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Sample records for citrate dextrose solution

  1. Effects of sodium citrate and acid citrate dextrose solutions on cell counts and growth factor release from equine pure-platelet rich plasma and pure-platelet rich gel.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, Carlos E; Álvarez, María E; Carmona, Jorge U

    2015-03-14

    There is a lack information on the effects of the most commonly used anticoagulants for equine platelet rich plasmas (PRPs) elaboration on cell counts and growth factor release from platelet rich gels (PRGs). The aims of this study were 1) to compare the effects of the anticoagulants sodium citrate (SC), acid citrate dextrose solution A (ACD-A) and ACD-B on platelet (PLT), leukocyte (WBC) and on some parameters associated to platelet activation including mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet distribution width (PDW) between whole blood, pure PRP (P-PRP) and platelet-poor plasma (PPP); 2) to compare transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β(1)) and platelet-derived growth factor isoform BB (PDGF-BB) concentrations in supernatants from pure PRG (P-PRG), platelet-poor gel (PPG), P-PRP lysate (positive control) and plasma (negative control); 3) to establish the possible correlations between all the studied cellular and molecular parameters. In all cases the three anticoagulants produced P-PRPs with significantly higher PLT counts compared with whole blood and PPP. The concentrations of WBCs were similar between P-PRP and whole blood, but significantly lower in PPP. The type of anticoagulant did not significantly affect the cell counts for each blood component. The anticoagulants also did not affect the MPV and PDW parameters. Independently of the anticoagulant used, all blood components presented significantly different concentrations of PDGF-BB and TGF-β(1). The highest growth factor (GF) concentrations were observed from P-PRP lysates, followed by PRG supernatants, PPP lysates, PPG supernatants and plasma. Significant correlations were observed between PLT and WBC counts (ρ = 0.80), PLT count and TGF-β(1) concentration (ρ = 0.85), PLT count and PDGF-BB concentration (ρ = 0.80) and PDGF-BB and TGF-β(1) concentrations (ρ = 0.75). The type of anticoagulant was not correlated with any of the variables evaluated. The anticoagulants did not

  2. Identification of highly concentrated dextrose solution (50% dextrose) extravasation and treatment--a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Sarah L; Brady, William; Mahmoud, Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    Treatment for significant hypoglycemia includes administration of dextrose containing agents, including 50% dextrose (D50%W) intravenously. Significant extravasation of D50%W can lead to complications, including skin and soft tissue injury, loss of limb, or death. The aim of this case report, using an interdisciplinary team approach, explores extravasation protocols as well as literature review, is to provide information about the proper use of hyaluronidase in patients with D50%W extravasations. A 46-year-old African American man presented to the emergency department (ED) after blood glucose level was initially 13 mg/dL. Emergency medical service established a large bore intravenous (IV) line in the right antecubital vein and administered a total of 50 g of D50%W. Upon arrival to the ED, the patient's level of consciousness had significantly improved. After arrival to the ED, the patient started complaining of pain in his right arm, near the site of the IV line insertion. On inspection, the IV site was grossly infiltrated. Hospital protocols for hyperosmolar infiltration were used. Extravasation is a common medical complication of infused medications and needs to be properly identified and treated. The multitude of skills from nursing, medicine, and pharmacy ensures that extravasation is managed appropriately and effectively to ensure safety to patients. Recognition, communication, and awareness of the institutional guidelines on how to treat infiltration and extravasation should be encouraged in all ED and intensive care unit medical personnel who deal with a variety of infusions and IV medications that have serious implications if not treated correctly.

  3. Automated regional citrate anticoagulation: technological barriers and possible solutions.

    PubMed

    Szamosfalvi, Balazs; Frinak, Stanley; Yee, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale adoption of regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) is prevented by risks of the technique as practiced traditionally. Safe RCA protocols with automated delivery on customized dialysis systems are needed. We applied kinetic analysis of solute fluxes during RCA to design a protocol for sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) for critically ill patients. We used a high-flux hemodialyzer, a zero-calcium (Ca) dialysate, a dialysis machine with online clearance and access recirculation monitoring, and a separate optical hematocrit (Hct) sensor. Flow rates were Q(B) = 200 ml/min for blood; Q(D) = 400 ml/min for dialysate, with Na = 140 mmol/l and HCO(3) = 32 mmol/l; Q(citrate) = 400 ml/h of acid citrate dextrose A; ultrafiltration as indicated. The Q(Ca) was infused into the return blood line, adjusted hourly based on online Hct and a <24-hour-old albumin level. Using the SLED-RCA protocol in an anhepatic, ex vivo dialysis system, ionized Ca (iCa) was >1 mmol/l in the blood reservoir and <0.3 mmol/l in the blood circuit after citrate but before Ca infusion (Q(Ca)) with normal electrolyte composition of the blood returning to the reservoir. Clinically, SLED-RCA completely abrogated clotting, without adverse electrolyte effects. The Q(Ca) prediction algorithm maintained normal systemic iCa (0.95-1.4 mmol/l) in all patients. The high citrate extraction on the dialyzer prevented systemic citrate accumulation even in shock liver patients. Safety analysis shows that building a dialysis system for automated SLED-RCA is feasible. Using predictive Q(Ca) dosing and integrating control of the infusion pumps with the dialysis machine, SLED-RCA can be near-automated today to provide a user-friendly and safe system. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Gender and chronological age affect erythrocyte membrane oxidative indices in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) blood bank storage condition.

    PubMed

    Erman, Hayriye; Aksu, Uğur; Belce, Ahmet; Atukeren, Pınar; Uzun, Duygu; Cebe, Tamer; Kansu, Ahmet D; Gelişgen, Remisa; Uslu, Ezel; Aydın, Seval; Çakatay, Ufuk

    2016-07-01

    It is well known that in vitro storage lesions lead to membrane dysfunction and decreased number of functional erythrocytes. As erythrocytes get older, in storage media as well as in peripheral circulation, they undergo a variety of biochemical changes. In our study, the erythrocytes with different age groups in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) storage solution were used in order to investigate the possible effect of gender factor on oxidative damage. Oxidative damage biomarkers in erythrocyte membranes such as ferric reducing antioxidant power, pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance, protein-bound advance glycation end products, and sialic acid were analyzed. Current study reveals that change in membrane redox status during blood-bank storage condition also depends on both gender depended homeostatic factors and the presence of CPDA-1. During the storage period in CPDA-1, erythrocytes from the male donors are mostly affected by free radical-mediated oxidative stress but erythrocytes obtained from females are severely affected by glyoxidative stress.

  5. A multicommuted flow system for the determination of dextrose in parenteral and hemodialysis concentrate solutions.

    PubMed

    Knochen, Moisés; Pistón, Mariela; Salvarrey, Lourdes; Dol, Isabel

    2005-04-01

    A new method is presented for the automation of the determination of dextrose in parenteral and hemodialysis solutions. The method is based on multicommutation flow analysis (MCFA) and exploits enzymatic reactions providing a colored derivative that is detected spectrophotometrically (Trinder's method). The reagent, comprising glucose oxidase, peroxidase, 4-hydroxybenzoate and a buffer was obtained from a commercial kit for the determination of glycemia. The flow system used three 3-way solenoid valves operating under computer control. The necessary software was developed for the purpose and compiled in QuickBASIC 4.0 The influence of some operating variables (segment size, number of segments and reactor length) was studied. Calibration curves in the range 0-1g/L presented a slight curvature and were fitted with a second-degree polynomial (h=-0.0632C(2)+0.6039C+0.166, r(2)=0.9973, h being the peak-height (absorbance) and C the concentration in g/L). The method was validated by analyzing artificial samples presenting accurately known concentrations of dextrose, and comparing the results with the known value and with value obtained by polarimetry. Recoveries were in the range 96.6-100.2%, and the difference with the polarimetric analysis was in the range 0.1-3.3%. Precision (R.S.D.,%) was better than 2.4%. Sampling frequency of the system was 90 samples/h, with a reagent consumption of 0.14 mL per sample.

  6. Determination of dextrose in peritoneal dialysis solution by localized surface plasmon resonance technique based on silver nanoparticles formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masrournia, Mahboube; Montazarolmahdi, Maliheh; Sani, Faramarz Aliasghari

    2017-07-01

    Determination of dextrose in peritoneal dialysis with a method based on silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) formation was investigated. In a green chemistry method, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized in the natural polymeric matrix of gelatin. The nanoparticles were characterized with UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Absorbance signal of AgNPs could be applied to determine the various concentrations of dextrose solutions. Drop wise and ultrasonic methods were used and compared with each other. The dynamic range of methods with limit of detection and relative standard deviations were obtained. Results for real sample (peritoneal dialysis) were satisfied.

  7. Stability of norepinephrine infusions prepared in dextrose and normal saline solutions.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Maryse; Lessard, Martin R; Trépanier, Claude A; Nicole, Pierre C; Nadeau, Linda; Turcotte, Gilles

    2008-03-01

    Norepinephrine (NE) infusions are commonly used in the intensive care unit and in the operating room. Data on long term stability of NE solutions are lacking. This prospective study was designed to evaluate the stability of NE, in dextrose (5%) in water (D5W) and in normal saline (NS) solutions, for a period up to seven days. We prepared norepinephrine solutions in quadruplicate, by aseptically diluting 1 mg NE in 250 mL of D5W or NS and 4 mg NE in 250 mL of D5W or NS (final concentrations, 4 microg x mL(-1) and 16 micro x mL(-1), respectively) and stored the solutions at room temperature under ambient light. We sampled the solutions, in duplicate, at times 0, 24, 48, 72, 120, and 168 hr and stored them at -80 degrees C for later assay. Norepinephrine concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (coefficient of variation 4.6%). Statistical analysis was done by nonparametric, repeated measures ANOVA (Friedman test). There was no significant decrease in NE concentration for either, NE 4 microg x mL(-1) in D5W or NS (P = 0.09 and 0.11, respectively) or for NE 16 microg x mL(-1) in D5W or NS (P = 0.18 and 0.40, respectively). The ratios of NE concentration at 168 hr, compared to baseline, were 95.7% and 96.4%, for NE 4 microg x mL(-1) in D5W and NS, respectively, and 104.5% and 96.4%, for NE 16 microg x mL(-1) in D5W and NS, respectively. Norepinephrine solutions, in concentrations commonly used in the clinical setting, are chemically stable for seven days, at room temperature and under ambient light, when diluted either in D5W or NS.

  8. [Effects of CO2 and 5% dextrose solution on expression of CD44 and ICAM-1 in endometrial carcinoma cells].

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhi; Xiao, Hong-Tao; Li, Li; Wang, Yu-Jue; Qu, Da-Cheng; Gao, Xue-Mei

    2009-07-01

    To investigate the effects of 5% dextrose solution and different CO2 pressures on expression of adhesion molecules (including CD44 and ICAM-1) of endometrial carcinoma cells in vitro. To provide experimental base for the safety question of hysteroscope operation and the selection of better distending medium for the patients with suspected endometrial cancer. Endometrial cancer cells (HEC-1-B) were put in 5% dextrose, 70 mmHg 100% CO2, 100 mmHg 100% CO2 at 37 degrees C, the control group was not given any administration, respectively for 1 hour. Expression of CD44 and ICAM-1 were measured at 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours by using flow cytometry. The expression of CD44 and ICAM-1 increased significantly at 0 h-72 h after the cells were exposed to 5% dextrose, 70 mmHg 100% CO2, 100 mmHg 100% CO2 for 1 hour (P<0.05) respectively, and returned to the control levels by 72 h. With the increase of the CO2 pressure, the expression of the CD44 and ICAM-1 increased (P<0.05). The expression of the CD44 and ICAM-1 totally increased significantly compared with control. Both high pressure CO2 (100 mmHg) and 5% dextrose solution can increase the expression of CD44 and ICAM-1 in endometrial cancer cells, and may promote the capability of adhesion of endometrial cancer cells. Lower CO2 pressure does not change the expression of CD44 and ICAM-1 in endometrial cancer cells, therefore the low CO2 pressure (70 mmHg) is safer as distending medium for the patients with suspected endometrial cancer.

  9. Supplementation of total parenteral nutrition solutions with ferrous citrate.

    PubMed

    Sayers, M H; Johnson, D K; Schumann, L A; Ivey, M F; Young, J H; Finch, C A

    1983-01-01

    Daily infusion of a total parenteral nutrition (TPN) formulation containing 1 liter of 5.5% Travasol provides less than 0.1 milligrams of iron. By comparison, a formulation which includes a liter of 10% Travamin provides 2 milligrams of iron per day. To meet iron requirements in patients infusing formulations containing Travasol, iron was added as ferrous citrate. In in virto experiments, 74% of this iron was available to transferrin. In seven patients in whom in vivo availability was tested by red cell incorporation, the mean availability was 81%. Ferrous citrate is recommended as a safe, effective additive to TPN solutions for adult patients requiring iron supplements.

  10. Hydrogen profiles of dobutamine hydrochloride and fentanyl citrate solutions according to intravenous administration systems, temperature, and luminosity conditions.

    PubMed

    Barros, Daniele Porto; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso; Pedreira, Mavilde da Luz Gonçalves; Peterlini, Maria Angélica Sorgini

    2014-01-01

    Factors such as temperature, light exposure, drug concentration, ionic strength, time of infusion, and duration of drug association can influence the effectiveness of pharmacological solutions, which can compromise the solutions' quality, resulting in unstable solutions and drug incompatibility. The aim of this study was to determine the pH of solutions of dobutamine hydrochloride, fentanyl citrate, and their combination in 5% dextrose in water (D5W) under various light exposures and temperature conditions over time. The analysis was performed by measuring the pH of the substances in both pharmacological (commercial) preparations and in D5W under dark fluorescent light in the presence or absence of sunlight exposures, intravenous apparatus packaging (clear and amber burettes), and temperature (22°C and 37°C). Samples were collected immediately after preparation and after 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 24 hours of exposure to the various conditions; data were analyzed using mean standard deviations. Of the 260 pH values obtained, 50 (19.2%) were from commercial preparations and 210 (80.8%) from solutions exposed to various experimental conditions. Significant pH differences were found among the vials of the commercial preparation drugs. The largest pH value difference (0.88) was observed for fentanyl citrate, in which a pH increase of 0.88 (4.23 ± 0.62) was observed. The combination of drugs in D5W resulted in more acidic values than those of fentanyl citrate and of D5W and fentanyl citrate in D5W, but they were closer to what was observed for the solution of dobutamine hydrochloride in D5W. This solution was more acidic than fentanyl citrate diluted in D5W. The lower acidity of fentanyl citrate had a minor influence on the final pH of the combined drug solution in D5W. Under most conditions, the drug solutions kept at 22°C had pH values that were more acidic and less variable. Temperature was a major factor controlling the chemical behavior of the solutions analyzed

  11. Study of Maxwell–Wagner (M–W) relaxation behavior and hysteresis observed in bismuth titanate layered structure obtained by solution combustion synthesis using dextrose as fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Subohi, Oroosa; Shastri, Lokesh; Kumar, G.S.; Malik, M.M.; Kurchania, Rajnish

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: X-ray diffraction studies show that phase formation and crystallinity was reached only after calcinations at 800 °C. Dielectric constant versus temperature curve shows ferroelectric to paraelectric transition temperature (T{sub c}) to be 650 °C. Complex impedance curves show deviation from Debye behavior. The material shows a thin PE Loop with low remnant polarization due to high conductivity in the as prepared sample. - Highlights: • Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} is synthesized using solution combustion technique with dextrose as fuel. • Dextrose has high reducing capacity (+24) and generates more no. of moles of gases. • Impedance studies show that the sample follows Maxwell–Wagner relaxation behavior. • Shows lower remnant polarization due to higher c-axis ratio. - Abstract: Structural, dielectric and ferroelectric properties of bismuth titanate (Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12}) obtained by solution combustion technique using dextrose as fuel is studied extensively in this paper. Dextrose is used as fuel as it has high reducing valancy and generates more number of moles of gases during the reaction. X-ray diffraction studies show that phase formation and crystallinity was reached only after calcinations at 800 °C. Dielectric constant versus temperature curve shows ferroelectric to paraelectric transition temperature (T{sub c}) to be 650 °C. The dielectric loss is very less (tan δ < 1) at lower temperatures but increases around T{sub c} due to structural changes in the sample. Complex impedance curves show deviation from Debye behavior. The material shows a thin PE Loop with low remnant polarization due to high conductivity in the as prepared sample.

  12. Xanthone additives for blood storage that maintain its potential for oxygen delivery. I. 2-Hydroxyethoxy- and 2-ethoxy-6-(5-tetrazoyl) xanthones in citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine (CPDA-1) blood.

    PubMed

    Paterson, R A; Dawson, J; Hyde, R M; Livingstone, D J; Parry, E S; Nash, S; Boyce, I M

    1988-01-01

    Two xanthones, 2-hydroxyethoxy-6-(5-tetrazoyl) (BW A440C) and 2-ethoxy-6-(5-tetraozyl) (BW A827C), are members of a chemical series tested in vitro as potential additives to citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine (CPDA-1) medium for blood storage. P50 was maintained in the presence of these compounds during 42 days' storage by a partial maintenance of 2,3 diphosphoglycerate (2,3 DPG) and by a direct effect on hemoglobin previously reported for BW A827C. Red cell 2,3 DPG levels for BW A440C (n = 5), BW A827C (n = 5), and control (n = 6), respectively, were 3.38 +/- 0.47, 3.44 +/- 0.25, and 1.20 +/- 0.10 mM +/- SEM on day 7; 1.16 +/- 0.13, 1.52 +/- 0.37, and 0.16 +/- 0.02 mM on day 21; and 0.67 +/- 0.09, 0.61 +/- 0.08, and 0.06 +/- 0.006 mM on day 42. Red cell adenine triphosphate levels at the same time intervals were 1.84 +/- 0.09, 1.46 +/- 0.18, and 2.11 +/- 0.04 mM; 2.10 +/- 0.05, 2.07 +/- 0.17, and 2.13 +/- 0.05 mM; and 1.42 +/- 0.13, 1.37 +/- 0.13, and 1.38 +/- 0.06 mM, respectively. The degree of hemolysis was less with the addition of the compounds, and the methemoglobin formation, plasma Na+ and K+, and lactate production were unaffected by the compounds.

  13. Closed circuit recovery of copper, lead and iron from electronic waste with citrate solutions.

    PubMed

    Torres, Robinson; Lapidus, Gretchen T

    2017-02-01

    An integral closed circuit hydrometallurgical process is presented for base metal recovery from electronic waste. The leaching medium consists of a sodium citrate solution, from which base metals are retrieved by direct electrowinning, and the barren solution is recycled back to the leaching stage. This leaching-electrowinning cycle was repeated four times. The redox properties of the fresh citrate solution, as well as the leach liquors, were characterized by cyclic voltammetry to determine adequate conditions for metal reduction, as well as to limit citrate degradation. The leaching efficiency of electronic waste, employing the same solution after four complete cycles was 71, 83 and 94% for copper, iron and lead, respectively, compared to the original leach with fresh citrate solution.

  14. Compatibility and stability of potassium chloride and magnesium sulfate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and 5% dextrose injeciton solutions.

    PubMed

    Quay, I; Tan, E

    2001-01-01

    The compatibility and stability of 80 mmol/L potassium chloride and 16 mmol/L magnesium sulfate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and in 5% dextrose injection solutions at 22 deg C have been studied by means of a Beckman Clinical Chemistry Analyzer Synchron CX5 Delta. The infusions were stable for 24 hours at 22 deg C. The results from both diluents showed an average of +/-5% fluctuations in concentration. None of the samples appeared to form visible precipitation or to change in color or clarity.

  15. Struvite crystal growth inhibition by trisodium citrate and the formation of chemical complexes in growth solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prywer, Jolanta; Mielniczek-Brzóska, Ewa; Olszynski, Marcin

    2015-05-01

    Effect of trisodium citrate on the crystallization of struvite was studied. To evaluate such an effect an experiment of struvite growth from artificial urine was performed. The investigations are related to infectious urinary stones formation. The crystallization process was induced by the addition of aqueous ammonia solution to mimic the bacterial activity. The spectrophotometric results demonstrate that trisodium citrate increases induction time with respect to struvite formation and decreases the growth efficiency of struvite. The inhibitory effect of trisodium citrate on the nucleation and growth of struvite is explained in base of chemical speciation analysis. Such an analysis demonstrates that the inhibitory effect is related with the fact that trisodium citrate binds NH4 + and Mg2+ ions in the range of pH from 7 to 9.5 characteristic for struvite precipitation. The most important is the MgCit- complex whose concentration strongly depends on an increase in pH rather than on an increase in citrate concentrations.

  16. Stabilizing effect of citrate buffer on the photolysis of riboflavin in aqueous solution

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Iqbal; Sheraz, Muhammad Ali; Ahmed, Sofia; Kazi, Sadia Hafeez; Mirza, Tania; Aminuddin, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    In the present investigation the photolysis of riboflavin (RF) in the presence of citrate species at pH 4.0–7.0 has been studied. A specific multicomponent spectrophotometric method has been used to assay RF in the presence of photoproducts during the reactions. The overall first-order rate constants (kobs) for the photolysis of RF range from 0.42 to 1.08×10–2 min−1 in the region. The values of kobs have been found to decrease with an increase in citrate concentration indicating an inhibitory effect of these species on the rate of reaction. The second-order rate constants for the interaction of RF with total citrate species causing inhibition range from 1.79 to 5.65×10–3 M−1 min−1 at pH 4.0–7.0. The log k–pH profiles for the reactions at 0.2–1.0 M citrate concentration show a gradual decrease in kobs and the value at 1.0 M is more than half compared to that of k0, i.e., in the absence of buffer, at pH 5.0. Divalent citrate ions cause a decrease in RF fluorescence due to the quenching of the excited singlet state resulting in a decrease in the rate of reaction and consequently leading to the stabilization of RF solutions. The greater quenching of fluorescence at pH 4.0 compared to that of 7.0 is in accordance with the greater concentration of divalent citrate ions (99.6%) at that pH. The trivalent citrate ions exert a greater inhibitory effect on the rate of RF photolysis compared to that of the divalent citrate ions probably as a result of excited triplet state quenching. The values of second-order rate constants for the interaction of divalent and trivalent citrate ions are 0.44×10–2 and 1.06×10–3 M–1 min–1, respectively, indicating that the trivalent ions exert a greater stabilizing effect, compared to the divalent ions, on RF solutions. PMID:25755977

  17. Aggregation Kinetics of Citrate and Polyvinylpyrrolidone Coated Silver Nanoparticles in Monovalent and Divalent Electrolyte Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Khanh An; Chen, Kai Loon

    2011-01-01

    The aggregation kinetics of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) that were coated with two commonly used capping agents—citrate and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)—were investigated. Time-resolved dynamic light scattering (DLS) was employed to measure the aggregation kinetics of the AgNPs over a range of monovalent and divalent electrolyte concentrations. The aggregation behavior of citrate-coated AgNPs in NaCl was in excellent agreement with the predictions based on Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek (DLVO) theory, and the Hamaker constant of citrate-coated AgNPs in aqueous solutions was derived to be 3.7 × 10-20 J. Divalent electrolytes were more efficient in destabilizing the citrate-coated AgNPs, as indicated by the considerably lower critical coagulation concentrations (2.1 mM CaCl2 and 2.7 mM MgCl2 vs. 47.6 mM NaCl). The PVP-coated AgNPs were significantly more stable than citrate-coated AgNPs in both NaCl and CaCl2, which is likely due to steric repulsion imparted by the large, non-charged polymers. The addition of humic acid resulted in the adsorption of the macromolecules on both citrate- and PVP-coated AgNPs. The adsorption of humic acid induced additional electrosteric repulsion that elevated the stability of both nanoparticles in suspensions containing NaCl or low concentrations of CaCl2. Conversely, enhanced aggregation occurred for both nanoparticles at high CaCl2 concentrations due to interparticle bridging by humic acid clusters. PMID:21630686

  18. Metabolomics comparison of red cells stored in four additive solutions reveals differences in citrate anticoagulant permeability and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rolfsson, Ó; Sigurjonsson, Ó E; Magnusdottir, M; Johannsson, F; Paglia, G; Guðmundsson, S; Bordbar, A; Palsson, S; Brynjólfsson, S; Guðmundsson, S; Palsson, B

    2017-05-01

    Metabolomics studies have revealed transition points in metabolic signatures of red cells during storage in SAGM, whose clinical significance is unclear. We set out to investigate whether these transition points occur independent of storage media and define differences in the metabolism of red cells in additive solutions. Red cell concentrates were stored in SAGM, AS-1, AS-3 or PAGGSM, and sampled fourteen times spanning Day 1-46. Following quality control, the samples were split into extracellular and intracellular aliquots. These were analysed with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry analysis affording quantitative metabolic profiles of both intra- and extracellular red cell metabolites. Differences were observed in glycolysis, purine salvage, glutathione synthesis and citrate metabolism on account of the storage solutions. Donor variability however hindered the accurate characterization of metabolic transition time-points. Intracellular citrate concentrations were increased in red cells stored in AS-3 and PAGGSM media. The metabolism of citrate in red cells in SAGM was subsequently confirmed using (13) C citrate isotope labelling and shown to originate from citrate anticoagulant. Metabolic signatures that discriminate between 'fresh' and 'old' stored red cells are dependent upon additive solutions. Specifically, the incorporation and metabolism of citrate in additive solutions with lower chloride ion concentration is altered and impacts glycolysis. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  19. Citrate-Coated Silver Nanoparticles Interactions with Effluent Organic Matter: Influence of Capping Agent and Solution Conditions.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Leonardo; Aubry, Cyril; Cornejo, Mauricio; Croue, Jean-Philippe

    2015-08-18

    Fate and transport studies of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) discharged from urban wastewaters containing effluent organic matter (EfOM) into natural waters represent a key knowledge gap. In this study, EfOM interfacial interactions with AgNPs, and their aggregation kinetics were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and time-resolved dynamic light scattering (TR-DLS), respectively. Two well-characterized EfOM isolates, i.e., wastewater humic (WW humic) and wastewater colloids (WW colloids, a complex mixture of polysaccharides-proteins-lipids), and a River humic isolate of different characteristics were selected. Citrate-coated AgNPs were selected as representative capped-AgNPs. Citrate-coated AgNPs showed a considerable stability in Na(+) solutions. However, Ca(2+) ions induced aggregation by cation bridging between carboxyl groups on citrate. Although the presence of River humic increased the stability of citrate-coated AgNPs in Na(+) solutions due to electrosteric effects, they aggregated in WW humic-containing solutions, indicating the importance of humics characteristics during interactions. Ca(2+) ions increased citrate-coated AgNPs aggregation rates in both humic solutions, suggesting cation bridging between carboxyl groups on their structures as a dominant interacting mechanism. Aggregation of citrate-coated AgNPs in WW colloids solutions was significantly faster than those in both humic solutions. Control experiments in urea solution indicated hydrogen bonding as the main interacting mechanism. During AFM experiments, citrate-coated AgNPs showed higher adhesion to WW humic than to River humic, evidencing a consistency between TR-DLS and AFM results. Ca(2+) ions increased citrate-coated AgNPs adhesion to both humic isolates. Interestingly, strong WW colloids interactions with citrate caused AFM probe contamination (nanoparticles adsorption) even at low Na(+) concentrations, indicating the impact of hydrogen bonding on adhesion. These results suggest

  20. A new strategy to stabilize oxytocin in aqueous solutions: I. The effects of divalent metal ions and citrate buffer.

    PubMed

    Avanti, Christina; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Setyaningsih, Dewi; Hawe, Andrea; Jiskoot, Wim; Visser, Jan; Kedrov, Alexej; Driessen, Arnold J M; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; Frijlink, Henderik W

    2011-06-01

    In the current study, the effect of metal ions in combination with buffers (citrate, acetate, pH 4.5) on the stability of aqueous solutions of oxytocin was investigated. Both monovalent metal ions (Na(+) and K(+)) and divalent metal ions (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Zn(2+)) were tested all as chloride salts. The effect of combinations of buffers and metal ions on the stability of aqueous oxytocin solutions was determined by RP-HPLC and HP-SEC after 4 weeks of storage at either 4°C or 55°C. Addition of sodium or potassium ions to acetate- or citrate-buffered solutions did not increase stability, nor did the addition of divalent metal ions to acetate buffer. However, the stability of aqueous oxytocin in aqueous formulations was improved in the presence of 5 and 10 mM citrate buffer in combination with at least 2 mM CaCl(2), MgCl(2), or ZnCl(2) and depended on the divalent metal ion concentration. Isothermal titration calorimetric measurements were predictive for the stabilization effects observed during the stability study. Formulations in citrate buffer that had an improved stability displayed a strong interaction between oxytocin and Ca(2+), Mg(2+), or Zn(2+), while formulations in acetate buffer did not. In conclusion, our study shows that divalent metal ions in combination with citrate buffer strongly improved the stability of oxytocin in aqueous solutions.

  1. Gold/silver core-shell 20 nm nanoparticles extracted from citrate solution examined by XPS

    SciTech Connect

    Engelhard, Mark H.; Smith, Jordan N.; Baer, Donald R.

    2016-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles of many types are widely used in consumer and medical products. The surface chemistry of particles and the coatings that form during synthesis or use in many types of media can significantly impact the behaviors of particles including dissolution, transformation and biological or environmental impact. Consequently it is useful to be able to extract information about the thickness of surface coatings and other attributes of nanoparticles produced in a variety of ways. It has been demonstrated that X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) can be reliably used to determine the thickness of organic and other nanoparticles coatings and shells. However, care is required to produce reliable and consistent information. Here we report the XPS spectra from gold/silver core-shell nanoparticles of nominal size 20 nm removed from a citrate saturated solution after one and two washing cycles. The Simulation of Electron Spectra for Surface Analysis (SESSA) program had been used to model peak amplitudes to obtain information on citrate coatings that remain after washing and demonstrate the presence of the gold core. This data is provided so that others can compare use of SESSA or other modeling approaches to quantify the nature of coatings to those already published and to explore the impacts particle non-uniformities on XPS signals from core-shell nanoparticles.

  2. Reduction of total labor length through the addition of parenteral dextrose solution in induction of labor in nulliparous: results of DEXTRONS prospective randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Paré, Josianne; Pasquier, Jean-Charles; Lewin, Antoine; Fraser, William; Bureau, Yves-André

    2017-05-01

    Prolonged labor is a significant cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and very few interventions are known to shorten labor course. Skeletal muscle physiology suggests that glucose supplementation might improve muscle performance in case of prolonged exercise and this situation is analogous to the gravid uterus during delivery. Therefore, it seemed imperative to evaluate the impact of adding carbohydrate supplements on the course of labor. We sought to provide evidence as to whether intravenous glucose supplementation during labor induction in nulliparous women can reduce total duration of active labor. We performed a single-center prospective double-blind randomized controlled trial comparing the use of parental intravenous dextrose 5% with normal saline to normal saline in induced nulliparous women. The study was conducted in a tertiary-level university hospital setting. Participants, caregivers, and those assessing the outcomes were blinded to group assignment. Inclusion criteria were singleton pregnancy at term with cephalic presentation and favorable cervix. Based on blocked randomization, patients were assigned to receive either 250 mL/h of intravenous dextrose 5% with normal saline or 250 mL/h of normal saline for the whole duration of induction, labor, and delivery. The primary outcome studied was the total length of active labor. Secondary outcomes included duration of the active phase of second stage of labor, the mode of delivery, Apgar scores, and arterial cord pH. In all, 100 patients were randomized into each group. A total of 193 patients (96 in the dextrose with normal saline group and 97 in the normal saline group) were analyzed in the study. The median total duration of labor was significantly less in the dextrose with normal saline group (499 vs 423 minutes, P = .024) than in the normal saline group. The probabilities of a woman being delivered at 200 minutes and 450 minutes were 18.8% and 77.1% in the dextrose with normal saline group vs 8

  3. Chemical controls on uranyl citrate speciation and the self-assembly of nanoscale macrocycles and sandwich complexes in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Basile, M; Unruh, D K; Gojdas, K; Flores, E; Streicher, L; Forbes, T Z

    2015-03-28

    Uranyl citrate forms trimeric species at pH > 5.5, but exact structural characteristics of these important oligomers have not previously been reported. Crystallization and structural characterization of the trimers suggests the self-assembly of the 3 : 3 and 3 : 2 U : Cit complexes into larger sandwich and macrocyclic molecules. Raman spectroscopy and ESI-MS have been utilized to investigate the relative abundance of these species in solution under varying pH and citrate concentrations. Additional dynamic light scattering experiments indicate that self-assembly of the larger molecules does occur in aqueous solution.

  4. Aluminum speciation in biological environments. The deprotonation of free and aluminum bound citrate in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Mujika, J I; Ugalde, J M; Lopez, X

    2012-09-28

    Citrate is the main low mass molecule chelator of aluminum in serum, and knowledge of the interaction mode of this organic molecule with this cation is necessary to understand aluminum speciation in biosystems. However, the 1:1 complexation of citric acid to Al(III) is a complex process due to the myriad of coordination sites and protonation states of this molecule. Moreover, due to the acidic character of the complex, its entire experimental characterization is elusive. The system is also challenging from a computational point of view, due to the difficulties in getting a balanced estimation of the large range of solvation free energies encountered for the different protonation states of a multiprotic acid in both situations, complexed and uncomplexed with a trivalent cation. Herein, the deprotonation process of the free citric acid in solution and that interacting with Al(III) have been investigated considering all possible coordination modes and protonation states of the citric acid. All the structures were optimized in solution combining the B3LYP density function method with the polarizable continuum IEFPCM model. In addition, different schemes have been employed to obtain reliable solvation energies. Taking into account the most stable isomer of each protonation state, the pK(a) values were computationally estimated for the free citric acid and that interacting with Al(III), showing a good agreement with the experimental data. All these results shed light on how the deprotonation process of the citric acid takes place, and show that Al(III) not only increases the acidity of the molecule, but also changes qualitatively the deprotonation pattern of the citric acid. This information is highly relevant to understand aluminum speciation in biological environments, for which citrate is the main low molecular weight chelator, and responsible for its cellular in-take.

  5. A Taurolidine-Citrate-Heparin Lock Solution Effectively Eradicates Pathogens From the Catheter Biofilm in Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Zwiech, Rafał; Adelt, Maria; Chrul, Sławomir

    2016-01-01

    Catheter-related bacteremia (CRB) is a typical complication of hemodialysis catheter use. Catheter lumen colonization by pathogens is regarded as a direct cause of CRB. Once settled, the catheter biofilm increases the risk of developing infection, thus necessitating insertion replacement and antibiotic treatment. The study assessed the self-sufficient efficacy of taurolidine-citrate-heparin lock solution in eradicating catheter biofilm bacteria and keeping it sterile in patients on hemodialysis. Twenty-nine chronic patients on hemodialysis with tunneled and nontunneled catheters locked with a heparin filling (the mean time of heparin lock use -30.1 ± 2.0 days) and subsequently converted to a taurolidine-citrate-heparin filling were included. Peripheral vein and catheter lumen blood cultures were obtained before the filling change and after taurolidine-citrate-heparin lock use (mean time 33.8 ± 7.6 days). Twenty-four participants with tunneled and nontunneled catheters locked with taurolidine-citrate-heparin filling served as the control group. During the heparin-locking period, CRB was diagnosed in 3 cases (only nontunneled catheters). The catheter blood cultures findings were positive in 23 patients (10 temporary and 13 permanent catheters), whereas both the catheter and peripheral vein blood cultures were sterile in 3 of 29 subjects (only permanent catheters). Irrespective of catheter type (tunneled or nontunneled), repeated culture revealed no pathogens in any of the 23 patients with initial positive catheter blood culture, after the use of taurolidine-citrate-heparin filling. No positive blood culture was noted in the control group. The taurolidine-citrate-heparin lock solution effectively eradicated pathogens from nontunneled and tunneled catheter biofilms and helped to maintain catheter lumen sterility.

  6. Dextrose prolotherapy for recalcitrant coccygodynia.

    PubMed

    Khan, S A; Kumar, A; Varshney, M K; Trikha, V; Yadav, C S

    2008-04-01

    To present the results of dextrose prolotherapy undertaken for chronic non-responding coccygodynia in 37 patients. 14 men and 23 women (mean age, 36 years) with chronic coccygodynia not responding to conservative treatment for more than 6 months were included. 27 of them had received local steroid injections. A visual analogue score (VAS) was recorded for all patients before and after injection of 8 ml of 25% dextrose and 2 ml of 2% lignocaine into the coccyx. In 8 patients with a VAS of more than 4 after the second injection, a third injection was given 4 weeks later. The mean VAS before prolotherapy was 8.5. It was 3.4 after the first injection and 2.5 after the second injection. Minimal or no improvement was noted in 7 patients; the remaining 30 patients had good pain relief. Dextrose prolotherapy is an effective treatment option in patients with chronic, recalcitrant coccygodynia and should be used before undergoing coccygectomy. Randomised studies are needed to compare prolotherapy with local steroid injections or coccygectomies.

  7. Performance characteristics of an ion chromatographic method for the quantitation of citrate and phosphate in pharmaceutical solutions.

    PubMed

    Jenke, Dennis; Sadain, Salma; Nunez, Karen; Byrne, Frances

    2007-01-01

    The performance of an ion chromatographic method for measuring citrate and phosphate in pharmaceutical solutions is evaluated. Performance characteristics examined include accuracy, precision, specificity, response linearity, robustness, and the ability to meet system suitability criteria. In general, the method is found to be robust within reasonable deviations from its specified operating conditions. Analytical accuracy is typically 100 +/- 3%, and short-term precision is not more than 1.5% relative standard deviation. The instrument response is linear over a range of 50% to 150% of the standard preparation target concentrations (12 mg/L for phosphate and 20 mg/L for citrate), and the results obtained using a single-point standard versus a calibration curve are essentially equivalent. A small analytical bias is observed and ascribed to the relative purity of the differing salts, used as raw materials in tested finished products and as reference standards in the analytical method. The assay is specific in that no phosphate or citrate peaks are observed in a variety of method-related solutions and matrix blanks (with and without autoclaving). The assay with manual preparation of the eluents is sensitive to the composition of the eluent in the sense that the eluent must be effectively degassed and protected from CO(2) ingress during use. In order for the assay to perform effectively, extensive system equilibration and conditioning is required. However, a properly conditioned and equilibrated system can be used to test a number of samples via chromatographic runs that include many (> 50) injections.

  8. Microbial inactivation properties of a new antimicrobial/antithrombotic catheter lock solution (citrate/methylene blue/parabens)

    PubMed Central

    Steczko, Janusz; Ash, Stephen R.; Nivens, David E.; Brewer, Lloyd; Winger, Roland K.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Microbial infections are the most serious complications associated with indwelling central venous catheters. A catheter lock solution that is both antibacterial and antithrombotic is needed. The goal of this study was to determine whether a new catheter lock solution containing citrate, methylene blue and parabens has antimicrobial properties against planktonic bacteria and against sessile bacteria within a biofilm. These effects were compared to the antimicrobial properties of heparin at 2500 units/ml. Methods. The tested solution (C/MB/P comprising 7% sodium citrate, 0.05% methylene blue and 0.165% parabens) and individual components were challenged against gram-positive and gram-negative organisms and fungi. Control solutions were heparin with preservatives. Studies included evaluation of eradication of planktonic bacteria and sessile organisms in a biofilm grown on polymeric and glass coupons. Biofilm samples were inspected by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and vital stains. Results. The C/MB/P solution, contrary to heparin, kills most tested planktonic microorganisms within 1 h of incubation. All tested organisms have an MIC of 25% or less of the original concentration of a new catheter lock. Bacteria strains did not develop resistance over more than 40 passages of culture suspensions. The C/MB/P solution is able to kill nearly all sessile bacteria in biofilm growth on plastic or glass discs in 1 h. Microscopic methods demonstrated extensive physical elimination of biofilm deposits from treated coupons. In contrast, heparin had a minimal effect on planktonic or biofilm organisms. Conclusions. The new multicomponent lock solution has strong antimicrobial properties against both planktonic and sessile microorganisms. By comparison, heparin with preservative has weak antibacterial properties against planktonic and biofilm bacteria. The tested catheter lock may have usefulness in preventing bacterial colonization of haemodialysis

  9. 21 CFR 168.110 - Dextrose anhydrous.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... filled with the name of the food source, for example, “Corn sugar anhydrous”. ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.110 Dextrose anhydrous. (a) Dextrose anhydrous is purified and crystallized D-glucose...

  10. 21 CFR 168.110 - Dextrose anhydrous.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... filled with the name of the food source, for example, “Corn sugar anhydrous”. ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.110 Dextrose anhydrous. (a) Dextrose anhydrous is purified and crystallized D-glucose...

  11. 21 CFR 168.110 - Dextrose anhydrous.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... filled with the name of the food source, for example, “Corn sugar anhydrous”. ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.110 Dextrose anhydrous. (a) Dextrose anhydrous is purified and crystallized D-glucose...

  12. 21 CFR 168.110 - Dextrose anhydrous.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... filled with the name of the food source, for example, “Corn sugar anhydrous”. ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.110 Dextrose anhydrous. (a) Dextrose anhydrous is purified and crystallized D-glucose...

  13. Taurolidine-citrate lock solution (TauroLock) significantly reduces CVAD-associated grampositive infections in pediatric cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Arne; Ammann, Roland A; Wiszniewsky, Gertrud; Bode, Udo; Fleischhack, Gudrun; Besuden, Mette M

    2008-01-01

    Background Taurolidin/Citrate (TauroLock™), a lock solution with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity, may prevent bloodstream infection (BSI) due to coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS or 'MRSE' in case of methicillin-resistant isolates) in pediatric cancer patients with a long term central venous access device (CVAD, Port- or/Broviac-/Hickman-catheter type). Methods In a single center prospective 48-months cohort study we compared all patients receiving anticancer chemotherapy from April 2003 to March 2005 (group 1, heparin lock with 200 IU/ml sterile normal saline 0.9%; Canusal® Wockhardt UK Ltd, Wrexham, Wales) and all patients from April 2005 to March 2007 (group 2; taurolidine 1.35%/Sodium Citrate 4%; TauroLock™, Tauropharm, Waldbüttelbrunn, Germany). Results In group 1 (heparin), 90 patients had 98 CVAD in use during the surveillance period. 14 of 30 (47%) BSI were 'primary Gram positive BSI due to CoNS (n = 4) or MRSE (n = 10)' [incidence density (ID); 2.30 per 1000 inpatient CVAD-utilization days]. In group 2 (TauroLock™), 89 patients had 95 CVAD in use during the surveillance period. 3 of 25 (12%) BSI were caused by CoNS. (ID, 0.45). The difference in the ID between the two groups was statistically significant (P = 0.004). Conclusion The use of Taurolidin/Citrate (TauroLock™) significantly reduced the number and incidence density of primary catheter-associated BSI due to CoNS and MRSE in pediatric cancer patients. PMID:18664278

  14. Structural characterization of environmentally relevant ternary uranyl citrate complexes present in aqueous solutions and solid state materials.

    PubMed

    Basile, Madeline; Unruh, Daniel K; Flores, Erin; Johns, Adam; Forbes, Tori Z

    2015-02-14

    Organic acids are important metal chelators in environmental systems and tend to form soluble complexes in aqueous solutions, ultimately influencing the transport and bioavailability of contaminants in surface and subsurface waters. This is particularly true for the formation of uranyl citrate complexes, which have been utilized in advanced photo- and bioremediation strategies for soils contaminated with nuclear materials. Given the complexity of environmental systems, the formation of ternary or heterometallic uranyl species in aqueous solutions are also expected, particularly with Al(iii) and Fe(iii) cations. These ternary forms are reported to be more stable in aqueous solutions, potentially enhancing contaminant mobility and uptake by organisms, but the exact coordination geometries of these soluble molecular complexes have not been elucidated. To provide insight into the nature of these species, we have developed a series of geochemical model compounds ([(UO(2))(2)Al(2)(C(6)H(4)O(7))(4)](6-) (U(2)Al(2)), [(UO(2))(2)Fe(2)(C(6)H(4)O(7))(4)](6-) (U(2)Fe(2)-1) and [(UO(2))(2)Fe(2)(C(6)H(4)O(7))(4)(H(2)O)(2)](6-) (U(2)Fe(2)-2) and [(UO(2))(2)Fe(4)(OH)(4)(C(6)H(4)O(7))(4)](8-) (U(2)Fe(4))) that were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and vibrational spectroscopy. Mass spectroscopy was then employed to compare the model compounds to species present in aqueous solutions to provide an enhanced understanding of the ternary uranyl citrate complexes that could be relevant in natural systems.

  15. Reduction of Fe(III) chelated with citrate in an NOx scrubber solution by Enterococcus sp. FR-3.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Liu, Nan; Cai, Ling-Lin; Jiang, Jin-Lin; Chen, Jian-Meng

    2011-02-01

    Biological reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II) is a key step in nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) removal by the integrated chemical absorption-biological reduction process. NO(x) removal efficiency strongly depends on the concentration of Fe(II) in the scrubbing liquid. In this study, a newly isolated strain, Enterococcus sp. FR-3, was used to reduce Fe(III) chelated with citrate to Fe(II). Strain FR-3 reduced citrate-chelated Fe(III) with an efficiency of up to 86.9% and an average reduction rate of 0.21 mM h(-1). SO(4)(2-) was not inhibitory whereas NO(2)(-) and SO(3)(2-) inhibited cell growth and thus affected Fe(III) reduction. Models based on the Logistic equation were used to describe the relationship between growth and Fe(III) reduction. These findings provide some useful data for Fe(III) reduction, scrubber solution regeneration and NO(x) removal process design.

  16. Inhibition of precipitation of carbonate apatite by trisodium citrate analysed in base of the formation of chemical complexes in growth solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prywer, Jolanta; Olszynski, Marcin; Mielniczek-Brzóska, Ewa

    2015-11-01

    Effect of trisodium citrate on the precipitation of carbonate apatite is studied. The experimental series are performed in the solution of artificial urine. The investigations are related to infectious urinary stones formation as carbonate apatite is one of the main components of this kind of stones. To mimic a real infection in urinary tract the aqueous ammonia solution was added to the solution of artificial urine. The spectrophotometric results demonstrate that trisodium citrate increases induction time with respect to carbonate apatite formation and decreases the efficiency of carbonate apatite precipitation. The inhibitory effect of trisodium citrate on the precipitation of carbonate apatite is explained in base of chemical speciation analysis. Such an analysis demonstrates that the inhibitory effect is mainly related with the fact that trisodium citrate binds Ca2+ ions and causes the formation of CaCit- and Ca10(PO4)6CO3 complexes. Trisodium citrate binds Ca2+ ions in the range of pH from 6 to 9.5 for which carbonate apatite is favored to be formed.

  17. Experiences with Continuous Venovenous Hemofiltration using 18mmol/L predilution Citrate anticoagulation and a Phosphate Containing Replacement Solution

    PubMed Central

    Jeffrey, Yuen Henry; Hoi-Ping, Shum; Kit Hung, Anne Leung; Chung-Ling, Lam; Wing-Wa, Yan; King-Yiu, Lai

    2017-01-01

    Context: Regional citrate anticoagulation for continuous renal replacement therapy is associated with a longer filter-life, less bleeding events and improved mortality. Problems associated with using Prismocitrate 10/2 solution in continuous renal replacement therapy, include hypomagnesemia, hypophosphatemia and the need for additional bicarbonate infusion. Aims: This study uses the new Prismocitrate 18/0 solution for improved buffer balance and Phoxilium solution for a more favourable electrolyte profile. Settings and Design: A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) using Prismocitrate 18/0 and Phoxilium in our 21-bed ICU was conducted from March to July 2014. Methods and Material: Continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) was performed at fixed rate by using Prismocitrate 18/0 predilution at 1250 ml/hour, a blood flow rate of 110 ml/min and post-replacement with Phoxilium at 1250 ml/hr. CVVH was run for 72 h or until filter clotting, transportation, or achievement of the clinical target. Statistical Analysis Used: The results were displayed as the median with the interquartile range (IQR). The trend in pH, electrolytes, and base excess are shown using a standard box plot. All analyses were performed by the Statistical Package for Social Science for Windows, version 17 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Forty-five CVVH episodes were analysed. The median circuit lifetime was 44 h (interquartile range, IQR 29-55). Metabolic alkalosis, hypophosphatemia and hypomagnesemia occurred in 8.3%, 3.5% and 40.2% of the blood samples, respectively. No patient developed hypokalemia or citrate toxicity. Conclusions: This new CVVH regime is safe and easy to administer for critically ill patients. PMID:28197045

  18. Dextrose Prolotherapy Versus Control Injections in Painful Rotator Cuff Tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Helene; Reeves, Kenneth Dean; Bennett, Cameron J; Bicknell, Simon; Cheng, An-Lin

    2016-01-01

    To compare the effect of dextrose prolotherapy on pain levels and degenerative changes in painful rotator cuff tendinopathy against 2 potentially active control injection procedures. Randomized controlled trial, blinded to participants and evaluators. Outpatient pain medicine practice. Persons (N=73) with chronic shoulder pain, examination findings of rotator cuff tendinopathy, and ultrasound-confirmed supraspinatus tendinosis/tear. Three monthly injections either (1) onto painful entheses with dextrose (Enthesis-Dextrose), (2) onto entheses with saline (Enthesis-Saline), or (3) above entheses with saline (Superficial-Saline). All solutions included 0.1% lidocaine. All participants received concurrent programmed physical therapy. Primary: participants achieving an improvement in maximal current shoulder pain ≥2.8 (twice the minimal clinically important difference for visual analog scale pain) or not. Secondary: improvement in the Ultrasound Shoulder Pathology Rating Scale (USPRS) and a 0-to-10 satisfaction score (10, completely satisfied). The 73 participants had moderate to severe shoulder pain (7.0±2.0) for 7.6±9.6 years. There were no baseline differences between groups. Blinding was effective. At 9-month follow-up, 59% of Enthesis-Dextrose participants maintained ≥2.8 improvement in pain compared with Enthesis-Saline (37%; P=.088) and Superficial-Saline (27%; P=.017). Enthesis-Dextrose participants' satisfaction was 6.7±3.2 compared with Enthesis-Saline (4.7±4.1; P=.079) and Superficial-Saline (3.9±3.1; P=.003). USPRS findings were not different between groups (P=.734). In participants with painful rotator cuff tendinopathy who receive physical therapy, injection of hypertonic dextrose on painful entheses resulted in superior long-term pain improvement and patient satisfaction compared with blinded saline injection over painful entheses, with intermediate results for entheses injection with saline. These differences could not be attributed to a

  19. 21 CFR 168.111 - Dextrose monohydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-glucose containing one molecule of water of crystallization with each molecule of D-glucose. (b) The food.../mass (m/m), and the reducing sugar content (dextrose equivalent), expressed as D-glucose, is not less...

  20. Inhibition of precipitation of carbonate apatite by trisodium citrate analysed in base of the formation of chemical complexes in growth solution

    SciTech Connect

    Prywer, Jolanta; Olszynski, Marcin; Mielniczek-Brzóska, Ewa

    2015-11-15

    Effect of trisodium citrate on the precipitation of carbonate apatite is studied. The experimental series are performed in the solution of artificial urine. The investigations are related to infectious urinary stones formation as carbonate apatite is one of the main components of this kind of stones. To mimic a real infection in urinary tract the aqueous ammonia solution was added to the solution of artificial urine. The spectrophotometric results demonstrate that trisodium citrate increases induction time with respect to carbonate apatite formation and decreases the efficiency of carbonate apatite precipitation. The inhibitory effect of trisodium citrate on the precipitation of carbonate apatite is explained in base of chemical speciation analysis. Such an analysis demonstrates that the inhibitory effect is mainly related with the fact that trisodium citrate binds Ca{sup 2+} ions and causes the formation of CaCit{sup −} and Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}CO{sub 3} complexes. Trisodium citrate binds Ca{sup 2+} ions in the range of pH from 6 to 9.5 for which carbonate apatite is favored to be formed. - Highlights: • Trisodium citrate (TC) increases induction time of carbonate apatite (CA) formation. • TC decreases the efficiency of CA precipitation. • The inhibitory effect of TC is explained in base of chemical speciation analysis. • The inhibitory effect is mainly related with the fact that TC binds Ca{sup 2+} ions. • TC binds Ca{sup 2+} ions in the range of pH from 6 to 9.5 for which CA is formed.

  1. Sr-90 Immobilization by Infiltration of a Ca-Citrate-PO4 Solution into the Hanford 100-N Area Vadose Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, Jim E.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Oostrom, Mart; Williams, Mark D.; Vermeul, Vince R.

    2008-01-11

    This project was initiated to develop a strategy for infiltration of a Ca-citrate-PO4 solution in order to precipitate apatite [Ca6(PO4)10(OH)2] in desired locations in the vadose zone for Sr-90 remediation. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated that infiltration of a Ca-citrate-PO4 solution into sediments at low and high water saturation results in citrate biodegradation and formation of apatite. The citrate biodegradation rate was relatively uniform, in spite of the spatial variability of sediment microbial biomass, likely because of microbial transport processes that occur during solution infiltration. The precipitate was characterized as hydroxyapatite, and the Sr-90 substitution into apatite was shown to have a half-life of 5.5 to 16 months. 1-D and 2-D laboratory infiltration experiments quantified the spatial distribution of apatite that formed during solution infiltration. Slow infiltration in 2-D experiments at low water saturation show the apatite precipitate concentrated in the upper third of the infiltration zone. More rapid 1-D infiltration studies show the apatite precipitate concentrated at greater depth.

  2. PRODUCTION OF UNIFORMLY SIZED SERUM ALBUMIN AND DEXTROSE MICROBUBBLES

    PubMed Central

    Borrelli, Michael J.; O’Brien, William D.; Bernock, Laura J.; Williams, Heather R.; Hamilton, Eric; Wu, Jonah; Oelze, Michael L.; Culp, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Uniformly-sized preparations with average microbubble (MB) diameters from 1 µm to 7 µm were produced reliably by sonicating decafluorobutane-saturated solutions of serum albumin and dextrose. Detailed protocols for producing and size-separating the MBs are presented, along with the effects that changing each production parameter (serum albumin concentration, sonication power, sonication time, etc.) had on MB size distribution and acoustic stability. These protocols can be used to produce MBs for experimental applications or serve as templates for developing new protocols that yield MBs with physical and acoustic properties better suited to specific applications. Size stability and ultrasonic performance quality control tests were developed to assure that successive MB preparations perform identically and to distinguish the physical and acoustic properties of identically sized MBs produced with different serum albumin-dextrose formulations and sonication parameters. MBs can be stored at 5°C for protracted periods (2 weeks to one year depending on formulation). PMID:21689961

  3. [Gastric emptying and metabolic acidosis. III. Study of gastric retention of a sodium citrate solution using an experimental model of metabolic acidosis in rats].

    PubMed

    Baracat, E C; Collares, E F

    1992-01-01

    The gastric emptying of sodium citrate solution 0.25 mEq/ml was studied in rats with metabolic acidosis induced by orogastric infusion of 0.5 M ammonium chloride solution. Two control groups were used: one infused with 0.5 M sodium chloride and the other with water. The 3 solutions content was 2 ml/100 g weight of the animal. Six hours after the infusion, there was a moderate metabolic acidosis in the group with ammonium citrate. This 6 hour interval marked the beginning of the gastric emptying study. The test meal (sodium citrate 0.25 mEq/ml) was utilized containing 6 mg% red fenol as a marker. The gastric emptying of sodium citrate was studied at 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes after the infusion, and the results showed no differences between the 3 groups. The data suggest that the duodenal receptors to pH were more effective do determine the pattern of gastric response than the acidosis.

  4. Urothelial injury to the rabbit bladder caused by calcium dissolving agents including two new citrate solutions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang-bo; Wang, Zhi-ping; Duan, Jian-min; Duan, Guo-lan; Shi, Ting-kai; Lu, Jian-zhong; Ma, Bao-liang

    2005-08-01

    We compared the urothelial injury to the bladder caused by four agents capable of dissolving calcium salts. The solutions were administrated in an antegrade way through left ureterostomies in 54 rabbits for periods of 24, 48 and 72 h. The bladders were then removed and three routine histological sections were made for each. The following six solutions were used: physiological sodium chloride solution (Phys), artificial urine (Art), 0.03 M disodium EDTA buffered to pH 8.5 with triethanolamine (EDTA), 10% Renacidin (R), test solution 2 (S2, using D-gluconic acid-lactone and other compounds that differ from R in terms of ingredients or quantity), and test solution 1 (S1, using D-gluconic-acid instead of D-gluconic acid-lactone in S2 but keeping the other ingredients the same) for irrigation. At 24 h there was no observable urothelial damage caused by perfusion with Phys or Art; solutions R, S1 and S2 caused approximately the same level of injury to the rabbit bladder mucosa; however, irrigation with disodium-EDTA caused more serious urothelial injury than R, S1 and S2 (P<0.05, chi2-test) and may be unacceptable. The damage to bladder tissues treated with S1 and S2 was less than that caused by R, but this was not significant (P>0.05, chi2-test). Following a prolonged irrigation time, all of these solutions cause further urothelial damage, but EDTA caused the most, followed by R, S1, S2, Phys or Art, respectively, at 48 and 72 h. In view of the better solubility effect of solutions S1 and S2 compared with R, it might be justified in accepting the more pronounced urothelial irritation caused these solutions, but in order to enhance their effectiveness and reduce urothelial injury further study will be needed.

  5. Regional citrate anticoagulation for continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration using calcium-containing dialysate.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Monika; Wadhwa, Nand K; Bukovsky, Rose

    2004-01-01

    Regional anticoagulation with trisodium citrate for continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) is an effective and safe alternative to heparin, especially in patients at high risk for bleeding. However, regional citrate anticoagulation is not used widely because current protocols are complex, labor intensive, and cumbersome. Existing protocols require the use of calcium-free dialysate with a continuous systemic calcium infusion to prevent hypocalcemia. We evaluated Anticoagulant Citrate Dextrose Formula A (ACD-A) solution for regional anticoagulation in CVVHDF in combination with a commercially available calcium-containing dialysis solution. Thirty-eight patients in the intensive care units underwent citrate-based CVVHDF using low-calcium peritoneal dialysis solution (calcium, 5.0 mg/dL [1.25 mmol/L]). ACD-A infusion rate was adjusted to maintain postfilter ionized calcium (iCa++) levels at 1.0 to 2.0 mg/dL (0.25 to 0.5 mmol/L). Calcium chloride (10%) solution was administered intravenously every 6 hours on an as-needed basis to maintain systemic serum iCa++ levels at 3.5 to 4.0 mg/dL (0.88 to 1.0 mmol/L). CVVHDF was performed for a total of 394 days using 149 hemofilters. Mean hemofilter life span was 63.5 +/- 27.1 hours. Seventy-five percent, 61%, and 49% of hemofilters were patent at 24, 48, and 72 hours, respectively. No patient experienced a change in clinical status caused by hypocalcemia and/or signs and symptoms of citrate toxicity. Four patients developed metabolic alkalosis requiring 0.1 N of hydrochloric acid infusion. Our simplified technique of regional citrate anticoagulation for CVVHDF using calcium-containing dialysate is not associated with increased hemofilter clotting and obviates the need for a continuous systemic calcium infusion and calcium-free dialysate.

  6. Is Taurolidine-citrate an effective and cost-effective hemodialysis catheter lock solution? A systematic review and cost- effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Kavosi, Zahra; Sarikhani Khorrami, Maryam; Keshavarz, Khosro; Jafari, Abdosaleh; Hashemi Meshkini, Amir; Safaei, Hamid Reza; Nikfar, Shekoufeh

    2016-01-01

    Prevention of catheter-related infection is of prime importance,. However, because of the risks caused by the leakage of circulating antibiotics and development of resistance to antibiotics, they are replaced by lock solutions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and cost- effectiveness of taurolidine-citrate as a hemodialysis catheter lock solution compared to other common alternatives in Iran. To evaluate the efficacy of taurolidine-citrate, a systematic review was conducted by searching electronic databases. The outcomes of interest for cost-effectiveness analysis were as follows: "Catheter-related bacteremia episodes"; "catheter-related bacteremia-free survival"; "catheter thrombosis rate" for efficacy evaluation and "reduction of catheter-related infection". For evidence synthesis, a meta-analysis was conducted on the extracted efficacy data. To evaluate the cost of treatments, direct medical costs were included, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated for each comparison. The payers' (patients and insurance companies) perspectives were used for cost analysis. After carrying out the systematic process, three articles were included in the analysis. Considering 95% confidence interval, the relative difference was -0.16 (-0.25 to -0.07) for catheterrelated bacteremia episode, indicating that the rate of catheter-related infections in hemodialysis patients who used taurolidine-citrate was 16% less than in those hemodialysis patients who received heparin. Considering 95% confidence interval, the relative difference was 0.13 (-0.06 0.32) for catheter thrombosis, showing that the rate of catheter-related thrombosis in hemodialysis patients who used taurolidine-citrate was 13% more than in hemodialysis patients who received heparin. The results of this analysis indicated that taurolidine-citrate, compared to heparin, was more effective in preventing catheter-related infection; therefore, it could be considered as a superior strategy

  7. Is Taurolidine-citrate an effective and cost-effective hemodialysis catheter lock solution? A systematic review and cost- effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kavosi, Zahra; Sarikhani Khorrami, Maryam; Keshavarz, Khosro; Jafari, Abdosaleh; Hashemi Meshkini, Amir; Safaei, Hamid Reza; Nikfar, Shekoufeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prevention of catheter-related infection is of prime importance,. However, because of the risks caused by the leakage of circulating antibiotics and development of resistance to antibiotics, they are replaced by lock solutions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and cost- effectiveness of taurolidine-citrate as a hemodialysis catheter lock solution compared to other common alternatives in Iran. Methods: To evaluate the efficacy of taurolidine-citrate, a systematic review was conducted by searching electronic databases. The outcomes of interest for cost-effectiveness analysis were as follows: "Catheter-related bacteremia episodes"; "catheter-related bacteremia-free survival"; "catheter thrombosis rate" for efficacy evaluation and "reduction of catheter-related infection". For evidence synthesis, a meta-analysis was conducted on the extracted efficacy data. To evaluate the cost of treatments, direct medical costs were included, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated for each comparison. The payers’ (patients and insurance companies) perspectives were used for cost analysis. Results: After carrying out the systematic process, three articles were included in the analysis. Considering 95% confidence interval, the relative difference was -0.16 (-0.25 to -0.07) for catheterrelated bacteremia episode, indicating that the rate of catheter-related infections in hemodialysis patients who used taurolidine-citrate was 16% less than in those hemodialysis patients who received heparin. Considering 95% confidence interval, the relative difference was 0.13 (-0.06 0.32) for catheter thrombosis, showing that the rate of catheter-related thrombosis in hemodialysis patients who used taurolidine-citrate was 13% more than in hemodialysis patients who received heparin. The results of this analysis indicated that taurolidine-citrate, compared to heparin, was more effective in preventing catheter-related infection; therefore, it could be

  8. Effect of potassium sodium tartrate and sodium citrate on the preparation of {alpha}-calcium sulfate hemihydrate from flue gas desulfurization gypsum in a concentrated electrolyte solution

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Z.X.; Guan, B.H.; Fu, H.L.; Yang, L.C.

    2009-12-15

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum mainly composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate (DH) was used as a raw material to obtain alpha-calcium sulfate hemihydrate ({alpha}-HH) through dehydration in a Ca-Mg-K-Cl-solution medium at 95{sup o}C under atmospheric pressure. The effects of potassium sodium tartrate and sodium citrate on the preparation of alpha-HH in the electrolyte solution were investigated. The results revealed that the addition of potassium sodium tartrate (1.0 x 10{sup -2} - 2.5 x 10{sup -2}M) decreased the dehydration rate of FGD gypsum and increased the length/width (l/w) ratio of {alpha}-HH crystals, which could yield unfavorable strength properties. Addition of sodium citrate (1.0 x 10{sup -5} - 2.0 x 10{sup -5}M) slightly increased the dehydration rate of FGD gypsum and decreased the l/w ratio of {alpha}-HH crystals, which could be beneficial to increase strength. However, it also led to a partial formation of anhydrite (AH) crystals. AH was also the only dehydration product when the concentration of sodium citrate increased to 1.0 x 10{sup -4}M. Therefore, sodium citrate rather than potassium sodium tartrate could be used as an additive in Ca-Mg-K-Cl electrolyte solutions if alpha-HH with a shorter l/w ratio is the desired product from FGD gypsum dehydration. The concentration of sodium citrate should be properly controlled to reduce the formation of AH.

  9. A comparison of oral sulfate solution with sodium picosulfate: magnesium citrate in split doses as bowel preparation for colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Rex, Douglas K; DiPalma, Jack A; McGowan, John; Cleveland, Mark vB

    2014-12-01

    There are few data comparing U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved low-volume bowel preparations for colonoscopy. To compare oral sulfate solution (OSS) with sodium picosulfate plus magnesium citrate (SP+MC) for bowel cleansing efficacy. Single-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Ten U.S. centers. Outpatients undergoing colonoscopy for routine indications. Patients were randomized to undergo bowel preparation with OSS or SP+MC. Both preparations were given in split doses. Cleansing efficacy on a 4-point scale from excellent (4) to poor (1). Among 338 randomized patients who took preparation, OSS resulted in a higher rate of successful (excellent or good) preparation (94.7% vs 85.7%; P = .006) and more excellent preparations (54% vs 26%; P < .001) compared with SP+MC. There was no difference between OSS and SP+MC in treatment-emergent adverse events. SP+MC had better scores for nausea, but the differences were small. The preparation grading scale has been used in previous studies and has regulatory acceptance but has not been formally validated. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved split-dose regimen of OSS provides superior bowel cleansing compared with the approved split-dose regimen of SP+MC. ( NCT01786629.). Copyright © 2014 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sequestration of Sr-90 Subsurface Contamination in the Hanford 100-N Area by Surface Infiltration of a Ca-Citrate-Phosphate Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, James E.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Oostrom, Martinus; Moore, R. C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Williams, Mark D.; Zhong, Lirong; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; McKinley, James P.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Covert, Matthew A.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Garcia, Ben J.

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a method to emplace apatite precipitate in the 100N vadose zone, which results in sorption and ultimately incorporation of Sr-90 into the apatite structure. The Ca-citrate-PO4 solution can be infiltrated into unsaturated sediments to result in apatite precipitate to provide effective treatment of Sr-90 contamination. Microbial redistribution during solution infiltration and a high rate of citrate biodegradation for river water microbes (water used for solution infiltration) results in a relatively even spatial distribution of the citrate biodegradation rate and ultimately apatite precipitate in the sediment. Manipulation of the Ca-citrate-PO4 solution infiltration strategy can be used to result in apatite precipitate in the lower half of the vadose zone (where most of the Sr-90 is located) and within low-K layers (which are hypothesized to have higher Sr-90 concentrations). The most effective infiltration strategy to precipitate apatite at depth (and with sufficient lateral spread) was to infiltrate a high concentration solution (6 mM Ca, 15 mM citrate, 60 mM PO4) at a rapid rate (near ponded conditions), followed by rapid, then slow water infiltration. Repeated infiltration events, with sufficient time between events to allow water drainage in the sediment profile can be used to buildup the mass of apatite precipitate at greater depth. Low-K heterogeneities were effectively treated, as the higher residual water content maintained in these zones resulted in higher apatite precipitate concentration. High-K zones did not receive sufficient treatment by infiltration, although an alternative strategy of air/surfactant (foam) was demonstrated effective for targeting high-K zones. The flow rate manipulation used in this study to treat specific depths and heterogeneities are not as easy to implement at field scale due to the lack of characterization of heterogeneities and difficulty tracking the wetting front over a large

  11. Nanoscale zero-valent iron for the removal of Zn2+, Zn(II)-EDTA and Zn(II)-citrate from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Kržišnik, Nina; Mladenovič, Ana; Škapin, Andrijana Sever; Škrlep, Luka; Ščančar, Janez; Milačič, Radmila

    2014-04-01

    The parameters which influence the removal of different zinc (Zn) species: Zn(2+), Zn(II)-EDTA and Zn(II)-citrate from aqueous solutions by nanoparticles of zero-valent iron (nZVI) were investigated at environmental relevant pH values. Untreated, surface modified and silica-fume supported nZVI were applied at different iron loads and contact times to Zn solutions, which were buffered to pH 5.3, 6.0 and 7.0. The results revealed that pH, the type of nZVI, the iron load, the contact time, and the Zn species all had a significant influence on the efficiency of removal. Zn(2+), Zn(II)-EDTA and Zn(II)-citrate were the most effectively removed from aqueous solutions by untreated nZVI. Zn(2+) removal was governed mainly by adsorption onto precipitated iron oxides. Complete removal of Zn(2+) and Zn(II)-citrate was obtained at all pH values investigated. The removal of strong Zn(II)-EDTA complex was successful only at acidic pH, which favored degradation of Zn(II)-EDTA. Consequently, the released Zn(2+) was completely removed from the solution by adsorption onto iron oxides.

  12. Photophysics of Fe(III)-tartrate and Fe(III)-citrate complexes in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozdnyakov, Ivan P.; Kolomeets, Alexander V.; Plyusnin, Victor F.; Melnikov, Alexey A.; Kompanets, Victor O.; Chekalin, Sergey V.; Tkachenko, Nikolai; Lemmetyinen, Helge

    2012-03-01

    Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy was used to determine the photophysical processes of Fe(III) complexes with citric and tartaric acids ([Fe(Cit)] and [Fe(tart)]+) in aqueous solutions. The excitation of the complexes in the charge transfer bands is followed by formation of an intermediate absorbance decaying with two characteristic times. The shorter time constant (0.2, 0.4 ps) is ascribed to vibrational cooling and solvent relaxation of Frank-Condon excited state of corresponding complex and the second time constant (1.4, 40 ps) is assigned to superposition of internal conversion to the ground state and formation of the long-lived Fe(II) radical complex. The competition of these processes determines the quantum yield of photolysis of Fe(III)-carboxylates.

  13. 21 CFR 168.110 - Dextrose anhydrous.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dextrose anhydrous. 168.110 Section 168.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners...

  14. 21 CFR 168.111 - Dextrose monohydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dextrose monohydrate. 168.111 Section 168.111 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...-glucose containing one molecule of water of crystallization with each molecule of D-glucose. (b) The food...

  15. 21 CFR 168.111 - Dextrose monohydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dextrose monohydrate. 168.111 Section 168.111 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...-glucose containing one molecule of water of crystallization with each molecule of D-glucose. (b) The food...

  16. 21 CFR 168.111 - Dextrose monohydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dextrose monohydrate. 168.111 Section 168.111 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...-glucose containing one molecule of water of crystallization with each molecule of D-glucose. (b) The food...

  17. 21 CFR 168.111 - Dextrose monohydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dextrose monohydrate. 168.111 Section 168.111 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...-glucose containing one molecule of water of crystallization with each molecule of D-glucose. (b) The food...

  18. The Effect on Serum Ionic Magnesium of Exchange Transfusion with Citrated as Opposed to Heparinized Blood

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Prakash C.; Denton, Ronald L.; Harpur, Eleanor; Stern, Leo; Sugden, Donald L.

    1967-01-01

    Serum Mg++ levels before, during, and after replacement transfusion were determined in 20 newborn infants. In 10 infants exchanged with acid-citrate-dextrose (ACD) blood, the level fell from 1.75 ± 0.16 mEq./l. to 0.99 ± 0.16 mEq./l. By contrast, levels in 10 infants exchanged with two types of heparinized blood were unchanged: the pre-exchange values were 1.59 ± 0.11, and the postexchange levels were 1.59 ± 0.08 mEq./l. Mean values for donor bloods were 0.42 ± 0.07 mEq./l. with ACD blood, and 1.45 ± 0.03 mEq./l. with heparinized blood. In vitro studies involving the addition of known amounts of citrate to standard Mg++ solutions demonstrated that the citrate caused a reduction of ionic magnesium. It is proposed that the fall in serum Mg++ when ACD blood is used for exchange transfusion is the combined result of Mg++ binding by the citrate, and the dilution effect of the relatively large proportion of anticoagulant to blood (1:3) used with the ACD mixture. PMID:6066819

  19. 21 CFR 184.1449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 184.1449 Section 184.1449 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1449 Manganese citrate. (a) Manganese citrate (Mn3(C6H5O7)2, CAS... manganese carbonate from manganese sulfate and sodium carbonate solutions. The filtered and washed...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 184.1449 Section 184.1449 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1449 Manganese citrate. (a) Manganese citrate (Mn3(C6H5O7)2, CAS... manganese carbonate from manganese sulfate and sodium carbonate solutions. The filtered and washed...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese citrate. 184.1449 Section 184.1449 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1449 Manganese citrate. (a) Manganese citrate (Mn3(C6H5O7)2, CAS... manganese carbonate from manganese sulfate and sodium carbonate solutions. The filtered and...

  2. Investigation of Possible Maillard Reaction Between Acyclovir and Dextrose upon Dilution Prior to Parenteral Administration.

    PubMed

    Siahi Shadbad, Mohammad Reza; Ghaderi, Faranak; Hatami, Leila; Monajjemzadeh, Farnaz

    2016-12-01

    In this study the stability of parenteral acyclovir (ACV) when diluted in dextrose (DEX) as large volume intravenous fluid preparation (LVIF) was evaluated and the possible Maillard reaction adducts were monitored in the recommended infusion time. Different physicochemical methods were used to evaluate the Maillard reaction of dextrose with ACV to track the reaction in real infusion condition. Other large volume intravenous fluids were checked regarding the diluted drug stability profile. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and mass data proved the reaction of glucose with dextrose. A Maillard-specific high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used to track the reaction in real infusion condition in vitro. The nucleophilic reaction occurred in diluted parenteral preparations of acyclovir in 5% dextrose solutions. The best diluent solution was also selected as sodium chloride and introduced based on drug stability and also its adsorption onto different infusion sets (PVC or non PVC) to provide an acceptable administration protocol in clinical practices. Although, the Maillard reaction was proved and successfully tracked in diluted solutions, and the level of drug loss when diluted in dextrose was reported to be between 0.27 up to 1.03% of the initial content. There was no drug adsorption to common infusion sets. The best diluent for parenteral acyclovir is sodium chloride large volume intravenous fluid.

  3. Tandem mass spectrometric identification of dextrose markers in dried-blood spots from infants receiving total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Chace, Donald H; De Jesús, Víctor R; Lim, Timothy H; Hannon, W Harry; Spitzer, Alan R

    2010-11-11

    The false positive rate for the newborn screening of disorders of amino acid metabolism for premature infants is higher than full term infants. This may be due to very low birth weight infants receiving high concentrations of amino acids from total parenteral nutrition (TPN) administration and/or immature metabolism. An investigation of the possible influence of TPN on screening of premature infants resulted in the detection of three unusual peaks in the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) acylcarnitine profile. These markers were closely correlated with the detection of very high multiple amino acid increases in the profiles of newborns administered with TPN and who were ultimately found to be normal and free of inherited metabolic disorders. TPN solutions contain a concentrated mixture of amino acids and dextrose and other nutrients in saline. Due to its high concentration and suggestion of a carbohydrate, it was hypothesized that dextrose (D-glucose) was the contaminant and source of the markers detected. Dextrose, stable isotope-labeled 13C6-dextrose and various TPN solutions were analyzed directly or after enrichment in whole blood by multiple MS/MS acquisition modes including MS-only, product and precursor ion and neutral loss scans. Analysis of dried-blood spots (DBS) prepared from whole blood spiked with TPN solutions containing 12.5% dextrose and amino acid formulations designed to deliver 2.5 gm/kg/day of an amino acid mixture had moderate increases of all 3 dextrose markers detected at m/z 325, 399 and 473 as compared to controls. MS-only scans, product and precursor ion scans of dextrose and 13C6-dextrose in positive ion mode confirmed that these 3 peaks are derived from dextrose. Mass spectral analysis of labeled and unlabeled dextrose suggested that these peaks were dimers derived from dextrose. The identification of dextrose markers in DBS indicates that high concentrations of dextrose were present in blood and the likely source was contamination by TPN

  4. Dextrose Prolotherapy: A Narrative Review of Basic Science, Clinical Research, and Best Treatment Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Kenneth Dean; Sit, Regina W S; Rabago, David P

    2016-11-01

    Prolotherapy involves the injection of nonbiologic solutions, typically at soft tissue attachments and within joint spaces, to reduce pain and improve function in painful musculoskeletal conditions. A variety of solutions have been used; dextrose prolotherapy is the most rigorously studied and is the focus of this review. Although the mechanism of action is not clearly known, it is likely to be multifactorial. Data on effectiveness for temporomandibular dysfunction are promising but insufficient for recommendations. Research on the mechanism of action and clinical effects of dextrose prolotherapy are under way. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hanford 100N Area Apatite Emplacement: Laboratory Results of Ca-Citrate-PO4 Solution Injection and Sr-90 Immobilization in 100N Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, James E.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Moore, Robert C.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Williams, Mark D.; Girvin, Donald C.; McKinley, James P.; Truex, Michael J.; Phillips, Jerry L.

    2007-10-01

    This report summarizes laboratory scale studies investigating the remediation of Sr-90 by Ca-citrate-PO4 solution injection/infiltration to support field injection activities in the Hanford 100N area. This study is focused on experimentally testing whether this remediation technology can be effective under field scale conditions to mitigate Sr-90 migration 100N area sediments into the Columbia River. Sr-90 is found primarily adsorbed to sediments by ion exchange (99% adsorbed, < 1% in groundwater) in the upper portion of the unconfined aquifer and lower vadose zone. Although primarily adsorbed, Sr-90 is still considered a high mobility risk as it is mobilized by seasonal river stage increases and by plumes of higher ionic strength relative to groundwater. This remediation technology relies upon the Ca-citrate-PO4 solution forming apatite precipitate [Ca6(PO4)10(OH)2], which incorporates some Sr-90 during initial precipitation and additionally slowly incorporates Sr-90 by solid phase substitution for Ca. Sr substitution occurs because Sr-apatite is thermodynamically more stable than Ca-apatite. Once the Sr-90 is in the apatite structure, Sr-90 will decay to Y-90 (29.1 y half-life) then Zr-90 (64.1 h half-life) without the potential for migration into the Columbia River. For this technology to be effective, sufficient apatite needs to be emplaced in sediments to incorporate Sr and Sr-90 for 300 years (~10 half-lives of Sr-90), and the rate of incorporation needs to exceed the natural groundwater flux rate of Sr in the 100N area. A primary objective of this study is to supply an injection sequence to deliver sufficient apatite into subsurface sediments that minimizes initial mobility of Sr-90, which occurs because the injection solution has a higher ionic strength compared to groundwater. This can be accomplished by sequential injections of low, then high concentration injection of Ca-citrate-PO4 solutions. Assessment of low concentration Ca-citrate-PO4, citrate-PO4

  6. Development and validation of an HPLC method to determine the stability of fentanyl citrate and bupivacaine hydrochloride mixtures in infusion solutions.

    PubMed

    Piekarski, Mikołaj; Jelin'ska, Anna; Szymczak, Kamil

    2012-10-01

    The use of a combination of different drugs in postoperative analgesia extends the time of analgesia, makes it more efficient and allows the use of lower drug doses, which leads to less risk of side effects and drug dependence. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an HPLC method to determine the stability of fentanyl citrate and bupivacaine hydrochloride mixtures in standard infusion solutions of 0.9% sodium chloride and 5% glucose. AFTER OPTIMISATION, THE HPLC METHOD PARAMETERS WERE AS FOLLOWS: LiChrospher 100 CN, 250×4 mm (10 µm) column; mobile phase: mixture of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer at pH 2.8 (3:7, V/V) with addition of 0.08 g/l potassium chloride; flow rate: 1.5 ml/min; column temperature: 30°C; spectrophotometric detection at 210 nm. Development of the method involved checking the impact of acetonitrile and KCl concentrations in the mobile phase and choosing the internal standard. Method validation included determining the specificity of the method, its accuracy, linearity, precision, repeatability, limits of detection and quantification. The retention times of bupivacaine hydrochloride, fentanyl citrate and procaine hydrochloride, used as an internal standard, were approximately 10 min, 15 min and 5 min, respectively. Method validation confirmed its selectivity, accuracy and precision. The average values of the variation and accuracy coefficients were 0.70% and 99.02% for bupivacaine hydrochloride, and 1.76% and 104.53% for fentanyl citrate. The intermediate precision values were 1.25% for bupivacaine hydrochloride and 1.52% for fentanyl citrate.

  7. Development and validation of an HPLC method to determine the stability of fentanyl citrate and bupivacaine hydrochloride mixtures in infusion solutions

    PubMed Central

    Piekarski, Mikołaj; Jelin'ska, Anna; Szymczak, Kamil

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of a combination of different drugs in postoperative analgesia extends the time of analgesia, makes it more efficient and allows the use of lower drug doses, which leads to less risk of side effects and drug dependence. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an HPLC method to determine the stability of fentanyl citrate and bupivacaine hydrochloride mixtures in standard infusion solutions of 0.9% sodium chloride and 5% glucose. Methods After optimisation, the HPLC method parameters were as follows: LiChrospher 100 CN, 250×4 mm (10 µm) column; mobile phase: mixture of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer at pH 2.8 (3:7, V/V) with addition of 0.08 g/l potassium chloride; flow rate: 1.5 ml/min; column temperature: 30°C; spectrophotometric detection at 210 nm. Development of the method involved checking the impact of acetonitrile and KCl concentrations in the mobile phase and choosing the internal standard. Method validation included determining the specificity of the method, its accuracy, linearity, precision, repeatability, limits of detection and quantification. Results The retention times of bupivacaine hydrochloride, fentanyl citrate and procaine hydrochloride, used as an internal standard, were approximately 10 min, 15 min and 5 min, respectively. Method validation confirmed its selectivity, accuracy and precision. The average values of the variation and accuracy coefficients were 0.70% and 99.02% for bupivacaine hydrochloride, and 1.76% and 104.53% for fentanyl citrate. The intermediate precision values were 1.25% for bupivacaine hydrochloride and 1.52% for fentanyl citrate. PMID:23487596

  8. In Vitro Assessment of the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Optimized Nitroglycerin-Citrate-Ethanol as a Nonantibiotic, Antimicrobial Catheter Lock Solution for Prevention of Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections

    PubMed Central

    Reitzel, Ruth A.; Hirsh-Ginsberg, Cheryl; Murray, Kimberly; Chaftari, Anne-Marie; Hachem, Ray; Raad, Issam

    2016-01-01

    The rapid, broad-spectrum, biofilm-eradicating activity of the combination of 0.01% nitroglycerin, 7% citrate, and 20% ethanol and its potential as a nonantibiotic, antimicrobial catheter lock solution (ACLS) were previously reported. Here, a nitroglycerin-citrate-ethanol (NiCE) ACLS optimized for clinical assessment was developed by reducing the nitroglycerin and citrate concentrations and increasing the ethanol concentration. Biofilm-eradicating activity was sustained when the ethanol concentration was increased from 20 to 22% which fully compensated for reducing the citrate concentration from 7% to 4% as well as the nitroglycerin concentration from 0.01% to 0.0015% or 0.003%. The optimized formulations demonstrated complete and rapid (2 h) eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa, MDR Klebsiella pneumoniae, MDR Enterobacter cloacae, MDR Acinetobacter baumannii, MDR Escherichia coli, MDR Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Candida albicans, and Candida glabrata biofilms. The optimized NiCE lock solutions demonstrated anticoagulant activities comparable to those of heparin lock solutions. NiCE lock solution was significantly more effective than taurolidine-citrate-heparin lock solution in eradicating biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida glabrata. The optimized, nonantibiotic, heparin-free NiCE lock solution demonstrates rapid broad-spectrum biofilm eradication as well as effective anticoagulant activity, making NiCE a high-quality ACLS candidate for clinical assessment. PMID:27297475

  9. An efficient and ultrasensitive rhodamine B-based reversible colorimetric chemosensor for naked-eye recognition of molybdenum and citrate ions in aqueous solution: Sensing behavior and logic operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavallali, Hossein; Deilamy-Rad, Gohar; Parhami, Abolfath; Hasanli, Nahid

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we manifest a novel rhodamine B (RhB) based colorimetric chemosensor for molybdenum and citrate ions (Cit3-) in an absolutely aqueous media. It has been identified as highly sensitive probe for Mo6+ which responds at 4.0 nmol L-1 concentration levels. RhB while combined with Mo6+ in aqueous solution displays a color changing from pink to purple which could be quickly dissociated by the addition of citrate in this system so that reversible color changes from purple to pink can be achieved. The comparison of this method with some other methods for citrate indicates that this is the only method which can detect citrate in aqueous solution by color changes. This chemosensor can be applied for quantification of citrate with a linear range covering from 1.67 × 10-7 to 1.22 × 10-5 M and a detection limit of 2.0 × 10-8 M. Moreover, the response of the chemosensor toward Mo6+ and citrate is fast. In addition, based on above sensing mechanism, an IMPLICATION logic operation can be achieved using Mo6+ ion and Cit3- as the inputs, making RhB a promising candidate for further applications in molecular logic devices and also indicates that RhB is suitable for the detection of Mo6+ and Cit3- ions in real samples.

  10. An efficient and ultrasensitive rhodamine B-based reversible colorimetric chemosensor for naked-eye recognition of molybdenum and citrate ions in aqueous solution: sensing behavior and logic operation.

    PubMed

    Tavallali, Hossein; Deilamy-Rad, Gohar; Parhami, Abolfath; Hasanli, Nahid

    2015-03-15

    In this paper we manifest a novel rhodamine B (RhB) based colorimetric chemosensor for molybdenum and citrate ions (Cit(3-)) in an absolutely aqueous media. It has been identified as highly sensitive probe for Mo(6+) which responds at 4.0 nmol L(-1) concentration levels. RhB while combined with Mo(6+) in aqueous solution displays a color changing from pink to purple which could be quickly dissociated by the addition of citrate in this system so that reversible color changes from purple to pink can be achieved. The comparison of this method with some other methods for citrate indicates that this is the only method which can detect citrate in aqueous solution by color changes. This chemosensor can be applied for quantification of citrate with a linear range covering from 1.67×10(-7) to 1.22×10(-5) M and a detection limit of 2.0×10(-8) M. Moreover, the response of the chemosensor toward Mo(6+) and citrate is fast. In addition, based on above sensing mechanism, an IMPLICATION logic operation can be achieved using Mo(6+) ion and Cit(3-) as the inputs, making RhB a promising candidate for further applications in molecular logic devices and also indicates that RhB is suitable for the detection of Mo(6+) and Cit(3-) ions in real samples.

  11. Influence of the anions on the N-cationic benzethonium salts in the solid state and solution: Chloride, bromide, hydroxide and citrate hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Paradies, Henrich H. E-mail: hparadies@jacobs-university.de; Reichelt, Hendrik

    2016-06-15

    The crystal structures of the hydrated cationic surfactant benzethonium (Bzth) chloride, bromide, hydroxide, and citrate have been determined by X-ray diffraction analysis and compared with their structures in solution well above their critical micelle concentration. The differences in the nature of the various anions of the four Bzth-X materials lead to unique anion environments and 3-D molecular arrangements. The water molecule in the monoclinic Bzth-Cl or Bzth-Br forms is hydrogen bonded to the halides and particularly to the hydrogens of the methoxy groups of the Bzth moiety notwithstanding the weak Brønsted acidity of the methoxy hydrogens. The citrate strongly interacts with the hydrogens of the methoxy group forming an embedded anionic spherical cluster of a radius of 2.6 Å. The Bzth-OH crystallizes in a hexagonal lattice with two water molecules and reveals free water molecules forming hydrogen bonded channels through the Bzth-OH crystal along the c-axis. The distances between the cationic nitrogen and the halides are 4.04 Å and 4.20 Å, significantly longer than expected for typical van der Waals distances of 3.30 Å. The structures show weakly interacting, alternating apolar and polar layers, which run parallel to the crystallographic a-b planes or a-c planes. The Bzth-X salts were also examined in aqueous solution containing 20% (v/v) ethanol and 1.0 % (v/v) glycerol well above their critical micelle concentration by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The [1,1,1] planes for the Bzth Cl or Br, the [0,0,2] and [1,1,0] planes for the Bzth-citrate, the [2,-1,0] planes and the [0,0,1] planes for the Bzth-OH found in the crystalline phase were also present in the solution phase, accordingly, the preservation of these phases are a strong indication of periodicity in the solution phase.

  12. Influence of the anions on the N-cationic benzethonium salts in the solid state and solution: Chloride, bromide, hydroxide and citrate hydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradies, Henrich H.; Reichelt, Hendrik

    2016-06-01

    The crystal structures of the hydrated cationic surfactant benzethonium (Bzth) chloride, bromide, hydroxide, and citrate have been determined by X-ray diffraction analysis and compared with their structures in solution well above their critical micelle concentration. The differences in the nature of the various anions of the four Bzth-X materials lead to unique anion environments and 3-D molecular arrangements. The water molecule in the monoclinic Bzth-Cl or Bzth-Br forms is hydrogen bonded to the halides and particularly to the hydrogens of the methoxy groups of the Bzth moiety notwithstanding the weak Brønsted acidity of the methoxy hydrogens. The citrate strongly interacts with the hydrogens of the methoxy group forming an embedded anionic spherical cluster of a radius of 2.6 Å. The Bzth-OH crystallizes in a hexagonal lattice with two water molecules and reveals free water molecules forming hydrogen bonded channels through the Bzth-OH crystal along the c-axis. The distances between the cationic nitrogen and the halides are 4.04 Å and 4.20 Å, significantly longer than expected for typical van der Waals distances of 3.30 Å. The structures show weakly interacting, alternating apolar and polar layers, which run parallel to the crystallographic a-b planes or a-c planes. The Bzth-X salts were also examined in aqueous solution containing 20% (v/v) ethanol and 1.0 % (v/v) glycerol well above their critical micelle concentration by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The [1,1,1] planes for the Bzth Cl or Br, the [0,0,2] and [1,1,0] planes for the Bzth-citrate, the [2,-1,0] planes and the [0,0,1] planes for the Bzth-OH found in the crystalline phase were also present in the solution phase, accordingly, the preservation of these phases are a strong indication of periodicity in the solution phase.

  13. The Effects of Hypertonic Dextrose Injection on Connective Tissue and Nerve Conduction through the Rabbit Carpal Tunnel

    PubMed Central

    Yoshii, Yuichi; Zhao, Chunfeng; Schmelzer, James D.; Low, Phillip A.; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of hypertonic dextrose injection on the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) in a rabbit model. We hypothesized that dextrose injection would induce proliferation of the SSCT, hinder median nerve conduction, and alter SSCT mechanical properties similar to what is observed in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Design Randomized, controlled prospective study. Setting Not applicable. Participants New Zealand white rabbits (N=28) weighing 4.0 to 4.5kg. Intervention One fore paw was randomly injected with 0.1ml of 10% dextrose solution. The contralateral paw was injected with a similar amount of 0.9% saline solution as a control. Animals were sacrificed at 12 weeks after injection. Main Outcome Measures Animals were evaluated by electrophysiology (EP), mechanical testing, and histology. EP was evaluated by distal motor latency and amplitude. Shear force was evaluated when the middle digit flexor digitorum superficialis tendon was pulled out from the carpal tunnel. The ultimate tensile load and the energy absorption were also measured. Tissue for histology was evaluated qualitatively. Results EP demonstrated significant prolongation of distal motor latency. The energy absorption and stiffness were also significantly increased in the dextrose group. Histologically, the dextrose group showed thickening of the collagen bundles and vascular proliferation within the SSCT compared to the saline group. Conclusions These results are consistent with the findings in CTS patients and suggest that hypertonic dextrose injection has the potential to create a novel animal model in which to study the evolution of CTS. PMID:19236989

  14. Incompatibility of Contrast Medium and Trisodium Citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Delcour, Christian Bruninx, Guy

    2013-02-15

    To test the compatibility of trisodium citrate, a catheter lock solution, with iodinated contrast medium. Iohexol, iobitridol, iodixanol, ioxaglate, ioxithalamate, iomeprol, and iopromide were tested. In all tests, 2 ml of contrast medium were mixed with 2 ml of trisodium citrate solution. Iodixanol and ioxaglate provoked a highly viscous gluelike precipitation when mixed with trisodium citrate. A brief transient precipitate was observed with iohexol, iomeprol, and ioxithalamate. Permanent precipitation occurred with iobitridol and iopromide. One must be aware of the potential for precipitation when contrast medium is mixed with trisodium citrate solution. Before trisodium citrate solution is injected, the catheter should be thoroughly flushed with saline if a contrast medium has previously been injected through it.

  15. Effects of citrate and NaCl on size, morphology, crystallinity and microstructure of calcium phosphates obtained from aqueous solutions at acidic or near-neutral pH.

    PubMed

    Mekmene, Omar; Rouillon, Thierry; Quillard, Sophie; Pilet, Paul; Bouler, Jean-Michel; Pezennec, Stéphane; Gaucheron, Frédéric

    2012-05-01

    Precipitation of calcium phosphates occurs in dairy products and depending on pH and ionic environment, several salts with different crystallinity can form. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of NaCl and citrate on the characteristics of precipitates obtained from model solutions of calcium phosphate at pH 6·70 maintained constant or left to drift. The ion speciation calculations showed that all the starting solutions were supersaturated with respect to dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and hydroxyapatite (HAP) in the order HAP>OCP>DCPD. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses of the precipitates showed that DCPD was formed at drifting pH (acidic final pH) whereas poor crystallised calcium deficient apatite was mainly formed at constant pH (6·70). Laser light scattering measurements and electron microscopy observations showed that citrate had a pronounced inhibitory effect on the crystallisation of calcium phosphates both at drifting and constant pH. This resulted in the decrease of the particle sizes and the modification of the morphology and the microstructure of the precipitates. The inhibitory effect of citrate mainly acted by the adsorption of the citrate molecules onto the surfaces of newly formed nuclei of calcium phosphate, thereby changing the morphology of the growing particles. These findings are relevant for the understanding of calcium phosphate precipitation from dairy byproducts that contain large amounts of NaCl and citrate.

  16. Theoretical spectroscopic studies and identification of metal-citrate (Cd and Pb) complexes by ESI-MS in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoli, Alexandre C.; Carvalho, Ruy; Freitas, Matheus P.; Ramalho, Teodorico C.; Mancini, Daiana T.; Oliveira, Maria C.; de Varennes, Amarílis; Dias, Ana

    2015-02-01

    The combined use of ESI-MS, FTIR-ATR and theoretical calculations for the determination of metal-citrate (metal = Cd and Pb) structures are reported. Mass spectrometry allowed to determine the stoichiometry 1:1 and 2:1 of the complexes, corroborating the theoretical calculations. The species found in the ratio 2:1 had their molecular structures readjusted, since the deprotonation of citric acid differed from what was simulated. The calculations of thermodynamic stability (ΔH0(aq.)) for the complexes obtained by B3LYP/LANL2DZ were more exoenergetic than those found by PM6. However, for both methods, the stability of the complexes follows a trend, that is, the lowest-energy isomers in PM6 are also the most stable in B3LYP/LANL2DZ. The infrared analysis suggested that carboxyl groups are complexation sites and hydrogen bonds can help in the stability of the complexes. The vibrational frequencies in B3LYP/LANL2DZ had a good correlation with the experimental infrared results.

  17. Randomized prospective double-blind placebo-controlled study of dextrose prolotherapy for knee osteoarthritis with or without ACL laxity.

    PubMed

    Reeves, K D; Hassanein, K

    2000-03-01

    Use of prolotherapy (injection of growth factors or growth factor stimulators). Determine the effects of dextrose prolotherapy on knee osteoarthritis with or without anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) laxity. Prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Outpatient physical medicine clinic. Six months or more of pain along with either grade 2 or more joint narrowing or grade 2 or more osteophytic change in any knee compartment. A total of 38 knees were completely void of cartilage radiographically in at least 1 compartment. Three bimonthly injections of 9 cc of either 10% dextrose and .075% lidocaine in bacteriostatic water (active solution) versus an identical control solution absent 10% dextrose. The dextrose-treated joints then received 3 further bimonthly injections of 10% dextrose in open-label fashion. Visual analogue scale for pain and swelling, frequency of leg buckling, goniometrically measured flexion, radiographic measures of joint narrowing and osteophytosis, and KT1000-measured anterior displacement difference (ADD). All knees: Hotelling multivariate analysis of paired observations between 0 and 6 months for pain, swelling, buckling episodes, and knee flexion range revealed significantly more benefit from the dextrose injection (P = .015). By 12 months (6 injections) the dextrose-treated knees improved in pain (44% decrease), swelling complaints (63% decrease), knee buckling frequency (85% decrease), and in flexion range (14 degree increase). Analysis of blinded radiographic readings of 0- and 12-month films revealed stability of all radiographic variables except for 2 variables which improved with statistical significance. (Lateral patellofemoral cartilage thickness [P = .019] and distal femur width in mm [P = .021]. Knees with ACL laxity: 6-month (3 injection) data revealed no significant improvement. However, Hotelling multivariate analysis of paired values at 0 and 12 months for pain, swelling, joint flexion, and joint laxity in the

  18. Reduction of neonatal pain following administration of 25% lingual dextrose: a randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Nimbalkar, Somashekhar; Sinojia, Ankit; Dongara, Ashish

    2013-06-01

    Neonates experience painful procedures during routine care. Orally administered, sweet tasting solutions are commonly used in management of neonatal pain. We conducted a double-blind randomized control trial in neonates admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Shri Krishna Hospital, Karamsad-Gujarat-India, of lingual administration of 25% dextrose vs. no intervention, to evaluate reduction of pain following oropharyngeal infant feeding tube insertions. Pain was assessed using Premature Infant Pain Profile score. Almost all the patients in the control group (98%) experienced moderate-to-severe pain as compared with the intervention group (71%). Mean Premature Infant Pain Profile score was statistically significantly lower in the intervention group (8.21) as compared with control group (10.31). (p < 0.001, 95% CI 1.090-3.102). Lingual 25% dextrose is an effective analgesic for relieving pain during orogastric tube insertion.

  19. Hypocaloric Enteral Nutrition Protects Against Hypoglycemia Associated with Intensive Insulin Therapy Better Than Intravenous Dextrose

    PubMed Central

    Kauffmann, Rondi M.; Hayes, Rachel M.; Vanlaeken, Amanda H.; Norris, Patrick R.; Diaz, Jose J.; May, Addison K.; Collier, Bryan R.

    2015-01-01

    Intensive insulin therapy treats hyperglycemia but increases the risk of hypoglycemia. Typically, intravenous dextrose is given to prevent hypoglycemia; however, enteral nutrition is preferred. We hypothesized that the provision of hypocaloric enteral nutrition would protect against hypoglycemia. A retrospective analysis was performed evaluating patients treated with intensive insulin therapy comparing the use of enteral nutrition versus a dextrose-only intravenous solution. Nutrition in the 2 hours before each blood glucose test was assessed, and the association with hypoglycemia (50 mg/dL or less) evaluated. Risk of hypoglycemia as a function of nutrition type and rate was estimated by multivariable regression. A total of 26,140 blood glucose tests were collected on 1289 patients. Hypoglycemia occurred in 6.4 per cent of patients. In regression models, enteral nutrition was the strongest protective factor against hypoglycemia (P < 0.001) with the largest risk reduction (steepest portion of the curve) occurring at 60 per cent goal. Hypocaloric enteral nutrition showed a greater risk reduction than a peripheral dextrose-only intravenous solution alone. In the setting of intensive insulin therapy, the provision of enteral nutrition, even if hypocaloric, is sufficient to protect against hypoglycemia. Future prospective studies should evaluate the efficacy of enteral nutrition in reducing the risk of hypoglycemia and whether lower rates of hypoglycemia correspond to improved outcomes. PMID:25347500

  20. Hypocaloric enteral nutrition protects against hypoglycemia associated with intensive insulin therapy better than intravenous dextrose.

    PubMed

    Kauffmann, Rondi M; Hayes, Rachel M; VanLaeken, Amanda H; Norris, Patrick R; Diaz, Jose J; May, Addison K; Collier, Bryan R

    2014-11-01

    Intensive insulin therapy treats hyperglycemia but increases the risk of hypoglycemia. Typically, intravenous dextrose is given to prevent hypoglycemia; however, enteral nutrition is preferred. We hypothesized that the provision of hypocaloric enteral nutrition would protect against hypoglycemia. A retrospective analysis was performed evaluating patients treated with intensive insulin therapy comparing the use of enteral nutrition versus a dextrose-only intravenous solution. Nutrition in the 2 hours before each blood glucose test was assessed, and the association with hypoglycemia (50 mg/dL or less) evaluated. Risk of hypoglycemia as a function of nutrition type and rate was estimated by multivariable regression. A total of 26,140 blood glucose tests were collected on 1289 patients. Hypoglycemia occurred in 6.4 per cent of patients. In regression models, enteral nutrition was the strongest protective factor against hypoglycemia (P < 0.001) with the largest risk reduction (steepest portion of the curve) occurring at 60 per cent goal. Hypocaloric enteral nutrition showed a greater risk reduction than a peripheral dextrose-only intravenous solution alone. In the setting of intensive insulin therapy, the provision of enteral nutrition, even if hypocaloric, is sufficient to protect against hypoglycemia. Future prospective studies should evaluate the efficacy of enteral nutrition in reducing the risk of hypoglycemia and whether lower rates of hypoglycemia correspond to improved outcomes.

  1. [Development of identification method for isopropyl citrate].

    PubMed

    Furusho, Noriko; Ohtsuki, Takashi; Tatebe-Sasaki, Chiye; Kubota, Hiroki; Sato, Kyoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    In Japan's Specification and Standards for Food Additive, 8th edition, two identification tests involving isopropyl citrate for detecting isopropyl alcohol and citrate are stipulated. However, these identification tests use mercury compound, which is toxic, or require a time-consuming pretreatment process. To solve these problems, an identification test method using GC-FID for detecting isopropyl alcohol was developed. In this test, a good linearity was observed in the range of 0.1-40 mg/mL of isopropyl alcohol. While investigating the pretreatment process, we found that isopropyl alcohol could be detected using GC-FID in the distillation step only, without involving any reflux step. The study also showed that the citrate moiety of isopropyl citrate was identified using the solution remaining after conducting the distillation of isopropyl alcohol. The developed identification tests for isopropyl citrate are simple and use no toxic materials.

  2. Efficacy and Safety of a Citrate-Based Protocol for Sustained Low-Efficiency Dialysis in AKI Using Standard Dialysis Equipment

    PubMed Central

    Regolisti, Giuseppe; Cademartiri, Carola; Cabassi, Aderville; Picetti, Edoardo; Barbagallo, Maria; Gherli, Tiziano; Castellano, Giuseppe; Morabito, Santo; Maggiore, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives A simple anticoagulation protocol was developed for sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) in patients with AKI, based on the use of anticoagulant citrate dextrose solution formulation A (ACD-A) and standard dialysis equipment. Patients’ blood recalcification was obtained from calcium backtransport from dialysis fluid. Design, setting, participants, & measurements All patients treated with SLED (8- to 12-hour sessions) for AKI in four intensive care units of a university hospital were studied over a 30-month period, from May 1, 2008 to September 30, 2010. SLED interruptions and their causes, hemorrhagic complications, as well as coagulation parameters, ionized calcium, and blood citrate levels were recorded. Results This study examined 807 SLED sessions in 116 patients (mean age of 69.7 years [SD 12.1]; mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of 23.8 [4.6]). Major bleeding was observed in six patients (5.2% or 0.4 episodes/100 person-days follow-up while patients were on SLED treatment). Citrate accumulation never occurred, even in patients with liver dysfunction. Intravenous calcium for ionized hypocalcemia (< 3.6 mg/dl or < 0.9 mmol/L) was needed in 28 sessions (3.4%); in 8 of these 28 sessions (28.6%), low ionized calcium was already present before SLED start. In 92.6% of treatments, SLED was completed within the scheduled time (median 8 hours). Interruptions of SLED by impending/irreversible clotting were recorded in 19 sessions (2.4%). Blood return was complete in 98% of the cases. In-hospital mortality was 45 of 116 patients (38.8%). Conclusions This study protocol affords efficacious and safe anticoagulation of the SLED circuit, avoiding citrate accumulation and, in most patients, systematic calcium supplementation; it can be implemented with commercial citrate solutions, standard dialysis equipment, on-line produced dialysis fluid, and minimal laboratory monitoring. PMID:23990164

  3. Hypertonic dextrose and morrhuate sodium injections (prolotherapy) for lateral epicondylosis (tennis elbow): results of a single-blind, pilot-level, randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rabago, David; Lee, Ken S; Ryan, Michael; Chourasia, Amrish O; Sesto, Mary E; Zgierska, Aleksandra; Kijowski, Rick; Grettie, Jessica; Wilson, John; Miller, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    Chronic lateral epicondylosis is common, debilitating, and often refractory. Prolotherapy (PrT) is an injection therapy for tendinopathy. The efficacy of two PrT solutions for chronic lateral epicondylosis was evaluated. This study is a three-arm randomized controlled trial. Twenty-six adults (32 elbows) with chronic lateral epicondylosis for 3 mos or longer were randomized to ultrasound-guided PrT with dextrose solution, ultrasound-guided PrT with dextrose-morrhuate sodium solution, or watchful waiting ("wait and see"). The primary outcome was the Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (100 points) at 4, 8, and 16 wks (all groups) and at 32 wks (PrT groups). The secondary outcomes included pain-free grip strength and magnetic resonance imaging severity score. The participants receiving PrT with dextrose and PrT with dextrose-morrhuate reported improved Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation composite and subscale scores at 4, 8, and/or 16 wks compared with those in the wait-and-see group (P < 0.05). At 16 wks, compared with baseline, the PrT with dextrose and PrT with dextrose-morrhuate groups reported improved composite Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation scores by a mean (SE) of 18.7 (9.6; 41.1%) and 17.5 (11.6; 53.5%) points, respectively. The grip strength of the participants receiving PrT with dextrose exceeded that of the PrT with dextrose-morrhuate and the wait and see at 8 and 16 wks (P < 0.05). There were no differences in magnetic resonance imaging scores. Satisfaction was high; there were no adverse events. PrT resulted in safe, significant improvement of elbow pain and function compared with baseline status and follow-up data and the wait-and-see control group. This pilot study suggests the need for a definitive trial.

  4. 21 CFR 520.550 - Dextrose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.550 Dextrose/glycine... therapy. Oral therapy in these cases is too slow. Animals which cannot drink after initial...

  5. Some aspects of the aqueous solution chemistry of the Na+/Ca2+/OH-/Cit3- system: The structure of a new calcium citrate complex forming under hyperalkaline conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gácsi, Attila; Kutus, Bence; Buckó, Ákos; Csendes, Zita; Peintler, Gábor; Pálinkó, István; Sipos, Pál

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, we show that in hyperalkaline (pH > 13) aqueous solutions, Ca2+ forms a new, so far unknown complex species with the citrate ion, the structure of which is different from the well-known CaCit-(aq) species present in solutions of close to neutral pH. The solubility of Ca3Cit2(s) was found to increase significantly under hyperalkaline conditions. The decrease in the electric conductivity and the variations observed in the freezing point depression of such solutions also indicate complexation. From 1H NMR measurements, in this complex, the citrate ion is suggested to be in quadruply deprotonated form. From the variation of the 2JHH geminal proton coupling constant, two neighboring carboxylate groups are coordinated to the calcium ion in a monodentate mode (besides the alcoholate). The optimal structure of the complex with the composition of CaCitH-12-(aq) has also been calculated using DFT calculations, applying the Polarizable Continuum Model. Sodium ion-pairing was found to compete efficiently with this calcium complexation process, and in solutions with high Na-ion content, the equilibria are shifted towards the formation of NaCit2-(aq) and Na2Cit-(aq) ion pairs.

  6. Dextrose prolotherapy and corticosteroid injection into rat Achilles tendon.

    PubMed

    Martins, C A Q; Bertuzzi, R T; Tisot, R A; Michelin, A F; do Prado, J M; Stroher, A; Burigo, M

    2012-10-01

    To assess the mechanical behavior and the histology of collagen fibers after prolotherapy with 12.5% dextrose into rat Achilles tendons and to compare with those of corticosteroid treatment. Out of 60 adult female Wistar rats (70 tendons), 15 received 12.5% dextrose (group I); 15 were treated with corticosteroid injection (group II); and 15 were given 0.9% saline injection (group III), all into the right Achilles tendon, whereas 13 animals received no injections (group IV). Three doses of each substance (groups I, II, and III) were given at a 5-day interval. Collagen fiber color was quantitatively assessed in three samples from each group and in five samples from the control group using picrosirius red staining under polarized and nonpolarized light. Twelve tendons from each group treated with the test substance and 20 tendons from the control group were submitted to the tensile strength test. There was no statistical difference across the groups with respect to maximum load at failure (n.s.) and absorbed energy (n.s.). With respect to tendon rupture, there was no difference between the myotendinous and the tendinous regions (n.s.). However, hematoxylin-eosin staining revealed statistical significance in lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate (P = 0.008) and in parallel fiber orientation (P = 0.003) when comparing groups to the control group, without significance for either neovascularization (n.s.) or the presence of fibroblasts (n.s.). Likewise, there was no significant difference between the percentage of mature (n.s.) and immature (n.s.) fibers. Dextrose was not deleterious to the tendinous tissue, as it did not change the mechanical and histological properties of Achilles tendons in rats. The data obtained in this study may help clinicians in their daily work as they suggest that injections of 12.5% dextrose caused no harm to the tendons, although the clinical importance in humans still needs to be defined.

  7. Prehospital Dextrose Extravasation Causing Forearm Compartment Syndrome: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Chinn, Matthew; Colella, M Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    A 57-year-old woman was found at home by paramedics to be hypoglycemic with altered mental status. She had multiple attempts at IV access and eventually a 22G IV was established and D50 was infused into her right forearm. Extravasation of the dextrose was noted after approximately 12 g of the medication was infused. She was given a dose of glucagon intramuscularly and her mental status improved. Shortly after her arrival to the emergency department, she was noted to have findings of compartment syndrome of her forearm at the site of the dextrose extravasation. She was evaluated by plastic surgery and taken to the operating room for emergent fasciotomy. She recovered well from the operation. D50 is well known to cause phlebitis and local skin necrosis as a complication. This case illustrates the danger of compartment syndrome after D50 extravasation. It is the first documented case of prehospital dextrose extravasation leading to compartment syndrome. There may be safer alternatives to D50 administration and providers must be acutely aware to monitor for D50 infusion complications.

  8. Activity of urokinase diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection and stored in glass or plastic syringes.

    PubMed

    Patel, J P; Tran, L T; Sinai, W J; Carr, L J

    1991-07-01

    The effects of the diluent, the container, the i.v. set, and the drug concentration on the adsorption of urokinase to i.v. administration systems were studied, along with the compatibility of urokinase with plastic and glass syringes. Solutions of urokinase 1500 and 5000 IU/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and 5% dextrose injection in glass and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) containers were sampled at 2 and 30 minutes. Administration sets were attached to PVC containers containing the urokinase-5% dextrose injection solutions, and samples were collected at 90 and 150 minutes. Glass and polypropylene syringes containing urokinase 5000 IU/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection were sampled at 0, 4, 8, and 24 hours. Urokinase activity was measured by an in vitro clot lysis assay. No urokinase diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride injection adsorbed to glass or PVC containers. For urokinase 1500 IU/mL in 5% dextrose injection, a loss of 15% to 20% occurred almost instantaneously in PVC containers; additional losses to the infusion sets were minimal. However, for urokinase 5000 IU/mL in 5% dextrose injection, no losses were observed in the PVC systems. No drug loss to glass bottles was seen for urokinase 1500 or 5000 IU/mL in 5% dextrose injection. Urokinase potency remained constant in polypropylene and glass syringes for 24 hours. To minimize urokinase sorption to PVC containers, higher concentrations of urokinase diluted in 5% dextrose injection should be used, provided that clinical safety and efficacy are not compromised. The use of 0.9% sodium chloride injection as a diluent also prevents sorption losses.

  9. Retrospective case series on patients with chronic spinal pain treated with dextrose prolotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hooper, R Allen; Ding, Michele

    2004-08-01

    To determine the clinical benefits of dextrose prolotherapy in patients with chronic spinal pain. Retrospective case series. During the first 2 years at an outpatient prolotherapy clinic. One hundred and seventy-seven (177) consecutive patients with a history of chronic spinal pain completed prolotherapy treatment and were followed for a period ranging from 2 months to 2.5 years. Patients were treated with a proliferant solution containing 20% dextrose and 0.75% xylocaine. One half milliliter (0.5 mL) of proliferant was injected into the facet capsules of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine, or combinations of the three areas. The iliolumbar and dorsal sacroiliac ligaments were also injected in patient with low back pain. Injections were typically done on a weekly basis for up to 3 weeks. A set of three injections was repeated in 1 month's time if needed. Level of pain, and improvement in activities of daily living were measured on a five-point scale. Improvement in ability to work was also assessed. Ninety-one percent (91.0%) of patients reported reduction in level of pain; 84.8% of patients reported improvement in activities of daily living, and 84.3% reported an improvement in ability to work. Women required on average, three more injections than men. Cervical spine response rates were lower than thoracic or lumbar spine. No complications from treatment were noted. Dextrose prolotherapy appears to be a safe and effective method for treating chronic spinal pain that merits further investigation. Future studies need to consider differences in gender response rates.

  10. Comparison of heparin to citrate as a catheter locking solution for non-tunneled central venous hemodialysis catheters in patients requiring renal replacement therapy for acute renal failure (VERROU-REA study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bruyère, Rémi; Soudry-Faure, Agnès; Capellier, Gilles; Binquet, Christine; Nadji, Abdelouaid; Torner, Stephane; Blasco, Gilles; Yannaraki, Maria; Barbar, Saber Davide; Quenot, Jean-Pierre

    2014-11-19

    The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) is estimated at 10 to 20% in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) and often requires renal replacement therapy (RRT). ICU mortality in AKI patients can exceed 50%. Venous catheters are the preferred vascular access method for AKI patients requiring RRT, but carry a risk of catheter thrombosis or infection. Catheter lock solutions are commonly used to prevent such complications. Heparin and citrate locks are both widely used for tunneled, long-term catheters, but few studies have compared citrate versus heparin for patients with short-term, non-tunneled catheters. We aim to compare citrate 4% catheter lock solution versus heparin in terms of event-free survival of the first non-tunneled hemodialysis catheter inserted in ICU patients with AKI requiring RRT. Secondary objectives are the rate of fibrinolysis, incidence of catheter thrombosis and catheter-related infection per 1,000 catheter days, length of stay in ICU and in-hospital and 28-day mortality. The VERROU-REA study is a randomized, prospective, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group, controlled superiority study carried out in the medical, surgical and nephrological ICUs of two large university hospitals in eastern France. A catheter lock solution composed of trisodium citrate at 4% will be compared to unfractionated heparin at a concentration of 5,000 IU/mL. All consecutive adult patients with AKI requiring extracorporeal RRT, and in whom a first non-tunneled catheter is to be inserted by the jugular or femoral approach, will be eligible. Catheters inserted by the subclavian approach, patients with acute liver failure, thrombopenia or contraindication to systemic anticoagulation will be excluded. Patients will be followed up daily in accordance with standard practices for RRT until death or discharge. Data is scarce regarding the use of non-tunneled catheters in the ICU setting in patients with AKI. This study will provide an evidence base for

  11. Gastrointestinal citrate absorption in nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fegan, J.; Khan, R.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    Gastrointestinal absorption of citrate was measured in stone patients with idiopathic hypocitraturia to determine if citrate malabsorption could account for low urinary citrate. Citrate absorption was measured directly from recovery of orally administered potassium citrate (40 mEq.) in the intestinal lavage fluid, using an intestinal washout technique. In 7 stone patients citrate absorption, serum citrate levels, peak citrate concentration in serum and area under the curve were not significantly different from those of 7 normal subjects. Citrate absorption was rapid and efficient in both groups, with 96 to 98% absorbed within 3 hours. The absorption of citrate was less efficient from a tablet preparation of potassium citrate than from a liquid preparation, probably due to a delayed release of citrate from wax matrix. However, citrate absorption from solid potassium citrate was still high at 91%, compared to 98% for a liquid preparation. Thus, hypocitraturia is unlikely to be due to an impaired gastrointestinal absorption of citrate in stone patients without overt bowel disease.

  12. Gastrointestinal citrate absorption in nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fegan, J.; Khan, R.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    Gastrointestinal absorption of citrate was measured in stone patients with idiopathic hypocitraturia to determine if citrate malabsorption could account for low urinary citrate. Citrate absorption was measured directly from recovery of orally administered potassium citrate (40 mEq.) in the intestinal lavage fluid, using an intestinal washout technique. In 7 stone patients citrate absorption, serum citrate levels, peak citrate concentration in serum and area under the curve were not significantly different from those of 7 normal subjects. Citrate absorption was rapid and efficient in both groups, with 96 to 98% absorbed within 3 hours. The absorption of citrate was less efficient from a tablet preparation of potassium citrate than from a liquid preparation, probably due to a delayed release of citrate from wax matrix. However, citrate absorption from solid potassium citrate was still high at 91%, compared to 98% for a liquid preparation. Thus, hypocitraturia is unlikely to be due to an impaired gastrointestinal absorption of citrate in stone patients without overt bowel disease.

  13. A Systematic Review of Dextrose Prolotherapy for Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Ross A; Lackner, Johanna B; Steilen-Matias, Danielle; Harris, David K

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review dextrose (d-glucose) prolotherapy efficacy in the treatment of chronic musculoskeletal pain. Electronic databases PubMed, Healthline, OmniMedicalSearch, Medscape, and EMBASE were searched from 1990 to January 2016. Prospectively designed studies that used dextrose as the sole active prolotherapy constituent were selected. Two independent reviewers rated studies for quality of evidence using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database assessment scale for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and the Downs and Black evaluation tool for non-RCTs, for level of evidence using a modified Sackett scale, and for clinically relevant pain score difference using minimal clinically important change criteria. Study population, methods, and results data were extracted and tabulated. Fourteen RCTs, 1 case-control study, and 18 case series studies met the inclusion criteria and were evaluated. Pain conditions were clustered into tendinopathies, osteoarthritis (OA), spinal/pelvic, and myofascial pain. The RCTs were high-quality Level 1 evidence (Physiotherapy Evidence Database ≥8) and found dextrose injection superior to controls in Osgood-Schlatter disease, lateral epicondylitis of the elbow, traumatic rotator cuff injury, knee OA, finger OA, and myofascial pain; in biomechanical but not subjective measures in temporal mandibular joint; and comparable in a short-term RCT but superior in a long-term RCT in low back pain. Many observational studies were of high quality and reported consistent positive evidence in multiple studies of tendinopathies, knee OA, sacroiliac pain, and iliac crest pain that received RCT confirmation in separate studies. Eighteen studies combined patient self-rating (subjective) with psychometric, imaging, and/or biomechanical (objective) outcome measurement and found both positive subjective and objective outcomes in 16 studies and positive objective but not subjective outcomes in two studies. All 15 studies

  14. A Systematic Review of Dextrose Prolotherapy for Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Ross A.; Lackner, Johanna B.; Steilen-Matias, Danielle; Harris, David K.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to systematically review dextrose (d-glucose) prolotherapy efficacy in the treatment of chronic musculoskeletal pain. DATA SOURCES Electronic databases PubMed, Healthline, OmniMedicalSearch, Medscape, and EMBASE were searched from 1990 to January 2016. STUDY SELECTION Prospectively designed studies that used dextrose as the sole active prolotherapy constituent were selected. DATA EXTRACTION Two independent reviewers rated studies for quality of evidence using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database assessment scale for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and the Downs and Black evaluation tool for non-RCTs, for level of evidence using a modified Sackett scale, and for clinically relevant pain score difference using minimal clinically important change criteria. Study population, methods, and results data were extracted and tabulated. DATA SYNTHESIS Fourteen RCTs, 1 case–control study, and 18 case series studies met the inclusion criteria and were evaluated. Pain conditions were clustered into tendinopathies, osteoarthritis (OA), spinal/pelvic, and myofascial pain. The RCTs were high-quality Level 1 evidence (Physiotherapy Evidence Database ≥8) and found dextrose injection superior to controls in Osgood–Schlatter disease, lateral epicondylitis of the elbow, traumatic rotator cuff injury, knee OA, finger OA, and myofascial pain; in biomechanical but not subjective measures in temporal mandibular joint; and comparable in a short-term RCT but superior in a long-term RCT in low back pain. Many observational studies were of high quality and reported consistent positive evidence in multiple studies of tendinopathies, knee OA, sacroiliac pain, and iliac crest pain that received RCT confirmation in separate studies. Eighteen studies combined patient self-rating (subjective) with psychometric, imaging, and/or biomechanical (objective) outcome measurement and found both positive subjective and objective outcomes in 16 studies and positive

  15. Final report on the safety assessment of acetyl triethyl citrate, acetyl tributyl citrate, acetyl trihexyl citrate, and acetyl trioctyl citrate.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wilbur

    2002-01-01

    Acetyl Triethyl Citrate, Acetyl Tributyl Citrate, Acetyl Trihexyl Citrate, and Acetyl Trioctyl Citrate all function as plasticizers in cosmetics. Additionally, the Trihexyl and Trioctyl forms are described as skin-conditioning agents-emollients, although there are currently no reported uses of Acetyl Trihexyl Citrate or Acetyl Trioctyl Citrate. Acetyl Triethyl Citrate and Acetyl Tributyl Citrate are used in nail products at concentrations up to 7%. Recognizing that there are no reported uses of Acetyl Trihexyl or Trioctyl Citrate, if they were to be used in the future, their concentration of use is expected to be no higher than that reported for Acetyl Triethyl and Tributyl Citrate. These ingredients were sufficiently similar in structure that safety test data on one were considered applicable to all. Approximately 99% of orally administered Acetyl Tributyl Citrate is excreted-intermediate metabolites include acetyl citrate, monobutyl citrate, acetyl monobutyl citrate, dibutyl citrate, and acetyl dibutyl citrate. In acute, short-term, subchronic, and chronic feeding studies, these ingredients were relatively nontoxic. Differences from controls were either not statistically significant or not related to any organ toxicity. Ocular exposures produced moderate reactions that cleared by 48 hours after instillation. Dermal application was not toxic in rabbits. In a guinea pig maximization test, Acetyl Triethyl Citrate was a sensitizer whereas Acetyl Tributyl Citrate was not. Limited clinical testing of Acetyl Triethyl Citrate and Acetyl Tributyl Citrate was negative for both skin irritation and sensitization. These clinical data were considered more relevant than the guinea pig maximization data, suggesting to the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel that none of these ingredients would be a sensitizer. Physiologic effects noted with intravenous delivery of Acetyl Triethyl Citrate or Acetyl Tributyl Citrate include dose-related decreases in blood pressure and

  16. A randomized controlled trial comparing parenteral normal saline with and without 5% dextrose on the course of labor in nulliparous women.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Chanderdeep; Kalra, Jasvinder; Bagga, Rashmi; Kumar, Praveen

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare intravenous normal saline with and without 5% dextrose on the course of labor in nulliparous women in active phase of spontaneous labor. In a randomized controlled trial, term, nulliparous women with singleton pregnancy in active labor were randomized into one of two groups receiving either normal saline or normal saline alternating with 5% dextrose at rate of 175 ml/h. The primary outcome was total length of labor from onset of study fluid in vaginally delivered women. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were also analyzed. Of 250 women enrolled, in vaginally delivered subjects, there was significant difference in the duration of labor (p=0.0) and prolonged labor (p=0.01), with favorable results for women in 5% dextrose alternating with normal saline. No statistically significant differences were observed in the cesarean section rates between the groups. The cord pH was significantly higher in neonates born to women in 5% dextrose alternating with normal saline infusion as compared to normal saline alone (p=0.01), however, no neonate in the study had acidemia. Administration of a 5% dextrose solution alternating with normal saline is a better parenteral fluid for significantly decreasing duration of labor in term vaginally delivered nulliparous women in spontaneous active labor as compared to normal saline alone.

  17. Expanding the analytical toolbox for identity testing of pharmaceutical ingredients: Spectroscopic screening of dextrose using portable Raman and near infrared spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Hirsch K; Wolfgang, Steven; Rodriguez, Jason D

    2016-03-31

    In the pharmaceutical industry, dextrose is used as an active ingredient in parenteral solutions and as an inactive ingredient (excipient) in tablets and capsules. In order to address the need for more sophisticated analytical techniques, we report our efforts to develop enhanced identification methods to screen pharmaceutical ingredients at risk for adulteration or substitution using field-deployable spectroscopic screening. In this paper, we report our results for a study designed to evaluate the performance of field-deployable Raman and near infrared (NIR) methods to identify dextrose samples. We report a comparison of the sensitivity of the spectroscopic screening methods against current compendial identification tests that rely largely on a colorimetric assay. Our findings indicate that NIR and Raman spectroscopy are both able to distinguish dextrose by hydration state and from other sugar substitutes with 100% accuracy for all methods tested including spectral correlation based library methods, principal component analysis and classification methods. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Modified dextrose prolotherapy for recurrent temporomandibular joint dislocation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, H; Hu, K; Ding, Y

    2014-01-01

    Conservative interventions with simple procedures and predictable benefits are expected by patients with recurrent dislocation of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). We have introduced a modified technique of prolotherapy that comprises injection of lignocaine and 50% dextrose at a single site in the posterior periarticular tissues. We studied the effects in 45 younger patients (age range 17-59 years) with non-neurogenic recurrent dislocation of the TMJ, and confirmed the therapeutic effect after more than a year's follow-up. There were appreciable improvements in the number of episodes of dislocation and clicking after the injection. The overall success rate, defined as the absence of any further dislocation or subluxation for more than 6 months, was 41/45 (91%). Of the 41 rehabilitated patients, 26 (63%) required a single injection, 11 (27%) had 2 treatments, and 4 (10%) needed a third injection. All patients tolerated the injections well. The modified dextrose prolotherapy is simple, safe, and cost-effective for the treatment of recurrent dislocation of the TMJ. Copyright © 2013 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Platinum states in citrate sols by EXAFS.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Shiang; Khan, Maksudur R; Lin, Shawn D

    2005-07-01

    Platinum sols have been prepared by citrate reduction in the temperature range of 343-363 K. The Pt state in the solution was examined by EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy). It did not show any PtPt bonding, a characteristic for reduced Pt sols. EXAFS model fitting further proved the presence of PtO with 4 oxygen neighbors, which suggests a tetraplanar coordination configuration. The possibility of neighboring Pt sharing oxygen ligand or the formation of PtO(x) is rejected by EXAFS model fitting. Citrate was found to be the most likely ligand to orient its oxygen end toward a charged Pt center. Thus we have revealed that the citrate treatment at this temperature range was clearly insufficient to reduce H2PtCl(6(aq)). Neither an extended period of reaction time nor an excess citrate reduced the Pt precursor. It is therefore highly recommended that the citrate sols should be carefully prepared and used.

  20. Randomized, prospective, placebo-controlled double-blind study of dextrose prolotherapy for osteoarthritic thumb and finger (DIP, PIP, and trapeziometacarpal) joints: evidence of clinical efficacy.

    PubMed

    Reeves, K D; Hassanein, K

    2000-08-01

    To determine the clinical benefit of dextrose prolotherapy (injection of growth factors or growth factor stimulators) in osteoarthritic finger joints. Prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Outpatient physical medicine clinic. Six months of pain history was required in each joint studied as well as one of the following: grade 2 or 3 osteophyte, grade 2 or 3 joint narrowing, or grade 1 osteophyte plus grade 1 joint narrowing. Distal interphalangeal (DIP), proximal interphalangeal (PIP), and trapeziometacarpal (thumb CMC) joints were eligible. Thirteen patients (with seventy-four symptomatic osteoarthitic joints) received active treatment, and fourteen patients (with seventy-six symptomatic osteoarthritic joints) served as controls. One half milliliter (0.5 mL) of either 10% dextrose and 0.075% xylocaine in bacteriostatic water (active solution) or 0.075% xylocaine in bacteriostatic water (control solution) was injected on medial and lateral aspects of each affected joint. This was done at 0, 2, and 4 months with assessment at 6 months after first injection. One-hundred millimeter (100 mm) Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain at rest, pain with joint movement and pain with grip, and goniometrically-measured joint flexion. Pain at rest and with grip improved more in the dextrose group but not significantly. Improvement in pain with movement of fingers improved significantly more in the dextrose group (42% versus 15% with a p value of .027). Flexion range of motion improved more in the dextrose group (p = .003). Side effects were minimal. Dextrose prolotherapy was clinically effective and safe in the treatment of pain with joint movement and range limitation in osteoarthritic finger joints.

  1. Study of nucleic acid-gold nanorod interactions and detecting nucleic acid hybridization using gold nanorod solutions in the presence of sodium citrate.

    PubMed

    Kanjanawarut, Roejarek; Su, Xiaodi

    2010-09-01

    In this study, the authors report that sodium citrate can aggregate hexadecyl-trimethyl-ammonium ion(+)-coated gold nanorods (AuNRs), and nucleic acids of different charge and structure properties, i.e., single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), single-stranded peptide nucleic acid (PNA), and PNA-DNA complex, can bind to the AuNRs and therefore retard the sodium citrate-induced aggregation to different extents. The discovery that hybridized dsDNA (and the PNA-DNA complex) has a more pronounced protection effect than ssDNA (and PNA) allows the authors to develop a homogeneous phase AuNRs-based UV-visible (UV-vis) spectral assay for detecting specific sequences of oligonucleotides (20 mer) with a single-base-mismatch selectivity and a limit of detection of 5 nM. This assay involves no tedious bioconjugation and on-particle hybridization. The simple "set and test" format allows for a highly efficient hybridization in a homogeneous phase and a rapid display of the results in less than a minute. By measuring the degree of reduction in AuNR aggregation in the presence of different nucleic acid samples, one can assess how different nucleic acids interact with the AuNRs to complement the knowledge of spherical gold nanoparticles. Besides UV-vis characterization, transmission electron microscopy and zeta potential measurements were conduced to provide visual evidence of the particle aggregation and to support the discussion of the assay principle.

  2. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Silver Citrate Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Djokić, Stojan

    2008-01-01

    Formation of silver citrate/citric acid complexed solutions was investigated. Although, silver citrate is minimally soluble in water, it can successfully be dissolved in citric acid solutions. The maximum concentration of Ag(I) in solution is estimated at 23 to 25 g/L if the concentration of citric acid is at least 4 mol/L or higher. The dissolution of silver citrate in citric acid solutions was attributed to the formation of silver citrate complexes of a general formula [Ag3(C6H5O7)n+1]3n−. The silver citrate/citric acid solutions, containing more than about 13 g/L Ag+ ion, have exhibited a decrease in Ag(I) concentration in solution over time, due to crystallization. The crystallization product was attributed to the formation of [Ag3C6H5O7]x·nH2O. Importantly, the diluted silver citrate/citric acid complexed solutions have exhibited very strong bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities. PMID:19079586

  3. Dextrose Prolotherapy for Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rabago, David; Patterson, Jeffrey J.; Mundt, Marlon; Kijowski, Richard; Grettie, Jessica; Segal, Neil A.; Zgierska, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Knee osteoarthritis is a common, debilitating chronic disease. Prolotherapy is an injection therapy for chronic musculoskeletal pain. We conducted a 3-arm, blinded (injector, assessor, injection group participants), randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of prolotherapy for knee osteoarthritis. METHODS Ninety adults with at least 3 months of painful knee osteoarthritis were randomized to blinded injection (dextrose prolotherapy or saline) or at-home exercise. Extra- and intra-articular injections were done at 1, 5, and 9 weeks with as-needed additional treatments at weeks 13 and 17. Exercise participants received an exercise manual and in-person instruction. Outcome measures included a composite score on the Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC; 100 points); knee pain scale (KPS; individual knee), post-procedure opioid medication use, and participant satisfaction. Intention-to-treat analysis using analysis of variance was used. RESULTS No baseline differences existed between groups. All groups reported improved composite WOMAC scores compared with baseline status (P <.01) at 52 weeks. Adjusted for sex, age, and body mass index, WOMAC scores for patients receiving dextrose prolotherapy improved more (P <.05) at 52 weeks than did scores for patients receiving saline and exercise (score change: 15.3 ± 3.5 vs 7.6 ± 3.4, and 8.2 ± 3.3 points, respectively) and exceeded the WOMAC-based minimal clinically important difference. Individual knee pain scores also improved more in the prolotherapy group (P = .05). Use of prescribed postprocedure opioid medication resulted in rapid diminution of injection-related pain. Satisfaction with prolotherapy was high. There were no adverse events. CONCLUSIONS Prolotherapy resulted in clinically meaningful sustained improvement of pain, function, and stiffness scores for knee osteoarthritis compared with blinded saline injections and at-home exercises. PMID:23690322

  4. Dextrose prolotherapy for knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rabago, David; Patterson, Jeffrey J; Mundt, Marlon; Kijowski, Richard; Grettie, Jessica; Segal, Neil A; Zgierska, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is a common, debilitating chronic disease. Prolotherapy is an injection therapy for chronic musculoskeletal pain. We conducted a 3-arm, blinded (injector, assessor, injection group participants), randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of prolotherapy for knee osteoarthritis. Ninety adults with at least 3 months of painful knee osteoarthritis were randomized to blinded injection (dextrose prolotherapy or saline) or at-home exercise. Extra- and intra-articular injections were done at 1, 5, and 9 weeks with as-needed additional treatments at weeks 13 and 17. Exercise participants received an exercise manual and in-person instruction. Outcome measures included a composite score on the Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC; 100 points); knee pain scale (KPS; individual knee), post-procedure opioid medication use, and participant satisfaction. Intention-to-treat analysis using analysis of variance was used. No baseline differences existed between groups. All groups reported improved composite WOMAC scores compared with baseline status (P <.01) at 52 weeks. Adjusted for sex, age, and body mass index, WOMAC scores for patients receiving dextrose prolotherapy improved more (P <.05) at 52 weeks than did scores for patients receiving saline and exercise (score change: 15.3 ± 3.5 vs 7.6 ± 3.4, and 8.2 ± 3.3 points, respectively) and exceeded the WOMAC-based minimal clinically important difference. Individual knee pain scores also improved more in the prolotherapy group (P = .05). Use of prescribed postprocedure opioid medication resulted in rapid diminution of injection-related pain. Satisfaction with prolotherapy was high. There were no adverse events. Prolotherapy resulted in clinically meaningful sustained improvement of pain, function, and stiffness scores for knee osteoarthritis compared with blinded saline injections and at-home exercises.

  5. Citrate Metabolism by Pediococcus halophilus

    PubMed Central

    Kanbe, Chiyuki; Uchida, Kinji

    1987-01-01

    Several strains of non-citrate-metabolizing Pediococcus halophilus have previously been isolated from soy sauce mash or moromi. The factors controlling the metabolism of citrate in soy pediococci were studied. All the soy pediococcal strains tested which failed to decompose citrate did not possess citrate lyase [citrate (pro-3S)-lyase; EC 4.1.3.6] activity. In P. halophilus, citrate lyase was an inducible enzyme, and the optimum pH for activity was 7.0. The metabolism of citrate in P. halophilus was different from that observed in lactic streptococci. The main products from citrate were acetate and formate, and this bacterium produced no acetoin or diacetyl. Formate production from citrate was greatly reduced in the presence of glucose. P. halophilus 7117 (Cit+) was proved to contain citrate lyase, pyruvate formate-lyase (EC 2.3.1.54) phosphotransacetylase (phosphate acetyltransferase; EC 2.3.1.8), and acetate kinase (EC 2.7.2.1), i.e., all the enzymes necessary to convert citrate to acetate and formate. PMID:16347358

  6. INTRAPERITONEAL DEXTROSE ADMINISTRATION AS AN ALTERNATIVE EMERGENCY TREATMENT FOR HYPOGLYCEMIC YEARLING CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS).

    PubMed

    Fravel, Vanessa A; Van Bonn, William; Gulland, Frances; Rios, Carlos; Fahlman, Andreas; Graham, James L; Havel, Peter J

    2016-03-01

    The Marine Mammal Center (TMMC) cares for malnourished California sea lion (CSL) (Zalophus californianus) pups and yearlings every year. Hypoglycemia is a common consequence of malnutrition in young CSLs. Administering dextrose during a hypoglycemic crisis is vital to recovery. Traditional veterinary approaches to treat hypoglycemia pose therapeutic challenges in otariids, as vascular access and catheter maintenance can be difficult. The current approach to a hypoglycemic episode at TMMC is to administer dextrose intravenously (i.v.) by medically trained personnel. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) dextrose administration is an attractive alternative to i.v. administration because volunteer staff with basic training can administer treatment instead of waiting for trained staff to treat. This study compares the effects of i.v., i.p., and no dextrose administration on serum glucose and insulin in clinically healthy, euglycemic CSL yearlings. Three groups of animals, consisting of five sea lions each, were treated with 500 mg/kg dextrose using one of the following routes: i.v., i.p., or no dextrose (control). A jugular catheter was placed, and blood samples were collected at times 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min after dextrose administration. I.v. dextrose administration resulted in an increase of serum glucose concentrations from a baseline level of approximately 150 mg/dl to a peak of approximately 350 mg/dl. The resulting hyperglycemia persisted for approximately 2 hr and was associated with an attenuated plasma insulin response compared with most terrestrial mammals. Intraperitoneal dextrose administration resulted in increases of serum glucose to approximately 200 mg/dl, which gradually declined to baseline by 2 hr after dextrose administration. These data suggest that the initial treatment of a hypoglycemic crisis in young malnourished CSLs can be accomplished with i.p. dextrose, thus enabling minimally trained volunteer staff to respond immediately to a crisis

  7. Enhanced dissolution of sildenafil citrate as dry foam tablets.

    PubMed

    Sawatdee, Somchai; Atipairin, Apichart; Sae Yoon, Attawadee; Srichana, Teerapol; Changsan, Narumon

    2017-01-30

    Dry foam formulation technology is alternative approach to enhance dissolution of the drug. Sildenafil citrate was suspended in sodium dodecyl sulfate solution and adding a mixture of maltodextrin and mannitol as diluent to form a paste. Sildenafil citrate paste was passed through a nozzle spray bottle to obtain smooth foam. The homogeneous foam was dried in a vacuum oven and sieved to obtain dry foam granules. The granules were mixed with croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate and compressed into tablet. All formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical properties and dissolution profiles. All the tested excipients were compatible with sildenafil citrate by both differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and infrared (IR) analysis. There are no X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks representing crystals of sildenafil citrate observed form dry foam formulations. The hardness of tablets was about 5 kg, friability test <1% with a disintegration time <5 min. The sildenafil citrate dry foam tablet had higher dissolution rate in 0.1 N HCl in comparison with commercial sildenafil citrate tablet, sildenafil citrate prepared by direct compression and wet granulation method. Sildenafil citrate dry foam tablet with the high-level composition of surfactant, water and diluent showed enhanced dissolution rate than that of the lower-level composition of these excipients. This formulation was stable under accelerated conditions for at least 6 months.

  8. Hypertonic Dextrose and Morrhuate Sodium Injections (Prolotherapy) for Lateral Epicondylosis (Tennis Elbow)

    PubMed Central

    Rabago, David; Lee, Ken S.; Ryan, Michael; Chourasia, Amrish O.; Sesto, Mary E.; Zgierska, Aleksandra; Kijowski, Rick; Grettie, Jessica; Wilson, John; Miller, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Objective Chronic lateral epicondylosis (CLE) is common, debilitating and often refractory. Prolotherapy (PrT) is an injection therapy for tendinopathy. The efficacy of two PrT solutions for CLE was evaluated. Design 3-arm randomized controlled trial. 26 adults (32 elbows) with ≥3 months of CLE were randomized to ultrasound-guided PrT with dextrose (PrT-D), PrT with dextrose-morrhuate (PrT-DM) or watchful waiting (Wait-and-see). The primary outcome was the Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE; 100-points) at 4, 8 and 16 weeks, (all groups) and 32 weeks (PrT groups). Secondary outcomes included pain-free grip strength and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) score. Results PrT-D and PrT-DM participants reported improved PRTEE composite and subscale scores at 4, 8 and/or 16 weeks compared to Wait-and-see (p<0.05). At 16 weeks, compared to baseline, PrT-D and PrT-DM groups improved composite PRTEE scores by 18.7±9.6 (41.1%) and 17.5±11.6 (53.5%) points, respectively. Grip strength of PrT-D participants exceeded that of PrT-DM and Wait-and-see at 8 and 16 weeks (p<0.05). There were no differences in MRI scores. Satisfaction was high; there were no adverse events. Conclusions Prolotherapy resulted in safe, significant improvement of elbow pain and function compared to baseline status and wait-and-see control. This pilot study suggests the need for a definitive trial. PMID:23291605

  9. Vascular effects of intravenous intralipid and dextrose infusions in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Gosmanov, Aidar R; Smiley, Dawn D; Peng, Limin; Siquiera, Joselita; Robalino, Gonzalo; Newton, Christopher; Umpierrez, Guillermo E

    2012-10-01

    Hyperglycemia and elevated free fatty acids (FFA) are implicated in the development of endothelial dysfunction. Infusion of soy-bean oil-based lipid emulsion (Intralipid®) increases FFA levels and results in elevation of blood pressure (BP) and endothelial dysfunction in obese healthy subjects. The effects of combined hyperglycemia and high FFA on BP, endothelial function and carbohydrate metabolism are not known. Twelve obese healthy subjects received four random, 8-h IV infusions of saline, Intralipid 40 mL/h, Dextrose 10% 40 mL/h, or combined Intralipid and dextrose. Plasma levels of FFA increased by 1.03±0.34 mmol/L (p=0.009) after Intralipid, but FFAs remained unchanged during saline, dextrose, and combined Intralipid and dextrose infusion. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations significantly increased after dextrose and combined Intralipid and dextrose (all, p<0.05) and were not different from baseline during saline and lipid infusion. Intralipid increased systolic BP by 12±9 mmHg (p<0.001) and diastolic BP by 5±6 mmHg (p=0.022),and decreased flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) from baseline by 3.2%±1.4% (p<0.001). Saline and dextrose infusion had neutral effects on BP and FMD. The co-administration of lipid and dextrose decreased FMD by 2.4%±2.1% (p=0.002) from baseline, but did not significantly increase systolic or diastolic BP. Short-term Intralipid infusion significantly increased FFA and BP; in contrast, FFA and BP were unchanged during combined infusion of Intralipid and dextrose. Combined Intralipid and dextrose infusion resulted in endothelial dysfunction similar to Intralipid alone.

  10. Evaluation of two dextrose-based directly compressible excipients.

    PubMed

    Olmo, I G; Ghaly, E S

    1998-08-01

    The objectives of this research were to evaluate the physical properties and compaction behavior of two dextrose-based directly compressed excipients. Anhydrous theophylline (10% w/w) was used as a drug model, Emdex and or Maltrin M510 (89.5% w/w) were used as diluent, and magnesium stearate (0.5% w/w) was used as lubricant. Direct compression and wet granulation methods were used for preparing the compacts. In general, the wet granulation method reduced the density of the mixture and consequently its flow rate compared to the mixture prepared only by solid-solid mixing. All formulations were compressed at four different compressional forces and at a target weight of 450 mg +/- 5%. Tablets obtained were different in physical properties and mechanical strength based on type of excipient used and methods of tablet preparation (direct compression versus wet granulation). Compacts prepared from Maltrin M510 had a longer disintegration time and slower drug release than compacts of the same composition but prepared with Emdex. Disintegration time and drug dissolution from tablets containing Maltrin M510 as diluent and prepared by wet granulation appeared to be controlled by a "gel" layer formation around the tablets and not by the tablets porosity. This study demonstrates that full characterization of excipients is needed because a different manufacturing process for the same excipients may produce differences in the pharmaceutical products.

  11. Delivery of paraldehyde in 5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride injections through polyvinyl chloride i.v. sets and burettes.

    PubMed

    Welty, T E; Cloyd, J C; Abdel-Monem, M M

    1988-01-01

    The delivery of paraldehyde in 5% dextrose injection and 0.9% sodium chloride injection was studied, and the potential interaction between paraldehyde and plastic i.v. containers and sets was evaluated. Paraldehyde was mixed with either 5% dextrose injection or 0.9% sodium chloride injection in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags to form a 4% solution. The bags were fitted with standard i.v. administration sets or burettes with administration sets. The solutions were allowed to drip through the i.v. sets for six hours at room temperature. Samples were taken from the i.v. bag or burette and from the distal end of the i.v. sets at zero, two, four, and six hours. Paraldehyde concentrations were measured using a stability-indicating gas chromatographic method, and the presence of plasticizers was detected by a scanning ultraviolet spectrophotometer. The cumulative amount of paraldehyde delivered at the end of the administration set at six hours was 84% for 5% dextrose solutions in burettes, and 89% or 90% for all other solutions and i.v. sets. An ultraviolet-light-absorbing substance appeared in some of the samples, although a relationship between the presence of this substance and type of solution, time of sampling, or site of sample did not emerge. Particulate matter appeared after two hours in all burettes. Approximately 10%-16% of paraldehyde in 5% dextrose or 0.9% sodium chloride injection is lost when delivered from PVC i.v. bags through standard i.v. administration sets and burettes over a six-hour period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. The effect of intrauterine infusion of dextrose on clinical endometritis cure rate and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Machado, V S; Oikonomou, G; Ganda, E K; Stephens, L; Milhomem, M; Freitas, G L; Zinicola, M; Pearson, J; Wieland, M; Guard, C; Gilbert, R O; Bicalho, R C

    2015-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the intrauterine administration use of 200 mL of 50% dextrose solution as a treatment against clinical endometritis (CE); CE cure rate and reproductive performance were evaluated. Additionally, the association of several relevant risk factors, such as retained placenta (RP), metritis, CE, anovulation, hyperketonemia, and body condition score with reproductive performance, early embryonic mortality, and CE were evaluated. A total of 1,313 Holstein cows housed on 4 commercial dairy farms were enrolled in the study. At 7±3 DIM cows were examined for metritis and had blood collected to determine serum β-hydroxybutyrate concentration. To determine if cows had ovulated at least once before 44±3 DIM, the presence of a corpus luteum was evaluated by ovarian ultrasonography at 30±3 DIM and at 44±3 DIM. At 30±3 DIM, CE was diagnosed using the Metricheck device (SimcroTech, Hamilton, New Zealand); cows with purulent or mucopurulent vaginal discharge were diagnosed as having CE. Cows diagnosed with CE (n=175) were randomly allocated into 2 treatment groups: treatment (intrauterine infusion of 200 mL of 50% dextrose) or control (no infusion). Clinical endometritis cows were re-evaluated as described above at 44±3 DIM, and cows that were free of purulent or mucopurulent vaginal discharge were considered cured. Intrauterine infusion of dextrose tended to have a detrimental effect on CE cure rate, and treatment did not have an effect on first-service conception rate and early embryonic mortality. A multivariable Cox's proportional hazard model was performed to evaluate the effect of several variables on reproductive performance; the variables RP, CE, parity, anovulation, and the interaction term between parity and anovulation were associated with hazard of pregnancy. Cows that did not have RP or CE were more likely to conceive than cows that were diagnosed with RP or CE. Cows that had RP were at 3.36 times higher odds of

  13. 100-NR-2 Apatite Treatability Test: High-Concentration Calcium-Citrate-Phosphate Solution Injection for In Situ Strontium-90 Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fritz, Brad G.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Szecsody, James E.; Williams, Mark D.

    2010-09-01

    Following an evaluation of potential strontium-90 (90Sr) treatment technologies and their applicability under 100-NR-2 hydrogeologic conditions, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Fluor Hanford, Inc. (now CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company [CHPRC]), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that the long-term strategy for groundwater remediation at the 100-N Area should include apatite as the primary treatment technology. This agreement was based on results from an evaluation of remedial alternatives that identified the apatite permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technology as the approach showing the greatest promise for reducing 90Sr flux to the Columbia River at a reasonable cost. This letter report documents work completed to date on development of a high-concentration amendment formulation and initial field-scale testing of this amendment solution.

  14. Autologous platelet-rich plasma versus dextrose prolotherapy for the treatment of chronic recalcitrant plantar fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunkuk; Lee, Jong Ha

    2014-02-01

    To determine the efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) compared with dextrose prolotherapy (DP) in patients with chronic recalcitrant plantar fasciitis (PF) DESIGN: A single-blinded, randomized, controlled study. Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation of a university hospital. Twenty-one patients with a clinical diagnosis of chronic PF confirmed by diagnostic ultrasound (plantar fascia thickness >4 mm) were randomly assigned to the PRP group (n = 10) or the DP group (n = 11). Each patient received 2 injections into the plantar fascia through a peppering technique under ultrasound guidance at an interval of 2 weeks, either with 2 mL of autologous PRP or 2 mL of 15% dextrose/lidocaine solution. The outcome measures included the pain, disability, and activity limitation subscales, measured by means of the Foot Functional Index. Data were collected before the first injection, at 2 weeks (before the second injection), and at the 2- and 6-month follow-ups. All patients completed the follow-ups, with the exception of 1 patient in the PRP group. The mean Foot Functional Index total and subcategory score improvements were greater in the PRP group compared with the DP group (improvement with PRP vs DP, total: 30.4% vs 15.1%, pain: 29.7% vs 17.1%, disability: 26.6% vs 14.5%, activity limitation: 28.0% vs 12.4%). However, no statistically significant difference was noted at any follow-up. In the pain and disability subcategories, both groups showed significant improvements at the last re-evaluation. The PRP group also showed significant improvements in the disability and activity limitation subscales at the second re-evaluation. Each treatment seems to be effective for chronic recalcitrant PF, expanding the treatment options for patients in whom conservative care has failed. PRP treatment also may lead to a better initial improvement in function compared with DP treatment. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  15. Interim Report: 100-NR-2 Apatite Treatability Test: Low Concentration Calcium Citrate-Phosphate Solution Injection for In Situ Strontium-90 Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Mark D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Thorne, Paul D.; Xie, YuLong; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Mackley, Rob D.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Szecsody, James E.; Vermeul, Vincent R.

    2008-07-11

    Following an evaluation of potential Sr-90 treatment technologies and their applicability under 100-NR-2 hydrogeologic conditions, U.S. Department of Energy, Fluor Hanford, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the Washington Department of Ecology agreed that the long-term strategy for groundwater remediation at 100-N Area will include apatite sequestration as the primary treatment, followed by a secondary treatment if necessary (most likely phytoremediation). Since then, the agencies have worked together to agree on which apatite sequestration technology has the greatest chance of reducing Sr-90 flux to the river at a reasonable cost. In July 2005, aqueous injection, (i.e., the introduction of apatite-forming chemicals into the subsurface) was endorsed as the interim remedy and selected for field testing. Studies are in progress to assess the efficacy of in situ apatite formation by aqueous solution injection to address both the vadose zone and the shallow aquifer along the 300 ft of shoreline where Sr-90 concentrations are highest. This report describes the field testing of the shallow aquifer treatment.

  16. Is dextrose prolotherapy superior to placebo for the treatment of temporomandibular joint hypermobility? A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Cömert Kiliç, S; Güngörmüş, M

    2016-07-01

    A randomized clinical trial involving adult patients with bilateral temporomandibular joint (TMJ) hypermobility referred for treatment was implemented. The sample comprised 30 consecutive patients, who were divided randomly into two groups. The TMJ hypermobility was treated with either saline (placebo group) or dextrose injections (study group). The solution was injected into five different TMJ areas in three sessions at monthly intervals. The predictor variable was the treatment technique. The outcome variables were visual analogue scale (VAS) evaluations and maximum inter-incisal opening (MIO). Outcome variables were recorded preoperatively and at 12 months postoperatively. Descriptive and bivariate statistics were computed, and significance was set at a P-value of <0.05. The follow-up sample comprised 26 subjects: 12 in the placebo group and 14 in the study group. Masticatory efficiency increased and general pain complaints and joint sounds decreased significantly in both groups. MIO decreased significantly only in the study group. Insignificant changes in the other parameters were found for both groups. After estimating differences between follow-up and baseline outcomes, the mean change in primary outcome variables showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups. These findings suggest that dextrose prolotherapy is no more effective than placebo treatment for any of the outcome variables of TMJ hypermobility assessed. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Colloid mobilization in the field using citrate to remediate chromium.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C R; Hellerich, L A; Nikolaidis, N P; Gschwend, P M

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the feasibility of cleaning aquifer sediments, long contaminated with chromium (Cr) from a metal plating facility, by detaching colloid-sized sorbents from the immobile aquifer solids and then pumping those colloids to the surface for treatment. In laboratory experiments using aquifer solids from the site, several solutions (water at various pHs, phosphate, oxalate, ascorbate, citrate) were examined for their ability to disperse colloids and Cr. Based on these tests, a 5 mM citrate solution at pH 7 was selected. Subsequently, such a citrate solution was used in the field in two single-well injection-withdrawal experiments. Large quantities of colloids were released immediately after injection. The colloidal particles mobilized by citrate in the field had more than 20 times higher Cr concentrations than did the average aquifer sediments, implying success in mobilizing Cr-associated phases. Further, laboratory and field tests showed that anion exchange of citrate for chromate caused some additional release of Cr from these aquifer solids.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of starch citrate-chitosan foam with superior water and saline absorbance properties.

    PubMed

    Salam, Abdus; Pawlak, Joel J; Venditti, Richard A; El-tahlawy, Khaled

    2010-06-14

    The objective of this research was to synthesize and characterize high-value foam gel materials with unique absorptive and mechanical properties from starch citrate-chitosan. The effects of starch citrate concentration, pH, solid to liquid ratio, reaction time, and temperature on absorbency, weight loss in water, and strength were determined. The cross-linked starch citrate-chitosan foam is flexible and elastic and has significantly increased absorbance and strength and decreased weight loss in water compared to starch-chitosan foam. A unique characteristic of the starch citrate-chitosan foam is that it absorbs more saline solution than pure water, which is the opposite of current commercial super absorbents. An increased strength, increased degradation temperature, increased storage modulus, and decreased weight loss in water for starch citrate-chitosan relative to starch-chitosan are in agreement with amide bonds formed between the carboxyl group of starch citrate and the amino group of chitosan.

  19. Effect of freeze-thawing on the long-term stability of calcium levofolinate in 5% dextrose stored on polyolefin infusion bags.

    PubMed

    Lebitasy, M; Hecq, J-D; Athanassopoulos, A; Vanbeckbergen, D; Jamart, J; Galanti, L

    2009-08-01

    Calcium levofolinate infusions could be prepared in advance by a centralized intravenous additive service (CIVAS) to improve safety and time management. To investigate the effect of freezing, microwave thawing and long-term storage at 5 +/- 3 degrees C on the stability of calcium levofolinate in 5% dextrose solution. Solutions of 250 mL of 5% dextrose in polyolefin bags (n = 5) containing approximately 400 mg of calcium levofolinate were prepared under aseptic conditions and frozen for 95 days at -20 degrees C. The solutions were then thawed using microwaves and stored at 5 +/- 3 degrees C for 1 month. The calcium levofolinate concentrations were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Visual inspection was performed and pH was measured periodically during the storage at 5 +/- 3 degrees C. Stability of the solution was defined as a concentration remaining superior to 90% of the initial concentration by regression analysis as recommended by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). No colour change or precipitation in the solutions was observed. Calcium levofolinate infusions were stable when stored at 5 +/- 3 degrees C during 1 month after freeze-thaw treatment. Throughout this period, the lower confidence limit of the estimated regression line of concentration-time profile remained above 90% of the initial concentration. Slight change in pH values from 6.52 +/- 0.01 to 6.50 +/- 0.01 during storage time did not affect retention time on HPLC and has no clinical consequence, the solutions remaining in the acceptable range for perfusion (4 dextrose infusion may be prepared, frozen in advance by CIVAS, and then microwave thawed before use. Such treatment extends long-term stability and releases pharmacist's time for major activities such as checking medication order errors.

  20. Stability of lidocaine hydrochloride in 5% dextrose injection in plastic bags

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.M.; Nuessle, N.O.

    1981-11-01

    The stability of lidocaine injection mixed with 5% dextrose injection and refrigerated or stored at room temperature was studied. Lidocaine injection was added to 5% dextrose injection to provide a lidocaine hydrochloride concentration of 4 mg/ml. Samples were assayed for lidocaine and its degradation product, 2,6-dimethylaniline, after 30, 60, and 120 days of storage at room temperature (30 degrees C) and refrigerated temperature (4 degrees C). The analysis was by a stability-indicating HPLC method. Degradation product 2,6-dimethylaniline was not detected at any assay time at either temperature. No statistically significant loss of lidocaine occurred at either temperature. Lidocaine hydrochloride injection is chemically stable for up to 120 days at either 30 degrees C or 4 degrees C when mixed with 5% dextrose injection in plastic infusion bags.

  1. Postprandial oxidative stress in response to dextrose and lipid meals of differing size

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    We have recently noted that ingestion of dietary lipid (in the form of heavy whipping cream) leads to greater oxidative stress than dietary carbohydrate (in the form of dextrose), when consumed in isocaloric amounts. Objective In the present investigation we attempted to replicate our work and also to determine the oxidative stress response to dextrose and lipid meals of two different kilocalorie (kcal) amounts. Design Nine young (22 ± 2 years), healthy men consumed in a random order, cross-over design one of four meals/drinks: dextrose at 75 g (300 kcals), dextrose at 150 g (600 kcals), lipid at 33 g (300 kcals), lipid at 66 g (600 kcals). Blood samples were collected Pre meal, and at 30 min, 60 min, 120 min, and 180 min post meal. Samples were assayed for glucose, triglycerides (TAG), malondialdehyde (MDA), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for each variable, and a 4 × 5 ANOVA was utilized to further analyze data. Results A meal × time effect (p = 0.0002) and a time effect was noted for glucose (p < 0.0001; 30 min > Pre, 1 hr, 2 hr, and 3 hr). The dextrose meals primarily contributed to this time effect. No other effects were noted for glucose (p > 0.05). A meal effect was noted for TAG (p = 0.01; 66 g lipid meal > 75 g and 150 g dextrose meals). No other effects were noted for TAG (p > 0.05). An AUC effect was noted for MDA (p = 0.04; 66 g lipid meal > 75 g and 150 g dextrose meals). A meal × time effect (p = 0.02) and a meal effect was noted for MDA (p = 0.004; 66 g lipid meal > 75 g and 150 g dextrose meals). No time effect was noted for MDA (p = 0.72). An AUC effect was noted for H2O2 (p = 0.0001; 66 g lipid meal > 33 g lipid meal and 75 g and 150 g dextrose meals). A meal × time effect (p = 0.0002), a meal effect (p < 0.0001; 66 g lipid meal > 33 g lipid meal and 75 g and 150 g dextrose meals), and a time effect was noted for H2O2 (p < 0.0001; 2 hr > Pre, 30 min, and 1 hr; 3 hr > Pre). The time effect for H2O2 was

  2. Long-term effects of dextrose prolotherapy for anterior cruciate ligament laxity.

    PubMed

    Reeves, K Dean; Hassanein, Khatab M

    2003-01-01

    Use of dextrose prolotherapy. Prolotherapy is defined as injection that causes growth of normal cells or tissue. Determine the 1 and 3 year efficacy of dextrose injection prolotherapy on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) laxity. After year 1, determine patient tolerance of a stronger dextrose concentration (25% versus 10%). Prospective consecutive patient trial. Outpatient physical medicine clinic. Eighteen patients with 6 months or more of knee pain plus ACL knee laxity. This laxity was defined by a KT1000 anterior displacement difference (ADD) of 2 mm or more. Intraarticular injection of 6-9 cc of 10% dextrose at months 0, 2, 4, 6, and 10. Injection with 6 cc of 25% dextrose at 12 months. Then, depending on patient preference, injection of either 10% or 25% dextrose every 2-4 months (based on patient preference) through 36 months. Visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain at rest, pain on level surfaces, pain on stairs, and swelling. Goniometric flexion range of motion, and KT1000-measured ADD were also measured. All measurements were obtained at 0, 6, 12 and 36 months. Two patients did not reach 6 month data collection, 1 of whom was diagnosed with disseminated cancer. The second was wheelchair-bound and found long-distance travel to the clinic problematic. Sixteen subjects were available for data analysis. KT1000 ADD, measurement indicated that 6 knees measured as normal (not loose) after 6 months, 9 measured as normal after 1 year (6 injections), and 10 measured as normal at 3 years. At the 3 year follow-up, pain at rest, pain with walking, and pain with stair use had improved by 45%, 43%, and 35% respectively. Individual paired t tests indicated subjective swelling improved 63% (P = .017), flexion range of motion improved by 10.5 degrees (P = .002), and KT1000 ADD improved by 71% (P = .002). Eleven out of 16 patients preferred 10% dextrose injection. In patients with symptomatic anterior cruciate ligament laxity, intermittent dextrose injection resulted in

  3. Effect of the freezing conditions and microwave thawing power on the stability of cefuroxime in dextrose 5% infusion polyolefin bags at 4 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Hecq, Jean-Daniel; Boitquin, Laurence P; Vanbeckbergen, Danielle F; Jamart, Jacques; Galanti, Laurence M

    2005-01-01

    Intravenous cefuroxime sodium solution could be prepared in advance by a centralized hospital pharmacy service to improve safety and time management. To investigate the effect of freezing and microwave thawing on the solution stability of cefuroxime. Cefuroxime 1.5 g in 100 mL of dextrose 5% in polyolefin bags was frozen individually (group A) or in one package (group B) for 98 days at -20 degrees C. The solutions were then thawed using microwaves at 270 (light cycle) or 800 watts (hard cycle) and stored at 4 degrees C. The cefuroxime concentration was measured by HPLC. Visual inspection was performed and pH was measured at that time. Stability of the solution was defined as a concentration remaining superior to 90% of the initial concentration by regression analysis. No color change or precipitation in the solutions was observed. In group A, stability was at least 23 and 21 days after light and hard cycle thawing, respectively. In group B, stability was at least 21 and 18 days, respectively, with the pH increasing without affecting chromatographic parameters. The optimal conditions for advance preparation of a solution containing cefuroxime 1.5% in dextrose 5% may be freezing of individual containers followed by a light cycle of microwave thawing.

  4. Simplified citrate anticoagulation for high-flux hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Apsner, R; Buchmayer, H; Lang, T; Unver, B; Speiser, W; Sunder-Plassmann, G; Hörl, W H

    2001-11-01

    In a randomized crossover trial, we compared a simple citrate anticoagulation protocol for high-flux hemodialysis with standard anticoagulation by low-molecular-weight heparin (dalteparin). Primary end points were urea reduction rate (URR), Kt/V, and control of electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis. Secondary end points were bleeding time at vascular puncture sites and markers of activation of platelets, coagulation, and fibrinolysis. Solute removal during citrate dialysis was excellent (URR, 0.71 +/- 0.06; Kt/V, 1.55 +/- 0.3) and similar to results of conventional bicarbonate hemodialysis anticoagulation with dalteparin (URR, 0.72 +/- 0.04; Kt/V, 1.56 +/- 0.2). Electrolyte control was effective with both anticoagulation regimens, and total and ionized calcium, sodium, potassium, and phosphate concentrations at the end of dialysis did not differ. Alkalemia was less frequent after citrate than conventional dialysis (pH 7.5 in 25% versus 62% of patients; mean pH at end of dialysis, 7.46 +/- 0.06 versus 7.51 +/- 0.07; P < 0.01). Bleeding time at puncture sites was shorter by 30% after citrate compared with dalteparin anticoagulation (5.43 +/- 2.80 versus 7.86 +/- 2.93 minutes; P < 0.001). Activation of platelets, coagulation, and fibrinolysis was modest for both treatments and occurred mainly within the dialyzer during dalteparin treatment and in the vascular-access region during citrate anticoagulation. Citrate-related adverse events were not observed. We conclude that citrate anticoagulation for high-flux hemodialysis is feasible and safe using a simple infusion protocol.

  5. Simplified Citrate Anticoagulation for CRRT Without Calcium Replacement.

    PubMed

    Broman, Marcus; Klarin, Bengt; Sandin, Karin; Carlsson, Ola; Wieslander, Anders; Sternby, Jan; Godaly, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Since 2012, citrate anticoagulation is the recommended anticoagulation strategy for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). The main drawback using citrate as anticoagulant compared with heparin is the need for calcium replacement and the rigorous control of calcium levels. This study investigated the possibility to achieve anticoagulation while eliminating the need for calcium replacement. This was successfully achieved by including citrate and calcium in all CRRT solutions. Thereby the total calcium concentration was kept constant throughout the extracorporeal circuit, whereas the ionized calcium was kept at low levels enough to avoid clotting. Being a completely new concept, only five patients with acute renal failure were included in a short, prospective, intensely supervised nonrandomized pilot study. Systemic electrolyte levels and acid-base parameters were stable and remained within physiologic levels. Ionized calcium levels declined slightly initially but stabilized at 1.1 mmol/L. Plasma citrate concentrations stabilized at approximately 0.6 mmol/L. All postfilter ionized calcium levels were <0.5 mmol/L, that is, an anticoagulation effect was reached. All filter pressures were normal indicating no clotting problems, and no visible clotting was observed. No calcium replacement was needed. This pilot study suggests that it is possible to perform regional citrate anticoagulation without the need for separate calcium infusion during CRRT.

  6. 21 CFR 582.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1195 Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice. ...

  7. Total synthesis of alkyl citrate natural products.

    PubMed

    Rizzacasa, Mark A; Sturgess, Dayna

    2014-03-07

    This review highlights the synthesis of members of the alkyl citrate family of natural products. The focus is on the stereoselective construction of the alkyl citrate moiety common to these compounds.

  8. DEXTROSE-TEMPLATED MICROWAVE-ASSISTED COMBUSTION SYNTHESIS OF SPONGY METAL OXIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave-assisted combustion synthesis of porous nanocrystalline titania and carbon coated titania is reported using dextrose as template and the product was compared with the one obtained using conventional heating furnace. Out of three compositions viz., 1:1, 1:3, and 1:5 (met...

  9. Single Injection Technique Prolotherapy for Hypermobility Disorders of TMJ Using 25 % Dextrose: A Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, S K; Krishna, Shreya; Chatterjee, Aritra; Chakraborty, Rajib; Ansari, Nazrealam

    2017-06-01

    Hypermobility disorders of the Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) can be treated by both conservative and surgical approaches. Conservative approaches should be considered as first line treatment for such disorders. Prolotherapy with 25 % dextrose being injected into the posterior pericapsular tissues is one such treatment modality with favorable outcomes. To study the efficacy of single injection of 25 % dextrose in pericapsular tissues in the management of hypermobility joint disorders of TMJ as first line treatment. We have studied a total of 23 patients suffering from either chronic recurrent dislocation or subluxation of the TMJ who were treated with the single injection technique prolotherapy with 25 % dextrose into the pericapsular tissues along with auriculotemporal nerve block and found encouraging results. Overall success rate in our study was 91.3 % (21/23) with a minimum follow up period of 13.9 months. Number of successfully treated patients requiring one injection was 7 (30.4 %), two injections was 8 (34.7 %) and requiring three injections was 6 (26.1 %). There were no permanent complications. Hence the use of 25 % dextrose as a proliferant to treat hypermobilty disorders of the TMJ is recommended by us as a first line treatment option as it is safe, economical and an easy procedure associated with minimal morbidity.

  10. DEXTROSE-TEMPLATED MICROWAVE-ASSISTED COMBUSTION SYNTHESIS OF SPONGY METAL OXIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave-assisted combustion synthesis of porous nanocrystalline titania and carbon coated titania is reported using dextrose as template and the product was compared with the one obtained using conventional heating furnace. Out of three compositions viz., 1:1, 1:3, and 1:5 (met...

  11. Citrate anticoagulation protocol for slow extended hemodialysis with the Genius dialysis system in acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Schneider, M; Liefeldt, L; Slowinski, T; Peters, H; Neumayer, H-H; Morgera, S

    2008-01-01

    The Genius dialysis system is increasingly used as an intermittent hemodialysis device in the setting of acute renal failure. Slow extended hemodialysis is preferred in the case of critical ill patients. In this study we established a safe and feasible citrate anticoagulation protocol for slow extended hemodialysis (SLED) with the Genius system. We compared six anticoagulation protocols using SLED in 34 critically ill patients with acute renal failure. One group (A) received only citrate anticoagulation. Four groups (B - D) were treated with citrate and different additional systemic anticoagulation. Patients in the last group (F) were anticoagulated with heparin and were free of citrate anticoagulation. The total number of treatments was 103. A 4% sodium citrate solution was infused into the arterial line of the dialysis device for citrate anticoagulation. The dialysis solution contained one mmol/L of calcium. No additional calcium supplementation was done. We monitored electrolyte, acid-base and cardiovascular status prospectively. Hemodialysis was well tolerated hemodynamically. Electrolytes remained stable throughout hemodialysis in all groups. The decrease in ionized and total calcium was within the expected, clinically acceptable range. Bicarbonate and pH levels increased during dialysis, especially if citrate was used. Slow extended Genius hemodialysis with citrate is well tolerated and offers a safe and effective alternative to systemic anticoagulation.

  12. Effects of intragastric fructose and dextrose on mesenteric microvascular inflammation and postprandial hyperemia in the rat.

    PubMed

    Mattioli, Leone F; Thomas, James H; Holloway, Naomi B; Schropp, Kurt P; Wood, John G

    2011-03-01

    Fructose superfused on the mesenteric venules of rats induces microvascular inflammation via oxidative stress. It is unknown whether intragastric fructose exerts a similar effect and whether fructose impairs postprandial hyperemia (PPH). The goals were to determine whether intragastric fructose administration promotes leukocyte adherence and whether fructose, owing to its oxidative properties, may also impair nitric oxide-dependent PPH in the mesenteric microcirculation of rats. Leukocyte adherence to mesenteric venules, arteriolar velocity, and diameter were measured in Sprague-Dawley rats before and 30 minutes after intragastric (1 mL 0.5 M, ~0.3 g/kg) dextrose (n = 5), fructose (n = 6), and fructose after intravenous injection of the antioxidant α-lipoic acid (ALA, n = 6). Only fructose increased leukocyte adherence: control 2.3 ± 0.3 per 100 µm; fructose 9.7 ± 1.4 per 100 µm (P < .001). This effect was independent of changes in venular shear rate: control 269 ± 48 s(-1); fructose 181 ± 27 s(-1) (P > .05, r(2) = 0.083 for shear rate vs leukocyte adherence). Dextrose had no effect on leukocyte adherence: control 1.52 ± 0.13 per 100 µm; dextrose 2.0 ± 0.7 per 100 µm (P > .05). ALA prevented fructose-induced leukocyte adherence: control 1.9 ± 0.2 per 100 µm; fructose + ALA 1.8 ± 0.3 per 100 µm (P > .05). Neither fructose nor dextrose induced PPH: arteriolar velocity: control 3.3 ± 0.49 cm/s, fructose 3.06 ± 0.34 cm/s (P > .05); control 3.3 ± 1.0 cm/s, dextrose 3.15 ± 1.1 cm/s (P > .05); arteriolar diameter: control 19.9 ± 1.10 µm, fructose 19.7 ± 1.0 µm (P > .05); control 21.5 ± 2.6, dextrose 20.0 ± 2.7 µm (P > .05). Intragastric fructose induced leukocyte adherence via oxidative stress. Neither dextrose nor fructose induced PPH, likely because of the inhibitory effect of anesthesia on splanchnic vasomotor tone.

  13. Stability of milrinone and digoxin, furosemide, procainamide hydrochloride, propranolol hydrochloride, quinidine gluconate, or verapamil hydrochloride in 5% dextrose injection.

    PubMed

    Riley, C M

    1988-10-01

    The stability of milrinone and digoxin, furosemide, procainamide hydrochloride, propranolol hydrochloride, quinidine gluconate, or verapamil hydrochloride in 5% dextrose injection containing milrinone was studied. Milrinone admixtures with digoxin, furosemide, propranolol hydrochloride, quinidine gluconate, and verapamil hydrochloride were studied at two concentrations. Admixtures of milrinone and procainamide hydrochloride were studied at four concentrations. Duplicate solutions of each admixture and each control were prepared and stored in glass containers for four hours at room temperature (22-23 degrees C), under normal fluorescent lights. The samples were analyzed immediately by visual inspection, tested for pH, and assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Milrinone 0.35 mg/mL-furosemide 4 mg/mL and milrinone 0.1 mg/mL-furosemide 5 mg/mL admixtures precipitated immediately after preparation and were not studied by HPLC. No changes in pH or visual appearance were observed in the remaining admixtures after storage at room temperature for four hours. Admixtures containing milrinone 0.175 or 0.2 mg/mL and procainamide hydrochloride 1, 2, or 4 mg/mL satisfied the USP standard for procainamide hydrochloride injection USP assay after one hour but failed this test in all cases after four hours. No degradation of milrinone was observed in any of the admixtures containing procainamide hydrochloride. Milrinone and furosemide are incompatible in 5% dextrose injection and should be administered separately. The remaining admixtures were compatible, and all except those containing procainamide hydrochloride were stable for four hours at room temperature.

  14. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  18. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  19. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  1. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 582.5449 Section 582.5449 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5449 Manganese citrate. (a) Product. Manganese citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 582.5449 Section 582.5449 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5449 Manganese citrate. (a) Product. Manganese citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 582.5449 Section 582.5449 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5449 Manganese citrate. (a) Product. Manganese citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  9. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  12. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.5195 Section 582.5195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5195 Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 582.5449 Section 582.5449 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5449 Manganese citrate. (a) Product. Manganese citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 582.5449 Section 582.5449 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5449 Manganese citrate. (a) Product. Manganese citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.5195 Section 582.5195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5195 Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.5195 Section 582.5195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5195 Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.5195 Section 582.5195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5195 Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  2. Effect of citrate ions on laser ablation of Ag foil in aqueous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisková, K.; Vlcková, B.; Turpin, P.-Y.; Fayet, C.; Hromádková, J.; Slouf, M.

    2007-04-01

    Promoting effect of citrate in 1 × 10-5-1×10-2 M concentrations on laser ablation (LA) of a Ag foil in aqueous solution performed by ns laser pulses at 1064 nm is reported. Furthermore, adsorption of citrate ions was found to increase markedly the stability of the resulting LA-Ag hydrosol. The results are discussed on the basis of comparison of surface plasmon extinction spectral characteristics, transmission electron microscopy images, nanoparticle size distributions and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectral tests of hydrosols resulting from LA in neutral and acidic aqueous citrate solutions and in pure water.

  3. Chondrogenic Effect of Intra-articular Hypertonic-Dextrose (Prolotherapy) in Severe Knee Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Topol, Gastón Andrés; Podesta, Leandro Ariel; Reeves, Kenneth Dean; Giraldo, Marcia Mallma; Johnson, Lanny L; Grasso, Raul; Jamín, Alexis; Clark, Tom; Rabago, David

    2016-11-01

    Dextrose injection is reported to improve knee osteoarthritis (KOA)-related clinical outcomes, but its effect on articular cartilage is unknown. A chondrogenic effect of dextrose injection has been proposed. To assess biological and clinical effects of intra-articular hypertonic dextrose injections (prolotherapy) in painful KOA. Case series with blinded arthroscopic evaluation before and after treatment. Physical medicine and day surgery practice. Symptomatic KOA for at least 6 months, arthroscopy-confirmed medial compartment exposed subchondral bone, and temporary pain relief with intra-articular lidocaine injection. Four to 6 monthly 10-mL intra-articular injections with 12.5% dextrose. Visual cartilage growth assessment of 9 standardized medial condyle zones in each of 6 participants by 3 arthroscopy readers masked to pre-/postinjection status (total 54 zones evaluated per reader); biopsy of a cartilage growth area posttreatment, evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin and Safranin-O stains, quantitative polarized light microscopy, and immunohistologic cartilage typing; self-reported knee specific quality of life using the Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC, 0-100 points). Six participants (1 female and 5 male) with median age of 71 years, WOMAC composite score of 57.5 points, and a 9-year pain duration received a median of 6 dextrose injections and follow-up arthroscopy at 7.75 months (range 4.5-9.5 months). In 19 of 54 zone comparisons, all 3 readers agreed that the posttreatment zone showed cartilage growth compared with the pretreatment zone. Biopsy specimens showed metabolically active cartilage with variable cellular organization, fiber parallelism, and cartilage typing patterns consistent with fibro- and hyaline-like cartilage. Compared with baseline status, the median WOMAC score improved 13 points (P = .013). Self-limited soreness after methylene blue instillation was noted. Positive clinical and chondrogenic effects were seen

  4. Divalent cation chelators citrate and EDTA unmask an intrinsic uncoupling pathway in isolated mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Starkov, Anatoly A; Chinopoulos, Christos; Starkova, Natalia N; Konrad, Csaba; Kiss, Gergely; Stepanova, Anna; Popov, Vasily N

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate a suppression of ROS production and uncoupling of mitochondria by exogenous citrate in Mg(2+) free medium. Exogenous citrate suppressed H2O2 emission and depolarized mitochondria. The depolarization was paralleled by the stimulation of respiration of mitochondria. The uncoupling action of citrate was independent of the presence of sodium, potassium, or chlorine ions, and it was not mediated by the changes in permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane to solutes. The citrate transporter was not involved in the citrate effect. Inhibitory analysis data indicated that several well described mitochondria carriers and channels (ATPase, IMAC, ADP/ATP translocase, mPTP, mKATP) were not involved in citrate's effect. Exogenous MgCl2 strongly inhibited citrate-induced depolarization. The uncoupling effect of citrate was demonstrated in rat brain, mouse brain, mouse liver, and human melanoma cells mitochondria. We interpreted the data as an evidence to the existence of a hitherto undescribed putative inner mitochondrial membrane channel that is regulated by extramitochondrial Mg(2+) or other divalent cations.

  5. The efficacy of dextrose prolotherapy for temporomandibular joint hypermobility: a preliminary prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Refai, Hamida; Altahhan, Obada; Elsharkawy, Rehab

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of dextrose prolotherapy for the treatment of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) hypermobility. A prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical study using a placebo control was carried out. Twelve patients with painful subluxation or dislocation of the TMJ were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 equal-sized groups. Patients in the active group received 4 injections of dextrose solution (2 mL of 10% dextrose and 1 mL of 2% mepivacaine) for each TMJ, each 6 weeks apart, whereas patients in the placebo group received injections of placebo solution (2 mL of saline solution and 1 mL of 2% mepivacaine) on the same schedule. A verbal scale expressing TMJ pain on palpation, maximal mouth opening (MMO), clicking sound, and frequency of luxations (number of locking episodes per month) were assessed at each injection appointment just before the injection procedure and 3 months after the last injection. The collected data were then statistically analyzed. By the end of the study, each group showed significant improvement in TMJ pain on palpation and number of locking episodes and insignificant improvement in clicking sound. With the exception of the MMO, there were no statistically significant differences throughout the study intervals between the active and placebo groups. The active group showed a significant reduction in MMO at the 12th week postoperatively. Differences compared with mean baseline value remained significant at the end of the follow-up period. On the other hand, the placebo group showed an insignificant difference in MMO throughout the study periods. For the last 2 intervals, the placebo group showed statistically significantly higher mean MMO values than the active group. By the end of the 12th postoperative week, the percentages of decrease in MMO were significantly greater in the active group. Prolotherapy with 10% dextrose appears promising for the treatment of symptomatic TMJ hypermobility, as evidenced by the

  6. Citrate-Stabilized Gold Nanorods

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Stable aqueous dispersions of citrate-stabilized gold nanorods (cit-GNRs) have been prepared in scalable fashion by surfactant exchange from cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-stabilized GNRs, using polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) as a detergent. The surfactant exchange process was monitored by infrared spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The latter established the quantitative displacement of CTAB (by PSS) and of PSS (by citrate). The Cit-GNRs are indefinitely stable at low ionic strength, and are conducive to further ligand exchange without loss of dispersion stability. The reliability of the surface exchange process supports the systematic analysis of ligand structure on the hydrodynamic size of GNRs, as described in a companion paper. PMID:25254292

  7. Citrate-release-mediated aluminum resistance is coupled to the inducible expression of mitochondrial citrate synthase gene in Paraserianthes falcataria.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Hiroki; Kojima, Katsumi

    2006-05-01

    Aluminum (Al) resistance in some leguminous plants is achieved by enhanced citrate release from roots. Enhancement requires several hours for complete activation and is postulated to involve Al-responsive genes or components. We examined the mechanism of Al-induced citrate release by studying the relationship between citrate release and expression of the mitochondrial citrate synthase (mCS) gene in three leguminous trees. Root elongation in Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit was arrested within 24 h by 30 microM Al, whereas root elongation in Paraserianthes falcataria (L.) Neilson and Acacia mangium Willd. was inhibited < 50% by a 48-h treatment with 100 microM Al in calcium chloride solution. Roots of P. falcataria and A. mangium maintained enhanced release and accumulation of citrate for at least 28 days in response to Al treatment. Aluminum increased the accumulation of mCS transcripts in P. falcataria roots, but not in L. leucocephala roots, and thus up-regulation decreased following removal of Al. Lanthanum did not alter the expression level of mCS. Aluminum increased mCS activity concomitantly with enhanced mCS gene expression in P. falcataria, whereas it did not affect mCS activity in L. leucocephala. Aluminum content in root apices of P. falcataria was increased by cycloheximide, supporting the idea that de novo synthesis of proteins is a prerequisite for Al resistance. Our findings suggest that Al-inducible expression of mCS coupled with enhanced citrate release mediates Al resistance in P. falcataria.

  8. Citrate anticoagulation and adverse events.

    PubMed

    De Vos, J; Hombrouckx, R

    2003-01-01

    Several patients with heparin intolerance were dialysed with tri-sodium citrate as anticoagulant without acute clinical problems (good tolerance). After some weeks however problems arose. In all patients an alkalosis developed: the pre dialysis bicarbonate level rose progressively from 27 mmol/l to 40 mmol/l. This could be tempered by lowering the dialysis fluid bicarbonate concentration from 37 mmol/l to 25 mmol/l. A second problem was a progressive rise in pre dialysis sodium level from a mean of 136 mmol/l to 150 mmol/l. Adapting the dialysis fluid sodium concentration from 140 mmol/l towards 132 mmol/l could solve this. The third problem was a progressive rise in serum aluminium level in patients from 3 microg/l to 38 microg/l. After excluding water, concentrate, dialysis fluid, drug intake, etc... as possible sources, we controlled the aluminium level in the glass bottle containing tri-sodium citrate. We noted the very high value of 35,300 microg/l. After replacing the glass bottles with polyvinylchloride bags with a negligible aluminium content, the serum aluminium levels returned back to normal. It is known that citrate chelates the aluminium present in the glass of bottles or vials.

  9. Modeling and optimising alcohol production by fermentation of dextrose-xylose mixed feed using a fluorosensor.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, S; Sailaja, D; Kalpana, N

    1997-01-01

    Dextrose with differing amounts of xylose (mixed substrate medium) has been fermented at 28 degree Celsius with sacchromyces cerevisiae (Baker's Yeast) as seeding. The progress of the reaction was recorded by measuring the fluorescent signal due to intracellular reduced nicotinamide adenine di nucleotide (NADH) present in the cells with a Dr. Ingold (Switzerland) fluorosensor which has an excitation wavelength of 360 nm and measurement wavelength of 450 nm. The concentration of xylose in the xylose-dextrose feed was varied from 0.7% to 5.0% by weight. The optimum concentration of xylose at which the production of alcohol was a maximum was found to be 3.4 percent xylose. The fluorescent voltage data for different concentration of xylose fitted a first order model with an average absolute deviation of less than one percent. Development of this model is useful in design of model predictive controllers.

  10. Citrate and renal calculi: an update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, C. Y.

    1994-01-01

    Citrate is an inhibitor of the crystallization of stone-forming calcium salts. Hypocitraturia, frequently encountered in patients with nephrolithiasis, is therefore an important risk factor for stone formation. Potassium citrate provides physiological and physicochemical correction and inhibits new stone formation, not only in hypocitraturic calcium nephrolithiasis but also in uric acid nephrolithiasis. Inhibition of stone recurrence has now been validated by a randomized trial. Ongoing research has disclosed additional causes of hypocitraturia (sodium excess, low intestinal alkali absorption, but not primary citrate malabsorption). Moreover, new insights on potassium citrate action have been shown, notably that some of absorbed citrate escapes oxidation and contributes to the citraturic response, that ingestion with a meal does not sacrifice physiological or physicochemical action, that orange juice mimics but does not completely duplicate its actions, that potassium citrate may have a beneficial bone-sparing effect, that it may reduce stone fragments following ESWL, and that danger of aluminum toxicity is not great in subjects with functioning kidneys. Finally, the research on potassium citrate has led to two promising products, calcium citrate as an optimum calcium supplement and potassium-magnesium citrate which may be superior to potassium citrate in the management of stone disease.

  11. Citrate and renal calculi: an update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, C. Y.

    1994-01-01

    Citrate is an inhibitor of the crystallization of stone-forming calcium salts. Hypocitraturia, frequently encountered in patients with nephrolithiasis, is therefore an important risk factor for stone formation. Potassium citrate provides physiological and physicochemical correction and inhibits new stone formation, not only in hypocitraturic calcium nephrolithiasis but also in uric acid nephrolithiasis. Inhibition of stone recurrence has now been validated by a randomized trial. Ongoing research has disclosed additional causes of hypocitraturia (sodium excess, low intestinal alkali absorption, but not primary citrate malabsorption). Moreover, new insights on potassium citrate action have been shown, notably that some of absorbed citrate escapes oxidation and contributes to the citraturic response, that ingestion with a meal does not sacrifice physiological or physicochemical action, that orange juice mimics but does not completely duplicate its actions, that potassium citrate may have a beneficial bone-sparing effect, that it may reduce stone fragments following ESWL, and that danger of aluminum toxicity is not great in subjects with functioning kidneys. Finally, the research on potassium citrate has led to two promising products, calcium citrate as an optimum calcium supplement and potassium-magnesium citrate which may be superior to potassium citrate in the management of stone disease.

  12. The Effects of Prolotherapy With Hypertonic Dextrose Versus Prolozone (Intraarticular Ozone) in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Masoud; Jalili, Parviz; Mennati, Shirin; Koosha, Alireza; Rohanifar, Ramin; Madadi, Firouz; Razavi, Seyed Sajad; Taheri, Farinaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a common disabling disease. Limited studies have demonstrated that prolotherapy with dextrose or with prolozone can be helpful in the treatment of patients with KOA. Objectives: In the current study, we compared the results between these two treatment methods. Patients and Methods: In the current randomized clinical trial, 80 patients with mild to moderate KOA were randomly assigned equally into two groups (ozone group and dextrose group). In each group, injections were repeated three times with 10-day intervals. Before the treatment and 3 months after the injections, the pain intensity was measured by using a visual analogue scale and the Western Ontario and McMaster university arthritis index scores. Finally, the results were compared between the two groups. Results: In the two groups, the pain intensity and WOMAC scores significantly decreased and increased, respectively (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusions: Prolotherapy with dextrose and with prolozone result in the same pain relief or functional improvement in patients with mild to moderate KOA. PMID:26587401

  13. Efficacy of dextrose prolotherapy in elite male kicking-sport athletes with chronic groin pain.

    PubMed

    Topol, Gastón Andrés; Reeves, K Dean; Hassanein, Khatab Mohammed

    2005-04-01

    To determine the efficacy of simple dextrose prolotherapy in elite kicking-sport athletes with chronic groin pain from osteitis pubis and/or adductor tendinopathy. Consecutive case series. Orthopedic and trauma institute in Argentina. Twenty-two rugby and 2 soccer players with chronic groin pain that prevented full sports participation and who were nonresponsive both to therapy and to a graded reintroduction into sports activity. Monthly injection of 12.5% dextrose and 0.5% lidocaine into the thigh adductor origins, suprapubic abdominal insertions, and symphysis pubis, depending on palpation tenderness. Injections were given until complete resolution of pain or lack of improvement for 2 consecutive treatments. Visual analog scale (VAS) for pain with sports and the Nirschl Pain Phase Scale (NPPS), a measure of functional impairment from pain. The final data collection point was 6 to 32 months after treatment (mean, 17 mo). A mean of 2.8 treatments were given. The mean reduction in pain during sports, as measured by the VAS, improved from 6.3+/-1.4 to 1.0+/-2.4 ( P <.001), and the mean reduction in NPPS score improved from 5.3+/-0.7 to 0.8+/-1.9 ( P <.001). Twenty of 24 patients had no pain and 22 of 24 were unrestricted with sports at final data collection. Dextrose prolotherapy showed marked efficacy for chronic groin pain in this group of elite rugby and soccer athletes.

  14. The Effects of Prolotherapy With Hypertonic Dextrose Versus Prolozone (Intraarticular Ozone) in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Masoud; Jalili, Parviz; Mennati, Shirin; Koosha, Alireza; Rohanifar, Ramin; Madadi, Firouz; Razavi, Seyed Sajad; Taheri, Farinaz

    2015-10-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a common disabling disease. Limited studies have demonstrated that prolotherapy with dextrose or with prolozone can be helpful in the treatment of patients with KOA. In the current study, we compared the results between these two treatment methods. In the current randomized clinical trial, 80 patients with mild to moderate KOA were randomly assigned equally into two groups (ozone group and dextrose group). In each group, injections were repeated three times with 10-day intervals. Before the treatment and 3 months after the injections, the pain intensity was measured by using a visual analogue scale and the Western Ontario and McMaster university arthritis index scores. Finally, the results were compared between the two groups. In the two groups, the pain intensity and WOMAC scores significantly decreased and increased, respectively (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups. Prolotherapy with dextrose and with prolozone result in the same pain relief or functional improvement in patients with mild to moderate KOA.

  15. Stability of methylprednisolone sodium succinate in small volumes of 5% dextrose and 0. 9% sodium chloride injections

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, R.J.; Puchala, A.H.; Nail, S.L.

    1981-09-01

    The stability of methylprednisolone sodium succinate in small volumes of 5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride injections was studied. Vials of methylprednisolone sodium succinate (125-3000 mg) were reconstituted and added to 50- and 100-ml volumes of the two diluents. These piggyback solutions were visually inspected for the development of haze over a 24-hour period. A nephelometer was used to quantitate the development of turbidity with time. The effect of pH on haze formation was investigated, and infrared spectroscopy was used to identify the haze. Nephelometer readings were found to correlate well with visual inspections. The haze was identified as being formed by the precipitation of free methylprednisolone. The rate of change of turbidity was directly related to the pH. A 1.4-3.2 percentage-point increase in the free methylprednisolone concentration secondary to hydrolysis over the 24-hour period was noted. The duration of stability was variable among the investigated lots and concentrations. Nineteen of the 24 admixtures stored at room temperature remained stable and free of visible haze for at least 12 hours after preparation. For all dosage strengths of methylprednisolone sodium succinate studied, these data indicate that solutions can be made stable for at least 12 hours by selecting the appropriate volume of diluent.

  16. The utility of two daytime icodextrin exchanges to reduce dextrose exposure in automated peritoneal dialysis patients: a pilot study of nine patients.

    PubMed

    Gobin, Jaya; Fernando, Sanjay; Santacroce, Sally; Finkelstein, Fredric O

    2008-01-01

    The use of dextrose-containing solutions in peritoneal dialysis (PD) is thought to be associated with glucose-related toxicity both to the peritoneal membrane and systemically. There has, therefore, been considerable interest in minimizing the use of dextrose exposure during PD. The present study was designed to explore the use of icodextrin in patients with high/high-average transporter characteristics for two exchanges per day to minimize glucose exposure. We performed a 6-month prospective cohort study using two icodextrin exchanges per day in a group of high/high-average transporters maintained on automated PD. Icodextrin levels, serum sodium levels, and glucose exposure were measured at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Nine patients completed the study protocol. While the total volume of PD solution remained the same, there was a reduction in mean glucose exposure from a baseline mean value of 410 +/- 75 to 275 +/- 57 g/day at 3 months and 300 +/- 75 g/day at 6 months. Serum icodextrin levels rose from a baseline mean of 345 +/- 145 to 615 +/- 120 mg/dl at 3 months and 620 +/- 108 mg/dl at 6 months. Serum sodium levels remained stable. The use of two (double) icodextrin exchanges in high/high-average transporters on PD can contribute to reduction in glucose exposure for patients maintained on automated PD and appears to be safe. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Long-term therapeutic effects of dextrose prolotherapy in patients with hypermobility of the temporomandibular joint: a single-arm study with 1-4 years' follow up.

    PubMed

    Refai, H

    2017-06-01

    The aim was to analyse the short-term and long-term therapeutic efficacy of dextrose prolotherapy for dislocation or subluxation (hypermobility) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Sixty-one patients with symptomatic hypermobility of the TMJ were included in this single-arm prospective study, in which they were each given four sessions of intra-articular and pericapsular injections six weeks apart. Each injection comprised 10% dextrose/mepivacaine solution 3ml. Clinical outcomes including severity of pain on movement according to the numerical rating scale (NRS), maximal interincisal opening, clicking, and frequency of locking were measured before treatment (T1), during treatment (T2) (just before the third session of injections), at the short-term follow-up (T3) (three months after treatment), and at the long-term follow-up (T4) (1-4 years after treatment). Condylar translation and osseous changes of each joint were evaluated at T1 and T4 using tomography. There was significant reduction in all variables by T2 (p<0.001, p<0.001, p=0.006, and p<0.001). The pain scores (p<0.001) and clicking (p<0.001) had decreased significantly by T3. Linear tomograms of each joint at T1 and T4 showed no alteration in the morphology of the bony components of the joint, and at T4, tomographic open views of all joints showed condylar hypertranslation. Dextrose prolotherapy provided significant and sustained reduction of pain and recovery of constitutional symptoms associated with symptomatic hypermobility of the TMJ without changing either the position of the condyle or the morphology of the bony components of the joint. Copyright © 2017 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 006100-0905-096) is the potassium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric acid with potassium...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 006100-0905-096) is the potassium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 006100-0905-096) is the potassium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 006100-0905-096) is the potassium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 006100-0905-096) is the potassium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 184.1449 Section 184.1449 Food... GRAS § 184.1449 Manganese citrate. (a) Manganese citrate (Mn3(C6H5O7)2, CAS Reg. No. 10024-66-5) is a pale orange or pinkish white powder. It is obtained by precipitating manganese carbonate from manganese...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... acid with calcium hydroxide or calcium carbonate. It occurs as a fine white, odorless powder and... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 184.1195 Section 184.1195 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1195 Calcium citrate. (a) Calcium citrate (Ca3(C6H5O7)2·4H2O...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... acid with calcium hydroxide or calcium carbonate. It occurs as a fine white, odorless powder and... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 184.1195 Section 184.1195 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1195 Calcium citrate. (a) Calcium citrate (Ca3(C6H5O7)2·4H2O...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... calcium hydroxide or calcium carbonate. It occurs as a fine white, odorless powder and usually contains... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium citrate. 184.1195 Section 184.1195 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1195 Calcium citrate. (a) Calcium citrate (Ca3(C6H5O7)2·4H2O, CAS Reg. No...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... acid with calcium hydroxide or calcium carbonate. It occurs as a fine white, odorless powder and... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 184.1195 Section 184.1195 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1195 Calcium citrate. (a) Calcium citrate (Ca3(C6H5O7)2·4H2O...

  8. Platelet-rich plasma limits the nerve injury caused by 10% dextrose in the rabbit median nerve.

    PubMed

    Park, Gi-Young; Kwon, Dong Rak

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection in a rabbit model of dextrose-induced median nerve injury. New Zealand white rabbits (n = 15) were divided randomly into 3 groups. Three different regimens (group 1: 0.1 ml saline; group 2: 10% dextrose with PRP; group 3: 10% dextrose with saline) were injected within the carpal tunnel. Electrophysiological and histological findings were evaluated 12 weeks after the injection. The mean median motor latency in group 3 was significantly longer than that in groups 1 and 2. The cross-sectional area of the median nerve and subsynovial connective tissue thickness in group 3 were significantly larger than those in groups 1 and 2. PRP injection may be effective in controlling median nerve injury, as demonstrated by improvement in electrophysiological and histological findings 12 weeks after dextrose injection. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Citrate-enhanced release of arsenic during pyrite oxidation at circumneutral conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Yao, Weiyu; Yuan, Songhu

    2017-02-01

    The release of arsenic (As) from the oxidation of As-rich pyrite is an important source of the high arsenic in groundwater. As a widespread low-molecular-weight organic acid, citrate plays an important role on the cycling of Fe(II)/Fe(III) through complexation in circumneutral subsurface environments, while the influence of citrate on the release of As from the oxidation of As-rich pyrite is poorly understood. In this study, As was loaded onto pyrite particles under anoxic conditions, and its release was investigated in the presence of 0-1 mM citrate at pH 7.4 under oxic conditions. As-loaded pyrite suspension was prepared by the equilibrium of 2.67 μM As(III) in 10 g/L pyrite under anoxic conditions with the decrease in dissolved As(III) concentration to 1 μM. The suspension was subsequently exposed to air for oxygenation. In the absence of citrate, the oxygenation decreased the partitioning of As in the solution because of the re-adsorption of aqueous As by the in situ generated Fe(III) oxyhydroxides. However, with the increase in citrate concentration from 0.1 to 1 mM, the As partitioned in the solution increased from 0.3 to 2.67 μM. In the presence of 1 mM citrate, the As(III) was almost completely oxidized to As(V) during the oxygenation. The mechanisms of citrate-enhanced release of As were mainly attributed to the ligand exchange of citrate with As for pyrite surface sites, the competitive adsorption of citrate with As on Fe(III) oxyhydroxides and pyrite, and the partitioning of As on the newly formed Fe(III) colloids. This finding presents an overlooked mechanism of the release of pyrite-associated As under oxic and circumneutral conditions.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1307c - Ferrous citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferrous citrate. 184.1307c Section 184.1307c Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307c Ferrous citrate. (a) Ferrous citrate (iron (II) citrate... the reaction of sodium citrate with ferrous sulfate or by direct action of citric acid on iron filings...

  11. Photodegradation of propranolol by Fe(III)-citrate complexes: kinetics, mechanism and effect of environmental media.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Liu, Zizheng; Wang, Zongping; Xue, Miaomiao; Zhu, Xianchen; Tao, Tao

    2011-10-30

    Photogeneration of HO was optimized in Fe(III)-citrate solution within the pH range of 3.0-9.0 to investigate its photoreactivity at neutral pH without the addition of H(2)O(2) under simulated sunlight. The generation of HO decreased with increasing pH within the range of 6.0-9.0 at the Fe(III)-to-citrate ratio of 10:50 (10(-6)M). However, when the concentration of citrate increased to 1.5 × 10(-4)M, the formation rate of HO increased in the order of pH 9.0<3.0<7.0<4.0<5.0. The pH-dependent HO production was governed by the stability of Fe(II)/Fe(II)-citrate and the amount of O(2)(-) in the solution. Propranolol can be efficiently photodegraded in Fe(III)-citrate system at pH 7.0 with pseudo-first-order constant 3.1 × 10(-4)s(-1). HO was verified to be the main reactive oxygen species (ROS) responsible for the photodegradation of propranolol. The presence of metal ions inhibited the Fe(III)-cit-induced photodegradation in the order of Mn(2+)>Cu(2+)>Ca(2+)>Mg(2+). Both humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) markedly suppressed the degradation of propranolol. Moreover, the iron in Fe(III)-citrate system was reused by a simple addition of citrate to the reaction solution. By GC-MS analysis, the photoproducts of the propranolol were identified and the degradation pathway was proposed. This work suggests that Fe(III)-citrate complexes are good alternative for the advanced treatment of organic pollutants at neutral pH in aqueous solution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [The impact of sodium citrate on dialysis catheter function and frequency of catheter-related bacteriemia and haemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Maciej; Weyde, Wacław; Penar, Józef; Gołebiowski, Tomasz; Madziarska, Katarzyna; Krajewska, Magdalena; Klinger, Marian

    2009-10-16

    Vascular access is one of the most important problems of hemodialysis therapy. It is known that an arteriovenous fisutla provides the best vascular access, but its creation is not always possible. Other solutions, such as the insertion of a central venous catheter, are then required. Adequate protection of such catheters by interdialytic fill with locking solution affects the frequency of hemodialysis-related complications. The most widespread catheter locking solution is heparin. Sodium citrate is being used more frequent recently. Available data indicate that hemorrhage is 11.9 times more frequent if the catheter locking solution is 5000 IU/ml heparin than if 4% sodium citrate or 1000 IU/ml heparin is used. Other data indicate that the frequency of infection is statistically decreased when 30% sodium citrate is used to fill the catheter instead of 5000 IU/ml heparin. Analogous data on 46.7% sodium citrate are not consistent. It seems that the use of 4% sodium citrate instead of 5000 IU/ml heparin does not decrease the frequency of infections. Numerous studies indicate that sodium citrate at various concentrations exerts a positive influence on catheter function. However, not all data are in accord. The spill of sodium citrate from the catheter to the systemic circulation is connected with a risk of adverse events. It may be dangerous if the citrate concentration is 46.7%. However, adequate filling of the catheter should prevent such events. Available data indicate that filling of the catheter with a solution of citrate of a concentration of no more than 30% should be safe. Data on 46.7% citrate are not conclusive, so precautions should be taken.

  13. A second polymorph of sodium di­hydrogen citrate, NaH2C6H5O7: structure solution from powder diffraction data and DFT comparison

    PubMed Central

    Rammohan, Alagappa; Kaduk, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structure of a second polymorph of sodium di­hydrogen citrate, Na+·H2C6H5O7 −, has been solved and refined using laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data, and optimized using density functional techniques. The powder pattern of the commercial sample used in this study did not match that corresponding to the known crystal structure [Glusker et al. (1965). Acta Cryst. 19, 561–572; refcode NAHCIT]. In this polymorph, the [NaO7] coordination polyhedra form edge-sharing chains propagating along the a axis, while in NAHCIT the octa­hedral [NaO6] groups form edge-sharing pairs bridged by two hy­droxy groups. The most notable difference is that in this polymorph one of the terminal carboxyl groups is deprotonated, while in NAHCIT the central carboxyl­ate group is deprotonated, as is more typical. PMID:27308058

  14. Renal tissue citrate: independence from citrate utilization, reabsorption, and pH.

    PubMed

    Anaizi, N H; Cohen, J J; Black, A J; Wertheim, S J

    1986-09-01

    During alkalosis in vivo, renal tissue [citrate] [( citrate]t) increases and citrate reabsorption (Tcit) and utilization (Qcit) simultaneously decrease. The decrease in Qcit is interpreted to cause the increased [citrate]t, which in turn decreases Tcit X Renal citrate handling and [citrate]t could be regulated by other mechanisms, since alkalosis changes [substrate] and [H+] in extracellular (ECF) and intracellular (ICF) fluid. Also, since high plasma [citrate] decreases ionized [Ca2+] (Cai), it is not possible to determine in vivo whether there is a maximum for Tcit or Qcit and whether change in extracellular fluid (delta ECF) pH affects these maxima. We perfused the substrate-limited isolated rat kidney for either 110 (n = 36) or 50 min (n = 44) at pH 7.2, 7.4, or 7.6; pH was changed by varying [HCO3-]; Cai was held constant at approximately 2.5 meq/liter. When citrate was the only substrate available in a Krebs-Ringer-HCO3 perfusate containing 6% substrate-free albumin, both Qcit and Tcit had maximal rates: Qcit much greater than Tcit; at pH 7.6, Qcit and Tcit were significantly reduced below their values at pH 7.2 or 7.4. In contrast to in vivo observations, [citrate]t was not significantly increased at high ECF pH. To test whether [citrate]t in the perfused kidney can increase in alkalosis, 11 additional perfusions were done in the presence of glucose plus lactate plus malate but without added citrate: [citrate]t = 0.6 mumol X g-1 at pH 7.6 and 0.3 mumol X g-1 at pH 7.2 (P less than 0.01); no citrate was detectable in the perfusate, and urinary citrate excretion was negligible. Thus, in the isolated rat kidney, an increase in [citrate]t occurred in alkalosis and was derived from precursors and not from citrate in the ECF. Overall, when only citrate was available to the isolated kidney during alkalosis, a significant rise in [citrate]t did not occur, although Vmax for Tcit and Qcit decreased. These effects of alkalosis on Tcit are consistent with observations

  15. 21 CFR 184.1386 - Isopropyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1386 Isopropyl citrate. (a) Isopropyl citrate is a mixture of the mono-, di-, and triisopropyl esters of citric acid. It is prepared by esterifying citric acid with... practice. The affirmation of this ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1851 - Stearyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1851 Stearyl citrate. (a) Stearyl citrate is a mixture of the mono-, di-, and tristearyl esters of citric acid. It is prepared by esterifying citric acid with... manufacturing practice. The affirmation of this ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a...

  17. Completely green synthesis of dextrose reduced silver nanoparticles, its antimicrobial and sensing properties.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Sneha; Oluwafemi, Oluwatobi S; George, Soney C; Jayachandran, V P; Lewu, Francis B; Songca, Sandile P; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar; Thomas, Sabu

    2014-06-15

    We herein report the green synthesis of highly monodispersed, water soluble, stable and smaller sized dextrose reduced gelatin capped-silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) via an eco-friendly, completely green method. The synthesis involves the use of silver nitrate, gelatin, dextrose and water as the silver precursor, stabilizing agent, reducing agent and solvent respectively. By varying the reaction time, the temporal evolution of the growth, optical, antimicrobial and sensing properties of the as-synthesised Ag-NPs were investigated. The nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The absorption maxima of the as-synthesized materials at different reaction time showed characteristic silver surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak. The as-synthesised Ag-NPs show better antibacterial efficacy than the antibiotics; ciproflaxin and imipenem against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of 6 μg/mL, and better efficacy than imipenem against Escherichia coli with MIC of 10 μg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the as-synthesised Ag-NPs is 12.5 μg/mL. The sensitivity of the dextrose reduced gelatin-capped Ag-NPs towards hydrogen peroxide indicated that the sensor has a very good sensitivity and a linear response over wide concentration range of 10(-1)-10(-6)M H2O2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Long-term Stability of Esomeprazole in 5% Dextrose Infusion Polyolefin Bags at 5 degrees C +/- 3 degrees C after Microwave Freeze-thaw Treatment.

    PubMed

    Hecq, Jean-daniel; Rolin, Catherine; Godet, Marie; Gillet, Patricia; Jamart, Jacques; Galanti, Laurence M

    2015-01-01

    To improve quality assurance, security, time management, and cost saving of drug delivery, preparation in advance of intravenous solutions has been developed for several infusion solutions. The objective of this study was to investigate the stability of esomeprazole 0.4 mg/mL and 0.8 mg/mL in 5% dextrose polyolefin bags after freezing, long-term storage, and microwave thawing. The stability of five polyolefin bags containing approximately 0.4 mg/mL of esomeprazole and five other bags containing approximately 0.8 mg/mL in 5% dextrose prepared under aseptic conditions was studied after freezing for 1 month at -20 degrees C, thawing in a microwave oven with a validated cycle, and stored at 5 degrees C +/- 3 degrees C. Esomeprazole concentration was measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography using a reversed-phase column C8, a mobile phase consisting of 35% of acetonitrile and 65% of Na2HPO4 buffer at pH 7.59 with HPO4 (2 M) and NaOH (0.5 M), and detection with a diode array detector at 280 nm. Visual, microscopic, and spectrophotometric observation and pH measurements were also performed. No precipitation occurred in the preparations but little change of color was observed. No microaggregate was observed with optical microscopy or revealed by a change of absorbance at 350, 410, and 550 nm. Based on a shelf life of 90% residual potency, esomeprazole solutions (0.4 and 0.8 mg/mL) were stable for at least 20 or 29 days, respectively, after a freezing and microwave thawing period, where 95% one-side lower confidence limit of the concentration-time profile remained superior to 90% of the initial concentration. During this period, the pH values of drug solutions have been observed to decrease without affecting chromatographic parameters. Within these limits, esomeprazole (0.4 and 0.8 mg/mL) in 5% dextrose infusions may be prepared and frozen in advance by a centralized intravenous admixture service, thawed, and stored at least 20 days at 5 degrees C +/- 3 degrees C

  19. Dextrose and morrhuate sodium injections (prolotherapy) for knee osteoarthritis: a prospective open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Rabago, David; Patterson, Jeffrey J; Mundt, Marlon; Zgierska, Aleksandra; Fortney, Luke; Grettie, Jessica; Kijowski, Richard

    2014-05-01

    This study determined whether injection with hypertonic dextrose and morrhuate sodium (prolotherapy) using a pragmatic, clinically determined injection schedule for knee osteoarthritis (KOA) results in improved knee pain, function, and stiffness compared to baseline status. This was a prospective three-arm uncontrolled study with 1-year follow-up. The setting was outpatient. The participants were 38 adults who had at least 3 months of symptomatic KOA and who were in the control groups of a prior prolotherapy randomized controlled trial (RCT) (Prior-Control), were ineligible for the RCT (Prior-Ineligible), or were eligible but declined the RCT (Prior-Declined). The injection sessions at occurred at 1, 5, and 9 weeks with as-needed treatment at weeks 13 and 17. Extra-articular injections of 15% dextrose and 5% morrhuate sodium were done at peri-articular tendon and ligament insertions. A single intra-articular injection of 6 mL 25% dextrose was performed through an inferomedial approach. The primary outcome measure was the validated Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). The secondary outcome measure was the Knee Pain Scale and postprocedure opioid medication use and participant satisfaction. The Prior-Declined group reported the most severe baseline WOMAC score (p=0.02). Compared to baseline status, participants in the Prior-Control group reported a score change of 12.4±3.5 points (19.5%, p=0.002). Prior-Decline and Prior-Ineligible groups improved by 19.4±7.0 (42.9%, p=0.05) and 17.8±3.9 (28.4%, p=0.008) points, respectively; 55.6% of Prior-Control, 75% of Prior-Decline, and 50% of Prior-Ineligible participants reported score improvement in excess of the 12-point minimal clinical important difference on the WOMAC measure. Postprocedure opioid medication resulted in rapid diminution of prolotherapy injection pain. Satisfaction was high and there were no adverse events. Prolotherapy using dextrose and morrhuate sodium injections for

  20. Ultrasonography in regenerative injection (prolotherapy) using dextrose, platelet-rich plasma, and other injectants.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, Bradley D; Reeves, K Dean

    2010-08-01

    Recent advances in ultrasound technology are leading physiatrists to new understandings of pain sources, new treatment options, and the ability to guide soft tissue interventions. This article examines the role of imaging ultrasound in diagnosing soft tissue injury and disease that may respond to regenerative medicine techniques (known as prolotherapy) using injectants such as dextrose, morrhuate sodium, or platelet-rich plasma. The current state of ultrasound evidence for these interventions is reviewed. Case examples assist in understanding clinical applications that currently outpace the evidence base. Development of quantitative ultrasound measures to objectively evaluate soft tissue organization is discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Dextrose and Morrhuate Sodium Injections (Prolotherapy) for Knee Osteoarthritis: A Prospective Open-Label Trial

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Jeffrey J.; Mundt, Marlon; Zgierska, Aleksandra; Fortney, Luke; Grettie, Jessica; Kijowski, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: This study determined whether injection with hypertonic dextrose and morrhuate sodium (prolotherapy) using a pragmatic, clinically determined injection schedule for knee osteoarthritis (KOA) results in improved knee pain, function, and stiffness compared to baseline status. Design: This was a prospective three-arm uncontrolled study with 1-year follow-up. Setting: The setting was outpatient. Participants: The participants were 38 adults who had at least 3 months of symptomatic KOA and who were in the control groups of a prior prolotherapy randomized controlled trial (RCT) (Prior-Control), were ineligible for the RCT (Prior-Ineligible), or were eligible but declined the RCT (Prior-Declined). Intervention: The injection sessions at occurred at 1, 5, and 9 weeks with as-needed treatment at weeks 13 and 17. Extra-articular injections of 15% dextrose and 5% morrhuate sodium were done at peri-articular tendon and ligament insertions. A single intra-articular injection of 6 mL 25% dextrose was performed through an inferomedial approach. Outcome measures: The primary outcome measure was the validated Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). The secondary outcome measure was the Knee Pain Scale and postprocedure opioid medication use and participant satisfaction. Results: The Prior-Declined group reported the most severe baseline WOMAC score (p=0.02). Compared to baseline status, participants in the Prior-Control group reported a score change of 12.4±3.5 points (19.5%, p=0.002). Prior-Decline and Prior-Ineligible groups improved by 19.4±7.0 (42.9%, p=0.05) and 17.8±3.9 (28.4%, p=0.008) points, respectively; 55.6% of Prior-Control, 75% of Prior-Decline, and 50% of Prior-Ineligible participants reported score improvement in excess of the 12-point minimal clinical important difference on the WOMAC measure. Postprocedure opioid medication resulted in rapid diminution of prolotherapy injection pain. Satisfaction was high and

  2. Differentiation of Cryptococcus neoformans serotypes A and D using creatinine dextrose bromothymol blue thymine medium.

    PubMed

    Irokanulo, E A; Akueshi, C O; Makinde, A A

    1994-06-01

    A serotype differentiation of the encapsulated yeast Cryptococcus neoformans is described using creatinine dextrose bromothymol blue thymine (CDBT) medium. On CDBT medium C. neoformans serotype D grew as bright red colonies, turning the medium a bright orange after five days incubation at 28 degrees C. C. neoformans serotype A grew as pale colonies with no apparent colour effect on the medium. Serotypes B and C caused a slight greening of the medium. The reaction of the four serotypes of C. neoformans on CDBT medium is considered useful in the differentiation of the closely related serotype A and D.

  3. Citrate Anticoagulation: Are Blood Donors Donating Bone?

    PubMed Central

    Bialkowski, Walter; Bruhn, Roberta; Edgren, Gustaf; Papanek, Paula

    2015-01-01

    An estimated 2.4 million volunteer apheresis blood donation procedures were performed in the United States in 2010 and increases in the proportion of transfused blood products derived from apheresis blood collections have been consistently reported. Anticoagulation is required during apheresis and is achieved with citrate. Donor exposure to citrate causes an acute physiological response in the donor maintaining serum mineral homeostasis. Some data are available on the sequelae of this acute response in the days and weeks following exposure, raising questions about bone mineral density in regular apheresis donors. New research is emerging that addresses the potential long term health outcomes of repeated citrate exposure. This article reviews the acute physiological response to citrate anticoagulation in volunteer blood donors, presents contrasting perspectives on the potential effects of citrate exposure on bone density, and identifies key knowledge gaps in our understanding of long term health outcomes in apheresis donors. PMID:26607494

  4. [Butamyrate citrate in cough controlling].

    PubMed

    Płusa, Tadeusz

    2013-12-01

    The cough as one of the main symptoms of respiratory infections in the most cases is carried out in children and adults using preparations without a prescription (OTC--over-the-counter) and cold medications (CCMs). Their efficacy and safety have not been fully confirmed. In turn, the administration of drugs that inhibit cough by acting on the central nervous system requires adherence to dosage. Codeine as the main standard of the cough suppressants is not always effective. Used for many years butamyrate citrate is highly effective and complete safety. The number and quality of the side effects after application of this preparation is small and is not limited especially in pediatrics. Conducted research on new drugs that inhibit cough are very promising.

  5. Citrate anticoagulation during plasma exchange in a patient with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: short heparin-free hemodialysis helps to attenuate citrate load.

    PubMed

    Buturović-Ponikvar, Jadranka; Pernat, Andreja Marn; Ponikvar, Rafael

    2005-06-01

    The treatment of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura requires plasma exchange using fresh frozen plasma as a replacement solution once or even twice daily. If citrate anticoagulation is needed, the citrate load (both from fresh frozen plasma and citrate as an anticoagulant) can be significant, causing metabolic complications. The aim of our report is to present our experience with citrate anticoagulation in a patient with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura treated with daily membrane plasma exchange. Twenty-six plasma exchange procedures were performed during 20 days of treatment in a 46-year-old female. The blood flow was 98 +/- 8 mL/min; 4% trisodium citrate was infused into the arterial line (134 +/- 11 mL/h) and 1 M CaCl2 into the venous line (11.4 +/- 1.8 mL/h). Fresh frozen plasma (first 7 procedures) or cryo-poor plasma (19 procedures) were used as a replacement solution, 3176 +/- 536 mL per procedure. A total of 88,930 mL of plasma was exchanged. No serious side-effects occurred. iCa before plasma exchange was significantly higher than afterwards (1.23 +/- 0.12 vs. 1.12 +/- 0.12, P = 0.0047). Significant alkalosis occurred after three plasma exchanges (pH 7.64, bicarbonate 36.2 mmol/L), and was corrected by 3-h heparin-free hemodialysis with dialysate as follows: K 4.0 mmol/L, calcium 1.5 mmol/L, and bicarbonate set to 24 mmol/L. After dialysis, pH was 7.45 and bicarbonate 29.4 mmol/L. Another (2-h) heparin-free hemodialysis procedure was repeated after six plasma exchanges. Citrate anticoagulation can be safely performed in patients treated with plasma exchange once or twice daily. Periodically performed short heparin-free hemodialysis can correct metabolic alkalosis and attenuate the citrate load.

  6. Prospective Evaluation of Intra-Articular Dextrose Prolotherapy for Treatment of Osteoarthritis in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, J Matthew; Roush, James K; Armbrust, Laura J; Renberg, Walter C

    2017-03-14

    The objective of this study was to evaluate intra-articular dextrose prolotherapy for osteoarthritis of the elbow or stifle in dogs in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective pilot study. Seventeen dogs were evaluated with 10 meeting inclusion criteria for this study. Evaluations included orthopedic exam, visual lameness scoring, Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI), goniometry, kinetic gait analysis, and radiography. Initial lameness score, age, body weight, duration of lameness, and CBPI scores did not differ between groups. Change in CBPI pain severity score in the prolotherapy group from wk 6-12 was significantly less improved than in the placebo group, with no other significant differences in pain severity or pain interference scores between groups. Range of motion and radiographic scores did not differ between groups at any time. Mean kinetic forces improved in prolotherapy dogs but were not significantly different between treatment groups at any time. Although easily performed and well-tolerated, there were no statistically significant benefits of dextrose prolotherapy for treatment of osteoarthritis of the elbow and stifle in dogs. Post hoc power analysis of these sample means and standard deviations found that 29-106 animals per group would be necessary to demonstrate significant differences in kinetic forces, providing useful guidance for future studies.

  7. Analytical chemistry of the citrate process for flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Marchant, W.N.; May, S.L.; Simpson, W.W.; Winter, J.K.; Beard, H.R.

    1980-01-01

    The citrate process for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is a product of continuing research by the US Bureau of Mines to meet the goal of minimizing the objectionable effects of minerals industry operations upon the environment. The reduction of SO/sub 2/ in solution by H/sub 2/S to produce elemental sulfur by the citrate process is extremely complex and results in solutions that contain at least nine different sulfur species. Process solution analysis is essential to a clear understanding of process chemistry and its safe, efficient operation. The various chemical species, the approximate ranges of their concentrations in citrate process solutions, and the analytical methods evolved to determine them are hydrogen sulfide (approx. 0M to 0.06M) by specific ion electrode, polysulfides (unknown) by ultraviolet (uv) spectrophotometry, elemental sulfur (approx. 0M to approx. 0.001M dissolved, approx. 0M to approx. 0.1M suspended) by uv spectrophotometry, thiosulfate (approx. 0M to approx. 0.25M) by iodometry or high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), polythionates (approx. 0M to approx. 0.01M) by thin layer chromatography (TLC), dithionite (searched for but not detected in process solutions) by polarography or TLC, bisulfite (approx. 0M to 0.2M) by iodometry, sulfate (approx. 0M to 1M) by a Bureau-developed gravimetric procedure, citric acid (approx. 0M to 0.5M) by titration or visible colorimetry, glycolic acid (approx. 0M to 1M) by HPLC, sodium (approx. 1.5M) by flame photometry, and chloride by argentometric titration.

  8. Short Term Analgesic Effects of 5% Dextrose Epidural Injections for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Maniquis-Smigel, Liza; Dean Reeves, Kenneth; Jeffrey Rosen, Howard; Lyftogt, John; Graham-Coleman, Cassie; Cheng, An-Lin; Rabago, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertonic dextrose injection (prolotherapy) is reported to reduce pain including non-surgical chronic low back pain (CLBP), and subcutaneous injection of 5% dextrose is reported to reduce neurogenic pain, hyperalgesia and allodynia. The mechanism in both cases is unclear, though a direct effect of dextrose on neurogenic pain has been proposed. This study assessed the short-term analgesic effects of epidural 5% dextrose injection compared with saline for non-surgical CLBP. Methods Randomized double-blind (injector, participant) controlled trial. Adults with moderate-to-severe non-surgical low back pain with radiation to gluteal or leg areas for at least 6 months received a single epidurogram-confirmed epidural injection of 10 mL of 5% dextrose or 0.9% saline using a published vertical caudal injection technique. The primary outcome was change in a numerical rating scale (NRS, 0 - 10 points) pain score between baseline and 15 minutes; and 2, 4, and 48 hours and 2 weeks post-injection. The secondary outcome was percentage of participants achieving 50% or more pain improvement at 4 hours. Results and Conclusions No baseline differences existed between groups; 35 participants (54 ± 10.7 years old; 11 female) with moderate-to-severe CLBP (6.7 ± 1.3 points) for 10.6 ± 10.5 years. Dextrose participants reported greater NRS pain score change at 15 minutes (4.4 ± 1.7 vs 2.4 ± 2.8 points; P = 0.015), 2 hours (4.6 ± 1.9 vs 1.8 ± 2.8 points; P = 0.001), 4 hours (4.6 ± 2.0 vs 1.4 ± 2.3 points; P < 0.001), and 48 hours (3.0 ± 2.3 vs 1.0 ± 2.1 points; P = 0.012), but not at 2 weeks (2.1 ± 2.9 vs 1.2 ± 2.4 points; P = 0.217). Eighty four percent (16/19) of dextrose recipients and 19% (3/16) of saline recipients reported ≥ 50% pain reduction at 4 hours (P < 0.001). These findings suggest a neurogenic effect of 5% dextrose on pain at the dorsal root level; waning pain control at 2 weeks suggests the need to assess the effect of serial dextrose epidural

  9. Citrate bridges between mineral platelets in bone.

    PubMed

    Davies, Erika; Müller, Karin H; Wong, Wai Ching; Pickard, Chris J; Reid, David G; Skepper, Jeremy N; Duer, Melinda J

    2014-04-08

    We provide evidence that citrate anions bridge between mineral platelets in bone and hypothesize that their presence acts to maintain separate platelets with disordered regions between them rather than gradual transformations into larger, more ordered blocks of mineral. To assess this hypothesis, we take as a model for a citrate bridging between layers of calcium phosphate mineral a double salt octacalcium phosphate citrate (OCP-citrate). We use a combination of multinuclear solid-state NMR spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and first principles electronic structure calculations to propose a quantitative structure for this material, in which citrate anions reside in a hydrated layer, bridging between apatitic layers. To assess the relevance of such a structure in native bone mineral, we present for the first time, to our knowledge, (17)O NMR data on bone and compare them with (17)O NMR data for OCP-citrate and other calcium phosphate minerals relevant to bone. The proposed structural model that we deduce from this work for bone mineral is a layered structure with thin apatitic platelets sandwiched between OCP-citrate-like hydrated layers. Such a structure can explain a number of known structural features of bone mineral: the thin, plate-like morphology of mature bone mineral crystals, the presence of significant quantities of strongly bound water molecules, and the relatively high concentration of hydrogen phosphate as well as the maintenance of a disordered region between mineral platelets.

  10. A citrate-binding site in calmodulin.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, T; Eisenstein, M; Muszkat, K A; Fleminger, G

    1998-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) is a major Ca2+ messenger which, upon Ca2+ activation, binds and activates a number of target enzymes involved in crucial cellular processes. The dependence on Ca2+ ion concentration suggests that CaM activation may be modulated by low-affinity Ca2+ chelators. The effect on CaM structure and function of citrate ion, a Ca2+ chelator commonly found in the cytosol and the mitochondria, was therefore investigated. A series of structural and biochemical methods, including tryptic mapping, immunological recognition by specific monoclonal antibodies, CIDNP-NMR, binding to specific ligands and association with radiolabeled citrate, showed that citrate induces conformational modifications in CaM which affect the shape and activity of the protein. These changes were shown to be associated with the C-terminal lobe of the molecule and involve actual binding of citrate to CaM. Analyzing X-ray structures of several citrate-binding proteins by computerized molecular graphics enabled us to identify a putative citrate-binding site (CBS) on the CaM molecule around residues Arg106-His107. Owing to the tight proximity of this site to the third Ca(2+)-binding loop of CaM, binding of citrate is presumably translated into changes in Ca2+ binding to site III (and indirectly to site IV). These changes apparently affect the structural and biochemical properties of the conformation-sensitive protein.

  11. Skin-to-skin contact and/or oral 25% dextrose for procedural pain relief for term newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Chermont, Aurimery Gomes; Falcão, Luis Fábio Magno; de Souza Silva, Eduardo Henrique Laurindo; de Cássia Xavier Balda, Rita; Guinsburg, Ruth

    2009-12-01

    The goal was to compare the efficacy of oral 25% dextrose treatment and/or skin-to-skin contact for analgesia in term newborns during intramuscular injection of a hepatitis B vaccine. A prospective, randomized, partially blinded, clinical trial was performed with 640 healthy term newborns. Infants at 12 to 72 hours of life were assigned randomly to receive an intramuscular injection of hepatitis B vaccine in the right thigh according to 4 analgesia groups, that is, no analgesia (routine); oral 25% dextrose treatment, given 2 minutes before the injection; skin-to-skin contact, initiated 2 minutes before the injection and persisting throughout the procedure; and a combination of the oral dextrose treatment and skin-to-skin contact strategies. For all groups, Neonatal Facial Coding System and Neonatal Infant Pain Scale scores were evaluated before the procedure, during thigh cleansing, during the injection, and 2 minutes after the injection. Premature Infant Pain Profile scores also were assessed for all infants. Pain scores were compared among the 4 groups. The use of oral 25% dextrose treatment reduced the duration of procedural pain in the studied population. Skin-to-skin contact decreased injection pain and duration. The combination of the 2 analgesic measures was more effective than either measure separately for term newborns. Nonpharmacologic analgesic measures were effective for the treatment of procedural pain in term infants. The combination of oral 25% dextrose treatment and skin-to-skin contact acted synergistically to decrease acute pain in healthy neonates.

  12. The Aqueous Complexation of Thorium with Citrate under Neutral to Basic Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Felmy, Andrew R; Cho, Herman M; Dixon, David A; Xia, Yuanxian; Hess, Nancy J; Wang, Zheming

    2006-04-20

    The aqueous complexation of thorium with citrate was investigated under neutral to basic conditions and over a broad range of ionic strengths. The solubility data for ThO2(am) as a function of citrate concentration indicate the presence of stable species with citrate-to-metal ratios of between two to three. The dependence of the ThO2(am) solubilities on hydrogen ion concentration can also be readily explained by the classical assumption of hydrolysis of the central Th(IV) ion to form mixed thorium-hydroxide-citrate complexes. 13C NMR spectra of the species in solution confirm that the citrate-to-metal ratio of the species in solution is between two and three and show that the citrate attaches to the metal in a bidentate fashion through oxygens on the -carboxylate and -alkoxyl groups, rather than through the carboxylate groups. The 13C NMR spectra, as well as a density functional theory (DFT) electronic structure study of the presumptive complexes, suggests that the associated α-hydroxyl proton can be displaced during complex formation. These findings indicate an alternative explanation for the observed changes in solubility as a function of hydrogen ion concentration, the displacement of protons from the citrate alkoxyl groups via metal binding. Removal of protons from the alkoxyl groups or hydrolysis of the central Th(IV) cannot be distinguished by thermodynamic measurements, however the species with the α-hydroxyl proton removed (i.e., ThOH(Cit)25- and Th(Cit)38-) would appear to better represent the microscopic binding. Apparent equilibrium constants for the solution phase reactions of these species and the hydrous thorium oxide have been calculated as a function of ionic strength.

  13. Peritoneal dialysis solutions

    PubMed Central

    Gault, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    Certain preventable complications in the treatment of renal failure, in part related to the composition of commercially prepared peritoneal dialysis solutions, continue to occur. Solutions are advocated which would contain sodium 132, calcium 3.5, magnesium 1.5, chloride 102 and lactate or acetate 35 mEq./1., and dextrose 1.5% or about 4.25%. Elimination of 7% dextrose solutions and a reduction of the sodium and lactate concentrations should reduce complications due to hypovolemia, hyperglycemia, hypernatremia and alkalosis. Reduction in the number of solutions should simplify the procedure and perhaps reduce costs. It is anticipated that some of the changes discussed will soon be introduced by industry. PMID:4691094

  14. Long-term stability of temocillin in dextrose 5% and in sodium chloride 0.9% polyolefin bags at 5 ± 3°C after freeze-thaw treatment.

    PubMed

    Rolin, C; Hecq, J-D; Tulkens, P; Vanbeckbergen, D; Jamart, J; Galanti, L

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the stability of a mixture of temocillin 20mg/ml in 5% dextrose and in 0.9% sodium chloride polyolefin bags after freezing, microwave thawing and long-term storage at 5±3°C. The stability of ten polyolefin bags containing 20mg/ml of temocillin, five bags in 5% dextrose and five bags in 0.9% sodium chloride, prepared under aseptic conditions was studied after freezing for 1 month at -20°C, thawing in a microwave oven with a validated cycle, and stored at 5±3°C. Over 30 days, temocillin concentrations were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Visual inspections, microscope observation, spectrophotometric measurements and pH measurements were also performed. No precipitation occurred in the preparations but minor colour change was observed. No microaggregate was observed with optical microscopy or revealed by a change of absorbance. Based on a shelf life of 95% residual potency, temocillin infusions were stable at least 11 days in 5% dextrose and 14 days in 0.9% sodium chloride after freezing and microwave thawing (corresponding at the period where 95% lower confidence limit of the concentration-time profile remained superior to 95% of the initial concentration). During this period, the pH values of drug solutions have been observed to decrease without affecting chromatographic parameters. Within these limits, temocillin in 5% dextrose and in 0.9% sodium chloride infusions may be prepared and frozen in advance by a centralized intravenous admixture service then thawed before use in clinical units. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in... human consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million (0...

  16. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430 Food... Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in food in... consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million (0.0025 percent...

  17. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in... human consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million (0...

  18. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in... human consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million (0...

  19. Effects of the Oral Administration of Mosapride Citrate on Capsule Endoscopy Completion Rate

    PubMed Central

    Ida, Yosuke; Hosoe, Naoki; Imaeda, Hiroyuki; Bessho, Rieko; Ichikawa, Riko; Naganuma, Makoto; Kanai, Takanori; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims In capsule endoscopy (CE), the capsule does not always reach the cecum within its battery life, which may reduce its diagnostic yield. We evaluated the effect of mosapride citrate, a 5-hydroxytryptamine-4 agonist that increases gastrointestinal motility, on CE completion. Methods In a retrospective study, we performed univariate and multivariate analyses for 232 CE procedures performed at our hospital. To identify factors that affect CE completion, the following data were systematically collected: gender, age, gastric transit time (GTT), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug administration, previous abdominal surgery, hospitalization, use of a polyethylene glycol solution, use of mosapride citrate (10 mg), body mass index (BMI), and total recording time. Results The univariate analysis showed that oral mosapride citrate, GTT, and BMI were associated with improved CE completion. Multivariate analyses showed that oral mosapride citrate (odds ratio [OR], 1.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 3.91) and GTT (OR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.13 to 4.87) were significant factors for improving the CE completion. Oral mosapride citrate significantly shortened the GTT and small bowel transit time (SBTT). Conclusions Oral mosapride citrate reduced the GTT and SBTT during CE and improved the CE completion rate. PMID:22844562

  20. Stability of penicillin G sodium diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection and stored in polyvinyl chloride bag containers and elastomeric pump containers.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mirza Akram; Friciu, Mihaela; Aubin, Sebastien; Leclair, Grégoire

    2014-04-15

    The stability of penicillin G sodium solutions stored in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags or elastomeric pump containers was studied. Test samples were prepared by diluting powdered penicillin G sodium (10 million units/10-mL vial) to solutions of 2,500 or 50,000 units/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection. The preparations were transferred to 250-mL PVC bags and elastomeric pump containers. All samples were prepared in triplicate and stored at 5°C. Chemical stability was measured by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay and by pH evaluation. Particulate matter was evaluated according to compendial standards using a light-obscuration particle count test. Preparations were visually examined throughout the study. After 21 days of storage, all test samples remained chemically stable, with an HPLC assay recovery value of more than 90% of the initial value. After 28 days, all samples prepared with either diluent and stored in PVC bags, as well as the samples diluted to 2,500 units/mL with sodium chloride injection and stored in elastomeric pump containers, did not meet the recovery acceptance limit. For all test samples, the mean pH consistently decreased during storage, from about 6.4 to about 5.5. Particle counts remained acceptable throughout the study, and no change in appearance was observed. Penicillin G for injection (2,500 and 50,000 units/mL) diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection and stored at 5°C in PVC containers or elastomeric pump containers was physically and chemically stable for a period of at least 21 days.

  1. Comparison of ML8-X10 (a prototype oil-in-water micro-emulsion based on a novel free fatty acid), taurolidine/citrate/heparin and vancomycin/heparin antimicrobial lock solutions in the eradication of biofilm-producing staphylococci from central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Luther, Megan K; Mermel, Leonard A; LaPlante, Kerry L

    2014-12-01

    Antimicrobial lock solutions are used for prevention and management of catheter-related bloodstream infections. ML8-X10 (a prototype oil-in-water micro-emulsion based on a novel free fatty acid), vancomycin/heparin and taurolidine/citrate/heparin (Taurolock™-Hep500) lock solutions were tested against biofilm-forming Staphylococcus epidermidis and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. MICs were tested in neutral broth (pH ~7) and acidified broth (pH 5). In an established in vitro central venous catheter (CVC) lock model, solutions were introduced after 24 h of bacterial growth in a CVC incubated at 37°C. After an additional 8, 24 or 72 h of incubation, saline flush and cut catheter segments were processed for bacterial quantification. The cfu/mL at 0 h was subtracted from cfu/mL at the different timepoints. The activities of ML8-X10 and taurolidine solutions were enhanced at lower pH (P < 0.05). Against S. epidermidis, ML8-X10 solution demonstrated less activity than taurolidine at 8 h (P < 0.001), but was not significantly different from vancomycin. At 24 h, ML8-X10 solution demonstrated significantly less activity than taurolidine (P < 0.001), but was significantly more active than vancomycin (P < 0.001). Against S. aureus, ML8-X10 solution was less active than taurolidine at 8 and 24 h (P < 0.001 for both), but was similar to vancomycin. At 72 h, all lock solutions reduced colony counts to levels that approached or reached the limit of detection against both strains. In our in vitro catheter lock model, the novel free fatty acid emulsion demonstrated activity against biofilm-forming staphylococci similar to or greater than that of vancomycin lock solution. Taurolidine was the most active lock solution at 8 and 24 h, with all lock solutions tested demonstrating high activity at 72 h. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e

  2. Citrate bridges between mineral platelets in bone

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Erika; Müller, Karin H.; Wong, Wai Ching; Pickard, Chris J.; Reid, David G.; Skepper, Jeremy N.; Duer, Melinda J.

    2014-01-01

    We provide evidence that citrate anions bridge between mineral platelets in bone and hypothesize that their presence acts to maintain separate platelets with disordered regions between them rather than gradual transformations into larger, more ordered blocks of mineral. To assess this hypothesis, we take as a model for a citrate bridging between layers of calcium phosphate mineral a double salt octacalcium phosphate citrate (OCP-citrate). We use a combination of multinuclear solid-state NMR spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and first principles electronic structure calculations to propose a quantitative structure for this material, in which citrate anions reside in a hydrated layer, bridging between apatitic layers. To assess the relevance of such a structure in native bone mineral, we present for the first time, to our knowledge, 17O NMR data on bone and compare them with 17O NMR data for OCP-citrate and other calcium phosphate minerals relevant to bone. The proposed structural model that we deduce from this work for bone mineral is a layered structure with thin apatitic platelets sandwiched between OCP-citrate–like hydrated layers. Such a structure can explain a number of known structural features of bone mineral: the thin, plate-like morphology of mature bone mineral crystals, the presence of significant quantities of strongly bound water molecules, and the relatively high concentration of hydrogen phosphate as well as the maintenance of a disordered region between mineral platelets. PMID:24706850

  3. Gd2O3 nanoparticles stabilized by hydrothermally modified dextrose for positive contrast magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babić-Stojić, Branka; Jokanović, Vukoman; Milivojević, Dušan; Požek, Miroslav; Jagličić, Zvonko; Makovec, Darko; Arsikin, Katarina; Paunović, Verica

    2016-04-01

    Gd2O3 nanoparticles of a few nm in size and their agglomerates dispersed in dextrose derived polymer template were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment. The produced nanosized material was investigated by TEM, FTIR spectroscopy, SQUID measurements and NMR relaxometry. Biological evaluation of this material was done by crystal violet and MTT assays to determine the cell viability. Longitudinal and transverse NMR relaxivities of water diluted Gd2O3 nanoparticle dispersions measured at the magnetic field of 1.5 T, estimated to be r1(Gd2O3)=9.6 s-1 mM-1 in the Gd concentration range 0.1-30 mM and r2(Gd2O3)=17.7 s-1 mM-1 in the lower concentration range 0.1-0.8 mM, are significantly higher than the corresponding relaxivities measured for the standard contrast agent r1(Gd-DTPA)=4.1 s-1 mM-1 and r2(Gd-DTPA)=5.1 s-1 mM-1. The ratio of the two relaxivities for Gd2O3 nanoparticles r2/r1=1.8 is suitable for T1-weighted imaging. Good MRI signal intensities of the water diluted Gd2O3 nanoparticle dispersions were recorded at lower Gd concentrations 0.2-0.8 mM. The Gd2O3 samples did not exert any significant cytotoxic effects at Gd concentrations of 0.2 mM and below. These properties of the produced Gd2O3 nanoparticles in hydrothermally modified dextrose make them promising for potential application in MRI for the design of a positive MRI contrast agent.

  4. Sensitive and selective SERS probe for trivalent chromium detection using citrate attached gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Yingjie; Liu, Honglin; Yang, Liangbao; Liu, Jinhuai

    2012-09-01

    In this article, we have demonstrated a sensitive and selective surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) probe, based on citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), for trivalent chromium (Cr3+) detection. After introducing Tween 20 to a solution of citrate-capped AuNPs, the as-prepared Tween 20/citrate-AuNP probe could recognize Cr3+ at a 50 × 10-9 M level in an aqueous medium at a pH of 6.0. Tween 20 can stabilize the citrate-capped AuNPs against conditions of high ionic strength. Due to the chelation between Cr3+ and citrate ions, AuNPs undergo aggregation. As a result, it formed several hot spots and provided a significant enhancement of the Raman signal intensity through electromagnetic (EM) field enhancements. A detailed mechanism for tremendous SERS intensity change had been discussed. The selectivity of this system toward Cr3+ was 400-fold, remarkably greater than other metal ions.In this article, we have demonstrated a sensitive and selective surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) probe, based on citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), for trivalent chromium (Cr3+) detection. After introducing Tween 20 to a solution of citrate-capped AuNPs, the as-prepared Tween 20/citrate-AuNP probe could recognize Cr3+ at a 50 × 10-9 M level in an aqueous medium at a pH of 6.0. Tween 20 can stabilize the citrate-capped AuNPs against conditions of high ionic strength. Due to the chelation between Cr3+ and citrate ions, AuNPs undergo aggregation. As a result, it formed several hot spots and provided a significant enhancement of the Raman signal intensity through electromagnetic (EM) field enhancements. A detailed mechanism for tremendous SERS intensity change had been discussed. The selectivity of this system toward Cr3+ was 400-fold, remarkably greater than other metal ions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1-S5. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr31985c

  5. Forsterite Carbonation in Wet Supercritical CO2 and Sodium Citrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, L.; Schaef, T.; Wang, Z.; Miller, Q.; McGrail, P.

    2013-12-01

    Lin Qiu1*, Herbert T. Schaef2, Zhengrong Wang1, Quin R.S. Miller3, BP McGrail2 1. Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA 2. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA 3. University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, USA Geologic reservoirs for managing carbon emissions (mostly CO2) have expanded over the last 5 years to include unconventional formations including basalts and fractured shales. Recently, ~1000 metric tons of CO2 was injected into the Columbia River Basalt (CRB) in Eastern Washington as part of the Wallula Pilot Project, Big Sky Regional Carbon Partnership. Based on reservoir conditions, the injected CO2 is present as a supercritical fluid that dissolves into the formation water over time, and reacts with basalt components to form carbonate minerals. In this paper, we discuss mineral transformation reactions occurring when the forsterite (Mg2SiO4) is exposed to wet scCO2 in equilibrium with pure water and sodium citrate solutions. Forsterite was selected as it is an important olivine group mineral present in igneous and mafic rocks. Citrate was selected as it has been shown to enhance mineral dissolution and organic ligands are possible degradation products of the microbial communities present in the formational waters of the CRB. For the supercritical phase, transformation reactions were examined by in situ high pressure x-ray diffraction (HXRD) in the presence of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) in contact with water and sodium citrate solutions at conditions relevant to carbon sequestration. Experimental results show close-to-complete dissolution of forsterite in contact with scCO2 equilibrated with pure water for 90 hours (90 bar and 50°C). Under these conditions, thin films of water coated the mineral surface, providing a mechanism for silicate dissolution and transport of cations necessary for carbonate formation. The primary crystalline component initially detected with in situ HXRD was the hydrated magnesium carbonate, nesquehonite [Mg

  6. Flipping a citrate switch on liver cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jeffrey M

    2017-08-18

    Energy homeostasis and oncogenic signaling are critical determinants of the growth of human liver cancer cells, providing a strong rationale to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms for these systems. A new study reports that loss of solute carrier family 13 member 5, which transports citrate across cell membranes, halts liver cancer cell growth by altering both energy production and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling in human liver cancer cell lines and in both an in vitro and in vivo model of liver tumors, suggesting a new target for liver cancer chemoprevention and/or chemotherapy. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Tamoxifen citrate loaded ethosomes for transdermal drug delivery system: preparation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Sarwa, Khomendra Kumar; Suresh, Preeti K; Debnath, Manabendra; Ahmad, Mohammad Zaki

    2013-08-01

    Long term tamoxifen citrate therapy is imperative to treat several dermatological and hormonal sensitive disorders. Successful oral and parenteral administration of tamoxifen citrate has been challenging since it undergoes enzymatic degradation and has poor aqueous solubility issues. In the present work, tamoxifen citrate loaded ethosomes were prepared and characterized for transdermal applications. The prepared formulations were characterized for morphological features, particle size distribution, calorimetric attributes, zeta potential and drug entrapment. Permeation profile of prepared ethosomes was compared with liposomes and hydroethonalic solution across cellophane membrane and human cadaver skin. Results of the permeation studies indicate that ethosomes were able to deliver >90% drug within 24 hours of application, while liposomes and hydroethanolic solution delivered only 39.04% and 36.55% respectively. Skin deposition and stability studies are also reported.

  8. Cardiovascular effects of diethylcarbamazine citrate.

    PubMed Central

    Abaitey, A K; Parratt, J R

    1976-01-01

    1 The cardiovascular effects of the anthelmintic drug diethylcarbamazine citrate (DECC) were examined in cats anaesthetized with pentobarbitone. There were two quite distinct haemodynamic responses, an initial transient hypotension (occurring within 10 s of an intravenous injection) and a pronounced secondary hypertension which reached a peak 30-60 s after the injection. 2 Within 10 s of an intravenous injection of DECC (2.5 to 10 mg/kg) there was hypotension, bradycardia and there were reductions in left ventricular and carotid artery dP/dt max. These effects were most pronounced following injections into the pulmonary artery; they were not observed after bilateral vagotomy or after injections into the lumen of the left ventricle. It is suggested that DECC, like nicotine, stimulates vagal receptors in the pulmonary vascular bed. 3 The secondary phase was characterized by marked systemic and pulmonary hypertension, by contractions of the nictitating membrane and by increases in left ventricular dP/dt (at fixed isovolumic pressures), in cardiac output and in myocardial blood flow. All these effects were prevented, or markedly reduced, following the administration of hexamethonium or bethanidine and the pressor response was prevented by phentolamine. It is concluded that, in doses similar to those used in therapeutics, DECC stimulates sympathetic ganglia and releases noradrenaline. The relevance of this finding to the reported side effects of the drug are discussed. 4 DECC (5 or 10 mg/kg) significantly inhibited prostaglandin F2alpha-induced increases in peak inspiratory intra-tracheal pressure without modifying its pulmonary hypertensive effect. The possible relevance of this finding to the use of DECC in asthma is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1252670

  9. Preparation of High-Quality Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu Oxide Precursor by the Citrate Gel Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Aiko

    1990-02-01

    In order to achieve a high-Tc superconducting phase of Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu oxide, we applied a highly reactive citrate gel process to yield a precursor powder. A citrate-nitrate solution was dehydrated and heated to form the desired compound. We applied a thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction to study thermal decomposition during the heat stage. Sintered sample showed good superconducting properties with Tc above 100 K. Chemical analyses revealed negligible loss of metals during the preparation procedure, indicating that the citrate gel process is an excellent and reliable method for this compound.

  10. FO-SPR based dextrose sensor using Ag/ZnO nanorods/GOx for insulinoma detection.

    PubMed

    Usha, Sruthi P; Shrivastav, Anand M; Gupta, Banshi D

    2016-11-15

    In this piece of work, a fiber optic sensor has been fabricated and characterized using surface plasmon resonance for dextrose sensing. The concentration range used in this study is for diagnosing the cases of hypoglycaemia especially in suppression tests of insulinoma. Insulinoma is a medical case in which the person is recognized being hypoglycaemic with the blood dextrose level falling down to 2.2mM or less. Thus, the sensor has been characterized for the dextrose concentration range of 0 mM-10mM including the cases of normal blood dextrose range. Coatings of silver layer and zinc oxide nanorods have been carried out on the bare core fiber with a dual role of zinc oxide followed by immobilization of glucose oxidase. A three stage optimization procedure has been adopted for the best performance of the sensor. Absorbance spectra have been plotted and peak absorbance wavelengths have been extracted for each concentration chosen along with the sensitivities. The results have been made conclusive with control experiments. The probe has also been tested on sample having blood serum to check the reliability of the sensor. The sensor shows better selectivity and response time along with its real time applications, online monitoring, remote sensing and reusability.

  11. Comparison of inhibitory mold agar to Sabouraud dextrose agar as a primary medium for isolation of fungi.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, Theresa; Zinchuk, Riva; Gumpeni, Pramod; Larone, Davise H

    2010-05-01

    Clinical specimens cultured on two selective fungal media, inhibitory mold agar (IMA) and Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA), were compared with respect to recovery of fungi. Of the 840 fungal isolates recovered, 69.3% grew on both IMA and SDA; 24.9% grew only on IMA; and 5.8% grew only on SDA, showing that IMA is superior (P=0.003).

  12. Stability-Indicating UPLC Method for Tramadol HCl Impurities in the Tramadol Injection after Dilution by Infusion Fluids (5% Dextrose and 0.9% Sodium Chloride).

    PubMed

    Binnor, Anil K; Mukkanti, Khagga; Suryanarayana, Mulukutla V; Roy, Sunilendu B

    2013-01-01

    A novel, rapid, and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method has been developed and validated as per ICH guidelines for the determination of tramadol HCl impurities in the tramadol HCl injection after reconstitution by infusion fluids (5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride). The tramadol HCl injection is for the treatment of patients with moderate-to-severe pain. The stability of the reconstituted solution is critical before intravenous injection. The literature search resulted in few published articles on assays of tramadol in infusion fluids by conventional HPLC. No attempts have yet been made to determine the impurities in infusion fluids, as the concentration of tramadol after reconstitution is extremely low (0.4 mg/mL) and that of impurities is even lower. The proposed method is novel as it allows the quantitation of the impurities of tramadol HCl and is based on modern chromatographic techniques like UPLC. The method was developed using the Waters Acquity BEH C18 column with a mobile phase consisting of a gradient mixture of solvent A (trifluroacetic acid buffer) and solvent B (methanol: acetonitrile). The model stability study was designed by diluting the tramadol HCl injection in the 5% dextrose injection and 0.9% sodium chloride injection. Each mixture was kept under storage at room temperature (25 ± 2°C) for testing at initial, 2, 4, 8, 12, 18 & 24 hours. The validation study illustrates that the proposed method is suitable for the determination of tramadol and its impurities. The proposed method makes use of the LC-MS-compatible mobile phase. It can be useful for the determination of tramadol HCl and its impurities in plasma samples and other pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  13. Transport of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles in unsaturated sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumahor, Samuel; Hron, Pavel; Metreveli, George; Schaumann, Gabriele; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2015-04-01

    Chemical factors and physical constraints lead to coupled effects during particle transport in unsaturated porous media. Unlike for saturated transport, studies on unsaturated transport as typical for soil are currently scarce. We investigated the mobility of citrate-coated Ag NPs in unsaturated sand (grain diameter: 0.1-0.3 mm). For three flux rates and a given pore-water ionic strength (1 mM KNO3), the citrate-coated Ag NPs were less mobile at pH = 5 compared to pH = 9. The classic Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory suggests unfavorable deposition conditions at both, the air-water interface and solid-water interface. Breakthrough curves measured under quasi-steady state unsaturated flow showed retardation of the citrate-coated Ag NPs compared to inert solute (KBr). After flushing with nanoparticle-free 1 mM KNO3 solution (pH-adjusted), retention was much lower in deeper depths compared to the surface where the particles entered the flow field. The results show a non-linear dependence of nanoparticle (NP) mobility on flux rate and water content. Especially the observed retardation similar to equilibrium sorption is in contrast to observations under saturated flow conditions. A convection-dispersion and reaction model that combines a reversible equilibrium process and a non-equilibrium interaction process reproduced the measured breakthrough curves reasonably well. From comparison between saturated and unsaturated experiments we conclude that the air-water interface is responsible for the reversible equilibrium process while the water-solid interface accounts for irreversible soption.

  14. Outcome at 2 Years after Dextrose Gel Treatment for Neonatal Hypoglycemia: Follow-Up of a Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Harris, Deborah L; Alsweiler, Jane M; Ansell, Judith M; Gamble, Gregory D; Thompson, Benjamin; Wouldes, Trecia A; Yu, Tzu-Ying; Harding, Jane E

    2016-03-01

    To determine neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years' corrected age in children randomized to treatment with dextrose gel or placebo for hypoglycemia soon after birth (The Sugar Babies Study). This was a follow-up study of 184 children with hypoglycemia (<2.6 mM [47 mg/dL]) in the first 48 hours and randomized to either dextrose (90/118, 76%) or placebo gel (94/119, 79%). Assessments were performed at Kahikatea House, Hamilton, New Zealand, and included neurologic function and general health (pediatrician assessed), cognitive, language, behavior, and motor skills (Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition), executive function (clinical assessment and Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Edition), and vision (clinical examination and global motion perception). Coprimary outcomes were neurosensory impairment (cognitive, language or motor score below -1 SD or cerebral palsy or blind or deaf) and processing difficulty (executive function or global motion perception worse than 1.5 SD from the mean). Statistical tests were two sided with 5% significance level. Mean (± SD) birth weight was 3093 ± 803 g and mean gestation was 37.7 ± 1.6 weeks. Sixty-six children (36%) had neurosensory impairment (1 severe, 6 moderate, 59 mild) with similar rates in both groups (dextrose 38% vs placebo 34%, relative risk 1.11, 95% CI 0.75-1.63). Processing difficulty also was similar between groups (dextrose 10% vs placebo 18%, relative risk 0.52, 95% CI 0.23-1.15). Dextrose gel is safe for the treatment of neonatal hypoglycemia, but neurosensory impairment is common among these children. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN 12608000623392. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Outcome at two years after dextrose gel treatment for neonatal hypoglycemia; Follow up of a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Deborah L; Alsweiler, Jane M; Ansell, Judith M; Gamble, Greg D; Thompson, Ben; Wouldes, Trecia A; Yu, Tzu-Ying; Harding, Jane E

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine neurodevelopmental outcome at two years’ corrected age in children randomized to treatment with dextrose gel or placebo for hypoglycemia soon after birth (The Sugar Babies Study). Study design This was a follow-up study of 184 children who had been hypoglycemic (< 2.6mM [45 mg/dL]) in the first 48 hours and randomized to either dextrose (90/118, 76%) or placebo gel (94/119, 79%). Assessments were performed at Kahikatea House, Hamilton, New Zealand, and included neurological function and general health (Pediatrician assessed), cognitive, language, behaviour and motor skills (Bayley-III), executive function (clinical assessment and BRIEF-P), and vision (clinical examination and global motion perception). Co-primary outcomes were neurosensory impairment (cognitive, language or motor score below −1 SD or cerebral palsy or blind or deaf) and processing difficulty (executive function or global motion perception worse than 1.5 SD from the mean). Statistical tests were two sided with 5% significance level. Results Mean (±SD) birth weight was 3093 ± 803 g and mean gestation was 37.7 ±1.6 weeks. Sixty-six children (36%) had neurosensory impairment (1 severe, 6 moderate, 59 mild) with similar rates in both groups (dextrose 38% vs. placebo 34%, RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.75–1.63). Processing difficulty was also similar between groups (dextrose 10% vs. placebo 18%, RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.23–1.15). Conclusions Dextrose gel is safe for treatment of neonatal hypoglycemia, but neurosensory impairment is common amongst these children. PMID:26613985

  16. Citrate anticoagulation: Are blood donors donating bone?

    PubMed

    Bialkowski, Walter; Bruhn, Roberta; Edgren, Gustaf; Papanek, Paula

    2016-10-01

    An estimated 2.4 million volunteer apheresis blood donation procedures were performed in the United States in 2010, and increases in the proportion of transfused blood products derived from apheresis blood collections have been consistently reported. Anticoagulation is required during apheresis and is achieved with citrate. Donor exposure to citrate causes an acute physiological response to maintain serum mineral homeostasis. Some data are available on the sequelae of this acute response in the days and weeks following exposure, raising questions about bone mineral density in regular apheresis donors. New research is emerging that addresses the potential long-term health outcomes of repeated citrate exposure. This article reviews the acute physiological response to citrate anticoagulation in volunteer blood donors, presents contrasting perspectives on the potential effects of citrate exposure on bone density, and identifies key knowledge gaps in our understanding of long-term health outcomes in apheresis donors. J. Clin. Apheresis 31:459-463, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Effect of intrauterine dextrose or antibiotic therapy on reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows diagnosed with clinical endometritis.

    PubMed

    Brick, T A; Schuenemann, G M; Bas, S; Daniels, J B; Pinto, C R; Rings, D M; Rajala-Schultz, P J

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the responses to treatments (clinical cure and cow survival 14 d posttherapy) of cows with clinical endometritis (CE) that received intrauterine infusion of a hypertonic solution of 50% dextrose (DEX) or subcutaneous ceftiofur crystalline free acid (CCFA) and subsequent pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) in cows with CE compared with cows without CE. Cows (n=760) from 2 dairy herds were screened for CE using vaginoscopy and measurement of cervix diameters [exam 1; 26±3 d in milk (DIM)]. Cows with vaginal discharge scores of 2 or 3 (scale 0-3) were stratified by parity and randomly allocated into 1 of 3 treatment groups: (1) intrauterine infusion (∼200 mL) of 50% DEX solution (n=79); (2) 6.6 mg/kg single-dose of subcutaneous administration of CCFA (n=75); or (3) untreated control animals (CON, n=83). Fourteen days posttherapy (at 40±3 DIM), cows with CE were re-examined (exam 2; 40±3 DIM) to assess the response to treatments. All cows were presynchronized with 2 injections of PGF(2α) given 14 d apart (starting at 26±3 DIM) followed by Ovsynch (OV; GnRH-7 d-PGF-56 h-GnRH 16 h-timed-AI) 12 to 14 d later. Cows displaying signs of standing estrus any time during the protocol were inseminated, whereas the remaining cows were subjected to timed AI 16 h after the second GnRH of OV. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed via transrectal ultrasonography at 39±3d post-AI followed by pregnancy reconfirmation 30 d after the first pregnancy diagnosis. Uterine swabs revealed that Arcanobacterium pyogenes and Escherichia coli were the most predominant bacteria isolated at the time of treatments. Mortality within 14 d posttherapy was not different among treatment groups. Cows with CE had greater cervical diameter at exam 1 and decreased P/AI compared with cows without CE. Treatment with CCFA or DEX increased the proportion of cows with clear vaginal discharge (score 0; clinical cure) 14 d posttherapy compared with CON cows

  18. Effect of intrauterine dextrose on reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows diagnosed with purulent vaginal discharge under certified organic management.

    PubMed

    Maquivar, M G; Barragan, A A; Velez, J S; Bothe, H; Schuenemann, G M

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of the study were to assess responses to treatments (clinical cure and resumption of estrous cycles) of cows with purulent vaginal discharge (PVD) that received intrauterine infusion of a hypertonic solution of 50% dextrose (DEX) or untreated control (CON) cows and the subsequent pregnancy per artificial insemination (PAI) in cows with and without PVD. Cows (n=2,852) from 2 dairy herds were screened for PVD using the gloved hand technique at exam 1 [26±3 d in milk (DIM)]. Cows with vaginal discharge scores of 2 or 3 (0-3 scale) were stratified by parity and randomly allocated into 1 of 2 treatment groups: (1) intrauterine infusion (~200 mL) of 50% DEX solution (n=456), or (2) untreated control animals (CON, n=491). Fourteen days posttherapy (40±3 DIM), cows with PVD were re-examined at exam 2 (40±3 DIM) to assess the response to treatments. All cows were subjected to the same reproductive program, which consisted of estrus detection twice daily (using tail chalking and visual observation) for the first 5 artificial inseminations; then, open lactating cows were turned out with bulls. Cows displaying signs of standing estrus underwent AI and no reproductive hormones were used. Pregnancy diagnosis (PD) was performed via transrectal palpation at 40±3 d post-AI. The risk of culling within 14 d posttherapy was not different among treatment groups. Cows with PVD had greater cervical diameter at exam 1 and decreased PAI compared with cows without PVD. Treatment with DEX increased the proportion of cows with clear vaginal discharge (clinical cure) and cyclicity 14 d posttherapy compared with CON cows. Pregnancy per AI for DEX (29.2±2%) cows was significantly greater than that for CON (22.5±2%) cows. Cows without PVD had a greater proportion of cycling cows (65.6%) and PAI (37%) with reduced pregnancy losses (5.7%) compared with DEX or CON cows. The use of intrauterine DEX alone improved reproductive performance of cows with PVD.

  19. Citrate, a specific substrate for the isolation of Clostridium sphenoides.

    PubMed Central

    Walther, R; Hippe, H; Gottschalk, G

    1977-01-01

    With a medium containing citrate as the carbon and energy source, 10 clostridial strains were isolated from various mud samples. Characterization of these strains revealed that they all belonged to the same species, Clostridium sphenoides. Strains of this organism obtained from culture collections were also able to grow citrate, whereas 15 other clostridial species tested were not. Citrate was fermented by C. sphenoides to acetate, ethanol, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen. Experiments with stereospecifically 14C-labeled citrate indicated that citrate lyase was involved in citrate degradation. Images PMID:869540

  20. Formation of hydroxyapatite in soils using calcium citrate and sodium phosphate for control of strontium migration.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Robert Charles; Hasan, Ahmed Ali Mohamed; Sanchez, Charles Anthony; Zhao, Hongting; Salas, Fred Manuel; Hasan, Mahmoud A.; Holt, Kathleen Caroline

    2003-08-01

    {sup 90}Sr contamination is a major problem at several U.S. sites. At some sites, {sup 90}Sr has migrated deep underground making site remediation difficult. In this paper, we describe a novel method for precipitation of hydroxyapatite, a strong sorbent for {sup 90}Sr, in soil. The method is based on mixing a solution of calcium citrate and sodium phosphate in soil. As the indigenous soil microorganisms mineralize the citrate, the calcium is released and forms hydroxyapatite. Soil, taken from the Albuquerque desert, was treated with a sodium phosphate solution or a sodium phosphate/calcium citrate solution. TEM and EDS were used to identify hydroxyapatite with CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} substitutions, with a formula of (Ca{sub 4.8}Na{sub 0.2})[(PO{sub 4}){sub 2.8}(CO{sub 3}){sub 0.2}](OH), in the soil treated with the sodium phosphate/calcium citrate solution. Untreated and treated soils were used in batch sorption experiments for Sr uptake. Average Sr uptake was 19.5, 77.0 and 94.7% for the untreated soil, soil treated with sodium phosphate, and soil with apatite, respectively. In desorption experiments, the untreated soil, phosphate treated soil and apatite treated soil released an average of 34.2, 28.8 and 4.8% respectively. The results indicate the potential of forming apatite in soil using soluble reagents for retardation of radionuclide migration.

  1. Localization of the calcium-regulated citrate transport process in proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Hering-Smith, Kathleen S; Mao, Weibo; Schiro, Faith R; Coleman-Barnett, Joycelynn; Pajor, Ana M; Hamm, L Lee

    2014-06-01

    Urinary citrate is an important inhibitor of calcium-stone formation. Most of the citrate reabsorption in the proximal tubule is thought to occur via a dicarboxylate transporter NaDC1 located in the apical membrane. OK cells, an established opossum kidney proximal tubule cell line, transport citrate but the characteristics change with extracellular calcium such that low calcium solutions stimulate total citrate transport as well as increase the apparent affinity for transport. The present studies address several fundamental properties of this novel process: the polarity of the transport process, the location of the calcium-sensitivity and whether NaDC1 is present in OK cells. OK cells grown on permeable supports exhibited apical >basolateral citrate transport. Apical transport of both citrate and succinate was sensitive to extracellular calcium whereas basolateral transport was not. Apical calcium, rather than basolateral, was the predominant determinant of changes in transport. Also 2,3-dimethylsuccinate, previously identified as an inhibitor of basolateral dicarboxylate transport, inhibited apical citrate uptake. Although the calcium-sensitive transport process in OK cells is functionally not typical NaDC1, NaDC1 is present in OK cells by Western blot and PCR. By immunolocalization studies, NaDC1 was predominantly located in discrete apical membrane or subapical areas. However, by biotinylation, apical NaDC1 decreases in the apical membrane with lowering calcium. In sum, OK cells express a calcium-sensitive/regulated dicarboxylate process at the apical membrane which responds to variations in apical calcium. Despite the functional differences of this process compared to NaDC1, NaDC1 is present in these cells, but predominantly in subapical vesicles.

  2. Vibrational study of tamoxifen citrate polymorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamberini, M. C.; Baraldi, C.; Tinti, A.; Palazzoli, F.; Ferioli, V.

    2007-09-01

    The trans isomer of ( Z)-2-[ p-(1,2-diphenyl-butenyl)phenoxy]- N, N-dimethyletylamine (tamoxifen) is well known for its endocrine activity as an antiestrogenic agent. Its citrate salt, a widely used pharmaceutical agent, appears in three main polymorphic forms, two of which are well known (I and II) and another form not yet well evidenced. A vibrational study has been conducted for identifying the two known polymorphic forms of tamoxifen citrate (I and II) and for characterising the other form (form III) examined in this study. Other techniques for the characterization of the different polymorphs, such as XRDP, have been used.

  3. Nickel sorption to goethite and montmorillonite in presence of citrate.

    PubMed

    Marcussen, Helle; Holm, Peter E; Strobel, Bjarne W; Hansen, Hans Chr B

    2009-02-15

    Mobility and bioavailability of nickel (Ni) in soil strongly depends on the interaction between Ni(II), ligands, and sorbents like organic matter and minerals. Sorption of Ni(II) and Ni(II)-citrate complexes to goethite and montmorillonite was examined in batch experiments with and without citrate as ligand in the pH range pH 4-7.5. Without citrate, montmorillonite shows higher Ni sorption than goethite. Citrate strongly decreases Ni sorption to montmorillonite; in presence of 100 microM citrate goethite becomes a stronger Ni sorbent than montmorillonite. Ni and citrate sorption was modeled successfully using the diffuse double layer model with the following reactions: Goethite: 3 [triple bond]FeOH + Citrate(3-) + 3H+ <=> [triple bond] Fe3Citrate + 3H2O, [triple bond]FeOH + Ni2+ <=> [triple bond] FeONi + H+ and 2 [triple bond] FeOH + Citrate(3)- + Ni2+ <=> [triple bond] FeONiCitrate(2-) + H+. Montmorillonite: 2X- + Ni2+ <=> X2Ni and [triple bond] AIOH + Ni2+ <=> AIONi+ + H+. Sorption of Ni to a mixture of goethite and montmorillonite could be calculated by use of reactions and constants for the monomineral systems. Without citrate, the sorbed amount of Ni per mass unit in the mixture can be found as a simple average of sorption to the two single sorbents, while in presence of citrate Ni sorption to montmorillonite is strongly influenced by citrate sorption to goethite.

  4. Fungistatic activity of flaxseed in potato dextrose agar and a fresh noodle system.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yingying; Hall, Clifford; Wolf-Hall, Charlene; Manthey, Frank

    2008-02-10

    Although numerous researchers have studied flaxseed as a food ingredient for its health benefits, flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) has never been considered as a food preservative. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of flaxseed flour (FF) concentration (0, 6, 9, 12, and 15% wt/wt), cultivar ('Omega' and brown) and source (four seed companies located in Minnesota and North Dakota) on flaxseed fungistatic activity. Fungal radial growth was used to assess the fungistatic activity of FF in both potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium and a fresh noodle system. Strains of Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium graminearum, and a Penicillium sp. isolated from molded noodles were used as the test microorganisms. Results showed that growth of F. graminearum was completely inhibited at all FF concentrations in PDA, and the inhibition of the other three test microorganisms increased with increasing FF concentrations. In the model noodle system, FF concentration at 9% or higher significantly reduced the mold count of fresh noodle during storage. In the inoculated noodle system, 6% FF addition was sufficient to significantly inhibit the growth of F. graminearum and A. flavus, whereas 9% FF concentrations showed fungistatic activity against P. chrysogenum and the Penicillium sp. isolate. Differences in the degree of mold inhibition were found among FFs obtained from different sources and cultivars. Results suggested that flaxseed possesses fungistatic activity and could be used as a multifunctional food ingredient.

  5. Determination of dextrose equivalent value and number average molecular weight of maltodextrin by osmometry.

    PubMed

    Rong, Y; Sillick, M; Gregson, C M

    2009-01-01

    Dextrose equivalent (DE) value is the most common parameter used to characterize the molecular weight of maltodextrins. Its theoretical value is inversely proportional to number average molecular weight (M(n)), providing a theoretical basis for correlations with physical properties important to food manufacturing, such as: hygroscopicity, the glass transition temperature, and colligative properties. The use of freezing point osmometry to measure DE and M(n) was assessed. Measurements were made on a homologous series of malto-oligomers as well as a variety of commercially available maltodextrin products with DE values ranging from 5 to 18. Results on malto-oligomer samples confirmed that freezing point osmometry provided a linear response with number average molecular weight. However, noncarbohydrate species in some commercial maltodextrin products were found to be in high enough concentration to interfere appreciably with DE measurement. Energy dispersive spectroscopy showed that sodium and chloride were the major ions present in most commercial samples. Osmolality was successfully corrected using conductivity measurements to estimate ion concentrations. The conductivity correction factor appeared to be dependent on the concentration of maltodextrin. Equations were developed to calculate corrected values of DE and M(n) based on measurements of osmolality, conductivity, and maltodextrin concentration. This study builds upon previously reported results through the identification of the major interfering ions and provides an osmolality correction factor that successfully accounts for the influence of maltodextrin concentration on the conductivity measurement. The resulting technique was found to be rapid, robust, and required no reagents.

  6. Effect of topically applied sildenafil citrate on wound healing: experimental study.

    PubMed

    Gürsoy, Koray; Oruç, Melike; Kankaya, Yüksel; Ulusoy, Mustafa Gürhan; Koçer, Uğur; Kankaya, Duygu; Gürsoy, Reyhan Neslihan; Çevik, Özge; Öğüş, Elmas; Fidanci, Vildan

    2014-08-16

    Wound healing is a complex process that necessitates organization of different cell types and several signalling molecules. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of sildenafil citrate, which decreases cGMP degradation, on wound healing by secondary intention.This study was performed using 25 Sprague Dawley rats weighing 200-250 grams. 4 dorsal defects were created. Four different treatment modalities which were 1% and 5% sildenafil citrate gel prepared with carbopol, pure carbopol gel without any drug in it and 0,9% NaCl solution; were applied to each lesion of the same rat. Randomly selected five rats (25 rats in total) were sacrificed on 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th, and 14th days; and the effect of each modality was evaluated by means of defect area measurement, histopathological examination and measurement of tissue hydroxyproline levels.Sildenafil citrate gel application decreased the defect areas in a dose independent manner starting from 3rd day and dose dependent manner after 7th day. By means of vascularization, sildenafil citrate increased vascularity starting from 3rd day. The strength of acute inflammation was superior in sildenafil groups starting from 5th day; and the amount and maturation of granulation in the wound bed, as well as the strength of chronic inflammation were superior in defects treated with sildenafil citrate as early as 7th day.

  7. The role of tannic acid and sodium citrate in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranoszek-Soliwoda, Katarzyna; Tomaszewska, Emilia; Socha, Ewelina; Krzyczmonik, Pawel; Ignaczak, Anna; Orlowski, Piotr; Krzyzowska, Małgorzata; Celichowski, Grzegorz; Grobelny, Jaroslaw

    2017-08-01

    We describe herein the significance of a sodium citrate and tannic acid mixture in the synthesis of spherical silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Monodisperse AgNPs were synthesized via reduction of silver nitrate using a mixture of two chemical agents: sodium citrate and tannic acid. The shape, size and size distribution of silver particles were determined by UV-Vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Special attention is given to understanding and experimentally confirming the exact role of the reagents (sodium citrate and tannic acid present in the reaction mixture) in AgNP synthesis. The oxidation and reduction potentials of silver, tannic acid and sodium citrate in their mixtures were determined using cyclic voltammetry. Possible structures of tannic acid and its adducts with citric acid were investigated in aqueous solution by performing computer simulations in conjunction with the semi-empirical PM7 method. The lowest energy structures found from the preliminary conformational search are shown, and the strength of the interaction between the two molecules was calculated. The compounds present on the surface of the AgNPs were identified using FT-IR spectroscopy, and the results are compared with the IR spectrum of tannic acid theoretically calculated using PM6 and PM7 methods. The obtained results clearly indicate that the combined use of sodium citrate and tannic acid produces monodisperse spherical AgNPs, as it allows control of the nucleation, growth and stabilization of the synthesis process. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. Separation of Ni and Co by D2EHPA in the Presence of Citrate Ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadimi, Hamed; Haghshenas Fatmehsari, Davoud; Firoozi, Sadegh

    2017-10-01

    Recycling processes for the recovery of metallic content from the electronic wastes are environmentally friendly and economical. This paper reports a method for the recovery and separation of Ni and Co from the sulfate solution by the use of D2EHPA. In this regard, the influence of citrate ion, as a carboxylate ligand, was examined in the separation conditions of Ni and Co via D2EHPA (a poor selective extractant for Ni and Co separation). It was found that the Δ {pH}_{0.5}^{Ni-Co} (the difference between pH values corresponding to 50 pct extraction of metallic ion) increases to 1.5 at the citrate concentration of 0.05 M; this Δ {pH}_{0.5}^{Ni-Co} value is much higher than that obtained in the absence of citrate ion (0.1). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) indicated that the citrate ion is co-absorbed during the metallic ions absorption by D2EHPA meaning that the metal-organic complexes contain Co/Ni and citrate ion. Also, the stoichiometric coefficients of the Ni and Co extraction reaction were proposed by applying the slope analysis method.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... granules or as a brownish-yellowish powder. (2) Ferric ammonium citrate (iron (III) ammonium citrate, CAS... granules, as a powder, or as transparent green crystals. (b) The ingredients meet the specifications of the...

  10. Evidence that Osteoblasts are Specialized Citrate-producing Cells that Provide the Citrate for Incorporation into the Structure of Bone

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Renty B.; Chellaiah, Meena; Zou, Jing; Reynolds, Mark A.; Costello, Leslie C.

    2015-01-01

    Citrate is a major component of bone in all vertebrates, but its implications in bone have remained largely unknown. Recent studies identified that citrate is incorporated into the structure of the hydroxyapatite nanocrystal/collagen complex; and is essential for the important biomechanical properties of bone. This raises the important question, “What is the source of citrate for incorporation into bone?”; A question that heretofore had remained unresolved. Studies in this report were designed to determine the plausibility of our concept that the osteoblasts are specialized citrate-producing cells, which provide the citrate that is incorporated into the structure of bone; and that osteogenic differentiation of mesenchyme cells leads to the development of the citrate-producing osteoblasts. The results demonstrated that primary human osteoblasts exhibit the capability of citrate-production. Undifferentiated mesenchyme cells do not exhibit the capability of citrate production; and osteogenic differentiation results in citrate-producing osteoblasts. The up-regulation of zinc uptake transporter ZIP1 is essential for the manifestation of the citrate-producing capability of the osteoblasts. We determined that osteoblast transport of citrate from plasma is not a likely source of citrate in bone. Thus, this study establishes for the first time that the osteoblasts are specialized citrate-producing cells that provide the citrate for incorporation into the structure of bone; and that mesenchyme cell osteogenesis leads to differentiated citrate-producing osteoblasts. This is a new understanding; which must include the osteogenic development of citrate-producing osteoblasts, and the process of “citration” in concert with mineralization during bone formation. It also provides a new understanding of the role of bone in the homeostatic maintenance of plasma citrate concentration. PMID:25745519

  11. Physicochemical action of potassium-magnesium citrate in nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, C. Y.; Koenig, K.; Khan, R.; Haynes, S.; Padalino, P.

    1992-01-01

    Effect of potassium-magnesium citrate on urinary biochemistry and crystallization of stone-forming salts was compared with that of potassium citrate at same dose of potassium in five normal subjects and five patients with calcium nephrolithiasis. Compared to the placebo phase, urinary pH rose significantly from 6.06 +/- 0.27 to 6.48 +/- 0.36 (mean +/- SD, p less than 0.0167) during treatment with potassium citrate (50 mEq/day for 7 days) and to 6.68 +/- 0.31 during therapy with potassium-magnesium citrate (containing 49 mEq K, 24.5 mEq Mg, and 73.5 mEq citrate per day). Urinary pH was significantly higher during potassium-magnesium citrate than during potassium citrate therapy. Thus, the amount of undissociated uric acid declined from 118 +/- 61 mg/day during the placebo phase to 68 +/- 54 mg/day during potassium citrate treatment and, more prominently, to 41 +/- 46 mg/day during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy. Urinary magnesium rose significantly from 102 +/- 25 to 146 +/- 37 mg/day during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy but not during potassium citrate therapy. Urinary citrate rose more prominently during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy (to 1027 +/- 478 mg/day from 638 +/- 252 mg/day) than during potassium citrate treatment (to 932 +/- 297 mg/day). Consequently, urinary saturation (activity product) of calcium oxalate declined significantly (from 1.49 x 10(-8) to 1.03 x 10(-8) M2) during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy and marginally (to 1.14 x 10(-8) M2) during potassium citrate therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  12. Physicochemical action of potassium-magnesium citrate in nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, C. Y.; Koenig, K.; Khan, R.; Haynes, S.; Padalino, P.

    1992-01-01

    Effect of potassium-magnesium citrate on urinary biochemistry and crystallization of stone-forming salts was compared with that of potassium citrate at same dose of potassium in five normal subjects and five patients with calcium nephrolithiasis. Compared to the placebo phase, urinary pH rose significantly from 6.06 +/- 0.27 to 6.48 +/- 0.36 (mean +/- SD, p less than 0.0167) during treatment with potassium citrate (50 mEq/day for 7 days) and to 6.68 +/- 0.31 during therapy with potassium-magnesium citrate (containing 49 mEq K, 24.5 mEq Mg, and 73.5 mEq citrate per day). Urinary pH was significantly higher during potassium-magnesium citrate than during potassium citrate therapy. Thus, the amount of undissociated uric acid declined from 118 +/- 61 mg/day during the placebo phase to 68 +/- 54 mg/day during potassium citrate treatment and, more prominently, to 41 +/- 46 mg/day during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy. Urinary magnesium rose significantly from 102 +/- 25 to 146 +/- 37 mg/day during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy but not during potassium citrate therapy. Urinary citrate rose more prominently during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy (to 1027 +/- 478 mg/day from 638 +/- 252 mg/day) than during potassium citrate treatment (to 932 +/- 297 mg/day). Consequently, urinary saturation (activity product) of calcium oxalate declined significantly (from 1.49 x 10(-8) to 1.03 x 10(-8) M2) during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy and marginally (to 1.14 x 10(-8) M2) during potassium citrate therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  13. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... restrictions. The color additive bismuth citrate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on..., eyebrows, or hair on parts of the body other than the scalp. (d) Labeling. (1) The label of the color... abraded scalp. Do not use to color eyelashes, eyebrows, or hair on parts of the body other than the scalp...

  14. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... restrictions. The color additive bismuth citrate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on..., eyebrows, or hair on parts of the body other than the scalp. (d) Labeling. (1) The label of the color... abraded scalp. Do not use to color eyelashes, eyebrows, or hair on parts of the body other than the scalp...

  15. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... restrictions. The color additive bismuth citrate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on..., eyebrows, or hair on parts of the body other than the scalp. (d) Labeling. (1) The label of the color... abraded scalp. Do not use to color eyelashes, eyebrows, or hair on parts of the body other than the scalp...

  16. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... restrictions. The color additive bismuth citrate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on..., eyebrows, or hair on parts of the body other than the scalp. (d) Labeling. (1) The label of the color... abraded scalp. Do not use to color eyelashes, eyebrows, or hair on parts of the body other than the scalp...

  17. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... restrictions. The color additive bismuth citrate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on..., eyebrows, or hair on parts of the body other than the scalp. (d) Labeling. (1) The label of the color... abraded scalp. Do not use to color eyelashes, eyebrows, or hair on parts of the body other than the scalp...

  18. Citrate as a siderophore in Bradyrhizobium japonicum.

    PubMed Central

    Guerinot, M L; Meidl, E J; Plessner, O

    1990-01-01

    Under iron-limiting conditions, many bacteria secrete ferric iron-specific ligands, generically termed siderophores, to aid in the sequestering and transport of iron. One strain of the nitrogen-fixing soybean symbiont Bradyrhizobium japonicum, 61A152, was shown to produce a siderophore when 20 B. japonicum strains were screened with all six chemical assays commonly used to detect such production. Production by strain 61A152 was detected via the chrome azurol S assay, a general test for siderophores which is independent of siderophore structure. The iron-chelating compound was neither a catechol nor a hydroxamate and was ninhydrin negative. It was determined to be citric acid via a combination of thin-layer chromatography and high-voltage paper electrophoresis; this identification was verified by a specific enzymatic assay for citric acid. The inverse correlation which was observed between citric acid release and the iron content of the medium suggested that ferric citrate could serve as an iron source. This was confirmed via growth and transport assays. Exogenously added ferric citrate could be used to overcome iron starvation, and iron-deficient cells actively transported radiolabeled ferric citrate. These results, taken together, indicate a role for ferric citrate in the iron nutrition of this strain, which has been shown to be an efficient nitrogen-fixing strain on a variety of soybean cultivars. PMID:2140566

  19. 14 N NQR spectrum of sildenafil citrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, David; Singh, Nadia

    2015-04-01

    The 14N nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectrum of sildenafil citrate tablets has been recorded allowing the quadrupole coupling constants and asymmetry parameters of all six unique nitrogen atoms in its structure to be determined. A density function calculation gives results that are largely in agreement with the experimental values.

  20. 21 CFR 582.5195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.5195 Section 582.5195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 184.1195 Section 184.1195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1386 - Isopropyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Isopropyl citrate. 184.1386 Section 184.1386 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 184.1449 Section 184.1449 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of...

  4. Comparative effectiveness of dextrose prolotherapy versus control injections and exercise in the management of osteoarthritis pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chen-Yu; Hsiao, Ming-Yen; Chang, Ke-Vin; Han, Der-Sheng; Wang, Tyng-Guey

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence has supported the use of dextrose prolotherapy for patients with osteoarthritis. However, the real benefits may be affected by differences in injection protocols, comparative regimens, and evaluation scales. PubMed and Scopus were searched from the earliest record until February 2016. One single-arm study and five randomized controlled trials were included, comprising 326 participants. We estimated the effect sizes of pain reduction before and after serial dextrose injections and compared the values between dextrose prolotherapy, comparative regimens, and exercise 6 months after the initial injection. Regarding the treatment arm using dextrose prolotherapy, the effect sizes compared with baseline were 0.65 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14-1.17), 0.84 (95% CI, 0.40-1.27), 0.85 (95% CI, 0.60-1.10), and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.53-1.21) after the first, second, third, and fourth or more injections, respectively. The overall effect of dextrose was better than control injections (effect size, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.10-0.63). Dextrose prolotherapy had a superior effect compared with local anesthesia (effect size, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.07-0.70) and exercise (effect size, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.30-1.11). There was an insignificant advantage of dextrose over corticosteroids (effect size, 0.31; 95% CI, -0.18 to 0.80) which was only estimated from one study. Dextrose injections decreased pain in osteoarthritis patients but did not exhibit a positive dose-response relationship following serial injections. Dextrose prolotherapy was found to provide a better therapeutic effect than exercise, local anesthetics, and probably corticosteroids when patients were retested 6 months following the initial injection.

  5. Comparative effectiveness of dextrose prolotherapy versus control injections and exercise in the management of osteoarthritis pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chen-Yu; Hsiao, Ming-Yen; Chang, Ke-Vin; Han, Der-Sheng; Wang, Tyng-Guey

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence has supported the use of dextrose prolotherapy for patients with osteoarthritis. However, the real benefits may be affected by differences in injection protocols, comparative regimens, and evaluation scales. Methods PubMed and Scopus were searched from the earliest record until February 2016. One single-arm study and five randomized controlled trials were included, comprising 326 participants. We estimated the effect sizes of pain reduction before and after serial dextrose injections and compared the values between dextrose prolotherapy, comparative regimens, and exercise 6 months after the initial injection. Results Regarding the treatment arm using dextrose prolotherapy, the effect sizes compared with baseline were 0.65 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14–1.17), 0.84 (95% CI, 0.40–1.27), 0.85 (95% CI, 0.60–1.10), and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.53–1.21) after the first, second, third, and fourth or more injections, respectively. The overall effect of dextrose was better than control injections (effect size, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.10–0.63). Dextrose prolotherapy had a superior effect compared with local anesthesia (effect size, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.07–0.70) and exercise (effect size, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.30–1.11). There was an insignificant advantage of dextrose over corticosteroids (effect size, 0.31; 95% CI, –0.18 to 0.80) which was only estimated from one study. Conclusion Dextrose injections decreased pain in osteoarthritis patients but did not exhibit a positive dose–response relationship following serial injections. Dextrose prolotherapy was found to provide a better therapeutic effect than exercise, local anesthetics, and probably corticosteroids when patients were retested 6 months following the initial injection. PMID:27799816

  6. 21 CFR 573.580 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.580 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 573.580 Section 573...

  7. 21 CFR 573.580 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.580 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 573.580 Section 573...

  8. 21 CFR 573.580 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.580 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 573.580 Section 573...

  9. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in food in accordance with the following...

  10. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 172.370 Section 172... Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by reacting... source of iron in foods for special dietary use. ...

  11. 21 CFR 520.622b - Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. 520.622b Section... Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of syrup contains 60 milligrams of diethylcarbamazine citrate. (2) Sponsor. See No. 053501 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (3) Conditions of use....

  12. 21 CFR 520.622b - Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. 520.622b Section... Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of syrup contains 60 milligrams of diethylcarbamazine citrate. (2) Sponsor. See No. 053501 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (3) Conditions of use....

  13. 21 CFR 520.622b - Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. 520.622b Section... Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of syrup contains 60 milligrams of diethylcarbamazine citrate. (2) Sponsor. See No. 053501 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (3) Conditions of use....

  14. 21 CFR 520.623 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable... § 520.623 Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 60, 120, or 180 milligrams of diethylcarbamazine citrate with 45, 91, or 136 milligrams...

  15. 21 CFR 520.623 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable... § 520.623 Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 60, 120, or 180 milligrams of diethylcarbamazine citrate with 45, 91, or 136 milligrams...

  16. 21 CFR 520.623 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable... § 520.623 Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 60, 120, or 180 milligrams of diethylcarbamazine citrate with 45, 91, or 136 milligrams...

  17. 21 CFR 520.622d - Diethylcarbamazine citrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate capsules. 520.622d... Diethylcarbamazine citrate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 12.5, 50, 200, or 400 milligrams (mg) diethylcarbamazine citrate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 011014 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use...

  18. Methodology of citrate-based biomaterial development and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, M. Richard

    Biomaterials play central roles in modern strategies of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Attempts to find tissue-engineered solutions to cure various injuries or diseases have led to an enormous increase in the number of polymeric biomaterials over the past decade. The breadth of new materials arises from the multiplicity of anatomical locations, cell types, and mode of application, which all place application-specific requirements on the biomaterial. Unfortunately, many of the currently available biodegradable polymers are limited in their versatility to meet the wide range of requirements for tissue engineering. Therefore, a methodology of biomaterial development, which is able to address a broad spectrum of requirements, would be beneficial to the biomaterial field. This work presents a methodology of citrate-based biomaterial design and application to meet the multifaceted needs of tissue engineering. We hypothesize that (1) citric acid, a non-toxic metabolic product of the body (Krebs Cycle), can be exploited as a universal multifunctional monomer and reacted with various diols to produce a new class of soft biodegradable elastomers with the flexibility to tune the material properties of the resulting material to meet a wide range of requirements; (2) the newly developed citrate-based polymers can be used as platform biomaterials for the design of novel tissue engineering scaffolding; and (3) microengineering approaches in the form thin scaffold sheets, microchannels, and a new porogen design can be used to generate complex cell-cell and cell-microenvironment interactions to mimic tissue complexity and architecture. To test these hypotheses, we first developed a methodology of citrate-based biomaterial development through the synthesis and characterization of a family of in situ crosslinkable and urethane-doped elastomers, which are synthesized using simple, cost-effective strategies and offer a variety methods to tailor the material properties to

  19. Storage of washed platelets in BRS-A platelet additive solutions based on two types of clinically available bicarbonated Ringer's solutions with different electrolyte concentrations.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Shinji; Taguchi, Takeshi; Endo, Kimika; Hoshi, Takahiro; Kawashima, Wataru; Horibe, Yasuhito; Urano, Shinichi; Suzuki, Ko; Minegishi, Masayoshi; Itoh, Takashi; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    In Japan, no platelet (PLT) additive solutions (PASs) are officially approved for clinical use although blood centers often receive requests for washed PLTs to reduce adverse reactions. Recently, we developed a novel PAS called BRS-A based on clinically available bicarbonated Ringer's solution (BRS), Bicanate and acid-citrate-dextrose formula A (ACD-A), which has been shown to maintain the in vitro properties of PLTs in the condition of <5% residual plasma during 7-day storage. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether another clinically available BRS, Bicarbon with different electrolyte concentrations can be used as a PAS. Two types of BRS-As were prepared by adding 25 mL of ACD-A to 500 mL of Bicanate or Bicarbon BRSs. Bicanate-based BRS-A and Bicarbon-based BRS-A contain 0.9 or 0.5 mmol/L of magnesium chloride, 95.2 or 100.1 mmol/L of sodium chloride, 4.2 or 5.1 mmol/L of trisodium citrate, and 26.6 or 23.8 mmol/L of sodium bicarbonate, respectively; the other components were identical. Apheresis PLTs stored in these solutions with less than 5% plasma for 7-day storage were compared with regard to their in vitro properties. The pH levels of all units were above 7 throughout storage. The mean PLT volume, hypotonic shock response, glucose consumption, lactate production, swirling, and CD62P and CD42b expression were similar during 7-day storage. The bicarbonate levels in Bicarbon-based BRS-A were lower than those in Bicanate-based BRS-A. Differences in concentrations of electrolytes such as magnesium, sodium, citrate, and bicarbonate salts in BRS-A do not affect the in vitro properties of PLTs during 7-day storage. These results indicate that the use of another type of BRS-A based on Bicarbon as a PAS is feasible. Thus, BRS-A can be used in hospitals that do not stock Bicanate but have Bicarbon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Formulation, Characterization and Physicochemical Evaluation of Potassium Citrate Effervescent Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Fattahi, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to design and formulation of potassium citrate effervescent tablet for reduction of calcium oxalate and urate kidney stones in patients suffering from kidney stones. Methods: In this study, 13 formulations were prepared from potassium citrate and effervescent base in different concentration. The flowability of powders and granules was studied. Then effervescent tablets were prepared by direct compression, fusion and wet granulation methods. The prepared tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, effervescent time, pH, content uniformity. To amend taste of formulations, different flavoring agents were used and then panel test was done by using Latin Square method by 30 volunteers. Results: Formulations obtained from direct compression and fusion methods had good flow but low hardness. Wet granulation improves flowability and other physicochemical properties such as acceptable hardness, effervescence time ≤3 minutes, pH<6, friability < 1%, water percentage < 0.5% and accurate content uniformity. In panel test, both of combination flavors; (orange - lemon) and (strawberry - raspberry) had good acceptability. Conclusion: The prepared tablets by wet granulation method using PVP solution had more tablet hardness. It is a reproducible process and suitable to produce granules that are compressed into effervescent tablets due to larger agglomerates. PMID:24312839

  1. Why sildenafil and sildenafil citrate monohydrate crystals are not stable?

    PubMed

    Sawatdee, Somchai; Pakawatchai, Chaveng; Nitichai, Kwanjai; Srichana, Teerapol; Phetmung, Hirihattaya

    2015-10-01

    Sildenafil citrate was crystallized by various techniques aiming to determine the behavior and factors affecting the crystal growth. There are only 2 types of sildenafil obtaining from crystallization: sildenafil (1) and sildenafil citrate monohydrate (2). The used techniques were (i) crystallization from saturated solutions, (ii) addition of an antisolvent, (iii) reflux and (iv) slow solvent evaporation method. By pursuing these various methods, our work pointed that the best formation of crystal (1) was obtained from technique no. (i). Surprisingly, the obtained crystals (1) were perfected if the process was an acidic pH at a cold temperature then perfect crystals occurred within a day. Crystals of compound (2) grew easily using technique no. (ii) which are various polar solvents over a wide range of pH and temperature preparation processes. The infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra fit well with these two X-ray crystal structures. The crystal structures of sildenafil free base and salt forms were different from their different growing conditions leading to stability difference.

  2. Why sildenafil and sildenafil citrate monohydrate crystals are not stable?

    PubMed Central

    Sawatdee, Somchai; Pakawatchai, Chaveng; Nitichai, Kwanjai; Srichana, Teerapol; Phetmung, Hirihattaya

    2015-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate was crystallized by various techniques aiming to determine the behavior and factors affecting the crystal growth. There are only 2 types of sildenafil obtaining from crystallization: sildenafil (1) and sildenafil citrate monohydrate (2). The used techniques were (i) crystallization from saturated solutions, (ii) addition of an antisolvent, (iii) reflux and (iv) slow solvent evaporation method. By pursuing these various methods, our work pointed that the best formation of crystal (1) was obtained from technique no. (i). Surprisingly, the obtained crystals (1) were perfected if the process was an acidic pH at a cold temperature then perfect crystals occurred within a day. Crystals of compound (2) grew easily using technique no. (ii) which are various polar solvents over a wide range of pH and temperature preparation processes. The infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra fit well with these two X-ray crystal structures. The crystal structures of sildenafil free base and salt forms were different from their different growing conditions leading to stability difference. PMID:26594116

  3. Photodegradation of uranium-citrate complex with uranium recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, C.J.; Francis, A.J. )

    1994-07-01

    Upon exposure to visible light, uranyl citrate complex showed photodegradation of citric acid to acetic acid and carbon dioxide, with the precipitation of uranium as uranium trioxide (UO[sub 3][center dot]2H[sub 2]O). The initial pH and presence of oxygen affected the rate and extent of photochemical degradation of the complex, the formation of intermediate organic degradation products, and uranium speciation. Under aerobic conditions at pH 3.5, acetic, acetoacetic, 3-oxoglutaric, and malonic acids and acetone were detected; at pH 6.0, 3-oxoglutaric and acetic acids were present. The uranyl U(VI) ion was reduced to uranous U(IV) ion and was subsequently reoxidized to the hexavalent form and precipitated out of solution as uranium trioxide. Uranium trioxide precipitate was insoluble at near-neutral pH and was soluble in acidic pH (<4.1). Under anaerobic conditions, the uranyl citrate complex showed only partial (57%) degradation, and uranium was present in the reduced form as U(IV). Excess citric acid retarded the precipitation of uranium. 26 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Selective cytopheretic inhibitory device with regional citrate anticoagulation and portable sorbent dialysis.

    PubMed

    Pino, Christopher J; Farokhrani, Amin; Lou, Liandi; Smith, Peter L; Johnston, Kimberly; Buffington, Deborah A; Humes, H David

    2013-02-01

    Selective cytopheretic inhibitory device (SCD) therapy is an immunomodulatory treatment provided by a synthetic biomimetic membrane in an extracorporeal circuit, which has shown promise in preclinical large animal models of severe sepsis as well as in clinical trials treating patients with acute kidney injury and multiple organ failure. During SCD therapy, citrate is administered to lower ionized calcium levels in blood for anticoagulation and inhibition of leukocyte activation. Historically, citrate has been known to interfere with sorbent dialysis, therefore, posing a potential issue for the use of SCD therapy with a portable dialysis system. This sorbent dialysis SCD (sorbent SCD) would be well suited for battlefield and natural disaster applications where the water supply for standard dialysis is limited, and the types of injuries in those settings would benefit from SCD therapy. In order to explore the compatibility of sorbent and SCD technologies, a uremic porcine model was tested with the Allient sorbent dialysis system (Renal Solutions Incorporated, Fresenius Medical Care, Warrendale, PA, USA) and concurrent SCD therapy with regional citrate anticoagulation. The hypothesis to be assessed was whether the citrate load required by the SCD could be metabolized prior to recirculation from systemic blood back into the therapeutic circuit. Despite the fact that the sorbent SCD maintained urea clearance without any adverse hematologic events, citrate load for SCD therapy caused an interaction with the sorbent column resulting in elevated, potentially toxic aluminum levels in dialysate and in systemic blood. Alternative strategies to implement sorbent-SCD therapy will be required, including development of alternate urease-sorbent column binding chemistry or further changes to the sorbent-SCD therapeutic circuit along with determining the minimum citrate concentration required for efficacious SCD treatment.

  5. Isoexergonic Conformations of Surface-Bound Citrate Regulated Bioinspired Apatite Nanocrystal Growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ziqiu; Xu, Zhijun; Zhao, Weilong; Chen, Wei; Miyoshi, Toshikazu; Sahai, Nita

    2016-10-05

    The superior biomechanical properties of bone and dentin are dictated, in part, by the unique plate-like morphology of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanocrysals within a hierarchically assembled collagen matrix. Understanding the mechanism of crystal growth and thus morphology is important to the rational design of bioinspired apatite nanocrystals for orthopedic and dental applications. Citrate has long been proposed to modulate apatite crystal growth, but major questions exist regarding the HAP-bound citrate conformations and the identities of the interacting functional groups and HAP surface sites. Here, we conducted a comprehensive investigation of the mechanism from the angstrom to submicrometer scale by detailed correlation of the results of high-level metadynamics simulations, employing force-fields benchmarked to experiment and density functional theory calculations with the results of high resolution transmission electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, solution analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. Crystal morphology changed from needle- to plate-like with increasing citrate concentration. Citrate adsorbed more strongly on the HAP (100) face than on the (001) face, thus resulting in preferential growth in the [001] direction and the plate-like morphology. Two very different bound conformations were obtained, involving interactions of either one or both terminal carboxyl groups with three or five surface calcium ions, respectively, and a hydrogen bond between the citrate hydroxyl and the HAP surface. Remarkably, despite fewer interaction sites in the single bound carboxyl conformation, the structures were isoexergonic, so both exist at equilibrium. Identification of the former conformation is significant because it allows a greater adsorption density than is traditionally assumed and can help explain concentration-dependence of citrate in modulating crystal morphology. These unique results were enabled first by the application of advanced

  6. Determining the chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) behavior of citrate and spermine under in vivo conditions

    PubMed Central

    Basharat, Meer; deSouza, Nandita M.; Parkes, Harold G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the exchange rates of labile 1H in citrate and spermine, metabolites present in prostatic secretions, to predict the size of the citrate and spermine CEST effects in vivo. Methods CEST z‐spectra were acquired at high‐field [11.7 Tesla (T)] from citrate and spermine solutions at physiological pH (6.5) using saturation power 6 μT. CEST was performed at different temperatures to determine exchange regimes (slow, intermediate or fast). For low pH solutions of spermine, exchange rates were estimated from resonance line width, fitting z‐spectra using the Bloch equations incorporating exchange, and using quantifying exchange using saturation time experiments (QUEST). These rates were extrapolated to physiological pH. Results Citrate showed little CEST effect at pH 6.5 and temperature (T) = 310 K (maximum 0.001% mM‐1), indicating fast exchange, whereas spermine showed greater CEST effects (maximum 0.2% mM‐1) indicating intermediate‐to‐fast exchange. Extrapolating data acquired from low pH spermine solutions predicts exchange rates at pH 6.5 and T of 310 K of at least 2 × 104s‐1. Conclusion Citrate and spermine show minimal CEST effects at 11.7T even using high saturation power. These effects would be much less than 2% at clinical field‐strengths due to relatively faster exchange and would be masked by CEST from proteins. Magn Reson Med 76:742–746, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PMID:26467055

  7. Citrate modulates lipopolysaccharide-induced monocyte inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    Ashbrook, M J; McDonough, K L; Pituch, J J; Christopherson, P L; Cornell, T T; Selewski, D T; Shanley, T P; Blatt, N B

    2015-01-01

    Citrate, a central component of cellular metabolism, is a widely used anti-coagulant due to its ability to chelate calcium. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-citrate lyase, which metabolizes citrate, has been shown to be essential for inflammation, but the ability of exogenous citrate to impact inflammatory signalling cascades remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that citrate would modulate inflammatory responses as both a cellular metabolite and calcium chelator, and tested this hypothesis by determining how clinically relevant levels of citrate modulate monocyte proinflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a human acute monocytic leukaemia cell line (THP-1). In normal medium (0·4 mM calcium), citrate inhibited LPS-induced tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-8 transcripts, whereas in medium supplemented with calcium (1·4 mM), TNF-α and IL-8 levels increased and appeared independent of calcium chelation. Using an IL-8–luciferase plasmid construct, the same increased response was observed in the activation of the IL-8 promoter region, suggesting transcriptional regulation. Tricarballylic acid, an inhibitor of ATP-citrate lyase, blocked the ability of citrate to augment TNF-α, linking citrate's augmentation effect with its metabolism by ATP-citrate lyase. In the presence of citrate, increased histone acetylation was observed in the TNF-α and IL-8 promoter regions of THP-1 cells. We observed that citrate can both augment and inhibit proinflammatory cytokine production via modulation of inflammatory gene transactivation. These findings suggest that citrate anti-coagulation may alter immune function through complex interactions with the inflammatory response. PMID:25619261

  8. Hair Sheep Blood, Citrated or Defibrinated, Fulfills All Requirements of Blood Agar for Diagnostic Microbiology Laboratory Tests

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Ellen; Pinsky, Benjamin A.; Banaei, Niaz; Baron, Ellen Jo

    2009-01-01

    Background Blood agar is used for the identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of many bacterial pathogens. In the developing world, microbiologists use human blood agar because of the high cost and inhospitable conditions for raising wool sheep or horses to supply blood. Many pathogens either fail to grow entirely or exhibit morphologies and hemolytic patterns on human blood agar that confound colony recognition. Furthermore, human blood can be hazardous to handle due to HIV and hepatitis [1], [2]. This study investigated whether blood from hair sheep, a hardy, low-maintenance variety of sheep adapted for hot climates, was suitable for routine clinical microbiology studies. Methods and Findings Hair sheep blood obtained by jugular venipuncture was anticoagulated by either manual defibrination or collection in human blood bank bags containing citrate-phosphate-dextrose. Trypticase soy 5% blood agar was made from both forms of hair sheep blood and commercial defibrinated wool sheep blood. Growth characteristics, colony morphologies, and hemolytic patterns of selected human pathogens, including several streptococcal species, were evaluated. Specialized identification tests, including CAMP test, reverse CAMP test, and satellite colony formation with Haemophilus influenzae and Abiotrophia defectiva were also performed. Mueller-Hinton blood agar plates prepared from the three blood types were compared in antibiotic susceptibility tests by disk diffusion and E-test. Conclusions The results of all studies showed that blood agar prepared from citrated hair sheep blood is suitable for microbiological tests used in routine identification and susceptibility profiling of human pathogens. The validation of citrated hair sheep blood eliminates the labor-intensive and equipment-requiring process of manual defibrination. Use of hair sheep blood, in lieu of human blood currently used by many developing world laboratories and as an alternative to cost

  9. Assessing ureteral patency using 10% dextrose cystoscopy fluid: evaluation of urinary tract infection rates.

    PubMed

    Siff, Lauren N; Unger, Cecile A; Jelovsek, J Eric; Paraiso, Marie Fidela R; Ridgeway, Beri M; Barber, Matthew D

    2016-07-01

    Intravenous indigo carmine has routinely been used to confirm ureteral patency after urogynecologic surgery. Recent discontinuation of the dye has altered clinical practice. In the absence of indigo carmine, we have used 10% dextrose in sterile water (D10) as cystoscopic fluid to evaluate ureteral patency. Glucosuria has been associated with urinary tract infection (UTI) in vivo and significantly enhanced bacterial growth in vitro. The concern is that the use of D10 would mimic a state of glucosuria albeit transient and increase the risk of postoperative UTI. The objectives of this study were to compare the rates of postoperative UTI and lower urinary tract (LUT) injuries between patients who underwent instillation of D10 vs normal saline at the time of intraoperative cystoscopy after urogynecological surgery. This was a retrospective cohort study of all women who underwent cystoscopic evaluation of ureteral patency at the time of urogynecological surgery from May through December 2014 at a tertiary care referral center. We compared patients who received D10 cystoscopy fluid vs those who used normal saline. Outcomes included UTI and diagnosis of ureteral or LUT injuries. UTI was diagnosed according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines by symptoms alone, urine dipstick, urinalysis, or urine culture. Descriptive statistics compared the rates of UTI between the 2 groups, and a multivariable model was fit to the data to control for potential confounders and significant baseline differences between the groups. A total of 303 women were included. D10 was used in 113 cases and normal saline (NS) was used in 190. The rate of UTI was higher in the D10 group than the NS group: 47.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 38.3-57.4) vs 25.9% (95% CI, 19.8-32.8, P < .001). After adjusting for age, pelvic organ prolapse stage, use of perioperative estrogen, days of postoperative catheterization, menopausal status, diabetes mellitus, and history of recurrent UTI

  10. The Role of Lithium Carbonate and Lithium Citrate in Regulating Urinary Citrate Level and Preventing Nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaobo; Aggarwal, Piyush; Li, Xiaoming; Oakman, Crystale; Wang, Zhiping; Rodriguez, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Urinary Citrate is an inhibitor of Calcium oxalate stone formation. It is reabsorbed in the proximal kidney through sodium dicarboxylate co-transporters (NaDC-1, NaDC-3) present in the renal tubular epithelium. Lithium (Li) is a known potent inhibitor of these transporters. We investigated the effect of lithium carbonate (LiC) and lithium citrate (LiCit) in regulating urinary citrate levels and preventing nephrolithiasis (NL) in the rat model. Experimental approach: We took 220 Wistar rats and induced nephrolithiasis in 130 of them by administering high doses of 5% ammonium oxalate (AmOx) for seven days and labeled them as Group B. Rest were labeled as Group A. Each group was then divided into 3 subgroups. First sub-group acted as control while other two were treated with either lithium carbonate (LiC) or lithium citrate (LiCit) for 21 days. Ten rats from each of the six sub-groups were randomly selected for sacrifice on 3rd, 7th and 14th day and additional 10th and 21st day from Li treated groups. Blood and urine samples were collected and analyzed on these days. The kidneys of the sacrificed rats were dissected and studied under light microscopy for crystal deposition (left kidney) and histological changes (right kidney). Key results: Urinary citrate levels were significantly increased in response to either LiC (p<0.001) or LiCit (p<0.001). Increased urinary citrate levels resulted in the reduction of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal deposition, kidney tubular dilatation and infiltration of inflammatory cell in the tubulo-interstitium. Conclusions and implications: Use of lithium salts might be a potentially useful approach in the prevention of recurrent NL. PMID:23675140

  11. Beta Blockers Suppress Dextrose-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Oxidative Stress, and Apoptosis in Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Haas, Michael J; Kurban, William; Shah, Harshit; Onstead-Haas, Luisa; Mooradian, Arshag D

    Beta blockers are known to have favorable effects on endothelial function partly because of their capacity to reduce oxidative stress. To determine whether beta blockers can also prevent dextrose-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in addition to their antioxidative effects, human coronary artery endothelial cells and hepatocyte-derived HepG2 cells were treated with 27.5 mM dextrose for 24 hours in the presence of carvedilol (a lipophilic beta blockers with alpha blocking activity), propranolol (a lipophilic nonselective beta blockers), and atenolol (a water-soluble selective beta blockers), and ER stress, oxidative, stress and cell death were measured. ER stress was measured using the placental alkaline phosphatase assay and Western blot analysis of glucose regulated protein 78, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), phospho-JNK, eukaryotic initiating factor 2α (eIF2α), and phospho-eIF2α and measurement of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) mRNA splicing using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Superoxide (SO) generation was measured using the superoxide-reactive probe 2-methyl-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3,7-dihydroimidazo[1,2-A]pyrazin-3-one hydrochloride (MCLA) chemiluminescence. Cell viability was measured by propidium iodide staining method. The ER stress, SO production, and cell death induced by 27.5 mM dextrose were inhibited by all 3 beta blockers tested. The antioxidative and ER stress reducing effects of beta blockers were also observed in HepG2 cells. The salutary effects of beta blockers on endothelial cells in reducing both ER stress and oxidative stress may contribute to the cardioprotective effects of these agents.

  12. Polyethyleneimine phosphate and citrate systems act like pseudo polyampholytes as a starting method to isolate pepsin.

    PubMed

    Manzur, Alejandra; Spelzini, Darío; Farruggia, Beatriz; Romanini, Diana; Picó, Guillermo

    2007-12-01

    The aqueous solution behaviour of polyethyleneimine (a cationic synthetic polymer) in the presence of anions (such as citrate and phosphate) was studied by means of turbidimetry. The variation of the absorbance at 420 nm of dilute mixture with pH, the polymer concentration and the ionic strength were examined. The mixture of polyethyleneinine citrate or polyethyleneinine phosphate behaves as a pseudo polyampholyte with an isoelectric point of 5.5 and 6.2 for phosphate and citrate respectively and a precipitation pH range between 3.5 and 8.0. Pepsin was completely precipitated with the polymer anion complex within this pH interval. Citrate showed a better precipitation effect than phosphate did. The precipitate was reversibly dissolved in NaCl (for concentrations higher than 0.2 M) and pepsin kept its biological activity. Studies of pepsin thermal stability (by differential scanning calorimetry) revealed that the polyethyleneimine presence increased the enzyme denaturation temperature. The circular dichroism spectrum of pepsin showed a non-significant loss of secondary and tertiary enzyme structure by the polyethyleneimine. However, the polymer presence increased the biological activity of pepsin.

  13. Promotion of Ni2+ Removal by Masking Toxicity to Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria: Addition of Citrate

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Junwei; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Tao, Yong; Zhou, Yan; He, Xiaohong; Li, Daping

    2015-01-01

    The sulfate-reducing bioprocess is a promising technology for the treatment of heavy metal-containing wastewater. This work was conducted to investigate the possibility of promoting heavy metal removal by the addition of citrate to mask Ni2+ toxicity to sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in batch reactors. SRB growth was completely inhibited in Ni2+-containing medium (1 mM) when lactate served as the sole carbon resource, leading to no sulfate reduction and Ni2+ removal. However, after the addition of citrate, SRB grew well, and sulfate was quickly reduced to sulfide. Simultaneously, the Ni-citrate complex was biodegraded to Ni2+ and acetate. The NiS precipitate was then formed, and Ni2+ was completely removed from the solution. It was suggested that the addition of citrate greatly alleviates Ni2+ toxicity to SRB and improves the removal of Ni2+, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR targeting dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) genes. Analysis of the carbon metabolism indicated that lactate instead of acetate served as the electron donor for sulfate reduction. This study offers a potential approach to increase the removal of heavy metals from wastewater in the single stage SRB-based bioprocess. PMID:25860948

  14. Citrate in plasma and urine during total fasting.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, T T; Sørensen, N S

    1979-01-01

    Plasma citrate was determined in 12 obese subjects who underwent total fasting for 10 days. Mean plasma citrate concentration rose significantly from 128 before to 205 micro mol/1 on the 10th day of fasting. Plasma citrate rose continuously during fasting in seven subjects in whom daily determinations were carried out. The 24-hour urinary citrate excretion was followed in six subjects. A significant decrease was found from 2.91 mmol/24 h in the prefasting state to 0.25 mmol/24 h at the end of the fast. Intravenous glucose tolerance test were performed before and on the 10th day of fasting. Kivgtt decreased significantly and was inversely related to plasma citrate concentration on the 10th day of fasting. The results agree well with the concept that an increased citrate level of tissues is of regulatory importance for the decreased glucose utilization during fasting in man.

  15. Sildenafil citrate for female sexual arousal disorder: a future possibility?

    PubMed

    Schoen, Corina; Bachmann, Gloria

    2009-04-01

    Female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) is a common disorder encountered in clinical practice, with self-reported arousal difficulties reported in up to 26% of American women. Various oral therapies for FSAD have been studied, including sildenafil citrate, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor that is currently used to treat male erectile dysfunction. In vitro studies of sildenafil citrate have demonstrated smooth-muscle relaxation in clitoral tissue, and phosphodiesterase type-5 has been shown to be present in vaginal, clitoral and labial smooth muscle; these findings have led to theories that sildenafil citrate might be successful for treating FSAD. This Review discusses the data from clinical trials that have assessed sildenafil citrate for the treatment of FSAD; the trials show that sildenafil citrate is moderately effective. Sildenafil citrate may also be effective in women with FSAD secondary to multiple sclerosis, diabetes or antidepressant use; however, more trials in these patient populations are required to confirm these findings.

  16. Variation of stability constants of thorium citrate complexes and of thorium hydrolysis constants with ionic strength

    SciTech Connect

    Choppin, G.R.; Erten, H.N.; Xia, Y.X.

    1995-09-01

    Citrate is among the organic anions that are expected to be present in the wastes planned for deposition in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository. In this study, a solvent extraction method has been used to measure the stability constants of Thorium(IV)[Th(IV)] with citrate anions in aqueous solutions with (a) NaClO{sub 4} and (b) NaCl as the background electrolytes. The ionic strengths were varied up to 5 m (NaCl) and 14 m (NaClO{sub 4}). The data from the NaClO{sub 4} solutions at varying pH values were used to calculate the hydrolysis constants for formation of Th(OH){sup 3+} at the different ionic strengths.

  17. TRANSFUSIONS—Hazardous Acid-Base Changes with Citrated Blood

    PubMed Central

    Pedro, Jovita M. San; Iwai, Seizo; Hattori, Mitsuo; Leigh, M. Digby

    1962-01-01

    In a study of the acid-base changes in the blood of rabbits during and following transfusions of citrated blood and of heparinized blood, it was observed that, with citrated blood, pH decreased and carbon dioxide tensions rose. With heparinized blood, the acid-base balance was maintained within normal limits following transfusions. The potential hazards of rapid massive citrated blood transfusions in the anesthetized patient during operation must be kept in mind. PMID:14496706

  18. [Effect of 100% CO2 or 5% dextrose as distending uterine cavity medium on the proliferation and apoptosis of endometrial carcinoma cell in vitro].

    PubMed

    Wen, Yi; Gao, Xue-mei; Wang, He; Cheng, Wei

    2007-06-01

    To study the effect of 100% CO, or 5% dextrose on proliferation and apoptosis of endometrial cancer cell (HEC-1-B), and to find out which one is the better distending uterus medium available to patients suspected to have endometrial cancer. Endometrial cancer cells were divided into 3 groups: control group; 5% dextrose group; 100% CO2 group. In the 5% dextrose group, cells were put in 37 degrees C and 5% dextrose environment for 1 h. In the CO2 group, cells were put in 37 degrees C and 100% CO degrees with 30 mmHg environment for 1 h. The control group was not administrated with any thing but for 37 degrees C and 5% CO2. The optical density (A490) value of endometrial cancer cells were measured with MTT chromometry every 24 hours within next 9 days. The G, peak values of endometrial cancer cells were detected with PI staining and flow cytometry method on 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th day after cell treated. All data were analyzed by SPSS 11. 5 software. The A490 values of the three groups all tended to rise, but the levels of control group and CO2 group were more significantly high than 5% dextrose group (P<0. 05). No significant difference of the A490 value was observed within next 9 days between the control group and CO2 group. The G1 peak values of the three groups all had the tendency to rise. In the 5% dextrose group, the G1 peak value was significantly increased comparing with the control group and CO2 group (P<0. 05). No significant difference of the GC peak value was observed between the control group and CO2 group (P>0. 05). 5% dextrose can inhibit the proliferation and promote the apoptosis of the endometrial cancer cells. CO2 has no effect on the proliferation and apoptosis of the endometrial cancer cells.

  19. A randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial of the effects of fluid rate and/or presence of dextrose in intravenous fluids on the labor course of nulliparas.

    PubMed

    Fong, Alex; Serra, Allison E; Caballero, Deysi; Garite, Thomas J; Shrivastava, Vineet K

    2017-08-01

    Prolonged labor has been demonstrated to increase adverse maternal and neonatal outcome. A practice that may decrease the risk of prolonged labor is the modification of fluid intake during labor. Several studies demonstrated that increased hydration in labor as well as addition of dextrose-containing fluids may be associated with a decrease in length of labor. The purpose of our study was to characterize whether high-dose intravenous fluids, standard-dose fluids with dextrose, or high-dose fluids with dextrose show a difference in the duration of labor in nulliparas. Nulliparous subjects with singletons who presented in active labor were randomized to 1 of 3 groups of intravenous fluids: 250 mL/h of normal saline, 125 mL/h of 5% dextrose in normal saline, or 250 mL/h of 2.5% dextrose in normal saline. The primary outcome was total length of labor from initiation of intravenous fluid in vaginally delivered subjects. Secondary outcomes included cesarean delivery rate and length of second stage of labor, among other maternal and neonatal outcomes. In all, 274 subjects who met inclusion criteria were enrolled. There were no differences in baseline characteristics among the 3 groups. There was no difference in the primary outcome of total length of labor in vaginally delivered subjects among the 3 groups. First stage of labor duration, second stage of labor duration, and cesarean delivery rates were also equivalent. There were no differences identified in other secondary outcomes including clinical chorioamnionitis, postpartum hemorrhage, blood loss, Apgar scores, or neonatal intensive care admission. There is no difference in length of labor or delivery outcomes when comparing high-dose intravenous fluids, addition of dextrose, or use of high-dose intravenous fluids with dextrose in nulliparous women who present in active labor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Citrate anticoagulation for continuous renal replacement therapy in small children.

    PubMed

    Soltysiak, Jolanta; Warzywoda, Alfred; Kociński, Bartłomiej; Ostalska-Nowicka, Danuta; Benedyk, Anna; Silska-Dittmar, Magdalena; Zachwieja, Jacek

    2014-03-01

    Regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) is one of the methods used to prevent clotting in continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). The aim of this study was to describe the outcomes and complications of RCA-CRRT in comparison to heparin anticoagulation (HA)-CRRT in critically ill children. This study was a retrospective review of 30 critically ill children (16 on RCA- and 14 on HA-CRRT) who underwent at least 24 h of CRRT. The mean body weight of the children was 8.69 ± 5.63 kg. RCA-CRRT was performed with a commercially available pre-dilution citrate solution (Prismocitrate 18/0). The mean time on RCA-CRRT and HA-CRRT was 148.73 ± 131.58 and 110.24 ± 105.38 h, respectively. Circuit lifetime was significantly higher in RCA-CRRT than in HA-CRRT (58.04 ± 51.18 h vs. 37.64 ± 32.51 h, respectively; p = 0.030). Circuit clotting was observed in 11.63 % of children receiving RCA-CRRT and 34.15 % of those receiving HA-CRRT. Episodic electrolyte and metabolic disturbances were more common in children receiving RCA-CRRT. The survival at discharge from the hospital was 37.5 and 14.3 % among children receiving RCA-CRRT and HA-CRRT, respectively. In critically ill children with a low body weight, RCA appeared to be safe and easy to used. Among our patient cohort, RCA was more effective in preventing circuit clotting and provided a better circuit lifetime than HA.

  1. Enrofloxacinium citrate monohydrate: Preparation, crystal structure, thermal stability and IR-characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovnev, Nicolay N.; Vasiliev, Alexander D.; Kirik, Sergei D.

    2012-08-01

    Enrofloxacinium citrate monohydrate (I), CHFNO3+·CHO7-·HO, [C19H22FN3O3 - enrofloxacin, EnrH] has been crystallized from the mutual solution of citric acid and enrofloxacin in ambient conditions. The colorless crystals have been investigated using X-ray single crystal and powder techniques, and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry and infrared spectroscopy. The obtained compound can be considered as a salt with enrofloxacinium in the role of a cation and citrate as an anion. The ions ratio equals to 1:1. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic lattice with a = 9.0489(8) Å, b = 9.6531(8) Å, c = 14.913(1) Å, α = 98.813(1)°, β = 92.029(1)°, γ = 91.013(1)°, Z = 2, V = 1286.1(2) Å3, S.G. P1¯. The crystal structure determination reveals the importance of inter- and intramolecular interactions in the crystal formation. The EnrH2+ and HCit molecular ions are packed in alternating layers with water molecules inserted into the citrate layers. A citrate ion in the layer is linked via H-bondings with two adjacent ones and three water molecules. Enrofloxacinium cations are packaged by means of a benched mode and every cation is linked by three intermolecular thymus type H-bondings with nitrogens of adjacent cations and by two links with the oxygen of the citrate ions. The infrared spectra gave the evidence of H-bonding formation in the obtained salt. The π-stacking interactions are observed between the aromatic cycles of the adjacent cations which are located in an antiparallel style in a layer.

  2. Early initiation of low-level parenteral dextrose induces an accelerated diabetic phenotype in septic C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Singamsetty, Srikanth; Shah, Faraaz Ali; Guo, Lanping; Watanabe, Yoshio; McDonald, Sherie; Sharma, Rohit; Zhang, Yingze; Alonso, Laura C; O'Donnell, Christopher P; McVerry, Bryan J

    2016-01-01

    Development of hyperglycemia during sepsis is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Nutritional support is common practice in the intensive care unit, but the metabolic effects are not well understood. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of early low-level calorie provision on the development of hyperglycemia in a clinically relevant murine model of sepsis. C57BL/6J mice underwent femoral arterial and venous catheterization followed by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham surgery and low-dose intravenous dextrose or saline infusion. Blood glucose, plasma insulin, and cytokines were measured after 24 h. Additional septic mice underwent hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps or received intravenous insulin concurrent with dextrose to determine whole-body insulin sensitivity and test the efficacy of insulin to reverse hyperglycemia. Neither dextrose infusion nor CLP alone induced hyperglycemia. Early initiation of low-level dextrose in septic mice produced a variable glycemic response: 49% maintained euglycemia (blood glucose < 200) and 27% developed severe hyperglycemia (blood glucose ≥ 600). Hyperglycemia was associated with increased inflammation and reduced insulin secretion and sensitivity compared with control mice or CLP mice maintaining euglycemia. Insulin prevented the progression to severe hyperglycemia but was ineffective in reestablishing glycemic control once hyperglycemia had developed. In conclusion, early initiation of clinically relevant low-level dextrose (∼ 20% daily caloric requirements) precipitated hyperglycemia akin to an acute diabetic phenotype in septic mice characterized by decreased insulin sensitivity, decreased insulin secretion, and an increased inflammatory response.

  3. Early initiation of low-level parenteral dextrose induces an accelerated diabetic phenotype in septic C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Singamsetty, Srikanth; Shah, Faraaz Ali; Guo, Lanping; Watanabe, Yoshio; McDonald, Sherie; Sharma, Rohit; Zhang, Yingze; Alonso, Laura C.; O’Donnell, Christopher P.; McVerry, Bryan J.

    2016-01-01

    Development of hyperglycemia during sepsis is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Nutritional support is common practice in the intensive care unit, but the metabolic effects are not well understood. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of early low-level calorie provision on the development of hyperglycemia in a clinically relevant murine model of sepsis. C57BL/6J mice underwent femoral arterial and venous catheterization followed by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham surgery and low-dose intravenous dextrose or saline infusion. Blood glucose, plasma insulin, and cytokines were measured after 24 h. Additional septic mice underwent hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps or received intravenous insulin concurrent with dextrose to determine whole-body insulin sensitivity and test the efficacy of insulin to reverse hyperglycemia. Neither dextrose infusion nor CLP alone induced hyperglycemia. Early initiation of low-level dextrose in septic mice produced a variable glycemic response: 49% maintained euglycemia (blood glucose <200) and 27% developed severe hyperglycemia (blood glucose≥600). Hyperglycemia was associated with increased inflammation and reduced insulin secretion and sensitivity compared with control mice or CLP mice maintaining euglycemia. Insulin prevented the progression to severe hyperglycemia but was ineffective in reestablishing glycemic control once hyperglycemia had developed. In conclusion, early initiation of clinically relevant low-level dextrose (~20% daily caloric requirements) precipitated hyperglycemia akin to an acute diabetic phenotype in septic mice characterized by decreased insulin sensitivity, decreased insulin secretion, and an increased inflammatory response. PMID:26624964

  4. Na/K citrate versus sodium bicarbonate in prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Abouzeid, Sameh Mohamed; ElHossary, Hossam E

    2016-05-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is one of the important complications of radiographic procedures, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is also one of the common causes of acute kidney injury. The pathogenesis is postulated to be the effect of oxygen- free radicals and hyperosmolar stress on the renal medulla. It is reported that the production of superoxide is most active at acid environment. K/Na citrate is well known as a urine alkalinization medium, and this has been evaluated earlier with standard hydration for reduction of CIN and was stated to be efficient. We aimed to determine the efficacy of Na/K citrate in reducing the frequency of CIN in comparison to sodium bicarbonate in patients after coronary angiography. Two hundred and ten patients with renal dysfunction [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) or less] who underwent elective or emergency coronary angiography (CAG) with/without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at our institution were enrolled into the study. The patients were randomized into two groups, Group 1-Taking Na/K citrate and Group 2-Taking sodium bicarbonate. Radiographic contrast agent iohexol was used. Change in creatinine, percent change in creatinine, percent change in eGFR, change in serum potassium, and urine pH were all compared between the two groups. There was no significant difference for prevention of CIN when comparing the Na/K citrate with sodium bicarbonate solution in patients exposed to CAG with or without PCI. Mean absolute change in eGFR after 48 h after administration of contrast between sodium bicarbonate group and Na/K citrate group was -0.60 ± 1.58 versus -0.71 ± 1.38. Serum potassium decreased postprocedure in the sodium bicarbonate group than in the citrate group (3.90 ± 0.33 vs. 4.14 ± 0.39). Both agents are equally effective in reducing the incidence of CIN, but the citrate would possibly be a safer option for patients at risk of hypokalemia.

  5. Anaerobic degradation of citrate under sulfate reducing and methanogenic conditions.

    PubMed

    Gámez, Victor M; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Waltz, Rebecca J; Field, James A

    2009-07-01

    Citrate is an important component of metal processing effluents such as chemical mechanical planarization wastewaters of the semiconductor industry. Citrate can serve as an electron donor for sulfate reduction applied to promote the removal of metals, and it can also potentially be used by methanogens that coexist in anaerobic biofilms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the degradation of citrate with sulfate-reducing and methanogenic biofilms. During batch bioassays, the citrate, acetate, methane and sulfide concentrations were monitored. The results indicate that independent of the biofilm or incubation conditions used, citrate was rapidly fermented with specific rates ranging from 566 to 720 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD) consumed per gram volatile suspended solids per day. Acetate was found to be the main fermentation product of citrate degradation, which was later degraded completely under either methanogenic or sulfate reducing conditions. However, if either sulfate reduction or methanogenesis was infeasible due to specific inhibitors (2-bromoethane sulfonate), absence of sulfate or lack of adequate microorganisms in the biofilm, acetate accumulated to levels accounting for 90-100% of the citrate-COD consumed. Based on carbon balances measured in phosphate buffered bioassays, acetate, CO(2) and hydrogen are the main products of citrate fermentation, with a molar ratio of 2:2:1 per mol of citrate, respectively. In bicarbonate buffered bioassays, acetogenesis of H(2) and CO(2) increased the yield of acetate. The results taken as a whole suggest that in anaerobic biofilm systems, citrate is metabolized via the formation of acetate as the main metabolic intermediate prior to methanogenesis or sulfate reduction. Sulfate reducing consortia must be enriched to utilize acetate as an electron donor in order to utilize the majority of the electron-equivalents in citrate.

  6. Sildenafil citrate ingestion in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, F Lee

    2004-05-01

    Sildenafil citrate is the first FDA-approved oral agent for male erectile dysfunction. Common adverse effects include flushing, headache, and dyspepsia, although more serious side effects have been reported. Because of its specific therapeutic indication, sildenafil toxicity has been limited almost exclusively to adults. We report a symptomatic case of pediatric sildenafil ingestion. A 2-year-old male ingested 75 mg of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) 2 hours prior to arrival at an emergency room. Ipecac syrup had been given at home with one episode of vomiting. Activated charcoal was considered but withheld due to the delayed presentation to the hospital. The patient was observed in the hospital for 17.5 hours. Observed clinical effects included facial flushing, transient penile engorgement, bilateral rhonchi, and diarrhea. No significant cardiovascular effects were seen. A bronchodilator was given with resolution of rhonchi. No other specific interventions were required. One day after discharge, the patient had one additional bout of diarrhea and complained of pain in the penile region for one day. Two weeks after the exposure, the patient's mother denied any unusual symptoms. Pediatric ingestion of sildenafil may result in mild symptoms including persistent flushing and penile engorgement with associated pain. Penile pain may persist even after resolution of the erection. It is questionable whether the respiratory symptoms and diarrhea were related since neither has been described following sildenafil exposure. Significant cardiovascular symptoms were not seen. Early administration of ipecac syrup did not prevent symptoms from developing.

  7. Citrate-stabilized Q-CdSe seed-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles: The role of citrate moieties anchored to the Q-CdSe surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingole, Pravin P.; Bhat, Mohsin A.

    2016-03-01

    Here, we try to explore a new dimension/role for citrate molecules in the bound state, i.e. anchored to the surface of cadmium selenide quantum dots (Q-CdSe), in the synthesis of metal nanoparticles (MNPs). Being labile, the citrate molecule is considered a good candidate for the stabilization of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) such as Q-CdSe that can be used for further functionalization/modification of the surface properties of the QDs. In its free/ionic form (i.e. not bound to the surface), it is well known for its role as a reducing as well as a capping agent in the synthesis of silver and gold MNPs. A simple strategy for the preparation of silver MNPs following the chemical reduction of silver ions that is mediated by citrate-stabilized Q-CdSe seeds without addition of an external reducing agent is presented. The citrate moieties anchored to the surface of Q-CdSe are found to play an important role in the chemical reduction of silver ions. The obtained product was analysed by spectroscopic, microscopic and structural characterization techniques such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry. The characteristic redox behaviour observed in cyclic voltammograms (CVs) also supports the formation of Ag MNPs in the samples. Further, the impact of the reaction solution pH on the feasibility of silver ion reduction by Q-CdSe seeds resulting into the formation of Ag MNPs is also briefly discussed.

  8. Acid-base characteristics of bromophenol blue-citrate buffer systems in the amorphous state.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinjiang; Chatterjee, Koustuv; Medek, Ales; Shalaev, Evgenyi; Zografi, George

    2004-03-01

    In this study, we have examined the acid-base characteristics of various citrate buffer systems alone and in the presence of the pH indicator dye, bromophenol blue, in aqueous solution, and after lyophilization to produce amorphous material. Fourier transform Raman and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been used to monitor the ratio of ionized to un-ionized citric acid under various conditions, as a function of initial pH in the range of 2.65-4.28. Ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry was used to probe the extent of proton transfer of bromophenol blue in the citrate buffer systems in solution and the amorphous state. Spectroscopic studies indicated greater ionization of citric acid and bromophenol blue in solution and the solid state with increasing initial solution pH, as expected. Fourier transform Raman measurements indicated the same ratio of ionized to un-ionized citrate species in solution, frozen solution, and the amorphous state. It is shown that the ratio of species at any particular initial pH is primarily determined by the amount of sodium ion present so as to maintain electroneutrality and not necessarily to the fact that pH and pK(a) remain unchanged during freezing and freeze drying. Indeed, for bromophenol blue, the relative ultraviolet-visible intensities for ionized and un-ionized species in the amorphous sample were different from those in solution indicating that the extent of protonation of bromophenol blue was significantly lower in the solid samples. It is concluded that under certain conditions there can be significant differences in the apparent hydrogen activity of molecules in amorphous systems. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  9. 40 CFR 721.10357 - Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iron, citrate phosphate potassium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10357 Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as iron...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10357 - Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iron, citrate phosphate potassium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10357 Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as iron...

  11. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 172.370 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline... citric acid may be safely used as a source of iron in foods for special dietary use. ...

  12. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Iron-choline citrate complex. 172.370 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline... citric acid may be safely used as a source of iron in foods for special dietary use. ...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10357 - Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iron, citrate phosphate potassium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10357 Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as iron...

  14. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 172.370 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline... citric acid may be safely used as a source of iron in foods for special dietary use. ...

  15. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 172.370 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline... citric acid may be safely used as a source of iron in foods for special dietary use. ...

  16. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1025 Ferric ammonium citrate. (a) Identity. The color additive ferric ammonium citrate consists of complex chelates prepared by the interaction of... general and ophthalmic surgery subject to the following conditions: (1) The dyed suture shall conform in...

  17. Aluminum Citrate Prevents Renal Injury from Calcium Oxalate Crystal Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Besenhofer, Lauren M.; Cain, Marie C.; Dunning, Cody

    2012-01-01

    Calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals are responsible for the kidney injury associated with exposure to ethylene glycol or severe hyperoxaluria. Current treatment strategies target the formation of calcium oxalate but not its interaction with kidney tissue. Because aluminum citrate blocks calcium oxalate binding and toxicity in human kidney cells, it may provide a different therapeutic approach to calcium oxalate-induced injury. Here, we tested the effects of aluminum citrate and sodium citrate in a Wistar rat model of acute high-dose ethylene glycol exposure. Aluminum citrate, but not sodium citrate, attenuated increases in urea nitrogen, creatinine, and the ratio of kidney to body weight in ethylene glycol–treated rats. Compared with ethylene glycol alone, the addition of aluminum citrate significantly increased the urinary excretion of both crystalline calcium and crystalline oxalate and decreased the deposition of crystals in renal tissue. In vitro, aluminum citrate interacted directly with oxalate crystals to inhibit their uptake by proximal tubule cells. These results suggest that treating with aluminum citrate attenuates renal injury in rats with severe ethylene glycol toxicity, apparently by inhibiting calcium oxalate’s interaction with, and retention by, the kidney epithelium. PMID:23138489

  18. Diffuse abdominal gallium-67 citrate uptake in salmonella infections

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, I.; Koren, A.

    1987-11-01

    Two pediatric patients with salmonella infections (one with typhoid fever and the second with salmonella C2 gastroenteritis), had a diffuse abdominal uptake of Ga-67 citrate. The possible explanation for this finding is discussed. Salmonella infection should be included as a cause in the differential diagnosis of diffuse accumulation of Ga-67 citrate.

  19. Characterization of ATP citrate lyase from Chlorobium limicola.

    PubMed Central

    Antranikian, G; Herzberg, C; Gottschalk, G

    1982-01-01

    ATP citrate lyase (EC 4.1.3.8) from Chlorobium limicola was partially purified. It was established that the consumption of substrates and the formation of products proceeded stoichiometrically and that citrate cleavage was of the si-type. ADP and oxaloacetate inhibited enzyme activity. Oxaloacetate also inhibited the growth of C. limicola. PMID:7142107

  20. Structural Basis for Norovirus Inhibition and Fucose Mimicry by Citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Hansman, Grant S.; Shahzad-ul-Hussan, Syed; McLellan, Jason S.; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Georgiev, Ivelin; Shimoike, Takashi; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Bewley, Carole A.; Kwong, Peter D.

    2012-01-20

    Human noroviruses bind with their capsid-protruding domains to histo-blood-group antigens (HBGAs), an interaction thought to direct their entry into cells. Although human noroviruses are the major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks, development of antivirals has been lacking, mainly because human noroviruses cannot be cultivated. Here we use X-ray crystallography and saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance (STD NMR) to analyze the interaction of citrate with genogroup II (GII) noroviruses. Crystals of citrate in complex with the protruding domain from norovirus GII.10 Vietnam026 diffracted to 1.4 {angstrom} and showed a single citrate bound at the site of HBGA interaction. The citrate interaction was coordinated with a set of capsid interactions almost identical to that involved in recognizing the terminal HBGA fucose, the saccharide which forms the primary conserved interaction between HBGAs and GII noroviruses. Citrate and a water molecule formed a ring-like structure that mimicked the pyranoside ring of fucose. STD NMR showed the protruding domain to have weak affinity for citrate (460 {mu}M). This affinity, however, was similar to the affinities of the protruding domain for fucose (460 {mu}M) and H type 2 trisaccharide (390 {mu}M), an HBGA shown previously to be specifically recognized by human noroviruses. Importantly, competition STD NMR showed that citrate could compete with HBGA for norovirus binding. Together, the results suggest that citrate and other glycomimetics have the potential to block human noroviruses from binding to HBGAs.

  1. Structural basis for norovirus inhibition and fucose mimicry by citrate.

    PubMed

    Hansman, Grant S; Shahzad-Ul-Hussan, Syed; McLellan, Jason S; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Georgiev, Ivelin; Shimoike, Takashi; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Bewley, Carole A; Kwong, Peter D

    2012-01-01

    Human noroviruses bind with their capsid-protruding domains to histo-blood-group antigens (HBGAs), an interaction thought to direct their entry into cells. Although human noroviruses are the major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks, development of antivirals has been lacking, mainly because human noroviruses cannot be cultivated. Here we use X-ray crystallography and saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance (STD NMR) to analyze the interaction of citrate with genogroup II (GII) noroviruses. Crystals of citrate in complex with the protruding domain from norovirus GII.10 Vietnam026 diffracted to 1.4 Å and showed a single citrate bound at the site of HBGA interaction. The citrate interaction was coordinated with a set of capsid interactions almost identical to that involved in recognizing the terminal HBGA fucose, the saccharide which forms the primary conserved interaction between HBGAs and GII noroviruses. Citrate and a water molecule formed a ring-like structure that mimicked the pyranoside ring of fucose. STD NMR showed the protruding domain to have weak affinity for citrate (460 μM). This affinity, however, was similar to the affinities of the protruding domain for fucose (460 μM) and H type 2 trisaccharide (390 μM), an HBGA shown previously to be specifically recognized by human noroviruses. Importantly, competition STD NMR showed that citrate could compete with HBGA for norovirus binding. Together, the results suggest that citrate and other glycomimetics have the potential to block human noroviruses from binding to HBGAs.

  2. 21 CFR 520.622 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms. 520.622 Section 520.622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms....

  3. 21 CFR 520.622 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms. 520.622 Section 520.622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms....

  4. 21 CFR 520.622 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms. 520.622 Section 520.622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms....

  5. 21 CFR 520.622 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms. 520.622 Section 520.622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms....

  6. The distribution of plasmids determining citrate utilization in citrate-positive variants of Escherichia coli from humans, domestic animals, feral birds and environments.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, N; Sato, G

    1979-10-01

    Sixty-seven isolates of citrate-positive variants of Escherichia coli were isolated from human, domestic animal, feral bird and environmental sources. With the exception of citrate utilization, all isolates were identified as typical E. coli by their biochemical reactions. The transmission of the ability to utilize citrate on Simmons' citrate agar was demonstrated in 53 (79.1%) out of the 67 citrate-positive E. coli variants obtained from various sources. Drug resistance determinants and citrate utilizing character were co-transmitted into E. coli K-12 by conjugation among citrate-positive E. coli isolates carrying R plasmids except for that isolated from horses. The other characters (haemolysin or colicin production, raffinose or sucrose fermentation) were not transmitted together with the citrate utilizing character. These facts suggested that the structural gene responsible for citrate utilizing ability in citrate-positive variants of E. coli was located on a conjugative plasmid.

  7. Citrate synthesis in intact rat-liver mitochondria is irreversible.

    PubMed

    Greksák, M; Lopes-Cardozo, M; van den Bergh, S G

    1982-02-01

    Rat-liver mitochondria were incubated with [1,5-14C]citrate in the presence of fluorocitrate to block its oxidation in the Krebs cycle. The reaction products were analysed enzymatically and by anion-exchange chromatography. Incorporation of 14C into acetyl-L-carnitine or ketone bodies via a backward action of citrate synthase was not observed. The optimal rate of citrate synthesis from pyruvate and malate in the presence of fluorocitrate was 15 nmol . mg-1 min-1. In the absence of fluorocitrate, but in the presence of malonate, citrate was oxidized to succinate at a rate of 4 nmol . mg-1 . min-1. We conclude that the synthesis of citrate by intact rat liver mitochondria is an irreversible process. The possible mechanism underlying this phenomenon and the consequence for metabolic regulation are discussed.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Biomimetic Citrate-Based Biodegradable Composites

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Richard T.; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Chang; Huang, Minjun; Tang, Wanjin; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Zhongmin; Jin, Dadi; Banik, Brittany; Brown, Justin L.; Xie, Zhiwei; Bai, Xiaochun; Yang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Natural bone apatite crystals, which mediate the development and regulate the load-bearing function of bone, have recently been associated with strongly bound citrate molecules. However, such understanding has not been translated into bone biomaterial design and osteoblast cell culture. In this work, we have developed a new class of biodegradable, mechanically strong, and biocompatible citrate-based polymer blends (CBPBs), which offer enhanced hydroxyapatite binding to produce more biomimetic composites (CBPBHAs) for orthopedic applications. CBPBHAs consist of the newly developed osteoconductive citrate-presenting biodegradable polymers, crosslinked urethane-doped polyester (CUPE) and poly (octanediol citrate) (POC), which can be composited with up to 65 wt.-% hydroxyapatite (HA). CBPBHA networks produced materials with a compressive strength of 116.23 ± 5.37 MPa comparable to human cortical bone (100 – 230 MPa), and increased C2C12 osterix (OSX) gene and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) gene expression in vitro. The promising results above prompted an investigation on the role of citrate supplementation in culture medium for osteoblast culture, which showed that exogenous citrate supplemented into media accelerated the in vitro phenotype progression of MG-63 osteoblasts. After 6-weeks of implantation in a rabbit lateral femoral condyle defect model, CBPBHA composites elicited minimal fibrous tissue encapsulation and were well integrated with the surrounding bone tissues. The development of citrate-presenting CBPBHA biomaterials and preliminary studies revealing the effects of free exogenous citrate on osteoblast culture shows the potential of citrate biomaterials to bridge the gap in orthopedic biomaterial design and osteoblast cell culture in that the role of citrate molecules has previously been overlooked. PMID:23996976

  9. Synthesis and characterization of biomimetic citrate-based biodegradable composites.

    PubMed

    Tran, Richard T; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Chang; Huang, Minjun; Tang, Wanjin; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Zhongmin; Jin, Dadi; Banik, Brittany; Brown, Justin L; Xie, Zhiwei; Bai, Xiaochun; Yang, Jian

    2014-08-01

    Natural bone apatite crystals, which mediate the development and regulate the load-bearing function of bone, have recently been associated with strongly bound citrate molecules. However, such understanding has not been translated into bone biomaterial design and osteoblast cell culture. In this work, we have developed a new class of biodegradable, mechanically strong, and biocompatible citrate-based polymer blends (CBPBs), which offer enhanced hydroxyapatite binding to produce more biomimetic composites (CBPBHAs) for orthopedic applications. CBPBHAs consist of the newly developed osteoconductive citrate-presenting biodegradable polymers, crosslinked urethane-doped polyester and poly (octanediol citrate), which can be composited with up to 65 wt % hydroxyapatite. CBPBHA networks produced materials with a compressive strength of 116.23 ± 5.37 MPa comparable to human cortical bone (100-230 MPa), and increased C2C12 osterix gene and alkaline phosphatase gene expression in vitro. The promising results above prompted an investigation on the role of citrate supplementation in culture medium for osteoblast culture, which showed that exogenous citrate supplemented into media accelerated the in vitro phenotype progression of MG-63 osteoblasts. After 6 weeks of implantation in a rabbit lateral femoral condyle defect model, CBPBHA composites elicited minimal fibrous tissue encapsulation and were well integrated with the surrounding bone tissues. The development of citrate-presenting CBPBHA biomaterials and preliminary studies revealing the effects of free exogenous citrate on osteoblast culture shows the potential of citrate biomaterials to bridge the gap in orthopedic biomaterial design and osteoblast cell culture in that the role of citrate molecules has previously been overlooked.

  10. Sodium citrate functionalized reusable Fe3O4@TiO2 photocatalyst for water purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenyu; Wu, Haoyi

    2017-10-01

    Easy-recycle photocatalysts are new materials for water treatment technologies. In order to improve the recyclable ability, we employed Fe3O4 particles, which were functionalized by sodium citrate, to serve as a substrate core to attract the deposition of a shell of TiO2 particles. When compared to the calcining process for preparing the composite, the TiO2 distributed homogeneously on the sodium citrate treated Fe3O4, forming a mesoporous shell layer. Due to the mesoporous structure, this Fe3O4@TiO2 exhibited high photocatalytic degradation activity to Rhodamine B, and it was easily recycled using a magnetic field to recover the catalyst from solution.

  11. Organically modified porous hydroxyapatites: A comparison between alkylphosphonate grafting and citrate chelation

    SciTech Connect

    El-Hammari, L.; Marroun, H.; Laghzizil, A.; Saoiabi, A.; Roux, C.; Livage, J.; Coradin, T.

    2008-04-15

    Two alternative methods to prepare organically modified porous hydroxyapatites following a 'one pot' approach were compared. The partial substitution of inorganic phosphates by alkylphosphonates leads to mesoporous materials with high specific surface area (>200 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}). The incorporation of the organic moieties within the hydroxyapatite structure is confirmed by Infra-red and solid-state NMR spectroscopy and depends on the nature of the alkyl chain. However, it induces a significant loss of the material crystallinity. In contrast, the introduction of citrate, a calcium-chelating agent, to the precursor solution does not improve the material specific surface area but allows a better control of the hydroxyapatite structure, both in terms of crystallinity and pore size distribution. - Graphical abstract: Evolution of pore size distribution of hydroxyapatite (HAp) after alkylphosphonate grafting (20% TPOH) or citrate addition (c-HAp) demonstrates the formation of organically modified mesoporous materials.

  12. Bioavailability of iron from ferric choline citrate and a ferric copper cobalt choline citrate complex for young pigs.

    PubMed

    Miller, E R; Parsons, M J; Ullrey, D E; Ku, P K

    1981-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the bioavailability for young pigs of Fe from ferric choline citrate or from a commercial mixture of Fe, Cu and Co choline citrate salts. Relative biological value of Fe from either source with a standard of 100 for FeSO4 x 7H20 was about 140 by both hemoglobin regeneration and Fe retention methods.

  13. Stability of acetyl-1-carnitine in 5% dextrose using a high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry times 2 method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Jiang, Hongliang; Hutson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    A stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry times 2 method was developed to establish the stability of acetyl-l-carnitine dissolved in 5% dextrose in water; quantitation of acetyl-l-carnitine and its hydrolysis product I-carnitine was performed using this method. Acetyl-l-carnitine dissolved in water was stress-degraded at a pH range of 3 to 12, and conversion to l-carnitine was quantified over 18 hours. The method was further validated by stressing the acetyl-l-carnitine solution at 68 degrees C, 82 degrees C, and 90 degrees C for up to 10 days, yielding a temperature-dependent hydrolysis rate constant. Acetyl-l-carnitine solutions were stored at 25 degrees C and 4 degrees C to 8 degrees C for 33 days to validate the kinetics prediction. The liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry times 2 method was sensitive and specific, allowing rapid separation and simultaneous quantitation of acetyl-l-carnitine and l-carnitine. Acetyl-l-carnitine dissolved in aqueous solutions is stable at neutral to acidic pH, but unstable at pH > 9. After 1 hour storage at room temperature, only 72.6% of acetyl-l-carnitine was left at pH 11 and 4.2% left at pH 12. The kinetics relationship between temperature and rate constant was In(k) = -8650.1 /T + 20.344 (r2 = 0.9851) at pH 5.2. The time required to degrade 15% of acetyl-I-carnitine was estimated to be 38 days at 25 degrees C or 234 days at 8 degrees C, and was confirmed with actual storage stability testing. Acetyl-l-carnitine dissolved in water (pH 5.2) at concentrations of 1 and 10 mg/mL was found stable at room temperature or refrigerated for at least 33 days using the established stability-indicating method. Acetyl-l-carnitine solutions are not stable at basic pH. When reconstituted in water, acetyl-l-carnitine is stable for over 30 days at room temperature or under refrigeration.

  14. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: Ga-67 citrate imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Woolfenden, J.M.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; Larson, S.M.; Simmons, J.T.; Masur, H.; Smith, P.D.; Shelhamer, J.H.; Ognibene, F.P.

    1987-02-01

    All gallium-67 citrate scans obtained in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, Md.) were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with the results of bronchoscopy, chest radiography, and endoscopy. There were 164 scans of 95 patients. Twenty scans were from patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia; 19 were abnormal, for a sensitivity of 95%. Ga-67 uptake tended to be less in patients receiving therapy for P. carinii pneumonia. Chest radiographs were normal at least initially in three patients with abnormal scans and P. carinii pneumonia. Unusually prominent colonic activity was associated with infection in some patients. No lesions of Kaposi sarcoma showed tracer uptake. Gallium scanning is useful for detecting P. carinii pneumonia and other opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS, but it is not useful for localizing Kaposi sarcoma.

  15. Periarticular dextrose prolotherapy instead of intra-articular injection for pain and functional improvement in knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Rezasoltani, Zahra; Taheri, Mehrdad; Mofrad, Morteza Kazempour; Mohajerani, Seyed Amir

    2017-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease that can lead to painful and dysfunctional joints. Prolotherapy involves using injections to produce functional restoration of the soft tissues of the joint. Intra-articular injections are controversial because of the introduction of needles into the articular capsule. To compare the effect of periarticular versus intra-articular prolotherapy on pain and disability in patients with knee OA. Randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial. Single center, university hospital (Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, Iran). A total of 104 patients with chronic knee OA were enrolled. In the intra-articular group, 8 mL of 10% dextrose and 2 mL of 2% lidocaine were injected. Injections were repeated at 1 and 2 weeks after the first injection. In the periarticular group, 5 mL of 20% dextrose and 5 mL of 1% lidocaine were injected subcutaneously at 4 points in the periarticular area. Pain and disability, as assessed using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), were recorded at each follow-up visit at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 months post-injection. The visual analog scale score was significantly lower in the periarticular compared with the intra-articular group at the 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-month visits but not at 1 month. Morning stiffness and difficulty in rising from sitting were improved in both groups and were not signifi-cantly different in the peri- and intra-articular groups. Pain, joint locking, and limitation scores were all improved in both groups. Difficulty in walking on flat surfaces or climbing stairs, and sitting and standing pain, were all improved in both groups from 1 to 5 months after treatment. WOMAC scores are subjective and could be a limitation of the study. Periarticular prolotherapy has comparable effects on pain and disability due to knee OA to intra-articular injections, while avoiding risks of complications.

  16. Citrate Uptake in Exchange with Intermediates in the Citrate Metabolic Pathway in Lactococcus lactis IL1403▿

    PubMed Central

    Pudlik, Agata M.; Lolkema, Juke S.

    2011-01-01

    Carbohydrate/citrate cometabolism in Lactococcus lactis results in the formation of the flavor compound acetoin. Resting cells of strain IL1403(pFL3) rapidly consumed citrate while producing acetoin when substoichiometric concentrations of glucose or l-lactate were present. A proton motive force was generated by electrogenic exchange of citrate and lactate catalyzed by the citrate transporter CitP and proton consumption in decarboxylation reactions in the pathway. In the absence of glucose or l-lactate, citrate consumption was biphasic. During the first phase, hardly any citrate was consumed. In the second phase, citrate was converted rapidly, but without the formation of acetoin. Instead, significant amounts of the intermediates pyruvate and α-acetolactate, and the end product acetate, were excreted from the cells. It is shown that the intermediates and acetate are excreted in exchange with the uptake of citrate catalyzed by CitP. The availability of exchangeable substrates in the cytoplasm determines both the rate of citrate consumption and the end product profile. It follows that citrate metabolism in L. lactis IL1403(pFL3) splits up in two routes after the formation of pyruvate, one the well-characterized route yielding acetoin and the other a new route yielding acetate. The flux distribution between the two branches changes from 85:15 in the presence of l-lactate to 30:70 in the presence of pyruvate. The proton motive force generated was greatest in the presence of l-lactate and zero in the presence of pyruvate, suggesting that the pathway to acetate does not generate proton motive force. PMID:21115655

  17. Citrate attenuates vascular calcification in chronic renal failure rats.

    PubMed

    Ou, Yan; Liu, Zengying; Li, Shuiqin; Zhu, Xiaojing; Lin, Yan; Han, Jin; Duan, Zhaoyang; Jia, Lining; Gui, Baosong

    2017-05-01

    Vascular calcification (VC) is a major contributor of cardiovascular dysfunction in chronic renal failure (CRF). Citrate binds calcium and inhibits the growth of calcium crystals. This present study intends to evaluate the effect of citrate on VC in adenine-induced CRF rats. The rats were randomly divided into five groups: the control group, the citrate control group, model group, model rats with low-dose treatment of citrate (216 mg/kg) and model rats with high-dose treatment of citrate (746 mg/kg). The rats were euthanized at 5 weeks with their blood and aorta in detection. The results showed that serum level of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, phosphorus, calcium, and related renal failure function marker were elevated in the model group. Furthermore, the aortic calcium accumulation and alkaline phosphatase activity were significantly increased in the model group compared with control groups. Additionally, hematoxylin-eosin staining results demonstrated that the vascular calcification in aorta is significantly increased in the model group. Finally, the expression of VC-related proteins including bone morphogenetic protein and osteocalcin were increased in the model group, whereas alpha-smooth muscle actin was decreased in the model group compared with the control group. However, treatment with citrate caused a reversal effect of all the above events in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, citrate may attenuate vascular calcification in adenine-induced CRF rats. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Polyethylene glycol-induced heteroassociation of malate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, J.M.; Webster, T.A.; Appleman, J.R.; Manley, E.R.; Yu, H.A.; Datta, A.; Ackerson, B.J.; Spivey, H.O.

    1987-10-01

    Studies by dynamic and total intensity light scattering, ultracentrifugation, electron microscopy, and chemical crosslinking on solutions of the pig heart mitochondrial enzymes, malate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase (separately and together) demonstrate that polyethylene glycol induces very large homoassociations of each enzyme, and still larger heteroenzyme complexes between these two enzymes in the solution phase. Specificity of this heteroassociation is indicated by the facts that heteroassociations with bovine serum albumin were not observed for either the mitochondrial dehydrogenase or the synthase or between cytosolic malate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase. The weight fraction of the enzymes in the mitochondrial dehydrogenase-synthase associated particles in the solution phase was less than 0.03% with the dilute conditions used in the dynamic light scattering measurements. Neither palmitoyl-CoA nor other solution conditions tested significantly increased this weight fraction of associated enzymes in the solution phase. Because of the extremely low solubility of the associated species, however, the majority of the enzymes can be precipitated as the heteroenzyme complex. This precipitation is a classical first-order transition in spite of the large particle sizes and broad size distribution. Ionic effects on the solubility of the heteroenzyme complex appear to be of general electrostatic nature. Polyethylene glycol was found to be more potent in precipitating this complex than dextrans, polyvinylpyrrolidones, ficoll, and beta-lactoglobulin.

  19. Effect of citrate on Aspergillus niger phytase adsorption and catalytic activity in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezeli, Malika; Menezes-Blackburn, Daniel; Zhang, Hao; Giles, Courtney; George, Timothy; Shand, Charlie; Lumsdon, David; Cooper, Patricia; Wendler, Renate; Brown, Lawrie; Stutter, Marc; Blackwell, Martin; Darch, Tegan; Wearing, Catherine; Haygarth, Philip

    2015-04-01

    Current developments in cropping systems that promote mobilisation of phytate in agricultural soils, by exploiting plant-root exudation of phytase and organic acids, offer potential for developments in sustainable phosphorus use. However, phytase adsorption to soil particles and phytate complexion has been shown to inhibit phytate dephosphorylation, thereby inhibiting plant P uptake, increasing the risk of this pool contributing to diffuse pollution and reducing the potential benefits of biotechnologies and management strategies aimed to utilise this abundant reserve of 'legacy' phosphorus. Citrate has been seen to increase phytase catalytic efficiency towards complexed forms of phytate, but the mechanisms by which citrate promotes phytase remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated phytase (from Aspergillus niger) inactivation, and change in catalytic properties upon addition to soil and the effect citrate had on adsorption of phytase and hydrolysis towards free, precipitated and adsorbed phytate. A Langmuir model was fitted to phytase adsorption isotherms showing a maximum adsorption of 0.23 nKat g-1 (19 mg protein g-1) and affinity constant of 435 nKat gˉ1 (8.5 mg protein g-1 ), demonstrating that phytase from A.niger showed a relatively low affinity for our test soil (Tayport). Phytases were partially inhibited upon adsorption and the specific activity was of 40.44 nKat mgˉ1 protein for the free enzyme and 25.35 nKat mgˉ1 protein when immobilised. The kinetics of adsorption detailed that most of the adsorption occurred within the first 20 min upon addition to soil. Citrate had no effect on the rate or total amount of phytase adsorption or loss of activity, within the studied citrate concentrations (0-4mM). Free phytases in soil solution and phytase immobilised on soil particles showed optimum activity (>80%) at pH 4.5-5.5. Immobilised phytase showed greater loss of activity at pH levels over 5.5 and lower activities at the secondary peak at pH 2

  20. Determining the chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) behavior of citrate and spermine under in vivo conditions.

    PubMed

    Basharat, Meer; deSouza, Nandita M; Parkes, Harold G; Payne, Geoffrey S

    2016-09-01

    To estimate the exchange rates of labile (1) H in citrate and spermine, metabolites present in prostatic secretions, to predict the size of the citrate and spermine CEST effects in vivo. CEST z-spectra were acquired at high-field [11.7 Tesla (T)] from citrate and spermine solutions at physiological pH (6.5) using saturation power 6 μT. CEST was performed at different temperatures to determine exchange regimes (slow, intermediate or fast). For low pH solutions of spermine, exchange rates were estimated from resonance line width, fitting z-spectra using the Bloch equations incorporating exchange, and using quantifying exchange using saturation time experiments (QUEST). These rates were extrapolated to physiological pH. Citrate showed little CEST effect at pH 6.5 and temperature (T) = 310 K (maximum 0.001% mM(-1) ), indicating fast exchange, whereas spermine showed greater CEST effects (maximum 0.2% mM(-1) ) indicating intermediate-to-fast exchange. Extrapolating data acquired from low pH spermine solutions predicts exchange rates at pH 6.5 and T of 310 K of at least 2 × 10(4) s(-1) . Citrate and spermine show minimal CEST effects at 11.7T even using high saturation power. These effects would be much less than 2% at clinical field-strengths due to relatively faster exchange and would be masked by CEST from proteins. Magn Reson Med 76:742-746, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. © 2015 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  1. Pseudohypernatremia secondary to trisodium citrate (Citra-LockTM)

    PubMed Central

    Milliere, Janice; Corriveau, Daryl; Parmar, Malvinder S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hypernatremia is common among hospitalized patients especially in the intensive care units and presents an independent risk factor for mortality. Mild hypernatremia is often asymptomatic but severe hypernatremia causes central nervous system dysfunction with initial non-specific symptoms of encephalopathy that may progress to seizures, coma and death, if left untreated. Severe hypernatremia is a medical emergency and requires emergent medical attention. Materials and methods A haemodialysis patient who arrived for his scheduled haemodialysis treatment had monthly blood work drawn and was reported to have severe hypernatremia with serum sodium concentration of 183 mmol/L. The possibility of technique or laboratory error was considered and systematically evaluated. Results The serum sodium measurement using another analyser showed similar value of 182 mmolL. A repeat serum sodium level on a sample drawn 2 h later showed normal value of 139–140 mmol/L. A step-wise evaluation of the complete procedure from blood collection to analysis of the sample revealed this to be spuriously elevated serum sodium concentration secondary to contamination of the sample during sample collection with trisodium citrate, a catheter-lock solution, commonly used in dialysis units to maintain patency of dialysis catheters. Conclusions Spuriously elevated plasma sodium concentration (pseudohypernatremia) of mild degree is common but severe pseudohypernatremia is rare and the possibility of sample contaminations or laboratory error should be considered. Vigilance is required by both the medical and the laboratory staff to resolve such issues in a timely fashion to avoid unintended consequences. PMID:27346973

  2. Prophylactic Oral Dextrose Gel for Newborn Babies at Risk of Neonatal Hypoglycaemia: A Randomised Controlled Dose-Finding Trial (the Pre-hPOD Study)

    PubMed Central

    Hegarty, Joanne Elizabeth; Harding, Jane Elizabeth; Gamble, Gregory David; Crowther, Caroline Anne; Edlin, Richard; Alsweiler, Jane Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background Neonatal hypoglycaemia is common, affecting up to 15% of newborns, and can cause brain damage. Currently, there are no strategies, beyond early feeding, to prevent neonatal hypoglycaemia. Our aim was to determine a dose of 40% oral dextrose gel that will prevent neonatal hypoglycaemia in newborn babies at risk. Methods and Findings We conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-finding trial of buccal dextrose gel to prevent neonatal hypoglycaemia at two hospitals in New Zealand. Babies at risk of hypoglycaemia (infant of a mother with diabetes, late preterm delivery, small or large birthweight, or other risk factors) but without indication for admission to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) were randomly allocated either to one of four treatment groups: 40% dextrose at one of two doses (0.5 ml/kg = 200 mg/kg, or 1 ml/kg = 400 mg/kg), either once at 1 h of age or followed by three additional doses of dextrose (0.5 ml/kg before feeds in the first 12 h); or to one of four corresponding placebo groups. Treatments were administered by massaging gel into the buccal mucosa. The primary outcome was hypoglycaemia (<2.6 mM) in the first 48 h. Secondary outcomes included admission to a NICU, admission for hypoglycaemia, and breastfeeding at discharge and at 6 wk. Prespecified potential dose limitations were tolerance of gel, time taken to administer, messiness, and acceptability to parents. From August 2013 to November 2014, 416 babies were randomised. Compared to babies randomised to placebo, the risk of hypoglycaemia was lowest in babies randomised to a single dose of 200 mg/kg dextrose gel (relative risk [RR] 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47–0.99, p = 0.04) but was not significantly different between dose groups (p = 0.21). Compared to multiple doses, single doses of gel were better tolerated, quicker to administer, and less messy, but these limitations were not different between dextrose and placebo gel groups. Babies who received

  3. Prophylactic Oral Dextrose Gel for Newborn Babies at Risk of Neonatal Hypoglycaemia: A Randomised Controlled Dose-Finding Trial (the Pre-hPOD Study).

    PubMed

    Hegarty, Joanne Elizabeth; Harding, Jane Elizabeth; Gamble, Gregory David; Crowther, Caroline Anne; Edlin, Richard; Alsweiler, Jane Marie

    2016-10-01

    Neonatal hypoglycaemia is common, affecting up to 15% of newborns, and can cause brain damage. Currently, there are no strategies, beyond early feeding, to prevent neonatal hypoglycaemia. Our aim was to determine a dose of 40% oral dextrose gel that will prevent neonatal hypoglycaemia in newborn babies at risk. We conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-finding trial of buccal dextrose gel to prevent neonatal hypoglycaemia at two hospitals in New Zealand. Babies at risk of hypoglycaemia (infant of a mother with diabetes, late preterm delivery, small or large birthweight, or other risk factors) but without indication for admission to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) were randomly allocated either to one of four treatment groups: 40% dextrose at one of two doses (0.5 ml/kg = 200 mg/kg, or 1 ml/kg = 400 mg/kg), either once at 1 h of age or followed by three additional doses of dextrose (0.5 ml/kg before feeds in the first 12 h); or to one of four corresponding placebo groups. Treatments were administered by massaging gel into the buccal mucosa. The primary outcome was hypoglycaemia (<2.6 mM) in the first 48 h. Secondary outcomes included admission to a NICU, admission for hypoglycaemia, and breastfeeding at discharge and at 6 wk. Prespecified potential dose limitations were tolerance of gel, time taken to administer, messiness, and acceptability to parents. From August 2013 to November 2014, 416 babies were randomised. Compared to babies randomised to placebo, the risk of hypoglycaemia was lowest in babies randomised to a single dose of 200 mg/kg dextrose gel (relative risk [RR] 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47-0.99, p = 0.04) but was not significantly different between dose groups (p = 0.21). Compared to multiple doses, single doses of gel were better tolerated, quicker to administer, and less messy, but these limitations were not different between dextrose and placebo gel groups. Babies who received any dose of dextrose gel were

  4. Storage Wars: how citrate-capped silver nanoparticle suspensions are affected by not-so-trivial decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorham, Justin M.; Rohlfing, Anne B.; Lippa, Katrice A.; MacCuspie, Robert I.; Hemmati, Amy; David Holbrook, R.

    2014-04-01

    A critical but often overlooked component of silver nanoparticle (AgNP) suspensions involves their behavior following short- and long-term storage. The current study investigates the integrity of citrate-capped AgNP suspensions, nominally 20 nm in average diameter, in a series of distinct storage conditions, based on possible combinations of reasonable decisions researchers make, both nanoparticle-based (AgNP and relative citrate concentration) and environmental-based (solution oxygenation and ambient light or dark). AgNP integrity was determined by monitoring single particle stability, aggregation/agglomeration, and oxidation for 104 days. We demonstrate that AgNP suspensions lose their physical and chemical integrity by two distinct processes: (1) oxidation only (light-independent) and (2) oxidation followed by photo-reduction (light-dependent), following initial dilution from a concentrated (and newly synthesized) AgNP stock solution. Optical spectroscopy indicates that the effects of oxidation are readily observed while the effects of photo-reduction are less obvious, leading to a greater increase in average particle diameter, the formation of new, metallic nanoparticles, and the oxidation of the parent citrate capping agent. In general, the overall integrity of citrate-capped AgNP suspensions are best maintained when these solutions are purged with nitrogen gas and stored in the dark at the highest AgNP and citrate concentrations. This study outlines a strategy for both assessing and monitoring the integrity of AgNP suspensions in an effort to harmonize long-term experiments and promote inter-laboratory consistency.

  5. The impact of particle size on the adsorption of citrate to hematite.

    PubMed

    Noerpel, Matthew R; Lenhart, John J

    2015-12-15

    We investigated the adsorption of citric acid on the surface of two different sized hematite nanoparticles using batch adsorption experiments, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, surface complexation modeling and computational molecular modeling. Citrate adsorption reached a maximum between pH approximately 2.5 and 5.5 and declined as the pH was increased or decreased from that range. At high surface loading conditions, the dominant adsorbed citrate structure was outer-sphere in nature with a protonation state that varied with pH. At low pH, there was also evidence of an inner-sphere complex consistent with a binuclear, bidentate structure where the hydroxyl group was deprotonated and played an active role in the adsorption. An inner-sphere complex was also detected at low citrate surface loading conditions. Surface-area normalized surface coverages were similar for both sizes of hematite, however, the inner sphere complex appeared to be slightly more prevalent on the smaller hematite. Based on these structures, a triple layer surface complexation model comprised of two outer-sphere complexes and one inner-sphere complex was used to describe the adsorption data for both hematite sizes across a range of solution conditions with a single set of surface area dependent equilibrium constants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimating conformation content of a protein using citrate-stabilized Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Deka, Jashmini; Paul, Anumita; Chattopadhyay, Arun

    2010-08-01

    Herein we report the use of the optical properties of citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) for estimation of native or denatured conformation content in a mixture of a protein in solution. The UV-vis extinction spectrum of citrate-stabilized Au NPs is known to broaden differently in the presence of native and denatured states of alpha-amylase, bovine serum albumin (BSA) or amyloglucosidase (AMG). On the other hand, herein we show that when a mixture of native and denatured protein was present in the medium, the broadening of the spectrum differed for different fractional content of the conformations. Also, the total area under the extinction spectrum varied linearly with the change in the mole fraction content of a state and for a constant total protein concentration. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements revealed different levels of agglomeration for different fractional contents of the native or denatured state of a protein. In addition, time-dependent denaturation of a protein could be followed using the present method. The rate constants calculated for denaturation indicated a possible fast change in conformation of a protein before complete thermal denaturation. The observations have been explained based on the changes in extinction coefficient (thereby oscillator strength) upon interaction of citrate-stabilized NPs with proteins being in different states and levels of agglomeration.

  7. Acute effects of calcium carbonate, calcium citrate and potassium citrate on markers of calcium and bone metabolism in young women.

    PubMed

    Karp, Heini J; Ketola, Maarit E; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel J E

    2009-11-01

    Both K and Ca supplementation may have beneficial effects on bone through separate mechanisms. K in the form of citrate or bicarbonate affects bone by neutralising the acid load caused by a high protein intake or a low intake of alkalising foods, i.e. fruits and vegetables. Ca is known to decrease serum parathyroid hormone (S-PTH) concentration and bone resorption. We compared the effects of calcium carbonate, calcium citrate and potassium citrate on markers of Ca and bone metabolism in young women. Twelve healthy women aged 22-30 years were randomised into four controlled 24 h study sessions, each subject serving as her own control. At the beginning of each session, subjects received a single dose of calcium carbonate, calcium citrate, potassium citrate or a placebo in randomised order. The diet during each session was identical, containing 300 mg Ca. Both the calcium carbonate and calcium citrate supplement contained 1000 mg Ca; the potassium citrate supplement contained 2250 mg K. Markers of Ca and bone metabolism were followed. Potassium citrate decreased the bone resorption marker (N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen) and increased Ca retention relative to the control session. Both Ca supplements decreased S-PTH concentration. Ca supplements also decreased bone resorption relative to the control session, but this was significant only for calcium carbonate. No differences in bone formation marker (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase) were seen among the study sessions. The results suggest that potassium citrate has a positive effect on the resorption marker despite low Ca intake. Both Ca supplements were absorbed well and decreased S-PTH efficiently.

  8. Chitosan citrate as film former: compatibility with water-soluble anionic dyes and drug dissolution from coated tablet.

    PubMed

    Phaechamud, T; Koizumi, T; Ritthidej, G C

    2000-03-30

    Chitosan citrate solution containing 25% w/w propylene glycol was prepared and tested for its compatibility with some water soluble anionic dyes. The immiscibility between erythrosine, ponceau 4R, sunset yellow or tartrazine solutions and chitosan citrate solution was evident. The Fourier transform-infrared spectra revealed charged interaction between anionic dye and chitosan. Brilliant blue and green FS at concentration of 0.02-1.00% w/w polymer could be miscible with chitosan citrate solution due to the decrease in charge interaction by the positive charge on molecule of brilliant blue, which was also the composition in green FS. Propranolol HCl tablets coated with these colored film-coating solutions exhibited good appearance and no color migration. Drug dissolution from coated tablets was pH dependent, corresponding to the ability of chitosan to protonate in the medium. Color incorporation slightly retarded drug dissolution in acidic medium. Drug dissolved from coated tablet colored with brilliant blue was faster than from that colored with green FS. This was because brilliant blue had positive charge and more SO(3)H groups on its molecular structure, and exhibited higher water solubility. Accelerated condition could alter dissolution characteristics, and the Td+t(0) value from curve fitting between the dissolution profiles and Weibull equation was increased. However, drug dissolution from freshly prepared coated tablets, coated tablets after exposure to accelerated condition and after storage at room temperature for 12 months conformed to the monograph in USP XXIII.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... brown or garnet red scales or granules or as a brownish-yellowish powder. (2) Ferric ammonium citrate... occurs as thin transparent green scales, as granules, as a powder, or as transparent green crystals. (b...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... brown or garnet red scales or granules or as a brownish-yellowish powder. (2) Ferric ammonium citrate... occurs as thin transparent green scales, as granules, as a powder, or as transparent green crystals. (b...

  11. Properties of peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthase from Agave americana.

    PubMed

    Segovia, J L; Zafra, M F; Alejandre, M J; García-Peregrín, E

    1982-09-01

    Adenine nucleotides were tested as effectors of peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthase from Agave americana leaves in the presence of different concentrations of acetyl-CoA and oxalacetate substrates. ATP inhibited both enzyme activities but with a different inhibition profile. 1.0-7.5 mM ADP did not inhibit the peroxisomal citrate synthase in the presence of high substrate concentrations, while the mitochondrial enzyme was strongly inhibited by 1.0 mM ADP in the same conditions. Likewise, a different pattern was obtained with AMP on both peroxisomal and mitochondrial activities. The rate of citrate formation as function of acetyl-CoA and oxalacetate concentration was also studied in both fractions. Maximal velocity was highest in the peroxisomal fraction, whether acetyl-CoA or oxalacetate were the variable substrates. These differences indicate that peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthases seem to be two different isoenzymes.

  12. Citrate-Based Biomaterials and Their Applications in Regenerative Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Richard T.; Yang, Jian; Ameer, Guillermo A.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in biomaterials science and engineering are crucial to translating regenerative engineering, an emerging field that aims to recreate complex tissues, into clinical practice. In this regard, citrate-based biomaterials have become an important tool owing to their versatile material and biological characteristics including unique antioxidant, antimicrobial, adhesive, and fluorescent properties. This review discusses fundamental design considerations, strategies to incorporate unique functionality, and examples of how citrate-based biomaterials can be an enabling technology for regenerative engineering. PMID:27004046

  13. Injectable citrate-modified Portland cement for use in vertebroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Wynn-Jones, Gareth; Shelton, Richard M; Hofmann, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    The injectability of Portland cement (PC) with several citrate additives was investigated for use in clinical applications such as vertebroplasty (stabilization of a fractured vertebra with bone cement) using a syringe. A 2-wt % addition of sodium or potassium citrate with PC significantly improved cement injectability, decreased cement setting times from over 2 h to below 25 min, while increasing the compressive strength to a maximum of 125 MPa. Zeta-potential measurements indicated that the citrate anion was binding to one or more of the positively charged species causing charged repulsion between cement particles which dispersed aggregates and caused the liquefying effect of the anion. Analysis of the hydrating phases of PC indicated that the early strength producing PC phase (ettringite) developed within the first 2 h of setting following addition of the citrate anion, while this did not occur in the control cement (PC only). Within 24 h ettringite developed in PC as well as calcium–silicate–hydrate (C–S–H), the major setting phase of PC, whereas cements containing citrate did not develop this phase. The evidence suggested that in the presence of citrate the cements limited water supply appeared to be utilized for ettringite formation, producing the early strength of the citrate cements. The present study has demonstrated that it is possible to modify PC with citrate to both improve the injectability and crucially reduce the setting times of PC while improving the strength of the cement. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 102B: 1799–1808, 2014. PMID:24711245

  14. Citrate-Based Biomaterials and Their Applications in Regenerative Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Richard T.; Yang, Jian; Ameer, Guillermo A.

    2015-07-01

    Advances in biomaterials science and engineering are crucial to translating regenerative engineering, an emerging field that aims to recreate complex tissues, into clinical practice. In this regard, citrate-based biomaterials have become an important tool owing to their versatile material and biological characteristics including unique antioxidant, antimicrobial, adhesive, and fluorescent properties. This review discusses fundamental design considerations, strategies to incorporate unique functionality, and examples of how citrate-based biomaterials can be an enabling technology for regenerative engineering.

  15. Citric/citrate buffer: an effective antiglycolytic agent.

    PubMed

    del Pino, Isabel García; Constanso, Ignacio; Mourín, Luis Vázquez; Safont, Carmela Barbuzano; Vázquez, Pastora Rodríguez

    2013-10-01

    In order to minimize the influence of glycolysis on diabetes mellitus (DM) diagnostic tests, we have compared the behavior of citric/citrate, fluoride additives and gel-serum with plasma-heparin under careful preanalytical conditions. Subsequently, we compared the effectiveness of both fluoride and citric additives at different pre-centrifugation times. Finally, the influence of citric/citrate collection tube on diagnostic tests results was evaluated. The first study of 80 voluntary patients assessed the glucose bias of citric/citrate, fluoride additive tubes and gel-serum tubes versus plasma-heparin tubes at several medical decision cut-offs (MDC). The second study performed with 72 volunteers evaluated additives, simulating transport times to the laboratory and centrifugation delay periods. Final evaluation compares the proportion of positive tests in total tests carried out in two different periods. When citric/citrate (n=79) and fluoride tubes (n=60) were compared with plasma-heparin under controlled preanalytical conditions, both met the bias specification for plasma glucose (±1.8%) at seven MDC. On the contrary, serum samples (n=15) did not meet it at five MDC. In the second study, differences in glucose values at distinct pre-centrifugation times were not statistically significant for citric/citrate tubes, but significant for fluoride tubes and also for comparison of fluoride and citric/citrate tubes. Hemolysis in fluoride tubes was higher. Citric/citrate tube implementation in our laboratory caused an increase in positive diagnostic tests that were only statistically significant for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) screening. Citric/citrate additive tube is equivalent to plasma-heparin avoiding glycolysis completely and immediately under careful preanalytical conditions even with a 3-h delay in plasma separation. According to used MDC we have not statistically significantly increased the diagnoses of DM cases.

  16. Periarticular dextrose prolotherapy instead of intra-articular injection for pain and functional improvement in knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rezasoltani, Zahra; Taheri, Mehrdad; Mofrad, Morteza Kazempour; Mohajerani, Seyed Amir

    2017-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease that can lead to painful and dysfunctional joints. Prolotherapy involves using injections to produce functional restoration of the soft tissues of the joint. Intra-articular injections are controversial because of the introduction of needles into the articular capsule. Objectives To compare the effect of periarticular versus intra-articular prolotherapy on pain and disability in patients with knee OA. Study design Randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial. Setting Single center, university hospital (Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, Iran). Methods A total of 104 patients with chronic knee OA were enrolled. In the intra-articular group, 8 mL of 10% dextrose and 2 mL of 2% lidocaine were injected. Injections were repeated at 1 and 2 weeks after the first injection. In the periarticular group, 5 mL of 20% dextrose and 5 mL of 1% lidocaine were injected subcutaneously at 4 points in the periarticular area. Pain and disability, as assessed using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), were recorded at each follow-up visit at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 months post-injection. Results The visual analog scale score was significantly lower in the periarticular compared with the intra-articular group at the 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-month visits but not at 1 month. Morning stiffness and difficulty in rising from sitting were improved in both groups and were not signifi-cantly different in the peri- and intra-articular groups. Pain, joint locking, and limitation scores were all improved in both groups. Difficulty in walking on flat surfaces or climbing stairs, and sitting and standing pain, were all improved in both groups from 1 to 5 months after treatment. Limitations WOMAC scores are subjective and could be a limitation of the study. Conclusion Periarticular prolotherapy has comparable effects on pain and disability due to knee OA to intra-articular injections, while avoiding risks of

  17. Citrate uptake into Pectobacterium atrosepticum is critical for bacterial virulence.

    PubMed

    Urbany, Claude; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard

    2008-05-01

    To analyze whether metabolite import into Pectobacterium atrosepticum cells affects bacterial virulence, we investigated the function of a carrier which exhibits significant structural homology to characterized carboxylic-acid transport proteins. The corresponding gene, ECA3984, previously annotated as coding for a Na(+)/sulphate carrier, in fact encodes a highly specific citrate transporter (Cit1) which is energized by the proton-motive force. Expression of the cit1 gene is stimulated by the presence of citrate in the growth medium and is substantial during growth of P. atrosepticum on potato tuber tissue. Infection of tuber tissue with P. atrosepticum leads to reduced citrate levels. P. atrosepticum insertion mutants, lacking the functional Cit1 protein, did not grow in medium containing citrate as the sole carbon source, showed a substantially reduced ability to macerate potato tuber tissue, and did not provoke reduced citrate levels in the plant tissue upon infection. We propose that citrate uptake into P. atrosepticum is critical for full bacterial virulence.

  18. Aroma compounds generation in citrate metabolism of Enterococcus faecium: Genetic characterization of type I citrate gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Martino, Gabriela P; Quintana, Ingrid M; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S; Magni, Christian

    2016-02-02

    Enterococcus is one of the most controversial genera belonging to Lactic Acid Bacteria. Research involving this microorganism reflects its dual behavior as regards its safety. Although it has also been associated to nosocomial infections, natural occurrence of Enterococcus faecium in food contributes to the final quality of cheese. This bacterium is capable of fermenting citrate, which is metabolized to pyruvate and finally derives in the production of the aroma compounds diacetyl, acetoin and 2,3 butanediol. Citrate metabolism was studied in E. faecium but no data about genes related to these pathways have been described. A bioinformatic approach allowed us to differentiate cit(-) (no citrate metabolism genes) from cit(+) strains in E. faecium. Furthermore, we could classify them according to genes encoding for the transcriptional regulator, the oxaloacetate decarboxylase and the citrate transporter. Thus we defined type I organization having CitI regulator (DeoR family), CitM cytoplasmic soluble oxaloacetate decarboxylase (Malic Enzyme family) and CitP citrate transporter (2-hydroxy-carboxylate transporter family) and type II organization with CitO regulator (GntR family), OAD membrane oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex (Na(+)-transport decarboxylase enzyme family) and CitH citrate transporter (CitMHS family). We isolated and identified 17 E. faecium strains from regional cheeses. PCR analyses allowed us to classify them as cit(-) or cit(+). Within the latter classification we could differentiate type I but no type II organization. Remarkably, we came upon E. faecium GM75 strain which carries the insertion sequence IS256, involved in adaptative and evolution processes of bacteria related to Staphylococcus and Enterococcus genera. In this work we describe the differential behavior in citrate transport, metabolism and aroma generation of three strains and we present results that link citrate metabolism and genetic organizations in E. faecium for the first time

  19. Combined effect of γ-irradiation and bacterial-fermented dextrose on microbiological quality of refrigerated pork sausages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dussault, D.; Benoit, C.; Lacroix, M.

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a concentrated fermented dextrose (FD), a natural antimicrobial product, combined with low dose γ-irradiation (1.5 kGy) on the microbiological quality of fresh pork sausages. Fresh pork sausages containing the FD (0.25%, 0.5% and 0.75%) were prepared in a meat pilot plant and were irradiated using a UC-15A irradiator equipped with a 60Cobalt source. The γ-irradiation treatment alone was able to reduce the initial psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria by more than 2 log CFU/g and kept the lactobacillus population under the detection limit (100 CFU/g). Results also showed that the FD alone was able to extend the shelf life of the sausages from 5 days up to 13 days. At day 13, the FD or irradiation alone showed 2 log CFU/g less mesophilic bacteria than the control. After combining FD and irradiation another reduction of the microbial count of 1 log CFU/g was observed. When combining the irradiation treatment with the FD results it showed a reduced growth rate of the psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria compared to both treatments alone. This study demonstrated that FD with low dose gamma irradiation act in synergy to reduce the multiplication of the total bacterial flora in fresh sausages.

  20. Hypertonic dextrose injections (prolotherapy) in the treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sit, Regina WS; Chung, Vincent CH; Reeves, Kenneth D.; Rabago, David; Chan, Keith KW; Chan, Dicken CC; Wu, Xinyin; Ho, Robin ST; Wong, Samuel YS

    2016-01-01

    Hypertonic dextrose injections (prolotherapy) is an emerging treatment for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) but its efficacy is uncertain. We conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis to synthesize clinical evidence on the effect of prolotherapy for knee OA. Fifteen electronic databases were searched from their inception to September 2015. The primary outcome of interest was score change on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC). Three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of moderate risk of bias and one quasi–randomized trial were included, with data from a total of 258 patients. In the meta-analysis of two eligible studies, prolotherapy is superior to exercise alone by a standardized mean difference (SMD) of 0.81 (95% CI: 0.18 to 1.45, p = 0.012), 0.78 (95% CI: 0.25 to 1.30, p = 0.001) and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.04 to 1.20, p = 0.035) on the WOMAC composite scale; and WOMAC function and pain subscale scores respectively. Moderate heterogeneity exists in all cases. Overall, prolotherapy conferred a positive and significant beneficial effect in the treatment of knee OA. Adequately powered, longer-term trials with uniform end points are needed to better elucidate the efficacy of prolotherapy. PMID:27146849

  1. Hypertonic dextrose injections (prolotherapy) in the treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sit, Regina Ws; Chung, Vincent Ch; Reeves, Kenneth D; Rabago, David; Chan, Keith Kw; Chan, Dicken Cc; Wu, Xinyin; Ho, Robin St; Wong, Samuel Ys

    2016-05-05

    Hypertonic dextrose injections (prolotherapy) is an emerging treatment for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) but its efficacy is uncertain. We conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis to synthesize clinical evidence on the effect of prolotherapy for knee OA. Fifteen electronic databases were searched from their inception to September 2015. The primary outcome of interest was score change on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC). Three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of moderate risk of bias and one quasi-randomized trial were included, with data from a total of 258 patients. In the meta-analysis of two eligible studies, prolotherapy is superior to exercise alone by a standardized mean difference (SMD) of 0.81 (95% CI: 0.18 to 1.45, p = 0.012), 0.78 (95% CI: 0.25 to 1.30, p = 0.001) and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.04 to 1.20, p = 0.035) on the WOMAC composite scale; and WOMAC function and pain subscale scores respectively. Moderate heterogeneity exists in all cases. Overall, prolotherapy conferred a positive and significant beneficial effect in the treatment of knee OA. Adequately powered, longer-term trials with uniform end points are needed to better elucidate the efficacy of prolotherapy.

  2. Red blood cell preservation by droplet freezing with polyvinyl pyrrolidone or sucrose/dextrose and by bulk freezing with glycerol

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Pirmin; Huvard, Michael J.; Lee-Stroka, A. Hallie; Lee, Jae Y.; Byrne, Karen M.; Flegel, Willy A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Red blood cell (RBC) preservation is essential to transfusion medicine. Many blood group reference laboratories need a method to preserve rare blood samples for serologic testing at a later date. This study offers a comparison of three common cryoprotective agents and protocols used today: bulk preservation with glycerol and droplet freezing with sucrose/dextrose (S+D) or polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP). Study design and methods Human blood from 14 volunteers was collected and frozen at set intervals over two weeks with PVP, S+D, or glycerol. The frozen RBCs were later thawed and the percentage of surviving RBCs was determined. Detailed protocols and an instructional video are supplied. Results Over a two week period, RBCs preserved with glycerol and thawed with a widely used protocol showed a recovery of 41 ± 16 % (mean ± standard deviation) while those thawed with a modified glycerol protocol showed a recovery of 76 ± 8 %. RBCs preserved by droplet freezing with S+D showed a recovery of 56 ± 11 % while those preserved by droplet freezing with PVP showed a recovery of 85 ± 6 %. Recovery values were similar with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or heparin anticoagulants, differing freezing rates, and varying droplet volumes. Conclusion Droplet freezing with PVP offered the greatest recovery. While bulk freezing with glycerol can be effective too, droplet freezing may be a more convenient method overall. It requires less effort to thaw, needs much less storage room, and allows blood group laboratories to be frugal with thawing rare samples. PMID:21790629

  3. Regulation of anaerobic citrate metabolism in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Bott, M; Meyer, M; Dimroth, P

    1995-11-01

    Three enzymes are specifically required for uptake and catabolism of citrate by Klebsiella pneumoniae under anaerobic conditions: a Na+ -dependent citrate carrier (CitS), citrate lyase (CitDEF), and the Na+ pump oxaloacetate decarboxylase (OadGAB). The corresponding genes are clustered on the chromosome, with the citCDEFG genes located upstream and divergent to the citS-oadGAB genes. We found that expression of citS from its native promoter in Escherichia coli requires the DNA region downstream of oadB. Nucleotide sequence analysis of this region revealed the presence of two adjacent genes, citA and citB. By sequence similarity, the predicted CitA and CitB proteins were identified as members of the two-component regulatory systems. The sensor kinase CitA contained, in the N-terminal half, two putative transmembrane helices which enclosed a presumably periplasmic domain of about 130 amino acids. The C-terminal half of the response regulator CitB harboured a helix-turn-helix motif typical of DNA-binding proteins. K. pneumoniae citB null mutants were unable to grow anaerobically with citrate as the sole carbon and energy source (Cit- phenotype). When cultivated anaerobically with citrate plus glycerol, all of the citrate-specific fermentation enzymes were synthesized in the wild type, but not in the citB mutants. This showed that citS, oadGAB and citDEF required the CitB protein for expression and therefore are part of a regulon. In the wild type, synthesis of CitS, oxaloacetate decarboxylase and citrate lyase was dependent on the presence of citrate, sodium ions and a low oxygen tension. In a citA null mutant which expressed citB constitutively at high levels, none of these signals was required for the formation of the citrate fermentation enzymes. This result suggested that citrate, Na+, and oxygen exerted their regulatory effects via the CitA/CitB system. In the presence of these signals, the citAB gene products induced their own synthesis. The positive

  4. Kinetic extractions to assess mobilization of Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd in a metal-contaminated soil: EDTA vs. citrate.

    PubMed

    Labanowski, Jérôme; Monna, Fabrice; Bermond, Alain; Cambier, Philippe; Fernandez, Christelle; Lamy, Isabelle; van Oort, Folkert

    2008-04-01

    Kinetic EDTA and citrate extractions were used to mimic metal mobilization in a soil contaminated by metallurgical fallout. Modeling of metal removal rates vs. time distinguished two metal pools: readily labile (QM1) and less labile (QM2). In citrate extractions, total extractability (QM1+QM2) of Zn and Cd was proportionally higher than for Pb and Cu. Proportions of Pb and Cu extracted with EDTA were three times higher than when using citrate. We observed similar QM1/QM2 ratios for Zn and Cu regardless of the extractant, suggesting comparable binding energies to soil constituents. However, for Pb and Cd, more heterogeneous binding energies were hypothesized to explain different kinetic extraction behaviors. Proportions of citrate-labile metals were found consistent with their short-term, in-situ mobility assessed in the studied soil, i.e., metal amount released in the soil solution or extracted by cultivated plants. Kinetic EDTA extractions were hypothesized to be more predictive for long-term metal migration with depth.

  5. Alkali absorption and citrate excretion in calcium nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakhaee, K.; Williams, R. H.; Oh, M. S.; Padalino, P.; Adams-Huet, B.; Whitson, P.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The role of net gastrointestinal (GI) alkali absorption in the development of hypocitraturia was investigated. The net GI absorption of alkali was estimated from the difference between simple urinary cations (Ca, Mg, Na, and K) and anions (Cl and P). In 131 normal subjects, the 24 h urinary citrate was positively correlated with the net GI absorption of alkali (r = 0.49, p < 0.001). In 11 patients with distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA), urinary citrate excretion was subnormal relative to net GI alkali absorption, with data from most patients residing outside the 95% confidence ellipse described for normal subjects. However, the normal relationship between urinary citrate and net absorbed alkali was maintained in 11 patients with chronic diarrheal syndrome (CDS) and in 124 stone-forming patients devoid of RTA or CDS, half of whom had "idiopathic" hypocitraturia. The 18 stone-forming patients without RTA or CDS received potassium citrate (30-60 mEq/day). Both urinary citrate and net GI alkali absorption increased, yielding a significantly positive correlation (r = 0.62, p < 0.0001), with the slope indistinguishable from that of normal subjects. Thus, urinary citrate was normally dependent on the net GI absorption of alkali. This dependence was less marked in RTA, confirming the renal origin of hypocitraturia. However, the normal dependence was maintained in CDS and in idiopathic hypocitraturia, suggesting that reduced citrate excretion was largely dietary in origin as a result of low net alkali absorption (from a probable relative deficiency of vegetables and fruits or a relative excess of animal proteins).

  6. Alkali absorption and citrate excretion in calcium nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakhaee, K.; Williams, R. H.; Oh, M. S.; Padalino, P.; Adams-Huet, B.; Whitson, P.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The role of net gastrointestinal (GI) alkali absorption in the development of hypocitraturia was investigated. The net GI absorption of alkali was estimated from the difference between simple urinary cations (Ca, Mg, Na, and K) and anions (Cl and P). In 131 normal subjects, the 24 h urinary citrate was positively correlated with the net GI absorption of alkali (r = 0.49, p < 0.001). In 11 patients with distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA), urinary citrate excretion was subnormal relative to net GI alkali absorption, with data from most patients residing outside the 95% confidence ellipse described for normal subjects. However, the normal relationship between urinary citrate and net absorbed alkali was maintained in 11 patients with chronic diarrheal syndrome (CDS) and in 124 stone-forming patients devoid of RTA or CDS, half of whom had "idiopathic" hypocitraturia. The 18 stone-forming patients without RTA or CDS received potassium citrate (30-60 mEq/day). Both urinary citrate and net GI alkali absorption increased, yielding a significantly positive correlation (r = 0.62, p < 0.0001), with the slope indistinguishable from that of normal subjects. Thus, urinary citrate was normally dependent on the net GI absorption of alkali. This dependence was less marked in RTA, confirming the renal origin of hypocitraturia. However, the normal dependence was maintained in CDS and in idiopathic hypocitraturia, suggesting that reduced citrate excretion was largely dietary in origin as a result of low net alkali absorption (from a probable relative deficiency of vegetables and fruits or a relative excess of animal proteins).

  7. Comparison of the metabolic responses to ingestion of hydrothermally processed high-amylopectin content maize, uncooked maize starch or dextrose in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Bracken, Richard M; Gray, Benjamin J; Turner, Daniel

    2014-04-14

    Optimal carbohydrate ingestion strategies as nutritional therapy for glycogen storage diseases have not been fully realised, in part, due to difficulties in accessing patient cohorts, alongside limited details on metabolic effects and insight into working mechanisms. The present pilot study compared glycaemic and fuel oxidation responses following the ingestion of a hydrothermally processed maize starch (HPMS), an uncooked maize starch (UCMS) and maize-derived dextrose (DEX) at rest and during and after exercise in healthy individuals. A total of eight participants (seven males and one female; body mass (BM) 76.9 (SEM 5.2) kg) visited the laboratory on three occasions. During each visit, the participants ingested 1 g/kg BM of HPMS (Glycosade™), UCMS (Argo™) or DEX as a 10% solution. Blood samples were collected over a 2 h rest period and for 2 h after a 60 min treadmill run at 65 (SEM 1) % VO(2max). Mean values with their standard errors were analysed using repeated-measures ANOVA. Blood glucose concentrations under the HPMS condition were significantly elevated from resting values at 90 min (P=0.02) after ingestion compared with those under the UCMS (60 min; P=0.02) and DEX (30 min; P=0.001) conditions. The rate of carbohydrate use during exercise after the ingestion of HPMS was 7-9% lower compared with that after the ingestion of either DEX or UCMS (P<0.05). The total amount of lipids oxidised during exercise was greater under the HPMS condition (26.2 (SEM 2.8) g) compared with that oxidised under the UCMS (19.6 (SEM 2.7) g; P=0.04) or DEX (20.6 (SEM 3.6) g; P=0.07) condition. The results demonstrated a glycaemic advantage to the ingestion of HPMS over that of UCMS or DEX. Carbohydrate oxidation was reduced after the ingestion of HPMS compared with that after the ingestion of UCMS or DEX, with a corresponding higher rate of endogenous lipid use during exercise.

  8. Facile fabrication of various zinc-nickel citrate microspheres and their transformation to ZnO-NiO hybrid microspheres with excellent lithium storage properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Qingshui; Ma, Yating; Zeng, Deqian; Wang, Laisen; Yue, Guanghui; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2015-02-01

    Zinc-nickel citrate microspheres are prepared by a simple aging process of zinc citrate solid microspheres in nickel nitrate solution. As the concentration of nickel nitrate solution increases, the morphology of the produced zinc-nickel citrate evolves from solid, yolk-shell to hollow microspheres. The formation mechanism of different zinc-nickel citrate microspheres is discussed. After annealing treatment of the corresponding zinc-nickel citrate microspheres in air, three different ZnO-NiO hybrid architectures including solid, yolk-shell and hollow microspheres can be successfully fabricated. When applied as the anode materials for lithium ion batteries, ZnO-NiO hybrid yolk-shell microspheres demonstrate the best electrochemical properties than solid and hollow counterparts. After 200th cycles, ZnO-NiO hybrid yolk-shell microspheres deliver a high reversible capacity of 1176 mA h g-1. The unique yolk-shell configuration, the synergetic effect between ZnO and NiO and the catalytic effect of metal Ni generated by the reduction of NiO during discharging process are responsible for the excellent lithium storage properties of ZnO-NiO hybrid yolk-shell microspheres.

  9. Facile fabrication of various zinc-nickel citrate microspheres and their transformation to ZnO-NiO hybrid microspheres with excellent lithium storage properties

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qingshui; Ma, Yating; Zeng, Deqian; Wang, Laisen; Yue, Guanghui; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Zinc-nickel citrate microspheres are prepared by a simple aging process of zinc citrate solid microspheres in nickel nitrate solution. As the concentration of nickel nitrate solution increases, the morphology of the produced zinc-nickel citrate evolves from solid, yolk-shell to hollow microspheres. The formation mechanism of different zinc-nickel citrate microspheres is discussed. After annealing treatment of the corresponding zinc-nickel citrate microspheres in air, three different ZnO-NiO hybrid architectures including solid, yolk-shell and hollow microspheres can be successfully fabricated. When applied as the anode materials for lithium ion batteries, ZnO-NiO hybrid yolk-shell microspheres demonstrate the best electrochemical properties than solid and hollow counterparts. After 200th cycles, ZnO-NiO hybrid yolk-shell microspheres deliver a high reversible capacity of 1176 mA h g−1. The unique yolk-shell configuration, the synergetic effect between ZnO and NiO and the catalytic effect of metal Ni generated by the reduction of NiO during discharging process are responsible for the excellent lithium storage properties of ZnO-NiO hybrid yolk-shell microspheres. PMID:25684436

  10. Treatment Efficacy and Safety During Plasma Exchange With Citrate Anticoagulation: A Randomized Study of 4 Versus 15% Citrate.

    PubMed

    Antonic, Manja; Gubensek, Jakob; Buturovic-Ponikvar, Jadranka; Ponikvar, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    In plasma exchange (PE), contrary to dialysis, there is no ultrafiltration, and the volume of anticoagulant contributes to volume overload of the patient and might also reduce PE efficiency through dilution. To reduce the volume of citrate, we compared 4 and 15% citrate anticoagulation protocols in PE in a randomized study, aiming to evaluate PE efficacy, anticoagulation efficiency, and overall safety. In addition to standard biochemical analyses during PE treatments, the elimination rate (ER) of immunoglobulins was calculated to evaluate PE efficacy. Anticoagulation was evaluated by postfilter ionized calcium, visual evaluation of the extracorporeal system, and change in the sieving coefficient (SC) during PE. Accumulation of citrate was determined by calculating the total-to-ionized calcium ratio and measuring the citrate concentration after PE. One hundred forty procedures (70 in each group) were performed in 37 patients. The mean citrate infusion rate was 197 ± 10 mL/h in the 4% and 59 ± 5.5 mL/h in the 15% groups, respectively; the total volume of infused citrate was 502 ± 77 mL versus 164 ± 52 mL (P < 0.001). ER for immunoglobulin G (0.57 ± 0.06 vs. 0.55 ± 0.1, P = 0.18), M, and A were comparable. Ionized calcium was stable during the procedures, and there were no significant side effects. Although postfilter ionized calcium was on the upper limit of the target range (0.41 ± 0.16 vs. 0.37 ± 0.14 mmol/L, P = 0.38), the visual assessment score was excellent, and even a rise in SC was observed during the procedures in both groups. The total-to-ionized calcium ratio was increased in 20 versus 22% of procedures, and citrate concentrations after PE were also similar (1306 ± 441 vs. 1263 ± 405 μmol/L). To conclude, we were unable to show superior PE efficacy in the 15% citrate group, but we significantly reduced the infused volume, which is important in patients with fluid overload. Both

  11. Antibiotic lock: in vitro stability of vancomycin and four percent sodium citrate stored in dialysis catheters at 37 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Battistella, Marisa; Walker, Scott; Law, Shirley; Lok, Charmaine

    2009-07-01

    Catheter-related bacteremia (CRB) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality especially among patients receiving hemodialysis (HD). Antibiotic lock therapy represents a promising technique in the treatment of CRB. Several studies have evaluated antibiotics in combination with heparin as an interdialytic locking solution as adjunctive therapy for CRB. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical stability of the vancomycin in 4% sodium citrate in HD catheters as an interdialytic lock. Vancomycin was prepared and diluted with sodium citrate 4% and stored in polyvinyl chloride syringes, 2 carbothane dialysis catheters (Hemostar) and 2 dual floating HD catheters (CardioMed). Syringes were stored at 4 degrees C or 23 degrees C and the catheters were stored in an incubator at 37 degrees C for 72 hours. Samples underwent daily chromatographic analysis and the luminal concentration of vancomycn was determined on study days 0, 1, and 3. When vancomycin is reconstituted with normal saline to achieve a concentration of 50 mg/mL, and then further diluted in 4% sodium citrate, to achieve concentrations of either 1 or 3 mg/mL, and then stored at 4 degrees C, room temperature, or 37 degrees C, solutions were observed to retain >92% of the initial concentration for the study period of 3 days. Based on the fastest degradation rate determined with 95% confidence interval, >90% is retained for 6.53 days. We conclude that vancomycin-4% citrate solutions stored in polyvinyl chloride syringes or HD catheters are not significantly affected by temperature or concentration within the 72 hours storage period. Therefore, these solutions can be anticipated to be suitable as a HD interdialytic antibiotic lock in standard HD catheters.

  12. pH-responsive delivery of doxorubicin from citrate-apatite nanocrystals with tailored carbonate content.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ruiz, Isaac; Delgado-López, José Manuel; Durán-Olivencia, Miguel A; Iafisco, Michele; Tampieri, Anna; Colangelo, Donato; Prat, Maria; Gómez-Morales, Jaime

    2013-07-02

    In this work, the efficiency of bioinspired citrate-functionalized nanocrystalline apatites as nanocarriers for delivery of doxorubicin (DOXO) has been assessed. The nanoparticles were synthesized by thermal decomplexing of metastable calcium/citrate/phosphate solutions both in the absence (Ap) and in the presence (cAp) of carbonate ions. The presence of citrate and carbonate ions in the solution allowed us to tailor the size, shape, carbonate content, and surface chemistry of the nanoparticles. The drug-loading efficiency of the two types of apatite was evaluated by means of the adsorption isotherms, which were found to fit a Langmuir-Freundlich behavior. A model describing the interaction between apatite surface and DOXO is proposed from adsorption isotherms and ζ-potential measurements. DOXO is adsorbed as a dimer by means of a positively charged amino group that electrostatically interacts with negatively charged surface groups of nanoparticles. The drug-release profiles were explored at pHs 7.4 and 5.0, mimicking the physiological pH in the blood circulation and the more acidic pH in the endosome-lysosome intracellular compartment, respectively. After 7 days at pH 7.4, cAp-DOXO released around 42% less drug than Ap-DOXO. However, at acidic pH, both nanoassemblies released similar amounts of DOXO. In vitro assays analyzed by confocal microscopy showed that both drug-loaded apatites were internalized within GTL-16 human carcinoma cells and could release DOXO, which accumulated in the nucleus in short times and exerted cytotoxic activity with the same efficiency. cAp are thus expected to be a more promising nanocarrier for experiments in vivo, in situations where intravenous injection of nanoparticles are required to reach the targeted tumor, after circulating in the bloodstream.

  13. Transport of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles in unsaturated sand.

    PubMed

    Kumahor, Samuel K; Hron, Pavel; Metreveli, George; Schaumann, Gabriele E; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2015-12-01

    Chemical factors and physical constraints lead to coupled effects during particle transport in unsaturated porous media. Studies on unsaturated transport as typical for soils are currently scarce. In unsaturated porous media, particle mobility is determined by the existence of an air-water interface in addition to a solid-water interface. To this end, we measured breakthrough curves and retention profiles of citrate-coated Ag nanoparticles in unsaturated sand at two pH values (5 and 9) and three different flow rates corresponding to different water contents with 1 mM KNO3 as background electrolyte. The classical DLVO theory suggests unfavorable deposition conditions at the air-water and solid-water interfaces. The breakthrough curves indicate modification in curve shapes and retardation of nanoparticles compared to inert solute. Retention profiles show sensitivity to flow rate and pH and this ranged from almost no retention for the highest flow rate at pH=9 to almost complete retention for the lowest flow rate at pH=5. Modeling of the breakthrough curves, thus, required coupling two parallel processes: a kinetically controlled attachment process far from equilibrium, responsible for the shape modification, and an equilibrium sorption, responsible for particle retardation. The non-equilibrium process and equilibrium sorption are suggested to relate to the solid-water and air-water interfaces, respectively. This is supported by the DLVO model extended for hydrophobic interactions which suggests reversible attachment, characterized by a secondary minimum (depth 3-5 kT) and a repulsive barrier at the air-water interface. In contrast, the solid-water interface is characterized by a significant repulsive barrier and the absence of a secondary minimum suggesting kinetically controlled and non-equilibrium interaction. This study provides new insights into particle transport in unsaturated porous media and offers a model concept representing the relevant processes.

  14. Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two functional citrate synthase genes.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, K S; Rosenkrantz, M S; Guarente, L

    1986-01-01

    The tricarboxylic acid cycle occurs within the mitochondria of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A nuclear gene encoding the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme citrate synthase has previously been isolated (M. Suissa, K. Suda, and G. Schatz, EMBO J. 3:1773-1781, 1984) and is referred to here as CIT1. We report here the isolation, by an immunological method, of a second nuclear gene encoding citrate synthase (CIT2). Disruption of both genes in the yeast genome was necessary to produce classical citrate synthase-deficient phenotypes: glutamate auxotrophy and poor growth on rich medium containing lactate, a nonfermentable carbon source. Therefore, the citrate synthase produced from either gene was sufficient for these metabolic roles. Transcription of both genes was maximally repressed in medium containing both glucose and glutamate. However, transcription of CIT1 but not of CIT2 was derepressed in medium containing a nonfermentable carbon source. The significance of the presence of two genes encoding citrate synthase in S. cerevisiae is discussed. Images PMID:3023912

  15. Phospho-oligosaccharide dependent phosphorylation of ATP citrate lyase.

    PubMed

    Puerta, J; Mato, J M; Alemany, S

    1990-01-01

    The effect of insulin on ATP citrate lyase phosphorylation has been shown to be mimicked by a phospho-oligosaccharide in intact adipocytes. We demonstrate that the addition of phospho-oligosaccharide to intact adipocytes enhances the phosphorylation of ATP citrate lyase in the same tryptic peptide as insulin does. The addition of phospho-oligosaccharide to an adipocyte extract also results in an increase in ATP citrate lyase phosphorylation but in a different site than that observed in intact cells. The phospho-oligosaccharide-dependent incorporation of phosphate into ATP citrate lyase in intact cells is resistant to isopropanol and acetic acid, but the phosphoenzyme phosphorylated in cell extracts is acid labile. In cell extracts, the addition of phospho-oligosaccharide markedly inhibits ATP hydrolysis, which may explain the effect of this molecule on ATP citrate lyase phosphorylation in broken cells. These results support the hypothesis that this phospho-oligosaccharide mediates some of the effects of insulin on protein phosphorylation. They also indicate that caution should be exercised in interpreting the results obtained by adding phospho-oligosaccharide to broken cell preparations.

  16. Identification of two distinct Bacillus subtilis citrate synthase genes.

    PubMed

    Jin, S; Sonenshein, A L

    1994-08-01

    Two distinct Bacillus subtilis genes (citA and citZ) were found to encode citrate synthase isozymes that catalyze the first step of the Krebs cycle. The citA gene was cloned by genetic complementation of an Escherichia coli citrate synthase mutant strain (W620) and was in a monocistronic transcriptional unit. A divergently transcribed gene, citR, could encode a protein with strong similarity to the bacterial LysR family of regulatory proteins. A null mutation in citA had little effect on citrate synthase enzyme activity or sporulation. The residual citrate synthase activity was purified from a citA null mutant strain, and the partial amino acid sequence for the purified protein (CitZ) was determined. The citZ gene was cloned from B. subtilis chromosomal DNA by using a PCR-generated probe synthesized with oligonucleotide primers derived from the partial amino acid sequence of purified CitZ. The citZ gene proved to be the first gene in a tricistronic cluster that also included citC (coding for isocitrate dehydrogenase) and citH (coding for malate dehydrogenase). A mutation in citZ caused a substantial loss of citrate synthase enzyme activity, glutamate auxotrophy, and a defect in sporulation.

  17. Furosemide continuous rate infusion diluted with 5% dextrose in water or hypertonic saline in normal adult dogs: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Adin, D; Atkins, C; Papich, M; DeFrancesco, T; Griffiths, E; Penteado, M; Kurtz, K; Klein, A

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the short-term safety and diuretic efficacy of furosemide constant rate infusion (CRI) diluted with 5% dextrose in water (D5W) compared to dilution with 2.4% hypertonic saline in healthy dogs. Six healthy dogs. Dogs were studied in a randomized, blinded, crossover manner. Furosemide 3.3mg/kg was diluted to 2.2mg/mL with either 1.5mL/kg D5W for the DEX method or with 1.0mL/kg D5W and 0.5mL/kg of 7.2% hypertonic saline for the H-SAL method. After a 0.66mg/kg furosemide IV bolus, the infusion rate was 0.3 mL/kg/hr for 5 h such that both methods delivered 0.66 mg/kg/hr (total 3.3mg/kg) furosemide in equal volume for the study duration. Urine output, water intake, central venous pressure (CVP), physical parameters, furosemide concentrations, blood and urine electrolytes, and urine aldosterone to creatinine ratio (UAldo:C) were evaluated. Measured variables were not different between methods but showed changes over time consistent with diuresis. Mean CVP decreased over time similarly for both methods. Plasma furosemide and urine concentrations were stable and not different between methods. Both furosemide CRI methods showed an increase in the UAldo:C, however, the rise was greater for DEX than for H-SAL. Diuresis was similar for both furosemide CRI methods; however, the H-SAL method induced less renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation than the DEX method. The absence of intravascular volume expansion based on CVP suggests that dilution of a furosemide CRI with 2.4% hypertonic saline may be well tolerated in heart failure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of citrate ions on the softening of root crops prepared with freeze-thaw impregnation of macerating enzymes.

    PubMed

    Nakatsu, Sayaka; Shimoda, Mitsuya; Shibata, Kenya; Kajihara, Ryo; Ishihara, Masako; Sakamoto, Koji

    2014-03-01

    Freeze-thaw impregnation is a technique used for the rapid impregnation of substances into foodstuffs. Freeze-thaw impregnation with macerating enzymes has been applied to soften foodstuffs, while retaining their original shapes and flavors. In this study, we found that co-impregnation with citrate ions and macerating enzymes significantly facilitated the softening of root crops. When burdock roots were processed by the impregnating solution at pH 4.0-5.0, co-impregnated burdock roots exhibited 1/6-1/3 firmness values compared with burdock roots impregnated with only enzymes. The impregnation with citrate ions alone at pH 4.0 to 5.0 did not soften burdock roots. The firmness of burdock roots was positively correlated with the amount of water-insoluble calcium in the samples. The results suggested that the degradation of pectins by pectinolytic activities could promote contact with citrate to bridging-calcium ions interacting with the pectin chains. Therefore, the softening by the synergistic effect of citrate ions and macerating enzymes was related to the amount of pectins contained in root crops. That is, the synergistic effect was significant with burdock roots and carrots (from which 50% of polysaccharides are pectins) unlike with lotus rhizomes and bamboo shoots (from which 30% and 10% of polysaccharides are pectins, respectively). Freeze-thaw impregnation with macerating enzymes and citrate ions can be applied for the production of care foods which can be eaten without chewing. The softened products induce the pleasure of eating for consumers because their original shapes and flavors are retained. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Reduced cathartic bowel preparation for CT colonography: prospective comparison of 2-L polyethylene glycol and magnesium citrate.

    PubMed

    Keedy, Alexander W; Yee, Judy; Aslam, Rizwan; Weinstein, Stefanie; Landeras, Luis A; Shah, Janak N; McQuaid, Kenneth R; Yeh, Benjamin M

    2011-10-01

    To prospectively compare adequacy of colonic cleansing, adequacy of solid stool and fluid tagging, and patient acceptance by using reduced-volume, 2-L polyethylene glycol (PEG) versus magnesium citrate bowel preparations for CT colonography. This study was approved by the institutional Committee on Human Research and was compliant with HIPAA; all patients provided written consent. In this randomized, investigator-blinded study, 50 patients underwent oral preparation with either a 2-L PEG or a magnesium citrate solution, tagging with oral contrast agents, and subsequent CT colonography and segmentally unblinded colonoscopy. The residual stool (score 0 [best] to 3 [worst]) and fluid (score 0 [best] to 4 [worst]) burden and tagging adequacy were qualitatively assessed. Residual fluid attenuation was recorded as a quantitative measure of tagging adequacy. Patients completed a tolerance questionnaire within 2 weeks of scanning. Preparations were compared for residual stool and fluid by using generalized estimating equations; the Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the qualitative tagging score, mean residual fluid attenuation, and adverse effects assessed on the patient experience questionnaire. The mean residual stool (0.90 of three) and fluid burden (1.05 of four) scores for PEG were similar to those for magnesium citrate (0.96 [P = .58] and 0.98 [P = .48], respectively). However, the mean fecal and fluid tagging scores were significantly better for PEG (0.48 and 0.28, respectively) than for magnesium citrate (1.52 [P < .01] and 1.28 [P < .01], respectively). Mean residual fluid attenuation was higher for PEG (765 HU) than for magnesium citrate (443 HU, P = .01), and mean interpretation time was shorter for PEG (14.8 minutes) than for magnesium citrate (18.0 minutes, P = .04). Tolerance ratings were not significantly different between preparations. Reduced-volume PEG and magnesium citrate bowel preparations demonstrated adequate cleansing effectiveness for CT

  20. Reduced Cathartic Bowel Preparation for CT Colonography: Prospective Comparison of 2-L Polyethylene Glycol and Magnesium Citrate

    PubMed Central

    Keedy, Alexander W.; Aslam, Rizwan; Weinstein, Stefanie; Landeras, Luis A.; Shah, Janak N.; McQuaid, Kenneth R.; Yeh, Benjamin M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively compare adequacy of colonic cleansing, adequacy of solid stool and fluid tagging, and patient acceptance by using reduced-volume, 2-L polyethylene glycol (PEG) versus magnesium citrate bowel preparations for CT colonography. Materials and Methods: This study was approved by the institutional Committee on Human Research and was compliant with HIPAA; all patients provided written consent. In this randomized, investigator-blinded study, 50 patients underwent oral preparation with either a 2-L PEG or a magnesium citrate solution, tagging with oral contrast agents, and subsequent CT colonography and segmentally unblinded colonoscopy. The residual stool (score 0 [best] to 3 [worst]) and fluid (score 0 [best] to 4 [worst]) burden and tagging adequacy were qualitatively assessed. Residual fluid attenuation was recorded as a quantitative measure of tagging adequacy. Patients completed a tolerance questionnaire within 2 weeks of scanning. Preparations were compared for residual stool and fluid by using generalized estimating equations; the Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the qualitative tagging score, mean residual fluid attenuation, and adverse effects assessed on the patient experience questionnaire. Results: The mean residual stool (0.90 of three) and fluid burden (1.05 of four) scores for PEG were similar to those for magnesium citrate (0.96 [P = .58] and 0.98 [P = .48], respectively). However, the mean fecal and fluid tagging scores were significantly better for PEG (0.48 and 0.28, respectively) than for magnesium citrate (1.52 [P < .01] and 1.28 [P < .01], respectively). Mean residual fluid attenuation was higher for PEG (765 HU) than for magnesium citrate (443 HU, P = .01), and mean interpretation time was shorter for PEG (14.8 minutes) than for magnesium citrate (18.0 minutes, P = .04). Tolerance ratings were not significantly different between preparations. Conclusion: Reduced-volume PEG and magnesium citrate bowel preparations

  1. Magnetic nanoparticles coated with cyclodextrins and citrate for irinotecan delivery.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Ana P F; Caminhas, Larissa D; Ardisson, José D; Paniago, Roberto; Cortés, Maria E; Sinisterra, Rubén D

    2017-05-01

    In the present work, we study the role of different components in the formation of more stable iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs): β-cyclodextrin (BCD), 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP) and citrate anion. MNPs formulations were characterized by FTIR, particles size measurements, zeta potential based on dynamic light scattering principle technique, X-ray powder pattern diffraction, XPS spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed that cyclodextrins and citrate plays a key role in order to obtain a lower size of coated MNPs and proved to be an efficient strategy to obtain a more stable colloidal dispersion, avoiding the nanoparticles oxidation, enhancing the irinotecan incorporation and release. Furthermore, citrate-coated BCD-MNPs showed the same cytotoxicity of the free IRI.

  2. Utility of Aspergillus niger citrate synthase promoter for heterologous expression.

    PubMed

    Dave, Kashyap; Punekar, Narayan S

    2011-09-10

    Citrate synthase is a central player in the acidogenic metabolism of Aspergillus niger. The 5' upstream sequence (0.9kb DNA) of citrate synthase gene (citA) from A. niger NCIM 565 was analyzed and its promoter function demonstrated through the heterologous expression of two proteins. The cloned citrate synthase promoter (PcitA) sequence was able to express bar coding sequence thereby conferring phosphinothricin resistance. This sequence was further analyzed by systematic deletions to define an effective but compact functional promoter. The PcitA driven egfp expression showed that PcitA was active in all differentiation cell-stages of A. niger. EGFP expression was highest on non-repressible carbon sources like acetate and glycerol. Mycelial EGFP levels increased during acidogenic growth suggesting that PcitA is functional throughout this cultivation. A. niger PcitA is the first Krebs cycle gene promoter used to express heterologous proteins in filamentous fungi.

  3. Strongly bound citrate stabilizes the apatite nanocrystals in bone

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Y.-Y.; Rawal, A.; Schmidt-Rohr, K.

    2010-10-12

    Nanocrystals of apatitic calcium phosphate impart the organic-inorganic nanocomposite in bone with favorable mechanical properties. So far, the factors preventing crystal growth beyond the favorable thickness of ca. 3 nm have not been identified. Here we show that the apatite surfaces are studded with strongly bound citrate molecules, whose signals have been identified unambiguously by multinuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. NMR reveals that bound citrate accounts for 5.5 wt% of the organic matter in bone and covers apatite at a density of about 1 molecule per (2 nm){sup 2}, with its three carboxylate groups at distances of 0.3 to 0.45 nm from the apatite surface. Bound citrate is highly conserved, being found in fish, avian, and mammalian bone, which indicates its critical role in interfering with crystal thickening and stabilizing the apatite nanocrystals in bone

  4. Role of ligands in accumulation and fractionation of rare Earth elements in plants: examples of phosphate and citrate.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shiming; Liang, Tao; Zhang, Chaosheng; Yan, Juncai; Zhang, Zili; Sun, Qin

    2005-10-01

    Few studies have been carried out on the effects of ligands on rare earth element (REE) bioaccumulation processes. In this study, the effects of phosphate (Pi, an inorganic ligand) and citrate (an organic ligand) on accumulation and fractionation of REEs in wheat were investigated using aqueous culture with extraneous mixed REEs (MRE). The results show that initial Pi solution culture at various levels followed by exposure to a fixed-MRE solution did not significantly change the total concentrations of REEs (SigmaREE) in roots, whereas the SigmaREE in leaves dramatically decreased with increasing levels of Pi applied. Simultaneous culture of wheat with mixture of MRE and citrate solutions caused obvious decreases of the SigmaREE in both roots and leaves. Compared with MRE, significant fractionations of REEs were found in wheat organs when no ligand was applied. Notable middle REE (MREE) enrichment and M-type tetrad effect were observed in the roots, and heavy REE (HREE) enrichment and W-type tetrad effect existed in the leaves. Pi treatments did not significantly affect the fractionations of REEs in the roots, but enrichment of HREEs in the leaves slightly increased at the highest level of Pi applied. Fractionations of REEs in both roots and leaves decreased with increasing levels of citrate applied; at higher levels of citrate (> or =150 microM), no above fractionation features were observed in wheat, but light REE (LREE) enrichment existed in the roots and leaves. The results indicate that ligands might play important roles in accumulation and fractionation of REEs during bioaccumulation processes.

  5. Ileal Endogenous Amino Acid Flow Response to Nitrogen-free Diets with Differing Ratios of Corn Starch to Dextrose in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Kong, C.; Ragland, D.; Adeola, O.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the responses in the digestibility of dry matter (DM) and amino acid (AA) composition of ileal endogenous flow (IEF) of pigs (initial body weight, 69.1±6.46 kg) fed N-free diets (NFD) formulated with different ratios of corn starch to dextrose. Fifteen pigs fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum were fed 5 diets according to a triplicated 5×2 incomplete Latin-square design. Each period consisted of a 5-d adjustment period and 2 d of ileal digesta collection for 12 h on each of d 6 and 7 and between each period, there was a 5-d recovery period to avoid abnormal weight loss. The ratios of corn starch to dextrose investigated were 0:879, 293:586, 586:293, 779:100, and 879:0 for diet numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively, and chromic oxide (5 g/kg) was used as an indigestible index. Ileal DM digestibility was greater in Diet 1 than that in Diet 4 (89.5% vs 87.3%, p<0.01) but they were not different from Diet 2, 3, or 5. The IEF for most of indispensable AA were not different among diets with the exception of Met, in which a lack of corn starch or dextrose gave lower (p = 0.028) IEF of Met than diets containing corn starch and dextrose. Likewise, the dispensable AA and total AA in the IEF did not differ among diets. The respective IEF of AA (mg/kg of dry matter intake) in pigs fed Diets 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 were 301, 434, 377, 477,or 365 for Lys, 61, 89, 71, 87, or 61 for Met, and 477, 590, 472, 520, or 436 for Thr. Proline was the most abundant AA in the IEF followed by Gly, Glu, and Asp and together accounted for approximately 50% of the total ileal AA flows of pigs fed NFD. In conclusion, the variation in proportion of corn starch and dextrose in a NFD does not largely affect estimates of IEF of N and AA for growing-finishing pigs. PMID:25083106

  6. Peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthase in CAM plants.

    PubMed

    Zafra, M F; Segovia, J L; Alejandre, M J; García-Peregrín, E

    1981-12-01

    Citrate synthase wa studied for the first time in peroxisomes and mitochondria of crassulacean acid metabolism plants. Cellular organelles were isolated from Agave americana leaves by sucrose density gradient centrifugation and characterized by the use of catalase and cytochrome oxidase as marker enzymes, respectively. 48,000 X g centrifugation caused the breakdown of the cellular organelles. The presence of a glyoxylate cycle enzyme (citrate synthase) and a glycollate pathway enzyme (catalase) in the same organelles, besides the absence of another glyoxalate cycle enzyme (malate synthase) is reported for the first time, suggesting that peroxisomal and glyoxysomal proteins are synthesized at the same time and housed in he same organelle.

  7. Estimating conformation content of a protein using citrate-stabilized Au nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deka, Jashmini; Paul, Anumita; Chattopadhyay, Arun

    2010-08-01

    Herein we report the use of the optical properties of citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) for estimation of native or denatured conformation content in a mixture of a protein in solution. The UV-vis extinction spectrum of citrate-stabilized Au NPs is known to broaden differently in the presence of native and denatured states of α-amylase, bovine serum albumin (BSA) or amyloglucosidase (AMG). On the other hand, herein we show that when a mixture of native and denatured protein was present in the medium, the broadening of the spectrum differed for different fractional content of the conformations. Also, the total area under the extinction spectrum varied linearly with the change in the mole fraction content of a state and for a constant total protein concentration. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements revealed different levels of agglomeration for different fractional contents of the native or denatured state of a protein. In addition, time-dependent denaturation of a protein could be followed using the present method. The rate constants calculated for denaturation indicated a possible fast change in conformation of a protein before complete thermal denaturation. The observations have been explained based on the changes in extinction coefficient (thereby oscillator strength) upon interaction of citrate-stabilized NPs with proteins being in different states and levels of agglomeration.Herein we report the use of the optical properties of citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) for estimation of native or denatured conformation content in a mixture of a protein in solution. The UV-vis extinction spectrum of citrate-stabilized Au NPs is known to broaden differently in the presence of native and denatured states of α-amylase, bovine serum albumin (BSA) or amyloglucosidase (AMG). On the other hand, herein we show that when a mixture of native and denatured protein was present in the medium, the broadening of the spectrum differed for

  8. A test of the citrate method of PMI estimation from skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sarah J; Christensen, Angi M

    2017-01-01

    Citrate content in bone has been shown to be associated with the postmortem interval (PMI), with citrate decreasing after death as a function of time. Here we test this method using porcine ribs for the period of 1-165days after death, and also assess citrate content and variation from samples placed into two different postmortem environments (terrestrial and aquatic). Higher citrate variation, lower citrate recovery, and a weaker association with time were found in this study as compared to others. Citrate content, however, was found to decrease with increasing PMI, and the method was found to be easy and inexpensive to apply. No significant differences were found in citrate loss between terrestrial and aquatic environments. Although more research is needed, citrate content appears to be a promising new approach in estimating PMI from skeletal remains. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Potato dextrose agar antifungal susceptibility testing for yeasts and molds: evaluation of phosphate effect on antifungal activity of CMT-3.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Tortora, George; Ryan, Maria E; Lee, Hsi-Ming; Golub, Lorne M

    2002-05-01

    The broth macrodilution method (BMM) for antifungal susceptibility testing, approved by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS), was found to have deficiencies in testing of the antifungal activity of a new type of antifungal agent, a nonantibacterial chemically modified tetracycline (CMT-3). The high content of phosphate in the medium was found to greatly increase the MICs of CMT-3. To avoid the interference of phosphate in the test, a new method using potato dextrose agar (PDA) as a culture medium was developed. Eight strains of fungi, including five American Type Culture Collection strains and three clinical isolates, were used to determine the MICs of amphotericin B and itraconazole with both the BMM and the PDA methods. The MICs of the two antifungal agents determined with the PDA method showed 99% agreement with those determined with the BMM method within 1 log(2) dilution. Similarly, the overall reproducibility of the MICs with the PDA method was above 97%. Three other antifungal agents, fluconazole, ketoconazole, and CMT-3, were also tested in parallel against yeasts and molds with both the BMM and the PDA methods. The MICs of fluconazole and ketoconazole determined with the PDA method showed 100% agreement within 1 log(2) dilution of those obtained with the BMM method. However, the MICs of CMT-3 determined with the BMM method were as high as 128 times those determined with the PDA method. The effect of phosphate on the antifungal activity of CMT-3 was evaluated by adding Na2HPO4 to PDA in the new method. It was found that the MIC of CMT-3 against a Penicillium sp. increased from 0.5 microg/ml (control) to 2.0 microg/ml when the added phosphate was used at a concentration of 0.8 mg/ml, indicating a strong interference of Na2HPO4 with the antifungal activity of CMT-3. Except for fluconazole, all the other antifungal agents demonstrated clear end points among the yeasts and molds tested. Nevertheless, with its high reproducibility

  10. Solubility of Injectable Valium in Intravenous Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Grower, Marvin F.; Russell, Emery A.; Getter, Lee

    1978-01-01

    A study of the solubility of Valium in commonly used intravenous solutions showed Valium to be equally insoluble in 5% dextrose in normal saline, 5% dextrose in water, normal saline, and Ringer's lactate. However, the precipitate which was formed became completely resuspended when mixed with as little as 39-42% plasma in vitro. This would indicate that the chalky precipitate seen in the I. V. tubing when Valium is injected into a running I. V. near the venipuncture site becomes resuspended when mixed with plasma in vivo. If one elects to inject Valium into the tubing of a running I. V., it is recommended that the drug be administered slowly to assure adequate mixing with blood plasma in order to prevent the circulation of particulate matter. Valium is currently one of the most popular drugs used in the psychosedative management of the apprehensive dental patient. Various techniques are advocated for its administration from direct injection into a vein to injection of the drug into a running I. V. However, the manufacturer states that the drug should not be added to I. V. fluids or other solutions or drugs. Presumably this is because of the formation of a cloudy precipitate immediately upon addition to aqueous solutions. Grower et al. have shown that saturated aqueous solutions of Valium in normal saline redissolve when added to plasma; however, they presented no data on the behavior of solutions of Valium added to other commonly used intravenous fluids. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to study the behavior of Valium when added to lactated Ringer's solution, 5% dextrose solutions, and normal saline; and to see how human blood plasma affects the solubility of Valium in these solutions. PMID:292338

  11. Removal of citrate and hypophosphite binary components using Fenton, photo-Fenton and electro-Fenton processes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yao-Hui; Su, Hsiao-Ting; Lin, Li-Way

    2009-01-01

    Both citrate and hypophosphite in aqueous solution were degraded by advanced oxidation processes (Fe2+/H2O2, UV/Fe2+/H2O2, and electrolysis/ Fe2+/H2O2) in this study. Comparison of these techniques in oxidation efficiency was undertaken. It was found that Fenton process could not completely degrade citrate in the presence of hypophosphite since it caused a series inhibition. Therefore, UV light (photo-Fenton) or electron current (electro-Fenton) was applied to improve the degradation efficiency of the Fenton process. Results showed that both photo-Fenton and electro-Fenton processes could overcome the inhibition of hypophosphite, especially the electro-Fenton.

  12. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food...

  13. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food...

  14. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food...

  15. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food...

  16. 21 CFR 520.1803 - Piperazine citrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1803 Piperazine citrate.... (c) Conditions of use. (1) It is used in dogs and cats for the removal of large roundworms (Toxocara... for each 5 pounds, or fraction thereof of body weight, except dogs weighing over 25 pounds should be...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1803 - Piperazine citrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1803 Piperazine citrate.... (c) Conditions of use. (1) It is used in dogs and cats for the removal of large roundworms (Toxocara... for each 5 pounds, or fraction thereof of body weight, except dogs weighing over 25 pounds should be...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1803 - Piperazine citrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1803 Piperazine citrate.... (c) Conditions of use. (1) It is used in dogs and cats for the removal of large roundworms (Toxocara... for each 5 pounds, or fraction thereof of body weight, except dogs weighing over 25 pounds should be...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1803 - Piperazine citrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1803 Piperazine citrate.... (c) Conditions of use. (1) It is used in dogs and cats for the removal of large roundworms (Toxocara... for each 5 pounds, or fraction thereof of body weight, except dogs weighing over 25 pounds should be...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1803 - Piperazine citrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1803 Piperazine citrate.... (c) Conditions of use. (1) It is used in dogs and cats for the removal of large roundworms (Toxocara... for each 5 pounds, or fraction thereof of body weight, except dogs weighing over 25 pounds should be...

  1. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food...

  2. 21 CFR 573.580 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 573.580 Section 573.580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS...

  3. 21 CFR 520.622 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms. 520.622 Section 520.622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE... brown or garnet red scales or granules or as a brownish-yellowish powder. (2) Ferric ammonium citrate... occurs as thin transparent green scales, as granules, as a powder, or as transparent green crystals....

  5. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE... brown or garnet red scales or granules or as a brownish-yellowish powder. (2) Ferric ammonium citrate... occurs as thin transparent green scales, as granules, as a powder, or as transparent green crystals....

  6. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... general and ophthalmic surgery subject to the following conditions: (1) The dyed suture shall conform...

  7. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... general and ophthalmic surgery subject to the following conditions: (1) The dyed suture shall conform...

  8. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... general and ophthalmic surgery subject to the following conditions: (1) The dyed suture shall conform...

  9. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... general and ophthalmic surgery subject to the following conditions: (1) The dyed suture shall conform...

  10. Development of Injectable Citrate-Based Bioadhesive Bone Implants

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Denghui; Guo, Jinshan; Mehdizadeh, Mohammadreza; Tran, Richard T.; Chen, Ruisong; Sun, Dawei; Qian, Guoying; Jin, Dadi; Bai, Xiaochun; Yang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Injectable bone implants have been widely used in bone tissue repairs including the treatment of comminuted bone fractures (CBF). However, most injectable bone implants are not suitable for the treatment of CBF due to their weak tissue adhesion strengths and minimal osteoinduction. Citrate has been recently reported to promote bone formation through enhanced bioceramic integration and osteoinductivity. Herein, a novel injectable citrate-based mussel-inspired bioadhesive hydroxyapatite (iCMBA/HA) bone substitute was developed for CBF treatment. iCMBA/HA can be set within 2–4 minutes and the as-prepared (wet) iCMBA/HA possess low swelling ratios, compressive mechanical strengths of up to 3.2±0.27 MPa, complete degradation in 30 days, suitable biocompatibility, and osteoinductivity. This is also the first time to demonstrate that citrate supplementation in osteogenic medium and citrate released from iCMBA/HA degradation can promote the mineralization of osteoblastic committed human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). In vivo evaluation of iCMBA/HA in a rabbit comminuted radial fracture model showed significantly increased bone formation with markedly enhanced three-point bending strength compared to the negative control. Neovascularization and bone ingrowth as well as highly organized bone formation were also observed showing the potential of iCMBA/HA in treating CBF. PMID:25580247

  11. 21 CFR 184.1307c - Ferrous citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... 23383-11-1) is a slightly colored powder or white crystals. It is prepared from the reaction of sodium citrate with ferrous sulfate or by direct action of citric acid on iron filings. (b) The ingredient must... accordance with section 412(g) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act) (21 U.S.C. 350a(g)) or...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1307c - Ferrous citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the reaction of sodium citrate with ferrous sulfate or by direct action of citric acid on iron filings... (the act) (21 U.S.C. 350a(g)) or with regulations promulgated under section 412(a)(2) of the act (21 U.S.C. 350a(a)(2)). (d) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1307c - Ferrous citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the reaction of sodium citrate with ferrous sulfate or by direct action of citric acid on iron filings... (the act) (21 U.S.C. 350a(g)) or with regulations promulgated under section 412(a)(2) of the act (21 U.S.C. 350a(a)(2)). (d) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1307c - Ferrous citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the reaction of sodium citrate with ferrous sulfate or by direct action of citric acid on iron filings... (the act) (21 U.S.C. 350a(g)) or with regulations promulgated under section 412(a)(2) of the act (21 U.S.C. 350a(a)(2)). (d) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in...

  15. 40 CFR 721.7285 - Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7285 Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines, N...

  16. 40 CFR 721.7285 - Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7285 Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines, N...

  17. 40 CFR 721.7286 - Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7286 Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines, N...

  18. 40 CFR 721.7286 - Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7286 Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines, N...

  19. 21 CFR 522.300 - Carfentanil citrate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carfentanil citrate injection. 522.300 Section 522.300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  20. 21 CFR 522.300 - Carfentanil citrate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carfentanil citrate injection. 522.300 Section 522.300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  1. 21 CFR 522.300 - Carfentanil citrate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carfentanil citrate injection. 522.300 Section 522.300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  2. 40 CFR 721.7286 - Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates (PMN P-93-881; CAS No. 189120-62-5) is subject to reporting under this section for the...), (g)(4)(iii), and (g)(5). (ii) Release to water. Requirements as specified in § 721.90 (a)(1), (b)(1....125 (a), (b), (c), (f), (g), (h), and (k) are applicable to manufacturers, importers, and processors...

  3. 40 CFR 721.7285 - Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates. (PMN P-93-880; CAS No. 189120-63-6) is subject to reporting under this section for the...), (g)(4)(iii), and (g)(5). (ii) Release to water. Requirements as specified in § 721.90 (a)(1), (b)(1....125 (a), (b), (c), (f), (g), (h), and (k) are applicable to manufacturers, importers, and processors...

  4. Synthesis of Stable Citrate-Capped Silver Nanoprisms.

    PubMed

    Haber, Jason M; Sokolov, Konstantin

    2017-09-12

    Citrate-stabilized silver nanoprisms (AgNPrs) can be easily functionalized using well-developed thiol based surface chemistry that is an important requirement for biosensor applications utilizing localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and surface-enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS). Unfortunately, currently available protocols for synthesis of citrate-coated AgNPrs do not produce stable nanoparticles thus limiting their usefulness in biosensing applications. Here we address this problem by carrying out a systematic study of citrate-stabilized, peroxide-based synthesis of AgNPrs to optimize reaction conditions for production of stable and reproducible nanoprisms. Our analysis showed that concentration of secondary reducing agent, L-ascorbic acid, is critical to AgNPr stability. Furthermore, we demonstrated that optimization of other synthesis conditions such as stabilizer concentration, rate of silver nitrate addition and seed dilution result in highly stable nanoprisms with narrow absorption peaks ranging from 450nm into near-IR. In addition, the optimized reaction conditions can be used to produce AgNPrs in a one-pot synthesis instead of a previously described two-step reaction. The resulting nanoprisms can readily interact with thiols for easy surface functionalization. These studies provide an optimized set of parameters for precise control of citrate stabilized AgNPr synthesis for biomedical applications.

  5. Complex transcriptional regulation of citrate metabolism in Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yonghui; Ohtani, Kaori; Yoshizawa, Satoko; Shimizu, Tohru

    2012-02-01

    A Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium, Clostridium perfringens, possesses genes for citrate metabolism, which might play an important role in the utilization of citrate as a sole carbon source. In this study, we identified a chromosomal citCDEFX-mae-citS operon in C. perfringens strain 13, which is transcribed on three mRNAs of different sizes. Expression of the cit operon was significantly induced when 5 mM extracellular citrate was added to the growth medium. Most interestingly, three regulatory systems were found to be involved in the regulation of the expression of cit genes: 1) the two upstream divergent genes citG and citI; 2) two different two-component regulatory systems, CitA/CitB (TCS6 consisted of CPE0531/CPE0532) and TCS5 (CPE0518/CPE0519); and 3) the global two-component VirR/VirS-VR-RNA regulatory system known to regulate various genes for toxins and degradative enzymes. Our results suggest that in C. perfringens the citrate metabolism might be strictly controlled by a complex regulatory system.

  6. 40 CFR 721.7286 - Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7286 Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines,...

  7. 40 CFR 721.7285 - Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7285 Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines,...

  8. 21 CFR 522.300 - Carfentanil citrate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carfentanil citrate injection. 522.300 Section 522.300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  9. 40 CFR 721.7285 - Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7285 Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines, N...

  10. 40 CFR 721.7286 - Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7286 Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines, N...

  11. 21 CFR 520.622d - Diethylcarbamazine citrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Diethylcarbamazine citrate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 12.5, 50, 200, or 400 milligrams (mg... dogs—(1) Amount/indications for use. 3 mg per pound (/lb) body weight daily for prevention of heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis); 25 to 50 mg/lb body weight in a single dose as an aid in the treatment...

  12. 21 CFR 520.622d - Diethylcarbamazine citrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Diethylcarbamazine citrate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 12.5, 50, 200, or 400 milligrams (mg... dogs—(1) Amount/indications for use. 3 mg per pound (/lb) body weight daily for prevention of heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis); 25 to 50 mg/lb body weight in a single dose as an aid in the treatment...

  13. Stability of Fentanyl Citrate in Polyolefin Bags.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Ronald F

    2016-01-01

    Fentanyl is used to manage pain because it is a potent lipophilic opiate agonist. The stability of fentanyl in polyolefin bags when diluted to either 10 µg/mL or 50 µg/mL with sodium chloride 0.9% has not been studied. The chemical stability of fentanyl 50 µg/mL packaged in polyvinyl chloride bags has been studied, however, the stability in polyolefin bags is lacking. Polyolefin bags were aseptically filled with either 10-µg/mL or 50-µg/mL fentanyl solution. Containers were then stored at either 5°C and protected from light or 22°C and exposed to light for 93 days. Fentanyl peaks were monitored using a stability-indicatin high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Changes to color, clarity, and pH were also monitored. There were no signs of chemical degradation of fentanyl packaged in polyolefin bags at either 5°C or 22°C after storage for 93 days. Over the course of the study, all solutions remained colorless and clear. The pH showed a slight decrease during the 93 days of storage. The stability of both undiluted (50-µg/mL) and diluted (10-µg/mL) fentanyl solutions when packaged in polyolefin bags was 93 days when stored at either 5°C or 22°C. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  14. 78 FR 63228 - Determination That Potassium Citrate, 10 Milliequivalents/Packet and 20 Milliequivalents/Packet...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That Potassium Citrate, 10 Milliequivalents...) has determined that Potassium Citrate, 10 milliequivalents/packet (mEq/packet) and 20 mEq/ packet, was... approve abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for Potassium Citrate, 10 mEq/packet and 20 mEq/packet...

  15. 75 FR 14491 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Bismuth Citrate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... level of bismuth citrate as a color additive in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp. This... citrate as a color additive in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp from 0.5 percent (weight... bismuth citrate in cosmetics intended for coloring scalp hair to 2.0 percent (w/v) with no changes to the...

  16. 78 FR 64914 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of... of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from Canada.\\1\\ The review... period of review (POR) is May 1, 2011, through April 30, 2012. \\1\\ See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate...

  17. 78 FR 34338 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (citric acid) from... is citric acid and certain citrate salts. The product is currently classified in the Harmonized...

  18. 77 FR 24461 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of... the preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and... citric acid and certain citrate salts from Canada. See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from Canada...

  19. Molecular characterization of microbial population dynamics during sildenafil citrate degradation.

    PubMed

    De Felice, Bruna; Argenziano, Carolina; Guida, Marco; Trifuoggi, Marco; Russo, Francesca; Condorelli, Valerio; Inglese, Mafalda

    2009-02-01

    Little is known about pharmaceutical and personal care products pollutants (PPCPs), but there is a growing interest in how they might impact the environment and microbial communities. The widespread use of Viagra (sildenafil citrate) has attracted great attention because of the high usage rate, the unpredictable disposal and the unknown potential effects on wildlife and the environment. Until now information regarding the impact of Viagra on microbial community in water environment has not been reported. In this research, for the first time, the genetic profile of the microbial community, developing in a Viagra polluted water environment, was evaluated by means of the 16S and 18S rRNA genes, for bacteria and fungi, respectively, amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and separated using the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) technique. The DGGE results revealed a complex microbial community structure with most of the population persisting throughout the experimental period. DNA sequences from bands observed in the different denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles exhibited the highest degree of identity to uncultured bacteria and fungi found previously mainly in polluted environmental and treating bioreactors. Biotransformation ability of sildenafil citrate by the microbial pool was studied and the capability of these microorganisms to detoxify a polluted water ecosystem was assessed. The bacterial and fungal population was able to degrade sildenafil citrate entirely. Additionally, assays conducted on Daphnia magna, algal growth inhibition assay and cell viability determination on HepG2 human cells showed that biotransformation products obtained from the bacterial growth was not toxic. The higher removal efficiency for sildenafil citrate and the lack of toxicity by the biotransformation products obtained showed that the microbial community identified here represented a composite population that might have biotechnological relevance to

  20. Mayenite Synthesized Using the Citrate Sol-Gel Method

    SciTech Connect

    Ude, Sabina N; Rawn, Claudia J; Meisner, Roberta A; Kirkham, Melanie J; Jones, Gregory L.; Payzant, E Andrew

    2014-01-01

    A citrate sol-gel method has been used to synthesize mayenite (Ca12Al14O33). X-ray powder diffraction data show that the samples synthesized using the citrate sol-gel method contained CaAl2O4 and CaCO3 along with mayenite when fired ex-situ in air at 800 C but were single phase when fired at 900 C and above. Using high temperature x-ray diffraction, data collected in-situ in air at temperatures of 600 C and below showed only amorphous content; however, data collected at higher temperatures indicated the first phase to crystallize is CaCO3. High temperature x-ray diffraction data collected in 4% H2/96% N2 does not show the presence of CaCO3, and Ca12Al14O33 starts to form around 850 C. In comparison, x-ray powder diffraction data collected ex-situ on samples synthesized using traditional solid-state synthesis shows that single phase was not reached until samples were fired at 1350 C. DTA/TGA data collected either in a nitrogen environment or air on samples synthesized using the citrate gel method suggest the complete decomposition of metastable phases and the formation of mayenite at 900 C, although the phase evolution is very different depending on the environment. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements showed a slightly higher surface area of 7.4 0.1 m2/g in the citrate gel synthesized samples compared to solid-state synthesized sample with a surface area of 1.61 0.02 m2/g. SEM images show a larger particle size for samples synthesized using the solid-state method compared to those synthesized using the citrate gel method.

  1. Potentiometric detection of citrate in beverages using a graphite carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Celso L; Melo, Edmar I; Coelho, Nívia M M

    2011-05-30

    The development, evaluation and application of a simple and low-cost graphite carbon electrode for the direct determination of citrate in food samples are described here. The electrode exhibits a linear response with a slope of -29.0 ± 1.0 mV decade(-1) in a concentration range of 0.07-7.0 mmol L(-1) in 0.1 mol L(-1) KCl/1.0 mmol L(-1) phosphate buffer solution with a limit of detection of 3.0 μmol L(-1). The electrode is easily constructed at a relatively low cost and has a fast time response (within 120 s) with no significant changes in its performance characteristics. The performance of the graphite sensor was tested to determine citrate in beverage samples (juices and an isotonic drink), and the results were validated against a reference procedure. The proposed method is quick, inexpensive, selective and sensitive, and is based entirely on conventional instrumentation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Preparation of xylan citrate--a potential adsorbent for industrial wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Shuaiyang, Wang; Huiling, Li; Junli, Ren; Chuanfu, Liu; Feng, Peng; Runcang, Sun

    2013-02-15

    The novel and degradable xylan citrate was prepared by the environmental-friendly semi-dry oven method. Xylan reacted with citric acid (CA) to yield xylan citrate at high temperature. The influence of the different weight ratios of CA and xylan on the product yield, the carboxyl group content and degree of esterification were comparatively discussed. The results showed that there were higher carboxyl group content and degree of esterification in modified xylan than native xylan. The product yield of 128.2%, the carboxyl group content of 1174.3 meq/100 g and degree of esterification of 33.1% were achieved at the CA/xylan weight ratio of 2.4 in the absence of catalyst. Furthermore, the adsorption capacity of xylan after modification was improved greatly. These materials with better properties can enhance their water affinity, and improve their adsorption of copper ions and methyl orange in aqueous solution due to carboxyl groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Size sorting of citrate reduced gold nanoparticles by sedimentation field-flow fractionation.

    PubMed

    Contado, Catia; Argazzi, Roberto

    2009-12-25

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been synthesized through the citrate reduction method; the citrate/gold(III) ratio was changed from 1:1 up to 10:1 and the size of the resulting nanoparticles was measured by sedimentation field-flow fractionation (SdFFF). Experimental data showed that the GNPs size decreases in the ratio range 1:1-3:1 and then increases from 5:1 to 10:1 passing through a plateau region in between, and is almost independent of the precursor solution concentrations. In the zone of minimum diameters the synthetic process does not produce monodispersed GNPs but often multiple distributions, very close in size, are observed as evidenced by the particle size distributions (PSDs) derived from the SdFFF fractograms. UV-vis spectrophotometry, being the most common technique employed in the optical characterization of nanoparticles suspensions, was used throughout this work. A confirmation of the nucleation-aggregation-fragmentation mechanism was inferred from the cross-correlation between UV-vis and SdFFF results.

  4. A Low-Tech Analytical Method for Diethylcarbamazine Citrate in Medicated Salt

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Abigail; Brown, Patrick; Huey, Shannon; Magallon, Marco; Bollman, E. Brennan; Mares, Dominique; Streit, Thomas G.; Lieberman, Marya

    2011-01-01

    The World Health Organization has called for an effort to eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) around the world. In regions where the disease is endemic, local production and distribution of medicated salt dosed with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) has been an effective method for eradicating LF. A partner of the Notre Dame Haiti program, Group SPES in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, produces a medicated salt called Bon Sel. Coarse salt is pre-washed and sprayed with a solution of DEC citrate and potassium iodate. Iodine levels are routinely monitored on site by a titrimetric method. However, the factory had no method for monitoring DEC. Critical analytical issues include 1) determining whether the amount of DEC in each lot of Bon Sel is within safe and therapeutically useful limits, 2) monitoring variability within and between production runs, and 3) determining the effect of a common local practice (washing salt before use) on the availability of DEC. This paper describes a novel titrimetric method for analysis of DEC citrate in medicated salt. The analysis needs no electrical power and requires only a balance, volumetric glassware, and burets that most salt production programs have on hand for monitoring iodine levels. The staff of the factory used this analysis method on site to detect underloading of DEC on the salt by their sprayer and to test a process change that fixed the problem. PMID:21347443

  5. Investigation of mechanisms by which sodium citrate reduces the pink color defect in cooked ground turkey.

    PubMed

    Sammel, L M; Claus, J R; Greaser, M L; Richards, M P

    2006-04-01

    The principal mechanism by which sodium citrate reduces the pink color defect in cooked ground turkey was investigated. Sodium citrate (SC; 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0M), sodium nitrite (0.01, 0.1M), and nicotinamide (0.5, 0.75M) were combined in solutions of bovine hemin to determine SCs ability to bind heme iron and competitively inhibit pink-color-generating ligands from binding. Additionally, the effects of sodium erythorbate (0, 275, 550ppm), ferrous iron chloride (0, 0.3, 3.0, 30ppm), and ferric iron chloride (0, 0.3, 3.0, 30ppm) on SCs ability to reduce pink cooked color was examined. Absorbance curves of hemin+nitrite and hemin+nicotinamide were relatively unaffected by SC, therefore whether or not SC bound heme iron, that did not appear to be a mechanism for inhibiting the pink color defect. Both ferrous and ferric iron chloride had minimal effects on color values, possibly due to sodium tripolyphosphate chelation ability in the meat system and thus their presence did not enhance SCs ability to reduce the pink color defect. However, sodium erythorbate, a reducing agent, inhibited SCs ability to decrease the pink color defect in samples induced pink with sodium nitrite and nicotinamide. Therefore, it appears SC requires the presence of oxygen and may participate in oxidative processes to reduce the pink color defect.

  6. A low-tech analytical method for diethylcarbamazine citrate in medicated salt.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Abigail; Brown, Patrick; Huey, Shannon; Magallon, Marco; Bollman, E Brennan; Mares, Dominique; Streit, Thomas G; Lieberman, Marya

    2011-02-08

    The World Health Organization has called for an effort to eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) around the world. In regions where the disease is endemic, local production and distribution of medicated salt dosed with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) has been an effective method for eradicating LF. A partner of the Notre Dame Haiti program, Group SPES in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, produces a medicated salt called Bon Sel. Coarse salt is pre-washed and sprayed with a solution of DEC citrate and potassium iodate. Iodine levels are routinely monitored on site by a titrimetric method. However, the factory had no method for monitoring DEC. Critical analytical issues include 1) determining whether the amount of DEC in each lot of Bon Sel is within safe and therapeutically useful limits, 2) monitoring variability within and between production runs, and 3) determining the effect of a common local practice (washing salt before use) on the availability of DEC. This paper describes a novel titrimetric method for analysis of DEC citrate in medicated salt. The analysis needs no electrical power and requires only a balance, volumetric glassware, and burets that most salt production programs have on hand for monitoring iodine levels. The staff of the factory used this analysis method on site to detect underloading of DEC on the salt by their sprayer and to test a process change that fixed the problem.

  7. Effects of Dextrose and Lipopolysaccharide on the Corrosion Behavior of a Ti-6Al-4V Alloy with a Smooth Surface or Treated with Double-Acid-Etching

    PubMed Central

    Faverani, Leonardo P.; Assunção, Wirley G.; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio P.; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T.; Barao, Valentim A.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes and infections are associated with a high risk of implant failure. However, the effects of such conditions on the electrochemical stability of titanium materials remain unclear. This study evaluated the corrosion behavior of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy, with a smooth surface or conditioned by double-acid-etching, in simulated body fluid with different concentrations of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide. For the electrochemical assay, the open-circuit-potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and potentiodynamic test were used. The disc surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Their surface roughness and Vickers microhardness were also tested. The quantitative data were analyzed by Pearson's correlation and independent t-tests (α = 0.05). In the corrosion parameters, there was a strong lipopolysaccharide correlation with the Ipass (passivation current density), Cdl (double-layer capacitance), and Rp (polarization resistance) values (p<0.05) for the Ti-6Al-4V alloy with surface treatment by double-acid-etching. The combination of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide was correlated with the Icorr (corrosion current density) and Ipass (p<0.05). The acid-treated groups showed a significant increase in Cdl values and reduced Rp values (p<0.05, t-test). According to the topography, there was an increase in surface roughness (R2 = 0.726, p<0.0001 for the smooth surface; R2 = 0.405, p = 0.036 for the double-acid-etching-treated surface). The microhardness of the smooth Ti-6Al-4V alloy decreased (p<0.05) and that of the treated Ti-6Al-4V alloy increased (p<0.0001). Atomic force microscopy showed changes in the microstructure of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy by increasing the surface thickness mainly in the group associated with dextrose and lipopolysaccharide. The combination of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide affected the corrosion behavior of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface treated with double-acid-etching. However, no

  8. Effects of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide on the corrosion behavior of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy with a smooth surface or treated with double-acid-etching.

    PubMed

    Faverani, Leonardo P; Assunção, Wirley G; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio P; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T; Barao, Valentim A

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes and infections are associated with a high risk of implant failure. However, the effects of such conditions on the electrochemical stability of titanium materials remain unclear. This study evaluated the corrosion behavior of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy, with a smooth surface or conditioned by double-acid-etching, in simulated body fluid with different concentrations of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide. For the electrochemical assay, the open-circuit-potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and potentiodynamic test were used. The disc surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Their surface roughness and Vickers microhardness were also tested. The quantitative data were analyzed by Pearson's correlation and independent t-tests (α = 0.05). In the corrosion parameters, there was a strong lipopolysaccharide correlation with the Ipass (passivation current density), Cdl (double-layer capacitance), and Rp (polarization resistance) values (p<0.05) for the Ti-6Al-4V alloy with surface treatment by double-acid-etching. The combination of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide was correlated with the Icorr (corrosion current density) and Ipass (p<0.05). The acid-treated groups showed a significant increase in Cdl values and reduced Rp values (p<0.05, t-test). According to the topography, there was an increase in surface roughness (R2 = 0.726, p<0.0001 for the smooth surface; R2 = 0.405, p = 0.036 for the double-acid-etching-treated surface). The microhardness of the smooth Ti-6Al-4V alloy decreased (p<0.05) and that of the treated Ti-6Al-4V alloy increased (p<0.0001). Atomic force microscopy showed changes in the microstructure of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy by increasing the surface thickness mainly in the group associated with dextrose and lipopolysaccharide. The combination of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide affected the corrosion behavior of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface treated with double-acid-etching. However, no

  9. Scaling of Structural and Rheological Responde of L3 Sponge Phases in the "Sweetened" Cetylpyridinium/Hexanol/Dextrose/Brine System

    SciTech Connect

    Porcar, L.; Hamilton, William A; Butler, Paul D; Warr, G. G.

    2003-01-01

    We report a study of the shear response of sponge phases in cetylpyridinium chloride (CPCl)/hexanol/brine/dextrose systems by parallel measurements of rheology and structure by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Our measurements show that this dextrose added to the extensively studied CPCl/hexanol/brine system is taken up exclusively by the brine solvent, resulting in an equivalent CPCl/hexanol membrane structure and phase behavior for this modified system. Adding dextrose to the brine in these systems to volume fractions up to 0.4 allows us to increase the solvent viscosity by more than an order of magnitude. This lowers the cooperative membrane diffusion coefficient in this system as measured by dynamic light scattering by the same factor, resulting in a corresponding slowing of the Helfrich fluctuation dominated membrane dynamics. Our results show clear and consistent evidence of shear-induced sponge to lamellar phase transformations in these systems. Further, both the rheological and microstructural responses of these systems follow universal master curves when plotted against a rescaled applied shear {sub {gamma}}{eta}{sub s}/{phi}{sup 3}, where {phi} is the membrane volume fraction and {eta}{sub s} is the viscosity of the brine/dextrose solvent. This well-defined shear response is characterized by three distinct regimes. At low shear rates the sponge phases exhibit Newtonian flow behavior and no structural change is observed. For intermediate shear rates, the systems shear thin and SANS measurements show that the sponge phases are progressively transformed into lamellar phases with the CPCl/hexanol membrane normals aligned parallel to the velocity gradient. This continuous process and the absence of a stress plateau in the rheological measurements both rule out the existence of a biphasic state in this region and thus of a first-order transition between sponge and lamellar phases as is observed in equilibrium phase diagrams. At higher shear rates, the

  10. The effect of EDDS and citrate on the uptake of lead in hydroponically grown Matthiola flavida.

    PubMed

    Mohtadi, Ahmad; Ghaderian, Seyed Majid; Schat, Henk

    2013-10-01

    Root and shoot lead concentrations and the impact of chelating agents on these were investigated in two populations of the novel metallophyte Matthiola flavida. Plants were exposed in hydroponics to Pb(NO3)2, supplied alone, or in combination with citric acid, or EDDS. When supplied at concentrations expected to bind about 95% of the Pb in a solution containing 1-μM Pb (1000 μM citrate or 3.1 μM EDDS, respectively), the root and shoot Pb concentrations were dramatically lowered, in comparison with a 1-μM free ionic Pb control exposure. A 1-mM EDDS+1-μM Pb treatment decreased the plants' Pb concentrations further, even to undetectable levels in one population. At 100 μM Pb in a 1-mM EDDS-amended solution the Pb concentration increased strongly in shoots, but barely in roots, in comparison with the 1-μM Pb+1-mM EDDS treatment, without causing toxicity symptoms. Further increments of the Pb concentration in the 1-mM EDDS-amended solution, i.e. to 800 and 990 μM, caused Pb hyperaccumulation, both in roots and in shoots, associated with a complete arrest of root growth and foliar necrosis. M. flavida seemed to be devoid of constitutive mechanisms for uptake of Pb-citrate or Pb-EDDS complexes. Hyperaccumulation of Pb-EDDS occurred only at high exposure levels. Pb-EDDS was toxic, but is much less so than free Pb. Free EDDS did not seem to be toxic at the concentrations tested.

  11. Acute effect of citrate bath on postdialysis alkalaemia.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Patricia De Sequera; Ramón, Marta Albalate; Pérez-García, Rafael; Prats, Elena Corchete; Cobo, Patricia Arribas; Arroyo, Roberto Alcázar; Díaz, Maira Ortega; Carretero, Marta Puerta

    2015-01-01

    The correction of metabolic acidosis caused by renal failure is achieved by adding bicarbonate during dialysis. In order to avoid the precipitation of calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate that takes place in the dialysis fluid (DF) when adding bicarbonate, it is necessary to add an acid, usually acetate, which is not free of side effects. Thus, citrate appears as an advantageous alternative to acetate, despite the fact that its acute effects are not accurately known. To assess the acute effect of a dialysis fluid containing citrate instead of acetate on acid-base balance and calcium-phosphorus metabolism parameters. A prospective crossover study was conducted with twenty-four patients (15 male subjects and 9 female subjects). All patients underwent dialysis with AK-200-Ultra-S monitor with SoftPac® dialysis fluid, made with 3 mmol/L of acetate and SelectBag Citrate®, with 1 mmol/L of citrate and free of acetate. The following were measured before and after dialysis: venous blood gas monitoring, calcium (Ca), ionic calcium (Cai), phosphorus (P) and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Differences (p<0.05) were found when using the citrate bath (C) compared to acetate (A) in the postdialysis values of: pH, C: 7.43 (0.04) vs. A: 7.47 (0.05); bicarbonate, C: 24.7 (2.7) vs. A: 27.3 (2.1) mmol/L; base excess (BEecf), C: 0.4 (3.1) vs. A: 3.7 (2.4) mmol/L; corrected calcium (Cac), C: 9.8 (0.8) vs. A: 10.1 (0.7) mg/dL; and Cai, C: 1.16 (0.05) vs. A: 1.27 (0.06) mmol/L. No differences were found in either of the parameters measured before dialysis. Dialysis with citrate provides better control of postdialysis acid-base balance, decreases/avoids postdialysis alkalaemia, and lowers the increase in Cac and Cai. This finding is of special interest in patients with predisposing factors for arrhythmia and patients with respiratory failure, carbon dioxide retention, calcifications and advanced liver disease. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  12. Modification by food of the calcium absorbability and physicochemical effects of calcium citrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wabner, C. L.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    The food-calcium (Ca) interaction was examined in 12 healthy women (mean age 38 years) maintained on a constant metabolic diet. They underwent three phases of study, comprised of control (no Ca), Ca citrate (1 g Ca/day) during meals, and Ca citrate separately from meals. Each phase was 7 days in length and two 24-hour urine samples were collected on days 6 and 7. The rise from the control phase in urinary Ca was slightly more prominent when Ca citrate was given with meals than without (68 and 62%, respectively). The fall in urinary phosphorus was equivalent at about 25% between Ca citrate phases. The rise in urinary citrate and pH and the decline in urinary ammonium were more prominent when Ca citrate was given with meals; however, the changes were small or nonsignificant. The urinary saturation of Ca oxalate, brushite or monosodium urate did not differ between the two Ca citrate phases. There was a nonsignificant rise in serum iron during Ca citrate phases. The results suggest that: 1) dissolution and absorption of Ca citrate might be slightly greater when given with food than without; 2) that the ability of Ca citrate to attenuate crystallization of stone-forming Ca salts in urine is not modified by food; and 3) that Ca citrate may not impair iron absorption from food.

  13. Modification by food of the calcium absorbability and physicochemical effects of calcium citrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wabner, C. L.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    The food-calcium (Ca) interaction was examined in 12 healthy women (mean age 38 years) maintained on a constant metabolic diet. They underwent three phases of study, comprised of control (no Ca), Ca citrate (1 g Ca/day) during meals, and Ca citrate separately from meals. Each phase was 7 days in length and two 24-hour urine samples were collected on days 6 and 7. The rise from the control phase in urinary Ca was slightly more prominent when Ca citrate was given with meals than without (68 and 62%, respectively). The fall in urinary phosphorus was equivalent at about 25% between Ca citrate phases. The rise in urinary citrate and pH and the decline in urinary ammonium were more prominent when Ca citrate was given with meals; however, the changes were small or nonsignificant. The urinary saturation of Ca oxalate, brushite or monosodium urate did not differ between the two Ca citrate phases. There was a nonsignificant rise in serum iron during Ca citrate phases. The results suggest that: 1) dissolution and absorption of Ca citrate might be slightly greater when given with food than without; 2) that the ability of Ca citrate to attenuate crystallization of stone-forming Ca salts in urine is not modified by food; and 3) that Ca citrate may not impair iron absorption from food.

  14. Artificial citrate operon and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene enhanced mineral phosphate solubilizing ability of Enterobacter hormaechei DHRSS.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Kavita; Kumar, Chanchal; Archana, G; Kumar, G Naresh

    2014-10-01

    Mineral phosphate solubilization by bacteria is mediated through secretion of organic acids, among which citrate is one of the most effective. To overproduce citrate in bacterial systems, an artificial citrate operon comprising of genes encoding NADH-insensitive citrate synthase of E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium sodium-dependent citrate transporter was constructed. In order to improve its mineral phosphate solubilizing (MPS) ability, the citrate operon was incorporated into E. hormaechei DHRSS. The artificial citrate operon transformant secreted 7.2 mM citric acid whereas in the native strain, it was undetectable. The transformant released 0.82 mM phosphate in flask studies in buffered medium containing rock phosphate as sole P source. In fermenter studies, similar phenotype was observed under aerobic conditions. However, under microaerobic conditions, no citrate was detected and P release was not observed. Therefore, an artificial citrate gene cluster containing Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb) gene under its native promoter, along with artificial citrate operon under constitutive tac promoter, was constructed and transformed into E. hormaechei DHRSS. This transformant secreted 9 mM citric acid under microaerobic conditions and released 1.0 mM P. Thus, incorporation of citrate operon along with vgb gene improves MPS ability of E. hormaechei DHRSS under buffered, microaerobic conditions mimicking rhizospheric environment.

  15. Lecithin/chitosan controlled release nanopreparations of tamoxifen citrate: loading, enzyme-trigger release and cell uptake.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Stefano; Sonvico, Fabio; Como, Caterina; Colombo, Gaia; Zani, Franca; Buttini, Francesca; Bettini, Ruggero; Rossi, Alessandra; Colombo, Paolo

    2013-05-10

    Tamoxifen citrate (TAM), an anticancer drug with amphiphilic properties, was loaded in lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles (LCN) with a view to oral administration. The influence of tamoxifen loading on the physico-chemical properties of nanoparticles was studied. Size, surface charge and morphological properties of tamoxifen-loaded nanoparticles (LCN-TAM) were assessed. The increase in the tamoxifen amount in the LCN-TAM preparation up to 60 mg/100 ml maintained the positive zeta potential value of about +45 mV. A statistically significant decrease in particle size was observed for TAM amounts between 5 and 20mg. A strong influence of loaded tamoxifen on the structure of lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles was observed, supported by the quantification of free chitosan and morphological analysis. A loading of tamoxifen in nanoparticles of around 19% was obtained. The release of the drug from the LCN-TAM colloidal dispersion was measured, showing that tamoxifen citrate was released very slowly in simulated gastro-intestinal fluids without enzymes. When enzymes able to dismantle the nanoparticle structure were added to the dissolution medium, drug release was triggered and continued in a prolonged manner. Tamoxifen-loaded nanoparticles showed cytotoxicity towards MCF-7 cells comparable to that obtained with tamoxifen citrate solution, but the rate of this toxic effect was dependent on drug release. Caco-2 cells, used as a model of the intestinal epithelium, were shown to take up the TAM loaded nanoparticles extensively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ca2+-citrate uptake and metabolism in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334.

    PubMed

    Mortera, Pablo; Pudlik, Agata; Magni, Christian; Alarcón, Sergio; Lolkema, Juke S

    2013-08-01

    The putative citrate metabolic pathway in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 consists of the transporter CitH, a proton symporter of the citrate-divalent metal ion family of transporters CitMHS, citrate lyase, and the membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex OAD-ABDH. Resting cells of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 metabolized citrate in complex with Ca(2+) and not as free citrate or the Mg(2+)-citrate complex, thereby identifying Ca(2+)-citrate as the substrate of the transporter CitH. The pathway was induced in the presence of Ca(2+) and citrate during growth and repressed by the presence of glucose and of galactose, most likely by a carbon catabolite repression mechanism. The end products of Ca(2+)-citrate metabolism by resting cells of Lb. casei were pyruvate, acetate, and acetoin, demonstrating the activity of the membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex OAD-ABDH. Following pyruvate, the pathway splits into two branches. One branch is the classical citrate fermentation pathway producing acetoin by α-acetolactate synthase and α-acetolactate decarboxylase. The other branch yields acetate, for which the route is still obscure. Ca(2+)-citrate metabolism in a modified MRS medium lacking a carbohydrate did not significantly affect the growth characteristics, and generation of metabolic energy in the form of proton motive force (PMF) was not observed in resting cells. In contrast, carbohydrate/Ca(2+)-citrate cometabolism resulted in a higher biomass yield in batch culture. However, also with these cells, no generation of PMF was associated with Ca(2+)-citrate metabolism. It is concluded that citrate metabolism in Lb. casei is beneficial when it counteracts acidification by carbohydrate metabolism in later growth stages.

  17. Citrate anticoagulation during continuous renal replacement therapy in pediatric critical care.

    PubMed

    Davis, T Keefe; Neumayr, Tara; Geile, Kira; Doctor, Allan; Hmeil, Paul

    2014-06-01

    To provide the pediatric intensivist an in-depth understanding of citrate as regional anticoagulant during continuous renal replacement therapy. We searched the PubMed.gov database using the initial key words: citrate anticoagulation [title] AND continuous; citrate [title] AND pediatric AND continuous; prospective pediatric renal replacement AND citrate; and regional citrate anticoagulation. Additional searchers were performed using EMBASE, CINAHL, and SCOPUS with similar keywords and limits. Further articles were gathered from bibliographic references of relevant studies and reviews. Only articles published in English were reviewed. In the pediatric population, there are no prospective interventional or randomized studies comparing regional versus systemic anticoagulation. However, there are 11 (retrospective and prospective observational studies) in the pediatric population using citrate anticoagulation. These studies have shown that regional citrate anticoagulation in the pediatric population can be effective, provide equivalent circuit survival, and decrease bleeding compared with heparin anticoagulation. In the adult population, there are six prospective randomized controlled trials comparing the efficacy of regional citrate anticoagulation versus heparin. Two systematic reviews with meta-analysis of these six trials have been performed. The adult data on the use of regional citrate anticoagulation during continuous renal replacement therapy show a decreased risk of bleeding and at the least equivalent circuit survival as compared to heparin. Current pediatric and adult studies support regional citrate anticoagulation as an effective alternative to systemic heparin anticoagulation in most patient populations. Continuous renal replacement therapy is the most common modality of renal replacement in the critical care setting. Regional anticoagulation is an ideal option in a critically ill child after recent surgery or with coagulopathy. Therefore, regional

  18. Ca2+-Citrate Uptake and Metabolism in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334

    PubMed Central

    Mortera, Pablo; Pudlik, Agata; Magni, Christian; Alarcón, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The putative citrate metabolic pathway in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 consists of the transporter CitH, a proton symporter of the citrate-divalent metal ion family of transporters CitMHS, citrate lyase, and the membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex OAD-ABDH. Resting cells of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 metabolized citrate in complex with Ca2+ and not as free citrate or the Mg2+-citrate complex, thereby identifying Ca2+-citrate as the substrate of the transporter CitH. The pathway was induced in the presence of Ca2+ and citrate during growth and repressed by the presence of glucose and of galactose, most likely by a carbon catabolite repression mechanism. The end products of Ca2+-citrate metabolism by resting cells of Lb. casei were pyruvate, acetate, and acetoin, demonstrating the activity of the membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex OAD-ABDH. Following pyruvate, the pathway splits into two branches. One branch is the classical citrate fermentation pathway producing acetoin by α-acetolactate synthase and α-acetolactate decarboxylase. The other branch yields acetate, for which the route is still obscure. Ca2+-citrate metabolism in a modified MRS medium lacking a carbohydrate did not significantly affect the growth characteristics, and generation of metabolic energy in the form of proton motive force (PMF) was not observed in resting cells. In contrast, carbohydrate/Ca2+-citrate cometabolism resulted in a higher biomass yield in batch culture. However, also with these cells, no generation of PMF was associated with Ca2+-citrate metabolism. It is concluded that citrate metabolism in Lb. casei is beneficial when it counteracts acidification by carbohydrate metabolism in later growth stages. PMID:23709502

  19. Purification and Characterization of the Reconstitutively Active Citrate Carrier from Maize Mitochondria1

    PubMed Central

    Genchi, Giuseppe; Spagnoletta, Anna; De Santis, Aurelio; Stefanizzi, Luisa; Palmieri, Ferdinando

    1999-01-01

    The citrate carrier from maize (Zea mays) shoot mitochondria was solubilized with Triton X-100 and purified by sequential chromatography on hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite/celite in the presence of cardiolipin. SDS-gel electrophoresis of the purified fraction showed a single polypeptide band with an apparent molecular mass of 31 kD. When reconstituted into liposomes, the citrate carrier catalyzed a pyridoxal 5′-P-sensitive citrate/citrate exchange. It was purified 224-fold with a recovery of 50% and a protein yield of 0.22% with respect to the mitochondrial extract. In the reconstituted system the purified citrate carrier catalyzed a first-order reaction of citrate/citrate (0.065 min−1) or citrate/malate exchange (0.075 min−1). Among the various substrates and inhibitors tested, the reconstituted protein transported citrate, cis-aconitate, isocitrate, l-malate, succinate, malonate, glutarate, α-ketoglutarate, oxaloacetate, and α-ketoadipate and was inhibited by pyridoxal 5′-P, phenylisothiocyanate, mersalyl, and p-hydroxymercuribenzoate (but not N-ethylmaleimide), 1,2,3-benzentricarboxylate, benzylmalonate, and butylmalonate. The activation energy of the citrate/citrate exchange was 66.5 kJ/mol between 10°C and 35°C; the half-saturation constant (Km) for citrate was 0.65 ± 0.05 mm and the maximal rate (Vmax) of the citrate/citrate exchange was 13.0 ± 1.0 μmol min−1 mg−1 protein at 25°C. PMID:10398720

  20. Citrate sensing by the C4-dicarboxylate/citrate sensor kinase DcuS of Escherichia coli: binding site and conversion of DcuS to a C4-dicarboxylate- or citrate-specific sensor.

    PubMed

    Krämer, J; Fischer, J D; Zientz, E; Vijayan, V; Griesinger, C; Lupas, A; Unden, G

    2007-06-01

    The histidine protein kinase DcuS of Escherichia coli senses C(4)-dicarboxylates and citrate by a periplasmic domain. The closely related sensor kinase CitA binds citrate, but no C(4)-dicarboxylates, by a homologous periplasmic domain. CitA is known to bind the three carboxylate and the hydroxyl groups of citrate by sites C1, C2, C3, and H. DcuS requires the same sites for C(4)-dicarboxylate sensing, but only C2 and C3 are highly conserved. It is shown here that sensing of citrate by DcuS required the same sites. Binding of citrate to DcuS, therefore, was similar to binding of C(4)-dicarboxylates but different from that of citrate binding in CitA. DcuS could be converted to a C(4)-dicarboxylate-specific sensor (DcuS(DC)) by mutating residues of sites C1 and C3 or of some DcuS-subtype specific residues. Mutations around site C1 aimed at increasing the size and accessibility of the site converted DcuS to a citrate-specific sensor (DcuS(Cit)). DcuS(DC) and DcuS(Cit) had complementary effector specificities and responded either to C(4)-dicarboxylates or to citrate and mesaconate. The results imply that DcuS binds citrate (similar to the C(4)-dicarboxylates) via the C(4)-dicarboxylate part of the molecule. Sites C2 and C3 are essential for binding of two carboxylic groups of citrate or of C(4)-dicarboxylates; sites C1 and H are required for other essential purposes.

  1. 77 FR 56188 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Rescission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... the order includes all grades and granulation sizes of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium... also includes blends of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate; as well as blends with... potassium citrate constitute 40 percent or more, by weight, of the blend. The scope of the order also...

  2. Calcium citrate for vulvar vestibulitis. A case report.

    PubMed

    Solomons, C C; Melmed, M H; Heitler, S M

    1991-12-01

    A woman had suffered from vulvar vestibulitis (vulvodynia) for four years. Pain from the disorder had disrupted her ability to function at work and home as well as sexually. An initial full range of treatments, including multiple operations, had produced no relief. Examination of the urine for evidence of excess oxalate, which has been shown to cause epithelial reactions similar to those found in vulvodynia, showed periodic hyperoxaluria and pH elevations related to the symptoms. Calcium citrate was given to modify the oxalate crystalluria. The symptoms were significantly reduced in three months, and the patient was pain free after one year. She was able to resume normal work, family, sexual and recreational activities. Withdrawal of the calcium citrate resulted in a return of the symptoms; reinstitution alleviated them. These findings suggest that further study of individualized metabolic factors that may underlie vulvodynia is warranted.

  3. Trisodium citrate, Na3(C6H5O7)

    PubMed Central

    Rammohan, Alagappa; Kaduk, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structure of anhydrous tris­odium citrate, Na3(C6H5O7), has been solved and refined using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data, and optimized using density functional theory (DFT). There are two independent five-coordinate Na+ and one six-coordinate Na+ cations in the asymmetric unit. The [NaO5] and [NaO6] polyhedra share edges and corners to form a three-dimensional framework. There are channels parallel to the a and b axes in which the remainder of the citrate anions reside. The only hydrogen bonds are an intra­molecular one between the hy­droxy group and one of the terminal carboxyl­ate O atoms and an intermolecular one between a methylene group and the hydroxyl O atom. PMID:27308044

  4. Enhancing the versatility of alternate current biosusceptometry (ACB) through the synthesis of a dextrose-modified tracer and a magnetic muco-adhesive cellulose gel.

    PubMed

    Martins, Murillo L; Calabresi, Marcos F; Quini, Caio; Matos, Juliana F; Miranda, José R A; Saeki, Margarida J; Bordallo, Heloisa N

    2015-03-01

    Alternate Current Biosusceptometry (ACB) is a promising bio-magnetic method, radiation free and easily performed used for gastric emptying exams. Due to development on its sensitivity level, interesting nature, noninvasiveness and low cost it has attracted a lot of attention. In this work, magnetic nanoparticles of Mn-Zn ferrite as well as dextrose-modified nanoparticles were synthesized to be used as possible tracers in ACB gastric emptying exams. In addition, a magnetic muco-adhesive gel was obtained by modifying the ferrite nanoparticles with cellulose. Based on in-vivo tests in rats, we show that the pure ferrite nanoparticles, whose isoelectric point was found to be at pH=3.2, present a great sensitivity to pH variations along the gastrointestinal tract, while the reduction of the isoelectric point by the dextrose modification leads to suitable nanoparticles for rapid gastric emptying examinations. On the other hand, the in-vivo tests show that the muco-adhesive cellulose gel presents substantial stomach adhesion and is a potential drug delivery system easily traceable by the ACB system.

  5. Effect of a single dose of propofol and lack of dextrose administration in a child with mitochondrial disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mtaweh, Haifa; Bayır, Hülya; Kochanek, Patrick M; Bell, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    Propofol infusion syndrome is a recognized complication of prolonged propofol use in the pediatric population, but little is reported on other metabolic effects of propofol, especially in children with mitochondrial disorders. We report on a child with metabolic encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like syndrome who received a single dose of propofol for procedural sedation. The patient's initial presentation was consistent with a mild exacerbation of her underlying disease. She received a single dose of propofol and non-dextrose-containing fluids during a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study to rule out stroke and progressed to develop severe acidosis, neurologic deterioration, and cardiorespiratory compromise. This is the first case report of severe metabolic disturbances after a single dose of propofol administered for procedural sedation in a patient with metabolic encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like syndrome and it questions the safety of propofol and absence of dextrose infusions during an acute illness in patients with mitochondrial disorders. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. Diagnosis of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm using 67-gallium citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Blumoff, R.L.; McCartney, W.; Jaques, P.; Johnson, G. Jr.

    1982-11-01

    Mycotic aneurysms of the abdominal aorta are uncommon, but potentially lethal problems. Clinical subtleties may suggest their presence, but in the past, definitive diagnosis has been dependent on surgical exploration or autopsy findings. A case is presented in which 67-gallium citrate abdominal scanning localized the site of sepsis in an abdominal aortic aneurysm and allowed for prompt and successful surgical therapy. This noninvasive technique is recommended as a adjunct in the diagnosis of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysms.

  7. Phylogenetic relationships of rhizobia based on citrate synthase gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Lucas, Ismael; Rogel-Hernández, Marco Antonio; Segovia, Lorenzo; Rojas-Jiménez, Keilor; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2004-11-01

    Partial nucleotide sequences of the citrate synthase (gltA) gene from different rhizobia genera were determined. Tree topologies based on this housekeeping gene were similar to that obtained using 16S rRNA sequences. However gltA appeared to be more reliable at determining phylogenetic relationships of closely related taxa. We propose gltA sequences as an additional tool to be used in molecular phylogenetic studies.

  8. Clomiphene citrate and its effects upon ovulation and estrogen.

    PubMed

    Shirai, E; Iizuka, R; Notake, Y

    1972-05-01

    This paper reports a clinical evaluation of the mechanism of action of clomiphene citrate and describes selection of the most responsive patients. Patients were 121 women, aged 21-37 years, who desired pregnancy. Their infertility was diagnosed as being due to anovulation. Primary amenorrhea or special endocrine disorders were not present. All the women who had no vaginal bleeding for more than 2 months were diagnosed amenorrhea and treated with 65 mg of progesterone capronate intramuscularly. They were then divided into two subgroups on the basis of the presence or absence of vaginal bleeding within 2 weeks. Clinical studies included: basal body temperature charts; daily vaginal smears evaluated by the ink acidophilic stain index (ISI); cervical mucus evaluated by amount, spresence of spinnbarkeit, and ferning; 24-hour urines examined for estrogen and total gonadotropic activity; and a pregnanediol determination. Each group received daily 50 mg doses of clomiphene citrate for 5 days. Estrogen inhibiting effect of the drug was suggested by vaginal cytology and the disappearance of ferning and decrease in quantity of cervical mucus. However, the excretion of the total urinary estrogen was increased in ovulatory cases (81 of the 121 patients). In 17 patients having no bleeding within 2 weeks after progesterone injection no ovulation could be induced. In patients with withdrawal flow 54 of 70 achieved ovulation. Of 37 patients with previous anovulatory bleeding 27 achieved ovulation. There were 11 of the 121 who became pregnant. In those with early ovulation the antiestrogen effect is believed to be in the hypothalamus and pituitary bringing about the estrogen surge and stimulating LH secretion. In those with later ovulation the antiestrogenic effect increased FSH secretion followed by ovulation. The type of patient most likely to respond to clomiphene citrate is one with nearly normal pituitary-gonadal axis. Inducing withdrawal bleeding with progesterone in those

  9. Severe citrate toxicity complicating volunteer apheresis platelet donation.

    PubMed

    Bell, A M; Nolen, J D L; Knudson, C M; Raife, T J

    2007-02-01

    We report a case of severe citrate toxicity during volunteer donor apheresis platelet collection. The donor was a 40-year-old female, first-time apheresis platelet donor. Past medical history was remarkable for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and depression. Reported medications included bumetanide, pravastatin, and paroxetine. Thirty minutes from the start of the procedure, the donor noted tingling around the mouth, hands, and feet. She then very rapidly developed acute onset of severe facial and extremity tetany. Empirical treatment with intravenous calcium gluconate was initiated, and muscle contractions slowly subsided over approximately 10 to 15 minutes. The events are consistent with a severe reaction to calcium chelation by sodium citrate anticoagulant resulting in symptomatic systemic hypocalcemia. Upon additional retrospective analysis, it was noted that bumetanide is a loop diuretic that may cause significant hypocalcemia. We conclude that careful screening for medications and underlying conditions predisposing to hypocalcemia is recommended to help prevent severe reactions due to citrate toxicity. Laboratory measurement of pre-procedure serum calcium levels in selected donors may identify cases requiring heightened vigilance. The case also illustrates the importance of maintaining preparedness for managing rare but serious reactions in volunteer apheresis blood donors.

  10. Implications of anticoagulants and gender on cell counts and growth factor concentration in platelet-rich plasma and platelet-rich gel supernatants from rabbits.

    PubMed

    González, Juan C; López, Catalina; Carmona, Jorge U

    2016-01-01

    Our objectives were as follows: 1) to validate a protocol for producing rabbit platelet-rich plasma (PRP); 2) to determine the influence of two anticoagulants, sodium citrate and acid-citrate-dextrose solution A, and gender on cell count in PRP and growth factor concentration in pure platelet-rich gel supernatants; 3) to correlate the variables evaluated. Whole blood from 18 New Zealand rabbits (9 males and 9 females) was obtained with sodium citrate and acid-citrate-dextrose solution A for processing PRP fractions (A and B), which were evaluated for haematology. The PRP fractions were either activated with calcium gluconate or lysated with a detergent. The concentrations of transforming growth factor beta 1 and platelet-derived growth factor BB were assayed by ELISA. The sodium citrate PRP-B had significantly higher counts of platelets in comparison to PRP-A and whole blood obtained with the same anticoagulant and the homologous acid-citrate-dextrose solution A PRP fraction. The sodium citrate PRP-A had a significantly higher count of leukocytes compared to the homologous acid-citrate-dextrose solution A fraction. All the PRP fractions had a significant leuko-reduction when compared to whole blood. The sodium citrate PRP-A fraction from female rabbits had significantly lower platelet counts and significantly higher leukocyte counts than the same acid-citrate-dextrose solution A fraction. Growth factor concentration was not affected by the type of anticoagulant or gender. The type of anticoagulant and gender affected the cell counts in PRP, but they did not influence the growth factor concentration. More complete rabbit PRP studies should be performed before evaluating this type of substance in models of disease.

  11. CitI, a Transcription Factor Involved in Regulation of Citrate Metabolism in Lactic Acid Bacteria†

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Mauricio G.; Magni, Christian; de Mendoza, Diego; López, Paloma

    2005-01-01

    A large variety of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can utilize citrate under fermentative conditions. Although much information concerning the metabolic pathways leading to citrate utilization by LAB has been gathered, the mechanisms regulating these pathways are obscure. In Weissella paramesenteroides (formerly called Leuconostoc paramesenteroides), transcription of the citMDEFCGRP citrate operon and the upstream divergent gene citI is induced by the presence of citrate in the medium. Although genetic experiments have suggested that CitI is a transcriptional activator whose activity can be modulated in response to citrate availability, specific details of the interaction between CitI and DNA remained unknown. In this study, we show that CitI recognizes two A+T-rich operator sites located between citI and citM and that the DNA-binding affinity of CitI is increased by citrate. Subsequently, this citrate signal propagation leads to the activation of the cit operon through an enhanced recruitment of RNA polymerase to its promoters. Our results indicate that the control of CitI by the cellular pools of citrate provides a mechanism for sensing the availability of citrate and adjusting the expression of the cit operon accordingly. In addition, this is the first reported example of a transcription factor directly functioning as a citrate-activated switch allowing the cell to optimize the generation of metabolic energy. PMID:16030208

  12. Transcriptional Control of the Citrate-Inducible citMCDEFGRP Operon, Encoding Genes Involved in Citrate Fermentation in Leuconostoc paramesenteroides

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Mauricio; Magni, Christian; López, Paloma; de Mendoza, Diego

    2000-01-01

    In this study we describe the expression pattern of the Leuconostoc paramesenteroides citMCDEFGRP operon in response to the addition of citrate to the growth medium. An 8.8-kb polycistronic transcript, which includes the citMCDEFGRP genes, was identified; its synthesis was dramatically induced upon addition of citrate to the growth medium. We also found that expression of the cit operon is subjected to posttranscriptional regulation, since processing sites included in four complex secondary structures (I, II, III, and IV) were identified by Northern blot analysis and mapped by primer extension. Upstream of the citMCDEFGRP operon a divergent open reading frame, whose expression was also increased by citrate, was identified by DNA sequencing and designated citI. The start and end sites of transcription of the cit operon and citI gene were mapped. The start sites are separated by a stretch of 188 bp with a very high A+T content of 77% and are preceded by transcriptional promoters. The end sites of the transcripts are located next to the 3′ end of two secondary structures characteristic of ρ-independent transcriptional terminators. The effect of the citI gene on expression of the cit operon was studied in Escherichia coli. The presence of the citI gene in cis and in trans resulted in increased activity of the cit promoter. These data provide the first evidence that citrate fermentation in Leuconostoc is regulated at the transcriptional level by a transcriptional activator rather than by a repressor. PMID:10869065

  13. Effect of Potassium Citrate on Calcium Phosphate Stones in a Model of Hypercalciuria.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy S; Asplin, John R; Frick, Kevin K; Granja, Ignacio; Culbertson, Christopher D; Ng, Adeline; Grynpas, Marc D; Bushinsky, David A

    2015-12-01

    Potassium citrate is prescribed to decrease stone recurrence in patients with calcium nephrolithiasis. Citrate binds intestinal and urine calcium and increases urine pH. Citrate, metabolized to bicarbonate, should decrease calcium excretion by reducing bone resorption and increasing renal calcium reabsorption. However, citrate binding to intestinal calcium may increase absorption and renal excretion of both phosphate and oxalate. Thus, the effect of potassium citrate on urine calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation and stone formation is complex and difficult to predict. To study the effects of potassium citrate on urine supersaturation and stone formation, we utilized 95th-generation inbred genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats. Rats were fed a fixed amount of a normal calcium (1.2%) diet supplemented with potassium citrate or potassium chloride (each 4 mmol/d) for 18 weeks. Urine was collected at 6, 12, and 18 weeks. At 18 weeks, stone formation was visualized by radiography. Urine citrate, phosphate, oxalate, and pH levels were higher and urine calcium level was lower in rats fed potassium citrate. Furthermore, calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation were higher with potassium citrate; however, uric acid supersaturation was lower. Both groups had similar numbers of exclusively calcium phosphate stones. Thus, potassium citrate effectively raises urine citrate levels and lowers urine calcium levels; however, the increases in urine pH, oxalate, and phosphate levels lead to increased calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation. Potassium citrate induces complex changes in urine chemistries and resultant supersaturation, which may not be beneficial in preventing calcium phosphate stone formation. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  14. Exogenous citrate impairs glucose tolerance and promotes visceral adipose tissue inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Leandro, João G B; Espindola-Netto, Jair M; Vianna, Maria Carolina F; Gomez, Lilian S; DeMaria, Thaina M; Marinho-Carvalho, Monica M; Zancan, Patricia; Paula Neto, Heitor A; Sola-Penna, Mauro

    2016-03-28

    Overweight and obesity have become epidemic worldwide and are linked to sedentary lifestyle and the consumption of processed foods and drinks. Citrate is a metabolite that plays central roles in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. In addition, citrate is the additive most commonly used by the food industry, and therefore is highly consumed. Extracellular citrate can freely enter the cells via the constitutively expressed plasma membrane citrate transporter. Within the cytosol, citrate is readily metabolised by ATP-citrate lyase into acetyl-CoA - the metabolic precursor of endogenously produced lipids and cholesterol. We therefore hypothesised that the citrate ingested from processed foods and drinks could contribute to increased postprandial fat production and weight gain. To test our hypothesis, we administered citrate to mice through their drinking water with or without sucrose and monitored their weight gain and other metabolic parameters. Our results showed that mice receiving citrate or citrate+sucrose did not show increased weight gain or an increase in the weight of the liver, skeletal muscles or adipose tissues (AT). Moreover, the plasma lipid profiles (TAG, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL) were similar across all groups. However, the group receiving citrate+sucrose showed augmented fasting glycaemia, glucose intolerance and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10) in their AT. Therefore, our results suggest that citrate consumption contributes to increased AT inflammation and altered glucose metabolism, which is indicative of initial insulin resistance. Thus, citrate consumption could be a previously unknown causative agent for the complications associated with obesity.

  15. Effect of Potassium Citrate on Calcium Phosphate Stones in a Model of Hypercalciuria

    PubMed Central

    Asplin, John R.; Frick, Kevin K.; Granja, Ignacio; Culbertson, Christopher D.; Ng, Adeline; Grynpas, Marc D.; Bushinsky, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Potassium citrate is prescribed to decrease stone recurrence in patients with calcium nephrolithiasis. Citrate binds intestinal and urine calcium and increases urine pH. Citrate, metabolized to bicarbonate, should decrease calcium excretion by reducing bone resorption and increasing renal calcium reabsorption. However, citrate binding to intestinal calcium may increase absorption and renal excretion of both phosphate and oxalate. Thus, the effect of potassium citrate on urine calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation and stone formation is complex and difficult to predict. To study the effects of potassium citrate on urine supersaturation and stone formation, we utilized 95th-generation inbred genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats. Rats were fed a fixed amount of a normal calcium (1.2%) diet supplemented with potassium citrate or potassium chloride (each 4 mmol/d) for 18 weeks. Urine was collected at 6, 12, and 18 weeks. At 18 weeks, stone formation was visualized by radiography. Urine citrate, phosphate, oxalate, and pH levels were higher and urine calcium level was lower in rats fed potassium citrate. Furthermore, calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation were higher with potassium citrate; however, uric acid supersaturation was lower. Both groups had similar numbers of exclusively calcium phosphate stones. Thus, potassium citrate effectively raises urine citrate levels and lowers urine calcium levels; however, the increases in urine pH, oxalate, and phosphate levels lead to increased calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation. Potassium citrate induces complex changes in urine chemistries and resultant supersaturation, which may not be beneficial in preventing calcium phosphate stone formation. PMID:25855777

  16. Ferric Citrate Controls Phosphorus and Delivers Iron in Patients on Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Sika, Mohammed; Koury, Mark J.; Chuang, Peale; Schulman, Gerald; Smith, Mark T.; Whittier, Frederick C.; Linfert, Douglas R.; Galphin, Claude M.; Athreya, Balaji P.; Nossuli, A. Kaldun Kaldun; Chang, Ingrid J.; Blumenthal, Samuel S.; Manley, John; Zeig, Steven; Kant, Kotagal S.; Olivero, Juan Jose; Greene, Tom; Dwyer, Jamie P.

    2015-01-01

    Patients on dialysis require phosphorus binders to prevent hyperphosphatemia and are iron deficient. We studied ferric citrate as a phosphorus binder and iron source. In this sequential, randomized trial, 441 subjects on dialysis were randomized to ferric citrate or active control in a 52-week active control period followed by a 4-week placebo control period, in which subjects on ferric citrate who completed the active control period were rerandomized to ferric citrate or placebo. The primary analysis compared the mean change in phosphorus between ferric citrate and placebo during the placebo control period. A sequential gatekeeping strategy controlled study-wise type 1 error for serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, and intravenous iron and erythropoietin-stimulating agent usage as prespecified secondary outcomes in the active control period. Ferric citrate controlled phosphorus compared with placebo, with a mean treatment difference of −2.2±0.2 mg/dl (mean±SEM) (P<0.001). Active control period phosphorus was similar between ferric citrate and active control, with comparable safety profiles. Subjects on ferric citrate achieved higher mean iron parameters (ferritin=899±488 ng/ml [mean±SD]; transferrin saturation=39%±17%) versus subjects on active control (ferritin=628±367 ng/ml [mean±SD]; transferrin saturation=30%±12%; P<0.001 for both). Subjects on ferric citrate received less intravenous elemental iron (median=12.95 mg/wk ferric citrate; 26.88 mg/wk active control; P<0.001) and less erythropoietin-stimulating agent (median epoetin-equivalent units per week: 5306 units/wk ferric citrate; 6951 units/wk active control; P=0.04). Hemoglobin levels were statistically higher on ferric citrate. Thus, ferric citrate is an efficacious and safe phosphate binder that increases iron stores and reduces intravenous iron and erythropoietin-stimulating agent use while maintaining hemoglobin. PMID:25060056

  17. Ferric citrate controls phosphorus and delivers iron in patients on dialysis.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Julia B; Sika, Mohammed; Koury, Mark J; Chuang, Peale; Schulman, Gerald; Smith, Mark T; Whittier, Frederick C; Linfert, Douglas R; Galphin, Claude M; Athreya, Balaji P; Nossuli, A Kaldun Kaldun; Chang, Ingrid J; Blumenthal, Samuel S; Manley, John; Zeig, Steven; Kant, Kotagal S; Olivero, Juan Jose; Greene, Tom; Dwyer, Jamie P

    2015-02-01

    Patients on dialysis require phosphorus binders to prevent hyperphosphatemia and are iron deficient. We studied ferric citrate as a phosphorus binder and iron source. In this sequential, randomized trial, 441 subjects on dialysis were randomized to ferric citrate or active control in a 52-week active control period followed by a 4-week placebo control period, in which subjects on ferric citrate who completed the active control period were rerandomized to ferric citrate or placebo. The primary analysis compared the mean change in phosphorus between ferric citrate and placebo during the placebo control period. A sequential gatekeeping strategy controlled study-wise type 1 error for serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, and intravenous iron and erythropoietin-stimulating agent usage as prespecified secondary outcomes in the active control period. Ferric citrate controlled phosphorus compared with placebo, with a mean treatment difference of -2.2±0.2 mg/dl (mean±SEM) (P<0.001). Active control period phosphorus was similar between ferric citrate and active control, with comparable safety profiles. Subjects on ferric citrate achieved higher mean iron parameters (ferritin=899±488 ng/ml [mean±SD]; transferrin saturation=39%±17%) versus subjects on active control (ferritin=628±367 ng/ml [mean±SD]; transferrin saturation=30%±12%; P<0.001 for both). Subjects on ferric citrate received less intravenous elemental iron (median=12.95 mg/wk ferric citrate; 26.88 mg/wk active control; P<0.001) and less erythropoietin-stimulating agent (median epoetin-equivalent units per week: 5306 units/wk ferric citrate; 6951 units/wk active control; P=0.04). Hemoglobin levels were statistically higher on ferric citrate. Thus, ferric citrate is an efficacious and safe phosphate binder that increases iron stores and reduces intravenous iron and erythropoietin-stimulating agent use while maintaining hemoglobin. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  18. Influence of current density on surface morphology and properties of pulse plated tin films from citrate electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Bhattacharya, Sumit; Das, Siddhartha; Das, Karabi

    2014-01-01

    Bulk polycrystalline tin films have been processed by pulse electrodeposition technique from a simple solution containing triammonium citrate and stannous chloride. The cathodic investigations have been carried out by galvanostatic methods. As deposited samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD analysis of the deposited films shows microcrystalline grains having β-Sn form. The surface morphology is very rough at lower current density, but becomes smooth at higher current density, and exhibits pyramid type morphology at all the current densities. The effect of current density on microhardness, melting behavior, and electrical resistivity are also reported here.

  19. The barley MATE gene, HvAACT1, increases citrate efflux and Al3+ tolerance when expressed in wheat and barley

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Gaofeng; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Zhou, Meixue; Ryan, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Aluminium is toxic in acid soils because the soluble Al3+ inhibits root growth. A mechanism of Al3+ tolerance discovered in many plant species involves the release of organic anions from root apices. The Al3+-activated release of citrate from the root apices of Al3+-tolerant genotypes of barley is controlled by a MATE gene named HvAACT1 that encodes a citrate transport protein located on the plasma membrane. The aim of this study was to investigate whether expressing HvAACT1 with a constitutive promoter in barley and wheat can increase citrate efflux and Al3+ tolerance of these important cereal species. Methods HvAACT1 was over-expressed in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) using the maize ubiquitin promoter. Root apices of transgenic and control lines were analysed for HvAACT1 expression and organic acid efflux. The Al3+ tolerance of transgenic and control lines was assessed in both hydroponic solution and acid soil. Key Results and Conclusions Increased HvAACT1 expression in both cereal species was associated with increased citrate efflux from root apices and enhanced Al3+ tolerance, thus demonstrating that biotechnology can complement traditional breeding practices to increase the Al3+ tolerance of important crop plants. PMID:23798600

  20. Therapeutic effects of prolotherapy with intra-articular dextrose injection in patients with moderate knee osteoarthritis: a single-arm study with 6 months follow up

    PubMed Central

    Amouzandeh, Bahman

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Prolotherapy is an injection-based complementary treatment, which has shown promising results in the treatment of different musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the therapeutic efficacy of dextrose prolotherapy on pain, range of motion, and function in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: In this single-arm prospective study, participants with symptomatic moderate knee osteoarthritis underwent prolotherapy with intra-articular injection of 20% dextrose water at baseline, and at 4 weeks and 8 weeks later. Patients were followed for 24 weeks. Pain severity at rest and activity, according to the visual analog scale (VAS), articular range of motion (ROM), and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities arthritis index (WOMAC) scores were measured at baseline, 4, 8, and 24 weeks later. Results: A total of 24 female patients (average age: 58.37 ± 11.8 years old) received 3-monthly injection therapies. Before the treatment, the mean articular range of motion was 105.41 ± 11.22°. Mean VAS scale at rest and activity was 8.83 ± 1.37 and 9.37 ± 1.31, respectively. At the end of week 24, knee ROM increased by 8°. Pain severity in rest and activity decreased to 4.87 ± 1.39, 45.86%, and 44.23%, respectively (p < 0.001). Total WOMAC score and its subcategories showed a continuous improvement trend in all the evaluation sessions, so that at the end of the study, the total score decreased by 30.5 ± 14.27 points (49.58%) (p < 0.001). Improvements of all parameters were considerable until week 8, and were maintained throughout the study period. Conclusions: Prolotherapy with three intra-articular injections of hypertonic dextrose given 4 weeks apart for selected patients with knee OA, resulted in significant improvement of validated pain, ROM, and WOMAC-based function scores, when baseline levels were compared at 24 weeks. Further studies with randomized controlled trials involving a comparison group are suggested to confirm

  1. Hypertonic Dextrose Injections (Prolotherapy) for Knee Osteoarthritis: Results of a Single-Arm Uncontrolled Study with 1-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Zgierska, Aleksandra; Fortney, Luke; Kijowski, Richard; Mundt, Marlon; Ryan, Michael; Grettie, Jessica; Patterson, Jeffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether prolotherapy, an injection-based complementary treatment for chronic musculoskeletal conditions, improves pain, stiffness, and function in adults with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (KOA) compared to baseline status. Design This was a prospective, uncontrolled study with 1-year follow-up. Setting The study was conducted in an outpatient setting. Participants Adults with at least 3 months of symptomatic KOA, recruited from clinical and community settings, participated in the study. Interventions Participants received extra-articular injections of 15% dextrose and intra-articular prolotherapy injections of 25% dextrose at 1, 5, and 9 weeks, with as-needed treatments at weeks 13 and 17. Outcome measures Primary outcome measure was the validated Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Secondary outcome measure was the validated Knee Pain Scale (KPS). Tertiary outcome measure was procedure-related pain severity and participant satisfaction. Results Thirty-six (36) participants (60±8.7 years old, 21 female) with moderate-to-severe KOA received an average of 4.3±0.7 prolotherapy injection sessions over a 17-week treatment period and reported progressively improved scores during the 52-week study on WOMAC and KPS measures. Participants reported overall WOMAC score improvement 4 weeks after the first injection session (7.6±2.4 points, 17.2%), and continued to improve through the 52-week follow-up (15.9±2.5 points, p<0.001, 36.1%). KPS scores improved in both injected (p<0.001) and uninjected knees (p<0.05). Prescribed low-dose opioid analgesia effectively treated procedure-related pain. Satisfaction was high and there were no adverse events. Female gender, age 46–65 years old, and body–mass index of 25 kg/m2 or less were associated with greater improvement on the WOMAC instrument. Conclusions In adults with moderate to severe KOA, dextrose prolotherapy may result in

  2. Hypertonic dextrose injections (prolotherapy) for knee osteoarthritis: results of a single-arm uncontrolled study with 1-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Rabago, David; Zgierska, Aleksandra; Fortney, Luke; Kijowski, Richard; Mundt, Marlon; Ryan, Michael; Grettie, Jessica; Patterson, Jeffrey J

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether prolotherapy, an injection-based complementary treatment for chronic musculoskeletal conditions, improves pain, stiffness, and function in adults with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (KOA) compared to baseline status. This was a prospective, uncontrolled study with 1-year follow-up. The study was conducted in an outpatient setting. Adults with at least 3 months of symptomatic KOA, recruited from clinical and community settings, participated in the study. Participants received extra-articular injections of 15% dextrose and intra-articular prolotherapy injections of 25% dextrose at 1, 5, and 9 weeks, with as-needed treatments at weeks 13 and 17. Primary outcome measure was the validated Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Secondary outcome measure was the validated Knee Pain Scale (KPS). Tertiary outcome measure was procedure-related pain severity and participant satisfaction. Thirty-six (36) participants (60 ± 8.7 years old, 21 female) with moderate-to-severe KOA received an average of 4.3 ± 0.7 prolotherapy injection sessions over a 17-week treatment period and reported progressively improved scores during the 52-week study on WOMAC and KPS measures. Participants reported overall WOMAC score improvement 4 weeks after the first injection session (7.6 ± 2.4 points, 17.2%), and continued to improve through the 52-week follow-up (15.9 ± 2.5 points, p<0.001, 36.1%). KPS scores improved in both injected (p<0.001) and uninjected knees (p<0.05). Prescribed low-dose opioid analgesia effectively treated procedure-related pain. Satisfaction was high and there were no adverse events. Female gender, age 46-65 years old, and body-mass index of 25 kg/m(2) or less were associated with greater improvement on the WOMAC instrument. In adults with moderate to severe KOA, dextrose prolotherapy may result in safe, significant, sustained improvement of knee pain, function, and stiffness scores

  3. Therapeutic effects of prolotherapy with intra-articular dextrose injection in patients with moderate knee osteoarthritis: a single-arm study with 6 months follow up.

    PubMed

    Eslamian, Fariba; Amouzandeh, Bahman

    2015-04-01

    Prolotherapy is an injection-based complementary treatment, which has shown promising results in the treatment of different musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the therapeutic efficacy of dextrose prolotherapy on pain, range of motion, and function in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). In this single-arm prospective study, participants with symptomatic moderate knee osteoarthritis underwent prolotherapy with intra-articular injection of 20% dextrose water at baseline, and at 4 weeks and 8 weeks later. Patients were followed for 24 weeks. Pain severity at rest and activity, according to the visual analog scale (VAS), articular range of motion (ROM), and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities arthritis index (WOMAC) scores were measured at baseline, 4, 8, and 24 weeks later. A total of 24 female patients (average age: 58.37 ± 11.8 years old) received 3-monthly injection therapies. Before the treatment, the mean articular range of motion was 105.41 ± 11.22°. Mean VAS scale at rest and activity was 8.83 ± 1.37 and 9.37 ± 1.31, respectively. At the end of week 24, knee ROM increased by 8°. Pain severity in rest and activity decreased to 4.87 ± 1.39, 45.86%, and 44.23%, respectively (p < 0.001). Total WOMAC score and its subcategories showed a continuous improvement trend in all the evaluation sessions, so that at the end of the study, the total score decreased by 30.5 ± 14.27 points (49.58%) (p < 0.001). Improvements of all parameters were considerable until week 8, and were maintained throughout the study period. Prolotherapy with three intra-articular injections of hypertonic dextrose given 4 weeks apart for selected patients with knee OA, resulted in significant improvement of validated pain, ROM, and WOMAC-based function scores, when baseline levels were compared at 24 weeks. Further studies with randomized controlled trials involving a comparison group are suggested to confirm these findings.

  4. Enzyme:nanoparticle bioconjugates with two sequential enzymes: stoichiometry and activity of malate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase on Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Keighron, Jacqueline D; Keating, Christine D

    2010-12-21

    We report the synthesis and characterization of bioconjugates in which the enzymes malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and/or citrate synthase (CS) were adsorbed to 30 nm diameter Au nanoparticles. Enzyme:Au stoichiometry and kinetic parameters (specific activity, k(cat), K(M), and activity per particle) were determined for MDH:Au, CS:Au, and three types of dual-activity MDH/CS:Au bioconjugates. For single-activity bioconjugates (MDH:Au and CS:Au), the number of enzyme molecules adsorbed per particle was dependent upon the enzyme concentration in solution, with multilayers forming at high enzyme:Au solution ratios. The specific activity of adsorbed enzyme increased with increasing number adsorbed per particle for CS:Au, but was less sensitive to stoichiometry for MDH:Au. Dual activity bioconjugates were prepared in three ways: (1) by adsorption of MDH followed by CS, (2) by adsorption of CS followed by MDH, and (3) by coadsorption of both enzymes from the same solution. The resulting bioconjugates differed substantially in the number of enzyme molecules adsorbed per particle, the specific activity of the adsorbed enzymes, and also the enzymatic activity per particle. Bioconjugates formed by adding CS to the Au nanoparticles before MDH was added exhibited higher specific activities for both enzymes than those formed by adding the enzymes in the reverse order. These bioconjugates also had 3-fold higher per-particle sequential activity for conversion of malate to citrate, despite substantially fewer copies of both enzymes present.

  5. Application of refractometry to quality assurance monitoring of parenteral nutrition solutions.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wei-Kuo; Chao, You-Chen; Yeh, Ming-Kung

    2008-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) solution contains various concentrations of dextrose, amino acids, lipids, vitamins, electrolytes, and trace elements. Incorrect preparation of PN solution could lead to patient death. In this study we used the refractive index as a quality assurance tool to monitor the preparation of PN solution. Refractive indices of single nutrient components and PN solutions consisting of various concentrations of dextrose, amino acids, electrolytes, and lipids were measured. A mathematical equation and its linear plot were generated then used to predict the refractive index of the PN solution. The best-fit refractive index for PN solution (i.e., the predicted refractive index)=0.9798x(% dextrose)+1.2889x(% amino acids)+1.1017x(% lipids)+0.9440x(% sum of the electrolytes)+0.5367 (r2=0.99). This equation was validated by comparing the measured refractive indices of 500 clinical PN solutions to their predicted refractive indices. We found that 2 of the 500 prepared samples (0.4%) had less than the predicted refractive index (<95%). Refractive index can be used as a reliable quality assurance tool for monitoring PN preparation. Such information can be obtained at the bedside and used to confirm the accuracy of the PN solution composition.

  6. Citrate uptake into tonoplast vesicles from acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia) juice cells.

    PubMed

    Brune, A; Gonzalez, P; Goren, R; Zehavi, U; Echeverria, E

    1998-12-01

    Citrate transport into the vacuoles of acid lime juice cells was investigated using isolated tonoplast vesicles. ATP stimulated citrate uptake in the presence or in the absence of a Delta mu H+. Energization of the vesicles only by an artificial K+ gradient (establishing an inside-positive Delta psi) also resulted in citrate uptake as was the case of a Delta pH dominated Delta mu H+. Addition of inhibitors to endomembrane ATPases showed no direct correlation between the inhibition to the tonoplast bound H+/ATPase and citrate uptake. The data indicated that, although some citrate uptake can be accounted for by Delta psi and by a direct primary active transport mechanism involving ATP, under in vivo conditions of vacuolar pH of 2.0, citrate uptake is driven by Delta pH.

  7. SbnG, a citrate synthase in Staphylococcus aureus: a new fold on an old enzyme.

    PubMed

    Kobylarz, Marek J; Grigg, Jason C; Sheldon, Jessica R; Heinrichs, David E; Murphy, Michael E P

    2014-12-05

    In response to iron deprivation, Staphylococcus aureus produces staphyloferrin B, a citrate-containing siderophore that delivers iron back to the cell. This bacterium also possesses a second citrate synthase, SbnG, that is necessary for supplying citrate to the staphyloferrin B biosynthetic pathway. We present the structure of SbnG bound to the inhibitor calcium and an active site variant in complex with oxaloacetate. The overall fold of SbnG is structurally distinct from TCA cycle citrate synthases yet similar to metal-dependent class II aldolases. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that SbnG forms a separate clade with homologs from other siderophore biosynthetic gene clusters and is representative of a metal-independent subgroup in the phosphoenolpyruvate/pyruvate domain superfamily. A structural superposition of the SbnG active site to TCA cycle citrate synthases and site-directed mutagenesis suggests a case for convergent evolution toward a conserved catalytic mechanism for citrate production.

  8. Studies in the photogalvanic effect in mixed reductants system for solar energy conversion and storage: Dextrose and Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-Azur A system

    SciTech Connect

    Gangotri, K.M.; Indora, Vinod

    2010-02-15

    A mixture of two reductants (Dextrose and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) is used as a mixed reductants with Azur A as photosensitizer in the photogalvanic cell for solar energy conversion and storage with the aim to reduce the cost of construction for commercial viability. The photogeneration of photopotential and photocurrent were 778.0 mV and 55.0 {mu}A, respectively, whereas maximum power of the cell was 42.79 {mu}W. The observed power at power point of the cell was 10.87 {mu}W and conversion efficiency was 0.1045%.The determined fill factor was 0.1942. The photogalvanic cell so developed can work for 115.0 min in dark where it was irradiated for 175.0 min. A mechanism for the photogeneration of electricity has also been proposed. (author)

  9. Comparison of isolation of Haemophilus vaginalis (Corynebacterium vaginale) from peptone-starch-dextrose agar and Columbia colistin-nalidoxic acid agar.

    PubMed Central

    Golberg, R L; Washington JA, I I

    1976-01-01

    A total of 447 cervical or vaginal specimens were inoculated in parallel onto peptone-starch-dextrose (PSD) and Columbia colistin (10 mg/ml)-nalidixic acid (15 mug/ml) (CNA) agar and were incubated for 48 h at 35 degrees C in an atmosphere with 2 to 10% CO2. One hundred (22.4%) of the cultures were positive for Haemophilus vaginalis. Forty-eight of the isolates were recovered from both PSD and Columbia CNA agar, five from PSD only, and 47 from Columbia CNA agar only (P less than 0.001). On Columbia CNA agar, 76 of the isolates were detected after 24 h of incubation, and the remainder were detected within 4 days of incubation. PMID:1085777

  10. Photochemistry of iron citrates initiated by UV-VIS light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corral Arroyo, Pablo; Dou, Jing; Alpert, Peter; Krieger, Ulrich; Ammann, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Aerosol aging refers to the multitude of physical and chemical transformation atmospheric particles undergo, which play an important role in the impact of aerosols on climate, air quality and health. Aging processes may be started by chromophores, which act as photocatalysts that induce the oxidation of non-absorbing molecules [1]. Iron (Fe(III)) carboxylate complexes absorb light below about 500 nm, which is followed by ligand to metal charge transfer (LMCT) resulting in the reduction of iron to Fe(II) and oxidation of the carboxylate ligands, a process that represents an important sink of organic acids in the troposphere [2]. Our goal is to investigate how these photochemical processes contribute to the change of chemical and physical properties of the aerosol particles. To achieve this scope, we carry out coated wall flow tube experiments, exposing films with iron citrate to UV light, which will give information about the radical and LVOC production (connecting the CWFT to a Chemiluminescent Detector or PTR-TOF-MS respectively). From extracting and analyzing the films after irradiation with UV light, we obtain a profile of low-volatility products evolving from the photochemistry of iron citrates. By Scanning Transmission X-Ray Microspectroscopy (STXM) we analyze changes in the C K-edge and Fe L-edge in particles loaded with iron citrate upon exposure to light and follow their chemical and structural evolution upon photochemical oxidation in situ to investigate the degradation kinetics under varying environmental conditions. [1] George G., Ammann M., D'Anna B., Donaldson D. J., Nizkorodov S. A., Heterogeneous photochemistry in the Atmosphere, Chem. Rev., 2015, 115 (10), pp 4218-4258 [2] Weller, C., Horn, S., and Herrmann, H.: Photolysis of Fe(III) carboxylate complexes: Fe(II) quantum yields and reaction mechanisms, Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 268, 24-36, 2013.

  11. Ferrous iron oxidation by molecular oxygen under acidic conditions: The effect of citrate, EDTA and fulvic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Adele M.; Griffin, Philippa J.; Waite, T. David

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the rates of Fe(II) oxidation by molecular oxygen in the presence of citrate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) were determined over the pH range 4.0-5.5 and, for all of the ligands investigated, found to be substantially faster than oxidation rates in the absence of any ligand. EDTA was found to be particularly effective in enhancing the rate of Fe(II) oxidation when sufficient EDTA was available to complex all Fe(II) present in solution, with a kinetic model of the process found to adequately describe all results obtained. When Fe(II) was only partially complexed by EDTA, reactions with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and heterogeneous Fe(II) oxidation were found to contribute significantly to the removal rate of iron from solution at different stages of oxidation. This was possible due to the rapid rate at which EDTA enhanced Fe(II) oxidation and formed ROS and Fe(III). The rapid rate of Fe(III) generation facilitated the formation of free ferric ion activities in excess of those required for ferric oxyhydroxide precipitation following Fe(III)-EDTA dissociation. In comparison, the rate of Fe(II) oxidation was slower in the presence of citrate, and therefore the concentrations of free Fe(III) able to form in the initial stages of Fe(II) oxidation were much lower than those formed in the presence of EDTA, despite the resultant Fe(III)-citrate complex being less stable than that of Fe(III)-EDTA. The slower rate of citrate enhanced oxidation also resulted in slower rates of ROS generation, and, as such, oxidation of the remaining inorganic Fe(II) species by ROS was negligible. Overall, this study demonstrates that organic ligands may substantially enhance the rate of Fe(II) oxidation. Even under circumstances where the ligand is not present at sufficient concentrations to complex all of the Fe(II) in solution, ensuing oxidative processes may sustain an enhanced rate of Fe(II) oxidation relative to that of

  12. Growth and energy generation by Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 198 during citrate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sarantinopoulos, Panagiotis; Makras, Lefteris; Vaningelgem, Frederik; Kalantzopoulos, George; De Vuyst, Luc; Tsakalidou, Effie

    2003-07-25

    Citrate metabolism by Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 198, isolated from Greek Feta cheese, was studied in various growth media containing citrate either in the presence of glucose, or as the sole carbon source, both under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) broth with increasing citrate concentrations, cometabolism of citrate and glucose took place. Glucose was stoichiometrically converted into lactate, while citrate into acetate. Glucose consumption and biomass yield were enhanced with increasing initial citrate concentrations, even though maximum specific growth rate was not. When citrate was used as the sole carbon source in increasing initial concentrations, the main end product was acetate. Small amounts of lactate, formate, ethanol, and acetoin were also produced. In all cases, no significant differences were observed between aerobic and anaerobic conditions. However, when citrate was used as sole carbon source, formate production was favored in the absence of oxygen. The present work shows that E. faecium is able to utilize citrate in synthetic media, either in the presence of glucose or as the sole carbon source, resulting in energy production and the formation of aroma compounds.

  13. Engineering genetically encoded nanosensors for real-time in vivo measurements of citrate concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ewald, Jennifer C; Reich, Sabrina; Baumann, Stephan; Frommer, Wolf B; Zamboni, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Citrate is an intermediate in catabolic as well as biosynthetic pathways and is an important regulatory molecule in the control of glycolysis and lipid metabolism. Mass spectrometric and NMR based metabolomics allow measuring citrate concentrations, but only with limited spatial and temporal resolution. Methods are so far lacking to monitor citrate levels in real-time in-vivo. Here, we present a series of genetically encoded citrate sensors based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). We screened databases for citrate-binding proteins and tested three candidates in vitro. The citrate binding domain of the Klebsiella pneumoniae histidine sensor kinase CitA, inserted between the FRET pair Venus/CFP, yielded a sensor highly specific for citrate. We optimized the peptide linkers to achieve maximal FRET change upon citrate binding. By modifying residues in the citrate binding pocket, we were able to construct seven sensors with different affinities spanning a concentration range of three orders of magnitude without losing specificity. In a first in vivo application we show that E. coli maintains the capacity to take up glucose or acetate within seconds even after long-term starvation.

  14. Double-blind, randomized crossover study of intravenous infusion of magnesium sulfate versus 5% dextrose on depressive symptoms in adults with treatment-resistant depression.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Syed M A; Atlas, Steven E; Qadir, Sidra; Musselman, Dominique; Goldberg, Sharon; Woolger, Judi M; Corredor, Raul; Abbas, Muhammad H; Arosemena, Leopoldo; Caccamo, Simone; Campbell, Carmen S G; Farooqi, Ashar; Gao, Jinrun; Konefal, Janet; Lages, Lucas C; Lantigua, Laura; Lopez, Johanna; Padilla, Vanessa; Rasul, Ammar; Ray, Anna M; Simões, Herbert G; Tiozzo, Eduard; Lewis, John E

    2017-03-01

    Treatment-resistant depression patients are more likely to suffer from comorbid physical and mental disorders, experience marked and protracted functional impairment, and incur higher health-care costs than non-affected individuals. Magnesium sulfate is a treatment option that may offer great potential for patients with treatment-resistant depression based on prior work in animals and humans. Twelve subjects with mild or moderate treatment-resistant depression were randomized into a double-blind crossover trial to receive an infusion of 4 g of magnesium sulfate in 5% dextrose or placebo infusion of 5% dextrose with a 5-day washout in between the 8-day intervention period. Subjects were assessed before and after the intervention for serum and urine magnesium, lipid panel, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. We found a difference in serum magnesium from day 2 to 8 (pre-infusion) (P < 0.002) and from baseline to day 8 (P < 0.02). No changes were noted on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression or the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 24 h post-treatment, but as serum magnesium increased from baseline to day 7, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 decreased from baseline to day 7 (P = 0.02). Magnesium sulfate did not significantly affect depression 24 h post-infusion, but other results were consistent with the literature. The association between changes in serum magnesium and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 supports the idea that magnesium sulfate may be used to address treatment-resistant depression, an ongoing medical challenge. © 2016 The Authors Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  15. Structures of citrate synthase and malate dehydrogenase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ferraris, Davide M; Spallek, Ralf; Oehlmann, Wulf; Singh, Mahavir; Rizzi, Menico

    2015-02-01

    The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is a central metabolic pathway of all aerobic organisms and is responsible for the synthesis of many important precursors and molecules. TCA cycle plays a key role in the metabolism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is involved in the adaptation process of the bacteria to the host immune response. We present here the first crystal structures of M. tuberculosis malate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase, two consecutive enzymes of the TCA, at 2.6 Å and 1.5 Å resolution, respectively. General analogies and local differences with the previously reported homologous protein structures are described. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Antitumor effect and toxicity of free rhodium (II) citrate and rhodium (II) citrate-loaded maghemite nanoparticles in mice bearing breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Marcella Lemos Brettas; Peixoto, Raphael C A; Joanitti, Graziela A; Oliveira, Ricardo G S; Telles, Luis A M; Miranda-Vilela, Ana L; Bocca, Anamélia L; Vianna, Leonora M S; da Silva, Izabel C R; de Souza, Aparecido R; Lacava, Zulmira G M; Báo, Sônia N

    2013-02-16

    Magnetic fluids containing superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles represent an attractive platform as nanocarriers in chemotherapy. Recently, we developed a formulation of maghemite nanoparticles coated with rhodium (II) citrate, which resulted in in vitro cytotoxicity enhanced up to 4.6 times when compared to free rhodium (II) citrate formulation on breast carcinoma cells. In this work, we evaluate the antitumor activity and toxicity induced by these formulations in Balb/c mice bearing orthotopic 4T1 breast carcinoma. Mice were evaluated with regard to the treatments' toxicity through analyses of hemogram, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, iron, and creatinine; DNA fragmentation and cell cycle of bone marrow cells; and liver, kidney and lung histology. In addition, the antitumor activity of rhodium (II) citrate and maghemite nanoparticles coated with rhodium (II) citrate was verified by tumor volume reduction, histology and immunohistochemistry. Regarding the treatments' toxicity, no experimental groups had alterations in levels of serum ALT or creatinine, and this suggestion was corroborated by the histopathologic examination of liver and kidney of mice. Moreover, DNA fragmentation frequency of bone marrow cells was lower than 15% in all experimental groups. On the other hand, the complexes rhodium (II) citrate-functionalized maghemite and free rhodium (II) citrate led to a marked growth inhibition of tumor and decrease in CD31 and Ki-67 staining. In summary, we demonstrated that both rhodium (II) citrate and maghemite nanoparticles coated with rhodium (II) citrate formulations exhibited antitumor effects against 4T1 metastatic breast cancer cell line following intratumoral administration. This antitumor effect was followed by inhibition of both cell proliferation and microvascularization and by tumor tissue injury characterized as necrosis and fibrosis. Remarkably, this is the first published report demonstrating the therapeutic efficacy of maghemite

  17. Antitumor effect and toxicity of free rhodium (II) citrate and rhodium (II) citrate-loaded maghemite nanoparticles in mice bearing breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Magnetic fluids containing superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles represent an attractive platform as nanocarriers in chemotherapy. Recently, we developed a formulation of maghemite nanoparticles coated with rhodium (II) citrate, which resulted in in vitro cytotoxicity enhanced up to 4.6 times when compared to free rhodium (II) citrate formulation on breast carcinoma cells. In this work, we evaluate the antitumor activity and toxicity induced by these formulations in Balb/c mice bearing orthotopic 4T1 breast carcinoma. Methods Mice were evaluated with regard to the treatments’ toxicity through analyses of hemogram, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, iron, and creatinine; DNA fragmentation and cell cycle of bone marrow cells; and liver, kidney and lung histology. In addition, the antitumor activity of rhodium (II) citrate and maghemite nanoparticles coated with rhodium (II) citrate was verified by tumor volume reduction, histology and immunohistochemistry. Results Regarding the treatments’ toxicity, no experimental groups had alterations in levels of serum ALT or creatinine, and this suggestion was corroborated by the histopathologic examination of liver and kidney of mice. Moreover, DNA fragmentation frequency of bone marrow cells was lower than 15% in all experimental groups. On the other hand, the complexes rhodium (II) citrate-functionalized maghemite and free rhodium (II) citrate led to a marked growth inhibition of tumor and decrease in CD31 and Ki-67 staining. Conclusions In summary, we demonstrated that both rhodium (II) citrate and maghemite nanoparticles coated with rhodium (II) citrate formulations exhibited antitumor effects against 4T1 metastatic breast cancer cell line following intratumoral administration. This antitumor effect was followed by inhibition of both cell proliferation and microvascularization and by tumor tissue injury characterized as necrosis and fibrosis. Remarkably, this is the first published report

  18. Safety and efficacy of citrate anti-coagulation continuous renal replacement therapies in post-cardiac surgery patients with liver dysfunction.

    PubMed

    De Vico, Pasquale; Messino, Valentina; Tartaglione, Alessandra; Beccaris, Camilla; Buonomo, Chiara; Talarico, Daniela; Prati, Paolo; Sabato, Alessandro Fabrizio; Colella, Dionisio Fernando

    2015-06-01

    The study's aim was to examine safety and efficiency of citrate anticoagulated continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT) in cardiac surgery patients with acute kidney injury and associated liver dysfunction. The study was conducted on critical ICU patients, hospitalized after cardiac surgery, who developed renal and liver acute failures due to low-flow syndrome. CRRT in continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration with regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) was prescribed to address renal failure and avoid bleeding-risk. Patient Ca(++) was measured to monitor RCA safety, while thromboelastography (TEG) and circuit Ca(++) were used to verify efficacy. CRRT effectiveness was evaluated through creatinine and urea levels, while liver function was monitored through bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (AST GOT) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GT) levels. The study did not require ethical approval. Hepatic and renal failures were confirmed by baseline levels (total bilirubin=3.1 ± 3.37 mg/dL, AST GOT=153 ± 147 U/L and gamma GT=93.3 ± 86 IU/L, creatinine=1.97 ± 0.88 and blood urea nitrogen [BUN] 98.13 ± 71.34) assessed in 15 patients. During treatment, Ca(++) (patient and circuit) remained stable and within range for the whole therapy thanks to low citrate dose (2.8 ± 0.3 mmol/L of blood), while hepatic markers did not show any significant changes the therapy, although treatment with citrate is contraindicated in patients with hepatic failure. RCA quality was confirmed by TEG values, which showed an anticoagulated circuit with no effects on patients. These results involved a high filter lifespan (49.76 ± 22.10 h) and with an effective creatinine and BUN clearance. No episodes of citrate intoxication were reported (total/ionized calcium ratio remained stable and physiologic). RCA during CRRT with dilute solutions proved both effective and safe, even in patients with acute liver failure.

  19. Influence of EDTA and citrate on physicochemical properties of whey protein-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions containing CaCl2.

    PubMed

    Keowmaneechai, E; McClements, D J

    2002-11-20

    The influence of chelating agents (disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) and sodium citrate) on the physicochemical properties of whey protein isolate (WPI)-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions containing calcium chloride was determined. The calcium-binding characteristics of EDTA and citrate at 30 degrees C were characterized in aqueous solutions (20 mM Tris buffer, pH 7.0) by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). EDTA and citrate both bound calcium ions in a 1:1 ratio, but EDTA had a much higher binding constant. Oil-in-water emulsions (pH 7.0) were prepared containing 6.94% (w/v) soybean oil, 0.35% (w/v) WPI, 0.02% (w/v) sodium azide, 20 mM Tris buffer, 10 mM CaCl(2), and 0-40 mM chelating agent. The particle size, apparent viscosity, creaming stability, free calcium concentration, and particle surface potential of the emulsions were measured. The chelating agents reduced or prevented droplet aggregation in the emulsions. When they were present above a certain concentration (>3.5 mM EDTA or >5 mM citrate), droplet aggregation was prevented. The reduction of aggregation was indicated by decreases in particle size, shear-thinning behavior, apparent viscosity, and creaming. Emulsions containing chelating agents had lower free calcium concentrations and more negatively charged droplets, indicating that the chelating agents improved emulsion stability by binding calcium ions. EDTA could be used at lower concentrations than citrate because of its higher calcium ion binding constant.

  20. Correlations of synthetic, spectroscopic, structural, and speciation studies in the biologically relevant cobalt(II)-citrate system: the tale of the first aqueous dinuclear cobalt(II)-citrate complex.

    PubMed

    Kotsakis, N; Raptopoulou, C P; Tangoulis, V; Terzis, A; Giapintzakis, J; Jakusch, T; Kiss, T; Salifoglou, A

    2003-01-13

    Synthetic efforts targeting soluble species of Co(II) with the low molecular mass physiological ligand citric acid led to the isolation of the first dinuclear complex [Co(2)(C(6)H(5)O(7))(2)(H(2)O)(4)](2-), at pH approximately 5, in the form of its K+ (1) and Na+ (2) salts. Both 1 and 2 were characterized analytically, spectroscopically (FT-IR, UV/visible, EPR), and magnetically. Complex 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/n, with a = 10.348(5) A, b = 11.578(6) A, c = 12.138(6) A, beta = 112.62(2) degrees, V = 1342(1) A(3), and Z = 2. Complex 2 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/c, with a = 9.234(4) A, b = 11.913(4) A, c = 11.728(6) A, beta = 99.93(2) degrees, V = 1271(1) A(3), and Z = 2. X-ray crystallography on 1 and 2 reveals the presence of two Co(II) ions, in a dinuclear assembly, octahedrally coordinated by two citrate ligands in a tridentate fashion. The octahedral environment around each Co(II) is complemented by another singly bonded citrate belonging to the adjacent Co(II) unit and two water molecules. Magnetic susceptibility and EPR studies on 1, in the solid state, corroborate the X-ray results, indicating a weak interaction between the two Co(II) ions. Moreover, EPR and UV/visible studies in solution suggest that 1 does not retain its dimeric structure, yielding a mononuclear octahedral Co(II)-citrate species. Detailed speciation studies suggest the presence of a number of species including the mononuclear complex [Co(C(6)H(5)O(7))](-), optimally present around pH approximately 5. In consonance with EPR and UV/visible spectroscopy, [Co(C(6)H(5)O(7))](-) is likely the scaffolding unit on the basis of which the dimer [Co(2)(C(6)H(5)O(7))(2)(H(2)O)(4)](2-) is isolated from aqueous solutions. Collectively, this comprehensive study offers significant structural insight into the Co(II)-citrate speciation and the elucidation of the role of Co(II) in biological fluids.