss to glass bottles was seen for urokinase 1500 or 5000 IU/mL in 5% dextrose injection. Urokinase potency remained constant in polypropylene and glass syringes for 24 hours. To minimize urokinase sorption to PVC containers, higher concentrations of urokinase diluted in 5% dextrose injection should be used, provided that clinical safety and efficacy are not compromised. The use of 0.9% sodium chloride injection as a diluent also prevents sorption losses.

  15. A Systematic Review of Dextrose Prolotherapy for Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Ross A.; Lackner, Johanna B.; Steilen-Matias, Danielle; Harris, David K.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to systematically review dextrose (d-glucose) prolotherapy efficacy in the treatment of chronic musculoskeletal pain. DATA SOURCES Electronic databases PubMed, Healthline, OmniMedicalSearch, Medscape, and EMBASE were searched from 1990 to January 2016. STUDY SELECTION Prospectively designed studies that used dextrose as the sole active prolotherapy constituent were selected. DATA EXTRACTION Two independent reviewers rated studies for quality of evidence using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database assessment scale for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and the Downs and Black evaluation tool for non-RCTs, for level of evidence using a modified Sackett scale, and for clinically relevant pain score difference using minimal clinically important change criteria. Study population, methods, and results data were extracted and tabulated. DATA SYNTHESIS Fourteen RCTs, 1 case–control study, and 18 case series studies met the inclusion criteria and were evaluated. Pain conditions were clustered into tendinopathies, osteoarthritis (OA), spinal/pelvic, and myofascial pain. The RCTs were high-quality Level 1 evidence (Physiotherapy Evidence Database ≥8) and found dextrose injection superior to controls in Osgood–Schlatter disease, lateral epicondylitis of the elbow, traumatic rotator cuff injury, knee OA, finger OA, and myofascial pain; in biomechanical but not subjective measures in temporal mandibular joint; and comparable in a short-term RCT but superior in a long-term RCT in low back pain. Many observational studies were of high quality and reported consistent positive evidence in multiple studies of tendinopathies, knee OA, sacroiliac pain, and iliac crest pain that received RCT confirmation in separate studies. Eighteen studies combined patient self-rating (subjective) with psychometric, imaging, and/or biomechanical (objective) outcome measurement and found both positive subjective and objective outcomes in 16 studies and positive

  16. Some aspects of the aqueous solution chemistry of the Na+/Ca2+/OH-/Cit3- system: The structure of a new calcium citrate complex forming under hyperalkaline conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gácsi, Attila; Kutus, Bence; Buckó, Ákos; Csendes, Zita; Peintler, Gábor; Pálinkó, István; Sipos, Pál

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, we show that in hyperalkaline (pH > 13) aqueous solutions, Ca2+ forms a new, so far unknown complex species with the citrate ion, the structure of which is different from the well-known CaCit-(aq) species present in solutions of close to neutral pH. The solubility of Ca3Cit2(s) was found to increase significantly under hyperalkaline conditions. The decrease in the electric conductivity and the variations observed in the freezing point depression of such solutions also indicate complexation. From 1H NMR measurements, in this complex, the citrate ion is suggested to be in quadruply deprotonated form. From the variation of the 2JHH geminal proton coupling constant, two neighboring carboxylate groups are coordinated to the calcium ion in a monodentate mode (besides the alcoholate). The optimal structure of the complex with the composition of CaCitH-12-(aq) has also been calculated using DFT calculations, applying the Polarizable Continuum Model. Sodium ion-pairing was found to compete efficiently with this calcium complexation process, and in solutions with high Na-ion content, the equilibria are shifted towards the formation of NaCit2-(aq) and Na2Cit-(aq) ion pairs.

  17. INTRAPERITONEAL DEXTROSE ADMINISTRATION AS AN ALTERNATIVE EMERGENCY TREATMENT FOR HYPOGLYCEMIC YEARLING CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS).

    PubMed

    Fravel, Vanessa A; Van Bonn, William; Gulland, Frances; Rios, Carlos; Fahlman, Andreas; Graham, James L; Havel, Peter J

    2016-03-01

    The Marine Mammal Center (TMMC) cares for malnourished California sea lion (CSL) (Zalophus californianus) pups and yearlings every year. Hypoglycemia is a common consequence of malnutrition in young CSLs. Administering dextrose during a hypoglycemic crisis is vital to recovery. Traditional veterinary approaches to treat hypoglycemia pose therapeutic challenges in otariids, as vascular access and catheter maintenance can be difficult. The current approach to a hypoglycemic episode at TMMC is to administer dextrose intravenously (i.v.) by medically trained personnel. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) dextrose administration is an attractive alternative to i.v. administration because volunteer staff with basic training can administer treatment instead of waiting for trained staff to treat. This study compares the effects of i.v., i.p., and no dextrose administration on serum glucose and insulin in clinically healthy, euglycemic CSL yearlings. Three groups of animals, consisting of five sea lions each, were treated with 500 mg/kg dextrose using one of the following routes: i.v., i.p., or no dextrose (control). A jugular catheter was placed, and blood samples were collected at times 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min after dextrose administration. I.v. dextrose administration resulted in an increase of serum glucose concentrations from a baseline level of approximately 150 mg/dl to a peak of approximately 350 mg/dl. The resulting hyperglycemia persisted for approximately 2 hr and was associated with an attenuated plasma insulin response compared with most terrestrial mammals. Intraperitoneal dextrose administration resulted in increases of serum glucose to approximately 200 mg/dl, which gradually declined to baseline by 2 hr after dextrose administration. These data suggest that the initial treatment of a hypoglycemic crisis in young malnourished CSLs can be accomplished with i.p. dextrose, thus enabling minimally trained volunteer staff to respond immediately to a crisis

  18. Gastrointestinal citrate absorption in nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fegan, J.; Khan, R.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    Gastrointestinal absorption of citrate was measured in stone patients with idiopathic hypocitraturia to determine if citrate malabsorption could account for low urinary citrate. Citrate absorption was measured directly from recovery of orally administered potassium citrate (40 mEq.) in the intestinal lavage fluid, using an intestinal washout technique. In 7 stone patients citrate absorption, serum citrate levels, peak citrate concentration in serum and area under the curve were not significantly different from those of 7 normal subjects. Citrate absorption was rapid and efficient in both groups, with 96 to 98% absorbed within 3 hours. The absorption of citrate was less efficient from a tablet preparation of potassium citrate than from a liquid preparation, probably due to a delayed release of citrate from wax matrix. However, citrate absorption from solid potassium citrate was still high at 91%, compared to 98% for a liquid preparation. Thus, hypocitraturia is unlikely to be due to an impaired gastrointestinal absorption of citrate in stone patients without overt bowel disease.

  19. Vascular effects of intravenous intralipid and dextrose infusions in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Gosmanov, Aidar R; Smiley, Dawn D; Peng, Limin; Siquiera, Joselita; Robalino, Gonzalo; Newton, Christopher; Umpierrez, Guillermo E

    2012-10-01

    Hyperglycemia and elevated free fatty acids (FFA) are implicated in the development of endothelial dysfunction. Infusion of soy-bean oil-based lipid emulsion (Intralipid®) increases FFA levels and results in elevation of blood pressure (BP) and endothelial dysfunction in obese healthy subjects. The effects of combined hyperglycemia and high FFA on BP, endothelial function and carbohydrate metabolism are not known. Twelve obese healthy subjects received four random, 8-h IV infusions of saline, Intralipid 40 mL/h, Dextrose 10% 40 mL/h, or combined Intralipid and dextrose. Plasma levels of FFA increased by 1.03±0.34 mmol/L (p=0.009) after Intralipid, but FFAs remained unchanged during saline, dextrose, and combined Intralipid and dextrose infusion. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations significantly increased after dextrose and combined Intralipid and dextrose (all, p<0.05) and were not different from baseline during saline and lipid infusion. Intralipid increased systolic BP by 12±9 mmHg (p<0.001) and diastolic BP by 5±6 mmHg (p=0.022),and decreased flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) from baseline by 3.2%±1.4% (p<0.001). Saline and dextrose infusion had neutral effects on BP and FMD. The co-administration of lipid and dextrose decreased FMD by 2.4%±2.1% (p=0.002) from baseline, but did not significantly increase systolic or diastolic BP. Short-term Intralipid infusion significantly increased FFA and BP; in contrast, FFA and BP were unchanged during combined infusion of Intralipid and dextrose. Combined Intralipid and dextrose infusion resulted in endothelial dysfunction similar to Intralipid alone.

  20. Evaluation of two dextrose-based directly compressible excipients.

    PubMed

    Olmo, I G; Ghaly, E S

    1998-08-01

    The objectives of this research were to evaluate the physical properties and compaction behavior of two dextrose-based directly compressed excipients. Anhydrous theophylline (10% w/w) was used as a drug model, Emdex and or Maltrin M510 (89.5% w/w) were used as diluent, and magnesium stearate (0.5% w/w) was used as lubricant. Direct compression and wet granulation methods were used for preparing the compacts. In general, the wet granulation method reduced the density of the mixture and consequently its flow rate compared to the mixture prepared only by solid-solid mixing. All formulations were compressed at four different compressional forces and at a target weight of 450 mg +/- 5%. Tablets obtained were different in physical properties and mechanical strength based on type of excipient used and methods of tablet preparation (direct compression versus wet granulation). Compacts prepared from Maltrin M510 had a longer disintegration time and slower drug release than compacts of the same composition but prepared with Emdex. Disintegration time and drug dissolution from tablets containing Maltrin M510 as diluent and prepared by wet granulation appeared to be controlled by a "gel" layer formation around the tablets and not by the tablets porosity. This study demonstrates that full characterization of excipients is needed because a different manufacturing process for the same excipients may produce differences in the pharmaceutical products.

  1. Final report on the safety assessment of acetyl triethyl citrate, acetyl tributyl citrate, acetyl trihexyl citrate, and acetyl trioctyl citrate.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wilbur

    2002-01-01

    Acetyl Triethyl Citrate, Acetyl Tributyl Citrate, Acetyl Trihexyl Citrate, and Acetyl Trioctyl Citrate all function as plasticizers in cosmetics. Additionally, the Trihexyl and Trioctyl forms are described as skin-conditioning agents-emollients, although there are currently no reported uses of Acetyl Trihexyl Citrate or Acetyl Trioctyl Citrate. Acetyl Triethyl Citrate and Acetyl Tributyl Citrate are used in nail products at concentrations up to 7%. Recognizing that there are no reported uses of Acetyl Trihexyl or Trioctyl Citrate, if they were to be used in the future, their concentration of use is expected to be no higher than that reported for Acetyl Triethyl and Tributyl Citrate. These ingredients were sufficiently similar in structure that safety test data on one were considered applicable to all. Approximately 99% of orally administered Acetyl Tributyl Citrate is excreted-intermediate metabolites include acetyl citrate, monobutyl citrate, acetyl monobutyl citrate, dibutyl citrate, and acetyl dibutyl citrate. In acute, short-term, subchronic, and chronic feeding studies, these ingredients were relatively nontoxic. Differences from controls were either not statistically significant or not related to any organ toxicity. Ocular exposures produced moderate reactions that cleared by 48 hours after instillation. Dermal application was not toxic in rabbits. In a guinea pig maximization test, Acetyl Triethyl Citrate was a sensitizer whereas Acetyl Tributyl Citrate was not. Limited clinical testing of Acetyl Triethyl Citrate and Acetyl Tributyl Citrate was negative for both skin irritation and sensitization. These clinical data were considered more relevant than the guinea pig maximization data, suggesting to the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel that none of these ingredients would be a sensitizer. Physiologic effects noted with intravenous delivery of Acetyl Triethyl Citrate or Acetyl Tributyl Citrate include dose-related decreases in blood pressure and

  2. Study of nucleic acid-gold nanorod interactions and detecting nucleic acid hybridization using gold nanorod solutions in the presence of sodium citrate.

    PubMed

    Kanjanawarut, Roejarek; Su, Xiaodi

    2010-09-01

    In this study, the authors report that sodium citrate can aggregate hexadecyl-trimethyl-ammonium ion(+)-coated gold nanorods (AuNRs), and nucleic acids of different charge and structure properties, i.e., single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), single-stranded peptide nucleic acid (PNA), and PNA-DNA complex, can bind to the AuNRs and therefore retard the sodium citrate-induced aggregation to different extents. The discovery that hybridized dsDNA (and the PNA-DNA complex) has a more pronounced protection effect than ssDNA (and PNA) allows the authors to develop a homogeneous phase AuNRs-based UV-visible (UV-vis) spectral assay for detecting specific sequences of oligonucleotides (20 mer) with a single-base-mismatch selectivity and a limit of detection of 5 nM. This assay involves no tedious bioconjugation and on-particle hybridization. The simple "set and test" format allows for a highly efficient hybridization in a homogeneous phase and a rapid display of the results in less than a minute. By measuring the degree of reduction in AuNR aggregation in the presence of different nucleic acid samples, one can assess how different nucleic acids interact with the AuNRs to complement the knowledge of spherical gold nanoparticles. Besides UV-vis characterization, transmission electron microscopy and zeta potential measurements were conduced to provide visual evidence of the particle aggregation and to support the discussion of the assay principle.

  3. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Silver Citrate Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Djokić, Stojan

    2008-01-01

    Formation of silver citrate/citric acid complexed solutions was investigated. Although, silver citrate is minimally soluble in water, it can successfully be dissolved in citric acid solutions. The maximum concentration of Ag(I) in solution is estimated at 23 to 25 g/L if the concentration of citric acid is at least 4 mol/L or higher. The dissolution of silver citrate in citric acid solutions was attributed to the formation of silver citrate complexes of a general formula [Ag3(C6H5O7)n+1]3n−. The silver citrate/citric acid solutions, containing more than about 13 g/L Ag+ ion, have exhibited a decrease in Ag(I) concentration in solution over time, due to crystallization. The crystallization product was attributed to the formation of [Ag3C6H5O7]x·nH2O. Importantly, the diluted silver citrate/citric acid complexed solutions have exhibited very strong bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities. PMID:19079586

  4. The effect of intrauterine infusion of dextrose on clinical endometritis cure rate and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Machado, V S; Oikonomou, G; Ganda, E K; Stephens, L; Milhomem, M; Freitas, G L; Zinicola, M; Pearson, J; Wieland, M; Guard, C; Gilbert, R O; Bicalho, R C

    2015-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the intrauterine administration use of 200 mL of 50% dextrose solution as a treatment against clinical endometritis (CE); CE cure rate and reproductive performance were evaluated. Additionally, the association of several relevant risk factors, such as retained placenta (RP), metritis, CE, anovulation, hyperketonemia, and body condition score with reproductive performance, early embryonic mortality, and CE were evaluated. A total of 1,313 Holstein cows housed on 4 commercial dairy farms were enrolled in the study. At 7±3 DIM cows were examined for metritis and had blood collected to determine serum β-hydroxybutyrate concentration. To determine if cows had ovulated at least once before 44±3 DIM, the presence of a corpus luteum was evaluated by ovarian ultrasonography at 30±3 DIM and at 44±3 DIM. At 30±3 DIM, CE was diagnosed using the Metricheck device (SimcroTech, Hamilton, New Zealand); cows with purulent or mucopurulent vaginal discharge were diagnosed as having CE. Cows diagnosed with CE (n=175) were randomly allocated into 2 treatment groups: treatment (intrauterine infusion of 200 mL of 50% dextrose) or control (no infusion). Clinical endometritis cows were re-evaluated as described above at 44±3 DIM, and cows that were free of purulent or mucopurulent vaginal discharge were considered cured. Intrauterine infusion of dextrose tended to have a detrimental effect on CE cure rate, and treatment did not have an effect on first-service conception rate and early embryonic mortality. A multivariable Cox's proportional hazard model was performed to evaluate the effect of several variables on reproductive performance; the variables RP, CE, parity, anovulation, and the interaction term between parity and anovulation were associated with hazard of pregnancy. Cows that did not have RP or CE were more likely to conceive than cows that were diagnosed with RP or CE. Cows that had RP were at 3.36 times higher odds of

  5. Citrate Metabolism by Pediococcus halophilus

    PubMed Central

    Kanbe, Chiyuki; Uchida, Kinji

    1987-01-01

    Several strains of non-citrate-metabolizing Pediococcus halophilus have previously been isolated from soy sauce mash or moromi. The factors controlling the metabolism of citrate in soy pediococci were studied. All the soy pediococcal strains tested which failed to decompose citrate did not possess citrate lyase [citrate (pro-3S)-lyase; EC 4.1.3.6] activity. In P. halophilus, citrate lyase was an inducible enzyme, and the optimum pH for activity was 7.0. The metabolism of citrate in P. halophilus was different from that observed in lactic streptococci. The main products from citrate were acetate and formate, and this bacterium produced no acetoin or diacetyl. Formate production from citrate was greatly reduced in the presence of glucose. P. halophilus 7117 (Cit+) was proved to contain citrate lyase, pyruvate formate-lyase (EC 2.3.1.54) phosphotransacetylase (phosphate acetyltransferase; EC 2.3.1.8), and acetate kinase (EC 2.7.2.1), i.e., all the enzymes necessary to convert citrate to acetate and formate. PMID:16347358

  6. Enhanced dissolution of sildenafil citrate as dry foam tablets.

    PubMed

    Sawatdee, Somchai; Atipairin, Apichart; Sae Yoon, Attawadee; Srichana, Teerapol; Changsan, Narumon

    2017-01-30

    Dry foam formulation technology is alternative approach to enhance dissolution of the drug. Sildenafil citrate was suspended in sodium dodecyl sulfate solution and adding a mixture of maltodextrin and mannitol as diluent to form a paste. Sildenafil citrate paste was passed through a nozzle spray bottle to obtain smooth foam. The homogeneous foam was dried in a vacuum oven and sieved to obtain dry foam granules. The granules were mixed with croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate and compressed into tablet. All formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical properties and dissolution profiles. All the tested excipients were compatible with sildenafil citrate by both differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and infrared (IR) analysis. There are no X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks representing crystals of sildenafil citrate observed form dry foam formulations. The hardness of tablets was about 5 kg, friability test <1% with a disintegration time <5 min. The sildenafil citrate dry foam tablet had higher dissolution rate in 0.1 N HCl in comparison with commercial sildenafil citrate tablet, sildenafil citrate prepared by direct compression and wet granulation method. Sildenafil citrate dry foam tablet with the high-level composition of surfactant, water and diluent showed enhanced dissolution rate than that of the lower-level composition of these excipients. This formulation was stable under accelerated conditions for at least 6 months.

  7. Stability of lidocaine hydrochloride in 5% dextrose injection in plastic bags

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.M.; Nuessle, N.O.

    1981-11-01

    The stability of lidocaine injection mixed with 5% dextrose injection and refrigerated or stored at room temperature was studied. Lidocaine injection was added to 5% dextrose injection to provide a lidocaine hydrochloride concentration of 4 mg/ml. Samples were assayed for lidocaine and its degradation product, 2,6-dimethylaniline, after 30, 60, and 120 days of storage at room temperature (30 degrees C) and refrigerated temperature (4 degrees C). The analysis was by a stability-indicating HPLC method. Degradation product 2,6-dimethylaniline was not detected at any assay time at either temperature. No statistically significant loss of lidocaine occurred at either temperature. Lidocaine hydrochloride injection is chemically stable for up to 120 days at either 30 degrees C or 4 degrees C when mixed with 5% dextrose injection in plastic infusion bags.

  8. Postprandial oxidative stress in response to dextrose and lipid meals of differing size

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    We have recently noted that ingestion of dietary lipid (in the form of heavy whipping cream) leads to greater oxidative stress than dietary carbohydrate (in the form of dextrose), when consumed in isocaloric amounts. Objective In the present investigation we attempted to replicate our work and also to determine the oxidative stress response to dextrose and lipid meals of two different kilocalorie (kcal) amounts. Design Nine young (22 ± 2 years), healthy men consumed in a random order, cross-over design one of four meals/drinks: dextrose at 75 g (300 kcals), dextrose at 150 g (600 kcals), lipid at 33 g (300 kcals), lipid at 66 g (600 kcals). Blood samples were collected Pre meal, and at 30 min, 60 min, 120 min, and 180 min post meal. Samples were assayed for glucose, triglycerides (TAG), malondialdehyde (MDA), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for each variable, and a 4 × 5 ANOVA was utilized to further analyze data. Results A meal × time effect (p = 0.0002) and a time effect was noted for glucose (p < 0.0001; 30 min > Pre, 1 hr, 2 hr, and 3 hr). The dextrose meals primarily contributed to this time effect. No other effects were noted for glucose (p > 0.05). A meal effect was noted for TAG (p = 0.01; 66 g lipid meal > 75 g and 150 g dextrose meals). No other effects were noted for TAG (p > 0.05). An AUC effect was noted for MDA (p = 0.04; 66 g lipid meal > 75 g and 150 g dextrose meals). A meal × time effect (p = 0.02) and a meal effect was noted for MDA (p = 0.004; 66 g lipid meal > 75 g and 150 g dextrose meals). No time effect was noted for MDA (p = 0.72). An AUC effect was noted for H2O2 (p = 0.0001; 66 g lipid meal > 33 g lipid meal and 75 g and 150 g dextrose meals). A meal × time effect (p = 0.0002), a meal effect (p < 0.0001; 66 g lipid meal > 33 g lipid meal and 75 g and 150 g dextrose meals), and a time effect was noted for H2O2 (p < 0.0001; 2 hr > Pre, 30 min, and 1 hr; 3 hr > Pre). The time effect for H2O2 was

  9. DEXTROSE-TEMPLATED MICROWAVE-ASSISTED COMBUSTION SYNTHESIS OF SPONGY METAL OXIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave-assisted combustion synthesis of porous nanocrystalline titania and carbon coated titania is reported using dextrose as template and the product was compared with the one obtained using conventional heating furnace. Out of three compositions viz., 1:1, 1:3, and 1:5 (met...

  10. 100-NR-2 Apatite Treatability Test: High-Concentration Calcium-Citrate-Phosphate Solution Injection for In Situ Strontium-90 Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fritz, Brad G.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Szecsody, James E.; Williams, Mark D.

    2010-09-01

    Following an evaluation of potential strontium-90 (90Sr) treatment technologies and their applicability under 100-NR-2 hydrogeologic conditions, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Fluor Hanford, Inc. (now CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company [CHPRC]), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that the long-term strategy for groundwater remediation at the 100-N Area should include apatite as the primary treatment technology. This agreement was based on results from an evaluation of remedial alternatives that identified the apatite permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technology as the approach showing the greatest promise for reducing 90Sr flux to the Columbia River at a reasonable cost. This letter report documents work completed to date on development of a high-concentration amendment formulation and initial field-scale testing of this amendment solution.

  11. Interim Report: 100-NR-2 Apatite Treatability Test: Low Concentration Calcium Citrate-Phosphate Solution Injection for In Situ Strontium-90 Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Mark D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Thorne, Paul D.; Xie, YuLong; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Mackley, Rob D.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Szecsody, James E.; Vermeul, Vincent R.

    2008-07-11

    Following an evaluation of potential Sr-90 treatment technologies and their applicability under 100-NR-2 hydrogeologic conditions, U.S. Department of Energy, Fluor Hanford, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the Washington Department of Ecology agreed that the long-term strategy for groundwater remediation at 100-N Area will include apatite sequestration as the primary treatment, followed by a secondary treatment if necessary (most likely phytoremediation). Since then, the agencies have worked together to agree on which apatite sequestration technology has the greatest chance of reducing Sr-90 flux to the river at a reasonable cost. In July 2005, aqueous injection, (i.e., the introduction of apatite-forming chemicals into the subsurface) was endorsed as the interim remedy and selected for field testing. Studies are in progress to assess the efficacy of in situ apatite formation by aqueous solution injection to address both the vadose zone and the shallow aquifer along the 300 ft of shoreline where Sr-90 concentrations are highest. This report describes the field testing of the shallow aquifer treatment.

  12. Colloid mobilization in the field using citrate to remediate chromium.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C R; Hellerich, L A; Nikolaidis, N P; Gschwend, P M

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the feasibility of cleaning aquifer sediments, long contaminated with chromium (Cr) from a metal plating facility, by detaching colloid-sized sorbents from the immobile aquifer solids and then pumping those colloids to the surface for treatment. In laboratory experiments using aquifer solids from the site, several solutions (water at various pHs, phosphate, oxalate, ascorbate, citrate) were examined for their ability to disperse colloids and Cr. Based on these tests, a 5 mM citrate solution at pH 7 was selected. Subsequently, such a citrate solution was used in the field in two single-well injection-withdrawal experiments. Large quantities of colloids were released immediately after injection. The colloidal particles mobilized by citrate in the field had more than 20 times higher Cr concentrations than did the average aquifer sediments, implying success in mobilizing Cr-associated phases. Further, laboratory and field tests showed that anion exchange of citrate for chromate caused some additional release of Cr from these aquifer solids.

  13. Modeling and optimising alcohol production by fermentation of dextrose-xylose mixed feed using a fluorosensor.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, S; Sailaja, D; Kalpana, N

    1997-01-01

    Dextrose with differing amounts of xylose (mixed substrate medium) has been fermented at 28 degree Celsius with sacchromyces cerevisiae (Baker's Yeast) as seeding. The progress of the reaction was recorded by measuring the fluorescent signal due to intracellular reduced nicotinamide adenine di nucleotide (NADH) present in the cells with a Dr. Ingold (Switzerland) fluorosensor which has an excitation wavelength of 360 nm and measurement wavelength of 450 nm. The concentration of xylose in the xylose-dextrose feed was varied from 0.7% to 5.0% by weight. The optimum concentration of xylose at which the production of alcohol was a maximum was found to be 3.4 percent xylose. The fluorescent voltage data for different concentration of xylose fitted a first order model with an average absolute deviation of less than one percent. Development of this model is useful in design of model predictive controllers.

  14. The Effects of Prolotherapy With Hypertonic Dextrose Versus Prolozone (Intraarticular Ozone) in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Masoud; Jalili, Parviz; Mennati, Shirin; Koosha, Alireza; Rohanifar, Ramin; Madadi, Firouz; Razavi, Seyed Sajad; Taheri, Farinaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a common disabling disease. Limited studies have demonstrated that prolotherapy with dextrose or with prolozone can be helpful in the treatment of patients with KOA. Objectives: In the current study, we compared the results between these two treatment methods. Patients and Methods: In the current randomized clinical trial, 80 patients with mild to moderate KOA were randomly assigned equally into two groups (ozone group and dextrose group). In each group, injections were repeated three times with 10-day intervals. Before the treatment and 3 months after the injections, the pain intensity was measured by using a visual analogue scale and the Western Ontario and McMaster university arthritis index scores. Finally, the results were compared between the two groups. Results: In the two groups, the pain intensity and WOMAC scores significantly decreased and increased, respectively (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusions: Prolotherapy with dextrose and with prolozone result in the same pain relief or functional improvement in patients with mild to moderate KOA. PMID:26587401

  15. Simplified citrate anticoagulation for high-flux hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Apsner, R; Buchmayer, H; Lang, T; Unver, B; Speiser, W; Sunder-Plassmann, G; Hörl, W H

    2001-11-01

    In a randomized crossover trial, we compared a simple citrate anticoagulation protocol for high-flux hemodialysis with standard anticoagulation by low-molecular-weight heparin (dalteparin). Primary end points were urea reduction rate (URR), Kt/V, and control of electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis. Secondary end points were bleeding time at vascular puncture sites and markers of activation of platelets, coagulation, and fibrinolysis. Solute removal during citrate dialysis was excellent (URR, 0.71 +/- 0.06; Kt/V, 1.55 +/- 0.3) and similar to results of conventional bicarbonate hemodialysis anticoagulation with dalteparin (URR, 0.72 +/- 0.04; Kt/V, 1.56 +/- 0.2). Electrolyte control was effective with both anticoagulation regimens, and total and ionized calcium, sodium, potassium, and phosphate concentrations at the end of dialysis did not differ. Alkalemia was less frequent after citrate than conventional dialysis (pH 7.5 in 25% versus 62% of patients; mean pH at end of dialysis, 7.46 +/- 0.06 versus 7.51 +/- 0.07; P < 0.01). Bleeding time at puncture sites was shorter by 30% after citrate compared with dalteparin anticoagulation (5.43 +/- 2.80 versus 7.86 +/- 2.93 minutes; P < 0.001). Activation of platelets, coagulation, and fibrinolysis was modest for both treatments and occurred mainly within the dialyzer during dalteparin treatment and in the vascular-access region during citrate anticoagulation. Citrate-related adverse events were not observed. We conclude that citrate anticoagulation for high-flux hemodialysis is feasible and safe using a simple infusion protocol.

  16. Total synthesis of alkyl citrate natural products.

    PubMed

    Rizzacasa, Mark A; Sturgess, Dayna

    2014-03-07

    This review highlights the synthesis of members of the alkyl citrate family of natural products. The focus is on the stereoselective construction of the alkyl citrate moiety common to these compounds.

  17. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  18. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  1. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  2. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  3. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  4. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... acid with calcium hydroxide or calcium carbonate. It occurs as a fine white, odorless powder and... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 184.1195 Section 184.1195 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1195 Calcium citrate. (a) Calcium citrate...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... acid with calcium hydroxide or calcium carbonate. It occurs as a fine white, odorless powder and... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 184.1195 Section 184.1195 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1195 Calcium citrate. (a) Calcium citrate...

  9. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  15. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1298 - Ferric citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1298 Ferric citrate. (a) Ferric citrate (iron (III) citrate, C6H5FeO7, CAS Reg. No. 2338-05-8) is prepared from reaction of citric acid with ferric hydroxide. It is a compound of indefinite ratio of citric acid and iron. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1298 - Ferric citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1298 Ferric citrate. (a) Ferric citrate (iron (III) citrate, C6H5FeO7, CAS Reg. No. 2338-05-8) is prepared from reaction of citric acid with ferric hydroxide. It is a compound of indefinite ratio of citric acid and iron. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for...

  1. Differentiation of Cryptococcus neoformans serotypes A and D using creatinine dextrose bromothymol blue thymine medium.

    PubMed

    Irokanulo, E A; Akueshi, C O; Makinde, A A

    1994-06-01

    A serotype differentiation of the encapsulated yeast Cryptococcus neoformans is described using creatinine dextrose bromothymol blue thymine (CDBT) medium. On CDBT medium C. neoformans serotype D grew as bright red colonies, turning the medium a bright orange after five days incubation at 28 degrees C. C. neoformans serotype A grew as pale colonies with no apparent colour effect on the medium. Serotypes B and C caused a slight greening of the medium. The reaction of the four serotypes of C. neoformans on CDBT medium is considered useful in the differentiation of the closely related serotype A and D.

  2. Long-term Stability of Esomeprazole in 5% Dextrose Infusion Polyolefin Bags at 5 degrees C +/- 3 degrees C after Microwave Freeze-thaw Treatment.

    PubMed

    Hecq, Jean-daniel; Rolin, Catherine; Godet, Marie; Gillet, Patricia; Jamart, Jacques; Galanti, Laurence M

    2015-01-01

    To improve quality assurance, security, time management, and cost saving of drug delivery, preparation in advance of intravenous solutions has been developed for several infusion solutions. The objective of this study was to investigate the stability of esomeprazole 0.4 mg/mL and 0.8 mg/mL in 5% dextrose polyolefin bags after freezing, long-term storage, and microwave thawing. The stability of five polyolefin bags containing approximately 0.4 mg/mL of esomeprazole and five other bags containing approximately 0.8 mg/mL in 5% dextrose prepared under aseptic conditions was studied after freezing for 1 month at -20 degrees C, thawing in a microwave oven with a validated cycle, and stored at 5 degrees C +/- 3 degrees C. Esomeprazole concentration was measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography using a reversed-phase column C8, a mobile phase consisting of 35% of acetonitrile and 65% of Na2HPO4 buffer at pH 7.59 with HPO4 (2 M) and NaOH (0.5 M), and detection with a diode array detector at 280 nm. Visual, microscopic, and spectrophotometric observation and pH measurements were also performed. No precipitation occurred in the preparations but little change of color was observed. No microaggregate was observed with optical microscopy or revealed by a change of absorbance at 350, 410, and 550 nm. Based on a shelf life of 90% residual potency, esomeprazole solutions (0.4 and 0.8 mg/mL) were stable for at least 20 or 29 days, respectively, after a freezing and microwave thawing period, where 95% one-side lower confidence limit of the concentration-time profile remained superior to 90% of the initial concentration. During this period, the pH values of drug solutions have been observed to decrease without affecting chromatographic parameters. Within these limits, esomeprazole (0.4 and 0.8 mg/mL) in 5% dextrose infusions may be prepared and frozen in advance by a centralized intravenous admixture service, thawed, and stored at least 20 days at 5 degrees C +/- 3 degrees C

  3. Prospective Evaluation of Intra-Articular Dextrose Prolotherapy for Treatment of Osteoarthritis in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, J Matthew; Roush, James K; Armbrust, Laura J; Renberg, Walter C

    2017-03-14

    The objective of this study was to evaluate intra-articular dextrose prolotherapy for osteoarthritis of the elbow or stifle in dogs in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective pilot study. Seventeen dogs were evaluated with 10 meeting inclusion criteria for this study. Evaluations included orthopedic exam, visual lameness scoring, Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI), goniometry, kinetic gait analysis, and radiography. Initial lameness score, age, body weight, duration of lameness, and CBPI scores did not differ between groups. Change in CBPI pain severity score in the prolotherapy group from wk 6-12 was significantly less improved than in the placebo group, with no other significant differences in pain severity or pain interference scores between groups. Range of motion and radiographic scores did not differ between groups at any time. Mean kinetic forces improved in prolotherapy dogs but were not significantly different between treatment groups at any time. Although easily performed and well-tolerated, there were no statistically significant benefits of dextrose prolotherapy for treatment of osteoarthritis of the elbow and stifle in dogs. Post hoc power analysis of these sample means and standard deviations found that 29-106 animals per group would be necessary to demonstrate significant differences in kinetic forces, providing useful guidance for future studies.

  4. Citrate anticoagulation and adverse events.

    PubMed

    De Vos, J; Hombrouckx, R

    2003-01-01

    Several patients with heparin intolerance were dialysed with tri-sodium citrate as anticoagulant without acute clinical problems (good tolerance). After some weeks however problems arose. In all patients an alkalosis developed: the pre dialysis bicarbonate level rose progressively from 27 mmol/l to 40 mmol/l. This could be tempered by lowering the dialysis fluid bicarbonate concentration from 37 mmol/l to 25 mmol/l. A second problem was a progressive rise in pre dialysis sodium level from a mean of 136 mmol/l to 150 mmol/l. Adapting the dialysis fluid sodium concentration from 140 mmol/l towards 132 mmol/l could solve this. The third problem was a progressive rise in serum aluminium level in patients from 3 microg/l to 38 microg/l. After excluding water, concentrate, dialysis fluid, drug intake, etc... as possible sources, we controlled the aluminium level in the glass bottle containing tri-sodium citrate. We noted the very high value of 35,300 microg/l. After replacing the glass bottles with polyvinylchloride bags with a negligible aluminium content, the serum aluminium levels returned back to normal. It is known that citrate chelates the aluminium present in the glass of bottles or vials.

  5. Citrate and renal calculi: an update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, C. Y.

    1994-01-01

    Citrate is an inhibitor of the crystallization of stone-forming calcium salts. Hypocitraturia, frequently encountered in patients with nephrolithiasis, is therefore an important risk factor for stone formation. Potassium citrate provides physiological and physicochemical correction and inhibits new stone formation, not only in hypocitraturic calcium nephrolithiasis but also in uric acid nephrolithiasis. Inhibition of stone recurrence has now been validated by a randomized trial. Ongoing research has disclosed additional causes of hypocitraturia (sodium excess, low intestinal alkali absorption, but not primary citrate malabsorption). Moreover, new insights on potassium citrate action have been shown, notably that some of absorbed citrate escapes oxidation and contributes to the citraturic response, that ingestion with a meal does not sacrifice physiological or physicochemical action, that orange juice mimics but does not completely duplicate its actions, that potassium citrate may have a beneficial bone-sparing effect, that it may reduce stone fragments following ESWL, and that danger of aluminum toxicity is not great in subjects with functioning kidneys. Finally, the research on potassium citrate has led to two promising products, calcium citrate as an optimum calcium supplement and potassium-magnesium citrate which may be superior to potassium citrate in the management of stone disease.

  6. Gd2O3 nanoparticles stabilized by hydrothermally modified dextrose for positive contrast magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babić-Stojić, Branka; Jokanović, Vukoman; Milivojević, Dušan; Požek, Miroslav; Jagličić, Zvonko; Makovec, Darko; Arsikin, Katarina; Paunović, Verica

    2016-04-01

    Gd2O3 nanoparticles of a few nm in size and their agglomerates dispersed in dextrose derived polymer template were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment. The produced nanosized material was investigated by TEM, FTIR spectroscopy, SQUID measurements and NMR relaxometry. Biological evaluation of this material was done by crystal violet and MTT assays to determine the cell viability. Longitudinal and transverse NMR relaxivities of water diluted Gd2O3 nanoparticle dispersions measured at the magnetic field of 1.5 T, estimated to be r1(Gd2O3)=9.6 s-1 mM-1 in the Gd concentration range 0.1-30 mM and r2(Gd2O3)=17.7 s-1 mM-1 in the lower concentration range 0.1-0.8 mM, are significantly higher than the corresponding relaxivities measured for the standard contrast agent r1(Gd-DTPA)=4.1 s-1 mM-1 and r2(Gd-DTPA)=5.1 s-1 mM-1. The ratio of the two relaxivities for Gd2O3 nanoparticles r2/r1=1.8 is suitable for T1-weighted imaging. Good MRI signal intensities of the water diluted Gd2O3 nanoparticle dispersions were recorded at lower Gd concentrations 0.2-0.8 mM. The Gd2O3 samples did not exert any significant cytotoxic effects at Gd concentrations of 0.2 mM and below. These properties of the produced Gd2O3 nanoparticles in hydrothermally modified dextrose make them promising for potential application in MRI for the design of a positive MRI contrast agent.

  7. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 006100-0905-096) is the potassium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 006100-0905-096) is the potassium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 006100-0905-096) is the potassium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 006100-0905-096) is the potassium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric acid with...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 006100-0905-096) is the potassium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... calcium carbonate. It occurs as a fine white, odorless powder and usually contains four moles of water per... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 184.1195 Section 184.1195 Food... GRAS § 184.1195 Calcium citrate. (a) Calcium citrate (Ca3(C6H5O7)2·4H2O, CAS Reg. No. 813-0994-095)...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 184.1751 Section 184.1751 Food and....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Sodium citrate (C6H5Na3O7·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 68-0904-092) is the sodium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric acid with sodium hydroxide or sodium...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 184.1751 Section 184.1751 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Sodium citrate (C6H5Na3O7·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 68-0904-092) is the sodium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric acid with...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 184.1751 Section 184.1751 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Sodium citrate (C6H5Na3O7·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 68-0904-092) is the sodium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric acid with...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 184.1751 Section 184.1751 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Sodium citrate (C6H5Na3O7·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 68-0904-092) is the sodium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric acid with...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium citrate. 184.1751 Section 184.1751 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Sodium citrate (C6H5Na3O7·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 68-0904-092) is the sodium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric acid with...

  18. Citrate-enhanced release of arsenic during pyrite oxidation at circumneutral conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Yao, Weiyu; Yuan, Songhu

    2017-02-01

    The release of arsenic (As) from the oxidation of As-rich pyrite is an important source of the high arsenic in groundwater. As a widespread low-molecular-weight organic acid, citrate plays an important role on the cycling of Fe(II)/Fe(III) through complexation in circumneutral subsurface environments, while the influence of citrate on the release of As from the oxidation of As-rich pyrite is poorly understood. In this study, As was loaded onto pyrite particles under anoxic conditions, and its release was investigated in the presence of 0-1 mM citrate at pH 7.4 under oxic conditions. As-loaded pyrite suspension was prepared by the equilibrium of 2.67 μM As(III) in 10 g/L pyrite under anoxic conditions with the decrease in dissolved As(III) concentration to 1 μM. The suspension was subsequently exposed to air for oxygenation. In the absence of citrate, the oxygenation decreased the partitioning of As in the solution because of the re-adsorption of aqueous As by the in situ generated Fe(III) oxyhydroxides. However, with the increase in citrate concentration from 0.1 to 1 mM, the As partitioned in the solution increased from 0.3 to 2.67 μM. In the presence of 1 mM citrate, the As(III) was almost completely oxidized to As(V) during the oxygenation. The mechanisms of citrate-enhanced release of As were mainly attributed to the ligand exchange of citrate with As for pyrite surface sites, the competitive adsorption of citrate with As on Fe(III) oxyhydroxides and pyrite, and the partitioning of As on the newly formed Fe(III) colloids. This finding presents an overlooked mechanism of the release of pyrite-associated As under oxic and circumneutral conditions.

  19. Comparison of inhibitory mold agar to Sabouraud dextrose agar as a primary medium for isolation of fungi.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, Theresa; Zinchuk, Riva; Gumpeni, Pramod; Larone, Davise H

    2010-05-01

    Clinical specimens cultured on two selective fungal media, inhibitory mold agar (IMA) and Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA), were compared with respect to recovery of fungi. Of the 840 fungal isolates recovered, 69.3% grew on both IMA and SDA; 24.9% grew only on IMA; and 5.8% grew only on SDA, showing that IMA is superior (P=0.003).

  20. FO-SPR based dextrose sensor using Ag/ZnO nanorods/GOx for insulinoma detection.

    PubMed

    Usha, Sruthi P; Shrivastav, Anand M; Gupta, Banshi D

    2016-11-15

    In this piece of work, a fiber optic sensor has been fabricated and characterized using surface plasmon resonance for dextrose sensing. The concentration range used in this study is for diagnosing the cases of hypoglycaemia especially in suppression tests of insulinoma. Insulinoma is a medical case in which the person is recognized being hypoglycaemic with the blood dextrose level falling down to 2.2mM or less. Thus, the sensor has been characterized for the dextrose concentration range of 0 mM-10mM including the cases of normal blood dextrose range. Coatings of silver layer and zinc oxide nanorods have been carried out on the bare core fiber with a dual role of zinc oxide followed by immobilization of glucose oxidase. A three stage optimization procedure has been adopted for the best performance of the sensor. Absorbance spectra have been plotted and peak absorbance wavelengths have been extracted for each concentration chosen along with the sensitivities. The results have been made conclusive with control experiments. The probe has also been tested on sample having blood serum to check the reliability of the sensor. The sensor shows better selectivity and response time along with its real time applications, online monitoring, remote sensing and reusability.

  1. A second polymorph of sodium di­hydrogen citrate, NaH2C6H5O7: structure solution from powder diffraction data and DFT comparison

    PubMed Central

    Rammohan, Alagappa; Kaduk, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structure of a second polymorph of sodium di­hydrogen citrate, Na+·H2C6H5O7 −, has been solved and refined using laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data, and optimized using density functional techniques. The powder pattern of the commercial sample used in this study did not match that corresponding to the known crystal structure [Glusker et al. (1965). Acta Cryst. 19, 561–572; refcode NAHCIT]. In this polymorph, the [NaO7] coordination polyhedra form edge-sharing chains propagating along the a axis, while in NAHCIT the octa­hedral [NaO6] groups form edge-sharing pairs bridged by two hy­droxy groups. The most notable difference is that in this polymorph one of the terminal carboxyl groups is deprotonated, while in NAHCIT the central carboxyl­ate group is deprotonated, as is more typical. PMID:27308058

  2. Renal tissue citrate: independence from citrate utilization, reabsorption, and pH.

    PubMed

    Anaizi, N H; Cohen, J J; Black, A J; Wertheim, S J

    1986-09-01

    During alkalosis in vivo, renal tissue [citrate] [( citrate]t) increases and citrate reabsorption (Tcit) and utilization (Qcit) simultaneously decrease. The decrease in Qcit is interpreted to cause the increased [citrate]t, which in turn decreases Tcit X Renal citrate handling and [citrate]t could be regulated by other mechanisms, since alkalosis changes [substrate] and [H+] in extracellular (ECF) and intracellular (ICF) fluid. Also, since high plasma [citrate] decreases ionized [Ca2+] (Cai), it is not possible to determine in vivo whether there is a maximum for Tcit or Qcit and whether change in extracellular fluid (delta ECF) pH affects these maxima. We perfused the substrate-limited isolated rat kidney for either 110 (n = 36) or 50 min (n = 44) at pH 7.2, 7.4, or 7.6; pH was changed by varying [HCO3-]; Cai was held constant at approximately 2.5 meq/liter. When citrate was the only substrate available in a Krebs-Ringer-HCO3 perfusate containing 6% substrate-free albumin, both Qcit and Tcit had maximal rates: Qcit much greater than Tcit; at pH 7.6, Qcit and Tcit were significantly reduced below their values at pH 7.2 or 7.4. In contrast to in vivo observations, [citrate]t was not significantly increased at high ECF pH. To test whether [citrate]t in the perfused kidney can increase in alkalosis, 11 additional perfusions were done in the presence of glucose plus lactate plus malate but without added citrate: [citrate]t = 0.6 mumol X g-1 at pH 7.6 and 0.3 mumol X g-1 at pH 7.2 (P less than 0.01); no citrate was detectable in the perfusate, and urinary citrate excretion was negligible. Thus, in the isolated rat kidney, an increase in [citrate]t occurred in alkalosis and was derived from precursors and not from citrate in the ECF. Overall, when only citrate was available to the isolated kidney during alkalosis, a significant rise in [citrate]t did not occur, although Vmax for Tcit and Qcit decreased. These effects of alkalosis on Tcit are consistent with observations

  3. 21 CFR 184.1386 - Isopropyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1386 Isopropyl citrate. (a) Isopropyl citrate is a mixture of the mono-, di-, and triisopropyl esters of citric acid. It is prepared by esterifying citric acid with... practice. The affirmation of this ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1851 - Stearyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1851 Stearyl citrate. (a) Stearyl citrate is a mixture of the mono-, di-, and tristearyl esters of citric acid. It is prepared by esterifying citric acid with stearyl alcohol... practice. The affirmation of this ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1386 - Isopropyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1386 Isopropyl citrate. (a) Isopropyl citrate is a mixture of the mono-, di-, and triisopropyl esters of citric acid. It is prepared by esterifying citric acid with... practice. The affirmation of this ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1195 Calcium citrate. (a) Calcium citrate (Ca3(C6H5O7)2·4H2O, CAS Reg. No. 813-0994-095) is the calcium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric acid with calcium hydroxide or calcium carbonate. It occurs as a fine white, odorless powder...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1851 - Stearyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1851 Stearyl citrate. (a) Stearyl citrate is a mixture of the mono-, di-, and tristearyl esters of citric acid. It is prepared by esterifying citric acid with... manufacturing practice. The affirmation of this ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1911 - Triethyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1911 Triethyl citrate. (a) Triethyl citrate (C12H20O7, CAS Reg. No. 77-93-0) is the triethyl ester of citric acid. It is prepared by esterifying citric acid with... recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the following current...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1911 - Triethyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1911 Triethyl citrate. (a) Triethyl citrate (C12H20O7, CAS Reg. No. 77-93-0) is the triethyl ester of citric acid. It is prepared by esterifying citric acid with... recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the following current...

  10. Outcome at two years after dextrose gel treatment for neonatal hypoglycemia; Follow up of a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Deborah L; Alsweiler, Jane M; Ansell, Judith M; Gamble, Greg D; Thompson, Ben; Wouldes, Trecia A; Yu, Tzu-Ying; Harding, Jane E

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine neurodevelopmental outcome at two years’ corrected age in children randomized to treatment with dextrose gel or placebo for hypoglycemia soon after birth (The Sugar Babies Study). Study design This was a follow-up study of 184 children who had been hypoglycemic (< 2.6mM [45 mg/dL]) in the first 48 hours and randomized to either dextrose (90/118, 76%) or placebo gel (94/119, 79%). Assessments were performed at Kahikatea House, Hamilton, New Zealand, and included neurological function and general health (Pediatrician assessed), cognitive, language, behaviour and motor skills (Bayley-III), executive function (clinical assessment and BRIEF-P), and vision (clinical examination and global motion perception). Co-primary outcomes were neurosensory impairment (cognitive, language or motor score below −1 SD or cerebral palsy or blind or deaf) and processing difficulty (executive function or global motion perception worse than 1.5 SD from the mean). Statistical tests were two sided with 5% significance level. Results Mean (±SD) birth weight was 3093 ± 803 g and mean gestation was 37.7 ±1.6 weeks. Sixty-six children (36%) had neurosensory impairment (1 severe, 6 moderate, 59 mild) with similar rates in both groups (dextrose 38% vs. placebo 34%, RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.75–1.63). Processing difficulty was also similar between groups (dextrose 10% vs. placebo 18%, RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.23–1.15). Conclusions Dextrose gel is safe for treatment of neonatal hypoglycemia, but neurosensory impairment is common amongst these children. PMID:26613985

  11. Citrate anticoagulation: Are blood donors donating bone?

    PubMed

    Bialkowski, Walter; Bruhn, Roberta; Edgren, Gustaf; Papanek, Paula

    2016-10-01

    An estimated 2.4 million volunteer apheresis blood donation procedures were performed in the United States in 2010, and increases in the proportion of transfused blood products derived from apheresis blood collections have been consistently reported. Anticoagulation is required during apheresis and is achieved with citrate. Donor exposure to citrate causes an acute physiological response to maintain serum mineral homeostasis. Some data are available on the sequelae of this acute response in the days and weeks following exposure, raising questions about bone mineral density in regular apheresis donors. New research is emerging that addresses the potential long-term health outcomes of repeated citrate exposure. This article reviews the acute physiological response to citrate anticoagulation in volunteer blood donors, presents contrasting perspectives on the potential effects of citrate exposure on bone density, and identifies key knowledge gaps in our understanding of long-term health outcomes in apheresis donors. J. Clin. Apheresis 31:459-463, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Stability-Indicating UPLC Method for Tramadol HCl Impurities in the Tramadol Injection after Dilution by Infusion Fluids (5% Dextrose and 0.9% Sodium Chloride).

    PubMed

    Binnor, Anil K; Mukkanti, Khagga; Suryanarayana, Mulukutla V; Roy, Sunilendu B

    2013-01-01

    A novel, rapid, and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method has been developed and validated as per ICH guidelines for the determination of tramadol HCl impurities in the tramadol HCl injection after reconstitution by infusion fluids (5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride). The tramadol HCl injection is for the treatment of patients with moderate-to-severe pain. The stability of the reconstituted solution is critical before intravenous injection. The literature search resulted in few published articles on assays of tramadol in infusion fluids by conventional HPLC. No attempts have yet been made to determine the impurities in infusion fluids, as the concentration of tramadol after reconstitution is extremely low (0.4 mg/mL) and that of impurities is even lower. The proposed method is novel as it allows the quantitation of the impurities of tramadol HCl and is based on modern chromatographic techniques like UPLC. The method was developed using the Waters Acquity BEH C18 column with a mobile phase consisting of a gradient mixture of solvent A (trifluroacetic acid buffer) and solvent B (methanol: acetonitrile). The model stability study was designed by diluting the tramadol HCl injection in the 5% dextrose injection and 0.9% sodium chloride injection. Each mixture was kept under storage at room temperature (25 ± 2°C) for testing at initial, 2, 4, 8, 12, 18 & 24 hours. The validation study illustrates that the proposed method is suitable for the determination of tramadol and its impurities. The proposed method makes use of the LC-MS-compatible mobile phase. It can be useful for the determination of tramadol HCl and its impurities in plasma samples and other pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  13. Effect of intrauterine dextrose or antibiotic therapy on reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows diagnosed with clinical endometritis.

    PubMed

    Brick, T A; Schuenemann, G M; Bas, S; Daniels, J B; Pinto, C R; Rings, D M; Rajala-Schultz, P J

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the responses to treatments (clinical cure and cow survival 14 d posttherapy) of cows with clinical endometritis (CE) that received intrauterine infusion of a hypertonic solution of 50% dextrose (DEX) or subcutaneous ceftiofur crystalline free acid (CCFA) and subsequent pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) in cows with CE compared with cows without CE. Cows (n=760) from 2 dairy herds were screened for CE using vaginoscopy and measurement of cervix diameters [exam 1; 26±3 d in milk (DIM)]. Cows with vaginal discharge scores of 2 or 3 (scale 0-3) were stratified by parity and randomly allocated into 1 of 3 treatment groups: (1) intrauterine infusion (∼200 mL) of 50% DEX solution (n=79); (2) 6.6 mg/kg single-dose of subcutaneous administration of CCFA (n=75); or (3) untreated control animals (CON, n=83). Fourteen days posttherapy (at 40±3 DIM), cows with CE were re-examined (exam 2; 40±3 DIM) to assess the response to treatments. All cows were presynchronized with 2 injections of PGF(2α) given 14 d apart (starting at 26±3 DIM) followed by Ovsynch (OV; GnRH-7 d-PGF-56 h-GnRH 16 h-timed-AI) 12 to 14 d later. Cows displaying signs of standing estrus any time during the protocol were inseminated, whereas the remaining cows were subjected to timed AI 16 h after the second GnRH of OV. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed via transrectal ultrasonography at 39±3d post-AI followed by pregnancy reconfirmation 30 d after the first pregnancy diagnosis. Uterine swabs revealed that Arcanobacterium pyogenes and Escherichia coli were the most predominant bacteria isolated at the time of treatments. Mortality within 14 d posttherapy was not different among treatment groups. Cows with CE had greater cervical diameter at exam 1 and decreased P/AI compared with cows without CE. Treatment with CCFA or DEX increased the proportion of cows with clear vaginal discharge (score 0; clinical cure) 14 d posttherapy compared with CON cows

  14. Effect of intrauterine dextrose on reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows diagnosed with purulent vaginal discharge under certified organic management.

    PubMed

    Maquivar, M G; Barragan, A A; Velez, J S; Bothe, H; Schuenemann, G M

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of the study were to assess responses to treatments (clinical cure and resumption of estrous cycles) of cows with purulent vaginal discharge (PVD) that received intrauterine infusion of a hypertonic solution of 50% dextrose (DEX) or untreated control (CON) cows and the subsequent pregnancy per artificial insemination (PAI) in cows with and without PVD. Cows (n=2,852) from 2 dairy herds were screened for PVD using the gloved hand technique at exam 1 [26±3 d in milk (DIM)]. Cows with vaginal discharge scores of 2 or 3 (0-3 scale) were stratified by parity and randomly allocated into 1 of 2 treatment groups: (1) intrauterine infusion (~200 mL) of 50% DEX solution (n=456), or (2) untreated control animals (CON, n=491). Fourteen days posttherapy (40±3 DIM), cows with PVD were re-examined at exam 2 (40±3 DIM) to assess the response to treatments. All cows were subjected to the same reproductive program, which consisted of estrus detection twice daily (using tail chalking and visual observation) for the first 5 artificial inseminations; then, open lactating cows were turned out with bulls. Cows displaying signs of standing estrus underwent AI and no reproductive hormones were used. Pregnancy diagnosis (PD) was performed via transrectal palpation at 40±3 d post-AI. The risk of culling within 14 d posttherapy was not different among treatment groups. Cows with PVD had greater cervical diameter at exam 1 and decreased PAI compared with cows without PVD. Treatment with DEX increased the proportion of cows with clear vaginal discharge (clinical cure) and cyclicity 14 d posttherapy compared with CON cows. Pregnancy per AI for DEX (29.2±2%) cows was significantly greater than that for CON (22.5±2%) cows. Cows without PVD had a greater proportion of cycling cows (65.6%) and PAI (37%) with reduced pregnancy losses (5.7%) compared with DEX or CON cows. The use of intrauterine DEX alone improved reproductive performance of cows with PVD.

  15. Citrate anticoagulation during plasma exchange in a patient with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: short heparin-free hemodialysis helps to attenuate citrate load.

    PubMed

    Buturović-Ponikvar, Jadranka; Pernat, Andreja Marn; Ponikvar, Rafael

    2005-06-01

    The treatment of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura requires plasma exchange using fresh frozen plasma as a replacement solution once or even twice daily. If citrate anticoagulation is needed, the citrate load (both from fresh frozen plasma and citrate as an anticoagulant) can be significant, causing metabolic complications. The aim of our report is to present our experience with citrate anticoagulation in a patient with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura treated with daily membrane plasma exchange. Twenty-six plasma exchange procedures were performed during 20 days of treatment in a 46-year-old female. The blood flow was 98 +/- 8 mL/min; 4% trisodium citrate was infused into the arterial line (134 +/- 11 mL/h) and 1 M CaCl2 into the venous line (11.4 +/- 1.8 mL/h). Fresh frozen plasma (first 7 procedures) or cryo-poor plasma (19 procedures) were used as a replacement solution, 3176 +/- 536 mL per procedure. A total of 88,930 mL of plasma was exchanged. No serious side-effects occurred. iCa before plasma exchange was significantly higher than afterwards (1.23 +/- 0.12 vs. 1.12 +/- 0.12, P = 0.0047). Significant alkalosis occurred after three plasma exchanges (pH 7.64, bicarbonate 36.2 mmol/L), and was corrected by 3-h heparin-free hemodialysis with dialysate as follows: K 4.0 mmol/L, calcium 1.5 mmol/L, and bicarbonate set to 24 mmol/L. After dialysis, pH was 7.45 and bicarbonate 29.4 mmol/L. Another (2-h) heparin-free hemodialysis procedure was repeated after six plasma exchanges. Citrate anticoagulation can be safely performed in patients treated with plasma exchange once or twice daily. Periodically performed short heparin-free hemodialysis can correct metabolic alkalosis and attenuate the citrate load.

  16. [Butamyrate citrate in cough controlling].

    PubMed

    Płusa, Tadeusz

    2013-12-01

    The cough as one of the main symptoms of respiratory infections in the most cases is carried out in children and adults using preparations without a prescription (OTC--over-the-counter) and cold medications (CCMs). Their efficacy and safety have not been fully confirmed. In turn, the administration of drugs that inhibit cough by acting on the central nervous system requires adherence to dosage. Codeine as the main standard of the cough suppressants is not always effective. Used for many years butamyrate citrate is highly effective and complete safety. The number and quality of the side effects after application of this preparation is small and is not limited especially in pediatrics. Conducted research on new drugs that inhibit cough are very promising.

  17. Determination of dextrose equivalent value and number average molecular weight of maltodextrin by osmometry.

    PubMed

    Rong, Y; Sillick, M; Gregson, C M

    2009-01-01

    Dextrose equivalent (DE) value is the most common parameter used to characterize the molecular weight of maltodextrins. Its theoretical value is inversely proportional to number average molecular weight (M(n)), providing a theoretical basis for correlations with physical properties important to food manufacturing, such as: hygroscopicity, the glass transition temperature, and colligative properties. The use of freezing point osmometry to measure DE and M(n) was assessed. Measurements were made on a homologous series of malto-oligomers as well as a variety of commercially available maltodextrin products with DE values ranging from 5 to 18. Results on malto-oligomer samples confirmed that freezing point osmometry provided a linear response with number average molecular weight. However, noncarbohydrate species in some commercial maltodextrin products were found to be in high enough concentration to interfere appreciably with DE measurement. Energy dispersive spectroscopy showed that sodium and chloride were the major ions present in most commercial samples. Osmolality was successfully corrected using conductivity measurements to estimate ion concentrations. The conductivity correction factor appeared to be dependent on the concentration of maltodextrin. Equations were developed to calculate corrected values of DE and M(n) based on measurements of osmolality, conductivity, and maltodextrin concentration. This study builds upon previously reported results through the identification of the major interfering ions and provides an osmolality correction factor that successfully accounts for the influence of maltodextrin concentration on the conductivity measurement. The resulting technique was found to be rapid, robust, and required no reagents.

  18. Analytical chemistry of the citrate process for flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Marchant, W.N.; May, S.L.; Simpson, W.W.; Winter, J.K.; Beard, H.R.

    1980-01-01

    The citrate process for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is a product of continuing research by the US Bureau of Mines to meet the goal of minimizing the objectionable effects of minerals industry operations upon the environment. The reduction of SO/sub 2/ in solution by H/sub 2/S to produce elemental sulfur by the citrate process is extremely complex and results in solutions that contain at least nine different sulfur species. Process solution analysis is essential to a clear understanding of process chemistry and its safe, efficient operation. The various chemical species, the approximate ranges of their concentrations in citrate process solutions, and the analytical methods evolved to determine them are hydrogen sulfide (approx. 0M to 0.06M) by specific ion electrode, polysulfides (unknown) by ultraviolet (uv) spectrophotometry, elemental sulfur (approx. 0M to approx. 0.001M dissolved, approx. 0M to approx. 0.1M suspended) by uv spectrophotometry, thiosulfate (approx. 0M to approx. 0.25M) by iodometry or high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), polythionates (approx. 0M to approx. 0.01M) by thin layer chromatography (TLC), dithionite (searched for but not detected in process solutions) by polarography or TLC, bisulfite (approx. 0M to 0.2M) by iodometry, sulfate (approx. 0M to 1M) by a Bureau-developed gravimetric procedure, citric acid (approx. 0M to 0.5M) by titration or visible colorimetry, glycolic acid (approx. 0M to 1M) by HPLC, sodium (approx. 1.5M) by flame photometry, and chloride by argentometric titration.

  19. A citrate-binding site in calmodulin.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, T; Eisenstein, M; Muszkat, K A; Fleminger, G

    1998-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) is a major Ca2+ messenger which, upon Ca2+ activation, binds and activates a number of target enzymes involved in crucial cellular processes. The dependence on Ca2+ ion concentration suggests that CaM activation may be modulated by low-affinity Ca2+ chelators. The effect on CaM structure and function of citrate ion, a Ca2+ chelator commonly found in the cytosol and the mitochondria, was therefore investigated. A series of structural and biochemical methods, including tryptic mapping, immunological recognition by specific monoclonal antibodies, CIDNP-NMR, binding to specific ligands and association with radiolabeled citrate, showed that citrate induces conformational modifications in CaM which affect the shape and activity of the protein. These changes were shown to be associated with the C-terminal lobe of the molecule and involve actual binding of citrate to CaM. Analyzing X-ray structures of several citrate-binding proteins by computerized molecular graphics enabled us to identify a putative citrate-binding site (CBS) on the CaM molecule around residues Arg106-His107. Owing to the tight proximity of this site to the third Ca(2+)-binding loop of CaM, binding of citrate is presumably translated into changes in Ca2+ binding to site III (and indirectly to site IV). These changes apparently affect the structural and biochemical properties of the conformation-sensitive protein.

  20. Citrate bridges between mineral platelets in bone.

    PubMed

    Davies, Erika; Müller, Karin H; Wong, Wai Ching; Pickard, Chris J; Reid, David G; Skepper, Jeremy N; Duer, Melinda J

    2014-04-08

    We provide evidence that citrate anions bridge between mineral platelets in bone and hypothesize that their presence acts to maintain separate platelets with disordered regions between them rather than gradual transformations into larger, more ordered blocks of mineral. To assess this hypothesis, we take as a model for a citrate bridging between layers of calcium phosphate mineral a double salt octacalcium phosphate citrate (OCP-citrate). We use a combination of multinuclear solid-state NMR spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and first principles electronic structure calculations to propose a quantitative structure for this material, in which citrate anions reside in a hydrated layer, bridging between apatitic layers. To assess the relevance of such a structure in native bone mineral, we present for the first time, to our knowledge, (17)O NMR data on bone and compare them with (17)O NMR data for OCP-citrate and other calcium phosphate minerals relevant to bone. The proposed structural model that we deduce from this work for bone mineral is a layered structure with thin apatitic platelets sandwiched between OCP-citrate-like hydrated layers. Such a structure can explain a number of known structural features of bone mineral: the thin, plate-like morphology of mature bone mineral crystals, the presence of significant quantities of strongly bound water molecules, and the relatively high concentration of hydrogen phosphate as well as the maintenance of a disordered region between mineral platelets.

  1. Peritoneal dialysis solutions

    PubMed Central

    Gault, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    Certain preventable complications in the treatment of renal failure, in part related to the composition of commercially prepared peritoneal dialysis solutions, continue to occur. Solutions are advocated which would contain sodium 132, calcium 3.5, magnesium 1.5, chloride 102 and lactate or acetate 35 mEq./1., and dextrose 1.5% or about 4.25%. Elimination of 7% dextrose solutions and a reduction of the sodium and lactate concentrations should reduce complications due to hypovolemia, hyperglycemia, hypernatremia and alkalosis. Reduction in the number of solutions should simplify the procedure and perhaps reduce costs. It is anticipated that some of the changes discussed will soon be introduced by industry. PMID:4691094

  2. The Aqueous Complexation of Thorium with Citrate under Neutral to Basic Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Felmy, Andrew R; Cho, Herman M; Dixon, David A; Xia, Yuanxian; Hess, Nancy J; Wang, Zheming

    2006-04-20

    The aqueous complexation of thorium with citrate was investigated under neutral to basic conditions and over a broad range of ionic strengths. The solubility data for ThO2(am) as a function of citrate concentration indicate the presence of stable species with citrate-to-metal ratios of between two to three. The dependence of the ThO2(am) solubilities on hydrogen ion concentration can also be readily explained by the classical assumption of hydrolysis of the central Th(IV) ion to form mixed thorium-hydroxide-citrate complexes. 13C NMR spectra of the species in solution confirm that the citrate-to-metal ratio of the species in solution is between two and three and show that the citrate attaches to the metal in a bidentate fashion through oxygens on the -carboxylate and -alkoxyl groups, rather than through the carboxylate groups. The 13C NMR spectra, as well as a density functional theory (DFT) electronic structure study of the presumptive complexes, suggests that the associated α-hydroxyl proton can be displaced during complex formation. These findings indicate an alternative explanation for the observed changes in solubility as a function of hydrogen ion concentration, the displacement of protons from the citrate alkoxyl groups via metal binding. Removal of protons from the alkoxyl groups or hydrolysis of the central Th(IV) cannot be distinguished by thermodynamic measurements, however the species with the α-hydroxyl proton removed (i.e., ThOH(Cit)25- and Th(Cit)38-) would appear to better represent the microscopic binding. Apparent equilibrium constants for the solution phase reactions of these species and the hydrous thorium oxide have been calculated as a function of ionic strength.

  3. 21 CFR 184.1307c - Ferrous citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the reaction of sodium citrate with ferrous sulfate or by direct action of citric acid on iron filings... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferrous citrate. 184.1307c Section 184.1307c Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307c Ferrous citrate. (a) Ferrous citrate (iron (II)...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1307c - Ferrous citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the reaction of sodium citrate with ferrous sulfate or by direct action of citric acid on iron filings... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferrous citrate. 184.1307c Section 184.1307c Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307c Ferrous citrate. (a) Ferrous citrate (iron (II)...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1307c - Ferrous citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the reaction of sodium citrate with ferrous sulfate or by direct action of citric acid on iron filings... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferrous citrate. 184.1307c Section 184.1307c Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307c Ferrous citrate. (a) Ferrous citrate (iron (II)...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1307c - Ferrous citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the reaction of sodium citrate with ferrous sulfate or by direct action of citric acid on iron filings... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferrous citrate. 184.1307c Section 184.1307c Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307c Ferrous citrate. (a) Ferrous citrate (iron (II)...

  7. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in... human consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million...

  8. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in... human consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million...

  9. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in... human consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million...

  10. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430 Food... Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in food in... consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million (0.0025...

  11. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560... Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal feed... consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million (0.0025...

  12. Comparative effectiveness of dextrose prolotherapy versus control injections and exercise in the management of osteoarthritis pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chen-Yu; Hsiao, Ming-Yen; Chang, Ke-Vin; Han, Der-Sheng; Wang, Tyng-Guey

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence has supported the use of dextrose prolotherapy for patients with osteoarthritis. However, the real benefits may be affected by differences in injection protocols, comparative regimens, and evaluation scales. Methods PubMed and Scopus were searched from the earliest record until February 2016. One single-arm study and five randomized controlled trials were included, comprising 326 participants. We estimated the effect sizes of pain reduction before and after serial dextrose injections and compared the values between dextrose prolotherapy, comparative regimens, and exercise 6 months after the initial injection. Results Regarding the treatment arm using dextrose prolotherapy, the effect sizes compared with baseline were 0.65 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14–1.17), 0.84 (95% CI, 0.40–1.27), 0.85 (95% CI, 0.60–1.10), and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.53–1.21) after the first, second, third, and fourth or more injections, respectively. The overall effect of dextrose was better than control injections (effect size, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.10–0.63). Dextrose prolotherapy had a superior effect compared with local anesthesia (effect size, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.07–0.70) and exercise (effect size, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.30–1.11). There was an insignificant advantage of dextrose over corticosteroids (effect size, 0.31; 95% CI, –0.18 to 0.80) which was only estimated from one study. Conclusion Dextrose injections decreased pain in osteoarthritis patients but did not exhibit a positive dose–response relationship following serial injections. Dextrose prolotherapy was found to provide a better therapeutic effect than exercise, local anesthetics, and probably corticosteroids when patients were retested 6 months following the initial injection. PMID:27799816

  13. 21 CFR 184.1307c - Ferrous citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... citrate with ferrous sulfate or by direct action of citric acid on iron filings. (b) The ingredient must... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferrous citrate. 184.1307c Section 184.1307c Food... GRAS § 184.1307c Ferrous citrate. (a) Ferrous citrate (iron (II) citrate, (C6H6FeO7), CAS Reg....

  14. Sensitive and selective SERS probe for trivalent chromium detection using citrate attached gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Yingjie; Liu, Honglin; Yang, Liangbao; Liu, Jinhuai

    2012-09-01

    In this article, we have demonstrated a sensitive and selective surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) probe, based on citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), for trivalent chromium (Cr3+) detection. After introducing Tween 20 to a solution of citrate-capped AuNPs, the as-prepared Tween 20/citrate-AuNP probe could recognize Cr3+ at a 50 × 10-9 M level in an aqueous medium at a pH of 6.0. Tween 20 can stabilize the citrate-capped AuNPs against conditions of high ionic strength. Due to the chelation between Cr3+ and citrate ions, AuNPs undergo aggregation. As a result, it formed several hot spots and provided a significant enhancement of the Raman signal intensity through electromagnetic (EM) field enhancements. A detailed mechanism for tremendous SERS intensity change had been discussed. The selectivity of this system toward Cr3+ was 400-fold, remarkably greater than other metal ions.In this article, we have demonstrated a sensitive and selective surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) probe, based on citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), for trivalent chromium (Cr3+) detection. After introducing Tween 20 to a solution of citrate-capped AuNPs, the as-prepared Tween 20/citrate-AuNP probe could recognize Cr3+ at a 50 × 10-9 M level in an aqueous medium at a pH of 6.0. Tween 20 can stabilize the citrate-capped AuNPs against conditions of high ionic strength. Due to the chelation between Cr3+ and citrate ions, AuNPs undergo aggregation. As a result, it formed several hot spots and provided a significant enhancement of the Raman signal intensity through electromagnetic (EM) field enhancements. A detailed mechanism for tremendous SERS intensity change had been discussed. The selectivity of this system toward Cr3+ was 400-fold, remarkably greater than other metal ions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1-S5. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr31985c

  15. Tamoxifen citrate loaded ethosomes for transdermal drug delivery system: preparation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Sarwa, Khomendra Kumar; Suresh, Preeti K; Debnath, Manabendra; Ahmad, Mohammad Zaki

    2013-08-01

    Long term tamoxifen citrate therapy is imperative to treat several dermatological and hormonal sensitive disorders. Successful oral and parenteral administration of tamoxifen citrate has been challenging since it undergoes enzymatic degradation and has poor aqueous solubility issues. In the present work, tamoxifen citrate loaded ethosomes were prepared and characterized for transdermal applications. The prepared formulations were characterized for morphological features, particle size distribution, calorimetric attributes, zeta potential and drug entrapment. Permeation profile of prepared ethosomes was compared with liposomes and hydroethonalic solution across cellophane membrane and human cadaver skin. Results of the permeation studies indicate that ethosomes were able to deliver >90% drug within 24 hours of application, while liposomes and hydroethanolic solution delivered only 39.04% and 36.55% respectively. Skin deposition and stability studies are also reported.

  16. Preparation of High-Quality Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu Oxide Precursor by the Citrate Gel Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Aiko

    1990-02-01

    In order to achieve a high-Tc superconducting phase of Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu oxide, we applied a highly reactive citrate gel process to yield a precursor powder. A citrate-nitrate solution was dehydrated and heated to form the desired compound. We applied a thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction to study thermal decomposition during the heat stage. Sintered sample showed good superconducting properties with Tc above 100 K. Chemical analyses revealed negligible loss of metals during the preparation procedure, indicating that the citrate gel process is an excellent and reliable method for this compound.

  17. Transport of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles in unsaturated sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumahor, Samuel; Hron, Pavel; Metreveli, George; Schaumann, Gabriele; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2015-04-01

    Chemical factors and physical constraints lead to coupled effects during particle transport in unsaturated porous media. Unlike for saturated transport, studies on unsaturated transport as typical for soil are currently scarce. We investigated the mobility of citrate-coated Ag NPs in unsaturated sand (grain diameter: 0.1-0.3 mm). For three flux rates and a given pore-water ionic strength (1 mM KNO3), the citrate-coated Ag NPs were less mobile at pH = 5 compared to pH = 9. The classic Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory suggests unfavorable deposition conditions at both, the air-water interface and solid-water interface. Breakthrough curves measured under quasi-steady state unsaturated flow showed retardation of the citrate-coated Ag NPs compared to inert solute (KBr). After flushing with nanoparticle-free 1 mM KNO3 solution (pH-adjusted), retention was much lower in deeper depths compared to the surface where the particles entered the flow field. The results show a non-linear dependence of nanoparticle (NP) mobility on flux rate and water content. Especially the observed retardation similar to equilibrium sorption is in contrast to observations under saturated flow conditions. A convection-dispersion and reaction model that combines a reversible equilibrium process and a non-equilibrium interaction process reproduced the measured breakthrough curves reasonably well. From comparison between saturated and unsaturated experiments we conclude that the air-water interface is responsible for the reversible equilibrium process while the water-solid interface accounts for irreversible soption.

  18. Citrate, a specific substrate for the isolation of Clostridium sphenoides.

    PubMed Central

    Walther, R; Hippe, H; Gottschalk, G

    1977-01-01

    With a medium containing citrate as the carbon and energy source, 10 clostridial strains were isolated from various mud samples. Characterization of these strains revealed that they all belonged to the same species, Clostridium sphenoides. Strains of this organism obtained from culture collections were also able to grow citrate, whereas 15 other clostridial species tested were not. Citrate was fermented by C. sphenoides to acetate, ethanol, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen. Experiments with stereospecifically 14C-labeled citrate indicated that citrate lyase was involved in citrate degradation. Images PMID:869540

  19. Beta Blockers Suppress Dextrose-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Oxidative Stress, and Apoptosis in Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Haas, Michael J; Kurban, William; Shah, Harshit; Onstead-Haas, Luisa; Mooradian, Arshag D

    Beta blockers are known to have favorable effects on endothelial function partly because of their capacity to reduce oxidative stress. To determine whether beta blockers can also prevent dextrose-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in addition to their antioxidative effects, human coronary artery endothelial cells and hepatocyte-derived HepG2 cells were treated with 27.5 mM dextrose for 24 hours in the presence of carvedilol (a lipophilic beta blockers with alpha blocking activity), propranolol (a lipophilic nonselective beta blockers), and atenolol (a water-soluble selective beta blockers), and ER stress, oxidative, stress and cell death were measured. ER stress was measured using the placental alkaline phosphatase assay and Western blot analysis of glucose regulated protein 78, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), phospho-JNK, eukaryotic initiating factor 2α (eIF2α), and phospho-eIF2α and measurement of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) mRNA splicing using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Superoxide (SO) generation was measured using the superoxide-reactive probe 2-methyl-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3,7-dihydroimidazo[1,2-A]pyrazin-3-one hydrochloride (MCLA) chemiluminescence. Cell viability was measured by propidium iodide staining method. The ER stress, SO production, and cell death induced by 27.5 mM dextrose were inhibited by all 3 beta blockers tested. The antioxidative and ER stress reducing effects of beta blockers were also observed in HepG2 cells. The salutary effects of beta blockers on endothelial cells in reducing both ER stress and oxidative stress may contribute to the cardioprotective effects of these agents.

  20. Localization of the calcium-regulated citrate transport process in proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Hering-Smith, Kathleen S; Mao, Weibo; Schiro, Faith R; Coleman-Barnett, Joycelynn; Pajor, Ana M; Hamm, L Lee

    2014-06-01

    Urinary citrate is an important inhibitor of calcium-stone formation. Most of the citrate reabsorption in the proximal tubule is thought to occur via a dicarboxylate transporter NaDC1 located in the apical membrane. OK cells, an established opossum kidney proximal tubule cell line, transport citrate but the characteristics change with extracellular calcium such that low calcium solutions stimulate total citrate transport as well as increase the apparent affinity for transport. The present studies address several fundamental properties of this novel process: the polarity of the transport process, the location of the calcium-sensitivity and whether NaDC1 is present in OK cells. OK cells grown on permeable supports exhibited apical >basolateral citrate transport. Apical transport of both citrate and succinate was sensitive to extracellular calcium whereas basolateral transport was not. Apical calcium, rather than basolateral, was the predominant determinant of changes in transport. Also 2,3-dimethylsuccinate, previously identified as an inhibitor of basolateral dicarboxylate transport, inhibited apical citrate uptake. Although the calcium-sensitive transport process in OK cells is functionally not typical NaDC1, NaDC1 is present in OK cells by Western blot and PCR. By immunolocalization studies, NaDC1 was predominantly located in discrete apical membrane or subapical areas. However, by biotinylation, apical NaDC1 decreases in the apical membrane with lowering calcium. In sum, OK cells express a calcium-sensitive/regulated dicarboxylate process at the apical membrane which responds to variations in apical calcium. Despite the functional differences of this process compared to NaDC1, NaDC1 is present in these cells, but predominantly in subapical vesicles.

  1. Nickel sorption to goethite and montmorillonite in presence of citrate.

    PubMed

    Marcussen, Helle; Holm, Peter E; Strobel, Bjarne W; Hansen, Hans Chr B

    2009-02-15

    Mobility and bioavailability of nickel (Ni) in soil strongly depends on the interaction between Ni(II), ligands, and sorbents like organic matter and minerals. Sorption of Ni(II) and Ni(II)-citrate complexes to goethite and montmorillonite was examined in batch experiments with and without citrate as ligand in the pH range pH 4-7.5. Without citrate, montmorillonite shows higher Ni sorption than goethite. Citrate strongly decreases Ni sorption to montmorillonite; in presence of 100 microM citrate goethite becomes a stronger Ni sorbent than montmorillonite. Ni and citrate sorption was modeled successfully using the diffuse double layer model with the following reactions: Goethite: 3 [triple bond]FeOH + Citrate(3-) + 3H+ <=> [triple bond] Fe3Citrate + 3H2O, [triple bond]FeOH + Ni2+ <=> [triple bond] FeONi + H+ and 2 [triple bond] FeOH + Citrate(3)- + Ni2+ <=> [triple bond] FeONiCitrate(2-) + H+. Montmorillonite: 2X- + Ni2+ <=> X2Ni and [triple bond] AIOH + Ni2+ <=> AIONi+ + H+. Sorption of Ni to a mixture of goethite and montmorillonite could be calculated by use of reactions and constants for the monomineral systems. Without citrate, the sorbed amount of Ni per mass unit in the mixture can be found as a simple average of sorption to the two single sorbents, while in presence of citrate Ni sorption to montmorillonite is strongly influenced by citrate sorption to goethite.

  2. Vibrational study of tamoxifen citrate polymorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamberini, M. C.; Baraldi, C.; Tinti, A.; Palazzoli, F.; Ferioli, V.

    2007-09-01

    The trans isomer of ( Z)-2-[ p-(1,2-diphenyl-butenyl)phenoxy]- N, N-dimethyletylamine (tamoxifen) is well known for its endocrine activity as an antiestrogenic agent. Its citrate salt, a widely used pharmaceutical agent, appears in three main polymorphic forms, two of which are well known (I and II) and another form not yet well evidenced. A vibrational study has been conducted for identifying the two known polymorphic forms of tamoxifen citrate (I and II) and for characterising the other form (form III) examined in this study. Other techniques for the characterization of the different polymorphs, such as XRDP, have been used.

  3. Effect of topically applied sildenafil citrate on wound healing: experimental study.

    PubMed

    Gürsoy, Koray; Oruç, Melike; Kankaya, Yüksel; Ulusoy, Mustafa Gürhan; Koçer, Uğur; Kankaya, Duygu; Gürsoy, Reyhan Neslihan; Çevik, Özge; Öğüş, Elmas; Fidanci, Vildan

    2014-08-16

    Wound healing is a complex process that necessitates organization of different cell types and several signalling molecules. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of sildenafil citrate, which decreases cGMP degradation, on wound healing by secondary intention.This study was performed using 25 Sprague Dawley rats weighing 200-250 grams. 4 dorsal defects were created. Four different treatment modalities which were 1% and 5% sildenafil citrate gel prepared with carbopol, pure carbopol gel without any drug in it and 0,9% NaCl solution; were applied to each lesion of the same rat. Randomly selected five rats (25 rats in total) were sacrificed on 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th, and 14th days; and the effect of each modality was evaluated by means of defect area measurement, histopathological examination and measurement of tissue hydroxyproline levels.Sildenafil citrate gel application decreased the defect areas in a dose independent manner starting from 3rd day and dose dependent manner after 7th day. By means of vascularization, sildenafil citrate increased vascularity starting from 3rd day. The strength of acute inflammation was superior in sildenafil groups starting from 5th day; and the amount and maturation of granulation in the wound bed, as well as the strength of chronic inflammation were superior in defects treated with sildenafil citrate as early as 7th day.

  4. Evidence that Osteoblasts are Specialized Citrate-producing Cells that Provide the Citrate for Incorporation into the Structure of Bone

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Renty B.; Chellaiah, Meena; Zou, Jing; Reynolds, Mark A.; Costello, Leslie C.

    2015-01-01

    Citrate is a major component of bone in all vertebrates, but its implications in bone have remained largely unknown. Recent studies identified that citrate is incorporated into the structure of the hydroxyapatite nanocrystal/collagen complex; and is essential for the important biomechanical properties of bone. This raises the important question, “What is the source of citrate for incorporation into bone?”; A question that heretofore had remained unresolved. Studies in this report were designed to determine the plausibility of our concept that the osteoblasts are specialized citrate-producing cells, which provide the citrate that is incorporated into the structure of bone; and that osteogenic differentiation of mesenchyme cells leads to the development of the citrate-producing osteoblasts. The results demonstrated that primary human osteoblasts exhibit the capability of citrate-production. Undifferentiated mesenchyme cells do not exhibit the capability of citrate production; and osteogenic differentiation results in citrate-producing osteoblasts. The up-regulation of zinc uptake transporter ZIP1 is essential for the manifestation of the citrate-producing capability of the osteoblasts. We determined that osteoblast transport of citrate from plasma is not a likely source of citrate in bone. Thus, this study establishes for the first time that the osteoblasts are specialized citrate-producing cells that provide the citrate for incorporation into the structure of bone; and that mesenchyme cell osteogenesis leads to differentiated citrate-producing osteoblasts. This is a new understanding; which must include the osteogenic development of citrate-producing osteoblasts, and the process of “citration” in concert with mineralization during bone formation. It also provides a new understanding of the role of bone in the homeostatic maintenance of plasma citrate concentration. PMID:25745519

  5. Physicochemical action of potassium-magnesium citrate in nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, C. Y.; Koenig, K.; Khan, R.; Haynes, S.; Padalino, P.

    1992-01-01

    Effect of potassium-magnesium citrate on urinary biochemistry and crystallization of stone-forming salts was compared with that of potassium citrate at same dose of potassium in five normal subjects and five patients with calcium nephrolithiasis. Compared to the placebo phase, urinary pH rose significantly from 6.06 +/- 0.27 to 6.48 +/- 0.36 (mean +/- SD, p less than 0.0167) during treatment with potassium citrate (50 mEq/day for 7 days) and to 6.68 +/- 0.31 during therapy with potassium-magnesium citrate (containing 49 mEq K, 24.5 mEq Mg, and 73.5 mEq citrate per day). Urinary pH was significantly higher during potassium-magnesium citrate than during potassium citrate therapy. Thus, the amount of undissociated uric acid declined from 118 +/- 61 mg/day during the placebo phase to 68 +/- 54 mg/day during potassium citrate treatment and, more prominently, to 41 +/- 46 mg/day during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy. Urinary magnesium rose significantly from 102 +/- 25 to 146 +/- 37 mg/day during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy but not during potassium citrate therapy. Urinary citrate rose more prominently during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy (to 1027 +/- 478 mg/day from 638 +/- 252 mg/day) than during potassium citrate treatment (to 932 +/- 297 mg/day). Consequently, urinary saturation (activity product) of calcium oxalate declined significantly (from 1.49 x 10(-8) to 1.03 x 10(-8) M2) during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy and marginally (to 1.14 x 10(-8) M2) during potassium citrate therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  6. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... restrictions. The color additive bismuth citrate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on..., eyebrows, or hair on parts of the body other than the scalp. (d) Labeling. (1) The label of the color... abraded scalp. Do not use to color eyelashes, eyebrows, or hair on parts of the body other than the...

  7. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... restrictions. The color additive bismuth citrate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on..., eyebrows, or hair on parts of the body other than the scalp. (d) Labeling. (1) The label of the color... abraded scalp. Do not use to color eyelashes, eyebrows, or hair on parts of the body other than the...

  8. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... restrictions. The color additive bismuth citrate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on..., eyebrows, or hair on parts of the body other than the scalp. (d) Labeling. (1) The label of the color... abraded scalp. Do not use to color eyelashes, eyebrows, or hair on parts of the body other than the...

  9. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... restrictions. The color additive bismuth citrate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on..., eyebrows, or hair on parts of the body other than the scalp. (d) Labeling. (1) The label of the color... abraded scalp. Do not use to color eyelashes, eyebrows, or hair on parts of the body other than the...

  10. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... restrictions. The color additive bismuth citrate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on..., eyebrows, or hair on parts of the body other than the scalp. (d) Labeling. (1) The label of the color... abraded scalp. Do not use to color eyelashes, eyebrows, or hair on parts of the body other than the...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 582.5449 Section 582.5449 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.5195 Section 582.5195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 582.5449 Section 582.5449 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.5195 Section 582.5195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 582.5449 Section 582.5449 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 582.5449 Section 582.5449 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.5195 Section 582.5195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.5195 Section 582.5195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 582.5449 Section 582.5449 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.5195 Section 582.5195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  1. 14 N NQR spectrum of sildenafil citrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, David; Singh, Nadia

    2015-04-01

    The 14N nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectrum of sildenafil citrate tablets has been recorded allowing the quadrupole coupling constants and asymmetry parameters of all six unique nitrogen atoms in its structure to be determined. A density function calculation gives results that are largely in agreement with the experimental values.

  2. Citrate as a siderophore in Bradyrhizobium japonicum.

    PubMed Central

    Guerinot, M L; Meidl, E J; Plessner, O

    1990-01-01

    Under iron-limiting conditions, many bacteria secrete ferric iron-specific ligands, generically termed siderophores, to aid in the sequestering and transport of iron. One strain of the nitrogen-fixing soybean symbiont Bradyrhizobium japonicum, 61A152, was shown to produce a siderophore when 20 B. japonicum strains were screened with all six chemical assays commonly used to detect such production. Production by strain 61A152 was detected via the chrome azurol S assay, a general test for siderophores which is independent of siderophore structure. The iron-chelating compound was neither a catechol nor a hydroxamate and was ninhydrin negative. It was determined to be citric acid via a combination of thin-layer chromatography and high-voltage paper electrophoresis; this identification was verified by a specific enzymatic assay for citric acid. The inverse correlation which was observed between citric acid release and the iron content of the medium suggested that ferric citrate could serve as an iron source. This was confirmed via growth and transport assays. Exogenously added ferric citrate could be used to overcome iron starvation, and iron-deficient cells actively transported radiolabeled ferric citrate. These results, taken together, indicate a role for ferric citrate in the iron nutrition of this strain, which has been shown to be an efficient nitrogen-fixing strain on a variety of soybean cultivars. PMID:2140566

  3. 40 CFR 721.10357 - Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iron, citrate phosphate potassium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10357 Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes. (a) Chemical..., citrate phosphate potassium complexes (PMN P-09-382; CAS No. 120579-31-9) is subject to reporting...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10357 - Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iron, citrate phosphate potassium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10357 Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes. (a) Chemical..., citrate phosphate potassium complexes (PMN P-09-382; CAS No. 120579-31-9) is subject to reporting...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10357 - Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iron, citrate phosphate potassium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10357 Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes. (a) Chemical..., citrate phosphate potassium complexes (PMN P-09-382; CAS No. 120579-31-9) is subject to reporting...

  6. 21 CFR 573.580 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.580 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 573.580 Section...

  7. 21 CFR 573.580 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.580 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 573.580 Section...

  8. 21 CFR 573.580 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.580 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 573.580 Section...

  9. 21 CFR 573.580 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.580 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 573.580 Section...

  10. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 172.370 Section 172... Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by reacting... source of iron in foods for special dietary use....

  11. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  12. 21 CFR 573.580 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 573.580 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.580 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by... used as a source of iron in animal feed....

  13. 21 CFR 520.622b - Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. 520.622b Section... Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of syrup contains 60 milligrams of diethylcarbamazine citrate. (2) Sponsor. See No. 053501 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (3) Conditions of use....

  14. 21 CFR 520.622b - Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. 520.622b Section... Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of syrup contains 60 milligrams of diethylcarbamazine citrate. (2) Sponsor. See No. 053501 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (3) Conditions of use....

  15. 21 CFR 520.622b - Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. 520.622b Section... Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of syrup contains 60 milligrams of diethylcarbamazine citrate. (2) Sponsor. See No. 053501 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (3) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 520.623 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable... § 520.623 Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 60, 120, or 180 milligrams of diethylcarbamazine citrate with 45, 91, or 136 milligrams...

  17. 21 CFR 520.623 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable... § 520.623 Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 60, 120, or 180 milligrams of diethylcarbamazine citrate with 45, 91, or 136 milligrams...

  18. 21 CFR 520.623 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable... § 520.623 Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 60, 120, or 180 milligrams of diethylcarbamazine citrate with 45, 91, or 136 milligrams...

  19. 21 CFR 520.622d - Diethylcarbamazine citrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate capsules. 520.622d... Diethylcarbamazine citrate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 12.5, 50, 200, or 400 milligrams (mg) diethylcarbamazine citrate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 011014 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use...

  20. Early initiation of low-level parenteral dextrose induces an accelerated diabetic phenotype in septic C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Singamsetty, Srikanth; Shah, Faraaz Ali; Guo, Lanping; Watanabe, Yoshio; McDonald, Sherie; Sharma, Rohit; Zhang, Yingze; Alonso, Laura C.; O’Donnell, Christopher P.; McVerry, Bryan J.

    2016-01-01

    Development of hyperglycemia during sepsis is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Nutritional support is common practice in the intensive care unit, but the metabolic effects are not well understood. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of early low-level calorie provision on the development of hyperglycemia in a clinically relevant murine model of sepsis. C57BL/6J mice underwent femoral arterial and venous catheterization followed by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham surgery and low-dose intravenous dextrose or saline infusion. Blood glucose, plasma insulin, and cytokines were measured after 24 h. Additional septic mice underwent hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps or received intravenous insulin concurrent with dextrose to determine whole-body insulin sensitivity and test the efficacy of insulin to reverse hyperglycemia. Neither dextrose infusion nor CLP alone induced hyperglycemia. Early initiation of low-level dextrose in septic mice produced a variable glycemic response: 49% maintained euglycemia (blood glucose <200) and 27% developed severe hyperglycemia (blood glucose≥600). Hyperglycemia was associated with increased inflammation and reduced insulin secretion and sensitivity compared with control mice or CLP mice maintaining euglycemia. Insulin prevented the progression to severe hyperglycemia but was ineffective in reestablishing glycemic control once hyperglycemia had developed. In conclusion, early initiation of clinically relevant low-level dextrose (~20% daily caloric requirements) precipitated hyperglycemia akin to an acute diabetic phenotype in septic mice characterized by decreased insulin sensitivity, decreased insulin secretion, and an increased inflammatory response. PMID:26624964

  1. Methodology of citrate-based biomaterial development and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, M. Richard

    Biomaterials play central roles in modern strategies of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Attempts to find tissue-engineered solutions to cure various injuries or diseases have led to an enormous increase in the number of polymeric biomaterials over the past decade. The breadth of new materials arises from the multiplicity of anatomical locations, cell types, and mode of application, which all place application-specific requirements on the biomaterial. Unfortunately, many of the currently available biodegradable polymers are limited in their versatility to meet the wide range of requirements for tissue engineering. Therefore, a methodology of biomaterial development, which is able to address a broad spectrum of requirements, would be beneficial to the biomaterial field. This work presents a methodology of citrate-based biomaterial design and application to meet the multifaceted needs of tissue engineering. We hypothesize that (1) citric acid, a non-toxic metabolic product of the body (Krebs Cycle), can be exploited as a universal multifunctional monomer and reacted with various diols to produce a new class of soft biodegradable elastomers with the flexibility to tune the material properties of the resulting material to meet a wide range of requirements; (2) the newly developed citrate-based polymers can be used as platform biomaterials for the design of novel tissue engineering scaffolding; and (3) microengineering approaches in the form thin scaffold sheets, microchannels, and a new porogen design can be used to generate complex cell-cell and cell-microenvironment interactions to mimic tissue complexity and architecture. To test these hypotheses, we first developed a methodology of citrate-based biomaterial development through the synthesis and characterization of a family of in situ crosslinkable and urethane-doped elastomers, which are synthesized using simple, cost-effective strategies and offer a variety methods to tailor the material properties to

  2. Why sildenafil and sildenafil citrate monohydrate crystals are not stable?

    PubMed

    Sawatdee, Somchai; Pakawatchai, Chaveng; Nitichai, Kwanjai; Srichana, Teerapol; Phetmung, Hirihattaya

    2015-10-01

    Sildenafil citrate was crystallized by various techniques aiming to determine the behavior and factors affecting the crystal growth. There are only 2 types of sildenafil obtaining from crystallization: sildenafil (1) and sildenafil citrate monohydrate (2). The used techniques were (i) crystallization from saturated solutions, (ii) addition of an antisolvent, (iii) reflux and (iv) slow solvent evaporation method. By pursuing these various methods, our work pointed that the best formation of crystal (1) was obtained from technique no. (i). Surprisingly, the obtained crystals (1) were perfected if the process was an acidic pH at a cold temperature then perfect crystals occurred within a day. Crystals of compound (2) grew easily using technique no. (ii) which are various polar solvents over a wide range of pH and temperature preparation processes. The infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra fit well with these two X-ray crystal structures. The crystal structures of sildenafil free base and salt forms were different from their different growing conditions leading to stability difference.

  3. Formulation, Characterization and Physicochemical Evaluation of Potassium Citrate Effervescent Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Fattahi, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to design and formulation of potassium citrate effervescent tablet for reduction of calcium oxalate and urate kidney stones in patients suffering from kidney stones. Methods: In this study, 13 formulations were prepared from potassium citrate and effervescent base in different concentration. The flowability of powders and granules was studied. Then effervescent tablets were prepared by direct compression, fusion and wet granulation methods. The prepared tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, effervescent time, pH, content uniformity. To amend taste of formulations, different flavoring agents were used and then panel test was done by using Latin Square method by 30 volunteers. Results: Formulations obtained from direct compression and fusion methods had good flow but low hardness. Wet granulation improves flowability and other physicochemical properties such as acceptable hardness, effervescence time ≤3 minutes, pH<6, friability < 1%, water percentage < 0.5% and accurate content uniformity. In panel test, both of combination flavors; (orange - lemon) and (strawberry - raspberry) had good acceptability. Conclusion: The prepared tablets by wet granulation method using PVP solution had more tablet hardness. It is a reproducible process and suitable to produce granules that are compressed into effervescent tablets due to larger agglomerates. PMID:24312839

  4. Why sildenafil and sildenafil citrate monohydrate crystals are not stable?

    PubMed Central

    Sawatdee, Somchai; Pakawatchai, Chaveng; Nitichai, Kwanjai; Srichana, Teerapol; Phetmung, Hirihattaya

    2015-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate was crystallized by various techniques aiming to determine the behavior and factors affecting the crystal growth. There are only 2 types of sildenafil obtaining from crystallization: sildenafil (1) and sildenafil citrate monohydrate (2). The used techniques were (i) crystallization from saturated solutions, (ii) addition of an antisolvent, (iii) reflux and (iv) slow solvent evaporation method. By pursuing these various methods, our work pointed that the best formation of crystal (1) was obtained from technique no. (i). Surprisingly, the obtained crystals (1) were perfected if the process was an acidic pH at a cold temperature then perfect crystals occurred within a day. Crystals of compound (2) grew easily using technique no. (ii) which are various polar solvents over a wide range of pH and temperature preparation processes. The infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra fit well with these two X-ray crystal structures. The crystal structures of sildenafil free base and salt forms were different from their different growing conditions leading to stability difference. PMID:26594116

  5. Photodegradation of uranium-citrate complex with uranium recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, C.J.; Francis, A.J. )

    1994-07-01

    Upon exposure to visible light, uranyl citrate complex showed photodegradation of citric acid to acetic acid and carbon dioxide, with the precipitation of uranium as uranium trioxide (UO[sub 3][center dot]2H[sub 2]O). The initial pH and presence of oxygen affected the rate and extent of photochemical degradation of the complex, the formation of intermediate organic degradation products, and uranium speciation. Under aerobic conditions at pH 3.5, acetic, acetoacetic, 3-oxoglutaric, and malonic acids and acetone were detected; at pH 6.0, 3-oxoglutaric and acetic acids were present. The uranyl U(VI) ion was reduced to uranous U(IV) ion and was subsequently reoxidized to the hexavalent form and precipitated out of solution as uranium trioxide. Uranium trioxide precipitate was insoluble at near-neutral pH and was soluble in acidic pH (<4.1). Under anaerobic conditions, the uranyl citrate complex showed only partial (57%) degradation, and uranium was present in the reduced form as U(IV). Excess citric acid retarded the precipitation of uranium. 26 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Selective cytopheretic inhibitory device with regional citrate anticoagulation and portable sorbent dialysis.

    PubMed

    Pino, Christopher J; Farokhrani, Amin; Lou, Liandi; Smith, Peter L; Johnston, Kimberly; Buffington, Deborah A; Humes, H David

    2013-02-01

    Selective cytopheretic inhibitory device (SCD) therapy is an immunomodulatory treatment provided by a synthetic biomimetic membrane in an extracorporeal circuit, which has shown promise in preclinical large animal models of severe sepsis as well as in clinical trials treating patients with acute kidney injury and multiple organ failure. During SCD therapy, citrate is administered to lower ionized calcium levels in blood for anticoagulation and inhibition of leukocyte activation. Historically, citrate has been known to interfere with sorbent dialysis, therefore, posing a potential issue for the use of SCD therapy with a portable dialysis system. This sorbent dialysis SCD (sorbent SCD) would be well suited for battlefield and natural disaster applications where the water supply for standard dialysis is limited, and the types of injuries in those settings would benefit from SCD therapy. In order to explore the compatibility of sorbent and SCD technologies, a uremic porcine model was tested with the Allient sorbent dialysis system (Renal Solutions Incorporated, Fresenius Medical Care, Warrendale, PA, USA) and concurrent SCD therapy with regional citrate anticoagulation. The hypothesis to be assessed was whether the citrate load required by the SCD could be metabolized prior to recirculation from systemic blood back into the therapeutic circuit. Despite the fact that the sorbent SCD maintained urea clearance without any adverse hematologic events, citrate load for SCD therapy caused an interaction with the sorbent column resulting in elevated, potentially toxic aluminum levels in dialysate and in systemic blood. Alternative strategies to implement sorbent-SCD therapy will be required, including development of alternate urease-sorbent column binding chemistry or further changes to the sorbent-SCD therapeutic circuit along with determining the minimum citrate concentration required for efficacious SCD treatment.

  7. Isoexergonic Conformations of Surface-Bound Citrate Regulated Bioinspired Apatite Nanocrystal Growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ziqiu; Xu, Zhijun; Zhao, Weilong; Chen, Wei; Miyoshi, Toshikazu; Sahai, Nita

    2016-10-05

    The superior biomechanical properties of bone and dentin are dictated, in part, by the unique plate-like morphology of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanocrysals within a hierarchically assembled collagen matrix. Understanding the mechanism of crystal growth and thus morphology is important to the rational design of bioinspired apatite nanocrystals for orthopedic and dental applications. Citrate has long been proposed to modulate apatite crystal growth, but major questions exist regarding the HAP-bound citrate conformations and the identities of the interacting functional groups and HAP surface sites. Here, we conducted a comprehensive investigation of the mechanism from the angstrom to submicrometer scale by detailed correlation of the results of high-level metadynamics simulations, employing force-fields benchmarked to experiment and density functional theory calculations with the results of high resolution transmission electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, solution analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. Crystal morphology changed from needle- to plate-like with increasing citrate concentration. Citrate adsorbed more strongly on the HAP (100) face than on the (001) face, thus resulting in preferential growth in the [001] direction and the plate-like morphology. Two very different bound conformations were obtained, involving interactions of either one or both terminal carboxyl groups with three or five surface calcium ions, respectively, and a hydrogen bond between the citrate hydroxyl and the HAP surface. Remarkably, despite fewer interaction sites in the single bound carboxyl conformation, the structures were isoexergonic, so both exist at equilibrium. Identification of the former conformation is significant because it allows a greater adsorption density than is traditionally assumed and can help explain concentration-dependence of citrate in modulating crystal morphology. These unique results were enabled first by the application of advanced

  8. Citrate modulates lipopolysaccharide-induced monocyte inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    Ashbrook, M J; McDonough, K L; Pituch, J J; Christopherson, P L; Cornell, T T; Selewski, D T; Shanley, T P; Blatt, N B

    2015-01-01

    Citrate, a central component of cellular metabolism, is a widely used anti-coagulant due to its ability to chelate calcium. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-citrate lyase, which metabolizes citrate, has been shown to be essential for inflammation, but the ability of exogenous citrate to impact inflammatory signalling cascades remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that citrate would modulate inflammatory responses as both a cellular metabolite and calcium chelator, and tested this hypothesis by determining how clinically relevant levels of citrate modulate monocyte proinflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a human acute monocytic leukaemia cell line (THP-1). In normal medium (0·4 mM calcium), citrate inhibited LPS-induced tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-8 transcripts, whereas in medium supplemented with calcium (1·4 mM), TNF-α and IL-8 levels increased and appeared independent of calcium chelation. Using an IL-8–luciferase plasmid construct, the same increased response was observed in the activation of the IL-8 promoter region, suggesting transcriptional regulation. Tricarballylic acid, an inhibitor of ATP-citrate lyase, blocked the ability of citrate to augment TNF-α, linking citrate's augmentation effect with its metabolism by ATP-citrate lyase. In the presence of citrate, increased histone acetylation was observed in the TNF-α and IL-8 promoter regions of THP-1 cells. We observed that citrate can both augment and inhibit proinflammatory cytokine production via modulation of inflammatory gene transactivation. These findings suggest that citrate anti-coagulation may alter immune function through complex interactions with the inflammatory response. PMID:25619261

  9. Stability of acetyl-1-carnitine in 5% dextrose using a high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry times 2 method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Jiang, Hongliang; Hutson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    A stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry times 2 method was developed to establish the stability of acetyl-l-carnitine dissolved in 5% dextrose in water; quantitation of acetyl-l-carnitine and its hydrolysis product I-carnitine was performed using this method. Acetyl-l-carnitine dissolved in water was stress-degraded at a pH range of 3 to 12, and conversion to l-carnitine was quantified over 18 hours. The method was further validated by stressing the acetyl-l-carnitine solution at 68 degrees C, 82 degrees C, and 90 degrees C for up to 10 days, yielding a temperature-dependent hydrolysis rate constant. Acetyl-l-carnitine solutions were stored at 25 degrees C and 4 degrees C to 8 degrees C for 33 days to validate the kinetics prediction. The liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry times 2 method was sensitive and specific, allowing rapid separation and simultaneous quantitation of acetyl-l-carnitine and l-carnitine. Acetyl-l-carnitine dissolved in aqueous solutions is stable at neutral to acidic pH, but unstable at pH > 9. After 1 hour storage at room temperature, only 72.6% of acetyl-l-carnitine was left at pH 11 and 4.2% left at pH 12. The kinetics relationship between temperature and rate constant was In(k) = -8650.1 /T + 20.344 (r2 = 0.9851) at pH 5.2. The time required to degrade 15% of acetyl-I-carnitine was estimated to be 38 days at 25 degrees C or 234 days at 8 degrees C, and was confirmed with actual storage stability testing. Acetyl-l-carnitine dissolved in water (pH 5.2) at concentrations of 1 and 10 mg/mL was found stable at room temperature or refrigerated for at least 33 days using the established stability-indicating method. Acetyl-l-carnitine solutions are not stable at basic pH. When reconstituted in water, acetyl-l-carnitine is stable for over 30 days at room temperature or under refrigeration.

  10. Polyethyleneimine phosphate and citrate systems act like pseudo polyampholytes as a starting method to isolate pepsin.

    PubMed

    Manzur, Alejandra; Spelzini, Darío; Farruggia, Beatriz; Romanini, Diana; Picó, Guillermo

    2007-12-01

    The aqueous solution behaviour of polyethyleneimine (a cationic synthetic polymer) in the presence of anions (such as citrate and phosphate) was studied by means of turbidimetry. The variation of the absorbance at 420 nm of dilute mixture with pH, the polymer concentration and the ionic strength were examined. The mixture of polyethyleneinine citrate or polyethyleneinine phosphate behaves as a pseudo polyampholyte with an isoelectric point of 5.5 and 6.2 for phosphate and citrate respectively and a precipitation pH range between 3.5 and 8.0. Pepsin was completely precipitated with the polymer anion complex within this pH interval. Citrate showed a better precipitation effect than phosphate did. The precipitate was reversibly dissolved in NaCl (for concentrations higher than 0.2 M) and pepsin kept its biological activity. Studies of pepsin thermal stability (by differential scanning calorimetry) revealed that the polyethyleneimine presence increased the enzyme denaturation temperature. The circular dichroism spectrum of pepsin showed a non-significant loss of secondary and tertiary enzyme structure by the polyethyleneimine. However, the polymer presence increased the biological activity of pepsin.

  11. Promotion of Ni2+ Removal by Masking Toxicity to Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria: Addition of Citrate

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Junwei; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Tao, Yong; Zhou, Yan; He, Xiaohong; Li, Daping

    2015-01-01

    The sulfate-reducing bioprocess is a promising technology for the treatment of heavy metal-containing wastewater. This work was conducted to investigate the possibility of promoting heavy metal removal by the addition of citrate to mask Ni2+ toxicity to sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in batch reactors. SRB growth was completely inhibited in Ni2+-containing medium (1 mM) when lactate served as the sole carbon resource, leading to no sulfate reduction and Ni2+ removal. However, after the addition of citrate, SRB grew well, and sulfate was quickly reduced to sulfide. Simultaneously, the Ni-citrate complex was biodegraded to Ni2+ and acetate. The NiS precipitate was then formed, and Ni2+ was completely removed from the solution. It was suggested that the addition of citrate greatly alleviates Ni2+ toxicity to SRB and improves the removal of Ni2+, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR targeting dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) genes. Analysis of the carbon metabolism indicated that lactate instead of acetate served as the electron donor for sulfate reduction. This study offers a potential approach to increase the removal of heavy metals from wastewater in the single stage SRB-based bioprocess. PMID:25860948

  12. Sildenafil citrate for female sexual arousal disorder: a future possibility?

    PubMed

    Schoen, Corina; Bachmann, Gloria

    2009-04-01

    Female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) is a common disorder encountered in clinical practice, with self-reported arousal difficulties reported in up to 26% of American women. Various oral therapies for FSAD have been studied, including sildenafil citrate, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor that is currently used to treat male erectile dysfunction. In vitro studies of sildenafil citrate have demonstrated smooth-muscle relaxation in clitoral tissue, and phosphodiesterase type-5 has been shown to be present in vaginal, clitoral and labial smooth muscle; these findings have led to theories that sildenafil citrate might be successful for treating FSAD. This Review discusses the data from clinical trials that have assessed sildenafil citrate for the treatment of FSAD; the trials show that sildenafil citrate is moderately effective. Sildenafil citrate may also be effective in women with FSAD secondary to multiple sclerosis, diabetes or antidepressant use; however, more trials in these patient populations are required to confirm these findings.

  13. Citrate in plasma and urine during total fasting.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, T T; Sørensen, N S

    1979-01-01

    Plasma citrate was determined in 12 obese subjects who underwent total fasting for 10 days. Mean plasma citrate concentration rose significantly from 128 before to 205 micro mol/1 on the 10th day of fasting. Plasma citrate rose continuously during fasting in seven subjects in whom daily determinations were carried out. The 24-hour urinary citrate excretion was followed in six subjects. A significant decrease was found from 2.91 mmol/24 h in the prefasting state to 0.25 mmol/24 h at the end of the fast. Intravenous glucose tolerance test were performed before and on the 10th day of fasting. Kivgtt decreased significantly and was inversely related to plasma citrate concentration on the 10th day of fasting. The results agree well with the concept that an increased citrate level of tissues is of regulatory importance for the decreased glucose utilization during fasting in man.

  14. SbnG, a Citrate Synthase in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Kobylarz, Marek J.; Grigg, Jason C.; Sheldon, Jessica R.; Heinrichs, David E.; Murphy, Michael E. P.

    2014-01-01

    In response to iron deprivation, Staphylococcus aureus produces staphyloferrin B, a citrate-containing siderophore that delivers iron back to the cell. This bacterium also possesses a second citrate synthase, SbnG, that is necessary for supplying citrate to the staphyloferrin B biosynthetic pathway. We present the structure of SbnG bound to the inhibitor calcium and an active site variant in complex with oxaloacetate. The overall fold of SbnG is structurally distinct from TCA cycle citrate synthases yet similar to metal-dependent class II aldolases. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that SbnG forms a separate clade with homologs from other siderophore biosynthetic gene clusters and is representative of a metal-independent subgroup in the phosphoenolpyruvate/pyruvate domain superfamily. A structural superposition of the SbnG active site to TCA cycle citrate synthases and site-directed mutagenesis suggests a case for convergent evolution toward a conserved catalytic mechanism for citrate production. PMID:25336653

  15. Variation of stability constants of thorium citrate complexes and of thorium hydrolysis constants with ionic strength

    SciTech Connect

    Choppin, G.R.; Erten, H.N.; Xia, Y.X.

    1995-09-01

    Citrate is among the organic anions that are expected to be present in the wastes planned for deposition in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository. In this study, a solvent extraction method has been used to measure the stability constants of Thorium(IV)[Th(IV)] with citrate anions in aqueous solutions with (a) NaClO{sub 4} and (b) NaCl as the background electrolytes. The ionic strengths were varied up to 5 m (NaCl) and 14 m (NaClO{sub 4}). The data from the NaClO{sub 4} solutions at varying pH values were used to calculate the hydrolysis constants for formation of Th(OH){sup 3+} at the different ionic strengths.

  16. Prophylactic Oral Dextrose Gel for Newborn Babies at Risk of Neonatal Hypoglycaemia: A Randomised Controlled Dose-Finding Trial (the Pre-hPOD Study)

    PubMed Central

    Hegarty, Joanne Elizabeth; Harding, Jane Elizabeth; Gamble, Gregory David; Crowther, Caroline Anne; Edlin, Richard; Alsweiler, Jane Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background Neonatal hypoglycaemia is common, affecting up to 15% of newborns, and can cause brain damage. Currently, there are no strategies, beyond early feeding, to prevent neonatal hypoglycaemia. Our aim was to determine a dose of 40% oral dextrose gel that will prevent neonatal hypoglycaemia in newborn babies at risk. Methods and Findings We conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-finding trial of buccal dextrose gel to prevent neonatal hypoglycaemia at two hospitals in New Zealand. Babies at risk of hypoglycaemia (infant of a mother with diabetes, late preterm delivery, small or large birthweight, or other risk factors) but without indication for admission to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) were randomly allocated either to one of four treatment groups: 40% dextrose at one of two doses (0.5 ml/kg = 200 mg/kg, or 1 ml/kg = 400 mg/kg), either once at 1 h of age or followed by three additional doses of dextrose (0.5 ml/kg before feeds in the first 12 h); or to one of four corresponding placebo groups. Treatments were administered by massaging gel into the buccal mucosa. The primary outcome was hypoglycaemia (<2.6 mM) in the first 48 h. Secondary outcomes included admission to a NICU, admission for hypoglycaemia, and breastfeeding at discharge and at 6 wk. Prespecified potential dose limitations were tolerance of gel, time taken to administer, messiness, and acceptability to parents. From August 2013 to November 2014, 416 babies were randomised. Compared to babies randomised to placebo, the risk of hypoglycaemia was lowest in babies randomised to a single dose of 200 mg/kg dextrose gel (relative risk [RR] 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47–0.99, p = 0.04) but was not significantly different between dose groups (p = 0.21). Compared to multiple doses, single doses of gel were better tolerated, quicker to administer, and less messy, but these limitations were not different between dextrose and placebo gel groups. Babies who received

  17. 77 FR 24461 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... all grades and granulation sizes of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate in their... blends of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate; as well as blends with other ingredients, such as sugar, where the unblended form(s) of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium...

  18. Enrofloxacinium citrate monohydrate: Preparation, crystal structure, thermal stability and IR-characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovnev, Nicolay N.; Vasiliev, Alexander D.; Kirik, Sergei D.

    2012-08-01

    Enrofloxacinium citrate monohydrate (I), CHFNO3+·CHO7-·HO, [C19H22FN3O3 - enrofloxacin, EnrH] has been crystallized from the mutual solution of citric acid and enrofloxacin in ambient conditions. The colorless crystals have been investigated using X-ray single crystal and powder techniques, and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry and infrared spectroscopy. The obtained compound can be considered as a salt with enrofloxacinium in the role of a cation and citrate as an anion. The ions ratio equals to 1:1. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic lattice with a = 9.0489(8) Å, b = 9.6531(8) Å, c = 14.913(1) Å, α = 98.813(1)°, β = 92.029(1)°, γ = 91.013(1)°, Z = 2, V = 1286.1(2) Å3, S.G. P1¯. The crystal structure determination reveals the importance of inter- and intramolecular interactions in the crystal formation. The EnrH2+ and HCit molecular ions are packed in alternating layers with water molecules inserted into the citrate layers. A citrate ion in the layer is linked via H-bondings with two adjacent ones and three water molecules. Enrofloxacinium cations are packaged by means of a benched mode and every cation is linked by three intermolecular thymus type H-bondings with nitrogens of adjacent cations and by two links with the oxygen of the citrate ions. The infrared spectra gave the evidence of H-bonding formation in the obtained salt. The π-stacking interactions are observed between the aromatic cycles of the adjacent cations which are located in an antiparallel style in a layer.

  19. Combined effect of γ-irradiation and bacterial-fermented dextrose on microbiological quality of refrigerated pork sausages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dussault, D.; Benoit, C.; Lacroix, M.

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a concentrated fermented dextrose (FD), a natural antimicrobial product, combined with low dose γ-irradiation (1.5 kGy) on the microbiological quality of fresh pork sausages. Fresh pork sausages containing the FD (0.25%, 0.5% and 0.75%) were prepared in a meat pilot plant and were irradiated using a UC-15A irradiator equipped with a 60Cobalt source. The γ-irradiation treatment alone was able to reduce the initial psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria by more than 2 log CFU/g and kept the lactobacillus population under the detection limit (100 CFU/g). Results also showed that the FD alone was able to extend the shelf life of the sausages from 5 days up to 13 days. At day 13, the FD or irradiation alone showed 2 log CFU/g less mesophilic bacteria than the control. After combining FD and irradiation another reduction of the microbial count of 1 log CFU/g was observed. When combining the irradiation treatment with the FD results it showed a reduced growth rate of the psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria compared to both treatments alone. This study demonstrated that FD with low dose gamma irradiation act in synergy to reduce the multiplication of the total bacterial flora in fresh sausages.

  20. Na/K citrate versus sodium bicarbonate in prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Abouzeid, Sameh Mohamed; ElHossary, Hossam E

    2016-05-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is one of the important complications of radiographic procedures, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is also one of the common causes of acute kidney injury. The pathogenesis is postulated to be the effect of oxygen- free radicals and hyperosmolar stress on the renal medulla. It is reported that the production of superoxide is most active at acid environment. K/Na citrate is well known as a urine alkalinization medium, and this has been evaluated earlier with standard hydration for reduction of CIN and was stated to be efficient. We aimed to determine the efficacy of Na/K citrate in reducing the frequency of CIN in comparison to sodium bicarbonate in patients after coronary angiography. Two hundred and ten patients with renal dysfunction [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) or less] who underwent elective or emergency coronary angiography (CAG) with/without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at our institution were enrolled into the study. The patients were randomized into two groups, Group 1-Taking Na/K citrate and Group 2-Taking sodium bicarbonate. Radiographic contrast agent iohexol was used. Change in creatinine, percent change in creatinine, percent change in eGFR, change in serum potassium, and urine pH were all compared between the two groups. There was no significant difference for prevention of CIN when comparing the Na/K citrate with sodium bicarbonate solution in patients exposed to CAG with or without PCI. Mean absolute change in eGFR after 48 h after administration of contrast between sodium bicarbonate group and Na/K citrate group was -0.60 ± 1.58 versus -0.71 ± 1.38. Serum potassium decreased postprocedure in the sodium bicarbonate group than in the citrate group (3.90 ± 0.33 vs. 4.14 ± 0.39). Both agents are equally effective in reducing the incidence of CIN, but the citrate would possibly be a safer option for patients at risk of hypokalemia.

  1. Citrate-stabilized Q-CdSe seed-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles: The role of citrate moieties anchored to the Q-CdSe surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingole, Pravin P.; Bhat, Mohsin A.

    2016-03-01

    Here, we try to explore a new dimension/role for citrate molecules in the bound state, i.e. anchored to the surface of cadmium selenide quantum dots (Q-CdSe), in the synthesis of metal nanoparticles (MNPs). Being labile, the citrate molecule is considered a good candidate for the stabilization of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) such as Q-CdSe that can be used for further functionalization/modification of the surface properties of the QDs. In its free/ionic form (i.e. not bound to the surface), it is well known for its role as a reducing as well as a capping agent in the synthesis of silver and gold MNPs. A simple strategy for the preparation of silver MNPs following the chemical reduction of silver ions that is mediated by citrate-stabilized Q-CdSe seeds without addition of an external reducing agent is presented. The citrate moieties anchored to the surface of Q-CdSe are found to play an important role in the chemical reduction of silver ions. The obtained product was analysed by spectroscopic, microscopic and structural characterization techniques such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry. The characteristic redox behaviour observed in cyclic voltammograms (CVs) also supports the formation of Ag MNPs in the samples. Further, the impact of the reaction solution pH on the feasibility of silver ion reduction by Q-CdSe seeds resulting into the formation of Ag MNPs is also briefly discussed.

  2. The distribution of plasmids determining citrate utilization in citrate-positive variants of Escherichia coli from humans, domestic animals, feral birds and environments.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, N; Sato, G

    1979-10-01

    Sixty-seven isolates of citrate-positive variants of Escherichia coli were isolated from human, domestic animal, feral bird and environmental sources. With the exception of citrate utilization, all isolates were identified as typical E. coli by their biochemical reactions. The transmission of the ability to utilize citrate on Simmons' citrate agar was demonstrated in 53 (79.1%) out of the 67 citrate-positive E. coli variants obtained from various sources. Drug resistance determinants and citrate utilizing character were co-transmitted into E. coli K-12 by conjugation among citrate-positive E. coli isolates carrying R plasmids except for that isolated from horses. The other characters (haemolysin or colicin production, raffinose or sucrose fermentation) were not transmitted together with the citrate utilizing character. These facts suggested that the structural gene responsible for citrate utilizing ability in citrate-positive variants of E. coli was located on a conjugative plasmid.

  3. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1025 Ferric ammonium citrate. (a) Identity....

  4. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1025 Ferric ammonium citrate. (a) Identity....

  5. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1025 Ferric ammonium citrate. (a) Identity....

  6. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1025 Ferric ammonium citrate. (a) Identity....

  7. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1025 Ferric ammonium citrate. (a) Identity....

  8. Characterization of ATP citrate lyase from Chlorobium limicola.

    PubMed Central

    Antranikian, G; Herzberg, C; Gottschalk, G

    1982-01-01

    ATP citrate lyase (EC 4.1.3.8) from Chlorobium limicola was partially purified. It was established that the consumption of substrates and the formation of products proceeded stoichiometrically and that citrate cleavage was of the si-type. ADP and oxaloacetate inhibited enzyme activity. Oxaloacetate also inhibited the growth of C. limicola. PMID:7142107

  9. 21 CFR 184.1140 - Ammonium citrate, dibasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1140 Ammonium citrate, dibasic. (a) Ammonium citrate, dibasic ((NH4)2HC6H5O7, CAS Reg. No. 3012-65-5) is the diammonium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by partially neutralizing citric acid with ammonia. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1140 - Ammonium citrate, dibasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1140 Ammonium citrate, dibasic. (a) Ammonium citrate, dibasic ((NH4)2HC6H5O7, CAS Reg. No. 3012-65-5) is the diammonium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by partially neutralizing citric acid with ammonia. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for...

  11. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 172.370 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline... citric acid may be safely used as a source of iron in foods for special dietary use....

  12. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 172.370 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline... citric acid may be safely used as a source of iron in foods for special dietary use....

  13. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 172.370 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline... citric acid may be safely used as a source of iron in foods for special dietary use....

  14. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Iron-choline citrate complex. 172.370 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline... citric acid may be safely used as a source of iron in foods for special dietary use....

  15. Diffuse abdominal gallium-67 citrate uptake in salmonella infections

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, I.; Koren, A.

    1987-11-01

    Two pediatric patients with salmonella infections (one with typhoid fever and the second with salmonella C2 gastroenteritis), had a diffuse abdominal uptake of Ga-67 citrate. The possible explanation for this finding is discussed. Salmonella infection should be included as a cause in the differential diagnosis of diffuse accumulation of Ga-67 citrate.

  16. Structural basis for norovirus inhibition and fucose mimicry by citrate.

    PubMed

    Hansman, Grant S; Shahzad-Ul-Hussan, Syed; McLellan, Jason S; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Georgiev, Ivelin; Shimoike, Takashi; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Bewley, Carole A; Kwong, Peter D

    2012-01-01

    Human noroviruses bind with their capsid-protruding domains to histo-blood-group antigens (HBGAs), an interaction thought to direct their entry into cells. Although human noroviruses are the major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks, development of antivirals has been lacking, mainly because human noroviruses cannot be cultivated. Here we use X-ray crystallography and saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance (STD NMR) to analyze the interaction of citrate with genogroup II (GII) noroviruses. Crystals of citrate in complex with the protruding domain from norovirus GII.10 Vietnam026 diffracted to 1.4 Å and showed a single citrate bound at the site of HBGA interaction. The citrate interaction was coordinated with a set of capsid interactions almost identical to that involved in recognizing the terminal HBGA fucose, the saccharide which forms the primary conserved interaction between HBGAs and GII noroviruses. Citrate and a water molecule formed a ring-like structure that mimicked the pyranoside ring of fucose. STD NMR showed the protruding domain to have weak affinity for citrate (460 μM). This affinity, however, was similar to the affinities of the protruding domain for fucose (460 μM) and H type 2 trisaccharide (390 μM), an HBGA shown previously to be specifically recognized by human noroviruses. Importantly, competition STD NMR showed that citrate could compete with HBGA for norovirus binding. Together, the results suggest that citrate and other glycomimetics have the potential to block human noroviruses from binding to HBGAs.

  17. Structural Basis for Norovirus Inhibition and Fucose Mimicry by Citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Hansman, Grant S.; Shahzad-ul-Hussan, Syed; McLellan, Jason S.; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Georgiev, Ivelin; Shimoike, Takashi; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Bewley, Carole A.; Kwong, Peter D.

    2012-01-20

    Human noroviruses bind with their capsid-protruding domains to histo-blood-group antigens (HBGAs), an interaction thought to direct their entry into cells. Although human noroviruses are the major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks, development of antivirals has been lacking, mainly because human noroviruses cannot be cultivated. Here we use X-ray crystallography and saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance (STD NMR) to analyze the interaction of citrate with genogroup II (GII) noroviruses. Crystals of citrate in complex with the protruding domain from norovirus GII.10 Vietnam026 diffracted to 1.4 {angstrom} and showed a single citrate bound at the site of HBGA interaction. The citrate interaction was coordinated with a set of capsid interactions almost identical to that involved in recognizing the terminal HBGA fucose, the saccharide which forms the primary conserved interaction between HBGAs and GII noroviruses. Citrate and a water molecule formed a ring-like structure that mimicked the pyranoside ring of fucose. STD NMR showed the protruding domain to have weak affinity for citrate (460 {mu}M). This affinity, however, was similar to the affinities of the protruding domain for fucose (460 {mu}M) and H type 2 trisaccharide (390 {mu}M), an HBGA shown previously to be specifically recognized by human noroviruses. Importantly, competition STD NMR showed that citrate could compete with HBGA for norovirus binding. Together, the results suggest that citrate and other glycomimetics have the potential to block human noroviruses from binding to HBGAs.

  18. 21 CFR 520.622 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms. 520.622 Section 520.622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms....

  19. 21 CFR 520.622 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms. 520.622 Section 520.622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms....

  20. 21 CFR 520.622 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms. 520.622 Section 520.622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms....

  1. 21 CFR 520.622 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms. 520.622 Section 520.622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms....

  2. Injectable citrate-modified Portland cement for use in vertebroplasty.

    PubMed

    Wynn-Jones, Gareth; Shelton, Richard M; Hofmann, Michael P

    2014-11-01

    The injectability of Portland cement (PC) with several citrate additives was investigated for use in clinical applications such as vertebroplasty (stabilization of a fractured vertebra with bone cement) using a syringe. A 2-wt % addition of sodium or potassium citrate with PC significantly improved cement injectability, decreased cement setting times from over 2 h to below 25 min, while increasing the compressive strength to a maximum of 125 MPa. Zeta-potential measurements indicated that the citrate anion was binding to one or more of the positively charged species causing charged repulsion between cement particles which dispersed aggregates and caused the liquefying effect of the anion. Analysis of the hydrating phases of PC indicated that the early strength producing PC phase (ettringite) developed within the first 2 h of setting following addition of the citrate anion, while this did not occur in the control cement (PC only). Within 24 h ettringite developed in PC as well as calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H), the major setting phase of PC, whereas cements containing citrate did not develop this phase. The evidence suggested that in the presence of citrate the cements limited water supply appeared to be utilized for ettringite formation, producing the early strength of the citrate cements. The present study has demonstrated that it is possible to modify PC with citrate to both improve the injectability and crucially reduce the setting times of PC while improving the strength of the cement.

  3. Citrate synthesis in intact rat-liver mitochondria is irreversible.

    PubMed

    Greksák, M; Lopes-Cardozo, M; van den Bergh, S G

    1982-02-01

    Rat-liver mitochondria were incubated with [1,5-14C]citrate in the presence of fluorocitrate to block its oxidation in the Krebs cycle. The reaction products were analysed enzymatically and by anion-exchange chromatography. Incorporation of 14C into acetyl-L-carnitine or ketone bodies via a backward action of citrate synthase was not observed. The optimal rate of citrate synthesis from pyruvate and malate in the presence of fluorocitrate was 15 nmol . mg-1 min-1. In the absence of fluorocitrate, but in the presence of malonate, citrate was oxidized to succinate at a rate of 4 nmol . mg-1 . min-1. We conclude that the synthesis of citrate by intact rat liver mitochondria is an irreversible process. The possible mechanism underlying this phenomenon and the consequence for metabolic regulation are discussed.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of biomimetic citrate-based biodegradable composites.

    PubMed

    Tran, Richard T; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Chang; Huang, Minjun; Tang, Wanjin; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Zhongmin; Jin, Dadi; Banik, Brittany; Brown, Justin L; Xie, Zhiwei; Bai, Xiaochun; Yang, Jian

    2014-08-01

    Natural bone apatite crystals, which mediate the development and regulate the load-bearing function of bone, have recently been associated with strongly bound citrate molecules. However, such understanding has not been translated into bone biomaterial design and osteoblast cell culture. In this work, we have developed a new class of biodegradable, mechanically strong, and biocompatible citrate-based polymer blends (CBPBs), which offer enhanced hydroxyapatite binding to produce more biomimetic composites (CBPBHAs) for orthopedic applications. CBPBHAs consist of the newly developed osteoconductive citrate-presenting biodegradable polymers, crosslinked urethane-doped polyester and poly (octanediol citrate), which can be composited with up to 65 wt % hydroxyapatite. CBPBHA networks produced materials with a compressive strength of 116.23 ± 5.37 MPa comparable to human cortical bone (100-230 MPa), and increased C2C12 osterix gene and alkaline phosphatase gene expression in vitro. The promising results above prompted an investigation on the role of citrate supplementation in culture medium for osteoblast culture, which showed that exogenous citrate supplemented into media accelerated the in vitro phenotype progression of MG-63 osteoblasts. After 6 weeks of implantation in a rabbit lateral femoral condyle defect model, CBPBHA composites elicited minimal fibrous tissue encapsulation and were well integrated with the surrounding bone tissues. The development of citrate-presenting CBPBHA biomaterials and preliminary studies revealing the effects of free exogenous citrate on osteoblast culture shows the potential of citrate biomaterials to bridge the gap in orthopedic biomaterial design and osteoblast cell culture in that the role of citrate molecules has previously been overlooked.

  5. Organically modified porous hydroxyapatites: A comparison between alkylphosphonate grafting and citrate chelation

    SciTech Connect

    El-Hammari, L.; Marroun, H.; Laghzizil, A.; Saoiabi, A.; Roux, C.; Livage, J.; Coradin, T.

    2008-04-15

    Two alternative methods to prepare organically modified porous hydroxyapatites following a 'one pot' approach were compared. The partial substitution of inorganic phosphates by alkylphosphonates leads to mesoporous materials with high specific surface area (>200 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}). The incorporation of the organic moieties within the hydroxyapatite structure is confirmed by Infra-red and solid-state NMR spectroscopy and depends on the nature of the alkyl chain. However, it induces a significant loss of the material crystallinity. In contrast, the introduction of citrate, a calcium-chelating agent, to the precursor solution does not improve the material specific surface area but allows a better control of the hydroxyapatite structure, both in terms of crystallinity and pore size distribution. - Graphical abstract: Evolution of pore size distribution of hydroxyapatite (HAp) after alkylphosphonate grafting (20% TPOH) or citrate addition (c-HAp) demonstrates the formation of organically modified mesoporous materials.

  6. Bioavailability of iron from ferric choline citrate and a ferric copper cobalt choline citrate complex for young pigs.

    PubMed

    Miller, E R; Parsons, M J; Ullrey, D E; Ku, P K

    1981-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the bioavailability for young pigs of Fe from ferric choline citrate or from a commercial mixture of Fe, Cu and Co choline citrate salts. Relative biological value of Fe from either source with a standard of 100 for FeSO4 x 7H20 was about 140 by both hemoglobin regeneration and Fe retention methods.

  7. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: Ga-67 citrate imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Woolfenden, J.M.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; Larson, S.M.; Simmons, J.T.; Masur, H.; Smith, P.D.; Shelhamer, J.H.; Ognibene, F.P.

    1987-02-01

    All gallium-67 citrate scans obtained in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, Md.) were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with the results of bronchoscopy, chest radiography, and endoscopy. There were 164 scans of 95 patients. Twenty scans were from patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia; 19 were abnormal, for a sensitivity of 95%. Ga-67 uptake tended to be less in patients receiving therapy for P. carinii pneumonia. Chest radiographs were normal at least initially in three patients with abnormal scans and P. carinii pneumonia. Unusually prominent colonic activity was associated with infection in some patients. No lesions of Kaposi sarcoma showed tracer uptake. Gallium scanning is useful for detecting P. carinii pneumonia and other opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS, but it is not useful for localizing Kaposi sarcoma.

  8. Ileal Endogenous Amino Acid Flow Response to Nitrogen-free Diets with Differing Ratios of Corn Starch to Dextrose in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Kong, C.; Ragland, D.; Adeola, O.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the responses in the digestibility of dry matter (DM) and amino acid (AA) composition of ileal endogenous flow (IEF) of pigs (initial body weight, 69.1±6.46 kg) fed N-free diets (NFD) formulated with different ratios of corn starch to dextrose. Fifteen pigs fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum were fed 5 diets according to a triplicated 5×2 incomplete Latin-square design. Each period consisted of a 5-d adjustment period and 2 d of ileal digesta collection for 12 h on each of d 6 and 7 and between each period, there was a 5-d recovery period to avoid abnormal weight loss. The ratios of corn starch to dextrose investigated were 0:879, 293:586, 586:293, 779:100, and 879:0 for diet numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively, and chromic oxide (5 g/kg) was used as an indigestible index. Ileal DM digestibility was greater in Diet 1 than that in Diet 4 (89.5% vs 87.3%, p<0.01) but they were not different from Diet 2, 3, or 5. The IEF for most of indispensable AA were not different among diets with the exception of Met, in which a lack of corn starch or dextrose gave lower (p = 0.028) IEF of Met than diets containing corn starch and dextrose. Likewise, the dispensable AA and total AA in the IEF did not differ among diets. The respective IEF of AA (mg/kg of dry matter intake) in pigs fed Diets 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 were 301, 434, 377, 477,or 365 for Lys, 61, 89, 71, 87, or 61 for Met, and 477, 590, 472, 520, or 436 for Thr. Proline was the most abundant AA in the IEF followed by Gly, Glu, and Asp and together accounted for approximately 50% of the total ileal AA flows of pigs fed NFD. In conclusion, the variation in proportion of corn starch and dextrose in a NFD does not largely affect estimates of IEF of N and AA for growing-finishing pigs. PMID:25083106

  9. Effect of citrate on Aspergillus niger phytase adsorption and catalytic activity in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezeli, Malika; Menezes-Blackburn, Daniel; Zhang, Hao; Giles, Courtney; George, Timothy; Shand, Charlie; Lumsdon, David; Cooper, Patricia; Wendler, Renate; Brown, Lawrie; Stutter, Marc; Blackwell, Martin; Darch, Tegan; Wearing, Catherine; Haygarth, Philip

    2015-04-01

    Current developments in cropping systems that promote mobilisation of phytate in agricultural soils, by exploiting plant-root exudation of phytase and organic acids, offer potential for developments in sustainable phosphorus use. However, phytase adsorption to soil particles and phytate complexion has been shown to inhibit phytate dephosphorylation, thereby inhibiting plant P uptake, increasing the risk of this pool contributing to diffuse pollution and reducing the potential benefits of biotechnologies and management strategies aimed to utilise this abundant reserve of 'legacy' phosphorus. Citrate has been seen to increase phytase catalytic efficiency towards complexed forms of phytate, but the mechanisms by which citrate promotes phytase remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated phytase (from Aspergillus niger) inactivation, and change in catalytic properties upon addition to soil and the effect citrate had on adsorption of phytase and hydrolysis towards free, precipitated and adsorbed phytate. A Langmuir model was fitted to phytase adsorption isotherms showing a maximum adsorption of 0.23 nKat g-1 (19 mg protein g-1) and affinity constant of 435 nKat gˉ1 (8.5 mg protein g-1 ), demonstrating that phytase from A.niger showed a relatively low affinity for our test soil (Tayport). Phytases were partially inhibited upon adsorption and the specific activity was of 40.44 nKat mgˉ1 protein for the free enzyme and 25.35 nKat mgˉ1 protein when immobilised. The kinetics of adsorption detailed that most of the adsorption occurred within the first 20 min upon addition to soil. Citrate had no effect on the rate or total amount of phytase adsorption or loss of activity, within the studied citrate concentrations (0-4mM). Free phytases in soil solution and phytase immobilised on soil particles showed optimum activity (>80%) at pH 4.5-5.5. Immobilised phytase showed greater loss of activity at pH levels over 5.5 and lower activities at the secondary peak at pH 2

  10. Pseudohypernatremia secondary to trisodium citrate (Citra-LockTM)

    PubMed Central

    Milliere, Janice; Corriveau, Daryl; Parmar, Malvinder S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hypernatremia is common among hospitalized patients especially in the intensive care units and presents an independent risk factor for mortality. Mild hypernatremia is often asymptomatic but severe hypernatremia causes central nervous system dysfunction with initial non-specific symptoms of encephalopathy that may progress to seizures, coma and death, if left untreated. Severe hypernatremia is a medical emergency and requires emergent medical attention. Materials and methods A haemodialysis patient who arrived for his scheduled haemodialysis treatment had monthly blood work drawn and was reported to have severe hypernatremia with serum sodium concentration of 183 mmol/L. The possibility of technique or laboratory error was considered and systematically evaluated. Results The serum sodium measurement using another analyser showed similar value of 182 mmolL. A repeat serum sodium level on a sample drawn 2 h later showed normal value of 139–140 mmol/L. A step-wise evaluation of the complete procedure from blood collection to analysis of the sample revealed this to be spuriously elevated serum sodium concentration secondary to contamination of the sample during sample collection with trisodium citrate, a catheter-lock solution, commonly used in dialysis units to maintain patency of dialysis catheters. Conclusions Spuriously elevated plasma sodium concentration (pseudohypernatremia) of mild degree is common but severe pseudohypernatremia is rare and the possibility of sample contaminations or laboratory error should be considered. Vigilance is required by both the medical and the laboratory staff to resolve such issues in a timely fashion to avoid unintended consequences. PMID:27346973

  11. Storage Wars: how citrate-capped silver nanoparticle suspensions are affected by not-so-trivial decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorham, Justin M.; Rohlfing, Anne B.; Lippa, Katrice A.; MacCuspie, Robert I.; Hemmati, Amy; David Holbrook, R.

    2014-04-01

    A critical but often overlooked component of silver nanoparticle (AgNP) suspensions involves their behavior following short- and long-term storage. The current study investigates the integrity of citrate-capped AgNP suspensions, nominally 20 nm in average diameter, in a series of distinct storage conditions, based on possible combinations of reasonable decisions researchers make, both nanoparticle-based (AgNP and relative citrate concentration) and environmental-based (solution oxygenation and ambient light or dark). AgNP integrity was determined by monitoring single particle stability, aggregation/agglomeration, and oxidation for 104 days. We demonstrate that AgNP suspensions lose their physical and chemical integrity by two distinct processes: (1) oxidation only (light-independent) and (2) oxidation followed by photo-reduction (light-dependent), following initial dilution from a concentrated (and newly synthesized) AgNP stock solution. Optical spectroscopy indicates that the effects of oxidation are readily observed while the effects of photo-reduction are less obvious, leading to a greater increase in average particle diameter, the formation of new, metallic nanoparticles, and the oxidation of the parent citrate capping agent. In general, the overall integrity of citrate-capped AgNP suspensions are best maintained when these solutions are purged with nitrogen gas and stored in the dark at the highest AgNP and citrate concentrations. This study outlines a strategy for both assessing and monitoring the integrity of AgNP suspensions in an effort to harmonize long-term experiments and promote inter-laboratory consistency.

  12. The impact of particle size on the adsorption of citrate to hematite.

    PubMed

    Noerpel, Matthew R; Lenhart, John J

    2015-12-15

    We investigated the adsorption of citric acid on the surface of two different sized hematite nanoparticles using batch adsorption experiments, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, surface complexation modeling and computational molecular modeling. Citrate adsorption reached a maximum between pH approximately 2.5 and 5.5 and declined as the pH was increased or decreased from that range. At high surface loading conditions, the dominant adsorbed citrate structure was outer-sphere in nature with a protonation state that varied with pH. At low pH, there was also evidence of an inner-sphere complex consistent with a binuclear, bidentate structure where the hydroxyl group was deprotonated and played an active role in the adsorption. An inner-sphere complex was also detected at low citrate surface loading conditions. Surface-area normalized surface coverages were similar for both sizes of hematite, however, the inner sphere complex appeared to be slightly more prevalent on the smaller hematite. Based on these structures, a triple layer surface complexation model comprised of two outer-sphere complexes and one inner-sphere complex was used to describe the adsorption data for both hematite sizes across a range of solution conditions with a single set of surface area dependent equilibrium constants.

  13. Estimating conformation content of a protein using citrate-stabilized Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Deka, Jashmini; Paul, Anumita; Chattopadhyay, Arun

    2010-08-01

    Herein we report the use of the optical properties of citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) for estimation of native or denatured conformation content in a mixture of a protein in solution. The UV-vis extinction spectrum of citrate-stabilized Au NPs is known to broaden differently in the presence of native and denatured states of alpha-amylase, bovine serum albumin (BSA) or amyloglucosidase (AMG). On the other hand, herein we show that when a mixture of native and denatured protein was present in the medium, the broadening of the spectrum differed for different fractional content of the conformations. Also, the total area under the extinction spectrum varied linearly with the change in the mole fraction content of a state and for a constant total protein concentration. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements revealed different levels of agglomeration for different fractional contents of the native or denatured state of a protein. In addition, time-dependent denaturation of a protein could be followed using the present method. The rate constants calculated for denaturation indicated a possible fast change in conformation of a protein before complete thermal denaturation. The observations have been explained based on the changes in extinction coefficient (thereby oscillator strength) upon interaction of citrate-stabilized NPs with proteins being in different states and levels of agglomeration.

  14. Acute effects of calcium carbonate, calcium citrate and potassium citrate on markers of calcium and bone metabolism in young women.

    PubMed

    Karp, Heini J; Ketola, Maarit E; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel J E

    2009-11-01

    Both K and Ca supplementation may have beneficial effects on bone through separate mechanisms. K in the form of citrate or bicarbonate affects bone by neutralising the acid load caused by a high protein intake or a low intake of alkalising foods, i.e. fruits and vegetables. Ca is known to decrease serum parathyroid hormone (S-PTH) concentration and bone resorption. We compared the effects of calcium carbonate, calcium citrate and potassium citrate on markers of Ca and bone metabolism in young women. Twelve healthy women aged 22-30 years were randomised into four controlled 24 h study sessions, each subject serving as her own control. At the beginning of each session, subjects received a single dose of calcium carbonate, calcium citrate, potassium citrate or a placebo in randomised order. The diet during each session was identical, containing 300 mg Ca. Both the calcium carbonate and calcium citrate supplement contained 1000 mg Ca; the potassium citrate supplement contained 2250 mg K. Markers of Ca and bone metabolism were followed. Potassium citrate decreased the bone resorption marker (N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen) and increased Ca retention relative to the control session. Both Ca supplements decreased S-PTH concentration. Ca supplements also decreased bone resorption relative to the control session, but this was significant only for calcium carbonate. No differences in bone formation marker (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase) were seen among the study sessions. The results suggest that potassium citrate has a positive effect on the resorption marker despite low Ca intake. Both Ca supplements were absorbed well and decreased S-PTH efficiently.

  15. Chitosan citrate as film former: compatibility with water-soluble anionic dyes and drug dissolution from coated tablet.

    PubMed

    Phaechamud, T; Koizumi, T; Ritthidej, G C

    2000-03-30

    Chitosan citrate solution containing 25% w/w propylene glycol was prepared and tested for its compatibility with some water soluble anionic dyes. The immiscibility between erythrosine, ponceau 4R, sunset yellow or tartrazine solutions and chitosan citrate solution was evident. The Fourier transform-infrared spectra revealed charged interaction between anionic dye and chitosan. Brilliant blue and green FS at concentration of 0.02-1.00% w/w polymer could be miscible with chitosan citrate solution due to the decrease in charge interaction by the positive charge on molecule of brilliant blue, which was also the composition in green FS. Propranolol HCl tablets coated with these colored film-coating solutions exhibited good appearance and no color migration. Drug dissolution from coated tablets was pH dependent, corresponding to the ability of chitosan to protonate in the medium. Color incorporation slightly retarded drug dissolution in acidic medium. Drug dissolved from coated tablet colored with brilliant blue was faster than from that colored with green FS. This was because brilliant blue had positive charge and more SO(3)H groups on its molecular structure, and exhibited higher water solubility. Accelerated condition could alter dissolution characteristics, and the Td+t(0) value from curve fitting between the dissolution profiles and Weibull equation was increased. However, drug dissolution from freshly prepared coated tablets, coated tablets after exposure to accelerated condition and after storage at room temperature for 12 months conformed to the monograph in USP XXIII.

  16. Properties of peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthase from Agave americana.

    PubMed

    Segovia, J L; Zafra, M F; Alejandre, M J; García-Peregrín, E

    1982-09-01

    Adenine nucleotides were tested as effectors of peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthase from Agave americana leaves in the presence of different concentrations of acetyl-CoA and oxalacetate substrates. ATP inhibited both enzyme activities but with a different inhibition profile. 1.0-7.5 mM ADP did not inhibit the peroxisomal citrate synthase in the presence of high substrate concentrations, while the mitochondrial enzyme was strongly inhibited by 1.0 mM ADP in the same conditions. Likewise, a different pattern was obtained with AMP on both peroxisomal and mitochondrial activities. The rate of citrate formation as function of acetyl-CoA and oxalacetate concentration was also studied in both fractions. Maximal velocity was highest in the peroxisomal fraction, whether acetyl-CoA or oxalacetate were the variable substrates. These differences indicate that peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthases seem to be two different isoenzymes.

  17. Injectable citrate-modified Portland cement for use in vertebroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Wynn-Jones, Gareth; Shelton, Richard M; Hofmann, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    The injectability of Portland cement (PC) with several citrate additives was investigated for use in clinical applications such as vertebroplasty (stabilization of a fractured vertebra with bone cement) using a syringe. A 2-wt % addition of sodium or potassium citrate with PC significantly improved cement injectability, decreased cement setting times from over 2 h to below 25 min, while increasing the compressive strength to a maximum of 125 MPa. Zeta-potential measurements indicated that the citrate anion was binding to one or more of the positively charged species causing charged repulsion between cement particles which dispersed aggregates and caused the liquefying effect of the anion. Analysis of the hydrating phases of PC indicated that the early strength producing PC phase (ettringite) developed within the first 2 h of setting following addition of the citrate anion, while this did not occur in the control cement (PC only). Within 24 h ettringite developed in PC as well as calcium–silicate–hydrate (C–S–H), the major setting phase of PC, whereas cements containing citrate did not develop this phase. The evidence suggested that in the presence of citrate the cements limited water supply appeared to be utilized for ettringite formation, producing the early strength of the citrate cements. The present study has demonstrated that it is possible to modify PC with citrate to both improve the injectability and crucially reduce the setting times of PC while improving the strength of the cement. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 102B: 1799–1808, 2014. PMID:24711245

  18. Citrate-Based Biomaterials and Their Applications in Regenerative Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Richard T.; Yang, Jian; Ameer, Guillermo A.

    2015-07-01

    Advances in biomaterials science and engineering are crucial to translating regenerative engineering, an emerging field that aims to recreate complex tissues, into clinical practice. In this regard, citrate-based biomaterials have become an important tool owing to their versatile material and biological characteristics including unique antioxidant, antimicrobial, adhesive, and fluorescent properties. This review discusses fundamental design considerations, strategies to incorporate unique functionality, and examples of how citrate-based biomaterials can be an enabling technology for regenerative engineering.

  19. Citrate-Based Biomaterials and Their Applications in Regenerative Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Richard T.; Yang, Jian; Ameer, Guillermo A.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in biomaterials science and engineering are crucial to translating regenerative engineering, an emerging field that aims to recreate complex tissues, into clinical practice. In this regard, citrate-based biomaterials have become an important tool owing to their versatile material and biological characteristics including unique antioxidant, antimicrobial, adhesive, and fluorescent properties. This review discusses fundamental design considerations, strategies to incorporate unique functionality, and examples of how citrate-based biomaterials can be an enabling technology for regenerative engineering. PMID:27004046

  20. Citrate uptake into Pectobacterium atrosepticum is critical for bacterial virulence.

    PubMed

    Urbany, Claude; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard

    2008-05-01

    To analyze whether metabolite import into Pectobacterium atrosepticum cells affects bacterial virulence, we investigated the function of a carrier which exhibits significant structural homology to characterized carboxylic-acid transport proteins. The corresponding gene, ECA3984, previously annotated as coding for a Na(+)/sulphate carrier, in fact encodes a highly specific citrate transporter (Cit1) which is energized by the proton-motive force. Expression of the cit1 gene is stimulated by the presence of citrate in the growth medium and is substantial during growth of P. atrosepticum on potato tuber tissue. Infection of tuber tissue with P. atrosepticum leads to reduced citrate levels. P. atrosepticum insertion mutants, lacking the functional Cit1 protein, did not grow in medium containing citrate as the sole carbon source, showed a substantially reduced ability to macerate potato tuber tissue, and did not provoke reduced citrate levels in the plant tissue upon infection. We propose that citrate uptake into P. atrosepticum is critical for full bacterial virulence.

  1. Effects of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide on the corrosion behavior of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy with a smooth surface or treated with double-acid-etching.

    PubMed

    Faverani, Leonardo P; Assunção, Wirley G; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio P; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T; Barao, Valentim A

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes and infections are associated with a high risk of implant failure. However, the effects of such conditions on the electrochemical stability of titanium materials remain unclear. This study evaluated the corrosion behavior of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy, with a smooth surface or conditioned by double-acid-etching, in simulated body fluid with different concentrations of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide. For the electrochemical assay, the open-circuit-potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and potentiodynamic test were used. The disc surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Their surface roughness and Vickers microhardness were also tested. The quantitative data were analyzed by Pearson's correlation and independent t-tests (α = 0.05). In the corrosion parameters, there was a strong lipopolysaccharide correlation with the Ipass (passivation current density), Cdl (double-layer capacitance), and Rp (polarization resistance) values (p<0.05) for the Ti-6Al-4V alloy with surface treatment by double-acid-etching. The combination of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide was correlated with the Icorr (corrosion current density) and Ipass (p<0.05). The acid-treated groups showed a significant increase in Cdl values and reduced Rp values (p<0.05, t-test). According to the topography, there was an increase in surface roughness (R2 = 0.726, p<0.0001 for the smooth surface; R2 = 0.405, p = 0.036 for the double-acid-etching-treated surface). The microhardness of the smooth Ti-6Al-4V alloy decreased (p<0.05) and that of the treated Ti-6Al-4V alloy increased (p<0.0001). Atomic force microscopy showed changes in the microstructure of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy by increasing the surface thickness mainly in the group associated with dextrose and lipopolysaccharide. The combination of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide affected the corrosion behavior of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface treated with double-acid-etching. However, no

  2. Scaling of Structural and Rheological Responde of L3 Sponge Phases in the "Sweetened" Cetylpyridinium/Hexanol/Dextrose/Brine System

    SciTech Connect

    Porcar, L.; Hamilton, William A; Butler, Paul D; Warr, G. G.

    2003-01-01

    We report a study of the shear response of sponge phases in cetylpyridinium chloride (CPCl)/hexanol/brine/dextrose systems by parallel measurements of rheology and structure by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Our measurements show that this dextrose added to the extensively studied CPCl/hexanol/brine system is taken up exclusively by the brine solvent, resulting in an equivalent CPCl/hexanol membrane structure and phase behavior for this modified system. Adding dextrose to the brine in these systems to volume fractions up to 0.4 allows us to increase the solvent viscosity by more than an order of magnitude. This lowers the cooperative membrane diffusion coefficient in this system as measured by dynamic light scattering by the same factor, resulting in a corresponding slowing of the Helfrich fluctuation dominated membrane dynamics. Our results show clear and consistent evidence of shear-induced sponge to lamellar phase transformations in these systems. Further, both the rheological and microstructural responses of these systems follow universal master curves when plotted against a rescaled applied shear {sub {gamma}}{eta}{sub s}/{phi}{sup 3}, where {phi} is the membrane volume fraction and {eta}{sub s} is the viscosity of the brine/dextrose solvent. This well-defined shear response is characterized by three distinct regimes. At low shear rates the sponge phases exhibit Newtonian flow behavior and no structural change is observed. For intermediate shear rates, the systems shear thin and SANS measurements show that the sponge phases are progressively transformed into lamellar phases with the CPCl/hexanol membrane normals aligned parallel to the velocity gradient. This continuous process and the absence of a stress plateau in the rheological measurements both rule out the existence of a biphasic state in this region and thus of a first-order transition between sponge and lamellar phases as is observed in equilibrium phase diagrams. At higher shear rates, the

  3. Regulation of anaerobic citrate metabolism in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Bott, M; Meyer, M; Dimroth, P

    1995-11-01

    Three enzymes are specifically required for uptake and catabolism of citrate by Klebsiella pneumoniae under anaerobic conditions: a Na+ -dependent citrate carrier (CitS), citrate lyase (CitDEF), and the Na+ pump oxaloacetate decarboxylase (OadGAB). The corresponding genes are clustered on the chromosome, with the citCDEFG genes located upstream and divergent to the citS-oadGAB genes. We found that expression of citS from its native promoter in Escherichia coli requires the DNA region downstream of oadB. Nucleotide sequence analysis of this region revealed the presence of two adjacent genes, citA and citB. By sequence similarity, the predicted CitA and CitB proteins were identified as members of the two-component regulatory systems. The sensor kinase CitA contained, in the N-terminal half, two putative transmembrane helices which enclosed a presumably periplasmic domain of about 130 amino acids. The C-terminal half of the response regulator CitB harboured a helix-turn-helix motif typical of DNA-binding proteins. K. pneumoniae citB null mutants were unable to grow anaerobically with citrate as the sole carbon and energy source (Cit- phenotype). When cultivated anaerobically with citrate plus glycerol, all of the citrate-specific fermentation enzymes were synthesized in the wild type, but not in the citB mutants. This showed that citS, oadGAB and citDEF required the CitB protein for expression and therefore are part of a regulon. In the wild type, synthesis of CitS, oxaloacetate decarboxylase and citrate lyase was dependent on the presence of citrate, sodium ions and a low oxygen tension. In a citA null mutant which expressed citB constitutively at high levels, none of these signals was required for the formation of the citrate fermentation enzymes. This result suggested that citrate, Na+, and oxygen exerted their regulatory effects via the CitA/CitB system. In the presence of these signals, the citAB gene products induced their own synthesis. The positive

  4. Kinetic extractions to assess mobilization of Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd in a metal-contaminated soil: EDTA vs. citrate.

    PubMed

    Labanowski, Jérôme; Monna, Fabrice; Bermond, Alain; Cambier, Philippe; Fernandez, Christelle; Lamy, Isabelle; van Oort, Folkert

    2008-04-01

    Kinetic EDTA and citrate extractions were used to mimic metal mobilization in a soil contaminated by metallurgical fallout. Modeling of metal removal rates vs. time distinguished two metal pools: readily labile (QM1) and less labile (QM2). In citrate extractions, total extractability (QM1+QM2) of Zn and Cd was proportionally higher than for Pb and Cu. Proportions of Pb and Cu extracted with EDTA were three times higher than when using citrate. We observed similar QM1/QM2 ratios for Zn and Cu regardless of the extractant, suggesting comparable binding energies to soil constituents. However, for Pb and Cd, more heterogeneous binding energies were hypothesized to explain different kinetic extraction behaviors. Proportions of citrate-labile metals were found consistent with their short-term, in-situ mobility assessed in the studied soil, i.e., metal amount released in the soil solution or extracted by cultivated plants. Kinetic EDTA extractions were hypothesized to be more predictive for long-term metal migration with depth.

  5. Facile fabrication of various zinc-nickel citrate microspheres and their transformation to ZnO-NiO hybrid microspheres with excellent lithium storage properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Qingshui; Ma, Yating; Zeng, Deqian; Wang, Laisen; Yue, Guanghui; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2015-02-01

    Zinc-nickel citrate microspheres are prepared by a simple aging process of zinc citrate solid microspheres in nickel nitrate solution. As the concentration of nickel nitrate solution increases, the morphology of the produced zinc-nickel citrate evolves from solid, yolk-shell to hollow microspheres. The formation mechanism of different zinc-nickel citrate microspheres is discussed. After annealing treatment of the corresponding zinc-nickel citrate microspheres in air, three different ZnO-NiO hybrid architectures including solid, yolk-shell and hollow microspheres can be successfully fabricated. When applied as the anode materials for lithium ion batteries, ZnO-NiO hybrid yolk-shell microspheres demonstrate the best electrochemical properties than solid and hollow counterparts. After 200th cycles, ZnO-NiO hybrid yolk-shell microspheres deliver a high reversible capacity of 1176 mA h g-1. The unique yolk-shell configuration, the synergetic effect between ZnO and NiO and the catalytic effect of metal Ni generated by the reduction of NiO during discharging process are responsible for the excellent lithium storage properties of ZnO-NiO hybrid yolk-shell microspheres.

  6. Alkali absorption and citrate excretion in calcium nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakhaee, K.; Williams, R. H.; Oh, M. S.; Padalino, P.; Adams-Huet, B.; Whitson, P.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The role of net gastrointestinal (GI) alkali absorption in the development of hypocitraturia was investigated. The net GI absorption of alkali was estimated from the difference between simple urinary cations (Ca, Mg, Na, and K) and anions (Cl and P). In 131 normal subjects, the 24 h urinary citrate was positively correlated with the net GI absorption of alkali (r = 0.49, p < 0.001). In 11 patients with distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA), urinary citrate excretion was subnormal relative to net GI alkali absorption, with data from most patients residing outside the 95% confidence ellipse described for normal subjects. However, the normal relationship between urinary citrate and net absorbed alkali was maintained in 11 patients with chronic diarrheal syndrome (CDS) and in 124 stone-forming patients devoid of RTA or CDS, half of whom had "idiopathic" hypocitraturia. The 18 stone-forming patients without RTA or CDS received potassium citrate (30-60 mEq/day). Both urinary citrate and net GI alkali absorption increased, yielding a significantly positive correlation (r = 0.62, p < 0.0001), with the slope indistinguishable from that of normal subjects. Thus, urinary citrate was normally dependent on the net GI absorption of alkali. This dependence was less marked in RTA, confirming the renal origin of hypocitraturia. However, the normal dependence was maintained in CDS and in idiopathic hypocitraturia, suggesting that reduced citrate excretion was largely dietary in origin as a result of low net alkali absorption (from a probable relative deficiency of vegetables and fruits or a relative excess of animal proteins).

  7. Treatment Efficacy and Safety During Plasma Exchange With Citrate Anticoagulation: A Randomized Study of 4 Versus 15% Citrate.

    PubMed

    Antonic, Manja; Gubensek, Jakob; Buturovic-Ponikvar, Jadranka; Ponikvar, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    In plasma exchange (PE), contrary to dialysis, there is no ultrafiltration, and the volume of anticoagulant contributes to volume overload of the patient and might also reduce PE efficiency through dilution. To reduce the volume of citrate, we compared 4 and 15% citrate anticoagulation protocols in PE in a randomized study, aiming to evaluate PE efficacy, anticoagulation efficiency, and overall safety. In addition to standard biochemical analyses during PE treatments, the elimination rate (ER) of immunoglobulins was calculated to evaluate PE efficacy. Anticoagulation was evaluated by postfilter ionized calcium, visual evaluation of the extracorporeal system, and change in the sieving coefficient (SC) during PE. Accumulation of citrate was determined by calculating the total-to-ionized calcium ratio and measuring the citrate concentration after PE. One hundred forty procedures (70 in each group) were performed in 37 patients. The mean citrate infusion rate was 197 ± 10 mL/h in the 4% and 59 ± 5.5 mL/h in the 15% groups, respectively; the total volume of infused citrate was 502 ± 77 mL versus 164 ± 52 mL (P < 0.001). ER for immunoglobulin G (0.57 ± 0.06 vs. 0.55 ± 0.1, P = 0.18), M, and A were comparable. Ionized calcium was stable during the procedures, and there were no significant side effects. Although postfilter ionized calcium was on the upper limit of the target range (0.41 ± 0.16 vs. 0.37 ± 0.14 mmol/L, P = 0.38), the visual assessment score was excellent, and even a rise in SC was observed during the procedures in both groups. The total-to-ionized calcium ratio was increased in 20 versus 22% of procedures, and citrate concentrations after PE were also similar (1306 ± 441 vs. 1263 ± 405 μmol/L). To conclude, we were unable to show superior PE efficacy in the 15% citrate group, but we significantly reduced the infused volume, which is important in patients with fluid overload. Both

  8. pH-responsive delivery of doxorubicin from citrate-apatite nanocrystals with tailored carbonate content.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ruiz, Isaac; Delgado-López, José Manuel; Durán-Olivencia, Miguel A; Iafisco, Michele; Tampieri, Anna; Colangelo, Donato; Prat, Maria; Gómez-Morales, Jaime

    2013-07-02

    In this work, the efficiency of bioinspired citrate-functionalized nanocrystalline apatites as nanocarriers for delivery of doxorubicin (DOXO) has been assessed. The nanoparticles were synthesized by thermal decomplexing of metastable calcium/citrate/phosphate solutions both in the absence (Ap) and in the presence (cAp) of carbonate ions. The presence of citrate and carbonate ions in the solution allowed us to tailor the size, shape, carbonate content, and surface chemistry of the nanoparticles. The drug-loading efficiency of the two types of apatite was evaluated by means of the adsorption isotherms, which were found to fit a Langmuir-Freundlich behavior. A model describing the interaction between apatite surface and DOXO is proposed from adsorption isotherms and ζ-potential measurements. DOXO is adsorbed as a dimer by means of a positively charged amino group that electrostatically interacts with negatively charged surface groups of nanoparticles. The drug-release profiles were explored at pHs 7.4 and 5.0, mimicking the physiological pH in the blood circulation and the more acidic pH in the endosome-lysosome intracellular compartment, respectively. After 7 days at pH 7.4, cAp-DOXO released around 42% less drug than Ap-DOXO. However, at acidic pH, both nanoassemblies released similar amounts of DOXO. In vitro assays analyzed by confocal microscopy showed that both drug-loaded apatites were internalized within GTL-16 human carcinoma cells and could release DOXO, which accumulated in the nucleus in short times and exerted cytotoxic activity with the same efficiency. cAp are thus expected to be a more promising nanocarrier for experiments in vivo, in situations where intravenous injection of nanoparticles are required to reach the targeted tumor, after circulating in the bloodstream.

  9. Enhancing the versatility of alternate current biosusceptometry (ACB) through the synthesis of a dextrose-modified tracer and a magnetic muco-adhesive cellulose gel.

    PubMed

    Martins, Murillo L; Calabresi, Marcos F; Quini, Caio; Matos, Juliana F; Miranda, José R A; Saeki, Margarida J; Bordallo, Heloisa N

    2015-03-01

    Alternate Current Biosusceptometry (ACB) is a promising bio-magnetic method, radiation free and easily performed used for gastric emptying exams. Due to development on its sensitivity level, interesting nature, noninvasiveness and low cost it has attracted a lot of attention. In this work, magnetic nanoparticles of Mn-Zn ferrite as well as dextrose-modified nanoparticles were synthesized to be used as possible tracers in ACB gastric emptying exams. In addition, a magnetic muco-adhesive gel was obtained by modifying the ferrite nanoparticles with cellulose. Based on in-vivo tests in rats, we show that the pure ferrite nanoparticles, whose isoelectric point was found to be at pH=3.2, present a great sensitivity to pH variations along the gastrointestinal tract, while the reduction of the isoelectric point by the dextrose modification leads to suitable nanoparticles for rapid gastric emptying examinations. On the other hand, the in-vivo tests show that the muco-adhesive cellulose gel presents substantial stomach adhesion and is a potential drug delivery system easily traceable by the ACB system.

  10. Transport of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles in unsaturated sand.

    PubMed

    Kumahor, Samuel K; Hron, Pavel; Metreveli, George; Schaumann, Gabriele E; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2015-12-01

    Chemical factors and physical constraints lead to coupled effects during particle transport in unsaturated porous media. Studies on unsaturated transport as typical for soils are currently scarce. In unsaturated porous media, particle mobility is determined by the existence of an air-water interface in addition to a solid-water interface. To this end, we measured breakthrough curves and retention profiles of citrate-coated Ag nanoparticles in unsaturated sand at two pH values (5 and 9) and three different flow rates corresponding to different water contents with 1 mM KNO3 as background electrolyte. The classical DLVO theory suggests unfavorable deposition conditions at the air-water and solid-water interfaces. The breakthrough curves indicate modification in curve shapes and retardation of nanoparticles compared to inert solute. Retention profiles show sensitivity to flow rate and pH and this ranged from almost no retention for the highest flow rate at pH=9 to almost complete retention for the lowest flow rate at pH=5. Modeling of the breakthrough curves, thus, required coupling two parallel processes: a kinetically controlled attachment process far from equilibrium, responsible for the shape modification, and an equilibrium sorption, responsible for particle retardation. The non-equilibrium process and equilibrium sorption are suggested to relate to the solid-water and air-water interfaces, respectively. This is supported by the DLVO model extended for hydrophobic interactions which suggests reversible attachment, characterized by a secondary minimum (depth 3-5 kT) and a repulsive barrier at the air-water interface. In contrast, the solid-water interface is characterized by a significant repulsive barrier and the absence of a secondary minimum suggesting kinetically controlled and non-equilibrium interaction. This study provides new insights into particle transport in unsaturated porous media and offers a model concept representing the relevant processes.

  11. Identification of two distinct Bacillus subtilis citrate synthase genes.

    PubMed

    Jin, S; Sonenshein, A L

    1994-08-01

    Two distinct Bacillus subtilis genes (citA and citZ) were found to encode citrate synthase isozymes that catalyze the first step of the Krebs cycle. The citA gene was cloned by genetic complementation of an Escherichia coli citrate synthase mutant strain (W620) and was in a monocistronic transcriptional unit. A divergently transcribed gene, citR, could encode a protein with strong similarity to the bacterial LysR family of regulatory proteins. A null mutation in citA had little effect on citrate synthase enzyme activity or sporulation. The residual citrate synthase activity was purified from a citA null mutant strain, and the partial amino acid sequence for the purified protein (CitZ) was determined. The citZ gene was cloned from B. subtilis chromosomal DNA by using a PCR-generated probe synthesized with oligonucleotide primers derived from the partial amino acid sequence of purified CitZ. The citZ gene proved to be the first gene in a tricistronic cluster that also included citC (coding for isocitrate dehydrogenase) and citH (coding for malate dehydrogenase). A mutation in citZ caused a substantial loss of citrate synthase enzyme activity, glutamate auxotrophy, and a defect in sporulation.

  12. Magnetic nanoparticles coated with cyclodextrins and citrate for irinotecan delivery.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Ana P F; Caminhas, Larissa D; Ardisson, José D; Paniago, Roberto; Cortés, Maria E; Sinisterra, Rubén D

    2017-05-01

    In the present work, we study the role of different components in the formation of more stable iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs): β-cyclodextrin (BCD), 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP) and citrate anion. MNPs formulations were characterized by FTIR, particles size measurements, zeta potential based on dynamic light scattering principle technique, X-ray powder pattern diffraction, XPS spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed that cyclodextrins and citrate plays a key role in order to obtain a lower size of coated MNPs and proved to be an efficient strategy to obtain a more stable colloidal dispersion, avoiding the nanoparticles oxidation, enhancing the irinotecan incorporation and release. Furthermore, citrate-coated BCD-MNPs showed the same cytotoxicity of the free IRI.

  13. Utility of Aspergillus niger citrate synthase promoter for heterologous expression.

    PubMed

    Dave, Kashyap; Punekar, Narayan S

    2011-09-10

    Citrate synthase is a central player in the acidogenic metabolism of Aspergillus niger. The 5' upstream sequence (0.9kb DNA) of citrate synthase gene (citA) from A. niger NCIM 565 was analyzed and its promoter function demonstrated through the heterologous expression of two proteins. The cloned citrate synthase promoter (PcitA) sequence was able to express bar coding sequence thereby conferring phosphinothricin resistance. This sequence was further analyzed by systematic deletions to define an effective but compact functional promoter. The PcitA driven egfp expression showed that PcitA was active in all differentiation cell-stages of A. niger. EGFP expression was highest on non-repressible carbon sources like acetate and glycerol. Mycelial EGFP levels increased during acidogenic growth suggesting that PcitA is functional throughout this cultivation. A. niger PcitA is the first Krebs cycle gene promoter used to express heterologous proteins in filamentous fungi.

  14. Strongly bound citrate stabilizes the apatite nanocrystals in bone

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Y.-Y.; Rawal, A.; Schmidt-Rohr, K.

    2010-10-12

    Nanocrystals of apatitic calcium phosphate impart the organic-inorganic nanocomposite in bone with favorable mechanical properties. So far, the factors preventing crystal growth beyond the favorable thickness of ca. 3 nm have not been identified. Here we show that the apatite surfaces are studded with strongly bound citrate molecules, whose signals have been identified unambiguously by multinuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. NMR reveals that bound citrate accounts for 5.5 wt% of the organic matter in bone and covers apatite at a density of about 1 molecule per (2 nm){sup 2}, with its three carboxylate groups at distances of 0.3 to 0.45 nm from the apatite surface. Bound citrate is highly conserved, being found in fish, avian, and mammalian bone, which indicates its critical role in interfering with crystal thickening and stabilizing the apatite nanocrystals in bone

  15. Role of ligands in accumulation and fractionation of rare Earth elements in plants: examples of phosphate and citrate.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shiming; Liang, Tao; Zhang, Chaosheng; Yan, Juncai; Zhang, Zili; Sun, Qin

    2005-10-01

    Few studies have been carried out on the effects of ligands on rare earth element (REE) bioaccumulation processes. In this study, the effects of phosphate (Pi, an inorganic ligand) and citrate (an organic ligand) on accumulation and fractionation of REEs in wheat were investigated using aqueous culture with extraneous mixed REEs (MRE). The results show that initial Pi solution culture at various levels followed by exposure to a fixed-MRE solution did not significantly change the total concentrations of REEs (SigmaREE) in roots, whereas the SigmaREE in leaves dramatically decreased with increasing levels of Pi applied. Simultaneous culture of wheat with mixture of MRE and citrate solutions caused obvious decreases of the SigmaREE in both roots and leaves. Compared with MRE, significant fractionations of REEs were found in wheat organs when no ligand was applied. Notable middle REE (MREE) enrichment and M-type tetrad effect were observed in the roots, and heavy REE (HREE) enrichment and W-type tetrad effect existed in the leaves. Pi treatments did not significantly affect the fractionations of REEs in the roots, but enrichment of HREEs in the leaves slightly increased at the highest level of Pi applied. Fractionations of REEs in both roots and leaves decreased with increasing levels of citrate applied; at higher levels of citrate (> or =150 microM), no above fractionation features were observed in wheat, but light REE (LREE) enrichment existed in the roots and leaves. The results indicate that ligands might play important roles in accumulation and fractionation of REEs during bioaccumulation processes.

  16. Peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthase in CAM plants.

    PubMed

    Zafra, M F; Segovia, J L; Alejandre, M J; García-Peregrín, E

    1981-12-01

    Citrate synthase wa studied for the first time in peroxisomes and mitochondria of crassulacean acid metabolism plants. Cellular organelles were isolated from Agave americana leaves by sucrose density gradient centrifugation and characterized by the use of catalase and cytochrome oxidase as marker enzymes, respectively. 48,000 X g centrifugation caused the breakdown of the cellular organelles. The presence of a glyoxylate cycle enzyme (citrate synthase) and a glycollate pathway enzyme (catalase) in the same organelles, besides the absence of another glyoxalate cycle enzyme (malate synthase) is reported for the first time, suggesting that peroxisomal and glyoxysomal proteins are synthesized at the same time and housed in he same organelle.

  17. Estimating conformation content of a protein using citrate-stabilized Au nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deka, Jashmini; Paul, Anumita; Chattopadhyay, Arun

    2010-08-01

    Herein we report the use of the optical properties of citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) for estimation of native or denatured conformation content in a mixture of a protein in solution. The UV-vis extinction spectrum of citrate-stabilized Au NPs is known to broaden differently in the presence of native and denatured states of α-amylase, bovine serum albumin (BSA) or amyloglucosidase (AMG). On the other hand, herein we show that when a mixture of native and denatured protein was present in the medium, the broadening of the spectrum differed for different fractional content of the conformations. Also, the total area under the extinction spectrum varied linearly with the change in the mole fraction content of a state and for a constant total protein concentration. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements revealed different levels of agglomeration for different fractional contents of the native or denatured state of a protein. In addition, time-dependent denaturation of a protein could be followed using the present method. The rate constants calculated for denaturation indicated a possible fast change in conformation of a protein before complete thermal denaturation. The observations have been explained based on the changes in extinction coefficient (thereby oscillator strength) upon interaction of citrate-stabilized NPs with proteins being in different states and levels of agglomeration.Herein we report the use of the optical properties of citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) for estimation of native or denatured conformation content in a mixture of a protein in solution. The UV-vis extinction spectrum of citrate-stabilized Au NPs is known to broaden differently in the presence of native and denatured states of α-amylase, bovine serum albumin (BSA) or amyloglucosidase (AMG). On the other hand, herein we show that when a mixture of native and denatured protein was present in the medium, the broadening of the spectrum differed for

  18. Removal of citrate and hypophosphite binary components using Fenton, photo-Fenton and electro-Fenton processes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yao-Hui; Su, Hsiao-Ting; Lin, Li-Way

    2009-01-01

    Both citrate and hypophosphite in aqueous solution were degraded by advanced oxidation processes (Fe2+/H2O2, UV/Fe2+/H2O2, and electrolysis/ Fe2+/H2O2) in this study. Comparison of these techniques in oxidation efficiency was undertaken. It was found that Fenton process could not completely degrade citrate in the presence of hypophosphite since it caused a series inhibition. Therefore, UV light (photo-Fenton) or electron current (electro-Fenton) was applied to improve the degradation efficiency of the Fenton process. Results showed that both photo-Fenton and electro-Fenton processes could overcome the inhibition of hypophosphite, especially the electro-Fenton.

  19. Comparison of isolation of Haemophilus vaginalis (Corynebacterium vaginale) from peptone-starch-dextrose agar and Columbia colistin-nalidoxic acid agar.

    PubMed Central

    Golberg, R L; Washington JA, I I

    1976-01-01

    A total of 447 cervical or vaginal specimens were inoculated in parallel onto peptone-starch-dextrose (PSD) and Columbia colistin (10 mg/ml)-nalidixic acid (15 mug/ml) (CNA) agar and were incubated for 48 h at 35 degrees C in an atmosphere with 2 to 10% CO2. One hundred (22.4%) of the cultures were positive for Haemophilus vaginalis. Forty-eight of the isolates were recovered from both PSD and Columbia CNA agar, five from PSD only, and 47 from Columbia CNA agar only (P less than 0.001). On Columbia CNA agar, 76 of the isolates were detected after 24 h of incubation, and the remainder were detected within 4 days of incubation. PMID:1085777

  20. Studies in the photogalvanic effect in mixed reductants system for solar energy conversion and storage: Dextrose and Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-Azur A system

    SciTech Connect

    Gangotri, K.M.; Indora, Vinod

    2010-02-15

    A mixture of two reductants (Dextrose and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) is used as a mixed reductants with Azur A as photosensitizer in the photogalvanic cell for solar energy conversion and storage with the aim to reduce the cost of construction for commercial viability. The photogeneration of photopotential and photocurrent were 778.0 mV and 55.0 {mu}A, respectively, whereas maximum power of the cell was 42.79 {mu}W. The observed power at power point of the cell was 10.87 {mu}W and conversion efficiency was 0.1045%.The determined fill factor was 0.1942. The photogalvanic cell so developed can work for 115.0 min in dark where it was irradiated for 175.0 min. A mechanism for the photogeneration of electricity has also been proposed. (author)

  1. 40 CFR 721.7286 - Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7286 Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines,...

  2. 40 CFR 721.7285 - Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7285 Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines,...

  3. 40 CFR 721.7285 - Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7285 Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines,...

  4. 40 CFR 721.7286 - Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7286 Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines,...

  5. 40 CFR 721.7285 - Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7285 Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines,...

  6. 40 CFR 721.7285 - Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7285 Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines,...

  7. 40 CFR 721.7286 - Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7286 Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines,...

  8. 40 CFR 721.7286 - Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7286 Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines,...

  9. Development of Injectable Citrate-Based Bioadhesive Bone Implants

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Denghui; Guo, Jinshan; Mehdizadeh, Mohammadreza; Tran, Richard T.; Chen, Ruisong; Sun, Dawei; Qian, Guoying; Jin, Dadi; Bai, Xiaochun; Yang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Injectable bone implants have been widely used in bone tissue repairs including the treatment of comminuted bone fractures (CBF). However, most injectable bone implants are not suitable for the treatment of CBF due to their weak tissue adhesion strengths and minimal osteoinduction. Citrate has been recently reported to promote bone formation through enhanced bioceramic integration and osteoinductivity. Herein, a novel injectable citrate-based mussel-inspired bioadhesive hydroxyapatite (iCMBA/HA) bone substitute was developed for CBF treatment. iCMBA/HA can be set within 2–4 minutes and the as-prepared (wet) iCMBA/HA possess low swelling ratios, compressive mechanical strengths of up to 3.2±0.27 MPa, complete degradation in 30 days, suitable biocompatibility, and osteoinductivity. This is also the first time to demonstrate that citrate supplementation in osteogenic medium and citrate released from iCMBA/HA degradation can promote the mineralization of osteoblastic committed human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). In vivo evaluation of iCMBA/HA in a rabbit comminuted radial fracture model showed significantly increased bone formation with markedly enhanced three-point bending strength compared to the negative control. Neovascularization and bone ingrowth as well as highly organized bone formation were also observed showing the potential of iCMBA/HA in treating CBF. PMID:25580247

  10. 21 CFR 522.300 - Carfentanil citrate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carfentanil citrate injection. 522.300 Section 522.300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  11. 21 CFR 522.300 - Carfentanil citrate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carfentanil citrate injection. 522.300 Section 522.300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  12. 21 CFR 522.300 - Carfentanil citrate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carfentanil citrate injection. 522.300 Section 522.300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  13. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS...

  14. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS...

  15. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS...

  16. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS...

  17. 21 CFR 520.623 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets. 520.623 Section 520.623 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... during heartworm season. For free-choice feeding or broken and placed on or mixed with feed. Do not...

  18. 21 CFR 520.622 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms. 520.622 Section 520.622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  19. 21 CFR 522.800 - Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection. 522.800 Section 522.800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL...

  20. 21 CFR 522.300 - Carfentanil citrate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carfentanil citrate injection. 522.300 Section 522.300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  1. 21 CFR 522.800 - Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection. 522.800 Section 522.800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL...

  2. Complex transcriptional regulation of citrate metabolism in Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yonghui; Ohtani, Kaori; Yoshizawa, Satoko; Shimizu, Tohru

    2012-02-01

    A Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium, Clostridium perfringens, possesses genes for citrate metabolism, which might play an important role in the utilization of citrate as a sole carbon source. In this study, we identified a chromosomal citCDEFX-mae-citS operon in C. perfringens strain 13, which is transcribed on three mRNAs of different sizes. Expression of the cit operon was significantly induced when 5 mM extracellular citrate was added to the growth medium. Most interestingly, three regulatory systems were found to be involved in the regulation of the expression of cit genes: 1) the two upstream divergent genes citG and citI; 2) two different two-component regulatory systems, CitA/CitB (TCS6 consisted of CPE0531/CPE0532) and TCS5 (CPE0518/CPE0519); and 3) the global two-component VirR/VirS-VR-RNA regulatory system known to regulate various genes for toxins and degradative enzymes. Our results suggest that in C. perfringens the citrate metabolism might be strictly controlled by a complex regulatory system.

  3. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE... brown or garnet red scales or granules or as a brownish-yellowish powder. (2) Ferric ammonium citrate... occurs as thin transparent green scales, as granules, as a powder, or as transparent green crystals....

  4. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE... brown or garnet red scales or granules or as a brownish-yellowish powder. (2) Ferric ammonium citrate... occurs as thin transparent green scales, as granules, as a powder, or as transparent green crystals....

  5. 40 CFR 721.7286 - Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7286 Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines,...

  6. 40 CFR 721.7285 - Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7285 Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines,...

  7. 21 CFR 520.622d - Diethylcarbamazine citrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Diethylcarbamazine citrate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 12.5, 50, 200, or 400 milligrams (mg... dogs—(1) Amount/indications for use. 3 mg per pound (/lb) body weight daily for prevention of heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis); 25 to 50 mg/lb body weight in a single dose as an aid in the treatment...

  8. 21 CFR 520.622d - Diethylcarbamazine citrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Diethylcarbamazine citrate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 12.5, 50, 200, or 400 milligrams (mg... dogs—(1) Amount/indications for use. 3 mg per pound (/lb) body weight daily for prevention of heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis); 25 to 50 mg/lb body weight in a single dose as an aid in the treatment...

  9. 75 FR 14491 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Bismuth Citrate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... level of bismuth citrate as a color additive in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp. This... citrate as a color additive in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp from 0.5 percent (weight... bismuth citrate in cosmetics intended for coloring scalp hair to 2.0 percent (w/v) with no changes to...

  10. 78 FR 63228 - Determination That Potassium Citrate, 10 Milliequivalents/Packet and 20 Milliequivalents/Packet...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That Potassium Citrate, 10 Milliequivalents...) has determined that Potassium Citrate, 10 milliequivalents/packet (mEq/packet) and 20 mEq/ packet, was... approve abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for Potassium Citrate, 10 mEq/packet and 20...

  11. 78 FR 34338 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (citric acid) from... is citric acid and certain citrate salts. The product is currently classified in the...

  12. Size sorting of citrate reduced gold nanoparticles by sedimentation field-flow fractionation.

    PubMed

    Contado, Catia; Argazzi, Roberto

    2009-12-25

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been synthesized through the citrate reduction method; the citrate/gold(III) ratio was changed from 1:1 up to 10:1 and the size of the resulting nanoparticles was measured by sedimentation field-flow fractionation (SdFFF). Experimental data showed that the GNPs size decreases in the ratio range 1:1-3:1 and then increases from 5:1 to 10:1 passing through a plateau region in between, and is almost independent of the precursor solution concentrations. In the zone of minimum diameters the synthetic process does not produce monodispersed GNPs but often multiple distributions, very close in size, are observed as evidenced by the particle size distributions (PSDs) derived from the SdFFF fractograms. UV-vis spectrophotometry, being the most common technique employed in the optical characterization of nanoparticles suspensions, was used throughout this work. A confirmation of the nucleation-aggregation-fragmentation mechanism was inferred from the cross-correlation between UV-vis and SdFFF results.

  13. A low-tech analytical method for diethylcarbamazine citrate in medicated salt.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Abigail; Brown, Patrick; Huey, Shannon; Magallon, Marco; Bollman, E Brennan; Mares, Dominique; Streit, Thomas G; Lieberman, Marya

    2011-02-08

    The World Health Organization has called for an effort to eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) around the world. In regions where the disease is endemic, local production and distribution of medicated salt dosed with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) has been an effective method for eradicating LF. A partner of the Notre Dame Haiti program, Group SPES in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, produces a medicated salt called Bon Sel. Coarse salt is pre-washed and sprayed with a solution of DEC citrate and potassium iodate. Iodine levels are routinely monitored on site by a titrimetric method. However, the factory had no method for monitoring DEC. Critical analytical issues include 1) determining whether the amount of DEC in each lot of Bon Sel is within safe and therapeutically useful limits, 2) monitoring variability within and between production runs, and 3) determining the effect of a common local practice (washing salt before use) on the availability of DEC. This paper describes a novel titrimetric method for analysis of DEC citrate in medicated salt. The analysis needs no electrical power and requires only a balance, volumetric glassware, and burets that most salt production programs have on hand for monitoring iodine levels. The staff of the factory used this analysis method on site to detect underloading of DEC on the salt by their sprayer and to test a process change that fixed the problem.

  14. The effect of EDDS and citrate on the uptake of lead in hydroponically grown Matthiola flavida.

    PubMed

    Mohtadi, Ahmad; Ghaderian, Seyed Majid; Schat, Henk

    2013-10-01

    Root and shoot lead concentrations and the impact of chelating agents on these were investigated in two populations of the novel metallophyte Matthiola flavida. Plants were exposed in hydroponics to Pb(NO3)2, supplied alone, or in combination with citric acid, or EDDS. When supplied at concentrations expected to bind about 95% of the Pb in a solution containing 1-μM Pb (1000 μM citrate or 3.1 μM EDDS, respectively), the root and shoot Pb concentrations were dramatically lowered, in comparison with a 1-μM free ionic Pb control exposure. A 1-mM EDDS+1-μM Pb treatment decreased the plants' Pb concentrations further, even to undetectable levels in one population. At 100 μM Pb in a 1-mM EDDS-amended solution the Pb concentration increased strongly in shoots, but barely in roots, in comparison with the 1-μM Pb+1-mM EDDS treatment, without causing toxicity symptoms. Further increments of the Pb concentration in the 1-mM EDDS-amended solution, i.e. to 800 and 990 μM, caused Pb hyperaccumulation, both in roots and in shoots, associated with a complete arrest of root growth and foliar necrosis. M. flavida seemed to be devoid of constitutive mechanisms for uptake of Pb-citrate or Pb-EDDS complexes. Hyperaccumulation of Pb-EDDS occurred only at high exposure levels. Pb-EDDS was toxic, but is much less so than free Pb. Free EDDS did not seem to be toxic at the concentrations tested.

  15. Artificial citrate operon and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene enhanced mineral phosphate solubilizing ability of Enterobacter hormaechei DHRSS.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Kavita; Kumar, Chanchal; Archana, G; Kumar, G Naresh

    2014-10-01

    Mineral phosphate solubilization by bacteria is mediated through secretion of organic acids, among which citrate is one of the most effective. To overproduce citrate in bacterial systems, an artificial citrate operon comprising of genes encoding NADH-insensitive citrate synthase of E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium sodium-dependent citrate transporter was constructed. In order to improve its mineral phosphate solubilizing (MPS) ability, the citrate operon was incorporated into E. hormaechei DHRSS. The artificial citrate operon transformant secreted 7.2 mM citric acid whereas in the native strain, it was undetectable. The transformant released 0.82 mM phosphate in flask studies in buffered medium containing rock phosphate as sole P source. In fermenter studies, similar phenotype was observed under aerobic conditions. However, under microaerobic conditions, no citrate was detected and P release was not observed. Therefore, an artificial citrate gene cluster containing Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb) gene under its native promoter, along with artificial citrate operon under constitutive tac promoter, was constructed and transformed into E. hormaechei DHRSS. This transformant secreted 9 mM citric acid under microaerobic conditions and released 1.0 mM P. Thus, incorporation of citrate operon along with vgb gene improves MPS ability of E. hormaechei DHRSS under buffered, microaerobic conditions mimicking rhizospheric environment.

  16. Modification by food of the calcium absorbability and physicochemical effects of calcium citrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wabner, C. L.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    The food-calcium (Ca) interaction was examined in 12 healthy women (mean age 38 years) maintained on a constant metabolic diet. They underwent three phases of study, comprised of control (no Ca), Ca citrate (1 g Ca/day) during meals, and Ca citrate separately from meals. Each phase was 7 days in length and two 24-hour urine samples were collected on days 6 and 7. The rise from the control phase in urinary Ca was slightly more prominent when Ca citrate was given with meals than without (68 and 62%, respectively). The fall in urinary phosphorus was equivalent at about 25% between Ca citrate phases. The rise in urinary citrate and pH and the decline in urinary ammonium were more prominent when Ca citrate was given with meals; however, the changes were small or nonsignificant. The urinary saturation of Ca oxalate, brushite or monosodium urate did not differ between the two Ca citrate phases. There was a nonsignificant rise in serum iron during Ca citrate phases. The results suggest that: 1) dissolution and absorption of Ca citrate might be slightly greater when given with food than without; 2) that the ability of Ca citrate to attenuate crystallization of stone-forming Ca salts in urine is not modified by food; and 3) that Ca citrate may not impair iron absorption from food.

  17. Citrate sensing by the C4-dicarboxylate/citrate sensor kinase DcuS of Escherichia coli: binding site and conversion of DcuS to a C4-dicarboxylate- or citrate-specific sensor.

    PubMed

    Krämer, J; Fischer, J D; Zientz, E; Vijayan, V; Griesinger, C; Lupas, A; Unden, G

    2007-06-01

    The histidine protein kinase DcuS of Escherichia coli senses C(4)-dicarboxylates and citrate by a periplasmic domain. The closely related sensor kinase CitA binds citrate, but no C(4)-dicarboxylates, by a homologous periplasmic domain. CitA is known to bind the three carboxylate and the hydroxyl groups of citrate by sites C1, C2, C3, and H. DcuS requires the same sites for C(4)-dicarboxylate sensing, but only C2 and C3 are highly conserved. It is shown here that sensing of citrate by DcuS required the same sites. Binding of citrate to DcuS, therefore, was similar to binding of C(4)-dicarboxylates but different from that of citrate binding in CitA. DcuS could be converted to a C(4)-dicarboxylate-specific sensor (DcuS(DC)) by mutating residues of sites C1 and C3 or of some DcuS-subtype specific residues. Mutations around site C1 aimed at increasing the size and accessibility of the site converted DcuS to a citrate-specific sensor (DcuS(Cit)). DcuS(DC) and DcuS(Cit) had complementary effector specificities and responded either to C(4)-dicarboxylates or to citrate and mesaconate. The results imply that DcuS binds citrate (similar to the C(4)-dicarboxylates) via the C(4)-dicarboxylate part of the molecule. Sites C2 and C3 are essential for binding of two carboxylic groups of citrate or of C(4)-dicarboxylates; sites C1 and H are required for other essential purposes.

  18. Serum amino acid concentrations in patients receiving total parenteral nutrition with an amino acid plus dextrose mixture.

    PubMed

    Philcox, J C; Hartley, T F; Worthley, L I; Thomas, D W

    1984-01-01

    The results of monitoring the serum amino acid concentrations during three infusion regimens using a 5:4 mixture of 70% glucose and the synthetic L-amino acid solution, Synthamin 17 (Travasol) are reported. Twelve stabilized patients received continuous total parenteral nutrition (TPN), eight of whom were subsequently placed on a second regimen of cyclical feeding. A separate group of five patients was infused with amino acids, both with and without simultaneous glucose. The serum amino acid concentrations indicated that the supply of valine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, and histidine, and the synthesis of taurine from the infused methionine was suboptimal, particularly if the period of TPN was prolonged. The synthesis of tyrosine from phenylalanine appeared to be inversely proportional to the infusion rate of the TPN mixture, in particular the glucose component, resulting in depressed tyrosine and increased phenylalanine concentrations in serum during continuous iv nutrition. Cyclical infusions, on the other hand, permitted the tyrosine and phenylalanine concentrations to return to normal during the noninfusion stage of the cycle. Amino acid measurements enabled us to design an amino acids additive mixture which normalized the serum concentrations in three long-term home parenteral nutrition patients. As a result of these investigations serum amino acid measurements are used routinely to monitor the efficacy of TPN and accommodate any specific amino acid requirements of individual patients.

  19. Trisodium citrate, Na3(C6H5O7)

    PubMed Central

    Rammohan, Alagappa; Kaduk, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structure of anhydrous tris­odium citrate, Na3(C6H5O7), has been solved and refined using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data, and optimized using density functional theory (DFT). There are two independent five-coordinate Na+ and one six-coordinate Na+ cations in the asymmetric unit. The [NaO5] and [NaO6] polyhedra share edges and corners to form a three-dimensional framework. There are channels parallel to the a and b axes in which the remainder of the citrate anions reside. The only hydrogen bonds are an intra­molecular one between the hy­droxy group and one of the terminal carboxyl­ate O atoms and an intermolecular one between a methylene group and the hydroxyl O atom. PMID:27308044

  20. Calcium citrate for vulvar vestibulitis. A case report.

    PubMed

    Solomons, C C; Melmed, M H; Heitler, S M

    1991-12-01

    A woman had suffered from vulvar vestibulitis (vulvodynia) for four years. Pain from the disorder had disrupted her ability to function at work and home as well as sexually. An initial full range of treatments, including multiple operations, had produced no relief. Examination of the urine for evidence of excess oxalate, which has been shown to cause epithelial reactions similar to those found in vulvodynia, showed periodic hyperoxaluria and pH elevations related to the symptoms. Calcium citrate was given to modify the oxalate crystalluria. The symptoms were significantly reduced in three months, and the patient was pain free after one year. She was able to resume normal work, family, sexual and recreational activities. Withdrawal of the calcium citrate resulted in a return of the symptoms; reinstitution alleviated them. These findings suggest that further study of individualized metabolic factors that may underlie vulvodynia is warranted.

  1. Clomiphene citrate and its effects upon ovulation and estrogen.

    PubMed

    Shirai, E; Iizuka, R; Notake, Y

    1972-05-01

    This paper reports a clinical evaluation of the mechanism of action of clomiphene citrate and describes selection of the most responsive patients. Patients were 121 women, aged 21-37 years, who desired pregnancy. Their infertility was diagnosed as being due to anovulation. Primary amenorrhea or special endocrine disorders were not present. All the women who had no vaginal bleeding for more than 2 months were diagnosed amenorrhea and treated with 65 mg of progesterone capronate intramuscularly. They were then divided into two subgroups on the basis of the presence or absence of vaginal bleeding within 2 weeks. Clinical studies included: basal body temperature charts; daily vaginal smears evaluated by the ink acidophilic stain index (ISI); cervical mucus evaluated by amount, spresence of spinnbarkeit, and ferning; 24-hour urines examined for estrogen and total gonadotropic activity; and a pregnanediol determination. Each group received daily 50 mg doses of clomiphene citrate for 5 days. Estrogen inhibiting effect of the drug was suggested by vaginal cytology and the disappearance of ferning and decrease in quantity of cervical mucus. However, the excretion of the total urinary estrogen was increased in ovulatory cases (81 of the 121 patients). In 17 patients having no bleeding within 2 weeks after progesterone injection no ovulation could be induced. In patients with withdrawal flow 54 of 70 achieved ovulation. Of 37 patients with previous anovulatory bleeding 27 achieved ovulation. There were 11 of the 121 who became pregnant. In those with early ovulation the antiestrogen effect is believed to be in the hypothalamus and pituitary bringing about the estrogen surge and stimulating LH secretion. In those with later ovulation the antiestrogenic effect increased FSH secretion followed by ovulation. The type of patient most likely to respond to clomiphene citrate is one with nearly normal pituitary-gonadal axis. Inducing withdrawal bleeding with progesterone in those

  2. Severe citrate toxicity complicating volunteer apheresis platelet donation.

    PubMed

    Bell, A M; Nolen, J D L; Knudson, C M; Raife, T J

    2007-02-01

    We report a case of severe citrate toxicity during volunteer donor apheresis platelet collection. The donor was a 40-year-old female, first-time apheresis platelet donor. Past medical history was remarkable for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and depression. Reported medications included bumetanide, pravastatin, and paroxetine. Thirty minutes from the start of the procedure, the donor noted tingling around the mouth, hands, and feet. She then very rapidly developed acute onset of severe facial and extremity tetany. Empirical treatment with intravenous calcium gluconate was initiated, and muscle contractions slowly subsided over approximately 10 to 15 minutes. The events are consistent with a severe reaction to calcium chelation by sodium citrate anticoagulant resulting in symptomatic systemic hypocalcemia. Upon additional retrospective analysis, it was noted that bumetanide is a loop diuretic that may cause significant hypocalcemia. We conclude that careful screening for medications and underlying conditions predisposing to hypocalcemia is recommended to help prevent severe reactions due to citrate toxicity. Laboratory measurement of pre-procedure serum calcium levels in selected donors may identify cases requiring heightened vigilance. The case also illustrates the importance of maintaining preparedness for managing rare but serious reactions in volunteer apheresis blood donors.

  3. CitI, a Transcription Factor Involved in Regulation of Citrate Metabolism in Lactic Acid Bacteria†

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Mauricio G.; Magni, Christian; de Mendoza, Diego; López, Paloma

    2005-01-01

    A large variety of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can utilize citrate under fermentative conditions. Although much information concerning the metabolic pathways leading to citrate utilization by LAB has been gathered, the mechanisms regulating these pathways are obscure. In Weissella paramesenteroides (formerly called Leuconostoc paramesenteroides), transcription of the citMDEFCGRP citrate operon and the upstream divergent gene citI is induced by the presence of citrate in the medium. Although genetic experiments have suggested that CitI is a transcriptional activator whose activity can be modulated in response to citrate availability, specific details of the interaction between CitI and DNA remained unknown. In this study, we show that CitI recognizes two A+T-rich operator sites located between citI and citM and that the DNA-binding affinity of CitI is increased by citrate. Subsequently, this citrate signal propagation leads to the activation of the cit operon through an enhanced recruitment of RNA polymerase to its promoters. Our results indicate that the control of CitI by the cellular pools of citrate provides a mechanism for sensing the availability of citrate and adjusting the expression of the cit operon accordingly. In addition, this is the first reported example of a transcription factor directly functioning as a citrate-activated switch allowing the cell to optimize the generation of metabolic energy. PMID:16030208

  4. Exogenous citrate impairs glucose tolerance and promotes visceral adipose tissue inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Leandro, João G B; Espindola-Netto, Jair M; Vianna, Maria Carolina F; Gomez, Lilian S; DeMaria, Thaina M; Marinho-Carvalho, Monica M; Zancan, Patricia; Paula Neto, Heitor A; Sola-Penna, Mauro

    2016-03-28

    Overweight and obesity have become epidemic worldwide and are linked to sedentary lifestyle and the consumption of processed foods and drinks. Citrate is a metabolite that plays central roles in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. In addition, citrate is the additive most commonly used by the food industry, and therefore is highly consumed. Extracellular citrate can freely enter the cells via the constitutively expressed plasma membrane citrate transporter. Within the cytosol, citrate is readily metabolised by ATP-citrate lyase into acetyl-CoA - the metabolic precursor of endogenously produced lipids and cholesterol. We therefore hypothesised that the citrate ingested from processed foods and drinks could contribute to increased postprandial fat production and weight gain. To test our hypothesis, we administered citrate to mice through their drinking water with or without sucrose and monitored their weight gain and other metabolic parameters. Our results showed that mice receiving citrate or citrate+sucrose did not show increased weight gain or an increase in the weight of the liver, skeletal muscles or adipose tissues (AT). Moreover, the plasma lipid profiles (TAG, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL) were similar across all groups. However, the group receiving citrate+sucrose showed augmented fasting glycaemia, glucose intolerance and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10) in their AT. Therefore, our results suggest that citrate consumption contributes to increased AT inflammation and altered glucose metabolism, which is indicative of initial insulin resistance. Thus, citrate consumption could be a previously unknown causative agent for the complications associated with obesity.

  5. Enzyme:nanoparticle bioconjugates with two sequential enzymes: stoichiometry and activity of malate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase on Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Keighron, Jacqueline D; Keating, Christine D

    2010-12-21

    We report the synthesis and characterization of bioconjugates in which the enzymes malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and/or citrate synthase (CS) were adsorbed to 30 nm diameter Au nanoparticles. Enzyme:Au stoichiometry and kinetic parameters (specific activity, k(cat), K(M), and activity per particle) were determined for MDH:Au, CS:Au, and three types of dual-activity MDH/CS:Au bioconjugates. For single-activity bioconjugates (MDH:Au and CS:Au), the number of enzyme molecules adsorbed per particle was dependent upon the enzyme concentration in solution, with multilayers forming at high enzyme:Au solution ratios. The specific activity of adsorbed enzyme increased with increasing number adsorbed per particle for CS:Au, but was less sensitive to stoichiometry for MDH:Au. Dual activity bioconjugates were prepared in three ways: (1) by adsorption of MDH followed by CS, (2) by adsorption of CS followed by MDH, and (3) by coadsorption of both enzymes from the same solution. The resulting bioconjugates differed substantially in the number of enzyme molecules adsorbed per particle, the specific activity of the adsorbed enzymes, and also the enzymatic activity per particle. Bioconjugates formed by adding CS to the Au nanoparticles before MDH was added exhibited higher specific activities for both enzymes than those formed by adding the enzymes in the reverse order. These bioconjugates also had 3-fold higher per-particle sequential activity for conversion of malate to citrate, despite substantially fewer copies of both enzymes present.

  6. SbnG, a citrate synthase in Staphylococcus aureus: a new fold on an old enzyme.

    PubMed

    Kobylarz, Marek J; Grigg, Jason C; Sheldon, Jessica R; Heinrichs, David E; Murphy, Michael E P

    2014-12-05

    In response to iron deprivation, Staphylococcus aureus produces staphyloferrin B, a citrate-containing siderophore that delivers iron back to the cell. This bacterium also possesses a second citrate synthase, SbnG, that is necessary for supplying citrate to the staphyloferrin B biosynthetic pathway. We present the structure of SbnG bound to the inhibitor calcium and an active site variant in complex with oxaloacetate. The overall fold of SbnG is structurally distinct from TCA cycle citrate synthases yet similar to metal-dependent class II aldolases. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that SbnG forms a separate clade with homologs from other siderophore biosynthetic gene clusters and is representative of a metal-independent subgroup in the phosphoenolpyruvate/pyruvate domain superfamily. A structural superposition of the SbnG active site to TCA cycle citrate synthases and site-directed mutagenesis suggests a case for convergent evolution toward a conserved catalytic mechanism for citrate production.

  7. A turn-on fluorescent indicator for citrate with micromolar sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Burguete, M Isabel; Galindo, Francisco; Luis, Santiago V; Vigara, Laura

    2007-09-28

    A turn-on fluorescent indicator for citric acid (citrate) has been developed, displaying high emission enhancement (+1500%) and low interference by other carboxylates. The sensor is based on the non-emissive copper(II) complex of a fluorescent amino amide, which, upon addition of citrate decomplexates to yield the emissive ligand. The detection limit estimated for this new chemosensing system is about 0.5 microM. This novel approach to the analysis of citrate constitutes an alternative ca. 10(2)-10(3) times more sensitive than the standard method based on the enzyme citrate lyase.

  8. Engineering genetically encoded nanosensors for real-time in vivo measurements of citrate concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ewald, Jennifer C; Reich, Sabrina; Baumann, Stephan; Frommer, Wolf B; Zamboni, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Citrate is an intermediate in catabolic as well as biosynthetic pathways and is an important regulatory molecule in the control of glycolysis and lipid metabolism. Mass spectrometric and NMR based metabolomics allow measuring citrate concentrations, but only with limited spatial and temporal resolution. Methods are so far lacking to monitor citrate levels in real-time in-vivo. Here, we present a series of genetically encoded citrate sensors based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). We screened databases for citrate-binding proteins and tested three candidates in vitro. The citrate binding domain of the Klebsiella pneumoniae histidine sensor kinase CitA, inserted between the FRET pair Venus/CFP, yielded a sensor highly specific for citrate. We optimized the peptide linkers to achieve maximal FRET change upon citrate binding. By modifying residues in the citrate binding pocket, we were able to construct seven sensors with different affinities spanning a concentration range of three orders of magnitude without losing specificity. In a first in vivo application we show that E. coli maintains the capacity to take up glucose or acetate within seconds even after long-term starvation.

  9. Ferrous iron oxidation by molecular oxygen under acidic conditions: The effect of citrate, EDTA and fulvic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Adele M.; Griffin, Philippa J.; Waite, T. David

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the rates of Fe(II) oxidation by molecular oxygen in the presence of citrate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) were determined over the pH range 4.0-5.5 and, for all of the ligands investigated, found to be substantially faster than oxidation rates in the absence of any ligand. EDTA was found to be particularly effective in enhancing the rate of Fe(II) oxidation when sufficient EDTA was available to complex all Fe(II) present in solution, with a kinetic model of the process found to adequately describe all results obtained. When Fe(II) was only partially complexed by EDTA, reactions with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and heterogeneous Fe(II) oxidation were found to contribute significantly to the removal rate of iron from solution at different stages of oxidation. This was possible due to the rapid rate at which EDTA enhanced Fe(II) oxidation and formed ROS and Fe(III). The rapid rate of Fe(III) generation facilitated the formation of free ferric ion activities in excess of those required for ferric oxyhydroxide precipitation following Fe(III)-EDTA dissociation. In comparison, the rate of Fe(II) oxidation was slower in the presence of citrate, and therefore the concentrations of free Fe(III) able to form in the initial stages of Fe(II) oxidation were much lower than those formed in the presence of EDTA, despite the resultant Fe(III)-citrate complex being less stable than that of Fe(III)-EDTA. The slower rate of citrate enhanced oxidation also resulted in slower rates of ROS generation, and, as such, oxidation of the remaining inorganic Fe(II) species by ROS was negligible. Overall, this study demonstrates that organic ligands may substantially enhance the rate of Fe(II) oxidation. Even under circumstances where the ligand is not present at sufficient concentrations to complex all of the Fe(II) in solution, ensuing oxidative processes may sustain an enhanced rate of Fe(II) oxidation relative to that of

  10. Antitumor effect and toxicity of free rhodium (II) citrate and rhodium (II) citrate-loaded maghemite nanoparticles in mice bearing breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Magnetic fluids containing superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles represent an attractive platform as nanocarriers in chemotherapy. Recently, we developed a formulation of maghemite nanoparticles coated with rhodium (II) citrate, which resulted in in vitro cytotoxicity enhanced up to 4.6 times when compared to free rhodium (II) citrate formulation on breast carcinoma cells. In this work, we evaluate the antitumor activity and toxicity induced by these formulations in Balb/c mice bearing orthotopic 4T1 breast carcinoma. Methods Mice were evaluated with regard to the treatments’ toxicity through analyses of hemogram, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, iron, and creatinine; DNA fragmentation and cell cycle of bone marrow cells; and liver, kidney and lung histology. In addition, the antitumor activity of rhodium (II) citrate and maghemite nanoparticles coated with rhodium (II) citrate was verified by tumor volume reduction, histology and immunohistochemistry. Results Regarding the treatments’ toxicity, no experimental groups had alterations in levels of serum ALT or creatinine, and this suggestion was corroborated by the histopathologic examination of liver and kidney of mice. Moreover, DNA fragmentation frequency of bone marrow cells was lower than 15% in all experimental groups. On the other hand, the complexes rhodium (II) citrate-functionalized maghemite and free rhodium (II) citrate led to a marked growth inhibition of tumor and decrease in CD31 and Ki-67 staining. Conclusions In summary, we demonstrated that both rhodium (II) citrate and maghemite nanoparticles coated with rhodium (II) citrate formulations exhibited antitumor effects against 4T1 metastatic breast cancer cell line following intratumoral administration. This antitumor effect was followed by inhibition of both cell proliferation and microvascularization and by tumor tissue injury characterized as necrosis and fibrosis. Remarkably, this is the first published report

  11. Five percent dextrose maximizes dose delivery of Yttrium-90 resin microspheres and reduces rates of premature stasis compared to sterile water

    PubMed Central

    Koran, Mary Ellen; Stewart, Samantha; Baker, Jennifer C.; Lipnik, Andrew J.; Banovac, Fil; Omary, Reed A.; Brown, Daniel B.

    2016-01-01

    Resin Yttrium-90 (Y90) microspheres have historically been infused using sterile water (H2O). In 2013, recommendations expanded to allow delivery with 5% dextrose in water (D5W). In this retrospective study, we hypothesized that D5W would improve Y90 delivery with a lower incidence of stasis. We reviewed 190 resin Y90 infusions using H2O (n=137) or D5W (n=53). Y90 dosimetry was calculated using the body surface area method. Infusion was halted if intra-arterial stasis was fluoroscopically identified prior to clearing the vial. Differences between H2O and D5W groups were calculated for activity prescription, percentage of cases reaching stasis, and percentage delivery of prescribed activity using z- and t-test comparisons, with α=0.05. Thirty-one of 137 H2O infusions developed stasis compared to 2 of 53 with D5W (z=3.07, p=1.05E-03). D5W also had a significantly higher prescribed activity than H2O [28.2 millicuries (mCi) vs. 20.4 mCi, respectively; t=5.0, p=1.1E-6]. D5W had a higher delivery percentage of the prescribed dose compared to H2O (101.5 vs. 92.7%, respectively; t=3.8, p=1.92E-4). In conclusion, resin microsphere infusion utilizing D5W has a significantly lower rate of stasis than H2O and results in more complete dose delivery. D5W is preferable to H2O for resin microsphere infusion. PMID:28105342

  12. Parenteral amino acids v. dextrose infusion: an anabolic strategy to minimise the catabolic response to surgery while maintaining normoglycaemia in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients.

    PubMed

    Lugli, Andrea Kopp; Donatelli, Francesco; Schricker, Thomas; Kindler, Christoph H; Wykes, Linda; Carli, Franco

    2012-02-01

    Loss of body protein and hyperglycaemia represent typical features of the stress response to surgery and anaesthesia. This appears to be particularly pronounced in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. The aim of the present study was to highlight the greater benefit of amino acids (AA) as represented by positive protein balance and maintenance of blood glucose homoeostasis compared with dextrose (DEX) in diabetic patients after colorectal surgery. A total of thirteen patients underwent a 5 h stable isotope infusion study (2 h fasted, 3 h fed with an infusion of AA (n 6) or DEX (n 7)) on the second post-operative day. Glucose and protein kinetics were assessed by using the stable isotopes l-[1-¹³C]leucine and [6,6-²H₂]glucose. The transition from fasted to fed state decreased endogenous glucose production (P < 0·001) in both groups, with a more profound effect in the DEX group (P = 0·031). In contrast, total glucose production was increased by the provision of DEX while being lowered by AA (P = 0·021). Feeding decreased protein oxidation (P = 0·009) and protein synthesis in the AA group, whereas DEX infusion did not affect oxidation and even decreased protein synthesis. Therefore, only AA shifted protein balance to a positive value, while patients in the DEX group remained in a catabolic state (P < 0·001). Parenteral nutritional support with AA rather than with DEX is an effective strategy to achieve a positive protein balance while maintaining normoglycaemia in diabetic patients after colorectal surgery.

  13. Safety and efficacy of citrate anti-coagulation continuous renal replacement therapies in post-cardiac surgery patients with liver dysfunction.

    PubMed

    De Vico, Pasquale; Messino, Valentina; Tartaglione, Alessandra; Beccaris, Camilla; Buonomo, Chiara; Talarico, Daniela; Prati, Paolo; Sabato, Alessandro Fabrizio; Colella, Dionisio Fernando

    2015-06-01

    The study's aim was to examine safety and efficiency of citrate anticoagulated continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT) in cardiac surgery patients with acute kidney injury and associated liver dysfunction. The study was conducted on critical ICU patients, hospitalized after cardiac surgery, who developed renal and liver acute failures due to low-flow syndrome. CRRT in continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration with regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) was prescribed to address renal failure and avoid bleeding-risk. Patient Ca(++) was measured to monitor RCA safety, while thromboelastography (TEG) and circuit Ca(++) were used to verify efficacy. CRRT effectiveness was evaluated through creatinine and urea levels, while liver function was monitored through bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (AST GOT) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GT) levels. The study did not require ethical approval. Hepatic and renal failures were confirmed by baseline levels (total bilirubin=3.1 ± 3.37 mg/dL, AST GOT=153 ± 147 U/L and gamma GT=93.3 ± 86 IU/L, creatinine=1.97 ± 0.88 and blood urea nitrogen [BUN] 98.13 ± 71.34) assessed in 15 patients. During treatment, Ca(++) (patient and circuit) remained stable and within range for the whole therapy thanks to low citrate dose (2.8 ± 0.3 mmol/L of blood), while hepatic markers did not show any significant changes the therapy, although treatment with citrate is contraindicated in patients with hepatic failure. RCA quality was confirmed by TEG values, which showed an anticoagulated circuit with no effects on patients. These results involved a high filter lifespan (49.76 ± 22.10 h) and with an effective creatinine and BUN clearance. No episodes of citrate intoxication were reported (total/ionized calcium ratio remained stable and physiologic). RCA during CRRT with dilute solutions proved both effective and safe, even in patients with acute liver failure.

  14. Inkjet printing of silver citrate conductive ink on PET substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Xiaolei; Wang, Hong; Zou, Jing

    2012-11-01

    Direct synthesis of silver conductive film on PET substrate by inkjet printing silver citrate conductive ink was presented in this paper. This kind of conductive ink contained silver citrate as silver precursor, 1,2-diaminopropane as complex agent dissolving the silver salt and methanol and isopropanol as a media adjusting the viscosity and surface tension. The formation of silver-amine complex reduced the decomposition temperature from 180 °C to 135 °C, thus the ink could be cured at relatively low temperature. The film reached the lowest resistivity of 17 μΩ cm after cured at 150 °C for 50 min, 3.1 μΩ cm at 230 °C and possessed high reflection and excellent adhesive property. Electrical conductivity, surface morphology and composition were investigated by four-point probe method, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). It is demonstrated how the cured condition affects the silver film. Moreover, radio-frequency identification (RFID) antenna was fabricated by inkjet printing, which opens up routes for the flexible electronics fabrication.

  15. ATP citrate lyase inhibitors as novel cancer therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Zu, Xu-Yu; Zhang, Qing-Hai; Liu, Jiang-Hua; Cao, Ren-Xian; Zhong, Jing; Yi, Guang-Hui; Quan, Zhi-Hua; Pizzorno, Giuseppe

    2012-05-01

    ATP citrate lyase (ACL or ACLY) is an extra-mitochondrial enzyme widely distributed in various human and animal tissues. ACL links glucose and lipid metabolism by catalyzing the formation of acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate from citrate produced by glycolysis in the presence of ATP and CoA. ACL is aberrantly expressed in many immortalized cells and tumors, such as breast, liver, colon, lung and prostate cancers, and is correlated reversely with tumor stage and differentiation, serving as a negative prognostic marker. ACL is an upstream enzyme of the long chain fatty acid synthesis, providing acetyl-CoA as an essential component of the fatty acid synthesis. Therefore, ACL is a key enzyme of cellular lipogenesis and potent target for cancer therapy. As a hypolipidemic strategy of metabolic syndrome and cancer treatment, many small chemicals targeting ACL have been designed and developed. This review article provides an update for the research and development of ACL inhibitors with a focus on their patent status, offering a new insight into their potential application.

  16. Transcriptional regulation of Bacillus subtilis citrate synthase genes.

    PubMed

    Jin, S; Sonenshein, A L

    1994-08-01

    The Bacillus subtilis citrate synthase genes citA and citZ were repressed during early exponential growth phase in nutrient broth medium and were induced as cells reached the end of exponential phase. Both genes were also induced by treatment of cells with the drug decoyinine. After induction, the steady-state level of citZ mRNA was about five times higher than that of citA mRNA. At least some of the citZ transcripts read through into the isocitrate dehydrogenase (citC) gene. Transcription from an apparent promoter site located near the 3' end of the citZ gene also contributed to expression of citC. In minimal medium, citA transcription was about 6-fold lower when glucose was the sole carbon source than it was when succinate was the carbon source. Expression of the citZ gene was repressed 2-fold by glucose and 10-fold when glucose and glutamate were present simultaneously. This latter synergistic repression is similar to the effect of glucose and glutamate on steady-state citrate synthase enzyme activity. CitR, a protein of the LysR family, appeared to be a repressor of citA but not of citZ.

  17. Green synthesis of multi metal- citrate complexes and their characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Usha; Warkar, Sudhir G.; Kumar, Anil

    2017-04-01

    Four new multi metal-citrate complexes have been synthesized through green synthetic pathways. Their synthesis by hydrothermal route in the present research is decorated with features such as, a simple one pot synthesis, cost effectiveness, easy to scale up for commercial production, efficient synthesis conditions like mild temperature and shorter duration which further rules out the possibility of forming byproducts which may cause damage to the environment and being environmental benign as it eliminates the use and recovery of harmful organic solvents such as N, N- dimethyl formamide and N, N- diethyl formamide, used by the researchers in the past during the synthesis of similar metal- organic framework complexes. All four complexes are well defined crystalline materials with polynuclear multi metal-citrate framework having cubic crystal structure as indicated by their Powder X-ray Diffraction patterns. These complexes have been characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric analysis and Powder XRD techniques.

  18. Citrate and the conversion of carbohydrate in fat. The activities of citrate-cleavage enzyme and acetate thiokinase in livers of starved and re-fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Kornacker, Melodee S.; Lowenstein, J. M.

    1965-01-01

    1. The activity of citrate-cleavage enzyme varies in accordance with the nutritional state of the animal. It is suppressed on starvation and restored on re-feeding after starvation. 2. The increase in enzyme activity that occurs on re-feeding starved animals depends on the diet. It is largest on diets high in carbohydrate and low in fat, and smallest on diets high in fat. Intermediate increases are obtained with balanced diets. 3. The ratio of activities of citrate-cleavage enzyme to acetate thiokinase varies from 2·5 for animals maintained on a balanced diet to 20 for animals re-fed with a diet high in carbohydrate. 4. The changes in activity of citrate-cleavage enzyme correlate with changes in the rate of fatty acid synthesis and provide evidence for the involvement of the citrate-cleavage reaction in fatty acid synthesis. PMID:14342232

  19. Citrate and Sugar Cofermentation in Leuconostoc oenos, a (sup13)C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, A.; Santos, H.

    1996-01-01

    (sup13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to investigate citrate-glucose cometabolism in nongrowing cell suspensions of the wine lactic acid bacterium Leuconostoc oenos. The use of isotopically enriched substrates allowed us to identify and quantify in the end products the carbon atoms derived from each of the substrates supplied; furthermore, it was possible to differentiate between products derived from the metabolism of endogenous carbon reserves and those derived from external substrates. Citrate-sugar cometabolism was also monitored in dilute cell suspensions for comparison with the nuclear magnetic resonance results. A clear metabolic shift of the end products from glucose metabolism was observed when citrate was provided along with glucose: ethanol was replaced by acetate, and 2,3-butanediol was produced. Reciprocally, the production of lactate and 2,3-butanediol from citrate was increased in the presence of glucose. When citrate was cometabolized with glucose, a 10-fold reduction in the intracellular concentration of glucose-6-phosphate was observed, a result in line with the observed citrate-induced stimulation of glucose consumption. The presence of citrate provided additional pathways for NADP(sup+) regeneration and allowed the diversion of sugar carbon to reactions in which ATP was synthesized. The increased growth rates and maximal biomass yields of L. oenos growing on citrate-glucose mixtures resulted from increased ATP synthesis both by substrate-level phosphorylation and by a chemiosmotic mechanism. PMID:16535363

  20. Photochemical degradation of citrate buffers leads to covalent acetonation of recombinant protein therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Valliere-Douglass, John F; Connell-Crowley, Lisa; Jensen, Randy; Schnier, Paul D; Trilisky, Egor; Leith, Matt; Follstad, Brian D; Kerr, Jennifer; Lewis, Nathan; Vunnum, Suresh; Treuheit, Michael J; Balland, Alain; Wallace, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Novel acetone and aldimine covalent adducts were identified on the N-termini and lysine side chains of recombinant monoclonal antibodies. Photochemical degradation of citrate buffers, in the presence of trace levels of iron, is demonstrated as the source of these modifications. The link between degradation of citrate and the observed protein modifications was conclusively established by tracking the citrate decomposition products and protein adducts resulting from photochemical degradation of isotope labeled 13C citrate by mass spectrometry. The structure of the acetone modification was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy on modified–free glycine and found to correspond to acetone linked to the N-terminus of the amino acid through a methyl carbon. Results from mass spectrometric fragmentation of glycine modified with an acetone adduct derived from 13C labeled citrate indicated that the three central carbons of citrate are incorporated onto protein amines in the presence of iron and light. While citrate is known to stoichiometrically decompose to acetone and CO2 through various intermediates in photochemical systems, it has never been shown to be a causative agent in protein carbonylation. Our results point to a previously unknown source for the generation of reactive carbonyl species. This work also highlights the potential deleterious impact of trace metals on recombinant protein therapeutics formulated in citrate buffers. PMID:20836085

  1. Characterization of citrate utilization in Corynebacterium glutamicum by transcriptome and proteome analysis.

    PubMed

    Polen, Tino; Schluesener, Daniela; Poetsch, Ansgar; Bott, Michael; Wendisch, Volker F

    2007-08-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum grows aerobically on a variety of carbohydrates and organic acids as single or combined sources of carbon and energy. To characterize the citrate utilization in C. glutamicum on a genomewide scale, a comparative analysis was carried out by combining transcriptome and proteome analysis. In cells grown on citrate, transcriptome analysis revealed highest expression changes for two different citrate-uptake systems encoded by citM and tctCBA, whereas genes encoding uptake systems for the glucose- (ptsG), sucrose- (ptsS) and fructose- (ptsF) specific PTS components and permeases for gluconate (gntP) and glutamate (gluC) displayed decreased mRNA levels in citrate-grown cells. This pattern was also observed when cells grown in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium plus citrate were compared with cells grown in LB medium, indicating some kind of catabolite repression. Genes encoding enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (aconitase, succinyl-CoA synthetase, succinate dehydrogenase and fumarase), malic enzyme, PEP carboxykinase, gluconeogenic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and ATP synthase displayed increased expression in cells grown on citrate. Accordingly, proteome analysis revealed elevated protein levels of these enzymes and showed a good correlation with the mRNA levels. In conclusion, this study revealed the citrate stimulon in C. glutamicum and the regulated central metabolic genes when grown on citrate.

  2. 78 FR 64914 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of... of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from Canada.\\1\\ The review... period of review (POR) is May 1, 2011, through April 30, 2012. \\1\\ See Citric Acid and Certain...

  3. 78 FR 34648 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts: Preliminary Results of Countervailing... review of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on citric acid and citrate salts from the People's Republic... (202) 482-1503. Scope of the Order The merchandise subject to the order is citric acid and...

  4. 77 FR 6061 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (citric acid) from... initiation of an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid from Canada with...

  5. 76 FR 5782 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (citric acid) from... citric acid from Canada with respect to JBL Canada covering the period November 20, 2008, through May...

  6. 76 FR 34044 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of... preliminary results of the first administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (citric acid) from Canada. The review covers one manufacturer/exporter of...

  7. A novel citrate selective electrode based on surfactant modified nano-clinoptilolite.

    PubMed

    Hasheminejad, Mahdieh; Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza

    2015-04-01

    A citrate-selective sensor was prepared by modification of a PVC membrane with modified nano-clinoptilolite particles by hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium surfactant (SMZ). A Nernstian slope of 29.9 ± 0.2 mV per decade of citrate concentration was obtained over the concentration range of 5.0 × 10(-5)-5.0 × 10(-2) mol L(-1) of citrate. The electrode showed a fast response time (⩽ 10 s) and a detection limit of 1.3 × 10(-5) mol L(-1) of citrate. The linear range and detection limit were respectively changed to 1.0 × 10(-4)-5.0 × 10(-2) mol L(-1) and 1.0 × 10(-4) mol L(-1) of citrate when the micronized clinoptilolite particles were used.

  8. Toxicity of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles differs according to method of suspension preparation.

    PubMed

    Park, June-Woo; Oh, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Woo-Keun; Lee, Sung-Kyu

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate substance toxicity, it is critical to maintain specific concentrations of test substances throughout the exposure period. During the last decade, the need to improve methods for nanoparticle (NP) suspension preparations has gained attention because many published results on NPs toxicity have been inconsistent. Here, we compared the toxicity of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) suspended by two different methods (fractionated vs. colloidal) in freshwater organisms (daphnia and medaka). Analytical methods (ICP-OES, DLS and UV absorbance) were employed to characterize behavior of AgNPs in suspension. Results showed that fractionated (stirred and settled) solution was less toxic to daphnia (13.8 µg/L) than colloidal solution (6.1 µg/L), suggesting that method of preparation was a critical factor that affected toxicity. However, differences in toxicity caused by suspension methods were not observed in medaka. Results indicate that the method used to prepare suspensions of NPs can affect toxicity, and that differences can exist among test organisms.

  9. Comparative genomics and transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus niger and metabolic engineering for citrate production

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xian; Shin, Hyun-dong; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Liu, Long; Chen, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Despite a long and successful history of citrate production in Aspergillus niger, the molecular mechanism of citrate accumulation is only partially understood. In this study, we used comparative genomics and transcriptome analysis of citrate-producing strains—namely, A. niger H915-1 (citrate titer: 157 g L−1), A1 (117 g L−1), and L2 (76 g L−1)—to gain a genome-wide view of the mechanism of citrate accumulation. Compared with A. niger A1 and L2, A. niger H915-1 contained 92 mutated genes, including a succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase in the γ-aminobutyric acid shunt pathway and an aconitase family protein involved in citrate synthesis. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis of A. niger H915-1 revealed that the transcription levels of 479 genes changed between the cell growth stage (6 h) and the citrate synthesis stage (12 h, 24 h, 36 h, and 48 h). In the glycolysis pathway, triosephosphate isomerase was up-regulated, whereas pyruvate kinase was down-regulated. Two cytosol ATP-citrate lyases, which take part in the cycle of citrate synthesis, were up-regulated, and may coordinate with the alternative oxidases in the alternative respiratory pathway for energy balance. Finally, deletion of the oxaloacetate acetylhydrolase gene in H915-1 eliminated oxalate formation but neither influence on pH decrease nor difference in citrate production were observed. PMID:28106122

  10. 77 FR 22560 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ On...). \\2\\ See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of...

  11. 77 FR 56188 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Rescission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China... of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's...\\ See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Intent to...

  12. 77 FR 72323 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... certain citrate salts from the People's Republic of China for the period January 1, 2010, through December... Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results...

  13. 76 FR 82275 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... countervailing duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's Republic of China (PRC). See... and Certain Citrate Salts, 74 FR 25705 (May 29, 2009). On May 2, 2011, the Department published...

  14. 77 FR 9891 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China... antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic... Act of 1930, as amended (``the Act''). \\1\\ See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the...

  15. 77 FR 74171 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... certain citrate salts from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') on June 6, 2012.\\1\\ The period of... Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Post- Preliminary...

  16. 76 FR 77772 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China... of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the... Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

  17. 76 FR 33219 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China... administrative review of the countervailing duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's... countervailing duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's...

  18. 76 FR 17835 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... International Trade Administration A-570-937] Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic... order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China.... See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Extension...

  19. Heterotopic pregnancy following induction of ovulation with clomiphene citrate

    PubMed Central

    Ghandi, Sedigheh; Ahmadi, Raheleh; Fazel, Mahmoud

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although heterotopic gestation is common in assisted reproductive techniques, it is very rare in natural conception and clomiphene induced pregnancy. Diagnosis and appropriate intervention of heterotopic pregnancy requires a high index of suspicious. Case: In this paper a case of heterotopic pregnancy in a 30-year old woman with hemoperitoneum from ruptured tubal pregnancy with live intrauterine gestation at 9 weeks of gestation is reported. Conclusion: This case suggests that a heterotopic pregnancy must always be considered particularly after the induction of ovulation by clomiphene citrate or assisted reproductive technology. Every clinician treating women of reproductive age should keep this diagnosis in mind. It also demonstrates that early diagnosis is essential in order to salvage the intrauterine pregnancy and avoid maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:26396583

  20. Response of patients with indolent systemic mastocytosis to tamoxifen citrate.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Joseph H; Chen, Dong

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether tamoxifen citrate at 20mg/day for 1 year had a beneficial effect on laboratory findings, bone marrow mastocytosis, common clinical symptoms, or quality-of-life assessment for 5 women and 2 men with indolent systemic mastocytosis. Tamoxifen was well tolerated. We found significant reductions in the platelet count, serum alkaline phosphatase, and 24-h urinary excretion of N-methylhistamine and significant increases in serum lactate dehydrogenase and (excluding 2 patients taking aspirin) in 24-h urinary excretion of 11β-prostaglandin F2α. Overall, no change occurred in percent involvement of bone marrow by mastocytosis. Symptom scores were mild and did not change during the treatment. The 36-Item Short Form Health Survey scores for quality of life physical and mental components showed no marked changes. Tamoxifen, an older, nonhematotoxic medication, has limited activity in systemic mastocytosis at the dosage used in this study.

  1. Sildenafil citrate for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hrometz, Sandra L; Shields, Kelly M

    2006-12-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a progressive disease that has a high rate of mortality. For these reasons, early treatment is essential. Treatment choices for pulmonary arterial hypertension are limited by drug tolerability, drug cost and inconvenience associated with administration techniques and dosing schedules. Therefore, a therapy that provides oral dosing with limited side effects would prove useful in managing many patients. Sildenafil citrate, the first and highly publicized oral medication to receive approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for erectile dysfunction, has recently been approved for treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. This review summarizes the normal physiology of the pulmonary vasculature, and the pathophysiology involved in pulmonary arterial hypertension and the role of sildenafil in its treatment.

  2. Genome-wide identification of citrus ATP-citrate lyase genes and their transcript analysis in fruits reveals their possible role in citrate utilization.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-Mei; Shi, Cai-Yun; Liu, Xiao; Jin, Long-Fei; Liu, Yong-Zhong; Peng, Shu-Ang

    2015-02-01

    ATP-citrate lyase (ACL, EC4.1.3.8) catalyzes citrate to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA in the cell cytosol, and has important roles in normal plant growth and in the biosynthesis of some secondary metabolites. We identified three ACL genes, CitACLα1, CitACLα2, and CitACLβ1, in the citrus genome database. Both CitACLα1 and CitACLα2 encode putative ACL α subunits with 82.5 % amino acid identity, whereas CitACLβ1 encodes a putative ACL β subunit. Gene structure analysis showed that CitACLα1 and CitACLα2 had 12 exons and 11 introns, and CitACLβ1 had 16 exons and 15 introns. CitACLα1 and CitACLβ1 were predominantly expressed in flower, and CitACLα2 was predominantly expressed in stem and fibrous roots. As fruits ripen, the transcript levels of CitACLα1, CitACLβ1, and/or CitACLα2 in cultivars 'Niuher' and 'Owari' increased, accompanied by significant decreases in citrate content, while their transcript levels decreased significantly in 'Egan No. 1' and 'Iyokan', although citrate content also decreased. In 'HB pummelo', in which acid content increased as fruit ripened, and in acid-free pummelo, transcript levels of CitACLα2, CitACLβ1, and/or CitACLα1 increased. Moreover, mild drought stress and ABA treatment significantly increased citrate contents in fruits. Transcript levels of the three genes were significantly reduced by mild drought stress, and the transcript level of only CitACLβ1 was significantly reduced by ABA treatment. Taken together, these data indicate that the effects of ACL on citrate use during fruit ripening depends on the cultivar, and the reduction in ACL gene expression may be attributed to citrate increases under mild drought stress or ABA treatment.

  3. Administration of balanced or BCAA-enriched amino acid solution in septic rats. Effects on protein synthesis in the liver.

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, P; Li, S J; Hasselgren, P O; LaFrance, R; Fischer, J E

    1988-01-01

    Total hepatic protein synthesis was measured in vivo with a flooding-dose technique, and the production of total secreted proteins, albumin, complement component C3, and seromucoid fraction was measured in perfused livers of septic rats that received one of three different solutions infused intravenously; Group 1 received 16.4% dextrose; Group 2 received Aminosyn (25% BCAA) in 10.6% dextrose, and Group 3 received Freamine HBC (45% BCAA) in 10.6% dextrose. All solutions were isocaloric, and the amino acid solutions were isonitrogenous. The solutions were administered for 18 or 48 hours after the induction of sepsis. There were no significant differences in mortality rates in the three treatment groups. The negative nitrogen balance seen in the dextrose-infused animals was reversed to the same degree by the two different amino acid solutions. There were no significant differences in hepatic protein synthesis rates in vivo between the three groups of rats. Synthesis rates of secreted proteins in perfused liver were similar in the different treatment groups in the 18-hour experiments, whereas in the 48-hour experiments, synthesis rates of total secreted proteins, C3, and the serumucoid fraction were higher in Group 1 than in Groups 2 and 3. The results suggest that administration of an amino acid solution improves nitrogen balance in sepsis, but that this effect is not caused by stimulated hepatic protein synthesis. The nitrogen-sparing effect during sepsis of a branched chain amino acid (BCAA)-enriched solution does not seem to be superior to that of a balanced amino acid solution. PMID:3143320

  4. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals a global insight into molecular processes regulating citrate accumulation in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaopeng; Cao, Xiongjun; Li, Feifei; Li, Jing; Xiong, Jiang; Long, Guiyou; Cao, Shangyin; Xie, Shenxi

    2016-12-01

    Citrate, the predominant organic acid in citrus, determines the taste of these fruits. However, little is known about the synergic molecular processes regulating citrate accumulation. Using 'Dahongtiancheng' (Citrus sinensis) and 'Bingtangcheng' (C. sinensis) with significant difference in citrate, the objectives of this study were to understand the global mechanisms of high-citrate accumulation in sweet orange. 'Dahongtiancheng' and 'Bingtangcheng' exhibit significantly different patterns in citrate accumulation throughout fruit development, with the largest differences observed at 50-70 days after full bloom (DAFB). Comparative transcriptome profiling was performed for the endocarps of both cultivars at 50 and 70 DAFB. Over 34.5 million clean reads per library were successfully mapped to the reference database and 670-2630 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found in four libraries. Among the genes, five transcription factors were ascertained to be the candidates regulating citrate accumulation. Functional assignments of the DEGs indicated that photosynthesis, the citrate cycle and amino acid metabolism were significantly altered in 'Dahongtiancheng'. Physiological and molecular analyses suggested that high photosynthetic efficiency and partial impairment of citrate catabolism were crucial for the high-citrate trait, and amino acid biosynthesis was one of the important directions for citrate flux. The results reveal a global insight into the gene expression changes in a high-citrate compared with a low-citrate sweet orange. High accumulating efficiency and impaired degradation of citrate may be associated with the high-citrate trait of 'Dahongtiancheng'. Findings in this study increase understanding of the molecular processes regulating citrate accumulation in sweet orange.

  5. The role of ammonium citrate washing on the characteristics of mechanochemical-hydrothermal derived magnesium-containing apatites.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Wei; Suchanek, Wojciech L; Shuk, Pavel; Byrappa, Kullaiah; Oakes, Charles; Riman, Richard E; Brown, Kelly; Tenhuisen, Kevor S; Janas, Victor F

    2007-07-01

    The role of citrate washing on the physical and chemical characteristics of magnesium-substituted apatites (HAMgs) was performed. HAMgs were synthesized by a mechanochemical-hydrothermal route at room temperature in as little as 1 h, which is five times faster than our previous work. Magnesium-substituted apatites had concentrations as high as 17.6 wt% Mg with a corresponding specific surface area (SSA) of 216 m(2)/g. A systematic study was performed to examine the influence of increasing magnesium content on the physical and chemical characteristics of the reaction products. As the magnesium content increased from 0 to 17.6 wt%, magnesium-doped apatite crystallite size decreased from 12 to 8.8 nm. The Mg/(Mg + Ca) ratio in the product was enriched relative to that used for the reacting precursor solution. During mechanochemical-hydrothermal reaction, magnesium doped apatites co-crystallize with magnesium hydroxide. Citrate washing serves to remove the magnesium hydroxide phase. The concomitant increase in surface area results because of the removal of this phase. Possible mechanisms for magnesium hydroxide leaching are discussed to explain the measured trends.

  6. Nutritional and Hormonal Regulation of Citrate and Carnitine/Acylcarnitine Transporters: Two Mitochondrial Carriers Involved in Fatty Acid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Giudetti, Anna M.; Stanca, Eleonora; Siculella, Luisa; Gnoni, Gabriele V.; Damiano, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    The transport of solutes across the inner mitochondrial membrane is catalyzed by a family of nuclear-encoded membrane-embedded proteins called mitochondrial carriers (MCs). The citrate carrier (CiC) and the carnitine/acylcarnitine transporter (CACT) are two members of the MCs family involved in fatty acid metabolism. By conveying acetyl-coenzyme A, in the form of citrate, from the mitochondria to the cytosol, CiC contributes to fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis; CACT allows fatty acid oxidation, transporting cytosolic fatty acids, in the form of acylcarnitines, into the mitochondrial matrix. Fatty acid synthesis and oxidation are inversely regulated so that when fatty acid synthesis is activated, the catabolism of fatty acids is turned-off. Malonyl-CoA, produced by acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, a key enzyme of cytosolic fatty acid synthesis, represents a regulator of both metabolic pathways. CiC and CACT activity and expression are regulated by different nutritional and hormonal conditions. Defects in the corresponding genes have been directly linked to various human diseases. This review will assess the current understanding of CiC and CACT regulation; underlining their roles in physio-pathological conditions. Emphasis will be placed on the molecular basis of the regulation of CiC and CACT associated with fatty acid metabolism. PMID:27231907

  7. The Citrate Carrier CitS Probed by Single-Molecule Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kästner, Christopher N.; Prummer, Michael; Sick, Beate; Renn, Alois; Wild, Urs P.; Dimroth, Peter

    2003-01-01

    A prominent region of the Na+-dependent citrate carrier (CitS) from Klebsiella pneumoniae is the highly conserved loop X-XI, which contains a putative citrate binding site. To monitor potential conformational changes within this region by single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy, the target cysteines C398 and C414 of the single-Cys mutants (CitS-sC398, CitS-sC414) were selectively labeled with the thiol-reactive fluorophores AlexaFluor 546/568 C5 maleimide (AF546, AF568). While both single-cysteine mutants were catalytically active citrate carriers, labeling with the fluorophore was only tolerated at C398. Upon citrate addition to the functional protein fluorophore conjugate CitS-sC398-AF546, complete fluorescence quenching of the majority of molecules was observed, indicating a citrate-induced conformational change of the fluorophore-containing domain of CitS. This quenching was specific for the physiological substrate citrate and therefore most likely reflecting a conformational change in the citrate transport mechanism. Single-molecule studies with dual-labeled CitS-sC398-AF546/568 and dual-color detection provided strong evidence for a homodimeric association of CitS. PMID:12609868

  8. Physiologically relevant divalent cations modulate citrate recognition by the McpS chemoreceptor.

    PubMed

    Lacal, Jesús; García-Fontana, Cristina; Callejo-García, Carla; Ramos, Juan-Luis; Krell, Tino

    2011-01-01

    The McpS chemoreceptor of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 recognizes six different tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates. However, the magnitude of the chemotactic response towards these compounds differs largely, which has led to distinguish between strong attractants (malate, succinate, fumarate, oxaloacetate) and weak attractants (citrate, isocitrate). Citrate is abundantly present in plant tissues and root exudates and can serve as the only carbon source for growth. Citrate is known to form complexes with divalent cations which are also abundantly present in natural habitats of this bacterium. We have used isothermal titration calorimetry to study the formation of citrate-metal ion complexes. In all cases binding was entropy driven but significant differences in affinity were observed ranging from K(D)=157 µM (for Mg(2+)) to 3 µM (for Ni(2+)). Complex formation occurred over a range of pH and ionic strength. The ligand binding domain of McpS (McpS-LBD) was found to bind free citrate, but not complexes with physiologically relevant Mg(2+) and Ca(2+). In contrast, complexes with divalent cations which are present as trace elements (Co(2+), Cd(2+) and Ni(2+)) were recognized by McpS-LBD. This discrimination differs from other citrate sensing proteins. These results are discussed in the context of the three dimensional structure of free citrate and its complex with Mg(2+). Chemotaxis assays using P. putida revealed that taxis towards the strong attractant malate is strongly reduced in the presence of free citrate. However, this reduction is much less important in the presence of citrate-Mg(2+) complexes. The physiological relevance of these findings is discussed.

  9. Effect of volume expansion on renal citrate and ammonia metabolism in KCl-deficient rats.

    PubMed Central

    Adler, S; Zett, B; Anderson, B; Fraley, D S

    1975-01-01

    When rats with desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-induced potassium chloride deficiency are given sodium chloride there is simultaneously a partial correction of metabolic alkalosis and a marked reduction in urinary citrate excretion and renal citrate content. To examine DOCA's role in this phenomenon and to determine how sodium chloride alters renal metabolism, rats were made KC1 deficient using furosemide and a KC1-deficient diet. Renal citrate and ammonia metabolism were then studied after chronic oral sodium chloride administration or acute volume expansion with isotonic mannitol. Although both maneuvers partially corrected metabolic alkalosis, sodium chloride raised serum chloride concentration while mannitol significantly decreased it. Urinary citrate excretion decreased to 10% of control in rats given NaCl and to 50% of control in rats infused with mannitol. The filtered load of citrate was constant or increased indicating increased tubular citrate reabsorption. Renal cortical citrate content also decreased approximately 50%. Renal cortical slices from KCl-deficient rats incubated in low or normal chloride media produced equal amounts of 14CO2 from (1, 5-14C) citrate. In addition, urinary ammonia excretion increased by over 300% in both groups. This occurred in the mannitol group despite increased urinary pH and flow rate indicating a rise in renal ammonia production. It seems that neither DOCA nor an increase in serum chloride concentration explains the experimental results. Rather, it appears that volume expansion is responsible for increased renal tubular citrate reabsorption and renal ammonia production. As these renal metabolic responses ordinarily occur in response to acidosis, the data are consistent with the hypothesis that volume expansion reduces renal cell pH in 3KCl-deficient rats. PMID:239022

  10. Investigation the efficacy of intra-articular prolotherapy with erythropoietin and dextrose and intra-articular pulsed radiofrequency on pain level reduction and range of motion improvement in primary osteoarthritis of knee

    PubMed Central

    Rahimzadeh, Poupak; Imani, Farnad; Faiz, Seyed Hamid Reza; Entezary, Saeed Reza; Nasiri, Ali Akbar; Ziaeefard, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Osteoarthritis is one of the most common diseases and the knee is the most commonly affected joint. Intra-articular prolotherapy is being utilized in acute and chronic pain management setting. This study was designed to compare the efficacy of three methods of intra-articular knee joint therapies with erythropoietin, dextrose, and pulsed radiofrequency. Materials and Methods: After approval by the Ethics Committee and explaining the therapeutic method to volunteers, 70 patients who were suffering from primary knee osteoarthrosis went through one of the treatment methods (erythropoietin, dextrose, and pulsed radiofrequency). The study was double-blind randomized clinical trial performed from December 2012 to July 2013. Patients’ pain level was assessed through the visual analog pain scale (VAS), and range of motion (ROM) was measured by goniometric method. Furthermore, patients’ satisfaction was assessed before and after different treatment methods in weeks 2, 4, and 12. For analysis, Chi-square, one-way ANOVA, and repeated measured ANOVA were utilized. Results: The demographic results among the three groups did not indicate any statistical difference. The mean VAS in erythropoietin group in the 2nd, 4th, and 12th weeks was 3.15 ± 1.08, 3.15 ± 1.08, and 3.5 ± 1.23, respectively (P ≤ 0.005). Knee joint ROM in the erythropoietin group in the 2nd, 4th, and 12th weeks was 124 ± 1.50, 124 ± 1.4, and 123 ± 1.53 respectively (P ≤ 0.005). Satisfaction score in the 12th week in erythropoietin group was extremely satisfied 15%, satisfied 55%, and moderately satisfied 30%, (P = 0.005). No specific side-effects were observed. Conclusion: Intra-articular prolotherapy with erythropoietin was more effective in terms of pain level reduction and ROM improvement compared with dextrose and pulsed radiofrequency. PMID:25422652

  11. Continuous venovenous hemodialysis with regional citrate anticoagulation in patients with liver failure: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Liver failure patients might be at risk for citrate accumulation during continuous venovenous hemodialysis (CVVHD) with regional citrate anticoagulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive capability of baseline liver function parameters regarding citrate accumulation, expressed as an increase in the calcium total/calcium ionized (Catot/Caion) ratio ≥2.5, and to describe the feasibility of citrate CVVHD in liver failure patients. Methods We conducted a prospective observational study in medical ICU patients treated in a German university hospital. We performed 43 CVVHD runs using citrate for regional anticoagulation in 28 critically ill patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis or acute liver failure (maximum of two CVVHD runs per patient). Liver function was characterized before CVVHD using laboratory parameters, calculation of Child-Pugh and Model of End-stage Liver Disease scores, and determination of the plasma disappearance rate of indocyanine green. In addition to blood gas analysis, we measured total calcium and citrate in serum at baseline and after definitive time points for each CVVHD run. Results Accumulation of citrate in serum correlated with an increase in the Catot/Caion ratio. Although the critical upper threshold of Catot/Caion ratio ≥2.5 was exceeded 10 times in seven different CVVHD runs, equalization of initial metabolic acidosis was possible without major disturbances of acid-base and electrolyte status. Standard laboratory liver function parameters showed poor predictive capabilities regarding citrate accumulation in terms of an elevated Catot/Caion ratio ≥2.5. In contrast, serum lactate ≥3.4 mmol/l and prothrombin time ≤26% predicted an increase in the Catot/Caion ratio ≥2.5 with high sensitivity (86% for both lactate and prothrombin time) and specificity (86% for lactate, 92% for prothrombin time). Conclusions Despite substantial accumulation of citrate in serum, CVVHD with regional citrate

  12. Purification of L-glutamate-dependent citrate lyase from Clostridium sphenoides and electron microscopic analysis of citrate lyase isolated from Rhodopseudomonas gelatinosa, Streptococcus diacetilactis and C. sphenoides.

    PubMed

    Antranikian, G; Klinner, C; Kümmel, A; Schwanitz, D; Zimmermann, T; Mayer, F; Gottschalk, G

    1982-08-01

    Citrate lyase from Clostridium sphenoides was purified 72-fold with a yield of 11%. In contrast to citrate lyase from other sources the activity of this enzyme was strictly dependent on the presence of L-glutamate. The purified enzyme was only stable in the presence of 150 mM L-glutamate or 7 mM L-glutamate plus glycerol, sucrose or bovine serum albumin. Changes of the L-glutamate pool and of enzyme activity in growing cells of C. sphenoides indicated that citrate lyase activity in this organism was regulated by the intracellular L-glutamate concentration. Citrate lyase isolated from C. sphenoides, Rhodopseudomonas gelatinosa and Streptococcus diacetilactis was investigated by electron microscopy using the negative staining technique. Three different projections of enzyme molecules were observed: 'star' form, 'ring' form and 'triangle' form. In samples from R. gelatinosa and S. diacetilactis, star and ring forms occurred in a ratio of about 1:9. Using the enzyme from S. diacetilactis it was demonstrated that this ratio could be altered in favour of the star form by the addition of citrate or tricarballylate. The triangle form was observed in less than 1% of all evaluated molecules and may represent a transition form. In lyase samples from C. sphenoides there existed a correlation between enzyme activity and the proportion of stars and rings at varying concentrations of L-glutamate.

  13. A Process-Based Model of TCA Cycle Functioning to Analyze Citrate Accumulation in Pre- and Post-Harvest Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Etienne, Audrey; Génard, Michel; Bugaud, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Citrate is one of the most important organic acids in many fruits and its concentration plays a critical role in organoleptic properties. The regulation of citrate accumulation throughout fruit development, and the origins of the phenotypic variability of the citrate concentration within fruit species remain to be clarified. In the present study, we developed a process-based model of citrate accumulation based on a simplified representation of the TCA cycle to predict citrate concentration in fruit pulp during the pre- and post-harvest stages. Banana fruit was taken as a reference because it has the particularity of having post-harvest ripening, during which citrate concentration undergoes substantial changes. The model was calibrated and validated on the two stages, using data sets from three contrasting cultivars in terms of citrate accumulation, and incorporated different fruit load, potassium supply, and harvest dates. The model predicted the pre and post-harvest dynamics of citrate concentration with fairly good accuracy for the three cultivars. The model suggested major differences in TCA cycle functioning among cultivars during post-harvest ripening of banana, and pointed to a potential role for NAD-malic enzyme and mitochondrial malate carriers in the genotypic variability of citrate concentration. The sensitivity of citrate accumulation to growth parameters and temperature differed among cultivars during post-harvest ripening. Finally, the model can be used as a conceptual basis to study citrate accumulation in fleshy fruits and may be a powerful tool to improve our understanding of fruit acidity. PMID:26042830

  14. Citrate Attenuates Adenine-Induced Chronic Renal Failure in Rats by Modulating the Th17/Treg Cell Balance.

    PubMed

    Ou, Yan; Li, Shuiqin; Zhu, Xiaojing; Gui, Baosong; Yao, Ganglian; Ma, Liqun; Zhu, Dan; Fu, Rongguo; Ge, Heng; Wang, Li; Jia, Lining; Tian, Lifang; Duan, Zhaoyang

    2016-02-01

    Citrate is commonly used as an anticoagulant in hemodialysis for chronic renal failure (CRF) and for the regulation of the immune dysfunction in CRF patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of citrate on the balance of T helper 17 (Th17) and regulatory T (Treg) cells in CRF. The levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (Scr) were significantly increased in the CRF model group compared to the control group, and were decreased in the citrate-treated groups. Citrate treatment inhibited the viability of Th17 cells while elevating the viability of Treg cells in CRF rats. Moreover, Th17-related cytokines significantly decreased while the Treg-related cytokines significantly increased with citrate treatment. Moreover, citrate had a negative influence on the deviation of Th17/Treg cells in CRF rats. Therefore, our study suggests that citrate had an anti-inflammatory effect on CRF through the modulation of the Th17/Treg balance.

  15. Gastroprotective effect of ranitidine bismuth citrate is associated with increased mucus bismuth concentration in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, S; Guth, P H; Paulsen, G; Kaunitz, J D

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antisecretory and bismuth compounds protect the gastric mucosa from injury resulting from non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. AIM: To study the mechanism underlying the gastroprotective effects of ranitidine bismuth citrate (GG311) in rats. METHODS: Indomethacin rat injury model and in vivo microscopy in which acid output, surface cell intracellular pH (pHi), gastric mucus gel thickness, and mucosal blood flow were measured simultaneously. RESULTS: In injury studies, GG311 dose dependently protected against severe injury induced by indomethacin (60 mg/kg subcutaneously). In in vivo microscopic studies, indomethacin significantly decreased mucus gel thickness and increased the initial rate of acidification of gastric surface cells when the superfusate pH was lowered from 7.4 to 1.0, and impaired pHi during acid exposure. Indomethacin had no effect on mucosal blood flow or acid output. GG311 alone had no effect on gel thickness, blood flow, or pHi homeostasis during acid exposure, but improved the initial acidification rate and pHi during superfusion with pH 1.0 solutions in the presence of indomethacin. In separate experiments, indomethacin pretreatment considerably increased gastric mucus bismuth concentrations in rats given GG311. CONCLUSIONS: The gastroprotective effect of GG311 against indomethacin induced gastric injury is associated with high and prolonged gastric mucus bismuth concentrations, which may impair proton permeation across the mucus gel. PMID:8977335

  16. Citrate sol-gel route to high Tc superconducting YBaCuO fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choy, Jin-Ho; Yoo, Jong-Seok; Park, Jung-Chul; Kang, Seong-Gu; Kim, Whan; Kang, Sang-Gu

    1991-12-01

    Drawing of the citrate gel fiber (diameter: 0.1∼2mm, length: ∞) was carried out within the pH range of 4.7∼6.1, which was theoretically estimated by considering the formation of ammine complexes in the solution. Single phase of YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ(Tc off-set ≅ 85K) could only be obtained if the gel fiber was treated at 900°C, but the special care should be made because of the significant weight loss at 200°C and 300°C due to the decomposition of nitrates and organic constituents. Therefore, the heating rate should be lower than 1°C/min in these temperature range. From the SEM data, it was found that the fiber consisted of polycrystalline with very round graines(ø ∼ 1μm). The chemical composition was estimated as Y:Ba:Cu=1:2:3 by EPMA and the ratio of trivalent to divalent copper and the oxygen deficiency were determined as YBa 2Cu 3+0.62Cu 2+2.38O 6.81 by the redox titration.

  17. Development and characterization of polymer-coated liposomes for vaginal delivery of sildenafil citrate.

    PubMed

    Refai, Hanan; Hassan, Doaa; Abdelmonem, Rehab

    2017-11-01

    Vaginal administration of sildenafil citrate has shown recently to develop efficiently the uterine lining with subsequent successful embryo implantation following in vitro fertilization. The aim of the present study was to develop sildenafil-loaded liposomes coated with bioadhesive polymers for enhanced vaginal retention and improved drug permeation. Three liposomal formulae were prepared by thin-film method using different phospholipid:cholesterol ratios. The optimal liposomal formulation was coated with bioadhesive polymers (chitosan and HPMC). A marked increase in liposomal size and zeta potential was observed for all coated liposomal formulations. HPMC-coated liposomes showed the greater bioadhesion and higher entrapment efficiency than chitosan-coated formulae. The in vitro release studies showed prolonged release of sildenafil from coated liposomes as compared to uncoated liposomes and sildenafil solution. Ex vivo permeation study revealed the enhanced permeation of coated relative to uncoated liposomes. Chitosan-coated formula demonstrated highest drug permeation and was thus selected for further investigations. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the successful coating of the liposomes by chitosan. Histopathological in vivo testing proved the efficacy of chitosan-coated liposomes to improve blood flow to the vaginal endometrium and to increase endometrial thickness. Chitosan-coated liposomes can be considered as potential novel drug delivery system intended for the vaginal administration of sildenafil, which would prolong system's retention at the vaginal site and enhance the permeation of sildenafil to uterine blood circulation.

  18. Colorimetric determination of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) through ion-associate complex formation.

    PubMed

    Amin, Alaa S; Moustafa, Moustafa E; El-Dosoky, Reham

    2009-01-01

    A simple, quick, accurate, and sensitive colorimetric method is described for the determination of sildenafil citrate (SLD). The method is based on the reaction of SLD with Congo Red, Sudan II, and Gentian Violet in buffered aqueous solutions at pH 2.5, 6.5, and 11.0, respectively, to give highly colored soluble ion-associate complex species; the colored products are quantitated colorimetrically at 523, 554, and 569 nm, respectively. The various experimental conditions were optimized. The stoichiometric ratio was found to be 1:1 for all ion associates; the calculated logarithmic stability constants were 8.51, 7.79, and 5.58, respectively. Beer's law was obeyed over the concentration range of 0.2-7.0 microg/mL, whereas the Ringbom optimum concentration range was 0.4-6.5 microg/mL. Values for molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity, and detection and quantification limits were also calculated. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of SLD in Viagra tablets and in serum samples by using the technique of standard additions with mean accuracy values of 100.06 +/- 1.14, 99.87 +/- 0.70, and 99.86 +/- 0.97% for Viagra tablets and 99.88 +/- 0.60, 99.90 +/- 0.90, and 100.24 +/- 0.80% for serum samples, respectively.

  19. Low-field magnetoresistance up to 400 K in double perovskite Sr{sub 2}FeMoO{sub 6} synthesized by a citrate route

    SciTech Connect

    Harnagea, L.; Jurca, B.; Berthet, P.

    2014-03-15

    A wet-chemistry technique, namely the citrate route, has been used to prepare high-quality polycrystalline samples of double perovskite Sr{sub 2}FeMoO{sub 6}. We report on the evolution of magnetic and magnetoresistive properties of the synthesized samples as a function of three parameters (i) the pH of the starting solution, (ii) the decomposition temperature of the citrate precursors and (iii) the sintering conditions. The low-field magnetoresistance (LFMR) value of our best samples is as high as 5% at room temperature for an applied magnetic field of 1 kOe. Additionally, the distinguishing feature of these samples is the persistence of LFMR, with a reasonably large value, up to 400 K which is a crucial parameter for any practical application. Our study indicates that the enhancement of LFMR observed is due to a good compromise between the grain size distribution and their magnetic polarization. -- Graphical abstract: The microstructure (left panel) and corresponding low-field magnetoresistance of one of the Sr{sub 2}FeMoO{sub 6} samples synthesized in the course of this work. Highlights: • Samples of Sr{sub 2}FeMoO{sub 6} are prepared using a citrate route under varying conditions. • Magnetoresistive properties are improved and optimized. • Low-field magnetoresitence values as large as 5% at 300 K/1 kOe are reported. • Persistence of low-field magnetoresistance up to 400 K.

  20. Citrate-hydrazine hydrogen-bonding driven single-step synthesis of tunable near-IR plasmonic, anisotropic silver nanocrystals: implications for SERS spectroscopy of inorganic oxoanions.

    PubMed

    Pattanayak, Satarupa; Swarnkar, Abhishek; Priyam, Amiya; Bhalerao, Gopal M

    2014-08-21

    A simplified, single-step aqueous synthesis route to tunable anisotropic silver nanocrystals (NCs) has been developed by tailoring the hydrogen-bonding interactions between a mild stabilizer, sodium citrate, and a mild reductant, hydrazine hydrate. The structure directing ability of the H-bonding interaction was harnessed by keeping a stoichiometric excess of hydrazine under ambient conditions (pH 7, 25 °C). Decreasing the synthesis temperature to 5 °C imparts rigidity to the citrate-hydrazine H-bonding network, and the plasmon peak moves from 500 to 550 nm (using 40 mM hydrazine). On lowering the pH from 7 to 5, the H-bonding is further strengthened due to partial protonation of citrate and the plasmon peak is tuned to 790 nm. Further, we found that, at 5 °C and pH 5, there also exists a sub-stoichiometric regime in which maximum tunability of the plasmon peak (790→1010 nm) is achieved with 1 mM hydrazine. HR-TEM reveals that the near-IR plasmonic NCs are nanopyramids having a pentagonal base with edge length varying from 15 nm to 30 nm. Through second derivative FTIR analysis, a correlation between hydrogen-bonded molecular vibrations and the plasmon tunability has been established. The anisotropic NCs exhibit significant Raman enhancement on the citrate molecules. Further, a solution-phase, non-resonant SERS spectroscopic detection method for an inorganic contaminant of ground water, arsenite, has also been developed.

  1. 75 FR 34360 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Bismuth Citrate; Confirmation of Effective...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... level of bismuth citrate as a color additive in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp. DATES... hair on the scalp. FDA gave interested persons until April 26, 2010, to file objections or requests...

  2. Pharmacokinetics of bismuth and ranitidine following single doses of ranitidine bismuth citrate

    PubMed Central

    KOCH, K M; DAVIS, I M; GOODING, A E; YIN, Y

    1996-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of bismuth and ranitidine derived from ranitidine bismuth citrate given in single oral doses ranging from 200 mg to 1600 mg were evaluated in healthy subjects. Bismuth was only minimally absorbed (<0.5% of the amount dosed) after administration of ranitidine bismuth citrate, and peak plasma concentrations never exceeded 33 ng ml−1 in any subject. Plasma concentrations and urinary recoveries of bismuth at doses up to and including 800 mg were relatively constant and not proportional to dose. Bismuth absorption was increased more than proportionally with the dose at 1600 mg. The pharmacokinetics of ranitidine after administration of ranitidine bismuth citrate were dose-proportional and consistent with previous observations for ranitidine administered alone. Ranitidine bismuth citrate was well-tolerated in single oral doses of up to 1600 mg. PMID:8864318

  3. Myocardial citrate metabolism in control subjects and patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, T T; Henningsen, P; Bagger, J P; Thomsen, P E; Eyjolfsson, K

    1980-10-01

    A significant release of citrate across the myocardium was demonstrated in twenty-two patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and in ten control subjects in fasting resting state. In both groups, increasingly negative arterio-coronary sinus (A-Cs) plasma citrate differences correlated positively to arterial plasma free fatty acid (FFA)concentrations and negatively to (A-Cs) differences of plasma glucose. This supports the hypothesis that a citrate inhibition of glycolysis at the site of phosphofructokinase is of regulatory importance for myocardial glucose metabolism, and suggests that FFA supress glucose utilization by the heart in many by this mechanism. The capacity of plasma FFA to increase myocardial citrate release was significantly higher in controls than in patients with CAD, and was found to be positively related to myocardial capacity of oxygen consumption as estimated from the product of heart rate and systolic blood pressure during an exercise tolerance test.

  4. 21 CFR 520.763c - Dithiazanine iodide and piperazine citrate suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... piperazine citrate). (b) Sponsor. See 054628 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) (d) Conditions of use—(1... for administration by stomach tube, it shall be labeled: “Federal law restricts this drug to use by...

  5. Preventing serpin aggregation: The molecular mechanism of citrate action upon antitrypsin unfolding

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, Mary C.; Morton, Craig J.; Feil, Susanne C.; Hansen, Guido; Adams, Julian J.; Parker, Michael W.; Bottomley, Stephen P.

    2008-11-21

    The aggregation of antitrypsin into polymers is one of the causes of neonatal hepatitis, cirrhosis, and emphysema. A similar reaction resulting in disease can occur in other human serpins, and collectively they are known as the serpinopathies. One possible therapeutic strategy involves inhibiting the conformational changes involved in antitrypsin aggregation. The citrate ion has previously been shown to prevent antitrypsin aggregation and maintain the protein in an active conformation; its mechanism of action, however, is unknown. Here we demonstrate that the citrate ion prevents the initial misfolding of the native state to a polymerogenic intermediate in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, we have solved the crystal structure of citrate bound to antitrypsin and show that a single citrate molecule binds in a pocket between the A and B beta-sheets, a region known to be important in maintaining antitrypsin stability.

  6. Kinetic studies of the regulation of mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase by citrate.

    PubMed Central

    Gelpí, J L; Dordal, A; Montserrat, J; Mazo, A; Cortés, A

    1992-01-01

    Mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase shows a complex regulation pattern in the presence of citrate. Previously published results indicate that this enzyme is activated by citrate in the NAD(+)----NADH direction and inhibited in the opposite direction. Moreover, high concentrations of L-malate or oxaloacetate produce deviations from the Michaelis-Menten behaviour. Results reported in this paper clearly show that citrate both activates and inhibits mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase in the same direction (NAD(+)----NADH), and in the same reaction medium, depending on substrate concentration. This surprising effect has made it necessary to propose a new kinetic mechanism that extends those previously suggested and allows us to explain both the citrate effect (activating or inhibitory) and the effect of high concentrations of L-malate and oxaloacetate. PMID:1567375

  7. Citrate influences microbial Fe hydroxide reduction via a dissolution-disaggregation mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunschweig, Juliane; Klier, Christine; Schröder, Christian; Händel, Matthias; Bosch, Julian; Totsche, Kai U.; Meckenstock, Rainer U.

    2014-08-01

    Microbial reduction of ferric iron is partly dependent on Fe hydroxide particle size: nanosized Fe hydroxides greatly exceed the bioavailability of their counterparts larger than 1 μm. Citrate as a low molecular weight organic acid can likewise stabilize colloidal suspensions against aggregation by electrostatic repulsion but also increase Fe bioavailability by enhancing Fe hydroxide solubility. The aim of this study was to see whether adsorption of citrate onto surfaces of large ferrihydrite aggregates results in the formation of a stable colloidal suspension by electrostatic repulsion and how this effect influences microbial Fe reduction. Furthermore, we wanted to discriminate between citrate-mediated colloid stabilization out of larger aggregates and ferrihydrite dissolution and their influence on microbial Fe hydroxide reduction. Dissolution kinetics of ferrihydrite aggregates induced by different concentrations of citrate and humic acids were compared to microbial reduction kinetics with Geobacter sulfurreducens. Dynamic light scattering results showed the formation of a stable colloidal suspension and colloids with hydrodynamic diameters of 69 (±37) to 165 (± 65) nm for molar citrate:Fe ratios of 0.1 to 0.5 and partial dissolution of ferrihydrite at citrate:Fe ratios ⩾ 0.1. No dissolution or colloid stabilization was detected in the presence of humic acids. Adsorption of citrate, necessary for dissolution, reversed the surface charge and led to electrostatic repulsion between sub-aggregates of ferrihydrite and colloid stabilization when the citrate:Fe ratio was above a critical value (⩽ 0.1). Lower ratios resulted in stronger ferrihydrite aggregation instead of formation of a stable colloidal suspension, owing to neutralization of the positive surface charge. At the same time, microbial ferrihydrite reduction increased from 0.029 to 0.184 mM h-1 indicating that colloids stabilized by citrate addition enhanced microbial Fe reduction. Modelling of

  8. [THE MODERN PROSPECT FOR CITRATE MIXTURES IN THE TREATMENT OF UROLITHIASIS].

    PubMed

    Chepurov, A K; Pronkin, E A; Bolotov, A D

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a review of literature on the use of litholytic citrate medications for conservative management of urolithiasis. Urate urolithiasis is the most common clinical condition encountered by urologists. Citrate agents, in particular Blemaren, not only may be employed in a conservative therapy of uric acid stones, but can also be successfully used in the treatment of the calcium urolithiasis, i.e. mixed composition stones, which is supported by current international urology guidelines.

  9. The role of citrate and phthalate during Co(II) coprecipitation with calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young J.; Reeder, Richard J.

    2006-05-01

    The influence of citrate and phthalate on Co coprecipitation with calcite was investigated using a combination of batch experiments, Fourier-transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) over a wide range of precipitation rates. Steady-state growth conditions (at constant [Ca], [Co], DIC, and pH) were generally achieved within 3-5 h, after which Co(II) partitioning into calcite was evaluated. Only minor differences are observed in the partition coefficient ( Kd) trends with and without citrate and phthalate as a function of calcite precipitation rate except at very low rates. Slight inhibition of calcite growth is observed in the presence of citrate or phthalate, which can be attributed to adsorption at surface sites. TGA curves for samples coprecipitated with citrate show a significant mass loss between 375 and 550 °C, whereas the weight-loss curves for the Co-phthalate coprecipitates are indistinguishable from those of the organic-free Co coprecipitates. This indicates that citrate is incorporated into calcite during calcite crystallization, whereas phthalate is excluded. FT-IR spectra for the sample with citrate show a broad absorption in the range 3700-3100 cm -1, which is attributable to water molecules coordinated to citrate coprecipitated with calcite. The preferential incorporation of citrate over phthalate likely reflects differences in both aqueous speciation and conformation of the carboxylate groups. This new finding may provide new insight to the factors that control the behavior of macromolecules and their incorporation into the structure of calcium carbonate during biomineralization.

  10. Synergistic iron reduction and citrate dissimilation by Shewanella alga and Aeromonas veronii

    PubMed

    Knight; Caccavo; Wudyka; Blakemore

    1996-10-17

    Two bacterial isolates from Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire, in co-culture carried out anaerobic dissimilation of citric acid with Fe(III) as the terminal electron acceptor. Neither isolate oxidized citrate with Fe(III) anaerobically in axenic culture. The Fe(III) reducer, Shewanella alga strain BrY, did not grow anaerobically with citrate as an energy source. The citrate utilizer, Aeromonas veronii, did not reduce iron axenically with a variety of electron donors including citrate. The onset of iron reduction by the co-culture occurred after initiation of citrate dissimilation and just prior to initiation of growth by either organism (as measured by viable plate counts). Anaerobic culture growth rates and final cell densities of each bacterial strain were greater in co-culture than in axenic cultures. By 48 h of growth, the co-culture had consumed 27 mM citrate as compared with 12 mM dissimilated by the axenic culture of A. veronii. By 48 h the co-culture produced half as much formate (6 mM) and twice as much acetate (40 mM) as did A. veronii grown axenically (12 mM and 20 mM, respectively). Formate produced from citrate by A. veronii appeared to have supported growth and Fe(III) reduction by S. alga.Although not obligatory, nutrient coupling between these two organisms illustrates that fermentative (A. veronii-type) organisms can convert organic compounds such as citrate to those used as substrates by dissimilatory Fe(III) reducers, including S. alga. This synergism broadens the range of substrates available for iron reduction, stimulates the extent and rate of organic electron donor degradation (and that of iron reduction) and enhances the growth of each participant.

  11. Anaerobic regulation of citrate fermentation by CitAB in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kaneyoshi; Matsumoto, Fumika; Oshima, Taku; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Ogasawara, Naotake; Ishihama, Akira

    2008-11-01

    In Escherichia coli, CitB, a cognate response regulator of CitA, specifically bound to the promoter regions for mdh, citA, citC, and exuT. Transcription of these genes was induced by citrate under anaerobic conditions in a CitAB-dependent manner. Taking this together, we conclude that CitAB is the master regulatory system that activates the set of genes involved in citrate fermentation in E. coli.

  12. Clomiphene citrate treatment for late onset hypogonadism: rise and fall

    PubMed Central

    Marconi, Marcelo; Souper, Renato; Hartmann, Jonathan; Alvarez, Matías; Fuentes, Ignacio; Guarda, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Previous series have demonstrated that Clomiphene Citrate (CC) is an effective treatment to increase Total Testosterone (TT) in Late Onset Hypogonadism (LOH) patients. However, what happens to TT levels after ending CC treatment is still debatable. The objective of this study is to evaluate TT levels 3 months after the discontinuation of CC in patients with LOH who were previously successfully treated with the same drug. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven patients with LOH that were successfully treated (achieved TT levels >11nmol/l) with CC 50mgs daily for 50 days were prospectively recruited in our Andrological outpatient clinic. CC was then stopped for 3 months and TT levels were measured at the end of this period. Results: Mean TT level before discontinuation of CC was 22.7±8.1nmol/L (mean±SD). Three months after discontinuation, mean TT level significantly decreased in all patients, 10.2±3.9nmol/l (p<0.01). Twenty-one patients (78%) decreased TT levels under 11nmol/L. Six patients (22%) had TT levels that remained within the normal recommended range (≥11nmol/l). No statistical significant differences were observed between both groups. Conclusion: In the short term LOH does not seem to be a reversible condition in most patients after CC treatment. More studies with longer follow-up are needed to evaluate the kinetics of TT in LOH. PMID:27622282

  13. Assembly of citrate gold nanoparticles on hydrophilic monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikholm-Lundin, Inger; Rosqvist, Emil; Ihalainen, Petri; Munter, Tony; Honkimaa, Anni; Marjomäki, Varpu; Albers, Willem M.; Peltonen, Jouko

    2016-08-01

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) as model surfaces were linked onto planar gold films thorough lipoic acid or disulfide groups. The molecules used were polyethylene glycol (EG-S-S), N-[tris-(hydroxymethyl)methyl]acrylamide polymers with and without lipoic acid (Lipa-pTHMMAA and pTHMMAA) and a lipoic acid triazine derivative (Lipa-MF). All the layers, but Lipa-MF with a primary amino group were hydroxyl terminated. The layers were characterized by contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy, AFM. Citrate stabilized nanoparticles, AuNPs in water and phosphate buffer were allowed to assemble on the layers for 10 min and the binding was followed in real-time with surface plasmon resonance, SPR. The SPR resonance curves were observed to shift to higher angles and become increasingly damped, while also the peaks strongly broaden when large nanoparticles assembled on the surface. Both the angular shift and the damping of the curve was largest for nanoparticles assembling on the EG-S-S monolayer. High amounts of particles were also assembled on the pTHMMAA layer without the lipoic acid group, but the damping of the curve was considerably lower with a more even distribution of the particles. Topographical images confirmed that the highest number of particles were assembled on the polyethylene glycol monolayer. By increasing the interaction time more particles could be assembled on the surface.

  14. A rapid method to estimate the concentration of citrate capped silver nanoparticles from UV-visible light spectra.

    PubMed

    Paramelle, D; Sadovoy, A; Gorelik, S; Free, P; Hobley, J; Fernig, D G

    2014-10-07

    We present a generalized table of extinction coefficient data for silver nanoparticles from 8 to 100 nm. This table allows for easy and quick estimation of the concentration and size of modified and mono-dispersed silver nanoparticles from their optical spectra. We obtained data by determining the silver content of citrate-stabilised silver nanoparticles using sodium cyanide to dissolve the nanoparticles, and measuring solution conductivity with a pH meter and a cyanide-ion selective electrode. The quantification of the silver ion concentration enabled the calculation of extinction coefficients. Experimentally calculated extinction coefficients, in the current work, are in good agreement with collated literature values measured by different authors with non-standardized methodology and each for a limited range of particle size. They are also in good agreement with our theoretical calculations using Mie theory. Thus, we provide a highly standardized and comprehensive tabulated reference data-set.

  15. OsFRDL1 is a citrate transporter required for efficient translocation of iron in rice.

    PubMed

    Yokosho, Kengo; Yamaji, Naoki; Ueno, Daisei; Mitani, Namiki; Ma, Jian Feng

    2009-01-01

    Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) transporters represent a large family in plants, but their functions are poorly understood. Here, we report the function of a rice (Oryza sativa) MATE gene (Os03g0216700, OsFRDL1), the closest homolog of barley (Hordeum vulgare) HvAACT1 (aluminum [Al]-activated citrate transporter 1), in terms of metal stress (iron [Fe] deficiency and Al toxicity). This gene was mainly expressed in the roots and the expression level was not affected by either Fe deficiency or Al toxicity. Knockout of this gene resulted in leaf chlorosis, lower leaf Fe concentration, higher accumulation of zinc and manganese concentration in the leaves, and precipitation of Fe in the root's stele. The concentration of citrate and ferric iron in the xylem sap was lower in the knockout line compared to the wild-type rice. Heterologous expression of OsFRDL1 in Xenopus oocytes showed transport activity for citrate. Immunostaining showed that OsFRDL1 was localized at the pericycle cells of the roots. On the other hand, there was no difference in the Al-induced secretion of citrate from the roots between the knockout line and the wild-type rice. Taken together, our results indicate that OsFRDL1 is a citrate transporter localized at the pericycle cells, which is necessary for efficient translocation of Fe to the shoot as a Fe-citrate complex.

  16. Overexpression of Citrus junos mitochondrial citrate synthase gene in Nicotiana benthamiana confers aluminum tolerance.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wei; Luo, Keming; Li, Zhengguo; Yang, Yingwu; Hu, Nan; Wu, Yu

    2009-07-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is one of the major factors that limit plant growth in acid soils. Al-induced release of organic acids into rhizosphere from the root apex has been identified as a major Al-tolerance mechanism in many plant species. In this study, Al tolerance of Yuzu (Citrus Junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) was tested on the basis of root elongation and the results demonstrated that Yuzu was Al tolerant compared with other plant species. Exposure to Al triggered the exudation of citrate from the Yuzu root. Thus, the mechanism of Al tolerance in Yuzu involved an Al-inducible increase in citrate release. Aluminum also elicited an increase of citrate content and increased the expression level of mitochondrial citrate synthase (CjCS) gene and enzyme activity in Yuzu. The CjCS gene was cloned from Yuzu and overexpressed in Nicotiana benthamiana using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated methods. Increased expression level of the CjCS gene and enhanced enzyme activity were observed in transgenic plants compared with the wild-type plants. Root growth experiments showed that transgenic plants have enhanced levels of Al tolerance. The transgenic Nicotiana plants showed increased levels of citrate in roots compared to wild-type plants. The exudation of citrate from roots of the transgenic plants significantly increased when exposed to Al. The results with transgenic plants suggest that overexpression of mitochondrial CS can be a useful tool to achieve Al tolerance.

  17. Assessment of Multiplate® platelet aggregometry using Citrate, Heparin or Hirudin in Rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Dugan, Greg; O’Donnell, Lisa; Hanbury, David B.; Cline, J. Mark; Caudell, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Electrical impedance aggregometry (EIA) has gained popularity for clinical and research applications. Nonhuman primates are used to study disease and drug-related mechanisms that affect hemostasis, therefore normal establishing normal EIA parameters are necessary. The anticoagulants sodium heparin, hirudin and sodium citrate and three agonists, ADP, ASPI, and collagen were evaluated. Whole blood from 12 adult male rhesus macaques was collected to evaluate anticoagulants, sodium heparin, hirudin and sodium citrate using three agonists (ADP, ASPI and collagen), on the Multiplate® 5.0 Analyzer. Platelet function was reported for three parameters: Area under the curve (AUC), aggregation, and aggregation velocity. There was a significant difference in mean AUC between citrate and heparin samples, and citrate and hirudin samples regardless of the agonist used. There was no difference in AUC between heparin and hirudin. ADP-activated samples showed an increase in impedance with hirudin samples compared to citrate. Furthermore heparin and hirudin out-perform citrate as the anticoagulant for EIA in the macaque. Finally, this study demonstrates the utility of the Multiplate® system in this model and provides important insight into anticoagulant choice when using EIA. PMID:25549285

  18. Citrate and celecoxib induce apoptosis and decrease necrosis in synergistic manner in canine mammary tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Vahidi, R; Safi, S; Farsinejad, A; Panahi, N

    2015-10-16

    Celecoxib and citrate have been shown to possess antitumor activity in a variety of cancer cells. However, the antitumor activities of these agents in canine mammary tumors have not been well demonstrated. The aim of our study was to investigate the apoptotic and antiproliferative effects of citrate and celecoxib, individually and in combination, on canine mammary tumor cell line CF41—Mg. MTT assay was performed to determine cell viability, and Annexin—PI test was performed to evaluate apoptosis induction. MTT assay results revealed that compared with the control groups, treatment groups, as both single and combined treatments, showed significant inhibition of tumor growth in a dose—dependent manner. IC50 concentrations of citrate and celecoxib were defined 26mM and 22μM, respectively. In another set of experiment, significant increase in cell apoptosis was observed at IC50 concentrations of citrate and celecoxib after 48h incubation. In spite of that, simultaneous treatment of cells with citrate and celecoxib eventuated with meaningful toxicity augmentation and induction of apoptosis at lower concentrations. Also necrotic cells were decreased by coadministration of the two agents. In conclusion, the present study indicates significant cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of citrate and celecoxib coadministration on CF41—Mg cells, and proposes new strategies for counteracting cancer cells proliferation and overcoming chemo resistance.

  19. Citrate, a Ubiquitous Key Metabolite with Regulatory Function in the CNS.

    PubMed

    Westergaard, Niels; Waagepetersen, Helle S; Belhage, Bo; Schousboe, Arne

    2017-01-05

    Citrate is key constituent of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, serves as substrate for fatty acid and sterol biosynthesis, and functions as a key regulator of intermediary energy metabolism. Ursula Sonnewald had initiated studies using for the first time both proton- and (13)C-NMR to investigate metabolic processes in cultured neurons and astrocytes resulting in the important observation that citrate was specifically synthesized in and released from astrocytes in large amounts which is in keeping with the high concentration found in the CSF. The aim of this review is to highlight the possible roles of citrate in physiological and pathophysiological processes in the CNS. An interesting feature of citrate is its ability to chelate Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Zn(2+)and thereby playing a pivotal role as an endogenous modulator of glutamate receptors and in particular the NMDA subtypes of these receptors in the CNS. Besides its presence in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) citrate is also found in high amounts in prostate fluid reaching concentrations as high as 180 mM and here Zn(2+) seems also to play an important role, which makes prostate cells interesting for comparison of features of citrate and Zn(2+) between these cells and cells in the CNS.

  20. Citrate synthase encoded by the CIT2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is peroxisomal.

    PubMed Central

    Lewin, A S; Hines, V; Small, G M

    1990-01-01

    The product of the CIT2 gene has the tripeptide SKL at its carboxyl terminus. This amino acid sequence has been shown to act as a peroxisomal targeting signal in mammalian cells. We examined the subcellular site of this extramitochondrial citrate synthase. Cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were grown on oleate medium to induce peroxisome proliferation. A fraction containing membrane-enclosed vesicles and organelles was analyzed by sedimentation on density gradients. In wild-type cells, the major peak of citrate synthase activity was recovered in the mitochondrial fraction, but a second peak of activity cosedimented with peroxisomes. The peroxisomal activity, but not the mitochondrial activity, was inhibited by incubation at pH 8.1, a characteristic of the extramitochondrial citrate synthase encoded by the CIT2 gene. In a strain in which the CIT1 gene encoding mitochondrial citrate synthase had been disrupted, the major peak of citrate synthase activity was peroxisomal, and all of the activity was sensitive to incubation at pH 8.1. Yeast cells bearing a cit2 disruption were unable to mobilize stored lipids and did not form stable peroxisomes in oleate. We conclude that citrate synthase encoded by CIT2 is peroxisomal and participates in the glyoxylate cycle. Images PMID:2181273

  1. SbnG, a citrate synthase in Staphylococcus aureus: A new fold on an old enzyme

    DOE PAGES

    Kobylarz, Marek J.; Grigg, Jason C.; Sheldon, Jessica R.; ...

    2014-10-21

    In response to iron deprivation, Staphylococcus aureus produces staphyloferrin B, a citrate-containing siderophore that delivers iron back to the cell. This bacterium also possesses a second citrate synthase, SbnG, that is necessary for supplying citrate to the staphyloferrin B biosynthetic pathway. In this paper, we present the structure of SbnG bound to the inhibitor calcium and an active site variant in complex with oxaloacetate. The overall fold of SbnG is structurally distinct from TCA cycle citrate synthases yet similar to metal-dependent class II aldolases. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that SbnG forms a separate clade with homologs from other siderophore biosynthetic genemore » clusters and is representative of a metal-independent subgroup in the phosphoenolpyruvate/pyruvate domain superfamily. Finally, a structural superposition of the SbnG active site to TCA cycle citrate synthases and site-directed mutagenesis suggests a case for convergent evolution toward a conserved catalytic mechanism for citrate production.« less

  2. Transport of citrate across renal brush border membrane: effects of dietary acid and alkali loading

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, A.D.; Dousa, T.P.; Smith, L.H.

    1985-10-01

    Dietary acid or alkali loading was given to rats by providing 150 mM NH4Cl or 150 mM NaHCO3 in place of drinking water for 6 days; control animals received 150 mM NaCl. After 6 days, the citrate clearance was 0.04 +/- 0.01 ml/min (mean +/- SE) in the acid-loaded group, 0.9 +/- 0.1 ml/min in the control group, and 2.5 +/- 0.2 ml/min in the alkali-loaded group. At the end of the experiment, the rats were killed, and the Na gradient-dependent citrate uptake was measured in brush border membrane (BBM) vesicles prepared from each group. At 0.3 min, the ( UC)citrate uptake was 198 +/- 8 pmol/mg protein (mean +/- SE) in the acid-loaded group, 94 +/- 16 pmol/mg protein in the control group, and 94 +/- 13 pmol/mg protein in the alkali-loaded group. The rate of Na -independent (NaCl in medium replaced by KCl) ( UC)-citrate uptake by BBM vesicles was the same for acid-loaded, control, and alkali-loaded animals. Thus, the increased capacity of the proximal tubular BBM to transport citrate from the tubular lumen into the cell interior may be an important factor that contributes to decreased urinary citrate in the presence of metabolic acidosis induced by chronic dietary acid loading.

  3. Clinical review: Anticoagulation for continuous renal replacement therapy - heparin or citrate?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Heparin is the most commonly prescribed anticoagulant for continuous renal replacement therapy. There is, however, increasing evidence questioning its safety, particularly in the critically ill. Heparin mainly confers its anticoagulant effect by binding to antithrombin. Heparin binds to numerous other proteins and cells as well, however, compromising its efficacy and safety. Owing to antithrombin consumption and degradation, and to the binding of heparin to acute phase proteins, and to apoptotic and necrotic cells, critical illness confers heparin resistance. The nonspecific binding of heparin further leads to an unpredictable interference with inflammation pathways, microcirculation and phagocytotic clearance of dead cells, with possible deleterious consequences for patients with sepsis and systemic inflammation. Regional anticoagulation with citrate does not increase the patient's risk of bleeding. The benefits of citrate further include a longer or similar circuit life, and possibly better patient and kidney survival. This needs to be confirmed in larger randomized controlled multicenter trials. The use of citrate might be associated with less inflammation and has useful bio-energetic implications. Citrate can, however, with inadequate use cause metabolic derangements. Full advantages of citrate can only be realized if its risks are well controlled. These observations suggest a greater role for citrate. PMID:21345279

  4. Potassium citrate decreases urine calcium excretion in patients with hypocitraturic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Song, Yan; Hernandez, Natalia; Shoag, Jonathan; Goldfarb, David S; Eisner, Brian H

    2016-04-01

    Two previous studies (<10 patients each) have demonstrated that alkali therapy may reduce urine calcium excretion in patients with calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. The hypothesized mechanisms are (1) a decrease in bone turnover due to systemic alkalinization by the medications; (2) binding of calcium by citrate in the gastrointestinal tract; (3) direct effects on TRPV5 activity in the distal tubule. We performed a retrospective review of patients on potassium citrate therapy to evaluate the effects of this medication on urinary calcium excretion. A retrospective review was performed of a metabolic stone database at a tertiary care academic hospital. Patients were identified with a history of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis and hypocitraturia who were on potassium citrate therapy for a minimum of 3 months. 24-h urine composition was assessed prior to the initiation of potassium citrate therapy and after 3 months of therapy. Patients received 30-60 mEq potassium citrate by mouth daily. Inclusion criterion was a change in urine potassium of 20 mEq/day or greater, which suggests compliance with potassium citrate therapy. Paired t test was used to compare therapeutic effect. Twenty-two patients were evaluated. Mean age was 58.8 years (SD 14.0), mean BMI was 29.6 kg/m(2) (SD 5.9), and gender prevalence was 36.4% female:63.6% male. Mean pre-treatment 24-h urine values were as follows: citrate 280.0 mg/day, potassium 58.7 mEq/day, calcium 216.0 mg/day, pH 5.87. Potassium citrate therapy was associated with statistically significant changes in each of these parameters-citrate increased to 548.4 mg/day (p < 0.0001), potassium increased to 94.1 mEq/day (p < 0.0001), calcium decreased to 156.5 mg/day (p = 0.04), pH increased to 6.47 (p = 0.001). Urine sodium excretion was not different pre- and post-therapy (175 mEq/day pre-therapy versus 201 mEq/day post-therapy, p = NS). Urinary calcium excretion decreased by a mean of 60 mg/day on potassium citrate therapy-a nearly 30

  5. Sildenafil citrate attenuates the deleterious effects of elevated ammonia.

    PubMed

    Arafa, Manar H; Atteia, Hebatallah H

    2013-07-01

    Ammonia is a bi-product of protein metabolism in the body. It is able to cross the blood-brain barrier and elevated ammonia levels are toxic to the brain. Rats with hyperammonemia showed impaired learning ability and impaired function of the glutamate-nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (glutamate-NO-cGMP) pathway in the brain. Chronic treatment with sildenafil restored learning ability. We therefore tested the hypothesis that sildenafil has a protective effect on the brains of hyperammonemic rats. Hyperammonemia was induced in male rats by daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of ammonium chloride (100 mg/kg body weight) for 8 weeks. Sildenafil citrate was administered intraperitoneally (10 mg/kg body weight/3 days) for 8 weeks. Treatment with sildenafil resulted in a significant reduction in plasma liver enzymes, lipid profile as well as brain lipid peroxidation and caspase-3 mRNA. Meanwhile, plasma NO as well as cGMP, antioxidants and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene expression were significantly elevated in the brains of hyperammonemic rats. Our results showed that sildenafil exerts a protective effect on the brain by reversing oxidative stress during hyperammonemia and this could be due to (i) cytoprotective, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects (ii) increasing cGMP and enhancing the proper metabolism of fats which could suppress oxygen radical generation and thus preventing oxidative damage in the brain. The exact protective mechanism of sildenafil has to be still investigated and further studies are warranted. Consequently, therapeutic modulation of the NO/cGMP pathway might have important clinical applications to improve brain functions in patients with hyperammonemia or clinical hepatic encephalopathy.

  6. Testosterone restoration using enclomiphene citrate in men with secondary hypogonadism: a pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic study

    PubMed Central

    Wiehle, Ronald; Cunningham, Glenn R; Pitteloud, Nelly; Wike, Jenny; Hsu, Kuang; Fontenot, Gregory K; Rosner, Michele; Dwyer, Andrew; Podolski, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine the pharmacodynamic profile of serum total testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in men with secondary hypogonadism after initial and chronic daily oral doses of enclomiphene citrate vs transdermal testosterone. To determine the effects of daily oral doses of enclomiphene citrate in comparison with transdermal testosterone on other hormones and markers in men with secondary hypogonadism. Patients and Methods This was a randomized, single-blind, two-centre, phase II study to evaluate the effects of three different doses of enclomiphene citrate (6.25, 12.5 and 25 mg) vs transdermal testosterone on 24-h LH and total testosterone in otherwise normal healthy men with secondary hypogonadism. Forty-eight men were enrolled in the trial (the intent-to-treat population), but four men had testosterone levels >350 ng/dL at baseline. Forty-four men completed the study per protocol. All subjects enrolled in this trial had serum total testosterone in the low range (<350 ng/dL) and had low to normal LH (<12 IU/L) on at least two occasions. Total testosterone and LH levels were assessed each hour for 24 h to examine the effects at each of three treatment doses of enclomiphene citrate vs a standard dose (5 g) of transdermal testosterone. In the initial profile, total testosterone and LH were determined in a naïve population after a single initial oral or transdermal treatment (day 1). This was contrasted to that seen after 6 weeks of continuous daily oral or transdermal treatment (day 42). The pharmacokinetics of enclomiphene citrate were assessed in a select subpopulation. Serum samples were obtained over the course of the study to determine the levels of various hormones and lipids. Results After 6 weeks of continuous use, the mean (sd) concentration of total testosterone at day 42 was 604 (160) ng/dL for men taking the highest dose of enclomiphene citrate (enclomiphene citrate, 25 mg daily) and 500 (278) ng in those men treated with transdermal

  7. Calcium and phosphorus solubility in neonatal intravenous feeding solutions.

    PubMed Central

    MacMahon, P; Mayne, P D; Blair, M; Pope, C; Kovar, I Z

    1990-01-01

    The limited solubility of calcium and phosphorus in standard parenteral nutrition formulations has restricted the ability to provide sufficient minerals to preterm infants to prevent substrate deficient metabolic bone disease. We determined the solubility limits of calcium and phosphorus in a total of 160 formulations under carefully controlled conditions. By increasing the concentrations of dextrose, amino acids, and by using Addiphos instead of 8.7% dipotassium hydrogen phosphate as the phosphorus source, higher concentrations of both calcium and phosphorus were held in solution. This should permit the delivery of increased concentrations of these minerals at rates which approximate fetal accretion. PMID:2110803

  8. Protective effects of sildenafil citrate administration on cisplatin-induced ovarian damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Taskin, Mine Islimye; Yay, Arzu; Adali, Ertan; Balcioglu, Esra; Inceboz, Umit

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of sildenafil citrate on cisplatin-induced ovarian toxicity. Thirty-two female rats were divided into four groups. Group 1: saline control; group 2: cisplatin; group 3: sildenafil citrate; and group 4: cisplatin plus sildenafil citrate group. In groups 2 and 4, the rats were injected with 5 mg/kg cisplatin intraperitoneally (i.p.). In groups 3 and 4, the rats were injected with 1.4 mg/kg sildenafil citrate i.p. The ovaries were removed two weeks later in all groups. Histopathologic examination, follicle counting and classification were performed. The expression of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) was detected immunohistochemically in the ovarian tissues. Sildenafil alleviated cisplatin-induced histopathological changes in the ovarian tissue. Primordial, secondary and tertiary follicles were diminished in group 2 compared with group 1 (p < 0.05). Pretreatment with sildenafil citrate preserved primordial follicle count in group 4 compared with group 2, and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). According to our results, immunoreactivity intensity of AMH was lower in group 2 compared with group 1 (92.4 ± 3.97 versus 88.8 ± 1.77) but not significantly, whereas immunoreactivity intensity of AMH was higher in group 4 compared with group 2 (88.8 ± 1.77 versus 94.1 ± 2.36; p < 0.05). Our results demonstrated that pretreatment with sildenafil citrate is beneficial for protecting the ovaries from cisplatin-induced damage. Sildenafil citrate can be a choice for fertility preservation.

  9. Differential modulation of citrate synthesis and release by fatty acids in perfused working rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Genevieve; Bouchard, Bertrand; Khairallah, Maya; Des Rosiers, Christine

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the effect of increasing fatty acid concentrations on substrate fluxes through pathways leading to citrate synthesis and release in the heart. This was accomplished using semirecirculating work-performing rat hearts perfused with substrate mixtures mimicking the in situ milieu (5.5 mM glucose, 8 nM insulin, 1 mM lactate, 0.2 mM pyruvate, and 0.4 mM oleate-albumin) and 13C methods. Raising the fatty acid concentration from 0.4 to 1 mM with long-chain oleate or medium-chain octanoate resulted in a lowering ( approximately 20%) of cardiac output and efficiency with unaltered O2 consumption. At the metabolic level, beyond the expected effects of high fatty acid levels on the contribution of pyruvate decarboxylation (reduced >3-fold) and beta-oxidation (enhanced approximately 3-fold) to citrate synthesis, there was also a 2.4-fold lowering of anaplerotic pyruvate carboxylation. Despite the dual inhibitory effect of high fatty acids on pyruvate decarboxylation and carboxylation, tissue citrate levels were twofold higher, but citrate release rates remained unchanged at 11-14 nmol/min, representing <0.5% of citric acid cycle flux. A similar trend was observed for most metabolic parameters after oleate or octanoate addition. Together, these results emphasize a differential modulation of anaplerotic pyruvate carboxylation and citrate release in the heart by fatty acids. We interpret the lack of effects of high fatty acid concentrations on citrate release rates as suggesting that, under physiological conditions, this process is maximal, probably limited by the activity of its mitochondrial or plasma membrane transporter. Limited citrate release at high fatty acid concentrations may have important consequences for the heart's fuel metabolism and function.

  10. Citrate-permeable channels in the plasma membrane of cluster roots from white lupin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Hao; Ryan, Peter R; Tyerman, Stephen D

    2004-11-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus) is well adapted to phosphorus deficiency by developing cluster roots that release large amounts of citrate into the rhizosphere to mobilize the sparingly soluble phosphorus. To determine the mechanism underlying citrate release from cluster roots, we isolated protoplasts from different types of roots of white lupin plants grown in phosphorus-replete (+P) and phosphorus-deficient (-P) conditions and used the patch-clamp technique to measure the whole-cell currents flowing across plasma membrane of these protoplasts. Two main types of anion conductance were observed in protoplasts prepared from cluster root tissue: (1) an inwardly rectifying anion conductance (IRAC) activated by membrane hyperpolarization, and (2) an outwardly rectifying anion conductance (ORAC) that became more activated with membrane depolarization. Although ORAC was an outward rectifier, it did allow substantial inward current (anion efflux) to occur. Both conductances showed citrate permeability, with IRAC being more selective for citrate3- than Cl- (PCit/PCl = 26.3), while ORAC was selective for Cl- over citrate (PCl/PCit = 3.7). Both IRAC and ORAC were sensitive to the anion channel blocker anthracene-9-carboxylic acid. These currents were also detected in protoplasts derived from noncluster roots of -P plants, as well as from normal (noncluster) roots of plants grown with 25 microm phosphorus (+P). No differences were observed in the magnitude or frequency of IRAC and ORAC currents between the cluster roots and noncluster roots of -P plants. However, the IRAC current from +P plants occurred less frequently than in the -P plants. IRAC was unaffected by external phosphate, but ORAC had reduced inward current (anion efflux) when phosphate was present in the external medium. Our data suggest that IRAC is the main pathway for citrate efflux from white lupin roots, but ORAC may also contribute to citrate efflux.

  11. Optimalization of Poly(neutral red) Coated-wire Electrode for Determination of Citrate in Soft Drinks

    PubMed Central

    Broncová, Gabriela; Shishkanova, Tatiana V.; Krondak, Martin; Volf, Radko; Král, Vladimír

    2008-01-01

    This report presents an optimization of potentiometric measurements with citrate-selective electropolymerized poly(neutral red) electrodes. The optimal background electrolyte for these measurements is a TRIS buffer with nitrate at pH 8.5. The electrodes described here exhibit stable and reproducible near-Nernstian response to citrates with a low detection limit of 6 × 10-6 M. Electrodes polymerized from sulfuric acid and acetonitrile are compared in detail. Simple and sensitive method for quantification of citrate in real-life samples by potentiometry with poly(neutral red) electrodes are presented. Data from potentiometric measurements of citrate are compared with capillary electrophoresis. PMID:27879724

  12. Catabolite repression of the citrate fermentation genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae: evidence for involvement of the cyclic AMP receptor protein.

    PubMed

    Meyer, M; Dimroth, P; Bott, M

    2001-09-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is able to grow anaerobically with citrate as a sole carbon and energy source by a fermentative pathway involving the Na(+)-dependent citrate carrier CitS, citrate lyase, and oxaloacetate decarboxylase. The corresponding genes are organized in the divergent citC and citS operons, whose expression is strictly dependent on the citrate-sensing CitA-CitB two-component system. Evidence is provided here that the citrate fermentation genes are subject to catabolite repression, since anaerobic cultivation with a mixture of citrate and glucose or citrate and gluconate resulted in diauxic growth. Glucose, gluconate, and also glycerol decreased the expression of a chromosomal citS-lacZ fusion by 60 to 75%, whereas a direct inhibition of the citrate fermentation enzymes was not observed. The purified cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) of K. pneumoniae bound to two sites in the citC-citS intergenic region, which were centered at position -41.5 upstream of the citC and citS transcriptional start sites. Binding was apparently stimulated by the response regulator CitB. These data indicate that catabolite repression of the citrate fermentation genes is exerted by CRP and that in the absence of repressing carbon sources the cAMP-CRP complex serves to enhance the basal, CitB-dependent transcription level.

  13. Generation of circularly permuted fluorescent-protein-based indicators for in vitro and in vivo detection of citrate.

    PubMed

    Honda, Yuki; Kirimura, Kohtaro

    2013-01-01

    Indicators for citrate, particularly those applicable to its in vivo detection and quantitation, have attracted much interest in both biochemical studies and industrial applications since citrate is a key metabolic intermediate playing important roles in living cells. We generated novel fluorescence indicators for citrate by fusing the circularly permuted fluorescent protein (cpFP) and the periplasmic domain of the bacterial histidine kinase CitA, which can bind to citrate with high specificity. The ratiometric fluorescent signal change was observed with one of these cpFP-based indicators, named CF98: upon addition of citrate, the excitation peak at 504 nm increased proportionally to the decrease in the peak at 413 nm, suitable for build-in quantitative estimation of the binding compound. We confirmed that CF98 can be used for detecting citrate in vitro at millimolar levels in the range of 0.1 to 50 mM with high selectivity; even in the presence of other organic acids such as isocitrate and malate, the fluorescence intensity of CF98 remains unaffected. We finally demonstrated the in vivo applicability of CF98 to estimation of the intracellular citrate concentration in Escherichia coli co-expressing the genes encoding CF98 and the citrate carrier CitT. The novel indicator CF98 can be a specific and simple detection tool for citrate in vitro and a non-invasive tool for real-time estimation of intracellular concentrations of the compound in vivo.

  14. Inhibition of calcium oxalate monohydrate growth by citrate and the effect of the background electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Matthew L.; Qiu, S. Roger; Hoyer, John R.; Casey, William H.; Nancollas, George H.; De Yoreo, James J.

    2007-08-01

    Pathological mineralization is a common phenomenon in broad range of plants and animals. In humans, kidney stone formation is a well-known example that afflicts approximately 10% of the population. Of the various calcium salt phases that comprise human kidney stones, the primary component is calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM). Citrate, a naturally occurring molecule in the urinary system and a common therapeutic agent for treating stone disease, is a known inhibitor of COM. Understanding the physical mechanisms of citrate inhibition requires quantification of the effects of both background electrolytes and citrate on COM step kinetics. Here we report the results of an in situ AFM study of these effects, in which we measure the effect of the electrolytes LiCl, NaCl, KCl, RbCl, and CsCl, and the dependence of step speed on citrate concentration for a range of COM supersaturations. We find that varying the background electrolyte results in significant differences in the measured step speeds and in step morphology, with KCl clearly producing the smallest impact and NaCl the largest. The kinetic coefficient for the former is nearly three times larger than for the latter, while the steps change from smooth to highly serrated when KCl is changed to NaCl. The results on the dependence of step speed on citrate concentration show that citrate produces a dead zone whose width increases with citrate concentration as well as a continual reduction in kinetic coefficient with increasing citrate level. We relate these results to a molecular-scale view of inhibition that invokes a combination of kink blocking and step pinning. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the classic step-pinning model of Cabrera and Vermilyea (C-V model) does an excellent job of predicting the effect of citrate on COM step kinetics provided the model is reformulated to more realistically account for impurity adsorption, include an expression for the Gibbs-Thomson effect that is correct for all supersaturations

  15. Anti-diabetic properties of chromium citrate complex in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Wu, Xiangyang; Zhao, Ting; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Jiangli; Mao, Guanghua; Yang, Liuqing

    2011-12-01

    The chromium citrate complex [CrCIT] was synthesized and its structure was determined by infrared, UV-visible and atomic absorption spectroscopy, elemental and thermodynamic analysis. Anti-diabetic activity, oxidative DNA damage capacity and acute oral toxicity of [CrCIT] were investigated and compared with that of chromium trichloride hexahydrate. [CrCIT] was synthesized in a single step reaction by chelating chromium(III) with citric acid in aqueous solution. The molecular formula of [CrCIT] was inferred as CrC(6)H(5)O(7)·4H(2)O. The anti-diabetic activity of the complex [CrCIT] was assessed in alloxan-diabetic rats by daily oral gavage for 3 weeks. The biological activity results showed that the complex at the dose of 0.25-0.75 mg Cr/kg body weight could decrease the blood glucose level and increase liver glycogen level in alloxan-diabetic rats. [CrCIT] had more beneficial influences on the improvement of controlling blood glucose, serum lipid and liver glycogen levels compared with CrCl(3)·6H(2)O. Furthermore, [CrCIT] did not cause oxidative DNA damage under physiologically relevant conditions, and [CrCIT] did not produce any hazardous symptoms or deaths in acute oral toxicity test, showing the LD(50) value for female and male rats were higher than 15.1 g/kg body weight. The results suggested that [CrCIT] might represent a novel and proper chromium supplement with potential therapeutic value to control blood glucose in diabetes.

  16. Transformations of citrate and Tween coated silver nanoparticles reacted with Na₂S.

    PubMed

    Baalousha, M; Arkill, K P; Romer, I; Palmer, R E; Lead, J R

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are susceptible to transformations in environmental and biological media such as aggregation, oxidation, dissolution, chlorination, sulfidation, formation/replacement of surface coatings following interaction with natural organic matter (NOM). This paper investigates the impact of surface coating and Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) on the transformations and behavior of Ag NPs (citrate coated and Tween coated; cit-Ag NPs and Tween-Ag NPs, respectively), following reaction with different concentrations of Na2S solution (as a source of sulfide species, H2S and HS(-)). These transformations and the dominant mechanisms of transformations were investigated using UV-vis and scanning transmission electron microscopy coupled with electron energy loss spectroscopy. Here, we have shown that Ag NP surface coating impacts their dissolution following dilution in ultrahigh purity water, with higher extent of dissolution of Tween-Ag NPs compared with cit-Ag NPs. Tween-Ag NPs are susceptible to dissolution following their sulfidation at low S/Ag molar ratio. Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) slows down the dissolution of Tween-Ag NPs at low sulfide concentrations and reduces the aggregation of cit-Ag NP in the presence of sodium sulfide. Sulfidation appears to occur by direct interaction of sulfide species with Ag NPs rather than by indirect reaction of sulfide with dissolved Ag species subsequent to dissolution. Furthermore, the sulfidation process results in the formation of partially sulfidized Ag NPs containing unreacted (metallic) subgrains at the edge of the NPs for Tween-Ag NPs in the presence of high sulfide concentration (2000nM Na2S), which occurred to less extent at lower Na2S concentration for Tween-Ag NPs and at all concentrations of Na2S for cit-Ag NPs. Thus, sulfidized Ag NPs may preserve some of the properties of the Ag NPs such as their potential to shed Ag(+) ions and their toxic potential of Ag NPs.

  17. Films based on neutralized chitosan citrate as innovative composition for cosmetic application.

    PubMed

    Libio, Illen C; Demori, Renan; Ferrão, Marco F; Lionzo, Maria I Z; da Silveira, Nádya P

    2016-10-01

    In this work, citrate and acetate buffers, were investigated as neutralizers to chitosan salts in order to provide biocompatible and stable films. To choose the appropriate film composition for this study, neutralized chitosan citrate and acetate films, with and without the plasticizer glycerol, were prepared and characterized by thickness, moisture content, degree of swelling, total soluble matter in acid medium, simultaneous thermal analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Chitosan films neutralized in citrate buffer showed greater physical integrity resulted from greater thicknesses, lower moisture absorbance, lower tendency to solubility in the acid medium, and better swelling capacities. According to thermal analyses, these films had higher interaction with water which is considered an important feature for cosmetic application. Since the composition prepared in citrate buffer without glycerol was considered to present better physical integrity, it was applied to investigate hyaluronic acid release in a skin model. Skins treated with those films, with or without hyaluronic acid, show stratum corneum desquamation and hydration within 10min. The results suggest that the neutralized chitosan citrate film prepared without glycerol promotes a cosmetic effect for skin exfoliation in the presence or absence of hyaluronic acid.

  18. Artificial citrate operon confers mineral phosphate solubilization ability to diverse fluorescent pseudomonads.

    PubMed

    Adhikary, Hemanta; Sanghavi, Paulomi B; Macwan, Silviya R; Archana, Gattupalli; Naresh Kumar, G

    2014-01-01

    Citric acid is a strong acid with good cation chelating ability and can be very efficient in solubilizing mineral phosphates. Only a few phosphate solubilizing bacteria and fungi are known to secrete citric acids. In this work, we incorporated artificial citrate operon containing NADH insensitive citrate synthase (gltA1) and citrate transporter (citC) genes into the genome of six-plant growth promoting P. fluorescens strains viz., PfO-1, Pf5, CHAO1, P109, ATCC13525 and Fp315 using MiniTn7 transposon gene delivery system. Comprehensive biochemical characterization of the genomic integrants and their comparison with plasmid transformants of the same operon in M9 minimal medium reveals the highest amount of ∼7.6±0.41 mM citric and 29.95±2.8 mM gluconic acid secretion along with ∼43.2±3.24 mM intracellular citrate without affecting the growth of these P. fluorescens strains. All genomic integrants showed enhanced citric and gluconic acid secretion on Tris-Cl rock phosphate (TRP) buffered medium, which was sufficient to release 200-1000 µM Pi in TRP medium. This study demonstrates that MPS ability could be achieved in natural fluorescent pseudomonads by incorporation of artificial citrate operon not only as plasmid but also by genomic integration.

  19. Effect of ranitidine bismuth citrate on postprandial plasma gastrin and pepsinogens.

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, A G; Lam, W M; Luk, Y W; Sercombe, J; Sawyerr, A M; Hudson, M; Samloff, I M; Pounder, R E

    1993-01-01

    Ranitidine bismuth citrate was compared with an equipotent dose of ranitidine, to determine whether the former, by an anti-Helicobacter pylori activity, would counteract the rise of gastrin resulting from ranitidine's gastric acid antisecretory activity. Twenty four men with duodenal ulcers were studied before and on the 8th day of dosing with either ranitidine bismuth citrate 800 mg twice daily or ranitidine 300 mg twice daily (double blind, randomised, parallel groups). Fasting and postprandial plasma gastrin and plasma pepsinogen I and II concentrations were measured, and a 13C-urea breath test was performed before and on the 8th day of dosing. The 13C-urea breath tests were positive in 21 patients before dosing and remained positive in nine of nine of the ranitidine dosed patients, whereas only two of 12 patients treated with ranitidine bismuth citrate remained positive. The expected rise in meal stimulated plasma gastrin with ranitidine was seen in the 12 patients who received ranitidine but, despite suppression of H pylori urease activity in 10 of 12 patients taking ranitidine bismuth citrate, there was no attenuation of the meal stimulated gastrin rise. There was no significant difference in the mean derived (4 hour) plasma pepsinogen I and II concentrations after dosing with ranitidine or ranitidine bismuth citrate. PMID:8472980

  20. Study on the Antimicrobial Properties of Citrate-Based Biodegradable Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Su, Lee-Chun; Xie, Zhiwei; Zhang, Yi; Nguyen, Kytai Truong; Yang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Citrate-based polymers possess unique advantages for various biomedical applications since citric acid is a natural metabolism product, which is biocompatible and antimicrobial. In polymer synthesis, citric acid also provides multiple functional groups to control the crosslinking of polymers and active binding sites for further conjugation of biomolecules. Our group recently developed a number of citrate-based polymers for various biomedical applications by taking advantage of their controllable chemical, mechanical, and biological characteristics. In this study, various citric acid derived biodegradable polymers were synthesized and investigated for their physicochemical and antimicrobial properties. Results indicate that citric acid derived polymers reduced bacterial proliferation to different degrees based on their chemical composition. Among the studied polymers, poly(octamethylene citrate) showed ~70–80% suppression to microbe proliferation, owing to its relatively higher ratio of citric acid contents. Crosslinked urethane-doped polyester elastomers and biodegradable photoluminescent polymers also exhibited significant bacteria reduction of ~20 and ~50% for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. Thus, the intrinsic antibacterial properties in citrate-based polymers enable them to inhibit bacteria growth without incorporation of antibiotics, silver nanoparticles, and other traditional bacteria-killing agents suggesting that the citrate-based polymers are unique beneficial materials for wound dressing, tissue engineering, and other potential medical applications where antimicrobial property is desired. PMID:25023605

  1. The FRD3 citrate effluxer promotes iron nutrition between symplastically disconnected tissues throughout Arabidopsis development.

    PubMed

    Roschzttardtz, Hannetz; Séguéla-Arnaud, Mathilde; Briat, Jean-François; Vert, Grégory; Curie, Catherine

    2011-07-01

    We present data supporting a general role for FERRIC REDICTASE DEFECTIVE3 (FRD3), an efflux transporter of the efficient iron chelator citrate, in maintaining iron homeostasis throughout plant development. In addition to its well-known expression in root, we show that FRD3 is strongly expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana seed and flower. Consistently, frd3 loss-of-function mutants are defective in early germination and are almost completely sterile, both defects being rescued by iron and/or citrate supply. The frd3 fertility defect is caused by pollen abortion and is associated with the male gametophytic expression of FRD3. Iron imaging shows the presence of important deposits of iron on the surface of aborted pollen grains. This points to a role for FRD3 and citrate in proper iron nutrition of embryo and pollen. Based on the findings that iron acquisition in embryo, leaf, and pollen depends on FRD3, we propose that FRD3 mediated-citrate release in the apoplastic space represents an important process by which efficient iron nutrition is achieved between adjacent tissues lacking symplastic connections. These results reveal a physiological role for citrate in the apoplastic transport of iron throughout development, and provide a general model for multicellular organisms in the cell-to-cell transport of iron involving extracellular circulation.

  2. Enhancing radium solubilization in soils by citrate, EDTA, and EDDS chelating amendments.

    PubMed

    Prieto, C; Lozano, J C; Blanco Rodríguez, P; Tomé, F Vera

    2013-04-15

    The effect of three chelating agents (citrate, EDTA, and EDDS) on the solubilization of radium from a granitic soil was studied systematically, considering different soil pH values, chelating agent concentrations, and leaching times. For all the chelating agents tested, the amount of radium leached proved to be strongly dependent on the pH of the substrate: only for acidic conditions did the amount of radium released increase significantly relative to the controls. Under the best conditions, the radium released from the amended soil was greater by factors of 20 in the case of citrate, 18 for EDTA, and 14 for EDDS. The greatest improvement in the release of radium was obtained for the citrate amendment at the highest concentration tested (50 mmol kg(-1)). A slightly lower amount of radium was leached with EDTA at 5 mmol kg(-1) soil, but the solubilization over time was very different from that observed with citrate or EDDS. With EDTA, a maximum in radium leaching was reached on the first day after amendment, while with citrate, the maximum was attained on the fourth day. With EDDS, radium leaching increased slightly but steadily with time (until the sixth day), but the net effect for the period tested was the lowest of the three reagents.

  3. Study on the Antimicrobial Properties of Citrate-Based Biodegradable Polymers.

    PubMed

    Su, Lee-Chun; Xie, Zhiwei; Zhang, Yi; Nguyen, Kytai Truong; Yang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Citrate-based polymers possess unique advantages for various biomedical applications since citric acid is a natural metabolism product, which is biocompatible and antimicrobial. In polymer synthesis, citric acid also provides multiple functional groups to control the crosslinking of polymers and active binding sites for further conjugation of biomolecules. Our group recently developed a number of citrate-based polymers for various biomedical applications by taking advantage of their controllable chemical, mechanical, and biological characteristics. In this study, various citric acid derived biodegradable polymers were synthesized and investigated for their physicochemical and antimicrobial properties. Results indicate that citric acid derived polymers reduced bacterial proliferation to different degrees based on their chemical composition. Among the studied polymers, poly(octamethylene citrate) showed ~70-80% suppression to microbe proliferation, owing to its relatively higher ratio of citric acid contents. Crosslinked urethane-doped polyester elastomers and biodegradable photoluminescent polymers also exhibited significant bacteria reduction of ~20 and ~50% for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. Thus, the intrinsic antibacterial properties in citrate-based polymers enable them to inhibit bacteria growth without incorporation of antibiotics, silver nanoparticles, and other traditional bacteria-killing agents suggesting that the citrate-based polymers are unique beneficial materials for wound dressing, tissue engineering, and other potential medical applications where antimicrobial property is desired.

  4. Radiolabeled porphyrin versus gallium-67 citrate for the detection of human melanoma in athymic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Maric, N.; Chan, S. Ming; Hoffer, P.B.; Duray, P.

    1987-01-01

    We performed the biodistribution and imaging studies of /sup 111/In and /sup 67/Ga labeled tetra(4-N-methylpyridyl) porphine, (T4NMPYP), and compared it to that of /sup 67/Ga citrate in athymic mice bearing a human melanoma xenograft. The biodistribution results of both /sup 111/In and /sup 67/Ga labeled T4NMPYP (3, 6, 24, and 48 hours) were similar but differed from that of /sup 67/Ga citrate (48 hours). The optimum tumor uptake of both radiolabeled porphyrins was at 6 hours postinjection and was lower than the tumor uptake of /sup 67/Ga citrate at 48 hours postinjection. Kidney was the only organ showing higher uptake of radiolabeled porphyrin compared to that of /sup 67/Ga citrate. The imaging studies performed with /sup 111/In T4NMPYP and /sup 67/Ga citrate correspond to the biodistribution results. Osteomyelitis present in one mouse showed good localization of /sup 111/In T4NMPYP. 15 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Fate of uranyl in a quaternary system composed of uranyl, citrate, goethite, and Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Bencheikh-Latmani, Rizlan; Leckie, James O; Bargar, John R

    2003-08-15

    This study investigated the partitioning of uranyl within a quaternary system made up of uranyl, citrate, goethite, and the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. In the absence of cells, uranyl was sorbed to goethite as a complex involving surface groups and/or citrate. Measurements of the evolution of CO2 indicated that the addition of bacterial cells lead to the gradual biodegradation of citrate. Throughout the biodegradation process, uranyl remained sorbed to the insoluble fraction comprised of goethite and cells. EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure) measurements showed that bacterial cells outcompeted goethite for uranyl under the experimental conditions and caused the repartitioning of uranyl from goethite to cell matter, independently from citrate degradation. Citrate degradation caused further release of uranyl from goethite surfaces, followed by subsequent association of uranyl with cells. At long equilibration times (3 months), cell lysis and phosphate release resulted in the precipitation of an autunite-like phase. This work suggests that bacterial degradation of uranyl-complexing ligands in contaminated subsurface media containing iron oxides should not necessarily lead to an increase in the mobility of uranyl.

  6. An active site–tail interaction in the structure of hexahistidine-tagged Thermoplasma acidophilum citrate synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Jesse R.; Donini, Stefano; Kappock, T. Joseph

    2015-09-23

    Citrate synthase from the thermophilic euryarchaeon T. acidophilum fused to a hexahistidine tag was purified and biochemically characterized. The structure of the unliganded enzyme at 2.2 Å resolution contains tail–active site contacts in half of the active sites. Citrate synthase (CS) plays a central metabolic role in aerobes and many other organisms. The CS reaction comprises two half-reactions: a Claisen aldol condensation of acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) and oxaloacetate (OAA) that forms citryl-CoA (CitCoA), and CitCoA hydrolysis. Protein conformational changes that ‘close’ the active site play an important role in the assembly of a catalytically competent condensation active site. CS from the thermoacidophile Thermoplasma acidophilum (TpCS) possesses an endogenous Trp fluorophore that can be used to monitor the condensation reaction. The 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of TpCS fused to a C-terminal hexahistidine tag (TpCSH6) reported here is an ‘open’ structure that, when compared with several liganded TpCS structures, helps to define a complete path for active-site closure. One active site in each dimer binds a neighboring His tag, the first nonsubstrate ligand known to occupy both the AcCoA and OAA binding sites. Solution data collectively suggest that this fortuitous interaction is stabilized by the crystalline lattice. As a polar but almost neutral ligand, the active site–tail interaction provides a new starting point for the design of bisubstrate-analog inhibitors of CS.

  7. [Fenibut and its citrate prevent psychoneurological disorders caused by chronic stress (paradoxical sleep deprivation)].

    PubMed

    Tiurenkov, I N; Bagmetova, V V; Borodkina, L E; Berestovitskaia, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2012-01-01

    The antistress protective action of two structural analogs of GABA, fenibut and its salt with citric acid (fenibut citrate, citrocard, RGPU-147), has been studied using a model of chronic stress caused by seven-fold 24-h deprivation of paradoxical sleep phase at an interval of 24 h between the deprivations. It is established that fenibut and fenibut citrate produce a protective action by (i) reducing the intensity of emotional disorders in the open-field test and elevated plus maze test, (ii) decreasing cognitive disorders in the tests for conditioned avoidance response and extrapolatory deliverance; and (iii) limiting stress reaction due to a decrease in the intensity of adrenal hypertrophy, thymus involution, and stomach mucous membrane ulceration. Fenibut citrate surpasses fenibut in the intensity of antistress protective action.

  8. Sildenafil citrate for the management of fetal growth restriction and oligohydramnios.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Rana; Desai, Kavita; Parekh, Hetal; Ganla, Kedar

    2016-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) and preeclampsia are the major causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality, which affect up to 8% of all pregnancies. The pathogenesis in FGR is an abnormal trophoblastic invasion leading to compromised uteroplacental circulation. However, in spite of this understanding and identification of high-risk patients, the management options are limited. There are some new studies which have demonstrated the role of sildenafil citrate in improving vasodilatation of small myometrial vessels and therefore improvement in amniotic fluid index, fetal weight, and even uterine and umbilical artery Doppler patterns. We report here the case of a 31-year-old female with infertility and preconceptional thin endometrium responding well to sildenafil citrate, followed by conception. However, she presented with an early-onset FGR at 26 weeks of gestation, and again after treatment with sildenafil citrate, showed improvement in amniotic fluid index and fetal weight, finally resulting in delivery of a full-term healthy baby with uneventful neonatal course.

  9. Interaction of monolaurin, eugenol and sodium citrate on growth of common meat spoilage and pathogenic organisms.

    PubMed

    Blaszyk, M; Holley, R A

    1998-02-17

    Interactions of monolaurin, eugenol (phenolic compound) and sodium citrate (chelator) on the growth of six organisms including common meat spoilage (Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus sake, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Brochothrix thermosphacta) and pathogenic (Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes) organisms were investigated. The combinations of 100 to 250 ppm monolaurin with 500 and 1000 ppm eugenol, and 0.2 and 0.4% sodium citrate were more effective than each component separately. More than one combination prevented detectable growth of each organism. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and E. coli O157:H7 were most resistant and L. monocytogenes and B. thermosphacta most sensitive to control by the chosen combinations. The presence of sodium citrate was necessary to yield potent inhibition of Lb. curvatus and Lb. sake growth by the monolaurin and eugenol combinations.

  10. Comparison of fluorine-18-2-fluorodeoxyglucose and gallium-67 citrate imaging for detection of lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, R.

    1987-03-01

    Patients with lymphomas are conventionally imaged with (/sup 67/Ga)citrate for tumor detection and determination of dissemination. Fluorine-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (( /sup 18/F)FDG) is a radiopharmaceutical that accumulates into tissues where glucose utilization is enhanced, such as tumors. Six cancer patients (five non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, one endodermal retroperitoneal sinus carcinoma) were imaged with (/sup 18/F)FDG and (/sup 67/Ga)citrate whole-body scintigraphies in order to compare the sensitivities of these two tumor imaging radiopharmaceuticals. Among the five untreated lymphoma patients, two /sup 67/Ga scans and four (/sup 18/F)FDG scans were positive; in the patient with the retroperitoneal carcinoma who had a positive (/sup 18/F)FDG scan before treatment, both scans were negative after treatment. Fluorine-18 FDG may be a more sensitive tumor-detecting radiopharmaceutical for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma than (/sup 67/Ga)citrate.

  11. Effects of Sodium Citrate Concentration on Electroless Ni-Fe Bath Stability and Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Myung-Won; Kang, Sung K.; Lee, Jae-Ho

    2014-01-01

    In this research, electroless Ni-Fe bath stability and deposition characteristics were investigated for various sodium citrate concentrations. Complexing agents such as sodium citrate are one of the main components of such electroless plating baths. Since they could play various roles such as maintaining pH stability, preventing precipitation of metal salts, and reducing the concentrations of free metal ions, the concentration of complexing agents in the plating bath is an important parameter for electroless deposition processes. In this research, unstable baths were obtained for insufficient sodium citrate concentrations, and these phenomena were analyzed with ChemEQL. Moreover, the deposition characteristics of electroless Ni-Fe for under bump metallurgy diffusion barriers were also investigated using energy-dispersive spectroscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy.

  12. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM AFTER BARIATRIC SURGERY: TREATMENT IS WITH CALCIUM CARBONATE OR CALCIUM CITRATE?

    PubMed Central

    BARETTA, Giorgio Alfredo Pedroso; CAMBI, Maria Paula Carlini; RODRIGUES, Arieli Luz; MENDES, Silvana Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    Background : Bariatric surgery, especially Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, can cause serious nutritional complications arising from poor absorption of essential nutrients. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is one such complications that leads to increased parathyroid hormone levels due to a decrease in calcium and vitamin D, which may compromise bone health. Aim : To compare calcium carbonate and calcium citrate in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Method : Patients were selected on the basis of their abnormal biochemical test and treatment was randomly done with citrate or calcium carbonate. Results : After 60 days of supplementation, biochemical tests were repeated, showing improvement in both groups. Conclusion : Supplementation with calcium (citrate or carbonate) and vitamin D is recommended after surgery for prevention of secondary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:26537273

  13. Phloretin and citrate promote the differentiation rate from epimastigote to metacyclic forms of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Adroher, F J; Osuna, A; Lupiáñez, J A

    1991-11-01

    We have investigated the effects of the metabolic inhibitors, phloretin, 2-deoxy-D-glucose, maleate and trans-aconitate, as well as two intermediates of the tricarboxylic-acid cycle, acetate and citrate, on the growth and metacyclogenesis of Trypanosoma cruzi. 0.1 mM phloretin increased the percentage of metacyclic forms about 2.7-fold without affecting growth rate, whereas the other inhibitors had no apparent effect on either growth or differentiation rates. The addition of 5 mM citrate stimulated differentiation by about 2.6-fold. When either 10 mM citrate or 10 mM acetate were added, on the other hand, both the growth and differentiation rates were severely inhibited.

  14. The influence of 1-butanol and trisodium citrate ion on morphology and chemical properties of chitosan-based microcapsules during rigidification by alkali treatment.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sudipta; Salaün, Fabien; Campagne, Christine

    2014-12-02

    Linseed oil which has various biomedical applications was encapsulated by chitosan (Chi)-based microcapsules in the development of a suitable carrier. Oil droplets formed in oil-in-water emulsion using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as emulsifier was stabilized by Chi, and microcapsules with multilayers were formed by alternate additions of SDS and Chi solutions in an emulsion through electrostatic interaction. No chemical cross-linker was used in the study and the multilayer shell membrane was formed by ionic gelation using Chi and SDS. The rigidification of the shell membrane of microcapsules was achieved by alkali treatment in the presence of a small amount of 1-butanol to reduce aggregation. A trisodium citrate solution was used to stabilize the charge of microcapsules by ionic cross-linking. Effects of butanol during alkali treatment and citrate in post alkali treatment were monitored in terms of morphology and the chemical properties of microcapsules. Various characterization techniques revealed that the aggregation was decreased and surface roughness was increased with layer formation.

  15. The Influence of 1-Butanol and Trisodium Citrate Ion on Morphology and Chemical Properties of Chitosan-Based Microcapsules during Rigidification by Alkali Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Sudipta; Salaün, Fabien; Campagne, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Linseed oil which has various biomedical applications was encapsulated by chitosan (Chi)-based microcapsules in the development of a suitable carrier. Oil droplets formed in oil-in-water emulsion using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as emulsifier was stabilized by Chi, and microcapsules with multilayers were formed by alternate additions of SDS and Chi solutions in an emulsion through electrostatic interaction. No chemical cross-linker was used in the study and the multilayer shell membrane was formed by ionic gelation using Chi and SDS. The rigidification of the shell membrane of microcapsules was achieved by alkali treatment in the presence of a small amount of 1-butanol to reduce aggregation. A trisodium citrate solution was used to stabilize the charge of microcapsules by ionic cross-linking. Effects of butanol during alkali treatment and citrate in post alkali treatment were monitored in terms of morphology and the chemical properties of microcapsules. Various characterization techniques revealed that the aggregation was decreased and surface roughness was increased with layer formation. PMID:25474188

  16. Dietary and Lifestyle Factors and Medical Conditions Associated with Urinary Citrate Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Eric N.; Curhan, Gary C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Lower urinary citrate excretion is a risk factor for nephrolithiasis and associated with metabolic acidosis and higher prevalence of hypertension and insulin resistance. This study sought to quantify the independent predictors of urinary citrate excretion in population-based cohorts. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A cross-sectional study of 2561 individuals from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study and Nurses’ Health Studies I and II who provided two 24-hour urine collections was conducted. Dietary data were ascertained from the semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Lifestyle and disease data were derived from responses to biennial questionnaires. Multivariable linear regression was used to quantify the predictors of urinary citrate excretion. Results After adjusting for age, urinary creatinine, dietary, and other factors, higher intake of nondairy animal protein (per 10 g/d; −20 mg/d; 95% confidence interval [−29 to −11]), higher body mass index (per 1 kg/m2; −4 mg/d; [−6 to −2]), and history of nephrolithiasis (−57 mg/d; [−79 to −36]), hypertension (−95 mg/d; [−119 to −71]), gout (−104 mg/d; [−155 to −54]), and thiazide use (−34 mg/d; [−68 to −1]) were independently associated with lower 24-hour urinary citrate excretion. Higher intake of potassium (per 1000 mg/d; 53 mg/d; [33 to 74]), higher urinary sodium (per 100 mEq/d; 56 mg/d; [31 to 80]), and history of diabetes (61 mg/d; [21 to 100]) were independently associated with higher citrate excretion. Conclusions Several dietary and lifestyle factors and medical conditions are independently associated with urinary citrate excretion. PMID:23449767

  17. Is magnesium citrate treatment effective on pain, clinical parameters and functional status in patients with fibromyalgia?

    PubMed

    Bagis, Selda; Karabiber, Mehmet; As, Ismet; Tamer, Lülüfer; Erdogan, Canan; Atalay, Ayçe

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between magnesium levels and fibromyalgia symptoms and to determine the effect of magnesium citrate treatment on these symptoms. Sixty premenopausal women diagnosed with fibromyalgia according to the ACR criteria and 20 healthy women whose age and weight matched the premenopausal women were evaluated. Pain intensity, pain threshold, the number of tender points, the tender point index, the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ), the Beck depression and Beck anxiety scores and patient symptoms were evaluated in all the women. Serum and erythrocyte magnesium levels were also measured. The patients were divided into three groups. The magnesium citrate (300 mg/day) was given to the first group (n = 20), amitriptyline (10 mg/day) was given to the second group (n = 20), and magnesium citrate (300 mg/day) + amitriptyline (10 mg/day) treatment was given to the third group (n = 20). All parameters were reevaluated after the 8 weeks of treatment. The serum and erythrocyte magnesium levels were significantly lower in patients with fibromyalgia than in the controls. Also there was a negative correlation between the magnesium levels and fibromyalgia symptoms. The number of tender points, tender point index, FIQ and Beck depression scores decreased significantly with the magnesium citrate treatment. The combined amitriptyline + magnesium citrate treatment proved effective on all parameters except numbness. Low magnesium levels in the erythrocyte might be an etiologic factor on fibromyalgia symptoms. The magnesium citrate treatment was only effective tender points and the intensity of fibromyalgia. However, it was effective on all parameters when used in combination with amitriptyline.

  18. Sildenafil citrate monohydrate-cyclodextrin nanosuspension complexes for use in metered-dose inhalers.

    PubMed

    Sawatdee, Somchai; Phetmung, Hirihattaya; Srichana, Teerapol

    2013-10-15

    Sildenafil is a selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. Sildenafil citrate monohydrate was complexed with α-, hydroxypropyl-β- and γ-cyclodextrin (α-CD, HP-β-CD and γ-CD, respectively) to enhance its water solubility. The complexes of sildenafil citrate monohydrate with all types of CDs were characterized by phase solubility diagrams, (1)H and (13)C NMR, and dielectric constants. Sildenafil citrate monohydrate complexed with CDs was developed as nanosuspensions for use in a pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI). Sildenafil citrate monohydrate pMDI formulations were prepared by a bottom-up process using dried ethanol as a solvent and HFA-134a as an antisolvent and propellant in order to form nanosuspensions. A 3×3 factorial design was applied for the contents of the dried ethanol and HFA-134a propellant. The phase solubility profiles of the sildenafil and cyclodextrins were described as AL type with a mole ratio 1:1. The piperazine moiety of sildenafil formed an inclusion in the cavity of the CDs. The particle diameters of the sildenafil citrate monohydrate suspensions in pMDIs were all within a nanosuspension size range. An assay of the sildenafil content showed that the formation of complexes with CDs was close to 100%. In the case of the formulations with CDs, the emitted doses varied within 97.4±10.8%, the fine particle fractions (FPFs) were in a range of 45-81%, the fine particle dose (FPD) was 12.6±2.0 μg and the mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMADs) were 1.86±0.41 μm. In contrast, the formulations without CDs produced a low emitted dose of sildenafil (<60%). Therefore, only sildenafil citrate monohydrate pMDI formulations containing CDs were suitable for use as aerosols.

  19. Use of Potassium Citrate to Reduce the Risk of Renal Stone Formation During Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Jones, J. A.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.; Hudson, E. K.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: NASA s Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA s objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre, in, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all inflight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that

  20. Comparison of Elaeagnus angustifolia Extract and Sildenafil Citrate on Female Orgasmic Disorders: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Zeinalzadeh, Sanaz; Zolghadri, Jaleh; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali; Faridi, Pouya; Sayadi, Mehrab

    2014-01-01

    Background Orgasmic disorder can create a feeling of deprivation and failure and provide mental problems, incompatibility and marital discord. This study aimed to compare the effects of Elaeagnus angustifolia flower extract and sildenafil citrate on female orgasmic disorder in women in 2013. Methods In this randomized clinical trial, 125 women between 18-40 years old who suffered from orgasmic disorder were divided into three E. angustifolia, sildenafil citrate and control groups. The data were gathered using Female Sexual Function Index and through measurement of TSH and prolactin. The first intervention group had to consume 4.5 gr E. angustifolia extract in two divided doses for 35 days and the second one had to use 50 mg sildenafil citrate tablets for 4 weeks one hour before their sexual relationship. However, the control group had to consume the placebo. The data were analyzed using paired t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Bonferroni posthoc test and p<0.05 was considered significant. Results The frequency of orgasmic disorder before the intervention was 41.5%, 40.5%, and 57.1% in E. angustifolia, sildenafil citrate, and control groups, respectively (p=0.23). However, these measures were respectively 29.3%, 16.7%, and 50% after the intervention (p=0.004). A significant difference between the two groups regarding sexual satisfaction after the intervention (p=0.003) compared to the beginning of the study (p=0.356). Besides, the highest reduction of changes after the intervention (58.82%) was observed in the sildenafil citrate group. Conclusion Both E. angustifolia extract and sildenafil citrate were effective in reduction of the frequency of orgasmic disorder in women. PMID:25473627

  1. Light wavelength influence on surface plasmon resonance in citrate-gold nanosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupusoru, Raoul-Vasile; Pricop, Daniela A.; Andries, Maria; Creanga, Dorina

    2016-12-01

    Citrate-gold particles were yielded according to classical method of auric salt reduction in two different synthesis media aiming to use them further applications in biomedical and environmental domains. The analysis of citrate-gold interaction was done through UV-vis and IR spectroscopy as well as by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Dark Field (DF) Microscopy. Average particle size was higher for citrate-gold NPs synthesized with NaOH (32.5 nm) than for NPs synthesized with NaCl (15 nm). Dimensional histograms of one year aged colloidal suspensions presented mean size of 29 nm and respectively 18 nm. The influence of 90 min light exposure, analyzed by UV-vis, evidenced that for both NaOH synthesis protocol and NaCl protocol, plasmon band maxima at 528 nm and respectively 538 nm didn't changed, neither for white nor for green light. For one year aged samples this band shifted to 540 nm for green light irradiation in the case of citrate-gold NPs synthesized with NaOH. Also, for these NPs, both green and white light exposures resulted in plasmon band intensity changes for native as well as for aged samples. FTIR investigation showed also different changes at the level of the intensity of main vibration bands of citrate-gold after exposure to light, suggesting stronger adsorption of citrate in the case of NaCl addition in the initial reaction medium than in the case of NaOH. Finally, the utilization of NaCl in the synthesis protocol seems to favor the synthesis of more stable and lower toxicity colloidal suspensions, both during time and under the light irradiation.

  2. Modulation of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystallization by citrate through selective binding to atomic steps

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, S R; Wierzbicki, A; Salter, E A; Zepeda, S; Orme, C A; Hoyer, J R; Nancollas, G H; Cody, A M; De Yoreo, J J

    2004-10-19

    The majority of human kidney stones are composed primarily of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals. Thus, determining the molecular mechanisms by which urinary constituents modulate calcium oxalate crystallization is crucial for understanding and controlling urolithiassis in humans. A comprehensive molecular-scale view of COM shape modification by citrate, a common urinary constituent, obtained through a combination of in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) and molecular modeling is now presented. We show that citrate strongly influences the growth morphology and kinetics on the (-101) face but has much lower effect on the (010) face. Moreover, binding energy calculations show that the strength of the citrate-COM interaction is much greater at steps than on terraces and is highly step-specific. The maximum binding energy, -166.5 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, occurs for the [101] step on the (-101) face. In contrast, the value is only -56.9 kJ {center_dot} mol-1 for the [012] step on the (010) face. The binding energies on the (-101) and (010) terraces are also much smaller, -65.4 and -48.9 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} respectively. All other binding energies lie between these extremes. This high selectivity leads to preferential binding of citrate to the acute [101] atomic steps on the (-101) face. The strong citrate-step interactions on this face leads to pinning of all steps, but the anisotropy in interaction strength results in anisotropic reductions in step kinetics. These anisotropic changes in step kinetics are, in turn, responsible for changes in the shape of macroscopic COM crystals. Thus, the molecular scale growth morphology and the bulk crystal habit in the presence of citrate are similar, and the predictions of molecular simulations are fully consistent with the experimental observations.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of Ferric Pyrophosphate Citrate, a Novel Iron Salt, Administered Intravenously to Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Swinkels, Dorine W.; Ikizler, T. Alp; Gupta, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ferric pyrophosphate citrate (Triferic) is a water‐soluble iron salt that is administered via dialysate to maintain iron balance and hemoglobin in hemodialysis patients. This double‐blind, randomized, placebo‐controlled, single‐, ascending‐dose study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and safety of intravenous ferric pyrophosphate citrate in 48 healthy iron‐replete subjects (drug, n = 36; placebo, n = 12). Single doses of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, or 10 mg of ferric pyrophosphate citrate or placebo were administered over 4 hours, and single doses of 15 or 20 mg of ferric pyrophosphate citrate or placebo were administered over 12 hours via intravenous infusion. Serum total iron (sFetot), transferrin‐bound iron (TBI), hepcidin‐25, and biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation were determined using validated assays. Marked diurnal variation in sFetot was observed in placebo‐treated subjects. Concentrations of sFetot and TBI increased rapidly after drug administration, with maximum serum concentrations (Cmax) reached at the end of infusion. Increases in baseline‐corrected Cmax and area under the concentration‐time curve from 0 to the time of the last quantifiable concentration (AUC0‐t) were dose proportional up to 100% transferrin saturation. Iron was rapidly cleared (apparent terminal phase half‐life 1.2‐2 hours). No significant changes from baseline in serum hepcidin‐25 concentration were observed at end of infusion for any dose. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation were unaffected. Intravenous doses of ferric pyrophosphate citrate were well tolerated. These results demonstrate that intravenous ferric pyrophosphate citrate is rapidly bound to transferrin and cleared from the circulation without increasing serum hepcidin levels or biomarkers of oxidative stress or inflammation. PMID:27557937

  4. Synthesis of copper/copper oxide nanoparticles by solution plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Genki; Hosokai, Sou; Tsubota, Masakatsu; Akiyama, Tomohiro

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of copper/copper oxide nanoparticles via a solution plasma, in which the effect of the electrolyte and electrolysis time on the morphology of the products was mainly examined. In the experiments, a copper wire as a cathode was immersed in an electrolysis solution of a K2CO3 with the concentration from 0.001 to 0.50 M or a citrate buffer (pH = 4.8), and was melted by the local-concentration of current. The results demonstrated that by using the K2CO3 solution, we obtained CuO nanoflowers with many sharp nanorods, the size of which decreased with decreasing the concentration of the solution. Spherical particles of copper with/without pores formed when the citrate buffer was used. The pores in the copper nanoparticles appeared when the applied voltage changed from 105 V to 130 V, due to the dissolution of Cu2O.

  5. All-proportional solid-solution Rh-Pd-Pt alloy nanoparticles by femtosecond laser irradiation of aqueous solution with surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarker, Md. Samiul Islam; Nakamura, Takahiro; Sato, Shunichi

    2015-06-01

    Formation of Rh-Pd-Pt solid-solution alloy nanoparticles (NPs) by femtosecond laser irradiation of aqueous solution in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or citrate as a stabilizer was studied. It was found that the addition of surfactant (PVP or citrate) significantly contributed to reduce the mean size of the particles to 3 nm for PVP and 10 nm for citrate, which was much smaller than that of the particles fabricated without any surfactants (20 nm), and improved the dispersion state as well as the colloidal stability. The solid-solution formation of the Rh-Pd-Pt alloy NPs was confirmed by the XRD results that the diffraction pattern was a single peak, which was found between the positions corresponding to each pure Rh, Pd, and Pt NPs. Moreover, all the elements were homogeneously distributed in every particle by STEM-EDS elemental mapping, strongly indicating the formation of homogeneous solid-solution alloy. Although the Rh-Pd-Pt alloy NPs fabricated with PVP was found to be Pt rich by EDS observation, the composition of NPs fabricated with citrate almost exactly preserved the feeding ratio of ions in the mixed solution. To our best knowledge, these results demonstrated for the first time, the formation of all-proportional solid-solution Rh-Pd-Pt alloy NPs with well size control.

  6. 76 FR 34048 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ..., which are intermediate products in the production of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate... factors of production (``FOP''), valued in a surrogate market-economy (``ME'') country or countries... respondents' factors of production.\\8\\ On November 17, 2010, Yixing Union identified both Indonesia and...

  7. 76 FR 4288 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from...

  8. 76 FR 77206 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China...'') has completed its administrative review of the countervailing duty (``CVD'') order on citric acid and... Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results...

  9. 76 FR 49735 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... review of the countervailing duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from..., 2011, Huangshi Xinghua Biochemical Co., Ltd. (``Xinghua''), a producer and exporter of citric...

  10. 77 FR 33167 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... conducting an administrative review of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on citric acid and citrate salts.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background On May 29, 2009, the Department published a CVD order on citric acid...

  11. 76 FR 47146 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China...'') published the initiation of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). See Initiation...

  12. 78 FR 54625 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period...

  13. 78 FR 34642 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... Department'') is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The period of review...

  14. 77 FR 1455 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). See... of the administrative review of citric acid from the PRC within this time limit....

  15. 76 FR 2648 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From People's Republic of China... initiation of administrative review of the countervailing duty order on citric acid and certain citrate...

  16. Comparison of samples obtained from 3.2% sodium citrate glass and two 3.2% sodium citrate plastic blood collection tubes used in coagulation testing.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, Robert C; Janatpour, Kim; Larkin, Edward C; Lee, Yanlap P; Owings, John T

    2004-12-01

    We sought to compare coagulation test results obtained from patients using 2 plastic blood collection tubes and the traditional glass blood collection tube. Blood specimens were obtained from 241 patients in 3.2% buffered sodium citrate using standard glass tubes, in 3.2% buffered sodium citrate in plastic tubes, and in 3.2% sodium citrate "sandwich" tubes (plastic within plastic). All samples were obtained and processed contemporaneously and tested for prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Residual plasma was frozen at -70 degrees C for future testing, including fibrinogen, antithrombin, plasminogen, protein C and protein S (functional and antigenic), dilute Russell viper venom time (DRVVT), ristocetin cofactor, factor XIII, D dimer, anti-Xa activity, and prothrombin fragment. Although paired t test analysis revealed statistically significant differences (P < .05) between glass and plastic for PT, aPTT, fibrinogen, protein C (functional and antigenic), functional protein S, DRVVT and confirmation method, antithrombin, and factor XIII, these differences were not considered clinically significant.

  17. Bright luminescence of Vibrio fischeri aconitase mutants reveals a connection between citrate and the Gac/Csr regulatory system.

    PubMed

    Septer, Alecia N; Bose, Jeffrey L; Lipzen, Anna; Martin, Joel; Whistler, Cheryl; Stabb, Eric V

    2015-01-01

    The Gac/Csr regulatory system is conserved throughout the γ-proteobacteria and controls key pathways in central carbon metabolism, quorum sensing, biofilm formation and virulence in important plant and animal pathogens. Here we show that elevated intracellular citrate levels in a Vibrio fischeri aconitase mutant correlate with activation of the Gac/Csr cascade and induction of bright luminescence. Spontaneous or directed mutations in the gene that encodes citrate synthase reversed the bright luminescence of aconitase mutants, eliminated their citrate accumulation and reversed their elevated expression of CsrB. Our data elucidate a correlative link between central metabolic and regulatory pathways, and they suggest that the Gac system senses a blockage at the aconitase step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, either through elevated citrate levels or a secondary metabolic effect of citrate accumulation, and responds by modulating carbon flow and various functions associated with host colonization, including bioluminescence.

  18. Synergistic effect in the oxidation of benzyl alcohol using citrate-stabilized gold bimetallic nanoparticles supported on alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Villarraga, Fernando; Radnik, Jörg; Martin, Andreas; Köckritz, Angela

    2016-06-01

    Bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) containing gold and various second metals ( M = Pd, Pt, Cu, and Ag) supported on alumina (AuM/Alumina) were prepared using sodium citrate as stabilizer. In addition, supported monometallic Au/Alumina and Pd/Alumina were synthesized and tested to reveal synergistic effects in the catalytic evaluation of the bimetallic catalysts. The monometallic and bimetallic NPs revealed average sizes below 10 nm. The oxidation of benzyl alcohol with molecular oxygen as oxidant at mild conditions in liquid phase in the absence and presence (toluene or NaOH aqueous solution, 0.2 M) of a solvent was selected as test reaction to evaluate the catalytic properties of the above-mentioned solids. AuPd/Alumina exhibited the best catalytic activity among all bimetallic catalysts using toluene as solvent and under solvent-free conditions, respectively. In comparison to the monometallic catalysts, a synergistic effect with AuPd/Alumina was only evident in the solvent-free reaction. The AuPd/Alumina catalyst was able to oxidize benzyl alcohol selectively depending on the reaction medium into benzaldehyde (toluene or solvent-free) or benzoic acid (NaOH aqueous solution, 0.2 M). However, the catalyst deactivated due to particle growth of the bimetallic AuPd NPs by Ostwald ripening and leaching was not observed in the oxidation using toluene as solvent. The size of the catalytically active NPs, the metal composition of the particles, and the reaction conditions greatly influenced the catalytic oxidation results.

  19. Sodium citrate assisted facile synthesis of AuPd alloy networks for ethanol electrooxidation with high activity and durability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Yanling; Zhu, Zhijun; Lu, Xiaolin; Zhou, H. Susan

    2016-10-01

    The direct ethanol fuel cell is an emerging energy conversion device for which palladium is considered as the one of the most effective components for anode catalyst, however, its widespread application has been still limited by the activity and durability of the anode catalyst. In this work, AuPd alloy networks (NWs) are synthesized using H2PdCl4 and HAuCl4 as precursors reduced by NaBH4 in the presence of sodium citrate (SC). The results reveal that SC plays significant role in network structure, resulting in the enhanced electrocatalytic activity of the catalyst. This self-supported AuPd NWs catalyst exhibits much higher electrochemical catalytic activity than commercial Pd/C catalyst toward ethanol electrooxidation in alkaline solution. Significantly, AuPd NWs catalyst shows extremely high durability at the beginning of the chronoamperometry test, and as high as 49% of the mass current density (1.41 A/mgPd) remains after 4000 s current-time test at -0.3 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in N2-saturated KOH-ethanol solution. This strategy provides a facile method for the preparation of alloy networks with high electrochemical activity, and can be potentially expanded to a variety of electrochemical applications.

  20. Enhanced citric acid biosynthesis in Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 by overexpression of the Escherichia coli citrate synthase gene.

    PubMed

    Buch, Aditi D; Archana, G; Kumar, G Naresh

    2009-08-01

    Citric acid secretion by fluorescent pseudomonads has a distinct significance in microbial phosphate solubilization. The role of citrate synthase in citric acid biosynthesis and glucose catabolism in pseudomonads was investigated by overexpressing the Escherichia coli citrate synthase (gltA) gene in Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525. The resultant approximately 2-fold increase in citrate synthase activity in the gltA-overexpressing strain Pf(pAB7) enhanced the intracellular and extracellular citric acid yields during the stationary phase, by about 2- and 26-fold, respectively, as compared to the control, without affecting the growth rate, glucose depletion rate or biomass yield. Decreased glucose consumption was paralleled by increased gluconic acid production due to an increase in glucose dehydrogenase activity. While the extracellular acetic acid yield increased in Pf(pAB7), pyruvic acid secretion decreased, correlating with an increase in pyruvate carboxylase activity and suggesting an increased demand for the anabolic precursor oxaloacetate. Activities of two other key enzymes, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase, remained unaltered, and the contribution of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and isocitrate lyase to glucose catabolism was negligible. Strain Pf(pAB7) demonstrated an enhanced phosphate-solubilizing ability compared to the control. Co-expression of the Synechococcus elongatus PCC 6301 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and E. coli gltA genes in P. fluorescens ATCC 13525, so as to supplement oxaloacetate for citrate biosynthesis, neither significantly affected citrate biosynthesis nor caused any change in the other physiological and biochemical parameters measured, despite approximately 1.3- and 5-fold increases in citrate synthase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activities, respectively. Thus, our results demonstrate that citrate synthase is rate-limiting in enhancing citrate biosynthesis in P. fluorescens ATCC 13525

  1. Study of influence of fuel on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of bismuth titanate ceramics synthesized using solution based combustion technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subohi, Oroosa; Kumar, G. S.; Malik, M. M.; Kurchania, Rajnish

    2015-03-01

    The effect of fuel characteristics on the processing and properties of bismuth titanate (BIT) ceramics obtained by solution combustion route using different fuels are reported in this paper. Dextrose, urea and glycine were used as fuel in this study. The obtained bismuth titanate ceramics were characterized by using XRD, SEM at different stages of sample preparation. It was observed that BIT obtained by using dextrose as fuel shows higher dielectric constant and higher remnant polarization due to smaller grain size and lesser c-axis growth as compared to the samples with urea and glycine as fuel. The electrical behavior of the samples with respect to temperature and frequency was also investigated to understand relaxation phenomenon.

  2. Citrate metabolism in blood transfusions and its relationship due to metabolic alkalosis and respiratory acidosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kai; Xu, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic alkalosis commonly results from excessive hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium (K+) and water (H2O) loss from the stomach or through the urine. The plasma anion gap increases in non-hypoproteinemic metabolic alkalosis due to an increased negative charge equivalent on albumin and the free ionized calcium (Ca++) content of plasma decreases. The mean citrate load in all patients was 8740±7027 mg from 6937±6603 mL of transfused blood products. The citrate load was significantly higher in patients with alkalosis (9164±4870 vs. 7809±3967, P < 0.05). The estimated mean total citrate administered via blood and blood products was calculated as 43.2±34.19 mg/kilogram/day. In non-massive and frequent blood transfusions, the elevated carbon dioxide output has been shown to occur. Due to citrate metabolism causes intracellular acidosis. As a result of intracellular acidosis compensation, decompensated metabolic alkalosis + respiratory acidosis and electrolyte imbalance may develop, blood transfusions may result in certain complications. PMID:26131288

  3. Effect of bismuth citrate, lactose, and organic acid on necrotic enteritis in broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clostridium perfringens – associated necrotic enteritis causes significant losses and increased morbidity in poultry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bismuth citrate and acidifiers on the development of necrotic enteritis in broilers. The first study was a dose response t...

  4. A comparison of kaolin-activated versus nonkaolin-activated thromboelastography in native and citrated blood.

    PubMed

    Thalheimer, Ulrich; Triantos, Christos K; Samonakis, Dimitrios N; Zambruni, Andrea; Senzolo, Marco; Leandro, Gioacchino; Patch, David; Burroughs, Andrew K

    2008-09-01

    Thromboelastography can be performed with native or citrated blood (a surrogate to native blood in healthy controls, surgical and cirrhotic patients). Activators such as kaolin are increasingly used to reduce the time to trace generation. To compare kaolin-activated thromboelastography with nonkaolin-activated thromboelastography of native and citrated blood in patients with liver disease, patients undergoing treatment with warfarin or low-molecular weight heparin and healthy volunteers. We studied thromboelastography parameters in 21 healthy volunteers (group 1) and 50 patients, including 20 patients with liver cirrhosis with a nonbiliary aetiology (group 2), 10 patients with primary biliary cirrhosis or primary sclerosing cholangitis (group 3), 10 patients on warfarin treatment (group 4) and 10 patients with enoxaparin prophylaxis (group 5). Thromboelastography was performed using four methods: native blood (kaolin-activated and nonkaolin-activated) and citrated blood (kaolin-activated and nonkaolin-activated). For all thromboelastography parameters, correlation was poor (Spearman correlation coefficient < 0.70) between nonkaolin-activated and kaolin-activated thromboelastography, for both citrated and native blood. In healthy volunteers, in patients with liver disease and in those receiving anticoagulant treatment, there was a poor correlation between nonkaolin-activated and kaolin-activated thromboelastography. Kaolin-activated thromboelastography needs further validation before routine clinical use in these settings, and the specific methodology must be considered in comparing published studies.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of bismuth and ranitidine following multiple doses of ranitidine bismuth citrate

    PubMed Central

    KOCH, K M; KERR, B M; GOODING, A E; DAVIS, I M

    1996-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of bismuth and ranitidine derived from oral doses of ranitidine bismuth citrate 800 mg given twice daily for 28 days were examined in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study in 27 healthy subjects. Bismuth accumulation in plasma reflected its multicompartmental disposition, achieving the majority of predicted steady state within 14–28 days. Bismuth absorption from ranitidine bismuth citrate is limited (<0.5% of the dose), and bismuth elimination is predominantly renal secretion. Peak plasma concentrations did not exceed 19 ng ml−1, remaining well below those associated with bismuth toxicity. Bismuth was measurable at low concentrations in plasma and urine for up to 5 months after the last dose. Plasma bismuth concentration-time data and urinary excretion data were best described by separate multicompartmental models, with terminal half-lives averaging 21 days and 45 days, respectively. The pharmacokinetics of ranitidine derived from ranitidine bismuth citrate were similar to those of ranitidine administered alone. Ranitidine did not appreciably accumulate in plasma. Ranitidine bismuth citrate was well-tolerated during 28 days of repeated dosing. PMID:8864319

  6. Evaluation of thallium acetate-citrate medium for isolation of enterococci.

    PubMed

    Bulich, A A; Hartman, P A

    1969-11-01

    Thallous acetate-citrate (TAC) agar, a selective medium for isolating enterococci from frozen foods, was evaluated. Two types of bacteria, micrococci and group N streptococci, were responsible for erroneously high enterococcus counts on TAC agar. Selectivity of the medium was improved by the addition of 0.01% sodium azide.

  7. Brassica oleracea MATE encodes a citrate transporter and enhances aluminum tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xinxin; Li, Ren; Shi, Jin; Wang, Jinfang; Sun, Qianqian; Zhang, Haijun; Xing, Yanxia; Qi, Yan; Zhang, Na; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2014-08-01

    The secretion of organic acid anions from roots is an important mechanism for plant aluminum (Al) tolerance. Here we report cloning and characterizing BoMATE (KF031944), a multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family gene from cabbage (Brassica oleracea). The expression of BoMATE was more abundant in roots than in shoots, and it was highly induced by Al treatment. The (14)C-citrate efflux experiments in oocytes demonstrated that BoMATE is a citrate transporter. Electrophysiological analysis and SIET analysis of Xenopus oocytes expressing BoMATE indicated BoMATE is activated by Al. Transient expression of BoMATE in onion epidermal cells demonstrated that it localized to the plasma membrane. Compared with the wild-type Arabidopsis, the transgenic lines constitutively overexpressing BoMATE enhanced Al tolerance and increased citrate secretion. In addition, Arabidopsis transgenic lines had a lower K(+) efflux and higher H(+) efflux, in the presence of Al, than control wild type in the distal elongation zone (DEZ). This is the first direct evidence that MATE protein is involved in the K(+) and H(+) flux in response to Al treatment. Taken together, our results show that BoMATE is an Al-induced citrate transporter and enhances aluminum tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  8. 21 CFR 520.763c - Dithiazanine iodide and piperazine citrate suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dithiazanine iodide and piperazine citrate suspension. 520.763c Section 520.763c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL...

  9. Does Potassium Citrate Medical Therapy Increase the Risk of Calcium Phosphate Stone Formation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitao, Victor; Haleblian, George E.; Robinson, Marnie R.; Pierre, Sean A.; Sur, Roger L.; Preminger, Glenn M.

    2007-04-01

    Potassium citrate has been extensively used in the treatment of recurrent nephrolithiasis. Recent evidence suggests that it may contribute to increasing urinary pH and, as such, increase the risk of calcium phosphate stone formation. We performed a retrospective review of our patients to further investigate this phenomenon.

  10. Safety and Efficacy of Oral Transmucosal Fentanyl Citrate for Prehospital Pain Control on the Battlefield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    oximetry recorded an oxygen saturation of 88% to 90%, this patient responded readily to stimulation, 2 L to 4 L of oxygen administered by nasal cannula...2008;11:643 648. 43. Hillier RJ, Aboud A, Thind G, Clark DI. Oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate: a novel analgesic agent for use in retinal

  11. Calcium citrate without aluminum antacids does not cause aluminum retention in patients with functioning kidneys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakhaee, K.; Wabner, C. L.; Zerwekh, J. E.; Copley, J. B.; Pak, L.; Poindexter, J. R.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    It has been suggested that calcium citrate might enhance aluminum absorption from food, posing a threat of aluminum toxicity even in patients with normal renal function. We therefore measured serum and urinary aluminum before and following calcium citrate therapy in patients with moderate renal failure and in normal subjects maintained on constant metabolic diets with known aluminum content (967-1034 mumol/day, or 26.1-27.9 mg/day, in patients and either 834 or 1579 mumol/day, or 22.5 and 42.6 mg/day, in normal subjects). Seven patients with moderate renal failure (endogenous creatinine clearance of 43 ml/min) took 50 mmol (2 g) calcium/day as effervescent calcium citrate with meals for 17 days. Eight normal women received 25 mmol (1 g) calcium/day as tricalcium dicitrate tablets with meals for 7 days. In patients with moderate renal failure, serum and urinary aluminum were normal before treatment at 489 +/- 293 SD nmol/l (13.2 +/- 7.9 micrograms/l) and 767 +/- 497 nmol/day (20.7 +/- 13.4 micrograms/day), respectively. They remained within normal limits and did not change significantly during calcium citrate treatment (400 +/- 148 nmol/l and 600 +/- 441 nmol/day, respectively). Similarly, no significant change in serum and urinary aluminum was detected in normal women during calcium citrate administration (271 +/- 59 vs 293 +/- 85 nmol/l and 515 +/- 138 vs 615 +/- 170 nmol/day, respectively). In addition, skeletal bone aluminum content did not change significantly in 14 osteoporotic patients (endogenous creatinine clearance of 68.5 ml/min) treated for 24 months with calcium citrate, 10 mmol calcium twice/day separately from meals (29.3 +/- 13.9 ng/mg ash bone to 27.9 +/0- 10.4, P = 0.727). In them, histomorphometric examination did not show any evidence of mineralization defect. Thus, calcium citrate given alone without aluminum-containing drugs does not pose a risk of aluminum toxicity in subjects with normal or functioning kidneys, when it is administered on an

  12. Regulation of Renal Citrate Metabolism by Bicarbonate Ion and pH: Observations in Tissue Slices and Mitochondria*

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, David P.

    1967-01-01

    The effect of acid-base balance on the oxidation and utilization of citrate and other organic acids has been studied in tissue slices and isolated kidney mitochondria. The results show that: 1) With bicarbonate-buffered media, citrate oxidation and utilization are inhibited in slices of renal cortex and in kidney mitochondria when [HCO3-] and pH are increased within the physiologic range (pH 7.0 to 7.8; 10 to 60 μmoles HCO3- per ml). When phosphate or Tris buffers are used, no comparable effect on citrate oxidation occurs when pH is varied. 2) This effect is not demonstrable in heart or liver slices when a physiologic buffer is used. 3) α-Ketoglutarate utilization is inhibited in slices of renal cortex under similar conditions. Pyruvate and L-malate utilization are not inhibited in slices or mitochondria. 4) Citrate content in slices of renal cortex incubated with a high [HCO3-] is considerably greater than the concentration found with a low [HCO3-] in the medium. This effect is not duplicated by pH change in a nonbicarbonate buffer system. In mitochondria citrate content is also increased markedly at high bicarbonate concentrations. 5) The kinetic characteristics of the inhibition of citrate oxidation are those of a competitive type of inhibition. 6) When pH was varied with a constant [HCO3-] in the media, citrate oxidation was inhibited by increasing pH in slices of renal cortex but not in mitochondria. On the other hand, when [HCO3-] was increased without change in pH, no decrease in citrate oxidation occurred in slices, but a marked inhibitory effect was found when mitochondria were used. From a comparison of these results with those previously obtained in intact animal experiments, we conclude that the inhibition of citrate oxidation caused by increasing pH and [HCO3-] in slices of renal cortex and kidney mitochondria is an in vitro representation of the inhibition of citrate reabsorption in the nephron that occurs in metabolic alkalosis. Thus, citrate

  13. Citrate utilization by Corynebacterium glutamicum is controlled by the CitAB two-component system through positive regulation of the citrate transport genes citH and tctCBA.

    PubMed

    Brocker, Melanie; Schaffer, Steffen; Mack, Christina; Bott, Michael

    2009-06-01

    In this work, the molecular basis of aerobic citrate utilization by the gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum was studied. Genome analysis revealed the presence of two putative citrate transport systems. The permease encoded by citH belongs to the citrate-Mg(2+):H(+)/citrate-Ca(2+):H(+) symporter family, whereas the permease encoded by the tctCBA operon is a member of the tripartite tricarboxylate transporter family. The expression of citH or tctCBA in Escherichia coli enabled this species to utilize citrate aerobically, indicating that both CitH and TctABC are functional citrate transporters. Growth tests with the recombinant E. coli strains indicated that CitH is active with Ca(2+) or Sr(2+) but not with Mg(2+) and that TctABC is active with Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) but not with Sr(2+). We could subsequently show that, with 50 mM citrate as the sole carbon and energy source, the C. glutamicum wild type grew best when the minimal medium was supplemented with CaCl(2) but that MgCl(2) and SrCl(2) also supported growth. Each of the two transporters alone was sufficient for growth on citrate. The expression of citH and tctCBA was activated by citrate in the growth medium, independent of the presence or absence of glucose. This activation was dependent on the two-component signal transduction system CitAB, composed of the sensor kinase CitA and the response regulator CitB. CitAB belongs to the CitAB/DcuSR family of two-component systems, whose members control the expression of genes that are involved in the transport and catabolism of tricarboxylates or dicarboxylates. C. glutamicum CitAB is the first member of this family studied in Actinobacteria.

  14. Studies on the reduction of aortic calcification by alkali citrates in an ex vivo tissue preparation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Schick, C H; Schwille, P O

    1993-08-01

    The effect of orally administered alkali citrates on the calcification of arterial vessel was studied in the rat. Freshly dissected aortic segments were placed in Millipore diffusion chambers and grafted intraperitoneally. Within 21 days calcification of the media had developed. Under treatment with 2.1 mmol citrate per animal and day a significant decrease in histologically detectable calcification areas occurred, as assessed by greatest thickness and longitudinal expansion. This effect was more pronounced with potassium citrate and potassium sodium citrate, and less marked with sodium citrate. The calcium and phosphorus content of aortic tissue remained unchanged, but magnesium increased significantly. The spheroid particles deposited in the media were characterized in more detail by electron microscopy and elemental microanalysis, X-ray diffraction, and determination of the molar calcium-phosphorus ratio. The combined data suggest that in the model selected for studying biocalcification not mature hydroxyapatite but some precursor of this substance is deposited, and that in animals receiving alkali citrate treatment deposition of amorphous calcium phosphate is likely. It is concluded that in the ex vivo aortic wall preparation oral alkali citrates a) bring about a reduction in calcification areas in the media layer, b) impair the maturation of hydroxyapatite and its deposition in the arterial tissue; c) promote the accumulation of magnesium. Whether these results are of significance for the calcification of arteries in situ and treatment regimens is unknown.

  15. Leg citrate metabolism at rest and during exercise in relation to diet and substrate utilization in man.

    PubMed

    Jansson, E; Kaijser, L

    1984-10-01

    Previously we have demonstrated a lower rate of carbohydrate utilization in skeletal muscle after a fat than after a carbohydrate rich diet both at rest and during exercise. To test the hypothesis of citrate as a regulator of glycolysis (1) arterial-femoral venous (a-fv) differences for oxygen, citrate, pyruvate and lactate and (2) muscle citrate and glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) were determined at rest and after 5 and 25 min of submaximal bicycle exercise. Citrate release and muscle citrate concentration were higher after fat than after carbohydrate diet at rest and 5 min exercise, but did not differ between diets at 25 min exercise. Lactate release and muscle lactate concentration were lower after fat diet at 5 and 25 min exercise. Pyruvate release at 5 min exercise was higher after fat diet. The G-6-P concentration was higher at rest, insignificantly higher after 5 min exercise and lower at 25 min exercise after the fat diet. The findings support the notion that at rest and 5 min exercise fat diet induced inhibition of glycolysis might be mediated through increased intramuscular citrate acting on phosphofructokinase. In addition, the greater pyruvate release at 5 min exercise after fat diet in spite of a smaller lactate release, indicates a decreased pyruvate dehydrogenase activity and/or NADH to NAD ratio after fat diet. The inhibition of glycolysis at 25 min exercise after fat diet on the other hand does not seem to be citrate mediated.

  16. Availability of zinc and the ligands citrate and histidine to wheat: does uptake of entire complexes play a role?

    PubMed

    Gramlich, Anja; Tandy, Susan; Frossard, Emmanuel; Eikenberg, Jost; Schulin, Rainer

    2013-11-06

    Organic ligands in soils affect the availability of trace metals such as Zn to plants. This study investigated the effects of two of these ligands, citrate and histidine, on Zn uptake by wheat under hydroponic conditions. Uptake of (65)Zn in the presence of these ligands was compared to uptake in the presence of EDTA at the same free Zn concentration (Zn(2+) ~ 50 nM). In the presence of citrate Zn root uptake was enhanced ~3.5 times and in the presence of histidine, by a factor of ~9, compared to the EDTA treatments. Citrate uptake was slightly reduced in the treatment containing ligands and Zn compared to the treatment containing the same ligand concentration but no Zn. In addition, a higher uptake of Zn than of citrate was observed. This suggests that the enhanced Zn uptake was primarily due to increased supply of Zn(2+) by diffusion and dissociation of Zn-citrate complexes at the root surface. Histidine uptake was much higher than citrate uptake and not influenced by the presence of Zn. As histidine forms stronger complexes with Zn than citrate, the results suggest that the enhancement of Zn uptake in the presence of histidine was in part due to the uptake of undissociated Zn-histidine complexes.

  17. Leaching of diethylhexyl phthalate from polyvinyl chloride bags into intravenous cyclosporine solution

    SciTech Connect

    Venkataramanan, R.; Burckart, G.J.; Ptachcinski, R.J.; Blaha, R.; Logue, L.W.; Bahnson, A.; Giam, C.S.; Brady, J.E.

    1986-11-01

    The release of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) from flexible polyvinyl chloride containers into intravenous cyclosporine solutions was studied. Intravenous cyclosporine solution or solutions containing the vehicle Cremophor EL and alcohol in dextrose were prepared in an all-glass system and stored in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags. Four samples were obtained at different time intervals, and DEHP content was analyzed by gas chromatography. The amount of DEHP that was leached into solutions stored in the PVC bags increased as storage time increased. By 48 hours, nearly 33 mg of DEHP had leached into the solution. Intravenous cyclosporine solutions should be prepared in glass containers to minimize patient exposure to DEHP. If plastic bags are used for preparing cyclosporine injections, the injections must be used immediately after preparation.

  18. Intranasal microemulsion of sildenafil citrate: in vitro evaluation and in vivo pharmacokinetic study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Elshafeey, Ahmed H; Bendas, Ehab R; Mohamed, Osama H

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to prepare intranasal delivery system of sildenafil citrate and estimate its relative bioavailability after nasal administration in rabbits to attain rapid onset of action with good efficacy at lower doses. Sildenafil citrate saturated solubility was determined in different solvents, cosolvents, and microemulsion systems. For nasal application, sildenafil citrate was formulated in two different systems: the first was a cosolvent system (S3) of benzyl alcohol/ethanol/water/Transcutol/taurodeoxy cholate/Tween 20 (0.5:16.8:47.7:15.9:1:18.1% w/w). The second was a microemulsion system (ME6) containing Oleic acid: Labrasol/Transcutol/water (8.33:33.3:16.66:41.66% w/w). The prepared systems were characterized in relation to their clarity, particle size, viscosity, pH, and nasal ciliotoxicity. In vivo pharmacokinetic performance of the selected system ME6 (with no nasal ciliotoxicity) was evaluated in a group of six rabbits in a randomized crossover study and compared to the marketed oral tablets. The targeted solubility (>20 mg/ml) of sildenafil citrate was achieved with cosolvent systems S1, S3, and S5 and with microemulsion systems ME3-ME6. The saturated solubility of sildenafil citrate in cosolvent system S3 and microemulsion system ME6 were 22.98 +/- 1.26 and 23.79 +/- 1.16 mg/ml, respectively. Microemulsion formulation ME6 showed shorter t (max) (0.75 h) and higher AUC((0-infinity)) (1,412.42 ng h/ml) compared to the oral tablets which showed t (max) equals 1.25 h and AUC((0-infinity)) of 1,251.14 ng h/ml after administration to rabbits at dose level of 5 mg/kg. The relative bioavailability was 112.89%. In conclusion, the nasal absorption of sildenafil citrate microemulsion was found to be fast, indicating the potential of nasal delivery instead of the conventional oral administration of such drug.

  19. Citrate-capped gold nanoparticle electrophoretic heat production in response to a time-varying radiofrequency electric-field

    PubMed Central

    Corr, Stuart J.; Raoof, Mustafa; Mackeyev, Yuri; Phounsavath, Sophia; Cheney, Matthew A.; Cisneros, Brandon T.; Shur, Michael; Gozin, Michael; McNally, Patrick J.; Wilson, Lon J.; Curley, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of heat production from gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) irradiated with radiofrequency (RF) energy has been problematic due to Joule heating of their background ionic buffer suspensions. Insights into the physical heating mechanism of nanomaterials under RF excitations must be obtained if they are to have applications in fields such as nanoparticle-targeted hyperthermia for cancer therapy. By developing a purification protocol which allows for highly-stable and concentrated solutions of citrate-capped AuNPs to be suspended in high-resistivity water, we show herein, for the first time, that heat production is only evident for AuNPs of diameters ≤ 10 nm, indicating a unique size-dependent heating behavior not previously observed. Heat production has also shown to be linearly dependent on both AuNP concentration and total surface area, and severely attenuated upon AuNP aggregation. These relationships have been further validated using permittivity analysis across a frequency range of 10 MHz to 3 GHz, as well as static conductivity measurements. Theoretical evaluations suggest that the heating mechanism can be modeled by the electrophoretic oscillation of charged AuNPs across finite length scales in response to a time-varying electric field. It is anticipated these results will assist future development of nanoparticle-assisted heat production by RF fields for applications such as targeted cancer hyperthermia. PMID:23795228

  20. Determination of sildenafil citrate and its main metabolite by sample stacking with polarity switching using micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Berzas Nevado, J J; Flores, J Rodriguez; Peñalvo, G Castañeda; Rodríguez, Fariñas N

    2002-04-12

    Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) coupled with sample stacking and polarity switching was investigated for the determination of Viagra (sildenafil citrate, SC) and its metabolite (UK-103,320, UK) in human serum in the concentration range of clinical interest. Human serum samples spiked with SC and UK were eluted with methanol from a C18 cartridge, the extract was evaporated and regenerated in a solution that contained 1 mM phosphate buffer (pH 12.3) and 20% methanol. The MEKC separation was performed using an injection time of 275 s, a polarity switching time of 93 s, a phosphate buffer, (pH 12.3, 15 mM) containing 25 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate as separation electrolyte and a fused-silica capillary. The analysis takes about 6 min and gives satisfactory inter-day precision with respect to migration times and linear responses over the 80-900 ng/ml concentration range investigated for SC and UK. Intra-day RSDs (n=4 graphs) for the slopes of the calibration graphs were 4.86% for SC and 3.50% for UK. Inter-day RSDs for the slopes were 4.37% for SC and 5.39% for UK. Detection limits (S/N=3) were about 17 ng/ml for both compounds in human serum. A 1-ml volume of blood serum was necessary to do this determination.

  1. Structural and electrical properties of Cu doped NiFe2O4 nanoparticles prepared through modified citrate gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batoo, Khalid Mujasam

    2011-12-01

    Nanoparticles of polycrystalline NiFe2-xCuxO4 (0.0≤x≤0.05) ferrites were prepared through the modified citrate-gel method. The samples were obtained as dried gel after the successful chemical reaction of their respective metal nitrate solutions in the midst of citric acid as catalyst. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selective area electron diffraction (SAED) confirmed the single phase nature of all the samples with an average particle size of 19.8 (±1). Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) shows the presence of two broad vibrational bands between 400 and 1000 cm-1 corresponding to the tetrahedral and the octahedral sites. The variation of dielectric properties (ɛ‧, ɛ″, tan δ) and ac conductivity (σac), with frequency reveals that the dispersion is due to the Maxwell-Wagner type of interfacial polarization in general and due to hopping of charges between Fe+2 and Fe+3 as well as between Ni+2 and Ni+3 ions at B-sites. The complex impedance spectroscopy has been used to study the effect of grain and grain boundary on the electrical properties of all the ferrite nanoparticles.

  2. Identification of a gene cluster in Klebsiella pneumoniae which includes citX, a gene required for biosynthesis of the citrate lyase prosthetic group.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Karin; Kästner, Christopher N; Meyer, Margareta; Wessel, Mirja; Dimroth, Peter; Bott, Michael

    2002-05-01

    The biosynthesis of the 2'-(5"-phosphoribosyl)-3'-dephospho-coenzyme A (CoA) prosthetic group of citrate lyase (EC 4.1.3.6), a key enzyme of citrate fermentation, proceeds via the initial formation of the precursor 2'-(5"-triphosphoribosyl)-3'-dephospho-CoA and subsequent transfer to apo-citrate lyase with removal of pyrophosphate. In Escherichia coli, the two steps are catalyzed by CitG and CitX, respectively, and the corresponding genes are part of the citrate lyase gene cluster, citCDEFXG. In the homologous citCDEFG operon of Klebsiella pneumoniae, citX is missing. A search for K. pneumoniae citX led to the identification of a second genome region involved in citrate fermentation which comprised the citWX genes and the divergent citYZ genes. The citX gene was confirmed to encode holo-citrate lyase synthase, whereas citW was shown to encode a citrate carrier, the third one identified in this species. The citYZ genes were found to encode a two-component system consisting of the sensor kinase CitY and the response regulator CitZ. Remarkably, both proteins showed >or=40% sequence identity to the citrate-sensing CitA-CitB two-component system, which is essential for the induction of the citrate fermentation genes in K. pneumoniae. A citZ insertion mutant was able to grow anaerobically with citrate, indicating that CitZ is not essential for expression of citrate fermentation genes. CitX synthesis was induced to a basal level under anaerobic conditions, independent of citrate, CitB, and CitZ, and to maximal levels during anaerobic growth with citrate as the sole carbon source. Similar to the other citrate fermentation enzymes, CitX synthesis was apparently subject to catabolite repression.

  3. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM OTHER METAL VALUES IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY SELECTIVE COMPLEXING AND ADSORPTION

    DOEpatents

    Beaton, R.H.

    1960-06-28

    A process is given for separating tri- or tetravalent plutonium from fission products in an aqueous solution by complexing the fission products with oxalate, tannate, citrate, or tartrate anions at a pH value of at least 2.4 (preferably between 2.4 and 4), and contacting a cation exchange resin with the solution whereby the plutonium is adsorbed while the complexed fission products remain in solution.

  4. Women taking the "blue pill" (sildenafil citrate): such a big deal?

    PubMed

    Lo Monte, Giuseppe; Graziano, Angela; Piva, Isabella; Marci, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    For years, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors have been used for the treatment of erectile dysfunctions. Due to the similarities between male and female sexual response, several studies have assessed the effects of sildenafil citrate (Viagra(®)) in women affected by female sexual arousal disorder. The results are still conflicting and the drug is not devoid of adverse effects. Furthermore, female sexual arousal disorder is a heterogeneous condition whose underlying causes are difficult to diagnose and appropriate treatment requires a thorough sexual, psychological, and medical history along with specialist consultations. The clinician should pursue a global approach to the patient with sexual difficulties, while non-hormonal treatment such as phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (ie, sildenafil citrate) should be kept as the last option.

  5. Sildenafil citrate therapy for severe early-onset intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    von Dadelszen, P; Dwinnell, S; Magee, L A; Carleton, B C; Gruslin, A; Lee, B; Lim, K I; Liston, R M; Miller, S P; Rurak, D; Sherlock, R L; Skoll, M A; Wareing, M M; Baker, P N

    2011-04-01

    Sildenafil citrate therapy for severe early-onset intrauterine growth restriction. BJOG 2011;118:624-628. Currently, there is no effective therapy for severe early-onset intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Sildenafil citrate vasodilates the myometrial arteries isolated from women with IUGR-complicated pregnancies. Women were offered Sildenafil (25 mg three times daily until delivery) if their pregnancy was complicated by early-onset IUGR [abdominal circumference (AC)< 5th percentile] and either the gestational age was <25(+0) weeks or an estimate of the fetal weight was <600 g (excluding known fetal anomaly/syndrome and/or planned termination). Sildenafil treatment was associated with increased fetal AC growth [odds ratio, 12.9; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3, 126; compared with institutional Sildenafil-naive early-onset IUGR controls]. Randomised controlled trial data are required to determine whether Sildenafil improves perinatal outcomes for early-onset IUGR-complicated pregnancies.

  6. Acute hyponatremia with seizure and mental change after oral sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate bowel preparation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young Sun; Nam, Kyung Min; Park, Jang Ho; Byun, Sang Hwan; Ryu, Jin Suck; Kim, Hyun Ju

    2014-12-01

    Sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate (Picolight Powder), which is used as a bowel preparation for the colon and the rectum, can cause a severe electrolyte imbalance like hyponatremia. When hyponatremia gets severe or occurs rapidly, it can lead to death due to associated complications. We have experienced a case of hyponatremia associated with seizure and loss of consciousness in a 76-year-old woman, who took sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate as a bowel preparation for colonoscopy. She was taking thiazide and synthroid for the treatment of hypertension and hypothyroidism, respectively, and she had other underlying medical conditions such as a history of seizure and dementia. Following the diagnosis of hyponatremia, we used an intravenous injection of 3% NaCl to normalize the sodium level in her serum, and her associated symptoms soon disappeared.

  7. Morphine and Fentanyl Citrate Induce Retrotransposition of Long Interspersed Element-1.

    PubMed

    Okudaira, Noriyuki; Ishizaka, Yukihito; Nishio, Hajime; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The retroelement long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) comprises about 17% of the human genome. A single human cell has 80 to 100 copies of retrotransposition-competent L1, approximately 10% of which are 'hot' and actively 'jump' around the genome. Recent observations demonstrated that low-molecular weight compounds may induce L1 retrotransposition through unknown mechanisms. Herein, we demonstrated that the painkillers morphine and fentanyl citrate trigger L1 retrotransposition in neuronal cells without inducing DNA damage or up-regulating L1 mRNA expression. This effect was blocked by an antagonist of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Taken together, the data suggest that L1 retrotransposition due to morphine and fentanyl citrate is distinct from that triggered by DNA damage, requires TLR4, and is a novel type of genomic instability. Thus, we propose that L1 retrotransposition should be characterized as a component of the pharmacological activity of these analgesic agents.

  8. Reduced peroxisomal citrate synthase activity increases substrate availability for polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis in plant peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Tilbrook, Kimberley; Poirier, Yves; Gebbie, Leigh; Schenk, Peer M; McQualter, Richard B; Brumbley, Stevens M

    2014-10-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are bacterial carbon storage polymers used as renewable, biodegradable plastics. PHA production in plants may be a way to reduce industrial PHA production costs. We recently demonstrated a promising level of peroxisomal PHA production in the high biomass crop species sugarcane. However, further production strategies are needed to boost PHA accumulation closer to commercial targets. Through exogenous fatty acid feeding of Arabidopsis thaliana plants that contain peroxisome-targeted PhaA, PhaB and PhaC enzymes from Cupriavidus necator, we show here that the availability of substrates derived from the β-oxidation cycle limits peroxisomal polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) biosynthesis. Knockdown of peroxisomal citrate synthase activity using artificial microRNA increased PHB production levels approximately threefold. This work demonstrates that reduction of peroxisomal citrate synthase activity may be a valid metabolic engineering strategy for increasing PHA production in other plant species.

  9. Altered /sup 67/Ga citrate distribution in patients with multiple red blood cell transfusions

    SciTech Connect

    Engelstad, B.; Luk, S.S.; Hattner, R.S.

    1982-10-01

    Gallium-67 citrate studies from four patients who received multiple red blood cell transfusions were reviewed. Increased kidney, bladder, or bone localization was associated with decreased liver and colon activity. The findings suggest altered distribution due to competition with iron for receptor binding. Identification of inflammatory disease in two patients was possible. However, the effect of transfusions on detection of inflammatory or neoplastic diseases requires further evaluation.

  10. Altered /sup 67/Ga citrate distribution in patients with multiple red blood cell transfusions

    SciTech Connect

    Engelstad, B.; Luk, S.S.; Hattner, R.S.

    1982-10-01

    Gallium-67 citrate studies from four patients who received multiple red blood cell transfusions were reviewed. Increased kidney, bladder or bone localization was associated with decreased liver and colon activity. The findings suggest altered distribution due to competition with iron for receptor binding. Identification of inflammatory disease in two patients was possible. However, the effect of transfusions on detection of inflammatory or neoplastic diseases requires further evaluation.

  11. Comparative proteomic analysis reveals mechanistic insights into Pseudomonas putida F1 growth on benzoate and citrate

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas species are capable to proliferate under diverse environmental conditions and thus have a significant bioremediation potential. To enhance our understanding of their metabolic versatility, this study explores the changes in the proteome and physiology of Pseudomonas putida F1 resulting from its growth on benzoate, a moderate toxic compound that can be catabolized, and citrate, a carbon source that is assimilated through central metabolic pathways. A series of repetitive batch cultivations were performed to ensure a complete adaptation of the bacteria to each of these contrasting carbon sources. After several growth cycles, cell growth stabilized at the maximum level and exhibited a reproducible growth profile. The specific growth rates measured for benzoate (1.01 ± 0.11 h-1) and citrate (1.11 ± 0.12 h-1) were similar, while a higher yield was observed for benzoate (0.6 and 0.3 g cell mass per g of benzoate and citrate, respectively), reflecting the different degrees of carbon reduction in the two substrates. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed an enrichment of several oxygenases/dehydrogenases in benzoate-grown cells, indicative of the higher carbon reduction of benzoate. Moreover, the upregulation of all 14 proteins implicated in benzoate degradation via the catechol ortho-cleavage pathway was observed, while several stress-response proteins were increased to aid cells to cope with benzoate toxicity. Unexpectedly, citrate posed more challenges than benzoate in the maintenance of pH homeostasis, as indicated by the enhancement of the Na+/H+ antiporter and carbonic anhydrase. The study provides important mechanistic insights into Pseudomonas adaptation to varying carbon sources that are of great relevance to bioremediation efforts. PMID:24156539

  12. Dietary sodium citrate supplementation enhances rehydration and recovery from rapid body mass loss in trained wrestlers.

    PubMed

    Timpmann, Saima; Burk, Andres; Medijainen, Luule; Tamm, Maria; Kreegipuu, Kairi; Vähi, Mare; Unt, Eve; Oöpik, Vahur

    2012-12-01

    This study assessed the effects of dietary sodium citrate supplementation during a 16 h recovery from 5% rapid body mass loss (RBML) on physiological functions, affective state, and performance in trained wrestlers. Sixteen wrestlers performed an upper body intermittent sprint performance (UBISP) test under three conditions: before RBML, after RBML, and after a 16 h recovery from RBML. During recovery, the subjects ate a prescribed diet supplemented with sodium citrate (600 mg·kg(-1); CIT group, N = 8) or placebo (PLC group, N = 8) and drank water ad libitum. RBML reduced (p < 0.05) UBISP mean power and increased urine specific gravity (USG). Reduction in mean power was associated with changes in plasma volume (PV) (r = 0.649, p = 0.006) and USG (r = -0.553, p = 0.026). During the 16 h recovery, increases in body mass (BM) and PV were greater (p < 0.05) in the CIT group than in the PLC group. BM gain was associated with water retention in the CIT group (r = 0.899, p = 0.002) but not in the PLC group (r = 0.335, p = 0.417). Blood pH, HCO(3)(-) concentration, and base excess increased (p < 0.05) only in the CIT group. Changes in UBISP, general negative affect, and general positive affect did not differ in the two groups. In conclusion, ingestion of sodium citrate increases blood buffering capacity and PV and stimulates BM regain during a 16 h recovery from RBML in trained wrestlers. However, sodium citrate does not improve UBISP nor does it have an impact on the affective state.

  13. Ferric citrate decreases ruminal hydrogen sulphide concentrations in feedlot cattle fed diets high in sulphate.

    PubMed

    Drewnoski, Mary E; Doane, Perry; Hansen, Stephanie L

    2014-01-28

    Dissimilatory reduction of sulphate by sulphate-reducing bacteria in the rumen produces sulphide, which can lead to a build-up of the toxic gas hydrogen sulphide (H2S) in the rumen when increased concentrations of sulphate are consumed by ruminants. We hypothesised that adding ferric Fe would competitively inhibit ruminal sulphate reduction. The effects of five concentrations and two sources (ferric citrate or ferric ammonium citrate) of ferric Fe were examined in vitro (n 6 per treatment). Rumen fluid was collected from a steer that was adapted to a high-concentrate, high-sulphate diet (0·51 % S). The addition of either source of ferric Fe decreased (P< 0·01) H2S concentrations without affecting gas production (P= 0·38), fluid pH (P= 0·80) or in vitro DM digestibility (P= 0·38) after a 24 h incubation. An in vivo experiment was conducted using eight ruminally fistulated steers (543 (sem 12) kg) in a replicated Latin square with four periods and four treatments. The treatments included a high-concentrate, high-sulphate control diet (0·46 % S) or the control diet plus ferric ammonium citrate at concentrations of 200, 300 or 400 mg Fe/kg diet DM. The inclusion of ferric Fe did not affect DM intake (P= 0·21). There was a linear (P< 0·01) decrease in the concentration of ruminal H2S as the addition of ferric Fe concentrations increased. Ferric citrate appears to be an effective way to decrease ruminal H2S concentrations, which could allow producers to safely increase the inclusion of ethanol co-products.

  14. Effect of prolonged exercise on muscle citrate concentration before and after endurance training in men.

    PubMed

    Coggan, A R; Spina, R J; Kohrt, W M; Holloszy, J O

    1993-02-01

    It has been hypothesized that endurance training reduces carbohydrate utilization during exercise via citrate-mediated inhibition of phosphofructokinase (PFK). To test this hypothesis, vastus lateralis muscle biopsy samples were obtained from eight men before and immediately (approximately 10 s) after 2 h of cycle ergometer exercise at 60% of pretraining peak O2 uptake, both before and after 12 wk of endurance exercise training (3 days/wk running, 3 days/wk interval cycling). Training increased muscle citrate synthase (CS) activity from 3.69 +/- 0.48 (SE) to 5.30 +/- 0.42 mol.h-1.kg protein-1 and decreased the mean respiratory exchange ratio during exercise from 0.92 +/- 0.01 to 0.88 +/- 0.01 (both P < 0.001). Muscle citrate concentration at the end of exercise correlated significantly with CS activity (r = 0.70; P < 0.005) and was slightly but not significantly higher after training (0.80 +/- 0.19 vs. 0.54 +/- 0.19 mmol/kg dry wt; P = 0.16). Muscle glucose 6-phosphate (G-6-P) concentration at the end of exercise, however, was 31% lower in the trained state (1.17 +/- 0.10 vs. 1.66 +/- 0.27 mmol/kg dry wt; P < 0.05), in keeping with a 36% decrease in the amount of muscle glycogen utilized (133 +/- 22 vs. 209 +/- 19 mmol.kg dry wt-1.2 h-1; P < 0.01). The lower G-6-P concentration after training suggests that the training-induced reduction in carbohydrate utilization results from attenuation of flux before the PFK step in glycolysis and is not due to citrate-mediated inhibition of PFK.

  15. Studies on the feeding of cupric sulfate pentahydrate, cupric citrate, and copper oxychloride to broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ewing, H P; Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I; Menten, J F

    1998-03-01

    Male commercial broiler strain chickens were fed either a control diet (based on corn and soybean meal) or the control diet supplemented with cupric sulfate pentahydrate, copper oxychloride, or cupric citrate in two experiments conducted in floor pens. In Experiment 1, feeding copper at 125 mg/kg diet for 42 d significantly increased broiler growth; and the response from cupric citrate was significantly better than either cupric sulfate or copper oxychloride. In Experiment 2, the inclusion of copper from cupric citrate was reduced to 63 mg/kg and the length of the experiment was increased to 56 d. Cupric sulfate pentahydrate and copper oxychloride treatments increased weight gain by 4.9% and cupric citrate increased weight gain by 9.1%. The feed conversion ratios (grams of feed:grams of gain of live birds) in the birds fed copper were not significantly different from those fed the basal diet (P > 0.05) unless corrections were made for the weights of the dead birds; the adjusted feed conversion ratios (grams of feed:grams of gain of live birds + grams of gain of mortalities) for the copper-treated birds in Experiments 1 and 2 were 5.2 and 7.6% lower, respectively, than the ratios of birds fed the basal diets. Plasma copper levels increased in supplemented chicks by 35% in Experiment 1 and 24% in Experiment 2. Liver copper levels in both experiments were increased by 26% with copper supplementation. Mortality was not affected by dietary treatment in either experiment (P > 0.05).

  16. Uptake of α-Ketoglutarate by Citrate Transporter CitP Drives Transamination in Lactococcus lactis

    PubMed Central

    Pudlik, Agata M.

    2013-01-01

    Transamination is the first step in the conversion of amino acids into aroma compounds by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) used in food fermentations. The process is limited by the availability of α-ketoglutarate, which is the best α-keto donor for transaminases in LAB. Here, uptake of α-ketoglutarate by the citrate transporter CitP is reported. Cells of Lactococcus lactis IL1403 expressing CitP showed significant levels of transamination activity in the presence of α-ketoglutarate and one of the amino acids Ile, Leu, Val, Phe, or Met, while the same cells lacking CitP showed transamination activity only after permeabilization of the cell membrane. Moreover, the transamination activity of the cells followed the levels of CitP in a controlled expression system. The involvement of CitP in the uptake of the α-keto donor was further demonstrated by the increased consumption rate in the presence of l-lactate, which drives CitP in the fast exchange mode of transport. Transamination is the only active pathway for the conversion of α-ketoglutarate in IL1403; a stoichiometric conversion to glutamate and the corresponding α-keto acid from the amino acids was observed. The transamination activity by both the cells and the cytoplasmic fraction showed a remarkably flat pH profile over the range from pH 5 to pH 8, especially with the branched-chain amino acids. Further metabolism of the produced α-keto acids into α-hydroxy acids and other flavor compounds required the coupling of transamination to glycolysis. The results suggest a much broader role of the citrate transporter CitP in LAB than citrate uptake in the citrate fermentation pathway alone. PMID:23204417

  17. Substrate Specificity of the Citrate Transporter CitP of Lactococcus lactis

    PubMed Central

    Pudlik, Agata M.

    2012-01-01

    The citrate transporter CitP of lactic acid bacteria catalyzes electrogenic precursor-product exchange of citrate versus l-lactate during citrate-glucose cometabolism. In the absence of sugar, l-lactate is replaced by the metabolic intermediates/end products pyruvate, α-acetolactate, and acetate. In this study, the binding and translocation properties of CitP were analyzed systematically for a wide variety of mono- and dicarboxylates of the form X-CR2-COO−, where X represents OH (2-hydroxy acid), O (2-keto acid), or H (acid) and R groups differ in size, hydrophobicity, and composition. It follows that CitP is a very promiscuous carboxylate transporter. A carboxylate group is both essential and sufficient for recognition by the transporter. A C-2 atom is not essential, formate is a substrate, and C-2 may be part of a ring structure, as in benzoate. The R group may be as bulky as an indole ring structure. For all monocarboxylates of the form X-CHR-COO−, the hydroxy (X = OH) analogs were the preferred substrates. The preference for keto (X = O) or acid (X = H) analogs was dependent on the bulkiness of the R group, such that the acid was preferred for small R groups and the 2-ketoacid was preferred for more bulky R groups. The C4 to C6 dicarboxylates succinate, glutarate, and adipate were also substrates of CitP. The broad substrate specificity is discussed in the context of a model of the binding site of CitP. Many of the substrates of CitP are intermediates or products of amino acid metabolism, suggesting that CitP may have a broader physiological function than its role in citrate fermentation alone. PMID:22563050

  18. Plasma Citrate Homeostasis: How It Is Regulated; And Its Physiological and Clinical Implications. An Important, But Neglected, Relationship in Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Leslie C; Franklin, Renty B

    2017-01-01

    The homeostatic maintenance of a normal plasma citrate concentration is an important factor in humans and in animals; and is required for many normal physiological activities. Dysregulation of normal plasma citrate presents pathophysiological hypocitricemic or hypercitricemic conditions. This can lead to clinical consequences in many areas of medicine; such as impaired blood clotting, altered acid/base status, impaired neuromuscular/cardiac activities, hypocitraturia and stone formation, bone disorders with loss of bone strength and increased fractures, hypocitricemia of surgical stress. These important implications of citrate relationships have been largely ignored by the contemporary clinical and biomedical community; to the extent that it is not even described in most current textbooks and review papers. This review describes the physiological, endocrine, and metabolic relationships in the normal regulation and maintenance of plasma citrate; and presents some important clinical consequences of its dysfunctional maintenance. The importance of bone, kidney and liver activities in the maintenance of normal plasma citrate is described along with the citricemic roles of parathyroid hormone, calcitonin and vitamin D. These factors and relationships are presented as the contemporary understanding of the integrated regulation of plasma citrate as the basis for its clinical importance in medicine. The exclusion of these citrate relationships leads to misunderstanding and misrepresentation of physiological and clinical conditions in many issues in medicine and paramedicine areas. The intent of this review is to revive the interest and support for research to address the many unknown and speculative issues of plasma citrate regulation and its important clinical implications. This is in the best interest of the medical community and the public-at-large. PMID:28286881

  19. Functional Analysis of the Citrate Activator CitO from Enterococcus faecalis Implicates a Divalent Metal in Ligand Binding

    PubMed Central

    Blancato, Víctor S.; Pagliai, Fernando A.; Magni, Christian; Gonzalez, Claudio F.; Lorca, Graciela L.

    2016-01-01

    The regulator of citrate metabolism, CitO, from Enterococcus faecalis belongs to the FCD family within the GntR superfamily. In the presence of citrate, CitO binds to cis-acting sequences located upstream of the cit promoters inducing the expression of genes involved in citrate utilization. The quantification of the molecular binding affinities, performed by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), indicated that CitO has a high affinity for citrate (KD = 1.2 ± 0.2 μM), while it did not recognize other metabolic intermediates. Based on a structural model of CitO where a putative small molecule and a metal binding site were identified, it was hypothesized that the metal ion is required for citrate binding. In agreement with this model, citrate binding to CitO sharply decreased when the protein was incubated with EDTA. This effect was reverted by the addition of Ni2+, and Zn2+ to a lesser extent. Structure-based site-directed mutagenesis was conducted and it was found that changes to alanine in residues Arg97 and His191 resulted in decreased binding affinities for citrate, as determined by EMSA and ITC. Further assays using lacZ fusions confirmed that these residues in CitO are involved in sensing citrate in vivo. These results indicate that the molecular modifications induced by a ligand and a metal binding in the C-terminal domain of CitO are required for optimal DNA binding activity, and consequently, transcriptional activation. PMID:26903980

  20. Clomiphene citrate versus letrozole with gonadotropins in intrauterine insemination cycles: A randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Pourali, Leila; Ayati, Sedigheh; Tavakolizadeh, Shirin; Soleimani, Hourieh; Teimouri Sani, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    Background: Clomiphene citrate is one of the effective drugs for infertility treatment due to oligo-ovulation or anovulation. Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is one of more adherent methods for treatment of infertile cases which is followed by controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH). Objective: the aim of this study was to evaluate Clomiphene citrate versus letrozole with gonadotropins in IUI cycles. Materials and Methods: In this prospective randomized trial, 180 infertile women who were referred to Milad Hospital were selected. The first group received 5 mg/day letrozole on day 3-7 of menstrual cycle. The second group received 100 mg/day Clomiphene in the same way as letrozole. In both groups, human menopausal gonadotropin was administered every day starting on day between 6-8 of cycle. Ovulation was triggered with urinary Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (5000 IU) when have two follicles of ≥16 mm. IUI was performed 36 hr later. Results: The number of matured follicles, cycle cancellation, and abortion were the same in both groups. Endometrial thickness was higher at the time of human menopausal gonadotropin administration in letrozole group. Chemical and clinical pregnancy rates were much higher in letrozole group. Ovarian hyperstimulation was significantly higher in clomiphene group. Conclusion: Letrozole appears to be a good alternative to clomiphene citrate with fewer side effects. PMID:28280800