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  1. 40 CFR 721.10357 - Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iron, citrate phosphate potassium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10357 Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as iron...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10357 - Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iron, citrate phosphate potassium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10357 Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as iron...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10357 - Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iron, citrate phosphate potassium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10357 Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as iron...

  4. Bowel preparation for CT colonography: blinded comparison of magnesium citrate and sodium phosphate for catharsis.

    PubMed

    Borden, Zachary S; Pickhardt, Perry J; Kim, David H; Lubner, Meghan G; Agriantonis, Demetrios J; Hinshaw, J Louis

    2010-01-01

    To compare colonic cleansing and fluid retention of double-dose magnesium citrate with those of single-dose sodium phosphate in patients undergoing computed tomographic (CT) colonography. This retrospective HIPAA-compliant clinical study had institutional review board approval; informed consent was waived. The study included 118 consecutive patients given single-dose sodium phosphate for bowel catharsis and 115 consecutive patients at risk for phosphate nephropathy, who were instead given double-dose magnesium citrate. The bowel preparation regimen was otherwise identical. Four-point scales were used to assess residual stool and fluid in the six colonic segments, and attenuation of residual fluid was measured. An a priori power analysis was performed, and unpaired t tests with Welch correction were used to compare the two groups on stool and fluid scores and fluid attenuation. Both cathartic regimens offered excellent colon cleansing, with no significant difference for residual stool in any of the six segments. Stool scores of 1 or 2 (ie, no residual stool or residual stool <5 mm) were recorded in 88.6% (627 of 708) of colonic segments in the sodium phosphate group and in 88.1% (608 of 690) in the magnesium citrate group. No clinically important differences were seen in residual fluid scores in any of the six segments, with the only significant difference seen in the sigmoid colon (2.17 for sodium phosphate vs 2.44 for magnesium citrate; P< 0.01). Fluid attenuation was significantly different between magnesium citrate and sodium phosphate groups (790 HU +/- 216 vs 978 HU +/- 160; P <.001). Both sodium phosphate and magnesium citrate provided excellent colon cleansing for CT colonography. Residual stool and fluid were similar in both groups, and fluid attenuation values were closer to optimal in the magnesium citrate group. Since bowel preparation provided by both cathartics was comparable, magnesium citrate should be considered for CT colonography, particularly in

  5. Effect of Potassium Citrate on Calcium Phosphate Stones in a Model of Hypercalciuria.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy S; Asplin, John R; Frick, Kevin K; Granja, Ignacio; Culbertson, Christopher D; Ng, Adeline; Grynpas, Marc D; Bushinsky, David A

    2015-12-01

    Potassium citrate is prescribed to decrease stone recurrence in patients with calcium nephrolithiasis. Citrate binds intestinal and urine calcium and increases urine pH. Citrate, metabolized to bicarbonate, should decrease calcium excretion by reducing bone resorption and increasing renal calcium reabsorption. However, citrate binding to intestinal calcium may increase absorption and renal excretion of both phosphate and oxalate. Thus, the effect of potassium citrate on urine calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation and stone formation is complex and difficult to predict. To study the effects of potassium citrate on urine supersaturation and stone formation, we utilized 95th-generation inbred genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats. Rats were fed a fixed amount of a normal calcium (1.2%) diet supplemented with potassium citrate or potassium chloride (each 4 mmol/d) for 18 weeks. Urine was collected at 6, 12, and 18 weeks. At 18 weeks, stone formation was visualized by radiography. Urine citrate, phosphate, oxalate, and pH levels were higher and urine calcium level was lower in rats fed potassium citrate. Furthermore, calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation were higher with potassium citrate; however, uric acid supersaturation was lower. Both groups had similar numbers of exclusively calcium phosphate stones. Thus, potassium citrate effectively raises urine citrate levels and lowers urine calcium levels; however, the increases in urine pH, oxalate, and phosphate levels lead to increased calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation. Potassium citrate induces complex changes in urine chemistries and resultant supersaturation, which may not be beneficial in preventing calcium phosphate stone formation. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  6. Effect of Potassium Citrate on Calcium Phosphate Stones in a Model of Hypercalciuria

    PubMed Central

    Asplin, John R.; Frick, Kevin K.; Granja, Ignacio; Culbertson, Christopher D.; Ng, Adeline; Grynpas, Marc D.; Bushinsky, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Potassium citrate is prescribed to decrease stone recurrence in patients with calcium nephrolithiasis. Citrate binds intestinal and urine calcium and increases urine pH. Citrate, metabolized to bicarbonate, should decrease calcium excretion by reducing bone resorption and increasing renal calcium reabsorption. However, citrate binding to intestinal calcium may increase absorption and renal excretion of both phosphate and oxalate. Thus, the effect of potassium citrate on urine calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation and stone formation is complex and difficult to predict. To study the effects of potassium citrate on urine supersaturation and stone formation, we utilized 95th-generation inbred genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats. Rats were fed a fixed amount of a normal calcium (1.2%) diet supplemented with potassium citrate or potassium chloride (each 4 mmol/d) for 18 weeks. Urine was collected at 6, 12, and 18 weeks. At 18 weeks, stone formation was visualized by radiography. Urine citrate, phosphate, oxalate, and pH levels were higher and urine calcium level was lower in rats fed potassium citrate. Furthermore, calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation were higher with potassium citrate; however, uric acid supersaturation was lower. Both groups had similar numbers of exclusively calcium phosphate stones. Thus, potassium citrate effectively raises urine citrate levels and lowers urine calcium levels; however, the increases in urine pH, oxalate, and phosphate levels lead to increased calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation. Potassium citrate induces complex changes in urine chemistries and resultant supersaturation, which may not be beneficial in preventing calcium phosphate stone formation. PMID:25855777

  7. Artificial citrate operon and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene enhanced mineral phosphate solubilizing ability of Enterobacter hormaechei DHRSS.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Kavita; Kumar, Chanchal; Archana, G; Kumar, G Naresh

    2014-10-01

    Mineral phosphate solubilization by bacteria is mediated through secretion of organic acids, among which citrate is one of the most effective. To overproduce citrate in bacterial systems, an artificial citrate operon comprising of genes encoding NADH-insensitive citrate synthase of E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium sodium-dependent citrate transporter was constructed. In order to improve its mineral phosphate solubilizing (MPS) ability, the citrate operon was incorporated into E. hormaechei DHRSS. The artificial citrate operon transformant secreted 7.2 mM citric acid whereas in the native strain, it was undetectable. The transformant released 0.82 mM phosphate in flask studies in buffered medium containing rock phosphate as sole P source. In fermenter studies, similar phenotype was observed under aerobic conditions. However, under microaerobic conditions, no citrate was detected and P release was not observed. Therefore, an artificial citrate gene cluster containing Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb) gene under its native promoter, along with artificial citrate operon under constitutive tac promoter, was constructed and transformed into E. hormaechei DHRSS. This transformant secreted 9 mM citric acid under microaerobic conditions and released 1.0 mM P. Thus, incorporation of citrate operon along with vgb gene improves MPS ability of E. hormaechei DHRSS under buffered, microaerobic conditions mimicking rhizospheric environment.

  8. Citrate, calcium, phosphate and magnesium in sows' milk at initiation of lactation.

    PubMed

    Kent, J C; Arthur, P G; Hartmann, P E

    1998-02-01

    Colostrum and milk were collected from ten sows at frequent intervals from before farrowing until 9 d after farrowing. Ionized calcium, pH, and total concentrations of citrate, calcium, phosphate and magnesium were measured in whole milk. The diffusible fraction of the mammary secretion was separated by ultrafiltration and was used for the measurement of diffusible citrate, calcium, phosphate and magnesium. The pH before farrowing was 5.7, and increased to 6.5 on day 4 as total calcium and phosphate also increased. Before farrowing, total and diffusible citrate were 7.8 and 7.3 mM respectively, while diffusible phosphate was 11.9 mM, and these concentrations all decreased during the study period. Total magnesium ranged between 3.3 and 4.1 mM, while diffusible magnesium ranged between 2.0 and 3.1 mM. While these concentrations and patterns of change of diffusible calcium and citrate are quite different from those of women's milk during the first week after birth, theoretical physicochemical relationships between diffusible calcium and citrate, and ionized calcium and HPO4(2-) were corroborated by these results. We conclude that diffusible citrate plays an important role in the determination of the concentration of diffusible calcium. However, while citrate may be the major determinant of the total concentration of calcium in women's milk, this is not the case in sows' milk.

  9. Formation of hydroxyapatite in soils using calcium citrate and sodium phosphate for control of strontium migration.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Robert Charles; Hasan, Ahmed Ali Mohamed; Sanchez, Charles Anthony; Zhao, Hongting; Salas, Fred Manuel; Hasan, Mahmoud A.; Holt, Kathleen Caroline

    2003-08-01

    {sup 90}Sr contamination is a major problem at several U.S. sites. At some sites, {sup 90}Sr has migrated deep underground making site remediation difficult. In this paper, we describe a novel method for precipitation of hydroxyapatite, a strong sorbent for {sup 90}Sr, in soil. The method is based on mixing a solution of calcium citrate and sodium phosphate in soil. As the indigenous soil microorganisms mineralize the citrate, the calcium is released and forms hydroxyapatite. Soil, taken from the Albuquerque desert, was treated with a sodium phosphate solution or a sodium phosphate/calcium citrate solution. TEM and EDS were used to identify hydroxyapatite with CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} substitutions, with a formula of (Ca{sub 4.8}Na{sub 0.2})[(PO{sub 4}){sub 2.8}(CO{sub 3}){sub 0.2}](OH), in the soil treated with the sodium phosphate/calcium citrate solution. Untreated and treated soils were used in batch sorption experiments for Sr uptake. Average Sr uptake was 19.5, 77.0 and 94.7% for the untreated soil, soil treated with sodium phosphate, and soil with apatite, respectively. In desorption experiments, the untreated soil, phosphate treated soil and apatite treated soil released an average of 34.2, 28.8 and 4.8% respectively. The results indicate the potential of forming apatite in soil using soluble reagents for retardation of radionuclide migration.

  10. The synergic role of collagen and citrate in stabilizing amorphous calcium phosphate precursors with platy morphology.

    PubMed

    Delgado-López, José Manuel; Bertolotti, Federica; Lyngsø, Jeppe; Pedersen, Jan Skov; Cervellino, Antonio; Masciocchi, Norberto; Guagliardi, Antonietta

    2017-02-01

    Bioinspired in vitro collagen mineralization experiments have been performed in the presence of citrate and the combined role of the two bone organic matrix components in controlling mineral formation was investigated for the first time. Mineralized and non-mineralized collagen fibrils have been in depth characterized by combining small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) techniques with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) imaging. A synergic effect of collagen and citrate in driving the formation of long-term stable amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) nanoparticles with platy morphology was found. AFM images on mineralized collagen fibrils revealed that some of the ACP nanoparticles were deposited on the intramolecular nanoscopic holes of collagen fibrils. Citrate is an important component of the bone organic matrix but its specific role in bone mineralization is presently unclear. In this work, bioinspired in vitro collagen mineralization experiments in the presence of citrate have been carried out and the combined role of collagen and citrate in controlling mineral formation has been addressed for the first time. Through X-ray scattering and Atomic Force Microscopy characterizations on mineralized and non-mineralized collagen fibrils, we have found that citrate in synergy with collagen stabilizes an amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) phase with platy morphology over one week and controls its deposition on collagen fibrils. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Artificial Citrate Operon Confers Mineral Phosphate Solubilization Ability to Diverse Fluorescent Pseudomonads

    PubMed Central

    Adhikary, Hemanta; Sanghavi, Paulomi B.; Macwan, Silviya R.; Archana, Gattupalli; Naresh Kumar, G.

    2014-01-01

    Citric acid is a strong acid with good cation chelating ability and can be very efficient in solubilizing mineral phosphates. Only a few phosphate solubilizing bacteria and fungi are known to secrete citric acids. In this work, we incorporated artificial citrate operon containing NADH insensitive citrate synthase (gltA1) and citrate transporter (citC) genes into the genome of six-plant growth promoting P. fluorescens strains viz., PfO-1, Pf5, CHAO1, P109, ATCC13525 and Fp315 using MiniTn7 transposon gene delivery system. Comprehensive biochemical characterization of the genomic integrants and their comparison with plasmid transformants of the same operon in M9 minimal medium reveals the highest amount of ∼7.6±0.41 mM citric and 29.95±2.8 mM gluconic acid secretion along with ∼43.2±3.24 mM intracellular citrate without affecting the growth of these P. fluorescens strains. All genomic integrants showed enhanced citric and gluconic acid secretion on Tris-Cl rock phosphate (TRP) buffered medium, which was sufficient to release 200–1000 µM Pi in TRP medium. This study demonstrates that MPS ability could be achieved in natural fluorescent pseudomonads by incorporation of artificial citrate operon not only as plasmid but also by genomic integration. PMID:25259527

  12. Artificial citrate operon confers mineral phosphate solubilization ability to diverse fluorescent pseudomonads.

    PubMed

    Adhikary, Hemanta; Sanghavi, Paulomi B; Macwan, Silviya R; Archana, Gattupalli; Naresh Kumar, G

    2014-01-01

    Citric acid is a strong acid with good cation chelating ability and can be very efficient in solubilizing mineral phosphates. Only a few phosphate solubilizing bacteria and fungi are known to secrete citric acids. In this work, we incorporated artificial citrate operon containing NADH insensitive citrate synthase (gltA1) and citrate transporter (citC) genes into the genome of six-plant growth promoting P. fluorescens strains viz., PfO-1, Pf5, CHAO1, P109, ATCC13525 and Fp315 using MiniTn7 transposon gene delivery system. Comprehensive biochemical characterization of the genomic integrants and their comparison with plasmid transformants of the same operon in M9 minimal medium reveals the highest amount of ∼7.6±0.41 mM citric and 29.95±2.8 mM gluconic acid secretion along with ∼43.2±3.24 mM intracellular citrate without affecting the growth of these P. fluorescens strains. All genomic integrants showed enhanced citric and gluconic acid secretion on Tris-Cl rock phosphate (TRP) buffered medium, which was sufficient to release 200-1000 µM Pi in TRP medium. This study demonstrates that MPS ability could be achieved in natural fluorescent pseudomonads by incorporation of artificial citrate operon not only as plasmid but also by genomic integration.

  13. Polyethyleneimine phosphate and citrate systems act like pseudo polyampholytes as a starting method to isolate pepsin.

    PubMed

    Manzur, Alejandra; Spelzini, Darío; Farruggia, Beatriz; Romanini, Diana; Picó, Guillermo

    2007-12-01

    The aqueous solution behaviour of polyethyleneimine (a cationic synthetic polymer) in the presence of anions (such as citrate and phosphate) was studied by means of turbidimetry. The variation of the absorbance at 420 nm of dilute mixture with pH, the polymer concentration and the ionic strength were examined. The mixture of polyethyleneinine citrate or polyethyleneinine phosphate behaves as a pseudo polyampholyte with an isoelectric point of 5.5 and 6.2 for phosphate and citrate respectively and a precipitation pH range between 3.5 and 8.0. Pepsin was completely precipitated with the polymer anion complex within this pH interval. Citrate showed a better precipitation effect than phosphate did. The precipitate was reversibly dissolved in NaCl (for concentrations higher than 0.2 M) and pepsin kept its biological activity. Studies of pepsin thermal stability (by differential scanning calorimetry) revealed that the polyethyleneimine presence increased the enzyme denaturation temperature. The circular dichroism spectrum of pepsin showed a non-significant loss of secondary and tertiary enzyme structure by the polyethyleneimine. However, the polymer presence increased the biological activity of pepsin.

  14. Does Potassium Citrate Medical Therapy Increase the Risk of Calcium Phosphate Stone Formation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitao, Victor; Haleblian, George E.; Robinson, Marnie R.; Pierre, Sean A.; Sur, Roger L.; Preminger, Glenn M.

    2007-04-01

    Potassium citrate has been extensively used in the treatment of recurrent nephrolithiasis. Recent evidence suggests that it may contribute to increasing urinary pH and, as such, increase the risk of calcium phosphate stone formation. We performed a retrospective review of our patients to further investigate this phenomenon.

  15. Influence of urine pH and citrate concentration on the upper limit of metastability for calcium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Greischar, Amy; Nakagawa, Y; Coe, Frederic L

    2003-03-01

    We determined the effects on the urine upper limit of metastability for calcium phosphate of citrate concentration and pH, and achievement of the upper limit of metastability by adding calcium or phosphate. The citrate concentration in aliquots of 24-hour urine samples from normal males without a history of kidney stones was increased. The upper limit of metastability was determined by the point of visible crystal formation, as confirmed by increased optical density at 620 nm. when calcium or pH was increased. In additional experiments the upper limit of metastability was determined by adding calcium or phosphate at pH 5.9 and 6.4. Regardless of how the upper limit of metastability was achieved increasing the citrate concentration increased the former value by about 0.4 units per mM. citrate per l. The upper limit of metastability achieved in a given urine sample by adding phosphate or calcium did not differ. Increasing urine pH increased the upper limit of metastability. Treatment with alkaline citrate salts may decrease stone formation via an increase in calcium phosphate upper limit of metastability by increasing urine citrate and by directly affecting increased pH.

  16. Intra-individual comparison of magnesium citrate and sodium phosphate for bowel preparation at CT colonography

    PubMed Central

    Bannas, Peter; Bakke, Joshua; Munoz del Rio, Alejandro; Pickhardt, Perry J.

    2014-01-01

    AIM To perform an objective, intra-individual comparison of residual colonic fluid volume and attenuation associated with the current front-line laxative magnesium citrate (MgC) versus the former front-line laxative sodium phosphate (NaP) at CT colonography (CTC). MATERIALS AND METHODS This retrospective Health Insurance and Portability and Accountability Act-compliant study had institutional review board approval; informed consent was waived. The study cohort included 250 asymptomatic adults (mean age at index 56.1 years; 124 male/126 female) who underwent CTC screening twice over a 5 year interval. Colon catharsis at initial and follow-up screening employed single-dose NaP and double-dose MgC, respectively, allowing for intra-patient comparison. Automated volumetric analysis of residual colonic fluid volume and attenuation was performed on all 500 CTC studies. Colonic fluid volume <200 ml and mean attenuation between 300–900 HU were considered optimal. Paired t-test and McNemar’s test were used to compare differences. RESULTS Residual fluid volumes <200 ml were recorded in 192 examinations (76.8%) following MgC and in 204 examinations (81.6%) following NaP (p=0.23). The mean total residual fluid volume was 155±114 ml for MgC and 143±100 ml for NaP (p=0.01). The attenuation range of 300–900 HU was significantly more frequent for MgC (n=220, 88%) than for NaP (n=127, 50.8%; p<0.001). Mean fluid attenuation was significantly lower for MgC (700±165 HU) than for NaP (878±155 HU; p<0.001). Concomitant presence of both optimal fluid volume and attenuation was significantly more frequent for MgC 65.2% than for NaP (38%; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS Objective intra-individual comparison using automated volumetric analysis suggests that the replacement of NaP by MgC as the front-line laxative for CTC has not compromised overall examination quality. PMID:25239789

  17. Plasma membrane H-ATPase-dependent citrate exudation from cluster roots of phosphate-deficient white lupin.

    PubMed

    Tomasi, Nicola; Kretzschmar, Tobias; Espen, Luca; Weisskopf, Laure; Fuglsang, Anja Thoe; Palmgren, Michael Gjedde; Neumann, Günter; Varanini, Zeno; Pinton, Roberto; Martinoia, Enrico; Cesco, Stefano

    2009-05-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is able to grow on soils with sparingly available phosphate (P) by producing specialized structures called cluster roots. To mobilize sparingly soluble P forms in soils, cluster roots release substantial amounts of carboxylates and concomitantly acidify the rhizosphere. The relationship between acidification and carboxylate exudation is still largely unknown. In the present work, we studied the linkage between organic acids (malate and citrate) and proton exudations in cluster roots of P-deficient white lupin. After the illumination started, citrate exudation increased transiently and reached a maximum after 5 h. This effect was accompanied by a strong acidification of the external medium and alkalinization of the cytosol, as evidenced by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Fusicoccin, an activator of the plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase, stimulated citrate exudation, whereas vanadate, an inhibitor of the H+-ATPase, reduced citrate exudation. The burst of citrate exudation was associated with an increase in expression of the LHA1 PM H+-ATPase gene, an increased amount of H+-ATPase protein, a shift in pH optimum of the enzyme and post-translational modification of an H+-ATPase protein involving binding of activating 14-3-3 protein. Taken together, our results indicate a close link in cluster roots of P-deficient white lupin between the burst of citrate exudation and PM H+-ATPase-catalysed proton efflux.

  18. Performance characteristics of an ion chromatographic method for the quantitation of citrate and phosphate in pharmaceutical solutions.

    PubMed

    Jenke, Dennis; Sadain, Salma; Nunez, Karen; Byrne, Frances

    2007-01-01

    The performance of an ion chromatographic method for measuring citrate and phosphate in pharmaceutical solutions is evaluated. Performance characteristics examined include accuracy, precision, specificity, response linearity, robustness, and the ability to meet system suitability criteria. In general, the method is found to be robust within reasonable deviations from its specified operating conditions. Analytical accuracy is typically 100 +/- 3%, and short-term precision is not more than 1.5% relative standard deviation. The instrument response is linear over a range of 50% to 150% of the standard preparation target concentrations (12 mg/L for phosphate and 20 mg/L for citrate), and the results obtained using a single-point standard versus a calibration curve are essentially equivalent. A small analytical bias is observed and ascribed to the relative purity of the differing salts, used as raw materials in tested finished products and as reference standards in the analytical method. The assay is specific in that no phosphate or citrate peaks are observed in a variety of method-related solutions and matrix blanks (with and without autoclaving). The assay with manual preparation of the eluents is sensitive to the composition of the eluent in the sense that the eluent must be effectively degassed and protected from CO(2) ingress during use. In order for the assay to perform effectively, extensive system equilibration and conditioning is required. However, a properly conditioned and equilibrated system can be used to test a number of samples via chromatographic runs that include many (> 50) injections.

  19. Ab initio calculation of the Zn isotope effect in phosphates, citrates, and malates and applications to plants and soil.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Toshiyuki; Albarède, Francis

    2012-01-01

    Stable Zn isotopes are fractionated in roots and leaves of plants. Analyses demonstrate that the heavy Zn isotopes are enriched in the root system of plants with respect to shoots and leaves as well as the host soil, but the fractionation mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that the origin of this isotope fractionation is due to a chemical isotope effect upon complexation by Zn malates and citrates in the aerial parts and by phosphates in the roots. We calculated the Zn isotope effect in aqueous citrates, malates, and phosphates by ab initio methods. For pH<5, the Zn isotopic compositions of the various parts of the plants are expected to be similar to those of groundwater. In the neutral to alkaline region, the calculations correctly predict that (66)Zn is enriched over (64)Zn in roots, which concentrate phosphates, with respect to leaves, which concentrate malates and citrates, by about one permil. It is proposed that Zn isotope fractionation represents a useful tracer of Zn availability and mobility in soils.

  20. Ab Initio Calculation of the Zn Isotope Effect in Phosphates, Citrates, and Malates and Applications to Plants and Soil

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Toshiyuki; Albarède, Francis

    2012-01-01

    Stable Zn isotopes are fractionated in roots and leaves of plants. Analyses demonstrate that the heavy Zn isotopes are enriched in the root system of plants with respect to shoots and leaves as well as the host soil, but the fractionation mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that the origin of this isotope fractionation is due to a chemical isotope effect upon complexation by Zn malates and citrates in the aerial parts and by phosphates in the roots. We calculated the Zn isotope effect in aqueous citrates, malates, and phosphates by ab initio methods. For pH<5, the Zn isotopic compositions of the various parts of the plants are expected to be similar to those of groundwater. In the neutral to alkaline region, the calculations correctly predict that 66Zn is enriched over 64Zn in roots, which concentrate phosphates, with respect to leaves, which concentrate malates and citrates, by about one permil. It is proposed that Zn isotope fractionation represents a useful tracer of Zn availability and mobility in soils. PMID:22363478

  1. Optimization and validation of a rapid method to determine citrate and inorganic phosphate in milk by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Izco, J M; Tormo, M; Harris, A; Tong, P S; Jimenez-Flores, R

    2003-01-01

    Quantification of phosphate and citrate compounds is very important because their distribution between soluble and colloidal phases of milk and their interactions with milk proteins influence the stability and some functional properties of dairy products. The aim of this work was to optimize and validate a capillary electrophoresis method for the rapid determination of these compounds in milk. Various parameters affecting analysis have been optimized, including type, composition, and pH of the electrolyte, and sample extraction. Ethanol, acetonitrile, sulfuric acid, water at 50 degrees C or at room temperature were tested as sample buffers (SB). Water at room temperature yielded the best overall results and was chosen for further validation. The extraction time was checked and could be shortened to less than 1 min. Also, sample preparation was simplified to pipet 12 microl of milk into 1 ml of water containing 20 ppm of tartaric acid as an internal standard. The linearity of the method was excellent (R2 > 0.999) with CV values of response factors <3%. The detection limits for phosphate and citrate were 5.1 and 2.4 nM, respectively. The accuracy of the method was calculated for each compound (103.2 and 100.3%). In addition, citrate and phosphate content of several commercial milk samples were analyzed by this method, and the results deviated less than 5% from values obtained when analyzing the samples by official methods. To study the versatility of the technique, other dairy productssuch as cream cheese, yogurt, or Cheddar cheese were analyzed and accuracy was similar to milk in all products tested. The procedure is rapid and offers a very fast and simple sample preparation. Once the sample has arrived at the laboratory, less than 5 min (including handling, preparation, running, integration, and quantification) are necessary to determine the concentration of citric acid and inorganic phosphate. Because of the speed and accuracy of this method, it is promising as an

  2. Citrate bridges between mineral platelets in bone.

    PubMed

    Davies, Erika; Müller, Karin H; Wong, Wai Ching; Pickard, Chris J; Reid, David G; Skepper, Jeremy N; Duer, Melinda J

    2014-04-08

    We provide evidence that citrate anions bridge between mineral platelets in bone and hypothesize that their presence acts to maintain separate platelets with disordered regions between them rather than gradual transformations into larger, more ordered blocks of mineral. To assess this hypothesis, we take as a model for a citrate bridging between layers of calcium phosphate mineral a double salt octacalcium phosphate citrate (OCP-citrate). We use a combination of multinuclear solid-state NMR spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and first principles electronic structure calculations to propose a quantitative structure for this material, in which citrate anions reside in a hydrated layer, bridging between apatitic layers. To assess the relevance of such a structure in native bone mineral, we present for the first time, to our knowledge, (17)O NMR data on bone and compare them with (17)O NMR data for OCP-citrate and other calcium phosphate minerals relevant to bone. The proposed structural model that we deduce from this work for bone mineral is a layered structure with thin apatitic platelets sandwiched between OCP-citrate-like hydrated layers. Such a structure can explain a number of known structural features of bone mineral: the thin, plate-like morphology of mature bone mineral crystals, the presence of significant quantities of strongly bound water molecules, and the relatively high concentration of hydrogen phosphate as well as the maintenance of a disordered region between mineral platelets.

  3. The Phosphate Binder Ferric Citrate and Mineral Metabolism and Inflammatory Markers in Maintenance Dialysis Patients: Results From Prespecified Analyses of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Van Buren, Peter N.; Lewis, Julia B.; Dwyer, Jamie P.; Greene, Tom; Middleton, John; Sika, Mohammed; Umanath, Kausik; Abraham, Josephine D.; Arfeen, Shahabul S.; Bowline, Isai G.; Chernin, Gil; Fadem, Stephen Z.; Goral, Simin; Koury, Mark; Sinsakul, Marvin V.; Weiner, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Phosphate binders are the cornerstone of hyperphosphatemia management in dialysis patients. Ferric citrate is an iron-based oral phosphate binder that effectively lowers serum phosphorus levels. Study Design 52-week, open-label, phase 3, randomized, controlled trial for safety-profile assessment. Setting & Participants Maintenance dialysis patients with serum phosphorus levels ≥6.0 mg/dL after washout of prior phosphate binders. Intervention 2:1 randomization to ferric citrate or active control (sevelamer carbonate and/or calcium acetate). Outcomes Changes in mineral bone disease, protein-energy wasting/inflammation, and occurrence of adverse events after 1 year. Measurements Serum calcium, intact parathyroid hormone, phosphorus, aluminum, white blood cell count, percentage of lymphocytes, serum urea nitrogen, and bicarbonate. Results There were 292 participants randomly assigned to ferric citrate, and 149, to active control. Groups were well matched. For mean changes from baseline, phosphorus levels decreased similarly in the ferric citrate and active control groups (−2.04 ± 1.99 [SD] vs −2.18 ± 2.25 mg/dL, respectively; P = 0.9); serum calcium levels increased similarly in the ferric citrate and active control groups (0.22 ± 0.90 vs 0.31 ± 0.95 mg/dL; P = 0.2). Hypercalcemia occurred in 4 participants receiving calcium acetate. Parathyroid hormone levels decreased similarly in the ferric citrate and active control groups (−167.1 ± 399.8 vs −152.7 ± 392.1 pg/mL; P = 0.8). Serum albumin, bicarbonate, serum urea nitrogen, white blood cell count and percentage of lymphocytes, and aluminum values were similar between ferric citrate and active control. Total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were lower in participants receiving sevelamer than those receiving ferric citrate and calcium acetate. Fewer participants randomly assigned to ferric citrate had serious adverse events compared with active control. Limitations Open

  4. Role of ligands in accumulation and fractionation of rare Earth elements in plants: examples of phosphate and citrate.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shiming; Liang, Tao; Zhang, Chaosheng; Yan, Juncai; Zhang, Zili; Sun, Qin

    2005-10-01

    Few studies have been carried out on the effects of ligands on rare earth element (REE) bioaccumulation processes. In this study, the effects of phosphate (Pi, an inorganic ligand) and citrate (an organic ligand) on accumulation and fractionation of REEs in wheat were investigated using aqueous culture with extraneous mixed REEs (MRE). The results show that initial Pi solution culture at various levels followed by exposure to a fixed-MRE solution did not significantly change the total concentrations of REEs (SigmaREE) in roots, whereas the SigmaREE in leaves dramatically decreased with increasing levels of Pi applied. Simultaneous culture of wheat with mixture of MRE and citrate solutions caused obvious decreases of the SigmaREE in both roots and leaves. Compared with MRE, significant fractionations of REEs were found in wheat organs when no ligand was applied. Notable middle REE (MREE) enrichment and M-type tetrad effect were observed in the roots, and heavy REE (HREE) enrichment and W-type tetrad effect existed in the leaves. Pi treatments did not significantly affect the fractionations of REEs in the roots, but enrichment of HREEs in the leaves slightly increased at the highest level of Pi applied. Fractionations of REEs in both roots and leaves decreased with increasing levels of citrate applied; at higher levels of citrate (> or =150 microM), no above fractionation features were observed in wheat, but light REE (LREE) enrichment existed in the roots and leaves. The results indicate that ligands might play important roles in accumulation and fractionation of REEs during bioaccumulation processes.

  5. Citrate bridges between mineral platelets in bone

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Erika; Müller, Karin H.; Wong, Wai Ching; Pickard, Chris J.; Reid, David G.; Skepper, Jeremy N.; Duer, Melinda J.

    2014-01-01

    We provide evidence that citrate anions bridge between mineral platelets in bone and hypothesize that their presence acts to maintain separate platelets with disordered regions between them rather than gradual transformations into larger, more ordered blocks of mineral. To assess this hypothesis, we take as a model for a citrate bridging between layers of calcium phosphate mineral a double salt octacalcium phosphate citrate (OCP-citrate). We use a combination of multinuclear solid-state NMR spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and first principles electronic structure calculations to propose a quantitative structure for this material, in which citrate anions reside in a hydrated layer, bridging between apatitic layers. To assess the relevance of such a structure in native bone mineral, we present for the first time, to our knowledge, 17O NMR data on bone and compare them with 17O NMR data for OCP-citrate and other calcium phosphate minerals relevant to bone. The proposed structural model that we deduce from this work for bone mineral is a layered structure with thin apatitic platelets sandwiched between OCP-citrate–like hydrated layers. Such a structure can explain a number of known structural features of bone mineral: the thin, plate-like morphology of mature bone mineral crystals, the presence of significant quantities of strongly bound water molecules, and the relatively high concentration of hydrogen phosphate as well as the maintenance of a disordered region between mineral platelets. PMID:24706850

  6. Effect of phosphate buffer on aggregation kinetics of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles induced by monovalent and divalent electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Afshinnia, K; Baalousha, M

    2017-03-01

    The attachment efficiency (α) is an important parameter that can be used to characterize nanoparticle (NPs) aggregation behavior and has been a topic of discussion of several papers in the past few years. The importance of α is because it is one of the key parameters that can be used to model NP environmental fate and behavior. This study uses UV-vis and laser Doppler electrophoresis to monitor the aggregation behavior of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (cit-AgNPs) induced by Na(+) and Ca(2+) as counter ions in the presence and absence of Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) as a surrogate of natural organic matter and different concentrations of phosphate buffer (0-1mM). Results demonstrate that phosphate buffer, which serves to maintain pH nearly constant over the course of a reaction, is an important determinant of NP aggregation behavior. Increasing phosphate buffer concentration results in a decrease in the critical coagulation concentrations (CCC) of cit-AgNPs to lower counter ion concentration and an increase of α at the same counter ion concentration, both in the absence and presence of SRFA. SRFA stabilizes AgNPs and increases the CCC to higher counter ion concentrations. The outcome of this study can be used to rationalize the variation in α and CCC values reported in the literature for NPs with similar physicochemical properties, where different α and CCC values are reported when different types of buffers and buffer concentrations are used in different studies.

  7. Effect of the Food Additives Sodium Citrate and Disodium Phosphate on Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Production of stx-Phages and Shiga toxin

    PubMed Central

    Lenzi, Lucas J.; Lucchesi, Paula M. A.; Medico, Lucía; Burgán, Julia; Krüger, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    Induction and propagation of bacteriophages along the food production chain can represent a significant risk when bacteriophages carry genes for potent toxins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different compounds used in the food industry on the growth of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and the production of stx-phage particles and Shiga toxin. We tested the in vitro effect of lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, disodium phosphate, and sodium citrate on STEC growth. A bacteriostatic effect was observed in most of treated cultures. The exceptions were those treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate in which similar growth curves to the untreated control were observed, but with reduced OD600 values. Evaluation of phage production by plaque-based assays showed that cultures treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate released phages in similar o lower levels than untreated cultures. However, semi-quantification of Stx revealed higher levels of extracellular Stx in STEC cultures treated with 2.5% sodium citrate than in untreated cultures. Our results reinforce the importance to evaluate if additives and other treatments used to decrease bacterial contamination in food induce stx-phage and Stx production. PMID:27446032

  8. Effect of the Food Additives Sodium Citrate and Disodium Phosphate on Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Production of stx-Phages and Shiga toxin.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Lucas J; Lucchesi, Paula M A; Medico, Lucía; Burgán, Julia; Krüger, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    Induction and propagation of bacteriophages along the food production chain can represent a significant risk when bacteriophages carry genes for potent toxins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different compounds used in the food industry on the growth of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and the production of stx-phage particles and Shiga toxin. We tested the in vitro effect of lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, disodium phosphate, and sodium citrate on STEC growth. A bacteriostatic effect was observed in most of treated cultures. The exceptions were those treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate in which similar growth curves to the untreated control were observed, but with reduced OD600 values. Evaluation of phage production by plaque-based assays showed that cultures treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate released phages in similar o lower levels than untreated cultures. However, semi-quantification of Stx revealed higher levels of extracellular Stx in STEC cultures treated with 2.5% sodium citrate than in untreated cultures. Our results reinforce the importance to evaluate if additives and other treatments used to decrease bacterial contamination in food induce stx-phage and Stx production.

  9. Template-free synthesis of amorphous double-shelled zinc-cobalt citrate hollow microspheres and their transformation to crystalline ZnCo2O4 microspheres.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qingshui; Li, Feng; Guo, Huizhang; Wang, Laisen; Chen, Yuanzhi; Yue, Guanghui; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2013-06-26

    A novel and facile approach was developed for the fabrication of amorphous double-shelled zinc-cobalt citrate hollow microspheres and crystalline double-shelled ZnCo2O4 hollow microspheres. In this approach, amorphous double-shelled zinc-cobalt citrate hollow microspheres were prepared through a simple route and with an aging process at 70 °C. The combining inward and outward Ostwald ripening processes are adopted to account for the formation of these double-shelled architectures. The double-shelled ZnCo2O4 hollow microspheres can be prepared via the perfect morphology inheritance of the double-shelled zinc-cobalt citrate hollow microspheres, by calcination at 500 °C for 2 h. The resultant double-shelled ZnCo2O4 hollow microspheres manifest a large reversible capacity, superior cycling stability, and good rate capability.

  10. A comparative randomized double-blind clinical trial of isoaminile citrate and chlophedianol hydrochloride as antitussive agents.

    PubMed

    Diwan, J; Dhand, R; Jindal, S K; Malik, S K; Sharma, P L

    1982-08-01

    The efficacy and safety of a new centrally acting antitussive agent, isoaminile citrate, was compared with that of chlophedianol hydrochloride in a double-blind, randomized interpatient study. A total of 66 patients participated, two and four patients were lost to follow-up with isoaminile and chlophedianol, respectively. In the experimentally induced cough in 12 normal human subjects, isoaminile (40 mg) was as effective as chlophedianol (20 mg), but its duration of action was somewhat longer. One subject developed allergic skin rash with chlophedianol and was withdrawn from the study. In 60 patients with cough associated with chest diseases, isoaminile (40 mg, 3 x daily) was as effective as chlophedianol (20 mg, 3 x daily) in suppressing cough as judged from the 3-h and 24-h cough counts. The increase in PEFR at day 7 of treatment was somewhat more marked with chlophedianol as compared with isoaminile. None of the drugs interfered with the expectoration process. The side effects observed were few, mild in nature, and did not require a decrease in dose or withdrawal of treatment in any of the patients. Isoaminile citrate was concluded to be an effective and relatively safe antitussive agent. Isoaminile citrate, alpha(isopropyl)-alpha-(beta-dimethylaminoproyl) phenylacetonitrile citrate, is a centrally acting antitussive agent. In animal experiments this drug was as efficacious as codeine but was devoid of any respiratory depressant effect [Krause 1958, Kuroda et al. 1971]. This controlled double-randomized interpatient study was designed to test the comparative efficacy and safety of isoaminile and chlophedianol, another centrally acting antitussive, in humans.

  11. Effects of citrate and NaCl on size, morphology, crystallinity and microstructure of calcium phosphates obtained from aqueous solutions at acidic or near-neutral pH.

    PubMed

    Mekmene, Omar; Rouillon, Thierry; Quillard, Sophie; Pilet, Paul; Bouler, Jean-Michel; Pezennec, Stéphane; Gaucheron, Frédéric

    2012-05-01

    Precipitation of calcium phosphates occurs in dairy products and depending on pH and ionic environment, several salts with different crystallinity can form. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of NaCl and citrate on the characteristics of precipitates obtained from model solutions of calcium phosphate at pH 6·70 maintained constant or left to drift. The ion speciation calculations showed that all the starting solutions were supersaturated with respect to dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and hydroxyapatite (HAP) in the order HAP>OCP>DCPD. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses of the precipitates showed that DCPD was formed at drifting pH (acidic final pH) whereas poor crystallised calcium deficient apatite was mainly formed at constant pH (6·70). Laser light scattering measurements and electron microscopy observations showed that citrate had a pronounced inhibitory effect on the crystallisation of calcium phosphates both at drifting and constant pH. This resulted in the decrease of the particle sizes and the modification of the morphology and the microstructure of the precipitates. The inhibitory effect of citrate mainly acted by the adsorption of the citrate molecules onto the surfaces of newly formed nuclei of calcium phosphate, thereby changing the morphology of the growing particles. These findings are relevant for the understanding of calcium phosphate precipitation from dairy byproducts that contain large amounts of NaCl and citrate.

  12. The yeast mitochondrial citrate transport protein: identification of the Lysine residues responsible for inhibition mediated by Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate.

    PubMed

    Remani, Sreevidya; Sun, Jiakang; Kotaria, Rusudan; Mayor, June A; Brownlee, June M; Harrison, David H T; Walters, D Eric; Kaplan, Ronald S

    2008-12-01

    The present investigation identifies the molecular basis for the well-documented inhibition of the mitochondrial inner membrane citrate transport protein (CTP) function by the lysine-selective reagent pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Kinetic analysis indicates that PLP is a linear mixed inhibitor of the Cys-less CTP, with a predominantly competitive component. We have previously concluded that the CTP contains at least two substrate binding sites which are located at increasing depths within the substrate translocation pathway and which contain key lysine residues. In the present investigation, the roles of Lys-83 in substrate binding site one, Lys-37 and Lys-239 in substrate binding site two, and four other off-pathway lysines in conferring PLP-inhibition of transport was determined by functional characterization of seven lysine to cysteine substitution mutants. We observed that replacement of Lys-83 with cysteine resulted in a 78% loss of the PLP-mediated inhibition of CTP function. In contrast, replacement of either Lys-37 or Lys-239 with cysteine caused a modest reduction in the inhibition caused by PLP (i.e., 31% and 20% loss of inhibition, respectively). Interestingly, these losses of PLP-mediated inhibition could be rescued by covalent modification of each cysteine with MTSEA, a reagent that adds a lysine-like moiety (i.e. SCH(2)CH(2)NH(3) (+)) to the cysteine sulfhydryl group. Importantly, the replacement of non-binding site lysines (i.e., Lys-45, Lys-48, Lys-134, Lys-141) with cysteine resulted in little change in the PLP inhibition. Based upon these results, we conducted docking calculations with the CTP structural model leading to the development of a physical binding model for PLP. In combination, our data support the conclusion that PLP exerts its main inhibitory effect by binding to residues located within the two substrate binding sites of the CTP, with Lys-83 being the primary determinant of the total PLP effect since the replacement of this single lysine

  13. Net Budgetary Impact of Ferric Citrate as a First-Line Phosphate Binder for the Treatment of Hyperphosphatemia: A Markov Microsimulation Model.

    PubMed

    Brunelli, Steven M; Sibbel, Scott P; Van Wyck, David; Sharma, Amit; Hsieh, Andrew; Chertow, Glenn M

    2017-03-01

    Ferric citrate (FC) has demonstrated efficacy as a phosphate binder and reduces the requirements for erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) and intravenous (IV) iron in dialysis patients. We developed a net budgetary impact model to evaluate FC vs. other phosphate binders from the vantage of a large dialysis provider. We used a Markov microsimulation model to simulate mutually referential longitudinal effects between serum phosphate and phosphate binder dose; categories of these defined health states. Health states probabilistically determined treatment attendance and utilization of ESA and IV iron. We derived model inputs from a retrospective analysis of incident phosphate binder users from a large dialysis organization (January 2011-June 2013) and incorporated treatment effects of FC from a phase III trial. The model was run over a 1-year time horizon. We considered fixed costs of providing dialysis; costs of administering ESA and IV iron; and payment rates for dialysis, ESAs, and IV iron. In the base-case model, FC had a net budgetary impact (savings) of +US$213,223/year per 100 patients treated vs. standard of care. One-way sensitivity analyses showed a net budgetary impact of up to +US$316,296/year per 100 patients treated when higher hemoglobin levels observed with FC translated into a 30% additional ESA dose reduction, and up to +US$223,281/year per 100 patients treated when effects on missed treatment rates were varied. Two-way sensitivity analyses in which acquisition costs for ESA and IV iron were varied showed a net budgetary impact of +US$104,840 to +US$213,223/year per 100 patients treated. FC as a first-line phosphate binder would likely yield substantive savings vs. standard of care under current reimbursement.

  14. Phosphate-intercalated Ca-Fe-layered double hydroxides: Crystal structure, bonding character, and release kinetics of phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, Myong A.; Woo Kim, Tae; Paek, Mi-Jeong; Ha, Hyung-Wook; Choy, Jin-Ho; Hwang, Seong-Ju

    2011-01-15

    The nitrate-form of Ca-Fe-layered double hydroxide (Ca-Fe-LDH) was synthesized via co-precipitation method, and its phosphate-intercalates were prepared by ion-exchange reaction. According to X-ray diffraction analysis, the Ca-Fe-LDH-NO{sub 3}{sup -} compound and its H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup -}-intercalate showed hexagonal layered structures, whereas the ion-exchange reaction with HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} caused a frustration of the layer ordering of LDH. Fe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy clearly demonstrated that the Ca-Fe-LDH lattice with trivalent iron ions was well-maintained after the ion-exchange with HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup -}. Under acidic conditions, phosphate ions were slowly released from the Ca-Fe-LDH lattice and the simultaneous release of hydroxide caused the neutralization of acidic media. Fitting analysis based on kinetic models indicated a heterogeneous diffusion process of phosphates and a distinct dependence of release rate on the charge of phosphates. This study strongly suggested that Ca-Fe-LDH is applicable as bifunctional vector for slow release of phosphate fertilizer and for the neutralization of acid soil. -- Graphical abstract: We synthesized phosphate-intercalated Ca-Fe-LDH materials that can act as bifunctional inorganic vectors for the slow release of phosphate fertilizer and also the neutralization of acid soil. Fitting analysis based on kinetic models indicated a heterogeneous diffusion process of phosphates and a distinct dependence of release rate on the charge of phosphates. Display Omitted Research Highlights: {yields} The phosphate forms of Ca-Fe-layered double hydroxide (Ca-Fe-LDH) were synthesized via co-precipitation method. The crystal structure, bonding character, and release kinetics of phosphate of the phosphate-intercalates were investigated. These Ca-Fe-LDH materials are applicable as bifunctional vector for slow release of phosphate fertilizer and for the neutralization of acid soil.

  15. The control of fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis in rat epididymal adipose tissue. Roles of coenzyme A derivatives, citrate and l-glycerol 3-phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Denton, R. M.; Halperin, M. L.

    1968-01-01

    1. Methods are described for the extraction and assay of acetyl-CoA and of total acid-soluble and total acid-insoluble CoA derivatives in rat epididymal adipose tissue. 2. The concentration ranges of the CoA derivatives in fat pads incubated in vitro under various conditions were: total acid-soluble CoA, 0·20–0·59mm; total acid-insoluble CoA, 0·08–0·23mm; acetyl-CoA, 0·03–0·14mm. 3. An investigation was made of some postulated mechanisms of control of fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis in rat epididymal fat pads incubated in vitro. The concentrations of intermediates of possible regulatory significance were measured at various rates of fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis produced by the addition to the incubation medium (Krebs bicarbonate buffer containing glucose) of insulin, adrenaline, albumin, palmitate or acetate. 4. The whole-tissue concentrations of glucose 6-phosphate, l-glycerol 3-phosphate, citrate, acetyl-CoA, total acid-soluble CoA and total acid-insoluble CoA were assayed after 30 or 60min. incubation. The rates of fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis, calculated from the incorporation of [U-14C]glucose into fatty acids and glyceride glycerol respectively, and the rates of glucose uptake, lactate plus pyruvate output and glycerol output were measured over a 60min. incubation. 5. The rate of triglyceride synthesis could not be correlated with the concentrations of either l-glycerol 3-phosphate or long-chain fatty acyl-CoA (measured as total acid-insoluble CoA). Factor(s) other than the whole-tissue concentrations of these recognized precursors appear to be involved in the determination of the rate of triglyceride synthesis. 6. No relationship was found between the rate of fatty acid synthesis and the whole-tissue concentrations of the intermediates, citrate or acetyl-CoA, or with the two proposed effectors of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, citrate (as activator) or long-chain fatty acyl-CoA (as inhibitor). The control of fatty acid synthesis

  16. Sodium citrate and potassium phosphate as alternative adsorption buffers in hydrophobic and aromatic thiophilic chromatographic purification of plasmid DNA from neutralized lysate.

    PubMed

    Bonturi, Nemailla; Radke, Vanessa Soraia Cortez Oliveira; Bueno, Sônia Maria Alves; Freitas, Sindélia; Azzoni, Adriano Rodrigues; Miranda, Everson Alves

    2013-03-01

    The number of studies on gene therapy using plasmid vectors (pDNA) has increased in recent years. As a result, the demand for preparations of pDNA in compliance with recommendations of regulatory agencies (EMEA, FDA) has also increased. Plasmid DNA is often obtained through fermentation of transformed Escherichia coli and purification by a series of unit operations, including chromatography. Hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) and thiophilic aromatic chromatography (TAC), both using ammonium sulfate buffers, are commonly employed with success. This work was aimed at studying the feasibility of utilizing alternative salts in the purification of pDNA from neutralized lysate with phenyl-agarose (HIC) and mercaptopyrimidine-agarose (TAC) adsorbents. Their selectivity toward sc pDNA was evaluated through adsorption studies using 1.5 mol/L sodium citrate and 2.0 mol/L potassium phosphate as adsorption buffers. Chromatography with mercaptopyrimidine-agarose adsorbent and 1.5 mol/L sodium citrate was able to recover 91.1% of the pDNA with over 99.0% removal of gDNA and endotoxin. This represents a potential alternative for the primary recovery of sc pDNA. However, the most promising result was obtained using 2.0 mol/L potassium phosphate buffer and a mercaptopyrimidine-agarose column. In a single chromatographic step, this latter buffer/adsorbent system recovered 68.5% of the pDNA with 98.8% purity in accordance with the recommendations of regulatory agencies with regard to RNA and endotoxin impurity.

  17. Hydration of the phosphate group in double-helical DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, B; Patel, K; Berman, H M

    1998-01-01

    Water distributions around phosphate groups in 59 B-, A-, and Z-DNA crystal structures were analyzed. It is shown that the waters are concentrated in six hydration sites per phosphate and that the positions and occupancies of these sites are dependent on the conformation and type of nucleotide. The patterns of hydration that are characteristic of the backbone of the three DNA helical types can be attributed in part to the interactions of these hydration sites. PMID:9788937

  18. A randomized double-blind controlled trial of taurolidine-citrate catheter locks for the prevention of bacteremia in patients treated with hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Laurie R; Cheesbrough, John S; Ebah, Leonard; Al-Sayed, Tamer; Heap, Michael; Millband, Nick; Waterhouse, Dee; Mitra, Sandip; Curry, Alan; Saxena, Rema; Bhat, Rammohan; Schulz, Michael; Diggle, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Bacteremia is a major cause of morbidity in patients using intravascular catheters. Interdialytic locking with antibiotics decreases the incidence of bacteremia, but risks antibiotic resistance. Taurolidine is a nontoxic broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent that has not been associated with resistance. Preliminary evidence suggests that taurolidine-citrate locks decrease bacteremia, but cause flow problems in established catheters. Double-blind randomized controlled trial. Interdialytic locking with taurolidine and citrate (1.35% taurolidine and 4% citrate) compared with heparin (5,000 U/mL) started at catheter insertion. 110 adult hemodialysis patients with tunneled cuffed intravascular catheters inserted at 3 centers in Northwest England. Primary end points were time to first bacteremia episode from any cause and time to first use of thrombolytic therapy. There were 11 bacteremic episodes in the taurolidine-citrate group and 23 in the heparin group (1.4 and 2.4 episodes/1,000 patient-days, respectively; P = 0.1). There was no significant benefit of taurolidine-citrate versus heparin for time to first bacteremia (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.2-1.6: P = 0.4). Taurolidine-citrate was associated with fewer infections caused by Gram-negative organisms than heparin (0.2 vs 1.1 infections/1,000 patient-days; P = 0.02); however, there was no difference for Gram-positive organisms (1.1 vs 1.2 infections/1,000 patient-days; P = 0.8). There was a greater need for thrombolytic therapy in the taurolidine-citrate versus heparin group (hazard ratio, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.3-5.2; P = 0.008). Small sample size. The study included bacteremia from all causes and was not specific for catheter-related bacteremia. Taurolidine-citrate use did not decrease all-cause bacteremia and was associated with a greater need for thrombolytic treatment. There was a decrease in infections caused by Gram-negative organisms and a trend to a lower frequency of bacteremia, which warrants further study

  19. The influence of citrate and phosphate on the Mancini single radial immunodiffusion technique and suggested improvements for the determination of urinary albumin.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, J E; Uzqueda, H R

    1978-12-15

    When adapting the immediate bromcresol green method for urinary albumin determination a correlation study with the Mancini single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) method was performed. This study showed large disparities between the two methods, SRID giving the higher results. The unsuitability of the currently used SRID methods is demonstrated and improvements to the method are suggested. Known amounts of albumin were added to urine samples as well as to a "synthetic urine", both giving falsely elevated results with the SRID method. On investigating the different components of the "synthetic urine", it was found that the disparities were due to the influence of citrate and phosphate. On addition of citric acid or phosphate to the dilution buffer and/or the gel buffer, the results of the SRID method agreed with those of other methods and with the expected values. The findings presented in this paper can probably be extended to other immunological methods too since it seems to be the antigen-antibody reaction which is affected.

  20. Efficacy of bowel preparation with the use of a prepackaged, low fibre diet with a low sodium, magnesium citrate cathartic vs. a clear liquid diet with a standard sodium phosphate cathartic.

    PubMed

    Delegge, M; Kaplan, R

    2005-06-15

    A colon free of faecal residue is required for accurate diagnostic colonoscopy. Patient tolerance of his/her colonoscopy cathartic regimen affects patient compliance and willingness to undergo repeated examinations. To determine whether a meal could be consumed during standard bowel preparation. This was a randomized, endoscopists' blinded comparison of the tolerability and efficacy of a prepackaged, low-residue diet (NutraPrep) combined with the LoSo Prep bowel cleansing system, which contains magnesium citrate, bisocodyl tablets and a bisocodyl suppository (NP-LS regimen), compared with a clear liquid diet and a double-dose sodium phosphate (Fleet Phospho-soda) regimen (2F regimen). Outcome measures included efficacy of bowel preparation, patient preparation tolerability, side-effects and patient safety. A total of 506 patients completed the study, 222 randomized to 2F and 284 to NP-LS. The NP-LS regimen resulted in significantly better colon cleansing in terms of the proportion with good or excellent results (P = 0.025) and in significantly better patient tolerance and willingness to repeat the cathartic preparation (P < 0.01). The NP-LS regimen proved superior to the 2F regimen.

  1. Experiences with Continuous Venovenous Hemofiltration using 18mmol/L predilution Citrate anticoagulation and a Phosphate Containing Replacement Solution

    PubMed Central

    Jeffrey, Yuen Henry; Hoi-Ping, Shum; Kit Hung, Anne Leung; Chung-Ling, Lam; Wing-Wa, Yan; King-Yiu, Lai

    2017-01-01

    Context: Regional citrate anticoagulation for continuous renal replacement therapy is associated with a longer filter-life, less bleeding events and improved mortality. Problems associated with using Prismocitrate 10/2 solution in continuous renal replacement therapy, include hypomagnesemia, hypophosphatemia and the need for additional bicarbonate infusion. Aims: This study uses the new Prismocitrate 18/0 solution for improved buffer balance and Phoxilium solution for a more favourable electrolyte profile. Settings and Design: A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) using Prismocitrate 18/0 and Phoxilium in our 21-bed ICU was conducted from March to July 2014. Methods and Material: Continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) was performed at fixed rate by using Prismocitrate 18/0 predilution at 1250 ml/hour, a blood flow rate of 110 ml/min and post-replacement with Phoxilium at 1250 ml/hr. CVVH was run for 72 h or until filter clotting, transportation, or achievement of the clinical target. Statistical Analysis Used: The results were displayed as the median with the interquartile range (IQR). The trend in pH, electrolytes, and base excess are shown using a standard box plot. All analyses were performed by the Statistical Package for Social Science for Windows, version 17 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Forty-five CVVH episodes were analysed. The median circuit lifetime was 44 h (interquartile range, IQR 29-55). Metabolic alkalosis, hypophosphatemia and hypomagnesemia occurred in 8.3%, 3.5% and 40.2% of the blood samples, respectively. No patient developed hypokalemia or citrate toxicity. Conclusions: This new CVVH regime is safe and easy to administer for critically ill patients. PMID:28197045

  2. Citrate Metabolism by Pediococcus halophilus

    PubMed Central

    Kanbe, Chiyuki; Uchida, Kinji

    1987-01-01

    Several strains of non-citrate-metabolizing Pediococcus halophilus have previously been isolated from soy sauce mash or moromi. The factors controlling the metabolism of citrate in soy pediococci were studied. All the soy pediococcal strains tested which failed to decompose citrate did not possess citrate lyase [citrate (pro-3S)-lyase; EC 4.1.3.6] activity. In P. halophilus, citrate lyase was an inducible enzyme, and the optimum pH for activity was 7.0. The metabolism of citrate in P. halophilus was different from that observed in lactic streptococci. The main products from citrate were acetate and formate, and this bacterium produced no acetoin or diacetyl. Formate production from citrate was greatly reduced in the presence of glucose. P. halophilus 7117 (Cit+) was proved to contain citrate lyase, pyruvate formate-lyase (EC 2.3.1.54) phosphotransacetylase (phosphate acetyltransferase; EC 2.3.1.8), and acetate kinase (EC 2.7.2.1), i.e., all the enzymes necessary to convert citrate to acetate and formate. PMID:16347358

  3. Phosphate-intercalated Ca-Fe-layered double hydroxides: Crystal structure, bonding character, and release kinetics of phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Myong A.; Woo Kim, Tae; Paek, Mi-Jeong; Ha, Hyung-Wook; Choy, Jin-Ho; Hwang, Seong-Ju

    2011-01-01

    The nitrate-form of Ca-Fe-layered double hydroxide (Ca-Fe-LDH) was synthesized via co-precipitation method, and its phosphate-intercalates were prepared by ion-exchange reaction. According to X-ray diffraction analysis, the Ca-Fe-LDH-NO 3- compound and its H 2PO 4--intercalate showed hexagonal layered structures, whereas the ion-exchange reaction with HPO 42- caused a frustration of the layer ordering of LDH. Fe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy clearly demonstrated that the Ca-Fe-LDH lattice with trivalent iron ions was well-maintained after the ion-exchange with HPO 42- and H 2PO 4-. Under acidic conditions, phosphate ions were slowly released from the Ca-Fe-LDH lattice and the simultaneous release of hydroxide caused the neutralization of acidic media. Fitting analysis based on kinetic models indicated a heterogeneous diffusion process of phosphates and a distinct dependence of release rate on the charge of phosphates. This study strongly suggested that Ca-Fe-LDH is applicable as bifunctional vector for slow release of phosphate fertilizer and for the neutralization of acid soil.

  4. Sildenafil citrate for the prevention of high altitude hypoxic pulmonary hypertension: double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bates, Matthew G D; Thompson, A A Roger; Baillie, J Kenneth; Sutherland, Andrew I; Irving, John B; Hirani, Nikhil; Webb, David J

    2011-01-01

    Exaggerated hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction is a key factor in the development of high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). Due to its effectiveness as a pulmonary vasodilator, sildenafil has been proposed as a prophylactic agent against HAPE. By conducting a parallel-group double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we investigated the effect of chronic sildenafil administration on pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) and symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS) during acclimatization to high altitude. Sixty-two healthy lowland volunteers (36 male; median age 21 years, range 18 to 31) on the Apex 2 research expedition were flown to La Paz, Bolivia (3650 m), and after 4-5 days acclimatization ascended over 90 min to 5200 m. The treatment group (n=20) received 50 mg sildenafil citrate three times daily. PASP was recorded by echocardiography at sea level and within 6 h, 3 days, and 1 week at 5200 m. AMS was assessed daily using the Lake Louise Consensus symptom score. On intention-to-treat analysis, there was no significant difference in PASP at 5200 m between sildenafil and placebo groups. Median AMS score on Day 2 at 5200 m was significantly higher in the sildenafil group (placebo 4.0, sildenafil 6.5; p=0.004) but there was no difference in prevalence of AMS between groups. Sildenafil administration did not affect PASP in healthy lowland subjects at 5200 m but AMS was significantly more severe on Day 2 at 5200 m with sildenafil. Our data do not support routine prophylactic use of sildenafil to reduce PASP at high altitude in healthy subjects with no history of HAPE. TRIALS REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00627965.

  5. Direct observation of grafting interlayer phosphate in Mg/Al layered double hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Shimamura, Akihiro; Kanezaki, Eiji; Jones, Mark I.; Metson, James B.

    2012-02-15

    The grafting of interlayer phosphate in synthetic Mg/Al layered double hydroxides with interlayer hydrogen phosphate (LDH-HPO{sub 4}) has been studied by XRD, TG/DTA, FT-IR, XPS and XANES. The basal spacing of crystalline LDH-HPO{sub 4} decreases in two stages with increasing temperature, from 1.06 nm to 0.82 nm at 333 K in the first transition, and to 0.722 nm at 453 K in the second. The first stage occurs due to the loss of interlayer water and rearrangement of the interlayer HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. In the second transition, the interlayer phosphate is grafted to the layer by the formation of direct bonding to metal cations in the layer, accompanied by a change in polytype of the crystalline structure. The grafted phosphate becomes immobilized and cannot be removed by anion-exchange with 1-octanesulfonate. The LDH is amorphous at 743 K but decomposes to Mg{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}, AlPO{sub 4}, MgO and MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} after heated to 1273 K. - Graphical abstract: The cross section of the synthetic Mg, Al layered double hydroxides in Phase 1, with interlayer hydrogen phosphate Phase 2, and with grafted phosphate, Phase 3. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The grafting of hydrogen phosphate intercalated Mg/Al-LDH has been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The basal spacing of crystalline LDH-HPO{sub 4} decreases in two stages with increasing temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The first decrease is due to loss of interlayer water, the second is attributed to phosphate grafting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The grafted interlayer phosphate becomes immobilized and cannot be removed by anion-exchange.

  6. Migration from plasticized films into foods. 3. Migration of phthalate, sebacate, citrate and phosphate esters from films used for retail food packaging.

    PubMed

    Castle, L; Mercer, A J; Startin, J R; Gilbert, J

    1988-01-01

    A UK survey of plasticizer levels in retail foods (73 samples) wrapped in plasticized films or materials with plasticized coatings has been carried out. A wide range of different food-types packaged in vinylidene chloride copolymers (PVDC), nitrocellulose-coated regenerated cellulose film (RCF) and cellulose acetate were purchased from retail and 'take-away' outlets. Plasticizers found in these films were dibutyl sebacate (DBS) and acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) in PVDC, dibutyl phthalate (DBP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), and diphenyl 2-ethylhexyl phosphate (DPOP) in RCF coatings, and diethyl phthlate (DEP) in cellulose acetate. Foodstuffs analysed included cheese, pate, chocolate and confectionery products, meat pies, cake, quiches and sandwiches. Analysis was by stable isotope dilution GC/MS for DBP, DCHP and DEP, GC/MS (selected ion monitoring) for BBP and DPOP, and GC with flame ionization detection for DBS and ATBC, but with mass spectrometric confirmation. Levels of plasticizers found in foods were in the following ranges: ATBC in cheese, 2-8 mg/kg; DBS in processed cheese and cooked meats, 76-137 mg/kg; 76-137 mg/kg; DBP, DCHP, BBP, and DPOP found individually or in combination in confectionery, meat pies, cake and sandwiches, total levels from 0.5 to 53 mg/kg; and DEP in quiches, 2-4 mg/kg.

  7. Gender and chronological age affect erythrocyte membrane oxidative indices in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) blood bank storage condition.

    PubMed

    Erman, Hayriye; Aksu, Uğur; Belce, Ahmet; Atukeren, Pınar; Uzun, Duygu; Cebe, Tamer; Kansu, Ahmet D; Gelişgen, Remisa; Uslu, Ezel; Aydın, Seval; Çakatay, Ufuk

    2016-07-01

    It is well known that in vitro storage lesions lead to membrane dysfunction and decreased number of functional erythrocytes. As erythrocytes get older, in storage media as well as in peripheral circulation, they undergo a variety of biochemical changes. In our study, the erythrocytes with different age groups in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) storage solution were used in order to investigate the possible effect of gender factor on oxidative damage. Oxidative damage biomarkers in erythrocyte membranes such as ferric reducing antioxidant power, pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance, protein-bound advance glycation end products, and sialic acid were analyzed. Current study reveals that change in membrane redox status during blood-bank storage condition also depends on both gender depended homeostatic factors and the presence of CPDA-1. During the storage period in CPDA-1, erythrocytes from the male donors are mostly affected by free radical-mediated oxidative stress but erythrocytes obtained from females are severely affected by glyoxidative stress.

  8. Low-field magnetoresistance up to 400 K in double perovskite Sr{sub 2}FeMoO{sub 6} synthesized by a citrate route

    SciTech Connect

    Harnagea, L.; Jurca, B.; Berthet, P.

    2014-03-15

    A wet-chemistry technique, namely the citrate route, has been used to prepare high-quality polycrystalline samples of double perovskite Sr{sub 2}FeMoO{sub 6}. We report on the evolution of magnetic and magnetoresistive properties of the synthesized samples as a function of three parameters (i) the pH of the starting solution, (ii) the decomposition temperature of the citrate precursors and (iii) the sintering conditions. The low-field magnetoresistance (LFMR) value of our best samples is as high as 5% at room temperature for an applied magnetic field of 1 kOe. Additionally, the distinguishing feature of these samples is the persistence of LFMR, with a reasonably large value, up to 400 K which is a crucial parameter for any practical application. Our study indicates that the enhancement of LFMR observed is due to a good compromise between the grain size distribution and their magnetic polarization. -- Graphical abstract: The microstructure (left panel) and corresponding low-field magnetoresistance of one of the Sr{sub 2}FeMoO{sub 6} samples synthesized in the course of this work. Highlights: • Samples of Sr{sub 2}FeMoO{sub 6} are prepared using a citrate route under varying conditions. • Magnetoresistive properties are improved and optimized. • Low-field magnetoresitence values as large as 5% at 300 K/1 kOe are reported. • Persistence of low-field magnetoresistance up to 400 K.

  9. Phosphate recovery from wastewater using engineered superparamagnetic particles modified with layered double hydroxide ion exchangers.

    PubMed

    Drenkova-Tuhtan, Asya; Mandel, Karl; Paulus, Anja; Meyer, Carsten; Hutter, Frank; Gellermann, Carsten; Sextl, Gerhard; Franzreb, Matthias; Steinmetz, Heidrun

    2013-10-01

    An innovative nanocomposite material is proposed for phosphate recovery from wastewater using magnetic assistance. Superparamagnetic microparticles modified with layered double hydroxide (LDH) ion exchangers of various compositions act as phosphate adsorbers. Magnetic separation and chemical regeneration of the particles allows their reuse, leading to the successful recovery of phosphate. Based upon the preliminary screening of different LDH ion exchanger modifications for phosphate selectivity and uptake capacity, MgFe-Zr LDH coated magnetic particles were chosen for further characterization and application. The adsorption kinetics of phosphate from municipal wastewater was studied in dependence with particle concentration, contact time and pH. Adsorption isotherms were then determined for the selected particle system. Recovery of phosphate and regeneration of the particles was examined via testing a variety of desorption solutions. Reusability of the particles was demonstrated for 15 adsorption/desorption cycles. Adsorption in the range of 75-97% was achieved in each cycle after 1 h contact time. Phosphate recovery and enrichment was possible through repetitive application of the desorption solution. Finally, a pilot scale experiment was carried out by treating 125 L of wastewater with the particles in five subsequent 25 L batches. Solid-liquid separation on this scale was carried out with a high-gradient magnetic filter (HGMF).

  10. Pathways of phosphate uptake from aqueous solution by ZnAl layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Cheng, X; Wang, Y; Sun, Z; Sun, D; Wang, A

    2013-01-01

    ZnAl layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were prepared by urea hydrolysis-based coprecipitation for removing phosphate from aqueous solutions. The chemical formula of the product was determined as Zn5.54Al3.02(OH)8.73(CO3)0.57Cl5.66·7.84H2O. Chloride ion was the major interlayer anion of the ZnAl LDHs. Adsorption of phosphate onto the ZnAl sorbent over the entire study period was not in close agreement with pseudo-first-order or pseudo-second-order models. The adsorption can be divided into two steps. A fast adsorption was observed during the first 10 h with a marked increase in the concentration of Cl(-) in the bulk solution. This indicated that the adsorption of phosphate was largely attributed to the ion exchange between phosphate and the interlayer Cl(-). A second fast adsorption of phosphate occurred after 10 h. During this period, the pH increased slowly, whereas the Cl(-) concentration was stable. The uptake of phosphate was likely attributed to OH(-)-H2PO4(-)/HPO4(2-) ion exchange as well as surface adsorption/complexation. Acidic conditions favored adsorption of phosphate by ZnAl LDHs, which is consistent with the pH increases during the adsorption. Coexisting anions, e.g., SO4(2-) and CO3(2-), are competitive ions for the adsorption of phosphate. The results verify the contribution of ion exchange and surface adsorption/complexation in the removal of phosphate by ZnAl LDHs.

  11. Metal-catalyzed double migratory cascade reactions of propargylic esters and phosphates.

    PubMed

    Kazem Shiroodi, Roohollah; Gevorgyan, Vladimir

    2013-06-21

    Propargylic esters and phosphates are easily accessible substrates, which exhibit rich and tunable reactivities in the presence of transition metal catalysts. π-Acidic metals, mostly gold and platinum salts, activate these substrates for an initial 1,2- or 1,3-acyloxy and phosphatyloxy migration process to form reactive intermediates. These intermediates are able to undergo further cascade reactions leading to a variety of diverse structures. This tutorial review systematically introduces the double migratory reactions of propargylic esters and phosphates as a novel synthetic method, in which further cascade reaction of the reactive intermediate is accompanied by a second migration of a different group, thus offering a rapid route to a wide range of functionalized products. The serendipitous observations, as well as designed approaches involving the double migratory cascade reactions, will be discussed with emphasis placed on the mechanistic aspects and the synthetic utilities of the obtained products.

  12. [Hemoglobin Woodville associated with double point mutation in the gene of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase].

    PubMed

    Mansini, Adrián P; Fernández, Diego A; Aguirre, Fernando M; Pepe, Carolina; Milanesio, Berenice; Chaves, Alejandro; Eandi Eberle, Silvia; Feliú Torres, Aurora

    2015-01-01

    The co-inheritance of erythrocyte defects, hemoglobinopathies, enzymopathies, and membranopathies is not an unusual event. For the diagnosis, a laboratory strategy, including screening and confirmatory tests, additional to molecular characterization, was designed. As the result of this approach, a 24-year-old man carrying a hemoglobinopathy (Hemoglobin Woodville) and an enzymopathy (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency) was identified. In the heterozygous state hemoglobin Woodville, is asymptomatic, and homozygous or double heterozygous individuals have not been reported thus far. On the other hand, previously described double point mutation in the gene for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase c. [202G>A; 376A>G], p. [Val 68Met; Asn126Asp], causes hemolysis of varying severity after food or drug intake or infections. This case highlights the importance of the methodology carried out for the diagnosis, treatment, and proper genetic counseling.

  13. Properties of Ce-activated alkali-lutetium double phosphate scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Wiśniewski, D.; Wojtowicz, A. J.; Boatner, Lynn A

    2010-01-01

    The scintillation properties of Ce-activated alkali-lutetium double phosphate single crystals that vary with the alkali ion type and activation level are summarized and compared. The materials investigated here have been identified as fast and efficient scintillators for the detection of x-ray and radiation, and in case of Li3Lu(PO4)2:Ce, for thermal neutron detection as well.

  14. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of a lotion containing triethyl citrate and ethyl linoleate in the treatment of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Charakida, A; Charakida, M; Chu, A C

    2007-09-01

    Acne vulgaris is a major clinical problem; despite a vast array of treatment modalities available for acne, there is considerable dissatisfaction in acne treatment among patients and doctors. Rising antibiotic drug resistance consequent to the widespread use of topical antibiotics is causing concern and effective nonantibiotic treatments are needed. To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a novel lotion containing triethyl citrate and ethyl linoleate in the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris. This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study comparing the active lotion containing triethyl citrate and ethyl linoleate with its vehicle as a placebo control. Patients were assessed by the modified Leeds acne grading system as well as by counting inflammatory and noninflammatory lesions on the face at weeks 0, 4, 8 and 12. Sebum production was assessed by the Sebutape method at weeks 0 and 12. All adverse events were recorded. Forty patients were recruited into the study, of whom 33 completed the study. Active treatment was statistically superior to placebo in reduction of Leeds grading and total, inflammatory and noninflammatory lesion counts. The active lotion showed a rapid response with obvious reduction in lesion counts and acne grading by 4 weeks. Sebum production was significantly reduced in the actively treated group, with a mean reduction of 53% in sebum production compared with baseline. One patient developed irritation to the active lotion and withdrew from the study. The new lotion containing triethyl citrate and ethyl linoleate has been shown to be an effective treatment for mild to moderate acne, with an effect on both inflammatory and noninflammatory acne lesions. The new lotion worked quickly and was generally well tolerated. A surprising finding was the significant impact the new lotion has on sebum production, suggesting a role in patients with seborrhoea. This nonantibiotic preparation will be a very useful addition to

  15. Phosphate adsorption from sewage sludge filtrate using zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiang; Huang, Xinrui; Wang, Xingzu; Zhao, Bingqing; Chen, Aiyan; Sun, Dezhi

    2009-09-30

    A series of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with different metal cations were synthesized to remove phosphate in waste sludge filtrate from a municipal wastewater treatment plant for phosphorus recovery and to help control eutrophication. The highest phosphate adsorption capacity was obtained by using Zn-Al-2-300, that is LDHs with Zn/Al molar ratio of 2 and calcined at 300 degrees C for 4h. Circumneutral and mildly alkaline waters appeared suitable for the possible application of Zn-Al LDHs due to the amphoteric nature of aluminum hydroxide. Phosphate adsorption from the sludge filtrate by the LDHs followed pseudo-second-order kinetics, and the adsorption capacity at equilibrium was determined to be approximately 50 mg P/g. Adsorption isotherms showed that phosphate uptake in this study was an endothermic process and had a good fit with a Langmuir-type model. The absorbed phosphate can be effectively desorbed (more than 80%) from LDHs particles by a 5 wt% NaOH solution. The regeneration rate of used LDHs was approximately 60% after six cycles of adsorption-desorption-regeneration.

  16. Structural and Crystal Chemical Properties of Alkali Rare-earth Double Phosphates

    DOE PAGES

    Farmer, James Matthew; Boatner, Lynn A.; Chakoumakos, Bryan C.; ...

    2016-01-01

    When appropriately activated, alkali rare-earth double phosphates of the form: M3RE(PO4)2 (where M denotes an alkali metal and RE represents either a rare-earth element or Y or Sc) are of interest for use as inorganic scintillators for radiation detection at relatively long optical emission wavelengths. These compounds exhibit layered crystal structures whose symmetry properties depend on the relative sizes of the rare-earth and alkali-metal cations. Single-crystal X-ray and powder neutron diffraction methods were used here to refine the structures of the series of rare-earth double phosphate compounds: K3RE(PO4)2 with RE = Lu, Er, Ho, Dy, Gd, Nd, Ce, plus Ymore » and Sc - as well as the compounds: A3Lu(PO4)2, with A = Rb, and Cs. The double phosphate K3Lu(PO4)2 was reported and structurally refined previously. This material had a hexagonal unit cell at room temperature with the Lu ion six-fold coordinated with oxygen atoms of the surrounding phosphate groups. Additionally two lower-temperature phases were observed for K3Lu(PO4)2. The first phase transition to a monoclinic P21/m phase occurred at ~230 K, and the Lu ion retained its six-fold coordination. The second K3Lu(PO4)2 phase transition occurred at ~130 K. The P21/m space group symmetry was retained, however, one of the phosphate groups rotated to increase the oxygen coordination number of Lu from six to seven. This structure then became isostructural with the room-temperature form of the compound K3Yb(PO4)2 reported here that also exhibits an additional high-temperature phase which occurs at T = 120 °C with a transformation to hexagonal P-3 space group symmetry and a Yb-ion coordination number reduction from seven to six. This latter result was confirmed using EXAFS. The single-crystal growth methods structural systematics, and thermal expansion properties of the present series of alkali rare-earth double phosphates, as determined by X-ray and neutron diffraction methods, are treated here.« less

  17. Structural and Crystal Chemical Properties of Alkali Rare-earth Double Phosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, James Matthew; Boatner, Lynn A.; Chakoumakos, Bryan C.; Rawn, Claudia J.; Richardson, Jim

    2016-01-01

    When appropriately activated, alkali rare-earth double phosphates of the form: M3RE(PO4)2 (where M denotes an alkali metal and RE represents either a rare-earth element or Y or Sc) are of interest for use as inorganic scintillators for radiation detection at relatively long optical emission wavelengths. These compounds exhibit layered crystal structures whose symmetry properties depend on the relative sizes of the rare-earth and alkali-metal cations. Single-crystal X-ray and powder neutron diffraction methods were used here to refine the structures of the series of rare-earth double phosphate compounds: K3RE(PO4)2 with RE = Lu, Er, Ho, Dy, Gd, Nd, Ce, plus Y and Sc - as well as the compounds: A3Lu(PO4)2, with A = Rb, and Cs. The double phosphate K3Lu(PO4)2 was reported and structurally refined previously. This material had a hexagonal unit cell at room temperature with the Lu ion six-fold coordinated with oxygen atoms of the surrounding phosphate groups. Additionally two lower-temperature phases were observed for K3Lu(PO4)2. The first phase transition to a monoclinic P21/m phase occurred at ~230 K, and the Lu ion retained its six-fold coordination. The second K3Lu(PO4)2 phase transition occurred at ~130 K. The P21/m space group symmetry was retained, however, one of the phosphate groups rotated to increase the oxygen coordination number of Lu from six to seven. This structure then became isostructural with the room-temperature form of the compound K3Yb(PO4)2 reported here that also exhibits an additional high-temperature phase which occurs at T = 120 °C with a transformation to hexagonal P-3 space group symmetry and a Yb-ion coordination number reduction from seven to six. This latter result was confirmed using EXAFS. The single

  18. Sequestration of Sr-90 Subsurface Contamination in the Hanford 100-N Area by Surface Infiltration of a Ca-Citrate-Phosphate Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, James E.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Oostrom, Martinus; Moore, R. C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Williams, Mark D.; Zhong, Lirong; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; McKinley, James P.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Covert, Matthew A.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Garcia, Ben J.

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a method to emplace apatite precipitate in the 100N vadose zone, which results in sorption and ultimately incorporation of Sr-90 into the apatite structure. The Ca-citrate-PO4 solution can be infiltrated into unsaturated sediments to result in apatite precipitate to provide effective treatment of Sr-90 contamination. Microbial redistribution during solution infiltration and a high rate of citrate biodegradation for river water microbes (water used for solution infiltration) results in a relatively even spatial distribution of the citrate biodegradation rate and ultimately apatite precipitate in the sediment. Manipulation of the Ca-citrate-PO4 solution infiltration strategy can be used to result in apatite precipitate in the lower half of the vadose zone (where most of the Sr-90 is located) and within low-K layers (which are hypothesized to have higher Sr-90 concentrations). The most effective infiltration strategy to precipitate apatite at depth (and with sufficient lateral spread) was to infiltrate a high concentration solution (6 mM Ca, 15 mM citrate, 60 mM PO4) at a rapid rate (near ponded conditions), followed by rapid, then slow water infiltration. Repeated infiltration events, with sufficient time between events to allow water drainage in the sediment profile can be used to buildup the mass of apatite precipitate at greater depth. Low-K heterogeneities were effectively treated, as the higher residual water content maintained in these zones resulted in higher apatite precipitate concentration. High-K zones did not receive sufficient treatment by infiltration, although an alternative strategy of air/surfactant (foam) was demonstrated effective for targeting high-K zones. The flow rate manipulation used in this study to treat specific depths and heterogeneities are not as easy to implement at field scale due to the lack of characterization of heterogeneities and difficulty tracking the wetting front over a large

  19. Metformin administration versus laparoscopic ovarian diathermy in clomiphene citrate-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective parallel randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Palomba, Stefano; Orio, Francesco; Nardo, Luciano Giovanni; Falbo, Angela; Russo, Tiziana; Corea, Domenico; Doldo, Patrizia; Lombardi, Gaetano; Tolino, Achille; Colao, Annamaria; Zullo, Fulvio

    2004-10-01

    At present, it is unclear what the role is of laparoscopic ovarian diathermy (LOD) and of metformin administration as second-line treatments for ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) after failure of clomiphene citrate (CC) treatment. The aim of the present study was to compare in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled fashion the effectiveness of LOD with metformin administration in the treatment of CC-resistant women with PCOS. A total of 120 overweight primary infertile anovulatory CC-resistant women with PCOS were enrolled and randomized into two groups of treatment. Group A underwent diagnostic laparoscopy, whereas group B underwent LOD. At hospital discharge, the patients were treated for 6 months with metformin cloridrate (group A; 850 mg twice daily) or with multivitamins (group B). The ovulation, pregnancy, abortion, and live-birth rates were evaluated. At the end of the study, the total ovulation rate was not statistically different between both treatment groups (54.8 vs. 53.2% [correction] in groups A and B, respectively), whereas the pregnancy (21.8 [correction] vs. 13.4%), the abortion (9.3 [correction] vs. 29.0%), and the live-birth (86.0 [correction] vs. 64.5%) rates were significantly (P < 0.05) different between the two groups. Our data show that metformin administration is more effective than LOD in overall reproductive outcomes in overweight infertile CC-resistant women with PCOS.

  20. Thermal Behavior of Phosphate Intercalated Mg/Al-LAYERED Double Hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimamura, Akihiro; Kurashina, Masashi; Kanezaki, Eiji

    The thermal behavior of Mg and Al layered double hydroxide with interlayer hydrogen phosphate (abb. as Mg/Al-HPO4-LDH) is investigated below 1273 K by means of XRD, TG-DTA, SEM and FT-IR. The basal spacing of Mg/Al-HPO4-LDH decreases with increasing heating temperature stepwise in two stages; from 1.07 nm at 293 K to 0.85 nm at 333 K in the first stage and to 0.73 nm between 373 K and 443 K in the second one. The LDH becomes amorphous above 443 K until Mg3 (PO4)2, MgO and MgAl2O4 (spinel) appear at 1273 K. SEM images of the LDH show plate-like crystallites both before and after heating at 473 K.

  1. Emotional changes in men treated with sildenafil citrate for erectile dysfunction: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Moncada, Ignacio; Martínez-Jabaloyas, José M; Rodriguez-Vela, Luis; Gutiérrez, Pedro R; Giuliano, Francois; Koskimaki, Juha; Farmer, Ian S; Renedo, Virginia Pascual; Schnetzler, Gabriel

    2009-12-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) has been associated with several comorbidities and can cause significant loss of quality of life and self-esteem. In men with ED, to use the validated Self-Esteem and Relationship (SEAR) questionnaire to evaluate changes in self-esteem associated with sildenafil treatment of ED and to assess changes dependent on concomitant comorbid conditions. This was a 14-week, international, randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, flexible-dose (25, 50, or 100 mg), placebo-controlled study of sildenafil in men aged >or=18 years with a clinical diagnosis of ED (score

  2. 21 CFR 184.1301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Ferric phosphate (ferric orthophosphate, iron (III) phosphate, Fe... ferric chloride or ferric citrate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals...

  3. Competitive adsorption characteristics of fluoride and phosphate on calcined Mg-Al-CO3 layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Cai, Peng; Zheng, Hong; Wang, Chong; Ma, Hongwen; Hu, Jianchao; Pu, Yubing; Liang, Peng

    2012-04-30

    With synthetic wastewater, competitive adsorption characteristics of fluoride and phosphate on calcined Mg-Al-CO(3) layered double hydroxides (CLDH) were investigated. A series of batch experiments were performed to study the influence of various experimental parameters, such as pH, contact time, and order of addition of the anions on the competitive adsorption of fluoride and phosphate on CLDH. It was found that the optimal pH is around 6 and it took 24 h to attain equilibrium when fluoride and phosphate were simultaneous added. The order of addition of anions influenced the adsorption of fluoride and phosphate on CLDH. The kinetic data were analyzed using the pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order models and they were found to fit very well the pseudo second-order kinetic model. Data of equilibrium experiments were fitted well to Langmuir isotherm and the competitive monolayer adsorption capacities of fluoride and phosphate were found to be obviously lower than those of single anion at 25 °C. The results of X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analyses, and ATR-FTIR demonstrate that the adsorption mechanism involves the rehydration of mixed metal oxides and concomitant intercalation of fluoride and phosphate ions into the interlayer to reconstruct the initial LDHs structure.

  4. The Safety and Tolerability of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Phosphate with Sodium Ferrous Citrate in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Bahrain

    PubMed Central

    Al-Saber, Feryal; Aldosari, Waleed; Alselaiti, Mariam; Khalfan, Hesham; Kaladari, Ahmed; Khan, Ghulam; Harb, George; Rehani, Riyadh; Kudo, Sizuka; Koda, Aya; Tanaka, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is prevalent especially in Gulf countries and poses serious long-term risks to patients. A multifaceted treatment approach can include nutritional supplements with antioxidant properties such as 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) with sodium ferrous citrate (SFC). This prospective, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, dose escalating pilot clinical trial assessed the safety of 5-ALA with SFC at doses up to 200 mg 5-ALA/229.42 mg SFC per day in patients living in Bahrain with type 2 diabetes mellitus that was uncontrolled despite the use of one or more antidiabetic drugs. Fifty-three patients (n = 53) from 3 sites at one center were enrolled by Dr. Feryal (Site #01), Dr. Hesham (Site #02), and Dr. Waleed (Site #03) (n = 35, 5-ALA-SFC; n = 18, placebo). There was no significant difference in incidence of adverse events reported, and the most frequent events reported were gastrointestinal in nature, consistent with the known safety profile of 5-ALA in patients with diabetes. No significant changes in laboratory values and no difference in hypoglycemia between patients receiving 5-ALA and placebo were noted. Overall, the current results support that use of 5-ALA-SFC up to 200 mg per day taken as 2 divided doses is safe in patients taking concomitant oral antidiabetic medications and may offer benefits in the diabetic population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02481141. PMID:27738640

  5. Nickel sorption to goethite and montmorillonite in presence of citrate.

    PubMed

    Marcussen, Helle; Holm, Peter E; Strobel, Bjarne W; Hansen, Hans Chr B

    2009-02-15

    Mobility and bioavailability of nickel (Ni) in soil strongly depends on the interaction between Ni(II), ligands, and sorbents like organic matter and minerals. Sorption of Ni(II) and Ni(II)-citrate complexes to goethite and montmorillonite was examined in batch experiments with and without citrate as ligand in the pH range pH 4-7.5. Without citrate, montmorillonite shows higher Ni sorption than goethite. Citrate strongly decreases Ni sorption to montmorillonite; in presence of 100 microM citrate goethite becomes a stronger Ni sorbent than montmorillonite. Ni and citrate sorption was modeled successfully using the diffuse double layer model with the following reactions: Goethite: 3 [triple bond]FeOH + Citrate(3-) + 3H+ <=> [triple bond] Fe3Citrate + 3H2O, [triple bond]FeOH + Ni2+ <=> [triple bond] FeONi + H+ and 2 [triple bond] FeOH + Citrate(3)- + Ni2+ <=> [triple bond] FeONiCitrate(2-) + H+. Montmorillonite: 2X- + Ni2+ <=> X2Ni and [triple bond] AIOH + Ni2+ <=> AIONi+ + H+. Sorption of Ni to a mixture of goethite and montmorillonite could be calculated by use of reactions and constants for the monomineral systems. Without citrate, the sorbed amount of Ni per mass unit in the mixture can be found as a simple average of sorption to the two single sorbents, while in presence of citrate Ni sorption to montmorillonite is strongly influenced by citrate sorption to goethite.

  6. The alternative use of layered double hydroxides as extraction medium coupled with microcomplexation for determination of phosphate in water samples.

    PubMed

    Gissawong, Netsirin; Sansuk, Sira; Srijaranai, Supalax

    2017-02-15

    A simple, rapid, in situ, and green extraction combined with a microcomplexation has been developed for the spectrophotometric determination of phosphate in water samples. Through their formation, layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were employed as the extraction medium, instantly commenced by a rapid addition of a mixed solution of Mg(2+) and Al(3+) ions into alkaline phosphate solution. After the extraction, LDH precipitate containing phosphate was dissolved by sulfuric acid and the released phosphate was subsequently detected via its complexation with molybdate in the presence of antimonyl and ascorbic acid. Under optimum conditions, the linearity in the range of 5-200μgL(-1), with the correlation coefficient (r(2)) of 0.9969, and the enrichment factor (EF) of 14 were obtained. The limit of detection (LOD) of 5μgL(-1) and good precision, with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 8.16%, were achieved. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine phosphate in water samples and the relative recoveries of 72.97-115.32% were obtained.

  7. The alternative use of layered double hydroxides as extraction medium coupled with microcomplexation for determination of phosphate in water samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gissawong, Netsirin; Sansuk, Sira; Srijaranai, Supalax

    2017-02-01

    A simple, rapid, in situ, and green extraction combined with a microcomplexation has been developed for the spectrophotometric determination of phosphate in water samples. Through their formation, layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were employed as the extraction medium, instantly commenced by a rapid addition of a mixed solution of Mg2 + and Al3 + ions into alkaline phosphate solution. After the extraction, LDH precipitate containing phosphate was dissolved by sulfuric acid and the released phosphate was subsequently detected via its complexation with molybdate in the presence of antimonyl and ascorbic acid. Under optimum conditions, the linearity in the range of 5-200 μg L- 1, with the correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.9969, and the enrichment factor (EF) of 14 were obtained. The limit of detection (LOD) of 5 μg L- 1 and good precision, with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 8.16%, were achieved. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine phosphate in water samples and the relative recoveries of 72.97-115.32% were obtained.

  8. Citrin/mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase double knock-out mice recapitulate features of human citrin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Saheki, Takeyori; Iijima, Mikio; Li, Meng Xian; Kobayashi, Keiko; Horiuchi, Masahisa; Ushikai, Miharu; Okumura, Fumihiko; Meng, Xiao Jian; Inoue, Ituro; Tajima, Atsushi; Moriyama, Mitsuaki; Eto, Kazuhiro; Kadowaki, Takashi; Sinasac, David S; Tsui, Lap-Chee; Tsuji, Mihoko; Okano, Akira; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi

    2007-08-24

    Citrin is the liver-type mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carrier that participates in urea, protein, and nucleotide biosynthetic pathways by supplying aspartate from mitochondria to the cytosol. Citrin also plays a role in transporting cytosolic NADH reducing equivalents into mitochondria as a component of the malate-aspartate shuttle. In humans, loss-of-function mutations in the SLC25A13 gene encoding citrin cause both adult-onset type II citrullinemia and neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis, collectively referred to as human citrin deficiency. Citrin knock-out mice fail to display features of human citrin deficiency. Based on the hypothesis that an enhanced glycerol phosphate shuttle activity may be compensating for the loss of citrin function in the mouse, we have generated mice with a combined disruption of the genes for citrin and mitochondrial glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. The resulting double knock-out mice demonstrated citrullinemia, hyperammonemia that was further elevated by oral sucrose administration, hypoglycemia, and a fatty liver, all features of human citrin deficiency. An increased hepatic lactate/pyruvate ratio in the double knock-out mice compared with controls was also further elevated by the oral sucrose administration, suggesting that an altered cytosolic NADH/NAD(+) ratio is closely associated with the hyperammonemia observed. Microarray analyses identified over 100 genes that were differentially expressed in the double knock-out mice compared with wild-type controls, revealing genes potentially involved in compensatory or downstream effects of the combined mutations. Together, our data indicate that the more severe phenotype present in the citrin/mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase double knock-out mice represents a more accurate model of human citrin deficiency than citrin knock-out mice.

  9. Cerium-activated rare-earth orthophosphate and double-phosphate scintillators for x-and gamma-ray detection

    SciTech Connect

    Boatner, Lynn A; Keefer, Lara A; Farmer, James Matthew; Wisniewski, D.; Wojtowicz, A. J.

    2004-01-01

    When activated with an appropriate rare-earth ion (e.g., Ce or Nd), rare-earth orthophosphates of the form REPO4 (where RE = a rare-earth cation) and alkali rare-earth double phosphates of the form A{sub 3}RE(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} (where A = K, Rb, or Cs) are characterized by light yields and decay times that make these materials of interest for radiation-detection applications. Crystals of the compound Rb{sub 3}Lu(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} when activated with {approx}0.1 mol % Ce exhibit a light yield that is {approx}250% that of BGO with a decay time on the order of {approx}40 nsec. The cerium-activated rare-earth orthophosphate LuPO{sub 4}:Ce is also characterized by a high light yield and a relatively fast decay time of {approx}25 nsec. Additionally, the rare-earth orthophosphates are extremely chemically, physically, and thermally durable hosts that recover easily from radiation damage effects. The properties of the rare-earth orthophosphates and double phosphates that pertain to their use as X- and gamma-ray detectors are reviewed. This review includes information related to the use of Nd-doped LuPO{sub 4} as a scintillator with a sufficiently energetic, short-wavelength output ({lambda} = 90 nm) so that it can be used in conjunction with appropriately activated proportional counters. Information is presented on the details of the synthesis, structure, and luminescence properties of lanthanide double phosphates that, when activated with cerium, are efficient scintillators with output wavelengths that are sufficiently long to be well matched to the response of silicon photodiode detectors.

  10. Xanthone additives for blood storage that maintain its potential for oxygen delivery. I. 2-Hydroxyethoxy- and 2-ethoxy-6-(5-tetrazoyl) xanthones in citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine (CPDA-1) blood.

    PubMed

    Paterson, R A; Dawson, J; Hyde, R M; Livingstone, D J; Parry, E S; Nash, S; Boyce, I M

    1988-01-01

    Two xanthones, 2-hydroxyethoxy-6-(5-tetrazoyl) (BW A440C) and 2-ethoxy-6-(5-tetraozyl) (BW A827C), are members of a chemical series tested in vitro as potential additives to citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine (CPDA-1) medium for blood storage. P50 was maintained in the presence of these compounds during 42 days' storage by a partial maintenance of 2,3 diphosphoglycerate (2,3 DPG) and by a direct effect on hemoglobin previously reported for BW A827C. Red cell 2,3 DPG levels for BW A440C (n = 5), BW A827C (n = 5), and control (n = 6), respectively, were 3.38 +/- 0.47, 3.44 +/- 0.25, and 1.20 +/- 0.10 mM +/- SEM on day 7; 1.16 +/- 0.13, 1.52 +/- 0.37, and 0.16 +/- 0.02 mM on day 21; and 0.67 +/- 0.09, 0.61 +/- 0.08, and 0.06 +/- 0.006 mM on day 42. Red cell adenine triphosphate levels at the same time intervals were 1.84 +/- 0.09, 1.46 +/- 0.18, and 2.11 +/- 0.04 mM; 2.10 +/- 0.05, 2.07 +/- 0.17, and 2.13 +/- 0.05 mM; and 1.42 +/- 0.13, 1.37 +/- 0.13, and 1.38 +/- 0.06 mM, respectively. The degree of hemolysis was less with the addition of the compounds, and the methemoglobin formation, plasma Na+ and K+, and lactate production were unaffected by the compounds.

  11. Novel hollow microspheres of hierarchical zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides and their enhanced adsorption capacity for phosphate in water.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiabin; Yang, Siliang; Yu, Jiaguo; Shu, Zhan

    2011-09-15

    Hollow microspheres of hierarchical Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method using urea as precipitating agent. The morphology and microstructure of the as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. It was found that the morphology of hierarchical Zn-Al LDHs can be tuned from irregular platelets to hollow microspheres by simply varying concentrations of urea. The effects of initial phosphate concentration and contact time on phosphate adsorption using various Zn-Al LDHs and their calcined products (LDOs) were investigated from batch tests. Our results indicate that the equilibrium adsorption data were best fitted by Langmuir isothermal model, with the maximum adsorption capacity of 54.1-232 mg/g; adsorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation and intra-particle diffusion model. In addition, Zn-Al LDOs are shown to be effective adsorbents for removing phosphate from aqueous solutions due to their hierarchical porous structures and high specific surface areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Postprandial effects of calcium phosphate supplementation on plasma concentration-double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over human study.

    PubMed

    Trautvetter, Ulrike; Kiehntopf, Michael; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2013-03-08

    The aim of the present study was to examine the postprandial calcium and phosphate concentrations after supplementation with pentacalcium hydroxy-triphosphate (CaP). Ten men participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. The participants were divided into two groups. One group consumed bread enriched with CaP (plus 1 g calcium/d) and the other group a placebo product for three weeks. After a two week wash-out, the intervention was switched between the groups for another three weeks. Blood samples were drawn at the beginning (single administration) and at the end (repeated administration) of the intervention periods at 0, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min. Between 0 and 30 min, a test meal, with or without CaP was consumed. The plasma concentrations of calcium and phosphate were examined. One participant dropped out due to personal reasons. CaP supplementation resulted in a significantly higher plasma calcium concentration after 240 min compared to placebo. After repeated CaP administration, the AUC for the increment in plasma calcium concentration was significantly higher compared to placebo.After single and repeated CaP supplementation, plasma phosphate concentration significantly decreased after 30, 60, 120 and 180 min compared to 0 min. The placebo administration resulted in significant decreases after 30, 60 and 120 min compared to 0 min. Our results show that CaP contributes to an adequate calcium supply, but without increasing the plasma concentration of phosphate. www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01296997.

  13. Postprandial effects of calcium phosphate supplementation on plasma concentration-double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over human study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to examine the postprandial calcium and phosphate concentrations after supplementation with pentacalcium hydroxy-triphosphate (CaP). Methods Ten men participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. The participants were divided into two groups. One group consumed bread enriched with CaP (plus 1 g calcium/d) and the other group a placebo product for three weeks. After a two week wash-out, the intervention was switched between the groups for another three weeks. Blood samples were drawn at the beginning (single administration) and at the end (repeated administration) of the intervention periods at 0, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min. Between 0 and 30 min, a test meal, with or without CaP was consumed. The plasma concentrations of calcium and phosphate were examined. One participant dropped out due to personal reasons. Results CaP supplementation resulted in a significantly higher plasma calcium concentration after 240 min compared to placebo. After repeated CaP administration, the AUC for the increment in plasma calcium concentration was significantly higher compared to placebo. After single and repeated CaP supplementation, plasma phosphate concentration significantly decreased after 30, 60, 120 and 180 min compared to 0 min. The placebo administration resulted in significant decreases after 30, 60 and 120 min compared to 0 min. Conclusion Our results show that CaP contributes to an adequate calcium supply, but without increasing the plasma concentration of phosphate. Trial registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01296997 PMID:23510513

  14. A double blind controlled trial of prednisolone-21-phosphate suppositories in the treatment of idiopathic proctitis

    PubMed Central

    Lennard-Jones, J. E.; Baron, J. H.; Connell, A. M.; Jones, F. Avery

    1962-01-01

    A double blind trial of prednisolone suppositories in out-patients with idiopathic proctitis is reported. Significant improvement was noted. When prednisolone suppositories were given after the patient had already used suppositories of base alone for three weeks the active treatment was no longer so effective. PMID:13929632

  15. Anaerobic degradation of citrate under sulfate reducing and methanogenic conditions.

    PubMed

    Gámez, Victor M; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Waltz, Rebecca J; Field, James A

    2009-07-01

    Citrate is an important component of metal processing effluents such as chemical mechanical planarization wastewaters of the semiconductor industry. Citrate can serve as an electron donor for sulfate reduction applied to promote the removal of metals, and it can also potentially be used by methanogens that coexist in anaerobic biofilms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the degradation of citrate with sulfate-reducing and methanogenic biofilms. During batch bioassays, the citrate, acetate, methane and sulfide concentrations were monitored. The results indicate that independent of the biofilm or incubation conditions used, citrate was rapidly fermented with specific rates ranging from 566 to 720 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD) consumed per gram volatile suspended solids per day. Acetate was found to be the main fermentation product of citrate degradation, which was later degraded completely under either methanogenic or sulfate reducing conditions. However, if either sulfate reduction or methanogenesis was infeasible due to specific inhibitors (2-bromoethane sulfonate), absence of sulfate or lack of adequate microorganisms in the biofilm, acetate accumulated to levels accounting for 90-100% of the citrate-COD consumed. Based on carbon balances measured in phosphate buffered bioassays, acetate, CO(2) and hydrogen are the main products of citrate fermentation, with a molar ratio of 2:2:1 per mol of citrate, respectively. In bicarbonate buffered bioassays, acetogenesis of H(2) and CO(2) increased the yield of acetate. The results taken as a whole suggest that in anaerobic biofilm systems, citrate is metabolized via the formation of acetate as the main metabolic intermediate prior to methanogenesis or sulfate reduction. Sulfate reducing consortia must be enriched to utilize acetate as an electron donor in order to utilize the majority of the electron-equivalents in citrate.

  16. Gastrointestinal citrate absorption in nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fegan, J.; Khan, R.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    Gastrointestinal absorption of citrate was measured in stone patients with idiopathic hypocitraturia to determine if citrate malabsorption could account for low urinary citrate. Citrate absorption was measured directly from recovery of orally administered potassium citrate (40 mEq.) in the intestinal lavage fluid, using an intestinal washout technique. In 7 stone patients citrate absorption, serum citrate levels, peak citrate concentration in serum and area under the curve were not significantly different from those of 7 normal subjects. Citrate absorption was rapid and efficient in both groups, with 96 to 98% absorbed within 3 hours. The absorption of citrate was less efficient from a tablet preparation of potassium citrate than from a liquid preparation, probably due to a delayed release of citrate from wax matrix. However, citrate absorption from solid potassium citrate was still high at 91%, compared to 98% for a liquid preparation. Thus, hypocitraturia is unlikely to be due to an impaired gastrointestinal absorption of citrate in stone patients without overt bowel disease.

  17. Gastrointestinal citrate absorption in nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fegan, J.; Khan, R.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    Gastrointestinal absorption of citrate was measured in stone patients with idiopathic hypocitraturia to determine if citrate malabsorption could account for low urinary citrate. Citrate absorption was measured directly from recovery of orally administered potassium citrate (40 mEq.) in the intestinal lavage fluid, using an intestinal washout technique. In 7 stone patients citrate absorption, serum citrate levels, peak citrate concentration in serum and area under the curve were not significantly different from those of 7 normal subjects. Citrate absorption was rapid and efficient in both groups, with 96 to 98% absorbed within 3 hours. The absorption of citrate was less efficient from a tablet preparation of potassium citrate than from a liquid preparation, probably due to a delayed release of citrate from wax matrix. However, citrate absorption from solid potassium citrate was still high at 91%, compared to 98% for a liquid preparation. Thus, hypocitraturia is unlikely to be due to an impaired gastrointestinal absorption of citrate in stone patients without overt bowel disease.

  18. [Contribution to the problem of preventing recurrences of oxalate and phosphate urinary caluli: active modification of citrate excretion and Ca++-binding capacity in the urine of Wistar rats].

    PubMed

    Leskovar, P; Hropot, M; Wellnhofer, E; Scherm, D; Schade, K L

    1982-03-01

    Citric acid may well be, quantitatively and in terms of complex chemistry, the most important of the organic acids capable of binding Ca++ in urine. Since the quantitative determination of citrates in urine became a routine method in many research-orientated urological laboratories thanks to the introduction of standardized enzymatic tests, reports of a reduced excretion of citrates in patients with (recurrent) (oxalate) calculi have become frequent. During our long-term study of patients with recurrent formation of calculi we also observed a clear deficit of citrates in their morning, midday and evening urine. The conspicuous incidence of calculi when there is a concurrence of hypocitraturia and alkaline urine (RTA, in animal experiments: acetazolamide) clearly suggests the lithoprotective significance of citric acid. By quantitatively testing a large number of organic compounds which are interesting both structurally and in terms of complex chemistry, it has been possible to find some substances which restrict crystallization, raise the level of citrates and bind Ca++. A few have also found to restrict the excretion of oxalate in Wistar rats.

  19. Final report on the safety assessment of acetyl triethyl citrate, acetyl tributyl citrate, acetyl trihexyl citrate, and acetyl trioctyl citrate.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wilbur

    2002-01-01

    Acetyl Triethyl Citrate, Acetyl Tributyl Citrate, Acetyl Trihexyl Citrate, and Acetyl Trioctyl Citrate all function as plasticizers in cosmetics. Additionally, the Trihexyl and Trioctyl forms are described as skin-conditioning agents-emollients, although there are currently no reported uses of Acetyl Trihexyl Citrate or Acetyl Trioctyl Citrate. Acetyl Triethyl Citrate and Acetyl Tributyl Citrate are used in nail products at concentrations up to 7%. Recognizing that there are no reported uses of Acetyl Trihexyl or Trioctyl Citrate, if they were to be used in the future, their concentration of use is expected to be no higher than that reported for Acetyl Triethyl and Tributyl Citrate. These ingredients were sufficiently similar in structure that safety test data on one were considered applicable to all. Approximately 99% of orally administered Acetyl Tributyl Citrate is excreted-intermediate metabolites include acetyl citrate, monobutyl citrate, acetyl monobutyl citrate, dibutyl citrate, and acetyl dibutyl citrate. In acute, short-term, subchronic, and chronic feeding studies, these ingredients were relatively nontoxic. Differences from controls were either not statistically significant or not related to any organ toxicity. Ocular exposures produced moderate reactions that cleared by 48 hours after instillation. Dermal application was not toxic in rabbits. In a guinea pig maximization test, Acetyl Triethyl Citrate was a sensitizer whereas Acetyl Tributyl Citrate was not. Limited clinical testing of Acetyl Triethyl Citrate and Acetyl Tributyl Citrate was negative for both skin irritation and sensitization. These clinical data were considered more relevant than the guinea pig maximization data, suggesting to the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel that none of these ingredients would be a sensitizer. Physiologic effects noted with intravenous delivery of Acetyl Triethyl Citrate or Acetyl Tributyl Citrate include dose-related decreases in blood pressure and

  20. Effects of supplementation on food intake, body weight and hepatic metabolites in the citrin/mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase double-knockout mouse model of human citrin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Saheki, Takeyori; Inoue, Kanako; Ono, Hiromi; Katsura, Natsumi; Yokogawa, Mana; Yoshidumi, Yukari; Furuie, Sumie; Kuroda, Eishi; Ushikai, Miharu; Asakawa, Akihiro; Inui, Akio; Eto, Kazuhiro; Kadowaki, Takashi; Sinasac, David S; Yamamura, Ken-Ichi; Kobayashi, Keiko

    2012-11-01

    The C57BL/6:Slc23a13(-/-);Gpd2(-/-) double-knockout (a.k.a., citrin/mitochondrial glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase double knockout or Ctrn/mGPD-KO) mouse displays phenotypic attributes of both neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis (NICCD) and adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2), making it a suitable model of human citrin deficiency. In the present study, we show that when mature Ctrn/mGPD-KO mice are switched from a standard chow diet (CE-2) to a purified maintenance diet (AIN-93M), this resulted in a significant loss of body weight as a result of reduced food intake compared to littermate mGPD-KO mice. However, supplementation of the purified maintenance diet with additional protein (from 14% to 22%; and concomitant reduction or corn starch), or with specific supplementation with alanine, sodium glutamate, sodium pyruvate or medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), led to increased food intake and body weight gain near or back to that on chow diet. No such effect was observed when supplementing the diet with other sources of fat that contain long-chain fatty acids. Furthermore, when these supplements were added to a sucrose solution administered enterally to the mice, which has been shown previously to lead to elevated blood ammonia as well as altered hepatic metabolite levels in Ctrn/mGPP-KO mice, this led to metabolic correction. The elevated hepatic glycerol 3-phosphate and citrulline levels after sucrose administration were suppressed by the administration of sodium pyruvate, alanine, sodium glutamate and MCT, although the effect of MCT was relatively small. Low hepatic citrate and increased lysine levels were only found to be corrected by sodium pyruvate, while alanine and sodium glutamate both corrected hepatic glutamate and aspartate levels. Overall, these results suggest that dietary factors including increased protein content, supplementation of specific amino acids like alanine and sodium glutamate, as well as sodium pyruvate and MCT all show beneficial

  1. [Influence of reaction time of urea hydrolysis-based co-precipitation on the structure of ZnAl layered double hydroxides and the phosphate adsorption].

    PubMed

    Lu, Ying; Cheng, Xiang; Xing, Bo; Sun, Zhong-en; Sun, De-zhi

    2012-08-01

    A series of ZnAl layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were prepared by urea hydrolysis-based homogeneous co-precipitation for studying their structure and phosphate adsorption capacities. The results show that all the samples exhibited a typical layered structure as the reaction time extended from 12 h to 96 h, whereas Zn/Al molar ratio in the ZnAls decreased from 2.06 to 0.70 and the specific surface area markedly increased to be 7.6-fold higher than that of ZnAl-12. Phosphate adsorption capacity of the ZnAl was in general increased gradually with the reaction time extension, which can be attributed to the surface area rising as well as the increased positive charge of LDHs layer caused by a higher proportion of Al. This reveals that physicochemical adsorption on LDHs surface would have played an important role during the phosphate adsorption. With a reaction time of 24 h, a high amount of exchangeable interlayer anions was observed, giving rise to a highest phosphate uptake of 34.1 mg x g(-1) by the ZnAl-24. It indicates the ion exchange was another major pathway for the phosphate removal. For all the ZnAls with different reaction times, the phosphate adsorption isotherms fit well with Langmuir-type equations; the adsorption kinetics followed pseudo-second-order models.

  2. The effect of sodium bicarbonate upon urinary citrate excretion in calcium stone formers.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Vivian Barbosa; Baxmann, Alessandra Calábria; Tiselius, Hans-Göran; Heilberg, Ita Pfeferman

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of oral sodium bicarbonate (NaBic) supplementation upon urinary citrate excretion in calcium stone formers (CSFs). Sixteen adult calcium stone formers with hypocitraturia were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, crossover protocol using 60 mEq/day of NaBic during 3 days compared to the same period and doses of potassium citrate (KCit) supplementation. Blood and 24-hour urine samples were collected at baseline and during the third day of each alkali salt. NaBic, similarly to KCit supplementation, led to an equivalent and significant increase in urinary citrate and pH. Compared to baseline, NaBic led to a significant increase in sodium excretion without concomitant increases in urinary calcium excretion, whereas KCit induced a significant increase in potassium excretion coupled with a significant reduction in urinary calcium. Although NaBic and KCit both reduced calcium oxalate supersaturation (CaOxSS) significantly vs baseline, KCit reduced calcium oxalate supersaturation significantly further vs NaBic. Both KCit and NaBic significantly reduced urinary phosphate and increased calcium phosphate supersaturation (CaPSS) compared to baseline. Finally, a significantly higher sodium urate supersaturation (NaUrSS) was observed after the use of the 2 drugs. This short-term study suggests that NaBic represents an effective alternative for the treatment of hypocitraturic calcium oxalate stone formers who cannot tolerate or afford the cost of KCit. In view of the increased sodium urate supersaturation, patients with pure uric acid stones and high urate excretion may be less suited for treatment with NaBic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Metabolomic analysis reveals hepatic metabolite perturbations in citrin/mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase double-knockout mice, a model of human citrin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Saheki, Takeyori; Inoue, Kanako; Ono, Hiromi; Tushima, Anmi; Katsura, Natsumi; Yokogawa, Mana; Yoshidumi, Yukari; Kuhara, Tomiko; Ohse, Morimasa; Eto, Kazuhiro; Kadowaki, Takashi; Sinasac, David S; Kobayashi, Keiko

    2011-12-01

    The citrin/mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPD) double-knockout mouse displays phenotypic attributes of both neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis and adult-onset type II citrullinemia, making it a suitable model of human citrin deficiency. In the present study, we investigated metabolic disturbances in the livers of wild-type, citrin (Ctrn) knockout, mGPD knockout, and Ctrn/mGPD double-knockout mice following oral sucrose versus saline administration using metabolomic approaches. By using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis/mass spectrometry, we found three general groupings of metabolite changes in the livers of the double-knockout mice following sucrose administration that were subsequently confirmed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry or enzymatic methods: a marked increase of hepatic glycerol 3-phosphate, a generalized decrease of hepatic tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, and alterations of hepatic amino acid levels related to the urea cycle or lysine catabolism including marked increases in citrulline and lysine. Furthermore, concurrent oral administration of sodium pyruvate with sucrose ameliorated the hyperammonemia induced by sucrose, as had been shown previously, as well as almost completely normalizing the hepatic metabolite perturbations found. Overall, we have identified additional metabolic disturbances in double-KO mice following oral sucrose administration, and provided further evidence for the therapeutic use of sodium pyruvate in our mouse model of citrin deficiency. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Distribution and mobility of phosphates and sodium ions in cheese by solid-state 31P and double-quantum filtered 23Na NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gobet, Mallory; Rondeau-Mouro, Corinne; Buchin, Solange; Le Quéré, Jean-Luc; Guichard, Elisabeth; Foucat, Loïc; Moreau, Céline

    2010-04-01

    The feasibility of solid-state magic angle spinning (MAS) (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and (23)Na NMR spectroscopy to investigate both phosphates and Na(+) ions distribution in semi-hard cheeses in a non-destructive way was studied. Two semi-hard cheeses of known composition were made with two different salt contents. (31)P Single-pulse excitation and cross-polarization MAS experiments allowed, for the first time, the identification and quantification of soluble and insoluble phosphates in the cheeses. The presence of a relatively 'mobile' fraction of colloidal phosphates was evidenced. The detection by (23)Na single-quantum NMR experiments of all the sodium ions in the cheeses was validated. The presence of a fraction of 'bound' sodium ions was evidenced by (23)Na double-quantum filtered NMR experiments. We demonstrated that NMR is a suitable tool to investigate both phosphates and Na(+) ions distributions in cheeses. The impact of the sodium content on the various phosphorus forms distribution was discussed and results demonstrated that NMR would be an important tool for the cheese industry for the processes controls.

  5. Ferric Citrate Controls Phosphorus and Delivers Iron in Patients on Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Sika, Mohammed; Koury, Mark J.; Chuang, Peale; Schulman, Gerald; Smith, Mark T.; Whittier, Frederick C.; Linfert, Douglas R.; Galphin, Claude M.; Athreya, Balaji P.; Nossuli, A. Kaldun Kaldun; Chang, Ingrid J.; Blumenthal, Samuel S.; Manley, John; Zeig, Steven; Kant, Kotagal S.; Olivero, Juan Jose; Greene, Tom; Dwyer, Jamie P.

    2015-01-01

    Patients on dialysis require phosphorus binders to prevent hyperphosphatemia and are iron deficient. We studied ferric citrate as a phosphorus binder and iron source. In this sequential, randomized trial, 441 subjects on dialysis were randomized to ferric citrate or active control in a 52-week active control period followed by a 4-week placebo control period, in which subjects on ferric citrate who completed the active control period were rerandomized to ferric citrate or placebo. The primary analysis compared the mean change in phosphorus between ferric citrate and placebo during the placebo control period. A sequential gatekeeping strategy controlled study-wise type 1 error for serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, and intravenous iron and erythropoietin-stimulating agent usage as prespecified secondary outcomes in the active control period. Ferric citrate controlled phosphorus compared with placebo, with a mean treatment difference of −2.2±0.2 mg/dl (mean±SEM) (P<0.001). Active control period phosphorus was similar between ferric citrate and active control, with comparable safety profiles. Subjects on ferric citrate achieved higher mean iron parameters (ferritin=899±488 ng/ml [mean±SD]; transferrin saturation=39%±17%) versus subjects on active control (ferritin=628±367 ng/ml [mean±SD]; transferrin saturation=30%±12%; P<0.001 for both). Subjects on ferric citrate received less intravenous elemental iron (median=12.95 mg/wk ferric citrate; 26.88 mg/wk active control; P<0.001) and less erythropoietin-stimulating agent (median epoetin-equivalent units per week: 5306 units/wk ferric citrate; 6951 units/wk active control; P=0.04). Hemoglobin levels were statistically higher on ferric citrate. Thus, ferric citrate is an efficacious and safe phosphate binder that increases iron stores and reduces intravenous iron and erythropoietin-stimulating agent use while maintaining hemoglobin. PMID:25060056

  6. Ferric citrate controls phosphorus and delivers iron in patients on dialysis.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Julia B; Sika, Mohammed; Koury, Mark J; Chuang, Peale; Schulman, Gerald; Smith, Mark T; Whittier, Frederick C; Linfert, Douglas R; Galphin, Claude M; Athreya, Balaji P; Nossuli, A Kaldun Kaldun; Chang, Ingrid J; Blumenthal, Samuel S; Manley, John; Zeig, Steven; Kant, Kotagal S; Olivero, Juan Jose; Greene, Tom; Dwyer, Jamie P

    2015-02-01

    Patients on dialysis require phosphorus binders to prevent hyperphosphatemia and are iron deficient. We studied ferric citrate as a phosphorus binder and iron source. In this sequential, randomized trial, 441 subjects on dialysis were randomized to ferric citrate or active control in a 52-week active control period followed by a 4-week placebo control period, in which subjects on ferric citrate who completed the active control period were rerandomized to ferric citrate or placebo. The primary analysis compared the mean change in phosphorus between ferric citrate and placebo during the placebo control period. A sequential gatekeeping strategy controlled study-wise type 1 error for serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, and intravenous iron and erythropoietin-stimulating agent usage as prespecified secondary outcomes in the active control period. Ferric citrate controlled phosphorus compared with placebo, with a mean treatment difference of -2.2±0.2 mg/dl (mean±SEM) (P<0.001). Active control period phosphorus was similar between ferric citrate and active control, with comparable safety profiles. Subjects on ferric citrate achieved higher mean iron parameters (ferritin=899±488 ng/ml [mean±SD]; transferrin saturation=39%±17%) versus subjects on active control (ferritin=628±367 ng/ml [mean±SD]; transferrin saturation=30%±12%; P<0.001 for both). Subjects on ferric citrate received less intravenous elemental iron (median=12.95 mg/wk ferric citrate; 26.88 mg/wk active control; P<0.001) and less erythropoietin-stimulating agent (median epoetin-equivalent units per week: 5306 units/wk ferric citrate; 6951 units/wk active control; P=0.04). Hemoglobin levels were statistically higher on ferric citrate. Thus, ferric citrate is an efficacious and safe phosphate binder that increases iron stores and reduces intravenous iron and erythropoietin-stimulating agent use while maintaining hemoglobin. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  7. Mechanism for increased hepatic glycerol synthesis in the citrin/mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase double-knockout mouse: Urine glycerol and glycerol 3-phosphate as potential diagnostic markers of human citrin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Mitsuaki; Fujimoto, Yuki; Rikimaru, Shizuka; Ushikai, Miharu; Kuroda, Eishi; Kawabe, Kenji; Takano, Katsura; Asakawa, Akihiro; Inui, Akio; Eto, Kazuhiro; Kadowaki, Takashi; Sinasac, David S; Okano, Yoshiyuki; Yazaki, Masahide; Ikeda, Shu-Ichi; Zhang, Chunhua; Song, Yuan-Zong; Sakamoto, Osamu; Kure, Shigeo; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Endo, Fumio; Horiuchi, Masahisa; Nakamura, Yoichi; Yamamura, Ken-Ichi; Saheki, Takeyori

    2015-09-01

    The mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carrier isoform 2 (citrin) and mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPD) double-knockout mouse has been a useful model of human citrin deficiency. One of the most prominent findings has been markedly increased hepatic glycerol 3-phosphate (G3P) following oral administration of a sucrose solution. We aimed to investigate whether this change is detectable outside of the liver, and to explore the mechanism underlying the increased hepatic G3P in these mice. We measured G3P and its metabolite glycerol in plasma and urine of the mice under various conditions. Glycerol synthesis from fructose was also studied using the liver perfusion system. The citrin/mGPD double-knockout mice showed increased urine G3P and glycerol under normal, fed conditions. We also found increased plasma glycerol under fasted conditions, while oral administration of different carbohydrates or ethanol led to substantially increased plasma glycerol. Fructose infusion to the perfused liver of the double-knockout mice augmented hepatic glycerol synthesis, and was accompanied by a concomitant increase in the lactate/pyruvate (L/P) ratio. Co-infusion of either pyruvate or phenazine methosulfate, a cytosolic oxidant, with fructose corrected the high L/P ratio, leading to reduced glycerol synthesis. Overall, these findings suggest that hepatic glycerol synthesis is cytosolic NADH/NAD(+) ratio-dependent and reveal a likely regulatory mechanism for hepatic glycerol synthesis following a high carbohydrate load in citrin-deficient patients. Therefore, urine G3P and glycerol may represent potential diagnostic markers for human citrin deficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Strongly bound citrate stabilizes the apatite nanocrystals in bone

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Y.-Y.; Rawal, A.; Schmidt-Rohr, K.

    2010-10-12

    Nanocrystals of apatitic calcium phosphate impart the organic-inorganic nanocomposite in bone with favorable mechanical properties. So far, the factors preventing crystal growth beyond the favorable thickness of ca. 3 nm have not been identified. Here we show that the apatite surfaces are studded with strongly bound citrate molecules, whose signals have been identified unambiguously by multinuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. NMR reveals that bound citrate accounts for 5.5 wt% of the organic matter in bone and covers apatite at a density of about 1 molecule per (2 nm){sup 2}, with its three carboxylate groups at distances of 0.3 to 0.45 nm from the apatite surface. Bound citrate is highly conserved, being found in fish, avian, and mammalian bone, which indicates its critical role in interfering with crystal thickening and stabilizing the apatite nanocrystals in bone

  9. The role of molecular structure of sugar-phosphate backbone and nucleic acid bases in the formation of single-stranded and double-stranded DNA structures.

    PubMed

    Poltev, Valeri; Anisimov, Victor M; Danilov, Victor I; Garcia, Dolores; Sanchez, Carolina; Deriabina, Alexandra; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Rivas, Francisco; Polteva, Nina

    2014-06-01

    Our previous DFT computations of deoxydinucleoside monophosphate complexes with Na(+)-ions (dDMPs) have demonstrated that the main characteristics of Watson-Crick (WC) right-handed duplex families are predefined in the local energy minima of dDMPs. In this work, we study the mechanisms of contribution of chemically monotonous sugar-phosphate backbone and the bases into the double helix irregularity. Geometry optimization of sugar-phosphate backbone produces energy minima matching the WC DNA conformations. Studying the conformational variability of dDMPs in response to sequence permutation, we found that simple replacement of bases in the previously fully optimized dDMPs, e.g. by constructing Pyr-Pur from Pur-Pyr, and Pur-Pyr from Pyr-Pur sequences, while retaining the backbone geometry, automatically produces the mutual base position characteristic of the target sequence. Based on that, we infer that the directionality and the preferable regions of the sugar-phosphate torsions, combined with the difference of purines from pyrimidines in ring shape, determines the sequence dependence of the structure of WC DNA. No such sequence dependence exists in dDMPs corresponding to other DNA conformations (e.g., Z-family and Hoogsteen duplexes). Unlike other duplexes, WC helix is unique by its ability to match the local energy minima of the free single strand to the preferable conformations of the duplex.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... orthophosphate, iron (III) phosphate, FePO4·xH2O, CAS Reg. No. 10045-86-0) is an odorless, yellowish-white to... reaction of sodium phosphate with ferric chloride or ferric citrate. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... orthophosphate, iron (III) phosphate, FePO4·xH2O, CAS Reg. No. 10045-86-0) is an odorless, yellowish-white to... reaction of sodium phosphate with ferric chloride or ferric citrate. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... orthophosphate, iron (III) phosphate, FePO4·xH2O, CAS Reg. No. 10045-86-0) is an odorless, yellowish-white to... reaction of sodium phosphate with ferric chloride or ferric citrate. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... orthophosphate, iron (III) phosphate, FePO4·xH2O, CAS Reg. No. 10045-86-0) is an odorless, yellowish-white to... reaction of sodium phosphate with ferric chloride or ferric citrate. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  14. Simplified citrate anticoagulation for high-flux hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Apsner, R; Buchmayer, H; Lang, T; Unver, B; Speiser, W; Sunder-Plassmann, G; Hörl, W H

    2001-11-01

    In a randomized crossover trial, we compared a simple citrate anticoagulation protocol for high-flux hemodialysis with standard anticoagulation by low-molecular-weight heparin (dalteparin). Primary end points were urea reduction rate (URR), Kt/V, and control of electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis. Secondary end points were bleeding time at vascular puncture sites and markers of activation of platelets, coagulation, and fibrinolysis. Solute removal during citrate dialysis was excellent (URR, 0.71 +/- 0.06; Kt/V, 1.55 +/- 0.3) and similar to results of conventional bicarbonate hemodialysis anticoagulation with dalteparin (URR, 0.72 +/- 0.04; Kt/V, 1.56 +/- 0.2). Electrolyte control was effective with both anticoagulation regimens, and total and ionized calcium, sodium, potassium, and phosphate concentrations at the end of dialysis did not differ. Alkalemia was less frequent after citrate than conventional dialysis (pH 7.5 in 25% versus 62% of patients; mean pH at end of dialysis, 7.46 +/- 0.06 versus 7.51 +/- 0.07; P < 0.01). Bleeding time at puncture sites was shorter by 30% after citrate compared with dalteparin anticoagulation (5.43 +/- 2.80 versus 7.86 +/- 2.93 minutes; P < 0.001). Activation of platelets, coagulation, and fibrinolysis was modest for both treatments and occurred mainly within the dialyzer during dalteparin treatment and in the vascular-access region during citrate anticoagulation. Citrate-related adverse events were not observed. We conclude that citrate anticoagulation for high-flux hemodialysis is feasible and safe using a simple infusion protocol.

  15. Phospho-oligosaccharide dependent phosphorylation of ATP citrate lyase.

    PubMed

    Puerta, J; Mato, J M; Alemany, S

    1990-01-01

    The effect of insulin on ATP citrate lyase phosphorylation has been shown to be mimicked by a phospho-oligosaccharide in intact adipocytes. We demonstrate that the addition of phospho-oligosaccharide to intact adipocytes enhances the phosphorylation of ATP citrate lyase in the same tryptic peptide as insulin does. The addition of phospho-oligosaccharide to an adipocyte extract also results in an increase in ATP citrate lyase phosphorylation but in a different site than that observed in intact cells. The phospho-oligosaccharide-dependent incorporation of phosphate into ATP citrate lyase in intact cells is resistant to isopropanol and acetic acid, but the phosphoenzyme phosphorylated in cell extracts is acid labile. In cell extracts, the addition of phospho-oligosaccharide markedly inhibits ATP hydrolysis, which may explain the effect of this molecule on ATP citrate lyase phosphorylation in broken cells. These results support the hypothesis that this phospho-oligosaccharide mediates some of the effects of insulin on protein phosphorylation. They also indicate that caution should be exercised in interpreting the results obtained by adding phospho-oligosaccharide to broken cell preparations.

  16. Colloid mobilization in the field using citrate to remediate chromium.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C R; Hellerich, L A; Nikolaidis, N P; Gschwend, P M

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the feasibility of cleaning aquifer sediments, long contaminated with chromium (Cr) from a metal plating facility, by detaching colloid-sized sorbents from the immobile aquifer solids and then pumping those colloids to the surface for treatment. In laboratory experiments using aquifer solids from the site, several solutions (water at various pHs, phosphate, oxalate, ascorbate, citrate) were examined for their ability to disperse colloids and Cr. Based on these tests, a 5 mM citrate solution at pH 7 was selected. Subsequently, such a citrate solution was used in the field in two single-well injection-withdrawal experiments. Large quantities of colloids were released immediately after injection. The colloidal particles mobilized by citrate in the field had more than 20 times higher Cr concentrations than did the average aquifer sediments, implying success in mobilizing Cr-associated phases. Further, laboratory and field tests showed that anion exchange of citrate for chromate caused some additional release of Cr from these aquifer solids.

  17. [Mechanical properties of polylactic acid/beta-tricalcium phosphate composite scaffold with double channels based on three-dimensional printing technique].

    PubMed

    Lian, Qin; Zhuang, Pei; Li, Changhai; Jin, Zhongmin; Li, Dichen

    2014-03-01

    To improve the poor mechanical strength of porous ceramic scaffold, an integrated method based on three-dimensional (3-D) printing technique is developed to incorporate the controlled double-channel porous structure into the polylactic acid/beta-tricalcium phosphate (PLA/beta-TCP) reinforced composite scaffolds (double-channel composite scaffold) to improve their tissue regeneration capability and the mechanical properties. The designed double-channel structure inside the ceramic scaffold consisted of both primary and secondary micropipes, which parallel but un-connected. The set of primary channels was used for cell ingrowth, while the set of secondary channels was used for the PLA perfusion. Integration technology of 3-D printing technique and gel-casting was firstly used to fabricate the double-channel ceramic scaffolds. PLA/beta-TCP composite scaffolds were obtained by the polymer gravity perfusion process to pour PLA solution into the double-channel ceramic scaffolds through the secondary channel set. Microscope, porosity, and mechanical experiments for the standard samples were used to evaluate the composite properties. The ceramic scaffold with only the primary channel (single-channel scaffold) was also prepared as a control. Morphology observation results showed that there was no PLA inside the primary channels of the double-channel composite scaffolds but a dense interface layer between PLA and beta-TCP obviously formed on the inner wall of the secondary channels by the PLA penetration during the perfusion process. Finite element simulation found that the compressive strength of the double-channel composite scaffold was less than that of the single-channel scaffold; however, mechanical tests found that the maximum compressive strength of the double-channel composite scaffold [(21.25 +/- 1.15) MPa] was higher than that of the single-channel scaffold[ (9.76 +/- 0.64) MPa]. The double-channel composite scaffolds fabricated by 3-D printing technique have

  18. Budget-impact model for colonoscopy cost calculation and comparison between 2 litre PEG+ASC and sodium picosulphate with magnesium citrate or sodium phosphate oral bowel cleansing agents.

    PubMed

    Gruss, H-J; Cockett, A; Leicester, R J

    2012-01-01

    With the availability of several bowel cleansing agents, physicians and hospitals performing colonoscopies will often base their choice of cleansing agent purely on acquisition cost. Therefore, an easy to use budget impact model has been developed and established as a tool to compare total colon preparation costs between different established bowel cleansing agents. The model was programmed in Excel and designed as a questionnaire evaluating information on treatment costs for a range of established bowel cleansing products. The sum of costs is based on National Health Service reference costs for bowel cleansing products. Estimations are made for savings achievable when using a 2-litre polyethylene glycol with ascorbate components solution (PEG+ASC) in place of other bowel cleansing solutions. Test data were entered into the model to confirm validity and sensitivity. The model was then applied to a set of audit cost data from a major hospital colonoscopy unit in the UK. Descriptive analysis of the test data showed that the main cost drivers in the colonoscopy process are the procedure costs and costs for bed days rather than drug acquisition costs, irrespective of the cleansing agent. Audit data from a colonoscopy unit in the UK confirmed the finding with a saving of £107,000 per year in favour of PEG+ASC when compared to sodium picosulphate with magnesium citrate solution (NaPic+MgCit). For every patient group the model calculated overall cost savings. This was irrespective of the higher drug expenditure associated with the use of PEG+ASC for bowel preparation. Savings were mainly realized through reduced costs for repeat colonoscopy procedures and associated costs, such as inpatient length of stay. The budget impact model demonstrated that the primary cost driver was the procedure cost for colonoscopy. Savings can be realized through the use of PEG+ASC despite higher drug acquisition costs relative to the comparator products. From a global hospital funding

  19. [Observation for CH4 and N2O emissions under different rates of nitrogen and phosphate fertilization in double rice fields].

    PubMed

    Shi, Sheng-Wei; Li, Yu-E; Wan, Yun-Fan; Qin, Xiao-Bo; Gao, Qing-Zhu

    2011-07-01

    Two non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions (methane and nitrous oxide) and related environmental factors were measured within rice growing season under five treatments including non-fertilization (CK), balanced fertilization (BF), decreased nitrogen and phosphate 1 (DNP1), decreased nitrogen and phosphate 2 (DNP2) and increased nitrogen and phosphate 1 (INP) in double rice fields of red clay soil in 2009, using the method of static chamber-gas chromatograph techniques. The results showed that the average CH4 emission fluxes for treatments of BF, DNP1, DNP2 and INP were 4.57, 5.42, 4.70 and 4.65 mg x (m2 x h)(-1) during early rice growing period, which increased by 39%, 49%, 41% and 40% compared with non-fertilizer treatment, respectively. The average CH4 emission fluxes in late rice growing season was higher than preseason's. Compared to CK, CH4 emission increased by 11%, 1%, 26% and - 4% in treatments of BF, DNP1, DNP2 and INP within late rice growing season. Applying nitrogen and phosphate enhanced CH4 emission in turning green period for early and late rice. No significant difference was observed between the CH4 emissions of five treatments during early and late rice growing season (p > 0.05). N2O emission was very little during mid-seasonal drainage period. In contrast, N2O emission peaks were observed in period of alternation of wetting and drying after mid-seasonal drainage in this experiment. N2O emission was, on average, equivalent to 0.18% of the nitrogen applied in double rice growing season. Statistically, air temperature, soil Eh and soil moisture (water-filled pore space, WFPS) at 0-10cm depth significantly affected the fluctuations of the seasonal CH4 flux, but no significant correlationship has been found between N2O flux and related environmental factors. CH4 was the dominated greenhouse gas in double rice fields which contributed approximately 90% for the integrated global warming potential of CH4 and N2O released during the rice growing season

  20. Characterization of citrate utilization in Corynebacterium glutamicum by transcriptome and proteome analysis.

    PubMed

    Polen, Tino; Schluesener, Daniela; Poetsch, Ansgar; Bott, Michael; Wendisch, Volker F

    2007-08-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum grows aerobically on a variety of carbohydrates and organic acids as single or combined sources of carbon and energy. To characterize the citrate utilization in C. glutamicum on a genomewide scale, a comparative analysis was carried out by combining transcriptome and proteome analysis. In cells grown on citrate, transcriptome analysis revealed highest expression changes for two different citrate-uptake systems encoded by citM and tctCBA, whereas genes encoding uptake systems for the glucose- (ptsG), sucrose- (ptsS) and fructose- (ptsF) specific PTS components and permeases for gluconate (gntP) and glutamate (gluC) displayed decreased mRNA levels in citrate-grown cells. This pattern was also observed when cells grown in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium plus citrate were compared with cells grown in LB medium, indicating some kind of catabolite repression. Genes encoding enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (aconitase, succinyl-CoA synthetase, succinate dehydrogenase and fumarase), malic enzyme, PEP carboxykinase, gluconeogenic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and ATP synthase displayed increased expression in cells grown on citrate. Accordingly, proteome analysis revealed elevated protein levels of these enzymes and showed a good correlation with the mRNA levels. In conclusion, this study revealed the citrate stimulon in C. glutamicum and the regulated central metabolic genes when grown on citrate.

  1. Citrate and Sugar Cofermentation in Leuconostoc oenos, a (sup13)C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, A.; Santos, H.

    1996-01-01

    (sup13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to investigate citrate-glucose cometabolism in nongrowing cell suspensions of the wine lactic acid bacterium Leuconostoc oenos. The use of isotopically enriched substrates allowed us to identify and quantify in the end products the carbon atoms derived from each of the substrates supplied; furthermore, it was possible to differentiate between products derived from the metabolism of endogenous carbon reserves and those derived from external substrates. Citrate-sugar cometabolism was also monitored in dilute cell suspensions for comparison with the nuclear magnetic resonance results. A clear metabolic shift of the end products from glucose metabolism was observed when citrate was provided along with glucose: ethanol was replaced by acetate, and 2,3-butanediol was produced. Reciprocally, the production of lactate and 2,3-butanediol from citrate was increased in the presence of glucose. When citrate was cometabolized with glucose, a 10-fold reduction in the intracellular concentration of glucose-6-phosphate was observed, a result in line with the observed citrate-induced stimulation of glucose consumption. The presence of citrate provided additional pathways for NADP(sup+) regeneration and allowed the diversion of sugar carbon to reactions in which ATP was synthesized. The increased growth rates and maximal biomass yields of L. oenos growing on citrate-glucose mixtures resulted from increased ATP synthesis both by substrate-level phosphorylation and by a chemiosmotic mechanism. PMID:16535363

  2. Probabilistic model-based methodology for the conformational study of cyclic systems: application to copper complexes double-bridged by phosphate and related ligands.

    PubMed

    Kessler, M; Pérez, J; Bueso, M C; García, L; Pérez, E; Serrano, J L; Carrascosa, R

    2007-12-01

    A methodology for the conformational study of cyclic systems through the statistical analysis of torsion angles is presented. It relies on a combination of different methods based on a probabilistic model which takes into account the topological symmetry of the structures. This methodology is applied to copper complexes double-bridged by phosphate and related ligands. Structures from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) are analyzed and the chair, boat-chair and boat conformations are identified as the most frequent conformations. The output of the methodology also provides information about distortions from the ideal conformations, the most frequent being: chair <--> twist-chair, chair <--> twist-boat-chair and boat <--> twist-boat. Molecular mechanics calculations identify these distortions as energetically accessible pathways.

  3. Double-Mutated 5-Enol Pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate Synthase Protein Expressed in MZHG0JG Corn (Zea mays L.) Has No Impact on Toxicological Safety and Nutritional Composition.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Bethany A; Launis, Karen L; Bauman, Patricia A; Juba, Nicole C

    2017-09-27

    MZHG0JG corn will offer growers the flexibility to alternate between herbicides with two different modes of action in their weed-management programs, helping to mitigate and manage the evolution of herbicide resistance in weed populations. The proteins conferring herbicide tolerence in MZHG0JG corn, double-mutated 5-enol pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase protein (mEPSPS) and phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT), as well as the MZHG0JG corn event, have been assessed by regulatory authorities globally and have been determined to be safe for humans, animals, and the environment. In addition to the safety data available for these proteins, further studies were conducted on MZHG0JG corn to assess levels of mEPSPS as compared to previously registered genetically modified (GM) corn. The results support the conclusion of no impact on toxicological safety or nutritional composition.

  4. Sodium L-ascorbyl-2-phosphate 5% lotion for the treatment of acne vulgaris: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Woolery-Lloyd, Heather; Baumann, Leslie; Ikeno, Hiroshi

    2010-03-01

    Antioxidants are becoming increasingly important in the treatment of skin disease. In addition to their known anti-inflammatory effects, antioxidants may act to prevent the oxidation of sebum which has been proposed to be comedogenic in acne patients. Sodium L-ascorbyl-2-phosphate (APS) is a stable vitamin C derivative and highly effective antioxidant that has demonstrated efficacy in acne in open label studies. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of APS 5% lotion for the treatment of acne in a blinded controlled study. A total of 50 subjects were randomized in a double-blind controlled trial to receive APS 5% lotion or vehicle for 12 weeks. Evaluation included an Investigator's Global Assessment Score, a Subjects' Global Assessment Score, lesion counts, cutaneous tolerability, and adverse events. APS 5% lotion demonstrated statistically significant improvement when compared to vehicle in all of the parameters measured. The adverse event frequency and cutaneous tolerability profile for APS 5% lotion were similar to vehicle. Adjunctive topical or oral agents and their impact on acne were not studied in this trial. This study demonstrates that 5% sodium L-ascorbyl-2-phosphate is efficacious as monotherapy for the treatment of acne. APS 5% lotion offers a novel addition to our current acne armamentarium.

  5. Safety evaluation of the double mutant 5-enol pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (2mEPSPS) from maize that confers tolerance to glyphosate herbicide in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Rouquié, David; Freyssinet, Martine; Currier, Thomas; Martone, Aris; Zhou, Junguo; Bates, Elizabeth E M; Ferullo, Jean-Marc; Hendrickx, Koen; Rouan, Dominique

    2009-07-01

    Glyphosate tolerance can be conferred by decreasing the herbicide's ability to inhibit the enzyme 5-enol pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase, which is essential for the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids in all plants, fungi, and bacteria. Glyphosate tolerance is based upon the expression of the double mutant 5-enol pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (2mEPSPS) protein. The 2mEPSPS protein, with a lower binding affinity for glyphosate, is highly resistant to the inhibition by glyphosate and thus allows sufficient enzyme activity for the plants to grow in the presence of herbicides that contain glyphosate. Based on both a review of published literature and experimental studies, the potential safety concerns related to the transgenic 2mEPSPS protein were assessed. The safety evaluation supports that the expressed protein is innocuous. The 2mEPSPS enzyme does not possess any of the properties associated with known toxins or allergens, including a lack of amino acid sequence similarity to known toxins and allergens, a rapid degradation in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids, and no adverse effects in mice after intravenous or oral administration (at 10 or 2000 mg/kg body weight, respectively). In conclusion, there is a reasonable certainty of no harm resulting from the inclusion of the 2mEPSPS protein in human food or in animal feed.

  6. Iron-based phosphate binders: do they offer advantages over currently available phosphate binders?

    PubMed Central

    Negri, Armando Luis; Ureña Torres, Pablo Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has been associated with the hyperphosphatemia seen in patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). Oral phosphate binders are prescribed in these patients to prevent intestinal absorption of dietary phosphate and reduce serum phosphate. In prospective observational cohorts they have shown to decrease all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk. Different problems have been associated with currently available phosphate binders as positive calcium balance and impaired outcomes with calcium-based phosphate binders or increased costs with non-calcium-based phosphate binders. Iron-based phosphate binders represent a new class of phosphate binders. Several iron-based phosphate binders have undergone testing in clinical trials. Ferric citrate (JTT-751) and sucroferric oxyhydroxide (PA21) are the two iron-based binders that have passed to the clinical field after being found safe and effective in decreasing serum phosphate. Iron from ferric citrate is partially absorbed compared to sucroferric oxyhydroxide. Ferric citrate usage could result in an important reduction in erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) and IV iron usage, resulting in significant cost savings. Sucroferric oxyhydroxide was effective in lowering serum phosphorus in dialysis patients with similar efficacy to sevelamer carbonate, but with lower pill burden, and better adherence. Ferric citrate may be more suited for the treatment of chronic hyperphosphatemia in CKD patients requiring iron supplements but its use may have been hampered by potential aluminum overload, as citrate facilitates its absorption; sucroferric oxyhydroxide may be more suited for hyperphosphatemic CKD patients not requiring iron supplementation, with low pill burden. PMID:25815172

  7. Enhanced citric acid biosynthesis in Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 by overexpression of the Escherichia coli citrate synthase gene.

    PubMed

    Buch, Aditi D; Archana, G; Kumar, G Naresh

    2009-08-01

    Citric acid secretion by fluorescent pseudomonads has a distinct significance in microbial phosphate solubilization. The role of citrate synthase in citric acid biosynthesis and glucose catabolism in pseudomonads was investigated by overexpressing the Escherichia coli citrate synthase (gltA) gene in Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525. The resultant approximately 2-fold increase in citrate synthase activity in the gltA-overexpressing strain Pf(pAB7) enhanced the intracellular and extracellular citric acid yields during the stationary phase, by about 2- and 26-fold, respectively, as compared to the control, without affecting the growth rate, glucose depletion rate or biomass yield. Decreased glucose consumption was paralleled by increased gluconic acid production due to an increase in glucose dehydrogenase activity. While the extracellular acetic acid yield increased in Pf(pAB7), pyruvic acid secretion decreased, correlating with an increase in pyruvate carboxylase activity and suggesting an increased demand for the anabolic precursor oxaloacetate. Activities of two other key enzymes, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase, remained unaltered, and the contribution of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and isocitrate lyase to glucose catabolism was negligible. Strain Pf(pAB7) demonstrated an enhanced phosphate-solubilizing ability compared to the control. Co-expression of the Synechococcus elongatus PCC 6301 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and E. coli gltA genes in P. fluorescens ATCC 13525, so as to supplement oxaloacetate for citrate biosynthesis, neither significantly affected citrate biosynthesis nor caused any change in the other physiological and biochemical parameters measured, despite approximately 1.3- and 5-fold increases in citrate synthase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activities, respectively. Thus, our results demonstrate that citrate synthase is rate-limiting in enhancing citrate biosynthesis in P. fluorescens ATCC 13525

  8. PHOSPHATE MANAGEMENT: FY2010 RESULTS OF PHOSPHATE PRECIPITATION TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, M.; King, W.

    2011-04-04

    The Phosphate Management program seeks to develop treatment options for caustic phosphate solutions resulting from the caustic leaching of the bismuth phosphate sludge. The SRNL subtask investigated the precipitation of phosphate salts from caustic solutions through addition of fluoride and by crystallization. The scoping tests examined the: precipitation of phosphate by the addition of sodium fluoride to form the sodium fluorophosphate double salt, Na{sub 7}F(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} {center_dot} 19H{sub 2}O, crystallization of phosphate by reducing the temperature of saturated phosphate solutions, and combinations of precipitation and crystallization. A simplified leachate simulant was used in the study produced by dissolving sodium phosphate in 1 M to 3.5 M sodium hydroxide solutions. The results show that all three processes; precipitation with sodium fluoride, crystallization, and combined precipitation/crystallization can be effective for removing large amounts of phosphate from solution. The combined process of precipitation/crystallization showed >90% removal of phosphate at all hydroxide concentrations when cooling a non-saturated phosphate solution from 65 C to 25 C. Based on the measured solubility of sodium phosphate, pH adjustment/caustic addition will also remove large amounts of phosphate from solution (>80%). For all three processes, the phosphate concentration in the caustic solution must be managed to keep the phosphate from becoming too concentrated and thereby potentially forming a solid mass of sodium phosphate after an effective phosphate removal process.

  9. 21 CFR 582.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1195 Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice. ...

  10. Total synthesis of alkyl citrate natural products.

    PubMed

    Rizzacasa, Mark A; Sturgess, Dayna

    2014-03-07

    This review highlights the synthesis of members of the alkyl citrate family of natural products. The focus is on the stereoselective construction of the alkyl citrate moiety common to these compounds.

  11. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  13. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  16. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  18. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 582.5449 Section 582.5449 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5449 Manganese citrate. (a) Product. Manganese citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 184.1449 Section 184.1449 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1449 Manganese citrate. (a) Manganese citrate (Mn3(C6H5O7)2, CAS... manganese carbonate from manganese sulfate and sodium carbonate solutions. The filtered and washed...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 184.1449 Section 184.1449 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1449 Manganese citrate. (a) Manganese citrate (Mn3(C6H5O7)2, CAS... manganese carbonate from manganese sulfate and sodium carbonate solutions. The filtered and washed...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 582.5449 Section 582.5449 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5449 Manganese citrate. (a) Product. Manganese citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 582.5449 Section 582.5449 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5449 Manganese citrate. (a) Product. Manganese citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese citrate. 184.1449 Section 184.1449 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1449 Manganese citrate. (a) Manganese citrate (Mn3(C6H5O7)2, CAS... manganese carbonate from manganese sulfate and sodium carbonate solutions. The filtered and...

  7. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  9. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  12. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.5195 Section 582.5195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5195 Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 582.5449 Section 582.5449 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5449 Manganese citrate. (a) Product. Manganese citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 582.5449 Section 582.5449 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5449 Manganese citrate. (a) Product. Manganese citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.5195 Section 582.5195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5195 Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.5195 Section 582.5195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5195 Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.5195 Section 582.5195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5195 Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  2. The mechanisms of citrate on regulating the distribution of carbon flux in the biosynthesis of uridine 5'-monophosphate by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Li, Shuya; Xiong, Jian; Li, Zhenjiang; Bai, Jianxin; Zhang, Lei; Ye, Qi; Ouyang, Pingkai; Ying, Hanjie

    2010-03-01

    A whole cell biocatalytic process for uridine 5'-monophosphate (UMP) production from orotic acid by Saccharomyces cerevisiae was developed. The concentration of UMP was increased by 23% when 1 g l(-1) sodium citrate was fed into the broth. Effects of citrate addition on UMP production were investigated. Glucose-6-phosphate pool was elevated by onefold, while FBP and pyruvate were decreased by 42% and 40%, respectively. Organic acid pools such as acetate and succinate were averagely decreased by 30% and 49%. The results demonstrated that manipulation of citrate levels could be used as a novel tool to regulate the metabolic fluxes distribution among glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, and TCA cycle.

  3. Citrate-Stabilized Gold Nanorods

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Stable aqueous dispersions of citrate-stabilized gold nanorods (cit-GNRs) have been prepared in scalable fashion by surfactant exchange from cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-stabilized GNRs, using polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) as a detergent. The surfactant exchange process was monitored by infrared spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The latter established the quantitative displacement of CTAB (by PSS) and of PSS (by citrate). The Cit-GNRs are indefinitely stable at low ionic strength, and are conducive to further ligand exchange without loss of dispersion stability. The reliability of the surface exchange process supports the systematic analysis of ligand structure on the hydrodynamic size of GNRs, as described in a companion paper. PMID:25254292

  4. Citrate anticoagulation and adverse events.

    PubMed

    De Vos, J; Hombrouckx, R

    2003-01-01

    Several patients with heparin intolerance were dialysed with tri-sodium citrate as anticoagulant without acute clinical problems (good tolerance). After some weeks however problems arose. In all patients an alkalosis developed: the pre dialysis bicarbonate level rose progressively from 27 mmol/l to 40 mmol/l. This could be tempered by lowering the dialysis fluid bicarbonate concentration from 37 mmol/l to 25 mmol/l. A second problem was a progressive rise in pre dialysis sodium level from a mean of 136 mmol/l to 150 mmol/l. Adapting the dialysis fluid sodium concentration from 140 mmol/l towards 132 mmol/l could solve this. The third problem was a progressive rise in serum aluminium level in patients from 3 microg/l to 38 microg/l. After excluding water, concentrate, dialysis fluid, drug intake, etc... as possible sources, we controlled the aluminium level in the glass bottle containing tri-sodium citrate. We noted the very high value of 35,300 microg/l. After replacing the glass bottles with polyvinylchloride bags with a negligible aluminium content, the serum aluminium levels returned back to normal. It is known that citrate chelates the aluminium present in the glass of bottles or vials.

  5. Citrate-permeable channels in the plasma membrane of cluster roots from white lupin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Hao; Ryan, Peter R; Tyerman, Stephen D

    2004-11-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus) is well adapted to phosphorus deficiency by developing cluster roots that release large amounts of citrate into the rhizosphere to mobilize the sparingly soluble phosphorus. To determine the mechanism underlying citrate release from cluster roots, we isolated protoplasts from different types of roots of white lupin plants grown in phosphorus-replete (+P) and phosphorus-deficient (-P) conditions and used the patch-clamp technique to measure the whole-cell currents flowing across plasma membrane of these protoplasts. Two main types of anion conductance were observed in protoplasts prepared from cluster root tissue: (1) an inwardly rectifying anion conductance (IRAC) activated by membrane hyperpolarization, and (2) an outwardly rectifying anion conductance (ORAC) that became more activated with membrane depolarization. Although ORAC was an outward rectifier, it did allow substantial inward current (anion efflux) to occur. Both conductances showed citrate permeability, with IRAC being more selective for citrate3- than Cl- (PCit/PCl = 26.3), while ORAC was selective for Cl- over citrate (PCl/PCit = 3.7). Both IRAC and ORAC were sensitive to the anion channel blocker anthracene-9-carboxylic acid. These currents were also detected in protoplasts derived from noncluster roots of -P plants, as well as from normal (noncluster) roots of plants grown with 25 microm phosphorus (+P). No differences were observed in the magnitude or frequency of IRAC and ORAC currents between the cluster roots and noncluster roots of -P plants. However, the IRAC current from +P plants occurred less frequently than in the -P plants. IRAC was unaffected by external phosphate, but ORAC had reduced inward current (anion efflux) when phosphate was present in the external medium. Our data suggest that IRAC is the main pathway for citrate efflux from white lupin roots, but ORAC may also contribute to citrate efflux.

  6. Citrate and renal calculi: an update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, C. Y.

    1994-01-01

    Citrate is an inhibitor of the crystallization of stone-forming calcium salts. Hypocitraturia, frequently encountered in patients with nephrolithiasis, is therefore an important risk factor for stone formation. Potassium citrate provides physiological and physicochemical correction and inhibits new stone formation, not only in hypocitraturic calcium nephrolithiasis but also in uric acid nephrolithiasis. Inhibition of stone recurrence has now been validated by a randomized trial. Ongoing research has disclosed additional causes of hypocitraturia (sodium excess, low intestinal alkali absorption, but not primary citrate malabsorption). Moreover, new insights on potassium citrate action have been shown, notably that some of absorbed citrate escapes oxidation and contributes to the citraturic response, that ingestion with a meal does not sacrifice physiological or physicochemical action, that orange juice mimics but does not completely duplicate its actions, that potassium citrate may have a beneficial bone-sparing effect, that it may reduce stone fragments following ESWL, and that danger of aluminum toxicity is not great in subjects with functioning kidneys. Finally, the research on potassium citrate has led to two promising products, calcium citrate as an optimum calcium supplement and potassium-magnesium citrate which may be superior to potassium citrate in the management of stone disease.

  7. Citrate and renal calculi: an update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, C. Y.

    1994-01-01

    Citrate is an inhibitor of the crystallization of stone-forming calcium salts. Hypocitraturia, frequently encountered in patients with nephrolithiasis, is therefore an important risk factor for stone formation. Potassium citrate provides physiological and physicochemical correction and inhibits new stone formation, not only in hypocitraturic calcium nephrolithiasis but also in uric acid nephrolithiasis. Inhibition of stone recurrence has now been validated by a randomized trial. Ongoing research has disclosed additional causes of hypocitraturia (sodium excess, low intestinal alkali absorption, but not primary citrate malabsorption). Moreover, new insights on potassium citrate action have been shown, notably that some of absorbed citrate escapes oxidation and contributes to the citraturic response, that ingestion with a meal does not sacrifice physiological or physicochemical action, that orange juice mimics but does not completely duplicate its actions, that potassium citrate may have a beneficial bone-sparing effect, that it may reduce stone fragments following ESWL, and that danger of aluminum toxicity is not great in subjects with functioning kidneys. Finally, the research on potassium citrate has led to two promising products, calcium citrate as an optimum calcium supplement and potassium-magnesium citrate which may be superior to potassium citrate in the management of stone disease.

  8. Efficacy of two calcium phosphate pastes on the remineralization of artificial caries: a randomized controlled double-blind in situ study

    PubMed Central

    Vanichvatana, Somkamol; Auychai, Prim

    2013-01-01

    To test the efficacy of two calcium phosphate pastes compared to that of fluoride toothpaste on remineralizing artificial caries in situ, this study had a double-blind crossover in situ design, involving three experimental phases of 14 days each, with an 8-day washout period between phases. Nine healthy subjects participated in the study. The subjects wore removable palatal appliances mounted with six human enamel slabs with artificial caries lesions, and in each of the experimental phases, used one of the following methods two times/day: group A, brushing with 1.0 g of Colgate Regular Flavor, followed by applying 0.25 g of Tooth Mousse Plus; group B, brushing with 0.25 g of Clinpro Tooth Crème; and group C, brushing with 1.0 g of Colgate Regular Flavor. After 14 days, the enamel slabs (54 slabs/group) were embedded in resin, sectioned and examined with a polarized-light microscope, and the lesion areas were quantified using Image-Pro Plus. All experimental groups showed a significant reduction in lesion area compared to the initial lesion area (paired t-test, P<0.001). The mean reduction in lesion area of Groups A, B and C were (0.029±0.010), (0.030±0.009) and (0.027±0.009) mm2, respectively. There were no statistical differences between groups (Kruskal–Wallis test, P>0.05). All three groups remineralized the enamel slab lesions, indicating model sensitivity to fluoride. Given the differences in usage amounts and treated regimens, Clinpro Tooth Crème provided similar benefits to the fluoride toothpaste; however, no additional benefit of Tooth Mousse Plus was observed when used in conjunction with the fluoride toothpaste. PMID:24030557

  9. Evolution of a Double Amino Acid Substitution in the 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-Phosphate Synthase in Eleusine indica Conferring High-Level Glyphosate Resistance1

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qin; Jalaludin, Adam; Han, Heping; Chen, Ming; Sammons, R. Douglas; Powles, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Glyphosate is the most important and widely used herbicide in world agriculture. Intensive glyphosate selection has resulted in the widespread evolution of glyphosate-resistant weed populations, threatening the sustainability of this valuable once-in-a-century agrochemical. Field-evolved glyphosate resistance due to known resistance mechanisms is generally low to modest. Here, working with a highly glyphosate-resistant Eleusine indica population, we identified a double amino acid substitution (T102I + P106S [TIPS]) in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene in glyphosate-resistant individuals. This TIPS mutation recreates the biotechnology-engineered commercial first generation glyphosate-tolerant EPSPS in corn (Zea mays) and now in other crops. In E. indica, the naturally evolved TIPS mutants are highly (more than 180-fold) resistant to glyphosate compared with the wild type and more resistant (more than 32-fold) than the previously known P106S mutants. The E. indica TIPS EPSPS showed very high-level (2,647-fold) in vitro resistance to glyphosate relative to the wild type and is more resistant (600-fold) than the P106S variant. The evolution of the TIPS mutation in crop fields under glyphosate selection is likely a sequential event, with the P106S mutation being selected first and fixed, followed by the T102I mutation to create the highly resistant TIPS EPSPS. The sequential evolution of the TIPS mutation endowing high-level glyphosate resistance is an important mechanism by which plants adapt to intense herbicide selection and a dramatic example of evolution in action. PMID:25717039

  10. Evolution of a double amino acid substitution in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase in Eleusine indica conferring high-level glyphosate resistance.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qin; Jalaludin, Adam; Han, Heping; Chen, Ming; Sammons, R Douglas; Powles, Stephen B

    2015-04-01

    Glyphosate is the most important and widely used herbicide in world agriculture. Intensive glyphosate selection has resulted in the widespread evolution of glyphosate-resistant weed populations, threatening the sustainability of this valuable once-in-a-century agrochemical. Field-evolved glyphosate resistance due to known resistance mechanisms is generally low to modest. Here, working with a highly glyphosate-resistant Eleusine indica population, we identified a double amino acid substitution (T102I+P106S [TIPS]) in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene in glyphosate-resistant individuals. This TIPS mutation recreates the biotechnology-engineered commercial first generation glyphosate-tolerant EPSPS in corn (Zea mays) and now in other crops. In E. indica, the naturally evolved TIPS mutants are highly (more than 180-fold) resistant to glyphosate compared with the wild type and more resistant (more than 32-fold) than the previously known P106S mutants. The E. indica TIPS EPSPS showed very high-level (2,647-fold) in vitro resistance to glyphosate relative to the wild type and is more resistant (600-fold) than the P106S variant. The evolution of the TIPS mutation in crop fields under glyphosate selection is likely a sequential event, with the P106S mutation being selected first and fixed, followed by the T102I mutation to create the highly resistant TIPS EPSPS. The sequential evolution of the TIPS mutation endowing high-level glyphosate resistance is an important mechanism by which plants adapt to intense herbicide selection and a dramatic example of evolution in action. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Formation of amide- and imide-linked degradation products between the peptide drug oxytocin and citrate in citrate-buffered formulations.

    PubMed

    Poole, Robert A; Kasper, Piotr Tomasz; Jiskoot, Wim

    2011-07-01

    Citric acid is widely used to buffer pharmaceutical formulations including protein pharmaceuticals. In accelerated stability studies of the small cyclic peptide oxytocin, we have noted that additional degradation products form when oxytocin is formulated in citrate that do not form in other common buffers such as acetate and phosphate. Using high-pressure liquid chromatography combined with high-resolution and tandem mass spectrometry, we identified these degradation products as amide- and imide-linked adducts of oxytocin and citrate. The site of reaction was shown to be the N-terminal amine of cysteine. The adducts have been found to form for oxytocin formulated in citrate buffer over the pH range of 3-6; the extent of formation is greatest at a pH of 4-4.5. We have additionally identified these same adducts in samples of oxytocin formulated in citrate buffer that had been stored in the dark for 3 months at room temperature. Altogether, these results demonstrate that reaction between citrate and oxytocin leads to the formation of covalent amide- and imide-linked adducts. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  12. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 006100-0905-096) is the potassium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric acid with potassium...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 006100-0905-096) is the potassium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 006100-0905-096) is the potassium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 006100-0905-096) is the potassium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 006100-0905-096) is the potassium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 184.1449 Section 184.1449 Food... GRAS § 184.1449 Manganese citrate. (a) Manganese citrate (Mn3(C6H5O7)2, CAS Reg. No. 10024-66-5) is a pale orange or pinkish white powder. It is obtained by precipitating manganese carbonate from manganese...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... acid with calcium hydroxide or calcium carbonate. It occurs as a fine white, odorless powder and... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 184.1195 Section 184.1195 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1195 Calcium citrate. (a) Calcium citrate (Ca3(C6H5O7)2·4H2O...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... acid with calcium hydroxide or calcium carbonate. It occurs as a fine white, odorless powder and... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 184.1195 Section 184.1195 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1195 Calcium citrate. (a) Calcium citrate (Ca3(C6H5O7)2·4H2O...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... calcium hydroxide or calcium carbonate. It occurs as a fine white, odorless powder and usually contains... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium citrate. 184.1195 Section 184.1195 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1195 Calcium citrate. (a) Calcium citrate (Ca3(C6H5O7)2·4H2O, CAS Reg. No...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... acid with calcium hydroxide or calcium carbonate. It occurs as a fine white, odorless powder and... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 184.1195 Section 184.1195 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1195 Calcium citrate. (a) Calcium citrate (Ca3(C6H5O7)2·4H2O...

  2. Phosphate salts

    MedlinePlus

    ... taken by mouth or used as enemas. Indigestion. Aluminum phosphate and calcium phosphate are FDA-permitted ingredients ... Phosphate salts containing sodium, potassium, aluminum, or calcium are LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth short-term, when sodium phosphate is inserted into the ...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1307c - Ferrous citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferrous citrate. 184.1307c Section 184.1307c Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307c Ferrous citrate. (a) Ferrous citrate (iron (II) citrate... the reaction of sodium citrate with ferrous sulfate or by direct action of citric acid on iron filings...

  4. Melatonin-micronutrients Osteopenia Treatment Study (MOTS): a translational study assessing melatonin, strontium (citrate), vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 (MK7) on bone density, bone marker turnover and health related quality of life in postmenopausal osteopenic women following a one-year double-blind RCT and on osteoblast-osteoclast co-cultures.

    PubMed

    Maria, Sifat; Swanson, Mark H; Enderby, Larry T; D'Amico, Frank; Enderby, Brianna; Samsonraj, Rebekah M; Dudakovic, Amel; van Wijnen, Andre J; Witt-Enderby, Paula A

    2017-01-26

    This one-year double blind randomized control trial assessed the effects of nightly melatonin, strontium (citrate), vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 (MK7; MSDK) on bone mineral density (BMD) and quality of life (QOL) in postmenopausal osteopenic women (ages 49-75). Compared to placebo, MSDK treatment increased BMD in lumbar spine (4.3%) and left femoral neck (2.2%), with an upward trend for total left hip (p=0.069). MSDK increased serum P1NP levels and reduced bone turnover (CTx:P1NP). Psychometric analyses indicated that mood and sleep quality improved for the MSDK group. MSDK-exposed human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human peripheral blood monocytes (hPBMCs) plated in transwells or layered demonstrated increases in osteoblastogenesis, decreases in osteoclastogenesis, increases in OPG (TNFRSF11B) and decreases in RANKL (TNFSF11) levels. In transwell osteoblasts, MSDK increased pERK1/2 (MAPK1/MAPK3) and RUNX2 levels; decreased ERK5 (MAPK7); and did not affect the expression of NFκB (NFKB1) and β1integrin (ITGB1). In layered osteoblasts, MSDK also decreased expression of the metabolic proteins PPARγ (PPARG) and GLUT4 (SLC2A4). In adipose-derived human MSCs, MSDK induced osteoblastogenesis. These findings provide both clinical and mechanistic support for the use of MSDK for the prevention or treatment of osteopenia, osteoporosis or other bone-related diseases.

  5. Melatonin-micronutrients Osteopenia Treatment Study (MOTS): a translational study assessing melatonin, strontium (citrate), vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 (MK7) on bone density, bone marker turnover and health related quality of life in postmenopausal osteopenic women following a one-year double-blind RCT and on osteoblast-osteoclast co-cultures

    PubMed Central

    Maria, Sifat; Swanson, Mark H.; Enderby, Larry T.; D'Amico, Frank; Enderby, Brianna; Samsonraj, Rebekah M.; Dudakovic, Amel; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Witt-Enderby, Paula A.

    2017-01-01

    This one-year double blind randomized control trial assessed the effects of nightly melatonin, strontium (citrate), vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 (MK7; MSDK) on bone mineral density (BMD) and quality of life (QOL) in postmenopausal osteopenic women (ages 49-75). Compared to placebo, MSDK treatment increased BMD in lumbar spine (4.3%) and left femoral neck (2.2%), with an upward trend for total left hip (p=0.069). MSDK increased serum P1NP levels and reduced bone turnover (CTx:P1NP). Psychometric analyses indicated that mood and sleep quality improved for the MSDK group. MSDK-exposed human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human peripheral blood monocytes (hPBMCs) plated in transwells or layered demonstrated increases in osteoblastogenesis, decreases in osteoclastogenesis, increases in OPG (TNFRSF11B) and decreases in RANKL (TNFSF11) levels. In transwell osteoblasts, MSDK increased pERK1/2 (MAPK1/MAPK3) and RUNX2 levels; decreased ERK5 (MAPK7); and did not affect the expression of NFκB (NFKB1) and β1integrin (ITGB1). In layered osteoblasts, MSDK also decreased expression of the metabolic proteins PPARγ (PPARG) and GLUT4 (SLC2A4). In adipose-derived human MSCs, MSDK induced osteoblastogenesis. These findings provide both clinical and mechanistic support for the use of MSDK for the prevention or treatment of osteopenia, osteoporosis or other bone-related diseases. PMID:28130552

  6. Renal tissue citrate: independence from citrate utilization, reabsorption, and pH.

    PubMed

    Anaizi, N H; Cohen, J J; Black, A J; Wertheim, S J

    1986-09-01

    During alkalosis in vivo, renal tissue [citrate] [( citrate]t) increases and citrate reabsorption (Tcit) and utilization (Qcit) simultaneously decrease. The decrease in Qcit is interpreted to cause the increased [citrate]t, which in turn decreases Tcit X Renal citrate handling and [citrate]t could be regulated by other mechanisms, since alkalosis changes [substrate] and [H+] in extracellular (ECF) and intracellular (ICF) fluid. Also, since high plasma [citrate] decreases ionized [Ca2+] (Cai), it is not possible to determine in vivo whether there is a maximum for Tcit or Qcit and whether change in extracellular fluid (delta ECF) pH affects these maxima. We perfused the substrate-limited isolated rat kidney for either 110 (n = 36) or 50 min (n = 44) at pH 7.2, 7.4, or 7.6; pH was changed by varying [HCO3-]; Cai was held constant at approximately 2.5 meq/liter. When citrate was the only substrate available in a Krebs-Ringer-HCO3 perfusate containing 6% substrate-free albumin, both Qcit and Tcit had maximal rates: Qcit much greater than Tcit; at pH 7.6, Qcit and Tcit were significantly reduced below their values at pH 7.2 or 7.4. In contrast to in vivo observations, [citrate]t was not significantly increased at high ECF pH. To test whether [citrate]t in the perfused kidney can increase in alkalosis, 11 additional perfusions were done in the presence of glucose plus lactate plus malate but without added citrate: [citrate]t = 0.6 mumol X g-1 at pH 7.6 and 0.3 mumol X g-1 at pH 7.2 (P less than 0.01); no citrate was detectable in the perfusate, and urinary citrate excretion was negligible. Thus, in the isolated rat kidney, an increase in [citrate]t occurred in alkalosis and was derived from precursors and not from citrate in the ECF. Overall, when only citrate was available to the isolated kidney during alkalosis, a significant rise in [citrate]t did not occur, although Vmax for Tcit and Qcit decreased. These effects of alkalosis on Tcit are consistent with observations

  7. 21 CFR 184.1386 - Isopropyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1386 Isopropyl citrate. (a) Isopropyl citrate is a mixture of the mono-, di-, and triisopropyl esters of citric acid. It is prepared by esterifying citric acid with... practice. The affirmation of this ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1851 - Stearyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1851 Stearyl citrate. (a) Stearyl citrate is a mixture of the mono-, di-, and tristearyl esters of citric acid. It is prepared by esterifying citric acid with... manufacturing practice. The affirmation of this ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a...

  9. Studies on the reduction of aortic calcification by alkali citrates in an ex vivo tissue preparation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Schick, C H; Schwille, P O

    1993-08-01

    The effect of orally administered alkali citrates on the calcification of arterial vessel was studied in the rat. Freshly dissected aortic segments were placed in Millipore diffusion chambers and grafted intraperitoneally. Within 21 days calcification of the media had developed. Under treatment with 2.1 mmol citrate per animal and day a significant decrease in histologically detectable calcification areas occurred, as assessed by greatest thickness and longitudinal expansion. This effect was more pronounced with potassium citrate and potassium sodium citrate, and less marked with sodium citrate. The calcium and phosphorus content of aortic tissue remained unchanged, but magnesium increased significantly. The spheroid particles deposited in the media were characterized in more detail by electron microscopy and elemental microanalysis, X-ray diffraction, and determination of the molar calcium-phosphorus ratio. The combined data suggest that in the model selected for studying biocalcification not mature hydroxyapatite but some precursor of this substance is deposited, and that in animals receiving alkali citrate treatment deposition of amorphous calcium phosphate is likely. It is concluded that in the ex vivo aortic wall preparation oral alkali citrates a) bring about a reduction in calcification areas in the media layer, b) impair the maturation of hydroxyapatite and its deposition in the arterial tissue; c) promote the accumulation of magnesium. Whether these results are of significance for the calcification of arteries in situ and treatment regimens is unknown.

  10. Leg citrate metabolism at rest and during exercise in relation to diet and substrate utilization in man.

    PubMed

    Jansson, E; Kaijser, L

    1984-10-01

    Previously we have demonstrated a lower rate of carbohydrate utilization in skeletal muscle after a fat than after a carbohydrate rich diet both at rest and during exercise. To test the hypothesis of citrate as a regulator of glycolysis (1) arterial-femoral venous (a-fv) differences for oxygen, citrate, pyruvate and lactate and (2) muscle citrate and glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) were determined at rest and after 5 and 25 min of submaximal bicycle exercise. Citrate release and muscle citrate concentration were higher after fat than after carbohydrate diet at rest and 5 min exercise, but did not differ between diets at 25 min exercise. Lactate release and muscle lactate concentration were lower after fat diet at 5 and 25 min exercise. Pyruvate release at 5 min exercise was higher after fat diet. The G-6-P concentration was higher at rest, insignificantly higher after 5 min exercise and lower at 25 min exercise after the fat diet. The findings support the notion that at rest and 5 min exercise fat diet induced inhibition of glycolysis might be mediated through increased intramuscular citrate acting on phosphofructokinase. In addition, the greater pyruvate release at 5 min exercise after fat diet in spite of a smaller lactate release, indicates a decreased pyruvate dehydrogenase activity and/or NADH to NAD ratio after fat diet. The inhibition of glycolysis at 25 min exercise after fat diet on the other hand does not seem to be citrate mediated.

  11. [Development of identification method for isopropyl citrate].

    PubMed

    Furusho, Noriko; Ohtsuki, Takashi; Tatebe-Sasaki, Chiye; Kubota, Hiroki; Sato, Kyoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    In Japan's Specification and Standards for Food Additive, 8th edition, two identification tests involving isopropyl citrate for detecting isopropyl alcohol and citrate are stipulated. However, these identification tests use mercury compound, which is toxic, or require a time-consuming pretreatment process. To solve these problems, an identification test method using GC-FID for detecting isopropyl alcohol was developed. In this test, a good linearity was observed in the range of 0.1-40 mg/mL of isopropyl alcohol. While investigating the pretreatment process, we found that isopropyl alcohol could be detected using GC-FID in the distillation step only, without involving any reflux step. The study also showed that the citrate moiety of isopropyl citrate was identified using the solution remaining after conducting the distillation of isopropyl alcohol. The developed identification tests for isopropyl citrate are simple and use no toxic materials.

  12. Citrate Anticoagulation: Are Blood Donors Donating Bone?

    PubMed Central

    Bialkowski, Walter; Bruhn, Roberta; Edgren, Gustaf; Papanek, Paula

    2015-01-01

    An estimated 2.4 million volunteer apheresis blood donation procedures were performed in the United States in 2010 and increases in the proportion of transfused blood products derived from apheresis blood collections have been consistently reported. Anticoagulation is required during apheresis and is achieved with citrate. Donor exposure to citrate causes an acute physiological response in the donor maintaining serum mineral homeostasis. Some data are available on the sequelae of this acute response in the days and weeks following exposure, raising questions about bone mineral density in regular apheresis donors. New research is emerging that addresses the potential long term health outcomes of repeated citrate exposure. This article reviews the acute physiological response to citrate anticoagulation in volunteer blood donors, presents contrasting perspectives on the potential effects of citrate exposure on bone density, and identifies key knowledge gaps in our understanding of long term health outcomes in apheresis donors. PMID:26607494

  13. Incompatibility of Contrast Medium and Trisodium Citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Delcour, Christian Bruninx, Guy

    2013-02-15

    To test the compatibility of trisodium citrate, a catheter lock solution, with iodinated contrast medium. Iohexol, iobitridol, iodixanol, ioxaglate, ioxithalamate, iomeprol, and iopromide were tested. In all tests, 2 ml of contrast medium were mixed with 2 ml of trisodium citrate solution. Iodixanol and ioxaglate provoked a highly viscous gluelike precipitation when mixed with trisodium citrate. A brief transient precipitate was observed with iohexol, iomeprol, and ioxithalamate. Permanent precipitation occurred with iobitridol and iopromide. One must be aware of the potential for precipitation when contrast medium is mixed with trisodium citrate solution. Before trisodium citrate solution is injected, the catheter should be thoroughly flushed with saline if a contrast medium has previously been injected through it.

  14. [Butamyrate citrate in cough controlling].

    PubMed

    Płusa, Tadeusz

    2013-12-01

    The cough as one of the main symptoms of respiratory infections in the most cases is carried out in children and adults using preparations without a prescription (OTC--over-the-counter) and cold medications (CCMs). Their efficacy and safety have not been fully confirmed. In turn, the administration of drugs that inhibit cough by acting on the central nervous system requires adherence to dosage. Codeine as the main standard of the cough suppressants is not always effective. Used for many years butamyrate citrate is highly effective and complete safety. The number and quality of the side effects after application of this preparation is small and is not limited especially in pediatrics. Conducted research on new drugs that inhibit cough are very promising.

  15. Fate of uranyl in a quaternary system composed of uranyl, citrate, goethite, and Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Bencheikh-Latmani, Rizlan; Leckie, James O; Bargar, John R

    2003-08-15

    This study investigated the partitioning of uranyl within a quaternary system made up of uranyl, citrate, goethite, and the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. In the absence of cells, uranyl was sorbed to goethite as a complex involving surface groups and/or citrate. Measurements of the evolution of CO2 indicated that the addition of bacterial cells lead to the gradual biodegradation of citrate. Throughout the biodegradation process, uranyl remained sorbed to the insoluble fraction comprised of goethite and cells. EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure) measurements showed that bacterial cells outcompeted goethite for uranyl under the experimental conditions and caused the repartitioning of uranyl from goethite to cell matter, independently from citrate degradation. Citrate degradation caused further release of uranyl from goethite surfaces, followed by subsequent association of uranyl with cells. At long equilibration times (3 months), cell lysis and phosphate release resulted in the precipitation of an autunite-like phase. This work suggests that bacterial degradation of uranyl-complexing ligands in contaminated subsurface media containing iron oxides should not necessarily lead to an increase in the mobility of uranyl.

  16. A citrate-binding site in calmodulin.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, T; Eisenstein, M; Muszkat, K A; Fleminger, G

    1998-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) is a major Ca2+ messenger which, upon Ca2+ activation, binds and activates a number of target enzymes involved in crucial cellular processes. The dependence on Ca2+ ion concentration suggests that CaM activation may be modulated by low-affinity Ca2+ chelators. The effect on CaM structure and function of citrate ion, a Ca2+ chelator commonly found in the cytosol and the mitochondria, was therefore investigated. A series of structural and biochemical methods, including tryptic mapping, immunological recognition by specific monoclonal antibodies, CIDNP-NMR, binding to specific ligands and association with radiolabeled citrate, showed that citrate induces conformational modifications in CaM which affect the shape and activity of the protein. These changes were shown to be associated with the C-terminal lobe of the molecule and involve actual binding of citrate to CaM. Analyzing X-ray structures of several citrate-binding proteins by computerized molecular graphics enabled us to identify a putative citrate-binding site (CBS) on the CaM molecule around residues Arg106-His107. Owing to the tight proximity of this site to the third Ca(2+)-binding loop of CaM, binding of citrate is presumably translated into changes in Ca2+ binding to site III (and indirectly to site IV). These changes apparently affect the structural and biochemical properties of the conformation-sensitive protein.

  17. Comparison of Phosphate Binding Capacities of PA21, A Novel Phosphate Binder, with those of other Phosphate Binders in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, A; Yonekubo, S; Maruyama, I; Tatemichi, S; Maruyama, K; Kobayashi, M

    2016-05-01

    The phosphate binding capacity of PA21, a novel phosphate binder, was compared with those of other phosphate binders in vitro and in vivo. 1) For in vitro studies, PA21, sevelamer hydrochloride, lanthanum carbonate hydrate, calcium carbonate, and ferric citrate hydrate were incubated with a phosphate solution at 37°C for 2 h. Phosphate binding capacity was assessed at simulated gastrointestinal tract pH levels of 2, 5, and 8 for estimation of clinical effects, and the quantity of phosphate adsorbed by each phosphate binder was determined. 2) For in vivo studies, rats were orally administered various phosphate binders after the oral administration of phosphate solution (100 mg/kg) adjusted to pH 2, 5, or 8, and the effects of PA21 and other phosphate binders on the serum phosphorus level of the rats were investigated. 1) The in vitro studies revealed that PA21 and sevelamer hydrochloride adsorbed phosphate better at all tested pH levels than lanthanum carbonate hydrate, calcium carbonate, and ferric citrate hydrate, and PA21 showed the most potent phosphate binding capacity among the tested compounds. 2) The in vivo studies showed that PA21 dose-dependently inhibited the increase in the serum phosphorus level after the administration of phosphate solution and no difference in the extent of inhibition by PA21 was observed at the different pH levels (in contrast to other phosphate binders). These results indicated that PA21 has a phosphate binding capacity over the entire pH range of the GI tract. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Regulation of Renal Citrate Metabolism by Bicarbonate Ion and pH: Observations in Tissue Slices and Mitochondria*

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, David P.

    1967-01-01

    The effect of acid-base balance on the oxidation and utilization of citrate and other organic acids has been studied in tissue slices and isolated kidney mitochondria. The results show that: 1) With bicarbonate-buffered media, citrate oxidation and utilization are inhibited in slices of renal cortex and in kidney mitochondria when [HCO3-] and pH are increased within the physiologic range (pH 7.0 to 7.8; 10 to 60 μmoles HCO3- per ml). When phosphate or Tris buffers are used, no comparable effect on citrate oxidation occurs when pH is varied. 2) This effect is not demonstrable in heart or liver slices when a physiologic buffer is used. 3) α-Ketoglutarate utilization is inhibited in slices of renal cortex under similar conditions. Pyruvate and L-malate utilization are not inhibited in slices or mitochondria. 4) Citrate content in slices of renal cortex incubated with a high [HCO3-] is considerably greater than the concentration found with a low [HCO3-] in the medium. This effect is not duplicated by pH change in a nonbicarbonate buffer system. In mitochondria citrate content is also increased markedly at high bicarbonate concentrations. 5) The kinetic characteristics of the inhibition of citrate oxidation are those of a competitive type of inhibition. 6) When pH was varied with a constant [HCO3-] in the media, citrate oxidation was inhibited by increasing pH in slices of renal cortex but not in mitochondria. On the other hand, when [HCO3-] was increased without change in pH, no decrease in citrate oxidation occurred in slices, but a marked inhibitory effect was found when mitochondria were used. From a comparison of these results with those previously obtained in intact animal experiments, we conclude that the inhibition of citrate oxidation caused by increasing pH and [HCO3-] in slices of renal cortex and kidney mitochondria is an in vitro representation of the inhibition of citrate reabsorption in the nephron that occurs in metabolic alkalosis. Thus, citrate

  19. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in... human consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million (0...

  20. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430 Food... Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in food in... consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million (0.0025 percent...

  1. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in... human consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million (0...

  2. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in... human consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million (0...

  3. Thiosulfate Reduces Calcium Phosphate Nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Asplin, John R.; Donahue, Susan E.; Lindeman, Christina; Michalenka, Anne; Strutz, Kelly Laplante; Bushinsky, David A.

    2009-01-01

    An uncontrolled trial reported that sodium thiosulfate reduces formation of calcium kidney stones in humans, but this has not been established in a controlled human study or animal model. Using the genetic hypercalciuric rat, an animal model of calcium phosphate stone formation, we studied the effect of sodium thiosulfate on urine chemistries and stone formation. We fed genetic hypercalciuric rats normal food with or without sodium thiosulfate for 18 wk and measured urine chemistries, supersaturation, and the upper limit of metastability of urine. Eleven of 12 untreated rats formed stones compared with only three of 12 thiosulfate-treated rats (P < 0.002). Urine calcium and phosphorus were higher and urine citrate and volume were lower in the thiosulfate-treated rats, changes that would increase calcium phosphate supersaturation. Thiosulfate treatment lowered urine pH, which would lower calcium phosphate supersaturation. Overall, there were no statistically significant differences in calcium phosphate supersaturation or upper limit of metastability between thiosulfate-treated and control rats. In vitro, thiosulfate only minimally affected ionized calcium, suggesting a mechanism of action other than calcium chelation. In summary, sodium thiosulfate reduces calcium phosphate stone formation in the genetic hypercalciuric rat. Controlled trials testing the efficacy and safety of sodium thiosulfate for recurrent kidney stones in humans are needed. PMID:19369406

  4. Managing hyperphosphatemia in patients with chronic kidney disease on dialysis with ferric citrate: latest evidence and clinical usefulness

    PubMed Central

    Fadem, Stephen Z.; Kant, Kotagal S.; Bhatt, Udayan; Sika, Mohammed; Lewis, Julia B.; Negoi, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Ferric citrate is a novel phosphate binder that allows the simultaneous treatment of hyperphosphatemia and iron deficiency in patients being treated for end-stage renal disease with hemodialysis (HD). Multiple clinical trials in HD patients have uniformly and consistently demonstrated the efficacy of the drug in controlling hyperphosphatemia with a good safety profile, leading the US Food and Drug Administration in 2014 to approve its use for that indication. A concurrent beneficial effect, while using ferric citrate as a phosphate binder, is its salutary effect in HD patients with iron deficiency being treated with an erythropoietin-stimulating agent (ESA) in restoring iron that becomes available for reversing chronic kidney disease (CKD)-related anemia. Ferric citrate has also been shown in several studies to diminish the need for intravenous iron treatment and to reduce the requirement for ESA. Ferric citrate is thus a preferred phosphate binder that helps resolve CKD-related mineral bone disease and iron-deficiency anemia. PMID:26336594

  5. Effect of ranitidine bismuth citrate on postprandial plasma gastrin and pepsinogens.

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, A G; Lam, W M; Luk, Y W; Sercombe, J; Sawyerr, A M; Hudson, M; Samloff, I M; Pounder, R E

    1993-01-01

    Ranitidine bismuth citrate was compared with an equipotent dose of ranitidine, to determine whether the former, by an anti-Helicobacter pylori activity, would counteract the rise of gastrin resulting from ranitidine's gastric acid antisecretory activity. Twenty four men with duodenal ulcers were studied before and on the 8th day of dosing with either ranitidine bismuth citrate 800 mg twice daily or ranitidine 300 mg twice daily (double blind, randomised, parallel groups). Fasting and postprandial plasma gastrin and plasma pepsinogen I and II concentrations were measured, and a 13C-urea breath test was performed before and on the 8th day of dosing. The 13C-urea breath tests were positive in 21 patients before dosing and remained positive in nine of nine of the ranitidine dosed patients, whereas only two of 12 patients treated with ranitidine bismuth citrate remained positive. The expected rise in meal stimulated plasma gastrin with ranitidine was seen in the 12 patients who received ranitidine but, despite suppression of H pylori urease activity in 10 of 12 patients taking ranitidine bismuth citrate, there was no attenuation of the meal stimulated gastrin rise. There was no significant difference in the mean derived (4 hour) plasma pepsinogen I and II concentrations after dosing with ranitidine or ranitidine bismuth citrate. PMID:8472980

  6. Cardiovascular effects of diethylcarbamazine citrate.

    PubMed Central

    Abaitey, A K; Parratt, J R

    1976-01-01

    1 The cardiovascular effects of the anthelmintic drug diethylcarbamazine citrate (DECC) were examined in cats anaesthetized with pentobarbitone. There were two quite distinct haemodynamic responses, an initial transient hypotension (occurring within 10 s of an intravenous injection) and a pronounced secondary hypertension which reached a peak 30-60 s after the injection. 2 Within 10 s of an intravenous injection of DECC (2.5 to 10 mg/kg) there was hypotension, bradycardia and there were reductions in left ventricular and carotid artery dP/dt max. These effects were most pronounced following injections into the pulmonary artery; they were not observed after bilateral vagotomy or after injections into the lumen of the left ventricle. It is suggested that DECC, like nicotine, stimulates vagal receptors in the pulmonary vascular bed. 3 The secondary phase was characterized by marked systemic and pulmonary hypertension, by contractions of the nictitating membrane and by increases in left ventricular dP/dt (at fixed isovolumic pressures), in cardiac output and in myocardial blood flow. All these effects were prevented, or markedly reduced, following the administration of hexamethonium or bethanidine and the pressor response was prevented by phentolamine. It is concluded that, in doses similar to those used in therapeutics, DECC stimulates sympathetic ganglia and releases noradrenaline. The relevance of this finding to the reported side effects of the drug are discussed. 4 DECC (5 or 10 mg/kg) significantly inhibited prostaglandin F2alpha-induced increases in peak inspiratory intra-tracheal pressure without modifying its pulmonary hypertensive effect. The possible relevance of this finding to the use of DECC in asthma is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1252670

  7. Malic acid supplementation increases urinary citrate excretion and urinary pH: implications for the potential treatment of calcium oxalate stone disease.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Allen L; Webber, Dawn; de Charmoy, Rachelle; Jackson, Graham E; Ravenscroft, Neil

    2014-02-01

    Raising urinary pH and citrate excretion with alkali citrate therapy has been a widely used treatment in calcium nephrolithiasis. Citrate lowers ionized Ca(+2) concentrations and inhibits calcium salt precipitation. Conservative alternatives containing citrate such as fruit juices have been investigated and recommended. Any compound that induces systemic alkalosis will increase citraturia. Malate, a polycarboxylic anion like citrate, is a potential candidate for chelating Ca(+2) and for inducing systemic alkalinization. We undertook to investigate these possibilities. Theoretical modeling of malic acid's effects on urinary Ca(+2) concentration and supersaturation (SS) of calcium salts was achieved using the speciation program JESS. Malic acid (1200 mg/day) was ingested for 7 days by eight healthy subjects. Urines (24 hours) were collected at baseline and on day 7. They were analyzed for routine lithogenic components, including pH and citrate. Chemical speciation and SS were calculated in both urines. Modeling showed that complexation between calcium and malate at physiological concentrations of the latter would have no effect on SS. Administration of the supplement induced statistically significant increases in pH and citraturia. The calculated concentration of Ca(+2) and concomitant SS calcium oxalate (CaOx) decreased after supplementation, but these were not statistically significant. SS for the calcium phosphate salts hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate increased significantly as a consequence of the elevation in pH, but values for brushite and octacalcium phosphate did not change significantly. We speculate that consumption of malic acid induced systemic alkalinization leading to reduced renal tubular reabsorption and metabolism of citrate, and an increase in excretion of the latter. The decrease in SS(CaOx) was caused by enhanced complexation of Ca(+2) by citrate. We conclude that malic acid supplementation may be useful for conservative treatment of

  8. Citrate anticoagulation: Are blood donors donating bone?

    PubMed

    Bialkowski, Walter; Bruhn, Roberta; Edgren, Gustaf; Papanek, Paula

    2016-10-01

    An estimated 2.4 million volunteer apheresis blood donation procedures were performed in the United States in 2010, and increases in the proportion of transfused blood products derived from apheresis blood collections have been consistently reported. Anticoagulation is required during apheresis and is achieved with citrate. Donor exposure to citrate causes an acute physiological response to maintain serum mineral homeostasis. Some data are available on the sequelae of this acute response in the days and weeks following exposure, raising questions about bone mineral density in regular apheresis donors. New research is emerging that addresses the potential long-term health outcomes of repeated citrate exposure. This article reviews the acute physiological response to citrate anticoagulation in volunteer blood donors, presents contrasting perspectives on the potential effects of citrate exposure on bone density, and identifies key knowledge gaps in our understanding of long-term health outcomes in apheresis donors. J. Clin. Apheresis 31:459-463, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Platinum states in citrate sols by EXAFS.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Shiang; Khan, Maksudur R; Lin, Shawn D

    2005-07-01

    Platinum sols have been prepared by citrate reduction in the temperature range of 343-363 K. The Pt state in the solution was examined by EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy). It did not show any PtPt bonding, a characteristic for reduced Pt sols. EXAFS model fitting further proved the presence of PtO with 4 oxygen neighbors, which suggests a tetraplanar coordination configuration. The possibility of neighboring Pt sharing oxygen ligand or the formation of PtO(x) is rejected by EXAFS model fitting. Citrate was found to be the most likely ligand to orient its oxygen end toward a charged Pt center. Thus we have revealed that the citrate treatment at this temperature range was clearly insufficient to reduce H2PtCl(6(aq)). Neither an extended period of reaction time nor an excess citrate reduced the Pt precursor. It is therefore highly recommended that the citrate sols should be carefully prepared and used.

  10. Phosphate binders in chronic kidney disease: a systematic review of recent data.

    PubMed

    Floege, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is treated by dietary measures, dialysis techniques and/or phosphate binders. For the present review PubMed was searched for new publications on phosphate binders appearing between January 2010 and October 2015. This review summarizes the latest information on non-pharmacological measures and their problems in lowering phosphate in CKD patients, effects of phosphate binders on morbidity and mortality, adherence to phosphate binder therapy as well as new information on specific aspects of the various phosphate binders on the market: calcium acetate, calcium carbonate, magnesium-containing phosphate binders, polymeric phosphate binders (sevelamer, bixalomer, colestilan), lanthanum carbonate, ferric citrate, sucroferric oxyhydroxide, aluminum-containing phosphate binders, and new compounds in development. The review also briefly covers the emerging field of drugs targeting intestinal phosphate transporters.

  11. Citrate, a specific substrate for the isolation of Clostridium sphenoides.

    PubMed Central

    Walther, R; Hippe, H; Gottschalk, G

    1977-01-01

    With a medium containing citrate as the carbon and energy source, 10 clostridial strains were isolated from various mud samples. Characterization of these strains revealed that they all belonged to the same species, Clostridium sphenoides. Strains of this organism obtained from culture collections were also able to grow citrate, whereas 15 other clostridial species tested were not. Citrate was fermented by C. sphenoides to acetate, ethanol, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen. Experiments with stereospecifically 14C-labeled citrate indicated that citrate lyase was involved in citrate degradation. Images PMID:869540

  12. Vibrational study of tamoxifen citrate polymorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamberini, M. C.; Baraldi, C.; Tinti, A.; Palazzoli, F.; Ferioli, V.

    2007-09-01

    The trans isomer of ( Z)-2-[ p-(1,2-diphenyl-butenyl)phenoxy]- N, N-dimethyletylamine (tamoxifen) is well known for its endocrine activity as an antiestrogenic agent. Its citrate salt, a widely used pharmaceutical agent, appears in three main polymorphic forms, two of which are well known (I and II) and another form not yet well evidenced. A vibrational study has been conducted for identifying the two known polymorphic forms of tamoxifen citrate (I and II) and for characterising the other form (form III) examined in this study. Other techniques for the characterization of the different polymorphs, such as XRDP, have been used.

  13. Organically modified porous hydroxyapatites: A comparison between alkylphosphonate grafting and citrate chelation

    SciTech Connect

    El-Hammari, L.; Marroun, H.; Laghzizil, A.; Saoiabi, A.; Roux, C.; Livage, J.; Coradin, T.

    2008-04-15

    Two alternative methods to prepare organically modified porous hydroxyapatites following a 'one pot' approach were compared. The partial substitution of inorganic phosphates by alkylphosphonates leads to mesoporous materials with high specific surface area (>200 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}). The incorporation of the organic moieties within the hydroxyapatite structure is confirmed by Infra-red and solid-state NMR spectroscopy and depends on the nature of the alkyl chain. However, it induces a significant loss of the material crystallinity. In contrast, the introduction of citrate, a calcium-chelating agent, to the precursor solution does not improve the material specific surface area but allows a better control of the hydroxyapatite structure, both in terms of crystallinity and pore size distribution. - Graphical abstract: Evolution of pore size distribution of hydroxyapatite (HAp) after alkylphosphonate grafting (20% TPOH) or citrate addition (c-HAp) demonstrates the formation of organically modified mesoporous materials.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of Ferric Pyrophosphate Citrate, a Novel Iron Salt, Administered Intravenously to Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Raymond D; Swinkels, Dorine W; Ikizler, T Alp; Gupta, Ajay

    2017-03-01

    Ferric pyrophosphate citrate (Triferic) is a water-soluble iron salt that is administered via dialysate to maintain iron balance and hemoglobin in hemodialysis patients. This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, single-, ascending-dose study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and safety of intravenous ferric pyrophosphate citrate in 48 healthy iron-replete subjects (drug, n = 36; placebo, n = 12). Single doses of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, or 10 mg of ferric pyrophosphate citrate or placebo were administered over 4 hours, and single doses of 15 or 20 mg of ferric pyrophosphate citrate or placebo were administered over 12 hours via intravenous infusion. Serum total iron (sFetot ), transferrin-bound iron (TBI), hepcidin-25, and biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation were determined using validated assays. Marked diurnal variation in sFetot was observed in placebo-treated subjects. Concentrations of sFetot and TBI increased rapidly after drug administration, with maximum serum concentrations (Cmax ) reached at the end of infusion. Increases in baseline-corrected Cmax and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to the time of the last quantifiable concentration (AUC0-t ) were dose proportional up to 100% transferrin saturation. Iron was rapidly cleared (apparent terminal phase half-life 1.2-2 hours). No significant changes from baseline in serum hepcidin-25 concentration were observed at end of infusion for any dose. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation were unaffected. Intravenous doses of ferric pyrophosphate citrate were well tolerated. These results demonstrate that intravenous ferric pyrophosphate citrate is rapidly bound to transferrin and cleared from the circulation without increasing serum hepcidin levels or biomarkers of oxidative stress or inflammation. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  15. Effect of iron as a new type of phosphate binder in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, S; Komori, M; Nagamatsu, K; Ninomiya, R; Maejima, K; Hasegawa, K; Samejima, M; Kuroda, M; Fujimori, H; Kasai, M

    1995-08-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is one of the major problems requiring management in the majority of hemodialysis patients and they require phosphate-binding agents to control the hyperphosphatemia. Aluminum hydroxide and calcium compounds are used currently as phosphate-binding agents to treat hyperphosphatemia, but these compounds can cause undesirable side effects. Therefore, the development of new phosphate-binding agents is imperative. It is well known that oral and intravenous administration of iron causes hypophosphatemia. We hypothesized that this side effect of iron may be beneficial for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in hemodialysis patients. Consequently, we conducted a fundamental and clinical investigation of the effects of iron administration. Membrane permeability of phosphorus in a mixture of sodium ferrous citrate and dessicated aluminium hydroxide in the presence of hydrogenated lecithin as a phosporic compound was examined. Fifteen patients undergoing hemodialysis were treated with 150 mg of sodium ferrous citrate given orally for eight weeks. The permeability of the filtering membrane to phosphorus decreased in accordance with the dosage of sodium ferrous citrate and dessicated aluminum hydroxide. The degree of phosphate-binding effect of sodium ferrous citrate was larger than that of dessicated aluminum hydroxide. Serum phosphorus decreased significantly during the experiment. These results suggest that the oral administration of sodium ferrous citrate as a new phosphate binder is a useful therapeutic method for hemodialysis in patients with hyperphosphatemia.

  16. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... granules or as a brownish-yellowish powder. (2) Ferric ammonium citrate (iron (III) ammonium citrate, CAS... granules, as a powder, or as transparent green crystals. (b) The ingredients meet the specifications of the...

  17. Evidence that Osteoblasts are Specialized Citrate-producing Cells that Provide the Citrate for Incorporation into the Structure of Bone

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Renty B.; Chellaiah, Meena; Zou, Jing; Reynolds, Mark A.; Costello, Leslie C.

    2015-01-01

    Citrate is a major component of bone in all vertebrates, but its implications in bone have remained largely unknown. Recent studies identified that citrate is incorporated into the structure of the hydroxyapatite nanocrystal/collagen complex; and is essential for the important biomechanical properties of bone. This raises the important question, “What is the source of citrate for incorporation into bone?”; A question that heretofore had remained unresolved. Studies in this report were designed to determine the plausibility of our concept that the osteoblasts are specialized citrate-producing cells, which provide the citrate that is incorporated into the structure of bone; and that osteogenic differentiation of mesenchyme cells leads to the development of the citrate-producing osteoblasts. The results demonstrated that primary human osteoblasts exhibit the capability of citrate-production. Undifferentiated mesenchyme cells do not exhibit the capability of citrate production; and osteogenic differentiation results in citrate-producing osteoblasts. The up-regulation of zinc uptake transporter ZIP1 is essential for the manifestation of the citrate-producing capability of the osteoblasts. We determined that osteoblast transport of citrate from plasma is not a likely source of citrate in bone. Thus, this study establishes for the first time that the osteoblasts are specialized citrate-producing cells that provide the citrate for incorporation into the structure of bone; and that mesenchyme cell osteogenesis leads to differentiated citrate-producing osteoblasts. This is a new understanding; which must include the osteogenic development of citrate-producing osteoblasts, and the process of “citration” in concert with mineralization during bone formation. It also provides a new understanding of the role of bone in the homeostatic maintenance of plasma citrate concentration. PMID:25745519

  18. Acute and 3-month effects of microcrystalline hydroxyapatite, calcium citrate and calcium carbonate on serum calcium and markers of bone turnover: a randomised controlled trial in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bristow, Sarah M; Gamble, Greg D; Stewart, Angela; Horne, Lauren; House, Meaghan E; Aati, Opetaia; Mihov, Borislav; Horne, Anne M; Reid, Ian R

    2014-11-28

    Ca supplements are used for bone health; however, they have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk, which may relate to their acute effects on serum Ca concentrations. Microcrystalline hydroxyapatite (MCH) could affect serum Ca concentrations less than conventional Ca supplements, but its effects on bone turnover are unclear. In the present study, we compared the acute and 3-month effects of MCH with conventional Ca supplements on concentrations of serum Ca, phosphate, parathyroid hormone and bone turnover markers. We randomised 100 women (mean age 71 years) to 1 g/d of Ca as citrate or carbonate (citrate-carbonate), one of two MCH preparations, or a placebo. Blood was sampled for 8 h after the first dose, and after 3 months of daily supplementation. To determine whether the acute effects changed over time, eight participants assigned to the citrate dose repeated 8 h of blood sampling at 3 months. There were no differences between the citrate and carbonate groups, or between the two MCH groups, so their results were pooled. The citrate-carbonate dose increased ionised and total Ca concentrations for up to 8 h, and this was not diminished after 3 months. MCH increased ionised Ca concentrations less than the citrate-carbonate dose; however, it raised the concentrations of phosphate and the Ca-phosphate product. The citrate-carbonate and MCH doses produced comparable decreases in bone resorption (measured as serum C-telopeptide (CTX)) over 8 h and bone turnover (CTX and procollagen type-I N-terminal propeptide) at 3 months. These findings suggest that Ca preparations, in general, produce repeated sustained increases in serum Ca concentrations after ingestion of each dose and that Ca supplements with smaller effects on serum Ca concentrations may have equivalent efficacy in suppressing bone turnover.

  19. Physicochemical action of potassium-magnesium citrate in nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, C. Y.; Koenig, K.; Khan, R.; Haynes, S.; Padalino, P.

    1992-01-01

    Effect of potassium-magnesium citrate on urinary biochemistry and crystallization of stone-forming salts was compared with that of potassium citrate at same dose of potassium in five normal subjects and five patients with calcium nephrolithiasis. Compared to the placebo phase, urinary pH rose significantly from 6.06 +/- 0.27 to 6.48 +/- 0.36 (mean +/- SD, p less than 0.0167) during treatment with potassium citrate (50 mEq/day for 7 days) and to 6.68 +/- 0.31 during therapy with potassium-magnesium citrate (containing 49 mEq K, 24.5 mEq Mg, and 73.5 mEq citrate per day). Urinary pH was significantly higher during potassium-magnesium citrate than during potassium citrate therapy. Thus, the amount of undissociated uric acid declined from 118 +/- 61 mg/day during the placebo phase to 68 +/- 54 mg/day during potassium citrate treatment and, more prominently, to 41 +/- 46 mg/day during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy. Urinary magnesium rose significantly from 102 +/- 25 to 146 +/- 37 mg/day during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy but not during potassium citrate therapy. Urinary citrate rose more prominently during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy (to 1027 +/- 478 mg/day from 638 +/- 252 mg/day) than during potassium citrate treatment (to 932 +/- 297 mg/day). Consequently, urinary saturation (activity product) of calcium oxalate declined significantly (from 1.49 x 10(-8) to 1.03 x 10(-8) M2) during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy and marginally (to 1.14 x 10(-8) M2) during potassium citrate therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  20. Physicochemical action of potassium-magnesium citrate in nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, C. Y.; Koenig, K.; Khan, R.; Haynes, S.; Padalino, P.

    1992-01-01

    Effect of potassium-magnesium citrate on urinary biochemistry and crystallization of stone-forming salts was compared with that of potassium citrate at same dose of potassium in five normal subjects and five patients with calcium nephrolithiasis. Compared to the placebo phase, urinary pH rose significantly from 6.06 +/- 0.27 to 6.48 +/- 0.36 (mean +/- SD, p less than 0.0167) during treatment with potassium citrate (50 mEq/day for 7 days) and to 6.68 +/- 0.31 during therapy with potassium-magnesium citrate (containing 49 mEq K, 24.5 mEq Mg, and 73.5 mEq citrate per day). Urinary pH was significantly higher during potassium-magnesium citrate than during potassium citrate therapy. Thus, the amount of undissociated uric acid declined from 118 +/- 61 mg/day during the placebo phase to 68 +/- 54 mg/day during potassium citrate treatment and, more prominently, to 41 +/- 46 mg/day during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy. Urinary magnesium rose significantly from 102 +/- 25 to 146 +/- 37 mg/day during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy but not during potassium citrate therapy. Urinary citrate rose more prominently during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy (to 1027 +/- 478 mg/day from 638 +/- 252 mg/day) than during potassium citrate treatment (to 932 +/- 297 mg/day). Consequently, urinary saturation (activity product) of calcium oxalate declined significantly (from 1.49 x 10(-8) to 1.03 x 10(-8) M2) during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy and marginally (to 1.14 x 10(-8) M2) during potassium citrate therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  1. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... restrictions. The color additive bismuth citrate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on..., eyebrows, or hair on parts of the body other than the scalp. (d) Labeling. (1) The label of the color... abraded scalp. Do not use to color eyelashes, eyebrows, or hair on parts of the body other than the scalp...

  2. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... restrictions. The color additive bismuth citrate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on..., eyebrows, or hair on parts of the body other than the scalp. (d) Labeling. (1) The label of the color... abraded scalp. Do not use to color eyelashes, eyebrows, or hair on parts of the body other than the scalp...

  3. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... restrictions. The color additive bismuth citrate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on..., eyebrows, or hair on parts of the body other than the scalp. (d) Labeling. (1) The label of the color... abraded scalp. Do not use to color eyelashes, eyebrows, or hair on parts of the body other than the scalp...

  4. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... restrictions. The color additive bismuth citrate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on..., eyebrows, or hair on parts of the body other than the scalp. (d) Labeling. (1) The label of the color... abraded scalp. Do not use to color eyelashes, eyebrows, or hair on parts of the body other than the scalp...

  5. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... restrictions. The color additive bismuth citrate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on..., eyebrows, or hair on parts of the body other than the scalp. (d) Labeling. (1) The label of the color... abraded scalp. Do not use to color eyelashes, eyebrows, or hair on parts of the body other than the scalp...

  6. Citrate as a siderophore in Bradyrhizobium japonicum.

    PubMed Central

    Guerinot, M L; Meidl, E J; Plessner, O

    1990-01-01

    Under iron-limiting conditions, many bacteria secrete ferric iron-specific ligands, generically termed siderophores, to aid in the sequestering and transport of iron. One strain of the nitrogen-fixing soybean symbiont Bradyrhizobium japonicum, 61A152, was shown to produce a siderophore when 20 B. japonicum strains were screened with all six chemical assays commonly used to detect such production. Production by strain 61A152 was detected via the chrome azurol S assay, a general test for siderophores which is independent of siderophore structure. The iron-chelating compound was neither a catechol nor a hydroxamate and was ninhydrin negative. It was determined to be citric acid via a combination of thin-layer chromatography and high-voltage paper electrophoresis; this identification was verified by a specific enzymatic assay for citric acid. The inverse correlation which was observed between citric acid release and the iron content of the medium suggested that ferric citrate could serve as an iron source. This was confirmed via growth and transport assays. Exogenously added ferric citrate could be used to overcome iron starvation, and iron-deficient cells actively transported radiolabeled ferric citrate. These results, taken together, indicate a role for ferric citrate in the iron nutrition of this strain, which has been shown to be an efficient nitrogen-fixing strain on a variety of soybean cultivars. PMID:2140566

  7. 14 N NQR spectrum of sildenafil citrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, David; Singh, Nadia

    2015-04-01

    The 14N nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectrum of sildenafil citrate tablets has been recorded allowing the quadrupole coupling constants and asymmetry parameters of all six unique nitrogen atoms in its structure to be determined. A density function calculation gives results that are largely in agreement with the experimental values.

  8. 21 CFR 582.5195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.5195 Section 582.5195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 184.1195 Section 184.1195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1386 - Isopropyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Isopropyl citrate. 184.1386 Section 184.1386 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 184.1449 Section 184.1449 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of...

  12. 21 CFR 573.580 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.580 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 573.580 Section 573...

  13. 21 CFR 573.580 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.580 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 573.580 Section 573...

  14. 21 CFR 573.580 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.580 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 573.580 Section 573...

  15. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in food in accordance with the following...

  16. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 172.370 Section 172... Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by reacting... source of iron in foods for special dietary use. ...

  17. 21 CFR 520.622b - Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. 520.622b Section... Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of syrup contains 60 milligrams of diethylcarbamazine citrate. (2) Sponsor. See No. 053501 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (3) Conditions of use....

  18. 21 CFR 520.622b - Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. 520.622b Section... Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of syrup contains 60 milligrams of diethylcarbamazine citrate. (2) Sponsor. See No. 053501 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (3) Conditions of use....

  19. 21 CFR 520.622b - Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. 520.622b Section... Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of syrup contains 60 milligrams of diethylcarbamazine citrate. (2) Sponsor. See No. 053501 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (3) Conditions of use....

  20. 21 CFR 520.623 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable... § 520.623 Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 60, 120, or 180 milligrams of diethylcarbamazine citrate with 45, 91, or 136 milligrams...

  1. 21 CFR 520.623 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable... § 520.623 Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 60, 120, or 180 milligrams of diethylcarbamazine citrate with 45, 91, or 136 milligrams...

  2. 21 CFR 520.623 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable... § 520.623 Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 60, 120, or 180 milligrams of diethylcarbamazine citrate with 45, 91, or 136 milligrams...

  3. 21 CFR 520.622d - Diethylcarbamazine citrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate capsules. 520.622d... Diethylcarbamazine citrate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 12.5, 50, 200, or 400 milligrams (mg) diethylcarbamazine citrate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 011014 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use...

  4. Effect of trisodium citrate concentration and cooking time on the physicochemical properties of pasteurized process cheese.

    PubMed

    Shirashoji, N; Jaeggi, J J; Lucey, J A

    2006-01-01

    The effects of the concentration of trisodium citrate (TSC) emulsifying salt (0.25 to 2.75%) and holding time (0 to 20 min) on the textural, rheological, and microstructural properties of pasteurized process Cheddar cheese were studied using a central composite rotatable design. The loss tangent parameter (from small amplitude oscillatory rheology), extent of flow (derived from the University of Wisconsin Meltprofiler), and melt area (from the Schreiber test) all indicated that the meltability of process cheese decreased with increased concentration of TSC and that holding time led to a slight reduction in meltability. Hardness increased as the concentration of TSC increased. Fluorescence micrographs indicated that the size of fat droplets decreased with an increase in the concentration of TSC and with longer holding times. Acid-base titration curves indicated that the buffering peak at pH 4.8, which is due to residual colloidal calcium phosphate, decreased as the concentration of TSC increased. The soluble phosphate content increased as concentration of TSC increased. However, the insoluble Ca decreased with increasing concentration of TSC. The results of this study suggest that TSC chelated Ca from colloidal calcium phosphate and dispersed casein; the citrate-Ca complex remained trapped within the process cheese matrix. Increasing the concentration of TSC helped to improve fat emulsification and casein dispersion during cooking, both of which probably helped to reinforce the structure of process cheese.

  5. Minimally invasive transcrestal sinus floor elevation with deproteinized bovine bone or β-tricalcium phosphate: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Trombelli, Leonardo; Franceschetti, Giovanni; Stacchi, Claudio; Minenna, Luigi; Riccardi, Orio; Di Raimondo, Rosario; Rizzi, Alessandro; Farina, Roberto

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of transcrestal sinus floor elevation (tSFE) performed with a minimally invasive procedure (Smart Lift technique) combined with the additional use of deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) or β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP). In a multicenter randomized controlled trial, 38 sites in 38 patients were treated with the Smart Lift technique in association with DBBM (n = 19) or β-TCP (n = 19). The extent of the sinus lift (SL) and the height of the graft apical to the implant apex (aGH) were assessed on periapical radiographs taken immediately after surgery and at 6 months following surgery. (i) Substantial aGH and SL were observed immediately after surgery and at 6 months, with no significant differences between DBBM and β-TCP groups; (ii) a significant graft remodelling was observed from post-surgery to 6-months in the β-TCP group and (iii) limited incidence of complications as well as limited post-operative pain and discomfort were associated with the use of both graft materials. The Smart Lift technique in conjunction with the additional use of either DBBM or β-TCP may provide a substantial elevation of the maxillary sinus floor along with limited post-surgical complications and post-operative pain/discomfort. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of bismuth and ranitidine following multiple doses of ranitidine bismuth citrate

    PubMed Central

    KOCH, K M; KERR, B M; GOODING, A E; DAVIS, I M

    1996-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of bismuth and ranitidine derived from oral doses of ranitidine bismuth citrate 800 mg given twice daily for 28 days were examined in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study in 27 healthy subjects. Bismuth accumulation in plasma reflected its multicompartmental disposition, achieving the majority of predicted steady state within 14–28 days. Bismuth absorption from ranitidine bismuth citrate is limited (<0.5% of the dose), and bismuth elimination is predominantly renal secretion. Peak plasma concentrations did not exceed 19 ng ml−1, remaining well below those associated with bismuth toxicity. Bismuth was measurable at low concentrations in plasma and urine for up to 5 months after the last dose. Plasma bismuth concentration-time data and urinary excretion data were best described by separate multicompartmental models, with terminal half-lives averaging 21 days and 45 days, respectively. The pharmacokinetics of ranitidine derived from ranitidine bismuth citrate were similar to those of ranitidine administered alone. Ranitidine did not appreciably accumulate in plasma. Ranitidine bismuth citrate was well-tolerated during 28 days of repeated dosing. PMID:8864319

  7. Interactive effects of redox intensity and phosphate availability on growth and nutrient relations of Cladium jamaicense (Cyperaceae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lissner, J.; Mendelssohn, I.A.; Lorenzen, B.; Brix, H.; McKee, K.L.; Miao, S.L.

    2003-01-01

    Expansion of Typha domingensis into areas previously dominated by Cladium jamaicense in the Florida Everglades has been linked to anthropogenic phosphorus (P) enrichment and increased hydroperiod. The principal stress factor for plants in flooded soils is biochemical reduction, the intensity of which is measured as redox potential (Eh). The objective of this study was to assess the growth response of C. jamaicense to Eh (-150, +150, and +600 mV) and P availability (10, 80, and 500 ??g P/L). Plants were grown hydroponically in a factorial experiment using titanium (Ti3+) citrate as an Eh buffer. Treatment effects on growth, biomass partitioning, and tissue nutrients were recorded. Growth approximately doubled in response to a 50-fold increase in P availability. Low redox significantly reduced growth and tissue P concentration. While plant P concentrations increased 20-fold between the 10 and 500 ??g P/L treatments, P concentrations were 50-100% higher at +600 mV than at -150 mV within each phosphate level. At high Eh, C. jamaicense appears well adapted to low nutrient environments because of its low P requirement and high retention of acquired E However, at low Eh the ability to acquire or conserve acquired P decreases and as a consequence, higher phosphate levels are required to sustain growth. Findings of this study indicate that young C. jamaicense exhibits low tolerance to strongly reducing conditions when phosphate is scarce.

  8. Citrate modulates lipopolysaccharide-induced monocyte inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    Ashbrook, M J; McDonough, K L; Pituch, J J; Christopherson, P L; Cornell, T T; Selewski, D T; Shanley, T P; Blatt, N B

    2015-01-01

    Citrate, a central component of cellular metabolism, is a widely used anti-coagulant due to its ability to chelate calcium. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-citrate lyase, which metabolizes citrate, has been shown to be essential for inflammation, but the ability of exogenous citrate to impact inflammatory signalling cascades remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that citrate would modulate inflammatory responses as both a cellular metabolite and calcium chelator, and tested this hypothesis by determining how clinically relevant levels of citrate modulate monocyte proinflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a human acute monocytic leukaemia cell line (THP-1). In normal medium (0·4 mM calcium), citrate inhibited LPS-induced tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-8 transcripts, whereas in medium supplemented with calcium (1·4 mM), TNF-α and IL-8 levels increased and appeared independent of calcium chelation. Using an IL-8–luciferase plasmid construct, the same increased response was observed in the activation of the IL-8 promoter region, suggesting transcriptional regulation. Tricarballylic acid, an inhibitor of ATP-citrate lyase, blocked the ability of citrate to augment TNF-α, linking citrate's augmentation effect with its metabolism by ATP-citrate lyase. In the presence of citrate, increased histone acetylation was observed in the TNF-α and IL-8 promoter regions of THP-1 cells. We observed that citrate can both augment and inhibit proinflammatory cytokine production via modulation of inflammatory gene transactivation. These findings suggest that citrate anti-coagulation may alter immune function through complex interactions with the inflammatory response. PMID:25619261

  9. Assembly of citrate gold nanoparticles on hydrophilic monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikholm-Lundin, Inger; Rosqvist, Emil; Ihalainen, Petri; Munter, Tony; Honkimaa, Anni; Marjomäki, Varpu; Albers, Willem M.; Peltonen, Jouko

    2016-08-01

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) as model surfaces were linked onto planar gold films thorough lipoic acid or disulfide groups. The molecules used were polyethylene glycol (EG-S-S), N-[tris-(hydroxymethyl)methyl]acrylamide polymers with and without lipoic acid (Lipa-pTHMMAA and pTHMMAA) and a lipoic acid triazine derivative (Lipa-MF). All the layers, but Lipa-MF with a primary amino group were hydroxyl terminated. The layers were characterized by contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy, AFM. Citrate stabilized nanoparticles, AuNPs in water and phosphate buffer were allowed to assemble on the layers for 10 min and the binding was followed in real-time with surface plasmon resonance, SPR. The SPR resonance curves were observed to shift to higher angles and become increasingly damped, while also the peaks strongly broaden when large nanoparticles assembled on the surface. Both the angular shift and the damping of the curve was largest for nanoparticles assembling on the EG-S-S monolayer. High amounts of particles were also assembled on the pTHMMAA layer without the lipoic acid group, but the damping of the curve was considerably lower with a more even distribution of the particles. Topographical images confirmed that the highest number of particles were assembled on the polyethylene glycol monolayer. By increasing the interaction time more particles could be assembled on the surface.

  10. Effects of ingestion of bicarbonate, citrate, lactate, and chloride on sprint running.

    PubMed

    Van Montfoort, Marije C E; Van Dieren, Lotte; Hopkins, William G; Shearman, Jeremy P

    2004-07-01

    Ingestion of sodium bicarbonate is known to enhance sprint performance, probably via increased buffering of intracellular acidity. The goal was to compare the effect of ingestion of sodium bicarbonate with that of other potential buffering agents (sodium citrate and sodium lactate) and of a placebo (sodium chloride) on sprinting. In a double-blind randomized crossover trial, 15 competitive male endurance runners performed a run to exhaustion 90 min after ingestion of each of the agents in the same osmolar dose relative to body mass (3.6 mosmol x kg) on separate days. The agents were packed in gelatin capsules and ingested with 750 mL of water over 90 min. During each treatment we assayed serial finger-prick blood samples for lactate and bicarbonate. A familiarization trial was used to set a treadmill speed for each runner's set of runs. We converted changes in run time between treatments into changes in a time trial of similar duration using the critical-power model, and we estimated likelihood of practical benefit using 0.5% as the smallest worthwhile change in time-trial performance. The mean run times to exhaustion for each treatment were: bicarbonate 82.3 s, lactate 80.2 s, citrate 78.2 s, and chloride 77.4 s. Relative to bicarbonate, the effects on equivalent time-trial time were lactate 1.0%, citrate 2.2%, and chloride 2.7% (90% likely limits +/- 2.1%). Ingested lactate and citrate both appeared to be converted to bicarbonate before the run. There were no substantial differences in gut discomfort between the buffer treatments. Bicarbonate is possibly more beneficial to sprint performance than lactate and probably more beneficial than citrate or chloride. We recommend ingestion of sodium bicarbonate to enhance sprint performance.

  11. Nanoscale observations of the effect of citrate on calcium oxalate precipitation on calcite surfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgos-Cara, Alejandro; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion; Putnis, Christine V.

    2016-04-01

    Calcium oxalate (CaC2O4ṡxH2O) minerals are naturally occurring minerals found in fossils, plants, kidney stones and is a by-product in some processes such as paper, food and beverage production [1,2]. In particular, calcium oxalate monohydrate phase (COM) also known as whewellite (CaC2O4ṡH2O), is the most frequently reported mineral phase found in urinary and kidney stones together with phosphates. Organic additives are well known to play a key role in the formation of minerals in both biotic and abiotic systems, either facilitating their precipitation or hindering it. In this regard, recent studies have provided direct evidence demonstrating that citrate species could enhance dissolution of COM and inhibit their precipitation. [3,4] The present work aims at evauate the influence of pH, citrate and oxalic acid concentrations in calcium oxalate precipitation on calcite surfaces (Island Spar, Chihuahua, Mexico) through in-situ nanoscale observation using in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM, Multimode, Bruker) in flow-through experiments. Changes in calcium oxalate morphologies and precipitated phases were observed, as well as the inhibitory effect of citrate on calcium oxalate precipitation, which also lead to stabilization an the amorphous calcium oxalate phase. [1] K.D. Demadis, M. Öner, Inhibitory effects of "green"additives on the crystal growth of sparingly soluble salts, in: J.T. Pearlman (Ed.), Green Chemistry Research Trends, Nova Science Publishers Inc., New York, 2009, pp. 265-287. [2] M. Masár, M. Zuborová, D. Kaniansky, B. Stanislawski, Determination of oxalate in beer by zone electrophoresis on a chip with conductivity detection, J. Sep. Sci. 26 (2003) 647-652. [3] Chutipongtanate S, Chaiyarit S, Thongboonkerd V. Citrate, not phosphate, can dissolve calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals and detach these crystals from renal tubular cells. Eur J Pharmacol 2012;689:219-25. [4] Weaver ML, Qiu SR, Hoyer JR, Casey WH, Nancollas GH, De Yoreo JJ

  12. Reduction of costs for anemia-management drugs associated with the use of ferric citrate

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Anila; Peterson, Leif E

    2014-01-01

    Background Ferric citrate is a novel phosphate binder which has the potential to reduce usage of erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESAs) and intravenous (IV) iron used for anemia management during hemodialysis (HD) among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Currently, the potential health care cost savings on a national scale due to the use of ferric citrate in ESRD are undetermined. Methods Per-patient-per-year costs of ESAs (Epogen® and Aranesp® [Amgen Inc., CA, USA]) and IV iron (Venofer® [American Regent, Inc., NY, USA] and Ferrlecit® [Sanofi US, Bridgewater, NJ, USA]) were based on RED BOOK™ (Truven Health Analytics New York, NY, USA) costs combined with the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) base rate and actual usage in 2011 for the four drugs. The annual number of outpatients undergoing HD in the US was based on frequencies reported by the USRDS (United States Renal Data System). Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis was performed to determine total annual costs and cost reduction based on ferric citrate usage. Results Total annual cost of ESAs and IV iron for anemia management in ESRD determined by Monte Carlo analysis assuming CMS base rate value was 5.127 (3.664–6.260) billion USD. For actual utilization in 2011, total annual cost of ESAs and IV iron was 3.981 (2.780–4.930) billion USD. If ferric citrate usage reduced ESA utilization by 20% and IV iron by 40%, then total cost would be reduced by 21.2% to 4.038 (2.868–4.914) billion USD for the CMS base rate, and by 21.8% to 3.111 (2.148–3.845) billion USD, based on 2011 actual utilization. Conclusion It is likely that US health care costs for anemia-management drugs associated with ESRD among HD patients can be reduced by using ferric citrate as a phosphate binder. PMID:24899820

  13. Anchored [RuCl2(p-cymene)]2 in hybrid zirconium phosphate-phosphonate coated and pillared with double-stranded hydrophobic linear polystyrene as heterogeneous catalyst suitable for aqueous asymmetric transfer hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Wan, Jingwei; Ma, Xuebing; Xu, Xiao; Liu, Liu

    2013-05-14

    A novel type of phosphonate-containing polystyrene copolymers 1a-e bearing an N'-alkylated TsDPEN chiral ligand and double-stranded polystyrene chains were prepared for the first time using simple radical copolymerization of 1-phosphonate styrene with (R,R)-N'-4'-vinylbenzyl-N-4-vinylbenzenesulfonyl-1,2-diphenylethylene-1,2-diamine. Through the coprecipitation of their supported Ru polystyrene copolymers 2a-e and NaH2PO4 with ZrOCl2, pillared hybrid zirconium phosphate-phosphonate-anchored Ru catalysts 3a-e and 4d1-d5 were obtained as heterogeneous catalysts suitable for aqueous asymmetric transfer hydrogenation. In the aqueous asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of aromatic ketones, the anchored Ru catalysts showed good catalytic activities, chemoselectivities (~100%), and enantioselectivities (73.6% ee to 95.6% ee). The Ru catalysts retained their catalytic properties even at the fifth recycle time (92.2% conv., 92.1% ee). However, corresponding supported Ru catalyst 3d' resulted in disappointing reusability because of the loss of ruthenium in every recycle process. The conversions of aromatic ketones were closely related to the o-, m- or p-positions of the substituents on the aromatic ring caused by shape-selective matching.

  14. A Phase 1B, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, multiple-dose escalation study of NSI-189 phosphate, a neurogenic compound, in depressed patients

    PubMed Central

    Fava, M; Johe, K; Ereshefsky, L; Gertsik, L G; English, B A; Bilello, J A; Thurmond, L M; Johnstone, J; Dickerson, B C; Makris, N; Hoeppner, B B; Flynn, M; Mischoulon, D; Kinrys, G; Freeman, M P

    2016-01-01

    We wanted to examine tolerability and efficacy of NSI-189, a benzylpiperizine-aminiopyridine neurogenic compound for treating major depressive disorder (MDD). This was a Phase 1B, double blind, randomized, placebo controlled, multiple-dose study with three cohorts. The first cohort received 40 mg q.d. (n=6) or placebo (n=2), the second cohort 40 mg b.i.d. (n=6) or placebo (n=2), and the third cohort 40 mg t.i.d. (n=6) or placebo (n=2). Twenty-four patients with MDD were recruited, with the diagnosis and severity confirmed through remote interviews. Eligible patients received NSI-189 or placebo for 28 days in an inpatient setting with assessments for safety, pharmacokinetics (PK) and efficacy. Outpatient follow-up visits were conducted until day 84 (±3). NSI-189 was relatively well tolerated at all doses, with no serious adverse effects. NSI-189 area under the curve increased in a dose-related and nearly proportional manner across the three cohorts, with a half-life of 17.4–20.5 h. The exploratory efficacy measurements, including Symptoms Of Depression Questionnaire (SDQ), Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale (MADRS), Clinical Global Impressions—Improvement (CGI-I), and The Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Cognitive and Physical Functioning Questionnaire (CPFQ) showed a promising reduction in depressive and cognitive symptoms across all measures for NSI-189, with significant improvement in the SDQ and CPFQ, and a medium to large effect size for all measures. These improvements persisted during the follow-up phase. In summary, NSI-189 shows potential as a treatment for MDD in an early phase study. The main limitation of this preliminary study was the small sample size of each cohort. PMID:26643541

  15. Potassium citrate supplementation results in sustained improvement in calcium balance in older men and women

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, Kendall; Weaver, Connie; Appel, Lawrence; Sebastian, Anthony; Sellmeyer, Deborah E.

    2012-01-01

    The dietary acid load created by the typical Western diet may adversely impact the skeleton by disrupting calcium metabolism. Whether neutralizing dietary acid with alkaline potassium salts results in sustained improvements in calcium balance remains controversial. In this randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study, 52 men and women (mean age 65.2 + 6.2 years) were randomly assigned to potassium citrate 60 mmol, 90 mmol or placebo daily with measurements of bone turnover markers, net acid excretion, and calcium metabolism including intestinal fractional calcium absorption and calcium balance obtained at baseline and six months. At six months, net acid excretion was significantly lower in both treatment groups compared to placebo and negative, meaning subjects’ dietary acid was completely neutralized (−11.3 mmol/day, 60 mmol/day; −29.5 mmol/day, 90 mmol/day, P < 0.001 compared to placebo). At 6-months, 24-hour urine calcium was significantly reduced in persons taking potassium citrate 60 mmol (−46 ± 15.9 mg/day) and 90 mmol (−59 ± 31.6 mg/day) daily compared with placebo (p<0.01). Fractional calcium absorption was not changed by potassium citrate supplementation. Net calcium balance was significantly improved in participants taking potassium citrate 90 mmol/day compared to placebo (142 ± 80 mg/day, 90 mmol vs. −80 ± 54 mg/day, placebo; p = 0.02). Calcium balance was also improved on potassium citrate 60 mmol/day, but this did not reach statistical significance (p=0.18). Serum C-telopeptide decreased significantly in both potassium citrate groups compared to placebo (−34.6 ± 39.1 ng/L, 90 mmol/d, p=0.05; −71.6 ± 40.7 ng/L, 60 mmol/day, p=0.02) while bone specific alkaline phosphatase did not change. Intact parathyroid hormone was significantly decreased in the 90 mmol/day group (p=0.01). Readily available, safe, and easily administered in an oral form, potassium citrate has the potential to improve skeletal health. Longer term trials

  16. Oral enclomiphene citrate raises testosterone and preserves sperm counts in obese hypogonadal men, unlike topical testosterone: restoration instead of replacement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Edward D; McCullough, Andrew; Kaminetsky, Jed

    2016-04-01

    To determine the effects of daily oral doses of enclomiphene citrate compared with topical testosterone gel treatment on serum total testosterone (TT), luteinising hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and sperm counts in men with secondary hypogonadism. Two parallel randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, multicentre, phase III studies were undertaken to evaluate two doses of enclomiphene citrate vs testosterone gel (AndroGel(®) 1.62%) on TT, LH, FSH, and sperm counts in overweight men aged 18-60 years with secondary hypogonadism. Men were screened and enrolled in the trials (ZA-304 and ZA-305). All enrolled men had early morning serum TT levels in the low or low normal range (≤300 ng/dL; ≤10.4 nmol/L) and had low or normal LH (<9.4 IU/L) levels measured on two separate occasions 2-10 days apart. Serum samples were obtained over the course of the study to determine relevant hormone levels at baseline and after 16 weeks of treatment. Men provided semen samples twice to enroll at the beginning and twice at the end of the study. TT levels increased between baseline and after 16 weeks of treatment in all the treatment groups. FSH and LH levels increased in the enclomiphene citrate groups and decreased in the testosterone gel group at 16 weeks. Enclomiphene citrate maintained sperm concentration in the normal range over the treatment period, while there was a marked reduction in spermatogenesis in the testosterone gel group. Enclomiphene citrate consistently increased serum TT, LH and FSH, restoring normal levels of serum TT. Enclomiphene citrate treatment maintained sperm concentrations in the normal range. The effects on TT were also seen with testosterone replacement via testosterone gel but sperm counts were not maintained. © 2015 The Authors BJU International © 2015 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The Role of Lithium Carbonate and Lithium Citrate in Regulating Urinary Citrate Level and Preventing Nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaobo; Aggarwal, Piyush; Li, Xiaoming; Oakman, Crystale; Wang, Zhiping; Rodriguez, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Urinary Citrate is an inhibitor of Calcium oxalate stone formation. It is reabsorbed in the proximal kidney through sodium dicarboxylate co-transporters (NaDC-1, NaDC-3) present in the renal tubular epithelium. Lithium (Li) is a known potent inhibitor of these transporters. We investigated the effect of lithium carbonate (LiC) and lithium citrate (LiCit) in regulating urinary citrate levels and preventing nephrolithiasis (NL) in the rat model. Experimental approach: We took 220 Wistar rats and induced nephrolithiasis in 130 of them by administering high doses of 5% ammonium oxalate (AmOx) for seven days and labeled them as Group B. Rest were labeled as Group A. Each group was then divided into 3 subgroups. First sub-group acted as control while other two were treated with either lithium carbonate (LiC) or lithium citrate (LiCit) for 21 days. Ten rats from each of the six sub-groups were randomly selected for sacrifice on 3rd, 7th and 14th day and additional 10th and 21st day from Li treated groups. Blood and urine samples were collected and analyzed on these days. The kidneys of the sacrificed rats were dissected and studied under light microscopy for crystal deposition (left kidney) and histological changes (right kidney). Key results: Urinary citrate levels were significantly increased in response to either LiC (p<0.001) or LiCit (p<0.001). Increased urinary citrate levels resulted in the reduction of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal deposition, kidney tubular dilatation and infiltration of inflammatory cell in the tubulo-interstitium. Conclusions and implications: Use of lithium salts might be a potentially useful approach in the prevention of recurrent NL. PMID:23675140

  18. Additive concentration effects on dicalcium phosphate dihydrate cements prepared using monocalcium phosphate monohydrate and hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Santa Cruz Chavez, Grace; Alge, Daniel L; Chu, Tien-Min Gabriel

    2011-12-01

    In our previous study, we investigated the setting time, mechanical properties and microstructure of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate cements prepared using monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM) and hydroxyapatite (HA). Despite the use of sodium citrate as a setting regulator, setting occurs rapidly in the MCPM/HA system and further studies on other retardants are needed. In the present study, sodium pyrophosphate and sulfuric acid were tested to evaluate their effectiveness in maintaining workability of the cement paste. MCPM/HA cements at a powder to liquid ratio of 1.0 with sodium pyrophosphate and sulfuric acid at 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM were manufactured and studied based on their setting time, mechanical and porosity properties, phase composition, and microstructure. These measurements were compared to our previous data using sodium citrate. The results showed that the additives have a dose-dependent effect on the setting time. Their order of efficiency is sodium pyrophosphate > sodium citrate > sulfuric acid. However, the sulfuric acid group exhibited the highest compressive strength (CS) compared to the other groups. A lack of correlation between the CS and the porosity of the cements suggested that a mechanism other than porosity reduction was responsible for the CS increase. Since x-ray diffraction analysis did not indicate an effect on composition, explanations based on calcium sulfate dihydrate formation and changes in microstructure were proposed based on scanning electron micrograph observations.

  19. Probing intermolecular interactions in a diethylcarbamazine citrate salt by fast MAS (1)H solid-state NMR spectroscopy and GIPAW calculations.

    PubMed

    Venâncio, Tiago; Oliveira, Lyege Magalhaes; Ellena, Javier; Boechat, Nubia; Brown, Steven P

    2017-03-02

    Fast magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR is used to probe intermolecular interactions in a diethylcarbamazine salt, that is widely used as a treatment against adult worms of Wuchereria bancrofti which cause a common disease in tropical countries named filariasis. Specifically, a dihydrogen citrate salt that has improved thermal stability and solubility as compared to the free form is studied. One-dimensional (1)H, (13)C and (15)N and two-dimensional (1)H-(13)C and (14)N-(1)H heteronuclear correlation NMR experiments under moderate and fast MAS together with GIPAW (CASTEP) calculations enable the assignment of the (1)H, (13)C and (14)N/(15)N resonances. A two-dimensional (1)H-(1)H double-quantum (DQ) -single-quantum (SQ) MAS spectrum recorded with BaBa recoupling at 60kHz MAS identifies specific proton-proton proximities associated with citrate-citrate and citrate-diethylcarbamazine intermolecular interactions.

  20. Effect of prolonged exercise on muscle citrate concentration before and after endurance training in men.

    PubMed

    Coggan, A R; Spina, R J; Kohrt, W M; Holloszy, J O

    1993-02-01

    It has been hypothesized that endurance training reduces carbohydrate utilization during exercise via citrate-mediated inhibition of phosphofructokinase (PFK). To test this hypothesis, vastus lateralis muscle biopsy samples were obtained from eight men before and immediately (approximately 10 s) after 2 h of cycle ergometer exercise at 60% of pretraining peak O2 uptake, both before and after 12 wk of endurance exercise training (3 days/wk running, 3 days/wk interval cycling). Training increased muscle citrate synthase (CS) activity from 3.69 +/- 0.48 (SE) to 5.30 +/- 0.42 mol.h-1.kg protein-1 and decreased the mean respiratory exchange ratio during exercise from 0.92 +/- 0.01 to 0.88 +/- 0.01 (both P < 0.001). Muscle citrate concentration at the end of exercise correlated significantly with CS activity (r = 0.70; P < 0.005) and was slightly but not significantly higher after training (0.80 +/- 0.19 vs. 0.54 +/- 0.19 mmol/kg dry wt; P = 0.16). Muscle glucose 6-phosphate (G-6-P) concentration at the end of exercise, however, was 31% lower in the trained state (1.17 +/- 0.10 vs. 1.66 +/- 0.27 mmol/kg dry wt; P < 0.05), in keeping with a 36% decrease in the amount of muscle glycogen utilized (133 +/- 22 vs. 209 +/- 19 mmol.kg dry wt-1.2 h-1; P < 0.01). The lower G-6-P concentration after training suggests that the training-induced reduction in carbohydrate utilization results from attenuation of flux before the PFK step in glycolysis and is not due to citrate-mediated inhibition of PFK.

  1. Monte Carlo Simulations of Phosphate Polyhedron Connectivity in Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    ALAM,TODD M.

    1999-12-21

    Monte Carlo simulations of phosphate tetrahedron connectivity distributions in alkali and alkaline earth phosphate glasses are reported. By utilizing a discrete bond model, the distribution of next-nearest neighbor connectivities between phosphate polyhedron for random, alternating and clustering bonding scenarios was evaluated as a function of the relative bond energy difference. The simulated distributions are compared to experimentally observed connectivities reported for solid-state two-dimensional exchange and double-quantum NMR experiments of phosphate glasses. These Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the polyhedron connectivity is best described by a random distribution in lithium phosphate and calcium phosphate glasses.

  2. Citrate in plasma and urine during total fasting.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, T T; Sørensen, N S

    1979-01-01

    Plasma citrate was determined in 12 obese subjects who underwent total fasting for 10 days. Mean plasma citrate concentration rose significantly from 128 before to 205 micro mol/1 on the 10th day of fasting. Plasma citrate rose continuously during fasting in seven subjects in whom daily determinations were carried out. The 24-hour urinary citrate excretion was followed in six subjects. A significant decrease was found from 2.91 mmol/24 h in the prefasting state to 0.25 mmol/24 h at the end of the fast. Intravenous glucose tolerance test were performed before and on the 10th day of fasting. Kivgtt decreased significantly and was inversely related to plasma citrate concentration on the 10th day of fasting. The results agree well with the concept that an increased citrate level of tissues is of regulatory importance for the decreased glucose utilization during fasting in man.

  3. Sildenafil citrate for female sexual arousal disorder: a future possibility?

    PubMed

    Schoen, Corina; Bachmann, Gloria

    2009-04-01

    Female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) is a common disorder encountered in clinical practice, with self-reported arousal difficulties reported in up to 26% of American women. Various oral therapies for FSAD have been studied, including sildenafil citrate, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor that is currently used to treat male erectile dysfunction. In vitro studies of sildenafil citrate have demonstrated smooth-muscle relaxation in clitoral tissue, and phosphodiesterase type-5 has been shown to be present in vaginal, clitoral and labial smooth muscle; these findings have led to theories that sildenafil citrate might be successful for treating FSAD. This Review discusses the data from clinical trials that have assessed sildenafil citrate for the treatment of FSAD; the trials show that sildenafil citrate is moderately effective. Sildenafil citrate may also be effective in women with FSAD secondary to multiple sclerosis, diabetes or antidepressant use; however, more trials in these patient populations are required to confirm these findings.

  4. TRANSFUSIONS—Hazardous Acid-Base Changes with Citrated Blood

    PubMed Central

    Pedro, Jovita M. San; Iwai, Seizo; Hattori, Mitsuo; Leigh, M. Digby

    1962-01-01

    In a study of the acid-base changes in the blood of rabbits during and following transfusions of citrated blood and of heparinized blood, it was observed that, with citrated blood, pH decreased and carbon dioxide tensions rose. With heparinized blood, the acid-base balance was maintained within normal limits following transfusions. The potential hazards of rapid massive citrated blood transfusions in the anesthetized patient during operation must be kept in mind. PMID:14496706

  5. Dose-response and efficacy of ferric citrate to treat hyperphosphatemia in hemodialysis patients: a short-term randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Jamie P; Sika, Mohammed; Schulman, Gerald; Chang, Ingrid J; Anger, Michael; Smith, Mark; Kaplan, Mark; Zeig, Steven; Koury, Mark J; Blumenthal, Samuel S; Lewis, Julia B

    2013-05-01

    Most dialysis patients require phosphate binders to control hyperphosphatemia. Ferric citrate has been tested in phase 2 trials as a phosphate binder. This trial was designed as a dose-response and efficacy trial. Prospective, phase 3, multicenter, open-label, randomized clinical trial. 151 participants with hyperphosphatemia on maintenance hemodialysis therapy. Fixed dose of ferric citrate taken orally as a phosphate binder for up to 28 days (1, 6, or 8 g/d in 51, 52, and 48 participants, respectively). Primary outcome is dose-response of ferric citrate on serum phosphorus level; secondary outcomes are safety and tolerability. Serum chemistry tests including phosphorus, safety data. 151 participants received at least one dose of ferric citrate. Mean baseline phosphorus levels were 7.3 ± 1.7 (SD) mg/dL in the 1-g/d group, 7.6 ± 1.7 mg/dL in the 6-g/d group, and 7.5 ± 1.6 mg/dL in the 8-g/d group. Phosphorus levels decreased in a dose-dependent manner (mean change at end of treatment, -0.1 ± 1.3 mg/dL in the 1-g/d group, -1.9 ± 1.7 mg/dL in the 6-g/d group, and -2.1 ± 2.0 mg/dL in the 8-g/d group). The mean difference in reduction in phosphorus levels between the 6- and 1-g/d groups was 1.3 mg/dL (95% CI, 0.69 to 1.9; P < 0.001), between the 8- and 1-g/d groups was 1.5 mg/dL (95% CI, 0.86 to 2.1; P < 0.001), and between the 8- and 6-g/d groups was 0.21 mg/dL (95% CI, -0.39 to 0.81; P = 0.5). The most common adverse event was stool discoloration. Sample size and duration confirm efficacy, but limit our ability to confirm safety. Ferric citrate is efficacious as a phosphate binder in a dose-dependent manner. A phase 3 trial is ongoing to confirm safety and efficacy. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Phase 2, Randomized, Double-Blind, Dose-Ranging Study Evaluating the Safety, Tolerability, Population Pharmacokinetics, and Efficacy of Oral Torezolid Phosphate in Patients with Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections▿ † ‡

    PubMed Central

    Prokocimer, P.; Bien, P.; Surber, J.; Mehra, P.; DeAnda, C.; Bulitta, J. B.; Corey, G. R.

    2011-01-01

    Torezolid (TR-700) is the active moiety of the prodrug torezolid phosphate ([TP] TR-701), a second-generation oxazolidinone with 4- to 16-fold greater potency than linezolid against Gram-positive species including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A double-blind phase 2 study evaluated three levels (200, 300, or 400 mg) of oral, once-daily TP over 5 to 7 days for complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI). Patients 18 to 75 years old with cSSSI caused by suspected or confirmed Gram-positive pathogens were randomized 1:1:1. Of 188 treated patients, 76.6% had abscesses, 17.6% had extensive cellulitis, and 5.9% had wound infections. S. aureus, the most common pathogen, was isolated in 90.3% of patients (139/154) with a baseline pathogen; 80.6% were MRSA. Cure rates in clinically evaluable patients were 98.2% at 200 mg, 94.4% at 300 mg, and 94.4% at 400 mg. Cure rates were consistent across diagnoses, regardless of lesion size or the presence of systemic signs of infection. Clinical cure rates in patients with S. aureus isolated at baseline were 96.6% overall and 96.8% for MRSA. TP was safe and well tolerated at all dose levels. No patients discontinued treatment due to an adverse event. Three-stage hierarchical population pharmacokinetic modeling yielded a geometric mean clearance of 8.28 liters/h (between-patient variability, 32.3%), a volume of the central compartment of 71.4 liters (24.0%), and a volume of the peripheral compartment of 27.9 liters (35.7%). Results of this study show a high degree of efficacy at all three dose levels without significant differences in the safety profile and support the continued evaluation of TP for the treatment of cSSSI in phase 3 trials. PMID:21115795

  7. Sildenafil citrate ingestion in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, F Lee

    2004-05-01

    Sildenafil citrate is the first FDA-approved oral agent for male erectile dysfunction. Common adverse effects include flushing, headache, and dyspepsia, although more serious side effects have been reported. Because of its specific therapeutic indication, sildenafil toxicity has been limited almost exclusively to adults. We report a symptomatic case of pediatric sildenafil ingestion. A 2-year-old male ingested 75 mg of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) 2 hours prior to arrival at an emergency room. Ipecac syrup had been given at home with one episode of vomiting. Activated charcoal was considered but withheld due to the delayed presentation to the hospital. The patient was observed in the hospital for 17.5 hours. Observed clinical effects included facial flushing, transient penile engorgement, bilateral rhonchi, and diarrhea. No significant cardiovascular effects were seen. A bronchodilator was given with resolution of rhonchi. No other specific interventions were required. One day after discharge, the patient had one additional bout of diarrhea and complained of pain in the penile region for one day. Two weeks after the exposure, the patient's mother denied any unusual symptoms. Pediatric ingestion of sildenafil may result in mild symptoms including persistent flushing and penile engorgement with associated pain. Penile pain may persist even after resolution of the erection. It is questionable whether the respiratory symptoms and diarrhea were related since neither has been described following sildenafil exposure. Significant cardiovascular symptoms were not seen. Early administration of ipecac syrup did not prevent symptoms from developing.

  8. Tamoxifen citrate loaded amphiphilic beta-cyclodextrin nanoparticles: in vitro characterization and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Memisoglu-Bilensoy, Erem; Vural, Imran; Bochot, Amélie; Renoir, Jack Michel; Duchene, Dominique; Hincal, A Atilla

    2005-06-02

    Nanospheres and nanocapsules of beta-CDC6, amphiphilic beta-cyclodextrin modified on the secondary face with 6C aliphatic esters, were prepared with nanoprecipitation technique directly from inclusion complexes of tamoxifen citrate and beta-CDC6 (1:1 molar ratio). Blank and loaded nanospheres and nanocapsules were characterized by particle size distribution, zeta potential, drug loading and in vitro drug release. Particle sizes were between 250 and 300 nm for different formulations of nanospheres and nanocapsules. Zeta potential which was around -18 mV for blank particles was reported to be between +12 and +15 mV for tamoxifen-loaded particles. Average entrapped drug quantity was found to be around 150 mug/mL for particles prepared from inclusion complexes and this is double the loading value for conventionally prepared particles. Pre-loaded formulations showed a significantly slower release profile extended up to 6 h while formulations loaded conventionally displayed rapid and complete release within an hour. Cytotoxic efficacy of tamoxifen citrate loaded nanospheres and nanocapsules was determined against MCF-7 cells and tamoxifen citrate incorporated in amphiphilic beta-cyclodextrin nanoparticles was found to be cytotoxic and effective against this cell line.

  9. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 172.370 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline... citric acid may be safely used as a source of iron in foods for special dietary use. ...

  10. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Iron-choline citrate complex. 172.370 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline... citric acid may be safely used as a source of iron in foods for special dietary use. ...

  11. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 172.370 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline... citric acid may be safely used as a source of iron in foods for special dietary use. ...

  12. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 172.370 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline... citric acid may be safely used as a source of iron in foods for special dietary use. ...

  13. Enhanced dissolution of sildenafil citrate as dry foam tablets.

    PubMed

    Sawatdee, Somchai; Atipairin, Apichart; Sae Yoon, Attawadee; Srichana, Teerapol; Changsan, Narumon

    2017-01-30

    Dry foam formulation technology is alternative approach to enhance dissolution of the drug. Sildenafil citrate was suspended in sodium dodecyl sulfate solution and adding a mixture of maltodextrin and mannitol as diluent to form a paste. Sildenafil citrate paste was passed through a nozzle spray bottle to obtain smooth foam. The homogeneous foam was dried in a vacuum oven and sieved to obtain dry foam granules. The granules were mixed with croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate and compressed into tablet. All formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical properties and dissolution profiles. All the tested excipients were compatible with sildenafil citrate by both differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and infrared (IR) analysis. There are no X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks representing crystals of sildenafil citrate observed form dry foam formulations. The hardness of tablets was about 5 kg, friability test <1% with a disintegration time <5 min. The sildenafil citrate dry foam tablet had higher dissolution rate in 0.1 N HCl in comparison with commercial sildenafil citrate tablet, sildenafil citrate prepared by direct compression and wet granulation method. Sildenafil citrate dry foam tablet with the high-level composition of surfactant, water and diluent showed enhanced dissolution rate than that of the lower-level composition of these excipients. This formulation was stable under accelerated conditions for at least 6 months.

  14. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1025 Ferric ammonium citrate. (a) Identity. The color additive ferric ammonium citrate consists of complex chelates prepared by the interaction of... general and ophthalmic surgery subject to the following conditions: (1) The dyed suture shall conform in...

  15. Aluminum Citrate Prevents Renal Injury from Calcium Oxalate Crystal Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Besenhofer, Lauren M.; Cain, Marie C.; Dunning, Cody

    2012-01-01

    Calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals are responsible for the kidney injury associated with exposure to ethylene glycol or severe hyperoxaluria. Current treatment strategies target the formation of calcium oxalate but not its interaction with kidney tissue. Because aluminum citrate blocks calcium oxalate binding and toxicity in human kidney cells, it may provide a different therapeutic approach to calcium oxalate-induced injury. Here, we tested the effects of aluminum citrate and sodium citrate in a Wistar rat model of acute high-dose ethylene glycol exposure. Aluminum citrate, but not sodium citrate, attenuated increases in urea nitrogen, creatinine, and the ratio of kidney to body weight in ethylene glycol–treated rats. Compared with ethylene glycol alone, the addition of aluminum citrate significantly increased the urinary excretion of both crystalline calcium and crystalline oxalate and decreased the deposition of crystals in renal tissue. In vitro, aluminum citrate interacted directly with oxalate crystals to inhibit their uptake by proximal tubule cells. These results suggest that treating with aluminum citrate attenuates renal injury in rats with severe ethylene glycol toxicity, apparently by inhibiting calcium oxalate’s interaction with, and retention by, the kidney epithelium. PMID:23138489

  16. Diffuse abdominal gallium-67 citrate uptake in salmonella infections

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, I.; Koren, A.

    1987-11-01

    Two pediatric patients with salmonella infections (one with typhoid fever and the second with salmonella C2 gastroenteritis), had a diffuse abdominal uptake of Ga-67 citrate. The possible explanation for this finding is discussed. Salmonella infection should be included as a cause in the differential diagnosis of diffuse accumulation of Ga-67 citrate.

  17. Characterization of ATP citrate lyase from Chlorobium limicola.

    PubMed Central

    Antranikian, G; Herzberg, C; Gottschalk, G

    1982-01-01

    ATP citrate lyase (EC 4.1.3.8) from Chlorobium limicola was partially purified. It was established that the consumption of substrates and the formation of products proceeded stoichiometrically and that citrate cleavage was of the si-type. ADP and oxaloacetate inhibited enzyme activity. Oxaloacetate also inhibited the growth of C. limicola. PMID:7142107

  18. Structural Basis for Norovirus Inhibition and Fucose Mimicry by Citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Hansman, Grant S.; Shahzad-ul-Hussan, Syed; McLellan, Jason S.; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Georgiev, Ivelin; Shimoike, Takashi; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Bewley, Carole A.; Kwong, Peter D.

    2012-01-20

    Human noroviruses bind with their capsid-protruding domains to histo-blood-group antigens (HBGAs), an interaction thought to direct their entry into cells. Although human noroviruses are the major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks, development of antivirals has been lacking, mainly because human noroviruses cannot be cultivated. Here we use X-ray crystallography and saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance (STD NMR) to analyze the interaction of citrate with genogroup II (GII) noroviruses. Crystals of citrate in complex with the protruding domain from norovirus GII.10 Vietnam026 diffracted to 1.4 {angstrom} and showed a single citrate bound at the site of HBGA interaction. The citrate interaction was coordinated with a set of capsid interactions almost identical to that involved in recognizing the terminal HBGA fucose, the saccharide which forms the primary conserved interaction between HBGAs and GII noroviruses. Citrate and a water molecule formed a ring-like structure that mimicked the pyranoside ring of fucose. STD NMR showed the protruding domain to have weak affinity for citrate (460 {mu}M). This affinity, however, was similar to the affinities of the protruding domain for fucose (460 {mu}M) and H type 2 trisaccharide (390 {mu}M), an HBGA shown previously to be specifically recognized by human noroviruses. Importantly, competition STD NMR showed that citrate could compete with HBGA for norovirus binding. Together, the results suggest that citrate and other glycomimetics have the potential to block human noroviruses from binding to HBGAs.

  19. Structural basis for norovirus inhibition and fucose mimicry by citrate.

    PubMed

    Hansman, Grant S; Shahzad-Ul-Hussan, Syed; McLellan, Jason S; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Georgiev, Ivelin; Shimoike, Takashi; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Bewley, Carole A; Kwong, Peter D

    2012-01-01

    Human noroviruses bind with their capsid-protruding domains to histo-blood-group antigens (HBGAs), an interaction thought to direct their entry into cells. Although human noroviruses are the major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks, development of antivirals has been lacking, mainly because human noroviruses cannot be cultivated. Here we use X-ray crystallography and saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance (STD NMR) to analyze the interaction of citrate with genogroup II (GII) noroviruses. Crystals of citrate in complex with the protruding domain from norovirus GII.10 Vietnam026 diffracted to 1.4 Å and showed a single citrate bound at the site of HBGA interaction. The citrate interaction was coordinated with a set of capsid interactions almost identical to that involved in recognizing the terminal HBGA fucose, the saccharide which forms the primary conserved interaction between HBGAs and GII noroviruses. Citrate and a water molecule formed a ring-like structure that mimicked the pyranoside ring of fucose. STD NMR showed the protruding domain to have weak affinity for citrate (460 μM). This affinity, however, was similar to the affinities of the protruding domain for fucose (460 μM) and H type 2 trisaccharide (390 μM), an HBGA shown previously to be specifically recognized by human noroviruses. Importantly, competition STD NMR showed that citrate could compete with HBGA for norovirus binding. Together, the results suggest that citrate and other glycomimetics have the potential to block human noroviruses from binding to HBGAs.

  20. 21 CFR 520.622 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms. 520.622 Section 520.622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms....

  1. 21 CFR 520.622 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms. 520.622 Section 520.622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms....

  2. 21 CFR 520.622 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms. 520.622 Section 520.622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms....

  3. 21 CFR 520.622 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms. 520.622 Section 520.622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms....

  4. The distribution of plasmids determining citrate utilization in citrate-positive variants of Escherichia coli from humans, domestic animals, feral birds and environments.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, N; Sato, G

    1979-10-01

    Sixty-seven isolates of citrate-positive variants of Escherichia coli were isolated from human, domestic animal, feral bird and environmental sources. With the exception of citrate utilization, all isolates were identified as typical E. coli by their biochemical reactions. The transmission of the ability to utilize citrate on Simmons' citrate agar was demonstrated in 53 (79.1%) out of the 67 citrate-positive E. coli variants obtained from various sources. Drug resistance determinants and citrate utilizing character were co-transmitted into E. coli K-12 by conjugation among citrate-positive E. coli isolates carrying R plasmids except for that isolated from horses. The other characters (haemolysin or colicin production, raffinose or sucrose fermentation) were not transmitted together with the citrate utilizing character. These facts suggested that the structural gene responsible for citrate utilizing ability in citrate-positive variants of E. coli was located on a conjugative plasmid.

  5. Citrate synthesis in intact rat-liver mitochondria is irreversible.

    PubMed

    Greksák, M; Lopes-Cardozo, M; van den Bergh, S G

    1982-02-01

    Rat-liver mitochondria were incubated with [1,5-14C]citrate in the presence of fluorocitrate to block its oxidation in the Krebs cycle. The reaction products were analysed enzymatically and by anion-exchange chromatography. Incorporation of 14C into acetyl-L-carnitine or ketone bodies via a backward action of citrate synthase was not observed. The optimal rate of citrate synthesis from pyruvate and malate in the presence of fluorocitrate was 15 nmol . mg-1 min-1. In the absence of fluorocitrate, but in the presence of malonate, citrate was oxidized to succinate at a rate of 4 nmol . mg-1 . min-1. We conclude that the synthesis of citrate by intact rat liver mitochondria is an irreversible process. The possible mechanism underlying this phenomenon and the consequence for metabolic regulation are discussed.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Biomimetic Citrate-Based Biodegradable Composites

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Richard T.; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Chang; Huang, Minjun; Tang, Wanjin; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Zhongmin; Jin, Dadi; Banik, Brittany; Brown, Justin L.; Xie, Zhiwei; Bai, Xiaochun; Yang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Natural bone apatite crystals, which mediate the development and regulate the load-bearing function of bone, have recently been associated with strongly bound citrate molecules. However, such understanding has not been translated into bone biomaterial design and osteoblast cell culture. In this work, we have developed a new class of biodegradable, mechanically strong, and biocompatible citrate-based polymer blends (CBPBs), which offer enhanced hydroxyapatite binding to produce more biomimetic composites (CBPBHAs) for orthopedic applications. CBPBHAs consist of the newly developed osteoconductive citrate-presenting biodegradable polymers, crosslinked urethane-doped polyester (CUPE) and poly (octanediol citrate) (POC), which can be composited with up to 65 wt.-% hydroxyapatite (HA). CBPBHA networks produced materials with a compressive strength of 116.23 ± 5.37 MPa comparable to human cortical bone (100 – 230 MPa), and increased C2C12 osterix (OSX) gene and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) gene expression in vitro. The promising results above prompted an investigation on the role of citrate supplementation in culture medium for osteoblast culture, which showed that exogenous citrate supplemented into media accelerated the in vitro phenotype progression of MG-63 osteoblasts. After 6-weeks of implantation in a rabbit lateral femoral condyle defect model, CBPBHA composites elicited minimal fibrous tissue encapsulation and were well integrated with the surrounding bone tissues. The development of citrate-presenting CBPBHA biomaterials and preliminary studies revealing the effects of free exogenous citrate on osteoblast culture shows the potential of citrate biomaterials to bridge the gap in orthopedic biomaterial design and osteoblast cell culture in that the role of citrate molecules has previously been overlooked. PMID:23996976

  7. Synthesis and characterization of biomimetic citrate-based biodegradable composites.

    PubMed

    Tran, Richard T; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Chang; Huang, Minjun; Tang, Wanjin; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Zhongmin; Jin, Dadi; Banik, Brittany; Brown, Justin L; Xie, Zhiwei; Bai, Xiaochun; Yang, Jian

    2014-08-01

    Natural bone apatite crystals, which mediate the development and regulate the load-bearing function of bone, have recently been associated with strongly bound citrate molecules. However, such understanding has not been translated into bone biomaterial design and osteoblast cell culture. In this work, we have developed a new class of biodegradable, mechanically strong, and biocompatible citrate-based polymer blends (CBPBs), which offer enhanced hydroxyapatite binding to produce more biomimetic composites (CBPBHAs) for orthopedic applications. CBPBHAs consist of the newly developed osteoconductive citrate-presenting biodegradable polymers, crosslinked urethane-doped polyester and poly (octanediol citrate), which can be composited with up to 65 wt % hydroxyapatite. CBPBHA networks produced materials with a compressive strength of 116.23 ± 5.37 MPa comparable to human cortical bone (100-230 MPa), and increased C2C12 osterix gene and alkaline phosphatase gene expression in vitro. The promising results above prompted an investigation on the role of citrate supplementation in culture medium for osteoblast culture, which showed that exogenous citrate supplemented into media accelerated the in vitro phenotype progression of MG-63 osteoblasts. After 6 weeks of implantation in a rabbit lateral femoral condyle defect model, CBPBHA composites elicited minimal fibrous tissue encapsulation and were well integrated with the surrounding bone tissues. The development of citrate-presenting CBPBHA biomaterials and preliminary studies revealing the effects of free exogenous citrate on osteoblast culture shows the potential of citrate biomaterials to bridge the gap in orthopedic biomaterial design and osteoblast cell culture in that the role of citrate molecules has previously been overlooked.

  8. Bioavailability of iron from ferric choline citrate and a ferric copper cobalt choline citrate complex for young pigs.

    PubMed

    Miller, E R; Parsons, M J; Ullrey, D E; Ku, P K

    1981-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the bioavailability for young pigs of Fe from ferric choline citrate or from a commercial mixture of Fe, Cu and Co choline citrate salts. Relative biological value of Fe from either source with a standard of 100 for FeSO4 x 7H20 was about 140 by both hemoglobin regeneration and Fe retention methods.

  9. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: Ga-67 citrate imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Woolfenden, J.M.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; Larson, S.M.; Simmons, J.T.; Masur, H.; Smith, P.D.; Shelhamer, J.H.; Ognibene, F.P.

    1987-02-01

    All gallium-67 citrate scans obtained in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, Md.) were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with the results of bronchoscopy, chest radiography, and endoscopy. There were 164 scans of 95 patients. Twenty scans were from patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia; 19 were abnormal, for a sensitivity of 95%. Ga-67 uptake tended to be less in patients receiving therapy for P. carinii pneumonia. Chest radiographs were normal at least initially in three patients with abnormal scans and P. carinii pneumonia. Unusually prominent colonic activity was associated with infection in some patients. No lesions of Kaposi sarcoma showed tracer uptake. Gallium scanning is useful for detecting P. carinii pneumonia and other opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS, but it is not useful for localizing Kaposi sarcoma.

  10. Citrate Uptake in Exchange with Intermediates in the Citrate Metabolic Pathway in Lactococcus lactis IL1403▿

    PubMed Central

    Pudlik, Agata M.; Lolkema, Juke S.

    2011-01-01

    Carbohydrate/citrate cometabolism in Lactococcus lactis results in the formation of the flavor compound acetoin. Resting cells of strain IL1403(pFL3) rapidly consumed citrate while producing acetoin when substoichiometric concentrations of glucose or l-lactate were present. A proton motive force was generated by electrogenic exchange of citrate and lactate catalyzed by the citrate transporter CitP and proton consumption in decarboxylation reactions in the pathway. In the absence of glucose or l-lactate, citrate consumption was biphasic. During the first phase, hardly any citrate was consumed. In the second phase, citrate was converted rapidly, but without the formation of acetoin. Instead, significant amounts of the intermediates pyruvate and α-acetolactate, and the end product acetate, were excreted from the cells. It is shown that the intermediates and acetate are excreted in exchange with the uptake of citrate catalyzed by CitP. The availability of exchangeable substrates in the cytoplasm determines both the rate of citrate consumption and the end product profile. It follows that citrate metabolism in L. lactis IL1403(pFL3) splits up in two routes after the formation of pyruvate, one the well-characterized route yielding acetoin and the other a new route yielding acetate. The flux distribution between the two branches changes from 85:15 in the presence of l-lactate to 30:70 in the presence of pyruvate. The proton motive force generated was greatest in the presence of l-lactate and zero in the presence of pyruvate, suggesting that the pathway to acetate does not generate proton motive force. PMID:21115655

  11. Citrate attenuates vascular calcification in chronic renal failure rats.

    PubMed

    Ou, Yan; Liu, Zengying; Li, Shuiqin; Zhu, Xiaojing; Lin, Yan; Han, Jin; Duan, Zhaoyang; Jia, Lining; Gui, Baosong

    2017-05-01

    Vascular calcification (VC) is a major contributor of cardiovascular dysfunction in chronic renal failure (CRF). Citrate binds calcium and inhibits the growth of calcium crystals. This present study intends to evaluate the effect of citrate on VC in adenine-induced CRF rats. The rats were randomly divided into five groups: the control group, the citrate control group, model group, model rats with low-dose treatment of citrate (216 mg/kg) and model rats with high-dose treatment of citrate (746 mg/kg). The rats were euthanized at 5 weeks with their blood and aorta in detection. The results showed that serum level of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, phosphorus, calcium, and related renal failure function marker were elevated in the model group. Furthermore, the aortic calcium accumulation and alkaline phosphatase activity were significantly increased in the model group compared with control groups. Additionally, hematoxylin-eosin staining results demonstrated that the vascular calcification in aorta is significantly increased in the model group. Finally, the expression of VC-related proteins including bone morphogenetic protein and osteocalcin were increased in the model group, whereas alpha-smooth muscle actin was decreased in the model group compared with the control group. However, treatment with citrate caused a reversal effect of all the above events in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, citrate may attenuate vascular calcification in adenine-induced CRF rats. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Safety and efficacy of clindamycin phosphate 1.2%-benzoyl peroxide 3% fixed-dose combination gel for the treatment of acne vulgaris: a phase 3, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active- and vehicle-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Alió Sáenz, Alessandra B

    2011-12-01

    Topical fixed-combination therapy containing 1% clindamycin as 1.2% clindamycin phosphate (CLNP) and 3% benzoyl peroxide (BPO) is an effective treatment for acne vulgaris (acne). To demonstrate that the combination of 1.2% CLNP with lower strength BPO (CLNP 1.2%-BPO 3%) in a gel formulation is superior to each individual ingredient, CLNP 1.2% and BPO 3%, and vehicle gel. A total of 1,319 patients with acne, aged 12 years or older, were enrolled and randomized (1:1:1:1) to receive CLNP 1.2%-BPO 3%, CLNP 1.2% gel, BPO 3% gel, or vehicle gel once-daily in a 12-week, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group, vehicle-controlled study. Subjects were evaluated at baseline, weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12 or early termination. Assessment of efficacy was evaluated using a six-point Investigator's Static Global Assessment (ISGA) and Subject's Global Assessment (SGA) of acne severity and lesion counts (inflammatory, non-inflammatory, and total). Safety assessments included skin tolerability and adverse events (AEs). A greater proportion of subjects who used CLNP 1.2%-BPO 3% gel (39%) had a two grade improvement in ISGA from baseline to week 12 compared with CLNP 1.2% (25%; P<0.001), BPO 3% (30%; P=0.016), and vehicle (18%; P<0.001). CLNP 1.2%- BPO 3% was superior to CLNP 1.2% and vehicle alone in the absolute reduction from baseline to week 12 in all three lesion types (P<0.001 all pair-wise comparisons). CLNP 1.2%-BPO 3% was superior to BPO 3% alone in the absolute reduction from baseline to week 12 in inflammatory (P=0.015) and total (P=0.032) lesion counts. The incidence of product-related AEs was low and similar in all study groups (1% with CLNP 1.2%-BPO 3%, 2% with CLNP 1.2%, 2% with BPO 3%, and 2% with vehicle). Local tolerability assessments showed similar minimal changes from baseline to week 12 in all study groups. CLNP 1.2%-BPO 3% gel provides superior efficacy to improve ISGA score and reduce inflammatory and total lesion counts compared with the individual active

  13. pH-responsive delivery of doxorubicin from citrate-apatite nanocrystals with tailored carbonate content.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ruiz, Isaac; Delgado-López, José Manuel; Durán-Olivencia, Miguel A; Iafisco, Michele; Tampieri, Anna; Colangelo, Donato; Prat, Maria; Gómez-Morales, Jaime

    2013-07-02

    In this work, the efficiency of bioinspired citrate-functionalized nanocrystalline apatites as nanocarriers for delivery of doxorubicin (DOXO) has been assessed. The nanoparticles were synthesized by thermal decomplexing of metastable calcium/citrate/phosphate solutions both in the absence (Ap) and in the presence (cAp) of carbonate ions. The presence of citrate and carbonate ions in the solution allowed us to tailor the size, shape, carbonate content, and surface chemistry of the nanoparticles. The drug-loading efficiency of the two types of apatite was evaluated by means of the adsorption isotherms, which were found to fit a Langmuir-Freundlich behavior. A model describing the interaction between apatite surface and DOXO is proposed from adsorption isotherms and ζ-potential measurements. DOXO is adsorbed as a dimer by means of a positively charged amino group that electrostatically interacts with negatively charged surface groups of nanoparticles. The drug-release profiles were explored at pHs 7.4 and 5.0, mimicking the physiological pH in the blood circulation and the more acidic pH in the endosome-lysosome intracellular compartment, respectively. After 7 days at pH 7.4, cAp-DOXO released around 42% less drug than Ap-DOXO. However, at acidic pH, both nanoassemblies released similar amounts of DOXO. In vitro assays analyzed by confocal microscopy showed that both drug-loaded apatites were internalized within GTL-16 human carcinoma cells and could release DOXO, which accumulated in the nucleus in short times and exerted cytotoxic activity with the same efficiency. cAp are thus expected to be a more promising nanocarrier for experiments in vivo, in situations where intravenous injection of nanoparticles are required to reach the targeted tumor, after circulating in the bloodstream.

  14. Hanford 100-N Area In Situ Apatite and Phosphate Emplacement by Groundwater and Jet Injection: Geochemical and Physical Core Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, James E.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Williams, Mark D.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Phillips, Jerry L.

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate emplacement of phosphate into subsurface sediments in the Hanford Site 100-N Area by two different technologies: groundwater injection of a Ca-citrate-PO4 solution and water-jet injection of sodium phosphate and/or fish-bone apatite. In situ emplacement of phosphate and apatite adsorbs, then incorporates Sr-90 into the apatite structure by substitution for calcium. Overall, both technologies (groundwater injection of Ca-citrate-PO4) and water-jet injection of sodium phosphate/fish-bone apatite) delivered sufficient phosphate to subsur¬face sediments in the 100-N Area. Over years to decades, additional Sr-90 will incorporate into the apatite precipitate. Therefore, high pressure water jetting is a viable technology to emplace phosphate or apatite in shallow subsurface sediments difficult to emplace by Ca-citrate-PO4 groundwater injections, but further analysis is needed to quantify the relevant areal extent of phosphate deposition (in the 5- to 15-ft distance from injection points) and cause of the high deposition in finer grained sediments.

  15. Potentiometric detection of citrate in beverages using a graphite carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Celso L; Melo, Edmar I; Coelho, Nívia M M

    2011-05-30

    The development, evaluation and application of a simple and low-cost graphite carbon electrode for the direct determination of citrate in food samples are described here. The electrode exhibits a linear response with a slope of -29.0 ± 1.0 mV decade(-1) in a concentration range of 0.07-7.0 mmol L(-1) in 0.1 mol L(-1) KCl/1.0 mmol L(-1) phosphate buffer solution with a limit of detection of 3.0 μmol L(-1). The electrode is easily constructed at a relatively low cost and has a fast time response (within 120 s) with no significant changes in its performance characteristics. The performance of the graphite sensor was tested to determine citrate in beverage samples (juices and an isotonic drink), and the results were validated against a reference procedure. The proposed method is quick, inexpensive, selective and sensitive, and is based entirely on conventional instrumentation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Poly (1,8 Octanediol-co-Citrate) Hydroxyapatite Composite as Antibacterial Biodegradable Bone Screw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiyanti, P.; Sholikhah, I.; Isfandiary, A.; Hasbiyani, NAF; Lazuardi, M. B.; Laksana, R. D.

    2017-05-01

    The high bone fracture rates reaching up to 300-400 cases per month have been treated with surgical procedure of internal fixation. Nevertheless, the commonly used metal screw has shown several weaknesses. Therefore, it is required bone screw of which primary characteristics include being biocompatible, bio-functional, biodegradable, and anticorrosive. The study aimed to synthesize Antibacterial Poly 1,8-Octanediol-co-Citrate (POC) and investigated the effect of chitosan on the antibacterial and compatibility characteristics of POC-HA composite as antibacterial biodegradable bone screw. The characterization were conducted on POC-HA composite to assess its functional cluster, antibacterial activity, cytotoxicity, degradation capacity, and morphology. Pre-polymer POC was composited with 62% nano-HA, followed by post-polymerization treatment. The sample then coated by chitosan with composition variations of 1%, 3%, and 5%. The nano-HA marked with the appearance of phosphate cluster on the wavenumber of 872.17 cm-1 and 559.51 cm-1, while the chitosan marked with C=O stretch cluster of esther at 1729 cm-1 from Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) measurement. The best result was obtained with 3% chitosan coating. The POC-HA composites showed bacterial inhibiting ability of 16.92 mm with non-toxic characteristics. These results indicated that chitosan coating Poly 1,8-Octanediol-co-Citrate (POC)-Nano Hydroxyapatite composite is a potential candidate for an antibacterial biodegradable bone screw.

  17. Acute effects of calcium carbonate, calcium citrate and potassium citrate on markers of calcium and bone metabolism in young women.

    PubMed

    Karp, Heini J; Ketola, Maarit E; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel J E

    2009-11-01

    Both K and Ca supplementation may have beneficial effects on bone through separate mechanisms. K in the form of citrate or bicarbonate affects bone by neutralising the acid load caused by a high protein intake or a low intake of alkalising foods, i.e. fruits and vegetables. Ca is known to decrease serum parathyroid hormone (S-PTH) concentration and bone resorption. We compared the effects of calcium carbonate, calcium citrate and potassium citrate on markers of Ca and bone metabolism in young women. Twelve healthy women aged 22-30 years were randomised into four controlled 24 h study sessions, each subject serving as her own control. At the beginning of each session, subjects received a single dose of calcium carbonate, calcium citrate, potassium citrate or a placebo in randomised order. The diet during each session was identical, containing 300 mg Ca. Both the calcium carbonate and calcium citrate supplement contained 1000 mg Ca; the potassium citrate supplement contained 2250 mg K. Markers of Ca and bone metabolism were followed. Potassium citrate decreased the bone resorption marker (N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen) and increased Ca retention relative to the control session. Both Ca supplements decreased S-PTH concentration. Ca supplements also decreased bone resorption relative to the control session, but this was significant only for calcium carbonate. No differences in bone formation marker (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase) were seen among the study sessions. The results suggest that potassium citrate has a positive effect on the resorption marker despite low Ca intake. Both Ca supplements were absorbed well and decreased S-PTH efficiently.

  18. Phosphate Removal by Anion Binding on Functionalized Nanoporous Sorbents

    PubMed Central

    Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Wiacek, Robert J.; Pattamakomsan, Kanda; Sangvanich, Thanapon; Grudzien, Rafal M.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Yantasee, Wassana

    2010-01-01

    Phosphate was captured from aqueous solutions by cationic metal-EDA complexes anchored inside mesoporous silica MCM-41 supports (Cu(II)-EDA-SAMMS and Fe(III)-EDA-SAMMS). Fe-EDA-SAMMS was more effective at capturing phosphate than the Cu-EDA-SAMMS and was further studied for matrix effects (e.g., pH, ionic strength, and competing anions) and sorption performance (e.g., capacity and rate). The adsorption of phosphate was highly pH dependent; it increased with increasing pH from 1.0 to 6.5, and decreased above pH 6.5. The adsorption was affected by high ionic strength (0.1 M of NaCl). In the presence of 1000-fold molar excess of chloride and nitrate anions, phosphate removal by Fe-EDA-SAMMS was not affected. Slight, moderate and large impacts were seen with bicarbonate, sulfate and citrate anions, respectively. The phosphate adsorption data on Fe-EDA-SAMMS agreed well with the Langmuir model with the estimated maximum capacity of 43.3 mg/g. The material displayed rapid sorption rate (99% of phosphate removal within 1 min) and lowering the phosphate content to ~ 10 µg/L of phosphorus, which is lower than the EPA’s established freshwater contaminant level for phosphorous (20 µg/L). PMID:20345133

  19. Regulation of serum phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Lederer, Eleanor

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of serum phosphate, an acknowledged risk factor for chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular mortality, is poorly understood. The discovery of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) as a key regulator of renal phosphate handling and activation of vitamin D has revolutionized our comprehension of phosphate homeostasis. Through as yet undetermined mechanisms, circulating and dietary phosphate appear to have a direct effect on FGF23 release by bone cells that, in turn, causes renal phosphate excretion and decreases intestinal phosphate absorption through a decrease in vitamin D production. Thus, the two major phosphaturic hormones, PTH and FGF23, have opposing effects on vitamin D production, placing vitamin D at the nexus of phosphate homeostasis. While our understanding of phosphate homeostasis has advanced, the factors determining regulation of serum phosphate level remain enigmatic. Diet, time of day, season, gender, age and genetics have all been identified as significant contributors to serum phosphate level. The effects of these factors on serum phosphate have major implications for what is understood as ‘normal’ and for studies of phosphate homeostasis and metabolism. Moreover, other hormonal mediators such as dopamine, insulin-like growth factor, and angiotensin II also affect renal handling of phosphate. How the major hormone effects on phosphate handling are regulated and how the effect of these other factors are integrated to yield the measurable serum phosphate are only now beginning to be studied. PMID:24973411

  20. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... brown or garnet red scales or granules or as a brownish-yellowish powder. (2) Ferric ammonium citrate... occurs as thin transparent green scales, as granules, as a powder, or as transparent green crystals. (b...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... brown or garnet red scales or granules or as a brownish-yellowish powder. (2) Ferric ammonium citrate... occurs as thin transparent green scales, as granules, as a powder, or as transparent green crystals. (b...

  2. Properties of peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthase from Agave americana.

    PubMed

    Segovia, J L; Zafra, M F; Alejandre, M J; García-Peregrín, E

    1982-09-01

    Adenine nucleotides were tested as effectors of peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthase from Agave americana leaves in the presence of different concentrations of acetyl-CoA and oxalacetate substrates. ATP inhibited both enzyme activities but with a different inhibition profile. 1.0-7.5 mM ADP did not inhibit the peroxisomal citrate synthase in the presence of high substrate concentrations, while the mitochondrial enzyme was strongly inhibited by 1.0 mM ADP in the same conditions. Likewise, a different pattern was obtained with AMP on both peroxisomal and mitochondrial activities. The rate of citrate formation as function of acetyl-CoA and oxalacetate concentration was also studied in both fractions. Maximal velocity was highest in the peroxisomal fraction, whether acetyl-CoA or oxalacetate were the variable substrates. These differences indicate that peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthases seem to be two different isoenzymes.

  3. Citrate-Based Biomaterials and Their Applications in Regenerative Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Richard T.; Yang, Jian; Ameer, Guillermo A.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in biomaterials science and engineering are crucial to translating regenerative engineering, an emerging field that aims to recreate complex tissues, into clinical practice. In this regard, citrate-based biomaterials have become an important tool owing to their versatile material and biological characteristics including unique antioxidant, antimicrobial, adhesive, and fluorescent properties. This review discusses fundamental design considerations, strategies to incorporate unique functionality, and examples of how citrate-based biomaterials can be an enabling technology for regenerative engineering. PMID:27004046

  4. Injectable citrate-modified Portland cement for use in vertebroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Wynn-Jones, Gareth; Shelton, Richard M; Hofmann, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    The injectability of Portland cement (PC) with several citrate additives was investigated for use in clinical applications such as vertebroplasty (stabilization of a fractured vertebra with bone cement) using a syringe. A 2-wt % addition of sodium or potassium citrate with PC significantly improved cement injectability, decreased cement setting times from over 2 h to below 25 min, while increasing the compressive strength to a maximum of 125 MPa. Zeta-potential measurements indicated that the citrate anion was binding to one or more of the positively charged species causing charged repulsion between cement particles which dispersed aggregates and caused the liquefying effect of the anion. Analysis of the hydrating phases of PC indicated that the early strength producing PC phase (ettringite) developed within the first 2 h of setting following addition of the citrate anion, while this did not occur in the control cement (PC only). Within 24 h ettringite developed in PC as well as calcium–silicate–hydrate (C–S–H), the major setting phase of PC, whereas cements containing citrate did not develop this phase. The evidence suggested that in the presence of citrate the cements limited water supply appeared to be utilized for ettringite formation, producing the early strength of the citrate cements. The present study has demonstrated that it is possible to modify PC with citrate to both improve the injectability and crucially reduce the setting times of PC while improving the strength of the cement. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 102B: 1799–1808, 2014. PMID:24711245

  5. Citrate-Based Biomaterials and Their Applications in Regenerative Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Richard T.; Yang, Jian; Ameer, Guillermo A.

    2015-07-01

    Advances in biomaterials science and engineering are crucial to translating regenerative engineering, an emerging field that aims to recreate complex tissues, into clinical practice. In this regard, citrate-based biomaterials have become an important tool owing to their versatile material and biological characteristics including unique antioxidant, antimicrobial, adhesive, and fluorescent properties. This review discusses fundamental design considerations, strategies to incorporate unique functionality, and examples of how citrate-based biomaterials can be an enabling technology for regenerative engineering.

  6. Citric/citrate buffer: an effective antiglycolytic agent.

    PubMed

    del Pino, Isabel García; Constanso, Ignacio; Mourín, Luis Vázquez; Safont, Carmela Barbuzano; Vázquez, Pastora Rodríguez

    2013-10-01

    In order to minimize the influence of glycolysis on diabetes mellitus (DM) diagnostic tests, we have compared the behavior of citric/citrate, fluoride additives and gel-serum with plasma-heparin under careful preanalytical conditions. Subsequently, we compared the effectiveness of both fluoride and citric additives at different pre-centrifugation times. Finally, the influence of citric/citrate collection tube on diagnostic tests results was evaluated. The first study of 80 voluntary patients assessed the glucose bias of citric/citrate, fluoride additive tubes and gel-serum tubes versus plasma-heparin tubes at several medical decision cut-offs (MDC). The second study performed with 72 volunteers evaluated additives, simulating transport times to the laboratory and centrifugation delay periods. Final evaluation compares the proportion of positive tests in total tests carried out in two different periods. When citric/citrate (n=79) and fluoride tubes (n=60) were compared with plasma-heparin under controlled preanalytical conditions, both met the bias specification for plasma glucose (±1.8%) at seven MDC. On the contrary, serum samples (n=15) did not meet it at five MDC. In the second study, differences in glucose values at distinct pre-centrifugation times were not statistically significant for citric/citrate tubes, but significant for fluoride tubes and also for comparison of fluoride and citric/citrate tubes. Hemolysis in fluoride tubes was higher. Citric/citrate tube implementation in our laboratory caused an increase in positive diagnostic tests that were only statistically significant for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) screening. Citric/citrate additive tube is equivalent to plasma-heparin avoiding glycolysis completely and immediately under careful preanalytical conditions even with a 3-h delay in plasma separation. According to used MDC we have not statistically significantly increased the diagnoses of DM cases.

  7. Validated stability-indicating reversed-phase-HPLC method for simultaneous determination of orphenadrine citrate, caffeine and aspirin.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Khaled; Salama, Ismail; Mostafa, Samia; El-Sadek, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    New, simple, rapid and precise reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of orphenadrine citrate, caffeine and aspirin in presence of aspirin degradation products, orphenadrine citrate and caffeine process related impurities, and excipients. Good resolution and quantization were achieved on reversed-phase column [Phenomenex™ Luna ODS C(18) (25 cm×4.6 mm, 5 µm particles)]. Gradient elution based on; eluant [A]: 0.1% triethylamine in aqueous potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (50 mM; pH 3.0), while as, eluant [B]: acetonitrile, at a flow rate of 1.5 mL min(-1). UV quantitation was set at 215 nm. Linearity was exhibited for orphenadrine citrate, caffeine and aspirin within 0.5-150, 0.5-360 or 0.7-301 µg mL(-1) ranges, respectively. Satisfactory validation results were ascertained in terms of low limits of quantiation (6.33×10(-2)-7.94×10(-2)), mean percentage recovery (98.9-101.4%), precision (<2%) and robustness. The proposed method was proved to be specific, robust and accurate for the determination of cited drugs in pharmaceutical preparations in presence of their degradation products.

  8. Citrate uptake into Pectobacterium atrosepticum is critical for bacterial virulence.

    PubMed

    Urbany, Claude; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard

    2008-05-01

    To analyze whether metabolite import into Pectobacterium atrosepticum cells affects bacterial virulence, we investigated the function of a carrier which exhibits significant structural homology to characterized carboxylic-acid transport proteins. The corresponding gene, ECA3984, previously annotated as coding for a Na(+)/sulphate carrier, in fact encodes a highly specific citrate transporter (Cit1) which is energized by the proton-motive force. Expression of the cit1 gene is stimulated by the presence of citrate in the growth medium and is substantial during growth of P. atrosepticum on potato tuber tissue. Infection of tuber tissue with P. atrosepticum leads to reduced citrate levels. P. atrosepticum insertion mutants, lacking the functional Cit1 protein, did not grow in medium containing citrate as the sole carbon source, showed a substantially reduced ability to macerate potato tuber tissue, and did not provoke reduced citrate levels in the plant tissue upon infection. We propose that citrate uptake into P. atrosepticum is critical for full bacterial virulence.

  9. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Silver Citrate Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Djokić, Stojan

    2008-01-01

    Formation of silver citrate/citric acid complexed solutions was investigated. Although, silver citrate is minimally soluble in water, it can successfully be dissolved in citric acid solutions. The maximum concentration of Ag(I) in solution is estimated at 23 to 25 g/L if the concentration of citric acid is at least 4 mol/L or higher. The dissolution of silver citrate in citric acid solutions was attributed to the formation of silver citrate complexes of a general formula [Ag3(C6H5O7)n+1]3n−. The silver citrate/citric acid solutions, containing more than about 13 g/L Ag+ ion, have exhibited a decrease in Ag(I) concentration in solution over time, due to crystallization. The crystallization product was attributed to the formation of [Ag3C6H5O7]x·nH2O. Importantly, the diluted silver citrate/citric acid complexed solutions have exhibited very strong bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities. PMID:19079586

  10. The role of nicotinamide–adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent malate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase in the supply of reduced nicotinamide–adenine dinucleotide phosphate for steroidogenesis in the superovulated rat ovary

    PubMed Central

    Flint, A. P. F.; Denton, R. M.

    1970-01-01

    1. Superovulated rat ovary was found to contain high activities of NADP–malate dehydrogenase and NADP–isocitrate dehydrogenase. The activity of each enzyme was approximately four times that of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and equalled or exceeded the activities reported to be present in other mammalian tissues. Fractionation of a whole tissue homogenate of superovulated rat ovary indicated that both enzymes were exclusively cytoplasmic. The tissue was also found to contain pyruvate carboxylase (exclusively mitochondrial), NAD–malate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase (both mitochondrial and cytoplasmic) and ATP–citrate lyase (exclusively cytoplasmic). 2. The kinetic properties of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, NADP–malate dehydrogenase and NADP–isocitrate dehydrogenase were determined and compared with the whole-tissue concentrations of their substrates and NADPH; NADPH is a competitive inhibitor of all three enzymes. The concentrations of glucose 6-phosphate, malate and isocitrate in incubated tissue slices were raised at least tenfold by the addition of glucose to the incubation medium, from the values below to values above the respective Km values of the dehydrogenases. Glucose doubled the tissue concentration of NADPH. 3. Steroidogenesis from acetate is stimulated by glucose in slices of superovulated rat ovary incubated in vitro. It was found that this stimulatory effect of glucose can be mimicked by malate, isocitrate, lactate and pyruvate. 4. It is concluded that NADP–malate dehydrogenase or NADP–isocitrate dehydrogenase or both may play an important role in the formation of NADPH in the superovulated rat ovary. It is suggested that the stimulatory effect of glucose on steroidogenesis from acetate results from an increased rate of NADPH formation through one or both dehydrogenases, brought about by the increases in the concentrations of malate, isocitrate or both. Possible pathways involving the two enzymes are discussed

  11. Trehalose-6-phosphate-potent anti-onchocerciatic agent.

    PubMed

    Oke, J M; Watt, R A

    1998-01-01

    Onchocerciasis is a disease that engages the attention of most researchers. Presently, there is not an ideal onchocerciatic agent, hence the search must continues. Consequently alpha, alpha-trehalose-6-phosphate was synthesised and assessed for onchocerciatic activity against O. volvulus; using diethylcarbamizine citrate as the control drug. Results from this study showed that alpha, alpha-trehalose-6-phosphate is a glucose analogue with effective micro and macro-filaricidal agent, better than that of the control drug. The inhibitory action of this compound on enzyme trehalase is a postulate for the mechanism of action of trehalose-6-phosphate. The structure-activity relationship of this new compound is fully discussed. This study postulates that this compound could be used to eradicate onchocerciasis both in man and animals.

  12. Comparison of the Absorption of Calcium Carbonate and Calcium Citrate after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Tondapu, P.; Provost, D.; Adams-Huet, B.; Sims, T.; Chang, C.; Sakhaee, K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) restricts food intake. Consequently, patients consume less calcium. In addition, food no longer passes through the duodenum, the main site of calcium absorption. Therefore, calcium absorption is significantly impaired. The goal of this study is to compare two common calcium supplements in gastric bypass patients. Method Nineteen patients were enrolled in a randomized, double-blinded, crossover study comparing the absorption of calcium from calcium carbonate and calcium citrate salts. Serum and urine calcium levels were assessed for peak values (Cmax) and cumulative calcium increment (area under the curve [AUC]). Serum PTH was assessed for minimum values (PTHmin) and cumulative PTH decrement (AUC). Statistical analysis was performed using a repeated analysis of variance model. Results Eighteen subjects completed the study. Calcium citrate resulted in a significantly higher serum Cmax (9.4+0.4 mg/dl vs. 9.2+0.3 mg/dl, p=0.02) and serum AUC (55+2 mg/dl vs. 54+2 mg/dl, p=0.02). Calcium citrate resulted in a significantly lower PTHmin (24+11 pg/ml vs. 30+13 pg/ml, p=0.01) and a higher AUC (−32+51 pg/ml vs. −3+56 pg/ml, p=0.04). There was a non-significant trend for higher urinary AUC in the calcium citrate group (76.13+36.39 mg/6 h vs. 66.04+40.82, p=0.17). Conclusion Calcium citrate has superior bioavailability than calcium carbonate in RYGB patients. PMID:19437082

  13. Phosphate Uptake by Phosphate-Starved Euglena

    PubMed Central

    BLUM, J. J.

    1966-01-01

    Phosphate-deprived Euglena acquire the ability to rapidly in-corporate added phosphate and, also, synthesize an induced acid phosphatase localized in the pellicle. The phosphate uptake system is saturated at low concentrations of phosphate and is inhibited by dinitrophenol, by low temperature, by K+, Li+, and Na+ ions, and competitively by arsenate. The orthophosphate incorporated into the cell is rapidly converted into organic forms but enough remains unesterified to suggest that the uptake is an active transport process. The data do not rule out the possibility that the induced phosphatase is involved in the transport process. PMID:5924104

  14. Aroma compounds generation in citrate metabolism of Enterococcus faecium: Genetic characterization of type I citrate gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Martino, Gabriela P; Quintana, Ingrid M; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S; Magni, Christian

    2016-02-02

    Enterococcus is one of the most controversial genera belonging to Lactic Acid Bacteria. Research involving this microorganism reflects its dual behavior as regards its safety. Although it has also been associated to nosocomial infections, natural occurrence of Enterococcus faecium in food contributes to the final quality of cheese. This bacterium is capable of fermenting citrate, which is metabolized to pyruvate and finally derives in the production of the aroma compounds diacetyl, acetoin and 2,3 butanediol. Citrate metabolism was studied in E. faecium but no data about genes related to these pathways have been described. A bioinformatic approach allowed us to differentiate cit(-) (no citrate metabolism genes) from cit(+) strains in E. faecium. Furthermore, we could classify them according to genes encoding for the transcriptional regulator, the oxaloacetate decarboxylase and the citrate transporter. Thus we defined type I organization having CitI regulator (DeoR family), CitM cytoplasmic soluble oxaloacetate decarboxylase (Malic Enzyme family) and CitP citrate transporter (2-hydroxy-carboxylate transporter family) and type II organization with CitO regulator (GntR family), OAD membrane oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex (Na(+)-transport decarboxylase enzyme family) and CitH citrate transporter (CitMHS family). We isolated and identified 17 E. faecium strains from regional cheeses. PCR analyses allowed us to classify them as cit(-) or cit(+). Within the latter classification we could differentiate type I but no type II organization. Remarkably, we came upon E. faecium GM75 strain which carries the insertion sequence IS256, involved in adaptative and evolution processes of bacteria related to Staphylococcus and Enterococcus genera. In this work we describe the differential behavior in citrate transport, metabolism and aroma generation of three strains and we present results that link citrate metabolism and genetic organizations in E. faecium for the first time

  15. Phosphate homeostasis and disorders.

    PubMed

    Manghat, P; Sodi, R; Swaminathan, R

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies of inherited disorders of phosphate metabolism have shed new light on the understanding of phosphate metabolism. Phosphate has important functions in the body and several mechanisms have evolved to regulate phosphate balance including vitamin D, parathyroid hormone and phosphatonins such as fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23). Disorders of phosphate homeostasis leading to hypo- and hyperphosphataemia are common and have clinical and biochemical consequences. Notably, recent studies have linked hyperphosphataemia with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This review outlines the recent advances in the understanding of phosphate homeostasis and describes the causes, investigation and management of hypo- and hyperphosphataemia.

  16. Microbial solubilization of phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, R.D.; Wolfram, J.H.

    1993-10-26

    A process is provided for solubilizing phosphate from phosphate containing ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of phosphate ore, microorganisms operable for solubilizing phosphate from the phosphate ore and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the microbial solubilization process. An aqueous solution containing soluble phosphorus can be separated from the reacted mixture by precipitation, solvent extraction, selective membrane, exchange resin or gravity methods to recover phosphate from the aqueous solution. 6 figures.

  17. Microbial solubilization of phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Robert D.; Wolfram, James H.

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for solubilizing phosphate from phosphate containing ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of phosphate ore, microorganisms operable for solubilizing phosphate from the phosphate ore and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the microbial solubilization process. An aqueous solution containing soluble phosphorous can be separated from the reacted mixture by precipitation, solvent extraction, selective membrane, exchange resin or gravity methods to recover phosphate from the aqueous solution.

  18. Regulation of anaerobic citrate metabolism in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Bott, M; Meyer, M; Dimroth, P

    1995-11-01

    Three enzymes are specifically required for uptake and catabolism of citrate by Klebsiella pneumoniae under anaerobic conditions: a Na+ -dependent citrate carrier (CitS), citrate lyase (CitDEF), and the Na+ pump oxaloacetate decarboxylase (OadGAB). The corresponding genes are clustered on the chromosome, with the citCDEFG genes located upstream and divergent to the citS-oadGAB genes. We found that expression of citS from its native promoter in Escherichia coli requires the DNA region downstream of oadB. Nucleotide sequence analysis of this region revealed the presence of two adjacent genes, citA and citB. By sequence similarity, the predicted CitA and CitB proteins were identified as members of the two-component regulatory systems. The sensor kinase CitA contained, in the N-terminal half, two putative transmembrane helices which enclosed a presumably periplasmic domain of about 130 amino acids. The C-terminal half of the response regulator CitB harboured a helix-turn-helix motif typical of DNA-binding proteins. K. pneumoniae citB null mutants were unable to grow anaerobically with citrate as the sole carbon and energy source (Cit- phenotype). When cultivated anaerobically with citrate plus glycerol, all of the citrate-specific fermentation enzymes were synthesized in the wild type, but not in the citB mutants. This showed that citS, oadGAB and citDEF required the CitB protein for expression and therefore are part of a regulon. In the wild type, synthesis of CitS, oxaloacetate decarboxylase and citrate lyase was dependent on the presence of citrate, sodium ions and a low oxygen tension. In a citA null mutant which expressed citB constitutively at high levels, none of these signals was required for the formation of the citrate fermentation enzymes. This result suggested that citrate, Na+, and oxygen exerted their regulatory effects via the CitA/CitB system. In the presence of these signals, the citAB gene products induced their own synthesis. The positive

  19. The periplasmic domain of the histidine autokinase CitA functions as a highly specific citrate receptor.

    PubMed

    Kaspar, S; Perozzo, R; Reinelt, S; Meyer, M; Pfister, K; Scapozza, L; Bott, M

    1999-08-01

    The two-component regulatory system CitA/CitB is essential for induction of the citrate fermentation genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae. CitA represents a membrane-bound sensor kinase consisting of a periplasmic domain flanked by two transmembrane helices, a linker domain and the conserved kinase or transmitter domain. A fusion protein (MalE-CitAC) composed of the maltose-binding protein and the CitA kinase domain (amino acids 327-547) showed constitutive autokinase activity and transferred the gamma-phosphate group of ATP to its cognate response regulator CitB. The autokinase activity of CitA was abolished by an H350L exchange, and phosphorylation of CitB was inhibited by a D56N exchange, indicating that H-350 and D-56 represent the phosphorylation sites of CitA and CitB respectively. In the presence of ATP, CitB-D56N formed a stable complex with MalE-CitAC. To analyse the sensory properties of CitA, the periplasmic domain (amino acids 45-176) was overproduced as a soluble, cytoplasmic protein with a C-terminally attached histidine tag (CitAPHis). Purified CitAPHis bound citrate, but none of the other tri- and dicarboxylates tested, with high affinity (KD approximately 5 microM at pH 7) in a 1:1 stoichiometry. As shown by isothermal titration calorimetry, the binding reaction was driven by the enthalpy change (DeltaH = -76.3 kJ mol-1), whereas the entropy change was opposed (-TDeltaS = + 46.3 kJ mol-1). The pH dependency of the binding reaction indicated that the dianionic form H-citrate2- is the citrate species recognized by CitAPHis. In the presence of Mg2+ ions, the dissociation constant increased significantly, suggesting that the Mg-citrate complex is not bound by CitAPHis. This work defines the periplasmic domain of CitA as a highly specific citrate receptor and elucidates the binding characteristics of CitAPHis.

  20. The sensor kinase CitA (DpiB) of Escherichia coli functions as a high-affinity citrate receptor.

    PubMed

    Kaspar, Sibylle; Bott, Michael

    2002-04-01

    For the CitA-CitB (DpiB-DpiA) two-component signal transduction system from Escherichia coli, three diverse functions have been reported: induction of the citrate fermentation genes citCDEFXGT, repression of the regulator gene appY, and destabilization of the inheritance of iteron-containing plasmids such as pSC101. This poses the question of the principal biological role of this system. Here it is shown that the periplasmic domain of the E. coli sensor kinase CitA functions as a high-affinity citrate receptor. Two CitA derivatives were purified by affinity chromatography and subjected to binding studies using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). One of them, termed CitA215MBP, comprised the N-terminal part of CitA (amino acid residues 1-215), including the two transmembrane helices, and was fused to the amino terminus of the E. coli maltose-binding protein lacking its signal peptide. The second CitA derivative, designated CitAP(Ec), encompassed only the periplasmic domain (amino acid residues 38-177). CitA215MBP bound citrate at 25 degrees C with a K(d) of 0.3 microM and a binding stoichiometry of up to 0.9 in 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7. Binding was driven by the enthalpy change (Delta H of -95.7 kJ mol(-1)), whereas the entropy change was not favorable for binding ( T Delta S of -58.6 kJ mol(-1)). ITC experiments with CitAP(Ec) yielded similar K(d) values for citrate (0.15-1.0 microM). Besides citrate, also isocitrate ( K(d) approximately tricarballylate ( K(d) approximately t not malate were bound by CitAP(Ec). The results favor the assumption that the primary biological function of the CitA-CitB system is the regulation of the citrate fermentation genes.

  1. Calcium chloride and tricalcium phosphate effects on the pink color defect in cooked ground and intact turkey breast.

    PubMed

    Sammel, L M; Claus, J R

    2007-12-01

    Calcium chloride (250, 500ppm) was examined for its ability to reduce the pink color defect induced by sodium nitrite (10ppm) and nicotinamide (1.0%) in cooked ground turkey in the presence and absence of sodium tripolyphosphate (0.25, 0.5%) and sodium citrate (0.5, 1.0%). The ability of tricalcium phosphate (0.1-0.5%) to reduce pink cooked color also was evaluated in ground turkey and both calcium chloride and tricalcium phosphate were tested for their effects on pink cooked color in whole breast muscle. The combination of calcium chloride and sodium tripolyphosphate, not calcium chloride alone, was necessary for a reduction in pink cooked color induced by nicotinamide. Subsequently, in the presence of phosphate, both calcium chloride and sodium citrate reduced pink cooked color and were most effective in combination. Tricalcium phosphate also was capable of reducing pink cooked color in ground turkey, however substituting tricalcium phosphate for sodium tripolyphosphate resulted in lower pH and cooking yields. Neither calcium chloride nor tricalcium phosphate was capable of reducing pink cooked color in whole turkey breast. Currently, a combination of sodium tripolyphosphate, calcium chloride, and sodium citrate represents the most suitable means for reducing or preventing the pink color defect in uncured ground turkey.

  2. Alkali absorption and citrate excretion in calcium nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakhaee, K.; Williams, R. H.; Oh, M. S.; Padalino, P.; Adams-Huet, B.; Whitson, P.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The role of net gastrointestinal (GI) alkali absorption in the development of hypocitraturia was investigated. The net GI absorption of alkali was estimated from the difference between simple urinary cations (Ca, Mg, Na, and K) and anions (Cl and P). In 131 normal subjects, the 24 h urinary citrate was positively correlated with the net GI absorption of alkali (r = 0.49, p < 0.001). In 11 patients with distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA), urinary citrate excretion was subnormal relative to net GI alkali absorption, with data from most patients residing outside the 95% confidence ellipse described for normal subjects. However, the normal relationship between urinary citrate and net absorbed alkali was maintained in 11 patients with chronic diarrheal syndrome (CDS) and in 124 stone-forming patients devoid of RTA or CDS, half of whom had "idiopathic" hypocitraturia. The 18 stone-forming patients without RTA or CDS received potassium citrate (30-60 mEq/day). Both urinary citrate and net GI alkali absorption increased, yielding a significantly positive correlation (r = 0.62, p < 0.0001), with the slope indistinguishable from that of normal subjects. Thus, urinary citrate was normally dependent on the net GI absorption of alkali. This dependence was less marked in RTA, confirming the renal origin of hypocitraturia. However, the normal dependence was maintained in CDS and in idiopathic hypocitraturia, suggesting that reduced citrate excretion was largely dietary in origin as a result of low net alkali absorption (from a probable relative deficiency of vegetables and fruits or a relative excess of animal proteins).

  3. Alkali absorption and citrate excretion in calcium nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakhaee, K.; Williams, R. H.; Oh, M. S.; Padalino, P.; Adams-Huet, B.; Whitson, P.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The role of net gastrointestinal (GI) alkali absorption in the development of hypocitraturia was investigated. The net GI absorption of alkali was estimated from the difference between simple urinary cations (Ca, Mg, Na, and K) and anions (Cl and P). In 131 normal subjects, the 24 h urinary citrate was positively correlated with the net GI absorption of alkali (r = 0.49, p < 0.001). In 11 patients with distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA), urinary citrate excretion was subnormal relative to net GI alkali absorption, with data from most patients residing outside the 95% confidence ellipse described for normal subjects. However, the normal relationship between urinary citrate and net absorbed alkali was maintained in 11 patients with chronic diarrheal syndrome (CDS) and in 124 stone-forming patients devoid of RTA or CDS, half of whom had "idiopathic" hypocitraturia. The 18 stone-forming patients without RTA or CDS received potassium citrate (30-60 mEq/day). Both urinary citrate and net GI alkali absorption increased, yielding a significantly positive correlation (r = 0.62, p < 0.0001), with the slope indistinguishable from that of normal subjects. Thus, urinary citrate was normally dependent on the net GI absorption of alkali. This dependence was less marked in RTA, confirming the renal origin of hypocitraturia. However, the normal dependence was maintained in CDS and in idiopathic hypocitraturia, suggesting that reduced citrate excretion was largely dietary in origin as a result of low net alkali absorption (from a probable relative deficiency of vegetables and fruits or a relative excess of animal proteins).

  4. NITRATE REDUCTION BY ZEROVALENT IRON: EFFECTS OF FORMATE, OXALATE, CITRATE, CHLORIDE, SULFATE, BORATE, AND PHOSPHATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies have shown that zerovalent iron (Fe0) may potentially be used as a chemical medium in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) for nitrate remediation in groundwater; however, the effects of commonly found organic and inorganic ligands in soil and sediments on nitrate re...

  5. NITRATE REDUCTION BY ZEROVALENT IRON: EFFECTS OF FORMATE, OXALATE, CITRATE, CHLORIDE, SULFATE, BORATE, AND PHOSPHATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies have shown that zerovalent iron (Fe0) may potentially be used as a chemical medium in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) for nitrate remediation in groundwater; however, the effects of commonly found organic and inorganic ligands in soil and sediments on nitrate re...

  6. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003671.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a protein that ...

  7. Treatment Efficacy and Safety During Plasma Exchange With Citrate Anticoagulation: A Randomized Study of 4 Versus 15% Citrate.

    PubMed

    Antonic, Manja; Gubensek, Jakob; Buturovic-Ponikvar, Jadranka; Ponikvar, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    In plasma exchange (PE), contrary to dialysis, there is no ultrafiltration, and the volume of anticoagulant contributes to volume overload of the patient and might also reduce PE efficiency through dilution. To reduce the volume of citrate, we compared 4 and 15% citrate anticoagulation protocols in PE in a randomized study, aiming to evaluate PE efficacy, anticoagulation efficiency, and overall safety. In addition to standard biochemical analyses during PE treatments, the elimination rate (ER) of immunoglobulins was calculated to evaluate PE efficacy. Anticoagulation was evaluated by postfilter ionized calcium, visual evaluation of the extracorporeal system, and change in the sieving coefficient (SC) during PE. Accumulation of citrate was determined by calculating the total-to-ionized calcium ratio and measuring the citrate concentration after PE. One hundred forty procedures (70 in each group) were performed in 37 patients. The mean citrate infusion rate was 197 ± 10 mL/h in the 4% and 59 ± 5.5 mL/h in the 15% groups, respectively; the total volume of infused citrate was 502 ± 77 mL versus 164 ± 52 mL (P < 0.001). ER for immunoglobulin G (0.57 ± 0.06 vs. 0.55 ± 0.1, P = 0.18), M, and A were comparable. Ionized calcium was stable during the procedures, and there were no significant side effects. Although postfilter ionized calcium was on the upper limit of the target range (0.41 ± 0.16 vs. 0.37 ± 0.14 mmol/L, P = 0.38), the visual assessment score was excellent, and even a rise in SC was observed during the procedures in both groups. The total-to-ionized calcium ratio was increased in 20 versus 22% of procedures, and citrate concentrations after PE were also similar (1306 ± 441 vs. 1263 ± 405 μmol/L). To conclude, we were unable to show superior PE efficacy in the 15% citrate group, but we significantly reduced the infused volume, which is important in patients with fluid overload. Both

  8. Solubility of Calcium Phosphate in Concentrated Dairy Effluent Brines.

    PubMed

    Kezia, K; Lee, J; Zisu, B; Chen, G Q; Gras, S L; Kentish, S E

    2017-05-24

    The solubility of calcium phosphate in concentrated dairy brine streams is important in understanding mineral scaling on equipment, such as membrane modules, evaporators, and heat exchangers, and in brine pond operation. In this study, the solubility of calcium phosphate has been assessed in the presence of up to 300 g/L sodium chloride as well as lactose, organic acids, and anions at 10, 30, and 50 °C. As a neutral molecule, lactose has a marginal but still detectable effect upon calcium solubility. However, additions of sodium chloride up to 100 g/L result in a much greater increase in calcium solubility. Beyond this point, the concentrations of ions in the solution decrease significantly. These changes in calcium solubility can readily be explained through changes in the activity coefficients. There is little difference in calcium phosphate speciation between 10 and 30 °C. However, at 50 °C, the ratio of calcium to phosphate in the solution is lower than at the other temperatures and varies less with ionic strength. While the addition of sodium lactate has less effect upon calcium solubility than sodium citrate, it still has a greater effect than sodium chloride at an equivalent ionic strength. Conversely, when these organic anions are present in the solution in the acid form, the effect of pH dominates and results in much higher solubility and a calcium/phosphate ratio close to one, indicative of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate as the dominant solid phase.

  9. Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two functional citrate synthase genes.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, K S; Rosenkrantz, M S; Guarente, L

    1986-01-01

    The tricarboxylic acid cycle occurs within the mitochondria of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A nuclear gene encoding the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme citrate synthase has previously been isolated (M. Suissa, K. Suda, and G. Schatz, EMBO J. 3:1773-1781, 1984) and is referred to here as CIT1. We report here the isolation, by an immunological method, of a second nuclear gene encoding citrate synthase (CIT2). Disruption of both genes in the yeast genome was necessary to produce classical citrate synthase-deficient phenotypes: glutamate auxotrophy and poor growth on rich medium containing lactate, a nonfermentable carbon source. Therefore, the citrate synthase produced from either gene was sufficient for these metabolic roles. Transcription of both genes was maximally repressed in medium containing both glucose and glutamate. However, transcription of CIT1 but not of CIT2 was derepressed in medium containing a nonfermentable carbon source. The significance of the presence of two genes encoding citrate synthase in S. cerevisiae is discussed. Images PMID:3023912

  10. Simplified Citrate Anticoagulation for CRRT Without Calcium Replacement.

    PubMed

    Broman, Marcus; Klarin, Bengt; Sandin, Karin; Carlsson, Ola; Wieslander, Anders; Sternby, Jan; Godaly, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Since 2012, citrate anticoagulation is the recommended anticoagulation strategy for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). The main drawback using citrate as anticoagulant compared with heparin is the need for calcium replacement and the rigorous control of calcium levels. This study investigated the possibility to achieve anticoagulation while eliminating the need for calcium replacement. This was successfully achieved by including citrate and calcium in all CRRT solutions. Thereby the total calcium concentration was kept constant throughout the extracorporeal circuit, whereas the ionized calcium was kept at low levels enough to avoid clotting. Being a completely new concept, only five patients with acute renal failure were included in a short, prospective, intensely supervised nonrandomized pilot study. Systemic electrolyte levels and acid-base parameters were stable and remained within physiologic levels. Ionized calcium levels declined slightly initially but stabilized at 1.1 mmol/L. Plasma citrate concentrations stabilized at approximately 0.6 mmol/L. All postfilter ionized calcium levels were <0.5 mmol/L, that is, an anticoagulation effect was reached. All filter pressures were normal indicating no clotting problems, and no visible clotting was observed. No calcium replacement was needed. This pilot study suggests that it is possible to perform regional citrate anticoagulation without the need for separate calcium infusion during CRRT.

  11. Identification of two distinct Bacillus subtilis citrate synthase genes.

    PubMed

    Jin, S; Sonenshein, A L

    1994-08-01

    Two distinct Bacillus subtilis genes (citA and citZ) were found to encode citrate synthase isozymes that catalyze the first step of the Krebs cycle. The citA gene was cloned by genetic complementation of an Escherichia coli citrate synthase mutant strain (W620) and was in a monocistronic transcriptional unit. A divergently transcribed gene, citR, could encode a protein with strong similarity to the bacterial LysR family of regulatory proteins. A null mutation in citA had little effect on citrate synthase enzyme activity or sporulation. The residual citrate synthase activity was purified from a citA null mutant strain, and the partial amino acid sequence for the purified protein (CitZ) was determined. The citZ gene was cloned from B. subtilis chromosomal DNA by using a PCR-generated probe synthesized with oligonucleotide primers derived from the partial amino acid sequence of purified CitZ. The citZ gene proved to be the first gene in a tricistronic cluster that also included citC (coding for isocitrate dehydrogenase) and citH (coding for malate dehydrogenase). A mutation in citZ caused a substantial loss of citrate synthase enzyme activity, glutamate auxotrophy, and a defect in sporulation.

  12. Comparison of bismuth citrate and 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas in distal ulcerative colitis: a controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Pullan, R D; Ganesh, S; Mani, V; Morris, J; Evans, B K; Williams, G T; Rhodes, J

    1993-01-01

    An enema that contained a complex of bismuth citrate and polyacrylate was compared with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) enemas for treatment of distal ulcerative colitis. The multicentre trial involving 63 patients was randomised and double blind with enemas given over four weeks; clinical, sigmoidoscopic, and histological assessments were made. Improvements were seen in both treatment groups. Clinical remission was seen in 18 of 32 patients treated with 5-ASA and 12 of 31 patients treated with bismuth citrate-carbomer (chi 2 1.94; p = 0.16). Sigmoidoscopic remission occurred in 20 of 32 patients in the 5-ASA group and 15 of 31 patients given bismuth (chi 2 1.27; p = 0.26). Improvement of rectal biopsy histology by at least one grade was seen in 16 of 32 patients in the 5-ASA group and 14 of 31 patients with bismuth (chi 2 0.15; p = 0.70). Analysis of covariance gave no significant difference between groups, although there was a trend favouring 5-ASA. There was no evidence of bismuth accumulation during the trial. Bismuth enemas may offer a new therapeutic option in distal ulcerative colitis. PMID:8504970

  13. Small-angle neutron scattering studies of mineralization on BSA coated citrate capped gold nanoparticles used as a model surface for membrane scaling in RO wastewater desalination.

    PubMed

    Dahdal, Y N; Pipich, V; Rapaport, H; Oren, Y; Kasher, R; Schwahn, D

    2014-12-23

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) coated on citrate capped gold nanoparticles (BSA-GNPs) was exposed to a simulated wastewater effluent (SSE) in order to study the mineralization and thereby mimic scaling at biofouled membranes of reverse osmosis (RO) wastewater desalination plants. RO is a leading technology of achieving freshwater quality as it has the capability of removing both dissolved inorganic salts and organic contaminants from tertiary wastewater effluents. The aim was to better understand one of the major problems facing this technology which is fouling of the membranes, mainly biofouling and scaling by calcium phosphate. The experiments were performed using the small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique. The nanoparticles, GNPs, stabilized by the citrate groups showed 30 Å large particles having a homogeneous distribution of gold and citrate with a gold volume fraction of the order of 1%. On the average two BSA monomers are grafted at 2.4 GNPs. The exposed BSA-GNPs to SSE solution led to immediate mineralization of stable composite particles of the order of 0.2 μm diameter and a mineral volume fraction between 50% and 80%. The volume fraction of the mineral was of the order of 10(-5), which is roughly 3 times larger but an order of magnitude smaller than the maximum possible contents of respectively calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate in the SSE solution. Considering the extreme low solubility product of calcium phosphate, we suggest total calcium phosphate and partially (5-10%) calcium carbonate formation in the presence of BSA-GNPs.

  14. Magnetic nanoparticles coated with cyclodextrins and citrate for irinotecan delivery.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Ana P F; Caminhas, Larissa D; Ardisson, José D; Paniago, Roberto; Cortés, Maria E; Sinisterra, Rubén D

    2017-05-01

    In the present work, we study the role of different components in the formation of more stable iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs): β-cyclodextrin (BCD), 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP) and citrate anion. MNPs formulations were characterized by FTIR, particles size measurements, zeta potential based on dynamic light scattering principle technique, X-ray powder pattern diffraction, XPS spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed that cyclodextrins and citrate plays a key role in order to obtain a lower size of coated MNPs and proved to be an efficient strategy to obtain a more stable colloidal dispersion, avoiding the nanoparticles oxidation, enhancing the irinotecan incorporation and release. Furthermore, citrate-coated BCD-MNPs showed the same cytotoxicity of the free IRI.

  15. Utility of Aspergillus niger citrate synthase promoter for heterologous expression.

    PubMed

    Dave, Kashyap; Punekar, Narayan S

    2011-09-10

    Citrate synthase is a central player in the acidogenic metabolism of Aspergillus niger. The 5' upstream sequence (0.9kb DNA) of citrate synthase gene (citA) from A. niger NCIM 565 was analyzed and its promoter function demonstrated through the heterologous expression of two proteins. The cloned citrate synthase promoter (PcitA) sequence was able to express bar coding sequence thereby conferring phosphinothricin resistance. This sequence was further analyzed by systematic deletions to define an effective but compact functional promoter. The PcitA driven egfp expression showed that PcitA was active in all differentiation cell-stages of A. niger. EGFP expression was highest on non-repressible carbon sources like acetate and glycerol. Mycelial EGFP levels increased during acidogenic growth suggesting that PcitA is functional throughout this cultivation. A. niger PcitA is the first Krebs cycle gene promoter used to express heterologous proteins in filamentous fungi.

  16. Why nature chose phosphates.

    PubMed

    Westheimer, F H

    1987-03-06

    Phosphate esters and anhydrides dominate the living world but are seldom used as intermediates by organic chemists. Phosphoric acid is specially adapted for its role in nucleic acids because it can link two nucleotides and still ionize; the resulting negative charge serves both to stabilize the diesters against hydrolysis and to retain the molecules within a lipid membrane. A similar explanation for stability and retention also holds for phosphates that are intermediary metabolites and for phosphates that serve as energy sources. Phosphates with multiple negative charges can react by way of the monomeric metaphosphate ion PO3- as an intermediate. No other residue appears to fulfill the multiple roles of phosphate in biochemistry. Stable, negatively charged phosphates react under catalysis by enzymes; organic chemists, who can only rarely use enzymatic catalysis for their reactions, need more highly reactive intermediates than phosphates.

  17. Automated regional citrate anticoagulation: technological barriers and possible solutions.

    PubMed

    Szamosfalvi, Balazs; Frinak, Stanley; Yee, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale adoption of regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) is prevented by risks of the technique as practiced traditionally. Safe RCA protocols with automated delivery on customized dialysis systems are needed. We applied kinetic analysis of solute fluxes during RCA to design a protocol for sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) for critically ill patients. We used a high-flux hemodialyzer, a zero-calcium (Ca) dialysate, a dialysis machine with online clearance and access recirculation monitoring, and a separate optical hematocrit (Hct) sensor. Flow rates were Q(B) = 200 ml/min for blood; Q(D) = 400 ml/min for dialysate, with Na = 140 mmol/l and HCO(3) = 32 mmol/l; Q(citrate) = 400 ml/h of acid citrate dextrose A; ultrafiltration as indicated. The Q(Ca) was infused into the return blood line, adjusted hourly based on online Hct and a <24-hour-old albumin level. Using the SLED-RCA protocol in an anhepatic, ex vivo dialysis system, ionized Ca (iCa) was >1 mmol/l in the blood reservoir and <0.3 mmol/l in the blood circuit after citrate but before Ca infusion (Q(Ca)) with normal electrolyte composition of the blood returning to the reservoir. Clinically, SLED-RCA completely abrogated clotting, without adverse electrolyte effects. The Q(Ca) prediction algorithm maintained normal systemic iCa (0.95-1.4 mmol/l) in all patients. The high citrate extraction on the dialyzer prevented systemic citrate accumulation even in shock liver patients. Safety analysis shows that building a dialysis system for automated SLED-RCA is feasible. Using predictive Q(Ca) dosing and integrating control of the infusion pumps with the dialysis machine, SLED-RCA can be near-automated today to provide a user-friendly and safe system. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Kinetics of calcium phosphate nucleation and growth on calcite: implications for predicting the fate of dissolved phosphate species in alkaline soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijun; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnación; Putnis, Christine V; Menneken, Martina; Putnis, Andrew

    2012-01-17

    Unraveling the kinetics of calcium orthophosphate (Ca-P) precipitation and dissolution is important for our understanding of the transformation and mobility of dissolved phosphate species in soils. Here we use an in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) coupled with a fluid reaction cell to study the interaction of phosphate-bearing solutions with calcite surfaces. We observe that the mineral surface-induced formation of Ca-P phases is initiated with the aggregation of clusters leading to the nucleation and subsequent growth of Ca-P phases on calcite, at various pH values and ionic strengths relevant to soil solution conditions. A significant decrease in the dissolved phosphate concentration occurs due to the promoted nucleation of Ca-P phases on calcite surfaces at elevated phosphate concentrations and more significantly at high salt concentrations. Also, kinetic data analyses show that low concentrations of citrate caused an increase in the nucleation rate of Ca-P phases. However, at higher concentrations of citrate, nucleation acceleration was reversed with much longer induction times to form Ca-P nuclei. These results demonstrate that the nucleation-modifying properties of small organic molecules may be scaled up to analyze Ca-P dissolution-precipitation processes that are mediated by a more complex soil environment. This in situ observation, albeit preliminary, may contribute to an improved understanding of the fate of dissolved phosphate species in diverse soil systems.

  19. Supplementation of total parenteral nutrition solutions with ferrous citrate.

    PubMed

    Sayers, M H; Johnson, D K; Schumann, L A; Ivey, M F; Young, J H; Finch, C A

    1983-01-01

    Daily infusion of a total parenteral nutrition (TPN) formulation containing 1 liter of 5.5% Travasol provides less than 0.1 milligrams of iron. By comparison, a formulation which includes a liter of 10% Travamin provides 2 milligrams of iron per day. To meet iron requirements in patients infusing formulations containing Travasol, iron was added as ferrous citrate. In in virto experiments, 74% of this iron was available to transferrin. In seven patients in whom in vivo availability was tested by red cell incorporation, the mean availability was 81%. Ferrous citrate is recommended as a safe, effective additive to TPN solutions for adult patients requiring iron supplements.

  20. Peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthase in CAM plants.

    PubMed

    Zafra, M F; Segovia, J L; Alejandre, M J; García-Peregrín, E

    1981-12-01

    Citrate synthase wa studied for the first time in peroxisomes and mitochondria of crassulacean acid metabolism plants. Cellular organelles were isolated from Agave americana leaves by sucrose density gradient centrifugation and characterized by the use of catalase and cytochrome oxidase as marker enzymes, respectively. 48,000 X g centrifugation caused the breakdown of the cellular organelles. The presence of a glyoxylate cycle enzyme (citrate synthase) and a glycollate pathway enzyme (catalase) in the same organelles, besides the absence of another glyoxalate cycle enzyme (malate synthase) is reported for the first time, suggesting that peroxisomal and glyoxysomal proteins are synthesized at the same time and housed in he same organelle.

  1. Effects of inositol phosphates on mineral utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, S.H.; Fox, M.R.S.; Phillippy, B.Q.; Fry, B.E. Jr.; Johnson, M.L.; Johnston, M.R.

    1986-03-05

    The present study was designed to compare the effects of inositol tri-, tetra-, and pentaphosphate (IP3, IP4, and IP5) with those of phytic acid (IP6) on growth, development and mineral utilization of young quail. Day-old Japanese quail were fed a purified casein-gelatin control diet containing 20 ppm Zn with 0 or 8.33 mmoles/kg of each inositol phosphate, corresponding to 0.55% of IP6, for a week. As compared with controls, IP6 caused reduced body weight, poor feathering, severe perosis, decreased tibia Zn and ash, and decreased pancreas Zn and liver Mn. IP5 produced all the same adverse effects and tissue mineral changes as those by phytic acid, whereas birds fed IP3 or IP4 were normal. Moreover, IP3 and IP4 caused an increased tibia weight and ash. None of the above effects was produced by feeding inositol or inorganic phosphate. In a second experiment, the inositol phosphates were fed at either 8.33 or 16.66 mmoles/kg diet. Doubling inositol phosphate levels resulted in similar effects as those observed previously. Additionally, IP4 decreased pancreas Zn and IP3 increased tibia Zn. These results indicate that unlike IP6 and IP5, inositol phosphates with 4 or fewer phosphate groups, which can arise from hydrolysis of phytic acid during food processing, have very minor adverse effects but may be beneficial for bone mineralization.

  2. Influence of caffeine and sodium citrate ingestion on 1,500-m exercise performance in elite wheelchair athletes: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Flueck, Joelle Leonie; Mettler, Samuel; Perret, Claudio

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether caffeine and/or sodium citrate have an ergogenic effect on the 1,500-m exercise performance in elite wheelchair athletes. A placebo-controlled, randomized, cross-over and double-blind study design was conducted with the four treatments placebo, caffeine, sodium citrate and the combination of caffeine and sodium citrate. Nine healthy, elite wheelchair-racing athletes (median: [min; max] age: 28 y [23; 54]; height: 173 cm [165; 188]; weight: 62.9 kg [48.9; 68.4], category T53/54) completed the study. All athletes were national team members, including several Paralympic Games, World and European Championship medalists. The athletes performed a 1,500-m time trial four times on a wheelchair training roller. Time to complete 1,500-m, pH, bicarbonate and sodium concentration as well as lactate concentration were measured. The time to complete 1,500-m was not significantly different between the four treatments (placebo: 170.6 s [141.7; 232.0]; caffeine: 179.5 s [134.8; 239.6]; sodium citrate: 178.3 s [136.4; 247.1]; combination: 177.6 s [136.1; 256.2]). However, pH and bicarbonate concentrations were significantly increased with sodium citrate ingestion compared with placebo. Moreover, maximal lactate concentrations were significantly higher in the caffeine and the combination treatment compared with placebo. The supplementation with sodium citrate and/or caffeine did not provide an ergogenic effect on the 1,500-m exercise performance in wheelchair elite athletes.

  3. Citrate-release-mediated aluminum resistance is coupled to the inducible expression of mitochondrial citrate synthase gene in Paraserianthes falcataria.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Hiroki; Kojima, Katsumi

    2006-05-01

    Aluminum (Al) resistance in some leguminous plants is achieved by enhanced citrate release from roots. Enhancement requires several hours for complete activation and is postulated to involve Al-responsive genes or components. We examined the mechanism of Al-induced citrate release by studying the relationship between citrate release and expression of the mitochondrial citrate synthase (mCS) gene in three leguminous trees. Root elongation in Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit was arrested within 24 h by 30 microM Al, whereas root elongation in Paraserianthes falcataria (L.) Neilson and Acacia mangium Willd. was inhibited < 50% by a 48-h treatment with 100 microM Al in calcium chloride solution. Roots of P. falcataria and A. mangium maintained enhanced release and accumulation of citrate for at least 28 days in response to Al treatment. Aluminum increased the accumulation of mCS transcripts in P. falcataria roots, but not in L. leucocephala roots, and thus up-regulation decreased following removal of Al. Lanthanum did not alter the expression level of mCS. Aluminum increased mCS activity concomitantly with enhanced mCS gene expression in P. falcataria, whereas it did not affect mCS activity in L. leucocephala. Aluminum content in root apices of P. falcataria was increased by cycloheximide, supporting the idea that de novo synthesis of proteins is a prerequisite for Al resistance. Our findings suggest that Al-inducible expression of mCS coupled with enhanced citrate release mediates Al resistance in P. falcataria.

  4. Phosphate, inositol and polyphosphates.

    PubMed

    Livermore, Thomas M; Azevedo, Cristina; Kolozsvari, Bernadett; Wilson, Miranda S C; Saiardi, Adolfo

    2016-02-01

    Eukaryotic cells have ubiquitously utilized the myo-inositol backbone to generate a diverse array of signalling molecules. This is achieved by arranging phosphate groups around the six-carbon inositol ring. There is virtually no biological process that does not take advantage of the uniquely variable architecture of phosphorylated inositol. In inositol biology, phosphates are able to form three distinct covalent bonds: phosphoester, phosphodiester and phosphoanhydride bonds, with each providing different properties. The phosphoester bond links phosphate groups to the inositol ring, the variable arrangement of which forms the basis of the signalling capacity of the inositol phosphates. Phosphate groups can also form the structural bridge between myo-inositol and diacylglycerol through the phosphodiester bond. The resulting lipid-bound inositol phosphates, or phosphoinositides, further expand the signalling potential of this family of molecules. Finally, inositol is also notable for its ability to host more phosphates than it has carbons. These unusual organic molecules are commonly referred to as the inositol pyrophosphates (PP-IPs), due to the presence of high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds (pyro- or diphospho-). PP-IPs themselves constitute a varied family of molecules with one or more pyrophosphate moiety/ies located around the inositol. Considering the relationship between phosphate and inositol, it is no surprise that members of the inositol phosphate family also regulate cellular phosphate homoeostasis. Notably, the PP-IPs play a fundamental role in controlling the metabolism of the ancient polymeric form of phosphate, inorganic polyphosphate (polyP). Here we explore the intimate links between phosphate, inositol phosphates and polyP, speculating on the evolution of these relationships. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  5. Concentration-dependent Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) effects on ROS production, energy status, and human sperm function.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Maria Inês; Amaral, Sandra; Tavares, Renata Santos; Paiva, Carla; Ramalho-Santos, João

    2014-04-01

    Literature regarding the effects of sildenafil citrate on sperm function remains controversial. In the present study, we specifically wanted to determine if mitochondrial dysfunction, namely membrane potential, reactive oxygen species production, and changes in energy content, are involved in in vitro sildenafil-induced alterations of human sperm function. Sperm samples of healthy men were incubated in the presence of 0.03, 0.3, and 3 μM sildenafil citrate in a phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-based medium for 2, 3, 12, and 24 hours. Sperm motility and viability were evaluated and mitochondrial function, i.e., mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial superoxide production were assessed using flow-cytometry. Additionally, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Results show a decrease in sperm motility correlated with the level of mitochondria-generated superoxide, without a visible effect on mitochondrial membrane potential or viability upon exposure to sildenafil. The effect on both motility and superoxide production was higher for the intermediate concentration of sildenafil (0.3 µM) indicating that the in vitro effects of sildenafil on human sperm do not vary linearly with drug concentration. Adenosine triphosphate levels also decreased following sildenafil exposure, but this decrease was only detected after a decrease in motility was already evident. These results suggest that along with the level of ATP and mitochondrial function other factors are involved in the early sildenafil-mediated decline in sperm motility. However, the further decrease in ATP levels and increase in mitochondria-generated reactive oxygen species after 24 hours of exposure might further contribute towards declining sperm motility.

  6. A test of the citrate method of PMI estimation from skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sarah J; Christensen, Angi M

    2017-01-01

    Citrate content in bone has been shown to be associated with the postmortem interval (PMI), with citrate decreasing after death as a function of time. Here we test this method using porcine ribs for the period of 1-165days after death, and also assess citrate content and variation from samples placed into two different postmortem environments (terrestrial and aquatic). Higher citrate variation, lower citrate recovery, and a weaker association with time were found in this study as compared to others. Citrate content, however, was found to decrease with increasing PMI, and the method was found to be easy and inexpensive to apply. No significant differences were found in citrate loss between terrestrial and aquatic environments. Although more research is needed, citrate content appears to be a promising new approach in estimating PMI from skeletal remains. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Phosphate taxis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kato, J; Ito, A; Nikata, T; Ohtake, H

    1992-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa was shown to be attracted to phosphate. The chemotactic response was induced by phosphate starvation. The specificity of chemoreceptors for phosphate was high so that no other tested phosphorus compounds elicited a chemotactic response as strong as that elicited by phosphate. Competition experiments showed that the chemoreceptors for phosphate appeared to be different from those for the common amino acids. Mutants constitutive for alkaline phosphatase showed the chemotactic response to phosphate regardless of whether the cells were starved for phosphate.

  8. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food...

  9. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food...

  10. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food...

  11. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food...

  12. 21 CFR 520.1803 - Piperazine citrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1803 Piperazine citrate.... (c) Conditions of use. (1) It is used in dogs and cats for the removal of large roundworms (Toxocara... for each 5 pounds, or fraction thereof of body weight, except dogs weighing over 25 pounds should be...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1803 - Piperazine citrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1803 Piperazine citrate.... (c) Conditions of use. (1) It is used in dogs and cats for the removal of large roundworms (Toxocara... for each 5 pounds, or fraction thereof of body weight, except dogs weighing over 25 pounds should be...

  14. 21 CFR 520.1803 - Piperazine citrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1803 Piperazine citrate.... (c) Conditions of use. (1) It is used in dogs and cats for the removal of large roundworms (Toxocara... for each 5 pounds, or fraction thereof of body weight, except dogs weighing over 25 pounds should be...

  15. 21 CFR 520.1803 - Piperazine citrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1803 Piperazine citrate.... (c) Conditions of use. (1) It is used in dogs and cats for the removal of large roundworms (Toxocara... for each 5 pounds, or fraction thereof of body weight, except dogs weighing over 25 pounds should be...

  16. 21 CFR 520.1803 - Piperazine citrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1803 Piperazine citrate.... (c) Conditions of use. (1) It is used in dogs and cats for the removal of large roundworms (Toxocara... for each 5 pounds, or fraction thereof of body weight, except dogs weighing over 25 pounds should be...

  17. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food...

  18. 21 CFR 573.580 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 573.580 Section 573.580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS...

  19. 21 CFR 520.622 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms. 520.622 Section 520.622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE... brown or garnet red scales or granules or as a brownish-yellowish powder. (2) Ferric ammonium citrate... occurs as thin transparent green scales, as granules, as a powder, or as transparent green crystals....

  1. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE... brown or garnet red scales or granules or as a brownish-yellowish powder. (2) Ferric ammonium citrate... occurs as thin transparent green scales, as granules, as a powder, or as transparent green crystals....

  2. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... general and ophthalmic surgery subject to the following conditions: (1) The dyed suture shall conform...

  3. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... general and ophthalmic surgery subject to the following conditions: (1) The dyed suture shall conform...

  4. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... general and ophthalmic surgery subject to the following conditions: (1) The dyed suture shall conform...

  5. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... general and ophthalmic surgery subject to the following conditions: (1) The dyed suture shall conform...

  6. Development of Injectable Citrate-Based Bioadhesive Bone Implants

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Denghui; Guo, Jinshan; Mehdizadeh, Mohammadreza; Tran, Richard T.; Chen, Ruisong; Sun, Dawei; Qian, Guoying; Jin, Dadi; Bai, Xiaochun; Yang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Injectable bone implants have been widely used in bone tissue repairs including the treatment of comminuted bone fractures (CBF). However, most injectable bone implants are not suitable for the treatment of CBF due to their weak tissue adhesion strengths and minimal osteoinduction. Citrate has been recently reported to promote bone formation through enhanced bioceramic integration and osteoinductivity. Herein, a novel injectable citrate-based mussel-inspired bioadhesive hydroxyapatite (iCMBA/HA) bone substitute was developed for CBF treatment. iCMBA/HA can be set within 2–4 minutes and the as-prepared (wet) iCMBA/HA possess low swelling ratios, compressive mechanical strengths of up to 3.2±0.27 MPa, complete degradation in 30 days, suitable biocompatibility, and osteoinductivity. This is also the first time to demonstrate that citrate supplementation in osteogenic medium and citrate released from iCMBA/HA degradation can promote the mineralization of osteoblastic committed human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). In vivo evaluation of iCMBA/HA in a rabbit comminuted radial fracture model showed significantly increased bone formation with markedly enhanced three-point bending strength compared to the negative control. Neovascularization and bone ingrowth as well as highly organized bone formation were also observed showing the potential of iCMBA/HA in treating CBF. PMID:25580247

  7. 21 CFR 184.1307c - Ferrous citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... 23383-11-1) is a slightly colored powder or white crystals. It is prepared from the reaction of sodium citrate with ferrous sulfate or by direct action of citric acid on iron filings. (b) The ingredient must... accordance with section 412(g) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act) (21 U.S.C. 350a(g)) or...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1307c - Ferrous citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the reaction of sodium citrate with ferrous sulfate or by direct action of citric acid on iron filings... (the act) (21 U.S.C. 350a(g)) or with regulations promulgated under section 412(a)(2) of the act (21 U.S.C. 350a(a)(2)). (d) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1307c - Ferrous citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the reaction of sodium citrate with ferrous sulfate or by direct action of citric acid on iron filings... (the act) (21 U.S.C. 350a(g)) or with regulations promulgated under section 412(a)(2) of the act (21 U.S.C. 350a(a)(2)). (d) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1307c - Ferrous citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the reaction of sodium citrate with ferrous sulfate or by direct action of citric acid on iron filings... (the act) (21 U.S.C. 350a(g)) or with regulations promulgated under section 412(a)(2) of the act (21 U.S.C. 350a(a)(2)). (d) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in...

  11. 40 CFR 721.7285 - Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7285 Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines, N...

  12. 40 CFR 721.7285 - Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7285 Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines, N...

  13. 40 CFR 721.7286 - Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7286 Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines, N...

  14. 40 CFR 721.7286 - Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7286 Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines, N...

  15. 21 CFR 522.300 - Carfentanil citrate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carfentanil citrate injection. 522.300 Section 522.300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  16. 21 CFR 522.300 - Carfentanil citrate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carfentanil citrate injection. 522.300 Section 522.300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  17. 21 CFR 522.300 - Carfentanil citrate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carfentanil citrate injection. 522.300 Section 522.300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  18. 40 CFR 721.7286 - Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates (PMN P-93-881; CAS No. 189120-62-5) is subject to reporting under this section for the...), (g)(4)(iii), and (g)(5). (ii) Release to water. Requirements as specified in § 721.90 (a)(1), (b)(1....125 (a), (b), (c), (f), (g), (h), and (k) are applicable to manufacturers, importers, and processors...

  19. 40 CFR 721.7285 - Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates. (PMN P-93-880; CAS No. 189120-63-6) is subject to reporting under this section for the...), (g)(4)(iii), and (g)(5). (ii) Release to water. Requirements as specified in § 721.90 (a)(1), (b)(1....125 (a), (b), (c), (f), (g), (h), and (k) are applicable to manufacturers, importers, and processors...

  20. Synthesis of Stable Citrate-Capped Silver Nanoprisms.

    PubMed

    Haber, Jason M; Sokolov, Konstantin

    2017-09-12

    Citrate-stabilized silver nanoprisms (AgNPrs) can be easily functionalized using well-developed thiol based surface chemistry that is an important requirement for biosensor applications utilizing localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and surface-enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS). Unfortunately, currently available protocols for synthesis of citrate-coated AgNPrs do not produce stable nanoparticles thus limiting their usefulness in biosensing applications. Here we address this problem by carrying out a systematic study of citrate-stabilized, peroxide-based synthesis of AgNPrs to optimize reaction conditions for production of stable and reproducible nanoprisms. Our analysis showed that concentration of secondary reducing agent, L-ascorbic acid, is critical to AgNPr stability. Furthermore, we demonstrated that optimization of other synthesis conditions such as stabilizer concentration, rate of silver nitrate addition and seed dilution result in highly stable nanoprisms with narrow absorption peaks ranging from 450nm into near-IR. In addition, the optimized reaction conditions can be used to produce AgNPrs in a one-pot synthesis instead of a previously described two-step reaction. The resulting nanoprisms can readily interact with thiols for easy surface functionalization. These studies provide an optimized set of parameters for precise control of citrate stabilized AgNPr synthesis for biomedical applications.

  1. Complex transcriptional regulation of citrate metabolism in Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yonghui; Ohtani, Kaori; Yoshizawa, Satoko; Shimizu, Tohru

    2012-02-01

    A Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium, Clostridium perfringens, possesses genes for citrate metabolism, which might play an important role in the utilization of citrate as a sole carbon source. In this study, we identified a chromosomal citCDEFX-mae-citS operon in C. perfringens strain 13, which is transcribed on three mRNAs of different sizes. Expression of the cit operon was significantly induced when 5 mM extracellular citrate was added to the growth medium. Most interestingly, three regulatory systems were found to be involved in the regulation of the expression of cit genes: 1) the two upstream divergent genes citG and citI; 2) two different two-component regulatory systems, CitA/CitB (TCS6 consisted of CPE0531/CPE0532) and TCS5 (CPE0518/CPE0519); and 3) the global two-component VirR/VirS-VR-RNA regulatory system known to regulate various genes for toxins and degradative enzymes. Our results suggest that in C. perfringens the citrate metabolism might be strictly controlled by a complex regulatory system.

  2. 40 CFR 721.7286 - Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7286 Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines,...

  3. 40 CFR 721.7285 - Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7285 Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines,...

  4. 21 CFR 522.300 - Carfentanil citrate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carfentanil citrate injection. 522.300 Section 522.300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  5. 40 CFR 721.7285 - Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7285 Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines, N...

  6. 40 CFR 721.7286 - Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7286 Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines, N...

  7. 21 CFR 520.622d - Diethylcarbamazine citrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Diethylcarbamazine citrate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 12.5, 50, 200, or 400 milligrams (mg... dogs—(1) Amount/indications for use. 3 mg per pound (/lb) body weight daily for prevention of heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis); 25 to 50 mg/lb body weight in a single dose as an aid in the treatment...

  8. 21 CFR 520.622d - Diethylcarbamazine citrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Diethylcarbamazine citrate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 12.5, 50, 200, or 400 milligrams (mg... dogs—(1) Amount/indications for use. 3 mg per pound (/lb) body weight daily for prevention of heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis); 25 to 50 mg/lb body weight in a single dose as an aid in the treatment...

  9. 78 FR 63228 - Determination That Potassium Citrate, 10 Milliequivalents/Packet and 20 Milliequivalents/Packet...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That Potassium Citrate, 10 Milliequivalents...) has determined that Potassium Citrate, 10 milliequivalents/packet (mEq/packet) and 20 mEq/ packet, was... approve abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for Potassium Citrate, 10 mEq/packet and 20 mEq/packet...

  10. 75 FR 14491 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Bismuth Citrate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... level of bismuth citrate as a color additive in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp. This... citrate as a color additive in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp from 0.5 percent (weight... bismuth citrate in cosmetics intended for coloring scalp hair to 2.0 percent (w/v) with no changes to the...

  11. 78 FR 64914 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of... of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from Canada.\\1\\ The review... period of review (POR) is May 1, 2011, through April 30, 2012. \\1\\ See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate...

  12. 78 FR 34338 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (citric acid) from... is citric acid and certain citrate salts. The product is currently classified in the Harmonized...

  13. 77 FR 24461 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of... the preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and... citric acid and certain citrate salts from Canada. See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from Canada...

  14. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  15. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  16. Molecular characterization of microbial population dynamics during sildenafil citrate degradation.

    PubMed

    De Felice, Bruna; Argenziano, Carolina; Guida, Marco; Trifuoggi, Marco; Russo, Francesca; Condorelli, Valerio; Inglese, Mafalda

    2009-02-01

    Little is known about pharmaceutical and personal care products pollutants (PPCPs), but there is a growing interest in how they might impact the environment and microbial communities. The widespread use of Viagra (sildenafil citrate) has attracted great attention because of the high usage rate, the unpredictable disposal and the unknown potential effects on wildlife and the environment. Until now information regarding the impact of Viagra on microbial community in water environment has not been reported. In this research, for the first time, the genetic profile of the microbial community, developing in a Viagra polluted water environment, was evaluated by means of the 16S and 18S rRNA genes, for bacteria and fungi, respectively, amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and separated using the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) technique. The DGGE results revealed a complex microbial community structure with most of the population persisting throughout the experimental period. DNA sequences from bands observed in the different denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles exhibited the highest degree of identity to uncultured bacteria and fungi found previously mainly in polluted environmental and treating bioreactors. Biotransformation ability of sildenafil citrate by the microbial pool was studied and the capability of these microorganisms to detoxify a polluted water ecosystem was assessed. The bacterial and fungal population was able to degrade sildenafil citrate entirely. Additionally, assays conducted on Daphnia magna, algal growth inhibition assay and cell viability determination on HepG2 human cells showed that biotransformation products obtained from the bacterial growth was not toxic. The higher removal efficiency for sildenafil citrate and the lack of toxicity by the biotransformation products obtained showed that the microbial community identified here represented a composite population that might have biotechnological relevance to

  17. Mayenite Synthesized Using the Citrate Sol-Gel Method

    SciTech Connect

    Ude, Sabina N; Rawn, Claudia J; Meisner, Roberta A; Kirkham, Melanie J; Jones, Gregory L.; Payzant, E Andrew

    2014-01-01

    A citrate sol-gel method has been used to synthesize mayenite (Ca12Al14O33). X-ray powder diffraction data show that the samples synthesized using the citrate sol-gel method contained CaAl2O4 and CaCO3 along with mayenite when fired ex-situ in air at 800 C but were single phase when fired at 900 C and above. Using high temperature x-ray diffraction, data collected in-situ in air at temperatures of 600 C and below showed only amorphous content; however, data collected at higher temperatures indicated the first phase to crystallize is CaCO3. High temperature x-ray diffraction data collected in 4% H2/96% N2 does not show the presence of CaCO3, and Ca12Al14O33 starts to form around 850 C. In comparison, x-ray powder diffraction data collected ex-situ on samples synthesized using traditional solid-state synthesis shows that single phase was not reached until samples were fired at 1350 C. DTA/TGA data collected either in a nitrogen environment or air on samples synthesized using the citrate gel method suggest the complete decomposition of metastable phases and the formation of mayenite at 900 C, although the phase evolution is very different depending on the environment. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements showed a slightly higher surface area of 7.4 0.1 m2/g in the citrate gel synthesized samples compared to solid-state synthesized sample with a surface area of 1.61 0.02 m2/g. SEM images show a larger particle size for samples synthesized using the solid-state method compared to those synthesized using the citrate gel method.

  18. Radiation-induced radicals in glucose-1-phosphate. I. Electron paramagnetic resonance and electron nuclear double resonance analysis of in situ X-irradiated single crystals at 77 K.

    PubMed

    De Cooman, Hendrik; Vanhaelewyn, Gauthier; Pauwels, Ewald; Sagstuen, Einar; Waroquier, Michel; Callens, Freddy

    2008-11-27

    Electron magnetic resonance analysis of radiation-induced defects in dipotassium glucose-1-phosphate dihydrate single crystals in situ X-irradiated and measured at 77 K shows that at least seven different carbon-centered radical species are trapped. Four of these (R1-R4) can be fully or partly characterized in terms of proton hyperfine coupling tensors. The dominant radical (R2) is identified as a C1-centered species, assumedly formed by a scission of the sugar-phosphate junction and the concerted formation of a carbonyl group at the neighboring C2 carbon. This structure is chemically identical to a radical recently identified in irradiated sucrose single crystals. Radical species R1 and R4 most likely are C3- and C6-centered species, respectively, both formed by a net hydrogen abstraction. R3 is suggested to be chemically similar to but geometrically different from R4. Knowledge of the identity of the sugar radicals present at 77 K provides a first step in elucidating the formation mechanism of the phosphoryl radicals previously detected after X-irradiation at 280 K. In paper II, the chemical identity, precise conformation, and possible formation mechanisms of these radical species are investigated by means of DFT calculations and elementary insight into the radiation chemistry of sugar and sugar derivatives is obtained.

  19. DHEA-Mediated Inhibition of the Pentose Phosphate Pathway Alters Oocyte Lipid Metabolism in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Patricia T.; Frolova, Antonina I.; Chi, Maggie M.; Grindler, Natalia M.; Willcockson, Alexandra R.; Reynolds, Kasey A.; Zhao, Quihong

    2013-01-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and hyperandrogenism have altered hormone levels and suffer from ovarian dysfunction leading to subfertility. We have attempted to generate a model of hyperandrogenism by feeding mice chow supplemented with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), an androgen precursor that is often elevated in women with PCOS. Treated mice had polycystic ovaries, low ovulation rates, disrupted estrous cycles, and altered hormone levels. Because DHEA is an inhibitor of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway, we tested the hypothesis that oocytes from DHEA-exposed mice would have metabolic disruptions. Citrate levels, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, and lipid content in denuded oocytes from these mice were significantly lower than controls, suggesting abnormal tricarboxylic acid and pentose phosphate pathway metabolism. The lipid and citrate effects were reversible by supplementation with nicotinic acid, a precursor for reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. These findings suggest that elevations in systemic DHEA can have a negative impact on oocyte metabolism and may contribute to poor pregnancy outcomes in women with hyperandrogenism and PCOS. PMID:24036000

  20. Reduced use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and intravenous iron with ferric citrate: a managed care cost-offset model

    PubMed Central

    Mutell, Richard; Rubin, Jaime L; Bond, T Christopher; Mayne, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    Background Ferric citrate (FC) is a phosphate binder in development for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In clinical trials, FC improved patient serum phosphorus levels and increased serum ferritin and percent transferrin saturation. Because nephrologists respond to increases in these iron measures by reducing intravenous (IV) iron and erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) doses, the decreased use of iron and ESA associated with FC may reduce costs. Objectives To develop a cost-offset model from a managed care perspective estimating the cost savings associated with FC use. Methods We created a cost-offset model from the managed care payer perspective that compared the treatment costs of ESRD for patients given FC. The model considered the number of dialysis sessions per month; number of ESRD patients enrolled in the health plan; cost of ESAs, iron, and dialysis sessions; and the proportion of patients on phosphate binder therapy. The model assumed equivalent efficacy and cost neutrality between FC and other phosphate binders. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted by varying model inputs. Results When FC was compared to other phosphate binders, the monthly cost of ESA and IV iron per 500 patients with ESRD (85% treated with phosphate binders) was reduced by 8.15% and 33.2%, respectively. When incorporated into the total cost of dialysis for patients with ESRD (dialysis, ESA, and IV iron), the decrease in the monthly cost of dialysis care was US$80,214 per 500 ESRD patients. Monte Carlo simulations suggest that a plan serving 500 dialysis patients could save between US$626,000 and US$1,106,000 annually with the use of FC. Conclusion The use of FC in ESRD patients with hyperphosphatemia may help reduce treatment costs. PMID:23662073

  1. Reduced use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and intravenous iron with ferric citrate: a managed care cost-offset model.

    PubMed

    Mutell, Richard; Rubin, Jaime L; Bond, T Christopher; Mayne, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    Ferric citrate (FC) is a phosphate binder in development for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In clinical trials, FC improved patient serum phosphorus levels and increased serum ferritin and percent transferrin saturation. Because nephrologists respond to increases in these iron measures by reducing intravenous (IV) iron and erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) doses, the decreased use of iron and ESA associated with FC may reduce costs. To develop a cost-offset model from a managed care perspective estimating the cost savings associated with FC use. We created a cost-offset model from the managed care payer perspective that compared the treatment costs of ESRD for patients given FC. The model considered the number of dialysis sessions per month; number of ESRD patients enrolled in the health plan; cost of ESAs, iron, and dialysis sessions; and the proportion of patients on phosphate binder therapy. The model assumed equivalent efficacy and cost neutrality between FC and other phosphate binders. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted by varying model inputs. When FC was compared to other phosphate binders, the monthly cost of ESA and IV iron per 500 patients with ESRD (85% treated with phosphate binders) was reduced by 8.15% and 33.2%, respectively. When incorporated into the total cost of dialysis for patients with ESRD (dialysis, ESA, and IV iron), the decrease in the monthly cost of dialysis care was US$80,214 per 500 ESRD patients. Monte Carlo simulations suggest that a plan serving 500 dialysis patients could save between US$626,000 and US$1,106,000 annually with the use of FC. The use of FC in ESRD patients with hyperphosphatemia may help reduce treatment costs.

  2. Soluble phosphate fertilizer production using acid effluent from metallurgical industry.

    PubMed

    Mattiello, Edson M; Resende Filho, Itamar D P; Barreto, Matheus S; Soares, Aline R; Silva, Ivo R da; Vergütz, Leonardus; Melo, Leônidas C A; Soares, Emanuelle M B

    2016-01-15

    Preventive and effective waste management requires cleaner production strategies and technologies for recycling and reuse. Metallurgical industries produce a great amount of acid effluent that must be discarded in a responsible manner, protecting the environment. The focus of this study was to examine the use of this effluent to increase reactivity of some phosphate rocks, thus enabling soluble phosphate fertilizer production. The effluent was diluted in deionized water with the following concentrations 0; 12.5; 25; 50; 75% (v v(-1)), which were added to four natural phosphate rocks: Araxá, Patos, Bayovar and Catalão and then left to react for 1 h and 24 h. There was an increase in water (PW), neutral ammonium citrate (PNAC) and citric acid (PCA) soluble phosphorus fractions. Such increases were dependent of rock type while the reaction time had no significant effect (p < 0.05) on the chemical and mineralogical phosphate characteristics. Phosphate fertilizers with low toxic metal concentrations and a high level of micronutrients were produced compared to the original natural rocks. The minimum amount of total P2O5, PNAC and PW, required for national legislation for phosphate partially acidulated fertilizer, were met when using Catalão and the effluent at the concentration of 55% (v v(-1)). Fertilizer similar to partially acidulated phosphate was obtained when Bayovar with effluent at 37.5% (v v(-1)) was used. Even though fertilizers obtained from Araxá and Patos did not contain the minimum levels of total P2O5 required by legislation, they can be used as a nutrient source and for acid effluent recycling and reuse.

  3. Hair Sheep Blood, Citrated or Defibrinated, Fulfills All Requirements of Blood Agar for Diagnostic Microbiology Laboratory Tests

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Ellen; Pinsky, Benjamin A.; Banaei, Niaz; Baron, Ellen Jo

    2009-01-01

    Background Blood agar is used for the identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of many bacterial pathogens. In the developing world, microbiologists use human blood agar because of the high cost and inhospitable conditions for raising wool sheep or horses to supply blood. Many pathogens either fail to grow entirely or exhibit morphologies and hemolytic patterns on human blood agar that confound colony recognition. Furthermore, human blood can be hazardous to handle due to HIV and hepatitis [1], [2]. This study investigated whether blood from hair sheep, a hardy, low-maintenance variety of sheep adapted for hot climates, was suitable for routine clinical microbiology studies. Methods and Findings Hair sheep blood obtained by jugular venipuncture was anticoagulated by either manual defibrination or collection in human blood bank bags containing citrate-phosphate-dextrose. Trypticase soy 5% blood agar was made from both forms of hair sheep blood and commercial defibrinated wool sheep blood. Growth characteristics, colony morphologies, and hemolytic patterns of selected human pathogens, including several streptococcal species, were evaluated. Specialized identification tests, including CAMP test, reverse CAMP test, and satellite colony formation with Haemophilus influenzae and Abiotrophia defectiva were also performed. Mueller-Hinton blood agar plates prepared from the three blood types were compared in antibiotic susceptibility tests by disk diffusion and E-test. Conclusions The results of all studies showed that blood agar prepared from citrated hair sheep blood is suitable for microbiological tests used in routine identification and susceptibility profiling of human pathogens. The validation of citrated hair sheep blood eliminates the labor-intensive and equipment-requiring process of manual defibrination. Use of hair sheep blood, in lieu of human blood currently used by many developing world laboratories and as an alternative to cost

  4. Identification of three relationships linking cadmium accumulation to cadmium tolerance and zinc and citrate accumulation in lettuce.

    PubMed

    Zorrig, Walid; Rouached, Aïda; Shahzad, Zaigham; Abdelly, Chedly; Davidian, Jean-Claude; Berthomieu, Pierre

    2010-10-15

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is a plant species that shows high accumulation of cadmium, a toxic heavy metal. Lettuce is therefore a good model both for identifying determinants controlling cadmium accumulation in plant tissues and for developing breeding strategies aimed at limiting cadmium accumulation in edible tissues. In this work, 14-day-old plants from three lettuce varieties were grown for 8 days on media supplemented with cadmium concentrations ranging from 0 to 50 microM. Growth, as well as Cd(2+), Zn(2+), K(+), Ca(2+), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), Cl(-), phosphate, malate and citrate root an shoot contents were analyzed. The three lettuce varieties Paris Island Cos, Red Salad Bowl and Kordaat displayed differential abilities to accumulate cadmium in roots and shoots, Paris Island Cos displaying the lowest cadmium content and Kordaat the highest. From the global analysis of the three varieties, three main trends were identified. First, a common negative correlation linked cadmium tissue content and relative dry weight reduction in response to cadmium treatments in the three varieties. Second, increasing cadmium concentration in the culture medium resulted in a parallel increase in zinc tissue content in all lettuce varieties. A common strong positive correlation between cadmium and zinc contents was observed for all varieties. This suggested that systems enabling zinc and cadmium transport were induced by cadmium. Finally, the cadmium treatments had a contrasting effect on anion contents in tissues. Interestingly, citrate content in shoots was correlated with cadmium translocation from roots to shoots, suggesting that citrate might play a role in cadmium transport in the xylem vessels. Altogether, these results shed light on three main strategies developed by lettuce to cope with cadmium, which could help to develop breeding strategies aimed at limiting cadmium accumulation in lettuce. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Maintaining normal levels of ionized calcium during citrate-based renal replacement therapy is associated with stable parathyroid hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Raimundo, Mário; Crichton, Siobhan; Lei, Katie; Sanderson, Barnaby; Smith, John; Brooks, John; Ng, Josephine; Lemmich Smith, Joanna; McKenzie, Catherine; Beale, Richard; Dickie, Helen; Ostermann, Marlies

    2013-01-01

    Citrate is an effective anticoagulant during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Previous studies showed raised parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels when aiming for serum ionized calcium [Cai] between 0.8 and 1.1 mmol/l. Our objective was to assess whether citrate-based CRRT with physiologic target systemic [Ca(i)] between 1.12 and 1.20 mmol/l could maintain stable PTH levels. Measurement of intact PTH (PTHi) in 30 consecutive critically ill patients treated with citrate-based CRRT. Thirty patients [mean age: 70.4 (SD 11.3) years; 56.7% males] were enrolled. Mean serum [Ca(i)] was 1.16 mmol/l (SD 0.09), 1.13 mmol/l (SD 0.09), 1.17 mmol/l (SD 0.05) and 1.16 mmol/l (SD 0.04) at baseline, 12, 24 and 48 h, respectively (p = 0.29). Median PTHi levels (interquartile range) at baseline, 12, 24 and 48 h were 66.5 (43-111), 109 (59.5-151.5), 88.5 (47-133) and 85 pg/ml (53-140), respectively. The differences between baseline and 12 h and across all time points were statistically not significant (p = 0.16 and p = 0.49, respectively). In a mixed-effects model, each 0.1 mmol/l increase in serum [Ca(i)] was associated with a 31.2% decrease in PTHi (p < 0.001). Results were unchanged after adjustment for age, gender, magnesium, phosphate, arterial pH and time spent on CRRT. Maintaining systemic [Ca(i)] within the physiologic range was associated with stable PTHi levels. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. CADMIUM PHOSPHATE GLASS

    DOEpatents

    Carpenter, H.W.; Johnson, P.D.

    1963-04-01

    A method of preparing a cadmium phosphate glass that comprises providing a mixture of solid inorganic compounds of cadmuim and phosphate having vaporizable components and heating the resulting composition to a temperature of at least 850 un. Concent 85% C is presented. (AEC)

  7. Acute effect of citrate bath on postdialysis alkalaemia.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Patricia De Sequera; Ramón, Marta Albalate; Pérez-García, Rafael; Prats, Elena Corchete; Cobo, Patricia Arribas; Arroyo, Roberto Alcázar; Díaz, Maira Ortega; Carretero, Marta Puerta

    2015-01-01

    The correction of metabolic acidosis caused by renal failure is achieved by adding bicarbonate during dialysis. In order to avoid the precipitation of calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate that takes place in the dialysis fluid (DF) when adding bicarbonate, it is necessary to add an acid, usually acetate, which is not free of side effects. Thus, citrate appears as an advantageous alternative to acetate, despite the fact that its acute effects are not accurately known. To assess the acute effect of a dialysis fluid containing citrate instead of acetate on acid-base balance and calcium-phosphorus metabolism parameters. A prospective crossover study was conducted with twenty-four patients (15 male subjects and 9 female subjects). All patients underwent dialysis with AK-200-Ultra-S monitor with SoftPac® dialysis fluid, made with 3 mmol/L of acetate and SelectBag Citrate®, with 1 mmol/L of citrate and free of acetate. The following were measured before and after dialysis: venous blood gas monitoring, calcium (Ca), ionic calcium (Cai), phosphorus (P) and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Differences (p<0.05) were found when using the citrate bath (C) compared to acetate (A) in the postdialysis values of: pH, C: 7.43 (0.04) vs. A: 7.47 (0.05); bicarbonate, C: 24.7 (2.7) vs. A: 27.3 (2.1) mmol/L; base excess (BEecf), C: 0.4 (3.1) vs. A: 3.7 (2.4) mmol/L; corrected calcium (Cac), C: 9.8 (0.8) vs. A: 10.1 (0.7) mg/dL; and Cai, C: 1.16 (0.05) vs. A: 1.27 (0.06) mmol/L. No differences were found in either of the parameters measured before dialysis. Dialysis with citrate provides better control of postdialysis acid-base balance, decreases/avoids postdialysis alkalaemia, and lowers the increase in Cac and Cai. This finding is of special interest in patients with predisposing factors for arrhythmia and patients with respiratory failure, carbon dioxide retention, calcifications and advanced liver disease. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  8. Modification by food of the calcium absorbability and physicochemical effects of calcium citrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wabner, C. L.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    The food-calcium (Ca) interaction was examined in 12 healthy women (mean age 38 years) maintained on a constant metabolic diet. They underwent three phases of study, comprised of control (no Ca), Ca citrate (1 g Ca/day) during meals, and Ca citrate separately from meals. Each phase was 7 days in length and two 24-hour urine samples were collected on days 6 and 7. The rise from the control phase in urinary Ca was slightly more prominent when Ca citrate was given with meals than without (68 and 62%, respectively). The fall in urinary phosphorus was equivalent at about 25% between Ca citrate phases. The rise in urinary citrate and pH and the decline in urinary ammonium were more prominent when Ca citrate was given with meals; however, the changes were small or nonsignificant. The urinary saturation of Ca oxalate, brushite or monosodium urate did not differ between the two Ca citrate phases. There was a nonsignificant rise in serum iron during Ca citrate phases. The results suggest that: 1) dissolution and absorption of Ca citrate might be slightly greater when given with food than without; 2) that the ability of Ca citrate to attenuate crystallization of stone-forming Ca salts in urine is not modified by food; and 3) that Ca citrate may not impair iron absorption from food.

  9. Modification by food of the calcium absorbability and physicochemical effects of calcium citrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wabner, C. L.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    The food-calcium (Ca) interaction was examined in 12 healthy women (mean age 38 years) maintained on a constant metabolic diet. They underwent three phases of study, comprised of control (no Ca), Ca citrate (1 g Ca/day) during meals, and Ca citrate separately from meals. Each phase was 7 days in length and two 24-hour urine samples were collected on days 6 and 7. The rise from the control phase in urinary Ca was slightly more prominent when Ca citrate was given with meals than without (68 and 62%, respectively). The fall in urinary phosphorus was equivalent at about 25% between Ca citrate phases. The rise in urinary citrate and pH and the decline in urinary ammonium were more prominent when Ca citrate was given with meals; however, the changes were small or nonsignificant. The urinary saturation of Ca oxalate, brushite or monosodium urate did not differ between the two Ca citrate phases. There was a nonsignificant rise in serum iron during Ca citrate phases. The results suggest that: 1) dissolution and absorption of Ca citrate might be slightly greater when given with food than without; 2) that the ability of Ca citrate to attenuate crystallization of stone-forming Ca salts in urine is not modified by food; and 3) that Ca citrate may not impair iron absorption from food.

  10. Characterization of CitA-CitB signal transduction activating genes involved in anaerobic citrate catabolism in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kaneyoshi; Matsumoto, Fumika; Minagawa, Shu; Oshima, Taku; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Ogasawara, Naotake; Ishihama, Akira

    2009-02-01

    In Escherichia coli, CitA is a membrane-associated sensor histidine kinase that phosphorylates CitB, the response regulator. It is predicated to play a key role in anaerobic citrate catabolism. The citrate-binding site in CitA is located within its periplasmic domain, while the cytoplasmic domain (CitA-C) is involved in autophosphorylation. We found that autophosphorylation in vitro of CitA-C was induced by DTT. Using the whole set of CitA-C derivatives containing Cys-Ala substitution(s), Cys at 529 was found to be essential to the redox-sensing of autophosphorylation. The phosphorylated CitA-C transferred a phosphate to CitB. DNase-I footprinting assay indicated that CitB specifically bound on the intergenic region between the citA and citC genes. These results characterize the molecular mechanism of the CitA-CitB signal transduction system in E. coli.

  11. Ca2+-citrate uptake and metabolism in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334.

    PubMed

    Mortera, Pablo; Pudlik, Agata; Magni, Christian; Alarcón, Sergio; Lolkema, Juke S

    2013-08-01

    The putative citrate metabolic pathway in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 consists of the transporter CitH, a proton symporter of the citrate-divalent metal ion family of transporters CitMHS, citrate lyase, and the membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex OAD-ABDH. Resting cells of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 metabolized citrate in complex with Ca(2+) and not as free citrate or the Mg(2+)-citrate complex, thereby identifying Ca(2+)-citrate as the substrate of the transporter CitH. The pathway was induced in the presence of Ca(2+) and citrate during growth and repressed by the presence of glucose and of galactose, most likely by a carbon catabolite repression mechanism. The end products of Ca(2+)-citrate metabolism by resting cells of Lb. casei were pyruvate, acetate, and acetoin, demonstrating the activity of the membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex OAD-ABDH. Following pyruvate, the pathway splits into two branches. One branch is the classical citrate fermentation pathway producing acetoin by α-acetolactate synthase and α-acetolactate decarboxylase. The other branch yields acetate, for which the route is still obscure. Ca(2+)-citrate metabolism in a modified MRS medium lacking a carbohydrate did not significantly affect the growth characteristics, and generation of metabolic energy in the form of proton motive force (PMF) was not observed in resting cells. In contrast, carbohydrate/Ca(2+)-citrate cometabolism resulted in a higher biomass yield in batch culture. However, also with these cells, no generation of PMF was associated with Ca(2+)-citrate metabolism. It is concluded that citrate metabolism in Lb. casei is beneficial when it counteracts acidification by carbohydrate metabolism in later growth stages.

  12. Citrate anticoagulation during continuous renal replacement therapy in pediatric critical care.

    PubMed

    Davis, T Keefe; Neumayr, Tara; Geile, Kira; Doctor, Allan; Hmeil, Paul

    2014-06-01

    To provide the pediatric intensivist an in-depth understanding of citrate as regional anticoagulant during continuous renal replacement therapy. We searched the PubMed.gov database using the initial key words: citrate anticoagulation [title] AND continuous; citrate [title] AND pediatric AND continuous; prospective pediatric renal replacement AND citrate; and regional citrate anticoagulation. Additional searchers were performed using EMBASE, CINAHL, and SCOPUS with similar keywords and limits. Further articles were gathered from bibliographic references of relevant studies and reviews. Only articles published in English were reviewed. In the pediatric population, there are no prospective interventional or randomized studies comparing regional versus systemic anticoagulation. However, there are 11 (retrospective and prospective observational studies) in the pediatric population using citrate anticoagulation. These studies have shown that regional citrate anticoagulation in the pediatric population can be effective, provide equivalent circuit survival, and decrease bleeding compared with heparin anticoagulation. In the adult population, there are six prospective randomized controlled trials comparing the efficacy of regional citrate anticoagulation versus heparin. Two systematic reviews with meta-analysis of these six trials have been performed. The adult data on the use of regional citrate anticoagulation during continuous renal replacement therapy show a decreased risk of bleeding and at the least equivalent circuit survival as compared to heparin. Current pediatric and adult studies support regional citrate anticoagulation as an effective alternative to systemic heparin anticoagulation in most patient populations. Continuous renal replacement therapy is the most common modality of renal replacement in the critical care setting. Regional anticoagulation is an ideal option in a critically ill child after recent surgery or with coagulopathy. Therefore, regional

  13. Ca2+-Citrate Uptake and Metabolism in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334

    PubMed Central

    Mortera, Pablo; Pudlik, Agata; Magni, Christian; Alarcón, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The putative citrate metabolic pathway in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 consists of the transporter CitH, a proton symporter of the citrate-divalent metal ion family of transporters CitMHS, citrate lyase, and the membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex OAD-ABDH. Resting cells of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 metabolized citrate in complex with Ca2+ and not as free citrate or the Mg2+-citrate complex, thereby identifying Ca2+-citrate as the substrate of the transporter CitH. The pathway was induced in the presence of Ca2+ and citrate during growth and repressed by the presence of glucose and of galactose, most likely by a carbon catabolite repression mechanism. The end products of Ca2+-citrate metabolism by resting cells of Lb. casei were pyruvate, acetate, and acetoin, demonstrating the activity of the membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex OAD-ABDH. Following pyruvate, the pathway splits into two branches. One branch is the classical citrate fermentation pathway producing acetoin by α-acetolactate synthase and α-acetolactate decarboxylase. The other branch yields acetate, for which the route is still obscure. Ca2+-citrate metabolism in a modified MRS medium lacking a carbohydrate did not significantly affect the growth characteristics, and generation of metabolic energy in the form of proton motive force (PMF) was not observed in resting cells. In contrast, carbohydrate/Ca2+-citrate cometabolism resulted in a higher biomass yield in batch culture. However, also with these cells, no generation of PMF was associated with Ca2+-citrate metabolism. It is concluded that citrate metabolism in Lb. casei is beneficial when it counteracts acidification by carbohydrate metabolism in later growth stages. PMID:23709502

  14. Purification and Characterization of the Reconstitutively Active Citrate Carrier from Maize Mitochondria1

    PubMed Central

    Genchi, Giuseppe; Spagnoletta, Anna; De Santis, Aurelio; Stefanizzi, Luisa; Palmieri, Ferdinando

    1999-01-01

    The citrate carrier from maize (Zea mays) shoot mitochondria was solubilized with Triton X-100 and purified by sequential chromatography on hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite/celite in the presence of cardiolipin. SDS-gel electrophoresis of the purified fraction showed a single polypeptide band with an apparent molecular mass of 31 kD. When reconstituted into liposomes, the citrate carrier catalyzed a pyridoxal 5′-P-sensitive citrate/citrate exchange. It was purified 224-fold with a recovery of 50% and a protein yield of 0.22% with respect to the mitochondrial extract. In the reconstituted system the purified citrate carrier catalyzed a first-order reaction of citrate/citrate (0.065 min−1) or citrate/malate exchange (0.075 min−1). Among the various substrates and inhibitors tested, the reconstituted protein transported citrate, cis-aconitate, isocitrate, l-malate, succinate, malonate, glutarate, α-ketoglutarate, oxaloacetate, and α-ketoadipate and was inhibited by pyridoxal 5′-P, phenylisothiocyanate, mersalyl, and p-hydroxymercuribenzoate (but not N-ethylmaleimide), 1,2,3-benzentricarboxylate, benzylmalonate, and butylmalonate. The activation energy of the citrate/citrate exchange was 66.5 kJ/mol between 10°C and 35°C; the half-saturation constant (Km) for citrate was 0.65 ± 0.05 mm and the maximal rate (Vmax) of the citrate/citrate exchange was 13.0 ± 1.0 μmol min−1 mg−1 protein at 25°C. PMID:10398720

  15. Changes in phosphorylation of adenosine phosphate and redox state of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) in Geobacter sulfurreducens in response to electron acceptor and anode potential variation.

    PubMed

    Rose, Nicholas D; Regan, John M

    2015-12-01

    Geobacter sulfurreducens is one of the dominant bacterial species found in biofilms growing on anodes in bioelectrochemical systems. The intracellular concentrations of reduced and oxidized forms of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NADH and NAD(+), respectively) and nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH and NADP(+), respectively) as well as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) were measured in G. sulfurreducens using fumarate, Fe(III)-citrate, or anodes poised at different potentials (110, 10, -90, and -190 mV (vs. SHE)) as the electron acceptor. The ratios of CNADH/CNAD+ (0.088±0.022) and CNADPH/CNADP+ (0.268±0.098) were similar under all anode potentials tested and with Fe(III)-citrate (reduced extracellularly). Both ratios significantly increased with fumarate as the electron acceptor (0.331±0.094 for NAD and 1.96±0.37 for NADP). The adenylate energy charge (the fraction of phosphorylation in intracellular adenosine phosphates) was maintained near 0.47 under almost all conditions. Anode-growing biofilms demonstrated a significantly higher molar ratio of ATP/ADP relative to suspended cultures grown on fumarate or Fe(III)-citrate. These results provide evidence that the cellular location of reduction and not the redox potential of the electron acceptor controls the intracellular redox potential in G. sulfurreducens and that biofilm growth alters adenylate phosphorylation.

  16. Ferric Citrate Reduces Intravenous Iron and Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agent Use in ESRD.

    PubMed

    Umanath, Kausik; Jalal, Diana I; Greco, Barbara A; Umeukeje, Ebele M; Reisin, Efrain; Manley, John; Zeig, Steven; Negoi, Dana G; Hiremath, Anand N; Blumenthal, Samuel S; Sika, Mohammed; Niecestro, Robert; Koury, Mark J; Ma, Khe-Ni; Greene, Tom; Lewis, Julia B; Dwyer, Jamie P

    2015-10-01

    Ferric citrate (FC) is a phosphate binder with shown efficacy and additional effects on iron stores and use of intravenous (iv) iron and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs). We provide detailed analyses of changes in iron/hematologic parameters and iv iron/ESA use at time points throughout the active control period of a phase 3 international randomized clinical trial. In all, 441 subjects were randomized (292 to FC and 149 to sevelamer carbonate and/or calcium acetate [active control (AC)]) and followed for 52 weeks. Subjects on FC had increased ferritin and transferrin saturation (TSAT) levels compared with subjects on AC by week 12 (change in ferritin, 114.1±29.35 ng/ml; P<0.001; change in TSAT, 8.62%±1.57%; P<0.001). Change in TSAT plateaued at this point, whereas change in ferritin increased through week 24, remaining relatively stable thereafter. Subjects on FC needed less iv iron compared with subjects on AC over 52 weeks (median [interquartile range] dose=12.9 [1.0-28.9] versus 26.8 [13.4-47.6] mg/wk; P<0.001), and the percentage of subjects not requiring iv iron was higher with FC (P<0.001). Cumulative ESA over 52 weeks was lower with FC than AC (median [interquartile range] dose=5303 [2023-9695] versus 6954 [2664-12,375] units/wk; P=0.04). Overall, 90.3% of subjects on FC and 89.3% of subjects on AC experienced adverse events. In conclusion, treatment with FC as a phosphate binder results in increased iron parameters apparent after 12 weeks and reduces iv iron and ESA use while maintaining hemoglobin over 52 weeks, with a safety profile similar to that of available binders. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  17. Ferric Citrate Reduces Intravenous Iron and Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agent Use in ESRD

    PubMed Central

    Jalal, Diana I.; Greco, Barbara A.; Umeukeje, Ebele M.; Reisin, Efrain; Manley, John; Zeig, Steven; Negoi, Dana G.; Hiremath, Anand N.; Blumenthal, Samuel S.; Sika, Mohammed; Niecestro, Robert; Koury, Mark J.; Ma, Khe-Ni; Greene, Tom; Lewis, Julia B.; Dwyer, Jamie P.

    2015-01-01

    Ferric citrate (FC) is a phosphate binder with shown efficacy and additional effects on iron stores and use of intravenous (iv) iron and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs). We provide detailed analyses of changes in iron/hematologic parameters and iv iron/ESA use at time points throughout the active control period of a phase 3 international randomized clinical trial. In all, 441 subjects were randomized (292 to FC and 149 to sevelamer carbonate and/or calcium acetate [active control (AC)]) and followed for 52 weeks. Subjects on FC had increased ferritin and transferrin saturation (TSAT) levels compared with subjects on AC by week 12 (change in ferritin, 114.1±29.35 ng/ml; P<0.001; change in TSAT, 8.62%±1.57%; P<0.001). Change in TSAT plateaued at this point, whereas change in ferritin increased through week 24, remaining relatively stable thereafter. Subjects on FC needed less iv iron compared with subjects on AC over 52 weeks (median [interquartile range] dose=12.9 [1.0–28.9] versus 26.8 [13.4–47.6] mg/wk; P<0.001), and the percentage of subjects not requiring iv iron was higher with FC (P<0.001). Cumulative ESA over 52 weeks was lower with FC than AC (median [interquartile range] dose=5303 [2023–9695] versus 6954 [2664–12,375] units/wk; P=0.04). Overall, 90.3% of subjects on FC and 89.3% of subjects on AC experienced adverse events. In conclusion, treatment with FC as a phosphate binder results in increased iron parameters apparent after 12 weeks and reduces iv iron and ESA use while maintaining hemoglobin over 52 weeks, with a safety profile similar to that of available binders. PMID:25736045

  18. Citrate sensing by the C4-dicarboxylate/citrate sensor kinase DcuS of Escherichia coli: binding site and conversion of DcuS to a C4-dicarboxylate- or citrate-specific sensor.

    PubMed

    Krämer, J; Fischer, J D; Zientz, E; Vijayan, V; Griesinger, C; Lupas, A; Unden, G

    2007-06-01

    The histidine protein kinase DcuS of Escherichia coli senses C(4)-dicarboxylates and citrate by a periplasmic domain. The closely related sensor kinase CitA binds citrate, but no C(4)-dicarboxylates, by a homologous periplasmic domain. CitA is known to bind the three carboxylate and the hydroxyl groups of citrate by sites C1, C2, C3, and H. DcuS requires the same sites for C(4)-dicarboxylate sensing, but only C2 and C3 are highly conserved. It is shown here that sensing of citrate by DcuS required the same sites. Binding of citrate to DcuS, therefore, was similar to binding of C(4)-dicarboxylates but different from that of citrate binding in CitA. DcuS could be converted to a C(4)-dicarboxylate-specific sensor (DcuS(DC)) by mutating residues of sites C1 and C3 or of some DcuS-subtype specific residues. Mutations around site C1 aimed at increasing the size and accessibility of the site converted DcuS to a citrate-specific sensor (DcuS(Cit)). DcuS(DC) and DcuS(Cit) had complementary effector specificities and responded either to C(4)-dicarboxylates or to citrate and mesaconate. The results imply that DcuS binds citrate (similar to the C(4)-dicarboxylates) via the C(4)-dicarboxylate part of the molecule. Sites C2 and C3 are essential for binding of two carboxylic groups of citrate or of C(4)-dicarboxylates; sites C1 and H are required for other essential purposes.

  19. 77 FR 56188 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Rescission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... the order includes all grades and granulation sizes of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium... also includes blends of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate; as well as blends with... potassium citrate constitute 40 percent or more, by weight, of the blend. The scope of the order also...

  20. Calcium citrate for vulvar vestibulitis. A case report.

    PubMed

    Solomons, C C; Melmed, M H; Heitler, S M

    1991-12-01

    A woman had suffered from vulvar vestibulitis (vulvodynia) for four years. Pain from the disorder had disrupted her ability to function at work and home as well as sexually. An initial full range of treatments, including multiple operations, had produced no relief. Examination of the urine for evidence of excess oxalate, which has been shown to cause epithelial reactions similar to those found in vulvodynia, showed periodic hyperoxaluria and pH elevations related to the symptoms. Calcium citrate was given to modify the oxalate crystalluria. The symptoms were significantly reduced in three months, and the patient was pain free after one year. She was able to resume normal work, family, sexual and recreational activities. Withdrawal of the calcium citrate resulted in a return of the symptoms; reinstitution alleviated them. These findings suggest that further study of individualized metabolic factors that may underlie vulvodynia is warranted.

  1. Trisodium citrate, Na3(C6H5O7)

    PubMed Central

    Rammohan, Alagappa; Kaduk, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structure of anhydrous tris­odium citrate, Na3(C6H5O7), has been solved and refined using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data, and optimized using density functional theory (DFT). There are two independent five-coordinate Na+ and one six-coordinate Na+ cations in the asymmetric unit. The [NaO5] and [NaO6] polyhedra share edges and corners to form a three-dimensional framework. There are channels parallel to the a and b axes in which the remainder of the citrate anions reside. The only hydrogen bonds are an intra­molecular one between the hy­droxy group and one of the terminal carboxyl­ate O atoms and an intermolecular one between a methylene group and the hydroxyl O atom. PMID:27308044

  2. Diagnosis of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm using 67-gallium citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Blumoff, R.L.; McCartney, W.; Jaques, P.; Johnson, G. Jr.

    1982-11-01

    Mycotic aneurysms of the abdominal aorta are uncommon, but potentially lethal problems. Clinical subtleties may suggest their presence, but in the past, definitive diagnosis has been dependent on surgical exploration or autopsy findings. A case is presented in which 67-gallium citrate abdominal scanning localized the site of sepsis in an abdominal aortic aneurysm and allowed for prompt and successful surgical therapy. This noninvasive technique is recommended as a adjunct in the diagnosis of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysms.

  3. Phylogenetic relationships of rhizobia based on citrate synthase gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Lucas, Ismael; Rogel-Hernández, Marco Antonio; Segovia, Lorenzo; Rojas-Jiménez, Keilor; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2004-11-01

    Partial nucleotide sequences of the citrate synthase (gltA) gene from different rhizobia genera were determined. Tree topologies based on this housekeeping gene were similar to that obtained using 16S rRNA sequences. However gltA appeared to be more reliable at determining phylogenetic relationships of closely related taxa. We propose gltA sequences as an additional tool to be used in molecular phylogenetic studies.

  4. Clomiphene citrate and its effects upon ovulation and estrogen.

    PubMed

    Shirai, E; Iizuka, R; Notake, Y

    1972-05-01

    This paper reports a clinical evaluation of the mechanism of action of clomiphene citrate and describes selection of the most responsive patients. Patients were 121 women, aged 21-37 years, who desired pregnancy. Their infertility was diagnosed as being due to anovulation. Primary amenorrhea or special endocrine disorders were not present. All the women who had no vaginal bleeding for more than 2 months were diagnosed amenorrhea and treated with 65 mg of progesterone capronate intramuscularly. They were then divided into two subgroups on the basis of the presence or absence of vaginal bleeding within 2 weeks. Clinical studies included: basal body temperature charts; daily vaginal smears evaluated by the ink acidophilic stain index (ISI); cervical mucus evaluated by amount, spresence of spinnbarkeit, and ferning; 24-hour urines examined for estrogen and total gonadotropic activity; and a pregnanediol determination. Each group received daily 50 mg doses of clomiphene citrate for 5 days. Estrogen inhibiting effect of the drug was suggested by vaginal cytology and the disappearance of ferning and decrease in quantity of cervical mucus. However, the excretion of the total urinary estrogen was increased in ovulatory cases (81 of the 121 patients). In 17 patients having no bleeding within 2 weeks after progesterone injection no ovulation could be induced. In patients with withdrawal flow 54 of 70 achieved ovulation. Of 37 patients with previous anovulatory bleeding 27 achieved ovulation. There were 11 of the 121 who became pregnant. In those with early ovulation the antiestrogen effect is believed to be in the hypothalamus and pituitary bringing about the estrogen surge and stimulating LH secretion. In those with later ovulation the antiestrogenic effect increased FSH secretion followed by ovulation. The type of patient most likely to respond to clomiphene citrate is one with nearly normal pituitary-gonadal axis. Inducing withdrawal bleeding with progesterone in those

  5. Influence of centrifuge brake on residual platelet count and routine coagulation tests in citrated plasma.

    PubMed

    Daves, Massimo; Giacomuzzi, Katia; Tagnin, Enrico; Jani, Erika; Adcock Funk, Dorothy M; Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2014-04-01

    Sample centrifugation is an essential step in the coagulation laboratory, as clotting tests are typically performed on citrated platelet (PLT) poor plasma (PPP). Nevertheless, no clear indication has been provided as to whether centrifugation of specimens should be performed with the centrifuge brake set to on or off. Fifty consecutive sodium citrate anticoagulated samples were collected and divided into two aliquots. The former was centrifuged as for Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines with the centrifuge brake set to on, whereas the latter was centrifuged again as for CLSI guidelines, but with the brake set to off. In the PPP of all samples, a PLT count was performed, followed by the analysis of activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT) and fibrinogen (FBG). The PLT count after samples centrifugation was substantially reduced, either with centrifuge brake set to on or off (5 ± 1 versus 3 ± 1 × 10/l; P = 0.009). The frequency of samples exceeding a PLT count less than 10 × 10/l was nearly double in samples centrifuged with the brake on than in those with the brake off (14 versus 8%; P < 0.01). Although no significant difference was found for APTT values, PT was slightly prolonged using the centrifuge brake set to on (mean bias 0.2 s; P < 0.001). FBG values were also significantly higher using the centrifuge brake set to on (mean bias 0.29 g/l; P < 0.001). The results of this study indicate that sample centrifugation for routine coagulation testing should be preferably performed with the centrifuge brake set to off for providing a better quality specimen.

  6. Dietary and genetic evidence for phosphate toxicity accelerating mammalian aging.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Mutsuko; Razzaque, M Shawkat

    2010-09-01

    Identifying factors that accelerate the aging process can provide important therapeutic targets for slowing down this process. Misregulation of phosphate homeostasis has been noted in various skeletal, cardiac, and renal diseases, but the exact role of phosphate toxicity in mammalian aging is not clearly defined. Phosphate is widely distributed in the body and is involved in cell signaling, energy metabolism, nucleic acid synthesis, and the maintenance of acid-base balance by urinary buffering. In this study, we used an in vivo genetic approach to determine the role of phosphate toxicity in mammalian aging. Klotho-knockout mice (klotho(-/-)) have a short life span and show numerous physical, biochemical, and morphological features consistent with premature aging, including kyphosis, uncoordinated movement, hypogonadism, infertility, severe skeletal muscle wasting, emphysema, and osteopenia, as well as generalized atrophy of the skin, intestine, thymus, and spleen. Molecular and biochemical analyses suggest that increased renal activity of sodium-phosphate cotransporters (NaPi2a) leads to severe hyperphosphatemia in klotho(-/-) mice. Genetically reducing serum phosphate levels in klotho(-/-) mice by generating a NaPi2a and klotho double-knockout (NaPi2a(-/-)/klotho(-/-)) strain resulted in amelioration of premature aging-like features. The NaPi2a(-/-)/klotho(-/-) double-knockout mice regained reproductive ability, recovered their body weight, reduced their organ atrophy, and suppressed ectopic calcifications, with the resulting effect being prolonged survival. More important, when hyperphosphatemia was induced in NaPi2a(-/-)/klotho(-/-) mice by feeding with a high-phosphate diet, premature aging-like features reappeared, clearly suggesting that phosphate toxicity is the main cause of premature aging in klotho(-/-) mice. The results of our dietary and genetic manipulation studies provide in vivo evidence for phosphate toxicity accelerating the aging process and

  7. Polynucleotide 3'-terminal phosphate modifications by RNA and DNA ligases.

    PubMed

    Zhelkovsky, Alexander M; McReynolds, Larry A

    2014-11-28

    RNA and DNA ligases catalyze the formation of a phosphodiester bond between the 5'-phosphate and 3'-hydroxyl ends of nucleic acids. In this work, we describe the ability of the thermophilic RNA ligase MthRnl from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum to recognize and modify the 3'-terminal phosphate of RNA and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). This ligase can use an RNA 3'p substrate to generate an RNA 2',3'-cyclic phosphate or convert DNA3'p to ssDNA(3')pp(5')A. An RNA ligase from the Thermus scotoductus bacteriophage TS2126 and a predicted T4 Rnl1-like protein from Thermovibrio ammonificans, TVa, were also able to adenylate ssDNA 3'p. These modifications of RNA and DNA 3'-phosphates are similar to the activities of RtcA, an RNA 3'-phosphate cyclase. The initial step involves adenylation of the enzyme by ATP, which is then transferred to either RNA 3'p or DNA 3'p to generate the adenylated intermediate. For RNA (3')pp(5')A, the third step involves attack of the adjacent 2' hydroxyl to generate the RNA 2',3'-cyclic phosphate. These steps are analogous to those in classical 5' phosphate ligation. MthRnl and TS2126 RNA ligases were not able to modify a 3'p in nicked double-stranded DNA. However, T4 DNA ligase and RtcA can use 3'-phosphorylated nicks in double-stranded DNA to produce a 3'-adenylated product. These 3'-terminal phosphate-adenylated intermediates are substrates for deadenylation by yeast 5'Deadenylase. Our findings that classic ligases can duplicate the adenylation and phosphate cyclization activity of RtcA suggests that they have an essential role in metabolism of nucleic acids with 3'-terminal phosphates. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Severe citrate toxicity complicating volunteer apheresis platelet donation.

    PubMed

    Bell, A M; Nolen, J D L; Knudson, C M; Raife, T J

    2007-02-01

    We report a case of severe citrate toxicity during volunteer donor apheresis platelet collection. The donor was a 40-year-old female, first-time apheresis platelet donor. Past medical history was remarkable for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and depression. Reported medications included bumetanide, pravastatin, and paroxetine. Thirty minutes from the start of the procedure, the donor noted tingling around the mouth, hands, and feet. She then very rapidly developed acute onset of severe facial and extremity tetany. Empirical treatment with intravenous calcium gluconate was initiated, and muscle contractions slowly subsided over approximately 10 to 15 minutes. The events are consistent with a severe reaction to calcium chelation by sodium citrate anticoagulant resulting in symptomatic systemic hypocalcemia. Upon additional retrospective analysis, it was noted that bumetanide is a loop diuretic that may cause significant hypocalcemia. We conclude that careful screening for medications and underlying conditions predisposing to hypocalcemia is recommended to help prevent severe reactions due to citrate toxicity. Laboratory measurement of pre-procedure serum calcium levels in selected donors may identify cases requiring heightened vigilance. The case also illustrates the importance of maintaining preparedness for managing rare but serious reactions in volunteer apheresis blood donors.

  9. High lipid accumulation in Yarrowia lipolytica cultivated under double limitation of nitrogen and magnesium.

    PubMed

    Bellou, S; Triantaphyllidou, I-E; Mizerakis, P; Aggelis, G

    2016-09-20

    Yarrowia lipolytica cultivated under double nitrogen and magnesium limitation, but not under single nitrogen or single magnesium limitation, produced 12.2g/l biomass containing 47.5% lipids, which corresponds to a lipid production 5.8g/l. These yields are the higher described in the literature for wild strains of Y. lipolytica. Transcription of ACL1 and ACL2, encoding for ATP-citrate lyase (ATP:CL) was observed even under non-oleaginous conditions but high activity of ATP:CL was only detected under oleaginous conditions induced by low or zero activity of NAD(+) dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase. The low activity of malic enzyme (ME), a NADPH donor in typical oleaginous microorganisms, indicated that ME may not be implicated in lipid biosynthesis in this yeast, and NADPH may be provided by the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). These findings underline the essential role of magnesium in lipogenesis, which is currently quite unexplored. The presence of organic nitrogen in low concentrations during lipogenesis was also required, and this peculiarity was probably related with the PPP functioning, being the NADPH donor of lipogenic machinery in Y. lipolytica. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Formation of apatitic calcium phosphates in a Na-K-phosphate solution of pH 7.4.

    PubMed

    Tas, A C; Aldinger, F

    2005-02-01

    Poorly crystalline, apatitic calcium phosphate powders have been synthesized by slowly adding a Na- and K-containing reference phosphate solution with a pH value of 7.4 to an aqueous calcium nitrate solution at 37 degrees C. Nano-particulated apatitic powders obtained were shown to contain small amounts of Na and K, which render them more similar in chemical composition to that of the bone mineral. Precipitated and dried powders were found to exhibit self-hardening cement properties when kneaded in a mortar with a sodium citrate- and sodium phosphate-containing starter solution. The same phosphate solution used in powder synthesis was found to be able to partially convert natural, white and translucent marble pieces of calcite (CaCO3) into calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite upon aging the samples in that solution for 3 days at 60 degrees C. Sample characterization was performed by using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, and simultaneous thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis.

  11. CitI, a Transcription Factor Involved in Regulation of Citrate Metabolism in Lactic Acid Bacteria†

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Mauricio G.; Magni, Christian; de Mendoza, Diego; López, Paloma

    2005-01-01

    A large variety of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can utilize citrate under fermentative conditions. Although much information concerning the metabolic pathways leading to citrate utilization by LAB has been gathered, the mechanisms regulating these pathways are obscure. In Weissella paramesenteroides (formerly called Leuconostoc paramesenteroides), transcription of the citMDEFCGRP citrate operon and the upstream divergent gene citI is induced by the presence of citrate in the medium. Although genetic experiments have suggested that CitI is a transcriptional activator whose activity can be modulated in response to citrate availability, specific details of the interaction between CitI and DNA remained unknown. In this study, we show that CitI recognizes two A+T-rich operator sites located between citI and citM and that the DNA-binding affinity of CitI is increased by citrate. Subsequently, this citrate signal propagation leads to the activation of the cit operon through an enhanced recruitment of RNA polymerase to its promoters. Our results indicate that the control of CitI by the cellular pools of citrate provides a mechanism for sensing the availability of citrate and adjusting the expression of the cit operon accordingly. In addition, this is the first reported example of a transcription factor directly functioning as a citrate-activated switch allowing the cell to optimize the generation of metabolic energy. PMID:16030208

  12. Transcriptional Control of the Citrate-Inducible citMCDEFGRP Operon, Encoding Genes Involved in Citrate Fermentation in Leuconostoc paramesenteroides

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Mauricio; Magni, Christian; López, Paloma; de Mendoza, Diego

    2000-01-01

    In this study we describe the expression pattern of the Leuconostoc paramesenteroides citMCDEFGRP operon in response to the addition of citrate to the growth medium. An 8.8-kb polycistronic transcript, which includes the citMCDEFGRP genes, was identified; its synthesis was dramatically induced upon addition of citrate to the growth medium. We also found that expression of the cit operon is subjected to posttranscriptional regulation, since processing sites included in four complex secondary structures (I, II, III, and IV) were identified by Northern blot analysis and mapped by primer extension. Upstream of the citMCDEFGRP operon a divergent open reading frame, whose expression was also increased by citrate, was identified by DNA sequencing and designated citI. The start and end sites of transcription of the cit operon and citI gene were mapped. The start sites are separated by a stretch of 188 bp with a very high A+T content of 77% and are preceded by transcriptional promoters. The end sites of the transcripts are located next to the 3′ end of two secondary structures characteristic of ρ-independent transcriptional terminators. The effect of the citI gene on expression of the cit operon was studied in Escherichia coli. The presence of the citI gene in cis and in trans resulted in increased activity of the cit promoter. These data provide the first evidence that citrate fermentation in Leuconostoc is regulated at the transcriptional level by a transcriptional activator rather than by a repressor. PMID:10869065

  13. How Protective Mechanisms Interact to Prevent Overnight Calcium Phosphate Precipitation - An Observational Study to Determine Factors Against Calcium Phosphate Lithogenesis in a Healthy Cohort.

    PubMed

    Shafiee, Mohammad A; Logan, Alexander G; Halperin, Mitchell L

    2016-01-01

    As restful, non-interrupted sleep is essential for normal mental and physical functioning, the urine flow rate (UFR) overnight remains low. Due to this reduced UFR, the kidneys produce a lower urine volume, which may lead to supersaturation of lithogens in the renal collecting system. The protective mechanisms that prevent the rise in the concentration of the lithogenic substances in urine, such as calcium phosphate, are explored. Urine samples were collected from 26 subjects every 2-3 h during daylight with one nocturnal collection; the UFR was calculated in the median time for each collection period. Urinary constituents for calcium phosphate precipitation including electrolytes, calcium, phosphate, citrate, and pH were measured. Comparisons within individuals were done by paired t test. The calcium excretion rate fell significantly overnight (from 2.4 ± 0.2 µmol/min during the daytime to 1.5 ± 0.3 µmol/min, p < 0.05), in parallel with sodium excretion (54 ± 16 µmol/min from its daytime 127 ± 12 µmol/min, p < 0.05), preventing nocturnal calcium concentration from increasing (3.0 ± 0.3 mmol/l daytime to 2.5 ± 0.5 mmol/l overnight), while citrate concentration did not change significantly. The total urine phosphate concentration rose significantly overnight (daytime 18.7 ± 1.4 µmol/min vs. nocturnal 20.9 ± 1.7 µmol/min), but the concentration of divalent phosphate did not increase in the overnight period. Although the UFR was lower overnight, there was no evidence that the risk of calcium phosphate precipitate formation in healthy subjects was increased. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Exogenous citrate impairs glucose tolerance and promotes visceral adipose tissue inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Leandro, João G B; Espindola-Netto, Jair M; Vianna, Maria Carolina F; Gomez, Lilian S; DeMaria, Thaina M; Marinho-Carvalho, Monica M; Zancan, Patricia; Paula Neto, Heitor A; Sola-Penna, Mauro

    2016-03-28

    Overweight and obesity have become epidemic worldwide and are linked to sedentary lifestyle and the consumption of processed foods and drinks. Citrate is a metabolite that plays central roles in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. In addition, citrate is the additive most commonly used by the food industry, and therefore is highly consumed. Extracellular citrate can freely enter the cells via the constitutively expressed plasma membrane citrate transporter. Within the cytosol, citrate is readily metabolised by ATP-citrate lyase into acetyl-CoA - the metabolic precursor of endogenously produced lipids and cholesterol. We therefore hypothesised that the citrate ingested from processed foods and drinks could contribute to increased postprandial fat production and weight gain. To test our hypothesis, we administered citrate to mice through their drinking water with or without sucrose and monitored their weight gain and other metabolic parameters. Our results showed that mice receiving citrate or citrate+sucrose did not show increased weight gain or an increase in the weight of the liver, skeletal muscles or adipose tissues (AT). Moreover, the plasma lipid profiles (TAG, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL) were similar across all groups. However, the group receiving citrate+sucrose showed augmented fasting glycaemia, glucose intolerance and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10) in their AT. Therefore, our results suggest that citrate consumption contributes to increased AT inflammation and altered glucose metabolism, which is indicative of initial insulin resistance. Thus, citrate consumption could be a previously unknown causative agent for the complications associated with obesity.

  15. Acute phosphate nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Monfared, Ali; Habibzadeh, Seyed Mahmoud; Mesbah, Seyed Alireza

    2014-05-01

    We present acute phosphate nephropathy in a 28-year-old man, which was developed after a car accident due to rhabdomyolysis. Treatment of acute kidney injury was done with administration of sodium bicarbonate.

  16. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-04-21

    Jordan leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. This image was acquired by NASA Terra satellite on September 17, 2005.

  17. Metal-phosphate binders

    DOEpatents

    Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

    2009-05-12

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  18. Phosphate control in dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Cupisti, Adamasco; Gallieni, Maurizio; Rizzo, Maria Antonietta; Caria, Stefania; Meola, Mario; Bolasco, Piergiorgio

    2013-01-01

    Prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia is a major goal of chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder (CKD–MBD) management, achievable through avoidance of a positive phosphate balance. To this aim, optimal dialysis removal, careful use of phosphate binders, and dietary phosphate control are needed to optimize the control of phosphate balance in well-nourished patients on a standard three-times-a-week hemodialysis schedule. Using a mixed diffusive–convective hemodialysis tecniques, and increasing the number and/or the duration of dialysis tecniques are all measures able to enhance phosphorus (P) mass removal through dialysis. However, dialytic removal does not equal the high P intake linked to the high dietary protein requirement of dialysis patients; hence, the use of intestinal P binders is mandatory to reduce P net intestinal absorption. Unfortunately, even a large dose of P binders is able to bind approximately 200–300 mg of P on a daily basis, so it is evident that their efficacy is limited in the case of an uncontrolled dietary P load. Hence, limitation of dietary P intake is needed to reach the goal of neutral phosphate balance in dialysis, coupled to an adequate protein intake. To this aim, patients should be informed and educated to avoid foods that are naturally rich in phosphate and also processed food with P-containing preservatives. In addition, patients should preferentially choose food with a low P-to-protein ratio. For example, patients could choose egg white or protein from a vegetable source. Finally, boiling should be the preferred cooking procedure, because it induces food demineralization, including phosphate loss. The integrated approach outlined in this article should be actively adapted as a therapeutic alliance by clinicians, dieticians, and patients for an effective control of phosphate balance in dialysis patients. PMID:24133374

  19. Phosphate control in dialysis.

    PubMed

    Cupisti, Adamasco; Gallieni, Maurizio; Rizzo, Maria Antonietta; Caria, Stefania; Meola, Mario; Bolasco, Piergiorgio

    2013-10-04

    Prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia is a major goal of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) management, achievable through avoidance of a positive phosphate balance. To this aim, optimal dialysis removal, careful use of phosphate binders, and dietary phosphate control are needed to optimize the control of phosphate balance in well-nourished patients on a standard three-times-a-week hemodialysis schedule. Using a mixed diffusive-convective hemodialysis tecniques, and increasing the number and/or the duration of dialysis tecniques are all measures able to enhance phosphorus (P) mass removal through dialysis. However, dialytic removal does not equal the high P intake linked to the high dietary protein requirement of dialysis patients; hence, the use of intestinal P binders is mandatory to reduce P net intestinal absorption. Unfortunately, even a large dose of P binders is able to bind approximately 200-300 mg of P on a daily basis, so it is evident that their efficacy is limited in the case of an uncontrolled dietary P load. Hence, limitation of dietary P intake is needed to reach the goal of neutral phosphate balance in dialysis, coupled to an adequate protein intake. To this aim, patients should be informed and educated to avoid foods that are naturally rich in phosphate and also processed food with P-containing preservatives. In addition, patients should preferentially choose food with a low P-to-protein ratio. For example, patients could choose egg white or protein from a vegetable source. Finally, boiling should be the preferred cooking procedure, because it induces food demineralization, including phosphate loss. The integrated approach outlined in this article should be actively adapted as a therapeutic alliance by clinicians, dieticians, and patients for an effective control of phosphate balance in dialysis patients.

  20. Effects of oral administration of sodium citrate or acetate to pigs on blood parameters, postmortem glycolysis, muscle pH decline, and quality attributes of pork.

    PubMed

    Stephens, J W; Dikeman, M E; Unruh, J A; Haub, M D; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of oral administration of sodium citrate (CIT) or acetate (ACE) to pigs on blood parameters, postmortem glycolysis, pH decline, and quality attributes of pork. Previous studies have shown that CIT has the potential to inhibit phosphofructokinase (PFK), a key enzyme in postmortem muscle glycolysis. In Exp. 1, CIT, ACE, or water was orally administered (0.75 g/kg of BW) to 24 pigs. After a 30-min rest, pigs were exercised, and blood samples were taken at 45 and 75 min after oral treatment. Citrate and ACE tended (P = 0.08) to increase blood pH and increased (P = 0.02) bicarbonate levels immediately after exercise. After a 30-min rest, blood pH of pigs administered ACE tended (P = 0.09) to remain higher, whereas blood pH of CIT-treated pigs was similar to that of control pigs. Bicarbonate levels in ACE- and CIT-treated pigs were still greater (P < 0.05) than those of control pigs at 75 min after oral treatment. In Exp. 2, 30 pigs were administered CIT, ACE, or water 45 min before stunning (electric plus captive bolt). Antemortem treatments had no effect (P > 0.10) on muscle pH or postmortem concentrations of the glycolytic metabolites of glucose-6 phosphate, fructose-6 phosphate, fructose-1,6 bisphosphate, glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate, dihydroxyacetone phosphate, or lactate. Minor, but inconsistent, differences in quality attributes were found in LM chops, and no differences in quality attributes were found between control and CIT- or ACE-treated pigs for inside and outside semimembranosus muscles (P > 0.10). There was no significant inhibition of the PFK enzyme by orally administered CIT or ACE; however, the PFK glycolytic metabolite data analysis indicated that PFK was a main regulatory enzyme in postmortem muscle.

  1. Efficacy and safety of clindamycin phosphate 1.2%/tretinoin 0.025% formulation for the treatment of acne vulgaris: pooled analysis of data from three randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, phase III studies.

    PubMed

    Dréno, Brigitte; Bettoli, Vincenzo; Ochsendorf, Falk; Layton, Alison M; Perez, Montserrat; Dakovic, Rada; Gollnick, Harald

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of clindamycin phosphate 1.2%/tretinoin 0.025% (Clin-RA) were evaluated in three 12-week randomised studies. To perform a pooled analysis of data from these studies to evaluate Clin-RA's efficacy and safety in a larger overall population, in subgroups of adolescents and according to acne severity. 4550 patients were randomised to Clin-RA, clindamycin, tretinoin and vehicle. Evaluations included percentage change in lesions, treatment success rate, proportions of patients with ≥50% or ≥80% continuous reduction in lesions, adverse events and cutaneous tolerability. In the overall population, the percentage reduction in inflammatory, non-inflammatory and total lesions and the treatment success rate were significantly greater with Clin-RA compared with clindamycin, tretinoin and vehicle alone (all p<0.01). The percentage reduction in all types of lesions was also significantly greater with Clin-RA in the adolescent subgroup (2915 patients, p<0.002) and in patients with mild/moderate acne (3662 patients, p<0.02) versus comparators. In patients with severe acne (n = 880), the percentage reduction in all lesion types was significantly greater with Clin-RA versus vehicle (p<0.0001). A greater proportion of Clin-RA treated patients had a ≥50% or ≥80% continuous reduction in all types of lesions at week 12 compared with clindamycin, tretinoin and vehicle. Adverse event frequencies in the active and vehicle groups were similar. Baseline-adjusted mean tolerability scores over time were <1 (mild) and similar in all groups. Clin-RA is safe, has superior efficacy to its component monotherapies and should be considered as one of the first-line therapies for mild-to-moderate facial acne.

  2. Zinc Absorption by Young Adults from Supplemental Zinc Citrate Is Comparable with That from Zinc Gluconate and Higher than from Zinc Oxide123

    PubMed Central

    Wegmüller, Rita; Tay, Fabian; Zeder, Christophe; Brnić, Marica; Hurrell, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    The water-soluble zinc salts gluconate, sulfate, and acetate are commonly used as supplements in tablet or syrup form to prevent zinc deficiency and to treat diarrhea in children in combination with oral rehydration. Zinc citrate is an alternative compound with high zinc content, slightly soluble in water, which has better sensory properties in syrups but no absorption data in humans. We used the double-isotope tracer method with 67Zn and 70Zn to measure zinc absorption from zinc citrate given as supplements containing 10 mg of zinc to 15 healthy adults without food and compared absorption with that from zinc gluconate and zinc oxide (insoluble in water) using a randomized, double-masked, 3-way crossover design. Median (IQR) fractional absorption of zinc from zinc citrate was 61.3% (56.6–71.0) and was not different from that from zinc gluconate with 60.9% (50.6–71.7). Absorption from zinc oxide at 49.9% (40.9–57.7) was significantly lower than from both other supplements (P < 0.01). Three participants had little or no absorption from zinc oxide. We conclude that zinc citrate, given as a supplement without food, is as well absorbed by healthy adults as zinc gluconate and may thus be a useful alternative for preventing zinc deficiency and treating diarrhea. The more insoluble zinc oxide is less well absorbed when given as a supplement without food and may be minimally absorbed by some individuals. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01576627. PMID:24259556

  3. Development and validation of an HPLC method to determine the stability of fentanyl citrate and bupivacaine hydrochloride mixtures in infusion solutions.

    PubMed

    Piekarski, Mikołaj; Jelin'ska, Anna; Szymczak, Kamil

    2012-10-01

    The use of a combination of different drugs in postoperative analgesia extends the time of analgesia, makes it more efficient and allows the use of lower drug doses, which leads to less risk of side effects and drug dependence. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an HPLC method to determine the stability of fentanyl citrate and bupivacaine hydrochloride mixtures in standard infusion solutions of 0.9% sodium chloride and 5% glucose. AFTER OPTIMISATION, THE HPLC METHOD PARAMETERS WERE AS FOLLOWS: LiChrospher 100 CN, 250×4 mm (10 µm) column; mobile phase: mixture of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer at pH 2.8 (3:7, V/V) with addition of 0.08 g/l potassium chloride; flow rate: 1.5 ml/min; column temperature: 30°C; spectrophotometric detection at 210 nm. Development of the method involved checking the impact of acetonitrile and KCl concentrations in the mobile phase and choosing the internal standard. Method validation included determining the specificity of the method, its accuracy, linearity, precision, repeatability, limits of detection and quantification. The retention times of bupivacaine hydrochloride, fentanyl citrate and procaine hydrochloride, used as an internal standard, were approximately 10 min, 15 min and 5 min, respectively. Method validation confirmed its selectivity, accuracy and precision. The average values of the variation and accuracy coefficients were 0.70% and 99.02% for bupivacaine hydrochloride, and 1.76% and 104.53% for fentanyl citrate. The intermediate precision values were 1.25% for bupivacaine hydrochloride and 1.52% for fentanyl citrate.

  4. Development and validation of an HPLC method to determine the stability of fentanyl citrate and bupivacaine hydrochloride mixtures in infusion solutions

    PubMed Central

    Piekarski, Mikołaj; Jelin'ska, Anna; Szymczak, Kamil

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of a combination of different drugs in postoperative analgesia extends the time of analgesia, makes it more efficient and allows the use of lower drug doses, which leads to less risk of side effects and drug dependence. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an HPLC method to determine the stability of fentanyl citrate and bupivacaine hydrochloride mixtures in standard infusion solutions of 0.9% sodium chloride and 5% glucose. Methods After optimisation, the HPLC method parameters were as follows: LiChrospher 100 CN, 250×4 mm (10 µm) column; mobile phase: mixture of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer at pH 2.8 (3:7, V/V) with addition of 0.08 g/l potassium chloride; flow rate: 1.5 ml/min; column temperature: 30°C; spectrophotometric detection at 210 nm. Development of the method involved checking the impact of acetonitrile and KCl concentrations in the mobile phase and choosing the internal standard. Method validation included determining the specificity of the method, its accuracy, linearity, precision, repeatability, limits of detection and quantification. Results The retention times of bupivacaine hydrochloride, fentanyl citrate and procaine hydrochloride, used as an internal standard, were approximately 10 min, 15 min and 5 min, respectively. Method validation confirmed its selectivity, accuracy and precision. The average values of the variation and accuracy coefficients were 0.70% and 99.02% for bupivacaine hydrochloride, and 1.76% and 104.53% for fentanyl citrate. The intermediate precision values were 1.25% for bupivacaine hydrochloride and 1.52% for fentanyl citrate. PMID:23487596

  5. Determination of direct available phosphate in fertilizers by a discrete analyzer: single-laboratory validation.

    PubMed

    Nimick, Ryan; Mehlbrech, Laura; Novotny, Lawrence; Thiex, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    To improve throughput during peak seasonal demand, a screening method for the determination of fertilizer-available phosphate using a discrete analyzer for semi-automation was validated in a single laboratory. The fertilizer materials were extracted using a neutral EDTA-ammonium citrate solution as detailed in AOAC Official Method 993.31. Phosphate was subsequently freed from the matrix and converted to orthophosphate using an alkaline persulfate digestion modified from a U.S. Geological Survey water method. Phosphorus was determined colorimetrically on a discrete analyzer. Twelve check samples from the Magruder Fertilizer Check Sample Program and Association of Fertilizer and Phosphate Chemists Fertilizer Check Program were used for method validation experiments. The proposed method is linear from 0.01 to 20 mg/L (ppm) phosphorus. Recovery for all materials averaged 101%, with a range of 99.2 to 103%. Bias for all materials averaged 0.59% with a range of -0.11 to 1.68%, with bias increasing at concentrations of available phosphate exceeding 40%. The LOD was calculated to be 0.001% available phosphate and the LOQ 0.002% available phosphate. The method was found fit for purpose as a screening method for available phosphate analysis in fertilizers.

  6. Maltose phosphorylase from Lactobacillus brevis: purification, characterization, and application in a biosensor for ortho-phosphate.

    PubMed

    Hüwel, S; Haalck, L; Conrath, N; Spener, F

    1997-11-01

    With the goal to obtain maltose phosphorylase as a tool to determine ortho-phosphate, the enzyme from Lactobacillus brevis was purified to 98% by an expeditious FPLC-aided procedure which included anion exchange chromatography, gel filtration, and hydroxyapatite chromatography. The native maltose phosphorylase had a molecular mass of 196 kDa and consisted of two 88 kDa subunits. In isoelectric focusing two isoforms with pI values of 4.2 and 4.6 were observed. Maximum enzyme activity was obtained at 36 degrees C and pH 6.5 and was independent of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. The apparent K(m) values with maltose and phosphate as substrates were 0.9 mmol l-1 and 1.8 mmol l-1, respectively. Maltose phosphorylase could be stored in 10 mM phosphate buffer pH 6.5 at 4 degrees C with a loss of activity of only 7% up to 6 months. The stability of the enzyme at high temperatures was enhanced significantly using additives like phosphate, citrate, and imidazole. The purified maltose phosphorylase was used as key enzyme in a phosphate sensor consisting of maltose phosphorylase and glucose oxidase. A detection limit of 0.1 microM phosphate was observed and the sensor response was linear in the range between 0.5 and 10 microM.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of starch citrate-chitosan foam with superior water and saline absorbance properties.

    PubMed

    Salam, Abdus; Pawlak, Joel J; Venditti, Richard A; El-tahlawy, Khaled

    2010-06-14

    The objective of this research was to synthesize and characterize high-value foam gel materials with unique absorptive and mechanical properties from starch citrate-chitosan. The effects of starch citrate concentration, pH, solid to liquid ratio, reaction time, and temperature on absorbency, weight loss in water, and strength were determined. The cross-linked starch citrate-chitosan foam is flexible and elastic and has significantly increased absorbance and strength and decreased weight loss in water compared to starch-chitosan foam. A unique characteristic of the starch citrate-chitosan foam is that it absorbs more saline solution than pure water, which is the opposite of current commercial super absorbents. An increased strength, increased degradation temperature, increased storage modulus, and decreased weight loss in water for starch citrate-chitosan relative to starch-chitosan are in agreement with amide bonds formed between the carboxyl group of starch citrate and the amino group of chitosan.

  8. Citrate uptake into tonoplast vesicles from acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia) juice cells.

    PubMed

    Brune, A; Gonzalez, P; Goren, R; Zehavi, U; Echeverria, E

    1998-12-01

    Citrate transport into the vacuoles of acid lime juice cells was investigated using isolated tonoplast vesicles. ATP stimulated citrate uptake in the presence or in the absence of a Delta mu H+. Energization of the vesicles only by an artificial K+ gradient (establishing an inside-positive Delta psi) also resulted in citrate uptake as was the case of a Delta pH dominated Delta mu H+. Addition of inhibitors to endomembrane ATPases showed no direct correlation between the inhibition to the tonoplast bound H+/ATPase and citrate uptake. The data indicated that, although some citrate uptake can be accounted for by Delta psi and by a direct primary active transport mechanism involving ATP, under in vivo conditions of vacuolar pH of 2.0, citrate uptake is driven by Delta pH.

  9. SbnG, a citrate synthase in Staphylococcus aureus: a new fold on an old enzyme.

    PubMed

    Kobylarz, Marek J; Grigg, Jason C; Sheldon, Jessica R; Heinrichs, David E; Murphy, Michael E P

    2014-12-05

    In response to iron deprivation, Staphylococcus aureus produces staphyloferrin B, a citrate-containing siderophore that delivers iron back to the cell. This bacterium also possesses a second citrate synthase, SbnG, that is necessary for supplying citrate to the staphyloferrin B biosynthetic pathway. We present the structure of SbnG bound to the inhibitor calcium and an active site variant in complex with oxaloacetate. The overall fold of SbnG is structurally distinct from TCA cycle citrate synthases yet similar to metal-dependent class II aldolases. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that SbnG forms a separate clade with homologs from other siderophore biosynthetic gene clusters and is representative of a metal-independent subgroup in the phosphoenolpyruvate/pyruvate domain superfamily. A structural superposition of the SbnG active site to TCA cycle citrate synthases and site-directed mutagenesis suggests a case for convergent evolution toward a conserved catalytic mechanism for citrate production.

  10. 3-Bromopyruvate antagonizes effects of lactate and pyruvate, synergizes with citrate and exerts novel anti-glioma effects.

    PubMed

    El Sayed, S M; El-Magd, R M Abou; Shishido, Y; Chung, S P; Diem, T H; Sakai, T; Watanabe, H; Kagami, S; Fukui, K

    2012-02-01

    Oxidative stress-energy depletion therapy using oxidative stress induced by D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) and energy depletion induced by 3-bromopyruvate (3BP) was reported recently (El Sayed et al., Cancer Gene Ther., 19, 1-18, 2012). Even in the presence of oxygen, cancer cells oxidize glucose preferentially to produce lactate (Warburg effect) which seems vital for cancer microenvironment and progression. 3BP is a closely related structure to lactate and pyruvate and may antagonize their effects as a novel mechanism of its action. Pyruvate exerted a potent H(2)O(2) scavenging effect to exogenous H(2)O(2), while lactate had no scavenging effect. 3BP induced H(2)O(2) production. Pyruvate protected against H(2)O(2)-induced C6 glioma cell death, 3BP-induced C6 glioma cell death but not against DAO/D-serine-induced cell death, while lactate had no protecting effect. Lactate and pyruvate protected against 3BP-induced C6 glioma cell death and energy depletion which were overcome with higher doses of 3BP. Lactate and pyruvate enhanced migratory power of C6 glioma which was blocked by 3BP. Pyruvate and lactate did not protect against C6 glioma cell death induced by other glycolytic inhibitors e.g. citrate (inhibitor of phosphofructokinase) and sodium fluoride (inhibitor of enolase). Serial doses of 3BP were synergistic with citrate in decreasing viability of C6 glioma cells and spheroids. Glycolysis subjected to double inhibition using 3BP with citrate depleted ATP, clonogenic power and migratory power of C6 glioma cells. 3BP induced a caspase-dependent cell death in C6 glioma. 3BP was powerful in decreasing viability of human glioblastoma multiforme cells (U373MG) and C6 glioma in a dose- and time-dependent manner.

  11. Forsterite Carbonation in Wet Supercritical CO2 and Sodium Citrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, L.; Schaef, T.; Wang, Z.; Miller, Q.; McGrail, P.

    2013-12-01

    Lin Qiu1*, Herbert T. Schaef2, Zhengrong Wang1, Quin R.S. Miller3, BP McGrail2 1. Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA 2. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA 3. University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, USA Geologic reservoirs for managing carbon emissions (mostly CO2) have expanded over the last 5 years to include unconventional formations including basalts and fractured shales. Recently, ~1000 metric tons of CO2 was injected into the Columbia River Basalt (CRB) in Eastern Washington as part of the Wallula Pilot Project, Big Sky Regional Carbon Partnership. Based on reservoir conditions, the injected CO2 is present as a supercritical fluid that dissolves into the formation water over time, and reacts with basalt components to form carbonate minerals. In this paper, we discuss mineral transformation reactions occurring when the forsterite (Mg2SiO4) is exposed to wet scCO2 in equilibrium with pure water and sodium citrate solutions. Forsterite was selected as it is an important olivine group mineral present in igneous and mafic rocks. Citrate was selected as it has been shown to enhance mineral dissolution and organic ligands are possible degradation products of the microbial communities present in the formational waters of the CRB. For the supercritical phase, transformation reactions were examined by in situ high pressure x-ray diffraction (HXRD) in the presence of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) in contact with water and sodium citrate solutions at conditions relevant to carbon sequestration. Experimental results show close-to-complete dissolution of forsterite in contact with scCO2 equilibrated with pure water for 90 hours (90 bar and 50°C). Under these conditions, thin films of water coated the mineral surface, providing a mechanism for silicate dissolution and transport of cations necessary for carbonate formation. The primary crystalline component initially detected with in situ HXRD was the hydrated magnesium carbonate, nesquehonite [Mg

  12. Sodium phosphate-derived calcium phosphate cements

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, T.; Carciello, N.R. )

    1995-01-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPC) were synthesized by the acid-base reaction between sodium phosphate, NaH[sub 2]PO[sub 4] or -(-NaPO[sub 3]-)-[sub n], as the acid solution, and calcium aluminate cements (CAC) as the base reactant at 25 C. The extent of reactivity of -(-NaPO[sub 3]-)-[sub n] with CAC was much higher than that of NaH[sub 2]PO[sub 4], thereby resulting in a compressive strength of > 20 MPa. Sodium calcium orthophosphate (SCOP) salts as amorphous reaction products were responsible for the development of this strength. When this CPC specimen as exposed in an autoclave, in-situ amorphous [r arrow] crystal conversions, such as SCOP [r arrow] hydroxyapatite (HOAp), and Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] [center dot] xH[sub 2]O [r arrow] [gamma]-AlOOH, occurred at [approx] 100 C, while the rate of reaction of the residual CAC with the phosphate reactant was increasingly accelerated by hydrothermal catalysis. Based upon this information, the authors prepared lightweight CPC specimens by hydrothermally treating a low-density cement slurry (1.28 g/cc) consisting of CAC powder, -(-NaPO[sub 3]-)-[sub n] solution, and mullite-hollow microspheres. The characteristics of the autoclaved lightweight specimens were a compressive strength of > 9.0 MPa, water permeability of [approx] 5.0 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] milli darcy, and a low rate of alkali carbonation. The reasons for such a low carbonation rate reflected the presence of a minimum amount of residual CAC, in conjunction with the presence of HOAp and [gamma]-AlOOH phases that are unsusceptible to wet carbonation.

  13. Rock phosphate enriched compost: an approach to improve low-grade Indian rock phosphate.

    PubMed

    Biswas, D R; Narayanasamy, G

    2006-12-01

    In this study, rock phosphate enriched composts (RP-compost) were prepared by mixing four low-grade Indian rock phosphates with rice straw with and without Aspergillus awamori. RP-compost had higher total P, citrate soluble P (CSP), organic P (Org.P), acid and alkaline phosphatase activities, and lower water soluble P (WSP) and microbial biomass C (MBC) than normal compost. Inoculation with A. awamori increased total P, WSP, CSP, Org.P, MBC and acid phosphatase activity. RP-compost recorded lower Olsen P at the initial period of incubation study than diammonium phosphate (DAP), but improved significantly with the progress of time. RP-compost prepared at 4% charged rate resulted in higher Olsen P throughout the incubation period compared to 2% charged rate. Similar trend were obtained with those RP-composts prepared with A. awamori. Data on pot experiment revealed higher yield and P uptake by mungbean (Vigna radiata) due to addition of RP-composts over control. The effectiveness of RP-compost ranged from 61.4% (MussoorieRP-compost) to 94.1% (PuruliaRP-compost) as that of DAP on dry matter yield and 48.8% (JhabuaRP-compost) to 83.7% (PuruliaRP-compost) on total P uptake. Enriched compost prepared at 4% charged rate recorded 15.8% and 10.6% extra yield and P uptake, respectively by mungbean over 2% charged compost. Also RP-compost inoculated with A. awamori resulted in 13.0 and 21.5% extra yield and P uptake than without A. awamori treated group. Thus, RP enriched compost could be an alternative and viable technology to utilize both low-grade RPs and rice straw efficiently.

  14. Photochemistry of iron citrates initiated by UV-VIS light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corral Arroyo, Pablo; Dou, Jing; Alpert, Peter; Krieger, Ulrich; Ammann, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Aerosol aging refers to the multitude of physical and chemical transformation atmospheric particles undergo, which play an important role in the impact of aerosols on climate, air quality and health. Aging processes may be started by chromophores, which act as photocatalysts that induce the oxidation of non-absorbing molecules [1]. Iron (Fe(III)) carboxylate complexes absorb light below about 500 nm, which is followed by ligand to metal charge transfer (LMCT) resulting in the reduction of iron to Fe(II) and oxidation of the carboxylate ligands, a process that represents an important sink of organic acids in the troposphere [2]. Our goal is to investigate how these photochemical processes contribute to the change of chemical and physical properties of the aerosol particles. To achieve this scope, we carry out coated wall flow tube experiments, exposing films with iron citrate to UV light, which will give information about the radical and LVOC production (connecting the CWFT to a Chemiluminescent Detector or PTR-TOF-MS respectively). From extracting and analyzing the films after irradiation with UV light, we obtain a profile of low-volatility products evolving from the photochemistry of iron citrates. By Scanning Transmission X-Ray Microspectroscopy (STXM) we analyze changes in the C K-edge and Fe L-edge in particles loaded with iron citrate upon exposure to light and follow their chemical and structural evolution upon photochemical oxidation in situ to investigate the degradation kinetics under varying environmental conditions. [1] George G., Ammann M., D'Anna B., Donaldson D. J., Nizkorodov S. A., Heterogeneous photochemistry in the Atmosphere, Chem. Rev., 2015, 115 (10), pp 4218-4258 [2] Weller, C., Horn, S., and Herrmann, H.: Photolysis of Fe(III) carboxylate complexes: Fe(II) quantum yields and reaction mechanisms, Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 268, 24-36, 2013.

  15. Transport of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles in unsaturated sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumahor, Samuel; Hron, Pavel; Metreveli, George; Schaumann, Gabriele; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2015-04-01

    Chemical factors and physical constraints lead to coupled effects during particle transport in unsaturated porous media. Unlike for saturated transport, studies on unsaturated transport as typical for soil are currently scarce. We investigated the mobility of citrate-coated Ag NPs in unsaturated sand (grain diameter: 0.1-0.3 mm). For three flux rates and a given pore-water ionic strength (1 mM KNO3), the citrate-coated Ag NPs were less mobile at pH = 5 compared to pH = 9. The classic Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory suggests unfavorable deposition conditions at both, the air-water interface and solid-water interface. Breakthrough curves measured under quasi-steady state unsaturated flow showed retardation of the citrate-coated Ag NPs compared to inert solute (KBr). After flushing with nanoparticle-free 1 mM KNO3 solution (pH-adjusted), retention was much lower in deeper depths compared to the surface where the particles entered the flow field. The results show a non-linear dependence of nanoparticle (NP) mobility on flux rate and water content. Especially the observed retardation similar to equilibrium sorption is in contrast to observations under saturated flow conditions. A convection-dispersion and reaction model that combines a reversible equilibrium process and a non-equilibrium interaction process reproduced the measured breakthrough curves reasonably well. From comparison between saturated and unsaturated experiments we conclude that the air-water interface is responsible for the reversible equilibrium process while the water-solid interface accounts for irreversible soption.

  16. Analytical chemistry of the citrate process for flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Marchant, W.N.; May, S.L.; Simpson, W.W.; Winter, J.K.; Beard, H.R.

    1980-01-01

    The citrate process for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is a product of continuing research by the US Bureau of Mines to meet the goal of minimizing the objectionable effects of minerals industry operations upon the environment. The reduction of SO/sub 2/ in solution by H/sub 2/S to produce elemental sulfur by the citrate process is extremely complex and results in solutions that contain at least nine different sulfur species. Process solution analysis is essential to a clear understanding of process chemistry and its safe, efficient operation. The various chemical species, the approximate ranges of their concentrations in citrate process solutions, and the analytical methods evolved to determine them are hydrogen sulfide (approx. 0M to 0.06M) by specific ion electrode, polysulfides (unknown) by ultraviolet (uv) spectrophotometry, elemental sulfur (approx. 0M to approx. 0.001M dissolved, approx. 0M to approx. 0.1M suspended) by uv spectrophotometry, thiosulfate (approx. 0M to approx. 0.25M) by iodometry or high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), polythionates (approx. 0M to approx. 0.01M) by thin layer chromatography (TLC), dithionite (searched for but not detected in process solutions) by polarography or TLC, bisulfite (approx. 0M to 0.2M) by iodometry, sulfate (approx. 0M to 1M) by a Bureau-developed gravimetric procedure, citric acid (approx. 0M to 0.5M) by titration or visible colorimetry, glycolic acid (approx. 0M to 1M) by HPLC, sodium (approx. 1.5M) by flame photometry, and chloride by argentometric titration.

  17. Growth and energy generation by Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 198 during citrate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sarantinopoulos, Panagiotis; Makras, Lefteris; Vaningelgem, Frederik; Kalantzopoulos, George; De Vuyst, Luc; Tsakalidou, Effie

    2003-07-25

    Citrate metabolism by Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 198, isolated from Greek Feta cheese, was studied in various growth media containing citrate either in the presence of glucose, or as the sole carbon source, both under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) broth with increasing citrate concentrations, cometabolism of citrate and glucose took place. Glucose was stoichiometrically converted into lactate, while citrate into acetate. Glucose consumption and biomass yield were enhanced with increasing initial citrate concentrations, even though maximum specific growth rate was not. When citrate was used as the sole carbon source in increasing initial concentrations, the main end product was acetate. Small amounts of lactate, formate, ethanol, and acetoin were also produced. In all cases, no significant differences were observed between aerobic and anaerobic conditions. However, when citrate was used as sole carbon source, formate production was favored in the absence of oxygen. The present work shows that E. faecium is able to utilize citrate in synthetic media, either in the presence of glucose or as the sole carbon source, resulting in energy production and the formation of aroma compounds.

  18. Engineering genetically encoded nanosensors for real-time in vivo measurements of citrate concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ewald, Jennifer C; Reich, Sabrina; Baumann, Stephan; Frommer, Wolf B; Zamboni, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Citrate is an intermediate in catabolic as well as biosynthetic pathways and is an important regulatory molecule in the control of glycolysis and lipid metabolism. Mass spectrometric and NMR based metabolomics allow measuring citrate concentrations, but only with limited spatial and temporal resolution. Methods are so far lacking to monitor citrate levels in real-time in-vivo. Here, we present a series of genetically encoded citrate sensors based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). We screened databases for citrate-binding proteins and tested three candidates in vitro. The citrate binding domain of the Klebsiella pneumoniae histidine sensor kinase CitA, inserted between the FRET pair Venus/CFP, yielded a sensor highly specific for citrate. We optimized the peptide linkers to achieve maximal FRET change upon citrate binding. By modifying residues in the citrate binding pocket, we were able to construct seven sensors with different affinities spanning a concentration range of three orders of magnitude without losing specificity. In a first in vivo application we show that E. coli maintains the capacity to take up glucose or acetate within seconds even after long-term starvation.

  19. Flipping a citrate switch on liver cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jeffrey M

    2017-08-18

    Energy homeostasis and oncogenic signaling are critical determinants of the growth of human liver cancer cells, providing a strong rationale to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms for these systems. A new study reports that loss of solute carrier family 13 member 5, which transports citrate across cell membranes, halts liver cancer cell growth by altering both energy production and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling in human liver cancer cell lines and in both an in vitro and in vivo model of liver tumors, suggesting a new target for liver cancer chemoprevention and/or chemotherapy. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Structures of citrate synthase and malate dehydrogenase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ferraris, Davide M; Spallek, Ralf; Oehlmann, Wulf; Singh, Mahavir; Rizzi, Menico

    2015-02-01

    The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is a central metabolic pathway of all aerobic organisms and is responsible for the synthesis of many important precursors and molecules. TCA cycle plays a key role in the metabolism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is involved in the adaptation process of the bacteria to the host immune response. We present here the first crystal structures of M. tuberculosis malate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase, two consecutive enzymes of the TCA, at 2.6 Å and 1.5 Å resolution, respectively. General analogies and local differences with the previously reported homologous protein structures are described. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Methodology of citrate-based biomaterial development and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, M. Richard

    Biomaterials play central roles in modern strategies of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Attempts to find tissue-engineered solutions to cure various injuries or diseases have led to an enormous increase in the number of polymeric biomaterials over the past decade. The breadth of new materials arises from the multiplicity of anatomical locations, cell types, and mode of application, which all place application-specific requirements on the biomaterial. Unfortunately, many of the currently available biodegradable polymers are limited in their versatility to meet the wide range of requirements for tissue engineering. Therefore, a methodology of biomaterial development, which is able to address a broad spectrum of requirements, would be beneficial to the biomaterial field. This work presents a methodology of citrate-based biomaterial design and application to meet the multifaceted needs of tissue engineering. We hypothesize that (1) citric acid, a non-toxic metabolic product of the body (Krebs Cycle), can be exploited as a universal multifunctional monomer and reacted with various diols to produce a new class of soft biodegradable elastomers with the flexibility to tune the material properties of the resulting material to meet a wide range of requirements; (2) the newly developed citrate-based polymers can be used as platform biomaterials for the design of novel tissue engineering scaffolding; and (3) microengineering approaches in the form thin scaffold sheets, microchannels, and a new porogen design can be used to generate complex cell-cell and cell-microenvironment interactions to mimic tissue complexity and architecture. To test these hypotheses, we first developed a methodology of citrate-based biomaterial development through the synthesis and characterization of a family of in situ crosslinkable and urethane-doped elastomers, which are synthesized using simple, cost-effective strategies and offer a variety methods to tailor the material properties to

  2. Antitumor effect and toxicity of free rhodium (II) citrate and rhodium (II) citrate-loaded maghemite nanoparticles in mice bearing breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Marcella Lemos Brettas; Peixoto, Raphael C A; Joanitti, Graziela A; Oliveira, Ricardo G S; Telles, Luis A M; Miranda-Vilela, Ana L; Bocca, Anamélia L; Vianna, Leonora M S; da Silva, Izabel C R; de Souza, Aparecido R; Lacava, Zulmira G M; Báo, Sônia N

    2013-02-16

    Magnetic fluids containing superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles represent an attractive platform as nanocarriers in chemotherapy. Recently, we developed a formulation of maghemite nanoparticles coated with rhodium (II) citrate, which resulted in in vitro cytotoxicity enhanced up to 4.6 times when compared to free rhodium (II) citrate formulation on breast carcinoma cells. In this work, we evaluate the antitumor activity and toxicity induced by these formulations in Balb/c mice bearing orthotopic 4T1 breast carcinoma. Mice were evaluated with regard to the treatments' toxicity through analyses of hemogram, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, iron, and creatinine; DNA fragmentation and cell cycle of bone marrow cells; and liver, kidney and lung histology. In addition, the antitumor activity of rhodium (II) citrate and maghemite nanoparticles coated with rhodium (II) citrate was verified by tumor volume reduction, histology and immunohistochemistry. Regarding the treatments' toxicity, no experimental groups had alterations in levels of serum ALT or creatinine, and this suggestion was corroborated by the histopathologic examination of liver and kidney of mice. Moreover, DNA fragmentation frequency of bone marrow cells was lower than 15% in all experimental groups. On the other hand, the complexes rhodium (II) citrate-functionalized maghemite and free rhodium (II) citrate led to a marked growth inhibition of tumor and decrease in CD31 and Ki-67 staining. In summary, we demonstrated that both rhodium (II) citrate and maghemite nanoparticles coated with rhodium (II) citrate formulations exhibited antitumor effects against 4T1 metastatic breast cancer cell line following intratumoral administration. This antitumor effect was followed by inhibition of both cell proliferation and microvascularization and by tumor tissue injury characterized as necrosis and fibrosis. Remarkably, this is the first published report demonstrating the therapeutic efficacy of maghemite

  3. Antitumor effect and toxicity of free rhodium (II) citrate and rhodium (II) citrate-loaded maghemite nanoparticles in mice bearing breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Magnetic fluids containing superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles represent an attractive platform as nanocarriers in chemotherapy. Recently, we developed a formulation of maghemite nanoparticles coated with rhodium (II) citrate, which resulted in in vitro cytotoxicity enhanced up to 4.6 times when compared to free rhodium (II) citrate formulation on breast carcinoma cells. In this work, we evaluate the antitumor activity and toxicity induced by these formulations in Balb/c mice bearing orthotopic 4T1 breast carcinoma. Methods Mice were evaluated with regard to the treatments’ toxicity through analyses of hemogram, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, iron, and creatinine; DNA fragmentation and cell cycle of bone marrow cells; and liver, kidney and lung histology. In addition, the antitumor activity of rhodium (II) citrate and maghemite nanoparticles coated with rhodium (II) citrate was verified by tumor volume reduction, histology and immunohistochemistry. Results Regarding the treatments’ toxicity, no experimental groups had alterations in levels of serum ALT or creatinine, and this suggestion was corroborated by the histopathologic examination of liver and kidney of mice. Moreover, DNA fragmentation frequency of bone marrow cells was lower than 15% in all experimental groups. On the other hand, the complexes rhodium (II) citrate-functionalized maghemite and free rhodium (II) citrate led to a marked growth inhibition of tumor and decrease in CD31 and Ki-67 staining. Conclusions In summary, we demonstrated that both rhodium (II) citrate and maghemite nanoparticles coated with rhodium (II) citrate formulations exhibited antitumor effects against 4T1 metastatic breast cancer cell line following intratumoral administration. This antitumor effect was followed by inhibition of both cell proliferation and microvascularization and by tumor tissue injury characterized as necrosis and fibrosis. Remarkably, this is the first published report

  4. Determination of sildenafil citrate and its main metabolite by sample stacking with polarity switching using micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Berzas Nevado, J J; Flores, J Rodriguez; Peñalvo, G Castañeda; Rodríguez, Fariñas N

    2002-04-12

    Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) coupled with sample stacking and polarity switching was investigated for the determination of Viagra (sildenafil citrate, SC) and its metabolite (UK-103,320, UK) in human serum in the concentration range of clinical interest. Human serum samples spiked with SC and UK were eluted with methanol from a C18 cartridge, the extract was evaporated and regenerated in a solution that contained 1 mM phosphate buffer (pH 12.3) and 20% methanol. The MEKC separation was performed using an injection time of 275 s, a polarity switching time of 93 s, a phosphate buffer, (pH 12.3, 15 mM) containing 25 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate as separation electrolyte and a fused-silica capillary. The analysis takes about 6 min and gives satisfactory inter-day precision with respect to migration times and linear responses over the 80-900 ng/ml concentration range investigated for SC and UK. Intra-day RSDs (n=4 graphs) for the slopes of the calibration graphs were 4.86% for SC and 3.50% for UK. Inter-day RSDs for the slopes were 4.37% for SC and 5.39% for UK. Detection limits (S/N=3) were about 17 ng/ml for both compounds in human serum. A 1-ml volume of blood serum was necessary to do this determination.

  5. Improved Manganese Phosphate Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    Conversion coatings 3 . Phosphating bath 20 AGrjC onln odd*. ta It .. c..soMV midP 1J.,alft. by block noc.mb) Work was conducted to determine the mechanism by...34 TABULAR DATA Table I Analyses of Solution and Coating for Phosphating Baths 4 of Di-ferlng Compositions 11 Atomic Absorption...manganese and iron phosphate coating: k * a. Mn(H 2PO4) 2 Nn-P0 4 + H3PO0 k2 k) b. 3MnHPO4 - Mn3 (P04) 2 + H3i’O4 k4 k5 c. Fe(H 2PO4) 2 -01 FeHPO4

  6. Codeine dihydrogen phosphate hemihydrate.

    PubMed

    Langes, Christoph; Gelbrich, Thomas; Griesser, Ulrich J; Kahlenberg, Volker

    2009-08-01

    The cation of the title structure [systematic name: (5alpha,6alpha)-6-hydroxy-7,8-didehydro-4,5-epoxy-3-methoxy-17-methylmorphinanium dihydrogen phosphate hemihydrate], C18H22NO3+.H2PO4-.0.5H2O, has a T-shaped conformation. The dihydrogen phosphate anions are linked by O-H...O hydrogen bonds to give an extended ribbon chain. The codeine cations are linked together by O-H...O hydrogen bonds into a zigzag chain. There are also N-H...O bonds between the two types of hydrogen-bonded units. Additionally, they are connected to one another via O...H-O-H...O bridging water molecules. The asymmetric unit contains two codeine hydrogen cations, two dihydrogen phosphate anions and one water molecule. This study shows that the water molecules are firmly bound within a complex three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded framework.

  7. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium).

    The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  8. Fundamentals of phosphate transfer.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Anthony J; Nome, Faruk

    2015-07-21

    Historically, the chemistry of phosphate transfer-a class of reactions fundamental to the chemistry of Life-has been discussed almost exclusively in terms of the nucleophile and the leaving group. Reactivity always depends significantly on both factors; but recent results for reactions of phosphate triesters have shown that it can also depend strongly on the nature of the nonleaving or "spectator" groups. The extreme stabilities of fully ionised mono- and dialkyl phosphate esters can be seen as extensions of the same effect, with one or two triester OR groups replaced by O(-). Our chosen lead reaction is hydrolysis-phosphate transfer to water: because water is the medium in which biological chemistry takes place; because the half-life of a system in water is an accepted basic index of stability; and because the typical mechanisms of hydrolysis, with solvent H2O providing specific molecules to act as nucleophiles and as general acids or bases, are models for reactions involving better nucleophiles and stronger general species catalysts. Not least those available in enzyme active sites. Alkyl monoester dianions compete with alkyl diester monoanions for the slowest estimated rates of spontaneous hydrolysis. High stability at physiological pH is a vital factor in the biological roles of organic phosphates, but a significant limitation for experimental investigations. Almost all kinetic measurements of phosphate transfer reactions involving mono- and diesters have been followed by UV-visible spectroscopy using activated systems, conveniently compounds with good leaving groups. (A "good leaving group" OR* is electron-withdrawing, and can be displaced to generate an anion R*O(-) in water near pH 7.) Reactivities at normal temperatures of P-O-alkyl derivatives-better models for typical biological substrates-have typically had to be estimated: by extended extrapolation from linear free energy relationships, or from rate measurements at high temperatures. Calculation is free

  9. Free Rhodium (II) citrate and rhodium (II) citrate magnetic carriers as potential strategies for breast cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Marcella L B; Nunes, Eloiza S; Peixoto, Raphael C A; Oliveira, Ricardo G S; Lourenço, Luiza H M; da Silva, Izabel C R; Simioni, Andreza R; Tedesco, Antônio C; de Souza, Aparecido R; Lacava, Zulmira G M; Báo, Sônia N

    2011-03-28

    Rhodium (II) citrate (Rh(2)(H(2)cit)(4)) has significant antitumor, cytotoxic, and cytostatic activity on Ehrlich ascite tumor. Although toxic to normal cells, its lower toxicity when compared to carboxylate analogues of rhodium (II) indicates (Rh(2)(H(2)cit)(4)) as a promising agent for chemotherapy. Nevertheless, few studies have been performed to explore this potential. Superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (SPIOs) represent an attractive platform as carriers in drug delivery systems (DDS) because they can present greater specificity to tumor cells than normal cells. Thus, the association between Rh(2)(H(2)cit)(4) and SPIOs can represent a strategy to enhance the former's therapeutic action. In this work, we report the cytotoxicity of free rhodium (II) citrate (Rh(2)(H(2)cit)(4)) and rhodium (II) citrate-loaded maghemite nanoparticles or magnetoliposomes, used as drug delivery systems, on both normal and carcinoma breast cell cultures. Treatment with free Rh(2)(H(2)cit)(4) induced cytotoxicity that was dependent on dose, time, and cell line. The IC(50) values showed that this effect was more intense on breast normal cells (MCF-10A) than on breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7 and 4T1). However, the treatment with 50 μM Rh(2)(H(2)cit)(4)-loaded maghemite nanoparticles (Mag(h)-Rh(2)(H(2)cit)(4)) and Rh(2)(H(2)cit)(4)-loaded magnetoliposomes (Lip-Magh-Rh(2)(H(2)cit)(4)) induced a higher cytotoxicity on MCF-7 and 4T1 than on MCF-10A (p < 0.05). These treatments enhanced cytotoxicity up to 4.6 times. These cytotoxic effects, induced by free Rh(2)(H(2)cit)(4), were evidenced by morphological alterations such as nuclear fragmentation, membrane blebbing and phosphatidylserine exposure, reduction of actin filaments, mitochondrial condensation and an increase in number of vacuoles, suggesting that Rh(2)(H(2)cit)(4) induces cell death by apoptosis. The treatment with rhodium (II) citrate-loaded maghemite nanoparticles and magnetoliposomes induced more specific cytotoxicity

  10. Partial neutralization of the acidogenic Western diet with potassium citrate increases bone mass in postmenopausal women with osteopenia.

    PubMed

    Jehle, Sigrid; Zanetti, Antonella; Muser, Jürgen; Hulter, Henry N; Krapf, Reto

    2006-11-01

    Chronic acid loads are an obligate consequence of the high animal/grain protein content of the Western diet. The effect of this diet-induced metabolic acidosis on bone mass is controversial. In a randomized, prospective, controlled, double-blind trial, 161 postmenopausal women (age 58.6 +/- 4.8 yr) with low bone mass (T score -1 to -4) were randomly assigned to 30 mEq of oral potassium (K) citrate (Kcitrate) or 30 mEq of K chloride (KCl) daily. The primary end point was the intergroup difference in mean percentage change in bone mineral density (BMD) at lumbar spine (L2 through L4) after 12 mo. Compared with the women who received KCl, women who received Kcitrate exhibited an intergroup increase in BMD (+/-SE) of 1.87 +/- 0.50% at L2 through L4 (P < 0.001), of 1.39 +/- 0.48% (P < 0.001) at femoral neck, and of 1.98 +/- 0.51% (P < 0.001) at total hip. Significant secondary end point intragroup changes also were found: Kcitrate increased L2 through L4 BMD significantly from baseline at months 3, 9, and 12 and reached a month 12 increase of 0.89 +/- 0.30% (P < 0.05), whereas the KCl arm showed a decreased L2 through L4 BMD by -0.98 +/- 0.38% (P < 0.05), significant only at month 12. Intergroup differences for distal radius and total body were NS. The Kcitrate-treated group demonstrated a sustained and significant reduction in urinary calcium excretion and a significant increase in urinary citrate excretion, with increased citrate excretion indicative of sustained systemic alkalization. Urinary bone resorption marker excretion rates were significantly reduced by Kcitrate, and for deoxypyridinoline, the intergroup difference was significant. Urinary net acid excretion correlated inversely and significantly with the change in BMD in a subset of patients. Large and significant reductions in BP were observed for both K supplements during the entire 12 mo. Bone mass can be increased significantly in postmenopausal women with osteopenia by increasing their daily alkali

  11. [Comparative estimation of antilithogenic activity of porcine kidney derived biomedical substance and sodium citrate in experimental urolithiasis].

    PubMed

    Pavlyashik, G V; Zharikov, A Yu; Kiselev, V I

    2017-06-01

    in the comparison group, respectively, SOD and CAT activity almost doubled, there were 3.6 times fewer calcium deposits in the field of view and their mean size was 1.7 times smaller than in the comparison group. The study findings showed that the porcine kidney derived biomedical substance provide significantly greater antilithogenic effect than sodium citrate.

  12. Comparison of magnesium status using X-ray dispersion analysis following magnesium oxide and magnesium citrate treatment of healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Shechter, Michael; Saad, Tomer; Shechter, Alon; Koren-Morag, Nira; Silver, Burton B; Matetzky, Shlomi

    2012-03-01

    The magnesium content in food consumed in the Western world is steadily decreasing. Hypomagnesemia is associated with increased incidence of diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, all-cause and coronary artery disease mortality. We investigated the impact of supplemental oral magnesium citrate versus magnesium oxide on intracellular magnesium levels ([Mg2+]i) and platelet function in healthy subjects with no apparent heart disease. In a randomized, prospective, double-blind, crossover study, 41 (20 women) healthy volunteers [mean age 53±8 (range 31-75) years] received either magnesium oxide monohydrate tablets (520 mg/day of elemental magnesium) or magnesium citrate tablets (295.8 mg/day of elemental magnesium) for one month (phase 1), followed by a four-week wash-out period, and then crossover treatment for one month (phase 2). [Mg2+]i was assessed from sublingual cells through x-ray dispersion (normal values 37.9±4.0 mEq/L), serum magnesium levels, platelet aggregation, and quality-of-life questionnaires were assessed before and after each phase. Oral magnesium oxide, rather than magnesium citrate, significantly increased [Mg2+]i (34.4±3 versus 36.3±2 mEq/L, p<0.001 and 34.7±2 versus 35.4±2 mEq/L, p=0.097; respectively), reduced total cholesterol (201±37 versus 186±27 mg/dL, p=0.016 and 187±28 versus 187±25 mg/dL, p=0.978; respectively) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (128±22 versus 120±25 mg/dL, p=0.042 and 120±23 versus 121±22 mg/dL, p=0.622; respectively). Noteworthy is that both treatments significantly reduced epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation (78.9±16% versus 71.7±23%, p=0.013 and 81.3±15% versus 73.3±23%, p=0.036; respectively). Thus, oral magnesium oxide treatment significantly improved [Mg2+]i, total and LDL cholesterol compared with magnesium citrate, while both treatments similarly inhibited platelet aggregation in healthy subjects with no apparent heart disease.

  13. Pretreatment With Caffeine Citrate to Increase Seizure Duration During Electroconvulsive Therapy: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Pinkhasov, Aaron; Biglow, Michael; Chandra, Subhash; Pica, Tiffany

    2016-04-01

    Due to the shortage of parenteral caffeine and sodium benzoate, patients were pretreated with caffeine citrate to increase therapeutic seizure duration during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). To date, no data are available on the use of caffeine citrate during ECT. This retrospective case series was done to demonstrate utilization of caffeine citrate as a substitute for caffeine and sodium benzoate in optimizing ECT. Medical records were reviewed to identify patients who received ECT and caffeine citrate. Physician notes were reviewed to determine the parameters of the ECT procedure, the seizure length, and the dose of caffeine citrate. Each chart was thoroughly studied to find the relationship between seizure duration and dose of caffeine citrate. Of the 12 ECT treatments utilizing caffeine citrate, 9 achieved at least 1 session lasting >30 seconds with an average seizure duration of 35 seconds. Increase in seizure duration ranged from -41% to 276% with an average increase of 48%. Only 3 treatment sessions utilizing caffeine citrate showed no increase in seizure duration. Doses ranged from 120 to 600 mg of both oral and parenteral caffeine citrate. Although increase in seizure duration was achieved for the majority of the ECT sessions, no dose-response correlation could be made. No significant adverse reactions were noted with the use of caffeine citrate during ECT. It was determined that, much like caffeine and sodium benzoate, caffeine citrate does increase the seizure duration. However, this response did vary due to many reasons including small sample size, concomitant medications, duration of illness, and number of ECTs they received in the past and how long ago they received the last ECT. Further research is required to elucidate the effect of these variables on seizure duration. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Molecular mechanisms of crystallization impacting calcium phosphate cements

    PubMed Central

    Giocondi, Jennifer L.; El-Dasher, Bassem S.; Nancollas, George H.; Orme, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    The biomineral calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (CaHPO4·2H2O), known as brushite, is a malleable material that both grows and dissolves faster than most other calcium minerals, including other calcium phosphate phases, calcium carbonates and calcium oxalates. Within the body, this ready formation and dissolution can play a role in certain diseases, such as kidney stone and plaque formation. However, these same properties, along with brushite’s excellent biocompatibility, can be used to great benefit in making resorbable biomedical cements. To optimize cements, additives are commonly used to control crystallization kinetics and phase transformation. This paper describes the use of in situ scanning probe microscopy to investigate the role of several solution parameters and additives in brushite atomic step motion. Surprisingly, this work demonstrates that the activation barrier for phosphate (rather than calcium) incorporation limits growth kinetics and that additives such as magnesium, citrate and bisphosphonates each influence step motion in distinctly different ways. Our findings provide details of how, and where, molecules inhibit or accelerate kinetics. These insights have the potential to aid in designing molecules to target specific steps and to guide synergistic combinations of additives. PMID:20308110

  15. Formulation, Characterization and Physicochemical Evaluation of Potassium Citrate Effervescent Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Fattahi, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to design and formulation of potassium citrate effervescent tablet for reduction of calcium oxalate and urate kidney stones in patients suffering from kidney stones. Methods: In this study, 13 formulations were prepared from potassium citrate and effervescent base in different concentration. The flowability of powders and granules was studied. Then effervescent tablets were prepared by direct compression, fusion and wet granulation methods. The prepared tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, effervescent time, pH, content uniformity. To amend taste of formulations, different flavoring agents were used and then panel test was done by using Latin Square method by 30 volunteers. Results: Formulations obtained from direct compression and fusion methods had good flow but low hardness. Wet granulation improves flowability and other physicochemical properties such as acceptable hardness, effervescence time ≤3 minutes, pH<6, friability < 1%, water percentage < 0.5% and accurate content uniformity. In panel test, both of combination flavors; (orange - lemon) and (strawberry - raspberry) had good acceptability. Conclusion: The prepared tablets by wet granulation method using PVP solution had more tablet hardness. It is a reproducible process and suitable to produce granules that are compressed into effervescent tablets due to larger agglomerates. PMID:24312839

  16. Green synthesis of multi metal- citrate complexes and their characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Usha; Warkar, Sudhir G.; Kumar, Anil

    2017-04-01

    Four new multi metal-citrate complexes have been synthesized through green synthetic pathways. Their synthesis by hydrothermal route in the present research is decorated with features such as, a simple one pot synthesis, cost effectiveness, easy to scale up for commercial production, efficient synthesis conditions like mild temperature and shorter duration which further rules out the possibility of forming byproducts which may cause damage to the environment and being environmental benign as it eliminates the use and recovery of harmful organic solvents such as N, N- dimethyl formamide and N, N- diethyl formamide, used by the researchers in the past during the synthesis of similar metal- organic framework complexes. All four complexes are well defined crystalline materials with polynuclear multi metal-citrate framework having cubic crystal structure as indicated by their Powder X-ray Diffraction patterns. These complexes have been characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric analysis and Powder XRD techniques.

  17. ATP citrate lyase inhibitors as novel cancer therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Zu, Xu-Yu; Zhang, Qing-Hai; Liu, Jiang-Hua; Cao, Ren-Xian; Zhong, Jing; Yi, Guang-Hui; Quan, Zhi-Hua; Pizzorno, Giuseppe

    2012-05-01

    ATP citrate lyase (ACL or ACLY) is an extra-mitochondrial enzyme widely distributed in various human and animal tissues. ACL links glucose and lipid metabolism by catalyzing the formation of acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate from citrate produced by glycolysis in the presence of ATP and CoA. ACL is aberrantly expressed in many immortalized cells and tumors, such as breast, liver, colon, lung and prostate cancers, and is correlated reversely with tumor stage and differentiation, serving as a negative prognostic marker. ACL is an upstream enzyme of the long chain fatty acid synthesis, providing acetyl-CoA as an essential component of the fatty acid synthesis. Therefore, ACL is a key enzyme of cellular lipogenesis and potent target for cancer therapy. As a hypolipidemic strategy of metabolic syndrome and cancer treatment, many small chemicals targeting ACL have been designed and developed. This review article provides an update for the research and development of ACL inhibitors with a focus on their patent status, offering a new insight into their potential application.

  18. Bioequivalence study of sildenafil citrate tablets in healthy human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Mandal, U; Musmade, Prashant; Chakraborty, Mita; Rajan, D Senthil; Chakravarti, M; Pal, T K; Chattaraj, T K

    2004-11-01

    Newly developed sildenafil citrate (SC), a selective inhibitor of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (c-GMP) specific phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE 5) in the corpus cavernosum is used for the oral treatment of erectile dysfunction. A convenient, sensitive and simple method for the determination of sildenafil in human plasma is presented. The analytical technique was based on reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detector set at 295 nm. Rofecoxib was used as internal standard (I.S). Liquid-liquid extraction using diethyl ether was performed to recover sildenafil and rofecoxib. The retention time of I.S and sildenafil were 5.5 minutes and 7.2 minutes respectively. The method was validated over a linear range of 10 to 1000 ng/ml from plasma. Separate stability study showed that sildenafil is stable under conditions of analysis. The extraction efficiency from plasma varied from 79.69% to 81.13 %. The minimum quantifiable concentration was set at 10 ng/ml. (%o CV<12.5%). The method was used for Bioequivalence Study of Two Brands of Sildenafil citrate 50 mg tablets in healthy human volunteers. All pharmacokinetic parameter were calculated along with statistical evaluation.

  19. Inkjet printing of silver citrate conductive ink on PET substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Xiaolei; Wang, Hong; Zou, Jing

    2012-11-01

    Direct synthesis of silver conductive film on PET substrate by inkjet printing silver citrate conductive ink was presented in this paper. This kind of conductive ink contained silver citrate as silver precursor, 1,2-diaminopropane as complex agent dissolving the silver salt and methanol and isopropanol as a media adjusting the viscosity and surface tension. The formation of silver-amine complex reduced the decomposition temperature from 180 °C to 135 °C, thus the ink could be cured at relatively low temperature. The film reached the lowest resistivity of 17 μΩ cm after cured at 150 °C for 50 min, 3.1 μΩ cm at 230 °C and possessed high reflection and excellent adhesive property. Electrical conductivity, surface morphology and composition were investigated by four-point probe method, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). It is demonstrated how the cured condition affects the silver film. Moreover, radio-frequency identification (RFID) antenna was fabricated by inkjet printing, which opens up routes for the flexible electronics fabrication.

  20. Why sildenafil and sildenafil citrate monohydrate crystals are not stable?

    PubMed

    Sawatdee, Somchai; Pakawatchai, Chaveng; Nitichai, Kwanjai; Srichana, Teerapol; Phetmung, Hirihattaya

    2015-10-01

    Sildenafil citrate was crystallized by various techniques aiming to determine the behavior and factors affecting the crystal growth. There are only 2 types of sildenafil obtaining from crystallization: sildenafil (1) and sildenafil citrate monohydrate (2). The used techniques were (i) crystallization from saturated solutions, (ii) addition of an antisolvent, (iii) reflux and (iv) slow solvent evaporation method. By pursuing these various methods, our work pointed that the best formation of crystal (1) was obtained from technique no. (i). Surprisingly, the obtained crystals (1) were perfected if the process was an acidic pH at a cold temperature then perfect crystals occurred within a day. Crystals of compound (2) grew easily using technique no. (ii) which are various polar solvents over a wide range of pH and temperature preparation processes. The infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra fit well with these two X-ray crystal structures. The crystal structures of sildenafil free base and salt forms were different from their different growing conditions leading to stability difference.

  1. Transcriptional regulation of Bacillus subtilis citrate synthase genes.

    PubMed

    Jin, S; Sonenshein, A L

    1994-08-01

    The Bacillus subtilis citrate synthase genes citA and citZ were repressed during early exponential growth phase in nutrient broth medium and were induced as cells reached the end of exponential phase. Both genes were also induced by treatment of cells with the drug decoyinine. After induction, the steady-state level of citZ mRNA was about five times higher than that of citA mRNA. At least some of the citZ transcripts read through into the isocitrate dehydrogenase (citC) gene. Transcription from an apparent promoter site located near the 3' end of the citZ gene also contributed to expression of citC. In minimal medium, citA transcription was about 6-fold lower when glucose was the sole carbon source than it was when succinate was the carbon source. Expression of the citZ gene was repressed 2-fold by glucose and 10-fold when glucose and glutamate were present simultaneously. This latter synergistic repression is similar to the effect of glucose and glutamate on steady-state citrate synthase enzyme activity. CitR, a protein of the LysR family, appeared to be a repressor of citA but not of citZ.

  2. Why sildenafil and sildenafil citrate monohydrate crystals are not stable?

    PubMed Central

    Sawatdee, Somchai; Pakawatchai, Chaveng; Nitichai, Kwanjai; Srichana, Teerapol; Phetmung, Hirihattaya

    2015-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate was crystallized by various techniques aiming to determine the behavior and factors affecting the crystal growth. There are only 2 types of sildenafil obtaining from crystallization: sildenafil (1) and sildenafil citrate monohydrate (2). The used techniques were (i) crystallization from saturated solutions, (ii) addition of an antisolvent, (iii) reflux and (iv) slow solvent evaporation method. By pursuing these various methods, our work pointed that the best formation of crystal (1) was obtained from technique no. (i). Surprisingly, the obtained crystals (1) were perfected if the process was an acidic pH at a cold temperature then perfect crystals occurred within a day. Crystals of compound (2) grew easily using technique no. (ii) which are various polar solvents over a wide range of pH and temperature preparation processes. The infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra fit well with these two X-ray crystal structures. The crystal structures of sildenafil free base and salt forms were different from their different growing conditions leading to stability difference. PMID:26594116

  3. Photodegradation of uranium-citrate complex with uranium recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, C.J.; Francis, A.J. )

    1994-07-01

    Upon exposure to visible light, uranyl citrate complex showed photodegradation of citric acid to acetic acid and carbon dioxide, with the precipitation of uranium as uranium trioxide (UO[sub 3][center dot]2H[sub 2]O). The initial pH and presence of oxygen affected the rate and extent of photochemical degradation of the complex, the formation of intermediate organic degradation products, and uranium speciation. Under aerobic conditions at pH 3.5, acetic, acetoacetic, 3-oxoglutaric, and malonic acids and acetone were detected; at pH 6.0, 3-oxoglutaric and acetic acids were present. The uranyl U(VI) ion was reduced to uranous U(IV) ion and was subsequently reoxidized to the hexavalent form and precipitated out of solution as uranium trioxide. Uranium trioxide precipitate was insoluble at near-neutral pH and was soluble in acidic pH (<4.1). Under anaerobic conditions, the uranyl citrate complex showed only partial (57%) degradation, and uranium was present in the reduced form as U(IV). Excess citric acid retarded the precipitation of uranium. 26 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Structural and magnetic properties of Ni-Zn doped BaM nanocomposite via citrate precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Rana, Kush; Thakur, Preeti; Thakur, Atul; Tomar, Monika; Gupta, Vinay

    2016-05-23

    Ni-Zn substituted M-type barium ferrite nanocomposite has been prepared via citrate precursor method. Nanocomposite having composition BaNi{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 11}O{sub 19} was sintered at 900°C for 3hrs and characterized by using different characterization techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the formation of double phase with most prominent peak at (114). Average crystallite size for pure BaM and BNZFO were found to be 36 nm & 45 nm. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) confirmed the formation of hexagonal platelets with a layered structure. Magnetic properties of these samples were investigated by using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Magnetic parameters like saturation magnetization (M{sub s}), coericivity (H{sub c}) and squareness ratio (SQR) of nanocomposite were found to be 60 emu/g, 3663 Oe and 0.6163 respectively. These values were noticed to be higher as compared to pure BaM. Enhanced magnetic properties of nanocomposite were strongly dependent on exchange coupling. Therefore these properties make this nanocomposite a suitable candidate for magnetic recording and high frequency applications.

  5. Citrate and the conversion of carbohydrate in fat. The activities of citrate-cleavage enzyme and acetate thiokinase in livers of starved and re-fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Kornacker, Melodee S.; Lowenstein, J. M.

    1965-01-01

    1. The activity of citrate-cleavage enzyme varies in accordance with the nutritional state of the animal. It is suppressed on starvation and restored on re-feeding after starvation. 2. The increase in enzyme activity that occurs on re-feeding starved animals depends on the diet. It is largest on diets high in carbohydrate and low in fat, and smallest on diets high in fat. Intermediate increases are obtained with balanced diets. 3. The ratio of activities of citrate-cleavage enzyme to acetate thiokinase varies from 2·5 for animals maintained on a balanced diet to 20 for animals re-fed with a diet high in carbohydrate. 4. The changes in activity of citrate-cleavage enzyme correlate with changes in the rate of fatty acid synthesis and provide evidence for the involvement of the citrate-cleavage reaction in fatty acid synthesis. PMID:14342232

  6. Domestic phosphate deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKelvey, V.E.; Cathcart, J.B.; Altschuler, Z.S.; Swanson, R.W.; Lutz, Katherine

    1953-01-01

    Most of the worlds phosphate deposits can be grouped into six types: 1) igneous apatite deposits; 2) marine phosphorites; 3) residual phosphorites; 4) river pebble deposits; 5) phosphatized rock; and 6) guano. The igneous apatites and marine phosphorites form deposits measurable in millions or billions of tons; the residual deposits are measurable in thousands or millions; and the other types generally only in thousands of tons. Igneous apatite deposits have been mined on a small scale in New York, New Jersey, and Virginia. Marine phosphorites have been mined in Montana, Idaho, Utah, Wyoming, Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. Residual phosphorites have been mined in Tennessee, Pennsylvania, and Florida. River pebble has been produced in South Carolina and Florida; phosphatized rock in Tennessee and Florida; and guano in New Mexico and Texas. Present production is limited almost entirely to Florida, Tennessee, Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming. Incomplete but recently partly revised estimates indicate the presence of about 5 billion tons of phosphate deposits in the United States that is minable under present economic conditions. Deposits too lean in quality or thickness to compete with those in the western and southeastern fields probably contain tens of billions of tons.

  7. Effect of potassium citrate on bone density, microarchitecture, and fracture risk in healthy older adults without osteoporosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jehle, Sigrid; Hulter, Henry N; Krapf, Reto

    2013-01-01

    The acid load imposed by a modern diet may play an important role in the pathophysiology of osteoporosis. Our objective was to evaluate the skeletal efficacy and safety and the effect on fracture prediction of K-citrate to neutralize diet-induced acid loads. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial at a teaching hospital. Subjects included 201 elderly (>65 yr old) healthy men and women (t-score of -0.6 at lumbar spine). Intervention was 60 mEq of K-citrate daily or placebo by mouth. All subjects received calcium and vitamin D. The primary outcome was change in areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the lumbar spine by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry after 24 months. Secondary endpoints included changes in volumetric density and microarchitectural parameters by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography in both radii and both tibiae and fracture risk assessment by FRAX (Switzerland). K-citrate increased aBMD at lumbar spine from baseline by 1.7 ± 1.5% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0-2.3, P < 0.001] net of placebo after 24 months. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography-measured trabecular densities increased at nondominant tibia (1.3 ± 1.3%, CI = 0.7-1.9, P < 0.001) and nondominant radius (2.0 ± 2.0%, CI = 1.4-2.7, P < 0.001). At nondominant radius, trabecular bone volume/tissue volume increased by 0.9 ± 0.8%, (CI = 0.1-1.7), trabecular thickness by 1.5 ± 1.6% (CI = 0.7-2.3), and trabecular number by 1.9 ± 1.8% (CI = 0.7-3.1, for all, P < 0.05). K-citrate diminished fracture prediction score by FRAX significantly in both sexes. Among a group of healthy elderly persons without osteoporosis, treatment with K-citrate for 24 months resulted in a significant increase in aBMD and volumetric BMD at several sites tested, while also improving bone microarchitecture. Based on the effect on fracture prediction, an effect on future fractures by K-citrate is possible.

  8. Inactivation of Bakers' yeast glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase by aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Sungwoo; Joshi, J.G. )

    1989-04-18

    Preincubation of yeast glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) with Al(III) produced an inactive enzyme containing 1 mol of Al(III)/mol of enzyme subunit. None of the enzyme-bound Al(III) was dissociated by dialysis against 10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.0, containing 0.2 mM EDTA at 4{degree}C for 24 h. Citrate, NADP{sup +}, EDTA, or NaF protected the enzyme against the Al(III) inactivation. The Al(III)-inactivated enzyme, however, was completely reactivated only by citrate and NaF. The dissociation constant for the enzyme-aluminum complex was calculated to be 4 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} M with NaF, a known reversible chelator for aluminum. Modification of histidine and lysine residues of the enzyme with diethyl pyrocarbonate and acetylsalicylic acid, respectively, inactivated the enzyme. However, the modified enzyme still bound 1 mol of Al(III)/mol of enzyme subunit. Circular dichroism studies showed that the binding of Al(III) to the enzyme induced a decrease in {alpha}-helix and {beta}-sheet and an increase in random coil. Therefore, it is suggested that inactivation of G6PD by Al(III) is due to the conformational change induced by Al(III) binding.

  9. Effects of pH and Sugar on Acetoin Production from Citrate by Leuconostoc lactis.

    PubMed

    Cogan, T M; O'dowd, M; Mellerick, D

    1981-01-01

    The relationship between acetoin production and citrate utilization in Leuconostoc lactis NCW1 was studied. In a complex medium the organism utilized citrate at neutral pH (initial pH, 6.3) and at acid pH (initial pH, 4.5) but produced nine times more acetoin at the latter pH. In resting cells the utilization of citrate was optimum at pH 5.3. Production of acetoin as a function of citrate utilization increased as the pH decreased, and at pH 4.3 all of the citrate utilized was recovered as acetoin. Glucose (10 mM) and lactose (10 mM) markedly stimulated citrate utilization but totally inhibited acetoin production in glucose- and lactose-grown cells. Addition of glucose to cells actively metabolizing citrate caused an immediate increase in citrate uptake and a reduction in the level of acetoin. The apparent K(m) values of lactic dehydrogenase for pyruvate were 1.05, 0.25, and 0.15 mM at pH 7.5, 6.5, and 5.0, respectively. Several heterofermentation intermediates inhibited alpha-acetolactate synthetase and decarboxylase activities. The implications of these results in regulating acetoin formatin are discussed.

  10. 76 FR 5782 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (citric acid) from... citric acid from Canada with respect to JBL Canada covering the period November 20, 2008, through May 19...

  11. 78 FR 34648 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts: Preliminary Results of Countervailing... review of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on citric acid and citrate salts from the People's Republic... (202) 482-1503. Scope of the Order The merchandise subject to the order is citric acid and certain...

  12. 76 FR 34044 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of... preliminary results of the first administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (citric acid) from Canada. The review covers one manufacturer/exporter of the...

  13. 77 FR 6061 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (citric acid) from... initiation of an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid from Canada with respect...

  14. Renal excretion of aluminium in the rat: effect of citrate infusion.

    PubMed

    Lote, C J; Willmott, K; Wood, J A; Thewles, A; Freeman, M

    1995-12-01

    When aluminium is administered intravenously to rats, the speciation of the aluminium has a major effect on its renal excretion. Aluminium administered as citrate is much more effectively excreted than that administered as chloride or sulphate. This suggests that citrate could be therapeutically useful in patients who have been exposed to aluminium. Accordingly, we have performed two series of experiments in rats, in which a citrate infusion (intravenous), was begun either immediately after, or one hour after, the administration of an intravenous aluminium sulphate bolus. Both protocols led to markedly enhanced aluminium excretion compared to controls in which only 0.7% NaCl was infused. The enhancement of aluminium excretion was 783% if citrate infusion was begun immediately after aluminium administration, and 335% if the citrate infusion began after an hour delay. The increased excretion was due to an increase in the freely filterable fraction of aluminium. In the control experiments, in which aluminium sulphate administration was followed by 0.7% NaCl infusion, aluminium was found to be deposited in the liver. Administration of citrate one hour after the aluminium bolus did not reduce this liver deposition. The results indicate that a fraction of the plasma aluminium is accessible to the citrate infused and can thereby be converted into a filterable form which can be excreted. It appears that, for maximum therapeutic effect, citrate should be infused as rapidly as possible after an aluminium load, to limit aluminium binding to ligands which allow it to enter cells.

  15. Comparison of citrated and fresh whole blood for viscoelastic coagulation testing during elective neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, E; Tornqvist, F; Kander, T; Bengzon, J; Solomon, C; Bonnevier, J; Schött, U

    2017-08-01

    Previous viscoelastic haemostatic tests studies have often indicated a hypercoagulative test signal with citrated blood, which could influence clinical decision makings. The aim of this study was to compare fresh and citrated whole blood using two non-automated viscoelastic ROTEM and Sonoclot tests. Our hypothesis was that citrated blood would demonstrate a hypercoagulative response in this setting, not tested before. Perioperative viscoelastic coagulation changes were evaluated with a ROTEM and Sonoclot in 38 patients undergoing elective brain tumor surgery. The citrated samples were recalcified with CaCl2. Wilcoxon nonparametric-paired tests and Bland-Altman plots were performed to compare the fresh and citrated blood analyses. The citrated blood showed a hypercoagulative response in ROTEM NATEM-clot formation time and α-angle, Sonoclot-clot rate and platelet function, as compared to fresh blood (p<0.0001). Fresh whole blood may theoretically reflect in vivo haemostasis more closely than citrated analyses, which indicated a hypercoagulative response as compared to the fresh whole blood analyses Bland-Altman plots also indicated that ROTEM reference ranges in patients undergoing brain surgery should be redefined. Future studies must establish the correlation between viscoelastic test results using fresh or citrate anticoagulated blood and clinical outcomes, such as bleeding, transfusion or reoperation for postoperative haematoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Photochemical degradation of citrate buffers leads to covalent acetonation of recombinant protein therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Valliere-Douglass, John F; Connell-Crowley, Lisa; Jensen, Randy; Schnier, Paul D; Trilisky, Egor; Leith, Matt; Follstad, Brian D; Kerr, Jennifer; Lewis, Nathan; Vunnum, Suresh; Treuheit, Michael J; Balland, Alain; Wallace, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Novel acetone and aldimine covalent adducts were identified on the N-termini and lysine side chains of recombinant monoclonal antibodies. Photochemical degradation of citrate buffers, in the presence of trace levels of iron, is demonstrated as the source of these modifications. The link between degradation of citrate and the observed protein modifications was conclusively established by tracking the citrate decomposition products and protein adducts resulting from photochemical degradation of isotope labeled 13C citrate by mass spectrometry. The structure of the acetone modification was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy on modified–free glycine and found to correspond to acetone linked to the N-terminus of the amino acid through a methyl carbon. Results from mass spectrometric fragmentation of glycine modified with an acetone adduct derived from 13C labeled citrate indicated that the three central carbons of citrate are incorporated onto protein amines in the presence of iron and light. While citrate is known to stoichiometrically decompose to acetone and CO2 through various intermediates in photochemical systems, it has never been shown to be a causative agent in protein carbonylation. Our results point to a previously unknown source for the generation of reactive carbonyl species. This work also highlights the potential deleterious impact of trace metals on recombinant protein therapeutics formulated in citrate buffers. PMID:20836085

  17. Citrate anticoagulation protocol for slow extended hemodialysis with the Genius dialysis system in acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Schneider, M; Liefeldt, L; Slowinski, T; Peters, H; Neumayer, H-H; Morgera, S

    2008-01-01

    The Genius dialysis system is increasingly used as an intermittent hemodialysis device in the setting of acute renal failure. Slow extended hemodialysis is preferred in the case of critical ill patients. In this study we established a safe and feasible citrate anticoagulation protocol for slow extended hemodialysis (SLED) with the Genius system. We compared six anticoagulation protocols using SLED in 34 critically ill patients with acute renal failure. One group (A) received only citrate anticoagulation. Four groups (B - D) were treated with citrate and different additional systemic anticoagulation. Patients in the last group (F) were anticoagulated with heparin and were free of citrate anticoagulation. The total number of treatments was 103. A 4% sodium citrate solution was infused into the arterial line of the dialysis device for citrate anticoagulation. The dialysis solution contained one mmol/L of calcium. No additional calcium supplementation was done. We monitored electrolyte, acid-base and cardiovascular status prospectively. Hemodialysis was well tolerated hemodynamically. Electrolytes remained stable throughout hemodialysis in all groups. The decrease in ionized and total calcium was within the expected, clinically acceptable range. Bicarbonate and pH levels increased during dialysis, especially if citrate was used. Slow extended Genius hemodialysis with citrate is well tolerated and offers a safe and effective alternative to systemic anticoagulation.

  18. Effects of citrate on hexavalent chromium reduction by structural Fe(II) in nontronite

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Xiaolei; Dong, Hailiang; Yang, Xuewei; ...

    2017-09-23

    Previous studies have shown that organic ligands could influence Cr(VI) reduction by aqueous Fe2+ and pyrite. In this study, the effects of citrate on Cr(VI) reduction by structural Fe(II) in nontronite (NAu-2) were investigated at pH 6. Our results showed that the presence of citrate decreased the rate but increased the amount of Cr(VI) reduction. The decreased rate was likely due to competitive sorption of citrate and anionic dichromate (Cr2O7–) to NAu-2 surface sites, because sorption of dichromate appeared to be the first step for subsequent Cr(VI) reduction. The increased amount of Cr(VI) reduction was likely because citrate served asmore » an additional electron donor to reduce Cr(VI) through ligand-metal electron transfer in the presence of soluble Fe3+, which was possibly derived from dissolution of reduced NAu-2. Soluble Cr(III)-citrate complex was a possible form of reduced Cr(VI) when citrate was present. Without citrate, nanometer-sized Cr2O3 particles were the product of Cr(VI) reduction. In conclusion, our study highlights the importance of citrate on Cr(VI) reduction and immobilization when iron-rich smectite is applied to treat Cr(VI) contaminant in organic carbon rich environments.« less

  19. Divalent cation chelators citrate and EDTA unmask an intrinsic uncoupling pathway in isolated mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Starkov, Anatoly A; Chinopoulos, Christos; Starkova, Natalia N; Konrad, Csaba; Kiss, Gergely; Stepanova, Anna; Popov, Vasily N

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate a suppression of ROS production and uncoupling of mitochondria by exogenous citrate in Mg(2+) free medium. Exogenous citrate suppressed H2O2 emission and depolarized mitochondria. The depolarization was paralleled by the stimulation of respiration of mitochondria. The uncoupling action of citrate was independent of the presence of sodium, potassium, or chlorine ions, and it was not mediated by the changes in permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane to solutes. The citrate transporter was not involved in the citrate effect. Inhibitory analysis data indicated that several well described mitochondria carriers and channels (ATPase, IMAC, ADP/ATP translocase, mPTP, mKATP) were not involved in citrate's effect. Exogenous MgCl2 strongly inhibited citrate-induced depolarization. The uncoupling effect of citrate was demonstrated in rat brain, mouse brain, mouse liver, and human melanoma cells mitochondria. We interpreted the data as an evidence to the existence of a hitherto undescribed putative inner mitochondrial membrane channel that is regulated by extramitochondrial Mg(2+) or other divalent cations.

  20. Enzymatic Analysis of the Requirement for Sodium in Aerobic Growth of Salmonella typhimurium on Citrate

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, R. W.; Frost, G. M.; Stern, Joseph R.

    1969-01-01

    Na+ was required for the aerobic growth of Salmonella typhimurium on citrate, but not on l-malate, glucose, or glycerol. The maximal growth rate and the maximal total growth occurred with 6 to 7 mm Na+. Na+ could not be replaced by K+, NH4+, Li+, Rb+, or Cs+. Sonically treated extracts of citrate-grown cells contained the enzymes of the citrate fermentation pathway (citritase and oxalacetate decarboxylase) and all of the enzymes of the citric acid cycle. Thus, two separate routes of citrate catabolism appeared to be operational in the cells. Two discrete oxalacetate (OAA) decarboxylases were also demonstrated. One was of the “classic” type, being activated by Mn++ and inhibited by ethylenediaminetetracetate (EDTA). It was present in the cell sap. The second decarboxylase closely resembled the Na+-activated OAA decarboxylase of citrate-grown Aerobacter aerogenes, whose growth also requires, or is increased, by Na+. This decarboxylase was EDTA-insensitive, specifically activated by Na+ and inhibited by avidin, and it had a high affinity for OAA. It was induced by growth on citrate, but not l-malate or glycerol. It is suggested that the Na+ requirement for growth reflects the need to activate this OAA decarboxylase as a component of the citrate fermentation pathway and that citrate catabolism via the citric acid cycle, which should be independent of Na+, is somehow dependent upon the activity of the Na+-activated enzyme. PMID:4980062

  1. Effectiveness of Sodium Picosulfate/Magnesium Citrate (PICO) for Colonoscopy Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Wu Seok; Jeong, Jin Sik; Kim, Dong Sik; Kim, Sang Woo; Kwak, Dong Min; Hwang, Jong Seong; Kim, Hyun Jin; Park, Man Woo; Shim, Min Chul; Koo, Ja-Il; Kim, Jae Hwang; Shon, Dae Ho

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Bowel preparation with sodium phosphate was recently prohibited by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is safe and effective; however, it is difficult to drink. To identify an easy bowel preparation method for colonoscopy, we evaluated three different bowel preparation regimens regarding their efficacy and patient satisfaction. Methods In this randomized, comparative study, 892 patients who visited a secondary referral hospital for a colonoscopy between November 2012 and February 2013 were enrolled. Three regimens were evaluated: three packets of sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate (PICO, group A), two packets of PICO with 1 L of PEG (PICO + PEG 1 L, group B), and two packets of PICO with 2 L of PEG (PICO + PEG 2 L, group C). A questionnaire survey regarding the patients' preference for the bowel preparation regimen and satisfaction was conducted before the colonoscopies. The quality of bowel cleansing was scored by the colonoscopists who used the Aronchick scoring scale and the Ottawa scale. Results The patients' satisfaction rate regarding the regimens were 72% in group A, 64% in group B, and 45.9% in group C. Nausea and abdominal bloating caused by the regimens were more frequent in group C than in group A or group B (P < 0.01). Group C showed the lowest preference rate compared to the other groups (P < 0.01). Group C showed better right colon cleansing efficacy than group A or group B. Conclusion Group A exhibited a better result than group B or group C in patient satisfaction and preference. In the cleansing quality, no difference was noted between groups A and C. PMID:25360429

  2. Effectiveness of Sodium Picosulfate/Magnesium Citrate (PICO) for Colonoscopy Preparation.

    PubMed

    Song, Ki Hwan; Suh, Wu Seok; Jeong, Jin Sik; Kim, Dong Sik; Kim, Sang Woo; Kwak, Dong Min; Hwang, Jong Seong; Kim, Hyun Jin; Park, Man Woo; Shim, Min Chul; Koo, Ja-Il; Kim, Jae Hwang; Shon, Dae Ho

    2014-10-01

    Bowel preparation with sodium phosphate was recently prohibited by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is safe and effective; however, it is difficult to drink. To identify an easy bowel preparation method for colonoscopy, we evaluated three different bowel preparation regimens regarding their efficacy and patient satisfaction. In this randomized, comparative study, 892 patients who visited a secondary referral hospital for a colonoscopy between November 2012 and February 2013 were enrolled. Three regimens were evaluated: three packets of sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate (PICO, group A), two packets of PICO with 1 L of PEG (PICO + PEG 1 L, group B), and two packets of PICO with 2 L of PEG (PICO + PEG 2 L, group C). A questionnaire survey regarding the patients' preference for the bowel preparation regimen and satisfaction was conducted before the colonoscopies. The quality of bowel cleansing was scored by the colonoscopists who used the Aronchick scoring scale and the Ottawa scale. The patients' satisfaction rate regarding the regimens were 72% in group A, 64% in group B, and 45.9% in group C. Nausea and abdominal bloating caused by the regimens were more frequent in group C than in group A or group B (P < 0.01). Group C showed the lowest preference rate compared to the other groups (P < 0.01). Group C showed better right colon cleansing efficacy than group A or group B. Group A exhibited a better result than group B or group C in patient satisfaction and preference. In the cleansing quality, no difference was noted between groups A and C.

  3. The health benefits of calcium citrate malate: a review of the supporting science.

    PubMed

    Reinwald, Susan; Weaver, Connie M; Kester, Jeffrey J

    2008-01-01

    There has been considerable investigation into the health benefits of calcium citrate malate (CCM) since it was first patented in the late 1980s. This chapter is a comprehensive summary of the supporting science and available evidence on the bioavailability and health benefits of consuming CCM. It highlights the important roles that CCM can play during various life stages. CCM has been shown to facilitate calcium retention and bone accrual in children and adolescents. In adults, it effectively promotes the consolidation and maintenance of bone mass. In conjunction with vitamin D, CCM also decreases bone fracture risk in the elderly, slows the rate of bone loss in old age, and is of benefit to the health and well-being of postmenopausal women. CCM is exceptional in that it confers many unique benefits that go beyond bone health. Unlike other calcium sources that necessitate supplementation be in conjunction with a meal to ensure an appreciable benefit is derived, CCM can be consumed with or without food and delivers a significant nutritional benefit to individuals of all ages. The chemistry of CCM makes it a particularly beneficial calcium source for individuals with hypochlorydia or achlorydia, which generally includes the elderly and those on medications that decrease gastric acid secretion. CCM is also recognized as a calcium source that does not increase the risk of kidney stones, and in fact it protects against stone-forming potential. The versatile nature of CCM makes it a convenient and practical calcium salt for use in moist foods and beverages. The major factor that may preclude selection of CCM as a preferred calcium source is the higher cost compared to other sources of calcium commonly used for fortification (e.g., calcium carbonate and tricalcium phosphate). However, formation of CCM directly within beverages or other fluid foods and/or preparations, and the addition of a concentrated CCM solution or slurry, are relatively cost-effective methods by

  4. Evaluation of Manganese Phosphate Coatings.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    84003 _____________ 4 . TTLE and -bitle)5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED EVALUATION OF MANGANESE PHOSPHATE COATINGS Final 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT...rosion resistance of the Endurion phosphate was significantly superior to the 4 . basic manganese phosphate . Endurion phosphate with a Supplementary...OF CONTENTS Page STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1 BACKGROUND 1 APPROACH TO THE PROBLEM 3 RESULTS 4 CONCLUSIONS 7 TABLES I. Falex Wear Life Test Procedure 8

  5. Synoviorthesis with erbium-169: a double-blind controlled comparison of erbium-169 with corticosteroid.

    PubMed Central

    Gumpel, J M; Matthews, S A; Fisher, M

    1979-01-01

    Intra-articular injections of erbium--169 citrate and methylprednisolone acetate in hand joints were compared in a randomly selected double-blind trial. The patients included 21 with rheumatoid arthritis and 3 with psoriatic arthritis, and the design was an intrapatient comparison. No difference between joints treated with the radioisotope or steroid was observed in the year following injection. PMID:386961

  6. A novel citrate selective electrode based on surfactant modified nano-clinoptilolite.

    PubMed

    Hasheminejad, Mahdieh; Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza

    2015-04-01

    A citrate-selective sensor was prepared by modification of a PVC membrane with modified nano-clinoptilolite particles by hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium surfactant (SMZ). A Nernstian slope of 29.9 ± 0.2 mV per decade of citrate concentration was obtained over the concentration range of 5.0 × 10(-5)-5.0 × 10(-2) mol L(-1) of citrate. The electrode showed a fast response time (⩽ 10 s) and a detection limit of 1.3 × 10(-5) mol L(-1) of citrate. The linear range and detection limit were respectively changed to 1.0 × 10(-4)-5.0 × 10(-2) mol L(-1) and 1.0 × 10(-4) mol L(-1) of citrate when the micronized clinoptilolite particles were used. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Struvite crystal growth inhibition by trisodium citrate and the formation of chemical complexes in growth solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prywer, Jolanta; Mielniczek-Brzóska, Ewa; Olszynski, Marcin

    2015-05-01

    Effect of trisodium citrate on the crystallization of struvite was studied. To evaluate such an effect an experiment of struvite growth from artificial urine was performed. The investigations are related to infectious urinary stones formation. The crystallization process was induced by the addition of aqueous ammonia solution to mimic the bacterial activity. The spectrophotometric results demonstrate that trisodium citrate increases induction time with respect to struvite formation and decreases the growth efficiency of struvite. The inhibitory effect of trisodium citrate on the nucleation and growth of struvite is explained in base of chemical speciation analysis. Such an analysis demonstrates that the inhibitory effect is related with the fact that trisodium citrate binds NH4 + and Mg2+ ions in the range of pH from 7 to 9.5 characteristic for struvite precipitation. The most important is the MgCit- complex whose concentration strongly depends on an increase in pH rather than on an increase in citrate concentrations.

  8. Bio-solid-State processes for synthesis of Li-Fe-phosphate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung-Bum; Park, Byungno; Lee, Insung; Roh, Yul

    2008-10-01

    Lithium-Fe-phosphates have become of great interest as storage cathodes for rechargeable Li-batteries because of their high density, environmental friendliness, and safety. The objective of this study was to examine bio-solid-state synthesis of LiFePO4 by microbial processes at room temperature. The microbial reduction of Fe(III)-citrate using an organic carbon, glucose, as an electron donor in the presence of NaHPO4 and lithium that resulted in the formation of Li-substituted iron phosphate. Our studies showed that bacteria enriched from inter-tidal flat sediments, designated as Haejae-1, synthesized Li-substituted iron phosphate. Characterization by X-ray diffraction showed the reduction of Fe(III)-citrate in the presence of NaHPO4 and LiCl2 resulted in the precipitation of Li-substituted vivianite [Li(x)Fe(3-x)(PO4)2 x 8H2O]. SEM-EDX, FTIR, and ESCA analyses showed the chemical composition of the synthesized phases was Li, Fe, P, C, and O. Based on the chemical and physical structure of the mineral, the novel bio-nano-material may be potentially useful to the development of energy storage materials.

  9. Preparation of spherical calcium phosphate granulates suitable for the biofunctionalization of active brazed titanium alloy coatings.

    PubMed

    Schickle, Karolina; Gerardo-Nava, Jose L; Puidokas, Sabrina; Anavar, Sharareh Samadian; Bergmann, Christian; Gingter, Philipp; Schickle, Benjamin; Bobzin, Kirsten; Fischer, Horst

    2015-04-01

    Titanium-based alloys can be actively brazed onto bio-inert ceramics and potentially be used as biocompatible coatings. To further improve their bioactivity in vivo, introduction of calcium phosphate (CaP)-based granulates onto their surface layer is possible. For this, mechanically stable CaP-based granulates need to be able to withstand the demand of the brazing process. In this study, spherical granulates, made of a calcium phosphate composite composed primarily of β-tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite, a bioactive glass, and a mixture of the previous two, were manufactured by spray drying. The influence of organic additives (Dolapix CE64, trisodium citrate) and solids content (30-80 wt%) in the slurry on the physical characteristics of granulates was investigated. X-ray diffraction, Brunauer, Emmett, Teller specific surface area standard method, scanning electron microscopy, granulate size analysis, and single granule strength were performed. Our results showed that trisodium citrate permitted the production of granulates with regular morphology, high density, and increased failure stress values. The strong granules also withstood the brazing process. These results show that CaP bioactive agents can be generated and be integrated during the demanding metallurgical processes, allowing for one-step bioactivation of metal brazes.

  10. Comparative genomics and transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus niger and metabolic engineering for citrate production

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xian; Shin, Hyun-dong; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Liu, Long; Chen, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Despite a long and successful history of citrate production in Aspergillus niger, the molecular mechanism of citrate accumulation is only partially understood. In this study, we used comparative genomics and transcriptome analysis of citrate-producing strains—namely, A. niger H915-1 (citrate titer: 157 g L−1), A1 (117 g L−1), and L2 (76 g L−1)—to gain a genome-wide view of the mechanism of citrate accumulation. Compared with A. niger A1 and L2, A. niger H915-1 contained 92 mutated genes, including a succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase in the γ-aminobutyric acid shunt pathway and an aconitase family protein involved in citrate synthesis. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis of A. niger H915-1 revealed that the transcription levels of 479 genes changed between the cell growth stage (6 h) and the citrate synthesis stage (12 h, 24 h, 36 h, and 48 h). In the glycolysis pathway, triosephosphate isomerase was up-regulated, whereas pyruvate kinase was down-regulated. Two cytosol ATP-citrate lyases, which take part in the cycle of citrate synthesis, were up-regulated, and may coordinate with the alternative oxidases in the alternative respiratory pathway for energy balance. Finally, deletion of the oxaloacetate acetylhydrolase gene in H915-1 eliminated oxalate formation but neither influence on pH decrease nor difference in citrate production were observed. PMID:28106122

  11. Alkali replacement raises urinary citrate excretion in patients with topiramate-induced hypocitraturia.

    PubMed

    Jhagroo, R Allan; Wertheim, Margaret L; Penniston, Kristina L

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess (1) the magnitude and temporality of decreased urinary citrate excretion in patients just starting topiramate and (2) the effect of alkali replacement on topiramate-induced hypocitraturia. Study 1 was a prospective, non-intervention study in which patients starting topiramate for headache remediation provided pre- and post-topiramate 24 h urine collections for measurement of urine citrate. Study 2 was a clinical comparative effectiveness study in which patients reporting to our stone clinic for kidney stones and who were treated with topiramate were prescribed alkali therapy. Pre- and post-alkali 24 h urinary citrate excretion was compared. Data for 12 and 22 patients (studies 1 and 2 respectively) were evaluated. After starting topiramate, urinary citrate excretion dropped significantly by 30 days (P = 0.016) and 62% of patients had hypocitraturia (citrate <320 mg day(-1) ). At 60 days, urine citrate was even lower than at baseline (P = 0.0032) and 86% of patients had developed hypocitraturia. After starting alkali, urine citrate increased in stone-forming patients on topiramate (198 ± 120 to 408 ± 274 mg day(-1) ; P = 0.042 for difference). 85% of patients were hypocitraturic on topiramate alone vs. 40% after adding alkali. The increase in urinary citrate was greater in patients provided ≥ 90 mEq potassium citrate. Our study is the first to provide clinical evidence that alkali therapy can raise urinary citrate excretion in patients who form kidney stones while being treated with topiramate. Clinicians should consider alkali therapy for reducing the kidney stone risk of patients benefitting from topiramate treatment for migraine headaches or other conditions. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. Colonic cleansing for radiographic detection of neoplasia: efficacy of the magnesium citrate-castor oil-cleansing enema regimen.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, D W; Chen, Y M; Ott, D J

    1988-10-01

    To optimize detection of colonic polyps, we instituted a cleansing regimen of dietary restriction, hydration, magnesium citrate, castor oil, and a cleansing enema. We then conducted a review of serially performed barium enemas to determine the percentage of patients with clean colons in a mixed population of 500 inpatients and outpatients in whom this regimen had been used. The same regimen also was used before single- and double-contrast barium enemas were performed in 139 patients with 234 polyps, and radiologic-endoscopic correlation was used to determine the percentage of polypoid neoplasms detected. The review indicated that a clean colon had been achieved in 97% of the 500 cases. In an additional 1.4% of patients, fecal residue was limited to small amounts in the cecum or ascending colon. In only two cases (0.4%) did fecal material prevent an examination that was suitable for detection of large polypoid or circumferential lesions. The single- and double-contrast barium enemas detected 80% and 91%, respectively, of polypoid lesions of all sizes. Single-contrast examinations detected 94% of polyps 10 mm or larger and 72% of polyps 5-9 mm. Double-contrast studies detected 96% of polyps 10 mm or larger and 88% of those 5-9 mm. The results of this study indicate that with this regimen, fecal residue does not significantly interfere with the detection of colonic polyps via barium enema examination.

  13. Heterotopic pregnancy following induction of ovulation with clomiphene citrate

    PubMed Central

    Ghandi, Sedigheh; Ahmadi, Raheleh; Fazel, Mahmoud

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although heterotopic gestation is common in assisted reproductive techniques, it is very rare in natural conception and clomiphene induced pregnancy. Diagnosis and appropriate intervention of heterotopic pregnancy requires a high index of suspicious. Case: In this paper a case of heterotopic pregnancy in a 30-year old woman with hemoperitoneum from ruptured tubal pregnancy with live intrauterine gestation at 9 weeks of gestation is reported. Conclusion: This case suggests that a heterotopic pregnancy must always be considered particularly after the induction of ovulation by clomiphene citrate or assisted reproductive technology. Every clinician treating women of reproductive age should keep this diagnosis in mind. It also demonstrates that early diagnosis is essential in order to salvage the intrauterine pregnancy and avoid maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:26396583

  14. Sildenafil citrate for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hrometz, Sandra L; Shields, Kelly M

    2006-12-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a progressive disease that has a high rate of mortality. For these reasons, early treatment is essential. Treatment choices for pulmonary arterial hypertension are limited by drug tolerability, drug cost and inconvenience associated with administration techniques and dosing schedules. Therefore, a therapy that provides oral dosing with limited side effects would prove useful in managing many patients. Sildenafil citrate, the first and highly publicized oral medication to receive approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for erectile dysfunction, has recently been approved for treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. This review summarizes the normal physiology of the pulmonary vasculature, and the pathophysiology involved in pulmonary arterial hypertension and the role of sildenafil in its treatment.

  15. Response of patients with indolent systemic mastocytosis to tamoxifen citrate.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Joseph H; Chen, Dong

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether tamoxifen citrate at 20mg/day for 1 year had a beneficial effect on laboratory findings, bone marrow mastocytosis, common clinical symptoms, or quality-of-life assessment for 5 women and 2 men with indolent systemic mastocytosis. Tamoxifen was well tolerated. We found significant reductions in the platelet count, serum alkaline phosphatase, and 24-h urinary excretion of N-methylhistamine and significant increases in serum lactate dehydrogenase and (excluding 2 patients taking aspirin) in 24-h urinary excretion of 11β-prostaglandin F2α. Overall, no change occurred in percent involvement of bone marrow by mastocytosis. Symptom scores were mild and did not change during the treatment. The 36-Item Short Form Health Survey scores for quality of life physical and mental components showed no marked changes. Tamoxifen, an older, nonhematotoxic medication, has limited activity in systemic mastocytosis at the dosage used in this study.

  16. Calcium Phosphates and Human Beings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2006-05-01

    This article describes the general importance of calcium phosphates for human beings. The basic information on the structure and chemical properties of the biologically relevant calcium phosphates is summarized. Basic facts on the natural occurrence and the industrial use of natural calcium phosphates are discussed. Fundamental details on the presence of calcium phosphates in major calcified tissues (bones and teeth) of humans and mammals, as well as on biomaterials made of calcium phosphates are discussed. The article will be of value for chemistry teachers for expansion of their general background and point the students' attention to the rapidly growing topic of bone-substituting biomaterials.

  17. Citrate anticoagulation for continuous renal replacement therapy in small children.

    PubMed

    Soltysiak, Jolanta; Warzywoda, Alfred; Kociński, Bartłomiej; Ostalska-Nowicka, Danuta; Benedyk, Anna; Silska-Dittmar, Magdalena; Zachwieja, Jacek

    2014-03-01

    Regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) is one of the methods used to prevent clotting in continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). The aim of this study was to describe the outcomes and complications of RCA-CRRT in comparison to heparin anticoagulation (HA)-CRRT in critically ill children. This study was a retrospective review of 30 critically ill children (16 on RCA- and 14 on HA-CRRT) who underwent at least 24 h of CRRT. The mean body weight of the children was 8.69 ± 5.63 kg. RCA-CRRT was performed with a commercially available pre-dilution citrate solution (Prismocitrate 18/0). The mean time on RCA-CRRT and HA-CRRT was 148.73 ± 131.58 and 110.24 ± 105.38 h, respectively. Circuit lifetime was significantly higher in RCA-CRRT than in HA-CRRT (58.04 ± 51.18 h vs. 37.64 ± 32.51 h, respectively; p = 0.030). Circuit clotting was observed in 11.63 % of children receiving RCA-CRRT and 34.15 % of those receiving HA-CRRT. Episodic electrolyte and metabolic disturbances were more common in children receiving RCA-CRRT. The survival at discharge from the hospital was 37.5 and 14.3 % among children receiving RCA-CRRT and HA-CRRT, respectively. In critically ill children with a low body weight, RCA appeared to be safe and easy to used. Among our patient cohort, RCA was more effective in preventing circuit clotting and provided a better circuit lifetime than HA.

  18. Internet-ordered viagra (sildenafil citrate) is rarely genuine.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Neil; Clark, John P; Stecher, Vera J; Goldstein, Irwin

    2012-11-01

    Counterfeit medication is a growing problem. This study assessed the requirement for prescription, cost, origin, and content of medications sold via the Internet and purporting to be the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor Viagra (sildenafil citrate). Pfizer monitored top search results for the query "buy Viagra" on the two leading Internet search engines in March 2011. Orders were placed from 22 unique Web sites claiming to sell Viagra manufactured by Pfizer. Tablets received were assessed for chemical composition. No Web site examined required a prescription for purchase or a health screening survey; 90% offered illegal "generic Viagra." Cost per tablet ranged from $3.28-$33.00. Shipment origins of purchases were Hong Kong (N = 11), the United States (N = 6), and the United Kingdom (N = 2) as well as Canada, China, and India (N = 1 each). Notably, the four Internet pharmacies claiming to be Canadian did not ship medication from a Canadian address. Of 22 sample tablets examined, 17 (77%) were counterfeit, 4 (18%) were authentic, and 1 (5%) was an illegal generic. Counterfeit tablets were analyzed for sildenafil citrate, the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of Viagra, and contents varied between 30% and 50% of the label claim. Counterfeits lacked product information leaflets, including appropriate safety warnings, and genuine Viagra formulations. Internet sites claiming to sell authentic Viagra shipped counterfeit medication 77% of the time; counterfeits usually came from non-U.S. addresses and had 30% to 50% of the labeled API claim. Caution is warranted when purchasing Viagra via the Internet. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  19. 76 FR 77772 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China... of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the... Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the...

  20. 76 FR 17835 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... International Trade Administration A-570-937] Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic... order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China.... See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Extension of...