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Sample records for citrate dextrose solution

  1. The respiratory efficiency and flexibility of erythrocytes stored in acid-citrate-dextrose solution

    PubMed Central

    Sirs, John A.

    1969-01-01

    1. Measurements have been made of the flexibility and respiratory efficiency of erythrocytes stored in acid-citrate-dextrose (ACD). 2. The rate of packing of stored blood, during centrifugation, indicates that the red blood cells are relatively inflexible. 3. Spectrophotometric observations, using the rapid-mixing and stopped-flow technique, indicate that the rate of egress of oxygen from HbO2 in these erythrocytes is significantly reduced. This is not due to a change of the chemical rate of dissociation of HbO2. 4. Neither factor is significantly reversed by resuspending the cells in Ringer-Locke solution or adjusting to pH 7·4. 5. A small improvement is obtained by adding hypertonic NaCl or incubating the blood at 37° C for 1 hr. 6. Incubation with adenosine, 25 μ-mole/ml. blood, at 37° C for at least 1 hr, restored both the respiratory function and flexibility to normal. PMID:5821931

  2. Effect of Citrate Phosphate Dextrose Solution on Reperfusion Injury in Coronary Artery Bypass Surgical Patients Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Yaghoubi, Alireza; Danaee, Saeid; Imani, Shahin; Sheikhalizadeh, Mohammadali; Ghojazadeh, Morteza

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Reperfusion injury is one of the most common phenomena associated with coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) .The mechanism of ischemia and reperfusion injury is not known precisely, but may be free radicals and other activated oxygen metabolites have an important role in tissue damage following reperfusion injury. This study was to evaluation of citrate solution effects on oxidative stress and cardiac function and Cardiac enzymes in patient's candidate to CABG. Methods In Double blind clinical trial study in Tabriz University of medical science, 50 patients candidate to CABG randomly divided in two groups and matched together according to sex, age and NYHA class. In intervention group after surgery and before the opening of the aortic clamping solution warm blood containing citrate phosphate dextrose (CPD; 3cc/100cc), value (100cc/min/m2BSA) for three minutes was administered. In control group, only pure blood administered. Oxidative stress markers measured in five stages and cardiac enzymes measured in three stages of surgery. Results Mean age 62.3±9.1 years including 30(60%) men and 20(40%) women. Ejection fractions between two groups were not significant before and after treatment. Administration of CPD was not significant effects on cardiac enzyme. Measurement of oxidative stress in different time were not different in malonil dialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and GPx but total antioxidant status were improved after intervention in compared with control group (p<0.001). Conclusion Results showed that CPD were positive effects of increasing in total antioxidant status after CABG, but in reduction of other oxidative markers were unlabeled. PMID:24250969

  3. Identification of highly concentrated dextrose solution (50% dextrose) extravasation and treatment--a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Sarah L; Brady, William; Mahmoud, Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    Treatment for significant hypoglycemia includes administration of dextrose containing agents, including 50% dextrose (D50%W) intravenously. Significant extravasation of D50%W can lead to complications, including skin and soft tissue injury, loss of limb, or death. The aim of this case report, using an interdisciplinary team approach, explores extravasation protocols as well as literature review, is to provide information about the proper use of hyaluronidase in patients with D50%W extravasations. A 46-year-old African American man presented to the emergency department (ED) after blood glucose level was initially 13 mg/dL. Emergency medical service established a large bore intravenous (IV) line in the right antecubital vein and administered a total of 50 g of D50%W. Upon arrival to the ED, the patient's level of consciousness had significantly improved. After arrival to the ED, the patient started complaining of pain in his right arm, near the site of the IV line insertion. On inspection, the IV site was grossly infiltrated. Hospital protocols for hyperosmolar infiltration were used. Extravasation is a common medical complication of infused medications and needs to be properly identified and treated. The multitude of skills from nursing, medicine, and pharmacy ensures that extravasation is managed appropriately and effectively to ensure safety to patients. Recognition, communication, and awareness of the institutional guidelines on how to treat infiltration and extravasation should be encouraged in all ED and intensive care unit medical personnel who deal with a variety of infusions and IV medications that have serious implications if not treated correctly. PMID:23602753

  4. Thermal Protection with 5% Dextrose Solution Blanket During Radiofrequency Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Enn Alexandria Neeman, Ziv; Lee, Fred T.; Kam, Anthony; Wood, Brad

    2006-12-15

    A serious complication for any thermal radiofrequency ablation is thermal injury to adjacent structures, particularly the bowel, which can result in additional major surgery or death. Several methods using air, gas, fluid, or thermometry to protect adjacent structures from thermal injury have been reported. In the cases presented in this report, 5% dextrose water (D5W) was instilled to prevent injury to the bowel and diaphragm during radiofrequency ablation. Creating an Insulating envelope or moving organs with D5W might reduce risk for complications such as bowel perforation.

  5. Gender and chronological age affect erythrocyte membrane oxidative indices in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) blood bank storage condition.

    PubMed

    Erman, Hayriye; Aksu, Uğur; Belce, Ahmet; Atukeren, Pınar; Uzun, Duygu; Cebe, Tamer; Kansu, Ahmet D; Gelişgen, Remisa; Uslu, Ezel; Aydın, Seval; Çakatay, Ufuk

    2016-07-01

    It is well known that in vitro storage lesions lead to membrane dysfunction and decreased number of functional erythrocytes. As erythrocytes get older, in storage media as well as in peripheral circulation, they undergo a variety of biochemical changes. In our study, the erythrocytes with different age groups in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) storage solution were used in order to investigate the possible effect of gender factor on oxidative damage. Oxidative damage biomarkers in erythrocyte membranes such as ferric reducing antioxidant power, pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance, protein-bound advance glycation end products, and sialic acid were analyzed. Current study reveals that change in membrane redox status during blood-bank storage condition also depends on both gender depended homeostatic factors and the presence of CPDA-1. During the storage period in CPDA-1, erythrocytes from the male donors are mostly affected by free radical-mediated oxidative stress but erythrocytes obtained from females are severely affected by glyoxidative stress. PMID:27045670

  6. Gender and chronological age affect erythrocyte membrane oxidative indices in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) blood bank storage condition.

    PubMed

    Erman, Hayriye; Aksu, Uğur; Belce, Ahmet; Atukeren, Pınar; Uzun, Duygu; Cebe, Tamer; Kansu, Ahmet D; Gelişgen, Remisa; Uslu, Ezel; Aydın, Seval; Çakatay, Ufuk

    2016-07-01

    It is well known that in vitro storage lesions lead to membrane dysfunction and decreased number of functional erythrocytes. As erythrocytes get older, in storage media as well as in peripheral circulation, they undergo a variety of biochemical changes. In our study, the erythrocytes with different age groups in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) storage solution were used in order to investigate the possible effect of gender factor on oxidative damage. Oxidative damage biomarkers in erythrocyte membranes such as ferric reducing antioxidant power, pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance, protein-bound advance glycation end products, and sialic acid were analyzed. Current study reveals that change in membrane redox status during blood-bank storage condition also depends on both gender depended homeostatic factors and the presence of CPDA-1. During the storage period in CPDA-1, erythrocytes from the male donors are mostly affected by free radical-mediated oxidative stress but erythrocytes obtained from females are severely affected by glyoxidative stress.

  7. 21 CFR 520.550 - Dextrose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredients: sodium chloride 8.82 grams, potassium phosphate 4.20 grams, citric acid anhydrous 0.5 gram, potassium citrate 0.12 gram, aminoacetic acid (glycine) 6.36 grams, and dextrose 44.0 grams. (b)...

  8. Study of Maxwell–Wagner (M–W) relaxation behavior and hysteresis observed in bismuth titanate layered structure obtained by solution combustion synthesis using dextrose as fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Subohi, Oroosa; Shastri, Lokesh; Kumar, G.S.; Malik, M.M.; Kurchania, Rajnish

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: X-ray diffraction studies show that phase formation and crystallinity was reached only after calcinations at 800 °C. Dielectric constant versus temperature curve shows ferroelectric to paraelectric transition temperature (T{sub c}) to be 650 °C. Complex impedance curves show deviation from Debye behavior. The material shows a thin PE Loop with low remnant polarization due to high conductivity in the as prepared sample. - Highlights: • Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} is synthesized using solution combustion technique with dextrose as fuel. • Dextrose has high reducing capacity (+24) and generates more no. of moles of gases. • Impedance studies show that the sample follows Maxwell–Wagner relaxation behavior. • Shows lower remnant polarization due to higher c-axis ratio. - Abstract: Structural, dielectric and ferroelectric properties of bismuth titanate (Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12}) obtained by solution combustion technique using dextrose as fuel is studied extensively in this paper. Dextrose is used as fuel as it has high reducing valancy and generates more number of moles of gases during the reaction. X-ray diffraction studies show that phase formation and crystallinity was reached only after calcinations at 800 °C. Dielectric constant versus temperature curve shows ferroelectric to paraelectric transition temperature (T{sub c}) to be 650 °C. The dielectric loss is very less (tan δ < 1) at lower temperatures but increases around T{sub c} due to structural changes in the sample. Complex impedance curves show deviation from Debye behavior. The material shows a thin PE Loop with low remnant polarization due to high conductivity in the as prepared sample.

  9. Recycling of Ni(II)-citrate complexes using precipitation in alkaline solutions.

    PubMed

    Gyliene, O; Aikaite, J; Nivinskiene, O

    2004-06-18

    When the excess of Ni(II) ions as compared to citrate concentration is used both Ni(II) ions and citrate can be precipitated in alkaline solutions. The ratio between Ni(II) and citrate in the precipitate and completeness of citrate precipitation depends on the ratio between the Ni(II) and citrate concentrations in the initial solution and its pH. The data of chemical analysis, potentiometric titration, FT-IR as well as visible spectrophotometric investigations suggest that Ni(II) in the insoluble compound is bound with three -COO- groups and -OH group of the citrate. The insoluble compound also contains SO4(2-) and hydroxides. The treatment of this precipitate with H2SO4 enables to recover a soluble Ni(II)-citrate complex, which can be reused in practice, and to remove the excess of Ni(II) in the form of insoluble Ni(OH)2. PMID:15177751

  10. Metallocoenzyme-mediated reductive transformation of carbon tetrachloride in titanium (III) citrate aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, P.C.; Reinhard, M.

    1995-03-01

    Transformation pathways for carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) catalyzed by hematin or vitamin B{sub 12} in aqueous titanium(III) citrate solution are proposed. The reaction of CCl{sub 4} with B{sub 12} was zero order in CCl{sub 4} and first order in B{sub 12}, and the rate constant was measured from pH 7.3 to pH 10.3. The proposed rate-limiting step is the reduction of the stable trichloromethylcobalamin (CCl{sub 3}-Cbl) intermediate by titanium(III) citrate at alkaline pH and the sterically induced CCl{sub 3}-Cbl decomposition at neutral pH. The reaction kinetics can be described by a modified Michaelis-Menten model in the saturated regime. With hematin, only the pseudo-first-order rate constant was determined due to the significant deactivation of the coenzyme. The turnover number of hematin (molecules of CCl{sub 4} transformed/molecule of hematin deactivated) was 27 at pH 8.0 and 42 at pH 9.9. Vitamin B{sub 12} was a more stable and more effective catalyst (on a molar basis) than hematin with respect to CCl{sub 4}. Chloroform (CHCl{sub 3}) was the primary product in titanium(III) citrate solution, and the yield was a function of pH, Ti(III) concentration, and organic content regardless of whether a coenzyme was present or which coenzyme was used. Although B{sub 12} and hematin can both enhance the CCl{sub 4} transformation rate, they have little effect on the CHCl{sub 3} yield. Titanium(III) citrate, on the other hand, controls not only the transformation rate but also CHCl{sub 3} formation. 77 refs., 10 figs.

  11. Ammonium citrate as enhancement for electrodialytic soil remediation and investigation of soil solution during the process.

    PubMed

    Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Kirkelund, Gunvor M; Ottosen, Lisbeth M

    2015-01-01

    Seven electrodialytic experiments were conducted using ammonium citrate as enhancing agent to remediate copper and chromium-contaminated soil from a wood-preservation site. The purpose was to investigate the effect of current density (0.2, 1.0 and 1.5 mA cm(-2)), concentration of enhancing agent (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 M) and remediation times (21, 42 and 117 d) for the removal of Cu and Cr from a calcareous soil. To gain insight on metal behavior, soil solution was periodically collected using suction cups. It was seen that current densities higher than 1.0 mA cm(-2) did not increase removal and thus using too high current densities can be a waste of energy. Desorption rate is important and both remediation time and ammonium citrate concentration are relevant parameters. It was possible to collect soil solution samples following an adaptation of the experimental set-up to ensure continuous supply of ammonium citrate to the soil in order to keep it saturated during the remediation. Monitoring soil solution gives valuable information on the evolution of remediation and helps deciding when the soil is remediated. Final concentrations in the soil ranged from 220 to 360 mg Cu kg(-1) (removals: 78-86%) and 440-590 mg Cr kg(-1) (removals: 35-51%), being within the 500 mg kg(-1) limit for a clean soil only for Cu. While further optimization is still required for Cr, the removal percentages are the highest achieved so far, for a real Cu and Cr-contaminated, calcareous soil. The results highlight EDR potential to remediate metal polluted soils at neutral to alkaline pH by choosing a good enhancement solution.

  12. Ammonium citrate as enhancement for electrodialytic soil remediation and investigation of soil solution during the process.

    PubMed

    Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Kirkelund, Gunvor M; Ottosen, Lisbeth M

    2015-01-01

    Seven electrodialytic experiments were conducted using ammonium citrate as enhancing agent to remediate copper and chromium-contaminated soil from a wood-preservation site. The purpose was to investigate the effect of current density (0.2, 1.0 and 1.5 mA cm(-2)), concentration of enhancing agent (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 M) and remediation times (21, 42 and 117 d) for the removal of Cu and Cr from a calcareous soil. To gain insight on metal behavior, soil solution was periodically collected using suction cups. It was seen that current densities higher than 1.0 mA cm(-2) did not increase removal and thus using too high current densities can be a waste of energy. Desorption rate is important and both remediation time and ammonium citrate concentration are relevant parameters. It was possible to collect soil solution samples following an adaptation of the experimental set-up to ensure continuous supply of ammonium citrate to the soil in order to keep it saturated during the remediation. Monitoring soil solution gives valuable information on the evolution of remediation and helps deciding when the soil is remediated. Final concentrations in the soil ranged from 220 to 360 mg Cu kg(-1) (removals: 78-86%) and 440-590 mg Cr kg(-1) (removals: 35-51%), being within the 500 mg kg(-1) limit for a clean soil only for Cu. While further optimization is still required for Cr, the removal percentages are the highest achieved so far, for a real Cu and Cr-contaminated, calcareous soil. The results highlight EDR potential to remediate metal polluted soils at neutral to alkaline pH by choosing a good enhancement solution. PMID:25240953

  13. Citrate-Coated Silver Nanoparticles Interactions with Effluent Organic Matter: Influence of Capping Agent and Solution Conditions.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Leonardo; Aubry, Cyril; Cornejo, Mauricio; Croue, Jean-Philippe

    2015-08-18

    Fate and transport studies of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) discharged from urban wastewaters containing effluent organic matter (EfOM) into natural waters represent a key knowledge gap. In this study, EfOM interfacial interactions with AgNPs, and their aggregation kinetics were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and time-resolved dynamic light scattering (TR-DLS), respectively. Two well-characterized EfOM isolates, i.e., wastewater humic (WW humic) and wastewater colloids (WW colloids, a complex mixture of polysaccharides-proteins-lipids), and a River humic isolate of different characteristics were selected. Citrate-coated AgNPs were selected as representative capped-AgNPs. Citrate-coated AgNPs showed a considerable stability in Na(+) solutions. However, Ca(2+) ions induced aggregation by cation bridging between carboxyl groups on citrate. Although the presence of River humic increased the stability of citrate-coated AgNPs in Na(+) solutions due to electrosteric effects, they aggregated in WW humic-containing solutions, indicating the importance of humics characteristics during interactions. Ca(2+) ions increased citrate-coated AgNPs aggregation rates in both humic solutions, suggesting cation bridging between carboxyl groups on their structures as a dominant interacting mechanism. Aggregation of citrate-coated AgNPs in WW colloids solutions was significantly faster than those in both humic solutions. Control experiments in urea solution indicated hydrogen bonding as the main interacting mechanism. During AFM experiments, citrate-coated AgNPs showed higher adhesion to WW humic than to River humic, evidencing a consistency between TR-DLS and AFM results. Ca(2+) ions increased citrate-coated AgNPs adhesion to both humic isolates. Interestingly, strong WW colloids interactions with citrate caused AFM probe contamination (nanoparticles adsorption) even at low Na(+) concentrations, indicating the impact of hydrogen bonding on adhesion. These results suggest

  14. A new strategy to stabilize oxytocin in aqueous solutions: I. The effects of divalent metal ions and citrate buffer.

    PubMed

    Avanti, Christina; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Setyaningsih, Dewi; Hawe, Andrea; Jiskoot, Wim; Visser, Jan; Kedrov, Alexej; Driessen, Arnold J M; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; Frijlink, Henderik W

    2011-06-01

    In the current study, the effect of metal ions in combination with buffers (citrate, acetate, pH 4.5) on the stability of aqueous solutions of oxytocin was investigated. Both monovalent metal ions (Na(+) and K(+)) and divalent metal ions (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Zn(2+)) were tested all as chloride salts. The effect of combinations of buffers and metal ions on the stability of aqueous oxytocin solutions was determined by RP-HPLC and HP-SEC after 4 weeks of storage at either 4°C or 55°C. Addition of sodium or potassium ions to acetate- or citrate-buffered solutions did not increase stability, nor did the addition of divalent metal ions to acetate buffer. However, the stability of aqueous oxytocin in aqueous formulations was improved in the presence of 5 and 10 mM citrate buffer in combination with at least 2 mM CaCl(2), MgCl(2), or ZnCl(2) and depended on the divalent metal ion concentration. Isothermal titration calorimetric measurements were predictive for the stabilization effects observed during the stability study. Formulations in citrate buffer that had an improved stability displayed a strong interaction between oxytocin and Ca(2+), Mg(2+), or Zn(2+), while formulations in acetate buffer did not. In conclusion, our study shows that divalent metal ions in combination with citrate buffer strongly improved the stability of oxytocin in aqueous solutions.

  15. 21 CFR 168.110 - Dextrose anhydrous.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Table Sirups § 168.110 Dextrose anhydrous. (a) Dextrose anhydrous is purified and crystallized D-glucose without water of crystallization and conforms to the specifications of § 168.111, except that the...

  16. 21 CFR 168.110 - Dextrose anhydrous.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Table Sirups § 168.110 Dextrose anhydrous. (a) Dextrose anhydrous is purified and crystallized D-glucose without water of crystallization and conforms to the specifications of § 168.111, except that the...

  17. Effect of citrate anticoagulants on factor VIII levels in plasma.

    PubMed

    Rock, G; Tittley, P; Fuller, V

    1988-01-01

    The citrate anticoagulants used during blood collection have been developed for their benefits to red cells. The concentrations in which they are used are strictly regulated in the United States: citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine (CPDA) is used in a 1:8 ratio for the collection of whole blood, whereas 4 percent sodium citrate (NaCit) is used in a 1:10 ratio for manual plasmapheresis. Acid-citrate-dextrose formula A (ACD-A) or formula B (ACD-B) and NaCit are commonly used in a 1:12 or 1:15 ratio during automated plasmapheresis. These anticoagulants have different initial and final pH values and citrate concentrations and different effects on the recovery of factor VIII (FVIII) in the plasma. NaCit has a higher initial pH (6.64) than ACD-A (4.98), ACD-B (5.60), or CPDA (5.12). The effects of these different anticoagulants on plasma constituents obtained from six healthy subjects were studied. In standard citrate concentrations, the FVIII level was significantly lower (p less than 0.05) in the NaCit used for manual plasmapheresis than in either of the ACD solutions used in automated plasmapheresis (104 U/dl vs. 153 and 160 U/dl). When various ratios of NaCit to blood were used, the pH increased from 7.62 at a 1:10 dilution to 7.65 at a 1:50 dilution. As expected, a progressive decrease in anticoagulant level was associated with an increase in ionized calcium and also in the level of FVIII, with the latter values rising from 104 U per dl at 1:10 to 137 at 1:20 and 148 U per dl at 1:30. Clot formation was detected only at a ratio of 1:35.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. The stability of citrate-capped silver nanoparticles in isotonic glucose solution for intravenous injection.

    PubMed

    Park, Kwangsik; Lee, Yeonjin

    2013-01-01

    Citrate-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are widely used in industry, consumer products, and medical appliances. However, information on the environmental toxicity and human health is not comprehensive. Further, the physicochemical properties of AgNP make it difficult to test toxicity, as nanosized particles, due to their size, may increase by aggregation or agglomeration in some administration vehicles. In this study, stability of AgNP was investigated in different types of isotonic solutions, which is important for in vitro testing or toxicokinetic studies using intravenous (iv) injection. Size, morphology, zeta potential, and ion formation were investigated in isotonic solutions for the physicochemical characterization of AgNP. Aggregation and precipitation of AgNP were observed in phosphate-buffered saline or 0.9% NaCl, while AgNP were stable without aggregation or precipitation in 5% glucose in isotonic solution. The average size of AgNP in 5% glucose was approximately 10 nm at different temperatures of 10, 25, or 36°C and at varying concentrations from 10 to 1000 ppm. It is noteworthy that this is almost the same size distribution as that in the water-based suspension of AgNP supplied by the manufacturer. Zeta potential ranged from -40 to -60 mV, suggesting that the repulsion forces of AgNP are not disturbed to a sufficient degree to aggregate while osmolarity is in the isotonic range of 290 ± 10 mOsm/kg in 5% glucose solution. Data suggest that AgNP in a 5% glucose solution may be used in the toxicity test via iv injection without adverse consequences in blood. PMID:24283395

  19. Calcium-Citrate-Phosphate Solution Injection for In Situ Strontium-90 Immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fruchter, J. S.; Vermeul, V.; Szecsody, J.; Williams, M. D.; Fritz, B. G.

    2010-12-01

    Sr-90 present in groundwater and the vadose zone at the Hanford 100N area due to past waste disposal practices has reached the nearby Columbia River, as evidenced by Sr-90 concentrations in near river wells and aquifer tubes and near shore sediments. Sr-90 is currently being remediated by adsorption onto apatite (55 times stronger than Sr-90 adsorption to sediment), followed by incorporation of the Sr-90 into the apatite structure. If the Sr-90 can remain immobilized for 300 years (~ten 29.1-yr half-lives of Sr-90 decay), it will have decayed below regulatory limits to Y-90 and to stable Zr-90. Apatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] is being precipitated in situ by injection of an aqueous solution of Ca-citrate and Na-phosphate through a series of injection wells spaced 30 ft on center, forming a 300-ft-long permeable reactive barrier. Design criteria for the injection operations were based on 1) amendment volume and mass injected, 2) amendment arrival at adjacent wells, 3) water-level elevation during treatment, and 4) injection rate limitations associated with well plugging. An evaluation of compliance with these injection design criteria was used to assess operational performance and identify candidate wells for supplemental treatment. Injection design criteria were not fully met at 8 of the 16 injection well locations, with the primary deficiency at 4 of 8 locations being the limited vertical extent of Hanford formation treatment due to low-river-stage conditions during the injection. Wells whose extent of treatment did not meet design criteria were recommended for retreatment. Although injection design criteria were not fully met at a significant number of well locations, aqueous performance assessment monitoring data collected to date indicate good barrier performance. Aqueous Sr-90 monitoring in four compliance monitoring wells over a year following the high concentration injections indicates 84% to 95% decrease in Sr-90 concentrations (relative to the low and high end

  20. 21 CFR 168.110 - Dextrose anhydrous.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dextrose anhydrous. 168.110 Section 168.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.110 Dextrose anhydrous....

  1. Performance characteristics of an ion chromatographic method for the quantitation of citrate and phosphate in pharmaceutical solutions.

    PubMed

    Jenke, Dennis; Sadain, Salma; Nunez, Karen; Byrne, Frances

    2007-01-01

    The performance of an ion chromatographic method for measuring citrate and phosphate in pharmaceutical solutions is evaluated. Performance characteristics examined include accuracy, precision, specificity, response linearity, robustness, and the ability to meet system suitability criteria. In general, the method is found to be robust within reasonable deviations from its specified operating conditions. Analytical accuracy is typically 100 +/- 3%, and short-term precision is not more than 1.5% relative standard deviation. The instrument response is linear over a range of 50% to 150% of the standard preparation target concentrations (12 mg/L for phosphate and 20 mg/L for citrate), and the results obtained using a single-point standard versus a calibration curve are essentially equivalent. A small analytical bias is observed and ascribed to the relative purity of the differing salts, used as raw materials in tested finished products and as reference standards in the analytical method. The assay is specific in that no phosphate or citrate peaks are observed in a variety of method-related solutions and matrix blanks (with and without autoclaving). The assay with manual preparation of the eluents is sensitive to the composition of the eluent in the sense that the eluent must be effectively degassed and protected from CO(2) ingress during use. In order for the assay to perform effectively, extensive system equilibration and conditioning is required. However, a properly conditioned and equilibrated system can be used to test a number of samples via chromatographic runs that include many (> 50) injections.

  2. Can mosapride citrate reduce the volume of lavage solution for colonoscopy preparation?

    PubMed Central

    Tajika, Masahiro; Niwa, Yasumasa; Bhatia, Vikram; Kondo, Shinya; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Mizuno, Nobumasa; Hara, Kazuo; Hijioka, Susumu; Imaoka, Hiroshi; Komori, Koji; Yamao, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the possibility of reducing the volume of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-electrolyte solution using adjunctive mosapride citrate for colonoscopy preparation. METHODS: This was a single-center, prospective, randomized, investigator-blinded, non-inferiority study involving 252 patients of both sexes, aged from 20 to 80 years, scheduled for screening or diagnostic colonoscopy in our department. A total of 126 patients was randomized to receive 1.5 L PEG-electrolyte solution plus 15 mg of mosapride (1.5 L group), and 126 received 2 L PEG-electrolyte solution plus 15 mg of mosapride (2 L group). Patients completed a questionnaire on the acceptability and tolerability of the bowel preparation process. The efficacy of bowel preparation was assessed using a 5-point scale based on the Aronchick scale. The primary end point was adequate bowel preparation rates (score of excellent/good/fair) vs (poor/inadequate). Acceptability and tolerability, as well as disease detection, were secondary end points. RESULTS: A total of 244 patients was included in the analysis. There were no significant differences between the 2 L and 1.5 L groups in age, sex, body mass index, number of previous colonoscopies, and the preparation method used previously. The adequate bowel preparation rates were 88.5% in the 2 L group and 82.8% in the 1.5 L group [95% lower confidence limit (LCL) for the difference = -14.5%, non-inferiority P = 0.019] in the right colon. In the left colon, the adequate bowel preparation rates were 89.3% in the 2 L group and 81.1% in the 1.5 L group (95% LCL = -17.0%, non-inferiority P = 0.066). Compliance, defined as complete (100%) intake of the PEG solution, was significantly higher in the 1.5 L group than in the 2 L group (96.8% vs 85.7%, P = 0.002). The proportion of abdominal distension (none/mild/moderate/severe) was significantly lower in the 1.5 L group than in the 2 L group (36/65/22/3 vs 58/48/18/2, P = 0.040). Within the subgroup who had undergone

  3. Vanadium(IV)-citrate complex interconversions in aqueous solutions. A pH-dependent synthetic, structural, spectroscopic, and magnetic study.

    PubMed

    Tsaramyrsi, M; Kaliva, M; Salifoglou, A; Raptopoulou, C P; Terzis, A; Tangoulis, V; Giapintzakis, J

    2001-11-01

    Citrate is abundantly encountered in biological fluids as a natural metal ion chelator. Vanadium participates in biological processes as a catalyst in the active sites of metalloenzymes, as a metabolic regulator, as a mitogenic activator, and as an insulin-mimicking agent. Thus, vanadium chemistry with natural chelators, such as citrate, may have immediate implications on its role in a cellular milieu, and its action as a biological agent. In an effort to comprehend the aqueous chemistry of one of vanadium's oxidation states, namely, V(IV), implicated in its biological activity, reactions of VCl(3) and citric acid were pursued in water and led to V(IV)-citrate complexes, the nature and properties of which depend strongly on the solution pH. Analytical, FT-IR, UV/vis, EPR, and magnetic susceptibility data supported the formulation of X(4)[[VO(H(-1)Cit)](2)] x nH(2)O (H(-1)Cit = C(6)H(4)O(7)(4-); X = K(+), n = 6 (1); X = Na(+), n = 12 (2); X = NH(4)(+), n = 2 (3)) (pH approximately 8) and X(3)[[V(2)O(2)(H(-1)Cit)(Cit)

  4. 21 CFR 168.111 - Dextrose monohydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-glucose containing one molecule of water of crystallization with each molecule of D-glucose. (b) The food.../mass (m/m), and the reducing sugar content (dextrose equivalent), expressed as D-glucose, is not...

  5. 21 CFR 168.111 - Dextrose monohydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-glucose containing one molecule of water of crystallization with each molecule of D-glucose. (b) The food.../mass (m/m), and the reducing sugar content (dextrose equivalent), expressed as D-glucose, is not...

  6. 21 CFR 168.111 - Dextrose monohydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-glucose containing one molecule of water of crystallization with each molecule of D-glucose. (b) The food.../mass (m/m), and the reducing sugar content (dextrose equivalent), expressed as D-glucose, is not...

  7. A Cryo-XPS Study of Triammonium Citrate-KAuCl4-Na2SO3 Electroplating Solutions for Pb-Free Solder Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalili, Neda; He, Anqiang; Liu, Qi; Ivey, Douglas G.

    2010-09-01

    Cyanide-free Au plating baths, containing KAuCl4, triammonium citrate, and sodium sulfite, have been developed by the authors. The stability of these solutions depends on the order of mixing of the additives. The aim of this study was to employ turbidity measurements and cryogenic x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to identify the role of the additives and the complexes responsible for solution stability or degradation. Electron microscopy was used to characterize any precipitation products generated in the solutions. It was shown that the long-term stability of the solutions is due to the role of citrate and sulfite as complexing agents.

  8. PRODUCTION OF UNIFORMLY SIZED SERUM ALBUMIN AND DEXTROSE MICROBUBBLES

    PubMed Central

    Borrelli, Michael J.; O’Brien, William D.; Bernock, Laura J.; Williams, Heather R.; Hamilton, Eric; Wu, Jonah; Oelze, Michael L.; Culp, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Uniformly-sized preparations with average microbubble (MB) diameters from 1 µm to 7 µm were produced reliably by sonicating decafluorobutane-saturated solutions of serum albumin and dextrose. Detailed protocols for producing and size-separating the MBs are presented, along with the effects that changing each production parameter (serum albumin concentration, sonication power, sonication time, etc.) had on MB size distribution and acoustic stability. These protocols can be used to produce MBs for experimental applications or serve as templates for developing new protocols that yield MBs with physical and acoustic properties better suited to specific applications. Size stability and ultrasonic performance quality control tests were developed to assure that successive MB preparations perform identically and to distinguish the physical and acoustic properties of identically sized MBs produced with different serum albumin-dextrose formulations and sonication parameters. MBs can be stored at 5°C for protracted periods (2 weeks to one year depending on formulation). PMID:21689961

  9. Subcutaneous dextrose for rehydration of elderly patients – an evidence-based review

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Tari; Cassano, Anne-Marie

    2004-01-01

    Background In the Rehabilitation and Aged Care Services Program at Southern Health in Victoria, saline hypodermoclysis is a relatively common method of rehydration. However, there were questions about the safety and effectiveness of subcutaneous infusion of other fluids and, in particular, dextrose solutions. This review aimed to assess the safety and effectiveness of rehydration of elderly patients with subcutaneous 5% dextrose solutions compared with intravenous 5% dextrose solutions. Methods We searched the Cochrane Library, Medline, IDIS, CINAHL, Current Contents, Premedline, Australasian Medical Index, the Joanna Briggs Institute, the US National Guideline Clearinghouse and bibliographies of retrieved articles. Searching was undertaken in July 2003. Studies selected were primary studies (or systematic reviews of primary studies) providing evidence as to the effectiveness and safety of subcutaneous infusion of dextrose solutions for rehydration of elderly patients. We included articles published in English in the last 10 years. Data were extracted by a single researcher. Results From our search we identified 15 potentially relevant articles. We obtained the full text of these articles to determine their relevance. After application of the inclusion criteria, four articles remained for appraisal including one systematic review, two randomised controlled trials and one cohort study. Conclusion The four studies appraised all provide evidence that appropriate volumes of subcutaneous dextrose infusions (in the form of half-normal saline-glucose 5%, 40 g/L dextrose and 30 mmol/L NaCl, or 5% dextrose solution and 4 g/L NaCl, or two-thirds 5% glucose and one-third normal saline) can be used effectively for the treatment of dehydration, with similar rates of adverse effects to intravenous infusion. The evidence in this area is limited, and larger randomised controlled trials using validated outcome measures would be useful to confirm these results. PMID:15086959

  10. Human islet isolation--a prospective randomized comparison of pancreatic vascular perfusion with hyperosmolar citrate or University of Wisconsin solution.

    PubMed

    Robertson, G S; Chadwick, D; Thirdborough, S; Swift, S; Davies, J; James, R; Bell, P R; London, N J

    1993-09-01

    University of Wisconsin solution has become the most commonly used vascular perfusate during multiorgan donation world-wide. In the UK however, hyperosmolar citrate remains in common use. The purpose of this prospective randomized study was to compare the effect of systemic perfusion with UW or HOC on subsequent islet yield and purification for pancreata with short cold ischemic times. Seven pancreata were randomized to each group, with the donor age, pancreas weight, and period of cold ischemia being similar in both. Perfusion with UW was shown to inhibit collagenase digestion, and a higher concentration of this enzyme was needed to achieve comparable numbers of islets with good separation of exocrine and islet tissue after a similar period of digestion. There were no differences in the number, size, purity, or viability of islets between the two groups. In conclusion, UW solution offers no benefits over HOC for pancreata with short cold ischemic times, and because of its expense and need to use greater amounts of collagenase enzyme, we continue to use HOC.

  11. Human islet isolation--a prospective randomized comparison of pancreatic vascular perfusion with hyperosmolar citrate or University of Wisconsin solution.

    PubMed

    Robertson, G S; Chadwick, D; Thirdborough, S; Swift, S; Davies, J; James, R; Bell, P R; London, N J

    1993-09-01

    University of Wisconsin solution has become the most commonly used vascular perfusate during multiorgan donation world-wide. In the UK however, hyperosmolar citrate remains in common use. The purpose of this prospective randomized study was to compare the effect of systemic perfusion with UW or HOC on subsequent islet yield and purification for pancreata with short cold ischemic times. Seven pancreata were randomized to each group, with the donor age, pancreas weight, and period of cold ischemia being similar in both. Perfusion with UW was shown to inhibit collagenase digestion, and a higher concentration of this enzyme was needed to achieve comparable numbers of islets with good separation of exocrine and islet tissue after a similar period of digestion. There were no differences in the number, size, purity, or viability of islets between the two groups. In conclusion, UW solution offers no benefits over HOC for pancreata with short cold ischemic times, and because of its expense and need to use greater amounts of collagenase enzyme, we continue to use HOC. PMID:8212148

  12. Is Taurolidine-citrate an effective and cost-effective hemodialysis catheter lock solution? A systematic review and cost- effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kavosi, Zahra; Sarikhani Khorrami, Maryam; Keshavarz, Khosro; Jafari, Abdosaleh; Hashemi Meshkini, Amir; Safaei, Hamid Reza; Nikfar, Shekoufeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prevention of catheter-related infection is of prime importance,. However, because of the risks caused by the leakage of circulating antibiotics and development of resistance to antibiotics, they are replaced by lock solutions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and cost- effectiveness of taurolidine-citrate as a hemodialysis catheter lock solution compared to other common alternatives in Iran. Methods: To evaluate the efficacy of taurolidine-citrate, a systematic review was conducted by searching electronic databases. The outcomes of interest for cost-effectiveness analysis were as follows: "Catheter-related bacteremia episodes"; "catheter-related bacteremia-free survival"; "catheter thrombosis rate" for efficacy evaluation and "reduction of catheter-related infection". For evidence synthesis, a meta-analysis was conducted on the extracted efficacy data. To evaluate the cost of treatments, direct medical costs were included, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated for each comparison. The payers’ (patients and insurance companies) perspectives were used for cost analysis. Results: After carrying out the systematic process, three articles were included in the analysis. Considering 95% confidence interval, the relative difference was -0.16 (-0.25 to -0.07) for catheterrelated bacteremia episode, indicating that the rate of catheter-related infections in hemodialysis patients who used taurolidine-citrate was 16% less than in those hemodialysis patients who received heparin. Considering 95% confidence interval, the relative difference was 0.13 (-0.06 0.32) for catheter thrombosis, showing that the rate of catheter-related thrombosis in hemodialysis patients who used taurolidine-citrate was 13% more than in hemodialysis patients who received heparin. The results of this analysis indicated that taurolidine-citrate, compared to heparin, was more effective in preventing catheter-related infection; therefore, it could be

  13. Effect of potassium sodium tartrate and sodium citrate on the preparation of {alpha}-calcium sulfate hemihydrate from flue gas desulfurization gypsum in a concentrated electrolyte solution

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Z.X.; Guan, B.H.; Fu, H.L.; Yang, L.C.

    2009-12-15

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum mainly composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate (DH) was used as a raw material to obtain alpha-calcium sulfate hemihydrate ({alpha}-HH) through dehydration in a Ca-Mg-K-Cl-solution medium at 95{sup o}C under atmospheric pressure. The effects of potassium sodium tartrate and sodium citrate on the preparation of alpha-HH in the electrolyte solution were investigated. The results revealed that the addition of potassium sodium tartrate (1.0 x 10{sup -2} - 2.5 x 10{sup -2}M) decreased the dehydration rate of FGD gypsum and increased the length/width (l/w) ratio of {alpha}-HH crystals, which could yield unfavorable strength properties. Addition of sodium citrate (1.0 x 10{sup -5} - 2.0 x 10{sup -5}M) slightly increased the dehydration rate of FGD gypsum and decreased the l/w ratio of {alpha}-HH crystals, which could be beneficial to increase strength. However, it also led to a partial formation of anhydrite (AH) crystals. AH was also the only dehydration product when the concentration of sodium citrate increased to 1.0 x 10{sup -4}M. Therefore, sodium citrate rather than potassium sodium tartrate could be used as an additive in Ca-Mg-K-Cl electrolyte solutions if alpha-HH with a shorter l/w ratio is the desired product from FGD gypsum dehydration. The concentration of sodium citrate should be properly controlled to reduce the formation of AH.

  14. Sequestration of Sr-90 Subsurface Contamination in the Hanford 100-N Area by Surface Infiltration of a Ca-Citrate-Phosphate Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, James E.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Oostrom, Martinus; Moore, R. C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Williams, Mark D.; Zhong, Lirong; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; McKinley, James P.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Covert, Matthew A.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Garcia, Ben J.

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a method to emplace apatite precipitate in the 100N vadose zone, which results in sorption and ultimately incorporation of Sr-90 into the apatite structure. The Ca-citrate-PO4 solution can be infiltrated into unsaturated sediments to result in apatite precipitate to provide effective treatment of Sr-90 contamination. Microbial redistribution during solution infiltration and a high rate of citrate biodegradation for river water microbes (water used for solution infiltration) results in a relatively even spatial distribution of the citrate biodegradation rate and ultimately apatite precipitate in the sediment. Manipulation of the Ca-citrate-PO4 solution infiltration strategy can be used to result in apatite precipitate in the lower half of the vadose zone (where most of the Sr-90 is located) and within low-K layers (which are hypothesized to have higher Sr-90 concentrations). The most effective infiltration strategy to precipitate apatite at depth (and with sufficient lateral spread) was to infiltrate a high concentration solution (6 mM Ca, 15 mM citrate, 60 mM PO4) at a rapid rate (near ponded conditions), followed by rapid, then slow water infiltration. Repeated infiltration events, with sufficient time between events to allow water drainage in the sediment profile can be used to buildup the mass of apatite precipitate at greater depth. Low-K heterogeneities were effectively treated, as the higher residual water content maintained in these zones resulted in higher apatite precipitate concentration. High-K zones did not receive sufficient treatment by infiltration, although an alternative strategy of air/surfactant (foam) was demonstrated effective for targeting high-K zones. The flow rate manipulation used in this study to treat specific depths and heterogeneities are not as easy to implement at field scale due to the lack of characterization of heterogeneities and difficulty tracking the wetting front over a large

  15. 21 CFR 184.1449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 184.1449 Section 184.1449 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1449 Manganese citrate. (a) Manganese citrate (Mn3(C6H5O7)2, CAS... manganese carbonate from manganese sulfate and sodium carbonate solutions. The filtered and...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 184.1449 Section 184.1449 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1449 Manganese citrate. (a) Manganese citrate (Mn3(C6H5O7)2, CAS... manganese carbonate from manganese sulfate and sodium carbonate solutions. The filtered and...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 184.1449 Section 184.1449 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1449 Manganese citrate. (a) Manganese citrate (Mn3(C6H5O7)2, CAS... manganese carbonate from manganese sulfate and sodium carbonate solutions. The filtered and...

  18. Influence of impurities on the crystallization of dextrose monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markande, Abhay; Nezzal, Amale; Fitzpatrick, John; Aerts, Luc; Redl, Andreas

    2012-08-01

    The effects of impurities on dextrose monohydrate crystallization were investigated. Crystal nucleation and growth kinetics in the presence of impurities were studied using an in-line focused beam reflectance monitoring (FBRM) technique and an in-line process refractometer. Experimental data were obtained from runs carried out at different impurity levels between 4 and 11 wt% in the high dextrose equivalent (DE) syrup. It was found that impurities have no significant influence on the solubility of dextrose in water. However, impurities have a clear influence on the nucleation and growth kinetics of dextrose monohydrate crystallization. Nucleation and growth rate were favored by low levels of impurities in the syrup.

  19. Hanford 100N Area Apatite Emplacement: Laboratory Results of Ca-Citrate-PO4 Solution Injection and Sr-90 Immobilization in 100N Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, James E.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Moore, Robert C.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Williams, Mark D.; Girvin, Donald C.; McKinley, James P.; Truex, Michael J.; Phillips, Jerry L.

    2007-10-01

    This report summarizes laboratory scale studies investigating the remediation of Sr-90 by Ca-citrate-PO4 solution injection/infiltration to support field injection activities in the Hanford 100N area. This study is focused on experimentally testing whether this remediation technology can be effective under field scale conditions to mitigate Sr-90 migration 100N area sediments into the Columbia River. Sr-90 is found primarily adsorbed to sediments by ion exchange (99% adsorbed, < 1% in groundwater) in the upper portion of the unconfined aquifer and lower vadose zone. Although primarily adsorbed, Sr-90 is still considered a high mobility risk as it is mobilized by seasonal river stage increases and by plumes of higher ionic strength relative to groundwater. This remediation technology relies upon the Ca-citrate-PO4 solution forming apatite precipitate [Ca6(PO4)10(OH)2], which incorporates some Sr-90 during initial precipitation and additionally slowly incorporates Sr-90 by solid phase substitution for Ca. Sr substitution occurs because Sr-apatite is thermodynamically more stable than Ca-apatite. Once the Sr-90 is in the apatite structure, Sr-90 will decay to Y-90 (29.1 y half-life) then Zr-90 (64.1 h half-life) without the potential for migration into the Columbia River. For this technology to be effective, sufficient apatite needs to be emplaced in sediments to incorporate Sr and Sr-90 for 300 years (~10 half-lives of Sr-90), and the rate of incorporation needs to exceed the natural groundwater flux rate of Sr in the 100N area. A primary objective of this study is to supply an injection sequence to deliver sufficient apatite into subsurface sediments that minimizes initial mobility of Sr-90, which occurs because the injection solution has a higher ionic strength compared to groundwater. This can be accomplished by sequential injections of low, then high concentration injection of Ca-citrate-PO4 solutions. Assessment of low concentration Ca-citrate-PO4, citrate-PO4

  20. In Vitro Assessment of the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Optimized Nitroglycerin-Citrate-Ethanol as a Nonantibiotic, Antimicrobial Catheter Lock Solution for Prevention of Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections.

    PubMed

    Reitzel, Ruth A; Rosenblatt, Joel; Hirsh-Ginsberg, Cheryl; Murray, Kimberly; Chaftari, Anne-Marie; Hachem, Ray; Raad, Issam

    2016-09-01

    The rapid, broad-spectrum, biofilm-eradicating activity of the combination of 0.01% nitroglycerin, 7% citrate, and 20% ethanol and its potential as a nonantibiotic, antimicrobial catheter lock solution (ACLS) were previously reported. Here, a nitroglycerin-citrate-ethanol (NiCE) ACLS optimized for clinical assessment was developed by reducing the nitroglycerin and citrate concentrations and increasing the ethanol concentration. Biofilm-eradicating activity was sustained when the ethanol concentration was increased from 20 to 22% which fully compensated for reducing the citrate concentration from 7% to 4% as well as the nitroglycerin concentration from 0.01% to 0.0015% or 0.003%. The optimized formulations demonstrated complete and rapid (2 h) eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa, MDR Klebsiella pneumoniae, MDR Enterobacter cloacae, MDR Acinetobacter baumannii, MDR Escherichia coli, MDR Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Candida albicans, and Candida glabrata biofilms. The optimized NiCE lock solutions demonstrated anticoagulant activities comparable to those of heparin lock solutions. NiCE lock solution was significantly more effective than taurolidine-citrate-heparin lock solution in eradicating biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida glabrata The optimized, nonantibiotic, heparin-free NiCE lock solution demonstrates rapid broad-spectrum biofilm eradication as well as effective anticoagulant activity, making NiCE a high-quality ACLS candidate for clinical assessment.

  1. In Vitro Assessment of the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Optimized Nitroglycerin-Citrate-Ethanol as a Nonantibiotic, Antimicrobial Catheter Lock Solution for Prevention of Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections.

    PubMed

    Reitzel, Ruth A; Rosenblatt, Joel; Hirsh-Ginsberg, Cheryl; Murray, Kimberly; Chaftari, Anne-Marie; Hachem, Ray; Raad, Issam

    2016-09-01

    The rapid, broad-spectrum, biofilm-eradicating activity of the combination of 0.01% nitroglycerin, 7% citrate, and 20% ethanol and its potential as a nonantibiotic, antimicrobial catheter lock solution (ACLS) were previously reported. Here, a nitroglycerin-citrate-ethanol (NiCE) ACLS optimized for clinical assessment was developed by reducing the nitroglycerin and citrate concentrations and increasing the ethanol concentration. Biofilm-eradicating activity was sustained when the ethanol concentration was increased from 20 to 22% which fully compensated for reducing the citrate concentration from 7% to 4% as well as the nitroglycerin concentration from 0.01% to 0.0015% or 0.003%. The optimized formulations demonstrated complete and rapid (2 h) eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa, MDR Klebsiella pneumoniae, MDR Enterobacter cloacae, MDR Acinetobacter baumannii, MDR Escherichia coli, MDR Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Candida albicans, and Candida glabrata biofilms. The optimized NiCE lock solutions demonstrated anticoagulant activities comparable to those of heparin lock solutions. NiCE lock solution was significantly more effective than taurolidine-citrate-heparin lock solution in eradicating biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida glabrata The optimized, nonantibiotic, heparin-free NiCE lock solution demonstrates rapid broad-spectrum biofilm eradication as well as effective anticoagulant activity, making NiCE a high-quality ACLS candidate for clinical assessment. PMID:27297475

  2. An efficient and ultrasensitive rhodamine B-based reversible colorimetric chemosensor for naked-eye recognition of molybdenum and citrate ions in aqueous solution: sensing behavior and logic operation.

    PubMed

    Tavallali, Hossein; Deilamy-Rad, Gohar; Parhami, Abolfath; Hasanli, Nahid

    2015-03-15

    In this paper we manifest a novel rhodamine B (RhB) based colorimetric chemosensor for molybdenum and citrate ions (Cit(3-)) in an absolutely aqueous media. It has been identified as highly sensitive probe for Mo(6+) which responds at 4.0 nmol L(-1) concentration levels. RhB while combined with Mo(6+) in aqueous solution displays a color changing from pink to purple which could be quickly dissociated by the addition of citrate in this system so that reversible color changes from purple to pink can be achieved. The comparison of this method with some other methods for citrate indicates that this is the only method which can detect citrate in aqueous solution by color changes. This chemosensor can be applied for quantification of citrate with a linear range covering from 1.67×10(-7) to 1.22×10(-5) M and a detection limit of 2.0×10(-8) M. Moreover, the response of the chemosensor toward Mo(6+) and citrate is fast. In addition, based on above sensing mechanism, an IMPLICATION logic operation can be achieved using Mo(6+) ion and Cit(3-) as the inputs, making RhB a promising candidate for further applications in molecular logic devices and also indicates that RhB is suitable for the detection of Mo(6+) and Cit(3-) ions in real samples.

  3. An efficient and ultrasensitive rhodamine B-based reversible colorimetric chemosensor for naked-eye recognition of molybdenum and citrate ions in aqueous solution: Sensing behavior and logic operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavallali, Hossein; Deilamy-Rad, Gohar; Parhami, Abolfath; Hasanli, Nahid

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we manifest a novel rhodamine B (RhB) based colorimetric chemosensor for molybdenum and citrate ions (Cit3-) in an absolutely aqueous media. It has been identified as highly sensitive probe for Mo6+ which responds at 4.0 nmol L-1 concentration levels. RhB while combined with Mo6+ in aqueous solution displays a color changing from pink to purple which could be quickly dissociated by the addition of citrate in this system so that reversible color changes from purple to pink can be achieved. The comparison of this method with some other methods for citrate indicates that this is the only method which can detect citrate in aqueous solution by color changes. This chemosensor can be applied for quantification of citrate with a linear range covering from 1.67 × 10-7 to 1.22 × 10-5 M and a detection limit of 2.0 × 10-8 M. Moreover, the response of the chemosensor toward Mo6+ and citrate is fast. In addition, based on above sensing mechanism, an IMPLICATION logic operation can be achieved using Mo6+ ion and Cit3- as the inputs, making RhB a promising candidate for further applications in molecular logic devices and also indicates that RhB is suitable for the detection of Mo6+ and Cit3- ions in real samples.

  4. An efficient and ultrasensitive rhodamine B-based reversible colorimetric chemosensor for naked-eye recognition of molybdenum and citrate ions in aqueous solution: sensing behavior and logic operation.

    PubMed

    Tavallali, Hossein; Deilamy-Rad, Gohar; Parhami, Abolfath; Hasanli, Nahid

    2015-03-15

    In this paper we manifest a novel rhodamine B (RhB) based colorimetric chemosensor for molybdenum and citrate ions (Cit(3-)) in an absolutely aqueous media. It has been identified as highly sensitive probe for Mo(6+) which responds at 4.0 nmol L(-1) concentration levels. RhB while combined with Mo(6+) in aqueous solution displays a color changing from pink to purple which could be quickly dissociated by the addition of citrate in this system so that reversible color changes from purple to pink can be achieved. The comparison of this method with some other methods for citrate indicates that this is the only method which can detect citrate in aqueous solution by color changes. This chemosensor can be applied for quantification of citrate with a linear range covering from 1.67×10(-7) to 1.22×10(-5) M and a detection limit of 2.0×10(-8) M. Moreover, the response of the chemosensor toward Mo(6+) and citrate is fast. In addition, based on above sensing mechanism, an IMPLICATION logic operation can be achieved using Mo(6+) ion and Cit(3-) as the inputs, making RhB a promising candidate for further applications in molecular logic devices and also indicates that RhB is suitable for the detection of Mo(6+) and Cit(3-) ions in real samples. PMID:25561304

  5. Hypertonic Dextrose Injection for The Treatment of a Baker's Cyst.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Ferdi; Kibar, Sibel; Balaban, Birol

    2016-02-01

    We present extremely rare and interesting case of a Baker's cyst treated with hypertonic dextrose injection. A 54-year-old female patient had a Baker's cyst which was diagnosed by an ultrasonography. After the failure of the two-weekly conservative treatment, we injected hypertonic dextrose (25%) into her right knee joint for the treatment of a Baker's cyst. Two weeks after the injection, the patient reported improvement in posterior knee pain, and an US showed a resolution of the posterior knee cyst. Certainly hypertonic dextrose injection for the treatment of a Baker's cyst appears to be a reasonable treatment option. Further studies are needed in order to elucidate the efficacy of hypertonic dextrose injection in the treatment of Baker's cysts.

  6. Influence of the anions on the N-cationic benzethonium salts in the solid state and solution: Chloride, bromide, hydroxide and citrate hydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradies, Henrich H.; Reichelt, Hendrik

    2016-06-01

    The crystal structures of the hydrated cationic surfactant benzethonium (Bzth) chloride, bromide, hydroxide, and citrate have been determined by X-ray diffraction analysis and compared with their structures in solution well above their critical micelle concentration. The differences in the nature of the various anions of the four Bzth-X materials lead to unique anion environments and 3-D molecular arrangements. The water molecule in the monoclinic Bzth-Cl or Bzth-Br forms is hydrogen bonded to the halides and particularly to the hydrogens of the methoxy groups of the Bzth moiety notwithstanding the weak Brønsted acidity of the methoxy hydrogens. The citrate strongly interacts with the hydrogens of the methoxy group forming an embedded anionic spherical cluster of a radius of 2.6 Å. The Bzth-OH crystallizes in a hexagonal lattice with two water molecules and reveals free water molecules forming hydrogen bonded channels through the Bzth-OH crystal along the c-axis. The distances between the cationic nitrogen and the halides are 4.04 Å and 4.20 Å, significantly longer than expected for typical van der Waals distances of 3.30 Å. The structures show weakly interacting, alternating apolar and polar layers, which run parallel to the crystallographic a-b planes or a-c planes. The Bzth-X salts were also examined in aqueous solution containing 20% (v/v) ethanol and 1.0 % (v/v) glycerol well above their critical micelle concentration by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The [1,1,1] planes for the Bzth Cl or Br, the [0,0,2] and [1,1,0] planes for the Bzth-citrate, the [2,-1,0] planes and the [0,0,1] planes for the Bzth-OH found in the crystalline phase were also present in the solution phase, accordingly, the preservation of these phases are a strong indication of periodicity in the solution phase.

  7. Retention of iron by rat intestine in vivo as affected by dietary fiber, ascorbate and citrate.

    PubMed

    Reinhold, J G; Garcia Estrada, J; Garcia, P M; Garzon, P

    1986-06-01

    The effects of pH, ascorbate, citrate and dietary fiber on retention of ferrous and ferric iron by jejuno-ileal segments of rat intestine were examined in vivo. Iron was introduced in an isosmotic solution of sodium chloride and dextrose buffered by 2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethanesulfonic acid (BES) and acetate. Stabilization of the iron solutions was aided by use of iron concentrations less than or equal to 1 microgram/ml injected into the intestine for 10-min periods. Iron retention was optimal over a broad pH range from 5 to 7.8. Inclusion of ascorbic acid in the solution injected (5, 25 or 75 micrograms/ml) did not increase retention of iron in either valence state. A low concentration of sodium citrate (2 mM) had no effect on iron retention, but increasing the concentration to 5 mM released iron from the mucosa. Maize and wheat fibers decreased the retention of ferrous iron by binding and by promoting autoxidation and formation of poorly soluble iron polymers. Bound ferrous iron was released completely at pH below 5. Retention of ferric iron was also lowered in the presence of fiber, presumably as a result of polymerization. Retention of iron by the rat in the absence of ligands was independent of valence state.

  8. Brain edema and neurologic status with rapid infusion of 0.9% saline or 5% dextrose after head trauma.

    PubMed

    Shapira, Y; Artru, A A; Qassam, N; Navot, N; Vald, U

    1995-01-01

    We previously reported that intravenous (i.v.) administration of large volumes (0.2 ml/g) of either an isotonic dextrose-free solution or 5% dextrose solution given over 18 h after closed head trauma (CHT) in rats did not significantly affect neurological severity score or brain tissue specific gravity. However, it is possible that with more rapid administration, isotonic or 5% dextrose i.v. solutions may alter neurological outcome after CHT. Our study examined whether neurological severity score, brain tissue specific gravity and water content, and blood composition were significantly altered when 0.25 ml/g of either 0.9% saline or 5% dextrose was given i.v. over 0.5 h (rather than over 18 h) after CHT. Eight-four rats that survived ether anesthesia and CHT were randomly assigned to one of 11 experimental groups. Saline- and dextrose-treated rats were evaluated at 4 and 48 h after CHT and were compared to rats without CHT and to untreated rats at 4 and 48 h after CHT. There were no statistically significant differences in neurologic outcome and brain edema between the untreated and the saline-treated groups. However, 5% dextrose i.v. increased mortality (group 6 and 11, 50 and 0% survivors, respectively), decreased specific gravity in the noncontused hemisphere, and worsened neurologic outcome with and without CHT. Blood osmolality remained stable in comparison to the baseline value of 291.9 +/- 7.4 mOsm/kg (mean +/- SD).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7881236

  9. Effects of citrate and NaCl on size, morphology, crystallinity and microstructure of calcium phosphates obtained from aqueous solutions at acidic or near-neutral pH.

    PubMed

    Mekmene, Omar; Rouillon, Thierry; Quillard, Sophie; Pilet, Paul; Bouler, Jean-Michel; Pezennec, Stéphane; Gaucheron, Frédéric

    2012-05-01

    Precipitation of calcium phosphates occurs in dairy products and depending on pH and ionic environment, several salts with different crystallinity can form. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of NaCl and citrate on the characteristics of precipitates obtained from model solutions of calcium phosphate at pH 6·70 maintained constant or left to drift. The ion speciation calculations showed that all the starting solutions were supersaturated with respect to dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and hydroxyapatite (HAP) in the order HAP>OCP>DCPD. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses of the precipitates showed that DCPD was formed at drifting pH (acidic final pH) whereas poor crystallised calcium deficient apatite was mainly formed at constant pH (6·70). Laser light scattering measurements and electron microscopy observations showed that citrate had a pronounced inhibitory effect on the crystallisation of calcium phosphates both at drifting and constant pH. This resulted in the decrease of the particle sizes and the modification of the morphology and the microstructure of the precipitates. The inhibitory effect of citrate mainly acted by the adsorption of the citrate molecules onto the surfaces of newly formed nuclei of calcium phosphate, thereby changing the morphology of the growing particles. These findings are relevant for the understanding of calcium phosphate precipitation from dairy byproducts that contain large amounts of NaCl and citrate. PMID:22559064

  10. Theoretical spectroscopic studies and identification of metal-citrate (Cd and Pb) complexes by ESI-MS in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Bertoli, Alexandre C; Carvalho, Ruy; Freitas, Matheus P; Ramalho, Teodorico C; Mancini, Daiana T; Oliveira, Maria C; de Varennes, Amarílis; Dias, Ana

    2015-02-25

    The combined use of ESI-MS, FTIR-ATR and theoretical calculations for the determination of metal-citrate (metal=Cd and Pb) structures are reported. Mass spectrometry allowed to determine the stoichiometry 1:1 and 2:1 of the complexes, corroborating the theoretical calculations. The species found in the ratio 2:1 had their molecular structures readjusted, since the deprotonation of citric acid differed from what was simulated. The calculations of thermodynamic stability (ΔH(0)(aq.)) for the complexes obtained by B3LYP/LANL2DZ were more exoenergetic than those found by PM6. However, for both methods, the stability of the complexes follows a trend, that is, the lowest-energy isomers in PM6 are also the most stable in B3LYP/LANL2DZ. The infrared analysis suggested that carboxyl groups are complexation sites and hydrogen bonds can help in the stability of the complexes. The vibrational frequencies in B3LYP/LANL2DZ had a good correlation with the experimental infrared results. PMID:25222323

  11. Red cell and platelet concentrates from blood collected into half-strength citrate anticoagulant: improved maintenance of red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in half-citrate red cells.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, A; Douglas, S; James, J; Whyte, G

    1992-01-01

    This study confirms previous work suggesting equivalent in vitro properties in blood components prepared from donations collected into half-citrate preservative (HCPD) compared to components derived from donations collected into standard citrate-phosphate-dextrose (CPD) preservatives. In addition, red cell products harvested from HCPD donations showed significantly improved maintenance of pH over storage, and this was reflected in improved maintenance of intracellular 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG). This effect was observed in whole blood and in red cells suspended in a phosphate-containing additive solution (Tuta AAS). Collection into HCPD also improved 2,3-DPG maintenance in red cell concentrates processed following an 18-hour hold at 22 degrees C. These improvements were less pronounced in red cells suspended in a non-phosphate-containing medium (Fenwal Adsol) in which a higher pH was maintained even in units collected in CPD. Platelets harvested from HCPD blood and suspended in plasma showed equivalent quality to platelets from standard donations. Some deterioration of platelet properties was observed when HCPD platelets were stored in a non-citrate synthetic medium. Together with data indicating improved coagulation factor stability, these results suggest that collection into HCPD improves stored blood quality and may also allow logistical benefits in blood component preparation.

  12. 21 CFR 522.800 - Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection. 522.800... § 522.800 Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection. (a) Specifications. Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection is a sterile solution containing 20 milligrams of droperidol and 0.4 milligram of fentanyl...

  13. 21 CFR 522.800 - Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection. 522.800... § 522.800 Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection. (a) Specifications. Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection is a sterile solution containing 20 milligrams of droperidol and 0.4 milligram of fentanyl...

  14. [Development of identification method for isopropyl citrate].

    PubMed

    Furusho, Noriko; Ohtsuki, Takashi; Tatebe-Sasaki, Chiye; Kubota, Hiroki; Sato, Kyoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    In Japan's Specification and Standards for Food Additive, 8th edition, two identification tests involving isopropyl citrate for detecting isopropyl alcohol and citrate are stipulated. However, these identification tests use mercury compound, which is toxic, or require a time-consuming pretreatment process. To solve these problems, an identification test method using GC-FID for detecting isopropyl alcohol was developed. In this test, a good linearity was observed in the range of 0.1-40 mg/mL of isopropyl alcohol. While investigating the pretreatment process, we found that isopropyl alcohol could be detected using GC-FID in the distillation step only, without involving any reflux step. The study also showed that the citrate moiety of isopropyl citrate was identified using the solution remaining after conducting the distillation of isopropyl alcohol. The developed identification tests for isopropyl citrate are simple and use no toxic materials. PMID:25707204

  15. [Development of identification method for isopropyl citrate].

    PubMed

    Furusho, Noriko; Ohtsuki, Takashi; Tatebe-Sasaki, Chiye; Kubota, Hiroki; Sato, Kyoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    In Japan's Specification and Standards for Food Additive, 8th edition, two identification tests involving isopropyl citrate for detecting isopropyl alcohol and citrate are stipulated. However, these identification tests use mercury compound, which is toxic, or require a time-consuming pretreatment process. To solve these problems, an identification test method using GC-FID for detecting isopropyl alcohol was developed. In this test, a good linearity was observed in the range of 0.1-40 mg/mL of isopropyl alcohol. While investigating the pretreatment process, we found that isopropyl alcohol could be detected using GC-FID in the distillation step only, without involving any reflux step. The study also showed that the citrate moiety of isopropyl citrate was identified using the solution remaining after conducting the distillation of isopropyl alcohol. The developed identification tests for isopropyl citrate are simple and use no toxic materials.

  16. Characterization of Al-responsive citrate excretion and citrate-transporting MATEs in Eucalyptus camaldulensis.

    PubMed

    Sawaki, Yoshiharu; Kihara-Doi, Tomonori; Kobayashi, Yuriko; Nishikubo, Nobuyuki; Kawazu, Tetsu; Kobayashi, Yasufumi; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Sato, Shigeru

    2013-04-01

    Many plant species excrete organic acids into the rhizosphere in response to aluminum stress to protect sensitive cells from aluminum rhizotoxicity. When the roots of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, a major source of pulp production, were incubated in aluminum-toxic medium, citrate released into the solution increased as a function of time. Citrate excretion was inducible by aluminum, but not by copper or sodium chloride stresses. This indicated that citrate is the major responsive organic acid released from the roots of this plant species to protect the root tips from aluminum damage. Four genes highly homologs to known citrate-transporting multidrugs and toxic compounds exclusion proteins, named EcMATE1-4, were isolated using polymerase chain reaction-based cloning techniques. Their predicted proteins included 12 membrane spanning domains, a common structural feature of citrate-transporting MATE proteins, and consisted of 502-579 amino acids with >60 % homology to orthologous genes in other plant species. One of the homologs, designated EcMATE1, was expressed in the roots more abundantly than in the shoots and in response to both Al and low pH stresses. Ectopic expression of EcMATE1 and 3 in tobacco hairy roots enhanced Al-responsive citrate excretion. Pharmacological characterization indicated that Al-responsive citrate excretion involved a protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation process. These results indicate that citrate excretion through citrate-transporting multidrugs and toxic compounds exclusion proteins is one of the important aluminum-tolerance mechanisms in Eucalyptus camaldulensis.

  17. A Systematic Review of Dextrose Prolotherapy for Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Ross A.; Lackner, Johanna B.; Steilen-Matias, Danielle; Harris, David K.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to systematically review dextrose (d-glucose) prolotherapy efficacy in the treatment of chronic musculoskeletal pain. DATA SOURCES Electronic databases PubMed, Healthline, OmniMedicalSearch, Medscape, and EMBASE were searched from 1990 to January 2016. STUDY SELECTION Prospectively designed studies that used dextrose as the sole active prolotherapy constituent were selected. DATA EXTRACTION Two independent reviewers rated studies for quality of evidence using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database assessment scale for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and the Downs and Black evaluation tool for non-RCTs, for level of evidence using a modified Sackett scale, and for clinically relevant pain score difference using minimal clinically important change criteria. Study population, methods, and results data were extracted and tabulated. DATA SYNTHESIS Fourteen RCTs, 1 case–control study, and 18 case series studies met the inclusion criteria and were evaluated. Pain conditions were clustered into tendinopathies, osteoarthritis (OA), spinal/pelvic, and myofascial pain. The RCTs were high-quality Level 1 evidence (Physiotherapy Evidence Database ≥8) and found dextrose injection superior to controls in Osgood–Schlatter disease, lateral epicondylitis of the elbow, traumatic rotator cuff injury, knee OA, finger OA, and myofascial pain; in biomechanical but not subjective measures in temporal mandibular joint; and comparable in a short-term RCT but superior in a long-term RCT in low back pain. Many observational studies were of high quality and reported consistent positive evidence in multiple studies of tendinopathies, knee OA, sacroiliac pain, and iliac crest pain that received RCT confirmation in separate studies. Eighteen studies combined patient self-rating (subjective) with psychometric, imaging, and/or biomechanical (objective) outcome measurement and found both positive subjective and objective outcomes in 16 studies and positive

  18. Evaluation of an additive solution for preservation of canine red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Wardrop, K J; Owen, T J; Meyers, K M

    1994-01-01

    The effect of an additive preservative solution on canine red blood cell posttransfusion viability (PTV) and on selected canine red blood cell biochemical parameters was studied. One unit (450 mL) of blood was collected from 6 clinically normal dogs into the anticoagulant citrate phosphate dextrose, centrifuged, and the plasma removed. The red blood cells were then suspended in 100 mL of a saline, adenine, dextrose, and mannitol solution and stored at 4 degrees C. Aliquots were removed for study at 1, 10, 20, 30, 37, and 44 days. The 24-hour PTV of autologous red blood cells was determined using a sodium chromate (51Cr) label. Red blood cell concentrations of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP), and pH were also determined. Canine red blood cell PTV, pH, ATP, and 2,3-DPG concentrations decreased during storage (P < .05). The PTV decreased from 94% using day 1 red blood cells to 80% and 75% using day 37 and day 44 red blood cells, respectively (P < .05). Although the mean PTV of the day 44 stored units equaled the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) minimum standard for human red blood cells, the PTV was substandard in 75% of the day 44 units. The FDA standard was exceeded in 83% of the day 37 units. It was concluded that 37-day-old canine red blood cells preserved with a saline, adenine, dextrose, and mannitol solution are of acceptable quality for transfusion.

  19. Expanding the analytical toolbox for identity testing of pharmaceutical ingredients: Spectroscopic screening of dextrose using portable Raman and near infrared spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Hirsch K; Wolfgang, Steven; Rodriguez, Jason D

    2016-03-31

    In the pharmaceutical industry, dextrose is used as an active ingredient in parenteral solutions and as an inactive ingredient (excipient) in tablets and capsules. In order to address the need for more sophisticated analytical techniques, we report our efforts to develop enhanced identification methods to screen pharmaceutical ingredients at risk for adulteration or substitution using field-deployable spectroscopic screening. In this paper, we report our results for a study designed to evaluate the performance of field-deployable Raman and near infrared (NIR) methods to identify dextrose samples. We report a comparison of the sensitivity of the spectroscopic screening methods against current compendial identification tests that rely largely on a colorimetric assay. Our findings indicate that NIR and Raman spectroscopy are both able to distinguish dextrose by hydration state and from other sugar substitutes with 100% accuracy for all methods tested including spectral correlation based library methods, principal component analysis and classification methods.

  20. Expanding the analytical toolbox for identity testing of pharmaceutical ingredients: Spectroscopic screening of dextrose using portable Raman and near infrared spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Hirsch K; Wolfgang, Steven; Rodriguez, Jason D

    2016-03-31

    In the pharmaceutical industry, dextrose is used as an active ingredient in parenteral solutions and as an inactive ingredient (excipient) in tablets and capsules. In order to address the need for more sophisticated analytical techniques, we report our efforts to develop enhanced identification methods to screen pharmaceutical ingredients at risk for adulteration or substitution using field-deployable spectroscopic screening. In this paper, we report our results for a study designed to evaluate the performance of field-deployable Raman and near infrared (NIR) methods to identify dextrose samples. We report a comparison of the sensitivity of the spectroscopic screening methods against current compendial identification tests that rely largely on a colorimetric assay. Our findings indicate that NIR and Raman spectroscopy are both able to distinguish dextrose by hydration state and from other sugar substitutes with 100% accuracy for all methods tested including spectral correlation based library methods, principal component analysis and classification methods. PMID:26965331

  1. Some aspects of the aqueous solution chemistry of the Na+/Ca2+/OH-/Cit3- system: The structure of a new calcium citrate complex forming under hyperalkaline conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gácsi, Attila; Kutus, Bence; Buckó, Ákos; Csendes, Zita; Peintler, Gábor; Pálinkó, István; Sipos, Pál

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, we show that in hyperalkaline (pH > 13) aqueous solutions, Ca2+ forms a new, so far unknown complex species with the citrate ion, the structure of which is different from the well-known CaCit-(aq) species present in solutions of close to neutral pH. The solubility of Ca3Cit2(s) was found to increase significantly under hyperalkaline conditions. The decrease in the electric conductivity and the variations observed in the freezing point depression of such solutions also indicate complexation. From 1H NMR measurements, in this complex, the citrate ion is suggested to be in quadruply deprotonated form. From the variation of the 2JHH geminal proton coupling constant, two neighboring carboxylate groups are coordinated to the calcium ion in a monodentate mode (besides the alcoholate). The optimal structure of the complex with the composition of CaCitH-12-(aq) has also been calculated using DFT calculations, applying the Polarizable Continuum Model. Sodium ion-pairing was found to compete efficiently with this calcium complexation process, and in solutions with high Na-ion content, the equilibria are shifted towards the formation of NaCit2-(aq) and Na2Cit-(aq) ion pairs.

  2. Dextrose containing intravenous fluid impairs outcome and increases death after eight minutes of cardiac arrest and resuscitation in dogs.

    PubMed

    D'Alecy, L G; Lundy, E F; Barton, K J; Zelenock, G B

    1986-09-01

    Use of dextrose in intravenous resuscitation fluids is common practice; however, this study indicates that 5% dextrose solutions, even if administered in physiologic quantities, greatly worsens the outcome of survivable cardiac arrest. Twelve adult male mongrel dogs were premedicated with morphine, anesthetized with halothane, instrumented, intubated, and ventilated. Each dog was first given 500 ml of either lactated Ringer's (LR) (n = 6) or 5% dextrose in LR (D5LR) (n = 6). Halothane was stopped and fibrillation was induced (60 Hz). Blood glucose just before cardiac arrest was 129 mg/dl in the LR dogs and was increased to 335 mg/dl in the D5LR dogs. After eight minutes of arrest, resuscitation, including internal cardiac massage and standard advanced cardiac life support drug protocols (modified for dogs), was begun. When stable cardiac rhythm was obtained, the chest was closed, and LR or D5LR continued until a total of 1L was given. A neurologic score (0 = normal to 100 = dead) was assigned at 1, 2, 6, and 24 hours. The LR group did not differ statistically from the D5LR group in operative time, number of defibrillatory shocks, time to spontaneous ventilation, time to extubation, or drugs required. Resuscitation was successful in all six LR and five of six D5LR group; however, by 2 hours after resuscitation and thereafter, D5LR group had a significantly greater neurologic deficit (p less than 0.05) than did the LR group. By 9 hours, four of six D5LR dogs displayed convulsive activity and died. At 24 hours the D5LR group had a greater (p less than 0.008) neurologic deficit (82 +/- 11) than did the LR group (21 +/- 7), which walked and ate. We conclude that the addition of 5% dextrose to standard intravenous fluids greatly increases the morbidity and mortality associated with cardiac resuscitation. PMID:3738770

  3. Gastrointestinal citrate absorption in nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fegan, J.; Khan, R.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    Gastrointestinal absorption of citrate was measured in stone patients with idiopathic hypocitraturia to determine if citrate malabsorption could account for low urinary citrate. Citrate absorption was measured directly from recovery of orally administered potassium citrate (40 mEq.) in the intestinal lavage fluid, using an intestinal washout technique. In 7 stone patients citrate absorption, serum citrate levels, peak citrate concentration in serum and area under the curve were not significantly different from those of 7 normal subjects. Citrate absorption was rapid and efficient in both groups, with 96 to 98% absorbed within 3 hours. The absorption of citrate was less efficient from a tablet preparation of potassium citrate than from a liquid preparation, probably due to a delayed release of citrate from wax matrix. However, citrate absorption from solid potassium citrate was still high at 91%, compared to 98% for a liquid preparation. Thus, hypocitraturia is unlikely to be due to an impaired gastrointestinal absorption of citrate in stone patients without overt bowel disease.

  4. INTRAPERITONEAL DEXTROSE ADMINISTRATION AS AN ALTERNATIVE EMERGENCY TREATMENT FOR HYPOGLYCEMIC YEARLING CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS).

    PubMed

    Fravel, Vanessa A; Van Bonn, William; Gulland, Frances; Rios, Carlos; Fahlman, Andreas; Graham, James L; Havel, Peter J

    2016-03-01

    The Marine Mammal Center (TMMC) cares for malnourished California sea lion (CSL) (Zalophus californianus) pups and yearlings every year. Hypoglycemia is a common consequence of malnutrition in young CSLs. Administering dextrose during a hypoglycemic crisis is vital to recovery. Traditional veterinary approaches to treat hypoglycemia pose therapeutic challenges in otariids, as vascular access and catheter maintenance can be difficult. The current approach to a hypoglycemic episode at TMMC is to administer dextrose intravenously (i.v.) by medically trained personnel. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) dextrose administration is an attractive alternative to i.v. administration because volunteer staff with basic training can administer treatment instead of waiting for trained staff to treat. This study compares the effects of i.v., i.p., and no dextrose administration on serum glucose and insulin in clinically healthy, euglycemic CSL yearlings. Three groups of animals, consisting of five sea lions each, were treated with 500 mg/kg dextrose using one of the following routes: i.v., i.p., or no dextrose (control). A jugular catheter was placed, and blood samples were collected at times 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min after dextrose administration. I.v. dextrose administration resulted in an increase of serum glucose concentrations from a baseline level of approximately 150 mg/dl to a peak of approximately 350 mg/dl. The resulting hyperglycemia persisted for approximately 2 hr and was associated with an attenuated plasma insulin response compared with most terrestrial mammals. Intraperitoneal dextrose administration resulted in increases of serum glucose to approximately 200 mg/dl, which gradually declined to baseline by 2 hr after dextrose administration. These data suggest that the initial treatment of a hypoglycemic crisis in young malnourished CSLs can be accomplished with i.p. dextrose, thus enabling minimally trained volunteer staff to respond immediately to a crisis

  5. INTRAPERITONEAL DEXTROSE ADMINISTRATION AS AN ALTERNATIVE EMERGENCY TREATMENT FOR HYPOGLYCEMIC YEARLING CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS).

    PubMed

    Fravel, Vanessa A; Van Bonn, William; Gulland, Frances; Rios, Carlos; Fahlman, Andreas; Graham, James L; Havel, Peter J

    2016-03-01

    The Marine Mammal Center (TMMC) cares for malnourished California sea lion (CSL) (Zalophus californianus) pups and yearlings every year. Hypoglycemia is a common consequence of malnutrition in young CSLs. Administering dextrose during a hypoglycemic crisis is vital to recovery. Traditional veterinary approaches to treat hypoglycemia pose therapeutic challenges in otariids, as vascular access and catheter maintenance can be difficult. The current approach to a hypoglycemic episode at TMMC is to administer dextrose intravenously (i.v.) by medically trained personnel. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) dextrose administration is an attractive alternative to i.v. administration because volunteer staff with basic training can administer treatment instead of waiting for trained staff to treat. This study compares the effects of i.v., i.p., and no dextrose administration on serum glucose and insulin in clinically healthy, euglycemic CSL yearlings. Three groups of animals, consisting of five sea lions each, were treated with 500 mg/kg dextrose using one of the following routes: i.v., i.p., or no dextrose (control). A jugular catheter was placed, and blood samples were collected at times 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min after dextrose administration. I.v. dextrose administration resulted in an increase of serum glucose concentrations from a baseline level of approximately 150 mg/dl to a peak of approximately 350 mg/dl. The resulting hyperglycemia persisted for approximately 2 hr and was associated with an attenuated plasma insulin response compared with most terrestrial mammals. Intraperitoneal dextrose administration resulted in increases of serum glucose to approximately 200 mg/dl, which gradually declined to baseline by 2 hr after dextrose administration. These data suggest that the initial treatment of a hypoglycemic crisis in young malnourished CSLs can be accomplished with i.p. dextrose, thus enabling minimally trained volunteer staff to respond immediately to a crisis

  6. Characterization of Al-responsive citrate excretion and citrate-transporting MATEs in Eucalyptus camaldulensis.

    PubMed

    Sawaki, Yoshiharu; Kihara-Doi, Tomonori; Kobayashi, Yuriko; Nishikubo, Nobuyuki; Kawazu, Tetsu; Kobayashi, Yasufumi; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Sato, Shigeru

    2013-04-01

    Many plant species excrete organic acids into the rhizosphere in response to aluminum stress to protect sensitive cells from aluminum rhizotoxicity. When the roots of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, a major source of pulp production, were incubated in aluminum-toxic medium, citrate released into the solution increased as a function of time. Citrate excretion was inducible by aluminum, but not by copper or sodium chloride stresses. This indicated that citrate is the major responsive organic acid released from the roots of this plant species to protect the root tips from aluminum damage. Four genes highly homologs to known citrate-transporting multidrugs and toxic compounds exclusion proteins, named EcMATE1-4, were isolated using polymerase chain reaction-based cloning techniques. Their predicted proteins included 12 membrane spanning domains, a common structural feature of citrate-transporting MATE proteins, and consisted of 502-579 amino acids with >60 % homology to orthologous genes in other plant species. One of the homologs, designated EcMATE1, was expressed in the roots more abundantly than in the shoots and in response to both Al and low pH stresses. Ectopic expression of EcMATE1 and 3 in tobacco hairy roots enhanced Al-responsive citrate excretion. Pharmacological characterization indicated that Al-responsive citrate excretion involved a protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation process. These results indicate that citrate excretion through citrate-transporting multidrugs and toxic compounds exclusion proteins is one of the important aluminum-tolerance mechanisms in Eucalyptus camaldulensis. PMID:23187679

  7. Hypertonic Dextrose and Morrhuate Sodium Injections (Prolotherapy) for Lateral Epicondylosis (Tennis Elbow)

    PubMed Central

    Rabago, David; Lee, Ken S.; Ryan, Michael; Chourasia, Amrish O.; Sesto, Mary E.; Zgierska, Aleksandra; Kijowski, Rick; Grettie, Jessica; Wilson, John; Miller, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Objective Chronic lateral epicondylosis (CLE) is common, debilitating and often refractory. Prolotherapy (PrT) is an injection therapy for tendinopathy. The efficacy of two PrT solutions for CLE was evaluated. Design 3-arm randomized controlled trial. 26 adults (32 elbows) with ≥3 months of CLE were randomized to ultrasound-guided PrT with dextrose (PrT-D), PrT with dextrose-morrhuate (PrT-DM) or watchful waiting (Wait-and-see). The primary outcome was the Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE; 100-points) at 4, 8 and 16 weeks, (all groups) and 32 weeks (PrT groups). Secondary outcomes included pain-free grip strength and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) score. Results PrT-D and PrT-DM participants reported improved PRTEE composite and subscale scores at 4, 8 and/or 16 weeks compared to Wait-and-see (p<0.05). At 16 weeks, compared to baseline, PrT-D and PrT-DM groups improved composite PRTEE scores by 18.7±9.6 (41.1%) and 17.5±11.6 (53.5%) points, respectively. Grip strength of PrT-D participants exceeded that of PrT-DM and Wait-and-see at 8 and 16 weeks (p<0.05). There were no differences in MRI scores. Satisfaction was high; there were no adverse events. Conclusions Prolotherapy resulted in safe, significant improvement of elbow pain and function compared to baseline status and wait-and-see control. This pilot study suggests the need for a definitive trial. PMID:23291605

  8. The synthesis of gold nanoparticles by a citrate-radiolytical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanžić, Nikolina; Jurkin, Tanja; Maksimović, Aleksandar; Gotić, Marijan

    2015-01-01

    The classical citrate method is based on the reduction of an Au(III) precursor with sodium citrate in an aqueous solution near the boiling point. In this work gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were synthesised via a citrate method using reduction by gamma-irradiation at room temperature. The Au(III)-citrate aqueous precursor solution was gamma-irradiated to doses of up to 30 kGy. The dose rate of gamma-irradiation was ~8 kGy h-1. The GNP size was controlled by the adsorbed dose as well as by different saturated gases (air or nitrogen) present in precursor solutions. The results showed that gamma-irradiation produced smaller GNPs in the presence of precursor solutions saturated with nitrogen compared with the ones saturated with air. By increasing both the gold(III) and citrate concentrations in precursor solutions, stable and highly concentrated colloidal gold/citrate suspensions were synthesised using classical and citrate-radiolytical reduction methods. Gamma-irradiation thus produced well-dispersed and highly concentrated GNPs in an aqueous citrate solution in the presence of dissolved oxygen and without adding any reducing or stabilising agents. Radiolytically intensified citrate oxidation and decarboxylation to acetone and other products by dissolved oxygen was advantageous for Au(III) reduction and subsequent formation of gold nanoparticles. Since the completely same precursor solutions were used both in the classical and citrate-radiolytical reduction methods, a real comparison of GNP sizes between these two methods was given.

  9. Citrate transport in corn mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Birnberg, P.R.; Jayroe, D.L.; Hanson, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    Citrate uptake by corn mitochondria (Zea mays L. B73 x Mo19) was investigated by osmotic swelling and (/sup 14/C)citrate accumulation. Uptake driven by passive influx, ammonium gradients, and respiration was followed. There was no requirement for phosphate and/or malate to secure citrate uptake, although under some conditions these additives were promotive. Inhibition of the phosphate and dicarboxylate carriers did not eliminate citrate uptake. Citrate/sub in//malate/sub out/ exchange occurs, but at a rate too slow to account for observed citrate uptake, and depletion of endogenous malate only reduced citrate uptake by 38%. It was concluded that citrate can be rapidly accumulated by a mechanism other than by exchange for dicarboxylates. The effect of uncoupler on respiration-driven (/sup 14/C)citrate accumulation, and studies of passive swelling using ionophores and uncouplers indicated that the major avenue of citrate uptake is by H/sup +//citrate cotransport with a pH optimum near 4.5. The in vivo role of this mechanism is not yet understood.

  10. The effect of intrauterine infusion of dextrose on clinical endometritis cure rate and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Machado, V S; Oikonomou, G; Ganda, E K; Stephens, L; Milhomem, M; Freitas, G L; Zinicola, M; Pearson, J; Wieland, M; Guard, C; Gilbert, R O; Bicalho, R C

    2015-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the intrauterine administration use of 200 mL of 50% dextrose solution as a treatment against clinical endometritis (CE); CE cure rate and reproductive performance were evaluated. Additionally, the association of several relevant risk factors, such as retained placenta (RP), metritis, CE, anovulation, hyperketonemia, and body condition score with reproductive performance, early embryonic mortality, and CE were evaluated. A total of 1,313 Holstein cows housed on 4 commercial dairy farms were enrolled in the study. At 7±3 DIM cows were examined for metritis and had blood collected to determine serum β-hydroxybutyrate concentration. To determine if cows had ovulated at least once before 44±3 DIM, the presence of a corpus luteum was evaluated by ovarian ultrasonography at 30±3 DIM and at 44±3 DIM. At 30±3 DIM, CE was diagnosed using the Metricheck device (SimcroTech, Hamilton, New Zealand); cows with purulent or mucopurulent vaginal discharge were diagnosed as having CE. Cows diagnosed with CE (n=175) were randomly allocated into 2 treatment groups: treatment (intrauterine infusion of 200 mL of 50% dextrose) or control (no infusion). Clinical endometritis cows were re-evaluated as described above at 44±3 DIM, and cows that were free of purulent or mucopurulent vaginal discharge were considered cured. Intrauterine infusion of dextrose tended to have a detrimental effect on CE cure rate, and treatment did not have an effect on first-service conception rate and early embryonic mortality. A multivariable Cox's proportional hazard model was performed to evaluate the effect of several variables on reproductive performance; the variables RP, CE, parity, anovulation, and the interaction term between parity and anovulation were associated with hazard of pregnancy. Cows that did not have RP or CE were more likely to conceive than cows that were diagnosed with RP or CE. Cows that had RP were at 3.36 times higher odds of

  11. Is dextrose prolotherapy superior to placebo for the treatment of temporomandibular joint hypermobility? A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Cömert Kiliç, S; Güngörmüş, M

    2016-07-01

    A randomized clinical trial involving adult patients with bilateral temporomandibular joint (TMJ) hypermobility referred for treatment was implemented. The sample comprised 30 consecutive patients, who were divided randomly into two groups. The TMJ hypermobility was treated with either saline (placebo group) or dextrose injections (study group). The solution was injected into five different TMJ areas in three sessions at monthly intervals. The predictor variable was the treatment technique. The outcome variables were visual analogue scale (VAS) evaluations and maximum inter-incisal opening (MIO). Outcome variables were recorded preoperatively and at 12 months postoperatively. Descriptive and bivariate statistics were computed, and significance was set at a P-value of <0.05. The follow-up sample comprised 26 subjects: 12 in the placebo group and 14 in the study group. Masticatory efficiency increased and general pain complaints and joint sounds decreased significantly in both groups. MIO decreased significantly only in the study group. Insignificant changes in the other parameters were found for both groups. After estimating differences between follow-up and baseline outcomes, the mean change in primary outcome variables showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups. These findings suggest that dextrose prolotherapy is no more effective than placebo treatment for any of the outcome variables of TMJ hypermobility assessed. PMID:26846795

  12. Is Anticoagulation Discontinuation Achievable with Citrate Dialysate during HDF Sessions?

    PubMed Central

    Oger, Emmanuel; Hamel, Didier; Lombart, Marie-Laure; Hermès, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Citrate dialysate has been developed for few years to replace acetate and HCl concentrates. In Online Postdilution Hemodiafiltration (OL-POST-HDF), several issues are remaining concerning the possibility of stopping anticoagulation during sessions and the side effects of citrate solutions on calcium metabolism. This 1-year monocentric retrospective study included all patients exposed to citrate in OL-POST-HDF with nadroparin decrease for more than one month. Clotting events, serum calcium, PTH, hemoglobin, CRP, depuration parameters, and treatments administrated were recorded for analysis. 27 patients experienced nadroparin decrease and 5 did not receive nadroparin at the end of the study. Nadroparin decrease and withdrawal were both associated with more clotting events whereas the use of vitamin K antagonists was protective. No significant metabolic side effects were observed. Citrate dialysate does not allow anticoagulation discontinuation or decrease but has no significant side effects on mineral bone metabolism or erythropoiesis. PMID:27803814

  13. Effect of different dextrose equivalent of maltodextrin on the interactions with anionic surfactant in an isothermal titration calorimetry study.

    PubMed

    Wangsakan, Apiradee; Chinachoti, Pavinee; McClements, D Julian

    2003-12-17

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was used to study interactions between an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) and maltodextrins with different dextrose equivalents (DE) in a buffer solution (pH 7.0, 10 mM NaCl, 20 mM Trizma, 30.0 degrees C). The interaction between SDS and maltodextrin was exothermic, which was attributed to incorporation of the hydrocarbon tail of the surfactant into a helical coil formed by the maltodextrin molecules. ITC measurements indicated that the number of SDS molecules bound per gram of maltodextrin increased with decreasing maltodextrin DE, i.e., increasing molecular weight. It was proposed that SDS only binds to maltodextrin molecules that have a DE greater than 10 glucose units.

  14. 100-NR-2 Apatite Treatability Test: High-Concentration Calcium-Citrate-Phosphate Solution Injection for In Situ Strontium-90 Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fritz, Brad G.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Szecsody, James E.; Williams, Mark D.

    2010-09-01

    Following an evaluation of potential strontium-90 (90Sr) treatment technologies and their applicability under 100-NR-2 hydrogeologic conditions, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Fluor Hanford, Inc. (now CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company [CHPRC]), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that the long-term strategy for groundwater remediation at the 100-N Area should include apatite as the primary treatment technology. This agreement was based on results from an evaluation of remedial alternatives that identified the apatite permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technology as the approach showing the greatest promise for reducing 90Sr flux to the Columbia River at a reasonable cost. This letter report documents work completed to date on development of a high-concentration amendment formulation and initial field-scale testing of this amendment solution.

  15. Alverine citrate induced acute hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Arhan, Mehmet; Koklu, Seyfettin; Koksal, Aydln-S; Yolcu, Omer-F; Koruk, Senem; Koruk, Irfan; Kayacetin, Ertugrul

    2004-08-01

    Alverine citrate is a commonly used smooth muscle relaxant agent. A MEDLINE search on January 2004 revealed only 1 report implicating the hepatotoxicity of this agent. A 34-year-old woman was investigated because of the finding of elevated liver function tests on biochemical screening. Other etiologies of hepatitis were appropriately ruled out and elevated enzymes were ascribed to alverine citrate treatment. Although alverine citrate hepatotoxicity was related to an immune mechanism in the first case, several features such as absence of predictable dose-dependent toxicity of alverine citrate in a previous study and absence of hypersensitivity manifestations in our patient are suggestive of a metabolic type of idiosyncratic toxicity. PMID:15259090

  16. Alverine citrate induced acute hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Arhan, Mehmet; Köklü, Seyfettin; Köksal, Aydln S; Yolcu, Ömer F; Koruk, Senem; Koruk, Irfan; Kayacetin, Ertugrul

    2004-01-01

    Alverine citrate is a commonly used smooth muscle relaxant agent. A MEDLINE search on January 2004 revealed only 1 report implicating the hepatotoxicity of this agent. A 34-year-old woman was investigated because of the finding of elevated liver function tests on biochemical screening. Other etiologies of hepatitis were appropriately ruled out and elevated enzymes were ascribed to alverine citrate treatment. Although alverine citrate hepatotoxicity was related to an immune mechanism in the first case, several features such as absence of predictable dose-dependent toxicity of alverine citrate in a previous study and absence of hypersensitivity manifestations in our patient are suggestive of a metabolic type of idiosyncratic toxicity. PMID:15259090

  17. DEXTROSE-TEMPLATED MICROWAVE-ASSISTED COMBUSTION SYNTHESIS OF SPONGY METAL OXIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave-assisted combustion synthesis of porous nanocrystalline titania and carbon coated titania is reported using dextrose as template and the product was compared with the one obtained using conventional heating furnace. Out of three compositions viz., 1:1, 1:3, and 1:5 (met...

  18. The effect of oral and intravenous dextrose on C-peptide secretion in ponies.

    PubMed

    de Laat, M A; van Haeften, J J; Sillence, M N

    2016-02-01

    Managing equine hyperinsulinemia is crucial for preventing laminitis, but our understanding of the mechanisms involved in insulin dysregulation in this species is incomplete. C-peptide is co-secreted with insulin but is resistant to hepatic metabolism and can be used to study insulin dysregulation. This study examined C-peptide secretion in serial blood samples collected after oral and i.v. dextrose (0.75 g/kg) administration to 9 ponies (BCS, 7.1 ± 0.5). The ponies were designated as hyperinsulinemic (HI) or normoinsulinemic (NI) responders before the study, using oral glucose tests and fasted glucose-to-insulin ratios, and responses were compared between the 2 groups. C-peptide concentrations increased ( < 0.01) rapidly from fasted levels after both oral and i.v. dextrose, with similar area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) for both tests and a significant correlation with AUC. The AUC was similar in HI and NI ponies after i.v. dextrose, indicating similar pancreatic capacity for both groups. However, for oral dextrose, the AUC and the AUC were markedly higher ( < 0.05) in the HI ponies, indicating a greater secretion rate of these peptides. Slower insulin clearance might have also contributed to the larger AUC in HI ponies, but this hypothesis requires further investigation with specific measures of hepatic insulin clearance. PMID:27065127

  19. Effect of sucralose--alone or bulked with maltodextrin and/or dextrose--on plaque pH in humans.

    PubMed

    Meyerowitz, C; Syrrakou, E P; Raubertas, R F

    1996-01-01

    Sucralose is a safe, intensely sweet, noncaloric sucrose derivative that has been shown to be noncariogenic. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects on plaque pH in vivo of sucralose in iced tea (alone or bulked with maltodextrin or with maltodextrin/dextrose) with sucrose in iced tea. Fourteen subjects, with DMFT > 7 and an acidogenic plaque, participated in the study. Plaque pH response to one of five solutions: unsweetened tea, tea with sucralose (final concentration 0.007% by weight), tea with sucralose/maltodextrin (final concentrations 0.007% and 0.59% by weight, respectively), tea with sucralose/maltodextrin/dextrose (final concentrations 0.007, 0.018 and 0.57% by weight, respectively) and tea with sucrose (final concentration 4.7% by weight); was assessed in five experimental sessions. All solutions, except the unsweetened tea, had a sweetness equivalent to 2 teaspoons of sucrose in 6 OZ of beverage. Using a touch electrode, plaque pH was measured at baseline and at specific time intervals up to 60 min after rinsing with the test solution for 1 min. Comparisons between groups were done for minimum pH, delta pH, and area under the pH curve (AUC), by using the nonparametric Friedman's test and the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Rinsing with tea and sucrose resulted in significantly lower minimum pH, higher delta pH and larger AUC than rinsing with the solutions containing sucralose. It can be concluded that sucralose alone or in combination with maltodextrin or with maltodextrin/dextrose is significantly less acidogenic than sucrose when used as a sweetener in iced tea.

  20. Interim Report: 100-NR-2 Apatite Treatability Test: Low Concentration Calcium Citrate-Phosphate Solution Injection for In Situ Strontium-90 Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Mark D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Thorne, Paul D.; Xie, YuLong; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Mackley, Rob D.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Szecsody, James E.; Vermeul, Vincent R.

    2008-07-11

    Following an evaluation of potential Sr-90 treatment technologies and their applicability under 100-NR-2 hydrogeologic conditions, U.S. Department of Energy, Fluor Hanford, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the Washington Department of Ecology agreed that the long-term strategy for groundwater remediation at 100-N Area will include apatite sequestration as the primary treatment, followed by a secondary treatment if necessary (most likely phytoremediation). Since then, the agencies have worked together to agree on which apatite sequestration technology has the greatest chance of reducing Sr-90 flux to the river at a reasonable cost. In July 2005, aqueous injection, (i.e., the introduction of apatite-forming chemicals into the subsurface) was endorsed as the interim remedy and selected for field testing. Studies are in progress to assess the efficacy of in situ apatite formation by aqueous solution injection to address both the vadose zone and the shallow aquifer along the 300 ft of shoreline where Sr-90 concentrations are highest. This report describes the field testing of the shallow aquifer treatment.

  1. Safety Assessment of Citric Acid, Inorganic Citrate Salts, and Alkyl Citrate Esters as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Heldreth, Bart A; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-05-26

    The CIR Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of citric acid, 12 inorganic citrate salts, and 20 alkyl citrate esters as used in cosmetics, concluding that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration. Citric acid is reported to function as a pH adjuster, chelating agent, or fragrance ingredient. Some of the salts are also reported to function as chelating agents, and a number of the citrates are reported to function as skin-conditioning agents but other functions are also reported. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data, but because citric acid, calcium citrate, ferric citrate, manganese citrate, potassium citrate, sodium citrate, diammonium citrate, isopropyl citrate, stearyl citrate, and triethyl citrate are generally recognized as safe direct food additives, dermal exposure was the focus for these ingredients in this cosmetic ingredient safety assessment.

  2. The Effects of Prolotherapy With Hypertonic Dextrose Versus Prolozone (Intraarticular Ozone) in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Masoud; Jalili, Parviz; Mennati, Shirin; Koosha, Alireza; Rohanifar, Ramin; Madadi, Firouz; Razavi, Seyed Sajad; Taheri, Farinaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a common disabling disease. Limited studies have demonstrated that prolotherapy with dextrose or with prolozone can be helpful in the treatment of patients with KOA. Objectives: In the current study, we compared the results between these two treatment methods. Patients and Methods: In the current randomized clinical trial, 80 patients with mild to moderate KOA were randomly assigned equally into two groups (ozone group and dextrose group). In each group, injections were repeated three times with 10-day intervals. Before the treatment and 3 months after the injections, the pain intensity was measured by using a visual analogue scale and the Western Ontario and McMaster university arthritis index scores. Finally, the results were compared between the two groups. Results: In the two groups, the pain intensity and WOMAC scores significantly decreased and increased, respectively (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusions: Prolotherapy with dextrose and with prolozone result in the same pain relief or functional improvement in patients with mild to moderate KOA. PMID:26587401

  3. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5449 Manganese citrate. (a) Product. Manganese citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  4. 21 CFR 582.5195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5195 Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5449 Manganese citrate. (a) Product. Manganese citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  6. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5449 Manganese citrate. (a) Product. Manganese citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  7. 21 CFR 582.5195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5195 Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5195 Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5195 Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5449 Manganese citrate. (a) Product. Manganese citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. 21 CFR 582.5195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5195 Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5449 Manganese citrate. (a) Product. Manganese citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  13. 21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium citrate. 184.1751 Section 184.1751 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Sodium citrate (C6H5Na3O7·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 68... may be prepared in an anhydrous state or may contain two moles of water per mole of sodium citrate....

  14. 21 CFR 184.1449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sodium citrate to complete the reaction. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for its intended... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese citrate. 184.1449 Section 184.1449 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1449 Manganese citrate. (a) Manganese citrate (Mn3(C6H5O7)2,...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  19. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  20. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  4. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  6. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  9. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  10. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2110 Bismuth citrate. (a) Identity. The color additive... restrictions. The color additive bismuth citrate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp, subject to the following restrictions: (1) The amount of bismuth citrate in the...

  12. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2110 Bismuth citrate. (a) Identity. The color additive... restrictions. The color additive bismuth citrate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp, subject to the following restrictions: (1) The amount of bismuth citrate in the...

  13. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2110 Bismuth citrate. (a) Identity. The color additive... restrictions. The color additive bismuth citrate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp, subject to the following restrictions: (1) The amount of bismuth citrate in the...

  14. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2110 Bismuth citrate. (a) Identity. The color additive... restrictions. The color additive bismuth citrate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp, subject to the following restrictions: (1) The amount of bismuth citrate in the...

  15. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2110 Bismuth citrate. (a) Identity. The color additive... restrictions. The color additive bismuth citrate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp, subject to the following restrictions: (1) The amount of bismuth citrate in the...

  16. 21 CFR 582.6851 - Stearyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stearyl citrate. 582.6851 Section 582.6851 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Stearyl citrate. (a) Product. Stearyl citrate. (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1851 - Stearyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stearyl citrate. 184.1851 Section 184.1851 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1851 Stearyl citrate. (a) Stearyl citrate is a mixture of...

  18. 21 CFR 582.6386 - Isopropyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Isopropyl citrate. 582.6386 Section 582.6386 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Isopropyl citrate. (a) Product. Isopropyl citrate. (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized...

  19. 21 CFR 582.6386 - Isopropyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Isopropyl citrate. 582.6386 Section 582.6386 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Isopropyl citrate. (a) Product. Isopropyl citrate. (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1386 - Isopropyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Isopropyl citrate. 184.1386 Section 184.1386 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1386 Isopropyl citrate. (a) Isopropyl citrate is a mixture...

  1. 21 CFR 582.6511 - Monoisopropyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Monoisopropyl citrate. 582.6511 Section 582.6511 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Monoisopropyl citrate. (a) Product. Monoisopropyl citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1851 - Stearyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Stearyl citrate. 184.1851 Section 184.1851 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1851 Stearyl citrate. (a) Stearyl citrate is a mixture of the mono-,...

  3. 21 CFR 582.6851 - Stearyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stearyl citrate. 582.6851 Section 582.6851 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Stearyl citrate. (a) Product. Stearyl citrate. (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized...

  4. 21 CFR 582.6511 - Monoisopropyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Monoisopropyl citrate. 582.6511 Section 582.6511 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Monoisopropyl citrate. (a) Product. Monoisopropyl citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 184.1195 Section 184.1195 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1195 Calcium citrate. (a) Calcium citrate...

  6. 21 CFR 582.6195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.6195 Section 582.6195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.1195 Section 582.1195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1195 Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.1195 Section 582.1195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1195 Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  9. 21 CFR 582.6195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.6195 Section 582.6195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  10. 21 CFR 582.6195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.6195 Section 582.6195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.1195 Section 582.1195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1195 Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  12. 21 CFR 582.6195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.6195 Section 582.6195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.1195 Section 582.1195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1195 Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 184.1195 Section 184.1195 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1195 Calcium citrate. (a) Calcium citrate...

  15. 21 CFR 582.6195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.6195 Section 582.6195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.1195 Section 582.1195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1195 Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  18. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  1. Effect of citrate ions on laser ablation of Ag foil in aqueous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisková, K.; Vlcková, B.; Turpin, P.-Y.; Fayet, C.; Hromádková, J.; Slouf, M.

    2007-04-01

    Promoting effect of citrate in 1 × 10-5-1×10-2 M concentrations on laser ablation (LA) of a Ag foil in aqueous solution performed by ns laser pulses at 1064 nm is reported. Furthermore, adsorption of citrate ions was found to increase markedly the stability of the resulting LA-Ag hydrosol. The results are discussed on the basis of comparison of surface plasmon extinction spectral characteristics, transmission electron microscopy images, nanoparticle size distributions and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectral tests of hydrosols resulting from LA in neutral and acidic aqueous citrate solutions and in pure water.

  2. Citrate-Stabilized Gold Nanorods

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Stable aqueous dispersions of citrate-stabilized gold nanorods (cit-GNRs) have been prepared in scalable fashion by surfactant exchange from cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-stabilized GNRs, using polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) as a detergent. The surfactant exchange process was monitored by infrared spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The latter established the quantitative displacement of CTAB (by PSS) and of PSS (by citrate). The Cit-GNRs are indefinitely stable at low ionic strength, and are conducive to further ligand exchange without loss of dispersion stability. The reliability of the surface exchange process supports the systematic analysis of ligand structure on the hydrodynamic size of GNRs, as described in a companion paper. PMID:25254292

  3. Long-term Stability of Esomeprazole in 5% Dextrose Infusion Polyolefin Bags at 5 degrees C +/- 3 degrees C after Microwave Freeze-thaw Treatment.

    PubMed

    Hecq, Jean-daniel; Rolin, Catherine; Godet, Marie; Gillet, Patricia; Jamart, Jacques; Galanti, Laurence M

    2015-01-01

    To improve quality assurance, security, time management, and cost saving of drug delivery, preparation in advance of intravenous solutions has been developed for several infusion solutions. The objective of this study was to investigate the stability of esomeprazole 0.4 mg/mL and 0.8 mg/mL in 5% dextrose polyolefin bags after freezing, long-term storage, and microwave thawing. The stability of five polyolefin bags containing approximately 0.4 mg/mL of esomeprazole and five other bags containing approximately 0.8 mg/mL in 5% dextrose prepared under aseptic conditions was studied after freezing for 1 month at -20 degrees C, thawing in a microwave oven with a validated cycle, and stored at 5 degrees C +/- 3 degrees C. Esomeprazole concentration was measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography using a reversed-phase column C8, a mobile phase consisting of 35% of acetonitrile and 65% of Na2HPO4 buffer at pH 7.59 with HPO4 (2 M) and NaOH (0.5 M), and detection with a diode array detector at 280 nm. Visual, microscopic, and spectrophotometric observation and pH measurements were also performed. No precipitation occurred in the preparations but little change of color was observed. No microaggregate was observed with optical microscopy or revealed by a change of absorbance at 350, 410, and 550 nm. Based on a shelf life of 90% residual potency, esomeprazole solutions (0.4 and 0.8 mg/mL) were stable for at least 20 or 29 days, respectively, after a freezing and microwave thawing period, where 95% one-side lower confidence limit of the concentration-time profile remained superior to 90% of the initial concentration. During this period, the pH values of drug solutions have been observed to decrease without affecting chromatographic parameters. Within these limits, esomeprazole (0.4 and 0.8 mg/mL) in 5% dextrose infusions may be prepared and frozen in advance by a centralized intravenous admixture service, thawed, and stored at least 20 days at 5 degrees C +/- 3 degrees C

  4. Dextrose-mediated aggregation of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in human plasma: Implication of isoelectric precipitation of complement proteins.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shen; Zhang, Baolin

    2015-01-01

    Many therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are clinically administered through intravenous infusion after mixing with a diluent, e.g., saline, 5% dextrose. Such a clinical setting increases the likelihood of interactions among mAb molecules, diluent, and plasma components, which may adversely affect product safety and efficacy. Avastin® (bevacizumab) and Herceptin® (trastuzumab), but not Remicade® (infliximab), were shown to undergo rapid aggregation upon dilution into 5% dextrose when mixed with human plasma in vitro; however, the biochemical pathways leading to the aggregation were not clearly defined. Here, we show that dextrose-mediated aggregation of Avastin or Herceptin in plasma involves isoelectric precipitation of complement proteins. Using mass spectrometry, we found that dextrose-induced insoluble aggregates were composed of mAb itself and multiple abundant plasma proteins, namely complement proteins C3, C4, factor H, fibronectin, and apolipoprotein. These plasma proteins, which are characterized by an isoelectronic point of 5.5-6.7, lost solubility at the resulting pH in the mixture with formulated Avastin (pH 6.2) and Herceptin (pH 6.0). Notably, switching formulation buffers for Avastin (pH 6.2) and Remicade (pH 7.2) reversed their aggregation profiles. Avastin formed little, if any, insoluble aggregates in dextrose-plasma upon raising the buffer pH to 7.2 or above. Furthermore, dextrose induced pH-dependent precipitation of plasma proteins, with massive insoluble aggregates being detected at pH 6.5-6.8. These data show that isoelectric precipitation of complement proteins is a prerequisite of dextrose-induced aggregation of mAb in human plasma. This finding highlights the importance of assessing the compatibility of a therapeutic mAb with diluent and human plasma during product development. PMID:26338058

  5. Dextrose-mediated aggregation of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in human plasma: Implication of isoelectric precipitation of complement proteins.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shen; Zhang, Baolin

    2015-01-01

    Many therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are clinically administered through intravenous infusion after mixing with a diluent, e.g., saline, 5% dextrose. Such a clinical setting increases the likelihood of interactions among mAb molecules, diluent, and plasma components, which may adversely affect product safety and efficacy. Avastin® (bevacizumab) and Herceptin® (trastuzumab), but not Remicade® (infliximab), were shown to undergo rapid aggregation upon dilution into 5% dextrose when mixed with human plasma in vitro; however, the biochemical pathways leading to the aggregation were not clearly defined. Here, we show that dextrose-mediated aggregation of Avastin or Herceptin in plasma involves isoelectric precipitation of complement proteins. Using mass spectrometry, we found that dextrose-induced insoluble aggregates were composed of mAb itself and multiple abundant plasma proteins, namely complement proteins C3, C4, factor H, fibronectin, and apolipoprotein. These plasma proteins, which are characterized by an isoelectronic point of 5.5-6.7, lost solubility at the resulting pH in the mixture with formulated Avastin (pH 6.2) and Herceptin (pH 6.0). Notably, switching formulation buffers for Avastin (pH 6.2) and Remicade (pH 7.2) reversed their aggregation profiles. Avastin formed little, if any, insoluble aggregates in dextrose-plasma upon raising the buffer pH to 7.2 or above. Furthermore, dextrose induced pH-dependent precipitation of plasma proteins, with massive insoluble aggregates being detected at pH 6.5-6.8. These data show that isoelectric precipitation of complement proteins is a prerequisite of dextrose-induced aggregation of mAb in human plasma. This finding highlights the importance of assessing the compatibility of a therapeutic mAb with diluent and human plasma during product development.

  6. Citrate and renal calculi: an update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, C. Y.

    1994-01-01

    Citrate is an inhibitor of the crystallization of stone-forming calcium salts. Hypocitraturia, frequently encountered in patients with nephrolithiasis, is therefore an important risk factor for stone formation. Potassium citrate provides physiological and physicochemical correction and inhibits new stone formation, not only in hypocitraturic calcium nephrolithiasis but also in uric acid nephrolithiasis. Inhibition of stone recurrence has now been validated by a randomized trial. Ongoing research has disclosed additional causes of hypocitraturia (sodium excess, low intestinal alkali absorption, but not primary citrate malabsorption). Moreover, new insights on potassium citrate action have been shown, notably that some of absorbed citrate escapes oxidation and contributes to the citraturic response, that ingestion with a meal does not sacrifice physiological or physicochemical action, that orange juice mimics but does not completely duplicate its actions, that potassium citrate may have a beneficial bone-sparing effect, that it may reduce stone fragments following ESWL, and that danger of aluminum toxicity is not great in subjects with functioning kidneys. Finally, the research on potassium citrate has led to two promising products, calcium citrate as an optimum calcium supplement and potassium-magnesium citrate which may be superior to potassium citrate in the management of stone disease.

  7. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O,...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O,...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O,...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 184.1449 Section 184.1449 Food... GRAS § 184.1449 Manganese citrate. (a) Manganese citrate (Mn3(C6H5O7)2, CAS Reg. No. 10024-66-5) is a pale orange or pinkish white powder. It is obtained by precipitating manganese carbonate from...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1911 - Triethyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Triethyl citrate. 184.1911 Section 184.1911 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1911 Triethyl citrate. (a) Triethyl citrate (C12H20O7, CAS...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O,...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... hydroxide or sodium carbonate. The product occurs as colorless crystals or a white crystalline powder. It... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 184.1751 Section 184.1751 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Sodium citrate (C6H5Na3O7·2H2O, CAS Reg. No....

  14. Subculture on potato dextrose agar as a complement to the broth microdilution assay for Malassezia pachydermatis.

    PubMed

    Prado, Marilena R; Brito, Erika H S; Brilhante, Raimunda S N; Cordeiro, Rossana A; Leite, João J G; Sidrim, José J C; Rocha, Marcos F G

    2008-10-01

    The main aim of this study was to verify the efficacy of subculture on potato dextrose agar (PDA) as a complement to the in vitro susceptibility test for Malassezia pachydermatis strains by a broth microdilution method, as well as to determine the MIC and MFC of azole derivatives, amphotericin B and caspofungin. The microdilution assay was performed in 96-well plates using a modified RPMI 1640 medium. The M. pachydermatis strains were resistant to caspofungin. All strains (n=50) had shown MIC values of <0.03, <0.03, 2.0, 4.0 and 4.0 microg/ml for itraconazole, ketoconazole, voriconazole, fluconazole and amphotericin B, respectively. Thus, the subculture on PDA improved the analysis of the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of M. pachydermatis.

  15. Gd2O3 nanoparticles stabilized by hydrothermally modified dextrose for positive contrast magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babić-Stojić, Branka; Jokanović, Vukoman; Milivojević, Dušan; Požek, Miroslav; Jagličić, Zvonko; Makovec, Darko; Arsikin, Katarina; Paunović, Verica

    2016-04-01

    Gd2O3 nanoparticles of a few nm in size and their agglomerates dispersed in dextrose derived polymer template were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment. The produced nanosized material was investigated by TEM, FTIR spectroscopy, SQUID measurements and NMR relaxometry. Biological evaluation of this material was done by crystal violet and MTT assays to determine the cell viability. Longitudinal and transverse NMR relaxivities of water diluted Gd2O3 nanoparticle dispersions measured at the magnetic field of 1.5 T, estimated to be r1(Gd2O3)=9.6 s-1 mM-1 in the Gd concentration range 0.1-30 mM and r2(Gd2O3)=17.7 s-1 mM-1 in the lower concentration range 0.1-0.8 mM, are significantly higher than the corresponding relaxivities measured for the standard contrast agent r1(Gd-DTPA)=4.1 s-1 mM-1 and r2(Gd-DTPA)=5.1 s-1 mM-1. The ratio of the two relaxivities for Gd2O3 nanoparticles r2/r1=1.8 is suitable for T1-weighted imaging. Good MRI signal intensities of the water diluted Gd2O3 nanoparticle dispersions were recorded at lower Gd concentrations 0.2-0.8 mM. The Gd2O3 samples did not exert any significant cytotoxic effects at Gd concentrations of 0.2 mM and below. These properties of the produced Gd2O3 nanoparticles in hydrothermally modified dextrose make them promising for potential application in MRI for the design of a positive MRI contrast agent.

  16. A second polymorph of sodium di­hydrogen citrate, NaH2C6H5O7: structure solution from powder diffraction data and DFT comparison

    PubMed Central

    Rammohan, Alagappa; Kaduk, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structure of a second polymorph of sodium di­hydrogen citrate, Na+·H2C6H5O7 −, has been solved and refined using laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data, and optimized using density functional techniques. The powder pattern of the commercial sample used in this study did not match that corresponding to the known crystal structure [Glusker et al. (1965). Acta Cryst. 19, 561–572; refcode NAHCIT]. In this polymorph, the [NaO7] coordination polyhedra form edge-sharing chains propagating along the a axis, while in NAHCIT the octa­hedral [NaO6] groups form edge-sharing pairs bridged by two hy­droxy groups. The most notable difference is that in this polymorph one of the terminal carboxyl groups is deprotonated, while in NAHCIT the central carboxyl­ate group is deprotonated, as is more typical. PMID:27308058

  17. Accumulation of cadmium by durum wheat roots: bases for citrate-mediated exceptions to the free ion model.

    PubMed

    Berkelaar, Edward; Hale, Beverley A

    2003-05-01

    The accumulation of Cd in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum) roots from hydroponic solutions, with the proportion of total Cd (8.9-445 nM Cd) as Cd2+ varied by the addition of citrate, was determined to test the free-ion model (FIM) of metal bioavailability for higher plants. Calcium, Mg, and K were also varied. Citrate enhanced root-Cd accumulation at higher Cd2+ concentrations but not lower relative to the same Cd2+ concentrations in solutions containing 0 mM citrate. Elevating Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations in the citrate solution to the same as those in control solutions alleviated some of the citrate-mediated enhancement but not all. Solutions containing 66% less Ca or Mg than control but the same Cd2+ concentration and no citrate also resulted in increased root Cd. Elevated K+ did not influence Cd accumulation. Regression relationships between root-Cd accumulation and total Cd in solution were similar for the control and pooled amended solutions, whereas they were different for root-Cd accumulation and solution Cd2+. These results contribute to the growing body of evidence that the FIM alone is likely insufficient to predict plant accumulation of metals from soils, although it may be a useful probe for the mechanistic bases of metal bioavailability.

  18. Comparison of inhibitory mold agar to Sabouraud dextrose agar as a primary medium for isolation of fungi.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, Theresa; Zinchuk, Riva; Gumpeni, Pramod; Larone, Davise H

    2010-05-01

    Clinical specimens cultured on two selective fungal media, inhibitory mold agar (IMA) and Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA), were compared with respect to recovery of fungi. Of the 840 fungal isolates recovered, 69.3% grew on both IMA and SDA; 24.9% grew only on IMA; and 5.8% grew only on SDA, showing that IMA is superior (P=0.003).

  19. FO-SPR based dextrose sensor using Ag/ZnO nanorods/GOx for insulinoma detection.

    PubMed

    Usha, Sruthi P; Shrivastav, Anand M; Gupta, Banshi D

    2016-11-15

    In this piece of work, a fiber optic sensor has been fabricated and characterized using surface plasmon resonance for dextrose sensing. The concentration range used in this study is for diagnosing the cases of hypoglycaemia especially in suppression tests of insulinoma. Insulinoma is a medical case in which the person is recognized being hypoglycaemic with the blood dextrose level falling down to 2.2mM or less. Thus, the sensor has been characterized for the dextrose concentration range of 0 mM-10mM including the cases of normal blood dextrose range. Coatings of silver layer and zinc oxide nanorods have been carried out on the bare core fiber with a dual role of zinc oxide followed by immobilization of glucose oxidase. A three stage optimization procedure has been adopted for the best performance of the sensor. Absorbance spectra have been plotted and peak absorbance wavelengths have been extracted for each concentration chosen along with the sensitivities. The results have been made conclusive with control experiments. The probe has also been tested on sample having blood serum to check the reliability of the sensor. The sensor shows better selectivity and response time along with its real time applications, online monitoring, remote sensing and reusability.

  20. Effect of Eu-citrate complex composition on its cementation

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, V.M.; Kornilov, A.S.; Yadovin, A.A.

    1995-03-01

    The dependence of Eu cementation by sodium amalgam in a semicountercurrent regime from citrate solutions on the Eu complex composition is studied. The purity of the {sup 153}Gd product from radioactive Eu can be increased during cementation by introducing correcting solutions of citric acid and stable Eu. The selected conditions are verified by processing irradiated targets. The content of radioactive Eu in the {sup 153}Gd product is reduced from 0.01 to 0.0005% with respect to {gamma}-activity.

  1. Stability-Indicating UPLC Method for Tramadol HCl Impurities in the Tramadol Injection after Dilution by Infusion Fluids (5% Dextrose and 0.9% Sodium Chloride)

    PubMed Central

    Binnor, Anil K.; Mukkanti, Khagga; Suryanarayana, Mulukutla V.; Roy, Sunilendu B.

    2013-01-01

    A novel, rapid, and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method has been developed and validated as per ICH guidelines for the determination of tramadol HCl impurities in the tramadol HCl injection after reconstitution by infusion fluids (5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride). The tramadol HCl injection is for the treatment of patients with moderate-to-severe pain. The stability of the reconstituted solution is critical before intravenous injection. The literature search resulted in few published articles on assays of tramadol in infusion fluids by conventional HPLC. No attempts have yet been made to determine the impurities in infusion fluids, as the concentration of tramadol after reconstitution is extremely low (0.4 mg/mL) and that of impurities is even lower. The proposed method is novel as it allows the quantitation of the impurities of tramadol HCl and is based on modern chromatographic techniques like UPLC. The method was developed using the Waters Acquity BEH C18 column with a mobile phase consisting of a gradient mixture of solvent A (trifluroacetic acid buffer) and solvent B (methanol: acetonitrile). The model stability study was designed by diluting the tramadol HCl injection in the 5% dextrose injection and 0.9% sodium chloride injection. Each mixture was kept under storage at room temperature (25 ± 2°C) for testing at initial, 2, 4, 8, 12, 18 & 24 hours. The validation study illustrates that the proposed method is suitable for the determination of tramadol and its impurities. The proposed method makes use of the LC-MS-compatible mobile phase. It can be useful for the determination of tramadol HCl and its impurities in plasma samples and other pharmaceutical dosage forms. PMID:24482769

  2. Citrate bridges between mineral platelets in bone.

    PubMed

    Davies, Erika; Müller, Karin H; Wong, Wai Ching; Pickard, Chris J; Reid, David G; Skepper, Jeremy N; Duer, Melinda J

    2014-04-01

    We provide evidence that citrate anions bridge between mineral platelets in bone and hypothesize that their presence acts to maintain separate platelets with disordered regions between them rather than gradual transformations into larger, more ordered blocks of mineral. To assess this hypothesis, we take as a model for a citrate bridging between layers of calcium phosphate mineral a double salt octacalcium phosphate citrate (OCP-citrate). We use a combination of multinuclear solid-state NMR spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and first principles electronic structure calculations to propose a quantitative structure for this material, in which citrate anions reside in a hydrated layer, bridging between apatitic layers. To assess the relevance of such a structure in native bone mineral, we present for the first time, to our knowledge, (17)O NMR data on bone and compare them with (17)O NMR data for OCP-citrate and other calcium phosphate minerals relevant to bone. The proposed structural model that we deduce from this work for bone mineral is a layered structure with thin apatitic platelets sandwiched between OCP-citrate-like hydrated layers. Such a structure can explain a number of known structural features of bone mineral: the thin, plate-like morphology of mature bone mineral crystals, the presence of significant quantities of strongly bound water molecules, and the relatively high concentration of hydrogen phosphate as well as the maintenance of a disordered region between mineral platelets.

  3. Thermosensitive H1 plasmids determining citrate utilization.

    PubMed

    Smith, H W; Parsell, Z; Green, P

    1978-12-01

    Twelve thermosensitive H1 plasmids from strains of Salmonella typhi that had caused outbreaks of chloramphenicol-resistant typhoid fever in Vietnam, Thailand and India mediated citrate utilization (Cit+) in a prototrophic Escherichia coli K12 strain but not in the S. typhi strains from which they were derived. Four H1 plasmids from a similar outbreak in Mexico differed from the Far Eastern plasmids in not mediating citrate utlization but in mediating mercury resistance. H1 plasmids resembling the Far Eastern and the Mexican plasmids in regard to citrate utilization and mercury resistance were found in sewage in Britain. Citrate utilization was transferred to eight pathogenic strains of E. coli and to one strain each of Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei. Cultures of Cit+ bacteria grew more rapidly in citrate media at 28 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. Plasmid mutants that were more efficient at utilizing citrate were present in all such cultures--they grew equally well or better at 37 degrees C than at 28 degrees C. None of 222 strains of E. coli or Shigella that contained a variety of different plasmids were able to utilize citrate. This property was not transferred to the prototrophic E. coli K12 strain from Citrobacter (3 strains), Salmonella (39 strains), Proteus (44 strains), Klebsiella pneumoniae (33 strains) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa (44 strains).

  4. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in... human consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million...

  5. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430 Food... Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in food in... consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million (0.0025...

  6. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560... Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal feed... consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million (0.0025...

  7. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560... Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal feed... consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million (0.0025...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1307c - Ferrous citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the reaction of sodium citrate with ferrous sulfate or by direct action of citric acid on iron filings... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferrous citrate. 184.1307c Section 184.1307c Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307c Ferrous citrate. (a) Ferrous citrate (iron (II)...

  9. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in... human consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million...

  10. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in... human consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 184.1296 Section 184.1296... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1296 Ferric ammonium citrate. (a) Ferric ammonium citrate (iron (III) ammonium citrate) is prepared by the reaction of ferric hydroxide with citric...

  12. Determination of dextrose equivalent value and number average molecular weight of maltodextrin by osmometry.

    PubMed

    Rong, Y; Sillick, M; Gregson, C M

    2009-01-01

    Dextrose equivalent (DE) value is the most common parameter used to characterize the molecular weight of maltodextrins. Its theoretical value is inversely proportional to number average molecular weight (M(n)), providing a theoretical basis for correlations with physical properties important to food manufacturing, such as: hygroscopicity, the glass transition temperature, and colligative properties. The use of freezing point osmometry to measure DE and M(n) was assessed. Measurements were made on a homologous series of malto-oligomers as well as a variety of commercially available maltodextrin products with DE values ranging from 5 to 18. Results on malto-oligomer samples confirmed that freezing point osmometry provided a linear response with number average molecular weight. However, noncarbohydrate species in some commercial maltodextrin products were found to be in high enough concentration to interfere appreciably with DE measurement. Energy dispersive spectroscopy showed that sodium and chloride were the major ions present in most commercial samples. Osmolality was successfully corrected using conductivity measurements to estimate ion concentrations. The conductivity correction factor appeared to be dependent on the concentration of maltodextrin. Equations were developed to calculate corrected values of DE and M(n) based on measurements of osmolality, conductivity, and maltodextrin concentration. This study builds upon previously reported results through the identification of the major interfering ions and provides an osmolality correction factor that successfully accounts for the influence of maltodextrin concentration on the conductivity measurement. The resulting technique was found to be rapid, robust, and required no reagents.

  13. Fungistatic activity of flaxseed in potato dextrose agar and a fresh noodle system.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yingying; Hall, Clifford; Wolf-Hall, Charlene; Manthey, Frank

    2008-02-10

    Although numerous researchers have studied flaxseed as a food ingredient for its health benefits, flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) has never been considered as a food preservative. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of flaxseed flour (FF) concentration (0, 6, 9, 12, and 15% wt/wt), cultivar ('Omega' and brown) and source (four seed companies located in Minnesota and North Dakota) on flaxseed fungistatic activity. Fungal radial growth was used to assess the fungistatic activity of FF in both potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium and a fresh noodle system. Strains of Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium graminearum, and a Penicillium sp. isolated from molded noodles were used as the test microorganisms. Results showed that growth of F. graminearum was completely inhibited at all FF concentrations in PDA, and the inhibition of the other three test microorganisms increased with increasing FF concentrations. In the model noodle system, FF concentration at 9% or higher significantly reduced the mold count of fresh noodle during storage. In the inoculated noodle system, 6% FF addition was sufficient to significantly inhibit the growth of F. graminearum and A. flavus, whereas 9% FF concentrations showed fungistatic activity against P. chrysogenum and the Penicillium sp. isolate. Differences in the degree of mold inhibition were found among FFs obtained from different sources and cultivars. Results suggested that flaxseed possesses fungistatic activity and could be used as a multifunctional food ingredient.

  14. [Influence of PO4(3-) and citrate on REE accumulation and fractionation in wheat].

    PubMed

    Yan, Jun-Cai; Liang, Tao; Zhang, Zi-Li; Ding, Shi-Ming

    2005-09-01

    This paper has studied the influence of phosphate (Pi, one of inorganic ligands) and citrate (Cit, one of organic ligands) on accumulation and fractionation of REEs in wheat based on aqueous culture, added with extraneous mixed REEs (MRE) and ICP-MS analysis technology. The results show that initial phosphate (Pi) solution of different levels followed by exposure to fixed-MRE solution has no significant effects on accumulation of the total concentrations of REEs (sigma REE) in the wheat roots, but it decrease the REE dramatically in the wheat leaves. Simultaneous culture of wheat with mixture of MRE and citrate solution caused obvious decreases of the sigma REE both in wheat roots and leaves. Compared to the control (no Pi or citrate was added), the distribution and fractionation characters of MRE had M-type tetrad effect and MREE enrichment in wheat roots, and W-type tetrad effect and HREE enrichment in wheat leaves. Different levels of Pi had no significant effects on the tetrad effect of MRE, but it notable increased the enrichment of HREE in wheat leaves. Added with citrate of different levels led the fractionation of REE decreasing gradually in wheat roots and leaves, as the concentration of citrate > or = 150 micromol x L(-1), light REE (LREE) enrichment both existed in the roots and leaves.

  15. Mean platelet volume measurement, EDTA or citrate?

    PubMed

    Dastjerdi, Mansour Siavash; Emami, Tajolmolouk; Najafian, Alireza; Amini, Masoud

    2006-10-01

    Most laboratories use EDTA for anticoagulation of whole blood prior to automated cell counting but due to platelet swelling, mean platelet volume (MPV) values may increase with its use. MPV changes may be less with acid citrate based anticoagulation. As MPV is a marker of platelet function and its precise measurement is important in a number of clinical situations, this study was performed to assess if EDTA and citrate based anticoagulated blood samples can be used interchangeably for MPV measurement. In this cross sectional descriptive study, EDTA and citrate based anticoagulated blood samples of the same patients were assessed by auto-analyzer within 1 h of sampling. In the 61 evaluated patients, there was a close correlation between MPV as measured by EDTA and citrate, but mean MPV measured from EDTA samples was 0.66 fL (9%) more than citrate. There was also a significant negative correlation between platelets count and MPV by both methods. The results of our study reveal that MPV can be measured accurately by both methods of anticoagulation; EDTA and citrate if analysis be performed within 1 h of sampling. PMID:17607580

  16. Comparative effectiveness of dextrose prolotherapy versus control injections and exercise in the management of osteoarthritis pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chen-Yu; Hsiao, Ming-Yen; Chang, Ke-Vin; Han, Der-Sheng; Wang, Tyng-Guey

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence has supported the use of dextrose prolotherapy for patients with osteoarthritis. However, the real benefits may be affected by differences in injection protocols, comparative regimens, and evaluation scales. Methods PubMed and Scopus were searched from the earliest record until February 2016. One single-arm study and five randomized controlled trials were included, comprising 326 participants. We estimated the effect sizes of pain reduction before and after serial dextrose injections and compared the values between dextrose prolotherapy, comparative regimens, and exercise 6 months after the initial injection. Results Regarding the treatment arm using dextrose prolotherapy, the effect sizes compared with baseline were 0.65 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14–1.17), 0.84 (95% CI, 0.40–1.27), 0.85 (95% CI, 0.60–1.10), and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.53–1.21) after the first, second, third, and fourth or more injections, respectively. The overall effect of dextrose was better than control injections (effect size, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.10–0.63). Dextrose prolotherapy had a superior effect compared with local anesthesia (effect size, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.07–0.70) and exercise (effect size, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.30–1.11). There was an insignificant advantage of dextrose over corticosteroids (effect size, 0.31; 95% CI, –0.18 to 0.80) which was only estimated from one study. Conclusion Dextrose injections decreased pain in osteoarthritis patients but did not exhibit a positive dose–response relationship following serial injections. Dextrose prolotherapy was found to provide a better therapeutic effect than exercise, local anesthetics, and probably corticosteroids when patients were retested 6 months following the initial injection. PMID:27799816

  17. Tamoxifen citrate loaded ethosomes for transdermal drug delivery system: preparation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Sarwa, Khomendra Kumar; Suresh, Preeti K; Debnath, Manabendra; Ahmad, Mohammad Zaki

    2013-08-01

    Long term tamoxifen citrate therapy is imperative to treat several dermatological and hormonal sensitive disorders. Successful oral and parenteral administration of tamoxifen citrate has been challenging since it undergoes enzymatic degradation and has poor aqueous solubility issues. In the present work, tamoxifen citrate loaded ethosomes were prepared and characterized for transdermal applications. The prepared formulations were characterized for morphological features, particle size distribution, calorimetric attributes, zeta potential and drug entrapment. Permeation profile of prepared ethosomes was compared with liposomes and hydroethonalic solution across cellophane membrane and human cadaver skin. Results of the permeation studies indicate that ethosomes were able to deliver >90% drug within 24 hours of application, while liposomes and hydroethanolic solution delivered only 39.04% and 36.55% respectively. Skin deposition and stability studies are also reported.

  18. Tamoxifen citrate loaded ethosomes for transdermal drug delivery system: preparation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Sarwa, Khomendra Kumar; Suresh, Preeti K; Debnath, Manabendra; Ahmad, Mohammad Zaki

    2013-08-01

    Long term tamoxifen citrate therapy is imperative to treat several dermatological and hormonal sensitive disorders. Successful oral and parenteral administration of tamoxifen citrate has been challenging since it undergoes enzymatic degradation and has poor aqueous solubility issues. In the present work, tamoxifen citrate loaded ethosomes were prepared and characterized for transdermal applications. The prepared formulations were characterized for morphological features, particle size distribution, calorimetric attributes, zeta potential and drug entrapment. Permeation profile of prepared ethosomes was compared with liposomes and hydroethonalic solution across cellophane membrane and human cadaver skin. Results of the permeation studies indicate that ethosomes were able to deliver >90% drug within 24 hours of application, while liposomes and hydroethanolic solution delivered only 39.04% and 36.55% respectively. Skin deposition and stability studies are also reported. PMID:23656399

  19. Forsterite Carbonation in Wet Supercritical CO2 and Sodium Citrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, L.; Schaef, T.; Wang, Z.; Miller, Q.; McGrail, P.

    2013-12-01

    Lin Qiu1*, Herbert T. Schaef2, Zhengrong Wang1, Quin R.S. Miller3, BP McGrail2 1. Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA 2. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA 3. University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, USA Geologic reservoirs for managing carbon emissions (mostly CO2) have expanded over the last 5 years to include unconventional formations including basalts and fractured shales. Recently, ~1000 metric tons of CO2 was injected into the Columbia River Basalt (CRB) in Eastern Washington as part of the Wallula Pilot Project, Big Sky Regional Carbon Partnership. Based on reservoir conditions, the injected CO2 is present as a supercritical fluid that dissolves into the formation water over time, and reacts with basalt components to form carbonate minerals. In this paper, we discuss mineral transformation reactions occurring when the forsterite (Mg2SiO4) is exposed to wet scCO2 in equilibrium with pure water and sodium citrate solutions. Forsterite was selected as it is an important olivine group mineral present in igneous and mafic rocks. Citrate was selected as it has been shown to enhance mineral dissolution and organic ligands are possible degradation products of the microbial communities present in the formational waters of the CRB. For the supercritical phase, transformation reactions were examined by in situ high pressure x-ray diffraction (HXRD) in the presence of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) in contact with water and sodium citrate solutions at conditions relevant to carbon sequestration. Experimental results show close-to-complete dissolution of forsterite in contact with scCO2 equilibrated with pure water for 90 hours (90 bar and 50°C). Under these conditions, thin films of water coated the mineral surface, providing a mechanism for silicate dissolution and transport of cations necessary for carbonate formation. The primary crystalline component initially detected with in situ HXRD was the hydrated magnesium carbonate, nesquehonite [Mg

  20. Potentiometric, spectroscopic, electrochemical and DFT characterization of oxovanadium(IV) complexes formed by citrate and tartrates in aqueous solution at high ligand to metal molar ratios: the effects of the trigonal bipyramidal distortion in bis-chelated species and biological implications.

    PubMed

    Lodyga-Chruscinska, Elzbieta; Sanna, Daniele; Garribba, Eugenio; Micera, Giovanni

    2008-09-28

    The complexation of VO(IV) ion with citrate (L3-), D-, L- and DL-tartrate (L2-) at high ligand to metal molar ratios was studied in aqueous solution through the combined application of potentiometric, spectroscopic (UV-vis and EPR) and electrochemical (cyclic voltammetry) techniques. Unlike in equimolar solution, mononuclear and not dinuclear species are formed with the binding of carboxylate-COO- and alcoholate-O- donors yielding mono- and bis-chelated species with VOLH, VOL, VOLH(-1) and VOL2H(-2) composition; for tartrates also the "sugar-like" (O-, O-) coordination is involved in the vanadium binding at basic pH values giving rise to the formation of VOL2H(-3) and VOL2H(-4) complexes. Among the species formed, VOL2H(-2) is characterised by a strong distortion towards the trigonal bipyramid with the two V-O(alcoholate) bonds in the equatorial and the two V-O(carboxylate) bonds in the axial positions. The geometry and electronic absorption spectra of such complexes were simulated by DFT methods and it was found that in aqueous solution the distortion follows the steric hindrance of the substituents on the alpha-carbon atom and the hydrophobicity of the ligands. The results were compared with those displayed by simple alpha-hydroxycarboxylates (glycolate, 2-hydroxyisobutyrate, 2-ethyl-2-hydroxybutyrate and benzilate). The trigonal bipyramidal distortion was correlated with the values of: i) Deltalambda = lambda2-lambda3, where lambda2 and lambda3 are the central bands in the electronic absorption spectrum; ii) |A(x)-A(y)|, where A(x) and A(y) are the 51V hyperfine coupling constants along the x and y axes in the anisotropic EPR spectrum; iii) the half-wave potential E(1/2) of oxidation of VO(IV) to the corresponding VO2(V) species in the cyclic voltammogram. Finally, a discussion on the possible form of VO(IV)-citrate complexes in blood serum is presented, where it is found that the most relevant species under physiological conditions should be [VO(citrH(-1))]2-.

  1. Leaching of spent lead acid battery paste components by sodium citrate and acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinfeng; He, Xiong; Yang, Jiakuan; Gao, Linxia; Liu, Jianwen; Yang, Danni; Sun, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Qin; Kumar, R Vasant

    2013-04-15

    A sustainable method, with minimal pollution and low energy cost in comparison with the conventional smelting methods, is proposed for treating components of spent lead-acid battery pastes in aqueous organic acid(s). In this study, PbO, PbO2, and PbSO4, the three major components in a spent lead paste, were individually reacted with a mixture of aqueous sodium citrate and acetic acid solution. Pure lead citrate precursor of Pb3(C6H5O7)2 · 3H2O is the only product crystallized in each leaching experiment. Conditions were optimized for individual lead compounds which were then used as the basis for leaching real industrial spent paste. In this work, efficient leaching process is achieved and raw material cost is reduced by using aqueous sodium citrate and acetic acid, instead of aqueous sodium citrate and citric acid as reported in a pioneering hydrometallurgical method earlier. Acetic acid is not only cheaper than citric acid but is also more effective in aiding dissolution of the lead compounds thus speeding up the leaching process in comparison with citric acid. Lead citrate is readily crystallized from the aqueous solution due to its low solubility and can be combusted to directly produce leady oxide as a precursor for making new battery pastes.

  2. Mechanisms of citrate transport and exchange in corn mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Birnberg, P.R.; Hanson, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    Previous work demonstrated that corn mitochondria (Zea mays L.) can accumulate citrate by a malate- and phosphate-independent proton symporter. This uptake and symport of other ions were investigated. Isocitrate is a competitive inhibitor of citrate uptake and (/sup 14/C)isocitrate is accumulated with a K/sub m/ similar to its I/sub 50/. Valinomycin reduces net active citrate accumulation at pH 7.5, consistent with the relatively low V/sub max/ for citrate uptake. At pH 4.5, mersalyl reduces the rate of citrate uptake without changing the affinity of the carrier for citrate. Thus, the corn mitochondria have a high-affinity, mersalyl-insensitive carrier selective for citrate that also transports isocitrate. The pH optimum for oxidation of both endogenous substrates and citrate is approximately pH 6.8. Under active conditions only, at pH 7.0, malate/citrate exchange occurs with 4 millimolar malate being sufficient to remove about half the matrix citrate. Therefore, in vivo both citrate uptake by proton symport and efflux by malate/citrate exchange should occur, with the net direction of citrate movement determined by the cytoplasmic pH, and citrate and malate concentrations; in most cases, net efflux is likely to be favored.

  3. Formation of hydroxyapatite in soils using calcium citrate and sodium phosphate for control of strontium migration.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Robert Charles; Hasan, Ahmed Ali Mohamed; Sanchez, Charles Anthony; Zhao, Hongting; Salas, Fred Manuel; Hasan, Mahmoud A.; Holt, Kathleen Caroline

    2003-08-01

    {sup 90}Sr contamination is a major problem at several U.S. sites. At some sites, {sup 90}Sr has migrated deep underground making site remediation difficult. In this paper, we describe a novel method for precipitation of hydroxyapatite, a strong sorbent for {sup 90}Sr, in soil. The method is based on mixing a solution of calcium citrate and sodium phosphate in soil. As the indigenous soil microorganisms mineralize the citrate, the calcium is released and forms hydroxyapatite. Soil, taken from the Albuquerque desert, was treated with a sodium phosphate solution or a sodium phosphate/calcium citrate solution. TEM and EDS were used to identify hydroxyapatite with CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} substitutions, with a formula of (Ca{sub 4.8}Na{sub 0.2})[(PO{sub 4}){sub 2.8}(CO{sub 3}){sub 0.2}](OH), in the soil treated with the sodium phosphate/calcium citrate solution. Untreated and treated soils were used in batch sorption experiments for Sr uptake. Average Sr uptake was 19.5, 77.0 and 94.7% for the untreated soil, soil treated with sodium phosphate, and soil with apatite, respectively. In desorption experiments, the untreated soil, phosphate treated soil and apatite treated soil released an average of 34.2, 28.8 and 4.8% respectively. The results indicate the potential of forming apatite in soil using soluble reagents for retardation of radionuclide migration.

  4. Supplementation of dextrose to the diet during the weaning to estrus interval affects subsequent variation in within-litter piglet birth weight.

    PubMed

    Van den Brand, H; Soede, N M; Kemp, B

    2006-02-01

    Effects of supplementation of dextrose to the diet of sows during the weaning-to-estrus interval (WEI) on subsequent litter size and within-litter variation were investigated. After weaning, 223 sows (first to fifth parity) were fed 3.5 kg/d. Half of the sows additionally received 150 g of dextrose per day as topdressing on the feed. WEI and estrus duration were determined as well as subsequent pregnancy rate and litter size. Piglets were weighed individually at birth and at weaning (day 26.4; S.D.: 2.5). Supplementation of dextrose to the diet during the WEI did not affect WEI (106 h), pregnancy rate (88.2%), farrowing rate (84.2%), subsequent litter size (total born: 13.70), or birth weight (1599 g). The within-litter variation in birth weight was lower in sows on the dextrose treatment (CV: 17.5% versus 21.2% for the dextrose and control group, respectively, P=0.03). From this experiment, we concluded that addition of dextrose during the weaning to estrus interval did not increase litter size, but seems to affect the uniformity in birth weight of the litter. PMID:15967602

  5. Vibrational study of tamoxifen citrate polymorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamberini, M. C.; Baraldi, C.; Tinti, A.; Palazzoli, F.; Ferioli, V.

    2007-09-01

    The trans isomer of ( Z)-2-[ p-(1,2-diphenyl-butenyl)phenoxy]- N, N-dimethyletylamine (tamoxifen) is well known for its endocrine activity as an antiestrogenic agent. Its citrate salt, a widely used pharmaceutical agent, appears in three main polymorphic forms, two of which are well known (I and II) and another form not yet well evidenced. A vibrational study has been conducted for identifying the two known polymorphic forms of tamoxifen citrate (I and II) and for characterising the other form (form III) examined in this study. Other techniques for the characterization of the different polymorphs, such as XRDP, have been used.

  6. Effect of topically applied sildenafil citrate on wound healing: experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Gürsoy, Koray; Oruç, Melike; Kankaya, Yüksel; Ulusoy, M. Gürhan; Koçer, Uğur; Kankaya, Duygu; Gürsoy, R. Neslihan; Çevik, Özge; Öğüş, Elmas; Fidanci, Vildan

    2014-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex process that necessitates organization of different cell types and several signalling molecules. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of sildenafil citrate, which decreases cGMP degradation, on wound healing by secondary intention. This study was performed using 25 Sprague Dawley rats weighing 200-250 grams. 4 dorsal defects were created. Four different treatment modalities which were 1% and 5% sildenafil citrate gel prepared with carbopol, pure carbopol gel without any drug in it and 0,9% NaCl solution; were applied to each lesion of the same rat. Randomly selected five rats (25 rats in total) were sacrificed on 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th, and 14th days; and the effect of each modality was evaluated by means of defect area measurement, histopathological examination and measurement of tissue hydroxyproline levels. Sildenafil citrate gel application decreased the defect areas in a dose independent manner starting from 3rd day and dose dependent manner after 7th day. By means of vascularization, sildenafil citrate increased vascularity starting from 3rd day. The strength of acute inflammation was superior in sildenafil groups starting from 5th day; and the amount and maturation of granulation in the wound bed, as well as the strength of chronic inflammation were superior in defects treated with sildenafil citrate as early as 7th day. PMID:25172969

  7. Evidence that Osteoblasts are Specialized Citrate-producing Cells that Provide the Citrate for Incorporation into the Structure of Bone

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Renty B.; Chellaiah, Meena; Zou, Jing; Reynolds, Mark A.; Costello, Leslie C.

    2015-01-01

    Citrate is a major component of bone in all vertebrates, but its implications in bone have remained largely unknown. Recent studies identified that citrate is incorporated into the structure of the hydroxyapatite nanocrystal/collagen complex; and is essential for the important biomechanical properties of bone. This raises the important question, “What is the source of citrate for incorporation into bone?”; A question that heretofore had remained unresolved. Studies in this report were designed to determine the plausibility of our concept that the osteoblasts are specialized citrate-producing cells, which provide the citrate that is incorporated into the structure of bone; and that osteogenic differentiation of mesenchyme cells leads to the development of the citrate-producing osteoblasts. The results demonstrated that primary human osteoblasts exhibit the capability of citrate-production. Undifferentiated mesenchyme cells do not exhibit the capability of citrate production; and osteogenic differentiation results in citrate-producing osteoblasts. The up-regulation of zinc uptake transporter ZIP1 is essential for the manifestation of the citrate-producing capability of the osteoblasts. We determined that osteoblast transport of citrate from plasma is not a likely source of citrate in bone. Thus, this study establishes for the first time that the osteoblasts are specialized citrate-producing cells that provide the citrate for incorporation into the structure of bone; and that mesenchyme cell osteogenesis leads to differentiated citrate-producing osteoblasts. This is a new understanding; which must include the osteogenic development of citrate-producing osteoblasts, and the process of “citration” in concert with mineralization during bone formation. It also provides a new understanding of the role of bone in the homeostatic maintenance of plasma citrate concentration. PMID:25745519

  8. Physicochemical action of potassium-magnesium citrate in nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, C. Y.; Koenig, K.; Khan, R.; Haynes, S.; Padalino, P.

    1992-01-01

    Effect of potassium-magnesium citrate on urinary biochemistry and crystallization of stone-forming salts was compared with that of potassium citrate at same dose of potassium in five normal subjects and five patients with calcium nephrolithiasis. Compared to the placebo phase, urinary pH rose significantly from 6.06 +/- 0.27 to 6.48 +/- 0.36 (mean +/- SD, p less than 0.0167) during treatment with potassium citrate (50 mEq/day for 7 days) and to 6.68 +/- 0.31 during therapy with potassium-magnesium citrate (containing 49 mEq K, 24.5 mEq Mg, and 73.5 mEq citrate per day). Urinary pH was significantly higher during potassium-magnesium citrate than during potassium citrate therapy. Thus, the amount of undissociated uric acid declined from 118 +/- 61 mg/day during the placebo phase to 68 +/- 54 mg/day during potassium citrate treatment and, more prominently, to 41 +/- 46 mg/day during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy. Urinary magnesium rose significantly from 102 +/- 25 to 146 +/- 37 mg/day during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy but not during potassium citrate therapy. Urinary citrate rose more prominently during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy (to 1027 +/- 478 mg/day from 638 +/- 252 mg/day) than during potassium citrate treatment (to 932 +/- 297 mg/day). Consequently, urinary saturation (activity product) of calcium oxalate declined significantly (from 1.49 x 10(-8) to 1.03 x 10(-8) M2) during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy and marginally (to 1.14 x 10(-8) M2) during potassium citrate therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  9. Citrate as a siderophore in Bradyrhizobium japonicum.

    PubMed Central

    Guerinot, M L; Meidl, E J; Plessner, O

    1990-01-01

    Under iron-limiting conditions, many bacteria secrete ferric iron-specific ligands, generically termed siderophores, to aid in the sequestering and transport of iron. One strain of the nitrogen-fixing soybean symbiont Bradyrhizobium japonicum, 61A152, was shown to produce a siderophore when 20 B. japonicum strains were screened with all six chemical assays commonly used to detect such production. Production by strain 61A152 was detected via the chrome azurol S assay, a general test for siderophores which is independent of siderophore structure. The iron-chelating compound was neither a catechol nor a hydroxamate and was ninhydrin negative. It was determined to be citric acid via a combination of thin-layer chromatography and high-voltage paper electrophoresis; this identification was verified by a specific enzymatic assay for citric acid. The inverse correlation which was observed between citric acid release and the iron content of the medium suggested that ferric citrate could serve as an iron source. This was confirmed via growth and transport assays. Exogenously added ferric citrate could be used to overcome iron starvation, and iron-deficient cells actively transported radiolabeled ferric citrate. These results, taken together, indicate a role for ferric citrate in the iron nutrition of this strain, which has been shown to be an efficient nitrogen-fixing strain on a variety of soybean cultivars. PMID:2140566

  10. 14 N NQR spectrum of sildenafil citrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, David; Singh, Nadia

    2015-04-01

    The 14N nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectrum of sildenafil citrate tablets has been recorded allowing the quadrupole coupling constants and asymmetry parameters of all six unique nitrogen atoms in its structure to be determined. A density function calculation gives results that are largely in agreement with the experimental values.

  11. 21 CFR 184.1298 - Ferric citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferric citrate. 184.1298 Section 184.1298 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD... prepared from reaction of citric acid with ferric hydroxide. It is a compound of indefinite ratio of...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1298 - Ferric citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferric citrate. 184.1298 Section 184.1298 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1298 - Ferric citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferric citrate. 184.1298 Section 184.1298 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1298 - Ferric citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferric citrate. 184.1298 Section 184.1298 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1386 - Isopropyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used in food with no limitation other than current good manufacturing practice. The affirmation of this ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Isopropyl citrate. 184.1386 Section 184.1386...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1386 - Isopropyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used in food with no limitation other than current good manufacturing practice. The affirmation of this ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Isopropyl citrate. 184.1386 Section 184.1386...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1386 - Isopropyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used in food with no limitation other than current good manufacturing practice. The affirmation of this ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Isopropyl citrate. 184.1386 Section 184.1386...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1851 - Stearyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... with § 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used in food with no limitation other than current good... human food ingredient is based upon the following current good manufacturing practice conditions of use... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stearyl citrate. 184.1851 Section 184.1851...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1851 - Stearyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... with § 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used in food with no limitation other than current good... human food ingredient is based upon the following current good manufacturing practice conditions of use... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stearyl citrate. 184.1851 Section 184.1851...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10357 - Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iron, citrate phosphate potassium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10357 Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes. (a) Chemical..., citrate phosphate potassium complexes (PMN P-09-382; CAS No. 120579-31-9) is subject to reporting...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10357 - Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iron, citrate phosphate potassium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10357 Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes. (a) Chemical..., citrate phosphate potassium complexes (PMN P-09-382; CAS No. 120579-31-9) is subject to reporting...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10357 - Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iron, citrate phosphate potassium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10357 Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes. (a) Chemical..., citrate phosphate potassium complexes (PMN P-09-382; CAS No. 120579-31-9) is subject to reporting...

  3. 21 CFR 573.580 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 573.580 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.580 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by... used as a source of iron in animal feed....

  4. 21 CFR 573.580 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 573.580 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.580 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by... used as a source of iron in animal feed....

  5. 21 CFR 520.2380d - Thiabendazole, piperazine citrate suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Thiabendazole, piperazine citrate suspension. 520....2380d Thiabendazole, piperazine citrate suspension. (a) Specifications. Each fluid ounce of suspension contains 2 grams of thiabendazole and 2.5 grams of piperazine (from piperazine citrate). (b) Sponsor....

  6. 21 CFR 520.2380d - Thiabendazole, piperazine citrate suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Thiabendazole, piperazine citrate suspension. 520....2380d Thiabendazole, piperazine citrate suspension. (a) Specifications. Each fluid ounce of suspension contains 2 grams of thiabendazole and 2.5 grams of piperazine (from piperazine citrate). (b) Sponsor....

  7. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  8. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 172.370 Section 172... Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by reacting... source of iron in foods for special dietary use....

  9. 21 CFR 573.580 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.580 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 573.580 Section...

  10. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal feed... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section...

  11. 21 CFR 573.580 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.580 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 573.580 Section...

  12. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal feed... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section...

  13. 21 CFR 573.580 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.580 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 573.580 Section...

  14. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal feed... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section...

  15. Methodology of citrate-based biomaterial development and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, M. Richard

    Biomaterials play central roles in modern strategies of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Attempts to find tissue-engineered solutions to cure various injuries or diseases have led to an enormous increase in the number of polymeric biomaterials over the past decade. The breadth of new materials arises from the multiplicity of anatomical locations, cell types, and mode of application, which all place application-specific requirements on the biomaterial. Unfortunately, many of the currently available biodegradable polymers are limited in their versatility to meet the wide range of requirements for tissue engineering. Therefore, a methodology of biomaterial development, which is able to address a broad spectrum of requirements, would be beneficial to the biomaterial field. This work presents a methodology of citrate-based biomaterial design and application to meet the multifaceted needs of tissue engineering. We hypothesize that (1) citric acid, a non-toxic metabolic product of the body (Krebs Cycle), can be exploited as a universal multifunctional monomer and reacted with various diols to produce a new class of soft biodegradable elastomers with the flexibility to tune the material properties of the resulting material to meet a wide range of requirements; (2) the newly developed citrate-based polymers can be used as platform biomaterials for the design of novel tissue engineering scaffolding; and (3) microengineering approaches in the form thin scaffold sheets, microchannels, and a new porogen design can be used to generate complex cell-cell and cell-microenvironment interactions to mimic tissue complexity and architecture. To test these hypotheses, we first developed a methodology of citrate-based biomaterial development through the synthesis and characterization of a family of in situ crosslinkable and urethane-doped elastomers, which are synthesized using simple, cost-effective strategies and offer a variety methods to tailor the material properties to

  16. Formulation, Characterization and Physicochemical Evaluation of Potassium Citrate Effervescent Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Fattahi, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to design and formulation of potassium citrate effervescent tablet for reduction of calcium oxalate and urate kidney stones in patients suffering from kidney stones. Methods: In this study, 13 formulations were prepared from potassium citrate and effervescent base in different concentration. The flowability of powders and granules was studied. Then effervescent tablets were prepared by direct compression, fusion and wet granulation methods. The prepared tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, effervescent time, pH, content uniformity. To amend taste of formulations, different flavoring agents were used and then panel test was done by using Latin Square method by 30 volunteers. Results: Formulations obtained from direct compression and fusion methods had good flow but low hardness. Wet granulation improves flowability and other physicochemical properties such as acceptable hardness, effervescence time ≤3 minutes, pH<6, friability < 1%, water percentage < 0.5% and accurate content uniformity. In panel test, both of combination flavors; (orange - lemon) and (strawberry - raspberry) had good acceptability. Conclusion: The prepared tablets by wet granulation method using PVP solution had more tablet hardness. It is a reproducible process and suitable to produce granules that are compressed into effervescent tablets due to larger agglomerates. PMID:24312839

  17. Photodegradation of uranium-citrate complex with uranium recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, C.J.; Francis, A.J. )

    1994-07-01

    Upon exposure to visible light, uranyl citrate complex showed photodegradation of citric acid to acetic acid and carbon dioxide, with the precipitation of uranium as uranium trioxide (UO[sub 3][center dot]2H[sub 2]O). The initial pH and presence of oxygen affected the rate and extent of photochemical degradation of the complex, the formation of intermediate organic degradation products, and uranium speciation. Under aerobic conditions at pH 3.5, acetic, acetoacetic, 3-oxoglutaric, and malonic acids and acetone were detected; at pH 6.0, 3-oxoglutaric and acetic acids were present. The uranyl U(VI) ion was reduced to uranous U(IV) ion and was subsequently reoxidized to the hexavalent form and precipitated out of solution as uranium trioxide. Uranium trioxide precipitate was insoluble at near-neutral pH and was soluble in acidic pH (<4.1). Under anaerobic conditions, the uranyl citrate complex showed only partial (57%) degradation, and uranium was present in the reduced form as U(IV). Excess citric acid retarded the precipitation of uranium. 26 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Why sildenafil and sildenafil citrate monohydrate crystals are not stable?

    PubMed Central

    Sawatdee, Somchai; Pakawatchai, Chaveng; Nitichai, Kwanjai; Srichana, Teerapol; Phetmung, Hirihattaya

    2015-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate was crystallized by various techniques aiming to determine the behavior and factors affecting the crystal growth. There are only 2 types of sildenafil obtaining from crystallization: sildenafil (1) and sildenafil citrate monohydrate (2). The used techniques were (i) crystallization from saturated solutions, (ii) addition of an antisolvent, (iii) reflux and (iv) slow solvent evaporation method. By pursuing these various methods, our work pointed that the best formation of crystal (1) was obtained from technique no. (i). Surprisingly, the obtained crystals (1) were perfected if the process was an acidic pH at a cold temperature then perfect crystals occurred within a day. Crystals of compound (2) grew easily using technique no. (ii) which are various polar solvents over a wide range of pH and temperature preparation processes. The infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra fit well with these two X-ray crystal structures. The crystal structures of sildenafil free base and salt forms were different from their different growing conditions leading to stability difference. PMID:26594116

  19. Why sildenafil and sildenafil citrate monohydrate crystals are not stable?

    PubMed

    Sawatdee, Somchai; Pakawatchai, Chaveng; Nitichai, Kwanjai; Srichana, Teerapol; Phetmung, Hirihattaya

    2015-10-01

    Sildenafil citrate was crystallized by various techniques aiming to determine the behavior and factors affecting the crystal growth. There are only 2 types of sildenafil obtaining from crystallization: sildenafil (1) and sildenafil citrate monohydrate (2). The used techniques were (i) crystallization from saturated solutions, (ii) addition of an antisolvent, (iii) reflux and (iv) slow solvent evaporation method. By pursuing these various methods, our work pointed that the best formation of crystal (1) was obtained from technique no. (i). Surprisingly, the obtained crystals (1) were perfected if the process was an acidic pH at a cold temperature then perfect crystals occurred within a day. Crystals of compound (2) grew easily using technique no. (ii) which are various polar solvents over a wide range of pH and temperature preparation processes. The infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra fit well with these two X-ray crystal structures. The crystal structures of sildenafil free base and salt forms were different from their different growing conditions leading to stability difference. PMID:26594116

  20. Why sildenafil and sildenafil citrate monohydrate crystals are not stable?

    PubMed

    Sawatdee, Somchai; Pakawatchai, Chaveng; Nitichai, Kwanjai; Srichana, Teerapol; Phetmung, Hirihattaya

    2015-10-01

    Sildenafil citrate was crystallized by various techniques aiming to determine the behavior and factors affecting the crystal growth. There are only 2 types of sildenafil obtaining from crystallization: sildenafil (1) and sildenafil citrate monohydrate (2). The used techniques were (i) crystallization from saturated solutions, (ii) addition of an antisolvent, (iii) reflux and (iv) slow solvent evaporation method. By pursuing these various methods, our work pointed that the best formation of crystal (1) was obtained from technique no. (i). Surprisingly, the obtained crystals (1) were perfected if the process was an acidic pH at a cold temperature then perfect crystals occurred within a day. Crystals of compound (2) grew easily using technique no. (ii) which are various polar solvents over a wide range of pH and temperature preparation processes. The infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra fit well with these two X-ray crystal structures. The crystal structures of sildenafil free base and salt forms were different from their different growing conditions leading to stability difference.

  1. Determining the chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) behavior of citrate and spermine under in vivo conditions

    PubMed Central

    Basharat, Meer; deSouza, Nandita M.; Parkes, Harold G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the exchange rates of labile 1H in citrate and spermine, metabolites present in prostatic secretions, to predict the size of the citrate and spermine CEST effects in vivo. Methods CEST z‐spectra were acquired at high‐field [11.7 Tesla (T)] from citrate and spermine solutions at physiological pH (6.5) using saturation power 6 μT. CEST was performed at different temperatures to determine exchange regimes (slow, intermediate or fast). For low pH solutions of spermine, exchange rates were estimated from resonance line width, fitting z‐spectra using the Bloch equations incorporating exchange, and using quantifying exchange using saturation time experiments (QUEST). These rates were extrapolated to physiological pH. Results Citrate showed little CEST effect at pH 6.5 and temperature (T) = 310 K (maximum 0.001% mM‐1), indicating fast exchange, whereas spermine showed greater CEST effects (maximum 0.2% mM‐1) indicating intermediate‐to‐fast exchange. Extrapolating data acquired from low pH spermine solutions predicts exchange rates at pH 6.5 and T of 310 K of at least 2 × 104s‐1. Conclusion Citrate and spermine show minimal CEST effects at 11.7T even using high saturation power. These effects would be much less than 2% at clinical field‐strengths due to relatively faster exchange and would be masked by CEST from proteins. Magn Reson Med 76:742–746, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PMID:26467055

  2. Clomiphene citrate therapy for male infertility.

    PubMed

    Allag, I S; Alexander, N J

    1979-11-01

    We have summarized 697 reported cases of the use of clomiphene citrate for the improvement of semen quality. Basal levels of gonadotropins are useful criteria for the differential diagnosis of hypo- and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Patients with an intact hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis are most likely to respond to clomiphene citrate. Twenty-five mg. per day, administered in a cyclic fashion for a period of six to nine months, caused the greatest improvement. A higher dose (50 mg. per day) may be effective in men who do not respond to 25 mg. During the course of therapy gonadotropin levels and semen samples should be analyzed periodically. This drug is not currently approved for use in men; the incidence of side effects, particularly with long-term treatment, is unknown.

  3. Density-Matrix Calculations of the 1.5 T Citrate Signal Acquired with Volume-Localized STEAM Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulkern, R. V.; Bowers, J. L.; Peled, S.; Williamson, D. S.

    1996-03-01

    Citrate detection and quantitation with proton spectroscopic methods are of current interest as potential tools in the diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer. Thestimulatedechoacquisitionmode (STEAM) sequence is a commonly used volume-localization method for detecting citrate signal. Since the1H citrate resonance at clinically available field strengths arises from a strongly coupled two-spin system, the 90° RF pulses and localizing gradients used in STEAM sequences result in a complicated dependence of signal intensity on timing intervals and gradient amplitudes. The density-matrix formalism has been applied to arrive at a general solution to this problem. Citrate-signal properties at 1.5 T for different gradient localization schemes are examined with the solution. Optimal interpulse delays, deleterious gradient balances, zero-quantum oscillations with mixing time, and a low-frequency, large-amplitude oscillation with echo time are identified for signals acquired with the standard disposition of gradients in STEAM. The generality of the solution also allows for an examination of nonstandard gradient disposition schemes for enhancing citrate signal and for quantifying the sensitivity of such approaches to both field inhomogeneities and off-resonance effects.

  4. Dietary citrate treatment of polycystic kidney disease in rats.

    PubMed

    Tanner, George A; Tanner, Judith A

    2003-01-01

    Progression of autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in the heterozygous male Han:SPRD rat is dramatically slowed by ingestion of potassium or sodium citrate. This study examined the efficacy of delayed therapy with sodium citrate, the effect of sodium citrate therapy on kidney cortex levels of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), and the response to calcium citrate ingestion. Rats were provided with citrate salts in their food, and renal clearance, blood pressure, blood chemistry, and survival determinations were made. Sodium citrate therapy was most effective when started at age 1 month, and delay of therapy until age 3 months produced no benefit. Kidney cortex TGF-beta levels were elevated in 3- and 8-month-old rats with ADPKD, but not in 6-week-old rats. Sodium citrate treatment, started at age 1 month, lowered TGF-beta levels to normal in 3-month-old rats, but this is probably not the primary mechanism of citrate's beneficial effect. Calcium citrate had only a modest effect in preserving glomerular filtration rate. Effective treatment of ADPKD in this rat model requires early administration of a readily absorbed alkalinizing citrate salt. Existing data on ADPKD patients on vegetarian diets or with kidney stones should be studied in light of these findings.

  5. Is blood agar an alternative to sabouraud dextrose agar for the isolation of fungi in patients with mycotic keratitis.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Ashok Kumar; Brahmaiah, Upputuri; Narayen, Nitesh; Reddy, Ravi Kumar; Reddy, Rupak Kumar; Chitta, Meghraj; Prasad, Srinivas; Swarup, Rishi; Mohiuddin, Syed Maaz; Reddy, Madhukar; Aasuri, Murali K; Murthy, B S R; Bhide, Milind; Ahmed, Sajid

    2013-06-01

    To compare the blood agar (BA), sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) and chocolate agar (CA) for the isolation of fungi in patients with mycotic keratitis. Corneal Scrapings of 229 patients with clinically diagnosed microbial keratitis were inoculated on BA, SDA, CA. The culture media were evaluated for the rate and time taken for the fungal growth. Seventy six of 229 patients had fungal keratitis. Fungus grew on BA in 60/76(78.9 %), on SDA in 76/76 (100 %), on CA in 40/76(52.6 %) patients. The fungi which grew on BA (60/76) also grown on SDA at the same time. The colony morphologies of different fungi were better on SDA than BA/CA. Among the different culture media, SDA is essential for the isolation fungi in patients with mycotic keratitis.

  6. On-chip recalcification of citrated whole blood using a microfluidic herringbone mixer.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Marcus; Wallbank, Alison M; Dennis, Kimberly A; Wufsus, Adam R; Davis, Kara M; Rana, Kuldeepsinh; Neeves, Keith B

    2015-11-01

    In vitro assays of platelet function and coagulation are typically performed in the presence of an anticoagulant. The divalent cation chelator sodium citrate is among the most common because its effect on coagulation is reversible upon reintroduction of divalent cations. Adding divalent cations into citrated blood by batch mixing leads to platelet activation and initiation of coagulation after several minutes, thus limiting the time blood can be used before spontaneously clotting. In this work, we describe a herringbone microfluidic mixer to continuously introduce divalent cations into citrated blood. The mixing ratio, defined as the ratio of the volumetric flow rates of citrated blood and recalcification buffer, can be adjusted by changing the relative inlet pressures of these two solutions. This feature is useful in whole blood assays in order to account for differences in hematocrit, and thus viscosity. The recalcification process in the herringbone mixer does not activate platelets. The advantage of this continuous mixing approach is demonstrated in microfluidic vascular injury model in which platelets and fibrin accumulate on a collagen-tissue factor surface under flow. Continuous recalcification with the herringbone mixer allowed for flow assay times of up to 30 min, more than three times longer than the time achieved by batch recalcification. This continuous mixer allows for measurements of thrombus formation, remodeling, and fibrinolysis in vitro over time scales that are relevant to these physiological processes. PMID:26634014

  7. Promotion of Ni2+ removal by masking toxicity to sulfate-reducing bacteria: addition of citrate.

    PubMed

    Qian, Junwei; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Tao, Yong; Zhou, Yan; He, Xiaohong; Li, Daping

    2015-04-09

    The sulfate-reducing bioprocess is a promising technology for the treatment of heavy metal-containing wastewater. This work was conducted to investigate the possibility of promoting heavy metal removal by the addition of citrate to mask Ni2+ toxicity to sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in batch reactors. SRB growth was completely inhibited in Ni2+-containing medium (1 mM) when lactate served as the sole carbon resource, leading to no sulfate reduction and Ni2+ removal. However, after the addition of citrate, SRB grew well, and sulfate was quickly reduced to sulfide. Simultaneously, the Ni-citrate complex was biodegraded to Ni2+ and acetate. The NiS precipitate was then formed, and Ni2+ was completely removed from the solution. It was suggested that the addition of citrate greatly alleviates Ni2+ toxicity to SRB and improves the removal of Ni2+, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR targeting dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) genes. Analysis of the carbon metabolism indicated that lactate instead of acetate served as the electron donor for sulfate reduction. This study offers a potential approach to increase the removal of heavy metals from wastewater in the single stage SRB-based bioprocess.

  8. Promotion of Ni2+ removal by masking toxicity to sulfate-reducing bacteria: addition of citrate.

    PubMed

    Qian, Junwei; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Tao, Yong; Zhou, Yan; He, Xiaohong; Li, Daping

    2015-01-01

    The sulfate-reducing bioprocess is a promising technology for the treatment of heavy metal-containing wastewater. This work was conducted to investigate the possibility of promoting heavy metal removal by the addition of citrate to mask Ni2+ toxicity to sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in batch reactors. SRB growth was completely inhibited in Ni2+-containing medium (1 mM) when lactate served as the sole carbon resource, leading to no sulfate reduction and Ni2+ removal. However, after the addition of citrate, SRB grew well, and sulfate was quickly reduced to sulfide. Simultaneously, the Ni-citrate complex was biodegraded to Ni2+ and acetate. The NiS precipitate was then formed, and Ni2+ was completely removed from the solution. It was suggested that the addition of citrate greatly alleviates Ni2+ toxicity to SRB and improves the removal of Ni2+, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR targeting dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) genes. Analysis of the carbon metabolism indicated that lactate instead of acetate served as the electron donor for sulfate reduction. This study offers a potential approach to increase the removal of heavy metals from wastewater in the single stage SRB-based bioprocess. PMID:25860948

  9. SbnG, a Citrate Synthase in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Kobylarz, Marek J.; Grigg, Jason C.; Sheldon, Jessica R.; Heinrichs, David E.; Murphy, Michael E. P.

    2014-01-01

    In response to iron deprivation, Staphylococcus aureus produces staphyloferrin B, a citrate-containing siderophore that delivers iron back to the cell. This bacterium also possesses a second citrate synthase, SbnG, that is necessary for supplying citrate to the staphyloferrin B biosynthetic pathway. We present the structure of SbnG bound to the inhibitor calcium and an active site variant in complex with oxaloacetate. The overall fold of SbnG is structurally distinct from TCA cycle citrate synthases yet similar to metal-dependent class II aldolases. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that SbnG forms a separate clade with homologs from other siderophore biosynthetic gene clusters and is representative of a metal-independent subgroup in the phosphoenolpyruvate/pyruvate domain superfamily. A structural superposition of the SbnG active site to TCA cycle citrate synthases and site-directed mutagenesis suggests a case for convergent evolution toward a conserved catalytic mechanism for citrate production. PMID:25336653

  10. [A case report of alverine-citrate-induced acute hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Han, Jee Young; Lee, Jin Woo; Kim, Joon Mee; Joo, Kowoon; Chon, Ung; Lee, Jung Il; Jeong, Seok; Lee, Don Haeng; Kim, Young Soo; Min, Kyung Sun

    2010-03-01

    Alverine citrate is one of the most commonly used antispasmodic drugs for patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Alverine-citrate-induced hepatotoxicity is extremely rare, with only a few cases having been reported worldwide. We present a case of a 75-year-old female patient who experienced complicated jaundice and abdominal discomfort after taking alverine citrate. Other causes of hepatitis were ruled out and the results of the liver function test returned to normal after ceasing the drug. This is the first case report in Korea of alverine-citrate-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:20375645

  11. Citrate Metabolism by Enterococcus faecalis FAIR-E 229

    PubMed Central

    Sarantinopoulos, Panagiotis; Kalantzopoulos, George; Tsakalidou, Effie

    2001-01-01

    Citrate metabolism by Enterococcus faecalis FAIR-E 229 was studied in various growth media containing citrate either in the presence of glucose or lactose or as the sole carbon source. In skim milk (130 mM lactose, 8 mM citrate), cometabolism of citrate and lactose was observed from the first stages of the growth phase. Lactose was stoichiometrically converted into lactate, while citrate was converted into acetate, formate, and ethanol. When de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) broth containing lactose (28 mM) instead of glucose was used, E. faecalis FAIR-E 229 catabolized only the carbohydrate. Lactate was the major end product, and small amounts of ethanol were also detected. Increasing concentrations of citrate (10, 40, 70, and 100 mM) added to MRS broth enhanced both the maximum growth rate of E. faecalis FAIR-E 229 and glucose catabolism, although citrate itself was not catabolized. Glucose was converted stoichiometrically into lactate, while small amounts of ethanol were produced as well. Finally, when increasing initial concentrations of citrate (10, 40, 70, and 100 mM) were used as the sole carbon sources in MRS broth without glucose, the main end products were acetate and formate. Small amounts of lactate, ethanol, and acetoin were also detected. This work strongly supports the suggestion that enterococcal strains have the metabolic potential to metabolize citrate and therefore to actively contribute to the flavor development of fermented dairy products. PMID:11722896

  12. Prophylactic Oral Dextrose Gel for Newborn Babies at Risk of Neonatal Hypoglycaemia: A Randomised Controlled Dose-Finding Trial (the Pre-hPOD Study)

    PubMed Central

    Hegarty, Joanne Elizabeth; Harding, Jane Elizabeth; Gamble, Gregory David; Crowther, Caroline Anne; Edlin, Richard; Alsweiler, Jane Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background Neonatal hypoglycaemia is common, affecting up to 15% of newborns, and can cause brain damage. Currently, there are no strategies, beyond early feeding, to prevent neonatal hypoglycaemia. Our aim was to determine a dose of 40% oral dextrose gel that will prevent neonatal hypoglycaemia in newborn babies at risk. Methods and Findings We conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-finding trial of buccal dextrose gel to prevent neonatal hypoglycaemia at two hospitals in New Zealand. Babies at risk of hypoglycaemia (infant of a mother with diabetes, late preterm delivery, small or large birthweight, or other risk factors) but without indication for admission to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) were randomly allocated either to one of four treatment groups: 40% dextrose at one of two doses (0.5 ml/kg = 200 mg/kg, or 1 ml/kg = 400 mg/kg), either once at 1 h of age or followed by three additional doses of dextrose (0.5 ml/kg before feeds in the first 12 h); or to one of four corresponding placebo groups. Treatments were administered by massaging gel into the buccal mucosa. The primary outcome was hypoglycaemia (<2.6 mM) in the first 48 h. Secondary outcomes included admission to a NICU, admission for hypoglycaemia, and breastfeeding at discharge and at 6 wk. Prespecified potential dose limitations were tolerance of gel, time taken to administer, messiness, and acceptability to parents. From August 2013 to November 2014, 416 babies were randomised. Compared to babies randomised to placebo, the risk of hypoglycaemia was lowest in babies randomised to a single dose of 200 mg/kg dextrose gel (relative risk [RR] 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47–0.99, p = 0.04) but was not significantly different between dose groups (p = 0.21). Compared to multiple doses, single doses of gel were better tolerated, quicker to administer, and less messy, but these limitations were not different between dextrose and placebo gel groups. Babies who received

  13. Enrofloxacinium citrate monohydrate: Preparation, crystal structure, thermal stability and IR-characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovnev, Nicolay N.; Vasiliev, Alexander D.; Kirik, Sergei D.

    2012-08-01

    Enrofloxacinium citrate monohydrate (I), CHFNO3+·CHO7-·HO, [C19H22FN3O3 - enrofloxacin, EnrH] has been crystallized from the mutual solution of citric acid and enrofloxacin in ambient conditions. The colorless crystals have been investigated using X-ray single crystal and powder techniques, and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry and infrared spectroscopy. The obtained compound can be considered as a salt with enrofloxacinium in the role of a cation and citrate as an anion. The ions ratio equals to 1:1. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic lattice with a = 9.0489(8) Å, b = 9.6531(8) Å, c = 14.913(1) Å, α = 98.813(1)°, β = 92.029(1)°, γ = 91.013(1)°, Z = 2, V = 1286.1(2) Å3, S.G. P1¯. The crystal structure determination reveals the importance of inter- and intramolecular interactions in the crystal formation. The EnrH2+ and HCit molecular ions are packed in alternating layers with water molecules inserted into the citrate layers. A citrate ion in the layer is linked via H-bondings with two adjacent ones and three water molecules. Enrofloxacinium cations are packaged by means of a benched mode and every cation is linked by three intermolecular thymus type H-bondings with nitrogens of adjacent cations and by two links with the oxygen of the citrate ions. The infrared spectra gave the evidence of H-bonding formation in the obtained salt. The π-stacking interactions are observed between the aromatic cycles of the adjacent cations which are located in an antiparallel style in a layer.

  14. Na/K citrate versus sodium bicarbonate in prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Abouzeid, Sameh Mohamed; ElHossary, Hossam E

    2016-05-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is one of the important complications of radiographic procedures, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is also one of the common causes of acute kidney injury. The pathogenesis is postulated to be the effect of oxygen- free radicals and hyperosmolar stress on the renal medulla. It is reported that the production of superoxide is most active at acid environment. K/Na citrate is well known as a urine alkalinization medium, and this has been evaluated earlier with standard hydration for reduction of CIN and was stated to be efficient. We aimed to determine the efficacy of Na/K citrate in reducing the frequency of CIN in comparison to sodium bicarbonate in patients after coronary angiography. Two hundred and ten patients with renal dysfunction [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) or less] who underwent elective or emergency coronary angiography (CAG) with/without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at our institution were enrolled into the study. The patients were randomized into two groups, Group 1-Taking Na/K citrate and Group 2-Taking sodium bicarbonate. Radiographic contrast agent iohexol was used. Change in creatinine, percent change in creatinine, percent change in eGFR, change in serum potassium, and urine pH were all compared between the two groups. There was no significant difference for prevention of CIN when comparing the Na/K citrate with sodium bicarbonate solution in patients exposed to CAG with or without PCI. Mean absolute change in eGFR after 48 h after administration of contrast between sodium bicarbonate group and Na/K citrate group was -0.60 ± 1.58 versus -0.71 ± 1.38. Serum potassium decreased postprocedure in the sodium bicarbonate group than in the citrate group (3.90 ± 0.33 vs. 4.14 ± 0.39). Both agents are equally effective in reducing the incidence of CIN, but the citrate would possibly be a safer option for patients at risk of hypokalemia. PMID:27215244

  15. Na/K citrate versus sodium bicarbonate in prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Abouzeid, Sameh Mohamed; ElHossary, Hossam E

    2016-05-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is one of the important complications of radiographic procedures, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is also one of the common causes of acute kidney injury. The pathogenesis is postulated to be the effect of oxygen- free radicals and hyperosmolar stress on the renal medulla. It is reported that the production of superoxide is most active at acid environment. K/Na citrate is well known as a urine alkalinization medium, and this has been evaluated earlier with standard hydration for reduction of CIN and was stated to be efficient. We aimed to determine the efficacy of Na/K citrate in reducing the frequency of CIN in comparison to sodium bicarbonate in patients after coronary angiography. Two hundred and ten patients with renal dysfunction [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) or less] who underwent elective or emergency coronary angiography (CAG) with/without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at our institution were enrolled into the study. The patients were randomized into two groups, Group 1-Taking Na/K citrate and Group 2-Taking sodium bicarbonate. Radiographic contrast agent iohexol was used. Change in creatinine, percent change in creatinine, percent change in eGFR, change in serum potassium, and urine pH were all compared between the two groups. There was no significant difference for prevention of CIN when comparing the Na/K citrate with sodium bicarbonate solution in patients exposed to CAG with or without PCI. Mean absolute change in eGFR after 48 h after administration of contrast between sodium bicarbonate group and Na/K citrate group was -0.60 ± 1.58 versus -0.71 ± 1.38. Serum potassium decreased postprocedure in the sodium bicarbonate group than in the citrate group (3.90 ± 0.33 vs. 4.14 ± 0.39). Both agents are equally effective in reducing the incidence of CIN, but the citrate would possibly be a safer option for patients at risk of hypokalemia.

  16. Arsenic mobilization by citrate and malate from a red mud-treated contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Castaldi, Paola; Silvetti, Margherita; Mele, Elena; Garau, Giovanni; Deiana, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    The mobility and bioavailability of As in the soil-plant system can be affected by a number of organic acids that originate from the activity of plants and microorganisms. In this study we evaluated the ability of citrate and malate anions to mobilize As in a polluted subacidic soil (UP soil) treated with red mud (RM soil). Both anions promoted the mobilization of As from UP and RM soils, with citrate being more effective than malate. The RM treatment induced a greater mobility of As. The amounts of As released in RM and UP soils treated with 3.0 mmol L citric acid solution were 2.78 and 1.83 μmol g respectively, whereas an amount equal to 1.73 and 1.06 μmol g was found after the treatment with a 3.0 mmol L malic acid solution. The release of As in both soils increased with increasing concentration of organic acids, and the co-release of Al and Fe in solution also increased. The sequential extraction showed that Fe/Al (oxi)hydroxides in RM were the main phases involved in As binding in RM soil. Two possible mechanisms could be responsible for As solubilization: (i) competition of the organic anions for As adsorption sites and (ii) partial dissolution of the adsorbents (e.g., dissolution of iron and aluminum oxi-hydroxides) induced by citrate or malate and formation of complexes between dissolved Fe and Al and organic anions. This is the first report on the effect of malate and citrate on the As mobility in a polluted soil treated with RM.

  17. The distribution of plasmids determining citrate utilization in citrate-positive variants of Escherichia coli from humans, domestic animals, feral birds and environments.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, N; Sato, G

    1979-10-01

    Sixty-seven isolates of citrate-positive variants of Escherichia coli were isolated from human, domestic animal, feral bird and environmental sources. With the exception of citrate utilization, all isolates were identified as typical E. coli by their biochemical reactions. The transmission of the ability to utilize citrate on Simmons' citrate agar was demonstrated in 53 (79.1%) out of the 67 citrate-positive E. coli variants obtained from various sources. Drug resistance determinants and citrate utilizing character were co-transmitted into E. coli K-12 by conjugation among citrate-positive E. coli isolates carrying R plasmids except for that isolated from horses. The other characters (haemolysin or colicin production, raffinose or sucrose fermentation) were not transmitted together with the citrate utilizing character. These facts suggested that the structural gene responsible for citrate utilizing ability in citrate-positive variants of E. coli was located on a conjugative plasmid.

  18. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... color additive ferric ammonium citrate consists of complex chelates prepared by the interaction...

  19. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... color additive ferric ammonium citrate consists of complex chelates prepared by the interaction...

  20. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... color additive ferric ammonium citrate consists of complex chelates prepared by the interaction...

  1. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... color additive ferric ammonium citrate consists of complex chelates prepared by the interaction...

  2. Aluminum Citrate Prevents Renal Injury from Calcium Oxalate Crystal Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Besenhofer, Lauren M.; Cain, Marie C.; Dunning, Cody

    2012-01-01

    Calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals are responsible for the kidney injury associated with exposure to ethylene glycol or severe hyperoxaluria. Current treatment strategies target the formation of calcium oxalate but not its interaction with kidney tissue. Because aluminum citrate blocks calcium oxalate binding and toxicity in human kidney cells, it may provide a different therapeutic approach to calcium oxalate-induced injury. Here, we tested the effects of aluminum citrate and sodium citrate in a Wistar rat model of acute high-dose ethylene glycol exposure. Aluminum citrate, but not sodium citrate, attenuated increases in urea nitrogen, creatinine, and the ratio of kidney to body weight in ethylene glycol–treated rats. Compared with ethylene glycol alone, the addition of aluminum citrate significantly increased the urinary excretion of both crystalline calcium and crystalline oxalate and decreased the deposition of crystals in renal tissue. In vitro, aluminum citrate interacted directly with oxalate crystals to inhibit their uptake by proximal tubule cells. These results suggest that treating with aluminum citrate attenuates renal injury in rats with severe ethylene glycol toxicity, apparently by inhibiting calcium oxalate’s interaction with, and retention by, the kidney epithelium. PMID:23138489

  3. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... citrate (iron (III) ammonium citrate) is prepared by the reaction of ferric hydroxide with citric acid... 18.5 percent iron, approximately 9 percent ammonia, and 65 percent citric acid and occurs as reddish... composed of 14.5 to 16 percent iron, approximately 7.5 percent ammonia, and 75 percent citric acid...

  4. 21 CFR 520.622 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms. 520... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.622 Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms....

  5. 21 CFR 520.622 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms. 520... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.622 Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms....

  6. 21 CFR 520.622 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms. 520... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.622 Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms....

  7. 21 CFR 520.622 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms. 520... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.622 Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms....

  8. 21 CFR 520.622 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms. 520... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.622 Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms....

  9. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 172.370 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline... citric acid may be safely used as a source of iron in foods for special dietary use....

  10. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Iron-choline citrate complex. 172.370 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline... citric acid may be safely used as a source of iron in foods for special dietary use....

  11. Diffuse abdominal gallium-67 citrate uptake in salmonella infections

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, I.; Koren, A.

    1987-11-01

    Two pediatric patients with salmonella infections (one with typhoid fever and the second with salmonella C2 gastroenteritis), had a diffuse abdominal uptake of Ga-67 citrate. The possible explanation for this finding is discussed. Salmonella infection should be included as a cause in the differential diagnosis of diffuse accumulation of Ga-67 citrate.

  12. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 172.370 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline... citric acid may be safely used as a source of iron in foods for special dietary use....

  13. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 172.370 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline... citric acid may be safely used as a source of iron in foods for special dietary use....

  14. Structural Basis for Norovirus Inhibition and Fucose Mimicry by Citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Hansman, Grant S.; Shahzad-ul-Hussan, Syed; McLellan, Jason S.; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Georgiev, Ivelin; Shimoike, Takashi; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Bewley, Carole A.; Kwong, Peter D.

    2012-01-20

    Human noroviruses bind with their capsid-protruding domains to histo-blood-group antigens (HBGAs), an interaction thought to direct their entry into cells. Although human noroviruses are the major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks, development of antivirals has been lacking, mainly because human noroviruses cannot be cultivated. Here we use X-ray crystallography and saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance (STD NMR) to analyze the interaction of citrate with genogroup II (GII) noroviruses. Crystals of citrate in complex with the protruding domain from norovirus GII.10 Vietnam026 diffracted to 1.4 {angstrom} and showed a single citrate bound at the site of HBGA interaction. The citrate interaction was coordinated with a set of capsid interactions almost identical to that involved in recognizing the terminal HBGA fucose, the saccharide which forms the primary conserved interaction between HBGAs and GII noroviruses. Citrate and a water molecule formed a ring-like structure that mimicked the pyranoside ring of fucose. STD NMR showed the protruding domain to have weak affinity for citrate (460 {mu}M). This affinity, however, was similar to the affinities of the protruding domain for fucose (460 {mu}M) and H type 2 trisaccharide (390 {mu}M), an HBGA shown previously to be specifically recognized by human noroviruses. Importantly, competition STD NMR showed that citrate could compete with HBGA for norovirus binding. Together, the results suggest that citrate and other glycomimetics have the potential to block human noroviruses from binding to HBGAs.

  15. Structural basis for norovirus inhibition and fucose mimicry by citrate.

    PubMed

    Hansman, Grant S; Shahzad-Ul-Hussan, Syed; McLellan, Jason S; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Georgiev, Ivelin; Shimoike, Takashi; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Bewley, Carole A; Kwong, Peter D

    2012-01-01

    Human noroviruses bind with their capsid-protruding domains to histo-blood-group antigens (HBGAs), an interaction thought to direct their entry into cells. Although human noroviruses are the major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks, development of antivirals has been lacking, mainly because human noroviruses cannot be cultivated. Here we use X-ray crystallography and saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance (STD NMR) to analyze the interaction of citrate with genogroup II (GII) noroviruses. Crystals of citrate in complex with the protruding domain from norovirus GII.10 Vietnam026 diffracted to 1.4 Å and showed a single citrate bound at the site of HBGA interaction. The citrate interaction was coordinated with a set of capsid interactions almost identical to that involved in recognizing the terminal HBGA fucose, the saccharide which forms the primary conserved interaction between HBGAs and GII noroviruses. Citrate and a water molecule formed a ring-like structure that mimicked the pyranoside ring of fucose. STD NMR showed the protruding domain to have weak affinity for citrate (460 μM). This affinity, however, was similar to the affinities of the protruding domain for fucose (460 μM) and H type 2 trisaccharide (390 μM), an HBGA shown previously to be specifically recognized by human noroviruses. Importantly, competition STD NMR showed that citrate could compete with HBGA for norovirus binding. Together, the results suggest that citrate and other glycomimetics have the potential to block human noroviruses from binding to HBGAs.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of biomimetic citrate-based biodegradable composites.

    PubMed

    Tran, Richard T; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Chang; Huang, Minjun; Tang, Wanjin; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Zhongmin; Jin, Dadi; Banik, Brittany; Brown, Justin L; Xie, Zhiwei; Bai, Xiaochun; Yang, Jian

    2014-08-01

    Natural bone apatite crystals, which mediate the development and regulate the load-bearing function of bone, have recently been associated with strongly bound citrate molecules. However, such understanding has not been translated into bone biomaterial design and osteoblast cell culture. In this work, we have developed a new class of biodegradable, mechanically strong, and biocompatible citrate-based polymer blends (CBPBs), which offer enhanced hydroxyapatite binding to produce more biomimetic composites (CBPBHAs) for orthopedic applications. CBPBHAs consist of the newly developed osteoconductive citrate-presenting biodegradable polymers, crosslinked urethane-doped polyester and poly (octanediol citrate), which can be composited with up to 65 wt % hydroxyapatite. CBPBHA networks produced materials with a compressive strength of 116.23 ± 5.37 MPa comparable to human cortical bone (100-230 MPa), and increased C2C12 osterix gene and alkaline phosphatase gene expression in vitro. The promising results above prompted an investigation on the role of citrate supplementation in culture medium for osteoblast culture, which showed that exogenous citrate supplemented into media accelerated the in vitro phenotype progression of MG-63 osteoblasts. After 6 weeks of implantation in a rabbit lateral femoral condyle defect model, CBPBHA composites elicited minimal fibrous tissue encapsulation and were well integrated with the surrounding bone tissues. The development of citrate-presenting CBPBHA biomaterials and preliminary studies revealing the effects of free exogenous citrate on osteoblast culture shows the potential of citrate biomaterials to bridge the gap in orthopedic biomaterial design and osteoblast cell culture in that the role of citrate molecules has previously been overlooked.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Biomimetic Citrate-Based Biodegradable Composites

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Richard T.; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Chang; Huang, Minjun; Tang, Wanjin; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Zhongmin; Jin, Dadi; Banik, Brittany; Brown, Justin L.; Xie, Zhiwei; Bai, Xiaochun; Yang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Natural bone apatite crystals, which mediate the development and regulate the load-bearing function of bone, have recently been associated with strongly bound citrate molecules. However, such understanding has not been translated into bone biomaterial design and osteoblast cell culture. In this work, we have developed a new class of biodegradable, mechanically strong, and biocompatible citrate-based polymer blends (CBPBs), which offer enhanced hydroxyapatite binding to produce more biomimetic composites (CBPBHAs) for orthopedic applications. CBPBHAs consist of the newly developed osteoconductive citrate-presenting biodegradable polymers, crosslinked urethane-doped polyester (CUPE) and poly (octanediol citrate) (POC), which can be composited with up to 65 wt.-% hydroxyapatite (HA). CBPBHA networks produced materials with a compressive strength of 116.23 ± 5.37 MPa comparable to human cortical bone (100 – 230 MPa), and increased C2C12 osterix (OSX) gene and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) gene expression in vitro. The promising results above prompted an investigation on the role of citrate supplementation in culture medium for osteoblast culture, which showed that exogenous citrate supplemented into media accelerated the in vitro phenotype progression of MG-63 osteoblasts. After 6-weeks of implantation in a rabbit lateral femoral condyle defect model, CBPBHA composites elicited minimal fibrous tissue encapsulation and were well integrated with the surrounding bone tissues. The development of citrate-presenting CBPBHA biomaterials and preliminary studies revealing the effects of free exogenous citrate on osteoblast culture shows the potential of citrate biomaterials to bridge the gap in orthopedic biomaterial design and osteoblast cell culture in that the role of citrate molecules has previously been overlooked. PMID:23996976

  18. Permeability of Plant Young Root Endodermis to Cu Ions and Cu-Citrate Complexes in Corn and Soybean.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yanzhao; Lei, Wenrui; Shen, Zhenguo; Luo, Chunling

    2015-01-01

    The non-selective apoplastic passage of Cu and Cu-citrate complexes into the root stele of monocotyledonous corn and dicotyledonous soybean was investigated using an inorganic-salt-precipitation technique. Either Cu ions or Cu-citrate complexes were drawn into root through the apoplast from the root growth medium, and K4[Fe(CN)6] was subsequently perfused through xylem vessels or the entire root cross section. Based on microscopic identification of the reddish-brown precipitates of copper ferrocyanide in the cell walls of the xylem of corn and soybean roots, Cu(2+) passed through the endodermal barrier into the xylem of both species. When the solution containing 200 μM CuSO4 and 400 μM sodium citrate (containing 199.98 μM Cu-citrate, 0.02 μM Cu(2+)) was drawn via differential pressure gradients into the root xylem while being perfused with K4[Fe(CN)6] through the entire root cross-section, reddish-brown precipitates were observed in the walls of the stele of soybean, but not corn root. However, when a CuSO4 solution containing 0.02 or 0.2 μM free Cu(2+) was used, no reddish-brown precipitates were detected in the stele of either of the two plants. Results indicated that endodermis was permeable to Cu-citrate complexes in primary roots of soybean, but not corn. The permeability of the endodermal barrier to the Cu-citrate complex may vary between dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants, which has considerable implications for chelant-enhanced phytoextraction.

  19. Permeability of Plant Young Root Endodermis to Cu Ions and Cu-Citrate Complexes in Corn and Soybean.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yanzhao; Lei, Wenrui; Shen, Zhenguo; Luo, Chunling

    2015-01-01

    The non-selective apoplastic passage of Cu and Cu-citrate complexes into the root stele of monocotyledonous corn and dicotyledonous soybean was investigated using an inorganic-salt-precipitation technique. Either Cu ions or Cu-citrate complexes were drawn into root through the apoplast from the root growth medium, and K4[Fe(CN)6] was subsequently perfused through xylem vessels or the entire root cross section. Based on microscopic identification of the reddish-brown precipitates of copper ferrocyanide in the cell walls of the xylem of corn and soybean roots, Cu(2+) passed through the endodermal barrier into the xylem of both species. When the solution containing 200 μM CuSO4 and 400 μM sodium citrate (containing 199.98 μM Cu-citrate, 0.02 μM Cu(2+)) was drawn via differential pressure gradients into the root xylem while being perfused with K4[Fe(CN)6] through the entire root cross-section, reddish-brown precipitates were observed in the walls of the stele of soybean, but not corn root. However, when a CuSO4 solution containing 0.02 or 0.2 μM free Cu(2+) was used, no reddish-brown precipitates were detected in the stele of either of the two plants. Results indicated that endodermis was permeable to Cu-citrate complexes in primary roots of soybean, but not corn. The permeability of the endodermal barrier to the Cu-citrate complex may vary between dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants, which has considerable implications for chelant-enhanced phytoextraction. PMID:26091247

  20. Organically modified porous hydroxyapatites: A comparison between alkylphosphonate grafting and citrate chelation

    SciTech Connect

    El-Hammari, L.; Marroun, H.; Laghzizil, A.; Saoiabi, A.; Roux, C.; Livage, J.; Coradin, T.

    2008-04-15

    Two alternative methods to prepare organically modified porous hydroxyapatites following a 'one pot' approach were compared. The partial substitution of inorganic phosphates by alkylphosphonates leads to mesoporous materials with high specific surface area (>200 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}). The incorporation of the organic moieties within the hydroxyapatite structure is confirmed by Infra-red and solid-state NMR spectroscopy and depends on the nature of the alkyl chain. However, it induces a significant loss of the material crystallinity. In contrast, the introduction of citrate, a calcium-chelating agent, to the precursor solution does not improve the material specific surface area but allows a better control of the hydroxyapatite structure, both in terms of crystallinity and pore size distribution. - Graphical abstract: Evolution of pore size distribution of hydroxyapatite (HAp) after alkylphosphonate grafting (20% TPOH) or citrate addition (c-HAp) demonstrates the formation of organically modified mesoporous materials.

  1. Preparation of xylan citrate--a potential adsorbent for industrial wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Shuaiyang, Wang; Huiling, Li; Junli, Ren; Chuanfu, Liu; Feng, Peng; Runcang, Sun

    2013-02-15

    The novel and degradable xylan citrate was prepared by the environmental-friendly semi-dry oven method. Xylan reacted with citric acid (CA) to yield xylan citrate at high temperature. The influence of the different weight ratios of CA and xylan on the product yield, the carboxyl group content and degree of esterification were comparatively discussed. The results showed that there were higher carboxyl group content and degree of esterification in modified xylan than native xylan. The product yield of 128.2%, the carboxyl group content of 1174.3 meq/100 g and degree of esterification of 33.1% were achieved at the CA/xylan weight ratio of 2.4 in the absence of catalyst. Furthermore, the adsorption capacity of xylan after modification was improved greatly. These materials with better properties can enhance their water affinity, and improve their adsorption of copper ions and methyl orange in aqueous solution due to carboxyl groups. PMID:23399244

  2. Hypertonic dextrose injections (prolotherapy) in the treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sit, Regina WS; Chung, Vincent CH; Reeves, Kenneth D.; Rabago, David; Chan, Keith KW; Chan, Dicken CC; Wu, Xinyin; Ho, Robin ST; Wong, Samuel YS

    2016-01-01

    Hypertonic dextrose injections (prolotherapy) is an emerging treatment for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) but its efficacy is uncertain. We conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis to synthesize clinical evidence on the effect of prolotherapy for knee OA. Fifteen electronic databases were searched from their inception to September 2015. The primary outcome of interest was score change on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC). Three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of moderate risk of bias and one quasi–randomized trial were included, with data from a total of 258 patients. In the meta-analysis of two eligible studies, prolotherapy is superior to exercise alone by a standardized mean difference (SMD) of 0.81 (95% CI: 0.18 to 1.45, p = 0.012), 0.78 (95% CI: 0.25 to 1.30, p = 0.001) and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.04 to 1.20, p = 0.035) on the WOMAC composite scale; and WOMAC function and pain subscale scores respectively. Moderate heterogeneity exists in all cases. Overall, prolotherapy conferred a positive and significant beneficial effect in the treatment of knee OA. Adequately powered, longer-term trials with uniform end points are needed to better elucidate the efficacy of prolotherapy. PMID:27146849

  3. Combined effect of γ-irradiation and bacterial-fermented dextrose on microbiological quality of refrigerated pork sausages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dussault, D.; Benoit, C.; Lacroix, M.

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a concentrated fermented dextrose (FD), a natural antimicrobial product, combined with low dose γ-irradiation (1.5 kGy) on the microbiological quality of fresh pork sausages. Fresh pork sausages containing the FD (0.25%, 0.5% and 0.75%) were prepared in a meat pilot plant and were irradiated using a UC-15A irradiator equipped with a 60Cobalt source. The γ-irradiation treatment alone was able to reduce the initial psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria by more than 2 log CFU/g and kept the lactobacillus population under the detection limit (100 CFU/g). Results also showed that the FD alone was able to extend the shelf life of the sausages from 5 days up to 13 days. At day 13, the FD or irradiation alone showed 2 log CFU/g less mesophilic bacteria than the control. After combining FD and irradiation another reduction of the microbial count of 1 log CFU/g was observed. When combining the irradiation treatment with the FD results it showed a reduced growth rate of the psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria compared to both treatments alone. This study demonstrated that FD with low dose gamma irradiation act in synergy to reduce the multiplication of the total bacterial flora in fresh sausages.

  4. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: Ga-67 citrate imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Woolfenden, J.M.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; Larson, S.M.; Simmons, J.T.; Masur, H.; Smith, P.D.; Shelhamer, J.H.; Ognibene, F.P.

    1987-02-01

    All gallium-67 citrate scans obtained in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, Md.) were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with the results of bronchoscopy, chest radiography, and endoscopy. There were 164 scans of 95 patients. Twenty scans were from patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia; 19 were abnormal, for a sensitivity of 95%. Ga-67 uptake tended to be less in patients receiving therapy for P. carinii pneumonia. Chest radiographs were normal at least initially in three patients with abnormal scans and P. carinii pneumonia. Unusually prominent colonic activity was associated with infection in some patients. No lesions of Kaposi sarcoma showed tracer uptake. Gallium scanning is useful for detecting P. carinii pneumonia and other opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS, but it is not useful for localizing Kaposi sarcoma.

  5. Cyanide leaching from soil developed from coking plant purifier waste as influenced by citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Mansfeldt; Heike Leyer; Kurt Barmettler; Ruben Kretzschmar

    2004-07-01

    Soils in the vicinity of manufactured gas plants and coal coking plants are often highly contaminated with cyanides in the form of the compound Prussian blue. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of citrate on the leaching of iron-cyanide complexes from an extremely acidic soil (pH 2.3) developed from gas purifier waste near a former coking plant. The soil contained 63 g kg{sup -1} CN, 148 g kg{sup -1} Fe, 123 g kg{sup -1} S, and 222 g kg{sup -1} total C. Analysis of the soil by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy revealed the presence of Prussian blue, gypsum, elemental sulfur, jarosite, and hematite. For column leaching experiments, air-dried soil was mixed with purified cristabolite sand at a ratio of 1:3 and packed into chromatography columns. The soil was leached with dilute (0.1 or 1 mM) CaCl{sub 2} solutions and the effluent was collected and analyzed for total and dissolved CN, Ca, Fe, SO{sub 4}, pH, and pe. In the absence of citrate, the total dissolved CN concentration in the effluent was always below current drinking water limits (< 1.92 {mu}M), indicating low leaching potential. Adding citrate at a concentration of 1 mM had little effect on the CN concentrations in the column effluent. Addition of 10 or 100 mM citrate to the influent solution resulted in strong increases in dissolved and colloidal CN concentrations in the effluent.

  6. 77 FR 74171 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... sodium citrate, otherwise known as citric acid sodium salt, and the monohydrate and monopotassium forms of potassium citrate.\\5\\ Sodium citrate also includes both trisodium citrate and monosodium citrate... acid and sodium citrate are classifiable under 2918.14.0000 and 2918.15.1000 of the Harmonized...

  7. Biodegradation of cobalt citrate complexes: Implications for cobalt mobility in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Scott C.; Herman, Janet S.; Hornberger, George M.; Mills, Aaron L.

    1998-07-01

    The bacterial consumption of chelating agents that are present in low-level radioactive and mixed wastes may help to immobilize chelated metals and radionuclides accidentally released to groundwater. We investigated the influence of the bacterial consumption of citrate complexed with cobalt on cobalt transport through packed sand columns. Experiments were conducted using each of three types of column packing material using minerals common to subsurface environments: clean quartz sand; ferric oxide (Fe(OH) 3)-coated sand; hausmannite (Mn 3O 4)-coated sand. Separate control column experiments were conducted to examine citrate's influence on cobalt transport without the bacterial consumption of citrate. The bacterial community consumed all the citrate; the pore water pH decreased by up to one unit before reaching a steady-state value of 6.9-7.1, which was lower than the influent pH (7.4). These results were in contrast to open batch experiments conducted with the same culture, where the pH increased by more than one unit. The dissolved oxygen exhibited similar dynamics, reaching a steady-state value of 3-4 mg/l, well below the influent value of 7.5 mg/l. The dynamics in pore water pH and dissolved oxygen were associated with the presence of the bacterial community because these parameters remained steady in control experiments in which the bacteria were not included. Cobalt transport was most rapid for the columns packed with quartz sand followed by the Fe-coated sand and finally the Mn-coated sand. Most of the cobalt retained by the quartz sand and Fe-coated sand was easily exchanged with Mg 2+ whereas most of the cobalt retained by the Mn-coated sand required an acetic acid solution for its removal. The bacterially mediated pH decrease, driven by the consumption of citrate, decreased cobalt sorption to the solid phase resulting in enhanced cobalt transport. The results of these experiments suggest that geochemical changes, driven by the bacterial consumption of

  8. Effect of citrate on Aspergillus niger phytase adsorption and catalytic activity in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezeli, Malika; Menezes-Blackburn, Daniel; Zhang, Hao; Giles, Courtney; George, Timothy; Shand, Charlie; Lumsdon, David; Cooper, Patricia; Wendler, Renate; Brown, Lawrie; Stutter, Marc; Blackwell, Martin; Darch, Tegan; Wearing, Catherine; Haygarth, Philip

    2015-04-01

    Current developments in cropping systems that promote mobilisation of phytate in agricultural soils, by exploiting plant-root exudation of phytase and organic acids, offer potential for developments in sustainable phosphorus use. However, phytase adsorption to soil particles and phytate complexion has been shown to inhibit phytate dephosphorylation, thereby inhibiting plant P uptake, increasing the risk of this pool contributing to diffuse pollution and reducing the potential benefits of biotechnologies and management strategies aimed to utilise this abundant reserve of 'legacy' phosphorus. Citrate has been seen to increase phytase catalytic efficiency towards complexed forms of phytate, but the mechanisms by which citrate promotes phytase remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated phytase (from Aspergillus niger) inactivation, and change in catalytic properties upon addition to soil and the effect citrate had on adsorption of phytase and hydrolysis towards free, precipitated and adsorbed phytate. A Langmuir model was fitted to phytase adsorption isotherms showing a maximum adsorption of 0.23 nKat g-1 (19 mg protein g-1) and affinity constant of 435 nKat gˉ1 (8.5 mg protein g-1 ), demonstrating that phytase from A.niger showed a relatively low affinity for our test soil (Tayport). Phytases were partially inhibited upon adsorption and the specific activity was of 40.44 nKat mgˉ1 protein for the free enzyme and 25.35 nKat mgˉ1 protein when immobilised. The kinetics of adsorption detailed that most of the adsorption occurred within the first 20 min upon addition to soil. Citrate had no effect on the rate or total amount of phytase adsorption or loss of activity, within the studied citrate concentrations (0-4mM). Free phytases in soil solution and phytase immobilised on soil particles showed optimum activity (>80%) at pH 4.5-5.5. Immobilised phytase showed greater loss of activity at pH levels over 5.5 and lower activities at the secondary peak at pH 2

  9. Role of Ga-67 citrate imaging in pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Aburano, T.; Yokoyama, K.; Hisada, K.; Kakuma, K.; Ichiyanagi, K.

    1988-11-01

    Two patients with pancreatitis in whom an area of predominant uptake of Ga-67 citrate was demonstrated involving the entire pancreas are presented. Ultrasound and x-ray CT did not reveal any morphologic abnormalities in the pancreas, whereas Ga-67 citrate imaging indicated the presence of active inflammatory change. Ga-67 citrate imaging may be useful in confirming the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis or acute exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis based on clinical and laboratory data, especially when ultrasound and/or x-ray CT cannot reveal any morphologic abnormalities in the pancreas.

  10. [Humidity as a necessary condition for latent fingerprint detection with ninhydrin--a practice-oriented and inexpensive method using potassium citrate].

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Lothar; Hermanowski, Mona-Lena

    2010-01-01

    Ninhydrin is a common reagent for latent fingerprint detection on porous surfaces, and water in the form of humidity is an essential factor in the developing process. Beside climatic chambers running on electricity, the required humidity can also be reached by using saturated salt solution. The influence of different climatic conditions on the developing process is shown by using test strips (as analytical standards). For the developing process, a saturated solution of tripotassium citrate at room temperature proved to be particularly suitable. Tripotassium citrate is a non-hazardous compound, which is also used as a food additive without quantitative limitation, is environmentally safe and produced from renewable resources. In a closed box, a saturated tripotassium citrate solution generates a relative humidity of about 64% in a temperature range of 15 to 35 degrees C.

  11. Pseudohypernatremia secondary to trisodium citrate (Citra-LockTM)

    PubMed Central

    Milliere, Janice; Corriveau, Daryl; Parmar, Malvinder S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hypernatremia is common among hospitalized patients especially in the intensive care units and presents an independent risk factor for mortality. Mild hypernatremia is often asymptomatic but severe hypernatremia causes central nervous system dysfunction with initial non-specific symptoms of encephalopathy that may progress to seizures, coma and death, if left untreated. Severe hypernatremia is a medical emergency and requires emergent medical attention. Materials and methods A haemodialysis patient who arrived for his scheduled haemodialysis treatment had monthly blood work drawn and was reported to have severe hypernatremia with serum sodium concentration of 183 mmol/L. The possibility of technique or laboratory error was considered and systematically evaluated. Results The serum sodium measurement using another analyser showed similar value of 182 mmolL. A repeat serum sodium level on a sample drawn 2 h later showed normal value of 139–140 mmol/L. A step-wise evaluation of the complete procedure from blood collection to analysis of the sample revealed this to be spuriously elevated serum sodium concentration secondary to contamination of the sample during sample collection with trisodium citrate, a catheter-lock solution, commonly used in dialysis units to maintain patency of dialysis catheters. Conclusions Spuriously elevated plasma sodium concentration (pseudohypernatremia) of mild degree is common but severe pseudohypernatremia is rare and the possibility of sample contaminations or laboratory error should be considered. Vigilance is required by both the medical and the laboratory staff to resolve such issues in a timely fashion to avoid unintended consequences. PMID:27346973

  12. Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate in refrigerated sliced salmon

    PubMed Central

    Sallam, Khalid Ibrahim

    2007-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the microbiological quality and lipid oxidation of fresh salmon slices treated by dipping in 2.5% (w/v) aqueous solution of sodium acetate (NaA), sodium lactate (NaL), or sodium citrate (NaC) and stored at 1 °C. The results revealed that these salts were efficient (P < 0.05) against the proliferation of various categories of spoilage microorganisms; including aerobic and psychrotrophic populations, Pseudomonas spp., H2S-producing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae. The general order of antibacterial activity of the different organic salts used was; sodium acetate > sodium lactate > sodium citrate. Lipid oxidation, as expressed by peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, was significantly (P < 0.05) delayed in NaA- and NaC-treated samples. The antioxidant activity followed the order: NaC > NaA > NaL. The shelf life of the treated products was extended by 4–7 days more than that of the control. Therefore, sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate can be utilized as safe organic preservatives for fish under refrigerated storage. PMID:17471315

  13. l-carnitine as a Potential Additive in Blood Storage Solutions: A Study on Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Soumya, R; Carl, H; Vani, R

    2016-09-01

    Erythrocytes undergo various changes during storage (storage lesion) that in turn reduces their functioning and survival. Oxidative stress plays a major role in the storage lesion and antioxidants can be used to combat this stress. This study elucidates the effects of l-carnitine (LC) on erythrocytes of stored blood. Blood was obtained from male Wistar rats and stored (4 °C) for 20 days in CPDA-1 (citrate phosphate dextrose adenine) solution. Samples were divided into-(i) controls (ii) LC 10 (l-carnitine at a concentration of 10 mM) (iii) LC 30 (l-carnitine at a concentration of 30 mM) and (iv) LC 60 (l-carnitine at a concentration of 60 mM). Every fifth day, the biomarkers (haemoglobin, hemolysis, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation products) were analysed in erythrocytes. Hemoglobin and protein sulfhydryls were insignificant during storage indicative of the maintenance of hemoglobin and sulfhydryls in all groups. Superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde levels increased initially and decreased towards the end of storage. The levels of catalase and glutathione peroxidase were lower in experimentals than controls during storage. l-carnitine assisted the enzymes by scavenging the reactive oxygen species produced. Hemolysis increased in all groups with storage, elucidating that l-carnitine could not completely protect lipids and proteins from oxidative stress. Hence, this study opens up new avenues of using l-carnitine as a component of storage solutions with combinations of antioxidants in order to maintain efficacy of erythrocytes.

  14. 76 FR 34044 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 5782... The scope of this order includes all grades and granulation sizes of citric acid, sodium citrate, and.... The scope also includes blends of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate; as well...

  15. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... color additive ferric ammonium citrate consists of complex chelates prepared by the interaction of ferric hydroxide with citric acid in the presence of ammonia. The complex chelates occur in brown...

  16. Properties of peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthase from Agave americana.

    PubMed

    Segovia, J L; Zafra, M F; Alejandre, M J; García-Peregrín, E

    1982-09-01

    Adenine nucleotides were tested as effectors of peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthase from Agave americana leaves in the presence of different concentrations of acetyl-CoA and oxalacetate substrates. ATP inhibited both enzyme activities but with a different inhibition profile. 1.0-7.5 mM ADP did not inhibit the peroxisomal citrate synthase in the presence of high substrate concentrations, while the mitochondrial enzyme was strongly inhibited by 1.0 mM ADP in the same conditions. Likewise, a different pattern was obtained with AMP on both peroxisomal and mitochondrial activities. The rate of citrate formation as function of acetyl-CoA and oxalacetate concentration was also studied in both fractions. Maximal velocity was highest in the peroxisomal fraction, whether acetyl-CoA or oxalacetate were the variable substrates. These differences indicate that peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthases seem to be two different isoenzymes.

  17. Ileal Endogenous Amino Acid Flow Response to Nitrogen-free Diets with Differing Ratios of Corn Starch to Dextrose in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Kong, C.; Ragland, D.; Adeola, O.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the responses in the digestibility of dry matter (DM) and amino acid (AA) composition of ileal endogenous flow (IEF) of pigs (initial body weight, 69.1±6.46 kg) fed N-free diets (NFD) formulated with different ratios of corn starch to dextrose. Fifteen pigs fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum were fed 5 diets according to a triplicated 5×2 incomplete Latin-square design. Each period consisted of a 5-d adjustment period and 2 d of ileal digesta collection for 12 h on each of d 6 and 7 and between each period, there was a 5-d recovery period to avoid abnormal weight loss. The ratios of corn starch to dextrose investigated were 0:879, 293:586, 586:293, 779:100, and 879:0 for diet numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively, and chromic oxide (5 g/kg) was used as an indigestible index. Ileal DM digestibility was greater in Diet 1 than that in Diet 4 (89.5% vs 87.3%, p<0.01) but they were not different from Diet 2, 3, or 5. The IEF for most of indispensable AA were not different among diets with the exception of Met, in which a lack of corn starch or dextrose gave lower (p = 0.028) IEF of Met than diets containing corn starch and dextrose. Likewise, the dispensable AA and total AA in the IEF did not differ among diets. The respective IEF of AA (mg/kg of dry matter intake) in pigs fed Diets 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 were 301, 434, 377, 477,or 365 for Lys, 61, 89, 71, 87, or 61 for Met, and 477, 590, 472, 520, or 436 for Thr. Proline was the most abundant AA in the IEF followed by Gly, Glu, and Asp and together accounted for approximately 50% of the total ileal AA flows of pigs fed NFD. In conclusion, the variation in proportion of corn starch and dextrose in a NFD does not largely affect estimates of IEF of N and AA for growing-finishing pigs. PMID:25083106

  18. Citrate-Based Biomaterials and Their Applications in Regenerative Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Richard T.; Yang, Jian; Ameer, Guillermo A.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in biomaterials science and engineering are crucial to translating regenerative engineering, an emerging field that aims to recreate complex tissues, into clinical practice. In this regard, citrate-based biomaterials have become an important tool owing to their versatile material and biological characteristics including unique antioxidant, antimicrobial, adhesive, and fluorescent properties. This review discusses fundamental design considerations, strategies to incorporate unique functionality, and examples of how citrate-based biomaterials can be an enabling technology for regenerative engineering. PMID:27004046

  19. Injectable citrate-modified Portland cement for use in vertebroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Wynn-Jones, Gareth; Shelton, Richard M; Hofmann, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    The injectability of Portland cement (PC) with several citrate additives was investigated for use in clinical applications such as vertebroplasty (stabilization of a fractured vertebra with bone cement) using a syringe. A 2-wt % addition of sodium or potassium citrate with PC significantly improved cement injectability, decreased cement setting times from over 2 h to below 25 min, while increasing the compressive strength to a maximum of 125 MPa. Zeta-potential measurements indicated that the citrate anion was binding to one or more of the positively charged species causing charged repulsion between cement particles which dispersed aggregates and caused the liquefying effect of the anion. Analysis of the hydrating phases of PC indicated that the early strength producing PC phase (ettringite) developed within the first 2 h of setting following addition of the citrate anion, while this did not occur in the control cement (PC only). Within 24 h ettringite developed in PC as well as calcium–silicate–hydrate (C–S–H), the major setting phase of PC, whereas cements containing citrate did not develop this phase. The evidence suggested that in the presence of citrate the cements limited water supply appeared to be utilized for ettringite formation, producing the early strength of the citrate cements. The present study has demonstrated that it is possible to modify PC with citrate to both improve the injectability and crucially reduce the setting times of PC while improving the strength of the cement. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 102B: 1799–1808, 2014. PMID:24711245

  20. Effect of sodium citrate on structure-function relationships of Cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Pastorino, J; Hansen, C L; McMahon, D J

    2003-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of sodium citrate on the structure and functionality of Cheddar cheese. The hypothesis was that citrate (sodium citrate) injection would affect cheese properties mainly through its effect on bound calcium (calculated as the difference between total calcium and the water-soluble calcium content of a cheese extract). A 9-kg block of Cheddar cheese was made, vacuum-packaged, and then stored for 2 wk at 4 degrees C. After storage, the cheese was cut into 0.5- to 0.6-kg blocks that were vacuum-packaged and stored for 1 wk at 4 degrees C prior to injection. Cheese blocks were then high-pressure injected with a buffer solution (pH 5.27) containing 40% (wt/ wt) citric acid trisodium dihydrate and 6.25% (wt/wt) anhydrous citric acid, from zero (control) to five times (successive injections performed 24 h apart). Increased citric acid content of cheese from 0.22 (uninjected) to 1.39% (after five injections) caused phosphate solubilization. Thus, the calculated bound phosphate content of cheese decreased from 0.54 to 0.45 mmol/g of protein. However, unexpectedly, the soluble calcium content decreased from 0.34 (control) to 0.28 mmol/g of protein (after five injections), whereas the bound calcium content remained unchanged (0.42 mmol/g of protein). The decrease in soluble calcium probably resulted from the formation and concentration of crystals in the cheese surface, which was not included in samples for analysis, and from the expulsion of serum from within the cheese. Higher concentration of solutes in the water phase of cheese would increase the volume of serum, but the cheese had limited holding capacity and serum was expelled. Citrate injection increased the sodium content of cheese from 0.63 to 0.93%, but it had no effect on cheese pH (5.2). After five injections, the protein matrix expanded, occupying an increased area of cheese matrix (83 vs. 78%). Even though citrate injection had no effect on bound calcium, and

  1. Citrate uptake into Pectobacterium atrosepticum is critical for bacterial virulence.

    PubMed

    Urbany, Claude; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard

    2008-05-01

    To analyze whether metabolite import into Pectobacterium atrosepticum cells affects bacterial virulence, we investigated the function of a carrier which exhibits significant structural homology to characterized carboxylic-acid transport proteins. The corresponding gene, ECA3984, previously annotated as coding for a Na(+)/sulphate carrier, in fact encodes a highly specific citrate transporter (Cit1) which is energized by the proton-motive force. Expression of the cit1 gene is stimulated by the presence of citrate in the growth medium and is substantial during growth of P. atrosepticum on potato tuber tissue. Infection of tuber tissue with P. atrosepticum leads to reduced citrate levels. P. atrosepticum insertion mutants, lacking the functional Cit1 protein, did not grow in medium containing citrate as the sole carbon source, showed a substantially reduced ability to macerate potato tuber tissue, and did not provoke reduced citrate levels in the plant tissue upon infection. We propose that citrate uptake into P. atrosepticum is critical for full bacterial virulence.

  2. Citrate synthase from the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica.

    PubMed

    Zinsser, Veronika L; Moore, Catherine M; Hoey, Elizabeth M; Trudgett, Alan; Timson, David J

    2013-06-01

    Citrate synthase catalyses the first step of the Krebs' tricarboxylic acid cycle. A sequence encoding citrate synthase from the common liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, has been cloned. The encoded protein sequence is predicted to fold into a largely α-helical protein with high structural similarity to mammalian citrate synthases. Although a hexahistidine-tagged version of the protein could be expressed in Escherichia coli, it was not possible to purify it by nickel-affinity chromatography. Similar results were obtained with a version of the protein which lacks the putative mitochondrial targeting sequence (residues 1 to 29). However, extracts from bacterial cells expressing this version had additional citrate synthase activity after correcting for the endogenous, bacterial activity. The apparent K m for oxaloacetate was found to be 0.22 mM, which is higher than that observed in mammalian citrate synthases. Overall, the sequence and structure of F. hepatica citrate synthase are similar to ones from other eukaryotes, but there are enzymological differences which merit further investigation.

  3. Aroma compounds generation in citrate metabolism of Enterococcus faecium: Genetic characterization of type I citrate gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Martino, Gabriela P; Quintana, Ingrid M; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S; Magni, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Enterococcus is one of the most controversial genera belonging to Lactic Acid Bacteria. Research involving this microorganism reflects its dual behavior as regards its safety. Although it has also been associated to nosocomial infections, natural occurrence of Enterococcus faecium in food contributes to the final quality of cheese. This bacterium is capable of fermenting citrate, which is metabolized to pyruvate and finally derives in the production of the aroma compounds diacetyl, acetoin and 2,3 butanediol. Citrate metabolism was studied in E. faecium but no data about genes related to these pathways have been described. A bioinformatic approach allowed us to differentiate cit(-) (no citrate metabolism genes) from cit(+) strains in E. faecium. Furthermore, we could classify them according to genes encoding for the transcriptional regulator, the oxaloacetate decarboxylase and the citrate transporter. Thus we defined type I organization having CitI regulator (DeoR family), CitM cytoplasmic soluble oxaloacetate decarboxylase (Malic Enzyme family) and CitP citrate transporter (2-hydroxy-carboxylate transporter family) and type II organization with CitO regulator (GntR family), OAD membrane oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex (Na(+)-transport decarboxylase enzyme family) and CitH citrate transporter (CitMHS family). We isolated and identified 17 E. faecium strains from regional cheeses. PCR analyses allowed us to classify them as cit(-) or cit(+). Within the latter classification we could differentiate type I but no type II organization. Remarkably, we came upon E. faecium GM75 strain which carries the insertion sequence IS256, involved in adaptative and evolution processes of bacteria related to Staphylococcus and Enterococcus genera. In this work we describe the differential behavior in citrate transport, metabolism and aroma generation of three strains and we present results that link citrate metabolism and genetic organizations in E. faecium for the first time.

  4. Potato Dextrose Agar Antifungal Susceptibility Testing for Yeasts and Molds: Evaluation of Phosphate Effect on Antifungal Activity of CMT-3

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Tortora, George; Ryan, Maria E.; Lee, Hsi-Ming; Golub, Lorne M.

    2002-01-01

    The broth macrodilution method (BMM) for antifungal susceptibility testing, approved by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS), was found to have deficiencies in testing of the antifungal activity of a new type of antifungal agent, a nonantibacterial chemically modified tetracycline (CMT-3). The high content of phosphate in the medium was found to greatly increase the MICs of CMT-3. To avoid the interference of phosphate in the test, a new method using potato dextrose agar (PDA) as a culture medium was developed. Eight strains of fungi, including five American Type Culture Collection strains and three clinical isolates, were used to determine the MICs of amphotericin B and itraconazole with both the BMM and the PDA methods. The MICs of the two antifungal agents determined with the PDA method showed 99% agreement with those determined with the BMM method within 1 log2 dilution. Similarly, the overall reproducibility of the MICs with the PDA method was above 97%. Three other antifungal agents, fluconazole, ketoconazole, and CMT-3, were also tested in parallel against yeasts and molds with both the BMM and the PDA methods. The MICs of fluconazole and ketoconazole determined with the PDA method showed 100% agreement within 1 log2 dilution of those obtained with the BMM method. However, the MICs of CMT-3 determined with the BMM method were as high as 128 times those determined with the PDA method. The effect of phosphate on the antifungal activity of CMT-3 was evaluated by adding Na2HPO4 to PDA in the new method. It was found that the MIC of CMT-3 against a Penicillium sp. increased from 0.5 μg/ml (control) to 2.0 μg/ml when the added phosphate was used at a concentration of 0.8 mg/ml, indicating a strong interference of Na2HPO4 with the antifungal activity of CMT-3. Except for fluconazole, all the other antifungal agents demonstrated clear end points among the yeasts and molds tested. Nevertheless, with its high reproducibility, good

  5. Alkali absorption and citrate excretion in calcium nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakhaee, K.; Williams, R. H.; Oh, M. S.; Padalino, P.; Adams-Huet, B.; Whitson, P.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The role of net gastrointestinal (GI) alkali absorption in the development of hypocitraturia was investigated. The net GI absorption of alkali was estimated from the difference between simple urinary cations (Ca, Mg, Na, and K) and anions (Cl and P). In 131 normal subjects, the 24 h urinary citrate was positively correlated with the net GI absorption of alkali (r = 0.49, p < 0.001). In 11 patients with distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA), urinary citrate excretion was subnormal relative to net GI alkali absorption, with data from most patients residing outside the 95% confidence ellipse described for normal subjects. However, the normal relationship between urinary citrate and net absorbed alkali was maintained in 11 patients with chronic diarrheal syndrome (CDS) and in 124 stone-forming patients devoid of RTA or CDS, half of whom had "idiopathic" hypocitraturia. The 18 stone-forming patients without RTA or CDS received potassium citrate (30-60 mEq/day). Both urinary citrate and net GI alkali absorption increased, yielding a significantly positive correlation (r = 0.62, p < 0.0001), with the slope indistinguishable from that of normal subjects. Thus, urinary citrate was normally dependent on the net GI absorption of alkali. This dependence was less marked in RTA, confirming the renal origin of hypocitraturia. However, the normal dependence was maintained in CDS and in idiopathic hypocitraturia, suggesting that reduced citrate excretion was largely dietary in origin as a result of low net alkali absorption (from a probable relative deficiency of vegetables and fruits or a relative excess of animal proteins).

  6. Facile fabrication of various zinc-nickel citrate microspheres and their transformation to ZnO-NiO hybrid microspheres with excellent lithium storage properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Qingshui; Ma, Yating; Zeng, Deqian; Wang, Laisen; Yue, Guanghui; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2015-02-01

    Zinc-nickel citrate microspheres are prepared by a simple aging process of zinc citrate solid microspheres in nickel nitrate solution. As the concentration of nickel nitrate solution increases, the morphology of the produced zinc-nickel citrate evolves from solid, yolk-shell to hollow microspheres. The formation mechanism of different zinc-nickel citrate microspheres is discussed. After annealing treatment of the corresponding zinc-nickel citrate microspheres in air, three different ZnO-NiO hybrid architectures including solid, yolk-shell and hollow microspheres can be successfully fabricated. When applied as the anode materials for lithium ion batteries, ZnO-NiO hybrid yolk-shell microspheres demonstrate the best electrochemical properties than solid and hollow counterparts. After 200th cycles, ZnO-NiO hybrid yolk-shell microspheres deliver a high reversible capacity of 1176 mA h g-1. The unique yolk-shell configuration, the synergetic effect between ZnO and NiO and the catalytic effect of metal Ni generated by the reduction of NiO during discharging process are responsible for the excellent lithium storage properties of ZnO-NiO hybrid yolk-shell microspheres.

  7. Facile fabrication of various zinc-nickel citrate microspheres and their transformation to ZnO-NiO hybrid microspheres with excellent lithium storage properties

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qingshui; Ma, Yating; Zeng, Deqian; Wang, Laisen; Yue, Guanghui; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Zinc-nickel citrate microspheres are prepared by a simple aging process of zinc citrate solid microspheres in nickel nitrate solution. As the concentration of nickel nitrate solution increases, the morphology of the produced zinc-nickel citrate evolves from solid, yolk-shell to hollow microspheres. The formation mechanism of different zinc-nickel citrate microspheres is discussed. After annealing treatment of the corresponding zinc-nickel citrate microspheres in air, three different ZnO-NiO hybrid architectures including solid, yolk-shell and hollow microspheres can be successfully fabricated. When applied as the anode materials for lithium ion batteries, ZnO-NiO hybrid yolk-shell microspheres demonstrate the best electrochemical properties than solid and hollow counterparts. After 200th cycles, ZnO-NiO hybrid yolk-shell microspheres deliver a high reversible capacity of 1176 mA h g−1. The unique yolk-shell configuration, the synergetic effect between ZnO and NiO and the catalytic effect of metal Ni generated by the reduction of NiO during discharging process are responsible for the excellent lithium storage properties of ZnO-NiO hybrid yolk-shell microspheres. PMID:25684436

  8. Bacillus cereus iron uptake protein fishes out an unstable ferric citrate trimer

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Tatsuya; Sia, Allyson K.; Allred, Benjamin E.; Nichiporuk, Rita; Zhou, Zhongrui; Andersen, Ulla N.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2012-01-01

    Citrate is a common biomolecule that chelates Fe(III). Many bacteria and plants use ferric citrate to fulfill their nutritional requirement for iron. Only the Escherichia coli ferric citrate outer-membrane transport protein FecA has been characterized; little is known about other ferric citrate-binding proteins. Here we report a unique siderophore-binding protein from the Gram-positive pathogenic bacterium Bacillus cereus that binds multinuclear ferric citrate complexes. We have demonstrated that B. cereus ATCC 14579 takes up 55Fe radiolabeled ferric citrate and that a protein, BC_3466 [renamed FctC (ferric citrate-binding protein C)], binds ferric citrate. The dissociation constant (Kd) of FctC at pH 7.4 with ferric citrate (molar ratio 1:50) is 2.6 nM. This is the tightest binding observed of any B. cereus siderophore-binding protein. Nano electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry (nano ESI-MS) analysis of FctC and ferric citrate complexes or citrate alone show that FctC binds diferric di-citrate, and triferric tricitrate, but does not bind ferric di-citrate, ferric monocitrate, or citrate alone. Significantly, the protein selectively binds triferric tricitrate even though this species is naturally present at very low equilibrium concentrations. PMID:23027976

  9. Bacillus cereus iron uptake protein fishes out an unstable ferric citrate trimer.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Tatsuya; Sia, Allyson K; Allred, Benjamin E; Nichiporuk, Rita; Zhou, Zhongrui; Andersen, Ulla N; Raymond, Kenneth N

    2012-10-16

    Citrate is a common biomolecule that chelates Fe(III). Many bacteria and plants use ferric citrate to fulfill their nutritional requirement for iron. Only the Escherichia coli ferric citrate outer-membrane transport protein FecA has been characterized; little is known about other ferric citrate-binding proteins. Here we report a unique siderophore-binding protein from the gram-positive pathogenic bacterium Bacillus cereus that binds multinuclear ferric citrate complexes. We have demonstrated that B. cereus ATCC 14579 takes up (55)Fe radiolabeled ferric citrate and that a protein, BC_3466 [renamed FctC (ferric citrate-binding protein C)], binds ferric citrate. The dissociation constant (K(d)) of FctC at pH 7.4 with ferric citrate (molar ratio 1:50) is 2.6 nM. This is the tightest binding observed of any B. cereus siderophore-binding protein. Nano electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (nano ESI-MS) analysis of FctC and ferric citrate complexes or citrate alone show that FctC binds diferric di-citrate, and triferric tricitrate, but does not bind ferric di-citrate, ferric monocitrate, or citrate alone. Significantly, the protein selectively binds triferric tricitrate even though this species is naturally present at very low equilibrium concentrations.

  10. Identification of the citrate-binding site of human ATP-citrate lyase using X-ray crystallography.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tianjun; Hayakawa, Koto; Bateman, Katherine S; Fraser, Marie E

    2010-08-27

    ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY) catalyzes the conversion of citrate and CoA into acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate, coupled with the hydrolysis of ATP. In humans, ACLY is the cytoplasmic enzyme linking energy metabolism from carbohydrates to the production of fatty acids. In situ proteolysis of full-length human ACLY gave crystals of a truncated form, revealing the conformations of residues 2-425, 487-750, and 767-820 of the 1101-amino acid protein. Residues 2-425 form three domains homologous to the beta-subunit of succinyl-CoA synthetase (SCS), while residues 487-820 form two domains homologous to the alpha-subunit of SCS. The crystals were grown in the presence of tartrate or the substrate, citrate, and the structure revealed the citrate-binding site. A loop formed by residues 343-348 interacts via specific hydrogen bonds with the hydroxyl and carboxyl groups on the prochiral center of citrate. Arg-379 forms a salt bridge with the pro-R carboxylate of citrate. The pro-S carboxylate is free to react, providing insight into the stereospecificity of ACLY. Because this is the first structure of any member of the acyl-CoA synthetase (NDP-forming) superfamily in complex with its organic acid substrate, locating the citrate-binding site is significant for understanding the catalytic mechanism of each member, including the prototype SCS. Comparison of the CoA-binding site of SCSs with the similar structure in ACLY showed that ACLY possesses a different CoA-binding site. Comparisons of the nucleotide-binding site of SCSs with the similar structure in ACLY indicates that this is the ATP-binding site of ACLY.

  11. Effects of Dextrose and Lipopolysaccharide on the Corrosion Behavior of a Ti-6Al-4V Alloy with a Smooth Surface or Treated with Double-Acid-Etching

    PubMed Central

    Faverani, Leonardo P.; Assunção, Wirley G.; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio P.; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T.; Barao, Valentim A.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes and infections are associated with a high risk of implant failure. However, the effects of such conditions on the electrochemical stability of titanium materials remain unclear. This study evaluated the corrosion behavior of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy, with a smooth surface or conditioned by double-acid-etching, in simulated body fluid with different concentrations of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide. For the electrochemical assay, the open-circuit-potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and potentiodynamic test were used. The disc surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Their surface roughness and Vickers microhardness were also tested. The quantitative data were analyzed by Pearson's correlation and independent t-tests (α = 0.05). In the corrosion parameters, there was a strong lipopolysaccharide correlation with the Ipass (passivation current density), Cdl (double-layer capacitance), and Rp (polarization resistance) values (p<0.05) for the Ti-6Al-4V alloy with surface treatment by double-acid-etching. The combination of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide was correlated with the Icorr (corrosion current density) and Ipass (p<0.05). The acid-treated groups showed a significant increase in Cdl values and reduced Rp values (p<0.05, t-test). According to the topography, there was an increase in surface roughness (R2 = 0.726, p<0.0001 for the smooth surface; R2 = 0.405, p = 0.036 for the double-acid-etching-treated surface). The microhardness of the smooth Ti-6Al-4V alloy decreased (p<0.05) and that of the treated Ti-6Al-4V alloy increased (p<0.0001). Atomic force microscopy showed changes in the microstructure of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy by increasing the surface thickness mainly in the group associated with dextrose and lipopolysaccharide. The combination of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide affected the corrosion behavior of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface treated with double-acid-etching. However, no

  12. Effects of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide on the corrosion behavior of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy with a smooth surface or treated with double-acid-etching.

    PubMed

    Faverani, Leonardo P; Assunção, Wirley G; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio P; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T; Barao, Valentim A

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes and infections are associated with a high risk of implant failure. However, the effects of such conditions on the electrochemical stability of titanium materials remain unclear. This study evaluated the corrosion behavior of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy, with a smooth surface or conditioned by double-acid-etching, in simulated body fluid with different concentrations of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide. For the electrochemical assay, the open-circuit-potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and potentiodynamic test were used. The disc surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Their surface roughness and Vickers microhardness were also tested. The quantitative data were analyzed by Pearson's correlation and independent t-tests (α = 0.05). In the corrosion parameters, there was a strong lipopolysaccharide correlation with the Ipass (passivation current density), Cdl (double-layer capacitance), and Rp (polarization resistance) values (p<0.05) for the Ti-6Al-4V alloy with surface treatment by double-acid-etching. The combination of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide was correlated with the Icorr (corrosion current density) and Ipass (p<0.05). The acid-treated groups showed a significant increase in Cdl values and reduced Rp values (p<0.05, t-test). According to the topography, there was an increase in surface roughness (R2 = 0.726, p<0.0001 for the smooth surface; R2 = 0.405, p = 0.036 for the double-acid-etching-treated surface). The microhardness of the smooth Ti-6Al-4V alloy decreased (p<0.05) and that of the treated Ti-6Al-4V alloy increased (p<0.0001). Atomic force microscopy showed changes in the microstructure of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy by increasing the surface thickness mainly in the group associated with dextrose and lipopolysaccharide. The combination of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide affected the corrosion behavior of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface treated with double-acid-etching. However, no

  13. Scaling of Structural and Rheological Responde of L3 Sponge Phases in the "Sweetened" Cetylpyridinium/Hexanol/Dextrose/Brine System

    SciTech Connect

    Porcar, L.; Hamilton, William A; Butler, Paul D; Warr, G. G.

    2003-01-01

    We report a study of the shear response of sponge phases in cetylpyridinium chloride (CPCl)/hexanol/brine/dextrose systems by parallel measurements of rheology and structure by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Our measurements show that this dextrose added to the extensively studied CPCl/hexanol/brine system is taken up exclusively by the brine solvent, resulting in an equivalent CPCl/hexanol membrane structure and phase behavior for this modified system. Adding dextrose to the brine in these systems to volume fractions up to 0.4 allows us to increase the solvent viscosity by more than an order of magnitude. This lowers the cooperative membrane diffusion coefficient in this system as measured by dynamic light scattering by the same factor, resulting in a corresponding slowing of the Helfrich fluctuation dominated membrane dynamics. Our results show clear and consistent evidence of shear-induced sponge to lamellar phase transformations in these systems. Further, both the rheological and microstructural responses of these systems follow universal master curves when plotted against a rescaled applied shear {sub {gamma}}{eta}{sub s}/{phi}{sup 3}, where {phi} is the membrane volume fraction and {eta}{sub s} is the viscosity of the brine/dextrose solvent. This well-defined shear response is characterized by three distinct regimes. At low shear rates the sponge phases exhibit Newtonian flow behavior and no structural change is observed. For intermediate shear rates, the systems shear thin and SANS measurements show that the sponge phases are progressively transformed into lamellar phases with the CPCl/hexanol membrane normals aligned parallel to the velocity gradient. This continuous process and the absence of a stress plateau in the rheological measurements both rule out the existence of a biphasic state in this region and thus of a first-order transition between sponge and lamellar phases as is observed in equilibrium phase diagrams. At higher shear rates, the

  14. Transport of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles in unsaturated sand.

    PubMed

    Kumahor, Samuel K; Hron, Pavel; Metreveli, George; Schaumann, Gabriele E; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2015-12-01

    Chemical factors and physical constraints lead to coupled effects during particle transport in unsaturated porous media. Studies on unsaturated transport as typical for soils are currently scarce. In unsaturated porous media, particle mobility is determined by the existence of an air-water interface in addition to a solid-water interface. To this end, we measured breakthrough curves and retention profiles of citrate-coated Ag nanoparticles in unsaturated sand at two pH values (5 and 9) and three different flow rates corresponding to different water contents with 1 mM KNO3 as background electrolyte. The classical DLVO theory suggests unfavorable deposition conditions at the air-water and solid-water interfaces. The breakthrough curves indicate modification in curve shapes and retardation of nanoparticles compared to inert solute. Retention profiles show sensitivity to flow rate and pH and this ranged from almost no retention for the highest flow rate at pH=9 to almost complete retention for the lowest flow rate at pH=5. Modeling of the breakthrough curves, thus, required coupling two parallel processes: a kinetically controlled attachment process far from equilibrium, responsible for the shape modification, and an equilibrium sorption, responsible for particle retardation. The non-equilibrium process and equilibrium sorption are suggested to relate to the solid-water and air-water interfaces, respectively. This is supported by the DLVO model extended for hydrophobic interactions which suggests reversible attachment, characterized by a secondary minimum (depth 3-5 kT) and a repulsive barrier at the air-water interface. In contrast, the solid-water interface is characterized by a significant repulsive barrier and the absence of a secondary minimum suggesting kinetically controlled and non-equilibrium interaction. This study provides new insights into particle transport in unsaturated porous media and offers a model concept representing the relevant processes. PMID

  15. Citrate anticoagulation in the ICU: the Leeds experience.

    PubMed

    Trumper, Charlotte

    2016-09-01

    Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is widely used in the management of critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. It requires effective anticoagulation of the extracorporeal blood circuit. Although heparin is the most commonly prescribed anticoagulant, there are issues associated with heparin, and there has been increasing interest in regional citrate anticoagulation as an alternative. In 2013, The Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust switched from heparin to citrate anticoagulant for CRRT in intensive care units (ICUs) across the Trust. This article examines the reasons for the switch, the implementation of citrate and the impact of this quality-improvement project in terms of patient outcome data and feedback from the ICU nursing team. PMID:27615524

  16. Strongly bound citrate stabilizes the apatite nanocrystals in bone.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y-Y; Rawal, A; Schmidt-Rohr, K

    2010-12-28

    Nanocrystals of apatitic calcium phosphate impart the organic-inorganic nanocomposite in bone with favorable mechanical properties. So far, the factors preventing crystal growth beyond the favorable thickness of ca. 3 nm have not been identified. Here we show that the apatite surfaces are studded with strongly bound citrate molecules, whose signals have been identified unambiguously by multinuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. NMR reveals that bound citrate accounts for 5.5 wt% of the organic matter in bone and covers apatite at a density of about 1 molecule per (2 nm)(2), with its three carboxylate groups at distances of 0.3 to 0.45 nm from the apatite surface. Bound citrate is highly conserved, being found in fish, avian, and mammalian bone, which indicates its critical role in interfering with crystal thickening and stabilizing the apatite nanocrystals in bone. PMID:21127269

  17. Efficacy of preventing hemodialysis catheter infections with citrate lock.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jorge; Antunes, Jorge; Carvalho, Telmo; Ponce, Pedro

    2012-10-01

    Prevalent use of tunneled dialysis catheters can reach 30%. Infection remains the most serious catheter-related problem. Catheter locks are increasingly used for prevention, but are not yet recommended either by the Food and Drug Association or European Medicines Agency, on the basis of increasing bacterial resistance or lock toxicity. The aim was to test safety and effectiveness of citrate. A prospective, interventional study was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of a 30% citrate lock in preventing catheter-related bacteremia (CRB). A total of 157 prevalent tunneled catheters were locked with citrate and prospectively followed during a 1-year period. The primary endpoint was first CRB diagnosed according to two of the diagnostic criteria for Catheter Infection of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), namely definite and probable infection. The CDC criterion of possible but not proved infection was not considered. This citrate lock cohort (n = 157) had 10 episodes of CRB. We observed 0.49 CRB episodes/1000 patient-days and the mean infection-free catheter day was 130.6 ± 100.9. No clinically relevant adverse events were observed. No proved tunnel or exit site infection was observed and no patients died because of CRB. Catheter obstruction episodes were reported on 69 occasions out of 14 catheters. These results were compared with an historical cohort from a previous study of catheter locking with low-dose gentamicin and did not show significant difference in efficacy. Citrate lock is effective in preventing CRB. No toxicity was observed. The use of citrate lock may have advantages over antibiotic locks: no reported bacterial resistance, lower industrial cost, and less manipulation.

  18. Efficacy of preventing hemodialysis catheter infections with citrate lock.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jorge; Antunes, Jorge; Carvalho, Telmo; Ponce, Pedro

    2012-10-01

    Prevalent use of tunneled dialysis catheters can reach 30%. Infection remains the most serious catheter-related problem. Catheter locks are increasingly used for prevention, but are not yet recommended either by the Food and Drug Association or European Medicines Agency, on the basis of increasing bacterial resistance or lock toxicity. The aim was to test safety and effectiveness of citrate. A prospective, interventional study was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of a 30% citrate lock in preventing catheter-related bacteremia (CRB). A total of 157 prevalent tunneled catheters were locked with citrate and prospectively followed during a 1-year period. The primary endpoint was first CRB diagnosed according to two of the diagnostic criteria for Catheter Infection of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), namely definite and probable infection. The CDC criterion of possible but not proved infection was not considered. This citrate lock cohort (n = 157) had 10 episodes of CRB. We observed 0.49 CRB episodes/1000 patient-days and the mean infection-free catheter day was 130.6 ± 100.9. No clinically relevant adverse events were observed. No proved tunnel or exit site infection was observed and no patients died because of CRB. Catheter obstruction episodes were reported on 69 occasions out of 14 catheters. These results were compared with an historical cohort from a previous study of catheter locking with low-dose gentamicin and did not show significant difference in efficacy. Citrate lock is effective in preventing CRB. No toxicity was observed. The use of citrate lock may have advantages over antibiotic locks: no reported bacterial resistance, lower industrial cost, and less manipulation. PMID:22515732

  19. Physiological characterization of ATP-citrate lyase in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; He, Xihong; Geng, Hongran; Liu, Hao

    2014-04-01

    Acetyl-CoA, an important molecule in cellular metabolism, is generated in multiple subcellular compartments and mainly used for energy production, biosynthesis of a diverse set of molecules, and protein acetylation. In eukaryotes, cytosolic acetyl-CoA is derived mainly from the conversion of citrate and CoA by ATP-citrate lyase. Here, we describe the targeted deletions of acl1 and acl2, two tandem divergently transcribed genes encoding subunits of ATP-citrate lyase in Aspergillus niger. We show that loss of acl1 or/and acl2 results in a significant decrease of acetyl-CoA and citric acid levels in these mutants, concomitant with diminished vegetative growth, decreased pigmentation, reduced asexual conidiogenesis, and delayed conidial germination. Exogenous addition of acetate repaired the defects of acl-deficient strains in growth and conidial germination but not pigmentation and conidiogenesis. We demonstrate that both Acl1 and Acl2 subunits are required to form a functional ATP-citrate lyase in A. niger. First, deletion of acl1 or/and acl2 resulted in similar defects in growth and development. Second, enzyme activity assays revealed that loss of either acl1 or acl2 gene resulted in loss of ATP-citrate lyase activity. Third, in vitro enzyme assays using bacterially expressed 6His-tagged Acl protein revealed that only the complex of Acl1 and Acl2 showed ATP-citrate lyase activity, no enzyme activities were detected with the individual protein. Fourth, EGFP-Acl1 and mCherry-Acl2 proteins were co-localized in the cytosol. Thus, acl1 and acl2 coordinately modulate the cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA levels to regulate growth, development, and citric acid synthesis in A. niger.

  20. Functional Characterization and Metal Ion Specificity of the Metal-Citrate Complex Transporter from Streptomyces coelicolor▿

    PubMed Central

    Lensbouer, Joshua J.; Patel, Ami; Sirianni, Joseph P.; Doyle, Robert P.

    2008-01-01

    Secondary transporters of citrate in complex with metal ions belong to the bacterial CitMHS family, about which little is known. The transport of metal-citrate complexes in Streptomyces coelicolor has been investigated. The best cofactor for citrate uptake in Streptomyces coelicolor is Fe3+, but uptake was also noted for Ca2+, Pb2+, Ba2+, and Mn2+. Uptake was not observed with the Mg2+, Ni2+, or Co2+ cofactor. The transportation of iron- and calcium-citrate makes these systems unique among the CitMHS family members reported to date. No complementary uptake akin to that observed for the CitH (Ca2+, Ba2+, Sr2+) and CitM (Mg2+, Ni2+, Mn2+, Co2+, Zn2+) systems of Bacillus subtilis was noted. Competitive experiments using EGTA confirmed that metal-citrate complex formation promoted citrate uptake. Uptake of free citrate was not observed. The open reading frame postulated as being responsible for the metal-citrate transport observed in Streptomyces coelicolor was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli strains with the primary Fe3+-citrate transport system (fecABCDE) removed. Functional expression was successful, with uptake of Ca2+-citrate, Fe3+-citrate, and Pb2+-citrate observed. No free-citrate transport was observed in IPTG (isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside)-induced or -uninduced E. coli. Metabolism of the Fe3+-citrate and Ca2+-citrate complexes, but not the Pb2+-citrate complex, was observed. Rationalization is based on the difference in metal-complex coordination upon binding of the metal by citrate. PMID:18556792

  1. Temperature effect on nickel release in ammonium citrate.

    PubMed

    Oller, Adriana R; Cappellini, Danielle; Henderson, Rayetta G; Bates, Hudson K

    2009-09-01

    Leaching in ammonium citrate has been extensively used to assess the fraction of water-soluble nickel compounds present in nickel producing and using workplace aerosols. Leaching in ammonium citrate according to the first step of the Zatka protocol was found to overestimate the water-soluble nickel fraction by more than ten-fold compared to synthetic lung fluid (37 degrees C), when nickel carbonate and subsulfide were present. These results suggest that exposure matrices based on this method should be reexamined. Leaching studies of refinery particles are needed to further clarify this important issue. PMID:19724840

  2. Peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthase in CAM plants.

    PubMed

    Zafra, M F; Segovia, J L; Alejandre, M J; García-Peregrín, E

    1981-12-01

    Citrate synthase wa studied for the first time in peroxisomes and mitochondria of crassulacean acid metabolism plants. Cellular organelles were isolated from Agave americana leaves by sucrose density gradient centrifugation and characterized by the use of catalase and cytochrome oxidase as marker enzymes, respectively. 48,000 X g centrifugation caused the breakdown of the cellular organelles. The presence of a glyoxylate cycle enzyme (citrate synthase) and a glycollate pathway enzyme (catalase) in the same organelles, besides the absence of another glyoxalate cycle enzyme (malate synthase) is reported for the first time, suggesting that peroxisomal and glyoxysomal proteins are synthesized at the same time and housed in he same organelle.

  3. Estimating conformation content of a protein using citrate-stabilized Au nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deka, Jashmini; Paul, Anumita; Chattopadhyay, Arun

    2010-08-01

    Herein we report the use of the optical properties of citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) for estimation of native or denatured conformation content in a mixture of a protein in solution. The UV-vis extinction spectrum of citrate-stabilized Au NPs is known to broaden differently in the presence of native and denatured states of α-amylase, bovine serum albumin (BSA) or amyloglucosidase (AMG). On the other hand, herein we show that when a mixture of native and denatured protein was present in the medium, the broadening of the spectrum differed for different fractional content of the conformations. Also, the total area under the extinction spectrum varied linearly with the change in the mole fraction content of a state and for a constant total protein concentration. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements revealed different levels of agglomeration for different fractional contents of the native or denatured state of a protein. In addition, time-dependent denaturation of a protein could be followed using the present method. The rate constants calculated for denaturation indicated a possible fast change in conformation of a protein before complete thermal denaturation. The observations have been explained based on the changes in extinction coefficient (thereby oscillator strength) upon interaction of citrate-stabilized NPs with proteins being in different states and levels of agglomeration.Herein we report the use of the optical properties of citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) for estimation of native or denatured conformation content in a mixture of a protein in solution. The UV-vis extinction spectrum of citrate-stabilized Au NPs is known to broaden differently in the presence of native and denatured states of α-amylase, bovine serum albumin (BSA) or amyloglucosidase (AMG). On the other hand, herein we show that when a mixture of native and denatured protein was present in the medium, the broadening of the spectrum differed for

  4. pH-specific aqueous synthetic chemistry in the binary cadmium(II)-citrate system. Gaining insight into cadmium(II)-citrate speciation with relevance to cadmium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kefalas, E T; Dakanali, M; Panagiotidis, P; Raptopoulou, C P; Terzis, A; Mavromoustakos, T; Kyrikou, I; Karligiano, N; Bino, A; Salifoglou, A

    2005-06-27

    The involvement of Cd(II) in toxic manifestations and pathological aberrations in lower and higher organisms entails interactions with low and high molecular mass biological targets. To understand the relevant chemistry in aqueous media, we have launched pH-dependent synthetic efforts targeting Cd(II) with the physiological ligand citric acid. Reactions of Cd(II) with citric acid upon the addition of NaOH at pH 2.5 and pyridine at pH 3 and the addition of ammonia at pH approximately 7 led to the new complexes [Cd3(C6H5O7)2(H2O)5] x H2O (1) and (NH4)[Cd(C6H5O7)(H2O)] x H2O (2), respectively. Complexes 1 and 2 were characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopy (FT-IR and NMR), and X-ray crystallography. Complex 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/n, with a = 18.035(6) A, b = 10.279(4) A, c = 12.565(4) A, beta = 109.02(1) degrees, V = 2202(2) A3, and Z = 4. Complex 2 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1), with a = 9.686(4) A, b = 8.484(4) A, c = 7.035(3) A, beta = 110.28(1) degrees, V = 542.3(4) A3, and Z = 2. Complex 1 is a trinuclear assembly with the citrate ligand securing a stable metallacyclic ring around one Cd(II), with the terminal carboxylates spanning into the coordination sphere of two nearby Cd(II) ions. Complex 2 contains mononuclear units of Cd(II) bound by citrate in an overall coordination number of 8. In both 1 and 2, the participating citrates exhibit three different modes of coordination, thus projecting a distinct yet variable aqueous structural chemistry of Cd(II) with physiological substrates. The pH-dependent chemistry and its apparent structural diversity validate past solution speciation studies, projecting the existence of mononuclear species such as the one in the anion of 2. The spectroscopic and structural properties of 2 emphasize the significance of the information emerging from synthetic studies that otherwise would not have been revealed through conventional solution studies, while concurrently shedding

  5. A novel direct homogeneous assay for ATP citrate lyase.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhengping; Chu, Ching-Hsuen; Cheng, Dong

    2009-10-01

    ATP citrate lyase (ACL) is a cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate using citrate, CoA, and ATP as substrates and Mg(2+) as a necessary cofactor. The ACL-dependent synthesis of acetyl-CoA is thought to be an essential step for the de novo synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol. For this reason, inhibition of ACL has been pursued as a strategy to treat dyslipidemia and obesity. Traditionally, ACL enzyme activity is measured indirectly by coupling to enzymes such as malate dehydrogenase or chloramphenicol acetyl transferase. In this report, however, we describe a novel procedure to directly measure ACL enzyme activity. We first identified a convenient method to specifically detect [(14)C]acetyl-CoA without detecting [(14)C]citrate by MicroScint-O. Using this detection system, we devised a simple, direct, and homogeneous ACL assay in 384-well plate format that is suitable for high-throughput screening. The current assay consists of 1) incubation of ACL enzyme with [(14)C]citrate and other substrates/cofactors CoA, ATP, and Mg(2+), 2) EDTA quench, 3) addition of MicroScint-O, the agent that specifically detects product [(14)C]acetyl-CoA, and 4) detection of signal by TopCount. This unique ACL assay may provide more efficient identification of new ACL inhibitors and allow detailed mechanistic characterization of ACL/inhibitor interactions.

  6. Structural effects of titanium citrate on the human erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Suwalsky, M; Villena, F; Norris, B; Soto, M A; Sotomayor, C P; Messori, L; Zatta, P

    2005-03-01

    The structural effects of titanium citrate on the human erythrocyte membrane were studied through its interaction with intact erythrocytes and isolated unsealed human erythrocyte membranes (IUM). The studies were carried out by scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy, respectively. Titanium citrate induced shape changes in erythrocytes, which were damaged and ruptured leaving empty and retracted membranes. Fluorescence spectroscopy measurements in IUM indicated a disordering effect at both the polar head group and the acyl chain packing arrangements of the membrane phospholipid bilayer. Titanium citrate also interacted with molecular models of the erythrocyte membrane consisting in bilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE), representing classes of phospholipids located in the outer and inner monolayers of the erythrocyte membrane, respectively. X-ray diffraction indicated that titanium citrate induced structural perturbation of the polar head group and of the hydrophobic acyl regions of DMPC, while the effects on DMPE bilayers were negligible. This conclusion is supported by fluorescence spectroscopy measurements on DMPC large unilamellar vesicles. All these findings indicate that the structural perturbations induced by titanium to human erythrocytes can be extended to other cells, thereby affecting their functions. PMID:15708797

  7. Citrate-based contained liquid membranes for flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Pakala, N.R.; Varanasi, S.; LeBlanc, S.E. )

    1993-03-01

    The steady-state SO[sub 2] fluxes across aqueous sodium citrate and sulfite films were measured, using a flat liquid film sandwiched between polymer sheets and also a hollow-fiber contained liquid membrane device (HFCLM). Nonequilibrium boundary layer analysis (NEBLA) for the transport of SO[sub 2] through sulfate films was modified for citrate films and compared to the experimental data. The agreement between the measured fluxes and model predictions is excellent. SO[sub 2] transport rates across citrate films were found to be higher by at least a factor of 4 compared to those across sulfite films, at all reagent concentrations studied. The observed enhancement in SO[sub 2] flux across aqueous sulfite or citrate films stems from the dynamic role played by these weak-acid reagents as carriers for H[sup +] ions across the film. A weak acid with a pK close to the arithmetic mean of the pH values at the two faces of the liquid film is expected to provide the maximum enhancement in SO[sub 2] flux.

  8. 21 CFR 184.1307c - Ferrous citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferrous citrate. 184.1307c Section 184.1307c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1307c - Ferrous citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferrous citrate. 184.1307c Section 184.1307c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1307c - Ferrous citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferrous citrate. 184.1307c Section 184.1307c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1307c - Ferrous citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferrous citrate. 184.1307c Section 184.1307c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing...

  12. 40 CFR 721.7286 - Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7286 Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines,...

  13. 40 CFR 721.7286 - Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7286 Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines,...

  14. 40 CFR 721.7285 - Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7285 Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines,...

  15. 40 CFR 721.7285 - Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7285 Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines,...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1140 - Ammonium citrate, dibasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... intended use. (c) In accordance with § 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used in food with no limitation other... safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the following current good manufacturing... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium citrate, dibasic. 184.1140 Section...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1140 - Ammonium citrate, dibasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... intended use. (c) In accordance with § 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used in food with no limitation other... safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the following current good manufacturing... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium citrate, dibasic. 184.1140 Section...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1140 - Ammonium citrate, dibasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... intended use. (c) In accordance with § 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used in food with no limitation other... safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the following current good manufacturing... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium citrate, dibasic. 184.1140 Section...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1140 - Ammonium citrate, dibasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... accordance with § 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used in food with no limitation other than current good... human food ingredient is based upon the following current good manufacturing practice conditions of use... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium citrate, dibasic. 184.1140 Section...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 184.1296 Section 184.1296 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 184.1296 Section 184.1296 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 184.1296 Section 184.1296 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS...

  3. 76 FR 19997 - Determination That FENTORA (Fentanyl Citrate) Buccal Tablet, 300 Micrograms, Was Not Withdrawn...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That FENTORA (Fentanyl Citrate) Buccal Tablet... determined that FENTORA (fentanyl citrate) buccal tablet, 300 micrograms (mcg), was not withdrawn from sale... drug applications (ANDAs) for fentanyl citrate buccal tablet, 300 mcg, if all other legal...

  4. 21 CFR 520.763c - Dithiazanine iodide and piperazine citrate suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dithiazanine iodide and piperazine citrate... § 520.763c Dithiazanine iodide and piperazine citrate suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of... piperazine citrate). (b) Sponsor. See 000010 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) NAS/NRC status....

  5. 21 CFR 520.763c - Dithiazanine iodide and piperazine citrate suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dithiazanine iodide and piperazine citrate... § 520.763c Dithiazanine iodide and piperazine citrate suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of... piperazine citrate). (b) Sponsor. See 000010 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) NAS/NRC status....

  6. 78 FR 63228 - Determination That Potassium Citrate, 10 Milliequivalents/Packet and 20 Milliequivalents/Packet...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That Potassium Citrate, 10 Milliequivalents...) has determined that Potassium Citrate, 10 milliequivalents/packet (mEq/packet) and 20 mEq/ packet, was... approve abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for Potassium Citrate, 10 mEq/packet and 20...

  7. Iron Translocation I. Plant Culture, Exudate Sampling, Iron-Citrate Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tiffin, Lee O.

    1966-01-01

    Plant culture, exudate sampling, and analytical methods designed to ascertain the form of iron translocated are presented. Restoration of iron to sunflower plants precultured at different Fe levels resulted in exudate iron concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 31 × 10−5 m. Citrate was from 3 to 89 × 10−5 m. Iron and citrate were highest in exudates from iron-deficient plants. Citrate/Fe ratios were between 1 and 3 for exudates of deficient plants. Exudate from normal plants gave a citrate/Fe ratio of 15. Malate, iron, and a fraction of the citrate in stem exudates migrated electrophoretically to similar positions in acetate buffer. Extracts of narrow bands from the iron-containing areas gave curves suggesting that citrate bound the iron. Citrate that was not combined with iron migrated in a slower band. The effect of iron on citrate migration was confirmed in several related experiments. The stability of Fe-citrate was demonstrated electrophoretically in malate buffer. Citrate retained iron against malate. Data given in this paper indicate that citrate binds iron in sunflower exudate. The data suggest that citrate carries iron in intact plants. Images PMID:16656281

  8. Mayenite Synthesized Using the Citrate Sol-Gel Method

    SciTech Connect

    Ude, Sabina N; Rawn, Claudia J; Meisner, Roberta A; Kirkham, Melanie J; Jones, Gregory L.; Payzant, E Andrew

    2014-01-01

    A citrate sol-gel method has been used to synthesize mayenite (Ca12Al14O33). X-ray powder diffraction data show that the samples synthesized using the citrate sol-gel method contained CaAl2O4 and CaCO3 along with mayenite when fired ex-situ in air at 800 C but were single phase when fired at 900 C and above. Using high temperature x-ray diffraction, data collected in-situ in air at temperatures of 600 C and below showed only amorphous content; however, data collected at higher temperatures indicated the first phase to crystallize is CaCO3. High temperature x-ray diffraction data collected in 4% H2/96% N2 does not show the presence of CaCO3, and Ca12Al14O33 starts to form around 850 C. In comparison, x-ray powder diffraction data collected ex-situ on samples synthesized using traditional solid-state synthesis shows that single phase was not reached until samples were fired at 1350 C. DTA/TGA data collected either in a nitrogen environment or air on samples synthesized using the citrate gel method suggest the complete decomposition of metastable phases and the formation of mayenite at 900 C, although the phase evolution is very different depending on the environment. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements showed a slightly higher surface area of 7.4 0.1 m2/g in the citrate gel synthesized samples compared to solid-state synthesized sample with a surface area of 1.61 0.02 m2/g. SEM images show a larger particle size for samples synthesized using the solid-state method compared to those synthesized using the citrate gel method.

  9. Re-Citrate Synthase from Clostridium kluyveri Is Phylogenetically Related to Homocitrate Synthase and Isopropylmalate Synthase Rather Than to Si-Citrate Synthase† ▿

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fuli; Hagemeier, Christoph H.; Seedorf, Henning; Gottschalk, Gerhard; Thauer, Rudolf K.

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis of citrate from acetyl-coenzyme A and oxaloacetate is catalyzed in most organisms by a Si-citrate synthase, which is Si-face stereospecific with respect to C-2 of oxaloacetate. However, in Clostridium kluyveri and some other strictly anaerobic bacteria, the reaction is catalyzed by a Re-citrate synthase, whose primary structure has remained elusive. We report here that Re-citrate synthase from C. kluyveri is the product of a gene predicted to encode isopropylmalate synthase. C. kluyveri is also shown to contain a gene for Si-citrate synthase, which explains why cell extracts of the organism always exhibit some Si-citrate synthase activity. PMID:17400742

  10. Potentiometric detection of citrate in beverages using a graphite carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Celso L; Melo, Edmar I; Coelho, Nívia M M

    2011-05-30

    The development, evaluation and application of a simple and low-cost graphite carbon electrode for the direct determination of citrate in food samples are described here. The electrode exhibits a linear response with a slope of -29.0 ± 1.0 mV decade(-1) in a concentration range of 0.07-7.0 mmol L(-1) in 0.1 mol L(-1) KCl/1.0 mmol L(-1) phosphate buffer solution with a limit of detection of 3.0 μmol L(-1). The electrode is easily constructed at a relatively low cost and has a fast time response (within 120 s) with no significant changes in its performance characteristics. The performance of the graphite sensor was tested to determine citrate in beverage samples (juices and an isotonic drink), and the results were validated against a reference procedure. The proposed method is quick, inexpensive, selective and sensitive, and is based entirely on conventional instrumentation.

  11. Size sorting of citrate reduced gold nanoparticles by sedimentation field-flow fractionation.

    PubMed

    Contado, Catia; Argazzi, Roberto

    2009-12-25

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been synthesized through the citrate reduction method; the citrate/gold(III) ratio was changed from 1:1 up to 10:1 and the size of the resulting nanoparticles was measured by sedimentation field-flow fractionation (SdFFF). Experimental data showed that the GNPs size decreases in the ratio range 1:1-3:1 and then increases from 5:1 to 10:1 passing through a plateau region in between, and is almost independent of the precursor solution concentrations. In the zone of minimum diameters the synthetic process does not produce monodispersed GNPs but often multiple distributions, very close in size, are observed as evidenced by the particle size distributions (PSDs) derived from the SdFFF fractograms. UV-vis spectrophotometry, being the most common technique employed in the optical characterization of nanoparticles suspensions, was used throughout this work. A confirmation of the nucleation-aggregation-fragmentation mechanism was inferred from the cross-correlation between UV-vis and SdFFF results.

  12. Modification by food of the calcium absorbability and physicochemical effects of calcium citrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wabner, C. L.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    The food-calcium (Ca) interaction was examined in 12 healthy women (mean age 38 years) maintained on a constant metabolic diet. They underwent three phases of study, comprised of control (no Ca), Ca citrate (1 g Ca/day) during meals, and Ca citrate separately from meals. Each phase was 7 days in length and two 24-hour urine samples were collected on days 6 and 7. The rise from the control phase in urinary Ca was slightly more prominent when Ca citrate was given with meals than without (68 and 62%, respectively). The fall in urinary phosphorus was equivalent at about 25% between Ca citrate phases. The rise in urinary citrate and pH and the decline in urinary ammonium were more prominent when Ca citrate was given with meals; however, the changes were small or nonsignificant. The urinary saturation of Ca oxalate, brushite or monosodium urate did not differ between the two Ca citrate phases. There was a nonsignificant rise in serum iron during Ca citrate phases. The results suggest that: 1) dissolution and absorption of Ca citrate might be slightly greater when given with food than without; 2) that the ability of Ca citrate to attenuate crystallization of stone-forming Ca salts in urine is not modified by food; and 3) that Ca citrate may not impair iron absorption from food.

  13. Artificial citrate operon and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene enhanced mineral phosphate solubilizing ability of Enterobacter hormaechei DHRSS.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Kavita; Kumar, Chanchal; Archana, G; Kumar, G Naresh

    2014-10-01

    Mineral phosphate solubilization by bacteria is mediated through secretion of organic acids, among which citrate is one of the most effective. To overproduce citrate in bacterial systems, an artificial citrate operon comprising of genes encoding NADH-insensitive citrate synthase of E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium sodium-dependent citrate transporter was constructed. In order to improve its mineral phosphate solubilizing (MPS) ability, the citrate operon was incorporated into E. hormaechei DHRSS. The artificial citrate operon transformant secreted 7.2 mM citric acid whereas in the native strain, it was undetectable. The transformant released 0.82 mM phosphate in flask studies in buffered medium containing rock phosphate as sole P source. In fermenter studies, similar phenotype was observed under aerobic conditions. However, under microaerobic conditions, no citrate was detected and P release was not observed. Therefore, an artificial citrate gene cluster containing Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb) gene under its native promoter, along with artificial citrate operon under constitutive tac promoter, was constructed and transformed into E. hormaechei DHRSS. This transformant secreted 9 mM citric acid under microaerobic conditions and released 1.0 mM P. Thus, incorporation of citrate operon along with vgb gene improves MPS ability of E. hormaechei DHRSS under buffered, microaerobic conditions mimicking rhizospheric environment.

  14. The effect of EDDS and citrate on the uptake of lead in hydroponically grown Matthiola flavida.

    PubMed

    Mohtadi, Ahmad; Ghaderian, Seyed Majid; Schat, Henk

    2013-10-01

    Root and shoot lead concentrations and the impact of chelating agents on these were investigated in two populations of the novel metallophyte Matthiola flavida. Plants were exposed in hydroponics to Pb(NO3)2, supplied alone, or in combination with citric acid, or EDDS. When supplied at concentrations expected to bind about 95% of the Pb in a solution containing 1-μM Pb (1000 μM citrate or 3.1 μM EDDS, respectively), the root and shoot Pb concentrations were dramatically lowered, in comparison with a 1-μM free ionic Pb control exposure. A 1-mM EDDS+1-μM Pb treatment decreased the plants' Pb concentrations further, even to undetectable levels in one population. At 100 μM Pb in a 1-mM EDDS-amended solution the Pb concentration increased strongly in shoots, but barely in roots, in comparison with the 1-μM Pb+1-mM EDDS treatment, without causing toxicity symptoms. Further increments of the Pb concentration in the 1-mM EDDS-amended solution, i.e. to 800 and 990 μM, caused Pb hyperaccumulation, both in roots and in shoots, associated with a complete arrest of root growth and foliar necrosis. M. flavida seemed to be devoid of constitutive mechanisms for uptake of Pb-citrate or Pb-EDDS complexes. Hyperaccumulation of Pb-EDDS occurred only at high exposure levels. Pb-EDDS was toxic, but is much less so than free Pb. Free EDDS did not seem to be toxic at the concentrations tested.

  15. Production of technical-grade sodium citrate from glycerol-containing biodiesel waste by Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Kamzolova, Svetlana V; Vinokurova, Natalia G; Lunina, Julia N; Zelenkova, Nina F; Morgunov, Igor G

    2015-10-01

    The production of technical-grade sodium citrate from the glycerol-containing biodiesel waste by Yarrowia lipolytica was studied. Batch experiments showed that citrate was actively produced within 144 h, then citrate formation decreased presumably due to inhibition of enzymes involved in this process. In contrast, when the method of repeated batch cultivation was used, the formation of citrate continued for more than 500 h. In this case, the final concentration of citrate in the culture liquid reached 79-82 g/L. Trisodium citrate was isolated from the culture liquid filtrate by the addition of a small amount of NaOH, so that the pH of the filtrate increased to 7-8. This simple and economic isolation procedure gave the yield of crude preparation containing trisodium citrate 5.5-hydrate up to 82-86%.

  16. Lecithin/chitosan controlled release nanopreparations of tamoxifen citrate: loading, enzyme-trigger release and cell uptake.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Stefano; Sonvico, Fabio; Como, Caterina; Colombo, Gaia; Zani, Franca; Buttini, Francesca; Bettini, Ruggero; Rossi, Alessandra; Colombo, Paolo

    2013-05-10

    Tamoxifen citrate (TAM), an anticancer drug with amphiphilic properties, was loaded in lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles (LCN) with a view to oral administration. The influence of tamoxifen loading on the physico-chemical properties of nanoparticles was studied. Size, surface charge and morphological properties of tamoxifen-loaded nanoparticles (LCN-TAM) were assessed. The increase in the tamoxifen amount in the LCN-TAM preparation up to 60 mg/100 ml maintained the positive zeta potential value of about +45 mV. A statistically significant decrease in particle size was observed for TAM amounts between 5 and 20mg. A strong influence of loaded tamoxifen on the structure of lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles was observed, supported by the quantification of free chitosan and morphological analysis. A loading of tamoxifen in nanoparticles of around 19% was obtained. The release of the drug from the LCN-TAM colloidal dispersion was measured, showing that tamoxifen citrate was released very slowly in simulated gastro-intestinal fluids without enzymes. When enzymes able to dismantle the nanoparticle structure were added to the dissolution medium, drug release was triggered and continued in a prolonged manner. Tamoxifen-loaded nanoparticles showed cytotoxicity towards MCF-7 cells comparable to that obtained with tamoxifen citrate solution, but the rate of this toxic effect was dependent on drug release. Caco-2 cells, used as a model of the intestinal epithelium, were shown to take up the TAM loaded nanoparticles extensively. PMID:23428841

  17. [Modern conservative (citrate) therapy for urate calculi in the ureters].

    PubMed

    Glybochko, P V; Aliaev, Iu G; Rapoport, L M; Tsarichenko, D G; Frolova, E A

    2014-01-01

    The results of conservative citrate therapy of 35 patients with urate calculi in ureter are presented. Due to the violation of the passage of urine in the upper urinary tract, the vast majority of patients (31 (88%)) underwent ureteral stenting to restore adequate flow of urine before treatment. In four patients, drainage of the upper urinary tract was not required. Citrate therapy allowed to achieve complete dissolution of calculi within 2 months in 25 (72%) patients. Another 14% of patients were able to reduce the size of the calculi, and in combination with contact ureterolithotripsy achieve complete discharge of calculi. Only in 14% of patients with urate calculi in ureter litholysis was ineffective. The used treatment option allows to avoid surgery in a large number of patients with urate lithiasis.

  18. Trisodium citrate, Na3(C6H5O7)

    PubMed Central

    Rammohan, Alagappa; Kaduk, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structure of anhydrous tris­odium citrate, Na3(C6H5O7), has been solved and refined using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data, and optimized using density functional theory (DFT). There are two independent five-coordinate Na+ and one six-coordinate Na+ cations in the asymmetric unit. The [NaO5] and [NaO6] polyhedra share edges and corners to form a three-dimensional framework. There are channels parallel to the a and b axes in which the remainder of the citrate anions reside. The only hydrogen bonds are an intra­molecular one between the hy­droxy group and one of the terminal carboxyl­ate O atoms and an intermolecular one between a methylene group and the hydroxyl O atom. PMID:27308044

  19. Dynamics of meso and thermo citrate synthases with implicit solvation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordeiro, J. M. M.

    The dynamics of hydration of meso and thermo citrate synthases has been investigated using the EEF1 methodology implemented with the CHARMM program. The native enzymes are composed of two identical subunits, each divided into a small and large domain. The dynamics behavior of both enzymes at 30°C and 60°C has been compared. The results of simulations show that during the hydration process, each subunit follows a different pathway of hydration, in spite of the identical sequence. The hydrated structures were compared with the crystalline structure, and the root mean square deviation (RMSD) of each residue along the trajectory was calculated. The regions with larger and smaller mobility were identified. In particular, helices belonging to the small domain are more mobile than those of the large domain. In contrast, the residues that constitute the active site show a much lower displacement compared with the crystalline structure. Hydration free energy calculations point out that Thermoplasma acidophilum citrate synthase (TCS) is more stable than chicken citrate synthase (CCS), at high temperatures. Such result has been ascribed to the higher number of superficial charges in the thermophilic homologue, which stabilizes the enzyme, while the mesophilic homologue denatures. These results are in accord with the experimental found that TCS keeps activity at temperatures farther apart from the catalysis regular temperature than the CCS.

  20. Comparison of Citrated Human Blood, Citrated Sheep Blood, and Defibrinated Sheep Blood Mueller-Hinton Agar Preparations for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates ▿

    PubMed Central

    Satzke, Catherine; Seduadua, Anna; Chandra, Reginald; Carapetis, Jonathan R.; Mulholland, E. Kim; Russell, Fiona M.

    2010-01-01

    The use of Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with citrated human or citrated sheep blood was compared with the use of routinely used Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with defibrinated sheep blood for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The alternate supplements were found to be unsatisfactory, particularly for testing resistant isolates, and therefore are not recommended. PMID:20668133

  1. Comparison of citrated human blood, citrated sheep blood, and defibrinated sheep blood Mueller-Hinton agar preparations for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates.

    PubMed

    Satzke, Catherine; Seduadua, Anna; Chandra, Reginald; Carapetis, Jonathan R; Mulholland, E Kim; Russell, Fiona M

    2010-10-01

    The use of Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with citrated human or citrated sheep blood was compared with the use of routinely used Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with defibrinated sheep blood for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The alternate supplements were found to be unsatisfactory, particularly for testing resistant isolates, and therefore are not recommended.

  2. CitI, a Transcription Factor Involved in Regulation of Citrate Metabolism in Lactic Acid Bacteria†

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Mauricio G.; Magni, Christian; de Mendoza, Diego; López, Paloma

    2005-01-01

    A large variety of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can utilize citrate under fermentative conditions. Although much information concerning the metabolic pathways leading to citrate utilization by LAB has been gathered, the mechanisms regulating these pathways are obscure. In Weissella paramesenteroides (formerly called Leuconostoc paramesenteroides), transcription of the citMDEFCGRP citrate operon and the upstream divergent gene citI is induced by the presence of citrate in the medium. Although genetic experiments have suggested that CitI is a transcriptional activator whose activity can be modulated in response to citrate availability, specific details of the interaction between CitI and DNA remained unknown. In this study, we show that CitI recognizes two A+T-rich operator sites located between citI and citM and that the DNA-binding affinity of CitI is increased by citrate. Subsequently, this citrate signal propagation leads to the activation of the cit operon through an enhanced recruitment of RNA polymerase to its promoters. Our results indicate that the control of CitI by the cellular pools of citrate provides a mechanism for sensing the availability of citrate and adjusting the expression of the cit operon accordingly. In addition, this is the first reported example of a transcription factor directly functioning as a citrate-activated switch allowing the cell to optimize the generation of metabolic energy. PMID:16030208

  3. Enhanced effects of citrate on UVB-induced apoptosis of B16 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yun-Mi; Lee, Ju Eun; Kim, Su Yeon; Yun, Hye-Young; Baek, Kwang Jin; Kwon, Nyoun Soo; Kim, Dong-Seok

    2009-12-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a major risk factor for the development of melanoma. Recent studies have reported that the intake of citrate-containing juices may reduce the risk of cancer. Thus, we investigated the effects of citrate on UVB-irradiated B16 murine melanoma cells. B16 cells had more evident apoptotic features with the combination of citrate/UVB than by citrate or UVB alone; cell death of HaCaT human keratinocytes was not observed with citrate/UVB. Western blot analysis demonstrated that citrate/UVB led to phosphorylation of the stress signaling proteins, such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Furthermore, citrate/UVB caused activation of caspase-9/-3 as well as cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Correspondingly, cell cycle analysis showed that citrate/UVB clearly increased the sub-G0/G1 phase, which indicated apoptotic cell death of B16 cells. Therefore, our study has demonstrated that sub-lethal doses of citrate enhanced the apoptotic cell death of melanoma cells under UVB irradiation. From these results, we suggest that citrate might reduce the risk of developing melanoma induced by UVB.

  4. Effect of Potassium Citrate on Calcium Phosphate Stones in a Model of Hypercalciuria.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy S; Asplin, John R; Frick, Kevin K; Granja, Ignacio; Culbertson, Christopher D; Ng, Adeline; Grynpas, Marc D; Bushinsky, David A

    2015-12-01

    Potassium citrate is prescribed to decrease stone recurrence in patients with calcium nephrolithiasis. Citrate binds intestinal and urine calcium and increases urine pH. Citrate, metabolized to bicarbonate, should decrease calcium excretion by reducing bone resorption and increasing renal calcium reabsorption. However, citrate binding to intestinal calcium may increase absorption and renal excretion of both phosphate and oxalate. Thus, the effect of potassium citrate on urine calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation and stone formation is complex and difficult to predict. To study the effects of potassium citrate on urine supersaturation and stone formation, we utilized 95th-generation inbred genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats. Rats were fed a fixed amount of a normal calcium (1.2%) diet supplemented with potassium citrate or potassium chloride (each 4 mmol/d) for 18 weeks. Urine was collected at 6, 12, and 18 weeks. At 18 weeks, stone formation was visualized by radiography. Urine citrate, phosphate, oxalate, and pH levels were higher and urine calcium level was lower in rats fed potassium citrate. Furthermore, calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation were higher with potassium citrate; however, uric acid supersaturation was lower. Both groups had similar numbers of exclusively calcium phosphate stones. Thus, potassium citrate effectively raises urine citrate levels and lowers urine calcium levels; however, the increases in urine pH, oxalate, and phosphate levels lead to increased calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation. Potassium citrate induces complex changes in urine chemistries and resultant supersaturation, which may not be beneficial in preventing calcium phosphate stone formation.

  5. Ferric citrate controls phosphorus and delivers iron in patients on dialysis.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Julia B; Sika, Mohammed; Koury, Mark J; Chuang, Peale; Schulman, Gerald; Smith, Mark T; Whittier, Frederick C; Linfert, Douglas R; Galphin, Claude M; Athreya, Balaji P; Nossuli, A Kaldun Kaldun; Chang, Ingrid J; Blumenthal, Samuel S; Manley, John; Zeig, Steven; Kant, Kotagal S; Olivero, Juan Jose; Greene, Tom; Dwyer, Jamie P

    2015-02-01

    Patients on dialysis require phosphorus binders to prevent hyperphosphatemia and are iron deficient. We studied ferric citrate as a phosphorus binder and iron source. In this sequential, randomized trial, 441 subjects on dialysis were randomized to ferric citrate or active control in a 52-week active control period followed by a 4-week placebo control period, in which subjects on ferric citrate who completed the active control period were rerandomized to ferric citrate or placebo. The primary analysis compared the mean change in phosphorus between ferric citrate and placebo during the placebo control period. A sequential gatekeeping strategy controlled study-wise type 1 error for serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, and intravenous iron and erythropoietin-stimulating agent usage as prespecified secondary outcomes in the active control period. Ferric citrate controlled phosphorus compared with placebo, with a mean treatment difference of -2.2±0.2 mg/dl (mean±SEM) (P<0.001). Active control period phosphorus was similar between ferric citrate and active control, with comparable safety profiles. Subjects on ferric citrate achieved higher mean iron parameters (ferritin=899±488 ng/ml [mean±SD]; transferrin saturation=39%±17%) versus subjects on active control (ferritin=628±367 ng/ml [mean±SD]; transferrin saturation=30%±12%; P<0.001 for both). Subjects on ferric citrate received less intravenous elemental iron (median=12.95 mg/wk ferric citrate; 26.88 mg/wk active control; P<0.001) and less erythropoietin-stimulating agent (median epoetin-equivalent units per week: 5306 units/wk ferric citrate; 6951 units/wk active control; P=0.04). Hemoglobin levels were statistically higher on ferric citrate. Thus, ferric citrate is an efficacious and safe phosphate binder that increases iron stores and reduces intravenous iron and erythropoietin-stimulating agent use while maintaining hemoglobin. PMID:25060056

  6. Exogenous citrate impairs glucose tolerance and promotes visceral adipose tissue inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Leandro, João G B; Espindola-Netto, Jair M; Vianna, Maria Carolina F; Gomez, Lilian S; DeMaria, Thaina M; Marinho-Carvalho, Monica M; Zancan, Patricia; Paula Neto, Heitor A; Sola-Penna, Mauro

    2016-03-28

    Overweight and obesity have become epidemic worldwide and are linked to sedentary lifestyle and the consumption of processed foods and drinks. Citrate is a metabolite that plays central roles in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. In addition, citrate is the additive most commonly used by the food industry, and therefore is highly consumed. Extracellular citrate can freely enter the cells via the constitutively expressed plasma membrane citrate transporter. Within the cytosol, citrate is readily metabolised by ATP-citrate lyase into acetyl-CoA - the metabolic precursor of endogenously produced lipids and cholesterol. We therefore hypothesised that the citrate ingested from processed foods and drinks could contribute to increased postprandial fat production and weight gain. To test our hypothesis, we administered citrate to mice through their drinking water with or without sucrose and monitored their weight gain and other metabolic parameters. Our results showed that mice receiving citrate or citrate+sucrose did not show increased weight gain or an increase in the weight of the liver, skeletal muscles or adipose tissues (AT). Moreover, the plasma lipid profiles (TAG, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL) were similar across all groups. However, the group receiving citrate+sucrose showed augmented fasting glycaemia, glucose intolerance and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10) in their AT. Therefore, our results suggest that citrate consumption contributes to increased AT inflammation and altered glucose metabolism, which is indicative of initial insulin resistance. Thus, citrate consumption could be a previously unknown causative agent for the complications associated with obesity. PMID:26863933

  7. Effect of sodium citrate plus sodium diacetate or buffered vinegar on quality attributes of enhanced beef top sirloins.

    PubMed

    Ponrajan, Amudhan; Harrison, Mark A; Pringle, T Dean; Segers, Jacob R; Lowe, Brad K; McKeith, Russell O; Stelzleni, Alexander M

    2012-05-01

    As new pathogen intervention products come to market, it is important to ensure that they maintain or improve meat quality. Shelf-life and palatability traits were measured for top sirloins enhanced to 110% with solutions containing 0.5% sodium chloride and 0.4% sodium tripolyphosphate (CNT); CNT with a 1% solution of 80% sodium citrate plus 20% sodium diacetate (SC+D); or CNT with 2% buffered vinegar (VIN) in the final product. Enhancement solution did not influence color over 7days of retail display, except VIN was subjectively more red than CNT and SC+D on d 7 and SC+D had less discoloration than CNT on d 7 (P<0.05). VIN was rated lower (P<0.05) than CNT for trained sensory tenderness and there was no difference in shear force between treatments. SC+D and VIN show promise for use in beef enhancement solutions, however, further sensory studies are warranted.

  8. Citrate complexing sol-gel process of lead-free (K,Na)NbO3 ferroelectric films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Linlin; Zhu, Kongjun

    2016-05-01

    The citrate complexing sol-gel process to fabricate lead-free (K,Na)NbO3 ferroelectric thin films was studied. Soluble niobium source of niobium-citric acid (Nb-CA) solution was utilized as a raw material to synthesize (K,Na)NbO3 thin films, by pyrolyzing at 450-550∘C and annealing at 650∘C. The film pyrolyzed at 450∘C shows poor crystallization with porous morphology, whereas the film pyrolyzed at 550∘C appear to be well-crystallized and denser, and the ferroelectricity was also proved by the P-E hysteresis loop measurement.

  9. SbnG, a citrate synthase in Staphylococcus aureus: a new fold on an old enzyme.

    PubMed

    Kobylarz, Marek J; Grigg, Jason C; Sheldon, Jessica R; Heinrichs, David E; Murphy, Michael E P

    2014-12-01

    In response to iron deprivation, Staphylococcus aureus produces staphyloferrin B, a citrate-containing siderophore that delivers iron back to the cell. This bacterium also possesses a second citrate synthase, SbnG, that is necessary for supplying citrate to the staphyloferrin B biosynthetic pathway. We present the structure of SbnG bound to the inhibitor calcium and an active site variant in complex with oxaloacetate. The overall fold of SbnG is structurally distinct from TCA cycle citrate synthases yet similar to metal-dependent class II aldolases. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that SbnG forms a separate clade with homologs from other siderophore biosynthetic gene clusters and is representative of a metal-independent subgroup in the phosphoenolpyruvate/pyruvate domain superfamily. A structural superposition of the SbnG active site to TCA cycle citrate synthases and site-directed mutagenesis suggests a case for convergent evolution toward a conserved catalytic mechanism for citrate production.

  10. Enzyme:nanoparticle bioconjugates with two sequential enzymes: stoichiometry and activity of malate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase on Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Keighron, Jacqueline D; Keating, Christine D

    2010-12-21

    We report the synthesis and characterization of bioconjugates in which the enzymes malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and/or citrate synthase (CS) were adsorbed to 30 nm diameter Au nanoparticles. Enzyme:Au stoichiometry and kinetic parameters (specific activity, k(cat), K(M), and activity per particle) were determined for MDH:Au, CS:Au, and three types of dual-activity MDH/CS:Au bioconjugates. For single-activity bioconjugates (MDH:Au and CS:Au), the number of enzyme molecules adsorbed per particle was dependent upon the enzyme concentration in solution, with multilayers forming at high enzyme:Au solution ratios. The specific activity of adsorbed enzyme increased with increasing number adsorbed per particle for CS:Au, but was less sensitive to stoichiometry for MDH:Au. Dual activity bioconjugates were prepared in three ways: (1) by adsorption of MDH followed by CS, (2) by adsorption of CS followed by MDH, and (3) by coadsorption of both enzymes from the same solution. The resulting bioconjugates differed substantially in the number of enzyme molecules adsorbed per particle, the specific activity of the adsorbed enzymes, and also the enzymatic activity per particle. Bioconjugates formed by adding CS to the Au nanoparticles before MDH was added exhibited higher specific activities for both enzymes than those formed by adding the enzymes in the reverse order. These bioconjugates also had 3-fold higher per-particle sequential activity for conversion of malate to citrate, despite substantially fewer copies of both enzymes present.

  11. Engineering genetically encoded nanosensors for real-time in vivo measurements of citrate concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ewald, Jennifer C; Reich, Sabrina; Baumann, Stephan; Frommer, Wolf B; Zamboni, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Citrate is an intermediate in catabolic as well as biosynthetic pathways and is an important regulatory molecule in the control of glycolysis and lipid metabolism. Mass spectrometric and NMR based metabolomics allow measuring citrate concentrations, but only with limited spatial and temporal resolution. Methods are so far lacking to monitor citrate levels in real-time in-vivo. Here, we present a series of genetically encoded citrate sensors based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). We screened databases for citrate-binding proteins and tested three candidates in vitro. The citrate binding domain of the Klebsiella pneumoniae histidine sensor kinase CitA, inserted between the FRET pair Venus/CFP, yielded a sensor highly specific for citrate. We optimized the peptide linkers to achieve maximal FRET change upon citrate binding. By modifying residues in the citrate binding pocket, we were able to construct seven sensors with different affinities spanning a concentration range of three orders of magnitude without losing specificity. In a first in vivo application we show that E. coli maintains the capacity to take up glucose or acetate within seconds even after long-term starvation. PMID:22164251

  12. Risks and benefits of citrate anticoagulation for continuous renal replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Shum, H P; Yan, W W; Chan, T M

    2015-04-01

    Heparin, despite its significant side-effects, is the most commonly used anticoagulant for continuous renal replacement therapy in critical care setting. In recent years, citrate has gained much popularity by improving continuous renal replacement therapy circuit survival and decreasing blood transfusion requirements. However, its complex metabolic consequences warrant modification in the design of the citrate-based continuous renal replacement therapy protocol. With thorough understanding of the therapeutic mechanism of citrate, a simple and practicable protocol can be devised. Citrate-based continuous renal replacement therapy can be safely and widely used in the clinical setting with appropriate clinical staff training.

  13. Fast degradable citrate-based bone scaffold promotes spinal fusion

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jiajun; Guo, Jinshan; Li, Zhen; Yang, Cheng; Xie, Denghui; Chen, Jian; Li, Shengfa; Li, Shaolin; Kim, Gloria B.; Bai, Xiaochun; Zhang, Zhongmin; Yang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that high rates of fusion failure and pseudoarthrosis development (5~35%) are concomitant in spinal fusion surgery, which was ascribed to the shortage of suitable materials for bone regeneration. Citrate was recently recognized to play an indispensable role in enhancing osteconductivity and osteoinductivity, and promoting bone formation. To address the material challenges in spinal fusion surgery, we have synthesized mechanically robust and fast degrading citrate-based polymers by incorporating N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) into clickable poly(1, 8-octanediol citrates) (POC-click), referred to as POC-M-click. The obtained POC-M-click were fabricated into POC-M-click-HA matchstick scaffolds by compositing with hydroxyapatite (HA) for interbody spinal fusion in a rabbit model. Spinal fusion was analyzed by radiography, manual palpation, biomechanical testing, and histological evaluation. At 4 and 8 weeks post surgery, POC-M-click-HA scaffolds presented optimal degradation rates that facilitated faster new bone formation and higher spinal fusion rates (11.2±3.7, 80±4.5 at week 4 and 8, respectively) than the poly(L-lactic acid)-HA (PLLA-HA) control group (9.3±2.4 and 71.1±4.4) (p<0.05). The POC-M-click-HA scaffold-fused vertebrates possessed a maximum load and stiffness of 880.8±14.5 N and 843.2±22.4 N/mm, respectively, which were also much higher than those of the PLLA-HA group (maximum: 712.0±37.5 N, stiffness: 622.5±28.4 N/mm, p<0.05). Overall, the results suggest that POC-M-click-HA scaffolds could potentially serve as promising bone grafts for spinal fusion applications. PMID:26213625

  14. Ferrous iron oxidation by molecular oxygen under acidic conditions: The effect of citrate, EDTA and fulvic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Adele M.; Griffin, Philippa J.; Waite, T. David

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the rates of Fe(II) oxidation by molecular oxygen in the presence of citrate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) were determined over the pH range 4.0-5.5 and, for all of the ligands investigated, found to be substantially faster than oxidation rates in the absence of any ligand. EDTA was found to be particularly effective in enhancing the rate of Fe(II) oxidation when sufficient EDTA was available to complex all Fe(II) present in solution, with a kinetic model of the process found to adequately describe all results obtained. When Fe(II) was only partially complexed by EDTA, reactions with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and heterogeneous Fe(II) oxidation were found to contribute significantly to the removal rate of iron from solution at different stages of oxidation. This was possible due to the rapid rate at which EDTA enhanced Fe(II) oxidation and formed ROS and Fe(III). The rapid rate of Fe(III) generation facilitated the formation of free ferric ion activities in excess of those required for ferric oxyhydroxide precipitation following Fe(III)-EDTA dissociation. In comparison, the rate of Fe(II) oxidation was slower in the presence of citrate, and therefore the concentrations of free Fe(III) able to form in the initial stages of Fe(II) oxidation were much lower than those formed in the presence of EDTA, despite the resultant Fe(III)-citrate complex being less stable than that of Fe(III)-EDTA. The slower rate of citrate enhanced oxidation also resulted in slower rates of ROS generation, and, as such, oxidation of the remaining inorganic Fe(II) species by ROS was negligible. Overall, this study demonstrates that organic ligands may substantially enhance the rate of Fe(II) oxidation. Even under circumstances where the ligand is not present at sufficient concentrations to complex all of the Fe(II) in solution, ensuing oxidative processes may sustain an enhanced rate of Fe(II) oxidation relative to that of

  15. Citrate enhances in vitro metastatic behaviours of PC-3M human prostate cancer cells: status of endogenous citrate and dependence on aconitase and fatty acid synthase.

    PubMed

    Mycielska, Maria E; Broke-Smith, Timothy P; Palmer, Christopher P; Beckerman, Rachel; Nastos, Theodoros; Erguler, Kamil; Djamgoz, Mustafa B A

    2006-01-01

    Prostate is a unique organ that produces and releases large amounts of citrate. This is reduced significantly in cancer and it is possible that citrate is (re)taken up and used as a metabolite to enhance cellular activity. The main purpose of this study was to determine how cytosolic citrate might affect in vitro metastatic cell behaviours (lateral motility, endocytosis and adhesion). Normal (PNT2-C2) and metastatic (PC-3M) human prostate cancer cells were used in a comparative approach. As regards intermediary metabolic enzymes, aconitase and fatty acid synthase, already implicated in prostate cancer, were evaluated. The level of intracellular citrate was significantly higher in PNT2-C2 cells under both control conditions and following preincubation in extracellular citrate. Supply of exogenous citrate enhanced endocytosis, lateral motility, decreased cell adhesion of PC-3M cells but failed to produce any effect on normal cells. Real-time PCR measurements showed that the mRNA levels of mitochondrial and cytosolic aconitases and fatty acid synthase were significantly higher in PC-3M cells. Correspondingly, aconitase activity was also higher in PC-3M cells. Using cerulenin (an inhibitor of fatty acid synthase), oxalomalate and fluorocitrate (inhibiting aconitases), we investigated the dependence of citrate-induced down-regulation of cellular adhesion on aconitase and fatty acid synthase activities. It was concluded: (1) that strongly metastatic PC-3M cells stored less/utilised more cytosolic citrate than the normal PNT2-C2 cells and (2) that cancer cells could metabolise cytoplasmic citrate via aconitase and fatty acid synthase to enhance their metastatic behaviour. PMID:16798056

  16. Free Rhodium (II) citrate and rhodium (II) citrate magnetic carriers as potential strategies for breast cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rhodium (II) citrate (Rh2(H2cit)4) has significant antitumor, cytotoxic, and cytostatic activity on Ehrlich ascite tumor. Although toxic to normal cells, its lower toxicity when compared to carboxylate analogues of rhodium (II) indicates Rh2(H2cit)4 as a promising agent for chemotherapy. Nevertheless, few studies have been performed to explore this potential. Superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (SPIOs) represent an attractive platform as carriers in drug delivery systems (DDS) because they can present greater specificity to tumor cells than normal cells. Thus, the association between Rh2(H2cit)4 and SPIOs can represent a strategy to enhance the former's therapeutic action. In this work, we report the cytotoxicity of free rhodium (II) citrate (Rh2(H2cit)4) and rhodium (II) citrate-loaded maghemite nanoparticles or magnetoliposomes, used as drug delivery systems, on both normal and carcinoma breast cell cultures. Results Treatment with free Rh2(H2cit)4 induced cytotoxicity that was dependent on dose, time, and cell line. The IC50 values showed that this effect was more intense on breast normal cells (MCF-10A) than on breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7 and 4T1). However, the treatment with 50 μM Rh2(H2cit)4-loaded maghemite nanoparticles (Magh-Rh2(H2cit)4) and Rh2(H2cit)4-loaded magnetoliposomes (Lip-Magh-Rh2(H2cit)4) induced a higher cytotoxicity on MCF-7 and 4T1 than on MCF-10A (p < 0.05). These treatments enhanced cytotoxicity up to 4.6 times. These cytotoxic effects, induced by free Rh2(H2cit)4, were evidenced by morphological alterations such as nuclear fragmentation, membrane blebbing and phosphatidylserine exposure, reduction of actin filaments, mitochondrial condensation and an increase in number of vacuoles, suggesting that Rh2(H2cit)4 induces cell death by apoptosis. Conclusions The treatment with rhodium (II) citrate-loaded maghemite nanoparticles and magnetoliposomes induced more specific cytotoxicity on breast carcinoma cells than on breast

  17. Novel role of zinc in the regulation of prostate citrate metabolism and its implications in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Costello, L C; Franklin, R B

    1998-06-01

    The prostate gland of humans and many other animals has the major function of accumulating and secreting extraordinarily high levels of citrate. This specialized metabolic process of "net citrate production" is the result of unique metabolic capabilities of the secretory epithelial cells. Most importantly, in prostate cancer (Pca) the capability for net citrate production is lost. In addition to citrate, the normal and BPH (benign prostatic hyperplasia) prostate also accumulates the highest levels of zinc in the body. As with citrate, in Pca the ability for high zinc accumulation is diminished. These and other correlations between zinc and citrate in the prostate have been indicative of an important role of zinc in the regulation of citrate metabolism in normal and malignant prostate epithelial cells. The link between zinc and citrate metabolism has now been established. The intramitochondrial accumulation of high zinc levels inhibits mitochondrial (m-) aconitase activity, which inhibits citrate oxidation. This essentially truncates the Krebs cycle and markedly decreases the cellular energy (ATP) production normally coupled to citrate oxidation. It is also clear that zinc accumulation in citrate-producing prostate epithelial cells is regulated by testosterone and by prolactin. These relationships form the basis for a new concept of the role of zinc and citrate-related energy metabolism in prostate malignancy. The inability of malignant prostate cells to accumulate high zinc levels results in increased citrate oxidation and the coupled ATP production essential for the progression of malignancy. The concept offers new approaches to the treatment of Pca. PMID:9609552

  18. Derivation of Pitzer Interaction Parameters for an Aqueous Species Pair of FeCitrate- and Mg2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, J.; Olivas, T.; Nemer, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a deep underground repository for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The WIPP is located within the bedded salts of the Permian Salado Formation, which consists of interbedded halite and anhydrite layers overlaying the Castile Formation. The waste includes, but is not limited to, the salts of citric acid and iron. To calculate the solution chemistry for brines of WIPP-relevance, WIPP Performance Assessment (PA) employs the Pitzer formulation to determine the activity coefficients of aqueous species in brine. The current WIPP thermodynamic database, however, does not include iron species and their Pitzer parameters, in spite of the fact that there will be a large amount of iron in the WIPP. Iron would be emplaced as part of the waste, as well as the containers for the waste. The objective of this analysis is to derive the Pitzer binary interaction parameters for the pair of Mg2+ and FeCitrate-. Briefly, an aqueous model for dissolution of Fe(OH)2(s) in MgNa2Citrate solution was fitted to the experimentally measured solubility data. The aqueous model consists of several chemical reactions and related Pitzer interaction parameters. Specifically, Pitzer binary interaction parameters for the Mg2+ and FeCitrate- pair (β(0), β(1), and Cφ) were fitted to the experimental data. Anoxic gloveboxes were used to keep the oxygen level low (less than 6 ppm) throughout the experiments. Aging time was more than 800 days to ensure equilibrium. EQ3NR packaged in EQ3/6 v.8.0a calculates the aqueous speciation and saturation index using an aqueous model addressed in EQ3/6's database. The saturation index indicates how far the system is from equilibrium with respect to the solid of interest. Thus, the smaller the sum of squared saturation indices that the aqueous model calculates for the given number of experiments, the more closely the model attributes equilibrium to each

  19. Characterization of citrate utilization in Corynebacterium glutamicum by transcriptome and proteome analysis.

    PubMed

    Polen, Tino; Schluesener, Daniela; Poetsch, Ansgar; Bott, Michael; Wendisch, Volker F

    2007-08-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum grows aerobically on a variety of carbohydrates and organic acids as single or combined sources of carbon and energy. To characterize the citrate utilization in C. glutamicum on a genomewide scale, a comparative analysis was carried out by combining transcriptome and proteome analysis. In cells grown on citrate, transcriptome analysis revealed highest expression changes for two different citrate-uptake systems encoded by citM and tctCBA, whereas genes encoding uptake systems for the glucose- (ptsG), sucrose- (ptsS) and fructose- (ptsF) specific PTS components and permeases for gluconate (gntP) and glutamate (gluC) displayed decreased mRNA levels in citrate-grown cells. This pattern was also observed when cells grown in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium plus citrate were compared with cells grown in LB medium, indicating some kind of catabolite repression. Genes encoding enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (aconitase, succinyl-CoA synthetase, succinate dehydrogenase and fumarase), malic enzyme, PEP carboxykinase, gluconeogenic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and ATP synthase displayed increased expression in cells grown on citrate. Accordingly, proteome analysis revealed elevated protein levels of these enzymes and showed a good correlation with the mRNA levels. In conclusion, this study revealed the citrate stimulon in C. glutamicum and the regulated central metabolic genes when grown on citrate. PMID:17559405

  20. Effects of pH and Sugar on Acetoin Production from Citrate by Leuconostoc lactis.

    PubMed

    Cogan, T M; O'dowd, M; Mellerick, D

    1981-01-01

    The relationship between acetoin production and citrate utilization in Leuconostoc lactis NCW1 was studied. In a complex medium the organism utilized citrate at neutral pH (initial pH, 6.3) and at acid pH (initial pH, 4.5) but produced nine times more acetoin at the latter pH. In resting cells the utilization of citrate was optimum at pH 5.3. Production of acetoin as a function of citrate utilization increased as the pH decreased, and at pH 4.3 all of the citrate utilized was recovered as acetoin. Glucose (10 mM) and lactose (10 mM) markedly stimulated citrate utilization but totally inhibited acetoin production in glucose- and lactose-grown cells. Addition of glucose to cells actively metabolizing citrate caused an immediate increase in citrate uptake and a reduction in the level of acetoin. The apparent K(m) values of lactic dehydrogenase for pyruvate were 1.05, 0.25, and 0.15 mM at pH 7.5, 6.5, and 5.0, respectively. Several heterofermentation intermediates inhibited alpha-acetolactate synthetase and decarboxylase activities. The implications of these results in regulating acetoin formatin are discussed.

  1. Photochemical degradation of citrate buffers leads to covalent acetonation of recombinant protein therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Valliere-Douglass, John F; Connell-Crowley, Lisa; Jensen, Randy; Schnier, Paul D; Trilisky, Egor; Leith, Matt; Follstad, Brian D; Kerr, Jennifer; Lewis, Nathan; Vunnum, Suresh; Treuheit, Michael J; Balland, Alain; Wallace, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Novel acetone and aldimine covalent adducts were identified on the N-termini and lysine side chains of recombinant monoclonal antibodies. Photochemical degradation of citrate buffers, in the presence of trace levels of iron, is demonstrated as the source of these modifications. The link between degradation of citrate and the observed protein modifications was conclusively established by tracking the citrate decomposition products and protein adducts resulting from photochemical degradation of isotope labeled 13C citrate by mass spectrometry. The structure of the acetone modification was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy on modified–free glycine and found to correspond to acetone linked to the N-terminus of the amino acid through a methyl carbon. Results from mass spectrometric fragmentation of glycine modified with an acetone adduct derived from 13C labeled citrate indicated that the three central carbons of citrate are incorporated onto protein amines in the presence of iron and light. While citrate is known to stoichiometrically decompose to acetone and CO2 through various intermediates in photochemical systems, it has never been shown to be a causative agent in protein carbonylation. Our results point to a previously unknown source for the generation of reactive carbonyl species. This work also highlights the potential deleterious impact of trace metals on recombinant protein therapeutics formulated in citrate buffers. PMID:20836085

  2. 78 FR 34648 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts: Preliminary Results of Countervailing... review of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on citric acid and citrate salts from the People's Republic... (202) 482-1503. Scope of the Order The merchandise subject to the order is citric acid and...

  3. PREPARATION OF SORBITOL CITRATE POLYESTERS BY REACTIVE EXTRUSION AND APPLICATION AS INHIBITIORS OF CALCIUM CARBONATE PRECIPITATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorbitol citrates were prepared using a vented ZSK-30-twin-screw extruder as part of a program to develop bio-based, water soluble polycarboxylates. A Box-Behnken experimental design was used and included the variables sorbitol, citric acid, sodium citrate, temperature and feed rate. Extent of est...

  4. Citrate and Sugar Cofermentation in Leuconostoc oenos, a (sup13)C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, A.; Santos, H.

    1996-01-01

    (sup13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to investigate citrate-glucose cometabolism in nongrowing cell suspensions of the wine lactic acid bacterium Leuconostoc oenos. The use of isotopically enriched substrates allowed us to identify and quantify in the end products the carbon atoms derived from each of the substrates supplied; furthermore, it was possible to differentiate between products derived from the metabolism of endogenous carbon reserves and those derived from external substrates. Citrate-sugar cometabolism was also monitored in dilute cell suspensions for comparison with the nuclear magnetic resonance results. A clear metabolic shift of the end products from glucose metabolism was observed when citrate was provided along with glucose: ethanol was replaced by acetate, and 2,3-butanediol was produced. Reciprocally, the production of lactate and 2,3-butanediol from citrate was increased in the presence of glucose. When citrate was cometabolized with glucose, a 10-fold reduction in the intracellular concentration of glucose-6-phosphate was observed, a result in line with the observed citrate-induced stimulation of glucose consumption. The presence of citrate provided additional pathways for NADP(sup+) regeneration and allowed the diversion of sugar carbon to reactions in which ATP was synthesized. The increased growth rates and maximal biomass yields of L. oenos growing on citrate-glucose mixtures resulted from increased ATP synthesis both by substrate-level phosphorylation and by a chemiosmotic mechanism. PMID:16535363

  5. Supplying dextrose before insemination and L-arginine during the last third of pregnancy in sow diets: effects on within-litter variation of piglet birth weight.

    PubMed

    Quesnel, H; Quiniou, N; Roy, H; Lottin, A; Boulot, S; Gondret, F

    2014-04-01

    Preweaning piglet mortality is largely attributed to the incidence of low birth weight and birth weight variation within the litter. Therefore, developing strategies to increase within-litter uniformity of piglet birth weight is important. This study investigated the effects of different feeding strategies based on specific nutrient supplies in sow diet on the within-litter variation of piglet birth weight (BW0). Four batches of highly prolific crossbred Landrace × Large White sows were used. Three dietary treatments were compared: supplies of dextrose during the week before insemination (190 g/d) and of L-arginine (25.5 g/d) from d 77 of pregnancy until term (DEXA, n = 26); a dietary supplementation of L-arginine only (25.5 g/d), from d 77 of pregnancy until term (ARGI, n = 24); and no supplementation to a standard gestation diet (CTL; n = 23). Total born piglets (TB), i.e., piglets born alive (BA) and stillborn piglets, were numbered and weighed at birth and at weaning. Data were analyzed by ANOVA using the MIXED procedure in a model that included dietary treatment (ARGI, DEXA, and CTL), initial parity (1, 2 and 3, 4, and more), and backfat thickness (below or above the average value at the onset of the experiment: 15.7 mm) as the main effects and batch as random effect. The treatment did not influence (P > 0.10) the number of piglets at birth (on average 15.6 ± 3.8 and 14.2 ± 3.6 for TB and BA, respectively) or piglet BW0 (on average 1.48 ± 0.26 and 1.50 ± 0.26 kg for TB and BA, respectively). The coefficient of variation of piglet BW0 (CV(BW0)) was less in litters from ARGI sows than in litters from CTL sows and intermediate in litters from DEXA sows (for TB: 21.4, 23.4, and 25.7%, P = 0.08; for BA: 20.6, 22.5, and 25.4%, P = 0.03, in the ARGI, DEXA, and CTL groups, respectively). Irrespective of diet, CV(BW0) was less (P < 0.01) in litters with 16 TB piglets or less than in the largest litters (20.9 vs. 26.5%). Litter growth rate during lactation and

  6. Parenteral amino acids v. dextrose infusion: an anabolic strategy to minimise the catabolic response to surgery while maintaining normoglycaemia in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients.

    PubMed

    Lugli, Andrea Kopp; Donatelli, Francesco; Schricker, Thomas; Kindler, Christoph H; Wykes, Linda; Carli, Franco

    2012-02-01

    Loss of body protein and hyperglycaemia represent typical features of the stress response to surgery and anaesthesia. This appears to be particularly pronounced in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. The aim of the present study was to highlight the greater benefit of amino acids (AA) as represented by positive protein balance and maintenance of blood glucose homoeostasis compared with dextrose (DEX) in diabetic patients after colorectal surgery. A total of thirteen patients underwent a 5 h stable isotope infusion study (2 h fasted, 3 h fed with an infusion of AA (n 6) or DEX (n 7)) on the second post-operative day. Glucose and protein kinetics were assessed by using the stable isotopes l-[1-¹³C]leucine and [6,6-²H₂]glucose. The transition from fasted to fed state decreased endogenous glucose production (P < 0·001) in both groups, with a more profound effect in the DEX group (P = 0·031). In contrast, total glucose production was increased by the provision of DEX while being lowered by AA (P = 0·021). Feeding decreased protein oxidation (P = 0·009) and protein synthesis in the AA group, whereas DEX infusion did not affect oxidation and even decreased protein synthesis. Therefore, only AA shifted protein balance to a positive value, while patients in the DEX group remained in a catabolic state (P < 0·001). Parenteral nutritional support with AA rather than with DEX is an effective strategy to achieve a positive protein balance while maintaining normoglycaemia in diabetic patients after colorectal surgery.

  7. Model-Based Assessment of Plasma Citrate Flux Into the Liver: Implications for NaCT as a Therapeutic Target.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Erion, D M; Maurer, T S

    2016-03-01

    Cytoplasmic citrate serves as an important regulator of gluconeogenesis and carbon source for de novo lipogenesis in the liver. For this reason, the sodium-coupled citrate transporter (NaCT), a plasma membrane transporter that governs hepatic influx of plasma citrate in human, is being explored as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic disorders. As cytoplasmic citrate also originates from intracellular mitochondria, the relative contribution of these two pathways represents critical information necessary to underwrite confidence in this target. In this work, hepatic influx of plasma citrate was quantified via pharmacokinetic modeling of published clinical data. The influx was then compared to independent literature estimates of intracellular citrate flux in human liver. The results indicate that, under normal conditions, <10% of hepatic citrate originates from plasma. Similar estimates were determined experimentally in mice and rats. This suggests that NaCT inhibition will have a limited impact on hepatic citrate concentrations across species. PMID:27069776

  8. Facile synthesis of Ag2S nanoparticles functionalized by carbon-containing citrate shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovnikov, S. I.; Gusev, A. I.; Gerasimov, E. Yu.; Rempel, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Silver sulfide nanoparticles with non-toxic citrate shell are synthesized by chemical bath deposition from aqueous mixtures of silver nitrate and sodium sulfide in the presence of sodium citrate used as a complexing and stabilizing agent. The prepared nanoparticles have Ag2S core with monoclinic crystal structure functionalized by a carbon-containing citrate shell. By varying the concentrations of reagents it was possible to prepare core-shell nanoparticles with pre-assigned size of Ag2S core from 10 and 50 nm and pre-assigned thickness from 1.5 to 10 nm of citrate shell. A probable mechanism of formation of carbon-containing citrate shell on Ag2S core has been proposed.

  9. Spectrophotometric observations of thiacyanine dye J-aggregation on citrate capped silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laban, Bojana B.; Vodnik, Vesna; Vasić, Vesna

    2015-05-01

    The J-aggregation of anionic cyanine dye, 5,5' - disulfopropyl-3,3' - dichloro - thiacyanine sodium salt (TC) in the presence of 2x10-3 M KCl and citrate capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs, diameter ~10nm) was investigated. The influence of added salt (KCl), as well as AgNPs and TC concentration on the intensity of the absorption bands with the maxima at 464 and 481 nm, characteristic of the J-aggregation of the dye in solution and on AgNPs surface, respectively, was studied. The spectrophotometric and fluorescence spectra confirmed that AgNPs induced the decomposition of J-aggregates formed in solution on the account of their formation on NPs surface. The obtained results enabled the evaluation of number of TC molecules per AgNPs participating in J-aggregate formation. The experimental results yielded about 320 molecules of TC per AgNPs in at least three layers in a slanted orientation.

  10. Catalytic Generation of Hydrogen with Titanium Citrate and a Macrocyclic Cobalt Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Szajna-Fuller, Ewa; and Bakac, Andreja

    2010-05-04

    Hydrogen evolution from acidic aqueous solutions of TiIIIcitrate is strongly catalyzed by Co(dmgBF{sub 2}){sub 2}. The reaction generates an intermediate with maximum absorbance at 770 nm. The slow disappearance of this intermediate takes place simultaneously with the generation of H{sub 2} in a process that was most efficient at pH 1.6 (turnover number 53). The loss of the catalytic activity is caused by the loss of the macrocyclic ligand and formation of Co{sub aq}{sup 2+}. Control experiments implicate Co{sup III} as the most likely oxidation state responsible for catalyst destruction, and thus provide indirect evidence for the involvement of Co{sup III} in the catalytic cycle. Taken together, the data suggest that hydrogen generation takes place at least in part by the H{sup +}/HCo{sup III}(dmgBF{sub 2}){sub 2} route. Incitrate-containing solutions at 7 {le} pH {le} 8, the protonation of Co{sup I}(dmgBF{sub 2}){sub 2}{sup -} to yield HCo{sup III}(dmgBF{sub 2}){sub 2} has a rate constant k{sub H} = 1.4 x 10{sup 6} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. This reaction is about ten times slower in the absence of citrate.

  11. 77 FR 22560 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ On...). \\2\\ See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of...

  12. 77 FR 9891 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China... antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic... Act of 1930, as amended (``the Act''). \\1\\ See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the...

  13. 77 FR 33399 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... Administrative Review, 77 FR 1455 (January 10, 2012). \\10\\ See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric......

  14. Response of patients with indolent systemic mastocytosis to tamoxifen citrate.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Joseph H; Chen, Dong

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether tamoxifen citrate at 20mg/day for 1 year had a beneficial effect on laboratory findings, bone marrow mastocytosis, common clinical symptoms, or quality-of-life assessment for 5 women and 2 men with indolent systemic mastocytosis. Tamoxifen was well tolerated. We found significant reductions in the platelet count, serum alkaline phosphatase, and 24-h urinary excretion of N-methylhistamine and significant increases in serum lactate dehydrogenase and (excluding 2 patients taking aspirin) in 24-h urinary excretion of 11β-prostaglandin F2α. Overall, no change occurred in percent involvement of bone marrow by mastocytosis. Symptom scores were mild and did not change during the treatment. The 36-Item Short Form Health Survey scores for quality of life physical and mental components showed no marked changes. Tamoxifen, an older, nonhematotoxic medication, has limited activity in systemic mastocytosis at the dosage used in this study.

  15. Feline transfusion practice in South Africa: current status and practical solutions.

    PubMed

    Dippenaar, T

    1999-09-01

    Blood transfusion therapy is often under-utilised in feline practice in South Africa. However, it is a technique that can be safely and effectively introduced in practice. Cats have naturally occurring allo-antibodies against the blood type that they lack, which makes blood typing, or alternatively cross-matching, essential before transfusions. Feline blood donors must be carefully selected, be disease free and should be sedated before blood collection. The preferred anticoagulant for feline blood collection is citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine. Blood can either be administered intravenously or into the medullary cavity, with the transfusion rate depending on the cat's hydration status and cardiac function. Transfusion reactions can be immediate or delayed and they are classified as immunological or non-immunological. Indications, methods and techniques to do feline blood transfusions in a safe and economical way are highlighted. PMID:10852686

  16. Genome-wide identification of citrus ATP-citrate lyase genes and their transcript analysis in fruits reveals their possible role in citrate utilization.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-Mei; Shi, Cai-Yun; Liu, Xiao; Jin, Long-Fei; Liu, Yong-Zhong; Peng, Shu-Ang

    2015-02-01

    ATP-citrate lyase (ACL, EC4.1.3.8) catalyzes citrate to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA in the cell cytosol, and has important roles in normal plant growth and in the biosynthesis of some secondary metabolites. We identified three ACL genes, CitACLα1, CitACLα2, and CitACLβ1, in the citrus genome database. Both CitACLα1 and CitACLα2 encode putative ACL α subunits with 82.5 % amino acid identity, whereas CitACLβ1 encodes a putative ACL β subunit. Gene structure analysis showed that CitACLα1 and CitACLα2 had 12 exons and 11 introns, and CitACLβ1 had 16 exons and 15 introns. CitACLα1 and CitACLβ1 were predominantly expressed in flower, and CitACLα2 was predominantly expressed in stem and fibrous roots. As fruits ripen, the transcript levels of CitACLα1, CitACLβ1, and/or CitACLα2 in cultivars 'Niuher' and 'Owari' increased, accompanied by significant decreases in citrate content, while their transcript levels decreased significantly in 'Egan No. 1' and 'Iyokan', although citrate content also decreased. In 'HB pummelo', in which acid content increased as fruit ripened, and in acid-free pummelo, transcript levels of CitACLα2, CitACLβ1, and/or CitACLα1 increased. Moreover, mild drought stress and ABA treatment significantly increased citrate contents in fruits. Transcript levels of the three genes were significantly reduced by mild drought stress, and the transcript level of only CitACLβ1 was significantly reduced by ABA treatment. Taken together, these data indicate that the effects of ACL on citrate use during fruit ripening depends on the cultivar, and the reduction in ACL gene expression may be attributed to citrate increases under mild drought stress or ABA treatment.

  17. Nutritional and Hormonal Regulation of Citrate and Carnitine/Acylcarnitine Transporters: Two Mitochondrial Carriers Involved in Fatty Acid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Giudetti, Anna M.; Stanca, Eleonora; Siculella, Luisa; Gnoni, Gabriele V.; Damiano, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    The transport of solutes across the inner mitochondrial membrane is catalyzed by a family of nuclear-encoded membrane-embedded proteins called mitochondrial carriers (MCs). The citrate carrier (CiC) and the carnitine/acylcarnitine transporter (CACT) are two members of the MCs family involved in fatty acid metabolism. By conveying acetyl-coenzyme A, in the form of citrate, from the mitochondria to the cytosol, CiC contributes to fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis; CACT allows fatty acid oxidation, transporting cytosolic fatty acids, in the form of acylcarnitines, into the mitochondrial matrix. Fatty acid synthesis and oxidation are inversely regulated so that when fatty acid synthesis is activated, the catabolism of fatty acids is turned-off. Malonyl-CoA, produced by acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, a key enzyme of cytosolic fatty acid synthesis, represents a regulator of both metabolic pathways. CiC and CACT activity and expression are regulated by different nutritional and hormonal conditions. Defects in the corresponding genes have been directly linked to various human diseases. This review will assess the current understanding of CiC and CACT regulation; underlining their roles in physio-pathological conditions. Emphasis will be placed on the molecular basis of the regulation of CiC and CACT associated with fatty acid metabolism. PMID:27231907

  18. Preparation and Quality Control of 68Ga-Citrate for PET Applications

    PubMed Central

    Aghanejad, Ayuob; Jalilian, Amir Reza; Ardaneh, Khosro; Bolourinovin, Fatemeh; Yousefnia, Hassan; Samani, Ali Bahrami

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): In nuclear medicine studies, gallium-68 (8Ga) citrate has been recently known as a suitable infection agent in positron emission tomography (PET). In this study, by applying an in-house produced 68Ge/68Ga generator, a simple technique for the synthesis and quality control of 68Ga-citrate was introduced; followed by preliminary animal studies. Methods: 68GaCl3 eluted from the generator was studied in terms of quality control factors including radiochemical purity (assessed by HPLC and RTLC), chemical purity (assessed by ICP-EOS), radionuclide purity (evaluated by HPGe), and breakthrough. 68Ga-citrate was prepared from eluted 68GaCl3 and sodium citrate under various reaction conditions. Stability of the complex was evaluated in human serum for 2 h at 370C, followed by biodistribution studies in rats for 120 min. Results: 68Ga-citrate was prepared with acceptable radiochemical purity (>97 ITLC and >98% HPLC), specific activity (4-6 GBq/mM), chemical purity (Sn, Fe<0.3 ppm and Zn<0.2 ppm) within 15 min at 500C. The biodistribution of 68Ga-citrate was consistent with former reports up to 120 minutes. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the possible in-house preparation and quality control of 68Ga-citrate, using a commercially available 68Ge/68Ga generator for PET imaging throughout the country. PMID:27408889

  19. Sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate: a review of its use as a colorectal cleanser.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Sheridan M; Scott, Lesley J; Wagstaff, Antona J

    2009-01-01

    Oral sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate (CitraFleet; Picolax), consisting of sodium picosulfate (a stimulant laxative) and magnesium citrate (an osmotic laxative), is approved for use in adults (CitraFleet; Picolax) and/or adolescents and children (Picolax) as a colorectal cleansing agent prior to any diagnostic procedure (e.g. colonoscopy or x-ray examination) requiring a clean bowel and/or surgery. It is dispensed in powder form (sodium picosulfate 0.01 g, magnesium oxide 3.5 g, citric acid 12.0 g per sachet), with the magnesium oxide and citric acid components forming magnesium citrate when the powder is dissolved in water. In adult patients, two sachets of sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate was at least as effective and well tolerated as oral magnesium citrate 17.7 or 35.4 g, or oral polyethylene glycol 236 g in adult patients undergoing a double-contrast barium enema procedure in three large, randomized, comparative clinical studies. In contrast, sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate was less effective than a sodium phosphate enema preparation in two studies in patients undergoing flexible sigmoidoscopy. A similar number of patients receiving two sachets of sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate or two 45 mL doses of oral sodium phosphate the day before a double-contrast barium enema procedure achieved satisfactory barium coating and none/minimal faecal residue in one study. However, the data from three of these studies should be interpreted with caution because the administrative regimens used differed from that recommended. Sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate is also an effective and generally well tolerated colorectal cleansing agent in children and adolescents; the preparation was more effective than oral bisacodyl 0.01 or 0.02 g plus a sodium phosphate enema preparation in this population. Further research is thus required to accurately position sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate and fully establish its efficacy and tolerability prior to various

  20. Citrate impairs the micropore diffusion of phosphate into pure and C-coated goethite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikutta, Christian; Lang, Friederike; Kaupenjohann, Martin

    2006-02-01

    Anions of polycarboxylic low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOA) compete with phosphate for sorption sites of hydrous Fe and Al oxides. To test whether the sorption of LMWOA anions decreases the accessibility of micropores (<2 nm) of goethite (α-FeOOH) for phosphate, we studied the kinetics of citrate-induced changes in microporosity and the phosphate sorption kinetics of synthetic goethite in the presence and absence of citrate in batch systems for 3 weeks (500 μM of each ion, pH 5). We also used C-coated goethite obtained after sorption of dissolved organic matter in order to simulate organic coatings in the soil. We analyzed our samples with N 2 adsorption and electrophoretic mobility measurements. Citrate clogged the micropores of both adsorbents by up to 13% within 1 h of contact. The micropore volume decreased with increasing concentration and residence time of citrate. In the absence of citrate, phosphate diffused into micropores of the pure and C-coated goethite. The C coating (5.6 μmol C m -2) did not impair the intraparticle diffusion of phosphate. In the presence of citrate, the diffusion of phosphate into the micropores of both adsorbents was strongly impaired. We attribute this to the micropore clogging and the ligand-induced dissolution of goethite by citrate. While the diffusion limitation of phosphate by citrate was stronger when citrate was added before phosphate to pure goethite, the order of addition of both ions to C-coated goethite had only a minor effect on the intraparticle diffusion of phosphate. Micropore clogging and dissolution of microporous hydrous Fe and Al oxides may be regarded as potential strategies of plants to cope with phosphate deficiency in addition to ligand-exchange.

  1. Combined Oral Administration of Bovine Collagen Peptides with Calcium Citrate Inhibits Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, JunLi; Wang, YiHu; Song, ShuJun; Wang, XiJie; Qin, YaYa; Si, ShaoYan; Guo, YanChuan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Collagen peptides (CPs) and calcium citrate are commonly used as bone health supplements for treating osteoporosis. However, it remains unknown whether the combination of oral bovine CPs with calcium citrate is more effective than administration of either agent alone. Methods Forty 12-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 8) for once-daily intragastric administration of different treatments for 3 months at 3 months after ovariectomy (OVX) as follows: sham + vehicle; OVX + vehicle; OVX + 750 mg/kg CP; OVX + CP-calcium citrate (75 mg/kg); OVX + calcium citrate (75 mg/kg). After euthanasia, the femurs were removed and analyzed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and micro-computed tomography, and serum samples were analyzed for bone metabolic markers. Results OVX rats supplemented with CPs or CP-calcium citrate showed osteoprotective effects, with reductions in the OVX-induced decreases in their femoral bone mineral density. Moreover, CP-calcium citrate prevented trabecular bone loss, improved the microarchitecture of the distal femur, and significantly inhibited bone loss with increased bone volume, connectivity density, and trabecular number compared with OVX control rats. CP or CP-calcium citrate administration significantly increased serum procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide levels and reduced serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and C-telopeptide of type I collagen levels. Conclusions Our data indicate that combined oral administration of bovine CPs with calcium citrate inhibits bone loss in OVX rats. The present findings suggest that combined oral administration of bovine CPs with calcium citrate is a promising alternative for reducing bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women. PMID:26258559

  2. Reductive glutamine metabolism is a function of the α-ketoglutarate to citrate ratio in cells

    PubMed Central

    Fendt, Sarah-Maria; Bell, Eric L.; Keibler, Mark A.; Olenchock, Benjamin A.; Mayers, Jared R.; Wasylenko, Thomas M.; Vokes, Natalie I.; Guarente, Leonard; Vander Heiden, Matthew G.; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Reductively metabolized glutamine is a major cellular carbon source for fatty acid synthesis during hypoxia or when mitochondrial respiration is impaired. Yet, a mechanistic understanding of what determines reductive metabolism is missing. Here we identify several cellular conditions where the α-ketoglutarate/citrate ratio is changed due to altered acetyl-CoA to citrate conversion, and demonstrate that reductive glutamine metabolism is initiated in response to perturbations that results in an increase in the α-ketoglutarate/citrate ratio. Thus, targeting reductive glutamine conversion for a therapeutic benefit might require distinct modulations of metabolite concentrations rather than targeting the upstream signaling, which only indirectly affects the process. PMID:23900562

  3. Oxidative status and citrate concentration in rat tissues during experimental hyperthyroidism and melatonin treatment.

    PubMed

    Popov, S S; Pashkov, A N; Popova, T N; Zoloedov, V I; Semenikhina, A V; Rakhmanova, T I

    2007-08-01

    Biochemiluminescence increased, while aconitate hydratase activity and citrate accumulation in tissues of the liver and heart and blood decreased in rats with experimental hyperthyroidism. These changes reflect activation of free radical oxidation, damage to enzyme molecules with reactive oxygen species, and impaired utilization of citrate under pathological conditions. Melatonin treatment during hyperthyroidism normalized aconitate hydratase activity and citrate concentration. Biochemiluminescence study showed that the effect of melatonin is related to antioxidant activity of this hormone, inhibition of free radical oxidation, and suppression of reactive oxygen species generation.

  4. Toxicity potential of compounds found in parenteral solutions with rubber stoppers

    SciTech Connect

    Danielson, J.W. )

    1992-03-01

    Leached stopper components found in parenteral solutions produced by several manufacturers were identified and quantitated. Their toxicity potential was determined by comparing the types and quantities of the leached components with known toxicity levels and/or harmful effects. Toxicity potentials for benzaldehyde, 2-butoxyethanol, cyclohexanone, ethylbenzene, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, and tetrachloroethylene are listed. Breakdown products of dextrose (furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural), which may also have harmful effects, were quantitated.

  5. A Process-Based Model of TCA Cycle Functioning to Analyze Citrate Accumulation in Pre- and Post-Harvest Fruits.

    PubMed

    Etienne, Audrey; Génard, Michel; Bugaud, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Citrate is one of the most important organic acids in many fruits and its concentration plays a critical role in organoleptic properties. The regulation of citrate accumulation throughout fruit development, and the origins of the phenotypic variability of the citrate concentration within fruit species remain to be clarified. In the present study, we developed a process-based model of citrate accumulation based on a simplified representation of the TCA cycle to predict citrate concentration in fruit pulp during the pre- and post-harvest stages. Banana fruit was taken as a reference because it has the particularity of having post-harvest ripening, during which citrate concentration undergoes substantial changes. The model was calibrated and validated on the two stages, using data sets from three contrasting cultivars in terms of citrate accumulation, and incorporated different fruit load, potassium supply, and harvest dates. The model predicted the pre and post-harvest dynamics of citrate concentration with fairly good accuracy for the three cultivars. The model suggested major differences in TCA cycle functioning among cultivars during post-harvest ripening of banana, and pointed to a potential role for NAD-malic enzyme and mitochondrial malate carriers in the genotypic variability of citrate concentration. The sensitivity of citrate accumulation to growth parameters and temperature differed among cultivars during post-harvest ripening. Finally, the model can be used as a conceptual basis to study citrate accumulation in fleshy fruits and may be a powerful tool to improve our understanding of fruit acidity.

  6. A Process-Based Model of TCA Cycle Functioning to Analyze Citrate Accumulation in Pre- and Post-Harvest Fruits.

    PubMed

    Etienne, Audrey; Génard, Michel; Bugaud, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Citrate is one of the most important organic acids in many fruits and its concentration plays a critical role in organoleptic properties. The regulation of citrate accumulation throughout fruit development, and the origins of the phenotypic variability of the citrate concentration within fruit species remain to be clarified. In the present study, we developed a process-based model of citrate accumulation based on a simplified representation of the TCA cycle to predict citrate concentration in fruit pulp during the pre- and post-harvest stages. Banana fruit was taken as a reference because it has the particularity of having post-harvest ripening, during which citrate concentration undergoes substantial changes. The model was calibrated and validated on the two stages, using data sets from three contrasting cultivars in terms of citrate accumulation, and incorporated different fruit load, potassium supply, and harvest dates. The model predicted the pre and post-harvest dynamics of citrate concentration with fairly good accuracy for the three cultivars. The model suggested major differences in TCA cycle functioning among cultivars during post-harvest ripening of banana, and pointed to a potential role for NAD-malic enzyme and mitochondrial malate carriers in the genotypic variability of citrate concentration. The sensitivity of citrate accumulation to growth parameters and temperature differed among cultivars during post-harvest ripening. Finally, the model can be used as a conceptual basis to study citrate accumulation in fleshy fruits and may be a powerful tool to improve our understanding of fruit acidity. PMID:26042830

  7. A Process-Based Model of TCA Cycle Functioning to Analyze Citrate Accumulation in Pre- and Post-Harvest Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Etienne, Audrey; Génard, Michel; Bugaud, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Citrate is one of the most important organic acids in many fruits and its concentration plays a critical role in organoleptic properties. The regulation of citrate accumulation throughout fruit development, and the origins of the phenotypic variability of the citrate concentration within fruit species remain to be clarified. In the present study, we developed a process-based model of citrate accumulation based on a simplified representation of the TCA cycle to predict citrate concentration in fruit pulp during the pre- and post-harvest stages. Banana fruit was taken as a reference because it has the particularity of having post-harvest ripening, during which citrate concentration undergoes substantial changes. The model was calibrated and validated on the two stages, using data sets from three contrasting cultivars in terms of citrate accumulation, and incorporated different fruit load, potassium supply, and harvest dates. The model predicted the pre and post-harvest dynamics of citrate concentration with fairly good accuracy for the three cultivars. The model suggested major differences in TCA cycle functioning among cultivars during post-harvest ripening of banana, and pointed to a potential role for NAD-malic enzyme and mitochondrial malate carriers in the genotypic variability of citrate concentration. The sensitivity of citrate accumulation to growth parameters and temperature differed among cultivars during post-harvest ripening. Finally, the model can be used as a conceptual basis to study citrate accumulation in fleshy fruits and may be a powerful tool to improve our understanding of fruit acidity. PMID:26042830

  8. Citrate Attenuates Adenine-Induced Chronic Renal Failure in Rats by Modulating the Th17/Treg Cell Balance.

    PubMed

    Ou, Yan; Li, Shuiqin; Zhu, Xiaojing; Gui, Baosong; Yao, Ganglian; Ma, Liqun; Zhu, Dan; Fu, Rongguo; Ge, Heng; Wang, Li; Jia, Lining; Tian, Lifang; Duan, Zhaoyang

    2016-02-01

    Citrate is commonly used as an anticoagulant in hemodialysis for chronic renal failure (CRF) and for the regulation of the immune dysfunction in CRF patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of citrate on the balance of T helper 17 (Th17) and regulatory T (Treg) cells in CRF. The levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (Scr) were significantly increased in the CRF model group compared to the control group, and were decreased in the citrate-treated groups. Citrate treatment inhibited the viability of Th17 cells while elevating the viability of Treg cells in CRF rats. Moreover, Th17-related cytokines significantly decreased while the Treg-related cytokines significantly increased with citrate treatment. Moreover, citrate had a negative influence on the deviation of Th17/Treg cells in CRF rats. Therefore, our study suggests that citrate had an anti-inflammatory effect on CRF through the modulation of the Th17/Treg balance.

  9. The inhibition of ice nucleators by insect antifreeze proteins is enhanced by glycerol and citrate.

    PubMed

    Duman, J G

    2002-02-01

    Antifreeze proteins depress the freezing point of water while not affecting the melting point, producing a characteristic difference in freezing and melting points termed thermal hysteresis. Larvae of the beetle Dendroides canadensis accumulate potent antifreeze proteins (DAFPs) in their hemolymph and gut, but to achieve high levels of thermal hysteresis requires enhancers, such as glycerol. DAFPs have previously been shown to inhibit the activity of bacterial and hemolymph protein ice nucleators, however, the effect was not large and therefore the effectiveness of the DAFPs in promoting supercooling of the larvae in winter was doubtful. However, this study demonstrates that DAFPs, in combination with the thermal hysteresis enhancers glycerol (1 M) or citrate (0.5 M), eliminated the activity of hemolymph protein ice nucleators and Pseudomonas syringae ice-nucleating active bacteria, and lowered the supercooling points (nucleation temperatures) of aqueous solutions containing these ice nucleators to those of water or buffer alone. This shows that the DAFPs, along with glycerol, play a critical role in promoting hemolymph supercooling in overwintering D. canadensis. Also, DAFPs in combination with enhancers may be useful in applications which require inhibition of ice nucleators. PMID:11916110

  10. Citrate mediated synthesis and tuning of luminescence in Eu3+ incorporated Gd2O3 nanophosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abhilash Kumar, R. G.; Gopchandran, K. G.

    2015-02-01

    Gd1.9Eu0.1O3 nanophosphors were prepared successfully by a large-scale facile solution based citrate-metal complex controlled combustion method and was systematically studied by varying the citric acid to metal cation ratio. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL) measurements and radiative properties were done to evaluate the crystal structure, phase formation, phase composition, surface morphology, radiative and luminescent properties of the prepared nanophosphors. Photoluminescent emission intensity of the samples can be correlated with the amount of citric acid, improved crystallinity, uniform morphology, particle size, reduced defects, and proper diffusion of Eu3+ in to the crystal structure of Gd2O3. Higher asymmetricity results in intense red emission (612 nm) due to 5D0-7F2 forced electric dipole transition and found that photoluminescence intensity is highest for the sample prepared with citric acid to metal cation ratio of 2:1. The existence of strong red emission from Gd1.9Eu0.1O3 nanophosphor corresponding to 5D0-7F2 transition (612 nm) of Eu3+ under UV light excitation make it a promising candidate for applications in bio assays, magnetic resonance imaging, deep uv LED's, solid state lighting, fluorescent lamps and flat panel displays.

  11. Biodegradation of nickel-citrate and modulation of nickel toxicity by iron

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, A.; Joshi-Tope, G.A.; Dodge, C.J.

    1996-02-01

    Biodegradation of 1:1 nickel:citric acid by Pseudomonas fluorescens proceeded after a lag (nearly 17h) at the rate of 11{+-}1 {mu}mol h{sup -1}, with only partial mineralization of the complex. The incomplete degradation of the complex was not attributed to changes in its structure, but was due to the toxicity of the Ni released. Addition of 1:1 Ni:citric acid inhibited glucose metabolism by the bacterium. The toxicity of the released Ni was evident only when it attained a threshold concentration of > 0.3 mM in the culture medium. Speciation calculations showed that Ni released after metabolism of the complex was present as Ni{sup 2+} ion and nickel carbonate. Addition of iron as a ferric hydroxide or 1:1 Fe:citric acid to 1:1 Ni:citric acid resulted in the complete metabolism of the Ni-citrate complex, with concurrent removal of the released Ni from solution by coprecipitation with iron. 29 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Changes in the pharmacokinetic of sildenafil citrate in rats with Streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aim The present investigates deals with the change in the pharmacokinetic of Sildenafil citrate (SIL) in disease condition like diabetic nephropathy (DN). Method Diabetes was induced in rats by administering Streptozotocin i.e. STZ (60 mg/kg, IP) saline solution. Assessment of diabetes was done by GOD-POD method and conformation of DN was done by assessing the level of Creatinine, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) and Albuminurea. After the conformation of DN single dose of drug SIL (2.5 mg/kg, p.o.) were given orally and Pharmacokinetic Parameters like [AUC o-t (ug.h/ml), AUC 0-∞, Cmax, Tmax, Kel, Clast] were estimated in the plasma by the help of HPLC-UV. Result There was significant increase (p < 0.01) in the Pharmacokinetic parameters of SIL in DN rat (AUC0-t, AUC0-∞, Cmax, Tmax and T1/2) compare to normal control rat and significant increase Kel in the DN rat compare to control rat. Conclusion The study concluded that there was significant (p < 0.01) increase in the bioavailability of SIL in DN. PMID:24398037

  13. Synthesis of citrate-stabilized hydrocolloids of hydroxyapatite through a novel two-stage method: a possible aggregates-breakdown mechanism of colloid formation.

    PubMed

    Li, Cuicui; Zhao, Liping; Han, Jingjia; Wang, Ruifang; Xiong, Chengdong; Xie, Xingyi

    2011-08-15

    Long-term stable (>2 years) hydrocolloids of hydroxyapatite (HA) were synthesized via a low-temperature (18-50 °C) reaction of aqueous ammonium phosphate with calcium nitrate in the presence of citrate ions, followed by an aging process at high temperature (80-99 °C) for 4 h. Changing the reaction and/or aging temperature seldom yielded stable HA hydrocolloids. The as-prepared hydrocolloids were desalinated through ultrafiltration where their average particle size gradually decreased, bottomed out at 100-400 μS/cm, and sharply increased in parallel with a decrease in solution conductivity. The colloid formation is most likely through a temperature-sensitive aggregates-breakdown process. During low-temperature reaction, citrate-calcium chelation bridges the growing HA particles into loose aggregates. High-temperature aging disrupts these inter-particle links and thus breaks the aggregates, imparting negative charges to the HA, forming colloidal particles stabilized by surface charge. The decrease in mean particle size during early ultrafiltration suggested that the aggregate breakdown further proceeded through desalination. In conclusion, the temperature-dependent interactions between citrate ions and calcium sites on HA particles played key roles in the synthesis and stability of the HA colloids.

  14. Nitrate reduction by zerovalent iron: effects of formate, oxalate, citrate, chloride, sulfate, borate, and phosphate.

    PubMed

    Su, Chunming; Puls, Robert W

    2004-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that zerovalent iron (Fe0) may potentially be used as a chemical medium in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) for groundwater nitrate remediation; however, the effects of commonly found organic and inorganic ligands in soil and sediments on nitrate reduction by Fe0 have not been well understood. A 25.0 mL nitrate solution of 20.0 mg of N L(-1) (1.43 mM nitrate) was reacted with 1.00 g of Peerless Fe0 at 200 rpm on a rotational shaker at 23 degrees C for up to 120 h in the presence of each of the organic acids (3.0 mM formic, 1.5 mM oxalic, and 1.0 mM citric acids) and inorganic acids (3.0 mM HCl, 1.5 mM H2SO4, 3.0 mM H3BO3, and 1.5 mM H3PO4). These acids provided an initial dissociable H+ concentration of 3.0 mM available for nitrate reduction reactions under conditions of final pH < 9.3. Nitrate reduction rates (pseudo-first-order) increased in the order: H3PO4 < citric acid < H3BO3 < oxalic acid < H2SO4 < formic acid < HCl, ranging from 0.00278 to 0.0913 h(-1), corresponding to surface area normalized rates ranging from 0.126 to 4.15 h(-1) m(-2) mL. Correlation analysis showed a negative linear relationship between the nitrate reduction rates for the ligands and the conditional stability constants for the soluble complexes of the ligands with Fe2+ (R2 = 0.701) or Fe3+ (R2 = 0.918) ions. This sequence of reactivity corresponds also to surface adsorption and complexation of the three organic ligands to iron oxides, which increase in the order formate < oxalate < citrate. The results are also consistent with the sequence of strength of surface complexation of the inorganic ligands to iron oxides, which increases in the order: chloride < sulfate < borate < phosphate. The blockage of reactive sites on the surface of Fe0 and its corrosion products by specific adsorption of the inner-sphere complex forming ligands (oxalate, citrate, sulfate, borate, and phosphate) may be responsible for the decreased nitrate reduction by Fe0 relative to the

  15. Iron transport in Mycobacterium smegmatis: uptake of iron from ferric citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Messenger, A.J.M.; Ratledge, C.

    1982-01-01

    In mycobacterial growth medium 40 to 400 ..mu..M citrate was required to solubilize 2 ..mu..M /sup 55/Fe. This solubilized /sup 55/Fe was taken up into both iron-deficient and iron-sufficient washed cell suspensions of Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Although the /sup 55/Fe was taken up into the cell, the citrate was not. The uptake system with M. smegmatis was not inhibited by electron transport inhibitors, uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation, or thiol reagents and was saturable with iron at approximately 35 ..mu..M. The system was independent of the iron transport systems already known to exist in M. smegmatis: i.e., the two exochelin routes of assimilation as well as the mycobactin-salicylate system. It was not induced by the presence of 400 ..mu..M citrate in the growth medium, nor did the presence of citrate in the medium affect the production of either exochelin or mycobactin.

  16. Preventing serpin aggregation: The molecular mechanism of citrate action upon antitrypsin unfolding

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, Mary C.; Morton, Craig J.; Feil, Susanne C.; Hansen, Guido; Adams, Julian J.; Parker, Michael W.; Bottomley, Stephen P.

    2008-11-21

    The aggregation of antitrypsin into polymers is one of the causes of neonatal hepatitis, cirrhosis, and emphysema. A similar reaction resulting in disease can occur in other human serpins, and collectively they are known as the serpinopathies. One possible therapeutic strategy involves inhibiting the conformational changes involved in antitrypsin aggregation. The citrate ion has previously been shown to prevent antitrypsin aggregation and maintain the protein in an active conformation; its mechanism of action, however, is unknown. Here we demonstrate that the citrate ion prevents the initial misfolding of the native state to a polymerogenic intermediate in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, we have solved the crystal structure of citrate bound to antitrypsin and show that a single citrate molecule binds in a pocket between the A and B beta-sheets, a region known to be important in maintaining antitrypsin stability.

  17. Investigation the efficacy of intra-articular prolotherapy with erythropoietin and dextrose and intra-articular pulsed radiofrequency on pain level reduction and range of motion improvement in primary osteoarthritis of knee

    PubMed Central

    Rahimzadeh, Poupak; Imani, Farnad; Faiz, Seyed Hamid Reza; Entezary, Saeed Reza; Nasiri, Ali Akbar; Ziaeefard, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Osteoarthritis is one of the most common diseases and the knee is the most commonly affected joint. Intra-articular prolotherapy is being utilized in acute and chronic pain management setting. This study was designed to compare the efficacy of three methods of intra-articular knee joint therapies with erythropoietin, dextrose, and pulsed radiofrequency. Materials and Methods: After approval by the Ethics Committee and explaining the therapeutic method to volunteers, 70 patients who were suffering from primary knee osteoarthrosis went through one of the treatment methods (erythropoietin, dextrose, and pulsed radiofrequency). The study was double-blind randomized clinical trial performed from December 2012 to July 2013. Patients’ pain level was assessed through the visual analog pain scale (VAS), and range of motion (ROM) was measured by goniometric method. Furthermore, patients’ satisfaction was assessed before and after different treatment methods in weeks 2, 4, and 12. For analysis, Chi-square, one-way ANOVA, and repeated measured ANOVA were utilized. Results: The demographic results among the three groups did not indicate any statistical difference. The mean VAS in erythropoietin group in the 2nd, 4th, and 12th weeks was 3.15 ± 1.08, 3.15 ± 1.08, and 3.5 ± 1.23, respectively (P ≤ 0.005). Knee joint ROM in the erythropoietin group in the 2nd, 4th, and 12th weeks was 124 ± 1.50, 124 ± 1.4, and 123 ± 1.53 respectively (P ≤ 0.005). Satisfaction score in the 12th week in erythropoietin group was extremely satisfied 15%, satisfied 55%, and moderately satisfied 30%, (P = 0.005). No specific side-effects were observed. Conclusion: Intra-articular prolotherapy with erythropoietin was more effective in terms of pain level reduction and ROM improvement compared with dextrose and pulsed radiofrequency. PMID:25422652

  18. Citrate influences microbial Fe hydroxide reduction via a dissolution-disaggregation mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunschweig, Juliane; Klier, Christine; Schröder, Christian; Händel, Matthias; Bosch, Julian; Totsche, Kai U.; Meckenstock, Rainer U.

    2014-08-01

    Microbial reduction of ferric iron is partly dependent on Fe hydroxide particle size: nanosized Fe hydroxides greatly exceed the bioavailability of their counterparts larger than 1 μm. Citrate as a low molecular weight organic acid can likewise stabilize colloidal suspensions against aggregation by electrostatic repulsion but also increase Fe bioavailability by enhancing Fe hydroxide solubility. The aim of this study was to see whether adsorption of citrate onto surfaces of large ferrihydrite aggregates results in the formation of a stable colloidal suspension by electrostatic repulsion and how this effect influences microbial Fe reduction. Furthermore, we wanted to discriminate between citrate-mediated colloid stabilization out of larger aggregates and ferrihydrite dissolution and their influence on microbial Fe hydroxide reduction. Dissolution kinetics of ferrihydrite aggregates induced by different concentrations of citrate and humic acids were compared to microbial reduction kinetics with Geobacter sulfurreducens. Dynamic light scattering results showed the formation of a stable colloidal suspension and colloids with hydrodynamic diameters of 69 (±37) to 165 (± 65) nm for molar citrate:Fe ratios of 0.1 to 0.5 and partial dissolution of ferrihydrite at citrate:Fe ratios ⩾ 0.1. No dissolution or colloid stabilization was detected in the presence of humic acids. Adsorption of citrate, necessary for dissolution, reversed the surface charge and led to electrostatic repulsion between sub-aggregates of ferrihydrite and colloid stabilization when the citrate:Fe ratio was above a critical value (⩽ 0.1). Lower ratios resulted in stronger ferrihydrite aggregation instead of formation of a stable colloidal suspension, owing to neutralization of the positive surface charge. At the same time, microbial ferrihydrite reduction increased from 0.029 to 0.184 mM h-1 indicating that colloids stabilized by citrate addition enhanced microbial Fe reduction. Modelling of

  19. Silicon Injection Granulomata: 67Ga Citrate Findings in Free Silicon Buttock Augmentation.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Sara; Chun, Kwang; Benchekroun, Mohammed Taoudi; Akamnonu, Olisaemeka; Freeman, Leonard

    2016-06-01

    Ga citrate is frequently used in the workup of fever of unknown origin. Here, we report a case of avid Ga-citrate in bilateral gluteal regions of a patient with a history of free silicon injection buttock augmentation referred for suspected diagnosis of sarcoidosis. CT findings were equivocal for inflammation/infection in the buttock region, and nuclear scintigraphy allowed for more definitive diagnosis. PMID:26953658

  20. Lifesaving citrate anticoagulation to bridge ineffective danaparoid [correction of to bridge to danaparoid] treatment.

    PubMed

    Dworschak, Martin; Hiesmayr, Jörg Michael; Lassnigg, Andrea

    2002-05-01

    A case of successful regional anticoagulation with trisodium citrate in a patient who developed heparin-induced thrombocytopenia while on continuous hemofiltration is described. Immediate citrate anticoagulation allowed for maintenance of extracorporeal circulation until effective danaparoid therapy could be established. Recommended plasma antifactor Xa levels for hemodialysis may be inadequate in some cases. Values similar to those in use during cardiopulmonary bypass could be required. PMID:12022563

  1. Testosterone and prolactin regulation of metabolic genes and citrate metabolism of prostate epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Costello, L C; Franklin, R B

    2002-08-01

    The control and alteration of key regulatory enzymes is a determinant of the reactions and pathways of intermediary metabolism in mammalian cells. An important mechanism in the metabolic control is the hormonal regulation of the genes associated with the transcription and the biosynthesis of these key enzymes. The secretory epithelial cells of the prostate gland of humans and other animals possess a unique citrate-related metabolic pathway regulated by testosterone and prolactin. This specialized hormone-regulated metabolic activity is responsible for the major prostate function of the production and secretion of extraordinarily high levels of citrate. The key regulatory enzymes directly associated with citrate production in the prostate cells are mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, and mitochondrial aconitase. Testosterone and prolactin are involved in the regulation of the corresponding genes associated with these enzymes (which we refer to as "metabolic genes"). The regulatory regions of these genes contain the necessary response elements that confer the ability of both hormones to control gene transcription. In this report, we describe the role of protein kinase c (PKC) as the signaling pathway for the prolactin regulation of the metabolic genes in prostate cells. Testosterone and prolactin regulation of these metabolic genes (which are constitutively expressed in all mammalian cells) is specific for these citrate-producing cells. We hope that this review will provide a strong basis for future studies regarding the hormonal regulation of citrate-related intermediary metabolism. Most importantly, altered citrate metabolism is a persistent distinguishing characteristic (decreased citrate production) of prostate cancer (PCa) and also (increased citrate production) of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). An understanding of the role of hormonal regulation of metabolism is essential to understanding the pathogenesis of prostate disease

  2. Renaturation of citrate synthase: influence of denaturant and folding assistants.

    PubMed Central

    Zhi, W.; Landry, S. J.; Gierasch, L. M.; Srere, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    Citrate synthase (CS), which has been denatured in either guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) or urea can be assisted in its renaturation in a variety of ways. The addition of each of the assistants--bovine serum albumin (BSA), oxaloacetate (OAA), and glycerol--promotes renaturation. In combination, the effect of these substances is additive with respect to the yield of folded CS. The report of Buchner et al. (Buchner, J., Schmidt, M., Fuchs, M., Jaenicke, R., Rudolph, R., Schmid, F.X., & Kiefhaber, T., 1991, Biochemistry 30, 1586-1591) that refolding of CS is facilitated by the GroE system (an Escherichia coli chaperonin [cpn] that is composed of GroEL [cpn60] and GroES [cpn10]) has been confirmed. However, we observed substantially higher yield of reactivated CS, 82%, and almost no reactivation in the absence of GroES, < 5%, whereas Buchner et al. reported 28% and 16%, respectively. In addition, we find that GroE-assisted refolding is more efficient for CS denatured in GdnHCl than for CS denatured in urea. This result is discussed in light of the known difference in the denatured states generated in GdnHCl and urea. Because GroEL inhibits the BSA/glycerol/OAA-assisted refolding, this system will be useful in future studies on the mechanism of GroE-facilitated refolding. PMID:1363914

  3. Self nanoprecipitating preconcentrate of tamoxifen citrate for enhanced bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Kapse, Sonali V; Gaikwad, Rajiv V; Samad, Abdul; Devarajan, Padma V

    2012-06-15

    We disclose a self nanoprecipitating preconcentrate (SNP) of tamoxifen citrate (TMX), which forms TMX loaded polymeric nanoparticles, on dilution with aqueous media. SNP comprised TMX, polymer (Kollidon SR) and surfactant/s dissolved in a pharmaceutically acceptable vehicle. Binary surfactant mixtures of Aerosol OT (AOT) with Tween 80 revealed synergistic reduction in surface tension to enable both high entrapment efficiency (EE) and low particle size (PS). Synergism of the surfactants was confirmed by molecular interaction parameter(β(σ)). Combination of AOT and Tween 80 resulted in EE (∼85%) and PS (<250nm). Formation of TMX-KSR nanoparticles in situ was reproducible under most experimental conditions and exhibited pH independent behavior. Dilution volume (>80mL) influenced both PS and EE while dilution temperature influenced only PS. Marginal increase in size was evident at the end of 1h nevertheless was not of concern as TMX SNP exhibited near complete release in 1h. DSC and XRD studies revealed amorphous nature of TMX in nanoparticles. FTIR imaging confirmed uniform distribution of TMX in nanoparticles. ESEM and TEM revealed spherical nanoparticles. Biodistribution studies of (99m)Tc labeled TMX SNP in rats revealed no significant absorption however oral pharmacokinetics revealed enhanced oral bioavailability of TMX (165%) compared to TMX suspension. SNP presents a new in situ approach, for design of drug loaded polymeric nanoparticles. PMID:22414426

  4. Gallium-67 citrate imaging in underground coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Kanner, R.E.; Barkman, H.W. Jr.; Rom, W.N.; Taylor, A.T. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-two underground coal workers with 27 or more years of coal dust exposure were studied with gallium-67 citrate (Ga-67) imaging. Radiographic evidence of coal workers indicates that pneumoconiosis (CWP) was present in 12 subjects. The Ga-67 scan was abnormal in 11 of 12 with, and 9 of 10 without, CWP. The Ga-67 uptake index was significantly correlated with total dust exposure (p less than 0.01) and approached significant correlation with the radiographic profusion of the nodules (0.10 greater than p greater than 0.05). There was no correlation between Ga-67 uptake and spirometric function, which was normal in this group of patients; furthermore, increased lung uptake of gallium did not indicate a poor prognosis in subjects no longer exposed to coal dust. While coal dust exposure may be associated with positive Ga-67 lung scan in coal miners with many years of coal dust exposure, the scan provided no information not already available from a careful exposure history and a chest radiograph. Since Ga-67 scanning is a relatively expensive procedure the authors would recommend that its use in subjects with asymptomatic CWP be limited to an investigative role and not be made part of a routine evaluation.

  5. AcsD catalyzes enantioselective citrate desymmetrization in siderophore biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Schmelz, Stefan; Kadi, Nadia; McMahon, Stephen A; Song, Lijiang; Oves-Costales, Daniel; Oke, Muse; Liu, Huanting; Johnson, Kenneth A; Carter, Lester G; Botting, Catherine H; White, Malcolm F; Challis, Gregory L; Naismith, James H

    2009-03-01

    Bacterial pathogens need to scavenge iron from their host for growth and proliferation during infection. They have evolved several strategies to do this, one being the biosynthesis and excretion of small, high-affinity iron chelators known as siderophores. The biosynthesis of siderophores is an important area of study, not only for potential therapeutic intervention but also to illuminate new enzyme chemistries. Two general pathways for siderophore biosynthesis exist: the well-characterized nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS)-dependent pathway and the NRPS-independent siderophore (NIS) pathway, which relies on a different family of sparsely investigated synthetases. Here we report structural and biochemical studies of AcsD from Pectobacterium (formerly Erwinia) chrysanthemi, an NIS synthetase involved in achromobactin biosynthesis. The structures of ATP and citrate complexes provide a mechanistic rationale for stereospecific formation of an enzyme-bound (3R)-citryladenylate, which reacts with L-serine to form a likely achromobactin precursor. AcsD is a unique acyladenylate-forming enzyme with a new fold and chemical catalysis strategy. PMID:19182782

  6. Assembly of citrate gold nanoparticles on hydrophilic monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikholm-Lundin, Inger; Rosqvist, Emil; Ihalainen, Petri; Munter, Tony; Honkimaa, Anni; Marjomäki, Varpu; Albers, Willem M.; Peltonen, Jouko

    2016-08-01

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) as model surfaces were linked onto planar gold films thorough lipoic acid or disulfide groups. The molecules used were polyethylene glycol (EG-S-S), N-[tris-(hydroxymethyl)methyl]acrylamide polymers with and without lipoic acid (Lipa-pTHMMAA and pTHMMAA) and a lipoic acid triazine derivative (Lipa-MF). All the layers, but Lipa-MF with a primary amino group were hydroxyl terminated. The layers were characterized by contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy, AFM. Citrate stabilized nanoparticles, AuNPs in water and phosphate buffer were allowed to assemble on the layers for 10 min and the binding was followed in real-time with surface plasmon resonance, SPR. The SPR resonance curves were observed to shift to higher angles and become increasingly damped, while also the peaks strongly broaden when large nanoparticles assembled on the surface. Both the angular shift and the damping of the curve was largest for nanoparticles assembling on the EG-S-S monolayer. High amounts of particles were also assembled on the pTHMMAA layer without the lipoic acid group, but the damping of the curve was considerably lower with a more even distribution of the particles. Topographical images confirmed that the highest number of particles were assembled on the polyethylene glycol monolayer. By increasing the interaction time more particles could be assembled on the surface.

  7. A rapid method to estimate the concentration of citrate capped silver nanoparticles from UV-visible light spectra.

    PubMed

    Paramelle, D; Sadovoy, A; Gorelik, S; Free, P; Hobley, J; Fernig, D G

    2014-10-01

    We present a generalized table of extinction coefficient data for silver nanoparticles from 8 to 100 nm. This table allows for easy and quick estimation of the concentration and size of modified and mono-dispersed silver nanoparticles from their optical spectra. We obtained data by determining the silver content of citrate-stabilised silver nanoparticles using sodium cyanide to dissolve the nanoparticles, and measuring solution conductivity with a pH meter and a cyanide-ion selective electrode. The quantification of the silver ion concentration enabled the calculation of extinction coefficients. Experimentally calculated extinction coefficients, in the current work, are in good agreement with collated literature values measured by different authors with non-standardized methodology and each for a limited range of particle size. They are also in good agreement with our theoretical calculations using Mie theory. Thus, we provide a highly standardized and comprehensive tabulated reference data-set.

  8. Bench-to-bedside review: Citrate for continuous renal replacement therapy, from science to practice.

    PubMed

    Oudemans-van Straaten, Heleen M; Ostermann, Marlies

    2012-12-07

    To prevent clotting in the extracorporeal circuit during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) anticoagulation is required. Heparin is still the most commonly used anticoagulant. However, heparins increase the risk of bleeding, especially in critically ill patients. Evidence has accumulated that regional anticoagulation of the CRRT circuit with citrate is feasible and safe. Compared to heparin, citrate anticoagulation reduces the risk of bleeding and requirement for blood products, not only in patients with coagulopathy, but also in those without. Metabolic complications are largely prevented by the use of a strict protocol, comprehensive training and integrated citrate software. Recent studies indicate that citrate can even be used in patients with significant liver disease provided that monitoring is intensified and the dose is carefully adjusted. Since the citric acid cycle is oxygen dependent, patients at greatest risk of accumulation seem to be those with persistent lactic acidosis due to poor tissue perfusion. The use of citrate may also be associated with less inflammation due to hypocalcemia-induced suppression of intracellular signaling at the membrane and avoidance of heparin, which may have proinflammatory properties. Whether these beneficial effects increase patient survival needs to be confirmed. However, other benefits are the reason that citrate should become the first choice anticoagulant for CRRT provided that its safe use can be guaranteed.

  9. Clinical review: anticoagulation for continuous renal replacement therapy--heparin or citrate?

    PubMed

    Oudemans-van Straaten, Heleen M; Kellum, John A; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2011-01-24

    Heparin is the most commonly prescribed anticoagulant for continuous renal replacement therapy. There is, however, increasing evidence questioning its safety, particularly in the critically ill. Heparin mainly confers its anticoagulant effect by binding to antithrombin. Heparin binds to numerous other proteins and cells as well, however, compromising its efficacy and safety. Owing to antithrombin consumption and degradation, and to the binding of heparin to acute phase proteins, and to apoptotic and necrotic cells, critical illness confers heparin resistance. The nonspecific binding of heparin further leads to an unpredictable interference with inflammation pathways, microcirculation and phagocytotic clearance of dead cells, with possible deleterious consequences for patients with sepsis and systemic inflammation. Regional anticoagulation with citrate does not increase the patient's risk of bleeding. The benefits of citrate further include a longer or similar circuit life, and possibly better patient and kidney survival. This needs to be confirmed in larger randomized controlled multicenter trials. The use of citrate might be associated with less inflammation and has useful bio-energetic implications. Citrate can, however, with inadequate use cause metabolic derangements. Full advantages of citrate can only be realized if its risks are well controlled. These observations suggest a greater role for citrate.

  10. A second mechanism for aluminum resistance in wheat relies on the constitutive efflux of citrate from roots.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Peter R; Raman, Harsh; Gupta, Sanjay; Horst, Walter J; Delhaize, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    The first confirmed mechanism for aluminum (Al) resistance in plants is encoded by the wheat (Triticum aestivum) gene, TaALMT1, on chromosome 4DL. TaALMT1 controls the Al-activated efflux of malate from roots, and this mechanism is widespread among Al-resistant genotypes of diverse genetic origins. This study describes a second mechanism for Al resistance in wheat that relies on citrate efflux. Citrate efflux occurred constitutively from the roots of Brazilian cultivars Carazinho, Maringa, Toropi, and Trintecinco. Examination of two populations segregating for this trait showed that citrate efflux was controlled by a single locus. Whole-genome linkage mapping using an F(2) population derived from a cross between Carazinho (citrate efflux) and the cultivar EGA-Burke (no citrate efflux) identified a major locus on chromosome 4BL, Xce(c), which accounts for more than 50% of the phenotypic variation in citrate efflux. Mendelizing the quantitative variation in citrate efflux into qualitative data, the Xce(c) locus was mapped within 6.3 cM of the microsatellite marker Xgwm495 locus. This linkage was validated in a second population of F(2:3) families derived from a cross between Carazinho and the cultivar Egret (no citrate efflux). We show that expression of an expressed sequence tag, belonging to the multidrug and toxin efflux (MATE) gene family, correlates with the citrate efflux phenotype. This study provides genetic and physiological evidence that citrate efflux is a second mechanism for Al resistance in wheat.

  11. Redox properties and activity of iron-citrate complexes: evidence for redox cycling.

    PubMed

    Adam, Fatima I; Bounds, Patricia L; Kissner, Reinhard; Koppenol, Willem H

    2015-04-20

    Iron in iron overload disease is present as non-transferrin-bound iron, consisting of iron, citrate, and albumin. We investigated the redox properties of iron citrate by electrochemistry, by the kinetics of its reaction with ascorbate, by ESR, and by analyzing the products of reactions of ascorbate with iron citrate complexes in the presence of H2O2 with 4-hydroxybenzoic acid as a reporter molecule for hydroxylation. We report -0.03 V < E°' > +0.01 V for the (Fe(3+)-cit/Fe(2+)-cit) couple. The first step in the reaction of iron citrate with ascorbate is the rapid formation of mixed complexes of iron with citrate and ascorbate, followed by slow reduction to Fe(2+)-citrate with k = ca. 3 M(-1) s(-1). The ascorbyl radical is formed by iron citrate oxidation of Hasc(-) with k = ca. 0.02 M(-1) s(-1); the majority of the ascorbyl radical formed is sequestered by complexation with iron and remains EPR silent. The hydroxylation of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid driven by the Fenton reduction of iron citrate by ascorbate in the presence of H2O2 proceeds in three phases: the first phase, which is independent of the presence of O2, is revealed as a nonzero intercept that reflects the rapid reaction of accumulated Fe(2+) with H2O2; the intermediate oxygen-dependent phase fits a first-order accumulation of product with k = 5 M(-1) s(-1) under aerobic and k = 13 M(-1) s(-1) under anaerobic conditions; the slope of the final linear phase is ca. k = 5 × 10(-2) M(-1) s(-1) under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Product yields under aerobic conditions are greater than predicted from the initial concentration of iron, but they are less than predicted for continuous redox cycling in the presence of excess ascorbate. The ongoing formation of hydroxylated product supports slow redox cycling by iron citrate. Thus, when H2O2 is available, iron-citrate complexes may contribute to pathophysiological manifestations of iron overload diseases.

  12. Structural basis for the extended substrate spectrum of AmpC BER and structure-guided discovery of the inhibition activity of citrate against the class C β-lactamases AmpC BER and CMY-10.

    PubMed

    Na, Jung Hyun; Cha, Sun Shin

    2016-08-01

    AmpC BER is an extended substrate spectrum class C β-lactamase with a two-amino-acid insertion in the R2 loop compared with AmpC EC2. The crystal structures of AmpC BER (S64A mutant) and AmpC EC2 were determined. Structural comparison of the two proteins revealed that the insertion increases the conformational flexibility of the R2 loop. Two citrate molecules originating from the crystallization solution were observed in the active site of the S64A mutant. One citrate molecule makes extensive interactions with active-site residues that are highly conserved among class C β-lactamases, whereas the other one is weakly bound. Based on this structural observation, it is demonstrated that citrate, a primary metabolite that is widely used as a food additive, is a competitive inhibitor of two class C β-lactamases (AmpC BER and CMY-10). Consequently, the data indicate enhancement of the flexibility of the R2 loop as an operative strategy for molecular evolution of extended-spectrum class C β-lactamases, and also suggest that the citrate scaffold is recognized by the active sites of class C β-lactamases. PMID:27487828

  13. Anticaries effect of dentifrices with calcium citrate and sodium trimetaphosphate

    PubMed Central

    DELBEM, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; BERGAMASCHI, Maurício; RODRIGUES, Eliana; SASSAKI, Kikue Takebayashi; VIEIRA, Ana Elisa de Mello; MISSEL, Emilene Macario Coimbra

    2012-01-01

    Because of the growing concerns regarding fluoride ingestion by young children and dental fluorosis, it is necessary to develop new dentifrices. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dentifrices with calcium citrate (Cacit) and sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) on enamel demineralization. Material and Methods Enamel blocks (n=70), previously selected through surface hardness analysis, were submitted to daily treatment with dentifrices diluted in artificial saliva and to a pH-cycling model. The fluoride concentration in dentifrices was 0, 250, 450, 550, 1,000 and 1,100 µg F/g. CrestTM was used as a positive control (1,100 mg F/g). Cacit (0.25%) and TMP (0.25%) were added to dentifrices with 450 and 1,000 µg F/g. Surface hardness was measured again and integrated loss of subsurface hardness and fluoride concentration in enamel were calculated. Parametric and correlation tests were used to determine difference (p<0.05) and dose-response relationship between treatments. Results The addition of Cacit and TMP did not provide a higher fluoride concentration in enamel, however it reduced (p<0.05) mineral loss when compared to other dentifrices; the dentifrice with Cacit and TMP and a low fluoride concentration presented similar results when compared to a dentifrice with 1,100 mg F/g (p>0.05). Conclusions Dentifrices with 450 and 1,000 µg F/g, Cacit and TMP were as effective as a gold standard one. PMID:22437685

  14. Conditions required for citrate utilization during growth of Lactobacillus casei ATCC334 in chemically defined medium and cheddar cheese extract.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Muñiz, Ilenys; Steele, James L

    2006-10-01

    Conditions required for citrate utilization by Lactobacillus casei ATCC334 were identified. Citrate was utilized by this microorganism in modified Chemically Defined Media (mCDM) as an energy source, solely in the presence of limiting concentrations of galactose. The presence of glucose inhibited citrate utilization by this microorganism even when added in limiting concentrations. Utilization of citrate occurred at pH 6.0 +/- 0.2 and 5.1 +/- 0.2. Together these observations suggest that citrate is an energy source for L. casei in ripening cheese only when the residual levels of carbohydrate post-fermentation are limiting (<2.5 mM), and lactose or glucose are absent. However, citrate utilization by this organism was observed in Cheddar cheese extract (CCE), which naturally contains both lactose and galactose, at the beginning of late-logarithmic phase and regardless of the galactose concentration present in the media.

  15. The yeast mitochondrial citrate transport protein: molecular determinants of its substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Aluvila, Sreevidya; Kotaria, Rusudan; Sun, Jiakang; Mayor, June A; Walters, D Eric; Harrison, David H T; Kaplan, Ronald S

    2010-08-27

    The objective of this study was to identify the role of individual amino acid residues in determining the substrate specificity of the yeast mitochondrial citrate transport protein (CTP). Previously, we showed that the CTP contains at least two substrate-binding sites. In this study, utilizing the overexpressed, single-Cys CTP-binding site variants that were functionally reconstituted in liposomes, we examined CTP specificity from both its external and internal surfaces. Upon mutation of residues comprising the more external site, the CTP becomes less selective for citrate with numerous external anions able to effectively inhibit [(14)C]citrate/citrate exchange. Thus, the site 1 variants assume the binding characteristics of a nonspecific anion carrier. Comparison of [(14)C]citrate uptake in the presence of various internal anions versus water revealed that, with the exception of the R189C mutant, the other site 1 variants showed substantial uniport activity relative to exchange. Upon mutation of residues comprising site 2, we observed two types of effects. The K37C mutant displayed a markedly enhanced selectivity for external citrate. In contrast, the other site 2 mutants displayed varying degrees of relaxed selectivity for external citrate. Examination of internal substrates revealed that, in contrast to the control transporter, the R181C variant exclusively functioned as a uniporter. This study provides the first functional information on the role of specific binding site residues in determining mitochondrial transporter substrate selectivity. We interpret our findings in the context of our homology-modeled CTP as it cycles between the outward-facing, occluded, and inward-facing states.

  16. Cloning and expression of Klebsiella pneumoniae genes coding for citrate transport and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, E; Oesterhelt, D

    1985-06-01

    Three Escherichia coli clones (DH1/Cit1, DH1/Cit2 and DH1/Cit3) capable of utilizing citrate as a sole carbon source were isolated from a cosmid bank of Klebsiella pneumoniae wild-type DNA. Two of these clones (DH1/Cit1 and DH1/Cit2) only grew aerobically on citrate minimal medium, the third clone (DH1/Cit3) could also be cultured under fermentative conditions. The aerobic as well as the anaerobic generation times of the three clones were from 4.5 to 7 h. Whereas clone DH1/Cit3 showed a pronounced lag phase on citrate when the cells were pre-grown in medium without citrate, clone DH1/Cit1 immediately started growth, while with clone DH1/Cit2 a short lag phase could be observed upon transfer to citrate minimal medium. Restriction analyses of the three plasmids showed that no common fragments had been cloned. The length of the inserts were 13 and 6 kb for the aerobic Cit+ clones and 27 kb (10 kb) for the anaerobic one. Cultures of the anaerobic Cit+ clone were analyzed by immunoblotting techniques and shown to contain oxaloacetate decarboxylase, which confers citrate utilization under anaerobic conditions to K. pneumoniae. Enzyme assays demonstrated the active state of this biotin-containing membrane protein. The specific activity in vesicle preparations from the E. coli clone was 30% of the wild-type K. pneumoniae vesicles. Citrate acts as an inducer of enzyme protein synthesis in the E. coli clone as it does in K. pneumoniae.

  17. Mechanism of citrate metabolism by an oxaloacetate decarboxylase-deficient mutant of Lactococcus lactis IL1403.

    PubMed

    Pudlik, Agata M; Lolkema, Juke S

    2011-08-01

    Citrate metabolism in resting cells of Lactococcus lactis IL1403(pFL3) results in the formation of two end products from the intermediate pyruvate, acetoin and acetate (A. M. Pudlik and J. S. Lolkema, J. Bacteriol. 193:706-714, 2011). Pyruvate is formed from citrate following uptake by the transporter CitP through the subsequent actions of citrate lyase and oxaloacetate decarboxylase. The present study describes the metabolic response of L. lactis when oxaloacetate accumulates in the cytoplasm. The oxaloacetate decarboxylase-deficient mutant ILCitM(pFL3) showed nearly identical rates of citrate consumption, but the end product profile in the presence of glucose shifted from mainly acetoin to only acetate. In addition, in contrast to the parental strain, the mutant strain did not generate proton motive force. Citrate consumption by the mutant strain was coupled to the excretion of oxaloacetate, with a yield of 80 to 85%. Following citrate consumption, oxaloacetate was slowly taken up by the cells and converted to pyruvate by a cryptic decarboxylase and, subsequently, to acetate. The transport of oxaloacetate is catalyzed by CitP. The parental strain IL1403(pFL3) containing CitP consumed oxaloacetate, while the original strain, IL1403, not containing CitP, did not. Moreover, oxaloacetate consumption was enhanced in the presence of L-lactate, indicating exchange between oxaloacetate and L-lactate catalyzed by CitP. Hence, when oxaloacetate inadvertently accumulates in the cytoplasm, the physiological response of L. lactis is to excrete oxaloacetate in exchange with citrate by an electroneutral mechanism catalyzed by CitP. Subsequently, in a second step, oxaloacetate is taken up by CitP and metabolized to pyruvate and acetate.

  18. Can citrate efflux from roots improve phosphorus uptake by plants? Testing the hypothesis with near-isogenic lines of wheat.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Peter R; James, Richard A; Weligama, Chandrakumara; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Rattey, Allan; Lewis, David C; Bovill, William D; McDonald, Glenn; Rathjen, Tina M; Wang, Enli; Fettell, Neil A; Richardson, Alan E

    2014-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) deficiency in some plant species triggers the release of organic anions such as citrate and malate from roots. These anions are widely suggested to enhance the availability of phosphate for plant uptake by mobilizing sparingly-soluble forms in the soil. Carazinho is an old wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivar from Brazil, which secretes citrate constitutively from its root apices, and here we show that it also produces relatively more biomass on soils with low P availability than two recent Australian cultivars that lack citrate efflux. To test whether citrate efflux explains this phenotype, we generated two sets of near-isogenic lines that differ in citrate efflux and compared their biomass production in different soil types and with different P treatments in glasshouse experiments and field trials. Citrate efflux improved relative biomass production in two of six glasshouse trials but only at the lowest P treatments where growth was most severely limited by P availability. Furthermore, citrate efflux provided no consistent advantage for biomass production or yield in multiple field trials. Theoretical modeling indicates that the effectiveness of citrate efflux in mobilizing soil P is greater as the volume of soil into which it diffuses increases. As efflux from these wheat plants is restricted to the root apices, the potential for citrate to mobilize sufficient P to increase shoot biomass may be limited. We conclude that Carazinho has other attributes that contribute to its comparatively good performance in low-P soils.

  19. A comparison of two sodium citrate concentrations in two evacuated blood collection systems for prothrombin time and ISI determination.

    PubMed

    van den Besselaar, A M; Chantarangkul, V; Tripodi, A

    2000-10-01

    The prothrombin time is usually measured in citrated plasma. The W.H.O. recommended concentration of sodium citrate for blood collection for laboratory control of oral anticoagulant therapy is 0.109 M. Some evacuated blood collection systems include 0.105 M sodium citrate. The purpose of the present study was to establish the difference in ISI calibration between 0.109 and 0.105 M citrate, using 7 types of thromboplastin and various types of instrumentation. The two citrate concentrations were provided in both evacuated siliconised glass tubes and in evacuated polyethylene terephtalate (PET) tubes. The ISI difference between the two citrate concentrations was 5.4% for one system but not greater than 3% for all other systems when blood samples were collected with either siliconized glass or PET tubes. Most of the ISI differences between the two citrate concentrations were not significant at the 5% level. It is concluded that the ISI differences between 0.105 M and 0.109 M citrate are not of practical importance. In contrast, ISI differences between siliconised glass and PET tubes, using either 0.105 or 0.109 M citrate, were significant (p <0.05) for most thromboplastin systems and amounted to 7%. ISI interchange between these glass and PET tubes could induce INR differences amounting to 14%, which could affect clinical dosage of oral anticoagulants. PMID:11057867

  20. Inhibition of calcium oxalate monohydrate growth by citrate and the effect of the background electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Matthew L.; Qiu, S. Roger; Hoyer, John R.; Casey, William H.; Nancollas, George H.; De Yoreo, James J.

    2007-08-01

    Pathological mineralization is a common phenomenon in broad range of plants and animals. In humans, kidney stone formation is a well-known example that afflicts approximately 10% of the population. Of the various calcium salt phases that comprise human kidney stones, the primary component is calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM). Citrate, a naturally occurring molecule in the urinary system and a common therapeutic agent for treating stone disease, is a known inhibitor of COM. Understanding the physical mechanisms of citrate inhibition requires quantification of the effects of both background electrolytes and citrate on COM step kinetics. Here we report the results of an in situ AFM study of these effects, in which we measure the effect of the electrolytes LiCl, NaCl, KCl, RbCl, and CsCl, and the dependence of step speed on citrate concentration for a range of COM supersaturations. We find that varying the background electrolyte results in significant differences in the measured step speeds and in step morphology, with KCl clearly producing the smallest impact and NaCl the largest. The kinetic coefficient for the former is nearly three times larger than for the latter, while the steps change from smooth to highly serrated when KCl is changed to NaCl. The results on the dependence of step speed on citrate concentration show that citrate produces a dead zone whose width increases with citrate concentration as well as a continual reduction in kinetic coefficient with increasing citrate level. We relate these results to a molecular-scale view of inhibition that invokes a combination of kink blocking and step pinning. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the classic step-pinning model of Cabrera and Vermilyea (C-V model) does an excellent job of predicting the effect of citrate on COM step kinetics provided the model is reformulated to more realistically account for impurity adsorption, include an expression for the Gibbs-Thomson effect that is correct for all supersaturations

  1. The physiology and biophysics of an aluminum tolerance mechanism based on root citrate exudation in maize.

    PubMed

    Piñeros, Miguel A; Magalhaes, Jurandir V; Carvalho Alves, Vera M; Kochian, Leon V

    2002-07-01

    Al-induced release of Al-chelating ligands (primarily organic acids) into the rhizosphere from the root apex has been identified as a major Al tolerance mechanism in a number of plant species. In the present study, we conducted physiological investigations to study the spatial and temporal characteristics of Al-activated root organic acid exudation, as well as changes in root organic acid content and Al accumulation, in an Al-tolerant maize (Zea mays) single cross (SLP 181/71 x Cateto Colombia 96/71). These investigations were integrated with biophysical studies using the patch-clamp technique to examine Al-activated anion channel activity in protoplasts isolated from different regions of the maize root. Exposure to Al nearly instantaneously activated a concentration-dependent citrate release, which saturated at rates close to 0.5 nmol citrate h(-1) root(-1), with the half-maximal rates of citrate release occurring at about 20 microM Al(3+) activity. Comparison of citrate exudation rates between decapped and capped roots indicated the root cap does not play a major role in perceiving the Al signal or in the exudation process. Spatial analysis indicated that the predominant citrate exudation is not confined to the root apex, but could be found as far as 5 cm beyond the root cap, involving cortex and stelar cells. Patch clamp recordings obtained in whole-cell and outside-out patches confirmed the presence of an Al-inducible plasma membrane anion channel in protoplasts isolated from stelar or cortical tissues. The unitary conductance of this channel was 23 to 55 pS. Our results suggest that this transporter mediates the Al-induced citrate release observed in the intact tissue. In addition to the rapid Al activation of citrate release, a slower, Al-inducible increase in root citrate content was also observed. These findings led us to speculate that in addition to the Al exclusion mechanism based on root citrate exudation, a second internal Al tolerance mechanism may be

  2. Small-angle neutron scattering studies of mineralization on BSA coated citrate capped gold nanoparticles used as a model surface for membrane scaling in RO wastewater desalination.

    PubMed

    Dahdal, Y N; Pipich, V; Rapaport, H; Oren, Y; Kasher, R; Schwahn, D

    2014-12-23

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) coated on citrate capped gold nanoparticles (BSA-GNPs) was exposed to a simulated wastewater effluent (SSE) in order to study the mineralization and thereby mimic scaling at biofouled membranes of reverse osmosis (RO) wastewater desalination plants. RO is a leading technology of achieving freshwater quality as it has the capability of removing both dissolved inorganic salts and organic contaminants from tertiary wastewater effluents. The aim was to better understand one of the major problems facing this technology which is fouling of the membranes, mainly biofouling and scaling by calcium phosphate. The experiments were performed using the small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique. The nanoparticles, GNPs, stabilized by the citrate groups showed 30 Å large particles having a homogeneous distribution of gold and citrate with a gold volume fraction of the order of 1%. On the average two BSA monomers are grafted at 2.4 GNPs. The exposed BSA-GNPs to SSE solution led to immediate mineralization of stable composite particles of the order of 0.2 μm diameter and a mineral volume fraction between 50% and 80%. The volume fraction of the mineral was of the order of 10(-5), which is roughly 3 times larger but an order of magnitude smaller than the maximum possible contents of respectively calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate in the SSE solution. Considering the extreme low solubility product of calcium phosphate, we suggest total calcium phosphate and partially (5-10%) calcium carbonate formation in the presence of BSA-GNPs.

  3. Small-angle neutron scattering studies of mineralization on BSA coated citrate capped gold nanoparticles used as a model surface for membrane scaling in RO wastewater desalination.

    PubMed

    Dahdal, Y N; Pipich, V; Rapaport, H; Oren, Y; Kasher, R; Schwahn, D

    2014-12-23

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) coated on citrate capped gold nanoparticles (BSA-GNPs) was exposed to a simulated wastewater effluent (SSE) in order to study the mineralization and thereby mimic scaling at biofouled membranes of reverse osmosis (RO) wastewater desalination plants. RO is a leading technology of achieving freshwater quality as it has the capability of removing both dissolved inorganic salts and organic contaminants from tertiary wastewater effluents. The aim was to better understand one of the major problems facing this technology which is fouling of the membranes, mainly biofouling and scaling by calcium phosphate. The experiments were performed using the small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique. The nanoparticles, GNPs, stabilized by the citrate groups showed 30 Å large particles having a homogeneous distribution of gold and citrate with a gold volume fraction of the order of 1%. On the average two BSA monomers are grafted at 2.4 GNPs. The exposed BSA-GNPs to SSE solution led to immediate mineralization of stable composite particles of the order of 0.2 μm diameter and a mineral volume fraction between 50% and 80%. The volume fraction of the mineral was of the order of 10(-5), which is roughly 3 times larger but an order of magnitude smaller than the maximum possible contents of respectively calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate in the SSE solution. Considering the extreme low solubility product of calcium phosphate, we suggest total calcium phosphate and partially (5-10%) calcium carbonate formation in the presence of BSA-GNPs. PMID:25458085

  4. Effects of sodium citrate plus sodium diacetate and buffered vinegar on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and psychrotrophic bacteria in brine-injected beef.

    PubMed

    Ponrajan, Amudhan; Harrison, Mark A; Segers, Jacob R; Lowe, Bradley K; McKeith, Russell O; Pringle, T Dean; Martino, Karina G; Mulligan, Jake H; Stelzleni, Alexander M

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this research was to examine the effects of sodium citrate plus sodium diacetate or buffered vinegar on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and psychrotrophic bacteria when incorporated in brine solutions for injected beef. Two experiments were conducted in which 30 top rounds and 30 top sirloins were injected (110%) to contain (i) 0.5% sodium chloride and 0.4% sodium tripolyphosphate as the control (CNT); (ii) CNT with a 1% solution of 80% sodium citrate plus 20% sodium diacetate (SC + D); or (iii) CNT with 2% buffered vinegar (VIN) in the final product. For the E. coli challenge, muscles were surface inoculated to target 6 log CFU/cm(2). After injection and 10 days of storage in a vacuum package (4°C), one half of each muscle was sampled raw and the other half was cooked to an internal temperature of 60°C with a 12-min hold. For raw samples, a significant reduction of 0.6 and 1.0 log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 was observed in both SC + D- and VIN-injected top rounds and sirloins, respectively. All cooked samples were E. coli O157:H7 negative. For psychrotrophic analysis, subprimals were injected and vacuum packaged for 10 days at 0 ± 1°C. After 10 days of storage, steaks were fabricated and placed in aerobic display (4 ± 1°C) for 1, 7, 14, and 21 days. Psychrotrophic organism growth was restricted in SC + D and VIN samples when compared with CNT on all days except day 1. Sodium citrate plus sodium diacetate or buffered vinegar may improve the safety and shelf life of multineedle brine-injected beef.

  5. Enhancing radium solubilization in soils by citrate, EDTA, and EDDS chelating amendments.

    PubMed

    Prieto, C; Lozano, J C; Blanco Rodríguez, P; Tomé, F Vera

    2013-04-15

    The effect of three chelating agents (citrate, EDTA, and EDDS) on the solubilization of radium from a granitic soil was studied systematically, considering different soil pH values, chelating agent concentrations, and leaching times. For all the chelating agents tested, the amount of radium leached proved to be strongly dependent on the pH of the substrate: only for acidic conditions did the amount of radium released increase significantly relative to the controls. Under the best conditions, the radium released from the amended soil was greater by factors of 20 in the case of citrate, 18 for EDTA, and 14 for EDDS. The greatest improvement in the release of radium was obtained for the citrate amendment at the highest concentration tested (50 mmol kg(-1)). A slightly lower amount of radium was leached with EDTA at 5 mmol kg(-1) soil, but the solubilization over time was very different from that observed with citrate or EDDS. With EDTA, a maximum in radium leaching was reached on the first day after amendment, while with citrate, the maximum was attained on the fourth day. With EDDS, radium leaching increased slightly but steadily with time (until the sixth day), but the net effect for the period tested was the lowest of the three reagents.

  6. Artificial citrate operon confers mineral phosphate solubilization ability to diverse fluorescent pseudomonads.

    PubMed

    Adhikary, Hemanta; Sanghavi, Paulomi B; Macwan, Silviya R; Archana, Gattupalli; Naresh Kumar, G

    2014-01-01

    Citric acid is a strong acid with good cation chelating ability and can be very efficient in solubilizing mineral phosphates. Only a few phosphate solubilizing bacteria and fungi are known to secrete citric acids. In this work, we incorporated artificial citrate operon containing NADH insensitive citrate synthase (gltA1) and citrate transporter (citC) genes into the genome of six-plant growth promoting P. fluorescens strains viz., PfO-1, Pf5, CHAO1, P109, ATCC13525 and Fp315 using MiniTn7 transposon gene delivery system. Comprehensive biochemical characterization of the genomic integrants and their comparison with plasmid transformants of the same operon in M9 minimal medium reveals the highest amount of ∼7.6±0.41 mM citric and 29.95±2.8 mM gluconic acid secretion along with ∼43.2±3.24 mM intracellular citrate without affecting the growth of these P. fluorescens strains. All genomic integrants showed enhanced citric and gluconic acid secretion on Tris-Cl rock phosphate (TRP) buffered medium, which was sufficient to release 200-1000 µM Pi in TRP medium. This study demonstrates that MPS ability could be achieved in natural fluorescent pseudomonads by incorporation of artificial citrate operon not only as plasmid but also by genomic integration. PMID:25259527

  7. Artificial Citrate Operon Confers Mineral Phosphate Solubilization Ability to Diverse Fluorescent Pseudomonads

    PubMed Central

    Adhikary, Hemanta; Sanghavi, Paulomi B.; Macwan, Silviya R.; Archana, Gattupalli; Naresh Kumar, G.

    2014-01-01

    Citric acid is a strong acid with good cation chelating ability and can be very efficient in solubilizing mineral phosphates. Only a few phosphate solubilizing bacteria and fungi are known to secrete citric acids. In this work, we incorporated artificial citrate operon containing NADH insensitive citrate synthase (gltA1) and citrate transporter (citC) genes into the genome of six-plant growth promoting P. fluorescens strains viz., PfO-1, Pf5, CHAO1, P109, ATCC13525 and Fp315 using MiniTn7 transposon gene delivery system. Comprehensive biochemical characterization of the genomic integrants and their comparison with plasmid transformants of the same operon in M9 minimal medium reveals the highest amount of ∼7.6±0.41 mM citric and 29.95±2.8 mM gluconic acid secretion along with ∼43.2±3.24 mM intracellular citrate without affecting the growth of these P. fluorescens strains. All genomic integrants showed enhanced citric and gluconic acid secretion on Tris-Cl rock phosphate (TRP) buffered medium, which was sufficient to release 200–1000 µM Pi in TRP medium. This study demonstrates that MPS ability could be achieved in natural fluorescent pseudomonads by incorporation of artificial citrate operon not only as plasmid but also by genomic integration. PMID:25259527

  8. Nitrate Protects Cucumber Plants Against Fusarium oxysporum by Regulating Citrate Exudation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Gu, Zechen; Wang, Ruirui; Sun, Guomei; Zhu, Chen; Guo, Shiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-09-01

    Fusarium wilt causes severe yield losses in cash crops. Nitrogen plays a critical role in the management of plant disease; however, the regulating mechanism is poorly understood. Using biochemical, physiological, bioinformatic and transcriptome approaches, we analyzed how nitrogen forms regulate the interactions between cucumber plants and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC). Nitrate significantly suppressed Fusarium wilt compared with ammonium in both pot and hydroponic experiments. Fewer FOC colonized the roots and stems under nitrate compared with ammonium supply. Cucumber grown with nitrate accumulated less fusaric acid (FA) after FOC infection and exhibited increased tolerance to chemical FA by decreasing FA absorption and transportation in shoots. A lower citrate concentration was observed in nitrate-grown cucumbers, which was associated with lower MATE (multidrug and toxin compound extrusion) family gene and citrate synthase (CS) gene expression, as well as lower CS activity. Citrate enhanced FOC spore germination and infection, and increased disease incidence and the FOC population in ammonium-treated plants. Our study provides evidence that nitrate protects cucumber plants against F. oxysporum by decreasing root citrate exudation and FOC infection. Citrate exudation is essential for regulating disease development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants. PMID:27481896

  9. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for citrate synthase from a thermotolerant Bacillus sp.

    PubMed Central

    Schendel, F J; August, P R; Anderson, C R; Hanson, R S; Flickinger, M C

    1992-01-01

    The structural gene coding for citrate synthase from the gram-positive soil isolate Bacillus sp. strain C4 (ATCC 55182) capable of secreting acetic acid at pH 5.0 to 7.0 in the presence of dolime has been cloned from a genomic library by complementation of an Escherichia coli auxotrophic mutant lacking citrate synthase. The nucleotide sequence of the entire 3.1-kb HindIII fragment has been determined, and one major open reading frame was found coding for citrate synthase (ctsA). Citrate synthase from Bacillus sp. strain C4 was found to be a dimer (Mr, 84,500) with a subunit with an Mr of 42,000. The N-terminal sequence was found to be identical with that predicted from the gene sequence. The kinetics were best fit to a bisubstrate enzyme with an ordered mechanism. Bacillus sp. strain C4 citrate synthase was not activated by potassium chloride and was not inhibited by NADH, ATP, ADP, or AMP at levels up to 1 mM. The predicted amino acid sequence was compared with that of the E. coli, Acinetobacter anitratum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Rickettsia prowazekii, porcine heart, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytoplasmic and mitochondrial enzymes. PMID:1311544

  10. Nitrate Protects Cucumber Plants Against Fusarium oxysporum by Regulating Citrate Exudation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Gu, Zechen; Wang, Ruirui; Sun, Guomei; Zhu, Chen; Guo, Shiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-09-01

    Fusarium wilt causes severe yield losses in cash crops. Nitrogen plays a critical role in the management of plant disease; however, the regulating mechanism is poorly understood. Using biochemical, physiological, bioinformatic and transcriptome approaches, we analyzed how nitrogen forms regulate the interactions between cucumber plants and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC). Nitrate significantly suppressed Fusarium wilt compared with ammonium in both pot and hydroponic experiments. Fewer FOC colonized the roots and stems under nitrate compared with ammonium supply. Cucumber grown with nitrate accumulated less fusaric acid (FA) after FOC infection and exhibited increased tolerance to chemical FA by decreasing FA absorption and transportation in shoots. A lower citrate concentration was observed in nitrate-grown cucumbers, which was associated with lower MATE (multidrug and toxin compound extrusion) family gene and citrate synthase (CS) gene expression, as well as lower CS activity. Citrate enhanced FOC spore germination and infection, and increased disease incidence and the FOC population in ammonium-treated plants. Our study provides evidence that nitrate protects cucumber plants against F. oxysporum by decreasing root citrate exudation and FOC infection. Citrate exudation is essential for regulating disease development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants.

  11. Radiolabeled porphyrin versus gallium-67 citrate for the detection of human melanoma in athymic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Maric, N.; Chan, S. Ming; Hoffer, P.B.; Duray, P.

    1987-01-01

    We performed the biodistribution and imaging studies of /sup 111/In and /sup 67/Ga labeled tetra(4-N-methylpyridyl) porphine, (T4NMPYP), and compared it to that of /sup 67/Ga citrate in athymic mice bearing a human melanoma xenograft. The biodistribution results of both /sup 111/In and /sup 67/Ga labeled T4NMPYP (3, 6, 24, and 48 hours) were similar but differed from that of /sup 67/Ga citrate (48 hours). The optimum tumor uptake of both radiolabeled porphyrins was at 6 hours postinjection and was lower than the tumor uptake of /sup 67/Ga citrate at 48 hours postinjection. Kidney was the only organ showing higher uptake of radiolabeled porphyrin compared to that of /sup 67/Ga citrate. The imaging studies performed with /sup 111/In T4NMPYP and /sup 67/Ga citrate correspond to the biodistribution results. Osteomyelitis present in one mouse showed good localization of /sup 111/In T4NMPYP. 15 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. The FRD3 citrate effluxer promotes iron nutrition between symplastically disconnected tissues throughout Arabidopsis development.

    PubMed

    Roschzttardtz, Hannetz; Séguéla-Arnaud, Mathilde; Briat, Jean-François; Vert, Grégory; Curie, Catherine

    2011-07-01

    We present data supporting a general role for FERRIC REDICTASE DEFECTIVE3 (FRD3), an efflux transporter of the efficient iron chelator citrate, in maintaining iron homeostasis throughout plant development. In addition to its well-known expression in root, we show that FRD3 is strongly expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana seed and flower. Consistently, frd3 loss-of-function mutants are defective in early germination and are almost completely sterile, both defects being rescued by iron and/or citrate supply. The frd3 fertility defect is caused by pollen abortion and is associated with the male gametophytic expression of FRD3. Iron imaging shows the presence of important deposits of iron on the surface of aborted pollen grains. This points to a role for FRD3 and citrate in proper iron nutrition of embryo and pollen. Based on the findings that iron acquisition in embryo, leaf, and pollen depends on FRD3, we propose that FRD3 mediated-citrate release in the apoplastic space represents an important process by which efficient iron nutrition is achieved between adjacent tissues lacking symplastic connections. These results reveal a physiological role for citrate in the apoplastic transport of iron throughout development, and provide a general model for multicellular organisms in the cell-to-cell transport of iron involving extracellular circulation.

  13. Anti-diabetic properties of chromium citrate complex in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Wu, Xiangyang; Zhao, Ting; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Jiangli; Mao, Guanghua; Yang, Liuqing

    2011-12-01

    The chromium citrate complex [CrCIT] was synthesized and its structure was determined by infrared, UV-visible and atomic absorption spectroscopy, elemental and thermodynamic analysis. Anti-diabetic activity, oxidative DNA damage capacity and acute oral toxicity of [CrCIT] were investigated and compared with that of chromium trichloride hexahydrate. [CrCIT] was synthesized in a single step reaction by chelating chromium(III) with citric acid in aqueous solution. The molecular formula of [CrCIT] was inferred as CrC(6)H(5)O(7)·4H(2)O. The anti-diabetic activity of the complex [CrCIT] was assessed in alloxan-diabetic rats by daily oral gavage for 3 weeks. The biological activity results showed that the complex at the dose of 0.25-0.75 mg Cr/kg body weight could decrease the blood glucose level and increase liver glycogen level in alloxan-diabetic rats. [CrCIT] had more beneficial influences on the improvement of controlling blood glucose, serum lipid and liver glycogen levels compared with CrCl(3)·6H(2)O. Furthermore, [CrCIT] did not cause oxidative DNA damage under physiologically relevant conditions, and [CrCIT] did not produce any hazardous symptoms or deaths in acute oral toxicity test, showing the LD(50) value for female and male rats were higher than 15.1 g/kg body weight. The results suggested that [CrCIT] might represent a novel and proper chromium supplement with potential therapeutic value to control blood glucose in diabetes.

  14. The health benefits of calcium citrate malate: a review of the supporting science.

    PubMed

    Reinwald, Susan; Weaver, Connie M; Kester, Jeffrey J

    2008-01-01

    There has been considerable investigation into the health benefits of calcium citrate malate (CCM) since it was first patented in the late 1980s. This chapter is a comprehensive summary of the supporting science and available evidence on the bioavailability and health benefits of consuming CCM. It highlights the important roles that CCM can play during various life stages. CCM has been shown to facilitate calcium retention and bone accrual in children and adolescents. In adults, it effectively promotes the consolidation and maintenance of bone mass. In conjunction with vitamin D, CCM also decreases bone fracture risk in the elderly, slows the rate of bone loss in old age, and is of benefit to the health and well-being of postmenopausal women. CCM is exceptional in that it confers many unique benefits that go beyond bone health. Unlike other calcium sources that necessitate supplementation be in conjunction with a meal to ensure an appreciable benefit is derived, CCM can be consumed with or without food and delivers a significant nutritional benefit to individuals of all ages. The chemistry of CCM makes it a particularly beneficial calcium source for individuals with hypochlorydia or achlorydia, which generally includes the elderly and those on medications that decrease gastric acid secretion. CCM is also recognized as a calcium source that does not increase the risk of kidney stones, and in fact it protects against stone-forming potential. The versatile nature of CCM makes it a convenient and practical calcium salt for use in moist foods and beverages. The major factor that may preclude selection of CCM as a preferred calcium source is the higher cost compared to other sources of calcium commonly used for fortification (e.g., calcium carbonate and tricalcium phosphate). However, formation of CCM directly within beverages or other fluid foods and/or preparations, and the addition of a concentrated CCM solution or slurry, are relatively cost-effective methods by

  15. An active site–tail interaction in the structure of hexahistidine-tagged Thermoplasma acidophilum citrate synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Jesse R.; Donini, Stefano; Kappock, T. Joseph

    2015-09-23

    Citrate synthase from the thermophilic euryarchaeon T. acidophilum fused to a hexahistidine tag was purified and biochemically characterized. The structure of the unliganded enzyme at 2.2 Å resolution contains tail–active site contacts in half of the active sites. Citrate synthase (CS) plays a central metabolic role in aerobes and many other organisms. The CS reaction comprises two half-reactions: a Claisen aldol condensation of acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) and oxaloacetate (OAA) that forms citryl-CoA (CitCoA), and CitCoA hydrolysis. Protein conformational changes that ‘close’ the active site play an important role in the assembly of a catalytically competent condensation active site. CS from the thermoacidophile Thermoplasma acidophilum (TpCS) possesses an endogenous Trp fluorophore that can be used to monitor the condensation reaction. The 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of TpCS fused to a C-terminal hexahistidine tag (TpCSH6) reported here is an ‘open’ structure that, when compared with several liganded TpCS structures, helps to define a complete path for active-site closure. One active site in each dimer binds a neighboring His tag, the first nonsubstrate ligand known to occupy both the AcCoA and OAA binding sites. Solution data collectively suggest that this fortuitous interaction is stabilized by the crystalline lattice. As a polar but almost neutral ligand, the active site–tail interaction provides a new starting point for the design of bisubstrate-analog inhibitors of CS.

  16. Clomiphene Citrate Effectively Increases Testosterone in Obese, Young, Hypogonadal Men

    PubMed Central

    Bendre, Sachin V.; Murray, Pamela J.; Basaria, Shehzad

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity has been associated with low testosterone (T) in adult males and in pubertal boys. Therapy for hypogonadism with exogenous T may lead to testicular atrophy and later infertility. Only a few studies have demonstrated that the Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator (SERM) clomiphene citrate (CC), an estrogen receptor antagonist, increases T in obese hypogonadal men while preventing testicular atrophy. No studies to date using CC have been done in younger obese post-pubertal hypogonadal males. Objective To determine whether CC therapy is effective in increasing serum T levels in hypogonadal post-pubertal obese males 18-21 years. Materials and Methods A retrospective chart analysis of records in obese men aged 18-21 years was done. Patients with early morning T level <350 ng/dl were given 25 mg CC on alternate days. Out of 18 patients found to have low T, 11 were analyzed. Baseline serum T, LH, FSH, weight and BMI were compared at baseline and after 3 months of CC treatment. Results Baseline T level was 233 ± 66 ng/dl and increased to 581 ± 161 ng/dl (p<0.0001) after 3 months of CC treatment. Baseline LH levels increased from 3.3 ± 1.6 mIU/mL to 5.7 ± 1.7 mIU/mL (p=0.027). Similarly, baseline FSH levels increased from 2.8 ± 1.5 mIU/mL to 6.2 ± 3 mIU/mL after CC treatment (p=0.026). There was no correlation between baseline or post treatment weight or BMI and the T level, LH, or FSH level. Conclusion This is the first study reporting on CC therapy in obese, hypogonadal post-pubertal men 18-21 years. The SERM CC increased T in obese post-pubertal hypogonadal men, similar to efficacy of CC in adult hypogonadal men over the age 21 years. Larger randomized controlled studies to study the safety and potential use of CC to improve T in young obese HG men are needed. PMID:26844009

  17. Thermal stability of tagatose in solution.

    PubMed

    Luecke, Katherine J; Bell, Leonard N

    2010-05-01

    Tagatose, a monosaccharide similar to fructose, has been shown to behave as a prebiotic. To deliver this prebiotic benefit, tagatose must not degrade during the processing of foods and beverages. The objective of this study was to evaluate the thermal stability of tagatose in solutions. Tagatose solutions were prepared in 0.02 and 0.1 M phosphate and citrate buffers at pHs 3 and 7, which were then held at 60, 70, and 80 degrees C. Pseudo-1st-order rate constants for tagatose degradation were determined. In citrate and phosphate buffers at pH 3, minimal tagatose was lost and slight browning was observed. At pH 7, tagatose degradation rates were enhanced. Degradation was faster in phosphate buffer than citrate buffer. Higher buffer concentrations also increased the degradation rate constants. Enhanced browning accompanied tagatose degradation in all buffer solutions at pH 7. Using the activation energies for tagatose degradation, less than 0.5% and 0.02% tagatose would be lost under basic vat and HTST pasteurization conditions, respectively. Although tagatose does breakdown at elevated temperatures, the amount of tagatose lost during typical thermal processing conditions would be virtually negligible. Practical Application: Tagatose degradation occurs minimally during pasteurization, which may allow for its incorporation into beverages as a prebiotic. PMID:20546393

  18. Online Hemoglobin and Oxygen Saturation Sensing During Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy with Regional Citrate Anticoagulation.

    PubMed

    Yessayan, Lenar T; Yee, Jerry; Frinak, Stan; Szamosfalvi, Balazs

    2015-01-01

    Optical hemoglobin and oxygen saturation sensor (OHOS) monitor when used in combination with other hemodynamic tools may be useful for continuous hemodynamic monitoring during ultrafiltration. The stand-alone OHOS monitor can easily be deployed predialyzer into the extracorporeal circuit of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) systems. To maximize the accuracy of the OHOS in 24 hr CRRT systems, clotting in the optical blood chamber and the presensor dilution incurred by replacement fluid should be minimized. Sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) with regional citrate anticoagulation is a therapy that incorporates an OHOS and maintains the overall reliability of hemoglobin (Hb) and saturation sensing. The system operates at a blood flow rate of 60 ml/min and a fixed acid citrate infusion rate of 150 ml/hr. The presensor dilution incurred by concentrated citrate infusion would result in a minimal Hb dilution (<0.7 g/dl) while minimizing optical blood chamber clotting during 24 hr SLED.

  19. Inhibition of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystallization by the combination of citrate and osteopontin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Wei; Qiu, S. Roger; Zachowicz, William J.; Guan, Xiangying; Tang, Ruikang; Hoyer, John R.; De Yoreo, James J.; Nancollas, George H.

    2006-05-01

    The design of effective crystallization inhibitors of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), the primary constituent of kidney stones, is a significant goal. Inhibitory molecules identified in urine include a small organic anion, citrate, and osteopontin (OPN), an aspartic acid-rich protein. The results of molecular-scale analyses combining force microscopy with molecular modeling raised the possibility that inhibition of COM crystallization might be increased by the additive effects of citrate and OPN because they act on different crystal faces. Constant composition (CC) kinetics studies of COM crystal growth now confirm that additive effects are, indeed, achieved in vitro when both citrate and OPN are present. These results suggest that a strategy employing combinations of inhibitors may provide a useful therapeutic approach to urinary stone disease.

  20. Effects of Sodium Citrate Concentration on Electroless Ni-Fe Bath Stability and Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Myung-Won; Kang, Sung K.; Lee, Jae-Ho

    2014-01-01

    In this research, electroless Ni-Fe bath stability and deposition characteristics were investigated for various sodium citrate concentrations. Complexing agents such as sodium citrate are one of the main components of such electroless plating baths. Since they could play various roles such as maintaining pH stability, preventing precipitation of metal salts, and reducing the concentrations of free metal ions, the concentration of complexing agents in the plating bath is an important parameter for electroless deposition processes. In this research, unstable baths were obtained for insufficient sodium citrate concentrations, and these phenomena were analyzed with ChemEQL. Moreover, the deposition characteristics of electroless Ni-Fe for under bump metallurgy diffusion barriers were also investigated using energy-dispersive spectroscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy.

  1. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM AFTER BARIATRIC SURGERY: TREATMENT IS WITH CALCIUM CARBONATE OR CALCIUM CITRATE?

    PubMed Central

    BARETTA, Giorgio Alfredo Pedroso; CAMBI, Maria Paula Carlini; RODRIGUES, Arieli Luz; MENDES, Silvana Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    Background : Bariatric surgery, especially Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, can cause serious nutritional complications arising from poor absorption of essential nutrients. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is one such complications that leads to increased parathyroid hormone levels due to a decrease in calcium and vitamin D, which may compromise bone health. Aim : To compare calcium carbonate and calcium citrate in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Method : Patients were selected on the basis of their abnormal biochemical test and treatment was randomly done with citrate or calcium carbonate. Results : After 60 days of supplementation, biochemical tests were repeated, showing improvement in both groups. Conclusion : Supplementation with calcium (citrate or carbonate) and vitamin D is recommended after surgery for prevention of secondary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:26537273

  2. Is magnesium citrate treatment effective on pain, clinical parameters and functional status in patients with fibromyalgia?

    PubMed

    Bagis, Selda; Karabiber, Mehmet; As, Ismet; Tamer, Lülüfer; Erdogan, Canan; Atalay, Ayçe

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between magnesium levels and fibromyalgia symptoms and to determine the effect of magnesium citrate treatment on these symptoms. Sixty premenopausal women diagnosed with fibromyalgia according to the ACR criteria and 20 healthy women whose age and weight matched the premenopausal women were evaluated. Pain intensity, pain threshold, the number of tender points, the tender point index, the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ), the Beck depression and Beck anxiety scores and patient symptoms were evaluated in all the women. Serum and erythrocyte magnesium levels were also measured. The patients were divided into three groups. The magnesium citrate (300 mg/day) was given to the first group (n = 20), amitriptyline (10 mg/day) was given to the second group (n = 20), and magnesium citrate (300 mg/day) + amitriptyline (10 mg/day) treatment was given to the third group (n = 20). All parameters were reevaluated after the 8 weeks of treatment. The serum and erythrocyte magnesium levels were significantly lower in patients with fibromyalgia than in the controls. Also there was a negative correlation between the magnesium levels and fibromyalgia symptoms. The number of tender points, tender point index, FIQ and Beck depression scores decreased significantly with the magnesium citrate treatment. The combined amitriptyline + magnesium citrate treatment proved effective on all parameters except numbness. Low magnesium levels in the erythrocyte might be an etiologic factor on fibromyalgia symptoms. The magnesium citrate treatment was only effective tender points and the intensity of fibromyalgia. However, it was effective on all parameters when used in combination with amitriptyline.

  3. Modulation of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystallization by citrate through selective binding to atomic steps

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, S R; Wierzbicki, A; Salter, E A; Zepeda, S; Orme, C A; Hoyer, J R; Nancollas, G H; Cody, A M; De Yoreo, J J

    2004-10-19

    The majority of human kidney stones are composed primarily of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals. Thus, determining the molecular mechanisms by which urinary constituents modulate calcium oxalate crystallization is crucial for understanding and controlling urolithiassis in humans. A comprehensive molecular-scale view of COM shape modification by citrate, a common urinary constituent, obtained through a combination of in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) and molecular modeling is now presented. We show that citrate strongly influences the growth morphology and kinetics on the (-101) face but has much lower effect on the (010) face. Moreover, binding energy calculations show that the strength of the citrate-COM interaction is much greater at steps than on terraces and is highly step-specific. The maximum binding energy, -166.5 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, occurs for the [101] step on the (-101) face. In contrast, the value is only -56.9 kJ {center_dot} mol-1 for the [012] step on the (010) face. The binding energies on the (-101) and (010) terraces are also much smaller, -65.4 and -48.9 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} respectively. All other binding energies lie between these extremes. This high selectivity leads to preferential binding of citrate to the acute [101] atomic steps on the (-101) face. The strong citrate-step interactions on this face leads to pinning of all steps, but the anisotropy in interaction strength results in anisotropic reductions in step kinetics. These anisotropic changes in step kinetics are, in turn, responsible for changes in the shape of macroscopic COM crystals. Thus, the molecular scale growth morphology and the bulk crystal habit in the presence of citrate are similar, and the predictions of molecular simulations are fully consistent with the experimental observations.

  4. Use of Potassium Citrate to Reduce the Risk of Renal Stone Formation During Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Jones, J. A.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.; Hudson, E. K.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: NASA s Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA s objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre, in, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all inflight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that

  5. Influence of aluminum citrate and citric acid on mineral metabolism in wether sheep.

    PubMed

    Allen, V G; Fontenot, J P; Rahnema, S H

    1990-08-01

    A 60-d trial was conducted to determine effects of Al citrate and citric acid on DM digestibility (DMD) and metabolism of Mg, Ca, P, K, Na and Al. Eighteen crossbred, yearling wether lambs equipped with ruminal cannulas were fed a basal diet containing .12% Mg and 2.87% K (DM basis) and were allotted to three treatments: 1) control, 2) 2,000 ppm Al as Al citrate and 3) citric acid equivalent to the citrate in treatment 2. Treatments were administered in 200 ml of deionized water twice daily in divided doses via ruminal cannula. Balance trials were conducted during d 0 to 5, 6 to 10, 25 to 35 and 50 to 60. Dry matter digestibility decreased (P less than .05) approximately 3 percentage units in lambs receiving Al. Treatment with Al citrate increased (P less than .01) apparent absorption and retention of Al compared to those receiving citric acid alone. Approximately 30% of ingested and infused Al was apparently absorbed. Compared to citric acid, Al citrate treatment lowered apparent absorption and retention of Mg and Ca during d 0 to 5. Apparent Ca absorption and retention again were lowered during d 50 to 60. Urinary Ca was increased (P less than .01) and apparent P absorption (P less than .10) and retention (P less than .05) were decreased by Al citrate during all measurement periods. Apparent absorption of K decreased (P less than .05) slightly in response to Al treatment. Apparent absorption of Na was not influenced by Al treatment. Serum Mg and P decreased and serum Ca increased in response to Al treatment. Results demonstrate negative effects of ingested Al, but not of citric acid, on DMD and metabolism of Mg, Ca, P and K.

  6. Influence of aluminum-citrate and citric acid on tissue mineral composition in wether sheep.

    PubMed

    Allen, V G; Fontenot, J P; Rahnema, S H

    1991-02-01

    A 60-d trial was conducted to determine effects of A1-citrate and citric acid on tissue mineral composition in wether lambs. Eighteen crossbred, yearling wether lambs equipped with ruminal cannulas were fed a diet containing low (.12%) Mg and high (2.87%) K (DM basis) and were allotted to three treatments: 1) control; 2) 2,000 micrograms A1 as A1-citrate/g of diet DM and 3) citric acid equivalent to the citrate in treatment 2. Treatments were administered in 200 ml of deionized water twice daily in divided doses via ruminal cannula. At the end of 60 d, wethers were slaughtered and samples of rib and tibia bone, liver, kidney, brain, spleen, pancreas, parathyroid and pituitary gland were analyzed for mineral concentration. Concentrations of A1 increased (P less than .05) in rib, tibia, liver, kidney, spleen and pituitary gland and tended to increase in brain (P less than .13) in wethers treated with A1-citrate compared to citric acid. Magnesium was decreased in rib (P less than .01) and tended to be decreased in pituitary gland (P less than .15), whereas Ca tended to be decreased in pancreas (P less than .07), kidney (P less than .11) and parathyroid (P less than .10) by A1-citrate treatment compared to citric acid. Potassium decreased (P less than .01) in liver, Fe increased (P less than .05) in kidney, Zn decreased in pituitary (P less than .05) and tended to decrease in pancreas (P less than .10) due to A1-citrate but not citric acid.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Mn-citrate and Mn-HIDA: intermediate-affinity chelates for manganese-enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yoshiteru; Satoh, Keitaro; Morita, Hironobu; Takamata, Akira; Watanabe, Kazuto; Ogino, Takashi; Hasebe, Tooru; Murakami, Masataka

    2013-01-01

    In this study we investigated two manganese chelates in order to improve the image enhancement of manganese-enhanced MRI and decrease the toxicity of free manganese ions. Since both MnCl₂ and a low-affinity chelate were associated with a slow continuous decrease of cardiac functions, we investigated intermediate-affinity chelates: manganese N-(2-hydroxyethyl)iminodiacetic acid (Mn-HIDA) and Mn-citrate. The T₁ relaxivity values for Mn-citrate (4.4 m m⁻¹ s⁻¹) and Mn-HIDA (3.3 m m⁻¹ s⁻¹) in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were almost constant in a concentration range from 0.5 to 5 m m at 37 °C and 4.7 T. In human plasma, the relaxivity values increased when the concentrations of these Mn chelates were decreased, suggesting the presence of free Mn²⁺ bound with serum albumin. Mn-HIDA and Mn-citrate demonstrated a tendency for better contractility when employed with an isolated perfused frog heart, compared with MnCl₂. Only minimal changes were demonstrated after a venous infusion of 100 m m Mn-citrate or Mn-HIDA (8.3 µmol kg⁻¹ min⁻¹) in rats and a constant heart rate, arterial pressure and sympathetic nerve activity were maintained, even after breaking the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Mn-citrate and Mn-HIDA could not cross the intact BBB and appeared in the CSF, and then diffused into the brain parenchyma through the ependymal layer. The responses in the supraoptic nucleus induced by the hypertonic stimulation were detectable. Therefore, Mn-citrate and Mn-HIDA appear to be better choices for maintaining the vital conditions of experimental animals, and they may improve the reproducibility of manganese-enhanced MRI of the small nuclei in the hypothalamus and thalamus. PMID:23281286

  8. Comparison of Elaeagnus angustifolia Extract and Sildenafil Citrate on Female Orgasmic Disorders: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Zeinalzadeh, Sanaz; Zolghadri, Jaleh; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali; Faridi, Pouya; Sayadi, Mehrab

    2014-01-01

    Background Orgasmic disorder can create a feeling of deprivation and failure and provide mental problems, incompatibility and marital discord. This study aimed to compare the effects of Elaeagnus angustifolia flower extract and sildenafil citrate on female orgasmic disorder in women in 2013. Methods In this randomized clinical trial, 125 women between 18-40 years old who suffered from orgasmic disorder were divided into three E. angustifolia, sildenafil citrate and control groups. The data were gathered using Female Sexual Function Index and through measurement of TSH and prolactin. The first intervention group had to consume 4.5 gr E. angustifolia extract in two divided doses for 35 days and the second one had to use 50 mg sildenafil citrate tablets for 4 weeks one hour before their sexual relationship. However, the control group had to consume the placebo. The data were analyzed using paired t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Bonferroni posthoc test and p<0.05 was considered significant. Results The frequency of orgasmic disorder before the intervention was 41.5%, 40.5%, and 57.1% in E. angustifolia, sildenafil citrate, and control groups, respectively (p=0.23). However, these measures were respectively 29.3%, 16.7%, and 50% after the intervention (p=0.004). A significant difference between the two groups regarding sexual satisfaction after the intervention (p=0.003) compared to the beginning of the study (p=0.356). Besides, the highest reduction of changes after the intervention (58.82%) was observed in the sildenafil citrate group. Conclusion Both E. angustifolia extract and sildenafil citrate were effective in reduction of the frequency of orgasmic disorder in women. PMID:25473627

  9. Bio-inspired citrate-functionalized apatite thin films crystallized on Ti-6Al-4V implants pre-coated with corrosion resistant layers.

    PubMed

    Delgado-López, José Manuel; Iafisco, Michele; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Isaac; Gómez-Morales, Jaime

    2013-10-01

    In this paper the crystallization of a bioinspired citrate-functionalized apatite (cit-Ap) thin film (thickness about 2μm) on Ti-6Al-4V supports pre-coated with bioactive and corrosion resistant buffer layer of silicon nitride (Si3N4), silicon carbide (SiC) or titanium nitride (TiN) is reported. The apatitic coatings were produced by a new coating technique based on the induction heating of the implants immersed in a flowing calcium-citrate-phosphate solution at pH11. The influence of the buffer layers and the surface roughness of the substrate on the chemical-physical features and adhesion of the cit-Ap films were investigated. The best plasticity, compactness and adherence properties have been found in the Ap layer grown on Si3N4, followed by the Ap grown on SiC and TiN, respectively. The adhesion property was likely related to the roughness of the buffered substrates, whereas the compactness and plasticity were closely related to the operating conditions during the Ap crystallization (flow rate of the solution and increase of temperature) rather than to the nature of the buffer layer.

  10. Studies of single-step electrodeposition of CuInSe 2 thin films with sodium citrate as a complexing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whang, Thou-Jen; Hsieh, Mu-Tao; Kao, Ya-Chun

    2010-12-01

    The influences of various parameters in a single-step electrodeposition of CuInSe 2 from aqueous solution containing CuCl 2, InCl 3, and SeO 2, with sodium citrate as the complexing agent, are investigated. Co-deposition of CuInSe 2 from a room temperature, aqueous bath of these electrolytes is accomplished by the aid of sodium citrate. In this work the optimum potential for deposition of CuInSe 2 is found to be -0.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl, the deposition time is 800 s, the concentration ratio of CuCl 2, InCl 3, and SeO 2 is 9 mM:22 mM:22 mM in aqueous solution, and the annealing temperature is 225 °C. Under the optimum conditions, crystalline layers of CuInSe 2 having the chalcopyrite structure can be successfully synthesized. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) were used to examine the electrochemistry, morphologies, structures, and compositions of CuInSe 2 thin films deposited on ITO glass.

  11. The Influence of 1-Butanol and Trisodium Citrate Ion on Morphology and Chemical Properties of Chitosan-Based Microcapsules during Rigidification by Alkali Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Sudipta; Salaün, Fabien; Campagne, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Linseed oil which has various biomedical applications was encapsulated by chitosan (Chi)-based microcapsules in the development of a suitable carrier. Oil droplets formed in oil-in-water emulsion using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as emulsifier was stabilized by Chi, and microcapsules with multilayers were formed by alternate additions of SDS and Chi solutions in an emulsion through electrostatic interaction. No chemical cross-linker was used in the study and the multilayer shell membrane was formed by ionic gelation using Chi and SDS. The rigidification of the shell membrane of microcapsules was achieved by alkali treatment in the presence of a small amount of 1-butanol to reduce aggregation. A trisodium citrate solution was used to stabilize the charge of microcapsules by ionic cross-linking. Effects of butanol during alkali treatment and citrate in post alkali treatment were monitored in terms of morphology and the chemical properties of microcapsules. Various characterization techniques revealed that the aggregation was decreased and surface roughness was increased with layer formation. PMID:25474188

  12. Bio-inspired citrate-functionalized apatite thin films crystallized on Ti-6Al-4V implants pre-coated with corrosion resistant layers.

    PubMed

    Delgado-López, José Manuel; Iafisco, Michele; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Isaac; Gómez-Morales, Jaime

    2013-10-01

    In this paper the crystallization of a bioinspired citrate-functionalized apatite (cit-Ap) thin film (thickness about 2μm) on Ti-6Al-4V supports pre-coated with bioactive and corrosion resistant buffer layer of silicon nitride (Si3N4), silicon carbide (SiC) or titanium nitride (TiN) is reported. The apatitic coatings were produced by a new coating technique based on the induction heating of the implants immersed in a flowing calcium-citrate-phosphate solution at pH11. The influence of the buffer layers and the surface roughness of the substrate on the chemical-physical features and adhesion of the cit-Ap films were investigated. The best plasticity, compactness and adherence properties have been found in the Ap layer grown on Si3N4, followed by the Ap grown on SiC and TiN, respectively. The adhesion property was likely related to the roughness of the buffered substrates, whereas the compactness and plasticity were closely related to the operating conditions during the Ap crystallization (flow rate of the solution and increase of temperature) rather than to the nature of the buffer layer. PMID:23648093

  13. Competition between transferrin and the serum ligands citrate and phosphate for the binding of aluminum.

    PubMed

    Harris, Wesley R; Wang, Zhepeng; Hamada, Yahia Z

    2003-05-19

    A key issue regarding the speciation of Al(3+) in serum is how well the ligands citric acid and phosphate can compete with the iron transport protein serum transferrin for the aluminum. Previous studies have attempted to measure binding constants for each ligand separately, but experimental problems make it very difficult to obtain stability constants with the accuracy required to make a meaningful comparison between these ligands. In this study, effective binding constants for Al-citrate and Al-phosphate at pH 7.4 have been determined using difference UV spectroscopy to monitor the direct competition between these ligands and transferrin. The analysis of this competition equilibrium also includes the binding of citrate and phosphate as anions to apotransferrin. The effective binding constants are 10(11.59) for the 1:1 Al-citrate complexes and 10(14.90) for the 1:2 Al-citrate complexes. The effective binding constant for the 1:2 Al-phosphate complex is 10(12.02). No 1:1 Al-phosphate complex was detected. Speciation calculations based on these effective binding constants indicate that, at serum concentrations of citrate and phosphate, citrate will be the primary low-molecular-mass ligand for aluminum. Formal stability constants for the Al-citrate system have also been determined by potentiometric methods. This equilibrium system is quite complex, and information from both electrospray mass spectrometry and difference UV experiments has been used to select the best model for fitting the potentiometric data. The mass spectra contain peaks that have been assigned to complexes having aluminum:citrate stoichiometries of 1:1, 1:2, 2:2, 2:3, and 3:3. The difference UV results were used to determine the stability constant for Al(H(-1)cta)-, which was then used in the least-squares fitting of the potentiometric data to determine stability constants for Al(Hcta)+, Al(cta), Al(cta)2(3-), Al(H(-1)cta)(cta)(4-), Al2(H(-1)cta)2(2-), and Al3(H(-1)cta)3(OH)(4-).

  14. Comparison of Success of Clomiphene citrate and Letrozole in Ovulation Induction.

    PubMed

    Saha, J; Akhter, S; Prasad, I; Siddiq, S

    2016-01-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate which drug is better in ovulation induction between clomiphene citrate and letrozole. The study was carried out in the infertility unit of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka and Centre for Assisted Reproduction (CARE) at Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Dhaka from January 2007 to December 2007. One hundred and sixty five cases were taken for the study. It was a prospective interventional comparative study of clomiphene citrate and letrozole in infertile cases. The patients were divided into three groups. Group I--newly detected cases of sub fertility studied with clomiphene citrate. Group II--clomiphene citrate resistant cases studied with letrozole, Group III--newly detected cases of sub fertility studied with letrozole. The cases were followed up for outcome; (ovulation). The TVS was done on 12th or 13th day of menstruation and level of serum progesterone on 21st day of menstrual cycle to see the evidence of ovulation. Endometrial thickness was also measured. The data was collected on a predesigned questionnaire. The variables that influenced the study were-age, occupation, socioeconomic status, menstrual cycle, marital age, parity, history of MR, history of abortion, past medical and surgical history. In the current study it was observed that the signs of ovulation were significantly (p<0.05) higher in Group I treated with clomiphene citrate in comparison to Group II clomiphene citrate resistant cases treated with letrozole. The rate of ovulation was higher in Group I than that of Group III treated with letrozole, but the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The signs of ovulation were present in 45(81.8%) cases in Group I, 33(60.0%) cases in Group II and 37(67.3%) cases in Group III. This findings of the study suggested that clomiphene citrate is higher successful than letrozole though not statistically

  15. Interfacial properties of asymmetrically functionalized citrate-stabilized gold and silver nanoparticles related to molecular adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong-Won

    A detailed understanding of the conformation of adsorbed molecules and regional surface functionalization of metal nanoparticles (MNPs) is challenging for nanometer-size (10 -- 100 m) materials and necessary for fundamental studies and applications. The studies are motivated by open questions related to surface chemistry of noble MNPs. Although citrate-stabilized gold NPs (AuNPs) have been widely used, the citrate layer is not well-understood. Thiols have been suggested to displace citrate anions adsorbed on metal surfaces due to strong gold-sulfur interaction, but quantitative experimental evidence of the extent of ligand-exchange has not been reported. Whereas asymmetrically-functionalized AuNPs are utilized for nanoparticle assembly due to the interparticle coupling of localized surface plasmons, the interface between asymmetric nanoparticles in single assemblies has not been studied. Noble MNPs with sizes smaller than citrate-stabilized AuNPs also need to be surface-modified for stability in water for biological applications. The dissertation presents investigations of the chemical and physical properties of gold and silver NPs (AgNPs) related to ligand adsorption at the metal surface. Firstly, self-assembled layers of citrate adsorbed on AuNP (111), (110), and (100) surfaces were proposed, based on geometric considerations and spectroscopic investigations by infrared (IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Adsorption characteristics of citrate are the unique structure of adsorbed species, intermolecular interactions through hydrogen bonds and van der Waals attractions, bilayer formation, surface coverage, nanoparticle-stabilization role, and chirality. Secondly, IR and XPS studies showed coadsorption of thiolate on the surface of citrate-stabilized AuNPs. Steric, chelating effects and intermolecular interactions are the origins of the strong adsorption of citrate on AuNP surfaces. Surface coverage was determined from XPS analyses. Thirdly, an

  16. Antitumor effect of free rhodium (II) citrate and rhodium (II) citrate-loaded maghemite nanoparticles on mice bearing breast cancer: a systemic toxicity assay.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Raphael Cândido Apolinário; Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; de Souza Filho, José; Carneiro, Marcella Lemos' Brettas; Oliveira, Ricardo G S; da Silva, Matheus Oliveira; de Souza, Aparecido R; Báo, Sônia Nair

    2015-05-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancer types among women. The use of magnetic fluids for specific delivery of drugs represents an attractive platform for chemotherapy. In our previous studies, it was demonstrated that maghemite nanoparticles coated with rhodium (II) citrate (Magh-Rh2Cit) induced in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo antitumor activity, followed by intratumoral administration in breast carcinoma cells. In this study, our aim was to follow intravenous treatment to evaluate the systemic antitumor activity and toxicity induced by these formulations in Balb/c mice bearing orthotopic 4T1 breast carcinoma. Female Balb/c mice were evaluated with regard to toxicity of intravenous treatments through analyses of hemogram, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, iron, and creatinine and liver, kidney, and lung histology. The antitumor activity of rhodium (II) citrate (Rh2Cit), Magh-Rh2Cit, and maghemite nanoparticles coated with citrate (Magh-Cit), used as control, was evaluated by tumor volume reduction, histology, and morphometric analysis. Magh-Rh2Cit and Magh-Cit promoted a significant decrease in tumor area, and no experimental groups presented hematotoxic effects or increased levels of serum ALT and creatinine. This observation was corroborated by the histopathological examination of the liver and kidney of mice. Furthermore, the presence of nanoparticles was verified in lung tissue with no morphological changes, supporting the idea that our nanoformulations did not induce toxicity effects. No studies about the systemic action of rhodium (II) citrate-loaded maghemite nanoparticles have been carried out, making this report a suitable starting point for exploring the therapeutic potential of these compounds in treating breast cancer.

  17. 77 FR 72323 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China...) has completed its administrative review of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on citric acid and... is citric acid and certain citrate salts. The product is currently classified under the...

  18. 76 FR 82275 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... countervailing duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's Republic of China (PRC). See Countervailing Duty Orders and Amendments of Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determinations: Citric...

  19. 76 FR 47146 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China...'') published the initiation of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). See Initiation...

  20. 76 FR 4288 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the... administrative review of citric acid from the PRC within this time limit. Among other things, additional time...

  1. 76 FR 56158 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... administrative review of the countervailing duty order on citric acid and certain citrate sales from People's Republic of China, covering the period September 19, 2008, through December 31, 2009. See Citric Acid...

  2. 76 FR 2648 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... Revocation in Part, 75 FR 37759 (June 30, 2010). The preliminary results of this administrative review are... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From People's Republic of China... initiation of administrative review of the countervailing duty order on citric acid and certain citrate...

  3. 77 FR 1455 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ..., 76 FR 37781, 37785 (June 28, 2011). This review covers the period May 1, 2010, through April 30, 2011... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'')....

  4. Bright luminescence of Vibrio fischeri aconitase mutants reveals a connection between citrate and the Gac/Csr regulatory system.

    PubMed

    Septer, Alecia N; Bose, Jeffrey L; Lipzen, Anna; Martin, Joel; Whistler, Cheryl; Stabb, Eric V

    2015-01-01

    The Gac/Csr regulatory system is conserved throughout the γ-proteobacteria and controls key pathways in central carbon metabolism, quorum sensing, biofilm formation and virulence in important plant and animal pathogens. Here we show that elevated intracellular citrate levels in a Vibrio fischeri aconitase mutant correlate with activation of the Gac/Csr cascade and induction of bright luminescence. Spontaneous or directed mutations in the gene that encodes citrate synthase reversed the bright luminescence of aconitase mutants, eliminated their citrate accumulation and reversed their elevated expression of CsrB. Our data elucidate a correlative link between central metabolic and regulatory pathways, and they suggest that the Gac system senses a blockage at the aconitase step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, either through elevated citrate levels or a secondary metabolic effect of citrate accumulation, and responds by modulating carbon flow and various functions associated with host colonization, including bioluminescence.

  5. Sodium citrate assisted facile synthesis of AuPd alloy networks for ethanol electrooxidation with high activity and durability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Yanling; Zhu, Zhijun; Lu, Xiaolin; Zhou, H. Susan

    2016-10-01

    The direct ethanol fuel cell is an emerging energy conversion device for which palladium is considered as the one of the most effective components for anode catalyst, however, its widespread application has been still limited by the activity and durability of the anode catalyst. In this work, AuPd alloy networks (NWs) are synthesized using H2PdCl4 and HAuCl4 as precursors reduced by NaBH4 in the presence of sodium citrate (SC). The results reveal that SC plays significant role in network structure, resulting in the enhanced electrocatalytic activity of the catalyst. This self-supported AuPd NWs catalyst exhibits much higher electrochemical catalytic activity than commercial Pd/C catalyst toward ethanol electrooxidation in alkaline solution. Significantly, AuPd NWs catalyst shows extremely high durability at the beginning of the chronoamperometry test, and as high as 49% of the mass current density (1.41 A/mgPd) remains after 4000 s current-time test at -0.3 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in N2-saturated KOH-ethanol solution. This strategy provides a facile method for the preparation of alloy networks with high electrochemical activity, and can be potentially expanded to a variety of electrochemical applications.

  6. Purification of Leuconostoc mesenteroides Citrate Lyase and Cloning and Characterization of the citCDEFG Gene Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Bekal, Sadjia; Van Beeumen, Jozef; Samyn, Bart; Garmyn, Dominique; Henini, Samia; Diviès, Charles; Prévost, Hervé

    1998-01-01

    A citrate lyase (EC 4.1.3.6) was purified 25-fold from Leuconostoc mesenteroides and was shown to contain three subunits. The first 42 amino acids of the β subunit were identified, as well as an internal peptide sequence spanning some 20 amino acids into the α subunit. Using degenerated primers from these sequences, we amplified a 1.2-kb DNA fragment by PCR from Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris. This fragment was used as a probe for screening a Leuconostoc genomic bank to identify the structural genes. The 2.7-kb gene cluster encoding citrate lyase of L. mesenteroides is organized in three open reading frames, citD, citE, and citF, encoding, respectively, the three citrate lyase subunits γ (acyl carrier protein [ACP]), β (citryl-S-ACP lyase; EC 4.1.3.34), and α (citrate:acetyl-ACP transferase; EC 2.8.3.10). The gene (citC) encoding the citrate lyase ligase (EC 6.2.1.22) was localized in the region upstream of citD. Protein comparisons show similarities with the citrate lyase ligase and citrate lyase of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. Downstream of the citrate lyase cluster, a 1.4-kb open reading frame encoding a 52-kDa protein was found. The deduced protein is similar to CitG of the other bacteria, and its function remains unknown. Expression of the citCDEFG gene cluster in Escherichia coli led to the detection of a citrate lyase activity only in the presence of acetyl coenzyme A, which is a structural analog of the prosthetic group. This shows that the acetyl-ACP group of the citrate lyase form in E. coli is not complete or not linked to the protein. PMID:9457870

  7. Titanium-based mixed oxides from a series of titanium(IV) citrate complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Yuanfu; Zhang Hualin; Hong Qiming; Weng Weizheng; Wan Huilin; Zhou Zhaohui

    2007-11-15

    The isostructural hexaaquatransition-metal/titanium citrate complexes (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}[M(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}][Ti(H{sub 2}cit){sub 3}]{sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O [M(II)=Mn 1, Fe 2, Co 3, Ni 4, Cu 5, and Zn 6] (H{sub 4}cit=citric acid), which were synthesized by reacting titanium(IV) citrate with divalent metal salts in the 1.0-3.5 pH range, adopt hydrogen-bonded chain motifs. The crystal structures feature three bidentate citrate anions that chelate to the titanium atom through their negatively charged {alpha}-alkoxy and {alpha}-carboxy oxygen atoms; the chelation is consistent with the large downfield shifts of {sup 13}C NMR for carbon atoms for complex 6. The thermal decomposition of the complexes furnishes mixed metal oxides. The main-group magnesium analog when heated at 600 deg. C yielded MgTi{sub 2}O{sub 5} that is of the pseudobrookite type; the particle size is approximately 30 nm. - Graphical abstract: A series of heterobimetallic titanium citrate complexes with novel dodecameric water clusters were isolated and used as molecular precursors in an attempt to the preparations of mixed oxides MTi{sub 2}O{sub 5}.

  8. Direct effect of vanadium on citrate uptake by rat renal brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV).

    PubMed

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Kusaka, Yukinori; Akino, Hironobu; Kanamaru, Hiroshi; Okada, Kenichiro

    2002-07-01

    Vanadium pentoxide is used as a catalyst and a ferrovanadium alloy ingredient in automotive steels and in jet engines and airframes. In addition, vanadium is found in fuel oils. Thus, occupational exposures to vanadium pentoxide and trioxide may occur during the cleaning of oil-fired ship boilers, and from oil-fired power station boilers. Occupational exposure to vanadium pentoxide induces green tongue, asthmatic symptoms and albuminuria with cast. Urinary citrate is freely filtered at the glomerulus, and its reabsorption in the proximal tubule is the major determinant of the rate of renal excretion. In this study, we exposed rat renal brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) to vanadium pentoxide and examined their citrate uptake characteristics. The preincubation of BBMV with 1 mM V2O5 for 8 hours significantly inhibited citrate uptake compared with that of BBMV without V2O5, preincubation. These findings indicate that the preincubation of BBMV with vanadium pentoxide results in a time-dependent inhibition of citrate uptake by BBMV. These findings might contribute to nephrotoxicity in vanadium exposure. PMID:12141377

  9. Nanoparticle impacts show high-ionic-strength citrate avoids aggregation of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lees, Jessica C; Ellison, Joanna; Batchelor-McAuley, Christopher; Tschulik, Kristina; Damm, Christine; Omanović, Dario; Compton, Richard G

    2013-12-01

    Quantitative analytical detection and sizing of silver nanoparticles is achieved by applying the new electrochemical method nanoparticle coulometry. For the first time, tri-sodium citrate is used as both an electrolyte and a nanoparticle stabilizing agent, allowing the individual particles to be addressed.

  10. Polyhydroxyalkanoates accumulation by Methylobacterium organophilum CZ-2 during methane degradation using citrate or propionate as cosubstrates.

    PubMed

    Zuñiga, Cristal; Morales, Marcia; Revah, Sergio

    2013-02-01

    Methylobacterium organophilum CZ-2 synthesized polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under nitrogen limitation with CH4 as carbon source and when either citrate or propionate was added as cosubstrates. The highest PHAs content (yPHA) in closed flasks was obtained in the CH4-citrate and CH4-propionate experiments attaining values of 0.82 and 0.68, respectively. M. organophilum CZ-2 cultivated in bioreactors with citrate and continuous CH4 addition yielded a final PHAs concentration of 143 gm(-3) containing hydroxybutyrate (HB), hydroxyvalerate (HV) and hydroxyoctanoate (HO), in a 55:35:10 ratio, with, yPHA of 0.88 and a CH4 elimination capacity (EC) of 20 gm(-3) h(-1). With propionate, the yPHA was 0.3 and the EC around 8 gm(-3) h(-1). From 1H and 13C NMR experiments it was found that the polymer produced with CH4-citrate contained six different monomers: 3HB, 3HV, 4HV, 4-hydroxyheptanoate (4HH), 3HO and 4HO, showing the great versatility of this PHAs producing bacterium.

  11. Effect of bismuth citrate, lactose, and organic acid on necrotic enteritis in broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clostridium perfringens – associated necrotic enteritis causes significant losses and increased morbidity in poultry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bismuth citrate and acidifiers on the development of necrotic enteritis in broilers. The first study was a dose response t...

  12. 76 FR 5782 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... Part, and Final Determination to Not Revoke Order in Part: Canned Pineapple Fruit from Thailand, 68 FR... Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 37759 (June 30, 2010). Also on June 30, 2010... Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from Canada, 74 FR 16843 (April 13, 2009) (Citric Acid LTFV)....

  13. Brassica oleracea MATE encodes a citrate transporter and enhances aluminum tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xinxin; Li, Ren; Shi, Jin; Wang, Jinfang; Sun, Qianqian; Zhang, Haijun; Xing, Yanxia; Qi, Yan; Zhang, Na; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2014-08-01

    The secretion of organic acid anions from roots is an important mechanism for plant aluminum (Al) tolerance. Here we report cloning and characterizing BoMATE (KF031944), a multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family gene from cabbage (Brassica oleracea). The expression of BoMATE was more abundant in roots than in shoots, and it was highly induced by Al treatment. The (14)C-citrate efflux experiments in oocytes demonstrated that BoMATE is a citrate transporter. Electrophysiological analysis and SIET analysis of Xenopus oocytes expressing BoMATE indicated BoMATE is activated by Al. Transient expression of BoMATE in onion epidermal cells demonstrated that it localized to the plasma membrane. Compared with the wild-type Arabidopsis, the transgenic lines constitutively overexpressing BoMATE enhanced Al tolerance and increased citrate secretion. In addition, Arabidopsis transgenic lines had a lower K(+) efflux and higher H(+) efflux, in the presence of Al, than control wild type in the distal elongation zone (DEZ). This is the first direct evidence that MATE protein is involved in the K(+) and H(+) flux in response to Al treatment. Taken together, our results show that BoMATE is an Al-induced citrate transporter and enhances aluminum tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  14. 78 FR 34338 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ...: Antidumping Duty Orders, 74 FR 25703 (May 29, 2009) (Citric Acid Duty Orders). Methodology The Department has...: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003). Cash Deposit Requirements The following deposit... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results...

  15. Brassica oleracea MATE encodes a citrate transporter and enhances aluminum tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xinxin; Li, Ren; Shi, Jin; Wang, Jinfang; Sun, Qianqian; Zhang, Haijun; Xing, Yanxia; Qi, Yan; Zhang, Na; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2014-08-01

    The secretion of organic acid anions from roots is an important mechanism for plant aluminum (Al) tolerance. Here we report cloning and characterizing BoMATE (KF031944), a multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family gene from cabbage (Brassica oleracea). The expression of BoMATE was more abundant in roots than in shoots, and it was highly induced by Al treatment. The (14)C-citrate efflux experiments in oocytes demonstrated that BoMATE is a citrate transporter. Electrophysiological analysis and SIET analysis of Xenopus oocytes expressing BoMATE indicated BoMATE is activated by Al. Transient expression of BoMATE in onion epidermal cells demonstrated that it localized to the plasma membrane. Compared with the wild-type Arabidopsis, the transgenic lines constitutively overexpressing BoMATE enhanced Al tolerance and increased citrate secretion. In addition, Arabidopsis transgenic lines had a lower K(+) efflux and higher H(+) efflux, in the presence of Al, than control wild type in the distal elongation zone (DEZ). This is the first direct evidence that MATE protein is involved in the K(+) and H(+) flux in response to Al treatment. Taken together, our results show that BoMATE is an Al-induced citrate transporter and enhances aluminum tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:24850836

  16. Calcium citrate without aluminum antacids does not cause aluminum retention in patients with functioning kidneys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakhaee, K.; Wabner, C. L.; Zerwekh, J. E.; Copley, J. B.; Pak, L.; Poindexter, J. R.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    It has been suggested that calcium citrate might enhance aluminum absorption from food, posing a threat of aluminum toxicity even in patients with normal renal function. We therefore measured serum and urinary aluminum before and following calcium citrate therapy in patients with moderate renal failure and in normal subjects maintained on constant metabolic diets with known aluminum content (967-1034 mumol/day, or 26.1-27.9 mg/day, in patients and either 834 or 1579 mumol/day, or 22.5 and 42.6 mg/day, in normal subjects). Seven patients with moderate renal failure (endogenous creatinine clearance of 43 ml/min) took 50 mmol (2 g) calcium/day as effervescent calcium citrate with meals for 17 days. Eight normal women received 25 mmol (1 g) calcium/day as tricalcium dicitrate tablets with meals for 7 days. In patients with moderate renal failure, serum and urinary aluminum were normal before treatment at 489 +/- 293 SD nmol/l (13.2 +/- 7.9 micrograms/l) and 767 +/- 497 nmol/day (20.7 +/- 13.4 micrograms/day), respectively. They remained within normal limits and did not change significantly during calcium citrate treatment (400 +/- 148 nmol/l and 600 +/- 441 nmol/day, respectively). Similarly, no significant change in serum and urinary aluminum was detected in normal women during calcium citrate administration (271 +/- 59 vs 293 +/- 85 nmol/l and 515 +/- 138 vs 615 +/- 170 nmol/day, respectively). In addition, skeletal bone aluminum content did not change significantly in 14 osteoporotic patients (endogenous creatinine clearance of 68.5 ml/min) treated for 24 months with calcium citrate, 10 mmol calcium twice/day separately from meals (29.3 +/- 13.9 ng/mg ash bone to 27.9 +/0- 10.4, P = 0.727). In them, histomorphometric examination did not show any evidence of mineralization defect. Thus, calcium citrate given alone without aluminum-containing drugs does not pose a risk of aluminum toxicity in subjects with normal or functioning kidneys, when it is administered on an

  17. Non-Parasitic Chyluria: Our Experience With Sclerotherapy With Solution of Povidone-Iodine and Destrose and A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Guttilla, Andrea; Beltrami, Paolo; Bettin, Laura; Galantini, Andrea; Dal Moro, Fabrizio; Ficarra, Vincenzo; Zattoni, Filiberto

    2016-09-01

    Chyluria is the passage of chyle in the urine. The cause seems to be the rupture of retroperitoneal lymphatics into the pyelocaliceal system, giving urine a milky appearance. This condition if left untreated it leads to significant morbidity because of hematochyluria, recurrent renal colic, nutritional problems due to protein losses and immunosuppression resulting from lymphocyturia. We report our experience with the use of povidone iodine with dextrose solution as a sclerosing agent in the management of chyluria in two patients. PMID:27413693

  18. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of the gene for NADH-sensitive citrate synthase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Donald, L J; Molgat, G F; Duckworth, H W

    1989-01-01

    The structural gene for the allosteric citrate synthase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been cloned from a genomic library by using the Escherichia coli citrate synthase gene as a hybridization probe under conditions of reduced stringency. Subcloning of portions of the original 10-kilobase-pair (kbp) clone led to isolation of the structural gene, with its promoter, within a 2,083-bp length of DNA flanked by sites for KpnI and BamHI. The nucleotide sequence of this fragment is presented; the inferred amino acid sequence was 70 and 76% identical, respectively, with the citrate synthase sequences from E. coli and Acinetobacter anitratum, two other gram-negative bacteria. DEAE-cellulose chromatography of P. aeruginosa citrate synthase from an E. coli host harboring the cloned P. aeruginosa gene gave three peaks of activity. All three enzyme peaks had subunit molecular weights of 48,000; the proteins were identical by immunological criteria and very similar in kinetics of substrate saturation and NADH inhibition. Because the cloned gene contained only one open reading frame large enough to encode a polypeptide of such a size, the three peaks must represent different forms of the same protein. A portion of the cloned P. aeruginosa gene was used as a hybridization probe under stringent conditions to identify highly homologous sequences in genomic DNA of a second strain classified as P. aeruginosa and isolates of P. putida, P. stutzeri, and P. alcaligenes. When crude extracts of each of these four isolates were mixed with antiserum raised against purified P. aeruginosa citrate synthase, however, only the P. alcaligenes extract cross-reacted. Images PMID:2507528

  19. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for citrate synthase from a thermotolerant Bacillus sp

    SciTech Connect

    Schendel, F.J.; August, P.R.; Anderson, C.R.; Flickinger, M.C. ); Hanson, R.S. )

    1992-01-01

    Acetate salts are emerging as potentially attractive bulk chemicals for a variety of environmental applications, for example, as catalysts to facilitate combustion of high-sulfur coal by electrical utilities and as the biodegradable noncorrosive highway deicing salt calcium magnesium acetate. The structural gene coding for citrate synthase from the gram-positive soil isolate Bacillus sp. strain C4 (ATCC 55182) capable of secreting acetic acid at pH 5.0 to 7.0 in the presence of dolime has been cloned from a genomic library by complementation of an Escherichia coli auxotrophic mutant lacking citrate synthase. The nucleotide sequence of the entire 3.1-kb HindIII fragment has been determined, and one major open reading frame was found coding for citrate synthase (ctsA). Citrate synthase from Bacillus sp. strain C4 was found to be a dimer (M{sub r}, 84,500) with a sub unit with an M{sub r} of 42,000. The N-terminal sequence was found to be identical with that predicted from the gene sequence. The kinetics were best fit to a bisubstrate enzyme with an ordered mechanism. Bacillus sp. strain C4 citrate synthase was not activated by potassium chloride and was not inhibited by NADH, ATP, ADP, or AMP at levels up to 1 mM. The predicted amino acid sequence was compared with that of the E. coli, Acinetobacter anitratum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Rickettsia prowazekii, porcine heart, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytoplasmic and mitochondrial enzymes.

  20. Inhibition of citrate synthase by oleoyl-CoA: a regulatory phenomenon.

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, K H; Powell, G L

    1975-01-01

    Fatty acyl-CoAs are good detergents (dritical micelle concentrations = 3-4 muM) and can inhibit a number of enzymes, including some involved in fatty acid biosynthesis. The regulatory significance of fatty acyl-CoAs as negative effectors has been questioned largely because of the difficulties in distinguishing possible nonspecific detergent effects from more specific regulatory interactions with these enzymes. A new analogue of oleoyl-CoA, oleoyl-(1, N6-etheno)-CoA, is a better detergent (critical micelle concentration = 3.2 muM) than oleoyl-CoA (critical micelle concentration = 4.7 muM). This new analogue is not as good (by an order of magnitude) an inhibitor of citrate synthase [citrate oxaloacetatelyase (pro-3S-CH2-COO-vectoracetyl-CoA); EC 4.1.3.7] nor is it bound as well oleoyl-CoA. Since the only difference between these two compounds is substitution of 1,N6-ethenoadenine for the adenine of CoA, the difference in inhibition and binding implies a specific interaction between the adenine moiety of oleoyl-CoA and citrate synthase. Moreover, since oleoyl-(1,N6-etheno)CoA is a better detergent than oleoyl-CoA, the detergency of oleoyl-CoA is not the sole cause of the fatty acyl-CoA inhibition of citrate synthase. These results support a physiological role for oleoyl-CoA as a negative effector for citrate synthase. An analogous physiological role for fatty acyl-CoA as negative effectors for other enzymes seems reasonable. PMID:1061066

  1. Structural comparison between the open and closed forms of citrate synthase from Thermus thermophilus HB8.

    PubMed

    Kanamori, Eiji; Kawaguchi, Shin-Ichi; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Kouyama, Tsutomu; Murakami, Midori

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structures of citrate synthase from the thermophilic eubacteria Thermus thermophilus HB8 (TtCS) were determined for an open form at 1.5 Å resolution and for closed form at 2.3 Å resolution, respectively. In the absence of ligands TtCS in the open form was crystalized into a tetragonal form with a single subunit in the asymmetric unit. TtCS was also co-crystallized with citrate and coenzyme-A to form an orthorhombic crystal with two homodimers in the asymmetric unit. Citrate and CoA are found in the active site situated between the large domain and the small domain in all subunit whereas the complex shows two distinct closed conformations, the fully closed form and partially closed form. Structural comparisons are performed to describe conformational changes associated with binding of products of TtCS. Upon binding of citrate, basic residues in the active site move toward citrate and make a hydrogen bond network in the active site, inducing a large-scale rotation of the small domain relative to the large domain. CoA is sandwiched between the small and large domains and then the cysteamine tail is inserted into the active site with a cooperative rotation around mainchain dihedrals in the hinge region connecting helices M and N. According to this rotation these helices are extended to close the active site completely. The considerable flexibility and structural rearrangements in the hinge region are crucial for an ordered bibi reaction in catalysis for microbial CSs.

  2. Ingestion of sodium citrate suppresses aldosterone level in blood at rest and during exercise.

    PubMed

    Oöpik, Vahur; Timpmann, Saima; Hackney, Anthony C; Kadak, Kadri; Medijainen, Luule; Karelson, Kalle

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the ingestion of sodium citrate (CIT) alters blood levels of fluid and electrolyte regulatory hormones at rest and during exercise. Using a randomized, double-blinded, crossover design, 13 young, male well-trained runners performed continuous incremental running tests to volitional exhaustion on a treadmill 2 h after ingestion of 0.5 g.kg-1 body mass of CIT or placebo (PLC) in 1000 mL of solution. These trials were separated by 2 weeks. Baseline (before ingestion) aldosterone concentration did not differ between the 2 trials; however, it was 36.5% (p = 0.003) lower in the CIT trial compared with the PLC trial before the running test (i.e., after ingestion). The extent of the running-induced increase in aldosterone was 33% (p = 0.009) smaller in the CIT trial. There were no between-trial differences in the levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, or renin activity at any stage of the study. However, a greater relative increase in plasma volume (mean +/- SD, 6.41% +/- 3.78% vs. 4.08% +/- 3.33%; p = 0.042) was observed after administering the CIT compared with the PLC drink. Serum Na+ concentration increased (by 3.1 +/- 1.2 mmol.L-1; p < 0.0001) after ingestion of the CIT but not the PLC drink. A higher Na+ level was observed in the CIT trial than in the PLC trial (142.4 +/- 1.6 vs. 139.3 +/- 1.4 mmol.L-1, p = 0.00001) after completion of the run. In conclusion, pre-exercise ingestion of CIT induces a decrease in serum aldosterone concentration in the resting condition and a blunting of the aldosterone response during incremental running exercise to volitional exhaustion. The observed effect of CIT on the serum aldosterone level may be mediated by an acute increase in plasma volume and serum Na+ concentration alterations.

  3. Adsorption of doxorubicin on citrate-capped gold nanoparticles: insights into engineering potent chemotherapeutic delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Dennis; Cameron, Amanda; MacDonald, Bruce; Nganou, Collins; Scheller, Hope; Marsh, James; Beale, Stefanie; Lu, Mingsheng; Shan, Zhi; Kaliaperumal, Rajendran; Xu, Heping; Servos, Mark; Bennett, Craig; Macquarrie, Stephanie; Oakes, Ken D.; Mkandawire, Martin; Zhang, Xu

    2015-11-01

    . Here, for the first time, we propose empirical and theoretical evidence suggestive of the main adsorption process where (1) hydrophobic forces drive doxorubicin towards the gold nanoparticle surface before (2) cation-π interactions and gold-carbonyl coordination between the drug molecule and the cations on AuNP surface facilitate DOX adsorption. In addition, biologically relevant compounds, such as serum albumin and glutathione, were shown to enhance desorption of loaded drug molecules from AuNP at physiologically relevant concentrations, providing insight into the drug release and in vivo stability of such drug conjugates. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: DOX-AuNP absorption spectra and colored solution images, citrate displacement data, original DOX-AuNP loading isotherm, XPS data and TEM micrographs, modelling data. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05826k

  4. Observational multicentric study to evaluate efficacy, adverse effects and acceptance of bowel cleansing prior to colonoscopy with sodium picosulfate / magnesium citrate formulation CitraFleet®.

    PubMed

    Janisch, H D; Koppold, B; Deissler, H; Riemann, J F

    2016-01-01

    The various efficient methods available for bowel preparation prior to colonoscopy differ in patient acceptance. Combining the laxative sodium picosulfate with hyperosmotic magnesium citrate, used in this study in the formulation CitraFleet(®), allows the uptake of the purgative substances as a solution of low volume. This observational study with 737 patients evaluated efficacy of bowel preparation, potential side or adverse effects and patient acceptance of this medicinal product when used by resident physicians in Germany.Colon cleansing with CitraFleet(®) was considered very good to sufficient in 95.2 % of the patients and inadequate in only 4.8 %. In 75 % of the colonoscopies, bowel preparation was rated very good or good. Compared to the standard regimen of two portions taken the day before endoscopy, cleaning efficacy was better when patients received one of the doses on the morning of the day of colonoscopy. The quality of bowel preparation was rated lower by gastroenterologists without any prior experience with sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate. The overall assessment of the colon cleansing procedure by the 76 participating physicians was very positive and patient acceptance was also very high which can be considered a clear advantage over alternative methods. Efficacy of colon cleansing with CitraFleet(®) was not substantially affected by typical deviations from the recommended standard procedure, emphasizing the robustness of the method. Only one of the patients reported a mild adverse effect potentially caused by the cleansing agents.

  5. Formation of gold and gold sulfide nanoparticles and mesoscale intermediate structures in the reactions of aqueous HAuCl4 with sulfide and citrate ions.

    PubMed

    Mikhlin, Yuri; Likhatski, Maxim; Karacharov, Anton; Zaikovski, Vladimir; Krylov, Alexander

    2009-07-14

    The effects of the molar ratio of sodium sulfide to chloroauric acid in the range of 0.5 to 5 and the time factor on the formation of the nanoparticles (NPs) of metallic Au, Au(2)S or their mixtures have been studied applying in situ and ex situ techniques (UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, potentiometry, TEM, SPM, SERS, XPS). The products and intermediates have been compared with those for the reduction of chloroaurate with citrate ions and combinations of citrate and sulfide ions. An increase in the concentration of sulfide ions accelerates the reduction of Au(iii) complexes but hinders the nucleation and growth of Au NPs, resulting in a prolonged period before the appearance of plasmon peaks. The electrochemical potential is not directly associated with the plasmon intensities, although the potential sharply decreases simultaneously with a blue shift of the near-IR peak emerging with the Na(2)S/HAuCl(4) ratios of 0.5 to 1.5. It was concluded that the peak is due to longitudinal plasmon resonance of gold nanoplates. Au(2)S NPs, the nucleation of which is effectively inhibited, and probably some structures and fragments visible in TEM and AFM, including 2-5 nm Au NPs, crystallize in part outside the solutions. The evidence of partially liquid mesoscale structures comprising intermediate gold species as precursors of nanoparticles is presented, and their origin, ex situ transformation and role in the reaction mechanisms are discussed.

  6. Availability of zinc and the ligands citrate and histidine to wheat: does uptake of entire complexes play a role?

    PubMed

    Gramlich, Anja; Tandy, Susan; Frossard, Emmanuel; Eikenberg, Jost; Schulin, Rainer

    2013-11-01

    Organic ligands in soils affect the availability of trace metals such as Zn to plants. This study investigated the effects of two of these ligands, citrate and histidine, on Zn uptake by wheat under hydroponic conditions. Uptake of (65)Zn in the presence of these ligands was compared to uptake in the presence of EDTA at the same free Zn concentration (Zn(2+) ~ 50 nM). In the presence of citrate Zn root uptake was enhanced ~3.5 times and in the presence of histidine, by a factor of ~9, compared to the EDTA treatments. Citrate uptake was slightly reduced in the treatment containing ligands and Zn compared to the treatment containing the same ligand concentration but no Zn. In addition, a higher uptake of Zn than of citrate was observed. This suggests that the enhanced Zn uptake was primarily due to increased supply of Zn(2+) by diffusion and dissociation of Zn-citrate complexes at the root surface. Histidine uptake was much higher than citrate uptake and not influenced by the presence of Zn. As histidine forms stronger complexes with Zn than citrate, the results suggest that the enhancement of Zn uptake in the presence of histidine was in part due to the uptake of undissociated Zn-histidine complexes.

  7. Properties of Citrate-stimulated Starch Synthesis Catalyzed by Starch Synthase I of Developing Maize Kernels 1

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Charles D.; Preiss, Jack

    1979-01-01

    Chromatography of extracts of maize on diethylaminoethyl-cellulose resolves starch synthase activity into two fractions (Ozbun, Hawker, Preiss 1971 Plant Physiol 48: 785-769). Only starch synthase I is capable of synthesis in the absence of added primer and the presence of 0.5 molar citrate. This enzyme fraction has been purified about 1,000-fold from maize kernels homozygous for the endosperm mutant amylose-extender (ae). Because ae endosperm lacks the starch-branching enzyme which normally purifies with starch synthase I, the final enzyme fraction was free of detectable branching enzyme activity. This allowed a detailed characterization of the citrate-stimulated reaction. The citrate-stimulated reaction was dependent upon citrate concentrations of greater than 0.1 molar. However, the reaction is not specific for citrate and malate also stimulated the reaction. Branching enzyme increased the velocity of the reaction about 4-fold but did not replace the requirement for citrate. Citrate reduced the Km for the primers amylopectin and glycogen from 122 and 595 micrograms per milliliter, respectively, to 6 and 50 micrograms per milliliter, respectively. The enzyme was found to contain 1.7 milligrams of anhydroglucose units per enzyme unit. Thus reaction mixtures contained 1 to 5 micrograms (5 to 25 micrograms per milliliter) of endogenous primer. The citrate-stimulated reaction could be explained by an increased affinity for this endogenous primer. The starch synthase reaction in the absence of primer is dependent upon several factors including endogenous primer concentration, citrate concentration as well as branching enzyme concentration. PMID:16661088

  8. Inactivation of citrate lyase from Rhodopseudomonas gelatinosa by a specific deacetylase and inhibition of this inactivation by L-(+1-glutamate.

    PubMed Central

    Giffhorn, F; Gottschalk, G

    1975-01-01

    A previously unrecognized enzyme, citrate lyase deacetylase, has been purified about 140-fold from cell extracts of Rhodopseudomonas gelatinosa. It catalyzed the conversion of enzymatically active acetyl-S-citrate lyase into the inactive HS-form and acetate. The enzyme exhibited an optimal rate of inactivation at pH 8.1. Because of the instability of acetyl-S-citrate lyase at acidic and alkaline pH values, all assays were carried out at pH 7.2, where the spontaneous hydrolysis of the acetyl-S-citrate lyase was negligible and deacetylase showed 70% of the activity at pH 8.1. The apparent Km value for citrate lyase was 10(-7) M at pH 7.2 and 30 C. The activity of the deacetylase was restricted to the citrate lyase from R. gelatinosa. The corresponding lyases from Enterobacter aerogenes (formerly Klebsiella aerogenes) and Streptococcus diacetilactis were not deacetylated; likewise, thioesters such as acetyl-S coenzyme A, acetoacetyl-S coenzyme A, and N-acetyl-S-acetyl-cysteamine were also not hydrolyzed. Citrate lyase deacetylase was present in very small amounts in cells of R. gelatinosa grown with acetate or succinate; it was induced by citrate along with the citrate lyase. L-(+)-Glutamate strongly inhibited the deacetylase. Fifty percent inhibition was obtained at a concentration of 1.4 X 10(-4) L-(+)-glutamate. D-(-)-Glutamate, alpha-ketoglutarate, L-alpha-hydroxyglutarate, L-(-)-proline, and other metabolites were less effective. PMID:356

  9. Leaching of diethylhexyl phthalate from polyvinyl chloride bags into intravenous cyclosporine solution

    SciTech Connect

    Venkataramanan, R.; Burckart, G.J.; Ptachcinski, R.J.; Blaha, R.; Logue, L.W.; Bahnson, A.; Giam, C.S.; Brady, J.E.

    1986-11-01

    The release of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) from flexible polyvinyl chloride containers into intravenous cyclosporine solutions was studied. Intravenous cyclosporine solution or solutions containing the vehicle Cremophor EL and alcohol in dextrose were prepared in an all-glass system and stored in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags. Four samples were obtained at different time intervals, and DEHP content was analyzed by gas chromatography. The amount of DEHP that was leached into solutions stored in the PVC bags increased as storage time increased. By 48 hours, nearly 33 mg of DEHP had leached into the solution. Intravenous cyclosporine solutions should be prepared in glass containers to minimize patient exposure to DEHP. If plastic bags are used for preparing cyclosporine injections, the injections must be used immediately after preparation.

  10. An active site–tail interaction in the structure of hexahistidine-tagged Thermoplasma acidophilum citrate synthase

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Jesse R.; Donini, Stefano; Kappock, T. Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Citrate synthase (CS) plays a central metabolic role in aerobes and many other organisms. The CS reaction comprises two half-reactions: a Claisen aldol condensation of acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) and oxaloacetate (OAA) that forms citryl-CoA (CitCoA), and CitCoA hydrolysis. Protein conformational changes that ‘close’ the active site play an important role in the assembly of a catalytically competent condensation active site. CS from the thermoacidophile Thermoplasma acidophilum (TpCS) possesses an endogenous Trp fluorophore that can be used to monitor the condensation reaction. The 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of TpCS fused to a C-terminal hexahistidine tag (TpCSH6) reported here is an ‘open’ structure that, when compared with several liganded TpCS structures, helps to define a complete path for active-site closure. One active site in each dimer binds a neighboring His tag, the first nonsubstrate ligand known to occupy both the AcCoA and OAA binding sites. Solution data collectively suggest that this fortuitous interaction is stabilized by the crystalline lattice. As a polar but almost neutral ligand, the active site–tail interaction provides a new starting point for the design of bisubstrate-analog inhibitors of CS. PMID:26457521

  11. Alterations of the [59Fe]ferric citrate biodistribution in hyperferremic mice after the administration of pyrophosphate and desferrioxamine.

    PubMed

    Sawas-Dimopoulou, C; Soulpi, C

    1983-02-01

    One of the most efficient anions in enhancing the ability of desferrioxamine (DFO) to remove iron from transferrin in vitro has been shown to be pyrophosphate (PYP). To evaluate the in vivo effect of PYP in hyperferremic mice, the biodistribution of [59Fe]ferric citrate was studied after the i.p. administration of: 1) only saline in the control animals; 2) an aqueous solution of tetrasodium diphosphate (PYP; 40 gm/2 g of b.wt.); 3) desferral (DFO; 12 mg/20 g of b.wt.); and 4) PYP + DFO at the respective dosages shown above. The radioactivity in each organ, blood, urine and feces was measured and referred to as percentage of the injected dose. PYP administered alone acted as a weaker chelator of iron than DFO. The combined administration of DFO and PYP contributed more than DFO or PYP separately, to the increase of urinary excretion of 59Fe and to the significant decrease of the radioiron concentration in liver (.01 less than P less than .05). The above induced changes are not, however, the additive result of the separate effect of DFO and PYP. That observation would suggest that DFO + PYP combined in a unique treatment, interact with iron through a common reaction pathway and that PYP plays in vivo a synergistic role in that interaction. The kind of iron with which DFO + PYP interacts is then suggested to be the transferrin-bound iron located in extracellular spaces of tissues.

  12. Alterations of the (/sup 59/Fe)ferric citrate biodistribution in hyperferremic mice after the administration of pyrophosphate and desferrioxamine

    SciTech Connect

    Sawas-Dimopoulou, C.; Soulpi, C.

    1983-02-01

    One of the most efficient anions in enhancing the ability of desferrioxamine (DFO) to remove iron from transferrin in vitro has been shown to be pyrophosphate (PYP). To evaluate the in vivo effect of PYP in hyperferremic mice, the biodistribution of (/sup 59/Fe)ferric citrate was studied after the i.p. administration of: 1) only saline in the control animals; 2) an aqueous solution of tetrasodium diphosphate (PYP; 40 gm/2 g of b.wt.); 3) desferral (DFO; 12 mg/20 g of b.wt.); and 4) PYP + DFO at the respective dosages shown above. The radioactivity in each organ, blood, urine and feces was measured and referred to as percentage of the injected dose. PYP administered alone acted as a weaker chelator of iron than DFO. The combined administration of DFO and PYP contributed more than DFO or PYP separately, to the increase of urinary excretion of /sup 59/Fe and to the significant decrease of the radioiron concentration in liver (.01 less than P less than .05). The above induced changes are not, however, the additive result of the separate effect of DFO and PYP. That observation would suggest that DFO + PYP combined in a unique treatment, interact with iron through a common reaction pathway and that PYP plays in vivo a synergistic role in that interaction. The kind of iron with which DFO + PYP interacts is then suggested to be the transferrin-bound iron located in extracellular spaces of tissues.

  13. Alterations of the (/sup 59/Fe)ferric citrate biodistribution in hyperferremic mice after the administration of pyrophosphate and desferrioxamine

    SciTech Connect

    Sawas-Dimopoulou, C.; Soulpi, C.

    1983-02-01

    One of the most efficient anions in enhancing the ability of desferrioxamine (DFO) to remove iron from transferrin in vitro has been shown to be pyrophosphate (PYP). To evaluate the in vivo effect of PYP in hyperferremic mice, the biodistribution of (/sup 59/Fe)ferric citrate was studied after the i.p. administration of: 1) only saline in the control animals; 2) an aqueous solution of tetrasodium diphosphate; 3) desferral; and 4) PYP + DFO. The radioactivity in each organ, blood, urine and feces was measured and referred to as percentage of the injected dose. PYP administered alone acted as a weaker chelator of iron than DFO. The combined administration of DFO and PYP contributed more than DFO or PYP separately, to the increase of urinary excretion of 59Fe and to the significant decrease of the radioiron concentration in liver. The above induced changes are not, however, the additive result of the separate effect of DFO and PYP. That observation would suggest that DFO + PYP combined in a unique treatment, interact with iron through a common reaction pathway and that PYP plays in vivo a synergistic role in that interaction. The kind of iron with which DFO + PYP interacts is then suggested to be the transferrin-bound iron located in extracellular spaces of tissues.

  14. Structural and electrical properties of Cu doped NiFe2O4 nanoparticles prepared through modified citrate gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batoo, Khalid Mujasam

    2011-12-01

    Nanoparticles of polycrystalline NiFe2-xCuxO4 (0.0≤x≤0.05) ferrites were prepared through the modified citrate-gel method. The samples were obtained as dried gel after the successful chemical reaction of their respective metal nitrate solutions in the midst of citric acid as catalyst. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selective area electron diffraction (SAED) confirmed the single phase nature of all the samples with an average particle size of 19.8 (±1). Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) shows the presence of two broad vibrational bands between 400 and 1000 cm-1 corresponding to the tetrahedral and the octahedral sites. The variation of dielectric properties (ɛ‧, ɛ″, tan δ) and ac conductivity (σac), with frequency reveals that the dispersion is due to the Maxwell-Wagner type of interfacial polarization in general and due to hopping of charges between Fe+2 and Fe+3 as well as between Ni+2 and Ni+3 ions at B-sites. The complex impedance spectroscopy has been used to study the effect of grain and grain boundary on the electrical properties of all the ferrite nanoparticles.

  15. [Intracranial pressure and hypotonic infusion solutions].

    PubMed

    Zander, R

    2009-04-01

    The physiological osmolality of plasma is 288+/-5 mosmol/kgH2O when measured by freezing-point depression. The theoretical osmolarity (290 mosmol/l) calculated from composition, osmotic coefficient (0.93) and water content (0.94) is practically identical. Saline (0.9% NaCl) has an osmolarity of 308 mosmol/l and an osmolality of 286 mosmol/kgH2O (water content ca. 1.0). The osmolality in vivo is more important than that measured in vitro. A 5% dextrose solution in water (D5W) is isotonic in vitro, but the in vivo effect is that of pure water because the glucose is rapidly metabolized. Every infusion fluid should be isotonic (290+/-10 mosmol/kgH2O). Hypotonic solutions must move water from the extracellular space to the intracellular space. Typical examples are Ringer's lactate and acetate solutions (256 instead of 290 mosmol/kgH2O). The brain (central nervous system, CNS) is the critical organ: The rigidly shaped skull contains three incompressible compartments, only blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can be partially, but limitedly shifted outside the skull. The consequence of a volume load is an increasing intracranial pressure (ICP). A decrease in plasma osmolality by only 3% produces an increase in ICP of about 15 mmHg. Therefore, infusion of larger volumes of hypotonic solutions should be avoided at all costs.

  16. Fine-tuning citrate synthase flux potentiates and refines metabolic innovation in the Lenski evolution experiment.

    PubMed

    Quandt, Erik M; Gollihar, Jimmy; Blount, Zachary D; Ellington, Andrew D; Georgiou, George; Barrick, Jeffrey E

    2015-10-14

    Evolutionary innovations that enable organisms to colonize new ecological niches are rare compared to gradual evolutionary changes in existing traits. We discovered that key mutations in the gltA gene, which encodes citrate synthase (CS), occurred both before and after Escherichia coli gained the ability to grow aerobically on citrate (Cit(+) phenotype) during the Lenski long-term evolution experiment. The first gltA mutation, which increases CS activity by disrupting NADH-inhibition of this enzyme, is beneficial for growth on the acetate and contributed to preserving the rudimentary Cit(+) trait from extinction when it first evolved. However, after Cit(+) was refined by further mutations, this potentiating gltA mutation became deleterious to fitness. A second wave of beneficial gltA mutations then evolved that reduced CS activity to below the ancestral level. Thus, dynamic reorganization of central metabolism made colonizing this new nutrient niche contingent on both co-opting and overcoming a history of prior adaptation.

  17. Autoimmune Thrombocytopenia Complicated by EDTA- and/or Citrate-Dependent Pseudothrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Salama, Abdulgabar

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Pseudothrombocytopenia (PTCP) is a well-known phenomenon. However, confusion may occur due to unusual characteristics. Case Reports Two patients with autoimmune thrombocytopenia (ITP) and long-lasting PTCP are described. Initially, only the diagnosis of ITP was confirmed. During observation, discrepancies were recognized between clinical findings and platelet counts. Re-examination resulted in the additional diagnosis of EDTA-dependent PTCP. Subsequently, the latter diagnosis was changed to citrate-dependent PTCP in both cases. Interestingly, PTCP was observed to change again and became recognizable in citrate or heparin, and only during the first 20-30 min following phlebotomy in EDTA specimens. Conclusion The incidence of concomitant ITP with PTCP might be higher than previously reported, and PTCP may have variable dynamics and characteristics. PMID:26696805

  18. [Calcium suppletion for patients who use gastric acid inhibitors: calcium citrate or calcium carbonate?].

    PubMed

    de Jonge, H J M Henk-Marijn; Gans, R O B Rijk; Huls, Gerwin

    2012-01-01

    Various calcium supplements are available for patients who have an indication for calcium suppletion. American guidelines and UpToDate recommend prescribing calcium citrate to patients who use antacids The rationale for this advice is that water-insoluble calcium carbonate needs acid for adequate absorption. No convincing scientific evidence supporting the advice to prescribe calcium citrate instead of calcium carbonate to patients who also take antacids is available, and therefore deserves further investigation. On the contrary, the fact that calcium carbonate does not need acid in order to be absorbed, has also not been proven. In clinical practise, it appears important that calcium is taken with meals in order to improve its absorption. PMID:22914054

  19. [Calcium suppletion for patients who use gastric acid inhibitors: calcium citrate or calcium carbonate?].

    PubMed

    de Jonge, H J M Henk-Marijn; Gans, R O B Rijk; Huls, Gerwin

    2012-01-01

    Various calcium supplements are available for patients who have an indication for calcium suppletion. American guidelines and UpToDate recommend prescribing calcium citrate to patients who use antacids The rationale for this advice is that water-insoluble calcium carbonate needs acid for adequate absorption. No convincing scientific evidence supporting the advice to prescribe calcium citrate instead of calcium carbonate to patients who also take antacids is available, and therefore deserves further investigation. On the contrary, the fact that calcium carbonate does not need acid in order to be absorbed, has also not been proven. In clinical practise, it appears important that calcium is taken with meals in order to improve its absorption.

  20. Effect of citrate ratio and temperature on gold nanoparticle size and morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Minh; DePenning, Rebekah; Turner, Madeline; Padalkar, Sonal

    2016-10-01

    Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) were synthesized by the citrate reduction method. The evolution of NP size and morphology was closely studied by varying temperature and citrate to gold precursor (Na3Ct/HAuCl4) ratio. The reaction temperatures below 100 °C were mainly studied. A Na3Ct/HAuCl4 ratio range of 1.25:1 to 4.33:1 was the focus of our investigation. The NP size and morphology was strongly influenced by the Na3Ct/HAuCl4 ratio, while the temperature played a subtle role. The reaction times were also monitored. The higher concentration samples required almost an order of magnitude longer reaction time compared to the low concentration samples.