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  1. 40 CFR 721.10357 - Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iron, citrate phosphate potassium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10357 Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes. (a) Chemical..., citrate phosphate potassium complexes (PMN P-09-382; CAS No. 120579-31-9) is subject to reporting...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10357 - Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iron, citrate phosphate potassium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10357 Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes. (a) Chemical..., citrate phosphate potassium complexes (PMN P-09-382; CAS No. 120579-31-9) is subject to reporting...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10357 - Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iron, citrate phosphate potassium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10357 Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes. (a) Chemical..., citrate phosphate potassium complexes (PMN P-09-382; CAS No. 120579-31-9) is subject to reporting...

  4. Effect of Potassium Citrate on Calcium Phosphate Stones in a Model of Hypercalciuria.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy S; Asplin, John R; Frick, Kevin K; Granja, Ignacio; Culbertson, Christopher D; Ng, Adeline; Grynpas, Marc D; Bushinsky, David A

    2015-12-01

    Potassium citrate is prescribed to decrease stone recurrence in patients with calcium nephrolithiasis. Citrate binds intestinal and urine calcium and increases urine pH. Citrate, metabolized to bicarbonate, should decrease calcium excretion by reducing bone resorption and increasing renal calcium reabsorption. However, citrate binding to intestinal calcium may increase absorption and renal excretion of both phosphate and oxalate. Thus, the effect of potassium citrate on urine calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation and stone formation is complex and difficult to predict. To study the effects of potassium citrate on urine supersaturation and stone formation, we utilized 95th-generation inbred genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats. Rats were fed a fixed amount of a normal calcium (1.2%) diet supplemented with potassium citrate or potassium chloride (each 4 mmol/d) for 18 weeks. Urine was collected at 6, 12, and 18 weeks. At 18 weeks, stone formation was visualized by radiography. Urine citrate, phosphate, oxalate, and pH levels were higher and urine calcium level was lower in rats fed potassium citrate. Furthermore, calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation were higher with potassium citrate; however, uric acid supersaturation was lower. Both groups had similar numbers of exclusively calcium phosphate stones. Thus, potassium citrate effectively raises urine citrate levels and lowers urine calcium levels; however, the increases in urine pH, oxalate, and phosphate levels lead to increased calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation. Potassium citrate induces complex changes in urine chemistries and resultant supersaturation, which may not be beneficial in preventing calcium phosphate stone formation.

  5. Artificial citrate operon and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene enhanced mineral phosphate solubilizing ability of Enterobacter hormaechei DHRSS.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Kavita; Kumar, Chanchal; Archana, G; Kumar, G Naresh

    2014-10-01

    Mineral phosphate solubilization by bacteria is mediated through secretion of organic acids, among which citrate is one of the most effective. To overproduce citrate in bacterial systems, an artificial citrate operon comprising of genes encoding NADH-insensitive citrate synthase of E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium sodium-dependent citrate transporter was constructed. In order to improve its mineral phosphate solubilizing (MPS) ability, the citrate operon was incorporated into E. hormaechei DHRSS. The artificial citrate operon transformant secreted 7.2 mM citric acid whereas in the native strain, it was undetectable. The transformant released 0.82 mM phosphate in flask studies in buffered medium containing rock phosphate as sole P source. In fermenter studies, similar phenotype was observed under aerobic conditions. However, under microaerobic conditions, no citrate was detected and P release was not observed. Therefore, an artificial citrate gene cluster containing Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb) gene under its native promoter, along with artificial citrate operon under constitutive tac promoter, was constructed and transformed into E. hormaechei DHRSS. This transformant secreted 9 mM citric acid under microaerobic conditions and released 1.0 mM P. Thus, incorporation of citrate operon along with vgb gene improves MPS ability of E. hormaechei DHRSS under buffered, microaerobic conditions mimicking rhizospheric environment.

  6. Citrate impairs the micropore diffusion of phosphate into pure and C-coated goethite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikutta, Christian; Lang, Friederike; Kaupenjohann, Martin

    2006-02-01

    Anions of polycarboxylic low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOA) compete with phosphate for sorption sites of hydrous Fe and Al oxides. To test whether the sorption of LMWOA anions decreases the accessibility of micropores (<2 nm) of goethite (α-FeOOH) for phosphate, we studied the kinetics of citrate-induced changes in microporosity and the phosphate sorption kinetics of synthetic goethite in the presence and absence of citrate in batch systems for 3 weeks (500 μM of each ion, pH 5). We also used C-coated goethite obtained after sorption of dissolved organic matter in order to simulate organic coatings in the soil. We analyzed our samples with N 2 adsorption and electrophoretic mobility measurements. Citrate clogged the micropores of both adsorbents by up to 13% within 1 h of contact. The micropore volume decreased with increasing concentration and residence time of citrate. In the absence of citrate, phosphate diffused into micropores of the pure and C-coated goethite. The C coating (5.6 μmol C m -2) did not impair the intraparticle diffusion of phosphate. In the presence of citrate, the diffusion of phosphate into the micropores of both adsorbents was strongly impaired. We attribute this to the micropore clogging and the ligand-induced dissolution of goethite by citrate. While the diffusion limitation of phosphate by citrate was stronger when citrate was added before phosphate to pure goethite, the order of addition of both ions to C-coated goethite had only a minor effect on the intraparticle diffusion of phosphate. Micropore clogging and dissolution of microporous hydrous Fe and Al oxides may be regarded as potential strategies of plants to cope with phosphate deficiency in addition to ligand-exchange.

  7. Formation of hydroxyapatite in soils using calcium citrate and sodium phosphate for control of strontium migration.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Robert Charles; Hasan, Ahmed Ali Mohamed; Sanchez, Charles Anthony; Zhao, Hongting; Salas, Fred Manuel; Hasan, Mahmoud A.; Holt, Kathleen Caroline

    2003-08-01

    {sup 90}Sr contamination is a major problem at several U.S. sites. At some sites, {sup 90}Sr has migrated deep underground making site remediation difficult. In this paper, we describe a novel method for precipitation of hydroxyapatite, a strong sorbent for {sup 90}Sr, in soil. The method is based on mixing a solution of calcium citrate and sodium phosphate in soil. As the indigenous soil microorganisms mineralize the citrate, the calcium is released and forms hydroxyapatite. Soil, taken from the Albuquerque desert, was treated with a sodium phosphate solution or a sodium phosphate/calcium citrate solution. TEM and EDS were used to identify hydroxyapatite with CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} substitutions, with a formula of (Ca{sub 4.8}Na{sub 0.2})[(PO{sub 4}){sub 2.8}(CO{sub 3}){sub 0.2}](OH), in the soil treated with the sodium phosphate/calcium citrate solution. Untreated and treated soils were used in batch sorption experiments for Sr uptake. Average Sr uptake was 19.5, 77.0 and 94.7% for the untreated soil, soil treated with sodium phosphate, and soil with apatite, respectively. In desorption experiments, the untreated soil, phosphate treated soil and apatite treated soil released an average of 34.2, 28.8 and 4.8% respectively. The results indicate the potential of forming apatite in soil using soluble reagents for retardation of radionuclide migration.

  8. Artificial citrate operon confers mineral phosphate solubilization ability to diverse fluorescent pseudomonads.

    PubMed

    Adhikary, Hemanta; Sanghavi, Paulomi B; Macwan, Silviya R; Archana, Gattupalli; Naresh Kumar, G

    2014-01-01

    Citric acid is a strong acid with good cation chelating ability and can be very efficient in solubilizing mineral phosphates. Only a few phosphate solubilizing bacteria and fungi are known to secrete citric acids. In this work, we incorporated artificial citrate operon containing NADH insensitive citrate synthase (gltA1) and citrate transporter (citC) genes into the genome of six-plant growth promoting P. fluorescens strains viz., PfO-1, Pf5, CHAO1, P109, ATCC13525 and Fp315 using MiniTn7 transposon gene delivery system. Comprehensive biochemical characterization of the genomic integrants and their comparison with plasmid transformants of the same operon in M9 minimal medium reveals the highest amount of ∼7.6±0.41 mM citric and 29.95±2.8 mM gluconic acid secretion along with ∼43.2±3.24 mM intracellular citrate without affecting the growth of these P. fluorescens strains. All genomic integrants showed enhanced citric and gluconic acid secretion on Tris-Cl rock phosphate (TRP) buffered medium, which was sufficient to release 200-1000 µM Pi in TRP medium. This study demonstrates that MPS ability could be achieved in natural fluorescent pseudomonads by incorporation of artificial citrate operon not only as plasmid but also by genomic integration. PMID:25259527

  9. Artificial Citrate Operon Confers Mineral Phosphate Solubilization Ability to Diverse Fluorescent Pseudomonads

    PubMed Central

    Adhikary, Hemanta; Sanghavi, Paulomi B.; Macwan, Silviya R.; Archana, Gattupalli; Naresh Kumar, G.

    2014-01-01

    Citric acid is a strong acid with good cation chelating ability and can be very efficient in solubilizing mineral phosphates. Only a few phosphate solubilizing bacteria and fungi are known to secrete citric acids. In this work, we incorporated artificial citrate operon containing NADH insensitive citrate synthase (gltA1) and citrate transporter (citC) genes into the genome of six-plant growth promoting P. fluorescens strains viz., PfO-1, Pf5, CHAO1, P109, ATCC13525 and Fp315 using MiniTn7 transposon gene delivery system. Comprehensive biochemical characterization of the genomic integrants and their comparison with plasmid transformants of the same operon in M9 minimal medium reveals the highest amount of ∼7.6±0.41 mM citric and 29.95±2.8 mM gluconic acid secretion along with ∼43.2±3.24 mM intracellular citrate without affecting the growth of these P. fluorescens strains. All genomic integrants showed enhanced citric and gluconic acid secretion on Tris-Cl rock phosphate (TRP) buffered medium, which was sufficient to release 200–1000 µM Pi in TRP medium. This study demonstrates that MPS ability could be achieved in natural fluorescent pseudomonads by incorporation of artificial citrate operon not only as plasmid but also by genomic integration. PMID:25259527

  10. Competition between transferrin and the serum ligands citrate and phosphate for the binding of aluminum.

    PubMed

    Harris, Wesley R; Wang, Zhepeng; Hamada, Yahia Z

    2003-05-19

    A key issue regarding the speciation of Al(3+) in serum is how well the ligands citric acid and phosphate can compete with the iron transport protein serum transferrin for the aluminum. Previous studies have attempted to measure binding constants for each ligand separately, but experimental problems make it very difficult to obtain stability constants with the accuracy required to make a meaningful comparison between these ligands. In this study, effective binding constants for Al-citrate and Al-phosphate at pH 7.4 have been determined using difference UV spectroscopy to monitor the direct competition between these ligands and transferrin. The analysis of this competition equilibrium also includes the binding of citrate and phosphate as anions to apotransferrin. The effective binding constants are 10(11.59) for the 1:1 Al-citrate complexes and 10(14.90) for the 1:2 Al-citrate complexes. The effective binding constant for the 1:2 Al-phosphate complex is 10(12.02). No 1:1 Al-phosphate complex was detected. Speciation calculations based on these effective binding constants indicate that, at serum concentrations of citrate and phosphate, citrate will be the primary low-molecular-mass ligand for aluminum. Formal stability constants for the Al-citrate system have also been determined by potentiometric methods. This equilibrium system is quite complex, and information from both electrospray mass spectrometry and difference UV experiments has been used to select the best model for fitting the potentiometric data. The mass spectra contain peaks that have been assigned to complexes having aluminum:citrate stoichiometries of 1:1, 1:2, 2:2, 2:3, and 3:3. The difference UV results were used to determine the stability constant for Al(H(-1)cta)-, which was then used in the least-squares fitting of the potentiometric data to determine stability constants for Al(Hcta)+, Al(cta), Al(cta)2(3-), Al(H(-1)cta)(cta)(4-), Al2(H(-1)cta)2(2-), and Al3(H(-1)cta)3(OH)(4-).

  11. Effect of Citrate Phosphate Dextrose Solution on Reperfusion Injury in Coronary Artery Bypass Surgical Patients Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Yaghoubi, Alireza; Danaee, Saeid; Imani, Shahin; Sheikhalizadeh, Mohammadali; Ghojazadeh, Morteza

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Reperfusion injury is one of the most common phenomena associated with coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) .The mechanism of ischemia and reperfusion injury is not known precisely, but may be free radicals and other activated oxygen metabolites have an important role in tissue damage following reperfusion injury. This study was to evaluation of citrate solution effects on oxidative stress and cardiac function and Cardiac enzymes in patient's candidate to CABG. Methods In Double blind clinical trial study in Tabriz University of medical science, 50 patients candidate to CABG randomly divided in two groups and matched together according to sex, age and NYHA class. In intervention group after surgery and before the opening of the aortic clamping solution warm blood containing citrate phosphate dextrose (CPD; 3cc/100cc), value (100cc/min/m2BSA) for three minutes was administered. In control group, only pure blood administered. Oxidative stress markers measured in five stages and cardiac enzymes measured in three stages of surgery. Results Mean age 62.3±9.1 years including 30(60%) men and 20(40%) women. Ejection fractions between two groups were not significant before and after treatment. Administration of CPD was not significant effects on cardiac enzyme. Measurement of oxidative stress in different time were not different in malonil dialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and GPx but total antioxidant status were improved after intervention in compared with control group (p<0.001). Conclusion Results showed that CPD were positive effects of increasing in total antioxidant status after CABG, but in reduction of other oxidative markers were unlabeled. PMID:24250969

  12. Nitrate reduction by zerovalent iron: effects of formate, oxalate, citrate, chloride, sulfate, borate, and phosphate.

    PubMed

    Su, Chunming; Puls, Robert W

    2004-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that zerovalent iron (Fe0) may potentially be used as a chemical medium in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) for groundwater nitrate remediation; however, the effects of commonly found organic and inorganic ligands in soil and sediments on nitrate reduction by Fe0 have not been well understood. A 25.0 mL nitrate solution of 20.0 mg of N L(-1) (1.43 mM nitrate) was reacted with 1.00 g of Peerless Fe0 at 200 rpm on a rotational shaker at 23 degrees C for up to 120 h in the presence of each of the organic acids (3.0 mM formic, 1.5 mM oxalic, and 1.0 mM citric acids) and inorganic acids (3.0 mM HCl, 1.5 mM H2SO4, 3.0 mM H3BO3, and 1.5 mM H3PO4). These acids provided an initial dissociable H+ concentration of 3.0 mM available for nitrate reduction reactions under conditions of final pH < 9.3. Nitrate reduction rates (pseudo-first-order) increased in the order: H3PO4 < citric acid < H3BO3 < oxalic acid < H2SO4 < formic acid < HCl, ranging from 0.00278 to 0.0913 h(-1), corresponding to surface area normalized rates ranging from 0.126 to 4.15 h(-1) m(-2) mL. Correlation analysis showed a negative linear relationship between the nitrate reduction rates for the ligands and the conditional stability constants for the soluble complexes of the ligands with Fe2+ (R2 = 0.701) or Fe3+ (R2 = 0.918) ions. This sequence of reactivity corresponds also to surface adsorption and complexation of the three organic ligands to iron oxides, which increase in the order formate < oxalate < citrate. The results are also consistent with the sequence of strength of surface complexation of the inorganic ligands to iron oxides, which increases in the order: chloride < sulfate < borate < phosphate. The blockage of reactive sites on the surface of Fe0 and its corrosion products by specific adsorption of the inner-sphere complex forming ligands (oxalate, citrate, sulfate, borate, and phosphate) may be responsible for the decreased nitrate reduction by Fe0 relative to the

  13. Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis: has the bone scan betrayed us. [/sup 99m/Tc-phosphate compounds; /sup 67/Ga-citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Handmaker, H.

    1980-06-01

    Technetium-99m bone scanning reveals a spectrum of findings in the diagnosis of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis. Both cold and hot abnormalities are found. Gallium-67 citrate imaging is recommended when /sup 99m/Tc phosphate scans are inconclusive.

  14. Performance characteristics of an ion chromatographic method for the quantitation of citrate and phosphate in pharmaceutical solutions.

    PubMed

    Jenke, Dennis; Sadain, Salma; Nunez, Karen; Byrne, Frances

    2007-01-01

    The performance of an ion chromatographic method for measuring citrate and phosphate in pharmaceutical solutions is evaluated. Performance characteristics examined include accuracy, precision, specificity, response linearity, robustness, and the ability to meet system suitability criteria. In general, the method is found to be robust within reasonable deviations from its specified operating conditions. Analytical accuracy is typically 100 +/- 3%, and short-term precision is not more than 1.5% relative standard deviation. The instrument response is linear over a range of 50% to 150% of the standard preparation target concentrations (12 mg/L for phosphate and 20 mg/L for citrate), and the results obtained using a single-point standard versus a calibration curve are essentially equivalent. A small analytical bias is observed and ascribed to the relative purity of the differing salts, used as raw materials in tested finished products and as reference standards in the analytical method. The assay is specific in that no phosphate or citrate peaks are observed in a variety of method-related solutions and matrix blanks (with and without autoclaving). The assay with manual preparation of the eluents is sensitive to the composition of the eluent in the sense that the eluent must be effectively degassed and protected from CO(2) ingress during use. In order for the assay to perform effectively, extensive system equilibration and conditioning is required. However, a properly conditioned and equilibrated system can be used to test a number of samples via chromatographic runs that include many (> 50) injections.

  15. Calcium-Citrate-Phosphate Solution Injection for In Situ Strontium-90 Immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fruchter, J. S.; Vermeul, V.; Szecsody, J.; Williams, M. D.; Fritz, B. G.

    2010-12-01

    Sr-90 present in groundwater and the vadose zone at the Hanford 100N area due to past waste disposal practices has reached the nearby Columbia River, as evidenced by Sr-90 concentrations in near river wells and aquifer tubes and near shore sediments. Sr-90 is currently being remediated by adsorption onto apatite (55 times stronger than Sr-90 adsorption to sediment), followed by incorporation of the Sr-90 into the apatite structure. If the Sr-90 can remain immobilized for 300 years (~ten 29.1-yr half-lives of Sr-90 decay), it will have decayed below regulatory limits to Y-90 and to stable Zr-90. Apatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] is being precipitated in situ by injection of an aqueous solution of Ca-citrate and Na-phosphate through a series of injection wells spaced 30 ft on center, forming a 300-ft-long permeable reactive barrier. Design criteria for the injection operations were based on 1) amendment volume and mass injected, 2) amendment arrival at adjacent wells, 3) water-level elevation during treatment, and 4) injection rate limitations associated with well plugging. An evaluation of compliance with these injection design criteria was used to assess operational performance and identify candidate wells for supplemental treatment. Injection design criteria were not fully met at 8 of the 16 injection well locations, with the primary deficiency at 4 of 8 locations being the limited vertical extent of Hanford formation treatment due to low-river-stage conditions during the injection. Wells whose extent of treatment did not meet design criteria were recommended for retreatment. Although injection design criteria were not fully met at a significant number of well locations, aqueous performance assessment monitoring data collected to date indicate good barrier performance. Aqueous Sr-90 monitoring in four compliance monitoring wells over a year following the high concentration injections indicates 84% to 95% decrease in Sr-90 concentrations (relative to the low and high end

  16. Optimization and validation of a rapid method to determine citrate and inorganic phosphate in milk by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Izco, J M; Tormo, M; Harris, A; Tong, P S; Jimenez-Flores, R

    2003-01-01

    Quantification of phosphate and citrate compounds is very important because their distribution between soluble and colloidal phases of milk and their interactions with milk proteins influence the stability and some functional properties of dairy products. The aim of this work was to optimize and validate a capillary electrophoresis method for the rapid determination of these compounds in milk. Various parameters affecting analysis have been optimized, including type, composition, and pH of the electrolyte, and sample extraction. Ethanol, acetonitrile, sulfuric acid, water at 50 degrees C or at room temperature were tested as sample buffers (SB). Water at room temperature yielded the best overall results and was chosen for further validation. The extraction time was checked and could be shortened to less than 1 min. Also, sample preparation was simplified to pipet 12 microl of milk into 1 ml of water containing 20 ppm of tartaric acid as an internal standard. The linearity of the method was excellent (R2 > 0.999) with CV values of response factors <3%. The detection limits for phosphate and citrate were 5.1 and 2.4 nM, respectively. The accuracy of the method was calculated for each compound (103.2 and 100.3%). In addition, citrate and phosphate content of several commercial milk samples were analyzed by this method, and the results deviated less than 5% from values obtained when analyzing the samples by official methods. To study the versatility of the technique, other dairy productssuch as cream cheese, yogurt, or Cheddar cheese were analyzed and accuracy was similar to milk in all products tested. The procedure is rapid and offers a very fast and simple sample preparation. Once the sample has arrived at the laboratory, less than 5 min (including handling, preparation, running, integration, and quantification) are necessary to determine the concentration of citric acid and inorganic phosphate. Because of the speed and accuracy of this method, it is promising as an

  17. Citrate bridges between mineral platelets in bone.

    PubMed

    Davies, Erika; Müller, Karin H; Wong, Wai Ching; Pickard, Chris J; Reid, David G; Skepper, Jeremy N; Duer, Melinda J

    2014-04-01

    We provide evidence that citrate anions bridge between mineral platelets in bone and hypothesize that their presence acts to maintain separate platelets with disordered regions between them rather than gradual transformations into larger, more ordered blocks of mineral. To assess this hypothesis, we take as a model for a citrate bridging between layers of calcium phosphate mineral a double salt octacalcium phosphate citrate (OCP-citrate). We use a combination of multinuclear solid-state NMR spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and first principles electronic structure calculations to propose a quantitative structure for this material, in which citrate anions reside in a hydrated layer, bridging between apatitic layers. To assess the relevance of such a structure in native bone mineral, we present for the first time, to our knowledge, (17)O NMR data on bone and compare them with (17)O NMR data for OCP-citrate and other calcium phosphate minerals relevant to bone. The proposed structural model that we deduce from this work for bone mineral is a layered structure with thin apatitic platelets sandwiched between OCP-citrate-like hydrated layers. Such a structure can explain a number of known structural features of bone mineral: the thin, plate-like morphology of mature bone mineral crystals, the presence of significant quantities of strongly bound water molecules, and the relatively high concentration of hydrogen phosphate as well as the maintenance of a disordered region between mineral platelets.

  18. The Phosphate Binder Ferric Citrate and Mineral Metabolism and Inflammatory Markers in Maintenance Dialysis Patients: Results From Prespecified Analyses of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Van Buren, Peter N.; Lewis, Julia B.; Dwyer, Jamie P.; Greene, Tom; Middleton, John; Sika, Mohammed; Umanath, Kausik; Abraham, Josephine D.; Arfeen, Shahabul S.; Bowline, Isai G.; Chernin, Gil; Fadem, Stephen Z.; Goral, Simin; Koury, Mark; Sinsakul, Marvin V.; Weiner, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Phosphate binders are the cornerstone of hyperphosphatemia management in dialysis patients. Ferric citrate is an iron-based oral phosphate binder that effectively lowers serum phosphorus levels. Study Design 52-week, open-label, phase 3, randomized, controlled trial for safety-profile assessment. Setting & Participants Maintenance dialysis patients with serum phosphorus levels ≥6.0 mg/dL after washout of prior phosphate binders. Intervention 2:1 randomization to ferric citrate or active control (sevelamer carbonate and/or calcium acetate). Outcomes Changes in mineral bone disease, protein-energy wasting/inflammation, and occurrence of adverse events after 1 year. Measurements Serum calcium, intact parathyroid hormone, phosphorus, aluminum, white blood cell count, percentage of lymphocytes, serum urea nitrogen, and bicarbonate. Results There were 292 participants randomly assigned to ferric citrate, and 149, to active control. Groups were well matched. For mean changes from baseline, phosphorus levels decreased similarly in the ferric citrate and active control groups (−2.04 ± 1.99 [SD] vs −2.18 ± 2.25 mg/dL, respectively; P = 0.9); serum calcium levels increased similarly in the ferric citrate and active control groups (0.22 ± 0.90 vs 0.31 ± 0.95 mg/dL; P = 0.2). Hypercalcemia occurred in 4 participants receiving calcium acetate. Parathyroid hormone levels decreased similarly in the ferric citrate and active control groups (−167.1 ± 399.8 vs −152.7 ± 392.1 pg/mL; P = 0.8). Serum albumin, bicarbonate, serum urea nitrogen, white blood cell count and percentage of lymphocytes, and aluminum values were similar between ferric citrate and active control. Total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were lower in participants receiving sevelamer than those receiving ferric citrate and calcium acetate. Fewer participants randomly assigned to ferric citrate had serious adverse events compared with active control. Limitations Open

  19. Effect of Potassium Magnesium Citrate and Vitamin B-6 Prophylaxis for Recurrent and Multiple Calcium Oxalate and Phosphate Urolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Shaik, Ahammad Basha; Bokkisam, Suneel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To study the effects of long-term treatment with potassium magnesium citrate and vitamin B-6 prophylaxis (Urikind-KM6; 1,100-mg potassium citrate, 375-mg magnesium citrate, and 20-mg pyridoxine hydrochloride/5 mL) every 8 hours over 3 years. Materials and Methods A total of 247 patients with recurrent idiopathic hypocitraturia with or without hyperuricosuria and randomized controls were studied prospectively for 3 years. The total patients were divided into three groups. Control group 1 consisted of 61 patients (24.7%) who had moderate to severe hypocitraturia with or without hyperuricosuria and were recurrent stone formers but discontinued prophylaxis because of drug intolerance within 1 month of therapy. Control group 2 constituted 53 patients (21.5%) who were first-time stone formers and who had mild hypocitraturia with or without hyperuricosuria and were not put on prophylactic therapy and were followed for 3.16±0.08 years. Control group 3 constituted 133 patients (54.8%) who were recurrent stone formers who had moderate to severe hypocitraturia with or without hyperuricosuria and were put on prophylaxis therapy and were followed for 3.16±0.08 years. All patients were followed up at 6-month intervals. Results Potassium magnesium citrate prophylaxis produced a sustained increase in 24-hour urinary citrate excretion from initially low values (221.79±13.39 mg/dL) to within normal to high limits (604.04±5.00 mg/dL) at the 6-month follow-up. Urinary pH rose significantly from 5.62±0.2 to 6.87±0.01 and was maintained at 6.87±0.01. The stone recurrence rate declined from 3.23±1.04 per patient per year to 0.35±0.47 per patient per year. Conclusions Potassium magnesium citrate prophylaxis was effective in reducing the recurrence of calcium oxalate and phosphate urolithiasis. PMID:24955227

  20. Effect of the Food Additives Sodium Citrate and Disodium Phosphate on Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Production of stx-Phages and Shiga toxin.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Lucas J; Lucchesi, Paula M A; Medico, Lucía; Burgán, Julia; Krüger, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    Induction and propagation of bacteriophages along the food production chain can represent a significant risk when bacteriophages carry genes for potent toxins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different compounds used in the food industry on the growth of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and the production of stx-phage particles and Shiga toxin. We tested the in vitro effect of lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, disodium phosphate, and sodium citrate on STEC growth. A bacteriostatic effect was observed in most of treated cultures. The exceptions were those treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate in which similar growth curves to the untreated control were observed, but with reduced OD600 values. Evaluation of phage production by plaque-based assays showed that cultures treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate released phages in similar o lower levels than untreated cultures. However, semi-quantification of Stx revealed higher levels of extracellular Stx in STEC cultures treated with 2.5% sodium citrate than in untreated cultures. Our results reinforce the importance to evaluate if additives and other treatments used to decrease bacterial contamination in food induce stx-phage and Stx production. PMID:27446032

  1. Effect of the Food Additives Sodium Citrate and Disodium Phosphate on Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Production of stx-Phages and Shiga toxin.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Lucas J; Lucchesi, Paula M A; Medico, Lucía; Burgán, Julia; Krüger, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    Induction and propagation of bacteriophages along the food production chain can represent a significant risk when bacteriophages carry genes for potent toxins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different compounds used in the food industry on the growth of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and the production of stx-phage particles and Shiga toxin. We tested the in vitro effect of lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, disodium phosphate, and sodium citrate on STEC growth. A bacteriostatic effect was observed in most of treated cultures. The exceptions were those treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate in which similar growth curves to the untreated control were observed, but with reduced OD600 values. Evaluation of phage production by plaque-based assays showed that cultures treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate released phages in similar o lower levels than untreated cultures. However, semi-quantification of Stx revealed higher levels of extracellular Stx in STEC cultures treated with 2.5% sodium citrate than in untreated cultures. Our results reinforce the importance to evaluate if additives and other treatments used to decrease bacterial contamination in food induce stx-phage and Stx production.

  2. Effect of the Food Additives Sodium Citrate and Disodium Phosphate on Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Production of stx-Phages and Shiga toxin

    PubMed Central

    Lenzi, Lucas J.; Lucchesi, Paula M. A.; Medico, Lucía; Burgán, Julia; Krüger, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    Induction and propagation of bacteriophages along the food production chain can represent a significant risk when bacteriophages carry genes for potent toxins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different compounds used in the food industry on the growth of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and the production of stx-phage particles and Shiga toxin. We tested the in vitro effect of lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, disodium phosphate, and sodium citrate on STEC growth. A bacteriostatic effect was observed in most of treated cultures. The exceptions were those treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate in which similar growth curves to the untreated control were observed, but with reduced OD600 values. Evaluation of phage production by plaque-based assays showed that cultures treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate released phages in similar o lower levels than untreated cultures. However, semi-quantification of Stx revealed higher levels of extracellular Stx in STEC cultures treated with 2.5% sodium citrate than in untreated cultures. Our results reinforce the importance to evaluate if additives and other treatments used to decrease bacterial contamination in food induce stx-phage and Stx production. PMID:27446032

  3. A comparative randomized double-blind clinical trial of isoaminile citrate and chlophedianol hydrochloride as antitussive agents.

    PubMed

    Diwan, J; Dhand, R; Jindal, S K; Malik, S K; Sharma, P L

    1982-08-01

    The efficacy and safety of a new centrally acting antitussive agent, isoaminile citrate, was compared with that of chlophedianol hydrochloride in a double-blind, randomized interpatient study. A total of 66 patients participated, two and four patients were lost to follow-up with isoaminile and chlophedianol, respectively. In the experimentally induced cough in 12 normal human subjects, isoaminile (40 mg) was as effective as chlophedianol (20 mg), but its duration of action was somewhat longer. One subject developed allergic skin rash with chlophedianol and was withdrawn from the study. In 60 patients with cough associated with chest diseases, isoaminile (40 mg, 3 x daily) was as effective as chlophedianol (20 mg, 3 x daily) in suppressing cough as judged from the 3-h and 24-h cough counts. The increase in PEFR at day 7 of treatment was somewhat more marked with chlophedianol as compared with isoaminile. None of the drugs interfered with the expectoration process. The side effects observed were few, mild in nature, and did not require a decrease in dose or withdrawal of treatment in any of the patients. Isoaminile citrate was concluded to be an effective and relatively safe antitussive agent. Isoaminile citrate, alpha(isopropyl)-alpha-(beta-dimethylaminoproyl) phenylacetonitrile citrate, is a centrally acting antitussive agent. In animal experiments this drug was as efficacious as codeine but was devoid of any respiratory depressant effect [Krause 1958, Kuroda et al. 1971]. This controlled double-randomized interpatient study was designed to test the comparative efficacy and safety of isoaminile and chlophedianol, another centrally acting antitussive, in humans. PMID:6749701

  4. A comparative randomized double-blind clinical trial of isoaminile citrate and chlophedianol hydrochloride as antitussive agents.

    PubMed

    Diwan, J; Dhand, R; Jindal, S K; Malik, S K; Sharma, P L

    1982-08-01

    The efficacy and safety of a new centrally acting antitussive agent, isoaminile citrate, was compared with that of chlophedianol hydrochloride in a double-blind, randomized interpatient study. A total of 66 patients participated, two and four patients were lost to follow-up with isoaminile and chlophedianol, respectively. In the experimentally induced cough in 12 normal human subjects, isoaminile (40 mg) was as effective as chlophedianol (20 mg), but its duration of action was somewhat longer. One subject developed allergic skin rash with chlophedianol and was withdrawn from the study. In 60 patients with cough associated with chest diseases, isoaminile (40 mg, 3 x daily) was as effective as chlophedianol (20 mg, 3 x daily) in suppressing cough as judged from the 3-h and 24-h cough counts. The increase in PEFR at day 7 of treatment was somewhat more marked with chlophedianol as compared with isoaminile. None of the drugs interfered with the expectoration process. The side effects observed were few, mild in nature, and did not require a decrease in dose or withdrawal of treatment in any of the patients. Isoaminile citrate was concluded to be an effective and relatively safe antitussive agent. Isoaminile citrate, alpha(isopropyl)-alpha-(beta-dimethylaminoproyl) phenylacetonitrile citrate, is a centrally acting antitussive agent. In animal experiments this drug was as efficacious as codeine but was devoid of any respiratory depressant effect [Krause 1958, Kuroda et al. 1971]. This controlled double-randomized interpatient study was designed to test the comparative efficacy and safety of isoaminile and chlophedianol, another centrally acting antitussive, in humans.

  5. Effects of citrate and NaCl on size, morphology, crystallinity and microstructure of calcium phosphates obtained from aqueous solutions at acidic or near-neutral pH.

    PubMed

    Mekmene, Omar; Rouillon, Thierry; Quillard, Sophie; Pilet, Paul; Bouler, Jean-Michel; Pezennec, Stéphane; Gaucheron, Frédéric

    2012-05-01

    Precipitation of calcium phosphates occurs in dairy products and depending on pH and ionic environment, several salts with different crystallinity can form. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of NaCl and citrate on the characteristics of precipitates obtained from model solutions of calcium phosphate at pH 6·70 maintained constant or left to drift. The ion speciation calculations showed that all the starting solutions were supersaturated with respect to dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and hydroxyapatite (HAP) in the order HAP>OCP>DCPD. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses of the precipitates showed that DCPD was formed at drifting pH (acidic final pH) whereas poor crystallised calcium deficient apatite was mainly formed at constant pH (6·70). Laser light scattering measurements and electron microscopy observations showed that citrate had a pronounced inhibitory effect on the crystallisation of calcium phosphates both at drifting and constant pH. This resulted in the decrease of the particle sizes and the modification of the morphology and the microstructure of the precipitates. The inhibitory effect of citrate mainly acted by the adsorption of the citrate molecules onto the surfaces of newly formed nuclei of calcium phosphate, thereby changing the morphology of the growing particles. These findings are relevant for the understanding of calcium phosphate precipitation from dairy byproducts that contain large amounts of NaCl and citrate. PMID:22559064

  6. Correlation of biological value of feed phosphates with their solubility in water, dilute hydrogen chloride, dilute citric acid, and neutral ammonium citrate.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, T W; Douglas, J H; Gonzalez, N J; Bond, P L

    1992-12-01

    Relative biological values (BV) of 36 feed phosphates were determined with female turkeys in bioassays of 21-day duration using three response criteria: weight gain, tibia ash percentage, and gain:feed ratio. Calcium phosphate, dibasic dihydrate (United States Pharmacopeia) was the reference standard. Nine mono-dicalcium phosphates (M-DCP, 21.0% phosphorus), 13 di-monocalcium phosphates (D-MCP, 18.5% phosphorus), and 14 defluorinated phosphates (DFP, 18.0% phosphorus) were evaluated. The average relative BV for M-DCP, D-MCP, and DFP samples were 97.6, 94.6, and 90.8%, respectively. Solubility of phosphates was determined by four recognized methods. The solvents were water, .4% HCl, 2.0% citric acid (CA), and neutral ammonium citrate (NAC). Water solubility of M-DCP samples was greater (67.5%) than that of D-MCP (38.8%) and DFP (8.9%) samples. Correlation of water solubility of phosphates to their relative BV was quite low, and water solubility was a poor indicator of BV. When .4% HCl was the solvent, correlation coefficients (r) were .55, .33, and .72 for M-DCP, D-MCP, and DFP, respectively. Based on these results and prediction equations, .4% HCl solubility would be inappropriate for estimating BV of M-DCP and D-MCP samples. Solubility of feed phosphates (mainly D-MCP and DFP) in 2.0% CA or NAC was positively correlated with BV; the r values were .87 to .95. Both of these solubility tests provided a good index of BV. However, it would seem inappropriate and risky to replace bioassays totally with these tests. Feed phosphate users could perform either the 2.0% CA or NAC solubility test easily as a screen for BV along with other quality control procedures (i.e., phosphorus, calcium, sodium, and fluoride determinations).

  7. Phosphate-intercalated Ca-Fe-layered double hydroxides: Crystal structure, bonding character, and release kinetics of phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, Myong A.; Woo Kim, Tae; Paek, Mi-Jeong; Ha, Hyung-Wook; Choy, Jin-Ho; Hwang, Seong-Ju

    2011-01-15

    The nitrate-form of Ca-Fe-layered double hydroxide (Ca-Fe-LDH) was synthesized via co-precipitation method, and its phosphate-intercalates were prepared by ion-exchange reaction. According to X-ray diffraction analysis, the Ca-Fe-LDH-NO{sub 3}{sup -} compound and its H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup -}-intercalate showed hexagonal layered structures, whereas the ion-exchange reaction with HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} caused a frustration of the layer ordering of LDH. Fe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy clearly demonstrated that the Ca-Fe-LDH lattice with trivalent iron ions was well-maintained after the ion-exchange with HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup -}. Under acidic conditions, phosphate ions were slowly released from the Ca-Fe-LDH lattice and the simultaneous release of hydroxide caused the neutralization of acidic media. Fitting analysis based on kinetic models indicated a heterogeneous diffusion process of phosphates and a distinct dependence of release rate on the charge of phosphates. This study strongly suggested that Ca-Fe-LDH is applicable as bifunctional vector for slow release of phosphate fertilizer and for the neutralization of acid soil. -- Graphical abstract: We synthesized phosphate-intercalated Ca-Fe-LDH materials that can act as bifunctional inorganic vectors for the slow release of phosphate fertilizer and also the neutralization of acid soil. Fitting analysis based on kinetic models indicated a heterogeneous diffusion process of phosphates and a distinct dependence of release rate on the charge of phosphates. Display Omitted Research Highlights: {yields} The phosphate forms of Ca-Fe-layered double hydroxide (Ca-Fe-LDH) were synthesized via co-precipitation method. The crystal structure, bonding character, and release kinetics of phosphate of the phosphate-intercalates were investigated. These Ca-Fe-LDH materials are applicable as bifunctional vector for slow release of phosphate fertilizer and for the neutralization of acid soil.

  8. Citrate transport in corn mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Birnberg, P.R.; Jayroe, D.L.; Hanson, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    Citrate uptake by corn mitochondria (Zea mays L. B73 x Mo19) was investigated by osmotic swelling and (/sup 14/C)citrate accumulation. Uptake driven by passive influx, ammonium gradients, and respiration was followed. There was no requirement for phosphate and/or malate to secure citrate uptake, although under some conditions these additives were promotive. Inhibition of the phosphate and dicarboxylate carriers did not eliminate citrate uptake. Citrate/sub in//malate/sub out/ exchange occurs, but at a rate too slow to account for observed citrate uptake, and depletion of endogenous malate only reduced citrate uptake by 38%. It was concluded that citrate can be rapidly accumulated by a mechanism other than by exchange for dicarboxylates. The effect of uncoupler on respiration-driven (/sup 14/C)citrate accumulation, and studies of passive swelling using ionophores and uncouplers indicated that the major avenue of citrate uptake is by H/sup +//citrate cotransport with a pH optimum near 4.5. The in vivo role of this mechanism is not yet understood.

  9. The role of citrate and phosphate anions in the mechanism of iron(III) sequestration by ferric binding protein: Kinetic studies of holoprotein formation of wild type and engineered mutants of FbpA†

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Katherine D.; Gabričević, Mario; Anderson, Damon S.; Adhikari, Pratima; Mietzner, Timothy A.; Crumbliss, Alvin L.

    2010-01-01

    Ferric binding protein A (FbpA) plays a central role in the iron acquisition processes of pathogenic Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenza. FbpA functions as an iron shuttle within the periplasmic space of these Gram-negative human pathogens. Iron is picked up by FbpA at the periplasmic aspect of the outer membrane with concomitant acquisition of a synergistic anion. Here we report the kinetics and mechanisms involved with iron(III) loading into iron-free FbpA using iron(III) citrate as an iron source in the presence of excess citrate or phosphate (physiologically available anions) at pH 6.5. In the presence of excess phosphate, iron(III) citrate loads into apo-FbpA in three kinetically distinguishable steps, while in the presence of excess citrate only two steps are discernible. A stable intermediate containing iron(III) citrate bound FbpA is observed in each case. The observation of an additional kinetic step and moderate increase in apparent rate constants suggests an active role for phosphate in the iron insertion process. To further elucidate a mechanism for iron-loading, we report on the sequestration kinetics of iron(III) citrate in the presence of phosphate with binding site mutant apo-FbpAs, H9E, E57D, E57Q, Q58A, Y195F, and Y196H. Tyrosine mutations drastically alter the kinetics, and reduce iron sequestration ability. H9E, E57D, and E57Q have near native iron sequestration behavior; however iron binding rates are altered enabling assignment of sequential side chain interactions. Additionally, this investigation elaborates on the function of FbpA as a carrier for iron chelates as well as “naked” or free iron as originally proposed. PMID:20496864

  10. Role of citrate and phosphate anions in the mechanism of iron(III) sequestration by ferric binding protein: kinetic studies of the formation of the holoprotein of wild-type FbpA and its engineered mutants.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Katherine D; Gabricević, Mario; Anderson, Damon S; Adhikari, Pratima; Mietzner, Timothy A; Crumbliss, Alvin L

    2010-07-27

    Ferric binding protein A (FbpA) plays a central role in the iron acquisition processes of pathogenic Neisseria gonorrheae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae. FbpA functions as an iron shuttle within the periplasmic space of these Gram-negative human pathogens. Iron is picked up by FbpA at the periplasmic aspect of the outer membrane with concomitant acquisition of a synergistic anion. Here we report the kinetics and mechanisms involved with loading of iron(III) into iron-free FbpA using iron(III) citrate as an iron source in the presence of excess citrate or phosphate (physiologically available anions) at pH 6.5. In the presence of excess phosphate, iron(III) citrate loads into apo-FbpA in three kinetically distinguishable steps, while in the presence of excess citrate, only two steps are discernible. A stable intermediate containing iron(III) citrate-bound FbpA is observed in each case. The observation of an additional kinetic step and moderate increase in apparent rate constants suggests an active role for phosphate in the iron insertion process. To further elucidate a mechanism for iron loading, we report on the sequestration kinetics of iron(III) citrate in the presence of phosphate with binding site mutant apo-FbpAs, H9E, E57D, E57Q, Q58A, Y195F, and Y196H. Tyrosine mutations drastically alter the kinetics and hamper iron sequestration ability. H9E, E57D, and E57Q have near native iron sequestration behavior; however, iron binding rates are altered, enabling assignment of sequential side chain interactions. Additionally, this investigation elaborates on the function of FbpA as a carrier for iron chelates as well as "naked" or free iron as originally proposed.

  11. Sodium citrate and potassium phosphate as alternative adsorption buffers in hydrophobic and aromatic thiophilic chromatographic purification of plasmid DNA from neutralized lysate.

    PubMed

    Bonturi, Nemailla; Radke, Vanessa Soraia Cortez Oliveira; Bueno, Sônia Maria Alves; Freitas, Sindélia; Azzoni, Adriano Rodrigues; Miranda, Everson Alves

    2013-03-01

    The number of studies on gene therapy using plasmid vectors (pDNA) has increased in recent years. As a result, the demand for preparations of pDNA in compliance with recommendations of regulatory agencies (EMEA, FDA) has also increased. Plasmid DNA is often obtained through fermentation of transformed Escherichia coli and purification by a series of unit operations, including chromatography. Hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) and thiophilic aromatic chromatography (TAC), both using ammonium sulfate buffers, are commonly employed with success. This work was aimed at studying the feasibility of utilizing alternative salts in the purification of pDNA from neutralized lysate with phenyl-agarose (HIC) and mercaptopyrimidine-agarose (TAC) adsorbents. Their selectivity toward sc pDNA was evaluated through adsorption studies using 1.5 mol/L sodium citrate and 2.0 mol/L potassium phosphate as adsorption buffers. Chromatography with mercaptopyrimidine-agarose adsorbent and 1.5 mol/L sodium citrate was able to recover 91.1% of the pDNA with over 99.0% removal of gDNA and endotoxin. This represents a potential alternative for the primary recovery of sc pDNA. However, the most promising result was obtained using 2.0 mol/L potassium phosphate buffer and a mercaptopyrimidine-agarose column. In a single chromatographic step, this latter buffer/adsorbent system recovered 68.5% of the pDNA with 98.8% purity in accordance with the recommendations of regulatory agencies with regard to RNA and endotoxin impurity.

  12. Creatinol O-phosphate therapy in patients with inadequate coronary circulation. Double-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Barlattani, M; Guglielmi, G; Mammarella, A

    1979-01-01

    N-Methyl-N-(beta-hydroxyethyl) guanidine O-phosphate (creatinol O-phosphate, COP) was checked on patients suffering from inadequate coronary circulation (12 patients had a recent myocardial infarction and 13 were suffering from angina pectoris) versus a reference substance (solvent of COP) in a double blind study. COP improved rhythm disturbances, chest pains and symptoms of contractility failure to a statistically significant degree.

  13. Sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate: a review of its use as a colorectal cleanser.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Sheridan M; Scott, Lesley J; Wagstaff, Antona J

    2009-01-01

    Oral sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate (CitraFleet; Picolax), consisting of sodium picosulfate (a stimulant laxative) and magnesium citrate (an osmotic laxative), is approved for use in adults (CitraFleet; Picolax) and/or adolescents and children (Picolax) as a colorectal cleansing agent prior to any diagnostic procedure (e.g. colonoscopy or x-ray examination) requiring a clean bowel and/or surgery. It is dispensed in powder form (sodium picosulfate 0.01 g, magnesium oxide 3.5 g, citric acid 12.0 g per sachet), with the magnesium oxide and citric acid components forming magnesium citrate when the powder is dissolved in water. In adult patients, two sachets of sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate was at least as effective and well tolerated as oral magnesium citrate 17.7 or 35.4 g, or oral polyethylene glycol 236 g in adult patients undergoing a double-contrast barium enema procedure in three large, randomized, comparative clinical studies. In contrast, sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate was less effective than a sodium phosphate enema preparation in two studies in patients undergoing flexible sigmoidoscopy. A similar number of patients receiving two sachets of sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate or two 45 mL doses of oral sodium phosphate the day before a double-contrast barium enema procedure achieved satisfactory barium coating and none/minimal faecal residue in one study. However, the data from three of these studies should be interpreted with caution because the administrative regimens used differed from that recommended. Sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate is also an effective and generally well tolerated colorectal cleansing agent in children and adolescents; the preparation was more effective than oral bisacodyl 0.01 or 0.02 g plus a sodium phosphate enema preparation in this population. Further research is thus required to accurately position sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate and fully establish its efficacy and tolerability prior to various

  14. Gene delivery using calcium phosphate nanoparticles: Optimization of the transfection process and the effects of citrate and poly(l-lysine) as additives.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammed A; Wu, Victoria M; Ghosh, Shreya; Uskoković, Vuk

    2016-06-01

    Despite the long history of nanoparticulate calcium phosphate (CaP) as a non-viral transfection agent, there has been limited success in attempts to optimize its properties for transfection comparable in efficiency to that of viral vectors. Here we focus on the optimization of: (a) CaP nanoparticle precipitation conditions, predominantly supersaturation and Ca/P molar ratios; (b) transfection conditions, mainly the concentrations of the carrier and plasmid DNA; (c) the presence of surface additives, including citrate anion and cationic poly(l-lysine) (PLL). CaP nanoparticles significantly improved transfection with plasmid DNA encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) in pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells compared to a commercial non-viral carrier. At the same time they elicited significantly lesser cytotoxicity than the commercial carrier. Plasmid DNA acted as a nucleation promoter, decreasing the nucleation lag time of metastable CaP solutions and leading to a higher rate of nucleation and a lower size of the precipitated particles. The degree of supersaturation (DS) of 15 was found to be more optimal for transfection than that of 12.5 or 17.5 and higher. Because CaP particles precipitated at DS 15 were spherical, while DS 17.5 and 21 yielded acicular particles, it was concluded that spherical particle morphologies were more conducive to transfection than the anisotropic ones. Even though the yield at DS 15 was 10 and 100 times lower than that at DS 17.5 and 21, respectively, transfection rates were higher using CaP nanoparticle colloids prepared at DS 15 than using those made at higher or lower DS, indicating that the right particle morphology can outweigh the difference in the amount of the carrier, even when this difference is close to 100×. In contrast to the commercial carrier, the concentration of CaP-pDNA delivered to the cells was directly proportional to the transfection rate. Osteosarcoma K7M2 cells were four times more easily transfectable with

  15. Direct observation of grafting interlayer phosphate in Mg/Al layered double hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Shimamura, Akihiro; Kanezaki, Eiji; Jones, Mark I.; Metson, James B.

    2012-02-15

    The grafting of interlayer phosphate in synthetic Mg/Al layered double hydroxides with interlayer hydrogen phosphate (LDH-HPO{sub 4}) has been studied by XRD, TG/DTA, FT-IR, XPS and XANES. The basal spacing of crystalline LDH-HPO{sub 4} decreases in two stages with increasing temperature, from 1.06 nm to 0.82 nm at 333 K in the first transition, and to 0.722 nm at 453 K in the second. The first stage occurs due to the loss of interlayer water and rearrangement of the interlayer HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. In the second transition, the interlayer phosphate is grafted to the layer by the formation of direct bonding to metal cations in the layer, accompanied by a change in polytype of the crystalline structure. The grafted phosphate becomes immobilized and cannot be removed by anion-exchange with 1-octanesulfonate. The LDH is amorphous at 743 K but decomposes to Mg{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}, AlPO{sub 4}, MgO and MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} after heated to 1273 K. - Graphical abstract: The cross section of the synthetic Mg, Al layered double hydroxides in Phase 1, with interlayer hydrogen phosphate Phase 2, and with grafted phosphate, Phase 3. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The grafting of hydrogen phosphate intercalated Mg/Al-LDH has been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The basal spacing of crystalline LDH-HPO{sub 4} decreases in two stages with increasing temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The first decrease is due to loss of interlayer water, the second is attributed to phosphate grafting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The grafted interlayer phosphate becomes immobilized and cannot be removed by anion-exchange.

  16. Gender and chronological age affect erythrocyte membrane oxidative indices in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) blood bank storage condition.

    PubMed

    Erman, Hayriye; Aksu, Uğur; Belce, Ahmet; Atukeren, Pınar; Uzun, Duygu; Cebe, Tamer; Kansu, Ahmet D; Gelişgen, Remisa; Uslu, Ezel; Aydın, Seval; Çakatay, Ufuk

    2016-07-01

    It is well known that in vitro storage lesions lead to membrane dysfunction and decreased number of functional erythrocytes. As erythrocytes get older, in storage media as well as in peripheral circulation, they undergo a variety of biochemical changes. In our study, the erythrocytes with different age groups in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) storage solution were used in order to investigate the possible effect of gender factor on oxidative damage. Oxidative damage biomarkers in erythrocyte membranes such as ferric reducing antioxidant power, pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance, protein-bound advance glycation end products, and sialic acid were analyzed. Current study reveals that change in membrane redox status during blood-bank storage condition also depends on both gender depended homeostatic factors and the presence of CPDA-1. During the storage period in CPDA-1, erythrocytes from the male donors are mostly affected by free radical-mediated oxidative stress but erythrocytes obtained from females are severely affected by glyoxidative stress. PMID:27045670

  17. Gender and chronological age affect erythrocyte membrane oxidative indices in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) blood bank storage condition.

    PubMed

    Erman, Hayriye; Aksu, Uğur; Belce, Ahmet; Atukeren, Pınar; Uzun, Duygu; Cebe, Tamer; Kansu, Ahmet D; Gelişgen, Remisa; Uslu, Ezel; Aydın, Seval; Çakatay, Ufuk

    2016-07-01

    It is well known that in vitro storage lesions lead to membrane dysfunction and decreased number of functional erythrocytes. As erythrocytes get older, in storage media as well as in peripheral circulation, they undergo a variety of biochemical changes. In our study, the erythrocytes with different age groups in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) storage solution were used in order to investigate the possible effect of gender factor on oxidative damage. Oxidative damage biomarkers in erythrocyte membranes such as ferric reducing antioxidant power, pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance, protein-bound advance glycation end products, and sialic acid were analyzed. Current study reveals that change in membrane redox status during blood-bank storage condition also depends on both gender depended homeostatic factors and the presence of CPDA-1. During the storage period in CPDA-1, erythrocytes from the male donors are mostly affected by free radical-mediated oxidative stress but erythrocytes obtained from females are severely affected by glyoxidative stress.

  18. Adsorption of phosphate from seawater on calcined MgMn-layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Chitrakar, Ramesh; Tezuka, Satoko; Sonoda, Akinari; Sakane, Kohji; Ooi, Kenta; Hirotsu, Takahiro

    2005-10-01

    Adsorptive properties of MgMn-3-300 (MgMn-type layered double hydroxide with Mg/Mn mole ratio of 3, calcined at 300 degrees C) for phosphate were investigated in phosphate-enriched seawater with a concentration of 0.30 mg-P/dm3. It showed the highest phosphate uptake from the seawater among the inorganic adsorbents studied (hydrotalcite, calcined hydrotalcite, activated magnesia, hydrous aluminum oxide, manganese oxide (delta-MnO2)). The phosphate uptake by MgMn-3-300 reached 7.3 mg-P/g at an adsorbent/solution ratio of 0.05 g/2 dm3. The analyses of the uptakes of other constituents (Na+, K+, Ca(+, Cl-, and SO(2-)4) of seawater showed that the adsorbent had a markedly high selectivity for the adsorption of phosphate ions. Effects of initial phosphate concentration, temperature, pH, and salinity on phosphate uptake were investigated in detail by a batch method. The phosphate uptake increased slightly with an increase in the adsorption temperature. The adsorption isotherm followed Freundlich's equation with constants of logK(F)=1.25 and 1/n=0.65, indicating that it could effectively remove phosphate even from a solution of markedly low phosphate concentration as well as with large numbers of coexisting ions. The pH dependence showed a maximum phosphate uptake around pH 8.5. The pH dependence curve suggested that selective phosphate adsorption progresses mainly by the ion exchange of HPO(2-)4. The study on the effect of salinity suggested the presence of two kinds of adsorption sites in the adsorbent: one nonspecific site with weak interaction and one specific site with strong interaction. The effective desorption of phosphate could be achieved using a mixed solution of 5 M NaCl + 0.1 M NaOH (1 M = 1 mol/dm3), with negligible dissolution of adsorbent. The adsorbent had high chemical stability against the adsorption/desorption cycle; it kept a good phosphate uptake even after the repetition of the seventh cycle.

  19. High level of antibiotic production in a double polyphosphate kinase and phosphate-binding protein mutant of Streptomyces lividans.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Margarita; Sevillano, Laura; Rico, Sergio; Lombo, Felipe; Braña, Alfredo F; Salas, Jose A; Mendez, Carmen; Santamaría, Ramón I

    2013-05-01

    Phosphate metabolism regulates most of the life processes of microorganisms. In the present work we obtained and studied a Streptomyces lividans ppk/pstS double mutant, which lacks polyphosphate kinase (PPK) and the high-affinity phosphate-binding protein (PstS), impairing at the same time the intracellular storage of polyphosphate and the intake of new inorganic phosphate from a phosphate-limited medium, respectively. In some of the aspects analyzed, the ppk/pstS double mutant was more similar to the wt strain than was the single pstS mutant. The double mutant was thus able to grow in phosphate-limited media, whereas the pstS mutant required the addition of 1 mM phosphate under the assay conditions used. The double mutant was able to incorporate more than one fourth of the inorganic phosphate incorporated by the wt strain, whereas phosphate incorporation was almost completely impaired in the pstS mutant. Noteworthy, under phosphate limitation conditions, the double ppk/pstS mutant showed a higher production of the endogenous antibiotic actinorhodin and the heterologous antitumor 8-demethyl-tetracenomycin (up to 10-fold with respect to the wt strain), opening new possibilities for the use of this strain in the heterologous expression of antibiotic pathways.

  20. Metal-Catalyzed Double Migratory Cascade Reactions of Propargylic Esters and Phosphates

    PubMed Central

    Shiroodi, Roohollah Kazem

    2013-01-01

    Propargylic esters and phosphates are easily accessible substrates, which exhibit rich and tunable reactivities in the presence of transition metal catalysts. π-acidic metals, mostly gold and platinum salts, activate these substrates for an initial 1,2- or 1,3-acyloxy and phosphatyloxy migration processes to form reactive intermediates. These intermediates are able to undergo further cascade reactions leading to a variety of diverse structures. This tutorial review systematically introduces the double migratory reactions of propargylic esters and phosphates as a novel synthetic method, in which further cascade reaction of the reactive intermediate is accompanied by a second migration of a different group, thus offering a rapid route to a wide range of functionalized products. The serendipitous observations, as well as designed approaches involving the double migratory cascade reactions, will be discussed with emphasis placed on the mechanistic aspects and the synthetic utilities of the obtained products. PMID:23443274

  1. Properties of Ce-activated alkali-lutetium double phosphate scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Wiśniewski, D.; Wojtowicz, A. J.; Boatner, Lynn A

    2010-01-01

    The scintillation properties of Ce-activated alkali-lutetium double phosphate single crystals that vary with the alkali ion type and activation level are summarized and compared. The materials investigated here have been identified as fast and efficient scintillators for the detection of x-ray and radiation, and in case of Li3Lu(PO4)2:Ce, for thermal neutron detection as well.

  2. Structural and Crystal Chemical Properties of Alkali Rare-earth Double Phosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, James Matthew; Boatner, Lynn A.; Chakoumakos, Bryan C.; Rawn, Claudia J.; Richardson, Jim

    2016-01-01

    When appropriately activated, alkali rare-earth double phosphates of the form: M3RE(PO4)2 (where M denotes an alkali metal and RE represents either a rare-earth element or Y or Sc) are of interest for use as inorganic scintillators for radiation detection at relatively long optical emission wavelengths. These compounds exhibit layered crystal structures whose symmetry properties depend on the relative sizes of the rare-earth and alkali-metal cations. Single-crystal X-ray and powder neutron diffraction methods were used here to refine the structures of the series of rare-earth double phosphate compounds: K3RE(PO4)2 with RE = Lu, Er, Ho, Dy, Gd, Nd, Ce, plus Y and Sc - as well as the compounds: A3Lu(PO4)2, with A = Rb, and Cs. The double phosphate K3Lu(PO4)2 was reported and structurally refined previously. This material had a hexagonal unit cell at room temperature with the Lu ion six-fold coordinated with oxygen atoms of the surrounding phosphate groups. Additionally two lower-temperature phases were observed for K3Lu(PO4)2. The first phase transition to a monoclinic P21/m phase occurred at ~230 K, and the Lu ion retained its six-fold coordination. The second K3Lu(PO4)2 phase transition occurred at ~130 K. The P21/m space group symmetry was retained, however, one of the phosphate groups rotated to increase the oxygen coordination number of Lu from six to seven. This structure then became isostructural with the room-temperature form of the compound K3Yb(PO4)2 reported here that also exhibits an additional high-temperature phase which occurs at T = 120 °C with a transformation to hexagonal P-3 space group symmetry and a Yb-ion coordination number reduction from seven to six. This latter result was confirmed using EXAFS. The single

  3. Structural and Crystal Chemical Properties of Alkali Rare-earth Double Phosphates

    DOE PAGES

    Farmer, James Matthew; Boatner, Lynn A.; Chakoumakos, Bryan C.; Rawn, Claudia J.; Richardson, Jim

    2016-01-01

    When appropriately activated, alkali rare-earth double phosphates of the form: M3RE(PO4)2 (where M denotes an alkali metal and RE represents either a rare-earth element or Y or Sc) are of interest for use as inorganic scintillators for radiation detection at relatively long optical emission wavelengths. These compounds exhibit layered crystal structures whose symmetry properties depend on the relative sizes of the rare-earth and alkali-metal cations. Single-crystal X-ray and powder neutron diffraction methods were used here to refine the structures of the series of rare-earth double phosphate compounds: K3RE(PO4)2 with RE = Lu, Er, Ho, Dy, Gd, Nd, Ce, plus Ymore » and Sc - as well as the compounds: A3Lu(PO4)2, with A = Rb, and Cs. The double phosphate K3Lu(PO4)2 was reported and structurally refined previously. This material had a hexagonal unit cell at room temperature with the Lu ion six-fold coordinated with oxygen atoms of the surrounding phosphate groups. Additionally two lower-temperature phases were observed for K3Lu(PO4)2. The first phase transition to a monoclinic P21/m phase occurred at ~230 K, and the Lu ion retained its six-fold coordination. The second K3Lu(PO4)2 phase transition occurred at ~130 K. The P21/m space group symmetry was retained, however, one of the phosphate groups rotated to increase the oxygen coordination number of Lu from six to seven. This structure then became isostructural with the room-temperature form of the compound K3Yb(PO4)2 reported here that also exhibits an additional high-temperature phase which occurs at T = 120 °C with a transformation to hexagonal P-3 space group symmetry and a Yb-ion coordination number reduction from seven to six. This latter result was confirmed using EXAFS. The single-crystal growth methods structural systematics, and thermal expansion properties of the present series of alkali rare-earth double phosphates, as determined by X-ray and neutron diffraction methods, are treated here.« less

  4. Layered double hydroxide (LDH)-coated attapulgite for phosphate removal from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Fang-qun, Gan; Jian-min, Zhou; Huo-yan, Wang; Hong-ting, Zhao

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a composite adsorbent, layered double hydroxide (LDH)-coated attapulgite (LDH-AP), was synthesized and characterized. Its potential application for LDH stabilizer and phosphate (P) removal from aqueous solution was evaluated using the batch mode and continuous mode in a packed bed column. The batch experiments revealed that the data of P adsorption onto LDH-AP could be well described by the Freundlich equation, and the maximum adsorption capacity was estimated to be 6.9 mg/g. The column experiments were conducted in the tap water and the results indicated that the competing anions could slightly decrease phosphate removal. The saturated column was regenerated by 0.2 mol/L of NaOH and the regenerated column was examined for its reuse in phosphate removal. The results of this study suggested that attapulgite could be used as an applicable stabilizer of LDH and LDH-AP could be potentially used as a promising filtration medium for phosphate removal. PMID:22156122

  5. Sequestration of Sr-90 Subsurface Contamination in the Hanford 100-N Area by Surface Infiltration of a Ca-Citrate-Phosphate Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, James E.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Oostrom, Martinus; Moore, R. C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Williams, Mark D.; Zhong, Lirong; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; McKinley, James P.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Covert, Matthew A.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Garcia, Ben J.

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a method to emplace apatite precipitate in the 100N vadose zone, which results in sorption and ultimately incorporation of Sr-90 into the apatite structure. The Ca-citrate-PO4 solution can be infiltrated into unsaturated sediments to result in apatite precipitate to provide effective treatment of Sr-90 contamination. Microbial redistribution during solution infiltration and a high rate of citrate biodegradation for river water microbes (water used for solution infiltration) results in a relatively even spatial distribution of the citrate biodegradation rate and ultimately apatite precipitate in the sediment. Manipulation of the Ca-citrate-PO4 solution infiltration strategy can be used to result in apatite precipitate in the lower half of the vadose zone (where most of the Sr-90 is located) and within low-K layers (which are hypothesized to have higher Sr-90 concentrations). The most effective infiltration strategy to precipitate apatite at depth (and with sufficient lateral spread) was to infiltrate a high concentration solution (6 mM Ca, 15 mM citrate, 60 mM PO4) at a rapid rate (near ponded conditions), followed by rapid, then slow water infiltration. Repeated infiltration events, with sufficient time between events to allow water drainage in the sediment profile can be used to buildup the mass of apatite precipitate at greater depth. Low-K heterogeneities were effectively treated, as the higher residual water content maintained in these zones resulted in higher apatite precipitate concentration. High-K zones did not receive sufficient treatment by infiltration, although an alternative strategy of air/surfactant (foam) was demonstrated effective for targeting high-K zones. The flow rate manipulation used in this study to treat specific depths and heterogeneities are not as easy to implement at field scale due to the lack of characterization of heterogeneities and difficulty tracking the wetting front over a large

  6. Mechanisms of citrate transport and exchange in corn mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Birnberg, P.R.; Hanson, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    Previous work demonstrated that corn mitochondria (Zea mays L.) can accumulate citrate by a malate- and phosphate-independent proton symporter. This uptake and symport of other ions were investigated. Isocitrate is a competitive inhibitor of citrate uptake and (/sup 14/C)isocitrate is accumulated with a K/sub m/ similar to its I/sub 50/. Valinomycin reduces net active citrate accumulation at pH 7.5, consistent with the relatively low V/sub max/ for citrate uptake. At pH 4.5, mersalyl reduces the rate of citrate uptake without changing the affinity of the carrier for citrate. Thus, the corn mitochondria have a high-affinity, mersalyl-insensitive carrier selective for citrate that also transports isocitrate. The pH optimum for oxidation of both endogenous substrates and citrate is approximately pH 6.8. Under active conditions only, at pH 7.0, malate/citrate exchange occurs with 4 millimolar malate being sufficient to remove about half the matrix citrate. Therefore, in vivo both citrate uptake by proton symport and efflux by malate/citrate exchange should occur, with the net direction of citrate movement determined by the cytoplasmic pH, and citrate and malate concentrations; in most cases, net efflux is likely to be favored.

  7. Safety of sildenafil citrate: review of 67 double-blind placebo-controlled trials and the postmarketing safety database

    PubMed Central

    Giuliano, F; Jackson, G; Montorsi, F; Martin-Morales, A; Raillard, P

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To review special safety topics associated with sildenafil and to document the tolerability of 50- and 100-mg doses, overall and by age, in men with erectile dysfunction (ED). Methods: Data were collated from 67 double-blind placebo-controlled (DBPC) trials (> 14,000 men) conducted by the manufacturer and from the manufacturer’s postmarketing safety database (39,277 patients). The DBPC data were stratified by dose, starting dose and age (≥ 65 and ≥ 75 years). Special safety topics included cardiovascular risk, priapism, non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION), impaired renal and hepatic function, drug interactions (i.e. nitrates, cytochrome P3A4 inhibitors, other ED therapies and α-blockers) and incorrect use. Results: Sildenafil was well tolerated at a dose of 50 or 100 mg in men with ED, overall, in those aged ≥ 65 years, and in those aged ≥ 75 years. Analyses of the databases did not reveal any causal link between sildenafil and cardiovascular events, or any new safety risks relating to cardiovascular events, priapism, NAION, hearing loss or drug interactions. In the small number of men with moderate impairment of renal function or hepatic function who were treated with sildenafil in DBPC trials, the safety profile was similar to that in men with no impairment of renal or hepatic function. Overdose with sildenafil was rare in the ED population. No new safety issues, emerging trends or adverse reactions were identified in conjunction with overdose, dependence, abuse or misuse. Conclusion: This collated review confirms generally the good tolerability and established safety profile of sildenafil 50 and 100 mg in men with ED and reveals no new safety issues. PMID:19900167

  8. Enhancing phosphate adsorption by Mg/Al layered double hydroxide functionalized biochar with different Mg/Al ratios.

    PubMed

    Li, Ronghua; Wang, Jim J; Zhou, Baoyue; Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Ali, Amjad; Zhang, Zengqiang; Gaston, Lewis A; Lahori, Altaf Hussain; Mahar, Amanullah

    2016-07-15

    Mg/Al ratio plays a significant role for anion adsorption by Mg/Al-layered double hydroxides (Mg/Al-LDHs) modified biochar. In this study, Mg/Al-LDHs biochar with different Mg/Al ratios (2, 3, 4) were prepared by co-precipitation for phosphate removal from aqueous solution. Factors on phosphate adsorption including Mg/Al ratio, pH, and the presence of other inorganic anions were investigated through batch experiments. Increasing Mg/Al ratio in the Mg/Al-LDHs biochar composites generally enhanced phosphate adsorption with Langmuir adsorption maximum calculated at 81.83mg phosphorous (P) per gram of 4:1Mg/Al-LDHs biochar at pH3.0. The adsorption process was best described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Solution pH had greater effects on the phosphate adsorption by Mg/Al LDHs biochar composites with lower Mg/Al ratios. The presence of other inorganic anions decreased the phosphate adsorption efficiency in the order of F(-) > SO4(2-) > NO2(-) >Cl(-). Phosphate adsorption mechanism involves ion exchange, electrostatic attraction and surface inner-sphere complex formation. Overall, Mg/Al-LDHs biochar composites offer a potential alternative of carbon-based adsorbent for phosphate removal from aqueous solution. PMID:27058131

  9. Activity of creatinol O-phosphate on persistent ventricular premature beats in ischemic heart disease. Double blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Di Maio, F; Neri, A; Soccorsi, P; Sciacca, A

    1979-01-01

    In a double-blind investigation N-methyl-N-(beta-hydroxyethyl) guanidine O-phosphate (creatinol O-phosphate, COP) was checked versus a reference substance (solvent of COP) on volunteers affected by ischemic heart disease with persistent ventricular premature beats (VPB). COP was able to reduce VPB by 50--100% in 85% of the volunteers treated with this drug. This fact and the virtual absence of side-effects of COP lead the authors to the conclusion that COP merits more extensive investigations in this field in view of its clinical employment alone or in association with specific antiarrhythmic agents.

  10. Cerium-doped mixed-alkali rare-earth double-phosphate scintillators for thermal neutron detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, John S.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Spurrier, Merry; Szupryczynski, Piotr; Melcher, Charles L.

    2007-08-01

    Previous measurements of the scintillation properties of members of the single-alkali, rare-earth double-phosphate family have demonstrated high light output and fast decay times when exposed to ionizing radiation. Because of the ease with which the alkali constituents (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) of the crystal matrix may be interchanged (e.g. K 2CsLu(PO 4) 2 and CsLi 2Lu(PO 4) 2), the rare-earth double-phosphate family of scintillators provides an ideal system for the study of matrix effects on scintillation efficiency and kinetics. New members of the rare-earth double-phosphate family have been synthesized by high-temperature flux growth. These new samples, represented by the general formula (A,B) 3Lu(PO 4) 2:Ce where A and B are alkali elements, incorporate lithium as one of the components and varying levels of Ce doping. Characteristics important to gamma-ray and thermal neutron excitation are calculated for three model systems which incorporate total lithium-ion substitution. Light output, scintillation decay times, and photoluminescence measurements for the most promising of the samples to date are reported. Future work includes (1) synthesis of mixed-alkali scandium and yttrium double-phosphates in which Li ions are substitutional in the structure with varying lithium-ion content up to and including total lithium-ion substitution on the alkali ion site and (2) measurements of light output and pulse shape using thermal neutron excitation.

  11. The Safety and Tolerability of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Phosphate with Sodium Ferrous Citrate in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Bahrain

    PubMed Central

    Al-Saber, Feryal; Aldosari, Waleed; Alselaiti, Mariam; Khalfan, Hesham; Kaladari, Ahmed; Khan, Ghulam; Harb, George; Rehani, Riyadh; Kudo, Sizuka; Koda, Aya; Tanaka, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is prevalent especially in Gulf countries and poses serious long-term risks to patients. A multifaceted treatment approach can include nutritional supplements with antioxidant properties such as 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) with sodium ferrous citrate (SFC). This prospective, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, dose escalating pilot clinical trial assessed the safety of 5-ALA with SFC at doses up to 200 mg 5-ALA/229.42 mg SFC per day in patients living in Bahrain with type 2 diabetes mellitus that was uncontrolled despite the use of one or more antidiabetic drugs. Fifty-three patients (n = 53) from 3 sites at one center were enrolled by Dr. Feryal (Site #01), Dr. Hesham (Site #02), and Dr. Waleed (Site #03) (n = 35, 5-ALA-SFC; n = 18, placebo). There was no significant difference in incidence of adverse events reported, and the most frequent events reported were gastrointestinal in nature, consistent with the known safety profile of 5-ALA in patients with diabetes. No significant changes in laboratory values and no difference in hypoglycemia between patients receiving 5-ALA and placebo were noted. Overall, the current results support that use of 5-ALA-SFC up to 200 mg per day taken as 2 divided doses is safe in patients taking concomitant oral antidiabetic medications and may offer benefits in the diabetic population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02481141. PMID:27738640

  12. Citrin/mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase double knock-out mice recapitulate features of human citrin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Saheki, Takeyori; Iijima, Mikio; Li, Meng Xian; Kobayashi, Keiko; Horiuchi, Masahisa; Ushikai, Miharu; Okumura, Fumihiko; Meng, Xiao Jian; Inoue, Ituro; Tajima, Atsushi; Moriyama, Mitsuaki; Eto, Kazuhiro; Kadowaki, Takashi; Sinasac, David S; Tsui, Lap-Chee; Tsuji, Mihoko; Okano, Akira; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi

    2007-08-24

    Citrin is the liver-type mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carrier that participates in urea, protein, and nucleotide biosynthetic pathways by supplying aspartate from mitochondria to the cytosol. Citrin also plays a role in transporting cytosolic NADH reducing equivalents into mitochondria as a component of the malate-aspartate shuttle. In humans, loss-of-function mutations in the SLC25A13 gene encoding citrin cause both adult-onset type II citrullinemia and neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis, collectively referred to as human citrin deficiency. Citrin knock-out mice fail to display features of human citrin deficiency. Based on the hypothesis that an enhanced glycerol phosphate shuttle activity may be compensating for the loss of citrin function in the mouse, we have generated mice with a combined disruption of the genes for citrin and mitochondrial glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. The resulting double knock-out mice demonstrated citrullinemia, hyperammonemia that was further elevated by oral sucrose administration, hypoglycemia, and a fatty liver, all features of human citrin deficiency. An increased hepatic lactate/pyruvate ratio in the double knock-out mice compared with controls was also further elevated by the oral sucrose administration, suggesting that an altered cytosolic NADH/NAD(+) ratio is closely associated with the hyperammonemia observed. Microarray analyses identified over 100 genes that were differentially expressed in the double knock-out mice compared with wild-type controls, revealing genes potentially involved in compensatory or downstream effects of the combined mutations. Together, our data indicate that the more severe phenotype present in the citrin/mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase double knock-out mice represents a more accurate model of human citrin deficiency than citrin knock-out mice.

  13. Cerium-doped mixed-alkali rare-earth double-phosphate scintillators for x- and gamma-ray detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, John S.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Spurrier, Merry; Szupryczynski, Piotr; Melcher, Charles L.

    2006-08-01

    Previous measurements of the scintillation properties of members of the single-alkali, rare-earth double-phosphate family have demonstrated high light output and fast decay times when exposed to ionizing radiation. Cerium-doped K 3Lu(PO 4) II and Rb 3Lu(PO 4) II scintillators have exhibited light outputs of 32,500 and 28,200 photons/MeV respectively and decay times of 37 and 34 nanoseconds respectively. Because of the ease with which the alkali constituents (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) of the crystal matrix may be interchanged (e.g. K IICsLu(PO 4) II and CsLi IILu(PO 4) II), the rare-earth double-phosphate family of scintillators provides an ideal system for the study of matrix effects on scintillation efficiency and kinetics. In order to better understand and to ultimately optimize the scintillation properties of these scintillators, new members of the rare-earth double-phosphate family have been synthesized by high temperature flux growth. These new samples, represented by the general formula (A,B) 3Lu(PO 4) II:Ce where A and B are alkali elements, incorporate mixed alkali rather than single alkali components and varying levels of Ce doping. Light output, scintillation decay times, and photoluminescence measurements for the most promising of the samples to date are reported. In this paper, we identify promising samples and results that clearly demonstrate outstanding light output, up to 270% of BGO, fast decay times, 29-39 nanoseconds, and peak emission wavelengths of ~ 400 nm for many of the samples.

  14. Cerium-activated rare-earth orthophosphate and double-phosphate scintillators for x-and gamma-ray detection

    SciTech Connect

    Boatner, Lynn A; Keefer, Lara A; Farmer, James Matthew; Wisniewski, D.; Wojtowicz, A. J.

    2004-01-01

    When activated with an appropriate rare-earth ion (e.g., Ce or Nd), rare-earth orthophosphates of the form REPO4 (where RE = a rare-earth cation) and alkali rare-earth double phosphates of the form A{sub 3}RE(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} (where A = K, Rb, or Cs) are characterized by light yields and decay times that make these materials of interest for radiation-detection applications. Crystals of the compound Rb{sub 3}Lu(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} when activated with {approx}0.1 mol % Ce exhibit a light yield that is {approx}250% that of BGO with a decay time on the order of {approx}40 nsec. The cerium-activated rare-earth orthophosphate LuPO{sub 4}:Ce is also characterized by a high light yield and a relatively fast decay time of {approx}25 nsec. Additionally, the rare-earth orthophosphates are extremely chemically, physically, and thermally durable hosts that recover easily from radiation damage effects. The properties of the rare-earth orthophosphates and double phosphates that pertain to their use as X- and gamma-ray detectors are reviewed. This review includes information related to the use of Nd-doped LuPO{sub 4} as a scintillator with a sufficiently energetic, short-wavelength output ({lambda} = 90 nm) so that it can be used in conjunction with appropriately activated proportional counters. Information is presented on the details of the synthesis, structure, and luminescence properties of lanthanide double phosphates that, when activated with cerium, are efficient scintillators with output wavelengths that are sufficiently long to be well matched to the response of silicon photodiode detectors.

  15. Novel hollow microspheres of hierarchical zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides and their enhanced adsorption capacity for phosphate in water.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiabin; Yang, Siliang; Yu, Jiaguo; Shu, Zhan

    2011-09-15

    Hollow microspheres of hierarchical Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method using urea as precipitating agent. The morphology and microstructure of the as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. It was found that the morphology of hierarchical Zn-Al LDHs can be tuned from irregular platelets to hollow microspheres by simply varying concentrations of urea. The effects of initial phosphate concentration and contact time on phosphate adsorption using various Zn-Al LDHs and their calcined products (LDOs) were investigated from batch tests. Our results indicate that the equilibrium adsorption data were best fitted by Langmuir isothermal model, with the maximum adsorption capacity of 54.1-232 mg/g; adsorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation and intra-particle diffusion model. In addition, Zn-Al LDOs are shown to be effective adsorbents for removing phosphate from aqueous solutions due to their hierarchical porous structures and high specific surface areas.

  16. THE PREGNANCY IN POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME II (PPCOS II) TRIAL: RATIONALE AND DESIGN OF A DOUBLE-BLIND RANDOMIZED TRIAL OF CLOMIPHENE CITRATE AND LETROZOLE FOR THE TREATMENT OF INFERTILITY IN WOMEN WITH POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Legro, Richard S.; Kunselman, Allen R.; Brzyski, Robert G.; Casson, Peter R.; Diamond, Michael P.; Schlaff, William D.; Christman, Gregory M.; Coutifaris, Christos; Taylor, Hugh S.; Eisenberg, Esther; Santoro, Nanette; Zhang, Heping

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common cause of female infertility and first line treatment is currently oral clomiphene citrate, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, which results in both a high nonresponse rate and multiple pregnancy rate. Aromatase inhibitors such as letrozole may have more favorable ovarian and endometrial effects. The goal of the Pregnancy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome II (PPCOSII) study is to determine the safety and efficacy of clomiphene citrate (CC) compared to letrozole, in achieving live birth in infertile women with PCOS. The population will consist of 750 infertile women with PCOS. Additionally, the couple will have no other major infertility factor. This will be a multi-center, prospective, double-blind clinical trial of CC vs. letrozole for 5 treatment cycles (or approximately up to 25 weeks). The randomization scheme will be coordinated through the central data coordinating center (DCC) and the randomization is stratified by each participating site. After progestin withdrawal as needed, 750 women will be equally randomized to two different treatment arms: A) CC 50 mg every day for 5 days (day 3–7 of cycle), or B) letrozole 2.5 mg every day for 5 days (day 3–7 of cycle), for a total of 5 cycles or 25 weeks. The dose will be increased in subsequent cycles in both treatment groups for non-response or poor ovulatory response up to a maximum of 150 mg of CC a day (× 5 days) or 7.5 mg of letrozole a day (× 5 days). The primary analysis will use an intent-to-treat approach to examine differences in the live birth rate in the two treatment arms. PMID:22265923

  17. The Pregnancy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome II (PPCOS II) trial: rationale and design of a double-blind randomized trial of clomiphene citrate and letrozole for the treatment of infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Legro, Richard S; Kunselman, Allen R; Brzyski, Robert G; Casson, Peter R; Diamond, Michael P; Schlaff, William D; Christman, Gregory M; Coutifaris, Christos; Taylor, Hugh S; Eisenberg, Esther; Santoro, Nanette; Zhang, Heping

    2012-05-01

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common cause of female infertility and first line treatment is currently oral clomiphene citrate, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, which results in both a high nonresponse rate and multiple pregnancy rate. Aromatase inhibitors such as letrozole may have more favorable ovarian and endometrial effects. The goal of the Pregnancy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome II (PPCOSII) study is to determine the safety and efficacy of clomiphene citrate (CC) compared to letrozole, in achieving live birth in infertile women with PCOS. The population will consist of 750 infertile women with PCOS. Additionally, the couple will have no other major infertility factor. This will be a multi-center, prospective, double-blind clinical trial of CC vs. letrozole for 5 treatment cycles (or approximately up to 25 weeks). The randomization scheme will be coordinated through the central data coordinating center (DCC) and the randomization is stratified by each participating site. After progestin withdrawal as needed, 750 women will be equally randomized to two different treatment arms: A) CC 50mg every day for 5 days (days 3-7 of cycle), or B) letrozole 2.5mg every day for 5 days (days 3-7 of cycle), for a total of 5 cycles or 25 weeks. The dose will be increased in subsequent cycles in both treatment groups for non-response or poor ovulatory response up to a maximum of 150 mg of CC a day (×5 days) or 7.5mg of letrozole a day (×5 days). The primary analysis will use an intent-to-treat approach to examine differences in the live birth rate in the two treatment arms. PMID:22265923

  18. Gastrointestinal citrate absorption in nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fegan, J.; Khan, R.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    Gastrointestinal absorption of citrate was measured in stone patients with idiopathic hypocitraturia to determine if citrate malabsorption could account for low urinary citrate. Citrate absorption was measured directly from recovery of orally administered potassium citrate (40 mEq.) in the intestinal lavage fluid, using an intestinal washout technique. In 7 stone patients citrate absorption, serum citrate levels, peak citrate concentration in serum and area under the curve were not significantly different from those of 7 normal subjects. Citrate absorption was rapid and efficient in both groups, with 96 to 98% absorbed within 3 hours. The absorption of citrate was less efficient from a tablet preparation of potassium citrate than from a liquid preparation, probably due to a delayed release of citrate from wax matrix. However, citrate absorption from solid potassium citrate was still high at 91%, compared to 98% for a liquid preparation. Thus, hypocitraturia is unlikely to be due to an impaired gastrointestinal absorption of citrate in stone patients without overt bowel disease.

  19. [Influence of reaction time of urea hydrolysis-based co-precipitation on the structure of ZnAl layered double hydroxides and the phosphate adsorption].

    PubMed

    Lu, Ying; Cheng, Xiang; Xing, Bo; Sun, Zhong-en; Sun, De-zhi

    2012-08-01

    A series of ZnAl layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were prepared by urea hydrolysis-based homogeneous co-precipitation for studying their structure and phosphate adsorption capacities. The results show that all the samples exhibited a typical layered structure as the reaction time extended from 12 h to 96 h, whereas Zn/Al molar ratio in the ZnAls decreased from 2.06 to 0.70 and the specific surface area markedly increased to be 7.6-fold higher than that of ZnAl-12. Phosphate adsorption capacity of the ZnAl was in general increased gradually with the reaction time extension, which can be attributed to the surface area rising as well as the increased positive charge of LDHs layer caused by a higher proportion of Al. This reveals that physicochemical adsorption on LDHs surface would have played an important role during the phosphate adsorption. With a reaction time of 24 h, a high amount of exchangeable interlayer anions was observed, giving rise to a highest phosphate uptake of 34.1 mg x g(-1) by the ZnAl-24. It indicates the ion exchange was another major pathway for the phosphate removal. For all the ZnAls with different reaction times, the phosphate adsorption isotherms fit well with Langmuir-type equations; the adsorption kinetics followed pseudo-second-order models.

  20. Amphiphilic sugar phosphates with single or double perfluoroalkylated hydrophobic chains for use in oxygen and drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Guillod, F; Greiner, J; Milius, A; Riess, J G

    1994-01-01

    New anionic amphiphiles with a phosphate ester junction between the fluorophilic-lipophilic tail and the sugar-based hydrophilic head were synthesized and evaluated. The single hydrophobic chain surfactants 1 a, b and 2a allowed the preparation of stable and fine highly concentrated emulsions of perfluorodecalin or perfluoroocytl bromide, either when used alone or in conjunction with egg yolk phospholipids (EYP). Surfactants 3d, 5d, 6d and 6e, with two hydrophobic chains, one fluorinated the other not, gave liposomal structures, and displayed encapsulation properties for carboxyfluorescein. The phosphodiesters tested cause no significant inhibition of the growth and viability of Namalva cell cultures (0.1-1 g/L range). Single chain phosphodiesters manifest no detectable hemolytic activity (at 100 g/L for 1a) whereas double chain compounds do moderately (ca 20% hemolysis at 20 g/L). The maximum tolerated dose compatible with the survival of all of a series of 10 intravenously injected mice is in 130 mg/kg body weight range. PMID:7849933

  1. Structural and crystal chemical properties of rare-earth double phosphates and rare-earth titanate pyrochlores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, J. Matt

    Alkali rare-earth double phosphates have been studied for use as long-wavelength scintillators for gamma-ray detection using Si photodiodes. These compounds exhibit layered crystal structures, built from roughly hexagonal atomic layers in the sequence lanthanide, phosphate-alkali, alkali, alkali-phosphate. Details of the crystal symmetry depend on the relative sizes of the rare-earth and alkali metal ions. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SXRD) has been used to study these structures at room temperature for K3RE(PO4) 2 (where RE = Lu-Ce, Y, and Sc). The compound K3Lu(PO 4)2 crystallizes with a hexagonal unit cell, space group P-3. The Lu ion is six-coordinated to the oxygen atoms of the phosphate groups. Two lower-temperature phases of K3Lu(PO4) 2 were observed and characterized. The lower-temperature transition results in an increase in coordination of the Lu ion to seven fold. This new structure is isostructural with the room-temperature form of K3Yb(PO 4)2. High-temperature powder neutron diffraction and high-temperature powder XRD have revealed a large thermal expansion anisotropy for K3Lu(PO4)2. The K3RE(PO 4)2 formation enthalpies were determined using high-temperature oxide-melt solution calorimetry. The formation enthalpy from oxides becomes more exothermic with increasing rare-earth radius. Rare-earth titanates, RE2Ti2O7 (where RE = a rare-earth), with the pyrochlore structure are currently being studied for use as potential nuclear, actinide-rich waste forms. Single-crystals were synthesized using a high-temperature flux technique and characterized using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The cubic lattice parameters display an approximately linear correlation with the RE-site cation radius. The Sm and Eu titanates exhibit a covalency increase between the REO8 and TiO6 polyhedra resulting in a deviation from the increasing linear lattice parameter through the series. Gd2Ti2O7 exhibits the lowest 48f oxygen positional parameter, an effect that can be

  2. Ferric citrate controls phosphorus and delivers iron in patients on dialysis.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Julia B; Sika, Mohammed; Koury, Mark J; Chuang, Peale; Schulman, Gerald; Smith, Mark T; Whittier, Frederick C; Linfert, Douglas R; Galphin, Claude M; Athreya, Balaji P; Nossuli, A Kaldun Kaldun; Chang, Ingrid J; Blumenthal, Samuel S; Manley, John; Zeig, Steven; Kant, Kotagal S; Olivero, Juan Jose; Greene, Tom; Dwyer, Jamie P

    2015-02-01

    Patients on dialysis require phosphorus binders to prevent hyperphosphatemia and are iron deficient. We studied ferric citrate as a phosphorus binder and iron source. In this sequential, randomized trial, 441 subjects on dialysis were randomized to ferric citrate or active control in a 52-week active control period followed by a 4-week placebo control period, in which subjects on ferric citrate who completed the active control period were rerandomized to ferric citrate or placebo. The primary analysis compared the mean change in phosphorus between ferric citrate and placebo during the placebo control period. A sequential gatekeeping strategy controlled study-wise type 1 error for serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, and intravenous iron and erythropoietin-stimulating agent usage as prespecified secondary outcomes in the active control period. Ferric citrate controlled phosphorus compared with placebo, with a mean treatment difference of -2.2±0.2 mg/dl (mean±SEM) (P<0.001). Active control period phosphorus was similar between ferric citrate and active control, with comparable safety profiles. Subjects on ferric citrate achieved higher mean iron parameters (ferritin=899±488 ng/ml [mean±SD]; transferrin saturation=39%±17%) versus subjects on active control (ferritin=628±367 ng/ml [mean±SD]; transferrin saturation=30%±12%; P<0.001 for both). Subjects on ferric citrate received less intravenous elemental iron (median=12.95 mg/wk ferric citrate; 26.88 mg/wk active control; P<0.001) and less erythropoietin-stimulating agent (median epoetin-equivalent units per week: 5306 units/wk ferric citrate; 6951 units/wk active control; P=0.04). Hemoglobin levels were statistically higher on ferric citrate. Thus, ferric citrate is an efficacious and safe phosphate binder that increases iron stores and reduces intravenous iron and erythropoietin-stimulating agent use while maintaining hemoglobin. PMID:25060056

  3. Strongly bound citrate stabilizes the apatite nanocrystals in bone.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y-Y; Rawal, A; Schmidt-Rohr, K

    2010-12-28

    Nanocrystals of apatitic calcium phosphate impart the organic-inorganic nanocomposite in bone with favorable mechanical properties. So far, the factors preventing crystal growth beyond the favorable thickness of ca. 3 nm have not been identified. Here we show that the apatite surfaces are studded with strongly bound citrate molecules, whose signals have been identified unambiguously by multinuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. NMR reveals that bound citrate accounts for 5.5 wt% of the organic matter in bone and covers apatite at a density of about 1 molecule per (2 nm)(2), with its three carboxylate groups at distances of 0.3 to 0.45 nm from the apatite surface. Bound citrate is highly conserved, being found in fish, avian, and mammalian bone, which indicates its critical role in interfering with crystal thickening and stabilizing the apatite nanocrystals in bone. PMID:21127269

  4. The role of molecular structure of sugar-phosphate backbone and nucleic acid bases in the formation of single-stranded and double-stranded DNA structures.

    PubMed

    Poltev, Valeri; Anisimov, Victor M; Danilov, Victor I; Garcia, Dolores; Sanchez, Carolina; Deriabina, Alexandra; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Rivas, Francisco; Polteva, Nina

    2014-06-01

    Our previous DFT computations of deoxydinucleoside monophosphate complexes with Na(+)-ions (dDMPs) have demonstrated that the main characteristics of Watson-Crick (WC) right-handed duplex families are predefined in the local energy minima of dDMPs. In this work, we study the mechanisms of contribution of chemically monotonous sugar-phosphate backbone and the bases into the double helix irregularity. Geometry optimization of sugar-phosphate backbone produces energy minima matching the WC DNA conformations. Studying the conformational variability of dDMPs in response to sequence permutation, we found that simple replacement of bases in the previously fully optimized dDMPs, e.g. by constructing Pyr-Pur from Pur-Pyr, and Pur-Pyr from Pyr-Pur sequences, while retaining the backbone geometry, automatically produces the mutual base position characteristic of the target sequence. Based on that, we infer that the directionality and the preferable regions of the sugar-phosphate torsions, combined with the difference of purines from pyrimidines in ring shape, determines the sequence dependence of the structure of WC DNA. No such sequence dependence exists in dDMPs corresponding to other DNA conformations (e.g., Z-family and Hoogsteen duplexes). Unlike other duplexes, WC helix is unique by its ability to match the local energy minima of the free single strand to the preferable conformations of the duplex.

  5. Alverine citrate induced acute hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Arhan, Mehmet; Koklu, Seyfettin; Koksal, Aydln-S; Yolcu, Omer-F; Koruk, Senem; Koruk, Irfan; Kayacetin, Ertugrul

    2004-08-01

    Alverine citrate is a commonly used smooth muscle relaxant agent. A MEDLINE search on January 2004 revealed only 1 report implicating the hepatotoxicity of this agent. A 34-year-old woman was investigated because of the finding of elevated liver function tests on biochemical screening. Other etiologies of hepatitis were appropriately ruled out and elevated enzymes were ascribed to alverine citrate treatment. Although alverine citrate hepatotoxicity was related to an immune mechanism in the first case, several features such as absence of predictable dose-dependent toxicity of alverine citrate in a previous study and absence of hypersensitivity manifestations in our patient are suggestive of a metabolic type of idiosyncratic toxicity. PMID:15259090

  6. Alverine citrate induced acute hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Arhan, Mehmet; Köklü, Seyfettin; Köksal, Aydln S; Yolcu, Ömer F; Koruk, Senem; Koruk, Irfan; Kayacetin, Ertugrul

    2004-01-01

    Alverine citrate is a commonly used smooth muscle relaxant agent. A MEDLINE search on January 2004 revealed only 1 report implicating the hepatotoxicity of this agent. A 34-year-old woman was investigated because of the finding of elevated liver function tests on biochemical screening. Other etiologies of hepatitis were appropriately ruled out and elevated enzymes were ascribed to alverine citrate treatment. Although alverine citrate hepatotoxicity was related to an immune mechanism in the first case, several features such as absence of predictable dose-dependent toxicity of alverine citrate in a previous study and absence of hypersensitivity manifestations in our patient are suggestive of a metabolic type of idiosyncratic toxicity. PMID:15259090

  7. Characterization of citrate utilization in Corynebacterium glutamicum by transcriptome and proteome analysis.

    PubMed

    Polen, Tino; Schluesener, Daniela; Poetsch, Ansgar; Bott, Michael; Wendisch, Volker F

    2007-08-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum grows aerobically on a variety of carbohydrates and organic acids as single or combined sources of carbon and energy. To characterize the citrate utilization in C. glutamicum on a genomewide scale, a comparative analysis was carried out by combining transcriptome and proteome analysis. In cells grown on citrate, transcriptome analysis revealed highest expression changes for two different citrate-uptake systems encoded by citM and tctCBA, whereas genes encoding uptake systems for the glucose- (ptsG), sucrose- (ptsS) and fructose- (ptsF) specific PTS components and permeases for gluconate (gntP) and glutamate (gluC) displayed decreased mRNA levels in citrate-grown cells. This pattern was also observed when cells grown in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium plus citrate were compared with cells grown in LB medium, indicating some kind of catabolite repression. Genes encoding enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (aconitase, succinyl-CoA synthetase, succinate dehydrogenase and fumarase), malic enzyme, PEP carboxykinase, gluconeogenic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and ATP synthase displayed increased expression in cells grown on citrate. Accordingly, proteome analysis revealed elevated protein levels of these enzymes and showed a good correlation with the mRNA levels. In conclusion, this study revealed the citrate stimulon in C. glutamicum and the regulated central metabolic genes when grown on citrate. PMID:17559405

  8. Citrate and Sugar Cofermentation in Leuconostoc oenos, a (sup13)C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, A.; Santos, H.

    1996-01-01

    (sup13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to investigate citrate-glucose cometabolism in nongrowing cell suspensions of the wine lactic acid bacterium Leuconostoc oenos. The use of isotopically enriched substrates allowed us to identify and quantify in the end products the carbon atoms derived from each of the substrates supplied; furthermore, it was possible to differentiate between products derived from the metabolism of endogenous carbon reserves and those derived from external substrates. Citrate-sugar cometabolism was also monitored in dilute cell suspensions for comparison with the nuclear magnetic resonance results. A clear metabolic shift of the end products from glucose metabolism was observed when citrate was provided along with glucose: ethanol was replaced by acetate, and 2,3-butanediol was produced. Reciprocally, the production of lactate and 2,3-butanediol from citrate was increased in the presence of glucose. When citrate was cometabolized with glucose, a 10-fold reduction in the intracellular concentration of glucose-6-phosphate was observed, a result in line with the observed citrate-induced stimulation of glucose consumption. The presence of citrate provided additional pathways for NADP(sup+) regeneration and allowed the diversion of sugar carbon to reactions in which ATP was synthesized. The increased growth rates and maximal biomass yields of L. oenos growing on citrate-glucose mixtures resulted from increased ATP synthesis both by substrate-level phosphorylation and by a chemiosmotic mechanism. PMID:16535363

  9. [Observation for CH4 and N2O emissions under different rates of nitrogen and phosphate fertilization in double rice fields].

    PubMed

    Shi, Sheng-Wei; Li, Yu-E; Wan, Yun-Fan; Qin, Xiao-Bo; Gao, Qing-Zhu

    2011-07-01

    Two non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions (methane and nitrous oxide) and related environmental factors were measured within rice growing season under five treatments including non-fertilization (CK), balanced fertilization (BF), decreased nitrogen and phosphate 1 (DNP1), decreased nitrogen and phosphate 2 (DNP2) and increased nitrogen and phosphate 1 (INP) in double rice fields of red clay soil in 2009, using the method of static chamber-gas chromatograph techniques. The results showed that the average CH4 emission fluxes for treatments of BF, DNP1, DNP2 and INP were 4.57, 5.42, 4.70 and 4.65 mg x (m2 x h)(-1) during early rice growing period, which increased by 39%, 49%, 41% and 40% compared with non-fertilizer treatment, respectively. The average CH4 emission fluxes in late rice growing season was higher than preseason's. Compared to CK, CH4 emission increased by 11%, 1%, 26% and - 4% in treatments of BF, DNP1, DNP2 and INP within late rice growing season. Applying nitrogen and phosphate enhanced CH4 emission in turning green period for early and late rice. No significant difference was observed between the CH4 emissions of five treatments during early and late rice growing season (p > 0.05). N2O emission was very little during mid-seasonal drainage period. In contrast, N2O emission peaks were observed in period of alternation of wetting and drying after mid-seasonal drainage in this experiment. N2O emission was, on average, equivalent to 0.18% of the nitrogen applied in double rice growing season. Statistically, air temperature, soil Eh and soil moisture (water-filled pore space, WFPS) at 0-10cm depth significantly affected the fluctuations of the seasonal CH4 flux, but no significant correlationship has been found between N2O flux and related environmental factors. CH4 was the dominated greenhouse gas in double rice fields which contributed approximately 90% for the integrated global warming potential of CH4 and N2O released during the rice growing season

  10. Probabilistic model-based methodology for the conformational study of cyclic systems: application to copper complexes double-bridged by phosphate and related ligands.

    PubMed

    Kessler, M; Pérez, J; Bueso, M C; García, L; Pérez, E; Serrano, J L; Carrascosa, R

    2007-12-01

    A methodology for the conformational study of cyclic systems through the statistical analysis of torsion angles is presented. It relies on a combination of different methods based on a probabilistic model which takes into account the topological symmetry of the structures. This methodology is applied to copper complexes double-bridged by phosphate and related ligands. Structures from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) are analyzed and the chair, boat-chair and boat conformations are identified as the most frequent conformations. The output of the methodology also provides information about distortions from the ideal conformations, the most frequent being: chair <--> twist-chair, chair <--> twist-boat-chair and boat <--> twist-boat. Molecular mechanics calculations identify these distortions as energetically accessible pathways.

  11. Effect of citrate anticoagulants on factor VIII levels in plasma.

    PubMed

    Rock, G; Tittley, P; Fuller, V

    1988-01-01

    The citrate anticoagulants used during blood collection have been developed for their benefits to red cells. The concentrations in which they are used are strictly regulated in the United States: citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine (CPDA) is used in a 1:8 ratio for the collection of whole blood, whereas 4 percent sodium citrate (NaCit) is used in a 1:10 ratio for manual plasmapheresis. Acid-citrate-dextrose formula A (ACD-A) or formula B (ACD-B) and NaCit are commonly used in a 1:12 or 1:15 ratio during automated plasmapheresis. These anticoagulants have different initial and final pH values and citrate concentrations and different effects on the recovery of factor VIII (FVIII) in the plasma. NaCit has a higher initial pH (6.64) than ACD-A (4.98), ACD-B (5.60), or CPDA (5.12). The effects of these different anticoagulants on plasma constituents obtained from six healthy subjects were studied. In standard citrate concentrations, the FVIII level was significantly lower (p less than 0.05) in the NaCit used for manual plasmapheresis than in either of the ACD solutions used in automated plasmapheresis (104 U/dl vs. 153 and 160 U/dl). When various ratios of NaCit to blood were used, the pH increased from 7.62 at a 1:10 dilution to 7.65 at a 1:50 dilution. As expected, a progressive decrease in anticoagulant level was associated with an increase in ionized calcium and also in the level of FVIII, with the latter values rising from 104 U per dl at 1:10 to 137 at 1:20 and 148 U per dl at 1:30. Clot formation was detected only at a ratio of 1:35.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Safety evaluation of the double mutant 5-enol pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (2mEPSPS) from maize that confers tolerance to glyphosate herbicide in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Rouquié, David; Freyssinet, Martine; Currier, Thomas; Martone, Aris; Zhou, Junguo; Bates, Elizabeth E M; Ferullo, Jean-Marc; Hendrickx, Koen; Rouan, Dominique

    2009-07-01

    Glyphosate tolerance can be conferred by decreasing the herbicide's ability to inhibit the enzyme 5-enol pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase, which is essential for the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids in all plants, fungi, and bacteria. Glyphosate tolerance is based upon the expression of the double mutant 5-enol pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (2mEPSPS) protein. The 2mEPSPS protein, with a lower binding affinity for glyphosate, is highly resistant to the inhibition by glyphosate and thus allows sufficient enzyme activity for the plants to grow in the presence of herbicides that contain glyphosate. Based on both a review of published literature and experimental studies, the potential safety concerns related to the transgenic 2mEPSPS protein were assessed. The safety evaluation supports that the expressed protein is innocuous. The 2mEPSPS enzyme does not possess any of the properties associated with known toxins or allergens, including a lack of amino acid sequence similarity to known toxins and allergens, a rapid degradation in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids, and no adverse effects in mice after intravenous or oral administration (at 10 or 2000 mg/kg body weight, respectively). In conclusion, there is a reasonable certainty of no harm resulting from the inclusion of the 2mEPSPS protein in human food or in animal feed.

  13. Safety evaluation of the double mutant 5-enol pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (2mEPSPS) from maize that confers tolerance to glyphosate herbicide in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Rouquié, David; Freyssinet, Martine; Currier, Thomas; Martone, Aris; Zhou, Junguo; Bates, Elizabeth E M; Ferullo, Jean-Marc; Hendrickx, Koen; Rouan, Dominique

    2009-07-01

    Glyphosate tolerance can be conferred by decreasing the herbicide's ability to inhibit the enzyme 5-enol pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase, which is essential for the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids in all plants, fungi, and bacteria. Glyphosate tolerance is based upon the expression of the double mutant 5-enol pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (2mEPSPS) protein. The 2mEPSPS protein, with a lower binding affinity for glyphosate, is highly resistant to the inhibition by glyphosate and thus allows sufficient enzyme activity for the plants to grow in the presence of herbicides that contain glyphosate. Based on both a review of published literature and experimental studies, the potential safety concerns related to the transgenic 2mEPSPS protein were assessed. The safety evaluation supports that the expressed protein is innocuous. The 2mEPSPS enzyme does not possess any of the properties associated with known toxins or allergens, including a lack of amino acid sequence similarity to known toxins and allergens, a rapid degradation in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids, and no adverse effects in mice after intravenous or oral administration (at 10 or 2000 mg/kg body weight, respectively). In conclusion, there is a reasonable certainty of no harm resulting from the inclusion of the 2mEPSPS protein in human food or in animal feed. PMID:19303906

  14. Safety Assessment of Citric Acid, Inorganic Citrate Salts, and Alkyl Citrate Esters as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Heldreth, Bart A; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-05-26

    The CIR Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of citric acid, 12 inorganic citrate salts, and 20 alkyl citrate esters as used in cosmetics, concluding that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration. Citric acid is reported to function as a pH adjuster, chelating agent, or fragrance ingredient. Some of the salts are also reported to function as chelating agents, and a number of the citrates are reported to function as skin-conditioning agents but other functions are also reported. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data, but because citric acid, calcium citrate, ferric citrate, manganese citrate, potassium citrate, sodium citrate, diammonium citrate, isopropyl citrate, stearyl citrate, and triethyl citrate are generally recognized as safe direct food additives, dermal exposure was the focus for these ingredients in this cosmetic ingredient safety assessment.

  15. Iron-based phosphate binders: do they offer advantages over currently available phosphate binders?

    PubMed Central

    Negri, Armando Luis; Ureña Torres, Pablo Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has been associated with the hyperphosphatemia seen in patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). Oral phosphate binders are prescribed in these patients to prevent intestinal absorption of dietary phosphate and reduce serum phosphate. In prospective observational cohorts they have shown to decrease all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk. Different problems have been associated with currently available phosphate binders as positive calcium balance and impaired outcomes with calcium-based phosphate binders or increased costs with non-calcium-based phosphate binders. Iron-based phosphate binders represent a new class of phosphate binders. Several iron-based phosphate binders have undergone testing in clinical trials. Ferric citrate (JTT-751) and sucroferric oxyhydroxide (PA21) are the two iron-based binders that have passed to the clinical field after being found safe and effective in decreasing serum phosphate. Iron from ferric citrate is partially absorbed compared to sucroferric oxyhydroxide. Ferric citrate usage could result in an important reduction in erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) and IV iron usage, resulting in significant cost savings. Sucroferric oxyhydroxide was effective in lowering serum phosphorus in dialysis patients with similar efficacy to sevelamer carbonate, but with lower pill burden, and better adherence. Ferric citrate may be more suited for the treatment of chronic hyperphosphatemia in CKD patients requiring iron supplements but its use may have been hampered by potential aluminum overload, as citrate facilitates its absorption; sucroferric oxyhydroxide may be more suited for hyperphosphatemic CKD patients not requiring iron supplementation, with low pill burden. PMID:25815172

  16. PHOSPHATE MANAGEMENT: FY2010 RESULTS OF PHOSPHATE PRECIPITATION TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, M.; King, W.

    2011-04-04

    The Phosphate Management program seeks to develop treatment options for caustic phosphate solutions resulting from the caustic leaching of the bismuth phosphate sludge. The SRNL subtask investigated the precipitation of phosphate salts from caustic solutions through addition of fluoride and by crystallization. The scoping tests examined the: precipitation of phosphate by the addition of sodium fluoride to form the sodium fluorophosphate double salt, Na{sub 7}F(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} {center_dot} 19H{sub 2}O, crystallization of phosphate by reducing the temperature of saturated phosphate solutions, and combinations of precipitation and crystallization. A simplified leachate simulant was used in the study produced by dissolving sodium phosphate in 1 M to 3.5 M sodium hydroxide solutions. The results show that all three processes; precipitation with sodium fluoride, crystallization, and combined precipitation/crystallization can be effective for removing large amounts of phosphate from solution. The combined process of precipitation/crystallization showed >90% removal of phosphate at all hydroxide concentrations when cooling a non-saturated phosphate solution from 65 C to 25 C. Based on the measured solubility of sodium phosphate, pH adjustment/caustic addition will also remove large amounts of phosphate from solution (>80%). For all three processes, the phosphate concentration in the caustic solution must be managed to keep the phosphate from becoming too concentrated and thereby potentially forming a solid mass of sodium phosphate after an effective phosphate removal process.

  17. Can citrate efflux from roots improve phosphorus uptake by plants? Testing the hypothesis with near-isogenic lines of wheat.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Peter R; James, Richard A; Weligama, Chandrakumara; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Rattey, Allan; Lewis, David C; Bovill, William D; McDonald, Glenn; Rathjen, Tina M; Wang, Enli; Fettell, Neil A; Richardson, Alan E

    2014-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) deficiency in some plant species triggers the release of organic anions such as citrate and malate from roots. These anions are widely suggested to enhance the availability of phosphate for plant uptake by mobilizing sparingly-soluble forms in the soil. Carazinho is an old wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivar from Brazil, which secretes citrate constitutively from its root apices, and here we show that it also produces relatively more biomass on soils with low P availability than two recent Australian cultivars that lack citrate efflux. To test whether citrate efflux explains this phenotype, we generated two sets of near-isogenic lines that differ in citrate efflux and compared their biomass production in different soil types and with different P treatments in glasshouse experiments and field trials. Citrate efflux improved relative biomass production in two of six glasshouse trials but only at the lowest P treatments where growth was most severely limited by P availability. Furthermore, citrate efflux provided no consistent advantage for biomass production or yield in multiple field trials. Theoretical modeling indicates that the effectiveness of citrate efflux in mobilizing soil P is greater as the volume of soil into which it diffuses increases. As efflux from these wheat plants is restricted to the root apices, the potential for citrate to mobilize sufficient P to increase shoot biomass may be limited. We conclude that Carazinho has other attributes that contribute to its comparatively good performance in low-P soils.

  18. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5449 Manganese citrate. (a) Product. Manganese citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  19. 21 CFR 582.5195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5195 Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5449 Manganese citrate. (a) Product. Manganese citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  1. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5449 Manganese citrate. (a) Product. Manganese citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  2. 21 CFR 582.5195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5195 Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5195 Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5195 Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5449 Manganese citrate. (a) Product. Manganese citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  6. 21 CFR 582.5195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5195 Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5449 Manganese citrate. (a) Product. Manganese citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  8. 21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium citrate. 184.1751 Section 184.1751 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Sodium citrate (C6H5Na3O7·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 68... may be prepared in an anhydrous state or may contain two moles of water per mole of sodium citrate....

  9. 21 CFR 184.1449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sodium citrate to complete the reaction. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for its intended... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese citrate. 184.1449 Section 184.1449 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1449 Manganese citrate. (a) Manganese citrate (Mn3(C6H5O7)2,...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  14. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  15. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  19. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  1. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  4. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 184.1449 Section 184.1449 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1449 Manganese citrate. (a) Manganese citrate (Mn3(C6H5O7)2, CAS... manganese carbonate from manganese sulfate and sodium carbonate solutions. The filtered and...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 184.1449 Section 184.1449 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1449 Manganese citrate. (a) Manganese citrate (Mn3(C6H5O7)2, CAS... manganese carbonate from manganese sulfate and sodium carbonate solutions. The filtered and...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 184.1449 Section 184.1449 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1449 Manganese citrate. (a) Manganese citrate (Mn3(C6H5O7)2, CAS... manganese carbonate from manganese sulfate and sodium carbonate solutions. The filtered and...

  9. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2110 Bismuth citrate. (a) Identity. The color additive... restrictions. The color additive bismuth citrate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp, subject to the following restrictions: (1) The amount of bismuth citrate in the...

  10. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2110 Bismuth citrate. (a) Identity. The color additive... restrictions. The color additive bismuth citrate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp, subject to the following restrictions: (1) The amount of bismuth citrate in the...

  11. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2110 Bismuth citrate. (a) Identity. The color additive... restrictions. The color additive bismuth citrate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp, subject to the following restrictions: (1) The amount of bismuth citrate in the...

  12. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2110 Bismuth citrate. (a) Identity. The color additive... restrictions. The color additive bismuth citrate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp, subject to the following restrictions: (1) The amount of bismuth citrate in the...

  13. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2110 Bismuth citrate. (a) Identity. The color additive... restrictions. The color additive bismuth citrate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp, subject to the following restrictions: (1) The amount of bismuth citrate in the...

  14. 21 CFR 582.6851 - Stearyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stearyl citrate. 582.6851 Section 582.6851 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Stearyl citrate. (a) Product. Stearyl citrate. (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1851 - Stearyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stearyl citrate. 184.1851 Section 184.1851 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1851 Stearyl citrate. (a) Stearyl citrate is a mixture of...

  16. 21 CFR 582.6386 - Isopropyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Isopropyl citrate. 582.6386 Section 582.6386 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Isopropyl citrate. (a) Product. Isopropyl citrate. (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized...

  17. 21 CFR 582.6386 - Isopropyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Isopropyl citrate. 582.6386 Section 582.6386 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Isopropyl citrate. (a) Product. Isopropyl citrate. (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1386 - Isopropyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Isopropyl citrate. 184.1386 Section 184.1386 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1386 Isopropyl citrate. (a) Isopropyl citrate is a mixture...

  19. 21 CFR 582.6511 - Monoisopropyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Monoisopropyl citrate. 582.6511 Section 582.6511 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Monoisopropyl citrate. (a) Product. Monoisopropyl citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1851 - Stearyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Stearyl citrate. 184.1851 Section 184.1851 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1851 Stearyl citrate. (a) Stearyl citrate is a mixture of the mono-,...

  1. 21 CFR 582.6851 - Stearyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stearyl citrate. 582.6851 Section 582.6851 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Stearyl citrate. (a) Product. Stearyl citrate. (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized...

  2. 21 CFR 582.6511 - Monoisopropyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Monoisopropyl citrate. 582.6511 Section 582.6511 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Monoisopropyl citrate. (a) Product. Monoisopropyl citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 184.1195 Section 184.1195 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1195 Calcium citrate. (a) Calcium citrate...

  4. 21 CFR 582.6195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.6195 Section 582.6195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.1195 Section 582.1195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1195 Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.1195 Section 582.1195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1195 Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  7. 21 CFR 582.6195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.6195 Section 582.6195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. 21 CFR 582.6195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.6195 Section 582.6195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.1195 Section 582.1195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1195 Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  10. 21 CFR 582.6195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.6195 Section 582.6195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.1195 Section 582.1195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1195 Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 184.1195 Section 184.1195 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1195 Calcium citrate. (a) Calcium citrate...

  13. 21 CFR 582.6195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.6195 Section 582.6195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.1195 Section 582.1195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1195 Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. Medium-range order in sodium phosphate glasses: a quantitative rotational echo double resonance solid state NMR study.

    PubMed

    Strojek, Wenzel; Eckert, Hellmut

    2006-05-21

    Sodium ultraphosphate glasses (Na(2)O)(x)(P(2)O(5))(1-x) show a strongly non-linear dependence of the glass transition temperatures T(g)(x) on composition. To explore the structural origins of this behaviour, local and medium range ordering processes have been investigated by state-of-the-art (23)Na high-resolution and dipolar NMR spectroscopies. In particular, (31)P(23)Na) and (23)Na((31)P) rotational echo double resonance (REDOR) experiments have been analyzed to yield quantitative constraints for the structural description of these glasses. The sodium ions are found to be randomly distributed and, for x < 0.25, spatially correlated with a single metaphosphate-type Q((2)) unit at a distance of 330 pm. In this region, unusual compositional trends observed for the (23)Na chemical shifts and nuclear electric quadrupolar coupling constants, measured by triple-quantum magic-angle spinning (TQMAS) NMR, suggest a systematic decrease of Na coordination number with x. At higher sodium contents (x > 0.25), the magnitude of the (31)P((23)Na) dipolar interaction increases markedly, indicating a significantly increased extent of Q((2))-Na-Q((2)) crosslinking. Based on these results, a comprehensive description of medium-range order in sodium ultraphosphate glasses is developed, suggesting that the T(g)(x) dependence is closely linked to changes in the relative phosphorus/sodium distance distributions.

  20. [Phosphate metabolism and iron deficiency].

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Keitaro

    2016-02-01

    Autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets(ADHR)is caused by gain-of-function mutations in FGF23 that prevent its proteolytic cleavage. Fibroblast growth factor 23(FGF23)is a hormone that inhibits renal phosphate reabsorption and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D biosynthesis. Low iron status plays a role in the pathophysiology of ADHR. Iron deficiency is an environmental trigger that stimulates FGF23 expression and hypophosphatemia in ADHR. It was reported that FGF23 elevation in patients with CKD, who are often iron deficient. In patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD, treatment with ferric citrate hydrate resulted in significant reductions in serum phosphate and FGF23.

  1. [Influence of PO4(3-) and citrate on REE accumulation and fractionation in wheat].

    PubMed

    Yan, Jun-Cai; Liang, Tao; Zhang, Zi-Li; Ding, Shi-Ming

    2005-09-01

    This paper has studied the influence of phosphate (Pi, one of inorganic ligands) and citrate (Cit, one of organic ligands) on accumulation and fractionation of REEs in wheat based on aqueous culture, added with extraneous mixed REEs (MRE) and ICP-MS analysis technology. The results show that initial phosphate (Pi) solution of different levels followed by exposure to fixed-MRE solution has no significant effects on accumulation of the total concentrations of REEs (sigma REE) in the wheat roots, but it decrease the REE dramatically in the wheat leaves. Simultaneous culture of wheat with mixture of MRE and citrate solution caused obvious decreases of the sigma REE both in wheat roots and leaves. Compared to the control (no Pi or citrate was added), the distribution and fractionation characters of MRE had M-type tetrad effect and MREE enrichment in wheat roots, and W-type tetrad effect and HREE enrichment in wheat leaves. Different levels of Pi had no significant effects on the tetrad effect of MRE, but it notable increased the enrichment of HREE in wheat leaves. Added with citrate of different levels led the fractionation of REE decreasing gradually in wheat roots and leaves, as the concentration of citrate > or = 150 micromol x L(-1), light REE (LREE) enrichment both existed in the roots and leaves.

  2. Citrate-Stabilized Gold Nanorods

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Stable aqueous dispersions of citrate-stabilized gold nanorods (cit-GNRs) have been prepared in scalable fashion by surfactant exchange from cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-stabilized GNRs, using polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) as a detergent. The surfactant exchange process was monitored by infrared spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The latter established the quantitative displacement of CTAB (by PSS) and of PSS (by citrate). The Cit-GNRs are indefinitely stable at low ionic strength, and are conducive to further ligand exchange without loss of dispersion stability. The reliability of the surface exchange process supports the systematic analysis of ligand structure on the hydrodynamic size of GNRs, as described in a companion paper. PMID:25254292

  3. Citrate and renal calculi: an update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, C. Y.

    1994-01-01

    Citrate is an inhibitor of the crystallization of stone-forming calcium salts. Hypocitraturia, frequently encountered in patients with nephrolithiasis, is therefore an important risk factor for stone formation. Potassium citrate provides physiological and physicochemical correction and inhibits new stone formation, not only in hypocitraturic calcium nephrolithiasis but also in uric acid nephrolithiasis. Inhibition of stone recurrence has now been validated by a randomized trial. Ongoing research has disclosed additional causes of hypocitraturia (sodium excess, low intestinal alkali absorption, but not primary citrate malabsorption). Moreover, new insights on potassium citrate action have been shown, notably that some of absorbed citrate escapes oxidation and contributes to the citraturic response, that ingestion with a meal does not sacrifice physiological or physicochemical action, that orange juice mimics but does not completely duplicate its actions, that potassium citrate may have a beneficial bone-sparing effect, that it may reduce stone fragments following ESWL, and that danger of aluminum toxicity is not great in subjects with functioning kidneys. Finally, the research on potassium citrate has led to two promising products, calcium citrate as an optimum calcium supplement and potassium-magnesium citrate which may be superior to potassium citrate in the management of stone disease.

  4. Evolution of a double amino acid substitution in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase in Eleusine indica conferring high-level glyphosate resistance.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qin; Jalaludin, Adam; Han, Heping; Chen, Ming; Sammons, R Douglas; Powles, Stephen B

    2015-04-01

    Glyphosate is the most important and widely used herbicide in world agriculture. Intensive glyphosate selection has resulted in the widespread evolution of glyphosate-resistant weed populations, threatening the sustainability of this valuable once-in-a-century agrochemical. Field-evolved glyphosate resistance due to known resistance mechanisms is generally low to modest. Here, working with a highly glyphosate-resistant Eleusine indica population, we identified a double amino acid substitution (T102I+P106S [TIPS]) in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene in glyphosate-resistant individuals. This TIPS mutation recreates the biotechnology-engineered commercial first generation glyphosate-tolerant EPSPS in corn (Zea mays) and now in other crops. In E. indica, the naturally evolved TIPS mutants are highly (more than 180-fold) resistant to glyphosate compared with the wild type and more resistant (more than 32-fold) than the previously known P106S mutants. The E. indica TIPS EPSPS showed very high-level (2,647-fold) in vitro resistance to glyphosate relative to the wild type and is more resistant (600-fold) than the P106S variant. The evolution of the TIPS mutation in crop fields under glyphosate selection is likely a sequential event, with the P106S mutation being selected first and fixed, followed by the T102I mutation to create the highly resistant TIPS EPSPS. The sequential evolution of the TIPS mutation endowing high-level glyphosate resistance is an important mechanism by which plants adapt to intense herbicide selection and a dramatic example of evolution in action. PMID:25717039

  5. Evolution of a Double Amino Acid Substitution in the 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-Phosphate Synthase in Eleusine indica Conferring High-Level Glyphosate Resistance1

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qin; Jalaludin, Adam; Han, Heping; Chen, Ming; Sammons, R. Douglas; Powles, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Glyphosate is the most important and widely used herbicide in world agriculture. Intensive glyphosate selection has resulted in the widespread evolution of glyphosate-resistant weed populations, threatening the sustainability of this valuable once-in-a-century agrochemical. Field-evolved glyphosate resistance due to known resistance mechanisms is generally low to modest. Here, working with a highly glyphosate-resistant Eleusine indica population, we identified a double amino acid substitution (T102I + P106S [TIPS]) in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene in glyphosate-resistant individuals. This TIPS mutation recreates the biotechnology-engineered commercial first generation glyphosate-tolerant EPSPS in corn (Zea mays) and now in other crops. In E. indica, the naturally evolved TIPS mutants are highly (more than 180-fold) resistant to glyphosate compared with the wild type and more resistant (more than 32-fold) than the previously known P106S mutants. The E. indica TIPS EPSPS showed very high-level (2,647-fold) in vitro resistance to glyphosate relative to the wild type and is more resistant (600-fold) than the P106S variant. The evolution of the TIPS mutation in crop fields under glyphosate selection is likely a sequential event, with the P106S mutation being selected first and fixed, followed by the T102I mutation to create the highly resistant TIPS EPSPS. The sequential evolution of the TIPS mutation endowing high-level glyphosate resistance is an important mechanism by which plants adapt to intense herbicide selection and a dramatic example of evolution in action. PMID:25717039

  6. Evolution of a double amino acid substitution in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase in Eleusine indica conferring high-level glyphosate resistance.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qin; Jalaludin, Adam; Han, Heping; Chen, Ming; Sammons, R Douglas; Powles, Stephen B

    2015-04-01

    Glyphosate is the most important and widely used herbicide in world agriculture. Intensive glyphosate selection has resulted in the widespread evolution of glyphosate-resistant weed populations, threatening the sustainability of this valuable once-in-a-century agrochemical. Field-evolved glyphosate resistance due to known resistance mechanisms is generally low to modest. Here, working with a highly glyphosate-resistant Eleusine indica population, we identified a double amino acid substitution (T102I+P106S [TIPS]) in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene in glyphosate-resistant individuals. This TIPS mutation recreates the biotechnology-engineered commercial first generation glyphosate-tolerant EPSPS in corn (Zea mays) and now in other crops. In E. indica, the naturally evolved TIPS mutants are highly (more than 180-fold) resistant to glyphosate compared with the wild type and more resistant (more than 32-fold) than the previously known P106S mutants. The E. indica TIPS EPSPS showed very high-level (2,647-fold) in vitro resistance to glyphosate relative to the wild type and is more resistant (600-fold) than the P106S variant. The evolution of the TIPS mutation in crop fields under glyphosate selection is likely a sequential event, with the P106S mutation being selected first and fixed, followed by the T102I mutation to create the highly resistant TIPS EPSPS. The sequential evolution of the TIPS mutation endowing high-level glyphosate resistance is an important mechanism by which plants adapt to intense herbicide selection and a dramatic example of evolution in action.

  7. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O,...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O,...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O,...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 184.1449 Section 184.1449 Food... GRAS § 184.1449 Manganese citrate. (a) Manganese citrate (Mn3(C6H5O7)2, CAS Reg. No. 10024-66-5) is a pale orange or pinkish white powder. It is obtained by precipitating manganese carbonate from...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1911 - Triethyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Triethyl citrate. 184.1911 Section 184.1911 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1911 Triethyl citrate. (a) Triethyl citrate (C12H20O7, CAS...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O,...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... hydroxide or sodium carbonate. The product occurs as colorless crystals or a white crystalline powder. It... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 184.1751 Section 184.1751 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Sodium citrate (C6H5Na3O7·2H2O, CAS Reg. No....

  14. Phosphate salts

    MedlinePlus

    ... taken by mouth or used as enemas. Indigestion. Aluminum phosphate and calcium phosphate are FDA-permitted ingredients ... Phosphate salts containing sodium, potassium, aluminum, or calcium are LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth short-term, when sodium phosphate is inserted into the ...

  15. [Development of identification method for isopropyl citrate].

    PubMed

    Furusho, Noriko; Ohtsuki, Takashi; Tatebe-Sasaki, Chiye; Kubota, Hiroki; Sato, Kyoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    In Japan's Specification and Standards for Food Additive, 8th edition, two identification tests involving isopropyl citrate for detecting isopropyl alcohol and citrate are stipulated. However, these identification tests use mercury compound, which is toxic, or require a time-consuming pretreatment process. To solve these problems, an identification test method using GC-FID for detecting isopropyl alcohol was developed. In this test, a good linearity was observed in the range of 0.1-40 mg/mL of isopropyl alcohol. While investigating the pretreatment process, we found that isopropyl alcohol could be detected using GC-FID in the distillation step only, without involving any reflux step. The study also showed that the citrate moiety of isopropyl citrate was identified using the solution remaining after conducting the distillation of isopropyl alcohol. The developed identification tests for isopropyl citrate are simple and use no toxic materials. PMID:25707204

  16. [Development of identification method for isopropyl citrate].

    PubMed

    Furusho, Noriko; Ohtsuki, Takashi; Tatebe-Sasaki, Chiye; Kubota, Hiroki; Sato, Kyoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    In Japan's Specification and Standards for Food Additive, 8th edition, two identification tests involving isopropyl citrate for detecting isopropyl alcohol and citrate are stipulated. However, these identification tests use mercury compound, which is toxic, or require a time-consuming pretreatment process. To solve these problems, an identification test method using GC-FID for detecting isopropyl alcohol was developed. In this test, a good linearity was observed in the range of 0.1-40 mg/mL of isopropyl alcohol. While investigating the pretreatment process, we found that isopropyl alcohol could be detected using GC-FID in the distillation step only, without involving any reflux step. The study also showed that the citrate moiety of isopropyl citrate was identified using the solution remaining after conducting the distillation of isopropyl alcohol. The developed identification tests for isopropyl citrate are simple and use no toxic materials.

  17. Thermosensitive H1 plasmids determining citrate utilization.

    PubMed

    Smith, H W; Parsell, Z; Green, P

    1978-12-01

    Twelve thermosensitive H1 plasmids from strains of Salmonella typhi that had caused outbreaks of chloramphenicol-resistant typhoid fever in Vietnam, Thailand and India mediated citrate utilization (Cit+) in a prototrophic Escherichia coli K12 strain but not in the S. typhi strains from which they were derived. Four H1 plasmids from a similar outbreak in Mexico differed from the Far Eastern plasmids in not mediating citrate utlization but in mediating mercury resistance. H1 plasmids resembling the Far Eastern and the Mexican plasmids in regard to citrate utilization and mercury resistance were found in sewage in Britain. Citrate utilization was transferred to eight pathogenic strains of E. coli and to one strain each of Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei. Cultures of Cit+ bacteria grew more rapidly in citrate media at 28 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. Plasmid mutants that were more efficient at utilizing citrate were present in all such cultures--they grew equally well or better at 37 degrees C than at 28 degrees C. None of 222 strains of E. coli or Shigella that contained a variety of different plasmids were able to utilize citrate. This property was not transferred to the prototrophic E. coli K12 strain from Citrobacter (3 strains), Salmonella (39 strains), Proteus (44 strains), Klebsiella pneumoniae (33 strains) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa (44 strains).

  18. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in... human consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million...

  19. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430 Food... Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in food in... consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million (0.0025...

  20. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560... Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal feed... consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million (0.0025...

  1. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560... Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal feed... consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million (0.0025...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1307c - Ferrous citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the reaction of sodium citrate with ferrous sulfate or by direct action of citric acid on iron filings... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferrous citrate. 184.1307c Section 184.1307c Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307c Ferrous citrate. (a) Ferrous citrate (iron (II)...

  3. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in... human consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million...

  4. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in... human consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 184.1296 Section 184.1296... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1296 Ferric ammonium citrate. (a) Ferric ammonium citrate (iron (III) ammonium citrate) is prepared by the reaction of ferric hydroxide with citric...

  6. Characterization of Al-responsive citrate excretion and citrate-transporting MATEs in Eucalyptus camaldulensis.

    PubMed

    Sawaki, Yoshiharu; Kihara-Doi, Tomonori; Kobayashi, Yuriko; Nishikubo, Nobuyuki; Kawazu, Tetsu; Kobayashi, Yasufumi; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Sato, Shigeru

    2013-04-01

    Many plant species excrete organic acids into the rhizosphere in response to aluminum stress to protect sensitive cells from aluminum rhizotoxicity. When the roots of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, a major source of pulp production, were incubated in aluminum-toxic medium, citrate released into the solution increased as a function of time. Citrate excretion was inducible by aluminum, but not by copper or sodium chloride stresses. This indicated that citrate is the major responsive organic acid released from the roots of this plant species to protect the root tips from aluminum damage. Four genes highly homologs to known citrate-transporting multidrugs and toxic compounds exclusion proteins, named EcMATE1-4, were isolated using polymerase chain reaction-based cloning techniques. Their predicted proteins included 12 membrane spanning domains, a common structural feature of citrate-transporting MATE proteins, and consisted of 502-579 amino acids with >60 % homology to orthologous genes in other plant species. One of the homologs, designated EcMATE1, was expressed in the roots more abundantly than in the shoots and in response to both Al and low pH stresses. Ectopic expression of EcMATE1 and 3 in tobacco hairy roots enhanced Al-responsive citrate excretion. Pharmacological characterization indicated that Al-responsive citrate excretion involved a protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation process. These results indicate that citrate excretion through citrate-transporting multidrugs and toxic compounds exclusion proteins is one of the important aluminum-tolerance mechanisms in Eucalyptus camaldulensis.

  7. Mean platelet volume measurement, EDTA or citrate?

    PubMed

    Dastjerdi, Mansour Siavash; Emami, Tajolmolouk; Najafian, Alireza; Amini, Masoud

    2006-10-01

    Most laboratories use EDTA for anticoagulation of whole blood prior to automated cell counting but due to platelet swelling, mean platelet volume (MPV) values may increase with its use. MPV changes may be less with acid citrate based anticoagulation. As MPV is a marker of platelet function and its precise measurement is important in a number of clinical situations, this study was performed to assess if EDTA and citrate based anticoagulated blood samples can be used interchangeably for MPV measurement. In this cross sectional descriptive study, EDTA and citrate based anticoagulated blood samples of the same patients were assessed by auto-analyzer within 1 h of sampling. In the 61 evaluated patients, there was a close correlation between MPV as measured by EDTA and citrate, but mean MPV measured from EDTA samples was 0.66 fL (9%) more than citrate. There was also a significant negative correlation between platelets count and MPV by both methods. The results of our study reveal that MPV can be measured accurately by both methods of anticoagulation; EDTA and citrate if analysis be performed within 1 h of sampling. PMID:17607580

  8. Insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of ATP-citrate lyase in isolated hepatocytes. Stoichiometry and relation to the phosphoenzyme intermediate.

    PubMed

    Alexander, M C; Palmer, J L; Pointer, R H; Kowaloff, E M; Koumjian, L L; Avruch, J

    1982-02-25

    We have estimated the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of ATP-citrate lyase by two methods. Isolated hepatocytes incorporate extracellular 32P into [gamma-35P] ATP and immunoprecipitated ATP-citrate lyase to steady state levels by 1 h. The content of acid-stable 32P in hepatocyte ATP-citrate lyase at steady state is 0.33 +/- 0.038 mol of P/mol (tetrameric) holoenzyme. Insulin (1 milliunit/ml) increases the 32P content of immunoprecipitated lyase 2- to 3-fold in 10 min. Over 90% of acid-stable 32P on lyase is 32P-serine in enzyme isolated from both control and insulin-treated cells. ATP-citrate lyase isolated from hepatocytes contains 0.95 +/- 0.1 mol of alkali-labile phosphate/mol of holoenzyme. Insulin treatment of hepatocytes (1 milliunit/ml for 10 min) increases the alkali-labile P content by 45%. Evidence is presented which indicates that the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation does not arise by intramolecular migration from the catalytic phosphoenzyme intermediate. These observations support the conclusion that insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of ATP-citrate lyase is mediated either by an insulin-induced increase in the activity of lyase kinase and/or decrease in a lyase phosphatase. The functional role of the substoichiometric phosphorylation of ATP-citrate lyase remains unknown.

  9. Managing hyperphosphatemia in patients with chronic kidney disease on dialysis with ferric citrate: latest evidence and clinical usefulness

    PubMed Central

    Fadem, Stephen Z.; Kant, Kotagal S.; Bhatt, Udayan; Sika, Mohammed; Lewis, Julia B.; Negoi, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Ferric citrate is a novel phosphate binder that allows the simultaneous treatment of hyperphosphatemia and iron deficiency in patients being treated for end-stage renal disease with hemodialysis (HD). Multiple clinical trials in HD patients have uniformly and consistently demonstrated the efficacy of the drug in controlling hyperphosphatemia with a good safety profile, leading the US Food and Drug Administration in 2014 to approve its use for that indication. A concurrent beneficial effect, while using ferric citrate as a phosphate binder, is its salutary effect in HD patients with iron deficiency being treated with an erythropoietin-stimulating agent (ESA) in restoring iron that becomes available for reversing chronic kidney disease (CKD)-related anemia. Ferric citrate has also been shown in several studies to diminish the need for intravenous iron treatment and to reduce the requirement for ESA. Ferric citrate is thus a preferred phosphate binder that helps resolve CKD-related mineral bone disease and iron-deficiency anemia. PMID:26336594

  10. Managing hyperphosphatemia in patients with chronic kidney disease on dialysis with ferric citrate: latest evidence and clinical usefulness.

    PubMed

    Yagil, Yoram; Fadem, Stephen Z; Kant, Kotagal S; Bhatt, Udayan; Sika, Mohammed; Lewis, Julia B; Negoi, Dana

    2015-09-01

    Ferric citrate is a novel phosphate binder that allows the simultaneous treatment of hyperphosphatemia and iron deficiency in patients being treated for end-stage renal disease with hemodialysis (HD). Multiple clinical trials in HD patients have uniformly and consistently demonstrated the efficacy of the drug in controlling hyperphosphatemia with a good safety profile, leading the US Food and Drug Administration in 2014 to approve its use for that indication. A concurrent beneficial effect, while using ferric citrate as a phosphate binder, is its salutary effect in HD patients with iron deficiency being treated with an erythropoietin-stimulating agent (ESA) in restoring iron that becomes available for reversing chronic kidney disease (CKD)-related anemia. Ferric citrate has also been shown in several studies to diminish the need for intravenous iron treatment and to reduce the requirement for ESA. Ferric citrate is thus a preferred phosphate binder that helps resolve CKD-related mineral bone disease and iron-deficiency anemia. PMID:26336594

  11. [Phosphate binders].

    PubMed

    Heeb, Rita M

    2016-06-01

    Phosphate binders to treat hyperphosphataemia are part of the medication regime of every dialysis patient. Phosphate binders are taken with every meal (three times a day). Generally, the medication adherence rates of phosphate binders are very low. This is due to inconveniences like their bad taste or their size which makes them hard to swallow. Also nephrologists have differing opinions on phosphate binders as they are aware of the dialysis patients' difficulties to deal with the amount of drugs they are prescribed. Still, phosphate binders are important drugs which have shown potential in reducing mortality by regulating the level of serum phosphate. In order to improve adherence rates, pharmacists have to advise the patients on these drugs' side effects versus the risks associated with omitting their intake. PMID:27439258

  12. Phosphate inhibits in vitro Fe3+ loading into transferrin by forming a soluble Fe(III)-phosphate complex: a potential non-transferrin bound iron species.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Robert J; Seare, Matthew C; Andros, N David; Kenealey, Zachary; Orozco, Catalina Matias; Webb, Michael; Watt, Richard K

    2012-05-01

    In chronic kidney diseases, NTBI can occur even when total iron levels in serum are low and transferrin is not saturated. We postulated that elevated serum phosphate concentrations, present in CKD patients, might disrupt Fe(3+) loading into apo-transferrin by forming Fe(III)-phosphate species. We report that phosphate competes with apo-transferrin for Fe(3+) by forming a soluble Fe(III)-phosphate complex. Once formed, the Fe(III)-phosphate complex is not a substrate for donating Fe(3+) to apo-transferrin. Phosphate (1-10mM) does not chelate Fe(III) from diferric transferrin under the conditions examined. Complexed forms of Fe(3+), such as iron nitrilotriacetic acid (Fe(3+)-NTA), and Fe(III)-citrate are not susceptible to this phosphate complexation reaction and efficiently deliver Fe(3+) to apo-transferrin in the presence of phosphate. This reaction suggests that citrate might play an important role in protecting against Fe(III), phosphate interactions in vivo. In contrast to the reactions of Fe(3+) and phosphate, the addition of Fe(2+) to a solution of apo-transferrin and phosphate lead to rapid oxidation and deposition of Fe(3+) into apo-transferrin. These in vitro data suggest that, in principle, elevated phosphate concentrations can influence the ability of apo-transferrin to bind iron, depending on the oxidation state of the iron.

  13. Vibrational study of tamoxifen citrate polymorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamberini, M. C.; Baraldi, C.; Tinti, A.; Palazzoli, F.; Ferioli, V.

    2007-09-01

    The trans isomer of ( Z)-2-[ p-(1,2-diphenyl-butenyl)phenoxy]- N, N-dimethyletylamine (tamoxifen) is well known for its endocrine activity as an antiestrogenic agent. Its citrate salt, a widely used pharmaceutical agent, appears in three main polymorphic forms, two of which are well known (I and II) and another form not yet well evidenced. A vibrational study has been conducted for identifying the two known polymorphic forms of tamoxifen citrate (I and II) and for characterising the other form (form III) examined in this study. Other techniques for the characterization of the different polymorphs, such as XRDP, have been used.

  14. Characterization of Al-responsive citrate excretion and citrate-transporting MATEs in Eucalyptus camaldulensis.

    PubMed

    Sawaki, Yoshiharu; Kihara-Doi, Tomonori; Kobayashi, Yuriko; Nishikubo, Nobuyuki; Kawazu, Tetsu; Kobayashi, Yasufumi; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Sato, Shigeru

    2013-04-01

    Many plant species excrete organic acids into the rhizosphere in response to aluminum stress to protect sensitive cells from aluminum rhizotoxicity. When the roots of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, a major source of pulp production, were incubated in aluminum-toxic medium, citrate released into the solution increased as a function of time. Citrate excretion was inducible by aluminum, but not by copper or sodium chloride stresses. This indicated that citrate is the major responsive organic acid released from the roots of this plant species to protect the root tips from aluminum damage. Four genes highly homologs to known citrate-transporting multidrugs and toxic compounds exclusion proteins, named EcMATE1-4, were isolated using polymerase chain reaction-based cloning techniques. Their predicted proteins included 12 membrane spanning domains, a common structural feature of citrate-transporting MATE proteins, and consisted of 502-579 amino acids with >60 % homology to orthologous genes in other plant species. One of the homologs, designated EcMATE1, was expressed in the roots more abundantly than in the shoots and in response to both Al and low pH stresses. Ectopic expression of EcMATE1 and 3 in tobacco hairy roots enhanced Al-responsive citrate excretion. Pharmacological characterization indicated that Al-responsive citrate excretion involved a protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation process. These results indicate that citrate excretion through citrate-transporting multidrugs and toxic compounds exclusion proteins is one of the important aluminum-tolerance mechanisms in Eucalyptus camaldulensis. PMID:23187679

  15. Organically modified porous hydroxyapatites: A comparison between alkylphosphonate grafting and citrate chelation

    SciTech Connect

    El-Hammari, L.; Marroun, H.; Laghzizil, A.; Saoiabi, A.; Roux, C.; Livage, J.; Coradin, T.

    2008-04-15

    Two alternative methods to prepare organically modified porous hydroxyapatites following a 'one pot' approach were compared. The partial substitution of inorganic phosphates by alkylphosphonates leads to mesoporous materials with high specific surface area (>200 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}). The incorporation of the organic moieties within the hydroxyapatite structure is confirmed by Infra-red and solid-state NMR spectroscopy and depends on the nature of the alkyl chain. However, it induces a significant loss of the material crystallinity. In contrast, the introduction of citrate, a calcium-chelating agent, to the precursor solution does not improve the material specific surface area but allows a better control of the hydroxyapatite structure, both in terms of crystallinity and pore size distribution. - Graphical abstract: Evolution of pore size distribution of hydroxyapatite (HAp) after alkylphosphonate grafting (20% TPOH) or citrate addition (c-HAp) demonstrates the formation of organically modified mesoporous materials.

  16. Evidence that Osteoblasts are Specialized Citrate-producing Cells that Provide the Citrate for Incorporation into the Structure of Bone

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Renty B.; Chellaiah, Meena; Zou, Jing; Reynolds, Mark A.; Costello, Leslie C.

    2015-01-01

    Citrate is a major component of bone in all vertebrates, but its implications in bone have remained largely unknown. Recent studies identified that citrate is incorporated into the structure of the hydroxyapatite nanocrystal/collagen complex; and is essential for the important biomechanical properties of bone. This raises the important question, “What is the source of citrate for incorporation into bone?”; A question that heretofore had remained unresolved. Studies in this report were designed to determine the plausibility of our concept that the osteoblasts are specialized citrate-producing cells, which provide the citrate that is incorporated into the structure of bone; and that osteogenic differentiation of mesenchyme cells leads to the development of the citrate-producing osteoblasts. The results demonstrated that primary human osteoblasts exhibit the capability of citrate-production. Undifferentiated mesenchyme cells do not exhibit the capability of citrate production; and osteogenic differentiation results in citrate-producing osteoblasts. The up-regulation of zinc uptake transporter ZIP1 is essential for the manifestation of the citrate-producing capability of the osteoblasts. We determined that osteoblast transport of citrate from plasma is not a likely source of citrate in bone. Thus, this study establishes for the first time that the osteoblasts are specialized citrate-producing cells that provide the citrate for incorporation into the structure of bone; and that mesenchyme cell osteogenesis leads to differentiated citrate-producing osteoblasts. This is a new understanding; which must include the osteogenic development of citrate-producing osteoblasts, and the process of “citration” in concert with mineralization during bone formation. It also provides a new understanding of the role of bone in the homeostatic maintenance of plasma citrate concentration. PMID:25745519

  17. Acute and 3-month effects of microcrystalline hydroxyapatite, calcium citrate and calcium carbonate on serum calcium and markers of bone turnover: a randomised controlled trial in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bristow, Sarah M; Gamble, Greg D; Stewart, Angela; Horne, Lauren; House, Meaghan E; Aati, Opetaia; Mihov, Borislav; Horne, Anne M; Reid, Ian R

    2014-11-28

    Ca supplements are used for bone health; however, they have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk, which may relate to their acute effects on serum Ca concentrations. Microcrystalline hydroxyapatite (MCH) could affect serum Ca concentrations less than conventional Ca supplements, but its effects on bone turnover are unclear. In the present study, we compared the acute and 3-month effects of MCH with conventional Ca supplements on concentrations of serum Ca, phosphate, parathyroid hormone and bone turnover markers. We randomised 100 women (mean age 71 years) to 1 g/d of Ca as citrate or carbonate (citrate-carbonate), one of two MCH preparations, or a placebo. Blood was sampled for 8 h after the first dose, and after 3 months of daily supplementation. To determine whether the acute effects changed over time, eight participants assigned to the citrate dose repeated 8 h of blood sampling at 3 months. There were no differences between the citrate and carbonate groups, or between the two MCH groups, so their results were pooled. The citrate-carbonate dose increased ionised and total Ca concentrations for up to 8 h, and this was not diminished after 3 months. MCH increased ionised Ca concentrations less than the citrate-carbonate dose; however, it raised the concentrations of phosphate and the Ca-phosphate product. The citrate-carbonate and MCH doses produced comparable decreases in bone resorption (measured as serum C-telopeptide (CTX)) over 8 h and bone turnover (CTX and procollagen type-I N-terminal propeptide) at 3 months. These findings suggest that Ca preparations, in general, produce repeated sustained increases in serum Ca concentrations after ingestion of each dose and that Ca supplements with smaller effects on serum Ca concentrations may have equivalent efficacy in suppressing bone turnover.

  18. Physicochemical action of potassium-magnesium citrate in nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, C. Y.; Koenig, K.; Khan, R.; Haynes, S.; Padalino, P.

    1992-01-01

    Effect of potassium-magnesium citrate on urinary biochemistry and crystallization of stone-forming salts was compared with that of potassium citrate at same dose of potassium in five normal subjects and five patients with calcium nephrolithiasis. Compared to the placebo phase, urinary pH rose significantly from 6.06 +/- 0.27 to 6.48 +/- 0.36 (mean +/- SD, p less than 0.0167) during treatment with potassium citrate (50 mEq/day for 7 days) and to 6.68 +/- 0.31 during therapy with potassium-magnesium citrate (containing 49 mEq K, 24.5 mEq Mg, and 73.5 mEq citrate per day). Urinary pH was significantly higher during potassium-magnesium citrate than during potassium citrate therapy. Thus, the amount of undissociated uric acid declined from 118 +/- 61 mg/day during the placebo phase to 68 +/- 54 mg/day during potassium citrate treatment and, more prominently, to 41 +/- 46 mg/day during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy. Urinary magnesium rose significantly from 102 +/- 25 to 146 +/- 37 mg/day during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy but not during potassium citrate therapy. Urinary citrate rose more prominently during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy (to 1027 +/- 478 mg/day from 638 +/- 252 mg/day) than during potassium citrate treatment (to 932 +/- 297 mg/day). Consequently, urinary saturation (activity product) of calcium oxalate declined significantly (from 1.49 x 10(-8) to 1.03 x 10(-8) M2) during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy and marginally (to 1.14 x 10(-8) M2) during potassium citrate therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  19. Citrate as a siderophore in Bradyrhizobium japonicum.

    PubMed Central

    Guerinot, M L; Meidl, E J; Plessner, O

    1990-01-01

    Under iron-limiting conditions, many bacteria secrete ferric iron-specific ligands, generically termed siderophores, to aid in the sequestering and transport of iron. One strain of the nitrogen-fixing soybean symbiont Bradyrhizobium japonicum, 61A152, was shown to produce a siderophore when 20 B. japonicum strains were screened with all six chemical assays commonly used to detect such production. Production by strain 61A152 was detected via the chrome azurol S assay, a general test for siderophores which is independent of siderophore structure. The iron-chelating compound was neither a catechol nor a hydroxamate and was ninhydrin negative. It was determined to be citric acid via a combination of thin-layer chromatography and high-voltage paper electrophoresis; this identification was verified by a specific enzymatic assay for citric acid. The inverse correlation which was observed between citric acid release and the iron content of the medium suggested that ferric citrate could serve as an iron source. This was confirmed via growth and transport assays. Exogenously added ferric citrate could be used to overcome iron starvation, and iron-deficient cells actively transported radiolabeled ferric citrate. These results, taken together, indicate a role for ferric citrate in the iron nutrition of this strain, which has been shown to be an efficient nitrogen-fixing strain on a variety of soybean cultivars. PMID:2140566

  20. 14 N NQR spectrum of sildenafil citrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, David; Singh, Nadia

    2015-04-01

    The 14N nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectrum of sildenafil citrate tablets has been recorded allowing the quadrupole coupling constants and asymmetry parameters of all six unique nitrogen atoms in its structure to be determined. A density function calculation gives results that are largely in agreement with the experimental values.

  1. 21 CFR 184.1298 - Ferric citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferric citrate. 184.1298 Section 184.1298 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD... prepared from reaction of citric acid with ferric hydroxide. It is a compound of indefinite ratio of...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1298 - Ferric citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferric citrate. 184.1298 Section 184.1298 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1298 - Ferric citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferric citrate. 184.1298 Section 184.1298 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1298 - Ferric citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferric citrate. 184.1298 Section 184.1298 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1386 - Isopropyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used in food with no limitation other than current good manufacturing practice. The affirmation of this ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Isopropyl citrate. 184.1386 Section 184.1386...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1386 - Isopropyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used in food with no limitation other than current good manufacturing practice. The affirmation of this ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Isopropyl citrate. 184.1386 Section 184.1386...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1386 - Isopropyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used in food with no limitation other than current good manufacturing practice. The affirmation of this ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Isopropyl citrate. 184.1386 Section 184.1386...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1851 - Stearyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... with § 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used in food with no limitation other than current good... human food ingredient is based upon the following current good manufacturing practice conditions of use... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stearyl citrate. 184.1851 Section 184.1851...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1851 - Stearyl citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... with § 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used in food with no limitation other than current good... human food ingredient is based upon the following current good manufacturing practice conditions of use... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stearyl citrate. 184.1851 Section 184.1851...

  10. 21 CFR 522.800 - Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection. 522.800... § 522.800 Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection. (a) Specifications. Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection is a sterile solution containing 20 milligrams of droperidol and 0.4 milligram of fentanyl...

  11. 21 CFR 522.800 - Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection. 522.800... § 522.800 Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection. (a) Specifications. Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection is a sterile solution containing 20 milligrams of droperidol and 0.4 milligram of fentanyl...

  12. 21 CFR 573.580 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 573.580 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.580 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by... used as a source of iron in animal feed....

  13. 21 CFR 573.580 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 573.580 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.580 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by... used as a source of iron in animal feed....

  14. 21 CFR 520.2380d - Thiabendazole, piperazine citrate suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Thiabendazole, piperazine citrate suspension. 520....2380d Thiabendazole, piperazine citrate suspension. (a) Specifications. Each fluid ounce of suspension contains 2 grams of thiabendazole and 2.5 grams of piperazine (from piperazine citrate). (b) Sponsor....

  15. 21 CFR 520.2380d - Thiabendazole, piperazine citrate suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Thiabendazole, piperazine citrate suspension. 520....2380d Thiabendazole, piperazine citrate suspension. (a) Specifications. Each fluid ounce of suspension contains 2 grams of thiabendazole and 2.5 grams of piperazine (from piperazine citrate). (b) Sponsor....

  16. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  17. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 172.370 Section 172... Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by reacting... source of iron in foods for special dietary use....

  18. 21 CFR 573.580 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.580 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 573.580 Section...

  19. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal feed... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section...

  20. 21 CFR 573.580 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.580 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 573.580 Section...

  1. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal feed... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section...

  2. 21 CFR 573.580 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.580 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 573.580 Section...

  3. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal feed... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section...

  4. Effect of sodium citrate on structure-function relationships of Cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Pastorino, J; Hansen, C L; McMahon, D J

    2003-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of sodium citrate on the structure and functionality of Cheddar cheese. The hypothesis was that citrate (sodium citrate) injection would affect cheese properties mainly through its effect on bound calcium (calculated as the difference between total calcium and the water-soluble calcium content of a cheese extract). A 9-kg block of Cheddar cheese was made, vacuum-packaged, and then stored for 2 wk at 4 degrees C. After storage, the cheese was cut into 0.5- to 0.6-kg blocks that were vacuum-packaged and stored for 1 wk at 4 degrees C prior to injection. Cheese blocks were then high-pressure injected with a buffer solution (pH 5.27) containing 40% (wt/ wt) citric acid trisodium dihydrate and 6.25% (wt/wt) anhydrous citric acid, from zero (control) to five times (successive injections performed 24 h apart). Increased citric acid content of cheese from 0.22 (uninjected) to 1.39% (after five injections) caused phosphate solubilization. Thus, the calculated bound phosphate content of cheese decreased from 0.54 to 0.45 mmol/g of protein. However, unexpectedly, the soluble calcium content decreased from 0.34 (control) to 0.28 mmol/g of protein (after five injections), whereas the bound calcium content remained unchanged (0.42 mmol/g of protein). The decrease in soluble calcium probably resulted from the formation and concentration of crystals in the cheese surface, which was not included in samples for analysis, and from the expulsion of serum from within the cheese. Higher concentration of solutes in the water phase of cheese would increase the volume of serum, but the cheese had limited holding capacity and serum was expelled. Citrate injection increased the sodium content of cheese from 0.63 to 0.93%, but it had no effect on cheese pH (5.2). After five injections, the protein matrix expanded, occupying an increased area of cheese matrix (83 vs. 78%). Even though citrate injection had no effect on bound calcium, and

  5. Red cell and platelet concentrates from blood collected into half-strength citrate anticoagulant: improved maintenance of red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in half-citrate red cells.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, A; Douglas, S; James, J; Whyte, G

    1992-01-01

    This study confirms previous work suggesting equivalent in vitro properties in blood components prepared from donations collected into half-citrate preservative (HCPD) compared to components derived from donations collected into standard citrate-phosphate-dextrose (CPD) preservatives. In addition, red cell products harvested from HCPD donations showed significantly improved maintenance of pH over storage, and this was reflected in improved maintenance of intracellular 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG). This effect was observed in whole blood and in red cells suspended in a phosphate-containing additive solution (Tuta AAS). Collection into HCPD also improved 2,3-DPG maintenance in red cell concentrates processed following an 18-hour hold at 22 degrees C. These improvements were less pronounced in red cells suspended in a non-phosphate-containing medium (Fenwal Adsol) in which a higher pH was maintained even in units collected in CPD. Platelets harvested from HCPD blood and suspended in plasma showed equivalent quality to platelets from standard donations. Some deterioration of platelet properties was observed when HCPD platelets were stored in a non-citrate synthetic medium. Together with data indicating improved coagulation factor stability, these results suggest that collection into HCPD improves stored blood quality and may also allow logistical benefits in blood component preparation.

  6. Interactive effects of redox intensity and phosphate availability on growth and nutrient relations of Cladium jamaicense (Cyperaceae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lissner, J.; Mendelssohn, I.A.; Lorenzen, B.; Brix, H.; McKee, K.L.; Miao, S.L.

    2003-01-01

    Expansion of Typha domingensis into areas previously dominated by Cladium jamaicense in the Florida Everglades has been linked to anthropogenic phosphorus (P) enrichment and increased hydroperiod. The principal stress factor for plants in flooded soils is biochemical reduction, the intensity of which is measured as redox potential (Eh). The objective of this study was to assess the growth response of C. jamaicense to Eh (-150, +150, and +600 mV) and P availability (10, 80, and 500 ??g P/L). Plants were grown hydroponically in a factorial experiment using titanium (Ti3+) citrate as an Eh buffer. Treatment effects on growth, biomass partitioning, and tissue nutrients were recorded. Growth approximately doubled in response to a 50-fold increase in P availability. Low redox significantly reduced growth and tissue P concentration. While plant P concentrations increased 20-fold between the 10 and 500 ??g P/L treatments, P concentrations were 50-100% higher at +600 mV than at -150 mV within each phosphate level. At high Eh, C. jamaicense appears well adapted to low nutrient environments because of its low P requirement and high retention of acquired E However, at low Eh the ability to acquire or conserve acquired P decreases and as a consequence, higher phosphate levels are required to sustain growth. Findings of this study indicate that young C. jamaicense exhibits low tolerance to strongly reducing conditions when phosphate is scarce.

  7. Clomiphene citrate therapy for male infertility.

    PubMed

    Allag, I S; Alexander, N J

    1979-11-01

    We have summarized 697 reported cases of the use of clomiphene citrate for the improvement of semen quality. Basal levels of gonadotropins are useful criteria for the differential diagnosis of hypo- and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Patients with an intact hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis are most likely to respond to clomiphene citrate. Twenty-five mg. per day, administered in a cyclic fashion for a period of six to nine months, caused the greatest improvement. A higher dose (50 mg. per day) may be effective in men who do not respond to 25 mg. During the course of therapy gonadotropin levels and semen samples should be analyzed periodically. This drug is not currently approved for use in men; the incidence of side effects, particularly with long-term treatment, is unknown.

  8. Assembly of citrate gold nanoparticles on hydrophilic monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikholm-Lundin, Inger; Rosqvist, Emil; Ihalainen, Petri; Munter, Tony; Honkimaa, Anni; Marjomäki, Varpu; Albers, Willem M.; Peltonen, Jouko

    2016-08-01

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) as model surfaces were linked onto planar gold films thorough lipoic acid or disulfide groups. The molecules used were polyethylene glycol (EG-S-S), N-[tris-(hydroxymethyl)methyl]acrylamide polymers with and without lipoic acid (Lipa-pTHMMAA and pTHMMAA) and a lipoic acid triazine derivative (Lipa-MF). All the layers, but Lipa-MF with a primary amino group were hydroxyl terminated. The layers were characterized by contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy, AFM. Citrate stabilized nanoparticles, AuNPs in water and phosphate buffer were allowed to assemble on the layers for 10 min and the binding was followed in real-time with surface plasmon resonance, SPR. The SPR resonance curves were observed to shift to higher angles and become increasingly damped, while also the peaks strongly broaden when large nanoparticles assembled on the surface. Both the angular shift and the damping of the curve was largest for nanoparticles assembling on the EG-S-S monolayer. High amounts of particles were also assembled on the pTHMMAA layer without the lipoic acid group, but the damping of the curve was considerably lower with a more even distribution of the particles. Topographical images confirmed that the highest number of particles were assembled on the polyethylene glycol monolayer. By increasing the interaction time more particles could be assembled on the surface.

  9. Nanoscale observations of the effect of citrate on calcium oxalate precipitation on calcite surfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgos-Cara, Alejandro; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion; Putnis, Christine V.

    2016-04-01

    Calcium oxalate (CaC2O4ṡxH2O) minerals are naturally occurring minerals found in fossils, plants, kidney stones and is a by-product in some processes such as paper, food and beverage production [1,2]. In particular, calcium oxalate monohydrate phase (COM) also known as whewellite (CaC2O4ṡH2O), is the most frequently reported mineral phase found in urinary and kidney stones together with phosphates. Organic additives are well known to play a key role in the formation of minerals in both biotic and abiotic systems, either facilitating their precipitation or hindering it. In this regard, recent studies have provided direct evidence demonstrating that citrate species could enhance dissolution of COM and inhibit their precipitation. [3,4] The present work aims at evauate the influence of pH, citrate and oxalic acid concentrations in calcium oxalate precipitation on calcite surfaces (Island Spar, Chihuahua, Mexico) through in-situ nanoscale observation using in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM, Multimode, Bruker) in flow-through experiments. Changes in calcium oxalate morphologies and precipitated phases were observed, as well as the inhibitory effect of citrate on calcium oxalate precipitation, which also lead to stabilization an the amorphous calcium oxalate phase. [1] K.D. Demadis, M. Öner, Inhibitory effects of "green"additives on the crystal growth of sparingly soluble salts, in: J.T. Pearlman (Ed.), Green Chemistry Research Trends, Nova Science Publishers Inc., New York, 2009, pp. 265-287. [2] M. Masár, M. Zuborová, D. Kaniansky, B. Stanislawski, Determination of oxalate in beer by zone electrophoresis on a chip with conductivity detection, J. Sep. Sci. 26 (2003) 647-652. [3] Chutipongtanate S, Chaiyarit S, Thongboonkerd V. Citrate, not phosphate, can dissolve calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals and detach these crystals from renal tubular cells. Eur J Pharmacol 2012;689:219-25. [4] Weaver ML, Qiu SR, Hoyer JR, Casey WH, Nancollas GH, De Yoreo JJ

  10. Dietary citrate treatment of polycystic kidney disease in rats.

    PubMed

    Tanner, George A; Tanner, Judith A

    2003-01-01

    Progression of autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in the heterozygous male Han:SPRD rat is dramatically slowed by ingestion of potassium or sodium citrate. This study examined the efficacy of delayed therapy with sodium citrate, the effect of sodium citrate therapy on kidney cortex levels of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), and the response to calcium citrate ingestion. Rats were provided with citrate salts in their food, and renal clearance, blood pressure, blood chemistry, and survival determinations were made. Sodium citrate therapy was most effective when started at age 1 month, and delay of therapy until age 3 months produced no benefit. Kidney cortex TGF-beta levels were elevated in 3- and 8-month-old rats with ADPKD, but not in 6-week-old rats. Sodium citrate treatment, started at age 1 month, lowered TGF-beta levels to normal in 3-month-old rats, but this is probably not the primary mechanism of citrate's beneficial effect. Calcium citrate had only a modest effect in preserving glomerular filtration rate. Effective treatment of ADPKD in this rat model requires early administration of a readily absorbed alkalinizing citrate salt. Existing data on ADPKD patients on vegetarian diets or with kidney stones should be studied in light of these findings.

  11. A Phase 1B, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, multiple-dose escalation study of NSI-189 phosphate, a neurogenic compound, in depressed patients

    PubMed Central

    Fava, M; Johe, K; Ereshefsky, L; Gertsik, L G; English, B A; Bilello, J A; Thurmond, L M; Johnstone, J; Dickerson, B C; Makris, N; Hoeppner, B B; Flynn, M; Mischoulon, D; Kinrys, G; Freeman, M P

    2016-01-01

    We wanted to examine tolerability and efficacy of NSI-189, a benzylpiperizine-aminiopyridine neurogenic compound for treating major depressive disorder (MDD). This was a Phase 1B, double blind, randomized, placebo controlled, multiple-dose study with three cohorts. The first cohort received 40 mg q.d. (n=6) or placebo (n=2), the second cohort 40 mg b.i.d. (n=6) or placebo (n=2), and the third cohort 40 mg t.i.d. (n=6) or placebo (n=2). Twenty-four patients with MDD were recruited, with the diagnosis and severity confirmed through remote interviews. Eligible patients received NSI-189 or placebo for 28 days in an inpatient setting with assessments for safety, pharmacokinetics (PK) and efficacy. Outpatient follow-up visits were conducted until day 84 (±3). NSI-189 was relatively well tolerated at all doses, with no serious adverse effects. NSI-189 area under the curve increased in a dose-related and nearly proportional manner across the three cohorts, with a half-life of 17.4–20.5 h. The exploratory efficacy measurements, including Symptoms Of Depression Questionnaire (SDQ), Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale (MADRS), Clinical Global Impressions—Improvement (CGI-I), and The Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Cognitive and Physical Functioning Questionnaire (CPFQ) showed a promising reduction in depressive and cognitive symptoms across all measures for NSI-189, with significant improvement in the SDQ and CPFQ, and a medium to large effect size for all measures. These improvements persisted during the follow-up phase. In summary, NSI-189 shows potential as a treatment for MDD in an early phase study. The main limitation of this preliminary study was the small sample size of each cohort. PMID:26643541

  12. SbnG, a Citrate Synthase in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Kobylarz, Marek J.; Grigg, Jason C.; Sheldon, Jessica R.; Heinrichs, David E.; Murphy, Michael E. P.

    2014-01-01

    In response to iron deprivation, Staphylococcus aureus produces staphyloferrin B, a citrate-containing siderophore that delivers iron back to the cell. This bacterium also possesses a second citrate synthase, SbnG, that is necessary for supplying citrate to the staphyloferrin B biosynthetic pathway. We present the structure of SbnG bound to the inhibitor calcium and an active site variant in complex with oxaloacetate. The overall fold of SbnG is structurally distinct from TCA cycle citrate synthases yet similar to metal-dependent class II aldolases. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that SbnG forms a separate clade with homologs from other siderophore biosynthetic gene clusters and is representative of a metal-independent subgroup in the phosphoenolpyruvate/pyruvate domain superfamily. A structural superposition of the SbnG active site to TCA cycle citrate synthases and site-directed mutagenesis suggests a case for convergent evolution toward a conserved catalytic mechanism for citrate production. PMID:25336653

  13. Monte Carlo simulations of phosphate polyhedron connectivity in glasses

    SciTech Connect

    ALAM,TODD M.

    2000-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of phosphate tetrahedron connectivity distributions in alkali and alkaline earth phosphate glasses are reported. By utilizing a discrete bond model, the distribution of next-nearest neighbor connectivities between phosphate polyhedron for random, alternating and clustering bonding scenarios was evaluated as a function of the relative bond energy difference. The simulated distributions are compared to experimentally observed connectivities reported for solid-state two-dimensional exchange and double-quantum NMR experiments of phosphate glasses. These Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the polyhedron connectivity is best described by a random distribution in lithium phosphate and calcium phosphate glasses.

  14. Monte Carlo Simulations of Phosphate Polyhedron Connectivity in Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    ALAM,TODD M.

    1999-12-21

    Monte Carlo simulations of phosphate tetrahedron connectivity distributions in alkali and alkaline earth phosphate glasses are reported. By utilizing a discrete bond model, the distribution of next-nearest neighbor connectivities between phosphate polyhedron for random, alternating and clustering bonding scenarios was evaluated as a function of the relative bond energy difference. The simulated distributions are compared to experimentally observed connectivities reported for solid-state two-dimensional exchange and double-quantum NMR experiments of phosphate glasses. These Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the polyhedron connectivity is best described by a random distribution in lithium phosphate and calcium phosphate glasses.

  15. [A case report of alverine-citrate-induced acute hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Han, Jee Young; Lee, Jin Woo; Kim, Joon Mee; Joo, Kowoon; Chon, Ung; Lee, Jung Il; Jeong, Seok; Lee, Don Haeng; Kim, Young Soo; Min, Kyung Sun

    2010-03-01

    Alverine citrate is one of the most commonly used antispasmodic drugs for patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Alverine-citrate-induced hepatotoxicity is extremely rare, with only a few cases having been reported worldwide. We present a case of a 75-year-old female patient who experienced complicated jaundice and abdominal discomfort after taking alverine citrate. Other causes of hepatitis were ruled out and the results of the liver function test returned to normal after ceasing the drug. This is the first case report in Korea of alverine-citrate-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:20375645

  16. Citrate Metabolism by Enterococcus faecalis FAIR-E 229

    PubMed Central

    Sarantinopoulos, Panagiotis; Kalantzopoulos, George; Tsakalidou, Effie

    2001-01-01

    Citrate metabolism by Enterococcus faecalis FAIR-E 229 was studied in various growth media containing citrate either in the presence of glucose or lactose or as the sole carbon source. In skim milk (130 mM lactose, 8 mM citrate), cometabolism of citrate and lactose was observed from the first stages of the growth phase. Lactose was stoichiometrically converted into lactate, while citrate was converted into acetate, formate, and ethanol. When de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) broth containing lactose (28 mM) instead of glucose was used, E. faecalis FAIR-E 229 catabolized only the carbohydrate. Lactate was the major end product, and small amounts of ethanol were also detected. Increasing concentrations of citrate (10, 40, 70, and 100 mM) added to MRS broth enhanced both the maximum growth rate of E. faecalis FAIR-E 229 and glucose catabolism, although citrate itself was not catabolized. Glucose was converted stoichiometrically into lactate, while small amounts of ethanol were produced as well. Finally, when increasing initial concentrations of citrate (10, 40, 70, and 100 mM) were used as the sole carbon sources in MRS broth without glucose, the main end products were acetate and formate. Small amounts of lactate, ethanol, and acetoin were also detected. This work strongly supports the suggestion that enterococcal strains have the metabolic potential to metabolize citrate and therefore to actively contribute to the flavor development of fermented dairy products. PMID:11722896

  17. The distribution of plasmids determining citrate utilization in citrate-positive variants of Escherichia coli from humans, domestic animals, feral birds and environments.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, N; Sato, G

    1979-10-01

    Sixty-seven isolates of citrate-positive variants of Escherichia coli were isolated from human, domestic animal, feral bird and environmental sources. With the exception of citrate utilization, all isolates were identified as typical E. coli by their biochemical reactions. The transmission of the ability to utilize citrate on Simmons' citrate agar was demonstrated in 53 (79.1%) out of the 67 citrate-positive E. coli variants obtained from various sources. Drug resistance determinants and citrate utilizing character were co-transmitted into E. coli K-12 by conjugation among citrate-positive E. coli isolates carrying R plasmids except for that isolated from horses. The other characters (haemolysin or colicin production, raffinose or sucrose fermentation) were not transmitted together with the citrate utilizing character. These facts suggested that the structural gene responsible for citrate utilizing ability in citrate-positive variants of E. coli was located on a conjugative plasmid.

  18. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... color additive ferric ammonium citrate consists of complex chelates prepared by the interaction...

  19. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... color additive ferric ammonium citrate consists of complex chelates prepared by the interaction...

  20. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... color additive ferric ammonium citrate consists of complex chelates prepared by the interaction...

  1. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... color additive ferric ammonium citrate consists of complex chelates prepared by the interaction...

  2. Aluminum Citrate Prevents Renal Injury from Calcium Oxalate Crystal Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Besenhofer, Lauren M.; Cain, Marie C.; Dunning, Cody

    2012-01-01

    Calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals are responsible for the kidney injury associated with exposure to ethylene glycol or severe hyperoxaluria. Current treatment strategies target the formation of calcium oxalate but not its interaction with kidney tissue. Because aluminum citrate blocks calcium oxalate binding and toxicity in human kidney cells, it may provide a different therapeutic approach to calcium oxalate-induced injury. Here, we tested the effects of aluminum citrate and sodium citrate in a Wistar rat model of acute high-dose ethylene glycol exposure. Aluminum citrate, but not sodium citrate, attenuated increases in urea nitrogen, creatinine, and the ratio of kidney to body weight in ethylene glycol–treated rats. Compared with ethylene glycol alone, the addition of aluminum citrate significantly increased the urinary excretion of both crystalline calcium and crystalline oxalate and decreased the deposition of crystals in renal tissue. In vitro, aluminum citrate interacted directly with oxalate crystals to inhibit their uptake by proximal tubule cells. These results suggest that treating with aluminum citrate attenuates renal injury in rats with severe ethylene glycol toxicity, apparently by inhibiting calcium oxalate’s interaction with, and retention by, the kidney epithelium. PMID:23138489

  3. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... citrate (iron (III) ammonium citrate) is prepared by the reaction of ferric hydroxide with citric acid... 18.5 percent iron, approximately 9 percent ammonia, and 65 percent citric acid and occurs as reddish... composed of 14.5 to 16 percent iron, approximately 7.5 percent ammonia, and 75 percent citric acid...

  4. 21 CFR 520.622 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms. 520... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.622 Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms....

  5. 21 CFR 520.622 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms. 520... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.622 Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms....

  6. 21 CFR 520.622 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms. 520... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.622 Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms....

  7. 21 CFR 520.622 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms. 520... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.622 Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms....

  8. 21 CFR 520.622 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms. 520... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.622 Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms....

  9. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 172.370 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline... citric acid may be safely used as a source of iron in foods for special dietary use....

  10. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Iron-choline citrate complex. 172.370 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline... citric acid may be safely used as a source of iron in foods for special dietary use....

  11. Diffuse abdominal gallium-67 citrate uptake in salmonella infections

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, I.; Koren, A.

    1987-11-01

    Two pediatric patients with salmonella infections (one with typhoid fever and the second with salmonella C2 gastroenteritis), had a diffuse abdominal uptake of Ga-67 citrate. The possible explanation for this finding is discussed. Salmonella infection should be included as a cause in the differential diagnosis of diffuse accumulation of Ga-67 citrate.

  12. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 172.370 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline... citric acid may be safely used as a source of iron in foods for special dietary use....

  13. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 172.370 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline... citric acid may be safely used as a source of iron in foods for special dietary use....

  14. Structural Basis for Norovirus Inhibition and Fucose Mimicry by Citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Hansman, Grant S.; Shahzad-ul-Hussan, Syed; McLellan, Jason S.; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Georgiev, Ivelin; Shimoike, Takashi; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Bewley, Carole A.; Kwong, Peter D.

    2012-01-20

    Human noroviruses bind with their capsid-protruding domains to histo-blood-group antigens (HBGAs), an interaction thought to direct their entry into cells. Although human noroviruses are the major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks, development of antivirals has been lacking, mainly because human noroviruses cannot be cultivated. Here we use X-ray crystallography and saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance (STD NMR) to analyze the interaction of citrate with genogroup II (GII) noroviruses. Crystals of citrate in complex with the protruding domain from norovirus GII.10 Vietnam026 diffracted to 1.4 {angstrom} and showed a single citrate bound at the site of HBGA interaction. The citrate interaction was coordinated with a set of capsid interactions almost identical to that involved in recognizing the terminal HBGA fucose, the saccharide which forms the primary conserved interaction between HBGAs and GII noroviruses. Citrate and a water molecule formed a ring-like structure that mimicked the pyranoside ring of fucose. STD NMR showed the protruding domain to have weak affinity for citrate (460 {mu}M). This affinity, however, was similar to the affinities of the protruding domain for fucose (460 {mu}M) and H type 2 trisaccharide (390 {mu}M), an HBGA shown previously to be specifically recognized by human noroviruses. Importantly, competition STD NMR showed that citrate could compete with HBGA for norovirus binding. Together, the results suggest that citrate and other glycomimetics have the potential to block human noroviruses from binding to HBGAs.

  15. Structural basis for norovirus inhibition and fucose mimicry by citrate.

    PubMed

    Hansman, Grant S; Shahzad-Ul-Hussan, Syed; McLellan, Jason S; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Georgiev, Ivelin; Shimoike, Takashi; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Bewley, Carole A; Kwong, Peter D

    2012-01-01

    Human noroviruses bind with their capsid-protruding domains to histo-blood-group antigens (HBGAs), an interaction thought to direct their entry into cells. Although human noroviruses are the major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks, development of antivirals has been lacking, mainly because human noroviruses cannot be cultivated. Here we use X-ray crystallography and saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance (STD NMR) to analyze the interaction of citrate with genogroup II (GII) noroviruses. Crystals of citrate in complex with the protruding domain from norovirus GII.10 Vietnam026 diffracted to 1.4 Å and showed a single citrate bound at the site of HBGA interaction. The citrate interaction was coordinated with a set of capsid interactions almost identical to that involved in recognizing the terminal HBGA fucose, the saccharide which forms the primary conserved interaction between HBGAs and GII noroviruses. Citrate and a water molecule formed a ring-like structure that mimicked the pyranoside ring of fucose. STD NMR showed the protruding domain to have weak affinity for citrate (460 μM). This affinity, however, was similar to the affinities of the protruding domain for fucose (460 μM) and H type 2 trisaccharide (390 μM), an HBGA shown previously to be specifically recognized by human noroviruses. Importantly, competition STD NMR showed that citrate could compete with HBGA for norovirus binding. Together, the results suggest that citrate and other glycomimetics have the potential to block human noroviruses from binding to HBGAs.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of biomimetic citrate-based biodegradable composites.

    PubMed

    Tran, Richard T; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Chang; Huang, Minjun; Tang, Wanjin; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Zhongmin; Jin, Dadi; Banik, Brittany; Brown, Justin L; Xie, Zhiwei; Bai, Xiaochun; Yang, Jian

    2014-08-01

    Natural bone apatite crystals, which mediate the development and regulate the load-bearing function of bone, have recently been associated with strongly bound citrate molecules. However, such understanding has not been translated into bone biomaterial design and osteoblast cell culture. In this work, we have developed a new class of biodegradable, mechanically strong, and biocompatible citrate-based polymer blends (CBPBs), which offer enhanced hydroxyapatite binding to produce more biomimetic composites (CBPBHAs) for orthopedic applications. CBPBHAs consist of the newly developed osteoconductive citrate-presenting biodegradable polymers, crosslinked urethane-doped polyester and poly (octanediol citrate), which can be composited with up to 65 wt % hydroxyapatite. CBPBHA networks produced materials with a compressive strength of 116.23 ± 5.37 MPa comparable to human cortical bone (100-230 MPa), and increased C2C12 osterix gene and alkaline phosphatase gene expression in vitro. The promising results above prompted an investigation on the role of citrate supplementation in culture medium for osteoblast culture, which showed that exogenous citrate supplemented into media accelerated the in vitro phenotype progression of MG-63 osteoblasts. After 6 weeks of implantation in a rabbit lateral femoral condyle defect model, CBPBHA composites elicited minimal fibrous tissue encapsulation and were well integrated with the surrounding bone tissues. The development of citrate-presenting CBPBHA biomaterials and preliminary studies revealing the effects of free exogenous citrate on osteoblast culture shows the potential of citrate biomaterials to bridge the gap in orthopedic biomaterial design and osteoblast cell culture in that the role of citrate molecules has previously been overlooked.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Biomimetic Citrate-Based Biodegradable Composites

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Richard T.; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Chang; Huang, Minjun; Tang, Wanjin; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Zhongmin; Jin, Dadi; Banik, Brittany; Brown, Justin L.; Xie, Zhiwei; Bai, Xiaochun; Yang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Natural bone apatite crystals, which mediate the development and regulate the load-bearing function of bone, have recently been associated with strongly bound citrate molecules. However, such understanding has not been translated into bone biomaterial design and osteoblast cell culture. In this work, we have developed a new class of biodegradable, mechanically strong, and biocompatible citrate-based polymer blends (CBPBs), which offer enhanced hydroxyapatite binding to produce more biomimetic composites (CBPBHAs) for orthopedic applications. CBPBHAs consist of the newly developed osteoconductive citrate-presenting biodegradable polymers, crosslinked urethane-doped polyester (CUPE) and poly (octanediol citrate) (POC), which can be composited with up to 65 wt.-% hydroxyapatite (HA). CBPBHA networks produced materials with a compressive strength of 116.23 ± 5.37 MPa comparable to human cortical bone (100 – 230 MPa), and increased C2C12 osterix (OSX) gene and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) gene expression in vitro. The promising results above prompted an investigation on the role of citrate supplementation in culture medium for osteoblast culture, which showed that exogenous citrate supplemented into media accelerated the in vitro phenotype progression of MG-63 osteoblasts. After 6-weeks of implantation in a rabbit lateral femoral condyle defect model, CBPBHA composites elicited minimal fibrous tissue encapsulation and were well integrated with the surrounding bone tissues. The development of citrate-presenting CBPBHA biomaterials and preliminary studies revealing the effects of free exogenous citrate on osteoblast culture shows the potential of citrate biomaterials to bridge the gap in orthopedic biomaterial design and osteoblast cell culture in that the role of citrate molecules has previously been overlooked. PMID:23996976

  18. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: Ga-67 citrate imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Woolfenden, J.M.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; Larson, S.M.; Simmons, J.T.; Masur, H.; Smith, P.D.; Shelhamer, J.H.; Ognibene, F.P.

    1987-02-01

    All gallium-67 citrate scans obtained in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, Md.) were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with the results of bronchoscopy, chest radiography, and endoscopy. There were 164 scans of 95 patients. Twenty scans were from patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia; 19 were abnormal, for a sensitivity of 95%. Ga-67 uptake tended to be less in patients receiving therapy for P. carinii pneumonia. Chest radiographs were normal at least initially in three patients with abnormal scans and P. carinii pneumonia. Unusually prominent colonic activity was associated with infection in some patients. No lesions of Kaposi sarcoma showed tracer uptake. Gallium scanning is useful for detecting P. carinii pneumonia and other opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS, but it is not useful for localizing Kaposi sarcoma.

  19. 77 FR 74171 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... sodium citrate, otherwise known as citric acid sodium salt, and the monohydrate and monopotassium forms of potassium citrate.\\5\\ Sodium citrate also includes both trisodium citrate and monosodium citrate... acid and sodium citrate are classifiable under 2918.14.0000 and 2918.15.1000 of the Harmonized...

  20. Role of Ga-67 citrate imaging in pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Aburano, T.; Yokoyama, K.; Hisada, K.; Kakuma, K.; Ichiyanagi, K.

    1988-11-01

    Two patients with pancreatitis in whom an area of predominant uptake of Ga-67 citrate was demonstrated involving the entire pancreas are presented. Ultrasound and x-ray CT did not reveal any morphologic abnormalities in the pancreas, whereas Ga-67 citrate imaging indicated the presence of active inflammatory change. Ga-67 citrate imaging may be useful in confirming the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis or acute exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis based on clinical and laboratory data, especially when ultrasound and/or x-ray CT cannot reveal any morphologic abnormalities in the pancreas.

  1. Hanford 100-N Area In Situ Apatite and Phosphate Emplacement by Groundwater and Jet Injection: Geochemical and Physical Core Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, James E.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Williams, Mark D.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Phillips, Jerry L.

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate emplacement of phosphate into subsurface sediments in the Hanford Site 100-N Area by two different technologies: groundwater injection of a Ca-citrate-PO4 solution and water-jet injection of sodium phosphate and/or fish-bone apatite. In situ emplacement of phosphate and apatite adsorbs, then incorporates Sr-90 into the apatite structure by substitution for calcium. Overall, both technologies (groundwater injection of Ca-citrate-PO4) and water-jet injection of sodium phosphate/fish-bone apatite) delivered sufficient phosphate to subsur¬face sediments in the 100-N Area. Over years to decades, additional Sr-90 will incorporate into the apatite precipitate. Therefore, high pressure water jetting is a viable technology to emplace phosphate or apatite in shallow subsurface sediments difficult to emplace by Ca-citrate-PO4 groundwater injections, but further analysis is needed to quantify the relevant areal extent of phosphate deposition (in the 5- to 15-ft distance from injection points) and cause of the high deposition in finer grained sediments.

  2. Potentiometric detection of citrate in beverages using a graphite carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Celso L; Melo, Edmar I; Coelho, Nívia M M

    2011-05-30

    The development, evaluation and application of a simple and low-cost graphite carbon electrode for the direct determination of citrate in food samples are described here. The electrode exhibits a linear response with a slope of -29.0 ± 1.0 mV decade(-1) in a concentration range of 0.07-7.0 mmol L(-1) in 0.1 mol L(-1) KCl/1.0 mmol L(-1) phosphate buffer solution with a limit of detection of 3.0 μmol L(-1). The electrode is easily constructed at a relatively low cost and has a fast time response (within 120 s) with no significant changes in its performance characteristics. The performance of the graphite sensor was tested to determine citrate in beverage samples (juices and an isotonic drink), and the results were validated against a reference procedure. The proposed method is quick, inexpensive, selective and sensitive, and is based entirely on conventional instrumentation.

  3. Structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis nucleoside diphosphate kinase R80N mutant in complex with citrate

    PubMed Central

    Georgescauld, Florian; Moynié, Lucile; Habersetzer, Johann; Dautant, Alain

    2014-01-01

    The crystal structure of the wild-type nucleoside diphosphate kinase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis at 2.6 Å resolution revealed that the intersubunit salt bridge Arg80–Asp93 contributes to the thermal stability of the hexamer (T m = 76°C). On mutating Asp93 to Asn to break the salt bridge, the thermal stability dramatically decreased by 27.6°C. Here, on mutating Arg80 to Asn, the thermal stability also significantly decreased by 8.0°C. In the X-ray structure of the R80N mutant solved at 1.9 Å resolution the salt bridge was replaced by intersubunit hydrogen bonds that contribute to the thermal stability of the hexamer. A citrate anion from the crystallization buffer was bound at the bottom of the nucleotide-binding site via electrostatic and hydrogen-bonding interactions with six conserved residues involved in nucleotide binding. Structural analysis shows that the citrate is present at the location of the nucleotide phosphate groups. PMID:24419614

  4. The Metabolic Reprogramming Evoked by Nitrosative Stress Triggers the Anaerobic Utilization of Citrate in Pseudomonas fluorescens

    PubMed Central

    Auger, Christopher; Lemire, Joseph; Cecchini, Dominic; Bignucolo, Adam; Appanna, Vasu D.

    2011-01-01

    Nitrosative stress is an ongoing challenge that most organisms have to contend with. When nitric oxide (NO) that may be generated either exogenously or endogenously encounters reactive oxygen species (ROS), it produces a set of toxic moieties referred to as reactive nitrogen species (RNS). As these RNS can severely damage essential biomolecules, numerous organisms have evolved elaborate detoxification strategies to nullify RNS. However, the contribution of cellular metabolism in fending off nitrosative stress is poorly understood. Using a variety of functional proteomic and metabolomic analyses, we have identified how the soil microbe Pseudomonas fluorescens reprogrammed its metabolic networks to survive in an environment enriched by sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a generator of nitrosative stress. To combat the RNS-induced ineffective aconitase (ACN) and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, the microbe invoked the participation of citrate lyase (CL), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) to convert citrate, the sole source of carbon into pyruvate and ATP. These enzymes were not evident in the control conditions. This metabolic shift was coupled to the concomitant increase in the activities of such classical RNS detoxifiers as nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NIR) and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR). Hence, metabolism may hold the clues to the survival of organisms subjected to nitrosative stress and may provide therapeutic cues against RNS-resistant microbes. PMID:22145048

  5. 76 FR 34044 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 5782... The scope of this order includes all grades and granulation sizes of citric acid, sodium citrate, and.... The scope also includes blends of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate; as well...

  6. Role of phosphate in the regulation of the Pasteur effect in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lagunas, R; Gancedo, C

    1983-12-15

    The occurrence of the Pasteur effect in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in several conditions has been examined. In these conditions measurements of a series of metabolites potentially involved in the regulation of the effect were performed. These included, among others, adenine nucleotides, citrate, fructose 2,6-bisphosphate and phosphate. Only phosphate changed in a consistent way, increasing in anaerobiosis when the Pasteur effect occurred. It is concluded that, with the available data, only phosphate may be considered as a regulator of the Pasteur effect in this microorganism.

  7. Phosphate removal by anion binding on functionalized nanoporous sorbents.

    PubMed

    Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Wiacek, Robert J; Pattamakomsan, Kanda; Sangvanich, Thanapon; Grudzien, Rafal M; Fryxell, Glen E; Yantasee, Wassana

    2010-04-15

    Phosphate was captured from aqueous solutions by cationic metal-EDA complexes anchored inside mesoporous silica MCM-41 supports (Cu(II)-EDA-SAMMS and Fe(III)-EDA-SAMMS). Fe-EDA-SAMMS was more effective at capturing phosphate than the Cu-EDA-SAMMS and was further studied for matrix effects (e.g., pH, ionic strength, and competing anions) and sorption performance (e.g., capacity and rate). The adsorption of phosphate was highly pH dependent; it increased with increasing pH from 1.0 to 6.5, and decreased above pH 6.5. The adsorption was affected by high ionic strength (0.1 M of NaCl). In the presence of 1000-fold molar excess of chloride and nitrate anions, phosphate removal by Fe-EDA-SAMMS was not affected. Slight, moderate and large impacts were seen with bicarbonate, sulfate, and citrate anions, respectively. The phosphate adsorption data on Fe-EDA-SAMMS agreed well with the Langmuir model with the estimated maximum capacity of 43.3 mg/g. The material displayed rapid sorption rate (99% of phosphate removal within 1 min) and lowering the phosphate content to approximately 10 microg/L of phosphorus, which is lower than the EPA's established freshwater contaminant level for phosphorus (20 microg/L). PMID:20345133

  8. Phosphate Removal by Anion Binding on Functionalized Nanoporous Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Wiacek, Robert J.; Pattamakomsan, Kanda; Sangvanich, Thanapon; Grudzien, Rafal M.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Yantasee, Wasanna

    2010-03-26

    Phosphate was captured from aqueous solutions by cationic metal-EDA complexes anchored inside mesoporous silica MCM-41 supports (Cu(II)-EDA-SAMMS and Fe(III)-EDA-SAMMS). Fe-EDA-SAMMS was more effective at capturing phosphate than the Cu-EDA-SAMMS and was further studied for matrix effects (e.g., pH, ionic strength, and competing anions) and sorption performance (e.g., capacity and rate). The adsorption of phosphate was highly pH dependent; it increased with increasing pH from 1.0 to 6.5, and decreased above pH 6.5. The adsorption was affected by high ionic strength (0.1 M of NaCl). In the presence of 1000-fold molar excess of chloride and nitrate anions, phosphate removal by Fe-EDA-SAMMS was not affected. Slight, moderate and large impacts were seen with bicarbonate, sulfate and citrate anions, respectively. The phosphate adsorption data on Fe-EDA-SAMMS agreed well with the Langmuir model with the estimated maximum capacity of 43.3 mg/g. The material displayed rapid sorption rate (99% of phosphate removal within 1 min) and lowering the phosphate content to ~ 10 µg/L of phosphorus, which is lower than the EPA’s established freshwater contaminant level for phosphorous (20 µg/L).

  9. Is Anticoagulation Discontinuation Achievable with Citrate Dialysate during HDF Sessions?

    PubMed Central

    Oger, Emmanuel; Hamel, Didier; Lombart, Marie-Laure; Hermès, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Citrate dialysate has been developed for few years to replace acetate and HCl concentrates. In Online Postdilution Hemodiafiltration (OL-POST-HDF), several issues are remaining concerning the possibility of stopping anticoagulation during sessions and the side effects of citrate solutions on calcium metabolism. This 1-year monocentric retrospective study included all patients exposed to citrate in OL-POST-HDF with nadroparin decrease for more than one month. Clotting events, serum calcium, PTH, hemoglobin, CRP, depuration parameters, and treatments administrated were recorded for analysis. 27 patients experienced nadroparin decrease and 5 did not receive nadroparin at the end of the study. Nadroparin decrease and withdrawal were both associated with more clotting events whereas the use of vitamin K antagonists was protective. No significant metabolic side effects were observed. Citrate dialysate does not allow anticoagulation discontinuation or decrease but has no significant side effects on mineral bone metabolism or erythropoiesis. PMID:27803814

  10. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... color additive ferric ammonium citrate consists of complex chelates prepared by the interaction of ferric hydroxide with citric acid in the presence of ammonia. The complex chelates occur in brown...

  11. Properties of peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthase from Agave americana.

    PubMed

    Segovia, J L; Zafra, M F; Alejandre, M J; García-Peregrín, E

    1982-09-01

    Adenine nucleotides were tested as effectors of peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthase from Agave americana leaves in the presence of different concentrations of acetyl-CoA and oxalacetate substrates. ATP inhibited both enzyme activities but with a different inhibition profile. 1.0-7.5 mM ADP did not inhibit the peroxisomal citrate synthase in the presence of high substrate concentrations, while the mitochondrial enzyme was strongly inhibited by 1.0 mM ADP in the same conditions. Likewise, a different pattern was obtained with AMP on both peroxisomal and mitochondrial activities. The rate of citrate formation as function of acetyl-CoA and oxalacetate concentration was also studied in both fractions. Maximal velocity was highest in the peroxisomal fraction, whether acetyl-CoA or oxalacetate were the variable substrates. These differences indicate that peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthases seem to be two different isoenzymes.

  12. Citrate-Based Biomaterials and Their Applications in Regenerative Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Richard T.; Yang, Jian; Ameer, Guillermo A.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in biomaterials science and engineering are crucial to translating regenerative engineering, an emerging field that aims to recreate complex tissues, into clinical practice. In this regard, citrate-based biomaterials have become an important tool owing to their versatile material and biological characteristics including unique antioxidant, antimicrobial, adhesive, and fluorescent properties. This review discusses fundamental design considerations, strategies to incorporate unique functionality, and examples of how citrate-based biomaterials can be an enabling technology for regenerative engineering. PMID:27004046

  13. Injectable citrate-modified Portland cement for use in vertebroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Wynn-Jones, Gareth; Shelton, Richard M; Hofmann, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    The injectability of Portland cement (PC) with several citrate additives was investigated for use in clinical applications such as vertebroplasty (stabilization of a fractured vertebra with bone cement) using a syringe. A 2-wt % addition of sodium or potassium citrate with PC significantly improved cement injectability, decreased cement setting times from over 2 h to below 25 min, while increasing the compressive strength to a maximum of 125 MPa. Zeta-potential measurements indicated that the citrate anion was binding to one or more of the positively charged species causing charged repulsion between cement particles which dispersed aggregates and caused the liquefying effect of the anion. Analysis of the hydrating phases of PC indicated that the early strength producing PC phase (ettringite) developed within the first 2 h of setting following addition of the citrate anion, while this did not occur in the control cement (PC only). Within 24 h ettringite developed in PC as well as calcium–silicate–hydrate (C–S–H), the major setting phase of PC, whereas cements containing citrate did not develop this phase. The evidence suggested that in the presence of citrate the cements limited water supply appeared to be utilized for ettringite formation, producing the early strength of the citrate cements. The present study has demonstrated that it is possible to modify PC with citrate to both improve the injectability and crucially reduce the setting times of PC while improving the strength of the cement. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 102B: 1799–1808, 2014. PMID:24711245

  14. The role of nicotinamide–adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent malate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase in the supply of reduced nicotinamide–adenine dinucleotide phosphate for steroidogenesis in the superovulated rat ovary

    PubMed Central

    Flint, A. P. F.; Denton, R. M.

    1970-01-01

    1. Superovulated rat ovary was found to contain high activities of NADP–malate dehydrogenase and NADP–isocitrate dehydrogenase. The activity of each enzyme was approximately four times that of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and equalled or exceeded the activities reported to be present in other mammalian tissues. Fractionation of a whole tissue homogenate of superovulated rat ovary indicated that both enzymes were exclusively cytoplasmic. The tissue was also found to contain pyruvate carboxylase (exclusively mitochondrial), NAD–malate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase (both mitochondrial and cytoplasmic) and ATP–citrate lyase (exclusively cytoplasmic). 2. The kinetic properties of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, NADP–malate dehydrogenase and NADP–isocitrate dehydrogenase were determined and compared with the whole-tissue concentrations of their substrates and NADPH; NADPH is a competitive inhibitor of all three enzymes. The concentrations of glucose 6-phosphate, malate and isocitrate in incubated tissue slices were raised at least tenfold by the addition of glucose to the incubation medium, from the values below to values above the respective Km values of the dehydrogenases. Glucose doubled the tissue concentration of NADPH. 3. Steroidogenesis from acetate is stimulated by glucose in slices of superovulated rat ovary incubated in vitro. It was found that this stimulatory effect of glucose can be mimicked by malate, isocitrate, lactate and pyruvate. 4. It is concluded that NADP–malate dehydrogenase or NADP–isocitrate dehydrogenase or both may play an important role in the formation of NADPH in the superovulated rat ovary. It is suggested that the stimulatory effect of glucose on steroidogenesis from acetate results from an increased rate of NADPH formation through one or both dehydrogenases, brought about by the increases in the concentrations of malate, isocitrate or both. Possible pathways involving the two enzymes are discussed

  15. Citrate uptake into Pectobacterium atrosepticum is critical for bacterial virulence.

    PubMed

    Urbany, Claude; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard

    2008-05-01

    To analyze whether metabolite import into Pectobacterium atrosepticum cells affects bacterial virulence, we investigated the function of a carrier which exhibits significant structural homology to characterized carboxylic-acid transport proteins. The corresponding gene, ECA3984, previously annotated as coding for a Na(+)/sulphate carrier, in fact encodes a highly specific citrate transporter (Cit1) which is energized by the proton-motive force. Expression of the cit1 gene is stimulated by the presence of citrate in the growth medium and is substantial during growth of P. atrosepticum on potato tuber tissue. Infection of tuber tissue with P. atrosepticum leads to reduced citrate levels. P. atrosepticum insertion mutants, lacking the functional Cit1 protein, did not grow in medium containing citrate as the sole carbon source, showed a substantially reduced ability to macerate potato tuber tissue, and did not provoke reduced citrate levels in the plant tissue upon infection. We propose that citrate uptake into P. atrosepticum is critical for full bacterial virulence.

  16. Citrate synthase from the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica.

    PubMed

    Zinsser, Veronika L; Moore, Catherine M; Hoey, Elizabeth M; Trudgett, Alan; Timson, David J

    2013-06-01

    Citrate synthase catalyses the first step of the Krebs' tricarboxylic acid cycle. A sequence encoding citrate synthase from the common liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, has been cloned. The encoded protein sequence is predicted to fold into a largely α-helical protein with high structural similarity to mammalian citrate synthases. Although a hexahistidine-tagged version of the protein could be expressed in Escherichia coli, it was not possible to purify it by nickel-affinity chromatography. Similar results were obtained with a version of the protein which lacks the putative mitochondrial targeting sequence (residues 1 to 29). However, extracts from bacterial cells expressing this version had additional citrate synthase activity after correcting for the endogenous, bacterial activity. The apparent K m for oxaloacetate was found to be 0.22 mM, which is higher than that observed in mammalian citrate synthases. Overall, the sequence and structure of F. hepatica citrate synthase are similar to ones from other eukaryotes, but there are enzymological differences which merit further investigation.

  17. Regulation of serum phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Lederer, Eleanor

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of serum phosphate, an acknowledged risk factor for chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular mortality, is poorly understood. The discovery of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) as a key regulator of renal phosphate handling and activation of vitamin D has revolutionized our comprehension of phosphate homeostasis. Through as yet undetermined mechanisms, circulating and dietary phosphate appear to have a direct effect on FGF23 release by bone cells that, in turn, causes renal phosphate excretion and decreases intestinal phosphate absorption through a decrease in vitamin D production. Thus, the two major phosphaturic hormones, PTH and FGF23, have opposing effects on vitamin D production, placing vitamin D at the nexus of phosphate homeostasis. While our understanding of phosphate homeostasis has advanced, the factors determining regulation of serum phosphate level remain enigmatic. Diet, time of day, season, gender, age and genetics have all been identified as significant contributors to serum phosphate level. The effects of these factors on serum phosphate have major implications for what is understood as ‘normal’ and for studies of phosphate homeostasis and metabolism. Moreover, other hormonal mediators such as dopamine, insulin-like growth factor, and angiotensin II also affect renal handling of phosphate. How the major hormone effects on phosphate handling are regulated and how the effect of these other factors are integrated to yield the measurable serum phosphate are only now beginning to be studied. PMID:24973411

  18. Aroma compounds generation in citrate metabolism of Enterococcus faecium: Genetic characterization of type I citrate gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Martino, Gabriela P; Quintana, Ingrid M; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S; Magni, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Enterococcus is one of the most controversial genera belonging to Lactic Acid Bacteria. Research involving this microorganism reflects its dual behavior as regards its safety. Although it has also been associated to nosocomial infections, natural occurrence of Enterococcus faecium in food contributes to the final quality of cheese. This bacterium is capable of fermenting citrate, which is metabolized to pyruvate and finally derives in the production of the aroma compounds diacetyl, acetoin and 2,3 butanediol. Citrate metabolism was studied in E. faecium but no data about genes related to these pathways have been described. A bioinformatic approach allowed us to differentiate cit(-) (no citrate metabolism genes) from cit(+) strains in E. faecium. Furthermore, we could classify them according to genes encoding for the transcriptional regulator, the oxaloacetate decarboxylase and the citrate transporter. Thus we defined type I organization having CitI regulator (DeoR family), CitM cytoplasmic soluble oxaloacetate decarboxylase (Malic Enzyme family) and CitP citrate transporter (2-hydroxy-carboxylate transporter family) and type II organization with CitO regulator (GntR family), OAD membrane oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex (Na(+)-transport decarboxylase enzyme family) and CitH citrate transporter (CitMHS family). We isolated and identified 17 E. faecium strains from regional cheeses. PCR analyses allowed us to classify them as cit(-) or cit(+). Within the latter classification we could differentiate type I but no type II organization. Remarkably, we came upon E. faecium GM75 strain which carries the insertion sequence IS256, involved in adaptative and evolution processes of bacteria related to Staphylococcus and Enterococcus genera. In this work we describe the differential behavior in citrate transport, metabolism and aroma generation of three strains and we present results that link citrate metabolism and genetic organizations in E. faecium for the first time.

  19. Role of citrate as a complexing ligand which permits enzymically-mediated uranyl ion bioaccumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Yong, P.; Macaskie, L.E.

    1995-06-01

    Microorganisms can be used to remove toxic heavy metals from liquid industrial wastes. One potentially useful system utilizes the enzymically-mediated biomineralization of heavy metals at the surface of bacterial cells. This well-documented system harnesses a metal-resistant phosphatase enzyme overproduced by a Citrobacter sp.; metal uptake is mediated by the activity of this enzyme, which persists in non-growing cells, to liberate HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} from glycerol 2-phosphate with stoichiometric deposition of heavy metals(M) as cell-bound MHPO{sub 4}. Recent attention has focused on the treatment of wastes from nuclear power and nuclear fuel reprocessing activities, together with discharges of native uranium in mining wastes. Previous investigations using the Citrobacter sp. demonstrated removal of uranium and the transuranic elements, plutonium and americium. Although uranium is inhibitory to the growth of the Citrobacter strain, and the activity of the cellular phosphatase, uranyl phosphate accumulates as polycrystalline HUO{sub 2}PO{sub 4} at the cell surface. The rate of uranyl removal into the growing crystal is primarily dependent on the rate of phosphate release by the enzyme catalysed reaction. This is inconsistent with the reported toxicity of uranyl ion to the mediating phosphatase; however, in the presence of an excess of substrate, the rapid rate of phosphate release facilitated metal precipitation without toxic effect. Under substrate-limiting conditions uranyl toxicity was seen. The present investigation shows the inhibition of Citrobacter sp. phosphatase is related to the concentration of uranyl ion, and that citrate buffer can protect against this toxicity, and permit metal bioaccumulation. The toxicity pattern is dependent upon the substrate used; possible reasons for these effects, and environmental implications are discussed. 18 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Effect of potential renal acid load of foods on urinary citrate excretion in calcium renal stone formers.

    PubMed

    Trinchieri, Alberto; Lizzano, Renata; Marchesotti, Federica; Zanetti, Giampaolo

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the potential renal acid load (PRAL) of the diet on the urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. The present series comprises 187 consecutive renal calcium stone patients (114 males, 73 females) who were studied in our stone clinic. Each patient was subjected to an investigation including a 24-h dietary record and 24-h urine sample taken over the same period. Nutrients and calories were calculated by means of food composition tables using a computerized procedure. Daily PRAL was calculated considering the mineral and protein composition of foods, the mean intestinal absorption rate for each nutrient and the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphate, oxalate, urate, citrate, and creatinine levels were measured in the urine. The mean daily PRAL was higher in male than in female patients (24.1+/-24.0 vs 16.1+/-20.1 mEq/day, P=0.000). A significantly (P=0.01) negative correlation (R=-0.18) was found between daily PRAL and daily urinary citrate, but no correlation between PRAL and urinary calcium, oxalate, and urate was shown. Daily urinary calcium (R=0.186, P=0.011) and uric acid (R=0.157, P=0.033) were significantly related to the dietary intake of protein. Daily urinary citrate was significantly related to the intakes of copper (R=0.178, P=0.015), riboflavin (R=0.20, P=0.006), piridoxine (R=0.169, P=0.021) and biotin (R=0.196, P=0.007). The regression analysis by stepwise selection confirmed the significant negative correlation between PRAL and urinary citrate (P=0.002) and the significant positive correlation between riboflavin and urinary citrate (P=0.000). Urinary citrate excretion of renal stone formers (RSFs) is highly dependent from dietary acid load. The computation of the renal acid load is advisable to investigate the role of diet in the pathogenesis of calcium stone disease and it is also a useful tool to evaluate the lithogenic potential of

  1. Microbial solubilization of phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, R.D.; Wolfram, J.H.

    1993-10-26

    A process is provided for solubilizing phosphate from phosphate containing ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of phosphate ore, microorganisms operable for solubilizing phosphate from the phosphate ore and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the microbial solubilization process. An aqueous solution containing soluble phosphorus can be separated from the reacted mixture by precipitation, solvent extraction, selective membrane, exchange resin or gravity methods to recover phosphate from the aqueous solution. 6 figures.

  2. Microbial solubilization of phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Robert D.; Wolfram, James H.

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for solubilizing phosphate from phosphate containing ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of phosphate ore, microorganisms operable for solubilizing phosphate from the phosphate ore and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the microbial solubilization process. An aqueous solution containing soluble phosphorous can be separated from the reacted mixture by precipitation, solvent extraction, selective membrane, exchange resin or gravity methods to recover phosphate from the aqueous solution.

  3. Alkali absorption and citrate excretion in calcium nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakhaee, K.; Williams, R. H.; Oh, M. S.; Padalino, P.; Adams-Huet, B.; Whitson, P.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The role of net gastrointestinal (GI) alkali absorption in the development of hypocitraturia was investigated. The net GI absorption of alkali was estimated from the difference between simple urinary cations (Ca, Mg, Na, and K) and anions (Cl and P). In 131 normal subjects, the 24 h urinary citrate was positively correlated with the net GI absorption of alkali (r = 0.49, p < 0.001). In 11 patients with distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA), urinary citrate excretion was subnormal relative to net GI alkali absorption, with data from most patients residing outside the 95% confidence ellipse described for normal subjects. However, the normal relationship between urinary citrate and net absorbed alkali was maintained in 11 patients with chronic diarrheal syndrome (CDS) and in 124 stone-forming patients devoid of RTA or CDS, half of whom had "idiopathic" hypocitraturia. The 18 stone-forming patients without RTA or CDS received potassium citrate (30-60 mEq/day). Both urinary citrate and net GI alkali absorption increased, yielding a significantly positive correlation (r = 0.62, p < 0.0001), with the slope indistinguishable from that of normal subjects. Thus, urinary citrate was normally dependent on the net GI absorption of alkali. This dependence was less marked in RTA, confirming the renal origin of hypocitraturia. However, the normal dependence was maintained in CDS and in idiopathic hypocitraturia, suggesting that reduced citrate excretion was largely dietary in origin as a result of low net alkali absorption (from a probable relative deficiency of vegetables and fruits or a relative excess of animal proteins).

  4. Bacillus cereus iron uptake protein fishes out an unstable ferric citrate trimer

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Tatsuya; Sia, Allyson K.; Allred, Benjamin E.; Nichiporuk, Rita; Zhou, Zhongrui; Andersen, Ulla N.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2012-01-01

    Citrate is a common biomolecule that chelates Fe(III). Many bacteria and plants use ferric citrate to fulfill their nutritional requirement for iron. Only the Escherichia coli ferric citrate outer-membrane transport protein FecA has been characterized; little is known about other ferric citrate-binding proteins. Here we report a unique siderophore-binding protein from the Gram-positive pathogenic bacterium Bacillus cereus that binds multinuclear ferric citrate complexes. We have demonstrated that B. cereus ATCC 14579 takes up 55Fe radiolabeled ferric citrate and that a protein, BC_3466 [renamed FctC (ferric citrate-binding protein C)], binds ferric citrate. The dissociation constant (Kd) of FctC at pH 7.4 with ferric citrate (molar ratio 1:50) is 2.6 nM. This is the tightest binding observed of any B. cereus siderophore-binding protein. Nano electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry (nano ESI-MS) analysis of FctC and ferric citrate complexes or citrate alone show that FctC binds diferric di-citrate, and triferric tricitrate, but does not bind ferric di-citrate, ferric monocitrate, or citrate alone. Significantly, the protein selectively binds triferric tricitrate even though this species is naturally present at very low equilibrium concentrations. PMID:23027976

  5. Bacillus cereus iron uptake protein fishes out an unstable ferric citrate trimer.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Tatsuya; Sia, Allyson K; Allred, Benjamin E; Nichiporuk, Rita; Zhou, Zhongrui; Andersen, Ulla N; Raymond, Kenneth N

    2012-10-16

    Citrate is a common biomolecule that chelates Fe(III). Many bacteria and plants use ferric citrate to fulfill their nutritional requirement for iron. Only the Escherichia coli ferric citrate outer-membrane transport protein FecA has been characterized; little is known about other ferric citrate-binding proteins. Here we report a unique siderophore-binding protein from the gram-positive pathogenic bacterium Bacillus cereus that binds multinuclear ferric citrate complexes. We have demonstrated that B. cereus ATCC 14579 takes up (55)Fe radiolabeled ferric citrate and that a protein, BC_3466 [renamed FctC (ferric citrate-binding protein C)], binds ferric citrate. The dissociation constant (K(d)) of FctC at pH 7.4 with ferric citrate (molar ratio 1:50) is 2.6 nM. This is the tightest binding observed of any B. cereus siderophore-binding protein. Nano electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (nano ESI-MS) analysis of FctC and ferric citrate complexes or citrate alone show that FctC binds diferric di-citrate, and triferric tricitrate, but does not bind ferric di-citrate, ferric monocitrate, or citrate alone. Significantly, the protein selectively binds triferric tricitrate even though this species is naturally present at very low equilibrium concentrations.

  6. NITRATE REDUCTION BY ZEROVALENT IRON: EFFECTS OF FORMATE, OXALATE, CITRATE, CHLORIDE, SULFATE, BORATE, AND PHOSPHATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies have shown that zerovalent iron (Fe0) may potentially be used as a chemical medium in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) for nitrate remediation in groundwater; however, the effects of commonly found organic and inorganic ligands in soil and sediments on nitrate re...

  7. Identification of the citrate-binding site of human ATP-citrate lyase using X-ray crystallography.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tianjun; Hayakawa, Koto; Bateman, Katherine S; Fraser, Marie E

    2010-08-27

    ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY) catalyzes the conversion of citrate and CoA into acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate, coupled with the hydrolysis of ATP. In humans, ACLY is the cytoplasmic enzyme linking energy metabolism from carbohydrates to the production of fatty acids. In situ proteolysis of full-length human ACLY gave crystals of a truncated form, revealing the conformations of residues 2-425, 487-750, and 767-820 of the 1101-amino acid protein. Residues 2-425 form three domains homologous to the beta-subunit of succinyl-CoA synthetase (SCS), while residues 487-820 form two domains homologous to the alpha-subunit of SCS. The crystals were grown in the presence of tartrate or the substrate, citrate, and the structure revealed the citrate-binding site. A loop formed by residues 343-348 interacts via specific hydrogen bonds with the hydroxyl and carboxyl groups on the prochiral center of citrate. Arg-379 forms a salt bridge with the pro-R carboxylate of citrate. The pro-S carboxylate is free to react, providing insight into the stereospecificity of ACLY. Because this is the first structure of any member of the acyl-CoA synthetase (NDP-forming) superfamily in complex with its organic acid substrate, locating the citrate-binding site is significant for understanding the catalytic mechanism of each member, including the prototype SCS. Comparison of the CoA-binding site of SCSs with the similar structure in ACLY showed that ACLY possesses a different CoA-binding site. Comparisons of the nucleotide-binding site of SCSs with the similar structure in ACLY indicates that this is the ATP-binding site of ACLY.

  8. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003671.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a type of ...

  9. Uranium from phosphate ores

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    The following topics are described briefly: the way phosphate fertilizers are made; how uranium is recovered in the phosphate industry; and how to detect covert uranium recovery operations in a phsophate plant.

  10. Some properties of the citrate synthase from the extreme halophile, Halobacterium cutirubrum.

    PubMed

    Higa, A; Cazzulo, J J

    1975-05-01

    1. Citrate synthase [citrate oxaloacetate-lyase (CoA-acetylating), EC 4.1.3.7] was purified about 400-fold from the extreme halophile, Halobacterium cutirubrum, by a method involving (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and hydroxyapatite and gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. 2. The purified enzyme was best activated by high concentrations of KCl (3M); the chlorides of other cations and K+ salts of other anions (Br-, NO3-, SCN-) were less effective than KCl as activators. The enzyme was best stabilized by high concentrations of NaCl or KCl. Cold-lability was found in the presence of 3M-KCl, but not in the presence of NaCl at concentrations up to 5M. The results suggest that both the shielding of negative charges on the enzyme molecule and the stabilization of hydrophobic bonds by high KCl concentrations were required for maximum activity of the enzyme. 3. The double-reciprocal plots for acetyl-CoA or oxaloacetate at several concentrations of the co-substrate intersected at the abscissa in the presence of either KCl or NaCl, at either 1 or 3M. The Km for oxaloacetate increased about fivefold with the salt concentration, from 1 to 3M.

  11. Small-angle neutron scattering studies of mineralization on BSA coated citrate capped gold nanoparticles used as a model surface for membrane scaling in RO wastewater desalination.

    PubMed

    Dahdal, Y N; Pipich, V; Rapaport, H; Oren, Y; Kasher, R; Schwahn, D

    2014-12-23

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) coated on citrate capped gold nanoparticles (BSA-GNPs) was exposed to a simulated wastewater effluent (SSE) in order to study the mineralization and thereby mimic scaling at biofouled membranes of reverse osmosis (RO) wastewater desalination plants. RO is a leading technology of achieving freshwater quality as it has the capability of removing both dissolved inorganic salts and organic contaminants from tertiary wastewater effluents. The aim was to better understand one of the major problems facing this technology which is fouling of the membranes, mainly biofouling and scaling by calcium phosphate. The experiments were performed using the small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique. The nanoparticles, GNPs, stabilized by the citrate groups showed 30 Å large particles having a homogeneous distribution of gold and citrate with a gold volume fraction of the order of 1%. On the average two BSA monomers are grafted at 2.4 GNPs. The exposed BSA-GNPs to SSE solution led to immediate mineralization of stable composite particles of the order of 0.2 μm diameter and a mineral volume fraction between 50% and 80%. The volume fraction of the mineral was of the order of 10(-5), which is roughly 3 times larger but an order of magnitude smaller than the maximum possible contents of respectively calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate in the SSE solution. Considering the extreme low solubility product of calcium phosphate, we suggest total calcium phosphate and partially (5-10%) calcium carbonate formation in the presence of BSA-GNPs.

  12. Small-angle neutron scattering studies of mineralization on BSA coated citrate capped gold nanoparticles used as a model surface for membrane scaling in RO wastewater desalination.

    PubMed

    Dahdal, Y N; Pipich, V; Rapaport, H; Oren, Y; Kasher, R; Schwahn, D

    2014-12-23

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) coated on citrate capped gold nanoparticles (BSA-GNPs) was exposed to a simulated wastewater effluent (SSE) in order to study the mineralization and thereby mimic scaling at biofouled membranes of reverse osmosis (RO) wastewater desalination plants. RO is a leading technology of achieving freshwater quality as it has the capability of removing both dissolved inorganic salts and organic contaminants from tertiary wastewater effluents. The aim was to better understand one of the major problems facing this technology which is fouling of the membranes, mainly biofouling and scaling by calcium phosphate. The experiments were performed using the small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique. The nanoparticles, GNPs, stabilized by the citrate groups showed 30 Å large particles having a homogeneous distribution of gold and citrate with a gold volume fraction of the order of 1%. On the average two BSA monomers are grafted at 2.4 GNPs. The exposed BSA-GNPs to SSE solution led to immediate mineralization of stable composite particles of the order of 0.2 μm diameter and a mineral volume fraction between 50% and 80%. The volume fraction of the mineral was of the order of 10(-5), which is roughly 3 times larger but an order of magnitude smaller than the maximum possible contents of respectively calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate in the SSE solution. Considering the extreme low solubility product of calcium phosphate, we suggest total calcium phosphate and partially (5-10%) calcium carbonate formation in the presence of BSA-GNPs. PMID:25458085

  13. Citrate anticoagulation in the ICU: the Leeds experience.

    PubMed

    Trumper, Charlotte

    2016-09-01

    Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is widely used in the management of critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. It requires effective anticoagulation of the extracorporeal blood circuit. Although heparin is the most commonly prescribed anticoagulant, there are issues associated with heparin, and there has been increasing interest in regional citrate anticoagulation as an alternative. In 2013, The Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust switched from heparin to citrate anticoagulant for CRRT in intensive care units (ICUs) across the Trust. This article examines the reasons for the switch, the implementation of citrate and the impact of this quality-improvement project in terms of patient outcome data and feedback from the ICU nursing team. PMID:27615524

  14. Efficacy of preventing hemodialysis catheter infections with citrate lock.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jorge; Antunes, Jorge; Carvalho, Telmo; Ponce, Pedro

    2012-10-01

    Prevalent use of tunneled dialysis catheters can reach 30%. Infection remains the most serious catheter-related problem. Catheter locks are increasingly used for prevention, but are not yet recommended either by the Food and Drug Association or European Medicines Agency, on the basis of increasing bacterial resistance or lock toxicity. The aim was to test safety and effectiveness of citrate. A prospective, interventional study was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of a 30% citrate lock in preventing catheter-related bacteremia (CRB). A total of 157 prevalent tunneled catheters were locked with citrate and prospectively followed during a 1-year period. The primary endpoint was first CRB diagnosed according to two of the diagnostic criteria for Catheter Infection of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), namely definite and probable infection. The CDC criterion of possible but not proved infection was not considered. This citrate lock cohort (n = 157) had 10 episodes of CRB. We observed 0.49 CRB episodes/1000 patient-days and the mean infection-free catheter day was 130.6 ± 100.9. No clinically relevant adverse events were observed. No proved tunnel or exit site infection was observed and no patients died because of CRB. Catheter obstruction episodes were reported on 69 occasions out of 14 catheters. These results were compared with an historical cohort from a previous study of catheter locking with low-dose gentamicin and did not show significant difference in efficacy. Citrate lock is effective in preventing CRB. No toxicity was observed. The use of citrate lock may have advantages over antibiotic locks: no reported bacterial resistance, lower industrial cost, and less manipulation.

  15. Efficacy of preventing hemodialysis catheter infections with citrate lock.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jorge; Antunes, Jorge; Carvalho, Telmo; Ponce, Pedro

    2012-10-01

    Prevalent use of tunneled dialysis catheters can reach 30%. Infection remains the most serious catheter-related problem. Catheter locks are increasingly used for prevention, but are not yet recommended either by the Food and Drug Association or European Medicines Agency, on the basis of increasing bacterial resistance or lock toxicity. The aim was to test safety and effectiveness of citrate. A prospective, interventional study was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of a 30% citrate lock in preventing catheter-related bacteremia (CRB). A total of 157 prevalent tunneled catheters were locked with citrate and prospectively followed during a 1-year period. The primary endpoint was first CRB diagnosed according to two of the diagnostic criteria for Catheter Infection of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), namely definite and probable infection. The CDC criterion of possible but not proved infection was not considered. This citrate lock cohort (n = 157) had 10 episodes of CRB. We observed 0.49 CRB episodes/1000 patient-days and the mean infection-free catheter day was 130.6 ± 100.9. No clinically relevant adverse events were observed. No proved tunnel or exit site infection was observed and no patients died because of CRB. Catheter obstruction episodes were reported on 69 occasions out of 14 catheters. These results were compared with an historical cohort from a previous study of catheter locking with low-dose gentamicin and did not show significant difference in efficacy. Citrate lock is effective in preventing CRB. No toxicity was observed. The use of citrate lock may have advantages over antibiotic locks: no reported bacterial resistance, lower industrial cost, and less manipulation. PMID:22515732

  16. Physiological characterization of ATP-citrate lyase in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; He, Xihong; Geng, Hongran; Liu, Hao

    2014-04-01

    Acetyl-CoA, an important molecule in cellular metabolism, is generated in multiple subcellular compartments and mainly used for energy production, biosynthesis of a diverse set of molecules, and protein acetylation. In eukaryotes, cytosolic acetyl-CoA is derived mainly from the conversion of citrate and CoA by ATP-citrate lyase. Here, we describe the targeted deletions of acl1 and acl2, two tandem divergently transcribed genes encoding subunits of ATP-citrate lyase in Aspergillus niger. We show that loss of acl1 or/and acl2 results in a significant decrease of acetyl-CoA and citric acid levels in these mutants, concomitant with diminished vegetative growth, decreased pigmentation, reduced asexual conidiogenesis, and delayed conidial germination. Exogenous addition of acetate repaired the defects of acl-deficient strains in growth and conidial germination but not pigmentation and conidiogenesis. We demonstrate that both Acl1 and Acl2 subunits are required to form a functional ATP-citrate lyase in A. niger. First, deletion of acl1 or/and acl2 resulted in similar defects in growth and development. Second, enzyme activity assays revealed that loss of either acl1 or acl2 gene resulted in loss of ATP-citrate lyase activity. Third, in vitro enzyme assays using bacterially expressed 6His-tagged Acl protein revealed that only the complex of Acl1 and Acl2 showed ATP-citrate lyase activity, no enzyme activities were detected with the individual protein. Fourth, EGFP-Acl1 and mCherry-Acl2 proteins were co-localized in the cytosol. Thus, acl1 and acl2 coordinately modulate the cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA levels to regulate growth, development, and citric acid synthesis in A. niger.

  17. Functional Characterization and Metal Ion Specificity of the Metal-Citrate Complex Transporter from Streptomyces coelicolor▿

    PubMed Central

    Lensbouer, Joshua J.; Patel, Ami; Sirianni, Joseph P.; Doyle, Robert P.

    2008-01-01

    Secondary transporters of citrate in complex with metal ions belong to the bacterial CitMHS family, about which little is known. The transport of metal-citrate complexes in Streptomyces coelicolor has been investigated. The best cofactor for citrate uptake in Streptomyces coelicolor is Fe3+, but uptake was also noted for Ca2+, Pb2+, Ba2+, and Mn2+. Uptake was not observed with the Mg2+, Ni2+, or Co2+ cofactor. The transportation of iron- and calcium-citrate makes these systems unique among the CitMHS family members reported to date. No complementary uptake akin to that observed for the CitH (Ca2+, Ba2+, Sr2+) and CitM (Mg2+, Ni2+, Mn2+, Co2+, Zn2+) systems of Bacillus subtilis was noted. Competitive experiments using EGTA confirmed that metal-citrate complex formation promoted citrate uptake. Uptake of free citrate was not observed. The open reading frame postulated as being responsible for the metal-citrate transport observed in Streptomyces coelicolor was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli strains with the primary Fe3+-citrate transport system (fecABCDE) removed. Functional expression was successful, with uptake of Ca2+-citrate, Fe3+-citrate, and Pb2+-citrate observed. No free-citrate transport was observed in IPTG (isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside)-induced or -uninduced E. coli. Metabolism of the Fe3+-citrate and Ca2+-citrate complexes, but not the Pb2+-citrate complex, was observed. Rationalization is based on the difference in metal-complex coordination upon binding of the metal by citrate. PMID:18556792

  18. Temperature effect on nickel release in ammonium citrate.

    PubMed

    Oller, Adriana R; Cappellini, Danielle; Henderson, Rayetta G; Bates, Hudson K

    2009-09-01

    Leaching in ammonium citrate has been extensively used to assess the fraction of water-soluble nickel compounds present in nickel producing and using workplace aerosols. Leaching in ammonium citrate according to the first step of the Zatka protocol was found to overestimate the water-soluble nickel fraction by more than ten-fold compared to synthetic lung fluid (37 degrees C), when nickel carbonate and subsulfide were present. These results suggest that exposure matrices based on this method should be reexamined. Leaching studies of refinery particles are needed to further clarify this important issue. PMID:19724840

  19. Peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthase in CAM plants.

    PubMed

    Zafra, M F; Segovia, J L; Alejandre, M J; García-Peregrín, E

    1981-12-01

    Citrate synthase wa studied for the first time in peroxisomes and mitochondria of crassulacean acid metabolism plants. Cellular organelles were isolated from Agave americana leaves by sucrose density gradient centrifugation and characterized by the use of catalase and cytochrome oxidase as marker enzymes, respectively. 48,000 X g centrifugation caused the breakdown of the cellular organelles. The presence of a glyoxylate cycle enzyme (citrate synthase) and a glycollate pathway enzyme (catalase) in the same organelles, besides the absence of another glyoxalate cycle enzyme (malate synthase) is reported for the first time, suggesting that peroxisomal and glyoxysomal proteins are synthesized at the same time and housed in he same organelle.

  20. Pituitary-gonadal response to acute I.M. stimulation with clomiphene citrate in normal men.

    PubMed

    Miechi, H R; Turner, D; Guitelman, A; Aparicio, N J; Schwarzstein, L

    1975-06-01

    In order to asses the effect of acute i.m. injection of clomiphene citrate (CC) on LH, FSH, and testosterone (T) secretion, five normal, fertile men received 5 mg of the drug dissolved in 2 ml 0.9% saline, while a further five were injected 10 mg of the same preparation. All tests were performed at 8 a.m. Blood samples were drawn at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 minutes of the injection. Serum LH, FSH, and T values were determined by the double antibody radioimmunoassay technique. A significant rise of the LH, FSH, and T levels was obtained in both groups. Peak LH values were obtained at 30 minutes (average), whereas FSH and T peaks occurred at 60 minutes. The 180-minute values were similar to basal. The results seem to indicate that intramsucularly administered CC could be useful, as a rapid test, in evaluating the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

  1. A novel direct homogeneous assay for ATP citrate lyase.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhengping; Chu, Ching-Hsuen; Cheng, Dong

    2009-10-01

    ATP citrate lyase (ACL) is a cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate using citrate, CoA, and ATP as substrates and Mg(2+) as a necessary cofactor. The ACL-dependent synthesis of acetyl-CoA is thought to be an essential step for the de novo synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol. For this reason, inhibition of ACL has been pursued as a strategy to treat dyslipidemia and obesity. Traditionally, ACL enzyme activity is measured indirectly by coupling to enzymes such as malate dehydrogenase or chloramphenicol acetyl transferase. In this report, however, we describe a novel procedure to directly measure ACL enzyme activity. We first identified a convenient method to specifically detect [(14)C]acetyl-CoA without detecting [(14)C]citrate by MicroScint-O. Using this detection system, we devised a simple, direct, and homogeneous ACL assay in 384-well plate format that is suitable for high-throughput screening. The current assay consists of 1) incubation of ACL enzyme with [(14)C]citrate and other substrates/cofactors CoA, ATP, and Mg(2+), 2) EDTA quench, 3) addition of MicroScint-O, the agent that specifically detects product [(14)C]acetyl-CoA, and 4) detection of signal by TopCount. This unique ACL assay may provide more efficient identification of new ACL inhibitors and allow detailed mechanistic characterization of ACL/inhibitor interactions.

  2. Structural effects of titanium citrate on the human erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Suwalsky, M; Villena, F; Norris, B; Soto, M A; Sotomayor, C P; Messori, L; Zatta, P

    2005-03-01

    The structural effects of titanium citrate on the human erythrocyte membrane were studied through its interaction with intact erythrocytes and isolated unsealed human erythrocyte membranes (IUM). The studies were carried out by scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy, respectively. Titanium citrate induced shape changes in erythrocytes, which were damaged and ruptured leaving empty and retracted membranes. Fluorescence spectroscopy measurements in IUM indicated a disordering effect at both the polar head group and the acyl chain packing arrangements of the membrane phospholipid bilayer. Titanium citrate also interacted with molecular models of the erythrocyte membrane consisting in bilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE), representing classes of phospholipids located in the outer and inner monolayers of the erythrocyte membrane, respectively. X-ray diffraction indicated that titanium citrate induced structural perturbation of the polar head group and of the hydrophobic acyl regions of DMPC, while the effects on DMPE bilayers were negligible. This conclusion is supported by fluorescence spectroscopy measurements on DMPC large unilamellar vesicles. All these findings indicate that the structural perturbations induced by titanium to human erythrocytes can be extended to other cells, thereby affecting their functions. PMID:15708797

  3. Citrate-based contained liquid membranes for flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Pakala, N.R.; Varanasi, S.; LeBlanc, S.E. )

    1993-03-01

    The steady-state SO[sub 2] fluxes across aqueous sodium citrate and sulfite films were measured, using a flat liquid film sandwiched between polymer sheets and also a hollow-fiber contained liquid membrane device (HFCLM). Nonequilibrium boundary layer analysis (NEBLA) for the transport of SO[sub 2] through sulfate films was modified for citrate films and compared to the experimental data. The agreement between the measured fluxes and model predictions is excellent. SO[sub 2] transport rates across citrate films were found to be higher by at least a factor of 4 compared to those across sulfite films, at all reagent concentrations studied. The observed enhancement in SO[sub 2] flux across aqueous sulfite or citrate films stems from the dynamic role played by these weak-acid reagents as carriers for H[sup +] ions across the film. A weak acid with a pK close to the arithmetic mean of the pH values at the two faces of the liquid film is expected to provide the maximum enhancement in SO[sub 2] flux.

  4. 21 CFR 184.1307c - Ferrous citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferrous citrate. 184.1307c Section 184.1307c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1307c - Ferrous citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferrous citrate. 184.1307c Section 184.1307c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1307c - Ferrous citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferrous citrate. 184.1307c Section 184.1307c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1307c - Ferrous citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferrous citrate. 184.1307c Section 184.1307c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing...

  8. 40 CFR 721.7286 - Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7286 Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines,...

  9. 40 CFR 721.7286 - Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7286 Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines,...

  10. 40 CFR 721.7285 - Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7285 Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines,...

  11. 40 CFR 721.7285 - Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7285 Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines,...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1140 - Ammonium citrate, dibasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... intended use. (c) In accordance with § 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used in food with no limitation other... safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the following current good manufacturing... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium citrate, dibasic. 184.1140 Section...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1140 - Ammonium citrate, dibasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... intended use. (c) In accordance with § 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used in food with no limitation other... safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the following current good manufacturing... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium citrate, dibasic. 184.1140 Section...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1140 - Ammonium citrate, dibasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... intended use. (c) In accordance with § 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used in food with no limitation other... safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the following current good manufacturing... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium citrate, dibasic. 184.1140 Section...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1140 - Ammonium citrate, dibasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... accordance with § 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used in food with no limitation other than current good... human food ingredient is based upon the following current good manufacturing practice conditions of use... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium citrate, dibasic. 184.1140 Section...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 184.1296 Section 184.1296 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 184.1296 Section 184.1296 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 184.1296 Section 184.1296 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS...

  19. 76 FR 19997 - Determination That FENTORA (Fentanyl Citrate) Buccal Tablet, 300 Micrograms, Was Not Withdrawn...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That FENTORA (Fentanyl Citrate) Buccal Tablet... determined that FENTORA (fentanyl citrate) buccal tablet, 300 micrograms (mcg), was not withdrawn from sale... drug applications (ANDAs) for fentanyl citrate buccal tablet, 300 mcg, if all other legal...

  20. 21 CFR 520.763c - Dithiazanine iodide and piperazine citrate suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dithiazanine iodide and piperazine citrate... § 520.763c Dithiazanine iodide and piperazine citrate suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of... piperazine citrate). (b) Sponsor. See 000010 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) NAS/NRC status....

  1. 21 CFR 520.763c - Dithiazanine iodide and piperazine citrate suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dithiazanine iodide and piperazine citrate... § 520.763c Dithiazanine iodide and piperazine citrate suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of... piperazine citrate). (b) Sponsor. See 000010 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) NAS/NRC status....

  2. 78 FR 63228 - Determination That Potassium Citrate, 10 Milliequivalents/Packet and 20 Milliequivalents/Packet...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That Potassium Citrate, 10 Milliequivalents...) has determined that Potassium Citrate, 10 milliequivalents/packet (mEq/packet) and 20 mEq/ packet, was... approve abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for Potassium Citrate, 10 mEq/packet and 20...

  3. Iron Translocation I. Plant Culture, Exudate Sampling, Iron-Citrate Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tiffin, Lee O.

    1966-01-01

    Plant culture, exudate sampling, and analytical methods designed to ascertain the form of iron translocated are presented. Restoration of iron to sunflower plants precultured at different Fe levels resulted in exudate iron concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 31 × 10−5 m. Citrate was from 3 to 89 × 10−5 m. Iron and citrate were highest in exudates from iron-deficient plants. Citrate/Fe ratios were between 1 and 3 for exudates of deficient plants. Exudate from normal plants gave a citrate/Fe ratio of 15. Malate, iron, and a fraction of the citrate in stem exudates migrated electrophoretically to similar positions in acetate buffer. Extracts of narrow bands from the iron-containing areas gave curves suggesting that citrate bound the iron. Citrate that was not combined with iron migrated in a slower band. The effect of iron on citrate migration was confirmed in several related experiments. The stability of Fe-citrate was demonstrated electrophoretically in malate buffer. Citrate retained iron against malate. Data given in this paper indicate that citrate binds iron in sunflower exudate. The data suggest that citrate carries iron in intact plants. Images PMID:16656281

  4. Mayenite Synthesized Using the Citrate Sol-Gel Method

    SciTech Connect

    Ude, Sabina N; Rawn, Claudia J; Meisner, Roberta A; Kirkham, Melanie J; Jones, Gregory L.; Payzant, E Andrew

    2014-01-01

    A citrate sol-gel method has been used to synthesize mayenite (Ca12Al14O33). X-ray powder diffraction data show that the samples synthesized using the citrate sol-gel method contained CaAl2O4 and CaCO3 along with mayenite when fired ex-situ in air at 800 C but were single phase when fired at 900 C and above. Using high temperature x-ray diffraction, data collected in-situ in air at temperatures of 600 C and below showed only amorphous content; however, data collected at higher temperatures indicated the first phase to crystallize is CaCO3. High temperature x-ray diffraction data collected in 4% H2/96% N2 does not show the presence of CaCO3, and Ca12Al14O33 starts to form around 850 C. In comparison, x-ray powder diffraction data collected ex-situ on samples synthesized using traditional solid-state synthesis shows that single phase was not reached until samples were fired at 1350 C. DTA/TGA data collected either in a nitrogen environment or air on samples synthesized using the citrate gel method suggest the complete decomposition of metastable phases and the formation of mayenite at 900 C, although the phase evolution is very different depending on the environment. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements showed a slightly higher surface area of 7.4 0.1 m2/g in the citrate gel synthesized samples compared to solid-state synthesized sample with a surface area of 1.61 0.02 m2/g. SEM images show a larger particle size for samples synthesized using the solid-state method compared to those synthesized using the citrate gel method.

  5. Re-Citrate Synthase from Clostridium kluyveri Is Phylogenetically Related to Homocitrate Synthase and Isopropylmalate Synthase Rather Than to Si-Citrate Synthase† ▿

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fuli; Hagemeier, Christoph H.; Seedorf, Henning; Gottschalk, Gerhard; Thauer, Rudolf K.

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis of citrate from acetyl-coenzyme A and oxaloacetate is catalyzed in most organisms by a Si-citrate synthase, which is Si-face stereospecific with respect to C-2 of oxaloacetate. However, in Clostridium kluyveri and some other strictly anaerobic bacteria, the reaction is catalyzed by a Re-citrate synthase, whose primary structure has remained elusive. We report here that Re-citrate synthase from C. kluyveri is the product of a gene predicted to encode isopropylmalate synthase. C. kluyveri is also shown to contain a gene for Si-citrate synthase, which explains why cell extracts of the organism always exhibit some Si-citrate synthase activity. PMID:17400742

  6. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  7. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  8. Phosphorus, phosphorous, and phosphate.

    PubMed

    Iheagwara, O Susan; Ing, Todd S; Kjellstrand, Carl M; Lew, Susie Q

    2013-10-01

    This article distinguishes the terms "phosphorus, phosphorous, and phosphate" which are frequently used interchangeably. We point out the difference between phosphorus and phosphate, with an emphasis on the unit of measure. Expressing a value without the proper name or unit of measure may lead to misunderstanding and erroneous conclusions. We indicate why phosphate must be expressed as milligrams per deciliter or millimoles per liter and not as milliequivalents per liter. Therefore, we elucidate the distinction among the terms "phosphorus, phosphorous, and phosphate" and the importance of saying precisely what one really means.

  9. DHEA-mediated inhibition of the pentose phosphate pathway alters oocyte lipid metabolism in mice.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Patricia T; Frolova, Antonina I; Chi, Maggie M; Grindler, Natalia M; Willcockson, Alexandra R; Reynolds, Kasey A; Zhao, Quihong; Moley, Kelle H

    2013-12-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and hyperandrogenism have altered hormone levels and suffer from ovarian dysfunction leading to subfertility. We have attempted to generate a model of hyperandrogenism by feeding mice chow supplemented with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), an androgen precursor that is often elevated in women with PCOS. Treated mice had polycystic ovaries, low ovulation rates, disrupted estrous cycles, and altered hormone levels. Because DHEA is an inhibitor of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway, we tested the hypothesis that oocytes from DHEA-exposed mice would have metabolic disruptions. Citrate levels, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, and lipid content in denuded oocytes from these mice were significantly lower than controls, suggesting abnormal tricarboxylic acid and pentose phosphate pathway metabolism. The lipid and citrate effects were reversible by supplementation with nicotinic acid, a precursor for reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. These findings suggest that elevations in systemic DHEA can have a negative impact on oocyte metabolism and may contribute to poor pregnancy outcomes in women with hyperandrogenism and PCOS.

  10. DHEA-Mediated Inhibition of the Pentose Phosphate Pathway Alters Oocyte Lipid Metabolism in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Patricia T.; Frolova, Antonina I.; Chi, Maggie M.; Grindler, Natalia M.; Willcockson, Alexandra R.; Reynolds, Kasey A.; Zhao, Quihong

    2013-01-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and hyperandrogenism have altered hormone levels and suffer from ovarian dysfunction leading to subfertility. We have attempted to generate a model of hyperandrogenism by feeding mice chow supplemented with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), an androgen precursor that is often elevated in women with PCOS. Treated mice had polycystic ovaries, low ovulation rates, disrupted estrous cycles, and altered hormone levels. Because DHEA is an inhibitor of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway, we tested the hypothesis that oocytes from DHEA-exposed mice would have metabolic disruptions. Citrate levels, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, and lipid content in denuded oocytes from these mice were significantly lower than controls, suggesting abnormal tricarboxylic acid and pentose phosphate pathway metabolism. The lipid and citrate effects were reversible by supplementation with nicotinic acid, a precursor for reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. These findings suggest that elevations in systemic DHEA can have a negative impact on oocyte metabolism and may contribute to poor pregnancy outcomes in women with hyperandrogenism and PCOS. PMID:24036000

  11. In situ imaging of interfacial precipitation of phosphate on Goethite.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijun; Putnis, Christine V; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnación; Hövelmann, Jörn; Putnis, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Adsorption and subsequent immobilization of orthophosphate on iron oxides is of considerable importance in soil fertility and eutrophication studies. Here, in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to probe the interaction of phosphate-bearing solutions with goethite, α-FeOOH, (010) cleavage surfaces. During the dissolution of goethite we observed simultaneous nucleation of nanoparticles (1.0-3.0 nm in height) of iron phosphate (Fe-P) phases at the earliest nucleation stages, subsequent aggregation to form secondary particles (about 6.0 nm in height) and layered precipitates under various pH values and ionic strengths relevant to acid soil solution conditions. The heterogeneous nucleation rates of Fe-P precipitates at phosphate concentrations ranging from 5.0 to 50.0 mM were quantitatively defined. Enhanced goethite dissolution in the presence of high concentration NaCl or AlCl3 leads to a rapid increase in Fe-P nucleation rates, whereas low concentration MgCl2 inhibits goethite dissolution, this in turn influences Fe-P nucleation. Moreover, kinetic data analyses show that low concentrations of citrate caused an increase in the nucleation rate of Fe-P phases. However, at higher concentrations of citrate, nucleation acceleration was reversed with much longer induction times to form Fe-P nuclei. These in situ observations may improve the mechanistic understanding of processes resulting in phosphate immobilization by goethite-rich acid soils in the presence of various inorganic and organic additive molecules. PMID:25763812

  12. Soluble phosphate fertilizer production using acid effluent from metallurgical industry.

    PubMed

    Mattiello, Edson M; Resende Filho, Itamar D P; Barreto, Matheus S; Soares, Aline R; Silva, Ivo R da; Vergütz, Leonardus; Melo, Leônidas C A; Soares, Emanuelle M B

    2016-01-15

    Preventive and effective waste management requires cleaner production strategies and technologies for recycling and reuse. Metallurgical industries produce a great amount of acid effluent that must be discarded in a responsible manner, protecting the environment. The focus of this study was to examine the use of this effluent to increase reactivity of some phosphate rocks, thus enabling soluble phosphate fertilizer production. The effluent was diluted in deionized water with the following concentrations 0; 12.5; 25; 50; 75% (v v(-1)), which were added to four natural phosphate rocks: Araxá, Patos, Bayovar and Catalão and then left to react for 1 h and 24 h. There was an increase in water (PW), neutral ammonium citrate (PNAC) and citric acid (PCA) soluble phosphorus fractions. Such increases were dependent of rock type while the reaction time had no significant effect (p < 0.05) on the chemical and mineralogical phosphate characteristics. Phosphate fertilizers with low toxic metal concentrations and a high level of micronutrients were produced compared to the original natural rocks. The minimum amount of total P2O5, PNAC and PW, required for national legislation for phosphate partially acidulated fertilizer, were met when using Catalão and the effluent at the concentration of 55% (v v(-1)). Fertilizer similar to partially acidulated phosphate was obtained when Bayovar with effluent at 37.5% (v v(-1)) was used. Even though fertilizers obtained from Araxá and Patos did not contain the minimum levels of total P2O5 required by legislation, they can be used as a nutrient source and for acid effluent recycling and reuse. PMID:26496844

  13. Soluble phosphate fertilizer production using acid effluent from metallurgical industry.

    PubMed

    Mattiello, Edson M; Resende Filho, Itamar D P; Barreto, Matheus S; Soares, Aline R; Silva, Ivo R da; Vergütz, Leonardus; Melo, Leônidas C A; Soares, Emanuelle M B

    2016-01-15

    Preventive and effective waste management requires cleaner production strategies and technologies for recycling and reuse. Metallurgical industries produce a great amount of acid effluent that must be discarded in a responsible manner, protecting the environment. The focus of this study was to examine the use of this effluent to increase reactivity of some phosphate rocks, thus enabling soluble phosphate fertilizer production. The effluent was diluted in deionized water with the following concentrations 0; 12.5; 25; 50; 75% (v v(-1)), which were added to four natural phosphate rocks: Araxá, Patos, Bayovar and Catalão and then left to react for 1 h and 24 h. There was an increase in water (PW), neutral ammonium citrate (PNAC) and citric acid (PCA) soluble phosphorus fractions. Such increases were dependent of rock type while the reaction time had no significant effect (p < 0.05) on the chemical and mineralogical phosphate characteristics. Phosphate fertilizers with low toxic metal concentrations and a high level of micronutrients were produced compared to the original natural rocks. The minimum amount of total P2O5, PNAC and PW, required for national legislation for phosphate partially acidulated fertilizer, were met when using Catalão and the effluent at the concentration of 55% (v v(-1)). Fertilizer similar to partially acidulated phosphate was obtained when Bayovar with effluent at 37.5% (v v(-1)) was used. Even though fertilizers obtained from Araxá and Patos did not contain the minimum levels of total P2O5 required by legislation, they can be used as a nutrient source and for acid effluent recycling and reuse.

  14. Modification by food of the calcium absorbability and physicochemical effects of calcium citrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wabner, C. L.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    The food-calcium (Ca) interaction was examined in 12 healthy women (mean age 38 years) maintained on a constant metabolic diet. They underwent three phases of study, comprised of control (no Ca), Ca citrate (1 g Ca/day) during meals, and Ca citrate separately from meals. Each phase was 7 days in length and two 24-hour urine samples were collected on days 6 and 7. The rise from the control phase in urinary Ca was slightly more prominent when Ca citrate was given with meals than without (68 and 62%, respectively). The fall in urinary phosphorus was equivalent at about 25% between Ca citrate phases. The rise in urinary citrate and pH and the decline in urinary ammonium were more prominent when Ca citrate was given with meals; however, the changes were small or nonsignificant. The urinary saturation of Ca oxalate, brushite or monosodium urate did not differ between the two Ca citrate phases. There was a nonsignificant rise in serum iron during Ca citrate phases. The results suggest that: 1) dissolution and absorption of Ca citrate might be slightly greater when given with food than without; 2) that the ability of Ca citrate to attenuate crystallization of stone-forming Ca salts in urine is not modified by food; and 3) that Ca citrate may not impair iron absorption from food.

  15. Production of technical-grade sodium citrate from glycerol-containing biodiesel waste by Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Kamzolova, Svetlana V; Vinokurova, Natalia G; Lunina, Julia N; Zelenkova, Nina F; Morgunov, Igor G

    2015-10-01

    The production of technical-grade sodium citrate from the glycerol-containing biodiesel waste by Yarrowia lipolytica was studied. Batch experiments showed that citrate was actively produced within 144 h, then citrate formation decreased presumably due to inhibition of enzymes involved in this process. In contrast, when the method of repeated batch cultivation was used, the formation of citrate continued for more than 500 h. In this case, the final concentration of citrate in the culture liquid reached 79-82 g/L. Trisodium citrate was isolated from the culture liquid filtrate by the addition of a small amount of NaOH, so that the pH of the filtrate increased to 7-8. This simple and economic isolation procedure gave the yield of crude preparation containing trisodium citrate 5.5-hydrate up to 82-86%.

  16. Recycling of Ni(II)-citrate complexes using precipitation in alkaline solutions.

    PubMed

    Gyliene, O; Aikaite, J; Nivinskiene, O

    2004-06-18

    When the excess of Ni(II) ions as compared to citrate concentration is used both Ni(II) ions and citrate can be precipitated in alkaline solutions. The ratio between Ni(II) and citrate in the precipitate and completeness of citrate precipitation depends on the ratio between the Ni(II) and citrate concentrations in the initial solution and its pH. The data of chemical analysis, potentiometric titration, FT-IR as well as visible spectrophotometric investigations suggest that Ni(II) in the insoluble compound is bound with three -COO- groups and -OH group of the citrate. The insoluble compound also contains SO4(2-) and hydroxides. The treatment of this precipitate with H2SO4 enables to recover a soluble Ni(II)-citrate complex, which can be reused in practice, and to remove the excess of Ni(II) in the form of insoluble Ni(OH)2. PMID:15177751

  17. Development and validation of a simple determination of urine metabolites (oxalate, citrate, uric acid and creatinine) by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Jose A; López-Mesas, Montserrat; Valiente, Manuel

    2010-04-15

    Oxalate, citrate, uric acid and creatinine are important urine markers for the evaluation and treatment of urolithiasic patients. They have been traditionally analysed by enzymatic and chromatographic techniques which present practical drawbacks, mainly in the sample pre-treatment step. The purpose of this study was to evaluate those markers in urine samples, by an easy multi-analyte assay using capillary zone electrophoresis. The four urine metabolites were determined, at 25 degrees C, by using a 50 cm x 75 microm capillary in 50 mmol l(-1) phosphate buffer (pH 6.5), at constant voltage of -30 kV and UV detection at 195 nm (for oxalate and citrate) or 30 kV and 234 nm (for creatinine and uric acid). The sample pre-treatment was minimum, 5- and 20-fold dilution of the urine sample and acidification to pH 3-4. Validation parameters (linear range, sensitivity, accuracy, precision and detection limits) were statistically comparable to those obtained with the official methods normally used in the clinical practice. The effect of freezing as a conservation method of urine samples is also discussed in terms of recoveries of the analytes. The analytical method developed is highly useful as a diagnostic tool for detecting metabolic renal disorders due to its simplicity, time consuming, easy automation, cost efficiency and analytical effectiveness, accomplishing with the clinical requirements.

  18. CADMIUM PHOSPHATE GLASS

    DOEpatents

    Carpenter, H.W.; Johnson, P.D.

    1963-04-01

    A method of preparing a cadmium phosphate glass that comprises providing a mixture of solid inorganic compounds of cadmuim and phosphate having vaporizable components and heating the resulting composition to a temperature of at least 850 un. Concent 85% C is presented. (AEC)

  19. Ferric Citrate Reduces Intravenous Iron and Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agent Use in ESRD

    PubMed Central

    Jalal, Diana I.; Greco, Barbara A.; Umeukeje, Ebele M.; Reisin, Efrain; Manley, John; Zeig, Steven; Negoi, Dana G.; Hiremath, Anand N.; Blumenthal, Samuel S.; Sika, Mohammed; Niecestro, Robert; Koury, Mark J.; Ma, Khe-Ni; Greene, Tom; Lewis, Julia B.; Dwyer, Jamie P.

    2015-01-01

    Ferric citrate (FC) is a phosphate binder with shown efficacy and additional effects on iron stores and use of intravenous (iv) iron and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs). We provide detailed analyses of changes in iron/hematologic parameters and iv iron/ESA use at time points throughout the active control period of a phase 3 international randomized clinical trial. In all, 441 subjects were randomized (292 to FC and 149 to sevelamer carbonate and/or calcium acetate [active control (AC)]) and followed for 52 weeks. Subjects on FC had increased ferritin and transferrin saturation (TSAT) levels compared with subjects on AC by week 12 (change in ferritin, 114.1±29.35 ng/ml; P<0.001; change in TSAT, 8.62%±1.57%; P<0.001). Change in TSAT plateaued at this point, whereas change in ferritin increased through week 24, remaining relatively stable thereafter. Subjects on FC needed less iv iron compared with subjects on AC over 52 weeks (median [interquartile range] dose=12.9 [1.0–28.9] versus 26.8 [13.4–47.6] mg/wk; P<0.001), and the percentage of subjects not requiring iv iron was higher with FC (P<0.001). Cumulative ESA over 52 weeks was lower with FC than AC (median [interquartile range] dose=5303 [2023–9695] versus 6954 [2664–12,375] units/wk; P=0.04). Overall, 90.3% of subjects on FC and 89.3% of subjects on AC experienced adverse events. In conclusion, treatment with FC as a phosphate binder results in increased iron parameters apparent after 12 weeks and reduces iv iron and ESA use while maintaining hemoglobin over 52 weeks, with a safety profile similar to that of available binders. PMID:25736045

  20. Ferric Citrate Reduces Intravenous Iron and Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agent Use in ESRD.

    PubMed

    Umanath, Kausik; Jalal, Diana I; Greco, Barbara A; Umeukeje, Ebele M; Reisin, Efrain; Manley, John; Zeig, Steven; Negoi, Dana G; Hiremath, Anand N; Blumenthal, Samuel S; Sika, Mohammed; Niecestro, Robert; Koury, Mark J; Ma, Khe-Ni; Greene, Tom; Lewis, Julia B; Dwyer, Jamie P

    2015-10-01

    Ferric citrate (FC) is a phosphate binder with shown efficacy and additional effects on iron stores and use of intravenous (iv) iron and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs). We provide detailed analyses of changes in iron/hematologic parameters and iv iron/ESA use at time points throughout the active control period of a phase 3 international randomized clinical trial. In all, 441 subjects were randomized (292 to FC and 149 to sevelamer carbonate and/or calcium acetate [active control (AC)]) and followed for 52 weeks. Subjects on FC had increased ferritin and transferrin saturation (TSAT) levels compared with subjects on AC by week 12 (change in ferritin, 114.1±29.35 ng/ml; P<0.001; change in TSAT, 8.62%±1.57%; P<0.001). Change in TSAT plateaued at this point, whereas change in ferritin increased through week 24, remaining relatively stable thereafter. Subjects on FC needed less iv iron compared with subjects on AC over 52 weeks (median [interquartile range] dose=12.9 [1.0-28.9] versus 26.8 [13.4-47.6] mg/wk; P<0.001), and the percentage of subjects not requiring iv iron was higher with FC (P<0.001). Cumulative ESA over 52 weeks was lower with FC than AC (median [interquartile range] dose=5303 [2023-9695] versus 6954 [2664-12,375] units/wk; P=0.04). Overall, 90.3% of subjects on FC and 89.3% of subjects on AC experienced adverse events. In conclusion, treatment with FC as a phosphate binder results in increased iron parameters apparent after 12 weeks and reduces iv iron and ESA use while maintaining hemoglobin over 52 weeks, with a safety profile similar to that of available binders. PMID:25736045

  1. Changes in phosphorylation of adenosine phosphate and redox state of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) in Geobacter sulfurreducens in response to electron acceptor and anode potential variation.

    PubMed

    Rose, Nicholas D; Regan, John M

    2015-12-01

    Geobacter sulfurreducens is one of the dominant bacterial species found in biofilms growing on anodes in bioelectrochemical systems. The intracellular concentrations of reduced and oxidized forms of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NADH and NAD(+), respectively) and nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH and NADP(+), respectively) as well as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) were measured in G. sulfurreducens using fumarate, Fe(III)-citrate, or anodes poised at different potentials (110, 10, -90, and -190 mV (vs. SHE)) as the electron acceptor. The ratios of CNADH/CNAD+ (0.088±0.022) and CNADPH/CNADP+ (0.268±0.098) were similar under all anode potentials tested and with Fe(III)-citrate (reduced extracellularly). Both ratios significantly increased with fumarate as the electron acceptor (0.331±0.094 for NAD and 1.96±0.37 for NADP). The adenylate energy charge (the fraction of phosphorylation in intracellular adenosine phosphates) was maintained near 0.47 under almost all conditions. Anode-growing biofilms demonstrated a significantly higher molar ratio of ATP/ADP relative to suspended cultures grown on fumarate or Fe(III)-citrate. These results provide evidence that the cellular location of reduction and not the redox potential of the electron acceptor controls the intracellular redox potential in G. sulfurreducens and that biofilm growth alters adenylate phosphorylation.

  2. [Modern conservative (citrate) therapy for urate calculi in the ureters].

    PubMed

    Glybochko, P V; Aliaev, Iu G; Rapoport, L M; Tsarichenko, D G; Frolova, E A

    2014-01-01

    The results of conservative citrate therapy of 35 patients with urate calculi in ureter are presented. Due to the violation of the passage of urine in the upper urinary tract, the vast majority of patients (31 (88%)) underwent ureteral stenting to restore adequate flow of urine before treatment. In four patients, drainage of the upper urinary tract was not required. Citrate therapy allowed to achieve complete dissolution of calculi within 2 months in 25 (72%) patients. Another 14% of patients were able to reduce the size of the calculi, and in combination with contact ureterolithotripsy achieve complete discharge of calculi. Only in 14% of patients with urate calculi in ureter litholysis was ineffective. The used treatment option allows to avoid surgery in a large number of patients with urate lithiasis.

  3. Trisodium citrate, Na3(C6H5O7)

    PubMed Central

    Rammohan, Alagappa; Kaduk, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structure of anhydrous tris­odium citrate, Na3(C6H5O7), has been solved and refined using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data, and optimized using density functional theory (DFT). There are two independent five-coordinate Na+ and one six-coordinate Na+ cations in the asymmetric unit. The [NaO5] and [NaO6] polyhedra share edges and corners to form a three-dimensional framework. There are channels parallel to the a and b axes in which the remainder of the citrate anions reside. The only hydrogen bonds are an intra­molecular one between the hy­droxy group and one of the terminal carboxyl­ate O atoms and an intermolecular one between a methylene group and the hydroxyl O atom. PMID:27308044

  4. Synthesis of citrate-stabilized hydrocolloids of hydroxyapatite through a novel two-stage method: a possible aggregates-breakdown mechanism of colloid formation.

    PubMed

    Li, Cuicui; Zhao, Liping; Han, Jingjia; Wang, Ruifang; Xiong, Chengdong; Xie, Xingyi

    2011-08-15

    Long-term stable (>2 years) hydrocolloids of hydroxyapatite (HA) were synthesized via a low-temperature (18-50 °C) reaction of aqueous ammonium phosphate with calcium nitrate in the presence of citrate ions, followed by an aging process at high temperature (80-99 °C) for 4 h. Changing the reaction and/or aging temperature seldom yielded stable HA hydrocolloids. The as-prepared hydrocolloids were desalinated through ultrafiltration where their average particle size gradually decreased, bottomed out at 100-400 μS/cm, and sharply increased in parallel with a decrease in solution conductivity. The colloid formation is most likely through a temperature-sensitive aggregates-breakdown process. During low-temperature reaction, citrate-calcium chelation bridges the growing HA particles into loose aggregates. High-temperature aging disrupts these inter-particle links and thus breaks the aggregates, imparting negative charges to the HA, forming colloidal particles stabilized by surface charge. The decrease in mean particle size during early ultrafiltration suggested that the aggregate breakdown further proceeded through desalination. In conclusion, the temperature-dependent interactions between citrate ions and calcium sites on HA particles played key roles in the synthesis and stability of the HA colloids.

  5. Dynamics of meso and thermo citrate synthases with implicit solvation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordeiro, J. M. M.

    The dynamics of hydration of meso and thermo citrate synthases has been investigated using the EEF1 methodology implemented with the CHARMM program. The native enzymes are composed of two identical subunits, each divided into a small and large domain. The dynamics behavior of both enzymes at 30°C and 60°C has been compared. The results of simulations show that during the hydration process, each subunit follows a different pathway of hydration, in spite of the identical sequence. The hydrated structures were compared with the crystalline structure, and the root mean square deviation (RMSD) of each residue along the trajectory was calculated. The regions with larger and smaller mobility were identified. In particular, helices belonging to the small domain are more mobile than those of the large domain. In contrast, the residues that constitute the active site show a much lower displacement compared with the crystalline structure. Hydration free energy calculations point out that Thermoplasma acidophilum citrate synthase (TCS) is more stable than chicken citrate synthase (CCS), at high temperatures. Such result has been ascribed to the higher number of superficial charges in the thermophilic homologue, which stabilizes the enzyme, while the mesophilic homologue denatures. These results are in accord with the experimental found that TCS keeps activity at temperatures farther apart from the catalysis regular temperature than the CCS.

  6. Comparison of Citrated Human Blood, Citrated Sheep Blood, and Defibrinated Sheep Blood Mueller-Hinton Agar Preparations for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates ▿

    PubMed Central

    Satzke, Catherine; Seduadua, Anna; Chandra, Reginald; Carapetis, Jonathan R.; Mulholland, E. Kim; Russell, Fiona M.

    2010-01-01

    The use of Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with citrated human or citrated sheep blood was compared with the use of routinely used Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with defibrinated sheep blood for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The alternate supplements were found to be unsatisfactory, particularly for testing resistant isolates, and therefore are not recommended. PMID:20668133

  7. Comparison of citrated human blood, citrated sheep blood, and defibrinated sheep blood Mueller-Hinton agar preparations for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates.

    PubMed

    Satzke, Catherine; Seduadua, Anna; Chandra, Reginald; Carapetis, Jonathan R; Mulholland, E Kim; Russell, Fiona M

    2010-10-01

    The use of Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with citrated human or citrated sheep blood was compared with the use of routinely used Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with defibrinated sheep blood for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The alternate supplements were found to be unsatisfactory, particularly for testing resistant isolates, and therefore are not recommended.

  8. CitI, a Transcription Factor Involved in Regulation of Citrate Metabolism in Lactic Acid Bacteria†

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Mauricio G.; Magni, Christian; de Mendoza, Diego; López, Paloma

    2005-01-01

    A large variety of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can utilize citrate under fermentative conditions. Although much information concerning the metabolic pathways leading to citrate utilization by LAB has been gathered, the mechanisms regulating these pathways are obscure. In Weissella paramesenteroides (formerly called Leuconostoc paramesenteroides), transcription of the citMDEFCGRP citrate operon and the upstream divergent gene citI is induced by the presence of citrate in the medium. Although genetic experiments have suggested that CitI is a transcriptional activator whose activity can be modulated in response to citrate availability, specific details of the interaction between CitI and DNA remained unknown. In this study, we show that CitI recognizes two A+T-rich operator sites located between citI and citM and that the DNA-binding affinity of CitI is increased by citrate. Subsequently, this citrate signal propagation leads to the activation of the cit operon through an enhanced recruitment of RNA polymerase to its promoters. Our results indicate that the control of CitI by the cellular pools of citrate provides a mechanism for sensing the availability of citrate and adjusting the expression of the cit operon accordingly. In addition, this is the first reported example of a transcription factor directly functioning as a citrate-activated switch allowing the cell to optimize the generation of metabolic energy. PMID:16030208

  9. The synthesis of gold nanoparticles by a citrate-radiolytical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanžić, Nikolina; Jurkin, Tanja; Maksimović, Aleksandar; Gotić, Marijan

    2015-01-01

    The classical citrate method is based on the reduction of an Au(III) precursor with sodium citrate in an aqueous solution near the boiling point. In this work gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were synthesised via a citrate method using reduction by gamma-irradiation at room temperature. The Au(III)-citrate aqueous precursor solution was gamma-irradiated to doses of up to 30 kGy. The dose rate of gamma-irradiation was ~8 kGy h-1. The GNP size was controlled by the adsorbed dose as well as by different saturated gases (air or nitrogen) present in precursor solutions. The results showed that gamma-irradiation produced smaller GNPs in the presence of precursor solutions saturated with nitrogen compared with the ones saturated with air. By increasing both the gold(III) and citrate concentrations in precursor solutions, stable and highly concentrated colloidal gold/citrate suspensions were synthesised using classical and citrate-radiolytical reduction methods. Gamma-irradiation thus produced well-dispersed and highly concentrated GNPs in an aqueous citrate solution in the presence of dissolved oxygen and without adding any reducing or stabilising agents. Radiolytically intensified citrate oxidation and decarboxylation to acetone and other products by dissolved oxygen was advantageous for Au(III) reduction and subsequent formation of gold nanoparticles. Since the completely same precursor solutions were used both in the classical and citrate-radiolytical reduction methods, a real comparison of GNP sizes between these two methods was given.

  10. Enhanced effects of citrate on UVB-induced apoptosis of B16 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yun-Mi; Lee, Ju Eun; Kim, Su Yeon; Yun, Hye-Young; Baek, Kwang Jin; Kwon, Nyoun Soo; Kim, Dong-Seok

    2009-12-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a major risk factor for the development of melanoma. Recent studies have reported that the intake of citrate-containing juices may reduce the risk of cancer. Thus, we investigated the effects of citrate on UVB-irradiated B16 murine melanoma cells. B16 cells had more evident apoptotic features with the combination of citrate/UVB than by citrate or UVB alone; cell death of HaCaT human keratinocytes was not observed with citrate/UVB. Western blot analysis demonstrated that citrate/UVB led to phosphorylation of the stress signaling proteins, such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Furthermore, citrate/UVB caused activation of caspase-9/-3 as well as cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Correspondingly, cell cycle analysis showed that citrate/UVB clearly increased the sub-G0/G1 phase, which indicated apoptotic cell death of B16 cells. Therefore, our study has demonstrated that sub-lethal doses of citrate enhanced the apoptotic cell death of melanoma cells under UVB irradiation. From these results, we suggest that citrate might reduce the risk of developing melanoma induced by UVB.

  11. Exogenous citrate impairs glucose tolerance and promotes visceral adipose tissue inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Leandro, João G B; Espindola-Netto, Jair M; Vianna, Maria Carolina F; Gomez, Lilian S; DeMaria, Thaina M; Marinho-Carvalho, Monica M; Zancan, Patricia; Paula Neto, Heitor A; Sola-Penna, Mauro

    2016-03-28

    Overweight and obesity have become epidemic worldwide and are linked to sedentary lifestyle and the consumption of processed foods and drinks. Citrate is a metabolite that plays central roles in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. In addition, citrate is the additive most commonly used by the food industry, and therefore is highly consumed. Extracellular citrate can freely enter the cells via the constitutively expressed plasma membrane citrate transporter. Within the cytosol, citrate is readily metabolised by ATP-citrate lyase into acetyl-CoA - the metabolic precursor of endogenously produced lipids and cholesterol. We therefore hypothesised that the citrate ingested from processed foods and drinks could contribute to increased postprandial fat production and weight gain. To test our hypothesis, we administered citrate to mice through their drinking water with or without sucrose and monitored their weight gain and other metabolic parameters. Our results showed that mice receiving citrate or citrate+sucrose did not show increased weight gain or an increase in the weight of the liver, skeletal muscles or adipose tissues (AT). Moreover, the plasma lipid profiles (TAG, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL) were similar across all groups. However, the group receiving citrate+sucrose showed augmented fasting glycaemia, glucose intolerance and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10) in their AT. Therefore, our results suggest that citrate consumption contributes to increased AT inflammation and altered glucose metabolism, which is indicative of initial insulin resistance. Thus, citrate consumption could be a previously unknown causative agent for the complications associated with obesity. PMID:26863933

  12. Formation of apatitic calcium phosphates in a Na-K-phosphate solution of pH 7.4.

    PubMed

    Tas, A C; Aldinger, F

    2005-02-01

    Poorly crystalline, apatitic calcium phosphate powders have been synthesized by slowly adding a Na- and K-containing reference phosphate solution with a pH value of 7.4 to an aqueous calcium nitrate solution at 37 degrees C. Nano-particulated apatitic powders obtained were shown to contain small amounts of Na and K, which render them more similar in chemical composition to that of the bone mineral. Precipitated and dried powders were found to exhibit self-hardening cement properties when kneaded in a mortar with a sodium citrate- and sodium phosphate-containing starter solution. The same phosphate solution used in powder synthesis was found to be able to partially convert natural, white and translucent marble pieces of calcite (CaCO3) into calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite upon aging the samples in that solution for 3 days at 60 degrees C. Sample characterization was performed by using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, and simultaneous thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis.

  13. Double space with double line

    SciTech Connect

    Cheltsov, I A

    2004-10-31

    For a singular double cover of P{sup 3} ramified in a sextic with double line, its birational maps into Fano 3-folds with canonical singularities, elliptic fibrations, and fibrations on surfaces of Kodaira dimension zero are described.

  14. Double space with double line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheltsov, I. A.

    2004-10-01

    For a singular double cover of \\mathbb P^3 ramified in a sextic with double line, its birational maps into Fano 3-folds with canonical singularities, elliptic fibrations, and fibrations on surfaces of Kodaira dimension zero are described.

  15. [Double teeth].

    PubMed

    Schuurs, A H B; van Loveren, C

    2002-04-01

    Double teeth are not really rare, but it is still enigmatic why and how they develop. Based upon the clinical, morphological and anatomical appearance and the number of teeth in mouths with double teeth, the double teeth are labelled as products of 'fusion' and 'clefting', but the criteria to attach such etiological names are lacking. It is assumed that heredity is involved in the development of double teeth. Therefore it is attempted to explain why only one of a homozygotic twin had a double tooth. PMID:11982209

  16. Zinc Absorption by Young Adults from Supplemental Zinc Citrate Is Comparable with That from Zinc Gluconate and Higher than from Zinc Oxide123

    PubMed Central

    Wegmüller, Rita; Tay, Fabian; Zeder, Christophe; Brnić, Marica; Hurrell, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    The water-soluble zinc salts gluconate, sulfate, and acetate are commonly used as supplements in tablet or syrup form to prevent zinc deficiency and to treat diarrhea in children in combination with oral rehydration. Zinc citrate is an alternative compound with high zinc content, slightly soluble in water, which has better sensory properties in syrups but no absorption data in humans. We used the double-isotope tracer method with 67Zn and 70Zn to measure zinc absorption from zinc citrate given as supplements containing 10 mg of zinc to 15 healthy adults without food and compared absorption with that from zinc gluconate and zinc oxide (insoluble in water) using a randomized, double-masked, 3-way crossover design. Median (IQR) fractional absorption of zinc from zinc citrate was 61.3% (56.6–71.0) and was not different from that from zinc gluconate with 60.9% (50.6–71.7). Absorption from zinc oxide at 49.9% (40.9–57.7) was significantly lower than from both other supplements (P < 0.01). Three participants had little or no absorption from zinc oxide. We conclude that zinc citrate, given as a supplement without food, is as well absorbed by healthy adults as zinc gluconate and may thus be a useful alternative for preventing zinc deficiency and treating diarrhea. The more insoluble zinc oxide is less well absorbed when given as a supplement without food and may be minimally absorbed by some individuals. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01576627. PMID:24259556

  17. Zinc absorption by young adults from supplemental zinc citrate is comparable with that from zinc gluconate and higher than from zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Wegmüller, Rita; Tay, Fabian; Zeder, Christophe; Brnic, Marica; Hurrell, Richard F

    2014-02-01

    The water-soluble zinc salts gluconate, sulfate, and acetate are commonly used as supplements in tablet or syrup form to prevent zinc deficiency and to treat diarrhea in children in combination with oral rehydration. Zinc citrate is an alternative compound with high zinc content, slightly soluble in water, which has better sensory properties in syrups but no absorption data in humans. We used the double-isotope tracer method with (67)Zn and (70)Zn to measure zinc absorption from zinc citrate given as supplements containing 10 mg of zinc to 15 healthy adults without food and compared absorption with that from zinc gluconate and zinc oxide (insoluble in water) using a randomized, double-masked, 3-way crossover design. Median (IQR) fractional absorption of zinc from zinc citrate was 61.3% (56.6-71.0) and was not different from that from zinc gluconate with 60.9% (50.6-71.7). Absorption from zinc oxide at 49.9% (40.9-57.7) was significantly lower than from both other supplements (P < 0.01). Three participants had little or no absorption from zinc oxide. We conclude that zinc citrate, given as a supplement without food, is as well absorbed by healthy adults as zinc gluconate and may thus be a useful alternative for preventing zinc deficiency and treating diarrhea. The more insoluble zinc oxide is less well absorbed when given as a supplement without food and may be minimally absorbed by some individuals. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01576627.

  18. Zinc absorption by young adults from supplemental zinc citrate is comparable with that from zinc gluconate and higher than from zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Wegmüller, Rita; Tay, Fabian; Zeder, Christophe; Brnic, Marica; Hurrell, Richard F

    2014-02-01

    The water-soluble zinc salts gluconate, sulfate, and acetate are commonly used as supplements in tablet or syrup form to prevent zinc deficiency and to treat diarrhea in children in combination with oral rehydration. Zinc citrate is an alternative compound with high zinc content, slightly soluble in water, which has better sensory properties in syrups but no absorption data in humans. We used the double-isotope tracer method with (67)Zn and (70)Zn to measure zinc absorption from zinc citrate given as supplements containing 10 mg of zinc to 15 healthy adults without food and compared absorption with that from zinc gluconate and zinc oxide (insoluble in water) using a randomized, double-masked, 3-way crossover design. Median (IQR) fractional absorption of zinc from zinc citrate was 61.3% (56.6-71.0) and was not different from that from zinc gluconate with 60.9% (50.6-71.7). Absorption from zinc oxide at 49.9% (40.9-57.7) was significantly lower than from both other supplements (P < 0.01). Three participants had little or no absorption from zinc oxide. We conclude that zinc citrate, given as a supplement without food, is as well absorbed by healthy adults as zinc gluconate and may thus be a useful alternative for preventing zinc deficiency and treating diarrhea. The more insoluble zinc oxide is less well absorbed when given as a supplement without food and may be minimally absorbed by some individuals. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01576627. PMID:24259556

  19. Metal-phosphate binders

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, Beth Ann; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe

    2009-05-12

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  20. Phosphate control in dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Cupisti, Adamasco; Gallieni, Maurizio; Rizzo, Maria Antonietta; Caria, Stefania; Meola, Mario; Bolasco, Piergiorgio

    2013-01-01

    Prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia is a major goal of chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder (CKD–MBD) management, achievable through avoidance of a positive phosphate balance. To this aim, optimal dialysis removal, careful use of phosphate binders, and dietary phosphate control are needed to optimize the control of phosphate balance in well-nourished patients on a standard three-times-a-week hemodialysis schedule. Using a mixed diffusive–convective hemodialysis tecniques, and increasing the number and/or the duration of dialysis tecniques are all measures able to enhance phosphorus (P) mass removal through dialysis. However, dialytic removal does not equal the high P intake linked to the high dietary protein requirement of dialysis patients; hence, the use of intestinal P binders is mandatory to reduce P net intestinal absorption. Unfortunately, even a large dose of P binders is able to bind approximately 200–300 mg of P on a daily basis, so it is evident that their efficacy is limited in the case of an uncontrolled dietary P load. Hence, limitation of dietary P intake is needed to reach the goal of neutral phosphate balance in dialysis, coupled to an adequate protein intake. To this aim, patients should be informed and educated to avoid foods that are naturally rich in phosphate and also processed food with P-containing preservatives. In addition, patients should preferentially choose food with a low P-to-protein ratio. For example, patients could choose egg white or protein from a vegetable source. Finally, boiling should be the preferred cooking procedure, because it induces food demineralization, including phosphate loss. The integrated approach outlined in this article should be actively adapted as a therapeutic alliance by clinicians, dieticians, and patients for an effective control of phosphate balance in dialysis patients. PMID:24133374

  1. SbnG, a citrate synthase in Staphylococcus aureus: a new fold on an old enzyme.

    PubMed

    Kobylarz, Marek J; Grigg, Jason C; Sheldon, Jessica R; Heinrichs, David E; Murphy, Michael E P

    2014-12-01

    In response to iron deprivation, Staphylococcus aureus produces staphyloferrin B, a citrate-containing siderophore that delivers iron back to the cell. This bacterium also possesses a second citrate synthase, SbnG, that is necessary for supplying citrate to the staphyloferrin B biosynthetic pathway. We present the structure of SbnG bound to the inhibitor calcium and an active site variant in complex with oxaloacetate. The overall fold of SbnG is structurally distinct from TCA cycle citrate synthases yet similar to metal-dependent class II aldolases. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that SbnG forms a separate clade with homologs from other siderophore biosynthetic gene clusters and is representative of a metal-independent subgroup in the phosphoenolpyruvate/pyruvate domain superfamily. A structural superposition of the SbnG active site to TCA cycle citrate synthases and site-directed mutagenesis suggests a case for convergent evolution toward a conserved catalytic mechanism for citrate production.

  2. Hydrous iron oxide modified diatomite as an active filtration medium for phosphate capture.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Lin, Yan; Wu, Deyi; Kong, Hainan

    2016-02-01

    A simple method to functionalize diatomite with hydrous iron oxide was attempted and its performance as a new active filtration material to remove and recover phosphate from water was investigated under varying solution conditions. The Langmuir phosphate adsorption capacity increased from 0.6 mgP/g for raw diatomite to 4.89, 14.71, 25.02 mgP/g for hydrous iron oxide modified diatomite (HIOMD), depending on the amount of iron loaded. Loading of hydrous iron oxide caused the increase in true and bulk density and a decline in filtration rate, but to a lesser extent. It was shown that the HIOMD product with suitable iron content could retain a good filtration performance with a greatly increased adsorption capacity for phosphate. The phosphate adsorption increased by decreasing pH and by increasing ionic strength at high pH levels. The adsorption process was interpreted by ligand exchange. Coexisting oxyanions of sulfate, nitrate, citrate, carbonate, silicate and humic acid showed different effects on phosphate fixation but it was presumed that their influence at their concentrations and pH levels commonly encountered in effluent or natural waters was limited, i.e., HIOMD had a reasonably good selectivity. Results in repeated adsorption, desorption and regeneration experiment showed that the adsorbed phosphate could be recovered and the material could be reused after regeneration. The column test showed that HIOMD could be potentially utilized as an adsorption filtration medium for phosphate removal and recovery from water.

  3. Determination of direct available phosphate in fertilizers by a discrete analyzer: single-laboratory validation.

    PubMed

    Nimick, Ryan; Mehlbrech, Laura; Novotny, Lawrence; Thiex, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    To improve throughput during peak seasonal demand, a screening method for the determination of fertilizer-available phosphate using a discrete analyzer for semi-automation was validated in a single laboratory. The fertilizer materials were extracted using a neutral EDTA-ammonium citrate solution as detailed in AOAC Official Method 993.31. Phosphate was subsequently freed from the matrix and converted to orthophosphate using an alkaline persulfate digestion modified from a U.S. Geological Survey water method. Phosphorus was determined colorimetrically on a discrete analyzer. Twelve check samples from the Magruder Fertilizer Check Sample Program and Association of Fertilizer and Phosphate Chemists Fertilizer Check Program were used for method validation experiments. The proposed method is linear from 0.01 to 20 mg/L (ppm) phosphorus. Recovery for all materials averaged 101%, with a range of 99.2 to 103%. Bias for all materials averaged 0.59% with a range of -0.11 to 1.68%, with bias increasing at concentrations of available phosphate exceeding 40%. The LOD was calculated to be 0.001% available phosphate and the LOQ 0.002% available phosphate. The method was found fit for purpose as a screening method for available phosphate analysis in fertilizers.

  4. Forsterite Carbonation in Wet Supercritical CO2 and Sodium Citrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, L.; Schaef, T.; Wang, Z.; Miller, Q.; McGrail, P.

    2013-12-01

    Lin Qiu1*, Herbert T. Schaef2, Zhengrong Wang1, Quin R.S. Miller3, BP McGrail2 1. Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA 2. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA 3. University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, USA Geologic reservoirs for managing carbon emissions (mostly CO2) have expanded over the last 5 years to include unconventional formations including basalts and fractured shales. Recently, ~1000 metric tons of CO2 was injected into the Columbia River Basalt (CRB) in Eastern Washington as part of the Wallula Pilot Project, Big Sky Regional Carbon Partnership. Based on reservoir conditions, the injected CO2 is present as a supercritical fluid that dissolves into the formation water over time, and reacts with basalt components to form carbonate minerals. In this paper, we discuss mineral transformation reactions occurring when the forsterite (Mg2SiO4) is exposed to wet scCO2 in equilibrium with pure water and sodium citrate solutions. Forsterite was selected as it is an important olivine group mineral present in igneous and mafic rocks. Citrate was selected as it has been shown to enhance mineral dissolution and organic ligands are possible degradation products of the microbial communities present in the formational waters of the CRB. For the supercritical phase, transformation reactions were examined by in situ high pressure x-ray diffraction (HXRD) in the presence of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) in contact with water and sodium citrate solutions at conditions relevant to carbon sequestration. Experimental results show close-to-complete dissolution of forsterite in contact with scCO2 equilibrated with pure water for 90 hours (90 bar and 50°C). Under these conditions, thin films of water coated the mineral surface, providing a mechanism for silicate dissolution and transport of cations necessary for carbonate formation. The primary crystalline component initially detected with in situ HXRD was the hydrated magnesium carbonate, nesquehonite [Mg

  5. Engineering genetically encoded nanosensors for real-time in vivo measurements of citrate concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ewald, Jennifer C; Reich, Sabrina; Baumann, Stephan; Frommer, Wolf B; Zamboni, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Citrate is an intermediate in catabolic as well as biosynthetic pathways and is an important regulatory molecule in the control of glycolysis and lipid metabolism. Mass spectrometric and NMR based metabolomics allow measuring citrate concentrations, but only with limited spatial and temporal resolution. Methods are so far lacking to monitor citrate levels in real-time in-vivo. Here, we present a series of genetically encoded citrate sensors based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). We screened databases for citrate-binding proteins and tested three candidates in vitro. The citrate binding domain of the Klebsiella pneumoniae histidine sensor kinase CitA, inserted between the FRET pair Venus/CFP, yielded a sensor highly specific for citrate. We optimized the peptide linkers to achieve maximal FRET change upon citrate binding. By modifying residues in the citrate binding pocket, we were able to construct seven sensors with different affinities spanning a concentration range of three orders of magnitude without losing specificity. In a first in vivo application we show that E. coli maintains the capacity to take up glucose or acetate within seconds even after long-term starvation. PMID:22164251

  6. Risks and benefits of citrate anticoagulation for continuous renal replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Shum, H P; Yan, W W; Chan, T M

    2015-04-01

    Heparin, despite its significant side-effects, is the most commonly used anticoagulant for continuous renal replacement therapy in critical care setting. In recent years, citrate has gained much popularity by improving continuous renal replacement therapy circuit survival and decreasing blood transfusion requirements. However, its complex metabolic consequences warrant modification in the design of the citrate-based continuous renal replacement therapy protocol. With thorough understanding of the therapeutic mechanism of citrate, a simple and practicable protocol can be devised. Citrate-based continuous renal replacement therapy can be safely and widely used in the clinical setting with appropriate clinical staff training.

  7. Fast degradable citrate-based bone scaffold promotes spinal fusion

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jiajun; Guo, Jinshan; Li, Zhen; Yang, Cheng; Xie, Denghui; Chen, Jian; Li, Shengfa; Li, Shaolin; Kim, Gloria B.; Bai, Xiaochun; Zhang, Zhongmin; Yang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that high rates of fusion failure and pseudoarthrosis development (5~35%) are concomitant in spinal fusion surgery, which was ascribed to the shortage of suitable materials for bone regeneration. Citrate was recently recognized to play an indispensable role in enhancing osteconductivity and osteoinductivity, and promoting bone formation. To address the material challenges in spinal fusion surgery, we have synthesized mechanically robust and fast degrading citrate-based polymers by incorporating N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) into clickable poly(1, 8-octanediol citrates) (POC-click), referred to as POC-M-click. The obtained POC-M-click were fabricated into POC-M-click-HA matchstick scaffolds by compositing with hydroxyapatite (HA) for interbody spinal fusion in a rabbit model. Spinal fusion was analyzed by radiography, manual palpation, biomechanical testing, and histological evaluation. At 4 and 8 weeks post surgery, POC-M-click-HA scaffolds presented optimal degradation rates that facilitated faster new bone formation and higher spinal fusion rates (11.2±3.7, 80±4.5 at week 4 and 8, respectively) than the poly(L-lactic acid)-HA (PLLA-HA) control group (9.3±2.4 and 71.1±4.4) (p<0.05). The POC-M-click-HA scaffold-fused vertebrates possessed a maximum load and stiffness of 880.8±14.5 N and 843.2±22.4 N/mm, respectively, which were also much higher than those of the PLLA-HA group (maximum: 712.0±37.5 N, stiffness: 622.5±28.4 N/mm, p<0.05). Overall, the results suggest that POC-M-click-HA scaffolds could potentially serve as promising bone grafts for spinal fusion applications. PMID:26213625

  8. Citrate enhances in vitro metastatic behaviours of PC-3M human prostate cancer cells: status of endogenous citrate and dependence on aconitase and fatty acid synthase.

    PubMed

    Mycielska, Maria E; Broke-Smith, Timothy P; Palmer, Christopher P; Beckerman, Rachel; Nastos, Theodoros; Erguler, Kamil; Djamgoz, Mustafa B A

    2006-01-01

    Prostate is a unique organ that produces and releases large amounts of citrate. This is reduced significantly in cancer and it is possible that citrate is (re)taken up and used as a metabolite to enhance cellular activity. The main purpose of this study was to determine how cytosolic citrate might affect in vitro metastatic cell behaviours (lateral motility, endocytosis and adhesion). Normal (PNT2-C2) and metastatic (PC-3M) human prostate cancer cells were used in a comparative approach. As regards intermediary metabolic enzymes, aconitase and fatty acid synthase, already implicated in prostate cancer, were evaluated. The level of intracellular citrate was significantly higher in PNT2-C2 cells under both control conditions and following preincubation in extracellular citrate. Supply of exogenous citrate enhanced endocytosis, lateral motility, decreased cell adhesion of PC-3M cells but failed to produce any effect on normal cells. Real-time PCR measurements showed that the mRNA levels of mitochondrial and cytosolic aconitases and fatty acid synthase were significantly higher in PC-3M cells. Correspondingly, aconitase activity was also higher in PC-3M cells. Using cerulenin (an inhibitor of fatty acid synthase), oxalomalate and fluorocitrate (inhibiting aconitases), we investigated the dependence of citrate-induced down-regulation of cellular adhesion on aconitase and fatty acid synthase activities. It was concluded: (1) that strongly metastatic PC-3M cells stored less/utilised more cytosolic citrate than the normal PNT2-C2 cells and (2) that cancer cells could metabolise cytoplasmic citrate via aconitase and fatty acid synthase to enhance their metastatic behaviour. PMID:16798056

  9. Effect of Eu-citrate complex composition on its cementation

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, V.M.; Kornilov, A.S.; Yadovin, A.A.

    1995-03-01

    The dependence of Eu cementation by sodium amalgam in a semicountercurrent regime from citrate solutions on the Eu complex composition is studied. The purity of the {sup 153}Gd product from radioactive Eu can be increased during cementation by introducing correcting solutions of citric acid and stable Eu. The selected conditions are verified by processing irradiated targets. The content of radioactive Eu in the {sup 153}Gd product is reduced from 0.01 to 0.0005% with respect to {gamma}-activity.

  10. Methodology of citrate-based biomaterial development and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, M. Richard

    Biomaterials play central roles in modern strategies of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Attempts to find tissue-engineered solutions to cure various injuries or diseases have led to an enormous increase in the number of polymeric biomaterials over the past decade. The breadth of new materials arises from the multiplicity of anatomical locations, cell types, and mode of application, which all place application-specific requirements on the biomaterial. Unfortunately, many of the currently available biodegradable polymers are limited in their versatility to meet the wide range of requirements for tissue engineering. Therefore, a methodology of biomaterial development, which is able to address a broad spectrum of requirements, would be beneficial to the biomaterial field. This work presents a methodology of citrate-based biomaterial design and application to meet the multifaceted needs of tissue engineering. We hypothesize that (1) citric acid, a non-toxic metabolic product of the body (Krebs Cycle), can be exploited as a universal multifunctional monomer and reacted with various diols to produce a new class of soft biodegradable elastomers with the flexibility to tune the material properties of the resulting material to meet a wide range of requirements; (2) the newly developed citrate-based polymers can be used as platform biomaterials for the design of novel tissue engineering scaffolding; and (3) microengineering approaches in the form thin scaffold sheets, microchannels, and a new porogen design can be used to generate complex cell-cell and cell-microenvironment interactions to mimic tissue complexity and architecture. To test these hypotheses, we first developed a methodology of citrate-based biomaterial development through the synthesis and characterization of a family of in situ crosslinkable and urethane-doped elastomers, which are synthesized using simple, cost-effective strategies and offer a variety methods to tailor the material properties to

  11. Free Rhodium (II) citrate and rhodium (II) citrate magnetic carriers as potential strategies for breast cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rhodium (II) citrate (Rh2(H2cit)4) has significant antitumor, cytotoxic, and cytostatic activity on Ehrlich ascite tumor. Although toxic to normal cells, its lower toxicity when compared to carboxylate analogues of rhodium (II) indicates Rh2(H2cit)4 as a promising agent for chemotherapy. Nevertheless, few studies have been performed to explore this potential. Superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (SPIOs) represent an attractive platform as carriers in drug delivery systems (DDS) because they can present greater specificity to tumor cells than normal cells. Thus, the association between Rh2(H2cit)4 and SPIOs can represent a strategy to enhance the former's therapeutic action. In this work, we report the cytotoxicity of free rhodium (II) citrate (Rh2(H2cit)4) and rhodium (II) citrate-loaded maghemite nanoparticles or magnetoliposomes, used as drug delivery systems, on both normal and carcinoma breast cell cultures. Results Treatment with free Rh2(H2cit)4 induced cytotoxicity that was dependent on dose, time, and cell line. The IC50 values showed that this effect was more intense on breast normal cells (MCF-10A) than on breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7 and 4T1). However, the treatment with 50 μM Rh2(H2cit)4-loaded maghemite nanoparticles (Magh-Rh2(H2cit)4) and Rh2(H2cit)4-loaded magnetoliposomes (Lip-Magh-Rh2(H2cit)4) induced a higher cytotoxicity on MCF-7 and 4T1 than on MCF-10A (p < 0.05). These treatments enhanced cytotoxicity up to 4.6 times. These cytotoxic effects, induced by free Rh2(H2cit)4, were evidenced by morphological alterations such as nuclear fragmentation, membrane blebbing and phosphatidylserine exposure, reduction of actin filaments, mitochondrial condensation and an increase in number of vacuoles, suggesting that Rh2(H2cit)4 induces cell death by apoptosis. Conclusions The treatment with rhodium (II) citrate-loaded maghemite nanoparticles and magnetoliposomes induced more specific cytotoxicity on breast carcinoma cells than on breast

  12. Formulation, Characterization and Physicochemical Evaluation of Potassium Citrate Effervescent Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Fattahi, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to design and formulation of potassium citrate effervescent tablet for reduction of calcium oxalate and urate kidney stones in patients suffering from kidney stones. Methods: In this study, 13 formulations were prepared from potassium citrate and effervescent base in different concentration. The flowability of powders and granules was studied. Then effervescent tablets were prepared by direct compression, fusion and wet granulation methods. The prepared tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, effervescent time, pH, content uniformity. To amend taste of formulations, different flavoring agents were used and then panel test was done by using Latin Square method by 30 volunteers. Results: Formulations obtained from direct compression and fusion methods had good flow but low hardness. Wet granulation improves flowability and other physicochemical properties such as acceptable hardness, effervescence time ≤3 minutes, pH<6, friability < 1%, water percentage < 0.5% and accurate content uniformity. In panel test, both of combination flavors; (orange - lemon) and (strawberry - raspberry) had good acceptability. Conclusion: The prepared tablets by wet granulation method using PVP solution had more tablet hardness. It is a reproducible process and suitable to produce granules that are compressed into effervescent tablets due to larger agglomerates. PMID:24312839

  13. Photodegradation of uranium-citrate complex with uranium recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, C.J.; Francis, A.J. )

    1994-07-01

    Upon exposure to visible light, uranyl citrate complex showed photodegradation of citric acid to acetic acid and carbon dioxide, with the precipitation of uranium as uranium trioxide (UO[sub 3][center dot]2H[sub 2]O). The initial pH and presence of oxygen affected the rate and extent of photochemical degradation of the complex, the formation of intermediate organic degradation products, and uranium speciation. Under aerobic conditions at pH 3.5, acetic, acetoacetic, 3-oxoglutaric, and malonic acids and acetone were detected; at pH 6.0, 3-oxoglutaric and acetic acids were present. The uranyl U(VI) ion was reduced to uranous U(IV) ion and was subsequently reoxidized to the hexavalent form and precipitated out of solution as uranium trioxide. Uranium trioxide precipitate was insoluble at near-neutral pH and was soluble in acidic pH (<4.1). Under anaerobic conditions, the uranyl citrate complex showed only partial (57%) degradation, and uranium was present in the reduced form as U(IV). Excess citric acid retarded the precipitation of uranium. 26 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Why sildenafil and sildenafil citrate monohydrate crystals are not stable?

    PubMed Central

    Sawatdee, Somchai; Pakawatchai, Chaveng; Nitichai, Kwanjai; Srichana, Teerapol; Phetmung, Hirihattaya

    2015-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate was crystallized by various techniques aiming to determine the behavior and factors affecting the crystal growth. There are only 2 types of sildenafil obtaining from crystallization: sildenafil (1) and sildenafil citrate monohydrate (2). The used techniques were (i) crystallization from saturated solutions, (ii) addition of an antisolvent, (iii) reflux and (iv) slow solvent evaporation method. By pursuing these various methods, our work pointed that the best formation of crystal (1) was obtained from technique no. (i). Surprisingly, the obtained crystals (1) were perfected if the process was an acidic pH at a cold temperature then perfect crystals occurred within a day. Crystals of compound (2) grew easily using technique no. (ii) which are various polar solvents over a wide range of pH and temperature preparation processes. The infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra fit well with these two X-ray crystal structures. The crystal structures of sildenafil free base and salt forms were different from their different growing conditions leading to stability difference. PMID:26594116

  15. Why sildenafil and sildenafil citrate monohydrate crystals are not stable?

    PubMed

    Sawatdee, Somchai; Pakawatchai, Chaveng; Nitichai, Kwanjai; Srichana, Teerapol; Phetmung, Hirihattaya

    2015-10-01

    Sildenafil citrate was crystallized by various techniques aiming to determine the behavior and factors affecting the crystal growth. There are only 2 types of sildenafil obtaining from crystallization: sildenafil (1) and sildenafil citrate monohydrate (2). The used techniques were (i) crystallization from saturated solutions, (ii) addition of an antisolvent, (iii) reflux and (iv) slow solvent evaporation method. By pursuing these various methods, our work pointed that the best formation of crystal (1) was obtained from technique no. (i). Surprisingly, the obtained crystals (1) were perfected if the process was an acidic pH at a cold temperature then perfect crystals occurred within a day. Crystals of compound (2) grew easily using technique no. (ii) which are various polar solvents over a wide range of pH and temperature preparation processes. The infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra fit well with these two X-ray crystal structures. The crystal structures of sildenafil free base and salt forms were different from their different growing conditions leading to stability difference. PMID:26594116

  16. Why sildenafil and sildenafil citrate monohydrate crystals are not stable?

    PubMed

    Sawatdee, Somchai; Pakawatchai, Chaveng; Nitichai, Kwanjai; Srichana, Teerapol; Phetmung, Hirihattaya

    2015-10-01

    Sildenafil citrate was crystallized by various techniques aiming to determine the behavior and factors affecting the crystal growth. There are only 2 types of sildenafil obtaining from crystallization: sildenafil (1) and sildenafil citrate monohydrate (2). The used techniques were (i) crystallization from saturated solutions, (ii) addition of an antisolvent, (iii) reflux and (iv) slow solvent evaporation method. By pursuing these various methods, our work pointed that the best formation of crystal (1) was obtained from technique no. (i). Surprisingly, the obtained crystals (1) were perfected if the process was an acidic pH at a cold temperature then perfect crystals occurred within a day. Crystals of compound (2) grew easily using technique no. (ii) which are various polar solvents over a wide range of pH and temperature preparation processes. The infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra fit well with these two X-ray crystal structures. The crystal structures of sildenafil free base and salt forms were different from their different growing conditions leading to stability difference.

  17. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium).

    The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  18. Molecular mechanisms of crystallization impacting calcium phosphate cements

    PubMed Central

    Giocondi, Jennifer L.; El-Dasher, Bassem S.; Nancollas, George H.; Orme, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    The biomineral calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (CaHPO4·2H2O), known as brushite, is a malleable material that both grows and dissolves faster than most other calcium minerals, including other calcium phosphate phases, calcium carbonates and calcium oxalates. Within the body, this ready formation and dissolution can play a role in certain diseases, such as kidney stone and plaque formation. However, these same properties, along with brushite’s excellent biocompatibility, can be used to great benefit in making resorbable biomedical cements. To optimize cements, additives are commonly used to control crystallization kinetics and phase transformation. This paper describes the use of in situ scanning probe microscopy to investigate the role of several solution parameters and additives in brushite atomic step motion. Surprisingly, this work demonstrates that the activation barrier for phosphate (rather than calcium) incorporation limits growth kinetics and that additives such as magnesium, citrate and bisphosphonates each influence step motion in distinctly different ways. Our findings provide details of how, and where, molecules inhibit or accelerate kinetics. These insights have the potential to aid in designing molecules to target specific steps and to guide synergistic combinations of additives. PMID:20308110

  19. Novel role of zinc in the regulation of prostate citrate metabolism and its implications in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Costello, L C; Franklin, R B

    1998-06-01

    The prostate gland of humans and many other animals has the major function of accumulating and secreting extraordinarily high levels of citrate. This specialized metabolic process of "net citrate production" is the result of unique metabolic capabilities of the secretory epithelial cells. Most importantly, in prostate cancer (Pca) the capability for net citrate production is lost. In addition to citrate, the normal and BPH (benign prostatic hyperplasia) prostate also accumulates the highest levels of zinc in the body. As with citrate, in Pca the ability for high zinc accumulation is diminished. These and other correlations between zinc and citrate in the prostate have been indicative of an important role of zinc in the regulation of citrate metabolism in normal and malignant prostate epithelial cells. The link between zinc and citrate metabolism has now been established. The intramitochondrial accumulation of high zinc levels inhibits mitochondrial (m-) aconitase activity, which inhibits citrate oxidation. This essentially truncates the Krebs cycle and markedly decreases the cellular energy (ATP) production normally coupled to citrate oxidation. It is also clear that zinc accumulation in citrate-producing prostate epithelial cells is regulated by testosterone and by prolactin. These relationships form the basis for a new concept of the role of zinc and citrate-related energy metabolism in prostate malignancy. The inability of malignant prostate cells to accumulate high zinc levels results in increased citrate oxidation and the coupled ATP production essential for the progression of malignancy. The concept offers new approaches to the treatment of Pca. PMID:9609552

  20. Long-term safety and effectiveness of sildenafil citrate in men with erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, James G; Feldman, Robert A; Auerbach, Stephen M; DeRiesthal, Herb; Wilson, Neal

    2007-01-01

    Because sildenafil citrate is a treatment, not a cure, for erectile dysfunction (ED), many men may choose to use it for an extended period. Men with ED who had previously completed 1 of 4 double-blind trials with short-term open-label extension (combined duration, 0.9–1.2 years) were eligible for this 4-year, open-label, extension study, which assessed the safety and effectiveness of flexible doses (25, 50, and 100 mg sildenafil) used as needed. Adverse events that were serious or led to dosing changes or discontinuation (temporary or permanent) were recorded. Many of the 979 participants (mean age, 58 [range, 27–82] years; mean ED duration, 4.5 years) had concomitant hypertension (28%), diabetes (22%), or hyperlipidemia (14%). Overall, 37 (3.8%) had treatment-related adverse events (none serious) requiring dosage change or discontinuation and 62 (6.3%) discontinued because of insufficient response. At each yearly assessment, more than 94% of participants responded affirmatively to the questions: “Are you satisfied with the effect of treatment on your erections?” and “If yes, has treatment improved your ability to engage in sexual activity?” These results argue against the loss of tolerability or the development of tachyphylaxis over a prolonged period of as needed, flexible-dose sildenafil treatment of men with ED. PMID:18516312

  1. Structural and magnetic properties of Ni-Zn doped BaM nanocomposite via citrate precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Kush; Thakur, Preeti; Tomar, Monika; Gupta, Vinay; Thakur, Atul

    2016-05-01

    Ni-Zn substituted M-type barium ferrite nanocomposite has been prepared via citrate precursor method. Nanocomposite having composition BaNi0.5Zn0.5Fe11O19 was sintered at 900°C for 3hrs and characterized by using different characterization techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the formation of double phase with most prominent peak at (114). Average crystallite size for pure BaM and BNZFO were found to be 36 nm & 45 nm. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) confirmed the formation of hexagonal platelets with a layered structure. Magnetic properties of these samples were investigated by using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Magnetic parameters like saturation magnetization (Ms), coericivity (Hc) and squareness ratio (SQR) of nanocomposite were found to be 60 emu/g, 3663 Oe and 0.6163 respectively. These values were noticed to be higher as compared to pure BaM. Enhanced magnetic properties of nanocomposite were strongly dependent on exchange coupling. Therefore these properties make this nanocomposite a suitable candidate for magnetic recording and high frequency applications.

  2. Comparative evaluation of the antitussive activity of butamirate citrate linctus versus clobutinol syrup.

    PubMed

    Charpin, J; Weibel, M A

    1990-01-01

    In a double-blind randomized study 60 patients with either irritative cough due to seasonal respiratory disorders or chronic cough of any etiology were treated with either butamirate citrate linctus (Sinecod, Zyma) or with clobutinol syrup (Silomat, Boehringer, Ingelheim) for a period of 5 days at a dose regimen of 3 tablespoons daily. Efficacy was assessed based on the reduction of the severity as well as frequency of the cough and on the global opinion of the physician. Both groups showed highly significant improvements for the severity and frequency parameters (p less than 0.001), thus demonstrating the effectiveness of both treatments. No significant differences between groups were detected globally for the whole collective. For cough due to carcinomas (n = 14), however, a significantly better effect of butamirate on the frequency of cough (p = 0.026) was found which originated other significant differences in the global scores (p = 0.013) and in the physician's opinion (p = 0.026). Seven patients in both groups complained about side effects (mainly nausea and drowsiness).

  3. Comparative evaluation of the antitussive activity of butamirate citrate linctus versus clobutinol syrup.

    PubMed

    Charpin, J; Weibel, M A

    1990-01-01

    In a double-blind randomized study 60 patients with either irritative cough due to seasonal respiratory disorders or chronic cough of any etiology were treated with either butamirate citrate linctus (Sinecod, Zyma) or with clobutinol syrup (Silomat, Boehringer, Ingelheim) for a period of 5 days at a dose regimen of 3 tablespoons daily. Efficacy was assessed based on the reduction of the severity as well as frequency of the cough and on the global opinion of the physician. Both groups showed highly significant improvements for the severity and frequency parameters (p less than 0.001), thus demonstrating the effectiveness of both treatments. No significant differences between groups were detected globally for the whole collective. For cough due to carcinomas (n = 14), however, a significantly better effect of butamirate on the frequency of cough (p = 0.026) was found which originated other significant differences in the global scores (p = 0.013) and in the physician's opinion (p = 0.026). Seven patients in both groups complained about side effects (mainly nausea and drowsiness). PMID:2095610

  4. Fundamentals of phosphate transfer.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Anthony J; Nome, Faruk

    2015-07-21

    Historically, the chemistry of phosphate transfer-a class of reactions fundamental to the chemistry of Life-has been discussed almost exclusively in terms of the nucleophile and the leaving group. Reactivity always depends significantly on both factors; but recent results for reactions of phosphate triesters have shown that it can also depend strongly on the nature of the nonleaving or "spectator" groups. The extreme stabilities of fully ionised mono- and dialkyl phosphate esters can be seen as extensions of the same effect, with one or two triester OR groups replaced by O(-). Our chosen lead reaction is hydrolysis-phosphate transfer to water: because water is the medium in which biological chemistry takes place; because the half-life of a system in water is an accepted basic index of stability; and because the typical mechanisms of hydrolysis, with solvent H2O providing specific molecules to act as nucleophiles and as general acids or bases, are models for reactions involving better nucleophiles and stronger general species catalysts. Not least those available in enzyme active sites. Alkyl monoester dianions compete with alkyl diester monoanions for the slowest estimated rates of spontaneous hydrolysis. High stability at physiological pH is a vital factor in the biological roles of organic phosphates, but a significant limitation for experimental investigations. Almost all kinetic measurements of phosphate transfer reactions involving mono- and diesters have been followed by UV-visible spectroscopy using activated systems, conveniently compounds with good leaving groups. (A "good leaving group" OR* is electron-withdrawing, and can be displaced to generate an anion R*O(-) in water near pH 7.) Reactivities at normal temperatures of P-O-alkyl derivatives-better models for typical biological substrates-have typically had to be estimated: by extended extrapolation from linear free energy relationships, or from rate measurements at high temperatures. Calculation is free

  5. Surface Segregated AgAu Tadpole-Shaped Nanoparticles Synthesized Via a Single Step Combined Galvanic and Citrate Reduction Reaction.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Anderson G M; Lewis, Edward A; Rodrigues, Thenner S; Slater, Thomas J A; Alves, Rafael S; Haigh, Sarah J; Camargo, Pedro H C

    2015-08-24

    New AgAu tadpole nanocrystals were synthesized in a one-step reaction involving simultaneous galvanic replacement between Ag nanospheres and AuCl4(-)(aq.) and AuCl4(-)(aq.) reduction to Au in the presence of citrate. The AgAu tadpoles display nodular polycrystalline hollow heads, while their undulating tails are single crystals. The unusual morphology suggests an oriented attachment growth mechanism. Remarkably, a 1 nm thick Ag layer was found to segregate so as to cover the entire surface of the tadpoles. By varying the nature of the seeds (Au NPs), double-headed Au tadpoles could also be obtained. The effect of a number of reaction parameters on product morphology were explored, leading to new insights into the growth mechanisms and surface segregation behavior involved in the synthesis of bimetallic and anisotropic nanomaterials.

  6. Effects of pH and Sugar on Acetoin Production from Citrate by Leuconostoc lactis.

    PubMed

    Cogan, T M; O'dowd, M; Mellerick, D

    1981-01-01

    The relationship between acetoin production and citrate utilization in Leuconostoc lactis NCW1 was studied. In a complex medium the organism utilized citrate at neutral pH (initial pH, 6.3) and at acid pH (initial pH, 4.5) but produced nine times more acetoin at the latter pH. In resting cells the utilization of citrate was optimum at pH 5.3. Production of acetoin as a function of citrate utilization increased as the pH decreased, and at pH 4.3 all of the citrate utilized was recovered as acetoin. Glucose (10 mM) and lactose (10 mM) markedly stimulated citrate utilization but totally inhibited acetoin production in glucose- and lactose-grown cells. Addition of glucose to cells actively metabolizing citrate caused an immediate increase in citrate uptake and a reduction in the level of acetoin. The apparent K(m) values of lactic dehydrogenase for pyruvate were 1.05, 0.25, and 0.15 mM at pH 7.5, 6.5, and 5.0, respectively. Several heterofermentation intermediates inhibited alpha-acetolactate synthetase and decarboxylase activities. The implications of these results in regulating acetoin formatin are discussed.

  7. Photochemical degradation of citrate buffers leads to covalent acetonation of recombinant protein therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Valliere-Douglass, John F; Connell-Crowley, Lisa; Jensen, Randy; Schnier, Paul D; Trilisky, Egor; Leith, Matt; Follstad, Brian D; Kerr, Jennifer; Lewis, Nathan; Vunnum, Suresh; Treuheit, Michael J; Balland, Alain; Wallace, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Novel acetone and aldimine covalent adducts were identified on the N-termini and lysine side chains of recombinant monoclonal antibodies. Photochemical degradation of citrate buffers, in the presence of trace levels of iron, is demonstrated as the source of these modifications. The link between degradation of citrate and the observed protein modifications was conclusively established by tracking the citrate decomposition products and protein adducts resulting from photochemical degradation of isotope labeled 13C citrate by mass spectrometry. The structure of the acetone modification was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy on modified–free glycine and found to correspond to acetone linked to the N-terminus of the amino acid through a methyl carbon. Results from mass spectrometric fragmentation of glycine modified with an acetone adduct derived from 13C labeled citrate indicated that the three central carbons of citrate are incorporated onto protein amines in the presence of iron and light. While citrate is known to stoichiometrically decompose to acetone and CO2 through various intermediates in photochemical systems, it has never been shown to be a causative agent in protein carbonylation. Our results point to a previously unknown source for the generation of reactive carbonyl species. This work also highlights the potential deleterious impact of trace metals on recombinant protein therapeutics formulated in citrate buffers. PMID:20836085

  8. 78 FR 34648 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts: Preliminary Results of Countervailing... review of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on citric acid and citrate salts from the People's Republic... (202) 482-1503. Scope of the Order The merchandise subject to the order is citric acid and...

  9. PREPARATION OF SORBITOL CITRATE POLYESTERS BY REACTIVE EXTRUSION AND APPLICATION AS INHIBITIORS OF CALCIUM CARBONATE PRECIPITATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorbitol citrates were prepared using a vented ZSK-30-twin-screw extruder as part of a program to develop bio-based, water soluble polycarboxylates. A Box-Behnken experimental design was used and included the variables sorbitol, citric acid, sodium citrate, temperature and feed rate. Extent of est...

  10. The health benefits of calcium citrate malate: a review of the supporting science.

    PubMed

    Reinwald, Susan; Weaver, Connie M; Kester, Jeffrey J

    2008-01-01

    There has been considerable investigation into the health benefits of calcium citrate malate (CCM) since it was first patented in the late 1980s. This chapter is a comprehensive summary of the supporting science and available evidence on the bioavailability and health benefits of consuming CCM. It highlights the important roles that CCM can play during various life stages. CCM has been shown to facilitate calcium retention and bone accrual in children and adolescents. In adults, it effectively promotes the consolidation and maintenance of bone mass. In conjunction with vitamin D, CCM also decreases bone fracture risk in the elderly, slows the rate of bone loss in old age, and is of benefit to the health and well-being of postmenopausal women. CCM is exceptional in that it confers many unique benefits that go beyond bone health. Unlike other calcium sources that necessitate supplementation be in conjunction with a meal to ensure an appreciable benefit is derived, CCM can be consumed with or without food and delivers a significant nutritional benefit to individuals of all ages. The chemistry of CCM makes it a particularly beneficial calcium source for individuals with hypochlorydia or achlorydia, which generally includes the elderly and those on medications that decrease gastric acid secretion. CCM is also recognized as a calcium source that does not increase the risk of kidney stones, and in fact it protects against stone-forming potential. The versatile nature of CCM makes it a convenient and practical calcium salt for use in moist foods and beverages. The major factor that may preclude selection of CCM as a preferred calcium source is the higher cost compared to other sources of calcium commonly used for fortification (e.g., calcium carbonate and tricalcium phosphate). However, formation of CCM directly within beverages or other fluid foods and/or preparations, and the addition of a concentrated CCM solution or slurry, are relatively cost-effective methods by

  11. The stability of citrate-capped silver nanoparticles in isotonic glucose solution for intravenous injection.

    PubMed

    Park, Kwangsik; Lee, Yeonjin

    2013-01-01

    Citrate-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are widely used in industry, consumer products, and medical appliances. However, information on the environmental toxicity and human health is not comprehensive. Further, the physicochemical properties of AgNP make it difficult to test toxicity, as nanosized particles, due to their size, may increase by aggregation or agglomeration in some administration vehicles. In this study, stability of AgNP was investigated in different types of isotonic solutions, which is important for in vitro testing or toxicokinetic studies using intravenous (iv) injection. Size, morphology, zeta potential, and ion formation were investigated in isotonic solutions for the physicochemical characterization of AgNP. Aggregation and precipitation of AgNP were observed in phosphate-buffered saline or 0.9% NaCl, while AgNP were stable without aggregation or precipitation in 5% glucose in isotonic solution. The average size of AgNP in 5% glucose was approximately 10 nm at different temperatures of 10, 25, or 36°C and at varying concentrations from 10 to 1000 ppm. It is noteworthy that this is almost the same size distribution as that in the water-based suspension of AgNP supplied by the manufacturer. Zeta potential ranged from -40 to -60 mV, suggesting that the repulsion forces of AgNP are not disturbed to a sufficient degree to aggregate while osmolarity is in the isotonic range of 290 ± 10 mOsm/kg in 5% glucose solution. Data suggest that AgNP in a 5% glucose solution may be used in the toxicity test via iv injection without adverse consequences in blood. PMID:24283395

  12. Model-Based Assessment of Plasma Citrate Flux Into the Liver: Implications for NaCT as a Therapeutic Target.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Erion, D M; Maurer, T S

    2016-03-01

    Cytoplasmic citrate serves as an important regulator of gluconeogenesis and carbon source for de novo lipogenesis in the liver. For this reason, the sodium-coupled citrate transporter (NaCT), a plasma membrane transporter that governs hepatic influx of plasma citrate in human, is being explored as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic disorders. As cytoplasmic citrate also originates from intracellular mitochondria, the relative contribution of these two pathways represents critical information necessary to underwrite confidence in this target. In this work, hepatic influx of plasma citrate was quantified via pharmacokinetic modeling of published clinical data. The influx was then compared to independent literature estimates of intracellular citrate flux in human liver. The results indicate that, under normal conditions, <10% of hepatic citrate originates from plasma. Similar estimates were determined experimentally in mice and rats. This suggests that NaCT inhibition will have a limited impact on hepatic citrate concentrations across species. PMID:27069776

  13. Facile synthesis of Ag2S nanoparticles functionalized by carbon-containing citrate shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovnikov, S. I.; Gusev, A. I.; Gerasimov, E. Yu.; Rempel, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Silver sulfide nanoparticles with non-toxic citrate shell are synthesized by chemical bath deposition from aqueous mixtures of silver nitrate and sodium sulfide in the presence of sodium citrate used as a complexing and stabilizing agent. The prepared nanoparticles have Ag2S core with monoclinic crystal structure functionalized by a carbon-containing citrate shell. By varying the concentrations of reagents it was possible to prepare core-shell nanoparticles with pre-assigned size of Ag2S core from 10 and 50 nm and pre-assigned thickness from 1.5 to 10 nm of citrate shell. A probable mechanism of formation of carbon-containing citrate shell on Ag2S core has been proposed.

  14. Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase and ribulose-5-phosphate kinase show apparent specificity for a specific ribulose 5-phosphate species.

    PubMed

    Anderson, L E

    1987-02-01

    Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase and ribulose-5-phosphate kinase appear to show specificity for a particular ribulose 5-phosphate species. The effect of this specificity will be channeling of ribulose 5-phosphate from the isomerase to the kinase during photosynthesis.

  15. Domestic phosphate deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKelvey, V.E.; Cathcart, J.B.; Altschuler, Z.S.; Swanson, R.W.; Lutz, Katherine

    1953-01-01

    Most of the worlds phosphate deposits can be grouped into six types: 1) igneous apatite deposits; 2) marine phosphorites; 3) residual phosphorites; 4) river pebble deposits; 5) phosphatized rock; and 6) guano. The igneous apatites and marine phosphorites form deposits measurable in millions or billions of tons; the residual deposits are measurable in thousands or millions; and the other types generally only in thousands of tons. Igneous apatite deposits have been mined on a small scale in New York, New Jersey, and Virginia. Marine phosphorites have been mined in Montana, Idaho, Utah, Wyoming, Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. Residual phosphorites have been mined in Tennessee, Pennsylvania, and Florida. River pebble has been produced in South Carolina and Florida; phosphatized rock in Tennessee and Florida; and guano in New Mexico and Texas. Present production is limited almost entirely to Florida, Tennessee, Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming. Incomplete but recently partly revised estimates indicate the presence of about 5 billion tons of phosphate deposits in the United States that is minable under present economic conditions. Deposits too lean in quality or thickness to compete with those in the western and southeastern fields probably contain tens of billions of tons.

  16. Remote loading of doxorubicin into liposomes driven by a transmembrane phosphate gradient.

    PubMed

    Fritze, Andreas; Hens, Felicitas; Kimpfler, Andrea; Schubert, Rolf; Peschka-Süss, Regine

    2006-10-01

    This study examines a new method for the remote loading of doxorubicin into liposomes. It was shown that doxorubicin can be loaded to a level of up to 98% into large unilamellar vesicles composed of egg phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol (7/3 mol/mol) with a transmembrane phosphate gradient. The different encapsulation efficiencies which were achieved with ammonium salts (citrate 100%, phosphate 98%, sulfate 95%, acetate 77%) were significantly higher as compared to the loading via sodium salts (citrate 54%, phosphate 52%, sulfate 44%, acetate 16%). Various factors, including pH-value, buffer capacity, solubility of doxorubicin in different salt solutions and base counter-flow, which likely has an influence on drug accumulation in the intraliposomal interior are taken into account. In contrast to other methods, the newly developed remote loading method exhibits a pH-dependent drug release property which may be effective in tumor tissues. At physiological pH-value doxorubicin is retained in the liposomes, whereas drug release is achieved by lowering the pH to 5.5 (approximately 25% release at 25 degrees C or 30% at 37 degrees C within two h). The DXR release of liposomes which were loaded via a sulfate gradient showed a maximum of 3% at pH 5.5.

  17. 77 FR 22560 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ On...). \\2\\ See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of...

  18. 77 FR 9891 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China... antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic... Act of 1930, as amended (``the Act''). \\1\\ See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the...

  19. 77 FR 33399 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... Administrative Review, 77 FR 1455 (January 10, 2012). \\10\\ See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric......

  20. Response of patients with indolent systemic mastocytosis to tamoxifen citrate.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Joseph H; Chen, Dong

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether tamoxifen citrate at 20mg/day for 1 year had a beneficial effect on laboratory findings, bone marrow mastocytosis, common clinical symptoms, or quality-of-life assessment for 5 women and 2 men with indolent systemic mastocytosis. Tamoxifen was well tolerated. We found significant reductions in the platelet count, serum alkaline phosphatase, and 24-h urinary excretion of N-methylhistamine and significant increases in serum lactate dehydrogenase and (excluding 2 patients taking aspirin) in 24-h urinary excretion of 11β-prostaglandin F2α. Overall, no change occurred in percent involvement of bone marrow by mastocytosis. Symptom scores were mild and did not change during the treatment. The 36-Item Short Form Health Survey scores for quality of life physical and mental components showed no marked changes. Tamoxifen, an older, nonhematotoxic medication, has limited activity in systemic mastocytosis at the dosage used in this study.

  1. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate,...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate,...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate,...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic (MgHPO4·3H2O, CAS Reg. No....

  5. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic...

  6. Genome-wide identification of citrus ATP-citrate lyase genes and their transcript analysis in fruits reveals their possible role in citrate utilization.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-Mei; Shi, Cai-Yun; Liu, Xiao; Jin, Long-Fei; Liu, Yong-Zhong; Peng, Shu-Ang

    2015-02-01

    ATP-citrate lyase (ACL, EC4.1.3.8) catalyzes citrate to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA in the cell cytosol, and has important roles in normal plant growth and in the biosynthesis of some secondary metabolites. We identified three ACL genes, CitACLα1, CitACLα2, and CitACLβ1, in the citrus genome database. Both CitACLα1 and CitACLα2 encode putative ACL α subunits with 82.5 % amino acid identity, whereas CitACLβ1 encodes a putative ACL β subunit. Gene structure analysis showed that CitACLα1 and CitACLα2 had 12 exons and 11 introns, and CitACLβ1 had 16 exons and 15 introns. CitACLα1 and CitACLβ1 were predominantly expressed in flower, and CitACLα2 was predominantly expressed in stem and fibrous roots. As fruits ripen, the transcript levels of CitACLα1, CitACLβ1, and/or CitACLα2 in cultivars 'Niuher' and 'Owari' increased, accompanied by significant decreases in citrate content, while their transcript levels decreased significantly in 'Egan No. 1' and 'Iyokan', although citrate content also decreased. In 'HB pummelo', in which acid content increased as fruit ripened, and in acid-free pummelo, transcript levels of CitACLα2, CitACLβ1, and/or CitACLα1 increased. Moreover, mild drought stress and ABA treatment significantly increased citrate contents in fruits. Transcript levels of the three genes were significantly reduced by mild drought stress, and the transcript level of only CitACLβ1 was significantly reduced by ABA treatment. Taken together, these data indicate that the effects of ACL on citrate use during fruit ripening depends on the cultivar, and the reduction in ACL gene expression may be attributed to citrate increases under mild drought stress or ABA treatment.

  7. Radium-226 in wetland birds from Florida phosphate mines

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, O.B.; Marion, W.R.; O'Meara, T.E.; Roessler, C.E. )

    1989-10-01

    Radium-226 is a naturally-occurring radionuclide found in enhanced levels at Florida phosphate mines. We inventoried levels of radium-226 in the tissues of 4 wetland bird species from 2 mined and 2 umined areas in Florida. Bone tissues of wood duck (Aix sponsa), mottled duck (Anas fulvigula), common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus), and double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) colleted at phosphate mines contained more radium-226 than tissues from unmined areas. Radium-226 concentrations in these birds were within guidelines inferred from radiological standards designed for human protection and should not adversely affect bird populations.

  8. Preparation and Quality Control of 68Ga-Citrate for PET Applications

    PubMed Central

    Aghanejad, Ayuob; Jalilian, Amir Reza; Ardaneh, Khosro; Bolourinovin, Fatemeh; Yousefnia, Hassan; Samani, Ali Bahrami

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): In nuclear medicine studies, gallium-68 (8Ga) citrate has been recently known as a suitable infection agent in positron emission tomography (PET). In this study, by applying an in-house produced 68Ge/68Ga generator, a simple technique for the synthesis and quality control of 68Ga-citrate was introduced; followed by preliminary animal studies. Methods: 68GaCl3 eluted from the generator was studied in terms of quality control factors including radiochemical purity (assessed by HPLC and RTLC), chemical purity (assessed by ICP-EOS), radionuclide purity (evaluated by HPGe), and breakthrough. 68Ga-citrate was prepared from eluted 68GaCl3 and sodium citrate under various reaction conditions. Stability of the complex was evaluated in human serum for 2 h at 370C, followed by biodistribution studies in rats for 120 min. Results: 68Ga-citrate was prepared with acceptable radiochemical purity (>97 ITLC and >98% HPLC), specific activity (4-6 GBq/mM), chemical purity (Sn, Fe<0.3 ppm and Zn<0.2 ppm) within 15 min at 500C. The biodistribution of 68Ga-citrate was consistent with former reports up to 120 minutes. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the possible in-house preparation and quality control of 68Ga-citrate, using a commercially available 68Ge/68Ga generator for PET imaging throughout the country. PMID:27408889

  9. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    DOEpatents

    Goldstein, Alan H.; Rogers, Robert D.

    1999-01-01

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed.

  10. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    DOEpatents

    Goldstein, A.H.; Rogers, R.D.

    1999-06-15

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed. 13 figs.

  11. Combined Oral Administration of Bovine Collagen Peptides with Calcium Citrate Inhibits Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, JunLi; Wang, YiHu; Song, ShuJun; Wang, XiJie; Qin, YaYa; Si, ShaoYan; Guo, YanChuan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Collagen peptides (CPs) and calcium citrate are commonly used as bone health supplements for treating osteoporosis. However, it remains unknown whether the combination of oral bovine CPs with calcium citrate is more effective than administration of either agent alone. Methods Forty 12-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 8) for once-daily intragastric administration of different treatments for 3 months at 3 months after ovariectomy (OVX) as follows: sham + vehicle; OVX + vehicle; OVX + 750 mg/kg CP; OVX + CP-calcium citrate (75 mg/kg); OVX + calcium citrate (75 mg/kg). After euthanasia, the femurs were removed and analyzed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and micro-computed tomography, and serum samples were analyzed for bone metabolic markers. Results OVX rats supplemented with CPs or CP-calcium citrate showed osteoprotective effects, with reductions in the OVX-induced decreases in their femoral bone mineral density. Moreover, CP-calcium citrate prevented trabecular bone loss, improved the microarchitecture of the distal femur, and significantly inhibited bone loss with increased bone volume, connectivity density, and trabecular number compared with OVX control rats. CP or CP-calcium citrate administration significantly increased serum procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide levels and reduced serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and C-telopeptide of type I collagen levels. Conclusions Our data indicate that combined oral administration of bovine CPs with calcium citrate inhibits bone loss in OVX rats. The present findings suggest that combined oral administration of bovine CPs with calcium citrate is a promising alternative for reducing bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women. PMID:26258559

  12. Dysregulation of phosphate metabolism and conditions associated with phosphate toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ronald B; Razzaque, Mohammed S

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate homeostasis is coordinated and regulated by complex cross-organ talk through delicate hormonal networks. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), secreted in response to low serum calcium, has an important role in maintaining phosphate homeostasis by influencing renal synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, thereby increasing intestinal phosphate absorption. Moreover, PTH can increase phosphate efflux from bone and contribute to renal phosphate homeostasis through phosphaturic effects. In addition, PTH can induce skeletal synthesis of another potent phosphaturic hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), which is able to inhibit renal tubular phosphate reabsorption, thereby increasing urinary phosphate excretion. FGF23 can also fine-tune vitamin D homeostasis by suppressing renal expression of 1-alpha hydroxylase (1α(OH)ase). This review briefly discusses how FGF23, by forming a bone–kidney axis, regulates phosphate homeostasis, and how its dysregulation can lead to phosphate toxicity that induces widespread tissue injury. We also provide evidence to explain how phosphate toxicity related to dietary phosphorus overload may facilitate incidence of noncommunicable diseases including kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, cancers and skeletal disorders. PMID:26131357

  13. Dysregulation of phosphate metabolism and conditions associated with phosphate toxicity.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ronald B; Razzaque, Mohammed S

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate homeostasis is coordinated and regulated by complex cross-organ talk through delicate hormonal networks. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), secreted in response to low serum calcium, has an important role in maintaining phosphate homeostasis by influencing renal synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, thereby increasing intestinal phosphate absorption. Moreover, PTH can increase phosphate efflux from bone and contribute to renal phosphate homeostasis through phosphaturic effects. In addition, PTH can induce skeletal synthesis of another potent phosphaturic hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), which is able to inhibit renal tubular phosphate reabsorption, thereby increasing urinary phosphate excretion. FGF23 can also fine-tune vitamin D homeostasis by suppressing renal expression of 1-alpha hydroxylase (1α(OH)ase). This review briefly discusses how FGF23, by forming a bone-kidney axis, regulates phosphate homeostasis, and how its dysregulation can lead to phosphate toxicity that induces widespread tissue injury. We also provide evidence to explain how phosphate toxicity related to dietary phosphorus overload may facilitate incidence of noncommunicable diseases including kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, cancers and skeletal disorders. PMID:26131357

  14. Effect of phosphate supplementation on oxygen delivery at high altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, S. C.; Singh, M. V.; Rawal, S. B.; Sharma, V. M.; Divekar, H. M.; Tyagi, A. K.; Panwar, M. R.; Swamy, Y. V.

    1987-09-01

    In the present communication, effect of low doses of phosphate supplementation on short-term high altitude adaptation has been examined. Studies were carried out in 36 healthy, male, sea-level residents divided in a double blind fashion into drug and placebo treated groups. 3.2 mmol of phosphate were given orally to each subject of the drug treated group once a day for 4 days on arrival at an altitude of 3,500 m. Sequential studies were done in the subjects in both groups on the 3rd, 7th, 14th and 21st day of their altitude stay. Haemoglobin, haematocrit, erythrocyte and reticulocyte counts increased to the similar extent in both groups. Blood pH, pO2 and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) did not differ between the two groups. On 3rd day of the altitude stay, inorganic phosphate and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3 DPG) levels in the drug treated group increased significantly as compared to the placebo group. No significant difference in inorganic phosphate and 2,3 DPG was observed later on in the two groups. Psychological and clinical tests also indicated that the drug treated subjects felt better as compared to the placebo treated subjects. The present study suggests that low doses of phosphate increases circulating 2,3-DPG concentration which in turn brings about beneficial effect towards short term high altitude adaptation.

  15. Reductive glutamine metabolism is a function of the α-ketoglutarate to citrate ratio in cells

    PubMed Central

    Fendt, Sarah-Maria; Bell, Eric L.; Keibler, Mark A.; Olenchock, Benjamin A.; Mayers, Jared R.; Wasylenko, Thomas M.; Vokes, Natalie I.; Guarente, Leonard; Vander Heiden, Matthew G.; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Reductively metabolized glutamine is a major cellular carbon source for fatty acid synthesis during hypoxia or when mitochondrial respiration is impaired. Yet, a mechanistic understanding of what determines reductive metabolism is missing. Here we identify several cellular conditions where the α-ketoglutarate/citrate ratio is changed due to altered acetyl-CoA to citrate conversion, and demonstrate that reductive glutamine metabolism is initiated in response to perturbations that results in an increase in the α-ketoglutarate/citrate ratio. Thus, targeting reductive glutamine conversion for a therapeutic benefit might require distinct modulations of metabolite concentrations rather than targeting the upstream signaling, which only indirectly affects the process. PMID:23900562

  16. Effect of citrate ions on laser ablation of Ag foil in aqueous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisková, K.; Vlcková, B.; Turpin, P.-Y.; Fayet, C.; Hromádková, J.; Slouf, M.

    2007-04-01

    Promoting effect of citrate in 1 × 10-5-1×10-2 M concentrations on laser ablation (LA) of a Ag foil in aqueous solution performed by ns laser pulses at 1064 nm is reported. Furthermore, adsorption of citrate ions was found to increase markedly the stability of the resulting LA-Ag hydrosol. The results are discussed on the basis of comparison of surface plasmon extinction spectral characteristics, transmission electron microscopy images, nanoparticle size distributions and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectral tests of hydrosols resulting from LA in neutral and acidic aqueous citrate solutions and in pure water.

  17. Oxidative status and citrate concentration in rat tissues during experimental hyperthyroidism and melatonin treatment.

    PubMed

    Popov, S S; Pashkov, A N; Popova, T N; Zoloedov, V I; Semenikhina, A V; Rakhmanova, T I

    2007-08-01

    Biochemiluminescence increased, while aconitate hydratase activity and citrate accumulation in tissues of the liver and heart and blood decreased in rats with experimental hyperthyroidism. These changes reflect activation of free radical oxidation, damage to enzyme molecules with reactive oxygen species, and impaired utilization of citrate under pathological conditions. Melatonin treatment during hyperthyroidism normalized aconitate hydratase activity and citrate concentration. Biochemiluminescence study showed that the effect of melatonin is related to antioxidant activity of this hormone, inhibition of free radical oxidation, and suppression of reactive oxygen species generation.

  18. A Process-Based Model of TCA Cycle Functioning to Analyze Citrate Accumulation in Pre- and Post-Harvest Fruits.

    PubMed

    Etienne, Audrey; Génard, Michel; Bugaud, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Citrate is one of the most important organic acids in many fruits and its concentration plays a critical role in organoleptic properties. The regulation of citrate accumulation throughout fruit development, and the origins of the phenotypic variability of the citrate concentration within fruit species remain to be clarified. In the present study, we developed a process-based model of citrate accumulation based on a simplified representation of the TCA cycle to predict citrate concentration in fruit pulp during the pre- and post-harvest stages. Banana fruit was taken as a reference because it has the particularity of having post-harvest ripening, during which citrate concentration undergoes substantial changes. The model was calibrated and validated on the two stages, using data sets from three contrasting cultivars in terms of citrate accumulation, and incorporated different fruit load, potassium supply, and harvest dates. The model predicted the pre and post-harvest dynamics of citrate concentration with fairly good accuracy for the three cultivars. The model suggested major differences in TCA cycle functioning among cultivars during post-harvest ripening of banana, and pointed to a potential role for NAD-malic enzyme and mitochondrial malate carriers in the genotypic variability of citrate concentration. The sensitivity of citrate accumulation to growth parameters and temperature differed among cultivars during post-harvest ripening. Finally, the model can be used as a conceptual basis to study citrate accumulation in fleshy fruits and may be a powerful tool to improve our understanding of fruit acidity.

  19. A Process-Based Model of TCA Cycle Functioning to Analyze Citrate Accumulation in Pre- and Post-Harvest Fruits.

    PubMed

    Etienne, Audrey; Génard, Michel; Bugaud, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Citrate is one of the most important organic acids in many fruits and its concentration plays a critical role in organoleptic properties. The regulation of citrate accumulation throughout fruit development, and the origins of the phenotypic variability of the citrate concentration within fruit species remain to be clarified. In the present study, we developed a process-based model of citrate accumulation based on a simplified representation of the TCA cycle to predict citrate concentration in fruit pulp during the pre- and post-harvest stages. Banana fruit was taken as a reference because it has the particularity of having post-harvest ripening, during which citrate concentration undergoes substantial changes. The model was calibrated and validated on the two stages, using data sets from three contrasting cultivars in terms of citrate accumulation, and incorporated different fruit load, potassium supply, and harvest dates. The model predicted the pre and post-harvest dynamics of citrate concentration with fairly good accuracy for the three cultivars. The model suggested major differences in TCA cycle functioning among cultivars during post-harvest ripening of banana, and pointed to a potential role for NAD-malic enzyme and mitochondrial malate carriers in the genotypic variability of citrate concentration. The sensitivity of citrate accumulation to growth parameters and temperature differed among cultivars during post-harvest ripening. Finally, the model can be used as a conceptual basis to study citrate accumulation in fleshy fruits and may be a powerful tool to improve our understanding of fruit acidity. PMID:26042830

  20. A Process-Based Model of TCA Cycle Functioning to Analyze Citrate Accumulation in Pre- and Post-Harvest Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Etienne, Audrey; Génard, Michel; Bugaud, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Citrate is one of the most important organic acids in many fruits and its concentration plays a critical role in organoleptic properties. The regulation of citrate accumulation throughout fruit development, and the origins of the phenotypic variability of the citrate concentration within fruit species remain to be clarified. In the present study, we developed a process-based model of citrate accumulation based on a simplified representation of the TCA cycle to predict citrate concentration in fruit pulp during the pre- and post-harvest stages. Banana fruit was taken as a reference because it has the particularity of having post-harvest ripening, during which citrate concentration undergoes substantial changes. The model was calibrated and validated on the two stages, using data sets from three contrasting cultivars in terms of citrate accumulation, and incorporated different fruit load, potassium supply, and harvest dates. The model predicted the pre and post-harvest dynamics of citrate concentration with fairly good accuracy for the three cultivars. The model suggested major differences in TCA cycle functioning among cultivars during post-harvest ripening of banana, and pointed to a potential role for NAD-malic enzyme and mitochondrial malate carriers in the genotypic variability of citrate concentration. The sensitivity of citrate accumulation to growth parameters and temperature differed among cultivars during post-harvest ripening. Finally, the model can be used as a conceptual basis to study citrate accumulation in fleshy fruits and may be a powerful tool to improve our understanding of fruit acidity. PMID:26042830

  1. Citrate Attenuates Adenine-Induced Chronic Renal Failure in Rats by Modulating the Th17/Treg Cell Balance.

    PubMed

    Ou, Yan; Li, Shuiqin; Zhu, Xiaojing; Gui, Baosong; Yao, Ganglian; Ma, Liqun; Zhu, Dan; Fu, Rongguo; Ge, Heng; Wang, Li; Jia, Lining; Tian, Lifang; Duan, Zhaoyang

    2016-02-01

    Citrate is commonly used as an anticoagulant in hemodialysis for chronic renal failure (CRF) and for the regulation of the immune dysfunction in CRF patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of citrate on the balance of T helper 17 (Th17) and regulatory T (Treg) cells in CRF. The levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (Scr) were significantly increased in the CRF model group compared to the control group, and were decreased in the citrate-treated groups. Citrate treatment inhibited the viability of Th17 cells while elevating the viability of Treg cells in CRF rats. Moreover, Th17-related cytokines significantly decreased while the Treg-related cytokines significantly increased with citrate treatment. Moreover, citrate had a negative influence on the deviation of Th17/Treg cells in CRF rats. Therefore, our study suggests that citrate had an anti-inflammatory effect on CRF through the modulation of the Th17/Treg balance.

  2. Bio-inspired citrate-functionalized apatite thin films crystallized on Ti-6Al-4V implants pre-coated with corrosion resistant layers.

    PubMed

    Delgado-López, José Manuel; Iafisco, Michele; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Isaac; Gómez-Morales, Jaime

    2013-10-01

    In this paper the crystallization of a bioinspired citrate-functionalized apatite (cit-Ap) thin film (thickness about 2μm) on Ti-6Al-4V supports pre-coated with bioactive and corrosion resistant buffer layer of silicon nitride (Si3N4), silicon carbide (SiC) or titanium nitride (TiN) is reported. The apatitic coatings were produced by a new coating technique based on the induction heating of the implants immersed in a flowing calcium-citrate-phosphate solution at pH11. The influence of the buffer layers and the surface roughness of the substrate on the chemical-physical features and adhesion of the cit-Ap films were investigated. The best plasticity, compactness and adherence properties have been found in the Ap layer grown on Si3N4, followed by the Ap grown on SiC and TiN, respectively. The adhesion property was likely related to the roughness of the buffered substrates, whereas the compactness and plasticity were closely related to the operating conditions during the Ap crystallization (flow rate of the solution and increase of temperature) rather than to the nature of the buffer layer.

  3. Bio-inspired citrate-functionalized apatite thin films crystallized on Ti-6Al-4V implants pre-coated with corrosion resistant layers.

    PubMed

    Delgado-López, José Manuel; Iafisco, Michele; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Isaac; Gómez-Morales, Jaime

    2013-10-01

    In this paper the crystallization of a bioinspired citrate-functionalized apatite (cit-Ap) thin film (thickness about 2μm) on Ti-6Al-4V supports pre-coated with bioactive and corrosion resistant buffer layer of silicon nitride (Si3N4), silicon carbide (SiC) or titanium nitride (TiN) is reported. The apatitic coatings were produced by a new coating technique based on the induction heating of the implants immersed in a flowing calcium-citrate-phosphate solution at pH11. The influence of the buffer layers and the surface roughness of the substrate on the chemical-physical features and adhesion of the cit-Ap films were investigated. The best plasticity, compactness and adherence properties have been found in the Ap layer grown on Si3N4, followed by the Ap grown on SiC and TiN, respectively. The adhesion property was likely related to the roughness of the buffered substrates, whereas the compactness and plasticity were closely related to the operating conditions during the Ap crystallization (flow rate of the solution and increase of temperature) rather than to the nature of the buffer layer. PMID:23648093

  4. [Effect of citrate, tartrate, succinate and phosphate ions on the penetration of phosphorus-labelled anions into erythrocytes].

    PubMed

    Gomulkievich, Ia; Popdimitrova, N; Kunchev, N; Zlatarev, G

    1980-01-01

    Membrane permeability for different ions may successfully be evaluated under conditions of ionic equilibrium, which provides osmotic equilibrium in the cell and steadiness of its volume. The present investigation was promoted on red cells of experimental animals under conditions of ionic equilibrium, using P32 with up to 30 microCi activity. Unidirectional penetration of ions in the red cells was studied. The speed constant K0 was derived from the graphic relation InA=f(t) as an angular coefficient at the starting moment. The type of ions was shown to influence K0 value, which was maximal in the presence of tartarate ions in the suspension medium and minimal in the presence of succinate ions. This study demonstrated that the activation energy does not depend on the ions in the solution. The results are highly suggestive of the existence of differences in the mechanism of penetration of different ions through the red cell membrane.

  5. Problems in the scintigraphic detection of osteomyelitis. [/sup 99m/Tc-phosphate compounds; /sup 67/Ga-citrates

    SciTech Connect

    Gilday, D.L.

    1980-06-01

    Bone imaging has played a major role in the early detection of pediatric osteomyelitis. The single gamma camera view (rather than whole body imaging) successfully delineates the growth zones of the long bones and can detect subtle changes in these regions. If a high suspicion of osteomyelitis is entertained despite a normal bone scan, gallium imaging should be employed. Cases have been reported in which delayed scans were normal but the blood pool image was not.

  6. Solubilization of insoluble phosphates by thermophilic fungi.

    PubMed

    Singh, C P; Mishra, M M; Yadav, K S

    1980-01-01

    The solubilization of tricalcium phosphate and rock phosphate and assimilation of solubilized P by thermophilic fungi isolated from compost were studied. The solubilization of tricalcium phosphate was greater than that of rock phosphate on inoculation with fungi in liquid medium, but growth of most of the fungi was greater in rock phosphate. Torula thermophila solubilized tricalcium phosphate maximally. There was solubilization of rock phosphate in semi-solid lignocellulose medium by Aspergillus fumigatus.

  7. Preparation, characterization and optimization of sildenafil citrate loaded PLGA nanoparticles by statistical factorial design

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and the aim of the study The objective of the present study was to formulate and optimize nanoparticles (NPs) of sildenafil-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) by double emulsion solvent evaporation (DESE) method. The relationship between design factors and experimental data was evaluated using response surface methodology. Method A Box-Behnken design was made considering the mass ratio of drug to polymer (D/P), the volumetric proportion of the water to oil phase (W/O) and the concentration of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as the independent agents. PLGA-NPs were successfully prepared and the size (nm), entrapment efficiency (EE), drug loading (DL) and cumulative release of drug from NPs post 1 and 8 hrs were assessed as the responses. Results The NPs were prepared in a spherical shape and the sizes range of 240 to 316 nm. The polydispersity index of size was lower than 0.5 and the EE (%) and DL (%) varied between 14-62% and 2-6%, respectively. The optimized formulation with a desirability factor of 0.9 was selected and characterized. This formulation demonstrated the particle size of 270 nm, EE of 55%, DL of 3.9% and cumulative drug release of 79% after 12 hrs. In vitro release studies showed a burst release at the initial stage followed by a sustained release of sildenafil from NPs up to 12 hrs. The release kinetic of the optimized formulation was fitted to Higuchi model. Conclusions Sildenafil citrate NPs with small particle size, lipophilic feature, high entrapment efficiency and good loading capacity is produced by this method. Characterization of optimum formulation, provided by an evaluation of experimental data, showed no significant difference between calculated and measured data. PMID:24355133

  8. Self-Esteem, Confidence, and Relationships in Men Treated with Sildenafil Citrate for Erectile Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Althof, Stanley E; O' Leary, Michael P; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Glina, Sidney; King, Rosie; Tseng, Li-Jung; Bowler, Jessica L

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Men with erectile dysfunction (ED) often have low self-esteem, confidence, and sexual relationship satisfaction. OBJECTIVE We evaluated the impact of sildenafil citrate and its generalizability across cultures on self-esteem, confidence, and sexual relationship satisfaction in men with ED using the Self-Esteem And Relationship (SEAR) questionnaire. DESIGN Pooled analysis of 2 double-blind, placebo-controlled, flexible-dose trials of sildenafil with identical protocols: 1 was conducted in the United States and the other in Mexico, Brazil, Australia, and Japan. PATIENTS Men ≥18 years old with ED. MEASUREMENTS The impact of treatment on psychosocial factors associated with ED was determined by patient responses to the SEAR questionnaire. Erectile function was determined using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and a global efficacy question. Successful sexual intercourse attempts were derived from event logs of sexual activity. Treatment effect sizes were calculated for all study outcomes. RESULTS Compared with patients who received placebo (n = 274), patients who received sildenafil (n = 279) reported significantly greater improvements (P<.0001) in self-esteem, confidence, sexual relationship satisfaction, and in all sexual function domains of the IIEF. Treatment effect sizes were large (range, 0.7 to 1.2) for all SEAR components, and improvement in psychosocial measures showed moderate to high correlations (range, 0.50 to 0.83, P<.0001) with improvement in erectile function, percentage of successful intercourse attempts, and global efficacy. CONCLUSIONS In men with ED from 5 different nations, sildenafil produced substantial improvements in self-esteem, confidence, and sexual relationship satisfaction. Improvements in these psychosocial factors were observed crossculturally and correlated significantly and tangibly with improvements in erectile function. PMID:16836626

  9. Iron transport in Mycobacterium smegmatis: uptake of iron from ferric citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Messenger, A.J.M.; Ratledge, C.

    1982-01-01

    In mycobacterial growth medium 40 to 400 ..mu..M citrate was required to solubilize 2 ..mu..M /sup 55/Fe. This solubilized /sup 55/Fe was taken up into both iron-deficient and iron-sufficient washed cell suspensions of Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Although the /sup 55/Fe was taken up into the cell, the citrate was not. The uptake system with M. smegmatis was not inhibited by electron transport inhibitors, uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation, or thiol reagents and was saturable with iron at approximately 35 ..mu..M. The system was independent of the iron transport systems already known to exist in M. smegmatis: i.e., the two exochelin routes of assimilation as well as the mycobactin-salicylate system. It was not induced by the presence of 400 ..mu..M citrate in the growth medium, nor did the presence of citrate in the medium affect the production of either exochelin or mycobactin.

  10. Preventing serpin aggregation: The molecular mechanism of citrate action upon antitrypsin unfolding

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, Mary C.; Morton, Craig J.; Feil, Susanne C.; Hansen, Guido; Adams, Julian J.; Parker, Michael W.; Bottomley, Stephen P.

    2008-11-21

    The aggregation of antitrypsin into polymers is one of the causes of neonatal hepatitis, cirrhosis, and emphysema. A similar reaction resulting in disease can occur in other human serpins, and collectively they are known as the serpinopathies. One possible therapeutic strategy involves inhibiting the conformational changes involved in antitrypsin aggregation. The citrate ion has previously been shown to prevent antitrypsin aggregation and maintain the protein in an active conformation; its mechanism of action, however, is unknown. Here we demonstrate that the citrate ion prevents the initial misfolding of the native state to a polymerogenic intermediate in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, we have solved the crystal structure of citrate bound to antitrypsin and show that a single citrate molecule binds in a pocket between the A and B beta-sheets, a region known to be important in maintaining antitrypsin stability.

  11. Citrate influences microbial Fe hydroxide reduction via a dissolution-disaggregation mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunschweig, Juliane; Klier, Christine; Schröder, Christian; Händel, Matthias; Bosch, Julian; Totsche, Kai U.; Meckenstock, Rainer U.

    2014-08-01

    Microbial reduction of ferric iron is partly dependent on Fe hydroxide particle size: nanosized Fe hydroxides greatly exceed the bioavailability of their counterparts larger than 1 μm. Citrate as a low molecular weight organic acid can likewise stabilize colloidal suspensions against aggregation by electrostatic repulsion but also increase Fe bioavailability by enhancing Fe hydroxide solubility. The aim of this study was to see whether adsorption of citrate onto surfaces of large ferrihydrite aggregates results in the formation of a stable colloidal suspension by electrostatic repulsion and how this effect influences microbial Fe reduction. Furthermore, we wanted to discriminate between citrate-mediated colloid stabilization out of larger aggregates and ferrihydrite dissolution and their influence on microbial Fe hydroxide reduction. Dissolution kinetics of ferrihydrite aggregates induced by different concentrations of citrate and humic acids were compared to microbial reduction kinetics with Geobacter sulfurreducens. Dynamic light scattering results showed the formation of a stable colloidal suspension and colloids with hydrodynamic diameters of 69 (±37) to 165 (± 65) nm for molar citrate:Fe ratios of 0.1 to 0.5 and partial dissolution of ferrihydrite at citrate:Fe ratios ⩾ 0.1. No dissolution or colloid stabilization was detected in the presence of humic acids. Adsorption of citrate, necessary for dissolution, reversed the surface charge and led to electrostatic repulsion between sub-aggregates of ferrihydrite and colloid stabilization when the citrate:Fe ratio was above a critical value (⩽ 0.1). Lower ratios resulted in stronger ferrihydrite aggregation instead of formation of a stable colloidal suspension, owing to neutralization of the positive surface charge. At the same time, microbial ferrihydrite reduction increased from 0.029 to 0.184 mM h-1 indicating that colloids stabilized by citrate addition enhanced microbial Fe reduction. Modelling of

  12. QbD-Driven Development and Validation of a HPLC Method for Estimation of Tamoxifen Citrate with Improved Performance.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Premjeet Singh; Beg, Sarwar; Katare, O P; Singh, Bhupinder

    2016-09-01

    The current studies entail Quality by Design (QbD)-enabled development of a simple, rapid, sensitive and cost-effective high-performance liquid chromatographic method for estimation of tamoxifen citrate (TMx). The factor screening studies were performed using a 7-factor 8-run Taguchi design. Systematic optimization was performed employing Box-Behnken design by selecting the mobile phase ratio, buffer pH and oven temperature as the critical method parameters (CMPs) identified from screening studies, thus evaluating the critical analytical attributes (CAAs), namely, peak area, retention time, theoretical plates and peak tailing as the parameters of method robustness. The optimal chromatographic separation was achieved using acetonitrile and phosphate buffer (pH 3.5) 52:48 v/v as the mobile phase with a flow rate 0.7 mL/min, an oven temperature 40°C and UV detection at 256 nm. The method was validated as per the ICH recommended conditions, which revealed high degree of linearity, accuracy, precision, sensitivity and robustness over the existing liquid chromatographic methods of the drug. Also the method was applied for the estimation of TMx in nanostructured formulations, which indicated no significant change in the retention time. In a nutshell, the studies demonstrated successful development of the HPLC method of TMx with improved understanding of the relationship among the influential variables for enhancing the method performance. PMID:27226463

  13. Fingerprinting of sildenafil citrate and tadalafil tablets in pharmaceutical formulations via X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Rafael S; Mariotti, Kristiane C; Schwab, Nicolas V; Sabin, Guilherme P; Rocha, Werickson F C; de Castro, Eustáquio V R; Limberger, Renata P; Mayorga, Paulo; Bueno, Maria Izabel M S; Romão, Wanderson

    2012-01-25

    The production of counterfeited drugs is a criminal problem that carries serious risks to public health in the worldwide. In Brazil, Viagra and Cialis are the most counterfeit medicines, being used to inhibit the phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5), treating thus, problems related to erectile dysfunction. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is a suitable technique to control the quality of new pharmaceutical formulations and distinguish between authentic and counterfeit tablets. XRF has advantageous features like multielemental capability, good detectivity, high precision, short analysis times, and is nondestructive, which makes it suitable to be extended to a great variety of samples. In this work, the inorganic fingerprinting chemical of forty-one commercial samples (Viagra, Cialis, Lazar, Libiden, Maxfil, Plenovit, Potent 75, Rigix, V-50, Vimax and Pramil) and fifty-six counterfeit samples (Viagra and Cialis) were obtained from XRF data. XRF presented an excellent analytical methodology for semi-quantitative determination of active ingredient (in case of sildenafil citrate that presents S in its structure) and excipients such as calcium phosphate, titanium oxide and iron oxide (P, Ca, Ti and Fe). The matrix data were allied to chemometric methods (Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis) to classify the tablets investigated between authentic and counterfeit, grouping the samples into of seven groups: A, B, C, D and E (counterfeit group) and F and G (authentic group).

  14. Silicon Injection Granulomata: 67Ga Citrate Findings in Free Silicon Buttock Augmentation.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Sara; Chun, Kwang; Benchekroun, Mohammed Taoudi; Akamnonu, Olisaemeka; Freeman, Leonard

    2016-06-01

    Ga citrate is frequently used in the workup of fever of unknown origin. Here, we report a case of avid Ga-citrate in bilateral gluteal regions of a patient with a history of free silicon injection buttock augmentation referred for suspected diagnosis of sarcoidosis. CT findings were equivocal for inflammation/infection in the buttock region, and nuclear scintigraphy allowed for more definitive diagnosis. PMID:26953658

  15. Lifesaving citrate anticoagulation to bridge ineffective danaparoid [correction of to bridge to danaparoid] treatment.

    PubMed

    Dworschak, Martin; Hiesmayr, Jörg Michael; Lassnigg, Andrea

    2002-05-01

    A case of successful regional anticoagulation with trisodium citrate in a patient who developed heparin-induced thrombocytopenia while on continuous hemofiltration is described. Immediate citrate anticoagulation allowed for maintenance of extracorporeal circulation until effective danaparoid therapy could be established. Recommended plasma antifactor Xa levels for hemodialysis may be inadequate in some cases. Values similar to those in use during cardiopulmonary bypass could be required. PMID:12022563

  16. Testosterone and prolactin regulation of metabolic genes and citrate metabolism of prostate epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Costello, L C; Franklin, R B

    2002-08-01

    The control and alteration of key regulatory enzymes is a determinant of the reactions and pathways of intermediary metabolism in mammalian cells. An important mechanism in the metabolic control is the hormonal regulation of the genes associated with the transcription and the biosynthesis of these key enzymes. The secretory epithelial cells of the prostate gland of humans and other animals possess a unique citrate-related metabolic pathway regulated by testosterone and prolactin. This specialized hormone-regulated metabolic activity is responsible for the major prostate function of the production and secretion of extraordinarily high levels of citrate. The key regulatory enzymes directly associated with citrate production in the prostate cells are mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, and mitochondrial aconitase. Testosterone and prolactin are involved in the regulation of the corresponding genes associated with these enzymes (which we refer to as "metabolic genes"). The regulatory regions of these genes contain the necessary response elements that confer the ability of both hormones to control gene transcription. In this report, we describe the role of protein kinase c (PKC) as the signaling pathway for the prolactin regulation of the metabolic genes in prostate cells. Testosterone and prolactin regulation of these metabolic genes (which are constitutively expressed in all mammalian cells) is specific for these citrate-producing cells. We hope that this review will provide a strong basis for future studies regarding the hormonal regulation of citrate-related intermediary metabolism. Most importantly, altered citrate metabolism is a persistent distinguishing characteristic (decreased citrate production) of prostate cancer (PCa) and also (increased citrate production) of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). An understanding of the role of hormonal regulation of metabolism is essential to understanding the pathogenesis of prostate disease

  17. Renaturation of citrate synthase: influence of denaturant and folding assistants.

    PubMed Central

    Zhi, W.; Landry, S. J.; Gierasch, L. M.; Srere, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    Citrate synthase (CS), which has been denatured in either guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) or urea can be assisted in its renaturation in a variety of ways. The addition of each of the assistants--bovine serum albumin (BSA), oxaloacetate (OAA), and glycerol--promotes renaturation. In combination, the effect of these substances is additive with respect to the yield of folded CS. The report of Buchner et al. (Buchner, J., Schmidt, M., Fuchs, M., Jaenicke, R., Rudolph, R., Schmid, F.X., & Kiefhaber, T., 1991, Biochemistry 30, 1586-1591) that refolding of CS is facilitated by the GroE system (an Escherichia coli chaperonin [cpn] that is composed of GroEL [cpn60] and GroES [cpn10]) has been confirmed. However, we observed substantially higher yield of reactivated CS, 82%, and almost no reactivation in the absence of GroES, < 5%, whereas Buchner et al. reported 28% and 16%, respectively. In addition, we find that GroE-assisted refolding is more efficient for CS denatured in GdnHCl than for CS denatured in urea. This result is discussed in light of the known difference in the denatured states generated in GdnHCl and urea. Because GroEL inhibits the BSA/glycerol/OAA-assisted refolding, this system will be useful in future studies on the mechanism of GroE-facilitated refolding. PMID:1363914

  18. Self nanoprecipitating preconcentrate of tamoxifen citrate for enhanced bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Kapse, Sonali V; Gaikwad, Rajiv V; Samad, Abdul; Devarajan, Padma V

    2012-06-15

    We disclose a self nanoprecipitating preconcentrate (SNP) of tamoxifen citrate (TMX), which forms TMX loaded polymeric nanoparticles, on dilution with aqueous media. SNP comprised TMX, polymer (Kollidon SR) and surfactant/s dissolved in a pharmaceutically acceptable vehicle. Binary surfactant mixtures of Aerosol OT (AOT) with Tween 80 revealed synergistic reduction in surface tension to enable both high entrapment efficiency (EE) and low particle size (PS). Synergism of the surfactants was confirmed by molecular interaction parameter(β(σ)). Combination of AOT and Tween 80 resulted in EE (∼85%) and PS (<250nm). Formation of TMX-KSR nanoparticles in situ was reproducible under most experimental conditions and exhibited pH independent behavior. Dilution volume (>80mL) influenced both PS and EE while dilution temperature influenced only PS. Marginal increase in size was evident at the end of 1h nevertheless was not of concern as TMX SNP exhibited near complete release in 1h. DSC and XRD studies revealed amorphous nature of TMX in nanoparticles. FTIR imaging confirmed uniform distribution of TMX in nanoparticles. ESEM and TEM revealed spherical nanoparticles. Biodistribution studies of (99m)Tc labeled TMX SNP in rats revealed no significant absorption however oral pharmacokinetics revealed enhanced oral bioavailability of TMX (165%) compared to TMX suspension. SNP presents a new in situ approach, for design of drug loaded polymeric nanoparticles. PMID:22414426

  19. Pseudohypernatremia secondary to trisodium citrate (Citra-LockTM)

    PubMed Central

    Milliere, Janice; Corriveau, Daryl; Parmar, Malvinder S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hypernatremia is common among hospitalized patients especially in the intensive care units and presents an independent risk factor for mortality. Mild hypernatremia is often asymptomatic but severe hypernatremia causes central nervous system dysfunction with initial non-specific symptoms of encephalopathy that may progress to seizures, coma and death, if left untreated. Severe hypernatremia is a medical emergency and requires emergent medical attention. Materials and methods A haemodialysis patient who arrived for his scheduled haemodialysis treatment had monthly blood work drawn and was reported to have severe hypernatremia with serum sodium concentration of 183 mmol/L. The possibility of technique or laboratory error was considered and systematically evaluated. Results The serum sodium measurement using another analyser showed similar value of 182 mmolL. A repeat serum sodium level on a sample drawn 2 h later showed normal value of 139–140 mmol/L. A step-wise evaluation of the complete procedure from blood collection to analysis of the sample revealed this to be spuriously elevated serum sodium concentration secondary to contamination of the sample during sample collection with trisodium citrate, a catheter-lock solution, commonly used in dialysis units to maintain patency of dialysis catheters. Conclusions Spuriously elevated plasma sodium concentration (pseudohypernatremia) of mild degree is common but severe pseudohypernatremia is rare and the possibility of sample contaminations or laboratory error should be considered. Vigilance is required by both the medical and the laboratory staff to resolve such issues in a timely fashion to avoid unintended consequences. PMID:27346973

  20. Gallium-67 citrate imaging in underground coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Kanner, R.E.; Barkman, H.W. Jr.; Rom, W.N.; Taylor, A.T. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-two underground coal workers with 27 or more years of coal dust exposure were studied with gallium-67 citrate (Ga-67) imaging. Radiographic evidence of coal workers indicates that pneumoconiosis (CWP) was present in 12 subjects. The Ga-67 scan was abnormal in 11 of 12 with, and 9 of 10 without, CWP. The Ga-67 uptake index was significantly correlated with total dust exposure (p less than 0.01) and approached significant correlation with the radiographic profusion of the nodules (0.10 greater than p greater than 0.05). There was no correlation between Ga-67 uptake and spirometric function, which was normal in this group of patients; furthermore, increased lung uptake of gallium did not indicate a poor prognosis in subjects no longer exposed to coal dust. While coal dust exposure may be associated with positive Ga-67 lung scan in coal miners with many years of coal dust exposure, the scan provided no information not already available from a careful exposure history and a chest radiograph. Since Ga-67 scanning is a relatively expensive procedure the authors would recommend that its use in subjects with asymptomatic CWP be limited to an investigative role and not be made part of a routine evaluation.

  1. AcsD catalyzes enantioselective citrate desymmetrization in siderophore biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Schmelz, Stefan; Kadi, Nadia; McMahon, Stephen A; Song, Lijiang; Oves-Costales, Daniel; Oke, Muse; Liu, Huanting; Johnson, Kenneth A; Carter, Lester G; Botting, Catherine H; White, Malcolm F; Challis, Gregory L; Naismith, James H

    2009-03-01

    Bacterial pathogens need to scavenge iron from their host for growth and proliferation during infection. They have evolved several strategies to do this, one being the biosynthesis and excretion of small, high-affinity iron chelators known as siderophores. The biosynthesis of siderophores is an important area of study, not only for potential therapeutic intervention but also to illuminate new enzyme chemistries. Two general pathways for siderophore biosynthesis exist: the well-characterized nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS)-dependent pathway and the NRPS-independent siderophore (NIS) pathway, which relies on a different family of sparsely investigated synthetases. Here we report structural and biochemical studies of AcsD from Pectobacterium (formerly Erwinia) chrysanthemi, an NIS synthetase involved in achromobactin biosynthesis. The structures of ATP and citrate complexes provide a mechanistic rationale for stereospecific formation of an enzyme-bound (3R)-citryladenylate, which reacts with L-serine to form a likely achromobactin precursor. AcsD is a unique acyladenylate-forming enzyme with a new fold and chemical catalysis strategy. PMID:19182782

  2. Bench-to-bedside review: Citrate for continuous renal replacement therapy, from science to practice.

    PubMed

    Oudemans-van Straaten, Heleen M; Ostermann, Marlies

    2012-12-07

    To prevent clotting in the extracorporeal circuit during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) anticoagulation is required. Heparin is still the most commonly used anticoagulant. However, heparins increase the risk of bleeding, especially in critically ill patients. Evidence has accumulated that regional anticoagulation of the CRRT circuit with citrate is feasible and safe. Compared to heparin, citrate anticoagulation reduces the risk of bleeding and requirement for blood products, not only in patients with coagulopathy, but also in those without. Metabolic complications are largely prevented by the use of a strict protocol, comprehensive training and integrated citrate software. Recent studies indicate that citrate can even be used in patients with significant liver disease provided that monitoring is intensified and the dose is carefully adjusted. Since the citric acid cycle is oxygen dependent, patients at greatest risk of accumulation seem to be those with persistent lactic acidosis due to poor tissue perfusion. The use of citrate may also be associated with less inflammation due to hypocalcemia-induced suppression of intracellular signaling at the membrane and avoidance of heparin, which may have proinflammatory properties. Whether these beneficial effects increase patient survival needs to be confirmed. However, other benefits are the reason that citrate should become the first choice anticoagulant for CRRT provided that its safe use can be guaranteed.

  3. Clinical review: anticoagulation for continuous renal replacement therapy--heparin or citrate?

    PubMed

    Oudemans-van Straaten, Heleen M; Kellum, John A; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2011-01-24

    Heparin is the most commonly prescribed anticoagulant for continuous renal replacement therapy. There is, however, increasing evidence questioning its safety, particularly in the critically ill. Heparin mainly confers its anticoagulant effect by binding to antithrombin. Heparin binds to numerous other proteins and cells as well, however, compromising its efficacy and safety. Owing to antithrombin consumption and degradation, and to the binding of heparin to acute phase proteins, and to apoptotic and necrotic cells, critical illness confers heparin resistance. The nonspecific binding of heparin further leads to an unpredictable interference with inflammation pathways, microcirculation and phagocytotic clearance of dead cells, with possible deleterious consequences for patients with sepsis and systemic inflammation. Regional anticoagulation with citrate does not increase the patient's risk of bleeding. The benefits of citrate further include a longer or similar circuit life, and possibly better patient and kidney survival. This needs to be confirmed in larger randomized controlled multicenter trials. The use of citrate might be associated with less inflammation and has useful bio-energetic implications. Citrate can, however, with inadequate use cause metabolic derangements. Full advantages of citrate can only be realized if its risks are well controlled. These observations suggest a greater role for citrate.

  4. Double Layers in Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Alton C. (Editor); Moorehead, Tauna W. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: laboratory double layers; ion-acoustic double layers; pumping potential wells; ion phase-space vortices; weak double layers; electric fields and double layers in plasmas; auroral double layers; double layer formation in a plasma; beamed emission from gamma-ray burst source; double layers and extragalactic jets; and electric potential between plasma sheet clouds.

  5. A second mechanism for aluminum resistance in wheat relies on the constitutive efflux of citrate from roots.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Peter R; Raman, Harsh; Gupta, Sanjay; Horst, Walter J; Delhaize, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    The first confirmed mechanism for aluminum (Al) resistance in plants is encoded by the wheat (Triticum aestivum) gene, TaALMT1, on chromosome 4DL. TaALMT1 controls the Al-activated efflux of malate from roots, and this mechanism is widespread among Al-resistant genotypes of diverse genetic origins. This study describes a second mechanism for Al resistance in wheat that relies on citrate efflux. Citrate efflux occurred constitutively from the roots of Brazilian cultivars Carazinho, Maringa, Toropi, and Trintecinco. Examination of two populations segregating for this trait showed that citrate efflux was controlled by a single locus. Whole-genome linkage mapping using an F(2) population derived from a cross between Carazinho (citrate efflux) and the cultivar EGA-Burke (no citrate efflux) identified a major locus on chromosome 4BL, Xce(c), which accounts for more than 50% of the phenotypic variation in citrate efflux. Mendelizing the quantitative variation in citrate efflux into qualitative data, the Xce(c) locus was mapped within 6.3 cM of the microsatellite marker Xgwm495 locus. This linkage was validated in a second population of F(2:3) families derived from a cross between Carazinho and the cultivar Egret (no citrate efflux). We show that expression of an expressed sequence tag, belonging to the multidrug and toxin efflux (MATE) gene family, correlates with the citrate efflux phenotype. This study provides genetic and physiological evidence that citrate efflux is a second mechanism for Al resistance in wheat.

  6. Redox properties and activity of iron-citrate complexes: evidence for redox cycling.

    PubMed

    Adam, Fatima I; Bounds, Patricia L; Kissner, Reinhard; Koppenol, Willem H

    2015-04-20

    Iron in iron overload disease is present as non-transferrin-bound iron, consisting of iron, citrate, and albumin. We investigated the redox properties of iron citrate by electrochemistry, by the kinetics of its reaction with ascorbate, by ESR, and by analyzing the products of reactions of ascorbate with iron citrate complexes in the presence of H2O2 with 4-hydroxybenzoic acid as a reporter molecule for hydroxylation. We report -0.03 V < E°' > +0.01 V for the (Fe(3+)-cit/Fe(2+)-cit) couple. The first step in the reaction of iron citrate with ascorbate is the rapid formation of mixed complexes of iron with citrate and ascorbate, followed by slow reduction to Fe(2+)-citrate with k = ca. 3 M(-1) s(-1). The ascorbyl radical is formed by iron citrate oxidation of Hasc(-) with k = ca. 0.02 M(-1) s(-1); the majority of the ascorbyl radical formed is sequestered by complexation with iron and remains EPR silent. The hydroxylation of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid driven by the Fenton reduction of iron citrate by ascorbate in the presence of H2O2 proceeds in three phases: the first phase, which is independent of the presence of O2, is revealed as a nonzero intercept that reflects the rapid reaction of accumulated Fe(2+) with H2O2; the intermediate oxygen-dependent phase fits a first-order accumulation of product with k = 5 M(-1) s(-1) under aerobic and k = 13 M(-1) s(-1) under anaerobic conditions; the slope of the final linear phase is ca. k = 5 × 10(-2) M(-1) s(-1) under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Product yields under aerobic conditions are greater than predicted from the initial concentration of iron, but they are less than predicted for continuous redox cycling in the presence of excess ascorbate. The ongoing formation of hydroxylated product supports slow redox cycling by iron citrate. Thus, when H2O2 is available, iron-citrate complexes may contribute to pathophysiological manifestations of iron overload diseases.

  7. Inositol phosphates in the environment.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Benjamin L; Papházy, Michael J; Haygarth, Philip M; McKelvie, Ian D

    2002-01-01

    The inositol phosphates are a group of organic phosphorus compounds found widely in the natural environment, but that represent the greatest gap in our understanding of the global phosphorus cycle. They exist as inositols in various states of phosphorylation (bound to between one and six phosphate groups) and isomeric forms (e.g. myo, D-chiro, scyllo, neo), although myo-inositol hexakisphosphate is by far the most prevalent form in nature. In terrestrial environments, inositol phosphates are principally derived from plants and accumulate in soils to become the dominant class of organic phosphorus compounds. Inositol phosphates are also present in large amounts in aquatic environments, where they may contribute to eutrophication. Despite the prevalence of inositol phosphates in the environment, their cycling, mobility and bioavailability are poorly understood. This is largely related to analytical difficulties associated with the extraction, separation and detection of inositol phosphates in environmental samples. This review summarizes the current knowledge of inositol phosphates in the environment and the analytical techniques currently available for their detection in environmental samples. Recent advances in technology, such as the development of suitable chromatographic and capillary electrophoresis separation techniques, should help to elucidate some of the more pertinent questions regarding inositol phosphates in the natural environment. PMID:12028785

  8. How Bonding in Manganous Phosphates Affects their Mn(II)-(31)P Hyperfine Interactions.

    PubMed

    Un, Sun; Bruch, Eduardo M

    2015-11-01

    Manganous phosphates have been postulated to play an important role in cells as antioxidants. In situ Mn(II) electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy has been used to measure their speciation in cells. The analyses of such ENDOR spectra and the quantification of cellular Mn(II) phosphates has been based on comparisons to in vitro model complexes and heuristic modeling. In order to put such analyses on a more physical and theoretical footing, the Mn(II)-(31)P hyperfine interactions of various Mn(II) phosphate complexes have been measured by 95 GHz ENDOR spectroscopy. The dipolar components of these interactions remained relatively constant as a function of pH, esterification, and phosphate chain length, while the isotropic contributions were significantly affected. Counterintuitively, although the manganese-phosphate bonds are weakened by protonation and esterification, they lead to larger isotropic values, indicating higher unpaired-electron spin densities at the phosphorus nuclei. By comparison, extending the phosphate chain with additional phosphate groups lowers the spin density. Density functional theory calculations of model complexes quantitatively reproduced the measured hyperfine couplings and provided detailed insights into how bonding in Mn(II) phosphate complexes modulates the electron-spin polarization and consequently their isotropic hyperfine couplings. These results show that various classes of phosphates can be identified by their ENDOR spectra and provide a theoretical framework for understanding the in situ (31)P ENDOR spectra of cellular Mn(II) complexes.

  9. How Bonding in Manganous Phosphates Affects their Mn(II)-(31)P Hyperfine Interactions.

    PubMed

    Un, Sun; Bruch, Eduardo M

    2015-11-01

    Manganous phosphates have been postulated to play an important role in cells as antioxidants. In situ Mn(II) electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy has been used to measure their speciation in cells. The analyses of such ENDOR spectra and the quantification of cellular Mn(II) phosphates has been based on comparisons to in vitro model complexes and heuristic modeling. In order to put such analyses on a more physical and theoretical footing, the Mn(II)-(31)P hyperfine interactions of various Mn(II) phosphate complexes have been measured by 95 GHz ENDOR spectroscopy. The dipolar components of these interactions remained relatively constant as a function of pH, esterification, and phosphate chain length, while the isotropic contributions were significantly affected. Counterintuitively, although the manganese-phosphate bonds are weakened by protonation and esterification, they lead to larger isotropic values, indicating higher unpaired-electron spin densities at the phosphorus nuclei. By comparison, extending the phosphate chain with additional phosphate groups lowers the spin density. Density functional theory calculations of model complexes quantitatively reproduced the measured hyperfine couplings and provided detailed insights into how bonding in Mn(II) phosphate complexes modulates the electron-spin polarization and consequently their isotropic hyperfine couplings. These results show that various classes of phosphates can be identified by their ENDOR spectra and provide a theoretical framework for understanding the in situ (31)P ENDOR spectra of cellular Mn(II) complexes. PMID:26488236

  10. Transport of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles in unsaturated sand.

    PubMed

    Kumahor, Samuel K; Hron, Pavel; Metreveli, George; Schaumann, Gabriele E; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2015-12-01

    Chemical factors and physical constraints lead to coupled effects during particle transport in unsaturated porous media. Studies on unsaturated transport as typical for soils are currently scarce. In unsaturated porous media, particle mobility is determined by the existence of an air-water interface in addition to a solid-water interface. To this end, we measured breakthrough curves and retention profiles of citrate-coated Ag nanoparticles in unsaturated sand at two pH values (5 and 9) and three different flow rates corresponding to different water contents with 1 mM KNO3 as background electrolyte. The classical DLVO theory suggests unfavorable deposition conditions at the air-water and solid-water interfaces. The breakthrough curves indicate modification in curve shapes and retardation of nanoparticles compared to inert solute. Retention profiles show sensitivity to flow rate and pH and this ranged from almost no retention for the highest flow rate at pH=9 to almost complete retention for the lowest flow rate at pH=5. Modeling of the breakthrough curves, thus, required coupling two parallel processes: a kinetically controlled attachment process far from equilibrium, responsible for the shape modification, and an equilibrium sorption, responsible for particle retardation. The non-equilibrium process and equilibrium sorption are suggested to relate to the solid-water and air-water interfaces, respectively. This is supported by the DLVO model extended for hydrophobic interactions which suggests reversible attachment, characterized by a secondary minimum (depth 3-5 kT) and a repulsive barrier at the air-water interface. In contrast, the solid-water interface is characterized by a significant repulsive barrier and the absence of a secondary minimum suggesting kinetically controlled and non-equilibrium interaction. This study provides new insights into particle transport in unsaturated porous media and offers a model concept representing the relevant processes. PMID

  11. Anticaries effect of dentifrices with calcium citrate and sodium trimetaphosphate

    PubMed Central

    DELBEM, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; BERGAMASCHI, Maurício; RODRIGUES, Eliana; SASSAKI, Kikue Takebayashi; VIEIRA, Ana Elisa de Mello; MISSEL, Emilene Macario Coimbra

    2012-01-01

    Because of the growing concerns regarding fluoride ingestion by young children and dental fluorosis, it is necessary to develop new dentifrices. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dentifrices with calcium citrate (Cacit) and sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) on enamel demineralization. Material and Methods Enamel blocks (n=70), previously selected through surface hardness analysis, were submitted to daily treatment with dentifrices diluted in artificial saliva and to a pH-cycling model. The fluoride concentration in dentifrices was 0, 250, 450, 550, 1,000 and 1,100 µg F/g. CrestTM was used as a positive control (1,100 mg F/g). Cacit (0.25%) and TMP (0.25%) were added to dentifrices with 450 and 1,000 µg F/g. Surface hardness was measured again and integrated loss of subsurface hardness and fluoride concentration in enamel were calculated. Parametric and correlation tests were used to determine difference (p<0.05) and dose-response relationship between treatments. Results The addition of Cacit and TMP did not provide a higher fluoride concentration in enamel, however it reduced (p<0.05) mineral loss when compared to other dentifrices; the dentifrice with Cacit and TMP and a low fluoride concentration presented similar results when compared to a dentifrice with 1,100 mg F/g (p>0.05). Conclusions Dentifrices with 450 and 1,000 µg F/g, Cacit and TMP were as effective as a gold standard one. PMID:22437685

  12. Conditions required for citrate utilization during growth of Lactobacillus casei ATCC334 in chemically defined medium and cheddar cheese extract.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Muñiz, Ilenys; Steele, James L

    2006-10-01

    Conditions required for citrate utilization by Lactobacillus casei ATCC334 were identified. Citrate was utilized by this microorganism in modified Chemically Defined Media (mCDM) as an energy source, solely in the presence of limiting concentrations of galactose. The presence of glucose inhibited citrate utilization by this microorganism even when added in limiting concentrations. Utilization of citrate occurred at pH 6.0 +/- 0.2 and 5.1 +/- 0.2. Together these observations suggest that citrate is an energy source for L. casei in ripening cheese only when the residual levels of carbohydrate post-fermentation are limiting (<2.5 mM), and lactose or glucose are absent. However, citrate utilization by this organism was observed in Cheddar cheese extract (CCE), which naturally contains both lactose and galactose, at the beginning of late-logarithmic phase and regardless of the galactose concentration present in the media.

  13. Light weight phosphate cements

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.; Natarajan, Ramkumar,; Kahn, David

    2010-03-09

    A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

  14. Templated, layered manganese phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Thoma, Steven G.; Bonhomme, Francois R.

    2004-08-17

    A new crystalline maganese phosphate composition having an empirical formula: O). The compound was determined to crystallize in the trigonal space group P-3c1 with a=8.8706(4) .ANG., c=26.1580(2) .ANG., and V (volume)=1783 .ANG..sup.3. The structure consists of sheets of corner sharing Mn(II)O.sub.4 and PO.sub.4 tetrahedra with layers of (H.sub.3 NCH.sub.2 CH.sub.2).sub.3 N and water molecules in-between. The pronated (H.sub.3 NCH.sub.2 CH.sub.2).sub.3 N molecules provide charge balancing for the inorganic sheets. A network of hydrogen bonds between water molecules and the inorganic sheets holds the structure together.

  15. Effects of Potassium Magnesium Citrate Supplementation on 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Oxidative Stress Marker in Prehypertensive and Hypertensive Subjects.

    PubMed

    Vongpatanasin, Wanpen; Peri-Okonny, Poghni; Velasco, Alejandro; Arbique, Debbie; Wang, Zhongyun; Ravikumar, Priya; Adams-Huet, Beverly; Moe, Orson W; Pak, Charles Y C

    2016-09-15

    Diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and dairy products, known as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, is known to reduce blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive patients. More recently, the DASH diet was shown to reduce oxidative stress in hypertensive and nonhypertensive humans. However, the main nutritional components responsible for these beneficial effects of the DASH diet remain unknown. Because the DASH diet is rich in potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and alkali, we performed a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study to compare effects of potassium magnesium citrate (KMgCit), potassium chloride (KCl), and potassium citrate (KCit) to allow dissociation of the three components of K, Mg, and citrate on 24-hour ambulatory BP and urinary 8-isoprostane in hypertensive and prehypertensive subjects, using a randomized crossover design. We found that KCl supplementation for 4 weeks induced a significant reduction in nighttime SBP compared with placebo (116 ± 12 vs 121 ± 15 mm Hg, respectively, p <0.01 vs placebo), whereas KMgCit and KCit had no significant effect in the same subjects (118 ± 11 and 119 ± 13 mm Hg, respectively, p >0.1 vs placebo). In contrast, urinary 8-isoprostane was significantly reduced with KMgCit powder compared with placebo (13.5 ± 5.7 vs 21.1 ± 10.5 ng/mgCr, respectively, p <0.001), whereas KCl and KCit had no effect (21.4 ± 9.1 and 18.3 ± 8.4, respectively, p >0.1 vs placebo). In conclusion, our study demonstrated differential effects of KCl and KMgCit supplementation on BP and the oxidative stress marker in prehypertensive and hypertensive subjects. Clinical significance of the antioxidative effect of KMgCit remains to be determined in future studies. PMID:27448942

  16. Double aortic arch

    MedlinePlus

    Aortic arch anomaly; Double arch; Congenital heart defect - double aortic arch; Birth defect heart - double aortic arch ... aorta is a single arch that leaves the heart and moves leftward. In double aortic arch, some ...

  17. The yeast mitochondrial citrate transport protein: molecular determinants of its substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Aluvila, Sreevidya; Kotaria, Rusudan; Sun, Jiakang; Mayor, June A; Walters, D Eric; Harrison, David H T; Kaplan, Ronald S

    2010-08-27

    The objective of this study was to identify the role of individual amino acid residues in determining the substrate specificity of the yeast mitochondrial citrate transport protein (CTP). Previously, we showed that the CTP contains at least two substrate-binding sites. In this study, utilizing the overexpressed, single-Cys CTP-binding site variants that were functionally reconstituted in liposomes, we examined CTP specificity from both its external and internal surfaces. Upon mutation of residues comprising the more external site, the CTP becomes less selective for citrate with numerous external anions able to effectively inhibit [(14)C]citrate/citrate exchange. Thus, the site 1 variants assume the binding characteristics of a nonspecific anion carrier. Comparison of [(14)C]citrate uptake in the presence of various internal anions versus water revealed that, with the exception of the R189C mutant, the other site 1 variants showed substantial uniport activity relative to exchange. Upon mutation of residues comprising site 2, we observed two types of effects. The K37C mutant displayed a markedly enhanced selectivity for external citrate. In contrast, the other site 2 mutants displayed varying degrees of relaxed selectivity for external citrate. Examination of internal substrates revealed that, in contrast to the control transporter, the R181C variant exclusively functioned as a uniporter. This study provides the first functional information on the role of specific binding site residues in determining mitochondrial transporter substrate selectivity. We interpret our findings in the context of our homology-modeled CTP as it cycles between the outward-facing, occluded, and inward-facing states.

  18. Cloning and expression of Klebsiella pneumoniae genes coding for citrate transport and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, E; Oesterhelt, D

    1985-06-01

    Three Escherichia coli clones (DH1/Cit1, DH1/Cit2 and DH1/Cit3) capable of utilizing citrate as a sole carbon source were isolated from a cosmid bank of Klebsiella pneumoniae wild-type DNA. Two of these clones (DH1/Cit1 and DH1/Cit2) only grew aerobically on citrate minimal medium, the third clone (DH1/Cit3) could also be cultured under fermentative conditions. The aerobic as well as the anaerobic generation times of the three clones were from 4.5 to 7 h. Whereas clone DH1/Cit3 showed a pronounced lag phase on citrate when the cells were pre-grown in medium without citrate, clone DH1/Cit1 immediately started growth, while with clone DH1/Cit2 a short lag phase could be observed upon transfer to citrate minimal medium. Restriction analyses of the three plasmids showed that no common fragments had been cloned. The length of the inserts were 13 and 6 kb for the aerobic Cit+ clones and 27 kb (10 kb) for the anaerobic one. Cultures of the anaerobic Cit+ clone were analyzed by immunoblotting techniques and shown to contain oxaloacetate decarboxylase, which confers citrate utilization under anaerobic conditions to K. pneumoniae. Enzyme assays demonstrated the active state of this biotin-containing membrane protein. The specific activity in vesicle preparations from the E. coli clone was 30% of the wild-type K. pneumoniae vesicles. Citrate acts as an inducer of enzyme protein synthesis in the E. coli clone as it does in K. pneumoniae.

  19. Mechanism of citrate metabolism by an oxaloacetate decarboxylase-deficient mutant of Lactococcus lactis IL1403.

    PubMed

    Pudlik, Agata M; Lolkema, Juke S

    2011-08-01

    Citrate metabolism in resting cells of Lactococcus lactis IL1403(pFL3) results in the formation of two end products from the intermediate pyruvate, acetoin and acetate (A. M. Pudlik and J. S. Lolkema, J. Bacteriol. 193:706-714, 2011). Pyruvate is formed from citrate following uptake by the transporter CitP through the subsequent actions of citrate lyase and oxaloacetate decarboxylase. The present study describes the metabolic response of L. lactis when oxaloacetate accumulates in the cytoplasm. The oxaloacetate decarboxylase-deficient mutant ILCitM(pFL3) showed nearly identical rates of citrate consumption, but the end product profile in the presence of glucose shifted from mainly acetoin to only acetate. In addition, in contrast to the parental strain, the mutant strain did not generate proton motive force. Citrate consumption by the mutant strain was coupled to the excretion of oxaloacetate, with a yield of 80 to 85%. Following citrate consumption, oxaloacetate was slowly taken up by the cells and converted to pyruvate by a cryptic decarboxylase and, subsequently, to acetate. The transport of oxaloacetate is catalyzed by CitP. The parental strain IL1403(pFL3) containing CitP consumed oxaloacetate, while the original strain, IL1403, not containing CitP, did not. Moreover, oxaloacetate consumption was enhanced in the presence of L-lactate, indicating exchange between oxaloacetate and L-lactate catalyzed by CitP. Hence, when oxaloacetate inadvertently accumulates in the cytoplasm, the physiological response of L. lactis is to excrete oxaloacetate in exchange with citrate by an electroneutral mechanism catalyzed by CitP. Subsequently, in a second step, oxaloacetate is taken up by CitP and metabolized to pyruvate and acetate.

  20. Phosphate nutrition: improving low-phosphate tolerance in crops.

    PubMed

    López-Arredondo, Damar Lizbeth; Leyva-González, Marco Antonio; González-Morales, Sandra Isabel; López-Bucio, José; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient that is required for all major developmental processes and reproduction in plants. It is also a major constituent of the fertilizers required to sustain high-yield agriculture. Levels of phosphate--the only form of phosphorus that can be assimilated by plants--are suboptimal in most natural and agricultural ecosystems, and when phosphate is applied as fertilizer in soils, it is rapidly immobilized owing to fixation and microbial activity. Thus, cultivated plants use only approximately 20-30% of the applied phosphate, and the rest is lost, eventually causing water eutrophication. Recent advances in the understanding of mechanisms by which wild and cultivated species adapt to low-phosphate stress and the implementation of alternative bacterial pathways for phosphorus metabolism have started to allow the design of more effective breeding and genetic engineering strategies to produce highly phosphate-efficient crops, optimize fertilizer use, and reach agricultural sustainability with a lower environmental cost. In this review, we outline the current advances in research on the complex network of plant responses to low-phosphorus stress and discuss some strategies used to manipulate genes involved in phosphate uptake, remobilization, and metabolism to develop low-phosphate-tolerant crops, which could help in designing more efficient crops.

  1. Genetic Control of Phosphate-Metabolizing Enzymes in NEUROSPORA CRASSA: Relationships among Regulatory Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Littlewood, Barbara S.; Chia, William; Metzenberg, Robert L.

    1975-01-01

    In Neurospora crassa, the phosphate-metabolizing enzymes are made during phosphate starvation, but not under phosphate sufficiency. The synthesis of these enzymes is controlled by three regulatory genes: pcon-nuc-2, preg and nuc-1. pcon-nuc-2 and preg are closely linked. A model of the hierarchical relationships among these regulatory genes is presented. Studies of double mutants and revertants confirm several predictions of the model. It has been found that nuc-2 (null) and pconc (constitutive) mutations reside in the same cistron. pregc (constitutive) mutations are epistatic to nuc-2 mutations. nuc-1 (null) mutations are epistatic to all others. PMID:123873

  2. 21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... (a) Specifications. Erythromycin phosphate is the phosphate salt of the antibiotic substance produced by the growth of Streptomyces erythreus or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other...

  3. 21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (a) Specifications. Erythromycin phosphate is the phosphate salt of the antibiotic substance produced by the growth of Streptomyces erythreus or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other...

  4. 21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... (a) Specifications. Erythromycin phosphate is the phosphate salt of the antibiotic substance produced by the growth of Streptomyces erythreus or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other...

  5. 21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (a) Specifications. Erythromycin phosphate is the phosphate salt of the antibiotic substance produced by the growth of Streptomyces erythreus or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other...

  6. 21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... (a) Specifications. Erythromycin phosphate is the phosphate salt of the antibiotic substance produced by the growth of Streptomyces erythreus or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other...

  7. Effects of sodium phosphate and caffeine loading on repeated-sprint ability.

    PubMed

    Buck, Christopher; Guelfi, Kym; Dawson, Brian; McNaughton, Lars; Wallman, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The effects of sodium phosphate and caffeine supplementation were assessed on repeated-sprint ability. Using a randomised, double-blind, Latin-square design, 12 female, team-sport players participated in four trials: (1) sodium phosphate and caffeine, (2) sodium phosphate and placebo (for caffeine), (3) caffeine and placebo (for sodium phosphate) and (4) placebo (for sodium phosphate and caffeine), with ~21 days separating each trial. After each trial, participants performed a simulated team-game circuit (4 × 15 min quarters) with 6 × 20-m repeated-sprints performed once before (Set 1), at half-time (Set 2), and after end (Set 3). Total sprint times were faster after sodium phosphate and caffeine supplementation compared with placebo (Set 1: P = 0.003; Set 2: d = -0.51; Set 3: P < 0.001; overall: P = 0.020), caffeine (Set 3: P = 0.004; overall: P = 0.033) and sodium phosphate (Set 3: d = -0.67). Furthermore, total sprint times were faster after sodium phosphate supplementation compared with placebo (Set 1: d = -0.52; Set 3: d = -0.58). Best sprint results were faster after sodium phosphate and caffeine supplementation compared with placebo (Set 3: P = 0.007, d = -0.90) and caffeine (Set 3: P = 0.024, d = -0.73). Best sprint times were also faster after sodium phosphate supplementation compared with placebo (d = -0.54 to -0.61 for all sets). Sodium phosphate and combined sodium phosphate and caffeine loading improved repeated-sprint ability.

  8. Effects of sodium phosphate and caffeine loading on repeated-sprint ability.

    PubMed

    Buck, Christopher; Guelfi, Kym; Dawson, Brian; McNaughton, Lars; Wallman, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The effects of sodium phosphate and caffeine supplementation were assessed on repeated-sprint ability. Using a randomised, double-blind, Latin-square design, 12 female, team-sport players participated in four trials: (1) sodium phosphate and caffeine, (2) sodium phosphate and placebo (for caffeine), (3) caffeine and placebo (for sodium phosphate) and (4) placebo (for sodium phosphate and caffeine), with ~21 days separating each trial. After each trial, participants performed a simulated team-game circuit (4 × 15 min quarters) with 6 × 20-m repeated-sprints performed once before (Set 1), at half-time (Set 2), and after end (Set 3). Total sprint times were faster after sodium phosphate and caffeine supplementation compared with placebo (Set 1: P = 0.003; Set 2: d = -0.51; Set 3: P < 0.001; overall: P = 0.020), caffeine (Set 3: P = 0.004; overall: P = 0.033) and sodium phosphate (Set 3: d = -0.67). Furthermore, total sprint times were faster after sodium phosphate supplementation compared with placebo (Set 1: d = -0.52; Set 3: d = -0.58). Best sprint results were faster after sodium phosphate and caffeine supplementation compared with placebo (Set 3: P = 0.007, d = -0.90) and caffeine (Set 3: P = 0.024, d = -0.73). Best sprint times were also faster after sodium phosphate supplementation compared with placebo (d = -0.54 to -0.61 for all sets). Sodium phosphate and combined sodium phosphate and caffeine loading improved repeated-sprint ability. PMID:25827059

  9. Effects of phosphate buffer in parenteral drugs on particle formation from glass vials.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Toru; Miyajima, Makoto; Wakiyama, Naoki; Terada, Katsuhide

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of inorganic particles generated in glass vials filled with phosphate buffer solutions were investigated. During storage, particles were visually detected in the phosphate buffer solution in particular glass vials which pass compendial tests of containers for injectable drugs. These particles were considered to be different from ordinal glass delamination, which has been reported in a number of papers because the particles were mainly composed of Al, P and O, but not Si. The formation of the particles accelerated at higher storage temperatures. Among the surface treatments tested for the glass vials, sulfur treatment showed a protective effect on the particle formation in the vials, whereas the SiO(2) coating did not have any protective effects. It was found that the elution ratio of Al and Si in the solution stored in the glass vials after the heating was similar to the ratio of Al and Si in borosilicate glass. However, the Al concentration decreased during storage (5°C, 6 months), and consequently, particle formation was observed in the solution. Adding citrate, which is a chelating agent for Al, effectively suppressed the particle formation in the heated solution. When 50 ppb and higher concentrations of Al ion were added to the phosphate buffer solution, the formation of white particles containing Al, P and O was detected. It is suggested that a phosphate buffer solution in a borosilicate glass vial has the ability to form particles due to interactions with the Al that is eluted from the glass during storage.

  10. A comparison of two sodium citrate concentrations in two evacuated blood collection systems for prothrombin time and ISI determination.

    PubMed

    van den Besselaar, A M; Chantarangkul, V; Tripodi, A

    2000-10-01

    The prothrombin time is usually measured in citrated plasma. The W.H.O. recommended concentration of sodium citrate for blood collection for laboratory control of oral anticoagulant therapy is 0.109 M. Some evacuated blood collection systems include 0.105 M sodium citrate. The purpose of the present study was to establish the difference in ISI calibration between 0.109 and 0.105 M citrate, using 7 types of thromboplastin and various types of instrumentation. The two citrate concentrations were provided in both evacuated siliconised glass tubes and in evacuated polyethylene terephtalate (PET) tubes. The ISI difference between the two citrate concentrations was 5.4% for one system but not greater than 3% for all other systems when blood samples were collected with either siliconized glass or PET tubes. Most of the ISI differences between the two citrate concentrations were not significant at the 5% level. It is concluded that the ISI differences between 0.105 M and 0.109 M citrate are not of practical importance. In contrast, ISI differences between siliconised glass and PET tubes, using either 0.105 or 0.109 M citrate, were significant (p <0.05) for most thromboplastin systems and amounted to 7%. ISI interchange between these glass and PET tubes could induce INR differences amounting to 14%, which could affect clinical dosage of oral anticoagulants. PMID:11057867

  11. Quality control in production of suspensions from solid ammonium phosphates (monoammonium phosphate and diammonium phosphate). [Monoammonium phosphate; diammonium phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Achorn, F.P.; Balay, H.L.

    1982-01-01

    Suspensions of good quality can be produced from MAP and DAP. Suspension quality depends on the amount of impurities in the ammonium phosphate solids used. Tests have shown that adding ammonium fluoride helps lower viscosity of suspensions containing a considerable amount of impurities. Also, adding polyphosphates (such as 10-34-0, 9-32-0, and 11-37-0) as a source of part of the P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ (6 to 15% polyphosphate in the product) helps to produce a suspension that has excellent storage characteristics. When the polyphosphate content of the product (11-33-0 suspension) is between 10 and 15% it usually will not solidify during cold weather storage. Freight and production costs of granular ammonium phosphates are relatively low compared to other sources of P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ for the fluid fertilizer market; therefore, using MAP and DAP to produce suspensions is expected to continue to grow in popularity. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Inhibition of calcium oxalate monohydrate growth by citrate and the effect of the background electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Matthew L.; Qiu, S. Roger; Hoyer, John R.; Casey, William H.; Nancollas, George H.; De Yoreo, James J.

    2007-08-01

    Pathological mineralization is a common phenomenon in broad range of plants and animals. In humans, kidney stone formation is a well-known example that afflicts approximately 10% of the population. Of the various calcium salt phases that comprise human kidney stones, the primary component is calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM). Citrate, a naturally occurring molecule in the urinary system and a common therapeutic agent for treating stone disease, is a known inhibitor of COM. Understanding the physical mechanisms of citrate inhibition requires quantification of the effects of both background electrolytes and citrate on COM step kinetics. Here we report the results of an in situ AFM study of these effects, in which we measure the effect of the electrolytes LiCl, NaCl, KCl, RbCl, and CsCl, and the dependence of step speed on citrate concentration for a range of COM supersaturations. We find that varying the background electrolyte results in significant differences in the measured step speeds and in step morphology, with KCl clearly producing the smallest impact and NaCl the largest. The kinetic coefficient for the former is nearly three times larger than for the latter, while the steps change from smooth to highly serrated when KCl is changed to NaCl. The results on the dependence of step speed on citrate concentration show that citrate produces a dead zone whose width increases with citrate concentration as well as a continual reduction in kinetic coefficient with increasing citrate level. We relate these results to a molecular-scale view of inhibition that invokes a combination of kink blocking and step pinning. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the classic step-pinning model of Cabrera and Vermilyea (C-V model) does an excellent job of predicting the effect of citrate on COM step kinetics provided the model is reformulated to more realistically account for impurity adsorption, include an expression for the Gibbs-Thomson effect that is correct for all supersaturations

  13. The physiology and biophysics of an aluminum tolerance mechanism based on root citrate exudation in maize.

    PubMed

    Piñeros, Miguel A; Magalhaes, Jurandir V; Carvalho Alves, Vera M; Kochian, Leon V

    2002-07-01

    Al-induced release of Al-chelating ligands (primarily organic acids) into the rhizosphere from the root apex has been identified as a major Al tolerance mechanism in a number of plant species. In the present study, we conducted physiological investigations to study the spatial and temporal characteristics of Al-activated root organic acid exudation, as well as changes in root organic acid content and Al accumulation, in an Al-tolerant maize (Zea mays) single cross (SLP 181/71 x Cateto Colombia 96/71). These investigations were integrated with biophysical studies using the patch-clamp technique to examine Al-activated anion channel activity in protoplasts isolated from different regions of the maize root. Exposure to Al nearly instantaneously activated a concentration-dependent citrate release, which saturated at rates close to 0.5 nmol citrate h(-1) root(-1), with the half-maximal rates of citrate release occurring at about 20 microM Al(3+) activity. Comparison of citrate exudation rates between decapped and capped roots indicated the root cap does not play a major role in perceiving the Al signal or in the exudation process. Spatial analysis indicated that the predominant citrate exudation is not confined to the root apex, but could be found as far as 5 cm beyond the root cap, involving cortex and stelar cells. Patch clamp recordings obtained in whole-cell and outside-out patches confirmed the presence of an Al-inducible plasma membrane anion channel in protoplasts isolated from stelar or cortical tissues. The unitary conductance of this channel was 23 to 55 pS. Our results suggest that this transporter mediates the Al-induced citrate release observed in the intact tissue. In addition to the rapid Al activation of citrate release, a slower, Al-inducible increase in root citrate content was also observed. These findings led us to speculate that in addition to the Al exclusion mechanism based on root citrate exudation, a second internal Al tolerance mechanism may be

  14. Enhancing radium solubilization in soils by citrate, EDTA, and EDDS chelating amendments.

    PubMed

    Prieto, C; Lozano, J C; Blanco Rodríguez, P; Tomé, F Vera

    2013-04-15

    The effect of three chelating agents (citrate, EDTA, and EDDS) on the solubilization of radium from a granitic soil was studied systematically, considering different soil pH values, chelating agent concentrations, and leaching times. For all the chelating agents tested, the amount of radium leached proved to be strongly dependent on the pH of the substrate: only for acidic conditions did the amount of radium released increase significantly relative to the controls. Under the best conditions, the radium released from the amended soil was greater by factors of 20 in the case of citrate, 18 for EDTA, and 14 for EDDS. The greatest improvement in the release of radium was obtained for the citrate amendment at the highest concentration tested (50 mmol kg(-1)). A slightly lower amount of radium was leached with EDTA at 5 mmol kg(-1) soil, but the solubilization over time was very different from that observed with citrate or EDDS. With EDTA, a maximum in radium leaching was reached on the first day after amendment, while with citrate, the maximum was attained on the fourth day. With EDDS, radium leaching increased slightly but steadily with time (until the sixth day), but the net effect for the period tested was the lowest of the three reagents.

  15. Nitrate Protects Cucumber Plants Against Fusarium oxysporum by Regulating Citrate Exudation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Gu, Zechen; Wang, Ruirui; Sun, Guomei; Zhu, Chen; Guo, Shiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-09-01

    Fusarium wilt causes severe yield losses in cash crops. Nitrogen plays a critical role in the management of plant disease; however, the regulating mechanism is poorly understood. Using biochemical, physiological, bioinformatic and transcriptome approaches, we analyzed how nitrogen forms regulate the interactions between cucumber plants and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC). Nitrate significantly suppressed Fusarium wilt compared with ammonium in both pot and hydroponic experiments. Fewer FOC colonized the roots and stems under nitrate compared with ammonium supply. Cucumber grown with nitrate accumulated less fusaric acid (FA) after FOC infection and exhibited increased tolerance to chemical FA by decreasing FA absorption and transportation in shoots. A lower citrate concentration was observed in nitrate-grown cucumbers, which was associated with lower MATE (multidrug and toxin compound extrusion) family gene and citrate synthase (CS) gene expression, as well as lower CS activity. Citrate enhanced FOC spore germination and infection, and increased disease incidence and the FOC population in ammonium-treated plants. Our study provides evidence that nitrate protects cucumber plants against F. oxysporum by decreasing root citrate exudation and FOC infection. Citrate exudation is essential for regulating disease development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants. PMID:27481896

  16. Effect of topically applied sildenafil citrate on wound healing: experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Gürsoy, Koray; Oruç, Melike; Kankaya, Yüksel; Ulusoy, M. Gürhan; Koçer, Uğur; Kankaya, Duygu; Gürsoy, R. Neslihan; Çevik, Özge; Öğüş, Elmas; Fidanci, Vildan

    2014-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex process that necessitates organization of different cell types and several signalling molecules. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of sildenafil citrate, which decreases cGMP degradation, on wound healing by secondary intention. This study was performed using 25 Sprague Dawley rats weighing 200-250 grams. 4 dorsal defects were created. Four different treatment modalities which were 1% and 5% sildenafil citrate gel prepared with carbopol, pure carbopol gel without any drug in it and 0,9% NaCl solution; were applied to each lesion of the same rat. Randomly selected five rats (25 rats in total) were sacrificed on 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th, and 14th days; and the effect of each modality was evaluated by means of defect area measurement, histopathological examination and measurement of tissue hydroxyproline levels. Sildenafil citrate gel application decreased the defect areas in a dose independent manner starting from 3rd day and dose dependent manner after 7th day. By means of vascularization, sildenafil citrate increased vascularity starting from 3rd day. The strength of acute inflammation was superior in sildenafil groups starting from 5th day; and the amount and maturation of granulation in the wound bed, as well as the strength of chronic inflammation were superior in defects treated with sildenafil citrate as early as 7th day. PMID:25172969

  17. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for citrate synthase from a thermotolerant Bacillus sp.

    PubMed Central

    Schendel, F J; August, P R; Anderson, C R; Hanson, R S; Flickinger, M C

    1992-01-01

    The structural gene coding for citrate synthase from the gram-positive soil isolate Bacillus sp. strain C4 (ATCC 55182) capable of secreting acetic acid at pH 5.0 to 7.0 in the presence of dolime has been cloned from a genomic library by complementation of an Escherichia coli auxotrophic mutant lacking citrate synthase. The nucleotide sequence of the entire 3.1-kb HindIII fragment has been determined, and one major open reading frame was found coding for citrate synthase (ctsA). Citrate synthase from Bacillus sp. strain C4 was found to be a dimer (Mr, 84,500) with a subunit with an Mr of 42,000. The N-terminal sequence was found to be identical with that predicted from the gene sequence. The kinetics were best fit to a bisubstrate enzyme with an ordered mechanism. Bacillus sp. strain C4 citrate synthase was not activated by potassium chloride and was not inhibited by NADH, ATP, ADP, or AMP at levels up to 1 mM. The predicted amino acid sequence was compared with that of the E. coli, Acinetobacter anitratum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Rickettsia prowazekii, porcine heart, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytoplasmic and mitochondrial enzymes. PMID:1311544

  18. Nitrate Protects Cucumber Plants Against Fusarium oxysporum by Regulating Citrate Exudation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Gu, Zechen; Wang, Ruirui; Sun, Guomei; Zhu, Chen; Guo, Shiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-09-01

    Fusarium wilt causes severe yield losses in cash crops. Nitrogen plays a critical role in the management of plant disease; however, the regulating mechanism is poorly understood. Using biochemical, physiological, bioinformatic and transcriptome approaches, we analyzed how nitrogen forms regulate the interactions between cucumber plants and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC). Nitrate significantly suppressed Fusarium wilt compared with ammonium in both pot and hydroponic experiments. Fewer FOC colonized the roots and stems under nitrate compared with ammonium supply. Cucumber grown with nitrate accumulated less fusaric acid (FA) after FOC infection and exhibited increased tolerance to chemical FA by decreasing FA absorption and transportation in shoots. A lower citrate concentration was observed in nitrate-grown cucumbers, which was associated with lower MATE (multidrug and toxin compound extrusion) family gene and citrate synthase (CS) gene expression, as well as lower CS activity. Citrate enhanced FOC spore germination and infection, and increased disease incidence and the FOC population in ammonium-treated plants. Our study provides evidence that nitrate protects cucumber plants against F. oxysporum by decreasing root citrate exudation and FOC infection. Citrate exudation is essential for regulating disease development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants.

  19. Leaching of spent lead acid battery paste components by sodium citrate and acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinfeng; He, Xiong; Yang, Jiakuan; Gao, Linxia; Liu, Jianwen; Yang, Danni; Sun, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Qin; Kumar, R Vasant

    2013-04-15

    A sustainable method, with minimal pollution and low energy cost in comparison with the conventional smelting methods, is proposed for treating components of spent lead-acid battery pastes in aqueous organic acid(s). In this study, PbO, PbO2, and PbSO4, the three major components in a spent lead paste, were individually reacted with a mixture of aqueous sodium citrate and acetic acid solution. Pure lead citrate precursor of Pb3(C6H5O7)2 · 3H2O is the only product crystallized in each leaching experiment. Conditions were optimized for individual lead compounds which were then used as the basis for leaching real industrial spent paste. In this work, efficient leaching process is achieved and raw material cost is reduced by using aqueous sodium citrate and acetic acid, instead of aqueous sodium citrate and citric acid as reported in a pioneering hydrometallurgical method earlier. Acetic acid is not only cheaper than citric acid but is also more effective in aiding dissolution of the lead compounds thus speeding up the leaching process in comparison with citric acid. Lead citrate is readily crystallized from the aqueous solution due to its low solubility and can be combusted to directly produce leady oxide as a precursor for making new battery pastes.

  20. Radiolabeled porphyrin versus gallium-67 citrate for the detection of human melanoma in athymic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Maric, N.; Chan, S. Ming; Hoffer, P.B.; Duray, P.

    1987-01-01

    We performed the biodistribution and imaging studies of /sup 111/In and /sup 67/Ga labeled tetra(4-N-methylpyridyl) porphine, (T4NMPYP), and compared it to that of /sup 67/Ga citrate in athymic mice bearing a human melanoma xenograft. The biodistribution results of both /sup 111/In and /sup 67/Ga labeled T4NMPYP (3, 6, 24, and 48 hours) were similar but differed from that of /sup 67/Ga citrate (48 hours). The optimum tumor uptake of both radiolabeled porphyrins was at 6 hours postinjection and was lower than the tumor uptake of /sup 67/Ga citrate at 48 hours postinjection. Kidney was the only organ showing higher uptake of radiolabeled porphyrin compared to that of /sup 67/Ga citrate. The imaging studies performed with /sup 111/In T4NMPYP and /sup 67/Ga citrate correspond to the biodistribution results. Osteomyelitis present in one mouse showed good localization of /sup 111/In T4NMPYP. 15 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. The FRD3 citrate effluxer promotes iron nutrition between symplastically disconnected tissues throughout Arabidopsis development.

    PubMed

    Roschzttardtz, Hannetz; Séguéla-Arnaud, Mathilde; Briat, Jean-François; Vert, Grégory; Curie, Catherine

    2011-07-01

    We present data supporting a general role for FERRIC REDICTASE DEFECTIVE3 (FRD3), an efflux transporter of the efficient iron chelator citrate, in maintaining iron homeostasis throughout plant development. In addition to its well-known expression in root, we show that FRD3 is strongly expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana seed and flower. Consistently, frd3 loss-of-function mutants are defective in early germination and are almost completely sterile, both defects being rescued by iron and/or citrate supply. The frd3 fertility defect is caused by pollen abortion and is associated with the male gametophytic expression of FRD3. Iron imaging shows the presence of important deposits of iron on the surface of aborted pollen grains. This points to a role for FRD3 and citrate in proper iron nutrition of embryo and pollen. Based on the findings that iron acquisition in embryo, leaf, and pollen depends on FRD3, we propose that FRD3 mediated-citrate release in the apoplastic space represents an important process by which efficient iron nutrition is achieved between adjacent tissues lacking symplastic connections. These results reveal a physiological role for citrate in the apoplastic transport of iron throughout development, and provide a general model for multicellular organisms in the cell-to-cell transport of iron involving extracellular circulation.

  2. Clomiphene Citrate Effectively Increases Testosterone in Obese, Young, Hypogonadal Men

    PubMed Central

    Bendre, Sachin V.; Murray, Pamela J.; Basaria, Shehzad

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity has been associated with low testosterone (T) in adult males and in pubertal boys. Therapy for hypogonadism with exogenous T may lead to testicular atrophy and later infertility. Only a few studies have demonstrated that the Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator (SERM) clomiphene citrate (CC), an estrogen receptor antagonist, increases T in obese hypogonadal men while preventing testicular atrophy. No studies to date using CC have been done in younger obese post-pubertal hypogonadal males. Objective To determine whether CC therapy is effective in increasing serum T levels in hypogonadal post-pubertal obese males 18-21 years. Materials and Methods A retrospective chart analysis of records in obese men aged 18-21 years was done. Patients with early morning T level <350 ng/dl were given 25 mg CC on alternate days. Out of 18 patients found to have low T, 11 were analyzed. Baseline serum T, LH, FSH, weight and BMI were compared at baseline and after 3 months of CC treatment. Results Baseline T level was 233 ± 66 ng/dl and increased to 581 ± 161 ng/dl (p<0.0001) after 3 months of CC treatment. Baseline LH levels increased from 3.3 ± 1.6 mIU/mL to 5.7 ± 1.7 mIU/mL (p=0.027). Similarly, baseline FSH levels increased from 2.8 ± 1.5 mIU/mL to 6.2 ± 3 mIU/mL after CC treatment (p=0.026). There was no correlation between baseline or post treatment weight or BMI and the T level, LH, or FSH level. Conclusion This is the first study reporting on CC therapy in obese, hypogonadal post-pubertal men 18-21 years. The SERM CC increased T in obese post-pubertal hypogonadal men, similar to efficacy of CC in adult hypogonadal men over the age 21 years. Larger randomized controlled studies to study the safety and potential use of CC to improve T in young obese HG men are needed. PMID:26844009

  3. Online Hemoglobin and Oxygen Saturation Sensing During Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy with Regional Citrate Anticoagulation.

    PubMed

    Yessayan, Lenar T; Yee, Jerry; Frinak, Stan; Szamosfalvi, Balazs

    2015-01-01

    Optical hemoglobin and oxygen saturation sensor (OHOS) monitor when used in combination with other hemodynamic tools may be useful for continuous hemodynamic monitoring during ultrafiltration. The stand-alone OHOS monitor can easily be deployed predialyzer into the extracorporeal circuit of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) systems. To maximize the accuracy of the OHOS in 24 hr CRRT systems, clotting in the optical blood chamber and the presensor dilution incurred by replacement fluid should be minimized. Sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) with regional citrate anticoagulation is a therapy that incorporates an OHOS and maintains the overall reliability of hemoglobin (Hb) and saturation sensing. The system operates at a blood flow rate of 60 ml/min and a fixed acid citrate infusion rate of 150 ml/hr. The presensor dilution incurred by concentrated citrate infusion would result in a minimal Hb dilution (<0.7 g/dl) while minimizing optical blood chamber clotting during 24 hr SLED.

  4. Inhibition of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystallization by the combination of citrate and osteopontin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Wei; Qiu, S. Roger; Zachowicz, William J.; Guan, Xiangying; Tang, Ruikang; Hoyer, John R.; De Yoreo, James J.; Nancollas, George H.

    2006-05-01

    The design of effective crystallization inhibitors of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), the primary constituent of kidney stones, is a significant goal. Inhibitory molecules identified in urine include a small organic anion, citrate, and osteopontin (OPN), an aspartic acid-rich protein. The results of molecular-scale analyses combining force microscopy with molecular modeling raised the possibility that inhibition of COM crystallization might be increased by the additive effects of citrate and OPN because they act on different crystal faces. Constant composition (CC) kinetics studies of COM crystal growth now confirm that additive effects are, indeed, achieved in vitro when both citrate and OPN are present. These results suggest that a strategy employing combinations of inhibitors may provide a useful therapeutic approach to urinary stone disease.

  5. Tamoxifen citrate loaded ethosomes for transdermal drug delivery system: preparation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Sarwa, Khomendra Kumar; Suresh, Preeti K; Debnath, Manabendra; Ahmad, Mohammad Zaki

    2013-08-01

    Long term tamoxifen citrate therapy is imperative to treat several dermatological and hormonal sensitive disorders. Successful oral and parenteral administration of tamoxifen citrate has been challenging since it undergoes enzymatic degradation and has poor aqueous solubility issues. In the present work, tamoxifen citrate loaded ethosomes were prepared and characterized for transdermal applications. The prepared formulations were characterized for morphological features, particle size distribution, calorimetric attributes, zeta potential and drug entrapment. Permeation profile of prepared ethosomes was compared with liposomes and hydroethonalic solution across cellophane membrane and human cadaver skin. Results of the permeation studies indicate that ethosomes were able to deliver >90% drug within 24 hours of application, while liposomes and hydroethanolic solution delivered only 39.04% and 36.55% respectively. Skin deposition and stability studies are also reported.

  6. Effects of Sodium Citrate Concentration on Electroless Ni-Fe Bath Stability and Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Myung-Won; Kang, Sung K.; Lee, Jae-Ho

    2014-01-01

    In this research, electroless Ni-Fe bath stability and deposition characteristics were investigated for various sodium citrate concentrations. Complexing agents such as sodium citrate are one of the main components of such electroless plating baths. Since they could play various roles such as maintaining pH stability, preventing precipitation of metal salts, and reducing the concentrations of free metal ions, the concentration of complexing agents in the plating bath is an important parameter for electroless deposition processes. In this research, unstable baths were obtained for insufficient sodium citrate concentrations, and these phenomena were analyzed with ChemEQL. Moreover, the deposition characteristics of electroless Ni-Fe for under bump metallurgy diffusion barriers were also investigated using energy-dispersive spectroscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy.

  7. Tamoxifen citrate loaded ethosomes for transdermal drug delivery system: preparation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Sarwa, Khomendra Kumar; Suresh, Preeti K; Debnath, Manabendra; Ahmad, Mohammad Zaki

    2013-08-01

    Long term tamoxifen citrate therapy is imperative to treat several dermatological and hormonal sensitive disorders. Successful oral and parenteral administration of tamoxifen citrate has been challenging since it undergoes enzymatic degradation and has poor aqueous solubility issues. In the present work, tamoxifen citrate loaded ethosomes were prepared and characterized for transdermal applications. The prepared formulations were characterized for morphological features, particle size distribution, calorimetric attributes, zeta potential and drug entrapment. Permeation profile of prepared ethosomes was compared with liposomes and hydroethonalic solution across cellophane membrane and human cadaver skin. Results of the permeation studies indicate that ethosomes were able to deliver >90% drug within 24 hours of application, while liposomes and hydroethanolic solution delivered only 39.04% and 36.55% respectively. Skin deposition and stability studies are also reported. PMID:23656399

  8. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM AFTER BARIATRIC SURGERY: TREATMENT IS WITH CALCIUM CARBONATE OR CALCIUM CITRATE?

    PubMed Central

    BARETTA, Giorgio Alfredo Pedroso; CAMBI, Maria Paula Carlini; RODRIGUES, Arieli Luz; MENDES, Silvana Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    Background : Bariatric surgery, especially Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, can cause serious nutritional complications arising from poor absorption of essential nutrients. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is one such complications that leads to increased parathyroid hormone levels due to a decrease in calcium and vitamin D, which may compromise bone health. Aim : To compare calcium carbonate and calcium citrate in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Method : Patients were selected on the basis of their abnormal biochemical test and treatment was randomly done with citrate or calcium carbonate. Results : After 60 days of supplementation, biochemical tests were repeated, showing improvement in both groups. Conclusion : Supplementation with calcium (citrate or carbonate) and vitamin D is recommended after surgery for prevention of secondary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:26537273

  9. Bi ˜3.785Cd ˜3.575Cu ˜1.5(PO 4) 3.5O 5.5, a new arrangement of double ( n=2) and triple ( n=3) [ M4Bi 2n-2O 2n] x+ polycationic ribbons in the bismuth-transition metal oxy-phosphate series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colmont, Marie; Huvé, Marielle; Abraham, Francis; Mentré, Olivier

    2004-11-01

    This work is dedicated to investigation of new disordered bismuth-containing oxy-phosphates compounds with an original structure type. As previously observed in this series, they are formed of [M 4Bi 2n-2O 2n] x+ polycationic ribbons of width n O(Bi,M) 4 tetrahedra, surrounded by PO 4 groups. In the new crystal structure type, double (= D), triple (= T) and tunnels (= t) alternate along a common axis obeying the TtDtTtDt/TTtTTt sequence in respect to a nomenclature previously described and recalled in this work. The existence this new polymorph has first been detected by electron diffraction in a multi-phased sample. Then, the crystal structure type, i.e., the TtDtTtDt/TTtTTt sequence, has been deduced from HREM images help to a contrast-interpreting code available for these series of polycations-formed compounds. The subsequent compounds formulation leads to a number of new materials that verify the general formula: [Bi 2(Bi, M) 4O 4] 2 [Bi 4(Bi, M) 4O 6] 6 (PO 4) 28M x, with x⩽12 and M=Cu 2+, Cd 2+ cations. Single crystals of the nominal [O6Bi 4.57Cd 3.43] 4+8.57 [O 6Bi 4Cd 4] 2+8 [O 4Bi 2Cd 3.56Cu 0.44] 2+6 (PO 4) 28 Cu 10.86 have been prepared in a further stage and confirms the predicted crystal structure, Bi ˜3.785Cd ˜3.575Cu ˜1.5(PO 4) 3.5O 5.5, a=11.506(8) Å, b=5.416(4) Å, c=53.94 (4) Å, β=90.10(1)°, R=0.0835, R=0.0993, SG= A2/m, Z=8. As already observed for other elements of this family such as Bi ˜1.2M˜1.2O 1.5(PO 4), Bi ˜6.2Cu ˜6.2O 8(PO 4) 5 or Bi ˜3Cd ˜3.72M˜1.28O 5(PO 4) 3 ( M=Cu, Co, Zn), this compound shows an additional example of PO 4 disorder due to the presence of mixed Bi 3+/M 2+ sites at the edges of ribbons. The origin and consequence of this so-called disorder mostly occurring on PO 4 configurations is intensively discussed and has been characterized by infrared spectroscopy and by neutron diffraction on similar compounds. It is noticeable that the great number of antagonist PO 4 configurations may order along the b

  10. Acute versus chronic supplementation of sodium citrate on 200 m performance in adolescent swimmers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over design was used to investigate whether two different sodium citrate dihydrate (Na-CIT) supplementation protocols improve 200 m swimming performance in adolescent swimmers. Methods Ten, male swimmers (14.9 ± 0.4 years of age; 63.5 ± 4 kg) performed four 200 m time trials with the following treatments: acute (ACU) supplementation (0.5 g kg-1 administered 120 min pre-trial), acute placebo (PLC-A), chronic (CHR) supplementation (0.1 g∙kg-1 for three days and 0.3 g kg-1 on the forth day 120 min pre-trial), and chronic placebo (PLC-C). The order of the trials was randomized, with at least a six-day wash-out period between trials. Blood samples were collected by finger prick pre-ingestion, 100 min post-ingestion, and 3 min post-trial. Performance time, rate of perceived exertion, pH, base excess, bicarbonate and lactate concentration were measured. Results Post-ingestion bicarbonate and base excess were higher (P < 0.05) in both the ACU and CHR trials compared to placebo showing adequate pre-exercise alkalosis. However, performance time, rate of perceived exertion as well as post-trial pH and lactate concentration were not significantly different between trials. Further analysis revealed that five swimmers, identified as responders, improved their performance time by 1.03% (P < 0.05) and attained higher post-trial lactate concentrations in the ACU versus PLC-A trial (P < 0.05). They also had significantly higher post-trial lactate concentrations compared to the non-responders in the ACU and CHR trials. Conclusions Acute supplementation of Na-CIT prior to 200 m swimming performance led to a modest time improvement and higher blood lactate concentrations in only half of the swimmers while the chronic Na-CIT supplementation did not provide any ergogenic effect in this group of adolescent swimmers. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01835912. PMID:24944546

  11. Ingestion of sodium citrate suppresses aldosterone level in blood at rest and during exercise.

    PubMed

    Oöpik, Vahur; Timpmann, Saima; Hackney, Anthony C; Kadak, Kadri; Medijainen, Luule; Karelson, Kalle

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the ingestion of sodium citrate (CIT) alters blood levels of fluid and electrolyte regulatory hormones at rest and during exercise. Using a randomized, double-blinded, crossover design, 13 young, male well-trained runners performed continuous incremental running tests to volitional exhaustion on a treadmill 2 h after ingestion of 0.5 g.kg-1 body mass of CIT or placebo (PLC) in 1000 mL of solution. These trials were separated by 2 weeks. Baseline (before ingestion) aldosterone concentration did not differ between the 2 trials; however, it was 36.5% (p = 0.003) lower in the CIT trial compared with the PLC trial before the running test (i.e., after ingestion). The extent of the running-induced increase in aldosterone was 33% (p = 0.009) smaller in the CIT trial. There were no between-trial differences in the levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, or renin activity at any stage of the study. However, a greater relative increase in plasma volume (mean +/- SD, 6.41% +/- 3.78% vs. 4.08% +/- 3.33%; p = 0.042) was observed after administering the CIT compared with the PLC drink. Serum Na+ concentration increased (by 3.1 +/- 1.2 mmol.L-1; p < 0.0001) after ingestion of the CIT but not the PLC drink. A higher Na+ level was observed in the CIT trial than in the PLC trial (142.4 +/- 1.6 vs. 139.3 +/- 1.4 mmol.L-1, p = 0.00001) after completion of the run. In conclusion, pre-exercise ingestion of CIT induces a decrease in serum aldosterone concentration in the resting condition and a blunting of the aldosterone response during incremental running exercise to volitional exhaustion. The observed effect of CIT on the serum aldosterone level may be mediated by an acute increase in plasma volume and serum Na+ concentration alterations.

  12. Toxicological review of inorganic phosphates.

    PubMed

    Weiner, M L; Salminen, W F; Larson, P R; Barter, R A; Kranetz, J L; Simon, G S

    2001-08-01

    Inorganic phosphate salts are widely used as food ingredients and in a variety of commercial applications. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considers inorganic phosphates "Generally Recognized As Safe" (GRAS) (FDA, 1973a, 1979) [FDA: Food and Drug Administration 1973a. GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) food ingredients-phosphates. NTIS PB-221-224, FDA, Food and Drug Administration, 1979. Phosphates; Proposed Affirmation of and Deletion From GRAS Status as Direct and Human Food Ingredients. Federal Register 44 (244). 74845-74857, 18 December (1979)] and the European Union (EU) allows inorganic phosphates to be added directly to food (EU Directive 95/2/EC as amended by 98/72/EC). In this review, data on the acute, subchronic and chronic toxicity, genotoxicity, teratogenicity and reproductive toxicity from the published literature and from unpublished studies by the manufacturers are reviewed. Based on the toxicity data and similar chemistry, the inorganic phosphates can be separated into four major classes, consisting of monovalent salts, divalent salts, ammonium salts and aluminum salts. The proposed classification scheme supports the use of toxicity data from one compound to assess the toxicity of another compound in the same class. However, in the case of eye and skin irritation, the proposed classification scheme cannot be used because a wide range of responses exists within each class. Therefore, the eye and skin hazards associated with an individual inorganic phosphate should be assessed on a chemical-by-chemical basis. A large amount of toxicity data exists for all four classes of inorganic phosphates. The large and comprehensive database allows an accurate assessment of the toxicity of each class of inorganic phosphate. Overall, all four classes of inorganic phosphates exhibit low oral, inhalation and dermal toxicities. Based on these data, humans are unlikely to experience adverse effects when the daily phosphorus consumption remains

  13. Is magnesium citrate treatment effective on pain, clinical parameters and functional status in patients with fibromyalgia?

    PubMed

    Bagis, Selda; Karabiber, Mehmet; As, Ismet; Tamer, Lülüfer; Erdogan, Canan; Atalay, Ayçe

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between magnesium levels and fibromyalgia symptoms and to determine the effect of magnesium citrate treatment on these symptoms. Sixty premenopausal women diagnosed with fibromyalgia according to the ACR criteria and 20 healthy women whose age and weight matched the premenopausal women were evaluated. Pain intensity, pain threshold, the number of tender points, the tender point index, the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ), the Beck depression and Beck anxiety scores and patient symptoms were evaluated in all the women. Serum and erythrocyte magnesium levels were also measured. The patients were divided into three groups. The magnesium citrate (300 mg/day) was given to the first group (n = 20), amitriptyline (10 mg/day) was given to the second group (n = 20), and magnesium citrate (300 mg/day) + amitriptyline (10 mg/day) treatment was given to the third group (n = 20). All parameters were reevaluated after the 8 weeks of treatment. The serum and erythrocyte magnesium levels were significantly lower in patients with fibromyalgia than in the controls. Also there was a negative correlation between the magnesium levels and fibromyalgia symptoms. The number of tender points, tender point index, FIQ and Beck depression scores decreased significantly with the magnesium citrate treatment. The combined amitriptyline + magnesium citrate treatment proved effective on all parameters except numbness. Low magnesium levels in the erythrocyte might be an etiologic factor on fibromyalgia symptoms. The magnesium citrate treatment was only effective tender points and the intensity of fibromyalgia. However, it was effective on all parameters when used in combination with amitriptyline.

  14. Modulation of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystallization by citrate through selective binding to atomic steps

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, S R; Wierzbicki, A; Salter, E A; Zepeda, S; Orme, C A; Hoyer, J R; Nancollas, G H; Cody, A M; De Yoreo, J J

    2004-10-19

    The majority of human kidney stones are composed primarily of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals. Thus, determining the molecular mechanisms by which urinary constituents modulate calcium oxalate crystallization is crucial for understanding and controlling urolithiassis in humans. A comprehensive molecular-scale view of COM shape modification by citrate, a common urinary constituent, obtained through a combination of in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) and molecular modeling is now presented. We show that citrate strongly influences the growth morphology and kinetics on the (-101) face but has much lower effect on the (010) face. Moreover, binding energy calculations show that the strength of the citrate-COM interaction is much greater at steps than on terraces and is highly step-specific. The maximum binding energy, -166.5 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, occurs for the [101] step on the (-101) face. In contrast, the value is only -56.9 kJ {center_dot} mol-1 for the [012] step on the (010) face. The binding energies on the (-101) and (010) terraces are also much smaller, -65.4 and -48.9 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} respectively. All other binding energies lie between these extremes. This high selectivity leads to preferential binding of citrate to the acute [101] atomic steps on the (-101) face. The strong citrate-step interactions on this face leads to pinning of all steps, but the anisotropy in interaction strength results in anisotropic reductions in step kinetics. These anisotropic changes in step kinetics are, in turn, responsible for changes in the shape of macroscopic COM crystals. Thus, the molecular scale growth morphology and the bulk crystal habit in the presence of citrate are similar, and the predictions of molecular simulations are fully consistent with the experimental observations.

  15. Use of Potassium Citrate to Reduce the Risk of Renal Stone Formation During Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Jones, J. A.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.; Hudson, E. K.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: NASA s Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA s objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre, in, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all inflight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that

  16. Influence of aluminum citrate and citric acid on mineral metabolism in wether sheep.

    PubMed

    Allen, V G; Fontenot, J P; Rahnema, S H

    1990-08-01

    A 60-d trial was conducted to determine effects of Al citrate and citric acid on DM digestibility (DMD) and metabolism of Mg, Ca, P, K, Na and Al. Eighteen crossbred, yearling wether lambs equipped with ruminal cannulas were fed a basal diet containing .12% Mg and 2.87% K (DM basis) and were allotted to three treatments: 1) control, 2) 2,000 ppm Al as Al citrate and 3) citric acid equivalent to the citrate in treatment 2. Treatments were administered in 200 ml of deionized water twice daily in divided doses via ruminal cannula. Balance trials were conducted during d 0 to 5, 6 to 10, 25 to 35 and 50 to 60. Dry matter digestibility decreased (P less than .05) approximately 3 percentage units in lambs receiving Al. Treatment with Al citrate increased (P less than .01) apparent absorption and retention of Al compared to those receiving citric acid alone. Approximately 30% of ingested and infused Al was apparently absorbed. Compared to citric acid, Al citrate treatment lowered apparent absorption and retention of Mg and Ca during d 0 to 5. Apparent Ca absorption and retention again were lowered during d 50 to 60. Urinary Ca was increased (P less than .01) and apparent P absorption (P less than .10) and retention (P less than .05) were decreased by Al citrate during all measurement periods. Apparent absorption of K decreased (P less than .05) slightly in response to Al treatment. Apparent absorption of Na was not influenced by Al treatment. Serum Mg and P decreased and serum Ca increased in response to Al treatment. Results demonstrate negative effects of ingested Al, but not of citric acid, on DMD and metabolism of Mg, Ca, P and K.

  17. Influence of aluminum-citrate and citric acid on tissue mineral composition in wether sheep.

    PubMed

    Allen, V G; Fontenot, J P; Rahnema, S H

    1991-02-01

    A 60-d trial was conducted to determine effects of A1-citrate and citric acid on tissue mineral composition in wether lambs. Eighteen crossbred, yearling wether lambs equipped with ruminal cannulas were fed a diet containing low (.12%) Mg and high (2.87%) K (DM basis) and were allotted to three treatments: 1) control; 2) 2,000 micrograms A1 as A1-citrate/g of diet DM and 3) citric acid equivalent to the citrate in treatment 2. Treatments were administered in 200 ml of deionized water twice daily in divided doses via ruminal cannula. At the end of 60 d, wethers were slaughtered and samples of rib and tibia bone, liver, kidney, brain, spleen, pancreas, parathyroid and pituitary gland were analyzed for mineral concentration. Concentrations of A1 increased (P less than .05) in rib, tibia, liver, kidney, spleen and pituitary gland and tended to increase in brain (P less than .13) in wethers treated with A1-citrate compared to citric acid. Magnesium was decreased in rib (P less than .01) and tended to be decreased in pituitary gland (P less than .15), whereas Ca tended to be decreased in pancreas (P less than .07), kidney (P less than .11) and parathyroid (P less than .10) by A1-citrate treatment compared to citric acid. Potassium decreased (P less than .01) in liver, Fe increased (P less than .05) in kidney, Zn decreased in pituitary (P less than .05) and tended to decrease in pancreas (P less than .10) due to A1-citrate but not citric acid.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Mn-citrate and Mn-HIDA: intermediate-affinity chelates for manganese-enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yoshiteru; Satoh, Keitaro; Morita, Hironobu; Takamata, Akira; Watanabe, Kazuto; Ogino, Takashi; Hasebe, Tooru; Murakami, Masataka

    2013-01-01

    In this study we investigated two manganese chelates in order to improve the image enhancement of manganese-enhanced MRI and decrease the toxicity of free manganese ions. Since both MnCl₂ and a low-affinity chelate were associated with a slow continuous decrease of cardiac functions, we investigated intermediate-affinity chelates: manganese N-(2-hydroxyethyl)iminodiacetic acid (Mn-HIDA) and Mn-citrate. The T₁ relaxivity values for Mn-citrate (4.4 m m⁻¹ s⁻¹) and Mn-HIDA (3.3 m m⁻¹ s⁻¹) in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were almost constant in a concentration range from 0.5 to 5 m m at 37 °C and 4.7 T. In human plasma, the relaxivity values increased when the concentrations of these Mn chelates were decreased, suggesting the presence of free Mn²⁺ bound with serum albumin. Mn-HIDA and Mn-citrate demonstrated a tendency for better contractility when employed with an isolated perfused frog heart, compared with MnCl₂. Only minimal changes were demonstrated after a venous infusion of 100 m m Mn-citrate or Mn-HIDA (8.3 µmol kg⁻¹ min⁻¹) in rats and a constant heart rate, arterial pressure and sympathetic nerve activity were maintained, even after breaking the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Mn-citrate and Mn-HIDA could not cross the intact BBB and appeared in the CSF, and then diffused into the brain parenchyma through the ependymal layer. The responses in the supraoptic nucleus induced by the hypertonic stimulation were detectable. Therefore, Mn-citrate and Mn-HIDA appear to be better choices for maintaining the vital conditions of experimental animals, and they may improve the reproducibility of manganese-enhanced MRI of the small nuclei in the hypothalamus and thalamus. PMID:23281286

  19. Comparison of Elaeagnus angustifolia Extract and Sildenafil Citrate on Female Orgasmic Disorders: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Zeinalzadeh, Sanaz; Zolghadri, Jaleh; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali; Faridi, Pouya; Sayadi, Mehrab

    2014-01-01

    Background Orgasmic disorder can create a feeling of deprivation and failure and provide mental problems, incompatibility and marital discord. This study aimed to compare the effects of Elaeagnus angustifolia flower extract and sildenafil citrate on female orgasmic disorder in women in 2013. Methods In this randomized clinical trial, 125 women between 18-40 years old who suffered from orgasmic disorder were divided into three E. angustifolia, sildenafil citrate and control groups. The data were gathered using Female Sexual Function Index and through measurement of TSH and prolactin. The first intervention group had to consume 4.5 gr E. angustifolia extract in two divided doses for 35 days and the second one had to use 50 mg sildenafil citrate tablets for 4 weeks one hour before their sexual relationship. However, the control group had to consume the placebo. The data were analyzed using paired t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Bonferroni posthoc test and p<0.05 was considered significant. Results The frequency of orgasmic disorder before the intervention was 41.5%, 40.5%, and 57.1% in E. angustifolia, sildenafil citrate, and control groups, respectively (p=0.23). However, these measures were respectively 29.3%, 16.7%, and 50% after the intervention (p=0.004). A significant difference between the two groups regarding sexual satisfaction after the intervention (p=0.003) compared to the beginning of the study (p=0.356). Besides, the highest reduction of changes after the intervention (58.82%) was observed in the sildenafil citrate group. Conclusion Both E. angustifolia extract and sildenafil citrate were effective in reduction of the frequency of orgasmic disorder in women. PMID:25473627

  20. Nitric oxide induces the alternative oxidase pathway in Arabidopsis seedlings deprived of inorganic phosphate.

    PubMed

    Royo, Beatriz; Moran, Jose F; Ratcliffe, R George; Gupta, Kapuganti J

    2015-10-01

    Phosphate starvation compromises electron flow through the cytochrome pathway of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, and plants commonly respond to phosphate deprivation by increasing flow through the alternative oxidase (AOX). To test whether this response is linked to the increase in nitric oxide (NO) production that also increases under phosphate starvation, Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings were grown for 15 d on media containing either 0 or 1mM inorganic phosphate. The effects of the phosphate supply on growth, the production of NO, respiration, the AOX level and the production of superoxide were compared for wild-type (WT) seedlings and the nitrate reductase double mutant nia. Phosphate deprivation increased NO production in WT roots, and the AOX level and the capacity of the alternative pathway to consume electrons in WT seedlings; whereas the same treatment failed to stimulate NO production and AOX expression in the nia mutant, and the plants had an altered growth phenotype. The NO donor S-nitrosoglutathione rescued the growth phenotype of the nia mutants under phosphate deprivation to some extent, and it also increased the respiratory capacity of AOX. It is concluded that NO is required for the induction of the AOX pathway when seedlings are grown under phosphate-limiting conditions. PMID:26163703

  1. Nitric oxide induces the alternative oxidase pathway in Arabidopsis seedlings deprived of inorganic phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Royo, Beatriz; Moran, Jose F.; Ratcliffe, R. George; Gupta, Kapuganti J.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate starvation compromises electron flow through the cytochrome pathway of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, and plants commonly respond to phosphate deprivation by increasing flow through the alternative oxidase (AOX). To test whether this response is linked to the increase in nitric oxide (NO) production that also increases under phosphate starvation, Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings were grown for 15 d on media containing either 0 or 1mM inorganic phosphate. The effects of the phosphate supply on growth, the production of NO, respiration, the AOX level and the production of superoxide were compared for wild-type (WT) seedlings and the nitrate reductase double mutant nia. Phosphate deprivation increased NO production in WT roots, and the AOX level and the capacity of the alternative pathway to consume electrons in WT seedlings; whereas the same treatment failed to stimulate NO production and AOX expression in the nia mutant, and the plants had an altered growth phenotype. The NO donor S-nitrosoglutathione rescued the growth phenotype of the nia mutants under phosphate deprivation to some extent, and it also increased the respiratory capacity of AOX. It is concluded that NO is required for the induction of the AOX pathway when seedlings are grown under phosphate-limiting conditions. PMID:26163703

  2. Novel highly biodegradable biphasic tricalcium phosphates composed of alpha-tricalcium phosphate and beta-tricalcium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanbao; Weng, Wenjian; Tam, Kim Chiu

    2007-03-01

    Novel biodegradable biphasic tricalcium phosphates (BTCP) composed of alpha-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-TCP) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) were successfully synthesized by heating amorphous calcium phosphate precursors with different structures at 800 degrees C for 3 h. The ratio of alpha-TCP and beta-TCP in the calcium phosphate particle can be controlled by aging time and pH value during synthesis of the amorphous precursor.

  3. Ferric pyrophosphate citrate administered via dialysate reduces erythropoiesis-stimulating agent use and maintains hemoglobin in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ajay; Lin, Vivian; Guss, Carrie; Pratt, Raymond; Ikizler, T Alp; Besarab, Anatole

    2015-01-01

    Ferric pyrophosphate citrate (FPC) is a water-soluble iron salt administered via dialysate to supply iron directly to transferrin. The PRIME study tested whether treatment with FPC could reduce prescribed erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) use and maintain hemoglobin in hemodialysis patients. This 9-month, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter clinical study included 103 patients undergoing hemodialysis 3–4 times weekly. The FPC group received dialysate containing 2 μmol/l of iron. The placebo group received standard dialysate. A blinded central anemia management group facilitated ESA dose adjustments. Intravenous iron was administered according to the approved indication when ferritin levels fell below 200 μg/l. The primary end point was the percentage change from baseline in prescribed ESA dose at end of treatment. Secondary end points included intravenous iron use and safety. At the end of treatment, there was a significant 35% reduction in prescribed ESA dose in FPC-treated patients compared with placebo. The FPC patients used 51% less intravenous iron than placebo. Adverse and serious adverse events were similar in both groups. Thus, FPC delivered via dialysate significantly reduces the prescribed ESA dose and the amount of intravenous iron needed to maintain hemoglobin in chronic hemodialysis patients. PMID:26154926

  4. Regulation of glycolysis and l-glycerol 3-phosphate concentration in rat epididymal adipose tissue in vitro. Role of phosphofructokinase

    PubMed Central

    Halperin, M. L.; Denton, R. M.

    1969-01-01

    1. Attempts were made to define the role of phosphofructokinase in glycolytic control and the factors regulating the concentration of l-glycerol 3-phosphate in rat epididymal fat pads incubated in vitro. 2. Glycolysis rates were altered by anoxia or by additions of insulin, adrenaline or both to the incubation medium, and the changes in rate were related to changes in the steady-state concentrations of hexose phosphates, adenine nucleotides, l-glycerol 3-phosphate and citrate in the whole tissue. Measurements were also made of the lactate/pyruvate concentration ratio in the medium after incubation. 3. The mass-action ratios of phosphofructokinase, calculated from the whole-tissue concentrations of products and substrates, were less than 0·1% of the value of the ratio at pH7·4 at equilibrium. 4. Only in the presence of adrenaline could the observed stimulation of glycolytic flux be related to a possible activation of phosphofructokinase since, in this situation, the concentration of one substrate, fructose 6-phosphate, was not altered and the concentration of the other, ATP, was decreased. Increased glycolytic flux in the presence of insulin may be explained by an observed increase in the concentration of the substrate, fructose 6-phosphate. Under anaerobic conditions, glycolytic flux was decreased but this did not appear to be the result of inhibition of phosphofructokinase, since the concentrations of both substrates, fructose 6-phosphate and ATP, were decreased. The changes in glycolytic flux with insulin and anoxia may be secondary to changes in the rate of glucose uptake. 5. Changes in l-glycerol 3-phosphate concentration appear to be related both to changes in the concentration of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and to changes in the NADH/NAD+ concentration ratio in the cytoplasm. They do not seem to be related directly to alterations in glycolytic rate. PMID:4308837

  5. Comparison of Success of Clomiphene citrate and Letrozole in Ovulation Induction.

    PubMed

    Saha, J; Akhter, S; Prasad, I; Siddiq, S

    2016-01-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate which drug is better in ovulation induction between clomiphene citrate and letrozole. The study was carried out in the infertility unit of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka and Centre for Assisted Reproduction (CARE) at Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Dhaka from January 2007 to December 2007. One hundred and sixty five cases were taken for the study. It was a prospective interventional comparative study of clomiphene citrate and letrozole in infertile cases. The patients were divided into three groups. Group I--newly detected cases of sub fertility studied with clomiphene citrate. Group II--clomiphene citrate resistant cases studied with letrozole, Group III--newly detected cases of sub fertility studied with letrozole. The cases were followed up for outcome; (ovulation). The TVS was done on 12th or 13th day of menstruation and level of serum progesterone on 21st day of menstrual cycle to see the evidence of ovulation. Endometrial thickness was also measured. The data was collected on a predesigned questionnaire. The variables that influenced the study were-age, occupation, socioeconomic status, menstrual cycle, marital age, parity, history of MR, history of abortion, past medical and surgical history. In the current study it was observed that the signs of ovulation were significantly (p<0.05) higher in Group I treated with clomiphene citrate in comparison to Group II clomiphene citrate resistant cases treated with letrozole. The rate of ovulation was higher in Group I than that of Group III treated with letrozole, but the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The signs of ovulation were present in 45(81.8%) cases in Group I, 33(60.0%) cases in Group II and 37(67.3%) cases in Group III. This findings of the study suggested that clomiphene citrate is higher successful than letrozole though not statistically

  6. Interfacial properties of asymmetrically functionalized citrate-stabilized gold and silver nanoparticles related to molecular adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong-Won

    A detailed understanding of the conformation of adsorbed molecules and regional surface functionalization of metal nanoparticles (MNPs) is challenging for nanometer-size (10 -- 100 m) materials and necessary for fundamental studies and applications. The studies are motivated by open questions related to surface chemistry of noble MNPs. Although citrate-stabilized gold NPs (AuNPs) have been widely used, the citrate layer is not well-understood. Thiols have been suggested to displace citrate anions adsorbed on metal surfaces due to strong gold-sulfur interaction, but quantitative experimental evidence of the extent of ligand-exchange has not been reported. Whereas asymmetrically-functionalized AuNPs are utilized for nanoparticle assembly due to the interparticle coupling of localized surface plasmons, the interface between asymmetric nanoparticles in single assemblies has not been studied. Noble MNPs with sizes smaller than citrate-stabilized AuNPs also need to be surface-modified for stability in water for biological applications. The dissertation presents investigations of the chemical and physical properties of gold and silver NPs (AgNPs) related to ligand adsorption at the metal surface. Firstly, self-assembled layers of citrate adsorbed on AuNP (111), (110), and (100) surfaces were proposed, based on geometric considerations and spectroscopic investigations by infrared (IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Adsorption characteristics of citrate are the unique structure of adsorbed species, intermolecular interactions through hydrogen bonds and van der Waals attractions, bilayer formation, surface coverage, nanoparticle-stabilization role, and chirality. Secondly, IR and XPS studies showed coadsorption of thiolate on the surface of citrate-stabilized AuNPs. Steric, chelating effects and intermolecular interactions are the origins of the strong adsorption of citrate on AuNP surfaces. Surface coverage was determined from XPS analyses. Thirdly, an

  7. Antitumor effect of free rhodium (II) citrate and rhodium (II) citrate-loaded maghemite nanoparticles on mice bearing breast cancer: a systemic toxicity assay.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Raphael Cândido Apolinário; Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; de Souza Filho, José; Carneiro, Marcella Lemos' Brettas; Oliveira, Ricardo G S; da Silva, Matheus Oliveira; de Souza, Aparecido R; Báo, Sônia Nair

    2015-05-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancer types among women. The use of magnetic fluids for specific delivery of drugs represents an attractive platform for chemotherapy. In our previous studies, it was demonstrated that maghemite nanoparticles coated with rhodium (II) citrate (Magh-Rh2Cit) induced in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo antitumor activity, followed by intratumoral administration in breast carcinoma cells. In this study, our aim was to follow intravenous treatment to evaluate the systemic antitumor activity and toxicity induced by these formulations in Balb/c mice bearing orthotopic 4T1 breast carcinoma. Female Balb/c mice were evaluated with regard to toxicity of intravenous treatments through analyses of hemogram, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, iron, and creatinine and liver, kidney, and lung histology. The antitumor activity of rhodium (II) citrate (Rh2Cit), Magh-Rh2Cit, and maghemite nanoparticles coated with citrate (Magh-Cit), used as control, was evaluated by tumor volume reduction, histology, and morphometric analysis. Magh-Rh2Cit and Magh-Cit promoted a significant decrease in tumor area, and no experimental groups presented hematotoxic effects or increased levels of serum ALT and creatinine. This observation was corroborated by the histopathological examination of the liver and kidney of mice. Furthermore, the presence of nanoparticles was verified in lung tissue with no morphological changes, supporting the idea that our nanoformulations did not induce toxicity effects. No studies about the systemic action of rhodium (II) citrate-loaded maghemite nanoparticles have been carried out, making this report a suitable starting point for exploring the therapeutic potential of these compounds in treating breast cancer.

  8. 77 FR 72323 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China...) has completed its administrative review of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on citric acid and... is citric acid and certain citrate salts. The product is currently classified under the...

  9. 76 FR 82275 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... countervailing duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's Republic of China (PRC). See Countervailing Duty Orders and Amendments of Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determinations: Citric...

  10. 76 FR 47146 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China...'') published the initiation of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). See Initiation...

  11. 76 FR 4288 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the... administrative review of citric acid from the PRC within this time limit. Among other things, additional time...

  12. 76 FR 56158 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... administrative review of the countervailing duty order on citric acid and certain citrate sales from People's Republic of China, covering the period September 19, 2008, through December 31, 2009. See Citric Acid...

  13. 76 FR 2648 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... Revocation in Part, 75 FR 37759 (June 30, 2010). The preliminary results of this administrative review are... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From People's Republic of China... initiation of administrative review of the countervailing duty order on citric acid and certain citrate...

  14. 77 FR 1455 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ..., 76 FR 37781, 37785 (June 28, 2011). This review covers the period May 1, 2010, through April 30, 2011... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'')....

  15. Fabrication of Poly-l-lactic Acid/Dicalcium Phosphate Dihydrate Composite Scaffolds with High Mechanical Strength-Implications for Bone Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Tanataweethum, Nida; Liu, Wai Ching; Goebel, W Scott; Li, Ding; Chu, Tien Min

    2015-11-04

    Scaffolds were fabricated from poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA)/dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) composite by indirect casting. Sodium citrate and PLLA were used to improve the mechanical properties of the DCPD scaffolds. The resulting PLLA/DCPD composite scaffold had increased diametral tensile strength and fracture energy when compared to DCPD only scaffolds (1.05 vs. 2.70 MPa and 2.53 vs. 12.67 N-mm, respectively). Sodium citrate alone accelerated the degradation rate by 1.5 times independent of PLLA. Cytocompatibility of all samples were evaluated using proliferation and differentiation parameters of dog-bone marrow stromal cells (dog-BMSCs). The results showed that viable dog-BMSCs attached well on both DCPD and PLLA/DCPD composite surfaces. In both DCPD and PLLA/DCPD conditioned medium, dog-BMSCs proliferated well and expressed alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity indicating cell differentiation. These findings indicate that incorporating both sodium citrate and PLLA could effectively improve mechanical strength and biocompatibility without increasing the degradation time of calcium phosphate cement scaffolds for bone tissue engineering purposes.

  16. Fabrication of Poly-l-lactic Acid/Dicalcium Phosphate Dihydrate Composite Scaffolds with High Mechanical Strength—Implications for Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Tanataweethum, Nida; Liu, Wai Ching; Scott Goebel, W.; Li, Ding; Chu, Tien Min

    2015-01-01

    Scaffolds were fabricated from poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA)/dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) composite by indirect casting. Sodium citrate and PLLA were used to improve the mechanical properties of the DCPD scaffolds. The resulting PLLA/DCPD composite scaffold had increased diametral tensile strength and fracture energy when compared to DCPD only scaffolds (1.05 vs. 2.70 MPa and 2.53 vs. 12.67 N-mm, respectively). Sodium citrate alone accelerated the degradation rate by 1.5 times independent of PLLA. Cytocompatibility of all samples were evaluated using proliferation and differentiation parameters of dog-bone marrow stromal cells (dog-BMSCs). The results showed that viable dog-BMSCs attached well on both DCPD and PLLA/DCPD composite surfaces. In both DCPD and PLLA/DCPD conditioned medium, dog-BMSCs proliferated well and expressed alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity indicating cell differentiation. These findings indicate that incorporating both sodium citrate and PLLA could effectively improve mechanical strength and biocompatibility without increasing the degradation time of calcium phosphate cement scaffolds for bone tissue engineering purposes. PMID:26556380

  17. Direct and indirect effects of RNA interference against pyridoxal kinase and pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase genes in Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Huang, ShuoHao; Yao, LiLi; Zhang, JianYun; Huang, LongQuan

    2016-08-01

    Vitamin B6 comprises six interconvertible pyridine compounds (vitamers), among which pyridoxal 5'-phosphate is a coenzyme involved in a high diversity of biochemical reactions. Humans and animals obtain B6 vitamers from diet, and synthesize pyridoxal 5'-phosphate by pyridoxal kinase and pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase. Currently, little is known on how pyridoxal 5'-phosphate biosynthesis is regulated, and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate is supplied to meet their requirement in terms of cofactor. Bombyx mori is a large silk-secreting insect, in which protein metabolism is most active, and the vitamin B6 demand is high. In this study, we successfully down-regulated the gene expression of pyridoxal kinase and pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase by body cavity injection of synthesized double-stranded small interfering RNA to 5th instar larvae of Bombyx mori, and analyzed the gene transcription levels of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate dependent enzymes, phosphoserine aminotransferase and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase. Results show that the gene expression of pyridoxal kinase and pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase has a greater impact on the gene transcription of enzymes using pyridoxal 5'-phosphate as a cofactor in Bombyx mori. Our study suggests that pyridoxal 5'-phosphate biosynthesis and dynamic balance may be regulated by genetic networks.

  18. Direct and indirect effects of RNA interference against pyridoxal kinase and pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase genes in Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Huang, ShuoHao; Yao, LiLi; Zhang, JianYun; Huang, LongQuan

    2016-08-01

    Vitamin B6 comprises six interconvertible pyridine compounds (vitamers), among which pyridoxal 5'-phosphate is a coenzyme involved in a high diversity of biochemical reactions. Humans and animals obtain B6 vitamers from diet, and synthesize pyridoxal 5'-phosphate by pyridoxal kinase and pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase. Currently, little is known on how pyridoxal 5'-phosphate biosynthesis is regulated, and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate is supplied to meet their requirement in terms of cofactor. Bombyx mori is a large silk-secreting insect, in which protein metabolism is most active, and the vitamin B6 demand is high. In this study, we successfully down-regulated the gene expression of pyridoxal kinase and pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase by body cavity injection of synthesized double-stranded small interfering RNA to 5th instar larvae of Bombyx mori, and analyzed the gene transcription levels of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate dependent enzymes, phosphoserine aminotransferase and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase. Results show that the gene expression of pyridoxal kinase and pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase has a greater impact on the gene transcription of enzymes using pyridoxal 5'-phosphate as a cofactor in Bombyx mori. Our study suggests that pyridoxal 5'-phosphate biosynthesis and dynamic balance may be regulated by genetic networks. PMID:27106120

  19. Phosphate transport and sensing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Wykoff, D D; O'Shea, E K

    2001-01-01

    Cellular metabolism depends on the appropriate concentration of intracellular inorganic phosphate; however, little is known about how phosphate concentrations are sensed. The similarity of Pho84p, a high-affinity phosphate transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to the glucose sensors Snf3p and Rgt2p has led to the hypothesis that Pho84p is an inorganic phosphate sensor. Furthermore, pho84Delta strains have defects in phosphate signaling; they constitutively express PHO5, a phosphate starvation-inducible gene. We began these studies to determine the role of phosphate transporters in signaling phosphate starvation. Previous experiments demonstrated a defect in phosphate uptake in phosphate-starved pho84Delta cells; however, the pho84Delta strain expresses PHO5 constitutively when grown in phosphate-replete media. We determined that pho84Delta cells have a significant defect in phosphate uptake even when grown in high phosphate media. Overexpression of unrelated phosphate transporters or a glycerophosphoinositol transporter in the pho84Delta strain suppresses the PHO5 constitutive phenotype. These data suggest that PHO84 is not required for sensing phosphate. We further characterized putative phosphate transporters, identifying two new phosphate transporters, PHO90 and PHO91. A synthetic lethal phenotype was observed when five phosphate transporters were inactivated, and the contribution of each transporter to uptake in high phosphate conditions was determined. Finally, a PHO84-dependent compensation response was identified; the abundance of Pho84p at the plasma membrane increases in cells that are defective in other phosphate transporters. PMID:11779791

  20. Bright luminescence of Vibrio fischeri aconitase mutants reveals a connection between citrate and the Gac/Csr regulatory system.

    PubMed

    Septer, Alecia N; Bose, Jeffrey L; Lipzen, Anna; Martin, Joel; Whistler, Cheryl; Stabb, Eric V

    2015-01-01

    The Gac/Csr regulatory system is conserved throughout the γ-proteobacteria and controls key pathways in central carbon metabolism, quorum sensing, biofilm formation and virulence in important plant and animal pathogens. Here we show that elevated intracellular citrate levels in a Vibrio fischeri aconitase mutant correlate with activation of the Gac/Csr cascade and induction of bright luminescence. Spontaneous or directed mutations in the gene that encodes citrate synthase reversed the bright luminescence of aconitase mutants, eliminated their citrate accumulation and reversed their elevated expression of CsrB. Our data elucidate a correlative link between central metabolic and regulatory pathways, and they suggest that the Gac system senses a blockage at the aconitase step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, either through elevated citrate levels or a secondary metabolic effect of citrate accumulation, and responds by modulating carbon flow and various functions associated with host colonization, including bioluminescence.