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Sample records for citronella cymbopogon nardus

  1. Influence of extraction methodologies on the analysis of five major volatile aromatic compounds of citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) grown in Thailand

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infusions of citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) have been commonly used in folk medicine in Thailand and other Asian countries. This study focuses on a systematic comparison of two extraction methods for major volatile aromatic compounds (VACs) of citronella g...

  2. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle (CITRONELLA) AGAINST Microsporum canis FROM ANIMALS AND HOME ENVIRONMENT

    PubMed Central

    CAPOCI, Isis Regina Grenier; da CUNHA, Michele Milano; BONFIM-MENDONÇA, Patricia de Souza; GHIRALDI-LOPES, Luciana Dias; BAEZA, Lilian Cristiane; KIOSHIMA, Erika Seki; SVIDZINSKI, Terezinha Inez Estivalet

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytosis is a common zoonosis in urban centers. Dogs and cats have played an important role as its disseminators. Environmental decontamination is essential for the prevention of its propagation to humans and animals. However, sanitizers or disinfectants with antifungal activity, currently available, have high toxicity. The present study evaluated the in vitro effects of an extract of citronella (Cymbopogon nardus) on 31 Microsporum canis isolates from animals and home environments. Susceptibility tests were performed based on document M38-A2 (2008) of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute with modifications for natural products. Although susceptibility variation was observed between the fungus tested, the concentrations that inhibited the growth of 50 and 90% of the microorganisms were low (19.5 and 78 µg/mL, respectively). Thus, this citronella extract showed potent fungistatic and fungicide activities against M. canis isolated from animals and home environments. Therefore, it could be an alternative for dermatophytosis prophylaxis in the home environment. PMID:27049705

  3. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon nardus citronella essential oil against systemic bacteria of aquatic animals

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Lee Seong; Wee, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Background & Objectives This paper describes chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon nardus citronella essential oil against Edwardsiella spp. (n = 21), Vibrio spp. (n = 6), Aeromonas spp. (n = 2), Escherichia coli (n = 2), Salmonella spp. (n = 2), Flavobacterium spp. (n = 1), Pseudomonas spp. (n = 1) and Streptococcus spp. (n = 1) isolated from internal organs of aquatic animals. Due to the ban of antibiotics for aquaculture use, this study was carried out to evaluate the potential of citronella essential oil as alternative to commercial antibiotic use against systemic bacteria in cultured aquatic animals. Materials & Methods The essential oil of C. nardus was prepared by using the steam distillation method and the chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil tested against bacterial isolates from various aquatic animals and ATCC type strains were determined using two-fold broth micro dilution method with kanamycin and eugenol as positive controls. Results A total of 22 chemical compounds were detected in C. nardus essential oil with 6-octenal, 3, 7-dimethyl- or citronellal representing the major compounds (29.6%). The MIC values of the citronella oil ranged from 0.244 µg/ml to 0.977 µg/ml when tested against the bacterial isolates. Conclusion The results of the present study revealed the potential of C. nardus essential oil as alternative to commercial antibiotics for aquaculture use. PMID:23825733

  4. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon nardus citronella essential oil against systemic bacteria of aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lee Seong; Wee, Wendy

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon nardus citronella essential oil against Edwardsiella spp. (n = 21), Vibrio spp. (n = 6), Aeromonas spp. (n = 2), Escherichia coli (n = 2), Salmonella spp. (n = 2), Flavobacterium spp. (n = 1), Pseudomonas spp. (n = 1) and Streptococcus spp. (n = 1) isolated from internal organs of aquatic animals. Due to the ban of antibiotics for aquaculture use, this study was carried out to evaluate the potential of citronella essential oil as alternative to commercial antibiotic use against systemic bacteria in cultured aquatic animals. The essential oil of C. nardus was prepared by using the steam distillation method and the chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil tested against bacterial isolates from various aquatic animals and ATCC type strains were determined using two-fold broth micro dilution method with kanamycin and eugenol as positive controls. A total of 22 chemical compounds were detected in C. nardus essential oil with 6-octenal, 3, 7-dimethyl- or citronellal representing the major compounds (29.6%). The MIC values of the citronella oil ranged from 0.244 µg/ml to 0.977 µg/ml when tested against the bacterial isolates. The results of the present study revealed the potential of C. nardus essential oil as alternative to commercial antibiotics for aquaculture use.

  5. Protection capacity of mosquito repellent ink from citronella (Cymbopogon nardus L.) and clove leaf oils (Syzygium aromaticum) againts Aedes aegypti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harismah, Kun; Vitasari, Denny; Mirzaei, Mahmoud; Fuadi, Ahmad Muhammad; Aryanto, Yanur Hendra

    2017-06-01

    The study of combination citronella and clove oils in mosquito repellent newspaper ink has been done. The background of this study was there prevalences of diseases such as malaria, zikka, and dengue fever that are carried by mosquitoes which hunt in the morning, at time while people usually read newspaper. Tests were undertaken in 3 (three) repetitions to determine the effectiveness of ink (as a control) and two types of mosquito repellent inks that consisted of ink and citronella-clove leaf oil with ratio of 4:1 and 1:1 of substances that were presumed to have insect repellent qualities. The results of this study indicated that the mixture of newspaper ink and citronella-clove oil with ratio of 1:4 and 1:1 offer limited protection against mosquitoes bite in the range of 1-5 hours. The efficacy of the citronella-clove leaf oi mixture as mosquito repellent was between 75.85 to 91.10%. Hece, a blend of citronella and clove leaf oil could be added to printing ink and could be commercial potential as a short-period mosquito repellent. However, it is important in disseminating public health messages to emphasize the greater effectiveness of citronella and clove oils-based repellents ink in areas with risks of mosquito-borne disease.

  6. Influence of extraction methodologies on the analysis of five major volatile aromatic compounds of citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) grown in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chanthai, Saksit; Prachakoll, Sujitra; Ruangviriyachai, Chalerm; Luthria, Devanand L

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the systematic comparison of extraction of major volatile aromatic compounds (VACs) of citronella grass and lemongrass by classical microhydrodistillation (MHD), as well as modern accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). Sixteen VACs were identified by GC/MS. GC-flame ionization detection was used for the quantification of five VACs (citronellal, citronellol, geraniol, citral, and eugenol) to compare the extraction efficiency of the two different methods. Linear range, LOD, and LOQ were calculated for the five VACs. Intraday and interday precisions for the analysis of VACs were determined for each sample. The extraction recovery, as calculated by a spiking experiment with known standards of VACs, by ASE and MHD ranged from 64.9 to 91.2% and 74.3 to 95.2%, respectively. The extraction efficiency of the VACs was compared for three solvents of varying polarities (hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol), seven different temperatures (ranging from 40 to 160 degrees C, with a gradual increment of 20 degrees C), five time periods (from 1 to 10 min), and three cycles (1, 2, and 3 repeated extractions). Optimum extraction yields of VACs were obtained when extractions were carried out for 7 min with dichloromethane and two extraction cycles at 120 degrees C. The results showed that the ASE technique is more efficient than MHD, as it results in improved yields and significant reduction in extraction time with automated extraction capabilities.

  7. Chemical composition and in vitro antitrypanosomal activity of fractions of essential oil from Cymbopogon nardus L.

    PubMed

    Muhd Haffiz, J; Norhayati, I; Getha, K; Nor Azah, M A; Mohd Ilham, A; Lili Sahira, H; Roshan Jahn, M S; Muhd Syamil, A

    2013-03-01

    Essential oil from Cymbopogon nardus was evaluated for activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei BS221 (IC50 = 0.31 ± 0.03 μg/mL) and cytotoxic effect on normal kidney (Vero) cells (IC50 = >100 μg/mL). The crude essential oil was subjected to various chromatography techniques afforded active sub fractions with antitrypanosomal activity; F4 (IC50 = 0.61 ± 0.06 μg/mL), F6 (IC50= 0.73 ± 0.33 μg/mL), F7 (IC50 = 1.15 ± 0 μg/mL) and F8 (IC50 = 1.11 ± 0.01 μg/mL). These active fractions did not exhibit any toxic effects against Vero cell lines and the chemical profiles investigation indicated presence of α-and γ-eudesmol, elemol, α-cadinol and eugenol by GC/MS analysis.

  8. Photosynthetic Rates of Citronella and Lemongrass 1

    PubMed Central

    Herath, H. M. Walter; Ormrod, Douglas P.

    1979-01-01

    Ten selections of citronella (Cymbopogon nardus [L.] Rendle) were grown at 32/27, 27/21, or 15/10 C day/night temperatures, and plants from three populations of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus [D.C.] Stapf from Japan or Sri Lanka and Cymbopogon flexuosus [D.C.] Stapf from India) were grown at 8- or 15-hour photoperiods. Net photosynthetic rates of mature leaves were measured in a controlled environment at 25 C and 260 microeinsteins per meter2 per second. Rates declined with increasing leaf age, and from the tip to the base of the leaf blade. Rates for citronella leaves grown at 15/10 C were extremely low for all selections. Highest rates of net photosynthesis were recorded for four selections grown at 27/21 C and for two selections grown at 32/27 C. Lemongrass grown at 8-hour photoperiod had higher photosynthetic rates than that grown at 15-hour photoperiod. PMID:16660737

  9. Carbon Dioxide Compensation Values in Citronella and Lemongrass 1

    PubMed Central

    Herath, H. M. Walter; Ormrod, Douglas P.

    1977-01-01

    Carbon dioxide compensation values of mature leaves from 10 selections of citronella (Cymbopogon nardus [L.] Rendle) grown at 32/27 or 27/21 C day/night temperatures and three strains of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus [D.C.] Stapf. and Cymbopogon flexuosus [D.C.] Stapf.) grown at 8- or 15-hour photoperiods were measured in a controlled environment at 25 C. All leaves had low compensation values but citronella varied from 1.3 to 9.7 μl/liter and lemongrass from 0.7 to 3.5 μl/liter. Lower growing temperature generally resulted in lower compensation values for citronella but there was no consistent photoperiod effect on lemongrass. PMID:16659935

  10. Fumigant Antifungal Activity of Corymbia citriodora and Cymbopogon nardus Essential Oils and Citronellal against Three Fungal Species

    PubMed Central

    Aguiar, Raimundo Wagner de S.; Ootani, Marcio A.; Ascencio, Sérgio Donizeti; Ferreira, Talita P. S.; dos Santos, Manoel M.; dos Santos, Gil R.

    2014-01-01

    Corymbia citriodora and Cymbopogon nardus essential oils samples were analyzed by GC and GC-MS and their qualitative and quantitative compositions established. The main component of essential oils of C. citriodora and C. nardus was citronellal, at 61.78% and 36.6%, respectively. The essential oils and citronellal were tested for their fumigant antifungal activity against Pyricularia (Magnaporthe) grisea, Aspergillus spp., and Colletotrichum musae. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranged from 100 to 200 ppm for the essential oils and 25 to 50 mg·mL−1 for citronellal. The contact assay using the essential oils and citronellal showed growth inhibition of the three fungal species. However, a concentration of 1.47 mg·mL−1 only reduced the inhibition of Aspergillus growth to 90% at 14 days of exposure. For the fumigant assay, 0.05, 0.11, and 0.23 mg·mL−1 of essential oils and citronellal drastically affected growth of P. grisea, Aspergillus spp., and C. musae. Harmful effects on the sporulation and germination of the three fungi were seen, and there was complete inhibition at 0.15 mg·mL−1 with both oils and citronellal. This showed that the crude component of essential oils of C. citriodora and C. nardus markedly suppressed spore production, germination, and growth inhibition of P. grisea, Aspergillus spp., and Colletotrichum musae. PMID:24600325

  11. Essential Oil of Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle: A Strategy to Combat Fungal Infections Caused by Candida Species

    PubMed Central

    De Toledo, Luciani Gaspar; Ramos, Matheus Aparecido Dos Santos; Spósito, Larissa; Castilho, Elza Maria; Pavan, Fernando Rogério; Lopes, Érica De Oliveira; Zocolo, Guilherme Julião; Silva, Francisca Aliny Nunes; Soares, Tigressa Helena; dos Santos, André Gonzaga; Bauab, Taís Maria; De Almeida, Margarete Teresa Gottardo

    2016-01-01

    Background: The incidence of fungal infections, especially those caused by Candida yeasts, has increased over the last two decades. However, the indicated therapy for fungal control has limitations. Hence, medicinal plants have emerged as an alternative in the search for new antifungal agents as they present compounds, such as essential oils, with important biological effects. Published data demonstrate important pharmacological properties of the essential oil of Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle; these include anti-tumor, anti-nociceptive, and antibacterial activities, and so an investigation of this compound against pathogenic fungi is interesting. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and biological potential of essential oil (EO) obtained from the leaves of C. nardus focusing on its antifungal profile against Candida species. Methods: The EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Testing of the antifungal potential against standard and clinical strains was performed by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), time-kill, inhibition of Candida albicans hyphae growth, and inhibition of mature biofilms. Additionally, the cytotoxicity was investigated by the IC50 against HepG-2 (hepatic) and MRC-5 (fibroblast) cell lines. Results: According to the chemical analysis, the main compounds of the EO were the oxygen-containing monoterpenes: citronellal, geranial, geraniol, citronellol, and neral. The results showed important antifungal potential for all strains tested with MIC values ranging from 250 to 1000 μg/mL, except for two clinical isolates of C. tropicalis (MIC > 1000 μg/mL). The time-kill assay showed that the EO inhibited the growth of the yeast and inhibited hyphal formation of C. albicans strains at concentrations ranging from 15.8 to 1000 μg/mL. Inhibition of mature biofilms of strains of C. albicans, C. krusei and C. parapsilosis occurred at a

  12. Essential Oil of Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle: A Strategy to Combat Fungal Infections Caused by Candida Species.

    PubMed

    De Toledo, Luciani Gaspar; Ramos, Matheus Aparecido Dos Santos; Spósito, Larissa; Castilho, Elza Maria; Pavan, Fernando Rogério; Lopes, Érica De Oliveira; Zocolo, Guilherme Julião; Silva, Francisca Aliny Nunes; Soares, Tigressa Helena; Dos Santos, André Gonzaga; Bauab, Taís Maria; De Almeida, Margarete Teresa Gottardo

    2016-08-09

    The incidence of fungal infections, especially those caused by Candida yeasts, has increased over the last two decades. However, the indicated therapy for fungal control has limitations. Hence, medicinal plants have emerged as an alternative in the search for new antifungal agents as they present compounds, such as essential oils, with important biological effects. Published data demonstrate important pharmacological properties of the essential oil of Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle; these include anti-tumor, anti-nociceptive, and antibacterial activities, and so an investigation of this compound against pathogenic fungi is interesting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and biological potential of essential oil (EO) obtained from the leaves of C. nardus focusing on its antifungal profile against Candida species. The EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Testing of the antifungal potential against standard and clinical strains was performed by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), time-kill, inhibition of Candida albicans hyphae growth, and inhibition of mature biofilms. Additionally, the cytotoxicity was investigated by the IC50 against HepG-2 (hepatic) and MRC-5 (fibroblast) cell lines. According to the chemical analysis, the main compounds of the EO were the oxygen-containing monoterpenes: citronellal, geranial, geraniol, citronellol, and neral. The results showed important antifungal potential for all strains tested with MIC values ranging from 250 to 1000 μg/mL, except for two clinical isolates of C. tropicalis (MIC > 1000 μg/mL). The time-kill assay showed that the EO inhibited the growth of the yeast and inhibited hyphal formation of C. albicans strains at concentrations ranging from 15.8 to 1000 μg/mL. Inhibition of mature biofilms of strains of C. albicans, C. krusei and C. parapsilosis occurred at a concentration of 10× MIC. The values of the IC50

  13. Inhibition of adherence of C. albicans to dental implants and cover screws by Cymbopogon nardus essential oil and citronellal.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Leonardo Antunes; de Araújo Oliveira, Julyana; de Castro, Ricardo Dias; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the biological activity of the essential oil from Cymbopogon nardus and of the phytoconstituent citronellal on Candida strains as to the inhibition of adherence to dental implants and cover screws. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and had its MIC and MFC determined against 12 strains of Candida. Then, tests of inhibition of adherence to the dental implants and cover screws were carried out using the MIC of the substances, followed by scanning electron microscopy analysis. Nystatin and chlorhexidine were used as positive controls, and experiments were performed in triplicate. The analysis by GC-MS of the essential oil identified citronellal as the major compound. The MICs of the essential oil, citronellal, chlorhexidine, and nystatin--able to inhibit 100 % of the strains--were found to be 64, 512, 64, and 32 μg/ml, respectively. The essential oil significantly inhibited the adherence of Candida albicans to the dental implants and cover screws (p < 0.001). Citronellal inhibited yeast adherence only to the dental implants (p < 0.001), and no significant results were found for the cover screws (p > 0.05) compared to the growth control. The essential oil and citronellal have proven antifungal activity and are able to inhibit the in vitro adherence of C. albicans. There has been a search for alternative natural product-containing formulations that should be effective in inhibiting adherence of yeasts to the surfaces of materials and also able to treat oral fungal infections. Further trials could make these products an alternative to chemical removal of peri-implant biofilm.

  14. Applicability of citronella oil (Cymbopogon winteratus) for the prevention of mosquito-borne diseases in the rural area of Tikapur, far-western Nepal.

    PubMed

    Sajo, Ma Easter Joy; Song, Soon-Bong; Bajgai, Johny; Kim, Young-Je; Kim, Pan-Suk; Ahn, Dong-Won; Khanal, Narendra; Lee, Kyu-Jae

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are a serious global problem, particularly in tropical and sub-tropical countries such as Nepal. Citronella oil is a natural mosquito repellent as well as a local fragrance in Nepal, which is accessible at very low cost because citronella plants are widely cultivated in rural areas of the Terai belt in Nepal. This study was conducted using a real-life randomized controlled pilot trial to confirm the effectiveness and applicability of locally-produced citronella oil as a mosquito repellent for the prevention of mosquito-borne diseases in Nepal. A repellency activity test was performed with 100% citronella oil (Cymbopogon winteratus) from April to May 2013 in the Tikapur Municipality of the Kailali district, Nepal. The test was divided into two trials: an indoor exposure (IE) test (N=101) and an outdoor exposure (OE) test (N=140) from 5.00 pm to 7.00 pm. Each trial contained an experimental citronella oil-applied group and a non-applied (control) group. The outcome measures were the protective effect of citronella oil against mosquitoes, the number of mosquito bites, the repellency percentage, the smell satisfaction and the irritation level. Experimental group had a significant protective effect against mosquito bites in IE (96.5%, n=57) and OE (95.7%, n=70) tests compared to the control group in IE (29.5%, n=44) and OE (28.6%, n=70) tests (experimental vs control groups, p<0.001). The repellency percentage for the OE test was 96.7%. In the smell satisfaction test (n=127), most of the participants responded with high satisfaction: 'good' (67.7%), 'very good' (16.5%), 'bad' (13.4%) and 'very bad' (2.4%). IE and OE tests showed similar satisfaction levels in each category. In the irritation level test (n=127), 87.4% and 12.6% responded with no irritation and slight irritation, respectively. There were no reports of moderate or severe irritation. The topical application of citronella oil can be employed as an easily-available, affordable and

  15. Biochemical parameters of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) treated with citronella oil (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt ex Bor) and its influence on reproduction.

    PubMed

    Silva, Cristiane Thalita Dos Santos; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valéria; Cunha, Franklin Magliano da; Oliveira, José Vargas de; Dutra, Kamilla de Andrade; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Teixeira, Álvaro Aguiar Coelho

    2016-05-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda is the principal corn pest in Brazil. Searches for new control methods that minimize the adverse effects of synthetic insecticides have initiated a resurgence of the use of botanical insecticides. Citronella oil (a product of Cymbopogon winterianus) is an effective repellent and insecticide. Thus, biochemical profile changes in oil-treated larvae and its influence on reproduction were assessed. Corn leaves dipped in a 50mg/mL concentration were offered to third instar larvae for 24h and assessed in sixth instar to estimate protein, lipid, sugar, and glycogen levels. Adult testes and ovarioles were collected for histological and histochemical analysis 24h after emergence. Number of eggs and hatching rate were also measured. Oil-treated larvae showed an increase in glycogen and a decrease in protein, lipid, and totals sugar content. Control testes exhibited connective tissue lining and cysts with abundant spermatozoids. However, intense peripheral vacuolation and neutral carbohydrates reduction occurred in oil-treated individuals. Control ovarioles showed normal morphologic characteristics. On the other hand, oil-treatment ovarioles showed follicular cell stratification and removal, reduced nurse cell development, reduced yolk quantity, a thinner conjunctiva sheath, and a reduction in proteins and neutral carbohydrates. Eggs derived from oil-treated pairs were unviable. Therefore, sub-lethal doses of citronella oil alters the biochemical profile of S. frugiperda larvae, causing damage to their reproductive histophysiology and results in diminished reproduction or reproductive failure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of inhaled citronella oil and related compounds on rat body weight and brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve.

    PubMed

    Batubara, Irmanida; Suparto, Irma H; Sa'diah, Siti; Matsuoka, Ryunosuke; Mitsunaga, Tohru

    2015-03-12

    Citronella oil is one of the most famous Indonesian essential oils, having a distinctive aroma. As with other essential oils, it is crucial to explore the effects of inhalation of this oil. Therefore, the aim of this research was to elucidate the effects of inhalation of citronella oil and its components isolated from Cymbopogon nardus L. (Poaceae), Indonesian local name: "Sereh Wangi" on the body weight, blood lipid profile, and liver function of rats, as well as on the sympathetic nerve activity and temperature of brown adipose tissue. Sprague-Dawley male adult rats fed with high fat diet (HFD) were made to inhale citronella oil, R-(+)-citronellal, and β-citronellol for five weeks, and the observations were compared to those of HFD rats that were not subjected to inhalation treatment. The results showed that inhalation of β-citronellol decreased feed consumption. As a consequence, the percentage of weight gain decreased compared with that in control group and the blood cholesterol level in the β-citronellol group was significantly lowered. Concentration of liver function enzymes were not significantly different among the groups. In conclusion, inhalation of citronella oil, specifically β-citronellol, decreased body weight by decreasing appetite, without any marked changes in liver enzyme concentrations.

  17. Larvicidal, pupicidal and adulticidal activities of non-polar solvent extract of Cymbopogon nardus (Linn.) whole plant against a mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say.).

    PubMed

    Ilahi, Ikram; Yousafzai, Ali Muhammad

    2017-11-01

    The present research is aimed to investigate the susceptibility of Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae (2nd and 4th instars), pupae and adults during exposure to various concentrations of C. nardus n-hexane extract. Increase in mortality of larvae and pupae was observed with increase in concentration of the extract solution (R2>0.90). LC50 values of extract for 2nd and 4th instar larvae were 451.8 and 599.6 ppm, respectively. The LC90 values of extract for 2nd and 4th instar larvae were 2519.6 and 3017.7 ppm, respectively. The LC50 and LC90 values of extract during pupicidal activity were 1307.7 and 2257.9 ppm, respectively. During CDC bottle bioassay, mosquito adult knockdown was observed after exposure to various concentrations (0.15% to 1.25%) of C. nardus n-hexane extract. The KDT50 values at highest (1.25%) and lowest (0.15%) concentrations were 100.9 and 184.2 minutes, respectively. After 24 hours exposure period, the highest extract concentration (1.25%) caused 62.5±6.5% mortality. During filter paper impregnation bioassay, the KDT50 value at highest concentration (0.13 mg/cm2) was 94.4 minutes and at lowest concentration (0.017 mg/cm2) was 178.9 minutes. KDT90 values at these concentrations were 176.7 and 290.1 minutes, respectively. After 24 hours of recovery period, the filter papers impregnated with highest extract concentration (0.13mg/cm2) caused 60±8.2% mortality.

  18. Fractionation of Java Citronella Oil and Citronellal Purification by Batch Vacuum Fractional Distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, W. T.; Alighiri, D.; Cahyono, E.; Supardi, K. I.; Wijayati, N.

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the performance of a vacuum fractionating column for the fractionation of Java Citronella Oil (Cymbopogon winterianus) and citronellal purification during batch mode operation at vacuum -76 cmHg and reflux ratios 5:1. Based on GC-MS analysis of Java Citronella Oil is known that citronellal, citronellol, and geraniol has yielded 21,59%; 7,43%; and 34,27%, respectively. Fractional distillation under reduced pressure and continued redistilled are needed to isolate the component of Java Citronella Oil. Redistilled can improve the purity, then distillate collected while the temperature changed. In the first distillate yielded citronellal with a purity of 75.67%. The first distillate obtained residue rhodinol product will then be carried back to separation into citronellol and geraniol. The purity of citronellol reached 80,65% purity, whereas geraniol reached 76.63% purity. Citronellal Purification resulting citronellal to 95.10% purity and p-menthane-3,8-diol reached 75.95% purity.

  19. Organic aerosol formation in citronella candle plumes.

    PubMed

    Bothe, Melanie; Donahue, Neil McPherson

    2010-09-01

    Citronella candles are widely used as insect repellants, especially outdoors in the evening. Because these essential oils are unsaturated, they have a unique potential to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via reaction with ozone, which is also commonly elevated on summer evenings when the candles are often in use. We investigated this process, along with primary aerosol emissions, by briefly placing a citronella tealight candle in a smog chamber and then adding ozone to the chamber. In repeated experiments, we observed rapid and substantial SOA formation after ozone addition; this process must therefore be considered when assessing the risks and benefits of using citronella candle to repel insects.

  20. Antifungal effects of citronella oil against Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Ru; Shi, Qing-Shan; Ouyang, You-Sheng; Chen, Yi-Ben; Duan, Shun-Shan

    2013-08-01

    Essential oils are aromatic oily liquids obtained from some aromatic plant materials. Certain essential oils such as citronella oil contain antifungal activity, but the antifungal effect is still unknown. In this study, we explored the antifungal effect of citronella oil with Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404. The antifungal activity of citronella oil on conidia of A. niger was determined by poisoned food technique, broth dilution method, and disc volatility method. Experimental results indicated that the citronella oil has strong antifungal activity: 0.125 (v/v) and 0.25 % (v/v) citronella oil inhibited the growth of 5 × 10⁵ spore/ml conidia separately for 7 and 28 days while 0.5 % (v/v) citronella oil could completely kill the conidia of 5 × 10⁵ spore/ml. Moreover, the fungicidal kinetic curves revealed that more than 90 % conidia (initial concentration is 5 × 10⁵ spore/ml) were killed in all the treatments with 0.125 to 2 % citronella oil after 24 h. Furthermore, with increase of citronella oil concentration and treatment time, the antifungal activity was increased correspondingly. The 0.5 % (v/v) concentration of citronella oil was a threshold to kill the conidia thoroughly. The surviving conidia treated with 0.5 to 2 % citronella oil decreased by an order of magnitude every day, and no fungus survived after 10 days. With light microscope, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope, we found that citronella oil could lead to irreversible alteration of the hyphae and conidia. Based on our observation, we hypothesized that the citronella oil destroyed the cell wall of the A. niger hyphae, passed through the cell membrane, penetrated into the cytoplasm, and acted on the main organelles. Subsequently, the hyphae was collapsed and squashed due to large cytoplasm loss, and the organelles were severely destroyed. Similarly, citronella oil could lead to the rupture of hard cell wall and then act on the sporoplasm to kill the

  1. Genome wide transcriptome profiling reveals differential gene expression in secondary metabolite pathway of Cymbopogon winterianus.

    PubMed

    Devi, Kamalakshi; Mishra, Surajit K; Sahu, Jagajjit; Panda, Debashis; Modi, Mahendra K; Sen, Priyabrata

    2016-02-15

    Advances in transcriptome sequencing provide fast, cost-effective and reliable approach to generate large expression datasets especially suitable for non-model species to identify putative genes, key pathway and regulatory mechanism. Citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) is an aromatic medicinal grass used for anti-tumoral, antibacterial, anti-fungal, antiviral, detoxifying and natural insect repellent properties. Despite of having number of utilities, the genes involved in terpenes biosynthetic pathway is not yet clearly elucidated. The present study is a pioneering attempt to generate an exhaustive molecular information of secondary metabolite pathway and to increase genomic resources in Citronella. Using high-throughput RNA-Seq technology, root and leaf transcriptome was analysed at an unprecedented depth (11.7 Gb). Targeted searches identified majority of the genes associated with metabolic pathway and other natural product pathway viz. antibiotics synthesis along with many novel genes. Terpenoid biosynthesis genes comparative expression results were validated for 15 unigenes by RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. Thus the coverage of these transcriptome is comprehensive enough to discover all known genes of major metabolic pathways. This transcriptome dataset can serve as important public information for gene expression, genomics and function genomics studies in Citronella and shall act as a benchmark for future improvement of the crop.

  2. Vermicomposting potentiality of Perionyx excavatus for recycling of waste biomass of Java citronella--an aromatic oil yielding plant.

    PubMed

    Deka, H; Deka, S; Baruah, C K; Das, J; Hoque, S; Sarma, H; Sarma, N S

    2011-12-01

    Laboratory investigation on vermicomposting efficacy of Perionyx excavatus for recycling of distillation waste biomass of java citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt) was carried out in two seasonal trials i.e. summer and winter periods. The experiment was conducted in earthen pots using a mixture of citronella waste material and cowdung in the proportion of 5:1. A control treatment without earthworms was setup for comparison of the results. The vermicompost had shown 5.8 folds reduction in C/N ratio and 5.6 folds enhancement in ash content. The nutrient contents (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) in the vermicompost had increase in the range of 1.2 - 4.1 fold than the initial level. The FT-IR spectra of the vermicompost confirmed increase in nitrogen rich compounds and decrease in aliphatic/aromatic compounds as compared to the initial level of the biowaste materials. The vermicomposting process is influenced by seasonal variation and summer was more productive than winter. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemical composition, cytotoxicity and in vitro antitrypanosomal and antiplasmodial activity of the essential oils of four Cymbopogon species from Benin.

    PubMed

    Kpoviessi, Salomé; Bero, Joanne; Agbani, Pierre; Gbaguidi, Fernand; Kpadonou-Kpoviessi, Bénédicta; Sinsin, Brice; Accrombessi, Georges; Frédérich, Michel; Moudachirou, Mansourou; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

    2014-01-01

    Cymbopogon species are largely used in folk medicine for the treatment of many diseases some of which related to parasitical diseases as fevers and headaches. As part of our research on antiparasitic essential oils from Beninese plants, we decided to evaluate the in vitro antiplasmodial and antitrypanosomal activities of essential oils of four Cymbopogon species used in traditional medicine as well as their cytotoxicity. The essential oils of four Cymbopogon species Cymbopogon citratus (I), Cymbopogon giganteus (II), Cymbopogon nardus (III) and Cymbopogon schoenantus (IV) from Benin obtained by hydrodistillation were analysed by GC/MS and GC/FID and were tested in vitro against Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Plasmodium falciparum respectively for antitrypanosomal and antiplasmodial activities. Cytotoxicity was evaluated in vitro against Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells and the human non cancer fibroblast cell line (WI38) through MTT assay to evaluate the selectivity. All tested oils showed a strong antitrypanosomal activity with a good selectivity. Sample II was the most active against Trypanosoma brucei brucei and could be considered as a good candidate. It was less active against Plasmodium falciparum. Samples II, III and IV had low or no cytotoxicity, but the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (I), was toxic against CHO cells and moderately toxic against WI38 cells and needs further toxicological studies. Sample I (29 compounds) was characterised by the presence as main constituents of geranial, neral, β-pinene and cis-geraniol; sample II (53 compounds) by trans-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol, trans-carveol, trans-p-mentha-2,8-dienol, cis-p-mentha-2,8-dienol, cis-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol, limonene, cis-carveol and cis-carvone; sample III (28 compounds) by β-citronellal, nerol, β-citronellol, elemol and limonene and sample IV (41 compounds) by piperitone, (+)-2-carene, limonene, elemol and β-eudesmol. Our study shows that essential oils of Cymbopogon genus can

  4. Acaricidal properties of the formulations based on essential oils from Cymbopogon winterianus and Syzygium aromaticum plants.

    PubMed

    de Mello, Valéria; Prata, Márcia Cristina de Azevedo; da Silva, Márcio Roberto; Daemon, Erik; da Silva, Luciane Santos; Guimarães, Flávia del Gaudio; de Mendonça, Alessandra Esther; Folly, Evelize; Vilela, Fernanda Maria Pinto; do Amaral, Lilian Henriques; Cabral, Lucio Mendes; do Amaral, Maria da Penha Henriques

    2014-12-01

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has caused serious harm to livestock raising in Brazil, considering the costs of controlling it, loss of revenue due to smaller production of milk and meat, and damage to leather, in addition to transmitting diseases. The use of medicinal plants is considered an alternative to the recurring resistance to chemicals. Due to the need for efficient alternatives with less environmental impact, this study aimed to develop contact formulations with essential oils from the Java citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) plants and to assess in vitro the effects in different stages of the tick cycle. In the present study, concentrations from 0.5-15.0% of the essential oils incorporated in the formulations were used. The ticks from different geographical areas were treated with those formulations, and their effects on the production levels of eggs, on the larvae hatching, and their efficiency on ticks were assessed. The obtained results were compared with other commercial acaricidal products. After the 20th day of treatment, the formulations with citronella essential oil had 2.09-55.51% efficiency, depending on the concentration of the oil incorporated. The efficiency of the treatment with formulations containing clove essential oil was higher, from 92.47-100%. The results showed the acaricidal effects of the formulations tested when compared to commercial chemical products. In vivo studies should be performed in order to assess the efficiency of those formulations in the fields, aiming to use these products as an alternative for controlling cattle ticks.

  5. Microencapsulated citronella oil for mosquito repellent finishing of cotton textiles.

    PubMed

    Specos, M M Miró; García, J J; Tornesello, J; Marino, P; Vecchia, M Della; Tesoriero, M V Defain; Hermida, L G

    2010-10-01

    Microcapsules containing citronella essential oil were prepared by complex coacervation and applied to cotton textiles in order to study the repellent efficacy of the obtained fabrics. Citronella released from treated textiles was indirectly monitored by the extractable content of its main components. Repellent activity was assessed by exposure of a human hand and arm covered with the treated textiles to Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Fabrics treated with microencapsulated citronella presented a higher and longer lasting protection from insects compared to fabrics sprayed with an ethanol solution of the essential oil, assuring a repellent effect higher than 90% for three weeks. Complex coacervation is a simple, low cost, scalable and reproducible method of obtaining encapsulated essential oils for textile application. Repellent textiles were achieved by padding cotton fabrics with microcapsules slurries using a conventional pad-dry method. This methodology requires no additional investment for textile finishing industries, which is a desirable factor in developing countries. Copyright © 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  6. Novel insights into structure–function mechanism and tissue-specific expression profiling of full-length dxr gene from Cymbopogon winterianus

    PubMed Central

    Devi, Kamalakshi; Dehury, Budheswar; Phukon, Munmi; Modi, Mahendra Kumar; Sen, Priyabrata

    2015-01-01

    The 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR; EC1.1.1.267), an NADPH-dependent reductase, plays a pivotal role in the methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway (MEP), in the conversion of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate (DXP) into MEP. The sheath and leaf of citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) accumulates large amount of terpenes and sesquiterpenes with proven medicinal value and economic uses. Thus, sequencing of full length dxr gene and its characterization seems to be a valuable resource in metabolic engineering to alter the flux of isoprenoid active ingredients in plants. In this study, full length DXR from citronella was characterized through in silico and tissue-specific expression studies to explain its structure–function mechanism, mode of cofactor recognition and differential expression. The modelled DXR has a three-domain architecture and its active site comprised of a cofactor (NADPH) binding pocket and the substrate-binding pocket. Molecular dynamics simulation studies indicated that DXR model retained most of its secondary structure during 10 ns simulation in aqueous solution. The modelled DXR superimposes well with its closest structural homolog but subtle variations in the charge distribution over the cofactor recognition site were noticed. Molecular docking study revealed critical residues aiding tight anchoring NADPH within the active pocket of DXR. Tissue-specific differential expression analysis using semi-quantitative RT-PCR and qRT-PCR in various tissues of citronella plant revealed distinct differential expression of DXR. To our knowledge, this is the first ever report on DXR from the important medicinal plant citronella and further characterization of this gene will open up better avenues for metabolic engineering of secondary metabolite pathway genes from medicinal plants in the near future. PMID:25941629

  7. Sustained release formulations of citronella oil nanoemulsion using cavitational techniques.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Naveen; Maddikeri, Ganesh L; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2017-05-01

    Nanoemulsion synthesis has proven to be an effective way for transportation of immobile, insoluble bioactive compounds. Citronella Oil (lemongrass oil), a natural plant extract, can be used as a mosquito repellent and has less harmful effects compared to its available market counterpart DEET (N, N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide). Nanoemulsion of citronella oil in water was prepared using cavitation-assisted techniques while investigating the effect of system parameters like HLB (Hydrophilic Lipophilic Balance), surfactant concentration, input energy density and mode of power input on emulsion quality. The present work also examines the effect of emulsification on release rate to understand the relationship between droplet size and the release rate. Minimum droplet size (60nm) of the emulsion was obtained at HLB of 14, S/O 1 ratio of 1.0, ultrasound amplitude of 50% and irradiation time of 5min. This study revealed that hydrodynamic cavitation-assisted emulsification is more energy efficient compared to ultrasonic emulsification. It was also found that the release rate of nanoemulsion enhanced as the droplet size of emulsion reduced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Anthelmintic activity of Cymbopogon martinii, Cymbopogon schoenanthus and Mentha piperita essential oils evaluated in four different in vitro tests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Anthelmintic resistance is a worldwide concern in small ruminant industry and new plant derived compounds are being studied for their potential use against gastrointestinal nematodes. Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon martinii and Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oils were evaluated against developmenta...

  9. Effect of peppermint and citronella essential oils on properties of fish skin gelatin edible films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanwong, S.; Threepopnatkul, P.

    2015-07-01

    Fish skin gelatin films incorporated with peppermint and citronella essential oils at difference concentrations (10, 20 and 30% w/w) were prepared by solution casting. Addition of peppermint oil contributed to a significant decrease of tensile strength and Young's modulus, while the percent elongation at break showed an obvious increase except at 30% w/w. On the other hand, addition of citronella oils promoted a great increase of tensile strength and young's modulus, but an intense decrease of the percent elongation at break. At the predetermined content, the film incorporated with citronella oils outperformed the one with peppermint oils in term of water vapor transmission and solubility in water. Thermal properties of gelatin films with citronella oils exhibited an enhancement in heat stability, while the one with peppermint oils showed slight decrease in heat stability. The additions with both of essential oils exhibited excellent antibacterial properties against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

  10. Characterization and mosquito repellent activity of citronella oil nanoemulsion.

    PubMed

    Sakulku, Usawadee; Nuchuchua, Onanong; Uawongyart, Napaporn; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit; Soottitantawat, Apinan; Ruktanonchai, Uracha

    2009-05-08

    Encapsulated citronella oil nanoemulsion prepared by high pressure homogenization at varying amounts of surfactant and glycerol, was studied in terms of the droplet size, stability, release characteristics and in vivo mosquito protection. Transparent nanoemulsion can be obtained at optimal concentration of 2.5% surfactant and 100% glycerol. Physical appearance and the stability of the emulsion were greatly improved through an addition of glycerol, owing to its co-solvent and highly viscous property. The increasing emulsion droplet increased the oil retention. The release behavior could be attributed to the effect of droplet size and concentrations of surfactant and glycerol. By fitting to Higuchi's equation, an increase in glycerol and surfactant concentrations resulted in slow release of the oil. The release rate related well to the protection time where a decrease in release rate can prolong mosquito protection time.

  11. Effect of citronella essential oil fractions as oil phase on emulsion stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Septiyanti, Melati; Meliana, Yenny; Agustian, Egi

    2017-11-01

    The emulsion system consists of water, oil and surfactant. In order to create stable emulsion system, the composition and formulation between water phase, surfactant and oil phase are very important. Essential oil such as citronella oil has been known as active ingredient which has ability as insect repellent. This research studied the effect of citronella oil and its fraction as oil phase on emulsion stability. The cycle stability test was conducted to check the emulsion stability and it was monitored by pH, density, viscosity, particle size, refractive index, zeta potential, physical appearance and FTIR for 4 weeks. Citronellal fraction has better stability compared to citronella oil and rhodinol fraction with slight change of physical and chemical properties before and after the cycle stability test. However, it is need further study to enhance the stability of the emulsion stability for this formulation.

  12. Essential oil biosynthesis and regulation in the genus Cymbopogon.

    PubMed

    Ganjewala, Deepak; Luthra, Rajesh

    2010-01-01

    Essential oils distilled from Cymbopogon species are of immense commercial value as flavors and fragrances in the perfumery, cosmetics, soaps, and detergents and in pharmaceutical industries. Two major constituents of the essential oil, geraniol and citral, due to their specific rose and lemon like aromas are widely used as flavors, fragrances and cosmetics. Citral is also used for the synthesis of vitamin A and ionones (for example, beta-ionone, methyl ionone). Moreover, Cymbopogon essential oils and constituents possess many useful biological activities including cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. Despite the immense commercial and biological significance of the Cymbopogon essential oils, little is known about their biosynthesis and regulatory mechanisms. So far it is known that essential oils are biosynthesized via the classical acetate-MVA route and existence of a newly discovered MEP pathway in Cymbopogon remains as a topic for investigation. The aim of the present review is to discuss the biosynthesis and regulation of essential oils in the genus Cymbopogon with given emphasis to two elite members, lemongrass (C. flexuosus Nees ex Steud) and palmarosa (C. martinii Roxb.). This article highlights the work done so far towards understanding of essential oil biosynthesis and regulation in the genus Cymbopogon. Also, based on our experiences with Cymbopogon species, we would like to propose C. flexuosus as a model system for the study of essential oil metabolism beyond the much studied plant family Lamiaceae.

  13. Encapsulation of Volatile Citronella Essential Oil by Coacervation: Efficiency and Release Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manaf, M. A.; Subuki, I.; Jai, J.; Raslan, R.; Mustapa, A. N.

    2018-05-01

    The volatile citronella essential oil was encapsulated by simple coacervation and complex coacervation using Arabic gum and gelatin as wall material. Glutaraldehyde was used in the methodology as crosslinking agent. The citronella standard calibration graph obtained with R2 of 0.9523 was used for the accurate determination of encapsulation efficiency and release study. The release kinetic was analysed based on Fick"s law of diffusion for polymeric system and linear graph of Log fraction release over Log time was constructed to determine the release rate constant, k and diffusion coefficient, n. Both coacervation methods in the present study produce encapsulation efficiency around 94%. The produced capsules for both coacervation processes were discussed based on the capsules morphology and release kinetic mechanisms.

  14. Cymbopogon species; ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and the pharmacological importance.

    PubMed

    Avoseh, Opeyemi; Oyedeji, Opeoluwa; Rungqu, Pamela; Nkeh-Chungag, Benedicta; Oyedeji, Adebola

    2015-04-23

    Cymbopogon genus is a member of the family of Gramineae which are herbs known worldwide for their high essential oil content. They are widely distributed across all continents where they are used for various purposes. The commercial and medicinal uses of the various species of Cymbopogon are well documented. Ethnopharmacology evidence shows that they possess a wide array of properties that justifies their use for pest control, in cosmetics and as anti-inflammation agents. These plants may also hold promise as potent anti-tumor and chemopreventive drugs. The chemo-types from this genus have been used as biomarkers for their identification and classification. Pharmacological applications of Cymbopogon citratus are well exploited, though studies show that other species may also useful pharmaceutically. Hence this literature review intends to discuss these species and explore their potential economic importance.

  15. Bioindustry development based on citronella essential oil to meet the needs for renewable energy: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizal, M.; Wiharna, S.; Wahyudi, A.

    2017-05-01

    In 2015, national domestic fuel consumption is already above 1.5 million barrels per day, while production is under 800,000 barrels per day. The gap between production and consumption will be considerably widened, serious efforts is needed to save the use of petroleum and also look for alternative replacement with renewable natural energy. Two approaches that can be taken: First, save the use of fossil fuel directly by using citronella essential oil-based bioadditive by 20 percents, equal to at least Rp. 55.2 trillions of national petroleum subsidies. Second, encourage increased utilization of biofuel mixed with that bioaditives that gradually reduce dependence on fossil fuels while developing machines which will fully operated with biofuels. Development of Sustainable Agricultural Bioindustry (SAB) system by integrating crops (candle nut, citronella) with livestock (dairy cattle) in a specific region. could contribute to: a) production of biodiesel and bioadditive feedstocks, b) production foodstuffs like beef and/or milk, c) utilitization of non-productive land, d) employment, by absorbing large number of farmer, e) increase the farmers income, f), biogas that can be used to meet daily household energy needs, and g) environmental conservation and sequestration of carbon emissions.

  16. Determination of antioxidant capacity and a-amylase inhibitory activity of the essential oils from citronella grass and lemongrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of the present study was to determine the antioxidant capacity of and in vitro a-amylase inhibitory activity of the essential oils extracted from citronella grass and lemongrass. The chemical composition of the extracted essential oils was determined by GC-MS. The antioxidant capacity ...

  17. Ethanol and high-value terpene co-production from lignocellulosic biomass of Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cymbopogon flexuosus and C. martinii are perennial grasses grown to produce essential oils for the fragrance industry. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate biomass and oil yields as a function of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization, and (2) to characterize their utility for lignocellulosi...

  18. Efficacy of herbal essential oils as insecticide against Aedes aegypti (Linn.), Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) and Anopheles dirus (Peyton and Harrison).

    PubMed

    Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn; Soonwera, Mayura

    2011-09-01

    The essential oils of Cananga odorata (ylang ylang), Citrus sinensis (orange), Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass), Cymbopogon nardus (citronella grass), Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus), Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove), were tested for their insecticide activity against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles dirus using the WHO standard susceptibility test. These were applied in soybean oil at dose of 1%, 5% and 10% (w/v). C. citratus had the KT, values against the three mosquito species tested but the knockdown rates (at 10, 30 and 60 minutes) were lower than some essential oils. C. citratus oil had high insecticidal activity against Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. dirus, with LC50 values of < 0.1, 2.22 and < 0.1%, respectively. Ten percent C. citratus gave the highest mortality rates (100%) 24 hours after application. This study demonstrates the potential for the essential oil of C. citratus to be used as an insecticide against 3 species of mosquitoes.

  19. Evaluation of toxicity of essential oils palmarosa, citronella, lemongrass and vetiver in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sonali; Jothiramajayam, Manivannan; Ghosh, Manosij; Mukherjee, Anita

    2014-06-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to study the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of the essential oils (palmarosa, citronella, lemongrass and vetiver) and monoterpenoids (citral and geraniol) in human lymphocytes. Trypan blue dye exclusion and MTT test was used to evaluate cytotoxicity. The genotoxicity studies were carried out by comet and DNA diffusion assays. Apoptosis was confirmed by Annexin/PI double staining. In addition, generation of reactive oxygen species was evaluated by DCFH-DA staining using flow cytometry. The results demonstrated that the four essential oils and citral induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity at higher concentrations. The essential oils were found to induce oxidative stress evidenced by the generation of reactive oxygen species. With the exception of geraniol, induction of apoptosis was confirmed at higher concentrations of the test substances. Based on the results, the four essential oils are considered safe for human consumption at low concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effectiveness of several dosage formula of oil and nano emulsion of citronella against vascular streak dieback (VSD) disease on cocoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noveriza, R.; Trisno, J.; Rahma, H.; Yuliani, S.; Reflin; Martinius

    2018-02-01

    The disease of Vascular streak dieback (VSD) is a deadly disease of cocoa plants, because it attacks the vascular tissue of cocoa at growing point of the plant. In West Sumatra the disease was first reported in 2015 with an incidence of disease range 58.82% - 100% and an intensity of disease range 24.29% - 44.7%. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of dosage application of oil formula and nano emulsion of citronella formula against Vascular streak dieback (VSD) disease on cocoa plants in West Sumatra (in Padang Pariaman District and Limapuluh Kota District). The results showed that the percentage of VSD disease attacks in both testing sites was 100%. The oil and nano emulsion of citronella formulas can reduce the intensity of VSD disease on cocoa plants in West Sumatra, particularly in Padang Pariaman District and Limapuluh Kota District. The reduction of VSD intensity in Padang Pariaman district ranged from 8.32 to 21.13%; while in Limapuluh Kota district ranged from 4.33 to 11.80%. The nano emulsion of citronella formulation is effective to suppress the intensity of VSD disease on cocoa plants at doses 0.1% (≥ 30% of effectiveness level).

  1. Avoidance Behavior to Essential Oils by Anopheles minimus, a Malaria Vector in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nararak, Jirod; Sathantriphop, Sunaiyana; Chauhan, Kamal; Tantakom, Siripun; Eiden, Amanda L; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2016-03-01

    Essential oils extracted from 4 different plant species--citronella (Cymbopogon nardus), hairy basil (Ocimum americanum), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), and vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides)-were investigated for their irritant and repellent activities against Anopheles minimus, using an excito-repellency test system. Pure essential oils were used in absolute ethanol at the concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, 2.5%, and 5% (v/v) compared with deet. At the lowest concentration of 0.5%, hairy basil displayed the best irritant and repellent effects against An. minimus. Citronella and vetiver at 1-5% showed strong irritant effects with>80% escape, while repellent effects of both oils were observed at 1% and 2.5% citronella (73-89% escape) and at 5% vetiver (83.9% escape). Sweet basil had only moderate irritant action at 5% concentration (69.6% escape) and slightly repellent on test mosquitoes (<50% escape). The results found that hairy basil, citronella, and vetiver are promising potential mosquito repellent products for protection against An. minimus.

  2. Assessment of the repellent effect of citronella and lemon eucalyptus oil against South African Culicoides species.

    PubMed

    Venter, Gert J; Labuschagne, Karien; Boikanyo, Solomon N B; Morey, Liesl

    2014-08-08

    The use of insect repellents to reduce the attack rate of Culicoides species (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae) should form part of an integrated control programme to combat African horse sickness and other diseases transmitted by these blood-feeding midges. In the present study the repellent effects of a commercially available mosquito repellent, a combination of citronella and lemon eucalyptus oils, on Culicoides midges was determined. The number of midges collected with two 220 V Onderstepoort traps fitted with 8 W 23 cm white light tubes and baited with peel-stick patches, each containing 40 mg of active ingredient, was compared with that of two unbaited traps. Two trials were conducted and in each trial the four traps were rotated in two replicates of a 4 x 4 randomised Latin square design. Although more midges were collected in the baited traps, the mean number in the baited and unbaited traps was not significantly different. This mosquito repellent did not influence either the species composition or the physiological groups of Culicoides imicola Kieffer. The higher mean numbers in the baited traps, although not statistically significant, may indicate that this mosquito repellent might even attract Culicoides midges under certain conditions.

  3. A novel approach for development and characterization of effective mosquito repellent cream formulation containing citronella oil.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Narayan Prasad; Rai, Vineet Kumar; Mishra, Nidhi; Sinha, Priyam; Bawankule, Dnyaneshwar Umrao; Pal, Anirban; Tripathi, Arun Kumar; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh

    2014-01-01

    Citronella essential oil (CEO) has been reported as an excellent mosquito repellent; however, mild irritancy and rapid volatility limit its topical application. It was aimed to develop a nonirritant, stable, and consistent cream of CEO with improved residence time on skin using an industrial approach. Phase inversion temperature technique was employed to prepare the cream. It was optimized and characterized based on sensorial evaluation, emulsification, and consistency in terms of softness, greasiness, stickiness, and pH. The optimum batch (B5) was evaluated for viscosity (90249.67±139.95 cP), texture profile with respect to firmness (38.67±0.88 g), spreadability (70.33±0.88 mJ), and extrudability (639.67±8.09±0.1 mJ) using texture analyzer along with two most popular marketed products selected as reference standard. Subsequently, B5 was found to be stable for more than 90 days and showed enhanced duration of mosquito repellency as compared to CEO. HS-GC ensured the intactness of CEO in B5. Investigated primary irritation index (PII 0.45) positioned B5 into the category of irritation barely perceptible. The pronounced texture profile and stability of B5 with extended residence time and less PII revealed its potential application in industry and offered a promising alternative to the marketed products of synthetic origin.

  4. A Novel Approach for Development and Characterization of Effective Mosquito Repellent Cream Formulation Containing Citronella Oil

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Narayan Prasad; Rai, Vineet Kumar; Mishra, Nidhi; Sinha, Priyam; Bawankule, Dnyaneshwar Umrao; Pal, Anirban; Tripathi, Arun Kumar; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh

    2014-01-01

    Citronella essential oil (CEO) has been reported as an excellent mosquito repellent; however, mild irritancy and rapid volatility limit its topical application. It was aimed to develop a nonirritant, stable, and consistent cream of CEO with improved residence time on skin using an industrial approach. Phase inversion temperature technique was employed to prepare the cream. It was optimized and characterized based on sensorial evaluation, emulsification, and consistency in terms of softness, greasiness, stickiness, and pH. The optimum batch (B5) was evaluated for viscosity (90249.67 ± 139.95 cP), texture profile with respect to firmness (38.67 ± 0.88 g), spreadability (70.33 ± 0.88 mJ), and extrudability (639.67 ± 8.09 ± 0.1 mJ) using texture analyzer along with two most popular marketed products selected as reference standard. Subsequently, B5 was found to be stable for more than 90 days and showed enhanced duration of mosquito repellency as compared to CEO. HS-GC ensured the intactness of CEO in B5. Investigated primary irritation index (PII 0.45) positioned B5 into the category of irritation barely perceptible. The pronounced texture profile and stability of B5 with extended residence time and less PII revealed its potential application in industry and offered a promising alternative to the marketed products of synthetic origin. PMID:25379509

  5. Microencapsulation of citronella oil for mosquito-repellent application: formulation and in vitro permeation studies.

    PubMed

    Solomon, B; Sahle, F F; Gebre-Mariam, T; Asres, K; Neubert, R H H

    2012-01-01

    Citronella oil (CO) has been reported to possess a mosquito-repellent action. However, its application in topical preparations is limited due to its rapid volatility. The objective of this study was therefore to reduce the rate of evaporation of the oil via microencapsulation. Microcapsules (MCs) were prepared using gelatin simple coacervation method and sodium sulfate (20%) as a coacervating agent. The MCs were hardened with a cross-linking agent, formaldehyde (37%). The effects of three variables, stirring rate, oil loading and the amount of cross-linking agent, on encapsulation efficiency (EE, %) were studied. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the EE (%), and a polynomial regression model equation was generated. The effect of the amount of cross-linker was insignificant on EE (%). The response surface plot constructed for the polynomial equation provided an optimum area. The MCs under the optimized conditions provided EE of 60%. The optimized MCs were observed to have a sustained in vitro release profile (70% of the content was released at the 10th hour of the study) with minimum initial burst effect. Topical formulations of the microencapsulated oil and non-microencapsulated oil were prepared with different bases, white petrolatum, wool wax alcohol, hydrophilic ointment (USP) and PEG ointment (USP). In vitro membrane permeation of CO from the ointments was evaluated in Franz diffusion cells using cellulose acetate membrane at 32 °C, with the receptor compartment containing a water-ethanol solution (50:50). The receptor phase samples were analyzed with GC/MS, using citronellal as a reference standard. The results showed that microencapsulation decreased membrane permeation of the CO by at least 50%. The amount of CO permeated was dependent on the type of ointment base used; PEG base exhibited the highest degree of release. Therefore, microencapsulation reduces membrane permeation of CO while maintaining a constant supply of the oil

  6. Exploring the antimalarial potential of whole Cymbopogon citratus plant therapy.

    PubMed

    Chukwuocha, Uchechukwu M; Fernández-Rivera, Omar; Legorreta-Herrera, Martha

    2016-12-04

    Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass) has been used in traditional medicine as an herbal infusion to treat fever and malaria. Generally, whole plant extracts possess higher biological activity than purified compounds. However, the antimalarial activity of the whole C. citratus plant has not been experimentally tested. To evaluate the antimalarial activity of an herbal infusion and the whole Cymbopogon citratus plant in two experimental models of malaria. The plant was dried for 10 days at room temperature and was then milled and passed through brass sieves to obtain a powder, which was administered to CBA/Ca mice with a patent Plasmodium chabaudi AS or P. berghei ANKA infection. We analysed the effects of two different doses (1600 and 3200mg/kg) compared with those of the herbal infusion and chloroquine, used as a positive control. We also assessed the prophylactic antimalarial activities of the whole C. citratus plant and the combination of the whole plant and chloroquine. The C. citratus whole plant exhibited prolonged antimalarial activity against both P. chabaudi AS and P. berghei ANKA. The low dose of the whole C. citratus plant displayed higher antimalarial activity than the high dose against P. berghei ANKA. As a prophylactic treatment, the whole plant exhibited higher antimalarial activity than either the herbal infusion or chloroquine. In addition, the combination of the whole C. citratus plant and chloroquine displayed higher activity than chloroquine alone against P. berghei ANKA patent infection. We demonstrated the antimalarial activity of the whole C. citratus plant in two experimental models. The whole C. citratus plant elicited higher anti-malarial activity than the herbal infusion or chloroquine when used as a prophylactic treatment. The antimalarial activity of the whole C. citratus plant supports continued efforts towards developing whole plant therapies for the management of malaria and other infectious diseases prevalent in resource

  7. The effect of surfactant on headspace single drop microextraction for the determination of some volatile aroma compounds in citronella grass and lemongrass leaves by gas chromatography

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A rapid method for the determination of some volatile aromatic compounds (VACs), including citronellal, citronellol, neral, geranial, geraniol, and eugenol in citronella grass and lemongrass leaves, was developed using surfactant as a surface tension modifier while performing headspace single drop m...

  8. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Alouatta spp. Feces to Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Carregaro, Adriano Bonfim; Santurio, Deise Flores; de Sá, Mariangela Facco; Santurio, Janio Moraes; Alves, Sydney Hartz

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils from Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano), Origanum vulgaris (oregano), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Cymbopogon nardus (citronella), Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass), and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus) against Escherichia coli (n = 22) strains isolated from Alouatta spp. feces. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined for each isolate using the broth microdilution technique. Essential oils of Mexican oregano (MIC mean = 1818 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 2618 μg mL−1), thyme (MIC mean = 2618 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 2909 μg mL−1), and oregano (MIC mean = 3418 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 4800 μg mL−1) showed the best antibacterial activity, while essential oils of eucalyptus, rosemary, citronella, and lemongrass displayed no antibacterial activity at concentrations greater than or equal to 6400 μg mL−1. Our results confirm the antimicrobial potential of some essential oils, which deserve further research. PMID:27313638

  9. A report on identification of sequence polymorphism in barcode region of six commercially important Cymbopogon species.

    PubMed

    Bishoyi, Ashok Kumar; Kavane, Aarti; Sharma, Anjali; Geetha, K A

    2017-02-01

    CYMBOPOGON: is an important member of grass family Poaceae, cultivated for essential oils which have greater medicinal and industrial value. Taxonomic identification of Cymbopogon species is determined mainly by morphological markers, odour of essential oils and concentration of bioactive compounds present in the oil matrices which are highly influenced by environment. Authenticated molecular marker based taxonomical identification is also lacking in the genus; hence effort was made to evaluate potential DNA barcode loci in six commercially important Cymbopogon species for their individual discrimination and authentication at the species level. Four widely used DNA barcoding regions viz., ITS 1 & ITS 2 spacers, matK, psbA-trnH and rbcL were taken for the study. Gene sequences of the same or related genera of the concerned loci were mined from NCBI domain and primers were designed and validated for barcode loci amplification. Out of the four loci studied, sequences from matK and ITS spacer loci revealed 0.46% and 5.64% nucleotide sequence diversity, respectively whereas the other two loci i.e., psbA-trnH and rbcL showed 100% sequence homology. The newly developed primers can be used for barcode loci amplification in the genus Cymbopogon. The identified Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms from the studied sequences may be used as barcodes for the six Cymbopogon species. The information generated can also be utilized for barcode development of the genus by including more number of Cymbopgon species in future.

  10. Gas chromatographic mass analysis and further pharmacological actions of Cymbopogon proximus essential oil.

    PubMed

    Al-Taweel, A M; Fawzy, G A; Perveen, S; El Tahir, K E H

    2013-09-01

    The present study reports Gas chromatographic mass analysis (GC-MS) as well as important biological activities of Cymbopogon proximus essential oil. The chemical composition of the essential oil of Cymbopogon proximus was investigated by GC-MS. Furthermore, the effects of Cymbopogon proximus essential oil on the cardiac parasympathetic ganglia in rats, the intra-tracheal pressure in guinea-pigs and on carrageenan-induced inflammation in the rats paw, were studied. The GC-MS study led to the identification of 22 components with Piperitone representing (73.81%), Elemol (9.32%), alpha-Eudesmol (5.21%) and alpha-Terpineol (3.01%) of the oils composition. The percentage protective effect of the oil on the vagus-induced bradycardia in rats was 90.1±3.1%, which represents a significant protection. As for the effect of Cymbopogon oil on bronchoconstrictors-induced increase in intra-tracheal pressure in guinea-pigs, the oil antagonized the actions of 5-HT and histamine by 80±3.7 and 93±8.3%, respectively. Pharmacological investigations using Cymbopogon oil revealed its inherent ability to possess a bronchodilator activity mediated via blockade of both histamine and serotonin receptors. It possessed a significant ganglionic blocking action and a limited anti-inflammatory activity that seemed to involve blockade of histamine and serotonin receptors in the rats' paws. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Varietal Discrimination and Genetic Variability Analysis of Cymbopogon Using RAPD and ISSR Markers Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bishoyi, Ashok Kumar; Sharma, Anjali; Kavane, Aarti; Geetha, K A

    2016-06-01

    Cymbopogon is an important genus of family Poaceae, cultivated mainly for its essential oils which possess high medicinal and economical value. Several cultivars of Cymbopogon species are available for commercial cultivation in India and identification of these cultivars was conceded by means of morphological markers and essential oil constitution. Since these parameters are highly influenced by environmental factors, in most of the cases, it is difficult to identify Cymbopogon cultivars. In the present study, Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were employed to discriminate nine leading varieties of Cymbopogon since prior genomic information is lacking or very little in the genus. Ninety RAPD and 70 ISSR primers were used which generated 63 and 69 % polymorphic amplicons, respectively. Similarity in the pattern of UPGMA-derived dendrogram of RAPD and ISSR analysis revealed the reliability of the markers chosen for the study. Varietal/cultivar-specific markers generated from the study could be utilised for varietal/cultivar authentication, thus monitoring the quality of the essential oil production in Cymbopogon. These markers can also be utilised for the IPR protection of the cultivars. Moreover, the study provides molecular marker tool kit in both random and simple sequence repeats for diverse molecular research in the same or related genera.

  12. Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of Cymbopogon citratus, stapf (Lemon grass)

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Gagan; Shri, Richa; Panchal, Vivek; Sharma, Narender; Singh, Bharpur; Mann, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus, Stapf (Lemon grass) is a widely used herb in tropical countries, especially in Southeast Asia. The essential oil of the plant is used in aromatherapy. The compounds identified in Cymbopogon citratus are mainly terpenes, alcohols, ketones, aldehyde and esters. Some of the reported phytoconstituents are essential oils that contain Citral α, Citral β, Nerol Geraniol, Citronellal, Terpinolene, Geranyl acetate, Myrecene and Terpinol Methylheptenone. The plant also contains reported phytoconstituents such as flavonoids and phenolic compounds, which consist of luteolin, isoorientin 2’-O-rhamnoside, quercetin, kaempferol and apiginin. Studies indicate that Cymbopogon citratus possesses various pharmacological activities such as anti-amoebic, antibacterial, antidiarrheal, antifilarial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties. Various other effects like antimalarial, antimutagenicity, antimycobacterial, antioxidants, hypoglycemic and neurobehaviorial have also been studied. These results are very encouraging and indicate that this herb should be studied more extensively to confirm these results and reveal other potential therapeutic effects. PMID:22171285

  13. Anti-dandruff Hair Tonic Containing Lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) Oil.

    PubMed

    Chaisripipat, Wannee; Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree

    2015-01-01

    Natural remedies for treating dandruff are becoming popular. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, split-head efficacy evaluation was conducted 30 Thai volunteers aged 20-60 years experiencing dandruff measured at level 3 on D-Squame® scale. An easy to use hair tonic containing essential oil of lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) active against lipophilic yeasts was developed and then evaluated for efficacy and preference. The base formulation with the significantly highest preference (p < 0.05) was stowed with the oil at 5, 10 or 15%. Subjects applied the formulation twice a day, and an efficacy assessment with D-Squame® scale was conducted on days 7 and 14 of application. The application of lemongrass oil hair tonics with 5, 10, or 15% reduced dandruff significant (p < 0.005) at day 7 (33, 75, and 51%) and increased the effect even more (p < 0.005) at day 14 (52, 81, and 74%). The hair tonic formulation with 10% of lemongrass oil seems to be the most effective preparation. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  14. Biofilm inhibition by Cymbopogon citratus and Syzygium aromaticum essential oils in the strains of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohd Sajjad Ahmad; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2012-03-27

    Oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Syzygium aromaticum have been used in traditional medicine to treat fungal infections of skin, mouth, urinary and vaginal tract in Asian countries particularly India and other developing countries. To evaluate essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Syzygium aromaticum for their anti-biofilm activity against strong biofilm forming strains of Candida albicans. XTT reduction assay, Time kill assays, light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to determine the effect of test oils on the Candida albicans biofilms. Most of the Candida albicans strains tested displayed formation of moderate to strong biofilms. Preformed Candida biofilms showed ≥1024 times increased resistance to antifungal drugs, 2 times to Syzygium aromaticum, but no increased tolerance for Cymbopogon citratus. Test oils were more active against preformed biofilms compared to amphotericin B and fluconazole. At 0.5× MIC, Cymbopogon citratus followed by Syzygium aromaticum were most inhibitory against biofilm formation. Light and electron microscopic studies revealed the deformity of three dimensional structures of biofilms formed in the presence of sub-MICs of Cymbopogon citratus. The cell membranes appeared to be the target site of compounds in sessile cells as displayed by SEM observations. Our data had demonstrated promising in vitro anti-biofilm activity by Cymbopogon citratus and Syzygium aromaticum and confirm the ethnopharmacological use of these oils in muco-cutaneous Candida infections. Furthermore, it suggests exploitation of these oils as new anti-biofilm products to deal with the problem of drug-resistance and recurrent infection associated with biofilm mode of growth of Candida spp. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ethanol and High-Value Terpene Co-Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass of Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Blake L.; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Sykes, Robert; Cantrell, Charles L.; Hamilton, Choo; Mann, David G. J.; Rodriguez, Miguel; Mielenz, Jonathan R.; Astatkie, Tess; Stewart, C. Neal

    2015-01-01

    Cymbopogon flexuosus, lemongrass, and C. martinii, palmarosa, are perennial grasses grown to produce essential oils for the fragrance industry. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate biomass and oil yields as a function of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization, and (2) to characterize their utility for lignocellulosic ethanol compared to Panicum virgatum (switchgrass). Mean biomass yields were 12.83 Mg lemongrass ha-1 and 15.11 Mg palmarosa ha-1 during the second harvest year resulting in theoretical biofuel yields of 2541 and 2569 L ethanol ha-1 respectively compared to reported 1749–3691 L ethanol ha-1 for switchgrass. Pretreated lemongrass yielded 198 mL ethanol (g biomass)-1 and pretreated palmarosa yielded 170 mL ethanol (g biomass)-1. Additionally, lemongrass yielded 85.7 kg essential oil ha-1 and palmarosa yielded 67.0 kg ha-1 with an estimated value of USD $857 and $1005 ha-1. These data suggest that dual-use crops such as lemongrass and palmarosa may increase the economic viability of lignocellulosic biofuels. PMID:26437026

  16. Ethanol and High-Value Terpene Co-Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass of Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii

    DOE PAGES

    Joyce, Blake L.; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Sykes, Robert; ...

    2015-10-05

    Cymbopogon flexuosus, lemongrass, and C. martinii, palmarosa, are perennial grasses grown to produce essential oils for the fragrance industry. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate biomass and oil yields as a function of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization, and (2) to characterize their utility for lignocellulosic ethanol compared to Panicum virgatum (switchgrass). Mean biomass yields were 12.83 Mg lemongrass ha -1 and 15.11 Mg palmarosa ha -1 during the second harvest year resulting in theoretical biofuel yields of 2541 and 2569 L ethanol ha -1 respectively compared to reported 1749–3691 L ethanol ha -1 for switchgrass. Pretreated lemongrassmore » yielded 198 mL ethanol (g biomass) -1 and pretreated palmarosa yielded 170 mL ethanol (g biomass) -1. Additionally, lemongrass yielded 85.7 kg essential oil ha-1 and palmarosa yielded 67.0 kg ha -1 with an estimated value of USD $857 and $1005 ha -1. These data suggest that dual-use crops such as lemongrass and palmarosa may increase the economic viability of lignocellulosic biofuels.« less

  17. Ethanol and High-Value Terpene Co-Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass of Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Blake L; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Sykes, Robert; Cantrell, Charles L; Hamilton, Choo; Mann, David G J; Rodriguez, Miguel; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Astatkie, Tess; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-01-01

    Cymbopogon flexuosus, lemongrass, and C. martinii, palmarosa, are perennial grasses grown to produce essential oils for the fragrance industry. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate biomass and oil yields as a function of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization, and (2) to characterize their utility for lignocellulosic ethanol compared to Panicum virgatum (switchgrass). Mean biomass yields were 12.83 Mg lemongrass ha-1 and 15.11 Mg palmarosa ha-1 during the second harvest year resulting in theoretical biofuel yields of 2541 and 2569 L ethanol ha-1 respectively compared to reported 1749-3691 L ethanol ha-1 for switchgrass. Pretreated lemongrass yielded 198 mL ethanol (g biomass)-1 and pretreated palmarosa yielded 170 mL ethanol (g biomass)-1. Additionally, lemongrass yielded 85.7 kg essential oil ha-1 and palmarosa yielded 67.0 kg ha-1 with an estimated value of USD $857 and $1005 ha-1. These data suggest that dual-use crops such as lemongrass and palmarosa may increase the economic viability of lignocellulosic biofuels.

  18. Bioactivity of essential oil from lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf) as antioxidant agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anggraeni, Nenden Indrayati; Hidayat, Ika Wiani; Rachman, Saadah Diana; Ersanda

    2018-02-01

    Free radical induced oxidative stress that influences the occurrence of various degenerative diseases such as cancer, coronary heart disease and premature aging. In the case that body's antioxidant defense system does not have excessive antioxidants, additional natural antioxidant via food or other nutrients intake is needed. Stems of lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus Stapf are known to contain phenolic compounds that are known to have antioxidant activity. Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf) plant is well known herb in Asia, espesially in Indonesia and used for cooking and has many health benefits. A study has been carried out to determine antioxidant potential of stems of lemongrass. In this the primary study is to examine essential oil Cymbopogon citratus Stapf from Cileles Jatinangor as an antioxidant agent. Essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf was isolated from 1272 g of dried stem by using Karlsruhe steam distillation methods with 0.24% in yield. The product of essential oil was also tested against antioxidant activity DPPH and resulted low activity compare to ascorbic acid and lemongrass oil standard as reference material.

  19. Excito-repellency of essential oils against an Aedes aegypti (L.) field population in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Boonyuan, Wasana; Grieco, John P; Bangs, Michael J; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Tantakom, Siripun; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2014-06-01

    An investigation of the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti (= Stegomyia aegypti) to various concentrations of essential oils (2.5, 5, and 10%) extracted from hairy basil (Ocimum americanum Linn), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf), citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus Rendle), and plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb) were performed using an excito-repellency test chamber. Results showed that Ae. aegypti exhibited varying levels of escape response in both the contact and noncontact chambers in response to different essential oils. The magnitude of the behaviors changed in a dose-response fashion depending on the percent volume to volume concentration of oil used. A 2.5% concentration of hairy basil oil produced a significantly greater escape response compared to the other extracts at the same concentration (P< 0.05). Oils of ginger, lemongrass, and citronella produced stronger irritant and repellent responses at the median 5% concentration compared to the lowest and highest concentrations. There was marked suppression of escape for both contact and noncontact tests using 10% concentrations of hairy basil, lemongrass, and citronella, with high knockdown for all three oils after 30 min. Hairy basil and lemongrass had the highest insecticidal activity to Ae. aegypti, with LC50 values of 6.3 and 6.7 percent, respectively. We conclude that the essential oils from native plants tested, and likely many other extracts found in plants, have inherent repellent and irritant qualities that should to be screened and optimized for their behavior-modifying properties against Ae. aegypti and other biting arthropods of public health and pest importance. © 2014 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  20. Encapsulation of Citronellal from Citronella Oil using β-Cyclodextrin and Its Application as Mosquito (Aedes aegypti) Repellent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujiastuti, A.; Cahyono, E.; Sumarni, W.

    2017-04-01

    Mosquito (Aedes aegypti) is a threat to human health due to its capability to spread dengue fever. Citronellal in citronella oil is one ofnatural active compound that has repellent activity. Essential oil is a sensitive material whichiseasy to degrade. Encapsulation is coating technology use to avoid essential oil from degradation problems. β-Cyclodextrin is frequently used as acoating material in encapsulation. The aims of this study wereto prepare the citronellal encapsulation and to evaluate its control-released and repellency. In this study, encapsulated citronellal was prepared using 83.65% citronellal and encapsulation were prepared with the theemulsion-based method and dried using freeze-dryer. The best-controlled release was performed in citronellal encapsulate with a weight ratio of 1:1 (citronellal : β-Cyclodextrin). The morphology of encapsulated citronellal was analyzed using SEM. SEM result showed it has three dimensions random shape and agglomerate in some part with thebrighter spot. Citronellal encapsulate showed the highest repellent effect at 84,67% for 5 minutes in mosquito repellency test although it has lower result compared with citronellal inliquid form.

  1. Comparative effects of Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oil and piperitone on Callosobruchus maculatus development.

    PubMed

    Ketoh, Guillaume K; Koumaglo, Honore K; Glitho, Isabelle A; Huignard, Jacques

    2006-12-01

    The insecticidal activity of crude essential oil extracted from Cymbopogon schoenanthus and of its main constituent, piperitone, was assessed on different developmental stages of Callosobruchus maculatus. Piperitone was more toxic to adults with a LC(50) value of 1.6 microl/l vs. 2.7 microl/l obtained with the crude extract. Piperitone inhibited the development of newly laid eggs and of neonate larvae, but was less toxic than the crude extract to individuals developing inside the seeds.

  2. Control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (penz.) Sacc. In yellow passion fruit using Cymbopogon citratus essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Anaruma, Nina Duarte; Schmidt, Flávio Luís; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Delarmelina, Camila; Benato, liane Aparecida; Sartoratto, Adilson

    2010-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in agriculture is limited when compared to their applications in human and veterinary medicine. On the other hand, the use of antimicrobials in agriculture contributes to the drug resistance of human pathogens and has stimulated the search for new antibiotics from natural products. Essential oils have been shown to exert several biological activities including antibacterial and antifungal actions. The aim of this study was to determine the activity of 28 essential oils from medicinal plants cultivated at CPMA (Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Collection), CPQBA/UNICAMP, against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc., the anthracnose agent in yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg), as well as evaluating their effect in the control of post-harvest decay. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system and their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) determined by the micro-dilution method. According to the results, 15 of the 28 essential oils presented activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and the following four oils presented MIC values between 0.25 and 0.3 mg/mL: Coriandrum sativum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon flexuosus and Lippia alba. The evaluation of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil in the control of post-harvest decay in yellow passion fruit showed that the disease index of the samples treated with the essential oil did not differ (P ≤ 0.05) from that of the samples treated with fungicide. The present study shows the potential of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil in the control of the anthracnose agent in yellow passion fruit. PMID:24031465

  3. Control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (penz.) Sacc. In yellow passion fruit using Cymbopogon citratus essential oil.

    PubMed

    Anaruma, Nina Duarte; Schmidt, Flávio Luís; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Delarmelina, Camila; Benato, Liane Aparecida; Sartoratto, Adilson

    2010-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in agriculture is limited when compared to their applications in human and veterinary medicine. On the other hand, the use of antimicrobials in agriculture contributes to the drug resistance of human pathogens and has stimulated the search for new antibiotics from natural products. Essential oils have been shown to exert several biological activities including antibacterial and antifungal actions. The aim of this study was to determine the activity of 28 essential oils from medicinal plants cultivated at CPMA (Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Collection), CPQBA/UNICAMP, against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc., the anthracnose agent in yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg), as well as evaluating their effect in the control of post-harvest decay. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system and their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) determined by the micro-dilution method. According to the results, 15 of the 28 essential oils presented activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and the following four oils presented MIC values between 0.25 and 0.3 mg/mL: Coriandrum sativum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon flexuosus and Lippia alba. The evaluation of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil in the control of post-harvest decay in yellow passion fruit showed that the disease index of the samples treated with the essential oil did not differ (P ≤ 0.05) from that of the samples treated with fungicide. The present study shows the potential of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil in the control of the anthracnose agent in yellow passion fruit.

  4. Cymbopogon citratus and Cymbopogon giganteus essential oils have cytotoxic effects on tumor cell cultures. Identification of citral as a new putative anti-proliferative molecule.

    PubMed

    Bayala, Bagora; Bassole, Imaël H N; Maqdasy, Salwan; Baron, Silvère; Simpore, Jacques; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A

    2018-03-06

    Cymbopogon species are used as traditional remedies in Burkina Faso for treating several diseases. We aimed to study the effects of their essential oils on cancer cell lines. For that purpose, Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. and Cymbopogon giganteus Chiov. were studied for their essential oils after various chemical extractions. Antioxidant, potential anti-inflammatory action (inhibition of lipoxygenase) and cytotoxic activities were also tested on various prostate cancer and glioblastoma cell lines. Thirty-three compounds were identified in the essential oil of C. giganteus: Limonene (19.33%), Mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol cis (17.34%), Mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol trans (13.95%), trans-Mentha-2,8-diene-para-ol 1 (13.91%) and Mentha-2,8-diene-1-ol, cis-para (8.10%) were the most abundant. C. citratus essential oil contained 15 compounds and the major ones were geranial/citral A (48.18%) and neral/citral B (34.37%). Essential oil of C. citratus showed the highest ability to scavenge DPPH + radicals (approximately 68% at 8 mg/mL) while C. giganteus exhibited the highest capability to reduce ABTS + (0.59μmolET/g). The essential oil of C. citratus was the most effective on prostate cell lines LNCaP (IC 50  = 6.36 μg/ml) and PC-3 (IC 50  = 32.1 μg/ml), and on glioblastoma cell lines (SF-767 (IC 50  = 45.13 μg/ml) and SF-763 (IC 50  = 172.05 μg/ml). Interestingly, the activity of essential oil of C. citratus was statistically equal to that of its major component, citral. Combination of both oils showed antagonist, additive, indifferent and synergistic effects on LNCaP, PC-3, SF-767 and SF-763 cell lines, respectively. In conclusion, plants from the traditional medicine in Burkina Faso could be of interest for identifying new compounds, such as citral, for the treatment of prostate cancer and glioblastoma. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  5. Combination of Cymbopogon citratus and Allium cepa essential oils increased antibacterial activity in leafy vegetables.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Ramirez, Luis A; Silva-Espinoza, Brenda A; Vargas-Arispuro, Irasema; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Cruz-Valenzuela, M Reynaldo; Nazzaro, Filomena; Ayala-Zavala, J Fernando

    2017-05-01

    Cymbopogon citratus and Allium cepa essential oils (EOs) are rich in terpenes and sulfur compounds respectively, both with antibacterial activity and different cell targets, supporting the idea that their combination can increase their efficacy. Major constituents of C. citratus were geranial and neral, while A. cepa presented dipropyl disulfide and dipropyl trisulfide. Cymbopogon citratus and A. cepa EOs inhibited the in vitro growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (minimal inhibitory concentrations of 2.21 and 5.13 g L -1 respectively), Salmonella Choleraesuis (3.04 and 1.28 g L -1 ), Listeria monocytogenes (1.33 and 2.56 g L -1 ) and Staphylococcus aureus (0.44 and 5.26 g L -1 ). Application of the EO combination to spinach caused a greater reduction in E. coli (2.34 log colony-forming units (CFU) g -1 ), S. Choleraesuis (2.94 log CFU g -1 ), L. monocytogenes (2.06 log CFU g -1 ) and S. aureus (1.37 log CFU g -1 ) compared with higher doses of individual EOs; a similar effect was observed for romaine lettuce. Individual and combined EOs caused a reduction in flavor acceptability level; however, no significant differences were found among odor acceptability of control vegetables and those treated with the EO combination and C. citratus EO. Leafy vegetables treated with the EO combination showed higher antibacterial protection and odor acceptability compared with individual EO treatments. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Use of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil in food preservation: Recent advances and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ekpenyong, Christopher E; Akpan, Ernest E

    2017-08-13

    The economic burdens and health implications of food spoilage are increasing. Contamination of food sources by fungi, bacteria, yeast, nematodes, insects, and rodents remains a major public health concern. Research has focused on developing safer natural products and innovations to meet consumers' acceptance as alternatives to synthetic food preservatives. Many recent novel preservative techniques and applications of both natural and synthetic origin continue to proliferate in food and chemical industries. In particular, some essential oils of plant origin are potent food preservatives and are thus attractive alternatives to synthetic preservatives. This paper provides an overview of recent advances and future prospects in assessing the efficacy of the use of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) essential oil in food preservation. The possible mechanisms of action and toxicological profile as well as evidence for or against the use of this essential oil as an alternative to synthetic food preservatives in domestic and industrial applications are discussed.

  7. In Vitro Mass Propagation of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf., a Medicinal Gramineae.

    PubMed

    Quiala, Elisa; Barbón, Raúl; Capote, Alina; Pérez, Naivy; Jiménez, Elio

    2016-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf. is a medicinal plant source of lemon grass oils with multiple uses in the pharmaceutical and food industry. Conventional propagation in semisolid culture medium has become a fast tool for mass propagation of lemon grass, but the production cost must be lower. A solution could be the application of in vitro propagation methods based on liquid culture advantages and automation. This chapter provides two efficient protocols for in vitro propagation via organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis of this medicinal plant. Firstly, we report the production of shoots using a temporary immersion system (TIS). Secondly, a protocol for somatic embryogenesis using semisolid culture for callus formation and multiplication, and liquid culture in a rotatory shaker and conventional bioreactors for the maintenance of embryogenic culture, is described. Well-developed plants can be achieved from both protocols. Here we provide a fast and efficient technology for mass propagation of this medicinal plant taking the advantage of liquid culture and automation.

  8. Phytostabilisation potential of lemon grass (Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees ex Stend) Wats) on iron ore tailings.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, M; Dhal, N K; Patra, P; Das, B; Reddy, P S R

    2012-01-01

    The present pot culture study was carried out for the potential phytostabilisation of iron ore tailings using lemon grass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) a drought tolerant, perennial, aromatic grass. Experiments have been conducted by varying the composition of garden soil (control) with iron ore tailings. The various parameters, viz. growth of plants, number of tillers, biomass and oil content of lemon grass are evaluated. The studies have indicated that growth parameters of lemon grass in 1:1 composition of garden soil and iron ore tailings are significantly more (-5% increase) compared to plants grown in control soil. However, the oil content of lemon grass in both the cases more or less remained same. The results also infer that at higher proportion of tailings the yield of biomass decreases. The studies indicate that lemongrass with its fibrous root system is proved to be an efficient soil binder by preventing soil erosion.

  9. [Alcoholic extract of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) on the control of Boophilus microplus in cattle].

    PubMed

    Heimerdinger, Arli; Olivo, Clair J; Molento, Marcelo B; Agnolin, Carlos A; Ziech, Magnos F; Scaravelli, Luciene Fernanda B; Skonieski, Fernando R; Both, José F; Charão, Pablo S

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) alcoholic extracts on the control of Boophilus microplus in naturally infested Holstein cows. Twelve animals were allocated in three groups of four animals. Group 1 was treated with amitraz at 0.025%, Group 2 was treated with lemongrass extracts at 1.36% and Group 3 with the same product at 2.72% of the plant. Engorged ticks were evaluated on animals with length superior to 4.0 mm, before (mean of days -3, -2, -1) and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 14 days after treatment. The mean efficacy of amitraz was 97.93%. Lemongrass extract at 2.72% reduced tick infestation by 40.3, 46.6 and 41.5% on day 3, 7 and 14 post-treatment, respectively.

  10. Extraction of citral oil from lemongrass (Cymbopogon Citratus) by steam-water distillation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, P. N.; Husin, H.; Asnawi, T. M.; Adisalamun

    2018-04-01

    In Indonesia, production of citral oil from lemon grass (Cymbopogon Cytratus) is done by a traditional technique whereby a low yield results. To improve the yield, an appropriate extraction technology is required. In this research, a steam-water distillation technique was applied to extract the essential oil from the lemongrass. The effects of sample particle size and bed volume on yield and quality of citral oil produced were investigated. The drying and refining time of 2 hours were used as fixed variables. This research results that minimum citral oil yield of 0.53% was obtained on sample particle size of 3 cm and bed volume of 80%, whereas the maximum yield of 1.95% on sample particle size of 15 cm and bed volume of 40%. The lowest specific gravity of 0.80 and the highest specific gravity of 0.905 were obtained on sample particle size of 8 cm with bed volume of 80% and particle size of 12 cm with bed volume of 70%, respectively. The lowest refractive index of 1.480 and the highest refractive index of 1.495 were obtained on sample particle size of 8 cm with bed volume of 70% and sample particle size of 15 cm with bed volume of 40%, respectively. The solubility of the produced citral oil in alcohol was 70% in ratio of 1:1, and the citral oil concentration obtained was around 79%.

  11. Essential oil from Cymbopogon flexuosus as the potential inhibitor for HSP90.

    PubMed

    Gaonkar, Roopa; Shiralgi, Yallappa; Lakkappa, Dhananjaya B; Hegde, Gurumurthy

    2018-01-01

    The essential oil of Cymbopogon flexuosus or lemongrass oil (LO) is reported to have antibacterial, antifungal and anticancerous effects. HSP90 is one of the major chaperones responsible for the proper folding of cancer proteins. In this paper we show that the essential oil of C. flexuosus significantly suppresses the HSP90 gene expression. The cytotoxicity of the compounds was tested by MTT assay and the gene expression studies were carried out using HEK-293 and MCF-7 cells. Also we tested the efficacy of the major component of this essential oil viz. citral and geraniol in inhibiting the HSP90 expression. The oil was found to be more cytotoxic to MCF-7 cells with different IC 50 values for the oil (69.33 μg/mL), citral (140.7 μg/mL) and geraniol (117 μg/mL). The fold change of expression was calculated by RT-qPCR using ΔΔCt (2 ^-ΔΔCt ) method and it was 0.1 and 0.03 in MCF-7 cells at 80 μg/mL and 160 μg/mL of LO. Western blot results showed suppression of HSP90 protein expression and HSP90 - ATPase activity inhibition was also observed using LO. This study shows the anticancer mechanism exhibited by the essential oil of C. flexuosus is by the inhibition of the important chaperone protein HSP90.

  12. Activation of intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in cancer cells by Cymbopogon citratus polysaccharide fractions.

    PubMed

    Thangam, Ramar; Sathuvan, Malairaj; Poongodi, Arasu; Suresh, Veeraperumal; Pazhanichamy, Kalailingam; Sivasubramanian, Srinivasan; Kanipandian, Nagarajan; Ganesan, Nalini; Rengasamy, Ramasamy; Thirumurugan, Ramasamy; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2014-07-17

    Essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus were already reported to have wide ranging medical and industrial applications. However, information on polysaccharides from the plant and their anticancer activities are limited. In the present study, polysaccharides from C. citratus were extracted and fractionated by anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Two different polysaccharide fractions such as F1 and F2 were obtained, and these fractions were found to have distinct acidic polysaccharides as characterized by their molecular weight and sugar content. NMR spectral analysis revealed the presence of (1→4) linked b-d-Xylofuranose moiety in these polysaccharides. Using these polysaccharide fractions F1 and F2, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities were evaluated against cancer cells in vitro and the mechanism of action of the polysaccharides in inducing apoptosis in cancer cells via intrinsic pathway was also proposed. Two different reproductive cancer cells such as Siha and LNCap were employed for in vitro studies on cytotoxicity, induction of apoptosis and apoptotic DNA fragmentation, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, and profiles of gene and protein expression in response to treatment of cells by the polysaccharide fractions. These polysaccharide fractions exhibited potential cytotoxic and apoptotic effects on carcinoma cells, and they induced apoptosis in these cells through the events of up-regulation of caspase 3, down-regulation of bcl-2 family genes followed by cytochrome c release. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Cymbopogon citratus and Citral on Vascular Smooth Muscle of the Isolated Thoracic Rat Aorta.

    PubMed

    Devi, R Chitra; Sim, S M; Ismail, R

    2012-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus has been shown to have antioxidant, antimicrobial, antispasmodic and chemo-protective properties. Citral, is the major constituent of C. citratus. This study investigated the effects of methanolic extracts of leaves (LE), stems (SE), and roots (RE) of C. citratus and citral on vascular smooth muscle and explored their possible mechanisms of action. The experiment was conducted using isolated tissue preparations, where citral, LE, SE, and RE were added separately into a tissue bath that contained aortic rings, which were pre-contracted with phenylephrine (PE). Citral, LE, and RE exhibited a dose-dependent relaxant effect on the PE-induced contractions. Citral appeared to partially act via NO as its vasorelaxant effect was attenuated by L-NAME. However, the effect of LE may involve prostacyclin as indomethacin reversed the relaxant effect of LE on the PE-induced contraction. Furthermore, citral, LE, and RE abolished the restoration of PE-induced contraction caused by the addition of increasing doses of calcium in both endothelium intact and denuded rings. These findings suggest that the relaxation effect of citral, LE, and RE is endothelium-independent and may be mainly by affecting the intracellular concentration of calcium. Citral may partially act through the NO pathway while a vasodilator prostaglandin may mediate the effect of LE.

  14. Antifungal activity of Cymbopogon winterianus jowitt ex bor against Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Wylly Araújo; de Oliveira Pereira, Fillipe; de Luna, Giliara Carol Diniz Gomes; Lima, Igara Oliveira; Wanderley, Paulo Alves; de Lima, Rita Baltazar; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes

    2011-01-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic yeast and a member of the normal human flora that commonly causes infections in patients with any type of deficiency of the immune system. The essential oils have been tested for antimycotic activity and pose much potential as antifungal agents. This work investigated the activity of the essential oil of Cymbopogon winterianus against C. albicans by MIC, MFC and time-kill methods. The essential oil (EO) was obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. It was tested fifteen strains of C. albicans. The MIC was determined by the microdilution method and the MFC was determined when an aliquot of the broth microdilution was cultivated in SDA medium. The phytochemical analysis of EO showed presence of citronellal (23,59%), geraniol (18,81%) and citronellol (11,74%). The EO showed antifungal activity, and the concentrations 625 µg/mL and 1250 µg/mL inhibited the growth of all strains tested and it was fungicidal, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of various concentrations of EO was analyzed over time, it was found concentration-dependent antifungal activity, whose behavior was similar to amphotericin B and nystatin. PMID:24031651

  15. Pyrolysis and kinetic analyses of Camel grass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) for bioenergy.

    PubMed

    Mehmood, Muhammad Aamer; Ye, Guangbin; Luo, Huibo; Liu, Chenguang; Malik, Sana; Afzal, Ifrah; Xu, Jianren; Ahmad, Muhammad Sajjad

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was to study the thermal degradation of grass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) under an inert environment at three heating rates, including 10, 30, and 50°Cmin -1 in order to evaluate its bioenergy potential. Pyrolysis experiments were performed in a simultaneous Thermogravimetry-Differential Scanning Calorimetry analyzer. Thermal data were used to analyze kinetic parameters through isoconversional models of Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) and Kissenger-Akahira-Sunose (KSA) methods. The pre-exponential factors values have shown the reaction to follow first order kinetics. Activation energy values were shown to be 84-193 and 96-192kJmol -1 as calculated by KSA and FWO methods, respectively. Differences between activation energy and enthalpy of reaction values (∼5 to 6kJmol -1 ) showed product formation is favorable. The Gibb's free energy (173-177kJmol -1 ) and High Heating Value (15.00MJkg -1 ) have shown the considerable bioenergy potential of this low-cost biomass. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil from Cuba and Brazil against housefly.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Zeneida Teixeira; Sánchez, Félix Fernández; dos Santos, Arith Ramos; Amaral, Ana Claudia Fernandes; Ferreira, José Luiz Pinto; Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus collected from Brazil and Cuba was tested to a chemical characterization and then was tested on the post-embryonic development of Musca domestica. The chemical composition analysis by GC-MS of the oils from Brazil/Cuba allowed the identification of 13 and 12 major constituents respectively; nine of them common to both. In the both oils, the main components were the isomers geranial and neral, which together form the compound citral. This corresponds to a total of 97.92%/Brazil and 97.69%/Cuba of the compounds identified. The monoterpene myrcene, observed only in the sample of Cuba, presented a large relative abundance (6.52%). The essential oil of C. citratus (Brazil/Cuba) was dissolved in DMSO and tested at concentrations of 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% and citral was prepared by mixing 16.8 mg with 960 µL DMSO. Both essential oils and monoterpene citral were applied topically to newly-hatched larvae (1µL/larva). The results showed a lethal concentration (LC50) of 4.25 and 3.24% for the Brazilian and Cuban essential oils, respectively. Mortalities of larval and newly-hatched larvae to adult periods were dose-dependent for the two both oils as for monoterpene citral, reaching 90%. Both essential oils and citral caused morphological changes in adult specimens.

  17. Essential Oil of Cymbopogon citratus on the Control of the Curvularia Leaf Spot Disease on Maize.

    PubMed

    Mourão, Dalmarcia de Sousa Carlos; Ferreira de Souza Pereira, Talita; Souza, Danival José de; Chagas Júnior, Aloísio Freitas; Dalcin, Mateus Sunti; Veloso, Ronice Alves; Leão, Evelynne Urzêdo; Santos, Gil Rodrigues Dos

    2017-08-20

    The Curvularia Leaf Spot is becoming more common due to the culture expansion and the low resistance of the cultivated genotypes in tropical regions. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the fungitoxicity of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus upon the phytopathogen Curvularia lunata , causative agent of the Curvularia Leaf Spot. There was realized pathogenicity tests of C. lunata in maize plants, phytotoxicity of the essential oil of C. citratus and gas chromatography attached, germination tests of the conidia, and of in vitro inhibition of C. lunata . Also, there were realized tests aiming at verifying the phytopathogen control in vivo. In the pathogenicity tests, there were verified symptoms of the disease in all of the suspensions tested on plants. It was observed that the essential oil concentrations of 7.5 µL mL -1 to 50 µL mL -1 were phytotoxic. The majoritarian chemical components of the essential oil of C. citratus were Geranial (41.46%) and Neral (32.43%). The concentrations of 5 and 7.5 µL mL -1 inhibited 100% of conidia germination. None of the concentrations evaluated effectively inhibited C. lunata mycelial growth in in vitro tests. In the preventive control, the concentration of 7.5 µL mL -1 was sufficient for the reduction of the progress of the disease, however the curative control was not efficient on the tested dosages.

  18. Ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and biological activities of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf extracts.

    PubMed

    Ekpenyong, Christopher E; Akpan, Ernest; Nyoh, Azah

    2015-05-01

    Cymbopogon citratus is a widely distributed perennial herb belonging to the Poaceae family and has been extensively consumed for its medicinal, cosmetic, and nutritional effects for centuries. A large number of reports have been published describing the pharmacological, biological, and therapeutic actions of this herb. In this review, we summarized the literatures on related studies (up to January, 2014) that highlighted the pharmacologic and biological effects of the major phytochemicals isolated from C. citratus extracts and its essential oil. The components of the essential oils found in C. citratus have a similar pharmacokinetic properties, including absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. They are quickly absorbed following oral, pulmonary, and dermal administration. Based on the published reports, it can also be inferred that, after absorption from the small intestine, some phytochemicals in C. citratus can undergo oxidation, glucuronidation, sulfation, and/or O-methylation. Excretion is through urine, feces and/or expired volatiles. The biotransformation reactions of C. citratus bioactive constituents are essential for its relatively safe consumption and therapeutic applications. The data available so far warrant further studies evaluating C. citratus pharmacokinetics. Reliable pharmacokinetic data in humans would be critical for a better understanding of the the systemic handling of C. citratus. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Essential Oil of Cymbopogon citratus on the Control of the Curvularia Leaf Spot Disease on Maize

    PubMed Central

    Mourão, Dalmarcia de Sousa Carlos; Ferreira de Souza Pereira, Talita; de Souza, Danival José; Chagas Júnior, Aloísio Freitas; Veloso, Ronice Alves; Leão, Evelynne Urzêdo

    2017-01-01

    The Curvularia Leaf Spot is becoming more common due to the culture expansion and the low resistance of the cultivated genotypes in tropical regions. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the fungitoxicity of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus upon the phytopathogen Curvularia lunata, causative agent of the Curvularia Leaf Spot. There was realized pathogenicity tests of C. lunata in maize plants, phytotoxicity of the essential oil of C. citratus and gas chromatography attached, germination tests of the conidia, and of in vitro inhibition of C. lunata. Also, there were realized tests aiming at verifying the phytopathogen control in vivo. In the pathogenicity tests, there were verified symptoms of the disease in all of the suspensions tested on plants. It was observed that the essential oil concentrations of 7.5 µL mL−1 to 50 µL mL−1 were phytotoxic. The majoritarian chemical components of the essential oil of C. citratus were Geranial (41.46%) and Neral (32.43%). The concentrations of 5 and 7.5 µL mL−1 inhibited 100% of conidia germination. None of the concentrations evaluated effectively inhibited C. lunata mycelial growth in in vitro tests. In the preventive control, the concentration of 7.5 µL mL−1 was sufficient for the reduction of the progress of the disease, however the curative control was not efficient on the tested dosages. PMID:28930276

  20. Optimized extraction of polysaccharides from Cymbopogon citratus and its biological activities.

    PubMed

    Thangam, Ramar; Suresh, Veeraperumal; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2014-04-01

    In this study the extraction of hot water soluble polysaccharides (HWSPs) from Cymbopogon citratus using hot water decoction was discussed. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a three level, three variable central composite rotatable design (CCRD), was employed to obtain best possible combination of extraction time (X1: 30-180 min), extraction temperature (X2: 70-100 °C) and water to the raw material ratio (X3: 10-60) for maximum HWSPs extraction. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: extraction time was around 113.81 min, extraction temperature at 99.66 °C and the ratio of water to raw material was 33.11 g/mL. Under these conditions, the experimental yield was 13.24±0.23%, which is well in close agreement with the value predicted by RSM model yield (13.19%). The basic characterization of HWSPs was determined by using the FTIR. These preliminary in vitro biological studies indicated that lemongrass polysaccharides were useful for anticancer therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Free radical scavengers and antioxidants from Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.).

    PubMed

    Cheel, José; Theoduloz, Cristina; Rodríguez, Jaime; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2005-04-06

    Methanol, MeOH/water extracts, infusion, and decoction of Cymbopogon citratus were assessed for free radical scavenging effects measured by the bleaching of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, scavenging of the superoxide anion, and inhibition of the enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO) and lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes. The extracts presented effect in the DPPH and superoxide anion assay, with values ranging between 40 and 68% and 15-32% at 33 and 50 microg/mL, respectively, inhibited lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes by 19-71% at 500 microg/mL and were inactive toward the XO at 50 microg/mL. Isoorientin, isoscoparin, swertiajaponin, isoorientin 2' '-O-rhamnoside, orientin, chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid were isolated and identified by spectroscopic methods. Isoorientin and orientin presented similar activities toward the DPPH (IC(50): 9-10 microM) and inhibited lipid peroxidation by 70% at 100 microg/mL. Caffeic and chlorogenic acid were active superoxide anion scavengers with IC(50) values of 68.8 and 54.2 microM, respectively, and a strong effect toward DPPH. Caffeic acid inhibited lipid peroxidation by 85% at 100 microg/mL.

  2. Protective Effect of Cymbopogon citratus Essential Oil in Experimental Model of Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Nancy Sayuri; Silva-Filho, Saulo Euclides; Aguiar, Rafael Pazinatto; Wiirzler, Luiz Alexandre Marques; Cardia, Gabriel Fernando Esteves; Cavalcante, Heitor Augusto Otaviano; Silva-Comar, Francielli Maria de Souza; Becker, Tânia Cristina Alexandrino; Silva, Expedito Leite; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the hepatoprotective effect of Cymbopogon citratus or lemongrass essential oil (LGO), it was used in an animal model of acute liver injury induced by acetaminophen (APAP). Swiss mice were pretreated with LGO (125, 250 and 500[Formula: see text]mg/kg) and SLM (standard drug, 200[Formula: see text]mg/kg) for a duration of seven days, followed by the induction of hepatotoxicity of APAP (single dose, 250[Formula: see text]mg/kg). The liver function markers alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyl transferase were determined to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of the LGO. The livers were used to determine myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, nitric oxide (NO) production and histological analysis. The effect of LGO on leukocyte migration was evaluated in vitro. Anti-oxidant activity was performed by assessing the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in vitro. LGO pretreatment decreased significantly the levels of ALT, AST and ALP compared with APAP group. MPO activity and NO production were decreased. The histopathological analysis showed an improved of hepatic lesions in mice after LGO pretreatment. LGO inhibited neutrophil migration and exhibited anti-oxidant activity. Our results suggest that LGO has protective activity against liver toxicity induced by paracetamol.

  3. Isolation of Bioactive Compounds That Relate to the Anti-Platelet Activity of Cymbopogon ambiguus

    PubMed Central

    Grice, I. Darren; Rogers, Kelly L.; Griffiths, Lyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Infusions and decoctions of Cymbopogon ambiguus have been used traditionally in Australia for the treatment of headache, chest infections and muscle cramps. The aim of the present study was to screen and identify bioactive compounds from C. ambiguus that could explain this plant's anti-headache activity. A dichloromethane extract of C. ambiguus was identified as having activity in adenosine-diphosphate-induced human platelet aggregation and serotonin-release inhibition bioassays. Subsequent fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of four phenylpropenoids, eugenol, elemicin, eugenol methylether and trans-isoelemicin. While both eugenol and elemicin exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of ADP-induced human platelet serotonin release, only eugenol displayed potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 46.6 μM, in comparison to aspirin, with an IC50 value of 46.1 μM. These findings provide evidence to support the therapeutic efficacy of C. ambiguus in the non-conventional treatment of headache and inflammatory conditions. PMID:20047890

  4. Attraction behaviour of Anagrus nilaparvatae to remote lemongrass (Cymbopogon distans) oil and its volatile compounds.

    PubMed

    Mao, Guo-Feng; Mo, Xiao-Chang; Fouad, Hatem; Abbas, Ghulam; Mo, Jian-Chu

    2018-03-01

    Utilisation of Anagrus nilaparvatae is a promising and effective method for planthoppers manipulation. Twenty-seven components of remote lemongrass (Cymbopogon distans) oil were identified by GC/MS and nine volatiles were selected for behavioural experiments. In this study, we noted that the remote lemongrass oil was attractive to female A. nilaparvatae at concentrations of 0.1 and 1 mg/L. α-Pinene, β-pinene, eucalyptol, carveol and D-carvone attracted female wasps in the dose-dependent bioassays. Blend 1 (a mixture of eucalyptol, D-carvone, carveol, α-pinene, and β-pinene with ratios of remote lemongrass oil volatiles of 625:80:11:5:3) attracted female wasps at 10 mg/L, while blend 2 (a mixture of the same five volatiles at the same loading ratio) attracted them at 0.1 and 1 mg/L. These results suggested that plant essential oils could be attractants for natural enemies to control pests. The ratios of volatiles in the mixtures affect the attractiveness of the synthetic mixtures.

  5. Gastroprotective effect of Cymbopogon citratus infusion on acute ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats.

    PubMed

    Sagradas, Joana; Costa, Gustavo; Figueirinha, Artur; Castel-Branco, Maria Margarida; Silvério Cabrita, António Manuel; Figueiredo, Isabel Vitória; Batista, Maria Teresa

    2015-09-15

    Treatment of gastric ulcers with medicinal plants is quite common in traditional medicine worldwide. Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. leaves infusion has been used in folk medicine of many tropical and subtropical regions to treat gastric disturbances. The aim of this study was to assess the potential gastroprotective activity of an essential oil-free infusion from C. citratus leaves in acute gastric lesions induced by ethanol in rat. The study was performed on adult male Wistar rats (234.0±22.7g) fasted for 24h but with free access to water. The extract was given orally before (prevention) or after (treatment) intragastric administration of absolute ethanol. Effects of dose (28 or 56mg/kg of body weight) and time of contact of the extract with gastric mucosa (1 or 2h) were also assessed. Animals were sacrificed, being the stomachs removed and the lesions were assessed by macroscopic observation and histopathology. C. citratus extract, given orally before or after ethanol, significantly (P<0.01) reduced gastric mucosal injury compared with control group (vehicle+ethanol). The effect does not appear to be dose-dependent. Results also suggested that the extract is more effective when the time of contact with gastric mucosa increases. The results of this assay confirm the gastroprotective activity of C. citratus extract on experimental gastric lesions induced by ethanol, contributing for the pharmacological validation of its traditional use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus and Azadirachta indica against house dust mites.

    PubMed

    Hanifah, Azima Laili; Awang, Siti Hazar; Ming, Ho Tze; Abidin, Suhaili Zainal; Omar, Maizatul Hashima

    2011-10-01

    To examine the acaricidal effects of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus leaf extract (lemongrass) and ethanolic Azadirachta indica leaf extract (neem) against house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus). Twenty-five adults mites were placed onto treated filter paper that is soaked with plant extract and been tested at different concentrations (50.00%, 25.00%, 12.50%, 6.25% and 3.13%) and exposure times (24hrs, 48hrs, 72hrs and 96 hrs). All treatments were replicated 7 times, and the experiment repeated once. The topical and contact activities of the two herbs were investigated. Mortalities from lemongrass extract were higher than neem for both topical and contact activities. At 50 % concentration, both 24 hrs topical and contact exposures to lemongrass resulted in more than 91% mortalities for both species of mites. At the same concentration and exposure time, neem resulted in topical mortalities of 40.3% and 15.7% against D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae respectively; contact mortalities were 8.0% and 8.9% against the 2 mites, respectively. There was no difference in topical mortalities of D. pteronyssinus from exposure to concentrations of lemongrass and neem up to 12.50%; lemongrass was more effective than neem at the higher concentrations. Generally, topical mortalities of D. farinae due to lemongrass are higher than that due to neem. Contact mortalities of lemongrass are always higher that neem against both species of mites.

  7. Cymbopogon citratus industrial waste as a potential source of bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Filipa; Costa, Gustavo; Francisco, Vera; Liberal, Joana; Figueirinha, Artur; Lopes, Maria Celeste; Cruz, Maria Teresa; Batista, Maria Teresa

    2015-10-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (Cc), commonly known as lemongrass, is a very important crop worldwide, being grown in tropical countries. It is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and perfumery industries for its essential oil. Cc aqueous extracts are also used in traditional medicine. They contain high levels of polyphenols, which are known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Hydrodistillation of lemongrass essential oil produces an aqueous waste (CcHD) which is discarded. Therefore a comparative study between CcHD and Cc infusion (CcI) was performed to characterize its phytochemical profile and to research its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential. HPLC-PDA/ESI-MS(n) analysis showed that CcI and CcHD have similar phenolic profiles, with CcHD presenting a higher amount of polyphenols. Additionally, both CcI and CcHD showed antioxidant activity against DPPH (EC50 of 41.72 ± 0.05 and 42.29 ± 0.05 µg mL(-1) respectively) and strong anti-inflammatory properties, by reducing NO production and iNOS expression in macrophages and through their NO-scavenging activity, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, no cytotoxicity was observed. The data of this study encourage considering the aqueous solution from Cc leaf hydrodistillation as a source of bioactive compounds, which may add great industrial value to this crop. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus and Azadirachta indica against house dust mites

    PubMed Central

    Hanifah, Azima Laili; Awang, Siti Hazar; Ming, Ho Tze; Abidin, Suhaili Zainal; Omar, Maizatul Hashima

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the acaricidal effects of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus leaf extract (lemongrass) and ethanolic Azadirachta indica leaf extract (neem) against house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus). Methods Twenty-five adults mites were placed onto treated filter paper that is soaked with plant extract and been tested at different concentrations (50.00%, 25.00%, 12.50%, 6.25% and 3.13%) and exposure times (24hrs, 48hrs, 72hrs and 96 hrs). All treatments were replicated 7 times, and the experiment repeated once. The topical and contact activities of the two herbs were investigated. Results Mortalities from lemongrass extract were higher than neem for both topical and contact activities. At 50 % concentration, both 24 hrs topical and contact exposures to lemongrass resulted in more than 91% mortalities for both species of mites. At the same concentration and exposure time, neem resulted in topical mortalities of 40.3% and 15.7% against D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae respectively; contact mortalities were 8.0% and 8.9% against the 2 mites, respectively. There was no difference in topical mortalities of D. pteronyssinus from exposure to concentrations of lemongrass and neem up to 12.50%; lemongrass was more effective than neem at the higher concentrations. Conclusions Generally, topical mortalities of D. farinae due to lemongrass are higher than that due to neem. Contact mortalities of lemongrass are always higher that neem against both species of mites. PMID:23569794

  9. Evidence for the Involvement of Monoaminergic Pathways in the Antidepressant-Like Activity of Cymbopogon citratus in Mice.

    PubMed

    Umukoro, Solomon; Ogboh, Somtochukwu I; Omorogbe, Osarume; Adekeye, Abdul-Lateef A; Olatunde, Matthew O

    2017-07-01

    Objectives Depression is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder, which affects the quality of life of the sufferers and treatment approach is associated with serious adverse effects and sometimes therapeutic failures. Cymbopogon citratus leaf (CC) has been reported to exert anti-depressant effect but its mechanism of action is yet to be elucidated hence, the need for this study. Methods The anti-depressant-like effect of Cymbopogon citratus aqueous leaf was evaluated using forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and yohimbine-induced lethality test (YLT) in aggregated mice. Interaction studies involving p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA), an inhibitor of serotonin biosynthesis and yohimbine, α 2 -adrenergic receptor antagonist were carried out to evaluate the role of monoaminergic system in the anti-depressant-like effect of CC. The effect of CC on spontaneous motor activity (SMA) was also assessed using activity cage. Results Cymbopogon citratus (25 and 50 mg/kg, p.o.) demonstrated antidepressant-like activity devoid of significant stimulation of the SMA in mice. However, the antidepressant-like property of CC was significantly (p<0.05) attenuated by pretreatment with yohimbine suggesting involvement of noradrenergic pathway in the action of the extract. Also, pCPA reversed the anti-immobility effect of CC, indicating the role of serotonergic system in the mediation of its antidepressant activity. Moreover, CC (25 and 50 mg/kg) potentiated the lethal effect of yohimbine in aggregated mice, which further suggest the involvement of monoaminergic systems in its action. Conclusions The results of the study showed that C. citratus might be interacting with serotonergic and noradrenergic pathways to mediate its anti-depressant-like effect in mice. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Cymbopogon citratus essential oil: effect on polymicrobial caries-related biofilm with low cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria Alcionéia Carvalho de; Borges, Aline Chiodi; Brighenti, Fernanda Lourenção; Salvador, Marcos José; Gontijo, Aline Vidal Lacerda; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi

    2017-11-06

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil and its main compound (citral) against primary dental colonizers and caries-related species. Chemical characterization of the essential oil was performed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS), and the main compound was determined. Antimicrobial activity was tested against Actinomyces naeslundii, Lactobacillus acidophilus, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. sanguinis and S. sobrinus. Minimum inhibitory and bactericide concentrations were determined by broth microdilution assay for streptococci and lactobacilli reference, and for clinical strains. The effect of the essential oil on bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation/disruption was investigated. Negative (without treatment) and positive controls (chlorhexidine) were used. The effect of citral on preformed biofilm was also tested using the same methodology. Monospecies and microcosm biofilms were tested. ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used (α=0.05). Cytotoxicity of the essential oil to human keratinocytes was performed by MTT assay. GC/MS demonstrated one major component (citral). The essential oil showed an inhibitory effect on all tested bacterial species, including S. mutans and L. acidophilus. Essential oil of C. citratus (10X MIC) reduced the number of viable cells of lactobacilli and streptococci biofilms (p < 0.05). The essential oil inhibited adhesion of caries-related polymicrobial biofilm to dental enamel (p < 0.01). Citral significantly reduced the number of viable cells of streptococci biofilm (p < 0.001). The essential oil showed low cytotoxicity to human keratinocytes. Based on these findings, this study can contribute to the development of new formulations for products like mouthwash, against dental biofilms.

  11. Spasmolytic effect of citral and extracts of Cymbopogon citratus on isolated rabbit ileum.

    PubMed

    Devi, Ramachandran Chitra; Sim, Si Mui; Ismail, Rosnah

    2011-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus, commonly known as lemongrass, has been shown to have antioxidant, antimicrobial and chemo-protective properties. Citral, a monoterpenoid, is the major constituent of C. citratus that gives off a lemony scent and is postulated to be responsible for most of its actions. In addition, C. citratus has been traditionally used to treat gastrointestinal discomforts, however, the scientific evidence for this is still lacking. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the extracts of various parts of C. citratus (leaves, stems and roots) and citral on the visceral smooth muscle activity of rabbit ileum. The effect of the test substances were tested on the spontaneous contraction, acetylcholine (ACh)- and KCl-induced contractions. Citral at doses between 0.061 mM to 15.6 mM and the extract of leaves at doses between 0.001 mg/mL to 1 mg/mL significantly reduced the spontaneous, ACh- and KCl-induced ileal contractions. When the ileum was incubated in K(+)-rich-Ca(2+)-free Tyrode's solution, it showed only minute contractions. However, the strength of contraction was increased with the addition of increasing concentrations of CaCl(2). The presence of citral almost abolished the effect of adding CaCl(2), while the leaf extract shifted the calcium concentration-response curve to the right, suggesting a calcium antagonistic effect. These results were similar to that elicited by verapamil, a known calcium channel blocker. In addition, the spasmolytic effect of citral was observed to be reduced by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-NAME. In conclusion, citral and the leaf extract of C. citratus exhibited spasmolytic activity and it appeared that they may act as calcium antagonists. Furthermore, the relaxant effect of citral, but not that of the leaf extract may be mediated by nitric oxide suggesting the presence of other chemical components in the leaf extract other than citral.

  12. Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil as a potent anti-inflammatory and antifungal drugs.

    PubMed

    Boukhatem, Mohamed Nadjib; Ferhat, Mohamed Amine; Kameli, Abdelkrim; Saidi, Fairouz; Kebir, Hadjer Tchoketch

    2014-01-01

    Volatile oils obtained from lemon grass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf, Poaceae family] are used in traditional medicine as remedies for the treatment of various diseases. In the present study, lemon grass essential oil (LGEO) was evaluated for its in vivo topical and oral anti-inflammatory effects, and for its in vitro antifungal activity using both liquid and vapor phases. The chemical profile of LGEO as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed two major components: geranial (42.2%), and neral (31.5%). The antifungal activity of LGEO was evaluated against several pathogenic yeasts and filamentous fungi using disc diffusion and vapor diffusion methods. LGEO exhibited promising antifungal effect against Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, and Aspergillus niger, with different inhibition zone diameters (IZDs) (35-90 mm). IZD increased with increasing oil volume. Significantly, higher anti-Candida activity was observed in the vapor phase. For the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect, LGEO (10 mg/kg, administered orally) significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema with a similar effect to that observed for oral diclofenac (50 mg/kg), which was used as the positive control. Oral administration of LGEO showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, topical application of LGEO in vivo resulted in a potent anti-inflammatory effect, as demonstrated by using the mouse model of croton oil-induced ear edema. To our knowledge, this is the first such report to be published. The topical application of LGEO at doses of 5 and 10 µL/ear significantly reduced acute ear edema induced by croton oil in 62.5 and 75% of the mice, respectively. In addition, histological analysis clearly confirmed that LGEO inhibits the skin inflammatory response in animal models. RESULTS of the present study indicate that LGEO has a noteworthy potential for the development of drugs for the treatment of fungal infections and skin inflammation that

  13. Antistress Effects of the Ethanolic Extract from Cymbopogon schoenanthus Growing Wild in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Ben Othman, Mahmoud; Han, Junkyu; El Omri, Abdelfatteh; Ksouri, Riadh; Neffati, Mohamed; Isoda, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antistress properties of the ethanol extract of Cymbopogon schoenanthus (CSEE), growing wild in the southern part of Tunisia. The effect of extracts on H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and stress in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Its effect on stress-induced in ICR mice was exposed to force swim and tail suspension, in concordance with heat shock protein expression (HSP27 and HSP90), corticosterone, and catecholamine neurotransmitters level. Our results demonstrated that pretreatment of SH-SY5Y cells with CSEE at 1/2000, 1/1000, and 1/500 v/v dilutions significantly inversed H2O2-induced neurotoxicity. Moreover, CSEE treatments significantly reversed heat shock protein expression in heat-stressed HSP47-transformed cells (42°C, for 90 min) and mRNA expression of HSP27 and HSP90 in H2O2-treated SH-SY5Y. Daily oral administration of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg CSEE was conducted to ICR mice for 2 weeks. It was resulted in a significant decrease of immobility time in forced swimming and tail suspension tests. The effect of CSEE on animal behavior was concordant with a significant regulation of blood serum corticosterone and cerebral cortex levels of catecholamine (dopamine, adrenaline, and noradrenaline). Therefore, this study was attempted to demonstrate the preventive potential of CSEE against stress disorders at in vitro and in vivo levels. PMID:24228063

  14. Antimicrobial constituents and synergism effect of the essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus and Alpinia galanga.

    PubMed

    Tadtong, Sarin; Watthanachaiyingcharoen, Rith; Kamkaen, Narisa

    2014-02-01

    From the fresh leaf sheathes of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) and rhizomes of galanga (Alpinia galanga) light yellow and colorless oils, respectively, were obtained by hydrodistillation and microwave assisted extraction (MAE) in yields of 0.24% and 0.03%, and 0.11% and trace (w/w), respectively. By GC/MS analysis, five major constituents were identified in lemongrass oil, E-citral, Z-citral, beta-myrcene, selina-6-en-4-ol, and cis-ocimene, and five in galanga oil, 1,8-cineole, phenol 4-(2-propenyl)-acetate, dl-limonene, alpha-pinene, and a-terpineol. Three major components of the combined lemongrass and galanga oils (ratio 7:3, 1:1, 3:7) were 1,8-cineole (46.3%, 31.5%, 19.3%), E-citral (12.8%, 22.7%, 32.8%) and Z-citral (8.5%, 15.2%, 21.6%). The MICs of lemongrass and galanga oils were: against Staphylococcus aureus 0.5% and 4%, v/v, against Pseudomonas aeruginosa 40% and >40%,v/v, against Streptococcus bovis 0.25% and 0.5%, v/v, and against Candida albicans 0.25% and 0.5%, v/v. Citral (from lemongrass oil) gave greater potentiation than 1,8-cineole (from galanga oil). The combination profiles of galanga oil with lemongrass oil (volume ratios 3:7, 1:1, and 7:3) were tested against the four pathogenic microorganisms. Synergistic activity was best noted for only one ratio (volume ratio 3:7) as the sigmafic< 1 against all tested microorganisms. The present investigation provides evidenc that the utilization of two essential oils in combination should be assessed for synergistic antimicrobial activity in order to reduce their minimum effective dose.

  15. Manipulation of rumen ecology by dietary lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.) powder supplementation.

    PubMed

    Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A; Pakdee, P; Wanapat, S

    2008-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.] powder (LGP) on rumen ecology, rumen microorganisms, and digestibility of nutrients. Four ruminally fistulated crossbred (Brahman native) beef cattle were randomly assigned according to a 4 x 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were LGP supplementation at 0, 100, 200, and 300 g/d with urea-treated rice straw (5%) fed to allow ad libitum intake. Digestibilities of DM, ether extract, and NDF were significantly different among treatments and were greatest at 100 g/d of supplementation. However, digestibility of CP was decreased with LGP supplementation (P < 0.05), whereas ruminal NH(3)-N and plasma urea N were decreased with incremental additions of LGP (P < 0.05). Ruminal VFA concentrations were similar among supplementation concentrations (P > 0.05). Total viable bacteria, amylolytic bacteria, and cellulolytic bacteria were significantly different among treatments and were greatest at 100 g/d of supplementation (4.7 x 10(9), 1.7 x 10(7), and 2.0 x 10(9) cfu/mL, respectively). Protozoal populations were significantly decreased by LGP supplementation. In addition, efficiency of rumen microbial N synthesis based on OM truly digested in the rumen was enriched by LGP supplementation, especially at 100 g/d (34.2 g of N/kg of OM truly digested in the rumen). Based on this study, it could be concluded that supplementation of LGP at 100 g/d improved digestibilities of nutrients, rumen microbial population, and microbial protein synthesis efficiency, thus improving rumen ecology in beef cattle.

  16. Proline accumulation in lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Stapf.) due to heavy metal stress.

    PubMed

    Handique, G K; Handique, A K

    2009-03-01

    Toxic heavy metals viz. lead, mercury and cadmium induced differential accumulation of proline in lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Stapf.) grown in soil amended with 50, 100, 200, 350 and 500 mg kg(-1) of the metals have been studied. Proline accumulation was found to be metal specific, organ specific and linear dose dependant. Further, proline accumulation following short term exposure (two months after transplantation) was higher than long term exposure (nine months after transplantation). Proline accumulation following short term exposure was 2.032 to 3.839 micro moles g(-1) for cadmium (50-200 mg kg(-1)); the corresponding range for mercury was 1.968 to 5.670 micro moles g(-1) and 0.830 to 4.567 micro moles g(-1) for lead (50-500 mg kg(-1) for mercury and lead). Proline accumulation was consistently higher in young tender leaf than old leaf, irrespective of the metal or duration of exposure. For cadmium treatment proline level was 2.032 to 3.839 micro moles g(-1) for young leaves while the corresponding value for old leaf was 1.728 to 2.396 micro moles g(-1) following short term exposure. The same trend was observed for the other two metals and duration of exposure. For control set proline accumulation in root was 0.425 micro moles g(-1) as against 0.805 and 0.533 micro moles g(-1) in young and old leaves respectively indicating that proline accumulation in root are lower than leaves, under both normal and stressed condition.

  17. Palmarosa [Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb.) Wats.] as a putative crop for phytoremediation, in tannery sludge polluted soil.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Janhvi; Chand, Sukhmal; Pandey, Shipra; Rajkumari; Patra, D D

    2015-12-01

    A field experiment using tannery sludge as a soil amendment material and palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii) as a potential phytostabilizer was conducted to investigate their synergistic effect in relation to the improvement in soil quality/property. Three consecutive harvests of two cultivars of palmarosa-PRC-1 and Trishna, were examined to find out the influence of different tannery sludge doses on their herb, dry matter, essential oil yield and heavy metal accumulation. Soil fertility parameters (N, P, K, Organic carbon) were markedly affected by different doses of sludge. Enhanced soil nitrogen was positively correlated with herb yield (0.719*) and plant height (0.797*). The highest dose of tannery sludge (100 t ha(-1)) exhibited best performance than other treatments with respect to herb, dry matter and oil yield in all three harvests. Trishna was found to be superior to PRC-1 in relation to same studied traits. Quality of oil varied, but was insignificant statistically. Uptake of heavy metals followed same order (Cr>Ni>Pb>Cd) in roots and shoots. Translocation factor <1 for all trace elements and Bioconcentration factor >1 was observed in case of all heavy metals. Overall, tannery sludge enhanced the productivity of crop and metal accumulation occurred in roots with a meager translocation to shoots, hence it can be used as a phytostabiliser. The major advantage of taking palmarosa in metal polluted soil is that unlike food and agricultural crops, the product (essential oil) is extracted by hydro-distillation and there is no chance of oil contamination, thus is commercially acceptable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Anti-Proliferative Effect and Phytochemical Analysis of Cymbopogon citratus Extract

    PubMed Central

    Halabi, Mohammed F.; Sheikh, Bassem Y.

    2014-01-01

    The antiproliferative and antioxidant potential of Cymbopogon citratus (Lemon grass) extracts were investigated. The extracts were isolated by solvent maceration method and thereafter subjected to antiproliferative activity test on five different cancer cells: human colon carcinoma (HCT-116), breast carcinoma (MCF-7 and MDA-MB 231), ovarian carcinoma (SKOV-3 and COAV), and a normal liver cell line (WRL 68). The cell viability was determined using MTT assay. The DPPH radical scavenging assay revealed a concentration dependent trend. A maximum percentage inhibition of 45% and an IC50 of 278 μg/mL were observed when aqueous extract was evaluated. In contrast, 48.3% and IC50 of 258.9 μg/mL were observed when 50% ethanolic extract was evaluated. Both extracts at concentration of 50 to 800 μg/mL showed appreciative metal chelating activity with IC50 value of 172.2 ± 31 μg/mL to 456.5 ± 30 μg/mL. Depending on extraction solvent content, extract obtained from 50% ethanolic solvent proved to be more potent on breast cancer MCF-7 cell line (IC50 = 68 μg/mL). On the other hand, 90% ethanolic extract showed a moderate potency on the ovarian cancer (COAV) and MCF-7 cells having an IC50 of 104.6 μg/mL each. These results suggested antiproliferative efficacy of C. citratus ethanolic extract against human cancer cell lines. PMID:24791006

  19. Polyphenols from Cymbopogon citratus leaves as topical anti-inflammatory agents.

    PubMed

    Costa, Gustavo; Ferreira, João Pinto; Vitorino, Carla; Pina, Maria Eugénia; Sousa, João José; Figueiredo, Isabel Vitória; Batista, Maria Teresa

    2016-02-03

    A variety of plant polyphenols have been reported to have anti-inflammatory, frequently associated with erythema, edema, hyperplasia, skin photoaging and photocarcinogenesis. Cymbopogon citratus (DC). Stapf (Poaceae) is a worldwide known medicinal plant, used in traditional medicine in inflammation-related conditions. In this work, the anti-inflammatory potential of C. citratus infusion (CcI) and its polyphenols as topical agents was evaluated in vivo. The plant extract was prepared and its fractioning led two polyphenol-rich fractions: flavonoids fraction (CcF) and tannins fraction (CcT). An oil/water emulsion was developed with each active (CcI, CcF+CcT and diclofenac), pH and texture having been evaluated. Release tests were further performed using static Franz diffusion cells and all collected samples were monitored by HPLC-PDA. In vivo topical anti-inflammatory activity evaluation was performed by the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. The texture analysis revealed statistically significant differences for all tested parameters to CcF+CcT, supporting its topical application. Release experiments lead to the detection of the phenolic compounds from each sample in the receptor medium and the six major flavonoids were quantified, by HPLC-PDA: carlinoside, isoorientin, cynaroside, luteolin 7-O-neohesperidoside, kurilesin A and cassiaoccidentalin B. The CcF+CcT formulation prompted to the higher release rate for all these flavonoids. CcI4%, CcI1% and CcF+CcT exhibited an edema reduction of 43.18, 29.55 and 59.09%, respectively. Our findings highlight that CcI, containing luteolin 7-O-neohesperidoside, cassiaoccidentalin B, carlinoside, cynaroside and tannins have a potential anti-inflammatory topical activity, suggesting their promising application in the treatment of skin inflammatory pathologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Insect repellent activity of medicinal plant oils against Aedes aegypti (Linn.), Anopheles minimus (Theobald) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say based on protection time and biting rate.

    PubMed

    Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn; Soonwera, Mayura

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated insect bite protection and length of the protection with 30 repellents which were divided into 3 categories: plant oil, essential oil and essential oil with ethyl alcohol, tested against three mosquito species, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles minimus and Culex quinquefasciatus, under laboratory conditions. The plant oil group was comprised of Phlai (Zingiber cassumunar) and Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum). Both substances were effective as repellents and feeding deterrents against An. minimus (205 minutes protection time and a biting rate of 0.9%), Cx. quinquefasciatus (165 minutes protection time and 0.9% biting rate) and Ae. aegypti (90 minutes protection time and 0.8% biting rate). Essential oil from citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) exhibited protection against biting from all 3 mosquito species: for An. minimus, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, the results were 130 minutes and 0.9%, 140 minutes and 0.8%, and 115 minutes and 0.8%, respectively. The period of protection time against Ae. aegypti for all repellent candidates tested was lower than the Thai Industrial Standards Institute (TISI) determined time of greater than 2 hours.

  1. Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil as a potent anti-inflammatory and antifungal drugs

    PubMed Central

    Boukhatem, Mohamed Nadjib; Ferhat, Mohamed Amine; Kameli, Abdelkrim; Saidi, Fairouz; Kebir, Hadjer Tchoketch

    2014-01-01

    Background Volatile oils obtained from lemon grass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf, Poaceae family] are used in traditional medicine as remedies for the treatment of various diseases. Aims In the present study, lemon grass essential oil (LGEO) was evaluated for its in vivo topical and oral anti-inflammatory effects, and for its in vitro antifungal activity using both liquid and vapor phases. Methods The chemical profile of LGEO as determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis revealed two major components: geranial (42.2%), and neral (31.5%). The antifungal activity of LGEO was evaluated against several pathogenic yeasts and filamentous fungi using disc diffusion and vapor diffusion methods. Results LGEO exhibited promising antifungal effect against Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, and Aspergillus niger, with different inhibition zone diameters (IZDs) (35–90 mm). IZD increased with increasing oil volume. Significantly, higher anti-Candida activity was observed in the vapor phase. For the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect, LGEO (10 mg/kg, administered orally) significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema with a similar effect to that observed for oral diclofenac (50 mg/kg), which was used as the positive control. Oral administration of LGEO showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, topical application of LGEO in vivo resulted in a potent anti-inflammatory effect, as demonstrated by using the mouse model of croton oil-induced ear edema. To our knowledge, this is the first such report to be published. The topical application of LGEO at doses of 5 and 10 µL/ear significantly reduced acute ear edema induced by croton oil in 62.5 and 75% of the mice, respectively. In addition, histological analysis clearly confirmed that LGEO inhibits the skin inflammatory response in animal models. Conclusion Results of the present study indicate that LGEO has a noteworthy potential for the development of drugs for the treatment of

  2. Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil as a potent anti-inflammatory and antifungal drugs.

    PubMed

    Boukhatem, Mohamed Nadjib; Ferhat, Mohamed Amine; Kameli, Abdelkrim; Saidi, Fairouz; Kebir, Hadjer Tchoketch

    2014-01-01

    Background Volatile oils obtained from lemon grass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf, Poaceae family] are used in traditional medicine as remedies for the treatment of various diseases. Aims In the present study, lemon grass essential oil (LGEO) was evaluated for its in vivo topical and oral anti-inflammatory effects, and for its in vitro antifungal activity using both liquid and vapor phases. Methods The chemical profile of LGEO as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed two major components: geranial (42.2%), and neral (31.5%). The antifungal activity of LGEO was evaluated against several pathogenic yeasts and filamentous fungi using disc diffusion and vapor diffusion methods. Results LGEO exhibited promising antifungal effect against Candida albicans, C.tropicalis, and Aspergillus niger, with different inhibition zone diameters (IZDs) (35-90 mm). IZD increased with increasing oil volume. Significantly, higher anti-Candida activity was observed in the vapor phase. For the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect, LGEO (10 mg/kg, administered orally) significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema with a similar effect to that observed for oral diclofenac (50 mg/kg), which was used as the positive control. Oral administration of LGEO showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, topical application of LGEO in vivo resulted in a potent anti-inflammatory effect, as demonstrated by using the mouse model of croton oil-induced ear edema. To our knowledge, this is the first such report to be published. The topical application of LGEO at doses of 5 and 10 µL/ear significantly reduced acute ear edema induced by croton oil in 62.5 and 75% of the mice, respectively. In addition, histological analysis clearly confirmed that LGEO inhibits the skin inflammatory response in animal models. Conclusion Results of the present study indicate that LGEO has a noteworthy potential for the development of drugs for the treatment of

  3. Treatment of oral thrush in HIV/AIDS patients with lemon juice and lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) and gentian violet.

    PubMed

    Wright, S C; Maree, J E; Sibanyoni, M

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of lemon juice and lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) in the treatment of oral thrush in HIV/AIDS patients when compared with the control group using gentian violet aqueous solution 0.5%. Oral thrush is a frequent complication of HIV infection. In the Moretele Hospice, due to financial constraints, the treatment routinely given to patients with oral thrush is either lemon juice directly into the mouth or a lemon grass infusion made from lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) grown and dried at the hospice. These two remedies have been found to be very efficacious therefore are used extensively. Gentian violet, the first line medication for oral thrush in South Africa, is not preferred by the primary health clinic patients due to the visible purple stain which leads them to being stigmatized as HIV-positive. Cymbopogon citratus and Citrus limon have known antifungal properties. The study design was a randomised controlled trial. Ninety patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups: gentian violet, lemon juice or lemon grass. Inclusion criteria included being HIV-positive with a diagnosis of oral thrush. The study period was 11 days and patients were followed up every second day. International ethical principles were adhered to during the study. Of the 90 patients, 83 completed the study. In the intention-to-treat analysis, none of the p-values were significant therefore the null hypothesis could not be rejected. In the analysis of the participants who actually completed the trial, the lemon juice showed better results than the gentian violet aqueous solution 0.5% in the treatment of oral thrush in an HIV-positive population (p<0.02). The null hypothesis in terms of the lemon grass and gentian violet could also be rejected on the basis of the Chi-square test and the likelihood ratio test (p<0.05). Though the patient population was small, the use of lemon juice and lemon grass for the treatment of

  4. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon essential oil (lemon grass) and its interaction with silver ions.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Aijaz; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2015-06-01

    It is well known that Cymbopogon (lemon grass) essential oil exhibits antimicrobial activity while the efficacy of silver ions as a disinfectant is equally well reported. The antimicrobial activity of CEO and Ag(+) and their synergistic combinations will be useful in improving the current treatment strategies for various infections. In the present study, we determined the chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial activity of six different Cymbopogon essential oils (CEO's) alone and in combination with silver ions (Ag(+)) against two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis), two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Moraxella catarrhalis) and two yeast species (Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis). The nature of potential interactions was determined by fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICIs) for CEO's and Ag(+) calculated from microdilution assays and time-kill curves. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry results confirmed the presence of nerol, geranial and geraniol as major volatile compounds. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values confirmed that all the tested pathogens are variably susceptible to both CEO's as well as Ag(+). The MIC of CEO's and Ag(+) against all the tested pathogens ranged from 0.032 mg/ml to 1 mg/ml and 0.004 and 0.064 mg/ml respectively, whereas when assayed in combination the FICI values were drastically reduced to range between 0.258 and 2.186, indicating synergy, additive and indifferent interactions. The most prominent interaction was observed between Cymbopogon flexuosus essential oil and Ag(+) against C. albicans with ∑FIC = 0.254. The synergistic interactions were further confirmed through the construction of isobolograms and time-kill plots. Transmission electron microscopy showed disturbance in the cell envelope upon the concomitant treatment of CEO's and Ag(+), which ultimately leads to cell death. Results suggest that CEO's and Ag(+) when used in combination offers an opportunity

  5. [Anti-Candida albicans activity of essential oils including Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) oil and its component, citral].

    PubMed

    Abe, Shigeru; Sato, Yuichi; Inoue, Shigeharu; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Maruyama, Naho; Takizawa, Toshio; Oshima, Haruyuki; Yamaguchi, Hideyo

    2003-01-01

    The effects of 12 essential oils, popularly used as antifungal treatments in aromatherapy, on growth of Candida albicans were investigated. Mycelial growth of C. albicans, which is known to give the fungus the capacity to invade mucosal tissues, was inhibited in the medium containing 100 micro g/ml of the oils: lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), patchouli (Pogostemon cablin) and cedarwood (Cedrus atlantica). Not only lemongrass oil but also citral, a major component of lemongrass oil (80%), in the range of 25 and 200 micro g/ml inhibited the mycelial growth but allowed yeast-form growth. More than 200 micro g/ml of citral clearly inhibited both mycelial and yeast-form growth of C. albicans. These results provide experimental evidence suggesting the potential value of lemongrass oil for the treatment of oral or vaginal candidiasis.

  6. Bioactivity against Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) of Cymbopogon citratus and Eucalyptus citriodora essential oils grown in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesús; Nerio, Luz S; Stashenko, Elena E

    2010-06-01

    Essential oils isolated from Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. and Eucalyptus citriodora Hook grown in Colombia were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and tested for repellent activity and contact toxicity against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). The main components of C. citratus oil were geranial (34.4%), neral (28.4%) and geraniol (11.5%), whereas those of E. citriodora were citronellal (40%), isopulegol (14.6%) and citronellol (13%). The mean repellent doses after 4 h exposure were 0.021 and 0.084 mL L(-1) for C. citratus and E. citriodora oils respectively-values lower than that observed for the commercial product IR3535 (0.686 mL L(-1)). These studies showed the composition and repellent activity of essential oils of C. citratus and E. citriodora, suggesting that these are potential candidates as insect repellents.

  7. Anti-inflammatory activity of Cymbopogon citratus leaves infusion via proteasome and nuclear factor-κB pathway inhibition: contribution of chlorogenic acid.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Vera; Costa, Gustavo; Figueirinha, Artur; Marques, Carla; Pereira, Paulo; Miguel Neves, Bruno; Celeste Lopes, Maria; García-Rodríguez, Carmen; Teresa Cruz, Maria; Teresa Batista, Maria

    2013-06-21

    Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf leaves infusion is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammatory conditions, however little is known about their bioactive compounds. Investigate the compounds responsible for anti-inflammatory potential of Cymbopogon citratus (Cy) on cytokines production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in human and mouse macrophages, and the action mechanisms involved. An essential oil-free infusion of Cy was prepared and polyphenol-rich fractions (PFs) were obtained from it by column chromatography. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) was identified, by HPLC/PDA/ESI-MS(n). The expression of cytokines, namely TNF-α and CCL5, was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR, on LPS-stimulated human macrophages. Activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, a master regulator of inflammation, was investigated by western blot and gene reporter assay. Proteasome activity was assessed using a fluorogenic peptide. Cymbopogon citratus extract and its polyphenols inhibited the cytokine production on human macrophages. This supports the anti-inflammatory activity of Cy polyphenols in physiologically relevant cells. Concerning the effect on the activation of NF-κB pathway, the results pointed to an inhibition of LPS-induced NF-κB activation by Cy and PFs. CGA was identified, by HPLC/PDA/ESI-MS(n), as the main phenolic acid of the Cy infusion, and it demonstrated to be, at least in part, responsible by that effect. Additionally, it was verified for the first time that Cy and PFs inhibited the proteasome activity, a complex that controls NF-κB activation, having CGA a strong contribution. The results evidenced, for the first time, the anti-inflammatory properties of Cymbopogon citratus through proteasome inhibition and, consequently NF-κB pathway and cytokine expression. Additionally, Cy polyphenols, in particular chlorogenic acid, were highlighted as bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of Trace Metal Profile in Cymbopogon validus and Hyparrhenia hirta Used as Traditional Herbs from Environmentally Diverse Region of Komga, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tembeni, Babalwa; Oyedeji, Adebola O.

    2016-01-01

    FAAS was used for the analysis of trace metals in fresh and dry plant parts of Cymbopogon validus and Hyparrhenia hirta species with the aim of determining the trace metals concentrations in selected traditional plants consumed in Eastern Cape, South Africa. The trace metal concentration (mg/kg) in the samples of dry Cymbopogon validus leaves (DCVL) showed Cu of 12.40 ± 1.000; Zn of 2.42 ± 0.401; Fe of 2.50 ± 0.410; Mn of 1.31 ± 0.210; Pb of 3.36 ± 0.401 mg/kg, while the samples of fresh Hyparrhenia hirta flowers (FHHF) gave Cu of 9.77 ± 0.610; Zn of 0.70 ± 0.200; Fe of 2.11 ± 0.200; Mn of 1.15 ± 0.080; Pb of 3.15 ± 0.100 mg/kg. Abundance of metal concentrations follows the order: Cu > Fe > Pb > Mn > Zn in the flower samples of Cymbopogon validus and Hyparrhenia hirta species. The concentrations of trace metals in both plant parts were below the permissible limits (PL) set by WHO. It is suggested that pharmacovigilance be carried out periodically to improve the quality, safety, and efficiency of various herbal products. PMID:27795868

  9. The GABAergic system contributes to the anxiolytic-like effect of essential oil from Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass).

    PubMed

    Costa, Celso A Rodrigues de Almeida; Kohn, Daniele Oliveira; de Lima, Valéria Martins; Gargano, André Costa; Flório, Jorge Camilo; Costa, Mirtes

    2011-09-01

    The essential oil (EO) from Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf is reported to have a wide range of biological activities and is widely used in traditional medicine as an infusion or decoction. However, despite this widely use, there are few controlled studies confirming its biological activity in central nervous system. The anxiolytic-like activity of the EO was investigated in light/dark box (LDB) and marble-burying test (MBT) and the antidepressant activity was investigated in forced-swimming test (FST) in mice. Flumazenil, a competitive antagonist of benzodiazepine binding and the selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist WAY100635 was used in experimental procedures to determine the action mechanism of EO. To exclude any false positive results in experimental procedures, mice were submitted to the rota-rod test. We also quantified some neurotransmitters at specific brain regions after EO oral acute treatment. The present work found anxiolytic-like activity of the EO at the dose of 10mg/kg in a LDB. Flumazenil, but not WAY100635, was able to reverse the effect of the EO in the LDB, indicating that the EO activity occurs via the GABA(A) receptor-benzodiazepine complex. Only at higher doses did the EO potentiate diethyl-ether-induced sleeping time in mice. In the FST and MBT, EO showed no effect. Finally, the increase in time spent in the light chamber, demonstrated by concomitant treatment with ineffective doses of diazepam (DZP) and the EO, revealed a synergistic effect of the two compounds. The lack of activity after long-term treatment in the LDB test might be related to tolerance induction, even in the DZP-treated group. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between groups after either acute or repeated treatments with the EO in the rota-rod test. Neurochemical evaluation showed no amendments in neurotransmitter levels evaluated in cortex, striatum, pons, and hypothalamus. The results corroborate the use of Cymbopogon citratus in folk medicine and

  10. Exploring reserve lots of Cymbopogon citratus, Aloysia citrodora and Thymus × citriodorus as improved sources of phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Rita, Ingride; Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2018-08-15

    Given the increasing consumers demand for novelty, tea companies have been presenting new added value products such as reserve lots of aromatic plants. Herein, infusions from different lots of three aromatic plants were assessed in terms of phenolic composition (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS) and antioxidant properties (reducing power, free radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity). Cymbopogon citratus (C. citratus; main compound 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid) and Aloysia citrodora (A. citrodora; prevalence of verbascoside) reserve lots revealed higher phenolic compounds concentration than the respective standard lots. Thymus × citriodorus (T. citriodorus; main compound rosmarinic acid) standard lot presented higher amounts of phenolic acids than the reserve lot, nonetheless, total flavonoids and phenolic compounds were not significantly different. The differences between both lots antioxidant activity were more noticeable in C. citratus, with the reserve lot presenting the highest activity. This study provides evidence of the differences between these plants chemical composition and bioactivity depending on the harvesting conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Flavan hetero-dimers in the Cymbopogon citratus infusion tannin fraction and their contribution to the antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Costa, Gustavo; González-Manzano, Susana; González-Paramás, Ana; Figueiredo, Isabel Vitória; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Batista, Maria Teresa

    2015-03-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) leaf infusion, a commonly used ingredient in Asian, African and Latin American cuisines, is also used in traditional medicine for the treatment of several pathological conditions; however, little is known about their bioactive compounds. Recent studies revealed the crucial role of the phenolic compounds namely flavonoids and tannins on the infusion bioactivity. Flavonoids have already been characterized; however the tannin fraction of lemongrass infusion is still uncharted. The aim of the present work is to characterize this fraction, and to evaluate its contribution to the antioxidant potential of this plant. Chemical characterization was achieved by HPLC-DAD-ESI/tandem MS and the antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays. Hetero-dimeric flavan structures have been described for the first time in lemongrass consisting of apigeniflavan or luteoliflavan units linked to a flavanone, either naringenin or eriodictyol, which may occur as aglycone or glycosylated forms. The antioxidant capacity of the fraction containing these compounds was significantly higher than the infusion, indicating its potential as a source of natural antioxidants.

  12. Effect of Inhaling Cymbopogon martinii Essential Oil and Geraniol on Serum Biochemistry Parameters and Oxidative Stress in Rats.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Bruna Fernanda Murbach Teles; Braga, Camila Pereira; Dos Santos, Klinsmann Carolo; Barbosa, Lidiane Nunes; Rall, Vera Lúcia Mores; Sforcin, José Maurício; Fernandes, Ana Angélica Henrique; Fernandes Júnior, Ary

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the inhalation of Cymbopogon martinii essential oil (EO) and geraniol on Wistar rats were evaluated for biochemical parameters and hepatic oxidative stress. Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 8): G1 was control group, treated with saline solution; G2 received geraniol; and G3 received C. martinii EO by inhalation during 30 days. No significant differences were observed in glycemia and triacylglycerol levels; G2 and G3 decreased (P < 0.05) total cholesterol level. There were no differences in serum protein, urea, aspartate aminotransferase activity, and total hepatic protein. Creatinine levels increased in G2 but decreased in G3. Alanine aminotransferase activity and lipid hydroperoxide were higher in G2 than in G3. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were higher in G3. C. martinii EO and geraniol increased glutathione peroxidase. Oxidative stress caused by geraniol may have triggered some degree of hepatic toxicity, as verified by the increase in serum creatinine and alanine aminotransferase. Therefore, the beneficial effects of EO on oxidative stress can prevent the toxicity in the liver. This proves possible interactions between geraniol and numerous chemical compounds present in C. martinii EO.

  13. Cymbopogon martinii essential oil and geraniol at noncytotoxic concentrations exerted immunomodulatory/anti-inflammatory effects in human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Murbach Teles Andrade, Bruna Fernanda; Conti, Bruno José; Santiago, Karina Basso; Fernandes Júnior, Ary; Sforcin, José Maurício

    2014-10-01

    In traditional medicine, plants have formed the basis of sophisticated systems that have been in existence for thousands of years and still provide mankind with new remedies. Cymbopogon martinii, known as palmarosa, has been used in aromatherapy as a skin tonic due to its antimicrobial properties. It has also used in Ayurvedic medicine for skin problems and to relieve nerve pain. The immunomodulatory action of C. martinii essential oil (EO) and geraniol was evaluated regarding the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-10, respectively) by human monocytes in vitro. Monocyte cultures were incubated with EO or geraniol. After 18 h, cytotoxicity assays were performed using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method, and cytokine production was determined by ELISA. The variables showed no cytotoxic effects on monocytes. TNF-α production was not affected by C. martinii and geraniol, and only the concentration of 5 μg/ml of C. martinii stimulated its production. On the other hand, all concentrations of C. martinii and geraniol increased IL-10 production by human monocytes. Data showed that noncytotoxic concentrations of EO and geraniol exerted an anti-inflammatory action by increasing IL-10 production; moreover, geraniol seemed to be probably responsible for EO immunomodulatory activity in our assay condition. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  14. Toxicity and gastric tolerance of essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Ocimum basilicum in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Fandohan, P; Gnonlonfin, B; Laleye, A; Gbenou, J D; Darboux, R; Moudachirou, M

    2008-07-01

    Oils of Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Ocimum basilicum are widely used for their medicinal properties, and as food flavours and perfumes. Recently in a study in West Africa, these oils have been recommended to combat Fusarium verticillioides and subsequent fumonisin contamination in stored maize, but their toxicological profile was not investigated. The current study was undertaken to provide data on acute and subacute toxicity as well as on gastric tolerance of these oils in rat. For this purpose, the oils were given by gavage to Wistar rats for 14 consecutive days. The animals were observed daily for their general behaviour and survival, and their visceral organs such as stomach and liver were taken after sacrifice for histological analyses. A dose-dependent effect of the tested oils was observed during the study. Applied at doses generally higher than 1500 mg/kg body weight, the oils caused significant functional damages to stomach and liver of rat. Unlike the other oils, administration of O. gratissimum oil did not result in adverse effects in rat liver at the tested doses. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of the tested oils has been established. The three tested oils can be considered as safe to human when applied on stored maize at recommended concentrations.

  15. A novel ionic amphiphilic chitosan derivative as a stabilizer of nanoemulsions: Improvement of antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil.

    PubMed

    Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Sandri, Giuseppina; Rossi, Silvia; Usai, Donatella; Liakos, Ioannis; Garzoni, Alice; Fiamma, Maura; Zanetti, Stefania; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Caramella, Carla; Ferrari, Franca

    2017-04-01

    Amphiphilic chitosans have been recently proposed to improve delivery of poorly soluble drugs. In the present paper a derivative obtained by ionic interaction between chitosan and oleic acid was for the first time studied to physically stabilize o/w nanoemulsions of an antimicrobial essential oil, Cymbopogon citratus (Lemongrass), in a low energy and mild conditions emulsification process. The novel combination of spontaneous emulsification process with chitosan oleate amphiphilic properties resulted in a stable dispersion of a few hundred nanometer droplets. Positive zeta potential confirmed the presence of a chitosan shell around the oil droplets, which is responsible for the nanoemulsion physical stabilization and for the maintenance of chitosan bioactive properties, such as mucoadhesion. Cytotoxicity test was performed on four different cell lines (HEp-2, Caco-2, WKD and McCoy cells) showing biocompatibility of the system. The maintenance and in some cases even a clear improvement in the essential oil antimicrobial activity towards nine bacterial and ten fungal strains, all of clinical relevance was verified for Lemongrass nanoemulsion. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) essential oil demonstrated anti-inflammatory effect in pre-inflamed human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Han, Xuesheng; Parker, Tory L

    2017-06-01

    Lemongrass ( Cymbopogon flexuosus ) essential oil (LEO), which has citral as its main component, has exhibited anti-inflammatory effect in both animal and human cells. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of a commercially available LEO in pre-inflamed human dermal fibroblasts. We first studied the impact of LEO on 17 protein biomarkers that are critically associated with inflammation and tissue remodeling. LEO significantly inhibited production of the inflammatory biomarkers vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC), and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG); decreased levels of the tissue remodeling biomarkers collagen-I and III, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1); and inhibited the immunomodulatory biomarker macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Furthermore, we studied the impact of LEO on genome-wide gene expression profiles. LEO significantly modulated global gene expression and robustly impacted signaling pathways, many of which are critical for inflammation and tissue remodeling processes. This study provides the first evidence of the anti-inflammatory activity of LEO in human skin cells and indicates that it is a good therapeutic candidate for treating inflammatory conditions of the skin.

  17. Cymbopogon citratus and Camellia sinensis extracts selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells and reduce growth of lymphoma xenografts in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Philion, Cory; Ma, Dennis; Ruvinov, Ivan; Mansour, Fadi; Pignanelli, Christopher; Noel, Megan; Saleem, Ammar; Arnason, John; Rodrigues, Mark; Singh, Inderpal; Ropat, Jesse; Pandey, Siyaram

    2017-01-01

    Cancer cells are reported to have elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and are highly dependent on cellular defense mechanisms against oxidative stress. Numerous nutraceuticals and natural polyphenolic compounds have a wide range of abilities to alter cellular redox states with potential implications in various diseases. Furthermore, therapeutic options for cancers are mostly nonselective treatments including genotoxic or tubulin-targeting compounds. Some of the natural extracts, containing multiple bioactive compounds, could target multiple pathways in cancer cells to selectively induce cell death. Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) and Camellia sinensis (white tea) extracts have been shown to have medicinal properties, however, their activity against lymphoma and leukemia, as well as mechanistic details, have not been fully characterized. Herein, we report potent anti-cancer properties in dose and time-dependent manners of ethanolic lemongrass and hot water white tea extracts in lymphoma and leukemia models. Both extracts were able to effectively induce apoptosis selectively in these human cancer cell types. Interestingly, ethanolic lemongrass extract induces apoptosis primarily by the extrinsic pathway and was found to be dependent on the generation of ROS. Conversely, apoptotic induction by hot water white tea extract was independent of ROS. Furthermore, both of these extracts caused mitochondrial depolarization and decreased rates of oxygen consumption in lymphoma and leukemia cells, leading to cell death. Most importantly, both these extracts were effective in reducing tumor growth in human lymphoma xenograft models when administered orally. Thus, these natural extracts could have potential for being nontoxic alternatives for the treatment of cancer. PMID:29340014

  18. Inhibitory effect of three C-glycosylflavonoids from Cymbopogon citratus (Lemongrass) on human low density lipoprotein oxidation.

    PubMed

    Orrego, Roxana; Leiva, Elba; Cheel, José

    2009-09-30

    This study assessed the inhibitory effect of three C-glycosylflavonoids from Cymbopogon citratus leaves--isoorientin (1), swertiajaponin (2) and isoorientin 2"-Orhamnoside (3)--on human LDL oxidation. Isolated LDL was incubated with compounds 1-3 and the kinetics of lipid peroxidation were assessed by conjugated diene and malondialdehyde-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (MDA-TBARS) formation after addition of copper ions. Significant differences (p < 0.05) between the lag time phase of the control and the lag time phase in the presence of the compounds 1 (0.25 microM) and 2 (0.50 microM) were observed. After five hours of incubation all three compounds showed a significant inhibitory effect on MDA-TBARS formation with respect to the control. After six hours of incubation only compound 1 kept a remarkable antioxidant effect. This study demonstrates that isoorientin (1) is an effective inhibitor of in vitro LDL oxidation. As oxidative damage to LDL is a key event in the formation of atherosclerotic lesions, the use of this natural antioxidant may be beneficial to prevent or attenuate atherosclerosis.

  19. GC-MS evaluation of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf oil obtained using modified hydrodistillation and microwave extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, E O; Sadimenko, A P; Afolayan, A J

    2016-10-15

    Bioactive compounds of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil, using different media have been tentatively identified with the aid of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Hydrodistillation was complemented using weakly acidic and alkaline media for the oil extraction. Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) was also used. Analyses of the oils revealed the presence of 7, 16, 22, and 15 compounds in the water-distilled (WD), microwave-distilled (MD), acid-distilled (AD), and base-distilled (BD), essential oils, respectively. Total yield of the volatile fractions was 0.73%, 0.64%, 0.70%, and 0.45%, respectively. Citral was found to be the major component, the base extraction having the highest content. This was followed by 2-isopropenyl-5-methylhex-4-enal, p-cymene, and 2-thujene. The antimicrobial, antibacterial, and antioxidant activities and assessment of medicinal/nutritional uses of the essential oils are subjects of future studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Use of dimethyldioxirane in the epoxidation of the main constituents of the essential oils obtained from Tagetes lucida, Cymbopogon citratus, Lippia alba and Eucalyptus citriodora.

    PubMed

    Veloza, Luz A; Orozco, Lina M; Sepúlveda-Arias, Juan C

    2011-07-01

    Dimethyldioxirane (DMDO), a widely used oxidant in organic synthesis is considered an environmentally friendly oxygen transfer reagent because acetone is the only byproduct formed in its oxidation reactions. This work describes the isolation of the main constituents (terpenes) in the essential oils obtained from Tagetes lucida, Cymbopogon citratus, Lippia alba and Eucalyptus citriodora, their epoxidation with DMDO in acetone solution and the characterization of the resulting epoxides by GC-MS (EI) and NMR. This is one of the first reports involving the application of dioxirane chemistry to essential oils in order to generate modified compounds with potential uses in several areas of medicine and industry.

  1. Essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) and geraniol, but not citral, promote gastric healing activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Venzon, Larissa; Mariano, Luísa Nathália Bolda; Somensi, Lincon Bordignon; Boeing, Thaise; de Souza, Priscila; Wagner, Theodoro Marcel; Andrade, Sérgio Faloni de; Nesello, Luciane Angela Nottar; da Silva, Luísa Mota

    2018-02-01

    Cymbopogon citratus, popularly known as lemongrass, is used for the treatment of gastric, nervous and hypertensive disorders, in addition to its use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. This study evaluated the gastroprotective and gastric healing effect of essential oil of C. citratus (EOCC), citral and geraniol at doses of 1-100 mg/kg (p.o) on acute ethanol-induced ulcer and chronic acetic acid-induced ulcer. Histological and histochemical evaluation was also performed, as well as the in vitro evaluation of the effects of these phytochemicals on H + /K + -ATPase activity. In the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer, the minimum effective oral dose of EOCC, citral and geraniol were 10, 100 and 3 mg/kg, reducing the ulcer area by 51.67%, 96.57% and 55.74%, respectively, compared to vehicle group (25.82 ± 3.59 mm 2 ). Moreover, EOCC (10 mg/kg, p.o) and geraniol (3 mg/kg), but not citral (100 mg/kg), accelerated the gastric healing process by 34.52 and 80.57%, compared to acetic-acid ulcerated group treated with vehicle (36.04 ± 1.03 mm 2 ). These healing effects were confirmed histologically by the contraction of the ulcer base and by the enhancement on mucin staining in slices of ulcer site from mice treated with EOCC or geraniol. Interestingly, EOCC and citral at 100 μg/ml inhibited the H + / K + -ATPase activity by 28.26% and 44.36%, whereas geraniol did not change this parameter. Together, these findings confirm the gastroprotective and healing gastric ulcer effects of essential oil from aerial parts of C. citratus and added the information that geraniol, but not citral, promotes healing effects on installed ulcers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Inhibitory activity of Syzygium aromaticum and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in bovine ground meat

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Thales Leandro Coutinho; das Graças Cardoso, Maria; de Araújo Soares, Rodrigo; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes; Piccoli, Roberta Hilsdorf; Tebaldi, Victor Maximiliano Reis

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated the antimicrobial effect of the clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.) essential oils (EOs) against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117 growth added to bovine ground meat stored under refrigeration (5 ± 2 °C) for three days. The EOs, extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), were tested in vitro using an agar well diffusion methodology for determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). The MIC concentrations for both essential oils on culture tested of L. monocytogenes were 1.56%. The EOs concentrations applied in contaminated ground beef were 1.56, 3.125 and 6.25% (w/v) based on MIC levels and possible activity reductions by food constituents. The bacteria populations were significantly reduced (p ≤ 0.05) after one day of storage in ground meat samples treated with clove and lemongrass EOs at concentrations of 1.56%. There were no significant counts of L. monocytogenes in samples at the other concentrations of the two oils applied after the second day of storage. The sensory acceptability evaluation of the bovine ground meat samples treated with EOs showed that the addition at concentrations higher than 1.56% promote undesirable alterations of taste, odor and characteristic color. The application of EOs at low concentrations in food products can be used in combination with other preservation methods, such as refrigeration, to control pathogens and spoilage bacteria during shelf-life; which goes according to current market trends, where consumers are requesting natural products. PMID:24294222

  3. Growth Inhibition and Morphological Alterations of Trichophyton Rubrum Induced by Essential oil from Cymbopogon Winterianus Jowitt Ex Bor

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Pereira, Fillipe; Alves Wanderley, Paulo; Cavalcanti Viana, Fernando Antônio; Baltazar de Lima, Rita; Barbosa de Sousa, Frederico; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes

    2011-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is one of the most common fungi causer of dermatophytosis, mycosis that affect humans and animals around the world. Researches aiming new products with antifungal activity become necessary to overcome difficulties on treatment of these infections. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of essential oil from Cymbopogon winterianus against the dermatophyte T. rubrum. The antifungal screening was performed by solid medium diffusion method with 16 T. rubrum strains, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicide concentration (MFC) were determined using the microdilution method. The effects on mycelial dry weight and morphology were also observed. Screening showed essential oil in natura inhibited all the tested strains, with inhibition zones between 24-28 mm diameter. MIC50 and MIC90 values of the essential oil were 312 μg/mL for nearly all the essayed strains (93.75 %) while the MFC50 and MFC90 values were about eight times higher than MIC for all tested strains. All tested essential oil concentrations managed to inhibit strongly the mycelium development. Main morphological changes on the fungal strains observed under light microscopy, which were provided by the essential oil include loss of conidiation, alterations concerning form and pigmentation of hyphae. In the oil presence, colonies showed folds, cream color and slightly darker than the control, pigment production was absent on the reverse and with evident folds. It is concluded that C. winterianus essential oil showed activity against T. rubrum. Therefore, it could be known as potential antifungal compound especially for protection against dermatophytosis. PMID:24031626

  4. Effect of Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare, and Trachyspermum ammi Essential Oils on the Growth and Mycotoxins Production by Aspergillus Species

    PubMed Central

    Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Asrat, Daniel; Debella, Asfaw

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth, and mycotoxin production. In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activities of Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare, and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils were carried out on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Plant materials were hydrodistilled for 4-5 h in Clevenger apparatus. 0.25 μL/mL, 0.5 μL/mL, 1 μL/mL, 2 μL/mL, and 4 μL/mL concentrations of each essential oil were prepared in 0.1% Tween 80 (V/V). T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 μL/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 μL/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting toxin production from A. niger and A. flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 μL/mL, respectively. C. martinii, F. vulgare, and T. ammi oils as antifungals were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5336.297 μL/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity. In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by Aspergillus species. PMID:26904653

  5. The use of powder and essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus against mould deterioration and aflatoxin contamination of "egusi" melon seeds.

    PubMed

    Bankole, S A; Joda, A O; Ashidi, J S

    2005-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to determine the potential of using the powder and essential oil from dried ground leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass) to control storage deterioration and aflatoxin contamination of melon seeds. Four mould species: Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. tamarii and Penicillium citrinum were inoculated in the form of conidia suspension (approx. 10(6) conidia per ml) unto shelled melon seeds. The powdered dry leaves and essential oil from lemon grass were mixed with the inoculated seeds at levels ranging from 1-10 g/100 g seeds and 0.1 to 1.0 ml/100 g seeds respectively. The ground leaves significantly reduced the extent of deterioration in melon seeds inoculated with different fungi compared to the untreated inoculated seeds. The essential oil at 0.1 and 0.25 ml/100 g seeds and ground leaves at 10 g/100 g seeds significantly reduced deterioration and aflatoxin production in shelled melon seeds inoculated with toxigenic A. flavus. At higher dosages (0.5 and 1.0 ml/100 g seeds), the essential oil completely prevented aflatoxin production. After 6 months in farmers' stores, unshelled melon seeds treated with 0.5 ml/ 100 g seeds of essential oil and 10 g/100 g seeds of powdered leaves of C. citratus had significantly lower proportion of visibly diseased seeds and Aspergillus spp. infestation levels and significantly higher seed germination compared to the untreated seeds. The oil content, free fatty acid and peroxide values in seeds protected with essential oil after 6 months did not significantly differ from the values in seeds before storage. The efficacy of the essential oil in preserving the quality of melon seeds in stores was statistically at par with that of fungicide (iprodione) treatment. ((c) 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).

  6. Treatment of pityriasis versicolor with topical application of essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf - therapeutic pilot study*

    PubMed Central

    Carmo, Egberto Santos; Pereira, Fillipe de Oliveira; Cavalcante, Neuza Maria; Gayoso, Carla Wanderley; Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pityriasis versicolor is a fungal infection caused by Malassezia spp. that has frequent relapses. OBJECTIVES The main objective of this research was to perform phase I and II clinical studies, using formulations containing essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus in patients with pityriasis versicolor. METHODS Phase I study included twenty volunteers to ascertain the safety of the formulations. In phase II, 47 volunteers randomly received essential oil formulations at 1.25 μL/mL concentration, for forty days. The shampoo should be applied three times a week and the cream twice a day. A control group in phase II, consisting of 29 volunteers, received the same formulations but with 2% ketoconazole as the active ingredient. RESULTS No significant adverse events were observed in volunteers during Phase I. In Phase II, 30 (63.83%) volunteers using essential oil and 18 (62.07%) using ketoconazole remained until the end of the study. We observed a predominance of lesions in disseminated form, with M. sympodialis detected as the predominant agent identified in cultures. After 40 days of treatment, the rate of mycological cure was 60% (p <0.05) for the group treated with essential oil of C. citratus and over 80% (p <0.05) for the group treated with ketoconazole formulations. CONCLUSIONS Notwithstanding the safety and antifungal effects observed in this study after application of formulations containing the essential oil of C. citratus, further studies with larger populations should be performed to confirm the actual potential of these formulations in the treatment of patients with Pityriasis versicolor. PMID:23793205

  7. Inhibitory activity of Syzygium aromaticum and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in bovine ground meat.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Thales Leandro Coutinho; das Graças Cardoso, Maria; de Araújo Soares, Rodrigo; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes; Piccoli, Roberta Hilsdorf; Tebaldi, Victor Maximiliano Reis

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated the antimicrobial effect of the clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.) essential oils (EOs) against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117 growth added to bovine ground meat stored under refrigeration (5 ± 2 °C) for three days. The EOs, extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), were tested in vitro using an agar well diffusion methodology for determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). The MIC concentrations for both essential oils on culture tested of L. monocytogenes were 1.56%. The EOs concentrations applied in contaminated ground beef were 1.56, 3.125 and 6.25% (w/v) based on MIC levels and possible activity reductions by food constituents. The bacteria populations were significantly reduced (p ≤ 0.05) after one day of storage in ground meat samples treated with clove and lemongrass EOs at concentrations of 1.56%. There were no significant counts of L. monocytogenes in samples at the other concentrations of the two oils applied after the second day of storage. The sensory acceptability evaluation of the bovine ground meat samples treated with EOs showed that the addition at concentrations higher than 1.56% promote undesirable alterations of taste, odor and characteristic color. The application of EOs at low concentrations in food products can be used in combination with other preservation methods, such as refrigeration, to control pathogens and spoilage bacteria during shelf-life; which goes according to current market trends, where consumers are requesting natural products.

  8. Phytomedical assessment of two Cymbopogon species found in Nkonkobe Municipality: toxicological effect on human Chang liver cell line.

    PubMed

    Omoruyi, Beauty E; Muchenje, Voster

    2017-06-02

    Cymbopogon species are widely used as herbal remedies by the traditional healers living in Nkonkobe Municipality for the treatment and management of skin and respiratory infections. According to our survey, the plants seem to be very important because of the higher demands. The leaves of C. validis and C. plurinodis were hydro-distilled and the resulted extracted oils were analyzed by GC/MS. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 7.8 to 500.0 μg/ml of the extracted oils were tested against eight bacterial strains, using micro-well dilution method. The human Chang liver cell viability was determined using the CellTiter-Blue cell assay. GC-MS analysis of the C. validis essential oil amounted to 87.03%, major components identified were Linalyl alcohol (18.9%), 2-Nephthalenemethanol (6.67%), Longifolene (6.53%), Cubedol (6.08%). Total oil percentage of C. plurinodis was 81.47% and the main components were characterized as 3-Cyclohexane-1-ol (13.58%), Nerolidol (13.6%) and 2-Carene (12.6%). The essential oils from both plants were found to be active against the growth of Gram positive than the Gram negative bacterial tested. Lethal dose at 50 (LD 50 ) of both plants showed 74.87 ± 1.41 and 81.66 ± 1.40 degree of toxicity at 24 h. Both plants extracts were toxic to human Chang liver cell lines.

  9. Cymbopogon citratus-synthesized gold nanoparticles boost the predation efficiency of copepod Mesocyclops aspericornis against malaria and dengue mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Jeyalalitha, Tirupathi; Dinesh, Devakumar; Nicoletti, Marcello; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Suresh, Udaiyan; Madhiyazhagan, Pari

    2015-06-01

    Plant-borne compounds can be employed to synthesize mosquitocidal nanoparticles that are effective at low doses. However, how they affect the activity of mosquito predators in the aquatic environment is unknown. In this study, we synthesized gold nanoparticles (AuN) using the leaf extract of Cymbopogon citratus, which acted as a reducing and capping agent. AuN were characterized by a variety of biophysical methods and sorted for size in order to confirm structural integrity. C. citratus extract and biosynthesized AuN were tested against larvae and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. LC₅₀ of C. citratus extract ranged from 219.32 ppm to 471.36 ppm. LC₅₀ of AuN ranged from 18.80 ppm to 41.52 ppm. In laboratory, the predatory efficiency of the cyclopoid crustacean Mesocyclops aspericornis against A. stephensi larvae was 26.8% (larva I) and 17% (larva II), while against A. aegypti was 56% (I) and 35.1% (II). Predation against late-instar larvae was minimal. In AuN-contaminated environment,predation efficiency against A. stephensi was 45.6% (I) and 26.7% (II), while against A. aegypti was 77.3% (I) and 51.6% (II). Overall, low doses of AuN may help to boost the control of Anopheles and Aedes larval populations in copepod-based control programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Protective effects of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus STAPF) essential oil on DNA damage and carcinogenesis in female Balb/C mice.

    PubMed

    Bidinotto, Lucas T; Costa, Celso A R A; Salvadori, Daisy M F; Costa, Mirtes; Rodrigues, Maria A M; Barbisan, Luís F

    2011-08-01

    This study investigated the protective effect of oral treatment with lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus STAPF) essential oil (LGEO) on leukocyte DNA damage induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosurea (MNU). Also, the anticarcinogenic activity of LGEO was investigated in a multi-organ carcinogenesis bioassay induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)antracene, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxibuthyl)nitrosamine in Balb/C female Balb/c mice (DDB-initiated mice). In the short-term study, the animals were allocated into three groups: vehicle group (negative control), MNU group (positive control) and LGEO 500 mg kg⁻¹ (five times per week for 5 weeks) plus MNU group (test group). Blood samples were collected to analyze leukocyte DNA damage by comet assay 4 h after each MNU application at the end of weeks 3 and 5. The LGEO 500 mg kg⁻¹ treated group showed significantly lower (P < 0.01) leukocyte DNA damage than its respective positive group exposed to MNU alone at week 3. In the medium-term study, DDB-initiated mice were allocated into three groups: vehicle group (positive control) and LGEO 125 or 500 mg kg⁻¹ (five times per week for 6 weeks; test groups). At week 20, all animals were euthanized and mammary glands, colon and urinary bladder were processed for histopathological analyses for detection of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions. A slight non-significant effect of treatment with LGEO 500 mg kg⁻¹ in reducing development of alveolar and ductal mammary hyperplasia was found (P = 0.075). Our findings indicate that lemongrass essential oil provided protective action against MNU-induced DNA damage and a potential anticarcinogenic activity against mammary carcinogenesis in DDB-initiated female Balb/C mice. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Behavior of detoxifying enzymes of Aedes aegypti exposed to girgensohnine alkaloid analog and Cymbopogon flexuosus essential oil.

    PubMed

    Carreño Otero, Aurora L; Palacio-Cortés, Angela Maria; Navarro-Silva, Mario Antonio; Kouznetsov, Vladimir V; Duque L, Jonny E

    2018-01-01

    Because mosquito control depend on the use of commercial insecticides and resistance has been described in some of them, there is a need to explore new molecules no resistant. In vivo effects of girgensohnine analog 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(piperidin-1-yl)acetonitrile DPPA and Cymbopogon flexuosus essential oil CFEO, on the detoxifying enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), nonspecific esterases (α- and β-), mixed function oxidases (MFO) and p-NPA esterases were evaluated on a Rockefeller (Rock) and wild Aedes aegypti population from Santander, Colombia (WSant). The action was tested after 24h of exposure at concentrations of 20.10, 35.18 and 70.35mgL -1 of DPPA and 18.45, 30.75 and 61.50mgL -1 of CFEO, respectively. It was found that AChE activity of Rock and WSant was not influenced by the evaluated concentration of DPPA and CFEO (p>0.05), while MFO activity was significantly affected by all CFEO concentrations in WSant (p<0.05). GST, α- and β-esterase activities were affected in Rock exposed at the highest CFEO concentration, this concentration also modified β-esterases activity of WSant. DPPA and CFEO sublethal doses induced inhibition of AChE activity on untreated larvae homogenate from 12 to 20% and 18 to 26%, respectively. For untreated adult homogenate, the inhibition activity raised up to 14 to 27% for DPPA and 26 to 34% for CFEO. Elevated levels of detoxifying enzymes, found when CFEO was evaluated, showed a larval sensitivity not observed by the pure compound suggesting that DPPA, contrary to CFEO, was not recognized, transformed or eliminated by the evaluated detoxifying enzymes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Lippia alba and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils on biofilms of Streptococcus mutans and cytotoxicity in CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Tofiño-Rivera, A; Ortega-Cuadros, M; Galvis-Pareja, D; Jiménez-Rios, H; Merini, L J; Martínez-Pabón, M C

    2016-12-24

    Caries is a public health problem, given that it prevails in 60 to 90% of the school-age global population. Multiple factors interact in its etiology, among them dental plaque is necessary to have lactic acid producing microorganisms like Streptococcus from he Mutans group. Existing prevention and treatment measures are not totally effective and generate adverse effects, which is why it is necessary to search for complementary strategies for their management. The study sought to evaluate the eradication capacity of Streptococcus mutans biofilms and the toxicity on eukaryotic cells of Lippia alba and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils. Essential oils were extracted from plant material through steam distillation and then its chemical composition was determined. The MBEC-high-throughput (MBEC-HTP) (Innovotech, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada) assay used to determine the eradication concentration of S. mutans ATCC 35668 strain biofilms. Cytotoxicity was evaluated on CHO cells through the MTT cell proliferation assay. The major components in both oils were Geraniol and Citral; in L. alba 18.9% and 15.9%, respectively, and in C. citratus 31.3% and 26.7%. The L. alba essential oils presented eradication activity against S. mutans biofilms of 95.8% in 0.01mg/dL concentration and C. citratus essential oils showed said eradication activity of 95.4% at 0.1, 0.01mg/dL concentrations and of 93.1% in the 0.001mg/dL concentration; none of the concentrations of both essential oils showed toxicity on CHO cells during 24h. The L. alba and C. citratus essential oils showed eradication activity against S. mutans biofilms and null cytotoxicity, evidencing the need to conduct further studies that can identify their active components and in order to guide a safe use in treating and preventing dental caries. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Food preservative potential of essential oils and fractions from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris against mycotoxigenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Nguefack, J; Dongmo, J B Lekagne; Dakole, C D; Leth, V; Vismer, H F; Torp, J; Guemdjom, E F N; Mbeffo, M; Tamgue, O; Fotio, D; Zollo, P H Amvam; Nkengfack, A E

    2009-05-31

    The food preservative potential of essential oils from three aromatic plants Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris and their fractions was investigated against two mycotoxigenic strains each of Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium expansum and P. verrucosum. The fungicidal activity was determined and expressed as a Number of Decimal Reduction of the colony forming units per ml (NDR cfu). The influence of pH variation on this activity was studied. The NDR cfu varied with the essential oils and its concentration, the pH of the medium and the strain tested. The essential oils from O. gratissimum exhibited the highest activity against the six fungal strains under the three pH tested. T. vulgaris and C. citratus essential oils were less active against the Penicillium species tested and A. ochraceus, respectively. Potassium sorbate did not present any activity at pH 6 and 9. At pH 3, its NDR cfu was the lowest against the six fungal strains. At the same pH and at 4000 ppm, the three essential oils presented a NRD cfu > or = 6 against strains of A. ochraceus and P. expansum. The same result was obtained with T. vulgaris and C. citratus at 8000 ppm against both strains of P. verrucosum. The highest activity of the three essential oils was recorded at pH 3 against A. ochraceus strains and at pH 9 against both species of Penicillium. From the fractionation, three active fractions were obtained each from C. citratus and O. gratissimum, and two active fractions from T. vulgaris. These active fractions exhibited a NDR cfu, two to seven folds higher than that of the complete essential oils.

  14. Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Thymus vulgaris, Cymbopogon citratus, and Rosmarinus officinalis, and Their Effects on the HIV-1 Tat Protein Function.

    PubMed

    Feriotto, Giordana; Marchetti, Nicola; Costa, Valentina; Beninati, Simone; Tagliati, Federico; Mischiati, Carlo

    2018-02-01

    New drugs would be beneficial to fight resistant HIV strains, in particular those capable of interfering with essential viral functions other than those targeted by highly active antiretroviral therapy drugs. Despite the central role played by Tat protein in HIV transcription, a search for vegetable extracts able to hamper this important viral function was never carried out. In this work, we evaluated the chemical composition and possible interference of essential oil from Thymus vulgaris, Cananga odorata, Cymbopogon citratus, and Rosmarinus officinalis with the Tat/TAR-RNA interaction and with Tat-induced HIV-1 LTR transcription. GC/MS Analysis demonstrated the biodiversity of herbal species translated into essential oils composed of different blends of terpenes. In all of them, 4 - 6 constituents represent from 81.63% to 95.19% of the total terpenes. Essential oils of Thymus vulgaris, Cymbopogon citratus, and Rosmarinus officinalis were active in interfering with Tat functions, encouraging further studies to identify single terpenes responsible for the antiviral activity. In view of the quite different composition of these essential oils, we concluded that their interference on Tat function depends on specific terpene or a characteristic blend. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  15. Lemongrass productivity oil content and composition as a function of nitrogen sulfur and harvest time

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lemongrass [Cymbopogon flexuosus (Steud.) Wats, (syn. Andropogon nardus var. flexuosus Hack; A. flexuosus Nees)] is one of the most widely grown essential oil plants in the world. Field experiments were conducted at Verona and Poplarville, Mississippi, to evaluate the effects of N (0, 40, 80, and 16...

  16. Repellent effects of the essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Tagetes minuta on the sandfly, Phlebotomus duboscqi.

    PubMed

    Kimutai, Albert; Ngeiywa, Moses; Mulaa, Margaret; Njagi, Peter G N; Ingonga, Johnstone; Nyamwamu, Lydia B; Ombati, Cyprian; Ngumbi, Philip

    2017-02-15

    The sandfly, Phlebotomus duboscqi is a vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) that is an important public health problem in Eastern Africa. Repellents have been used for protection of humans against vectors of ZCL and other vectors that transmit killer diseases including malaria, Rift Valley fever, dengue, and yellow fever. The repellent effects of different doses of the essential oils from the lemon grass, Cymbopogon citratus and Mexican marigold, Tagetes minuta were evaluated in a two-chamber bioassay against 3- to 7-day-old unfed females of P. duboscqi in the laboratory. The results were compared with those that were obtained when test animals were treated with an equivalent dose of diethyl-3-methylbenzamide, which is a repellent that is commonly used as a positive control. Overall, percentage repellency increased with increasing doses of the essential oils while biting rates decreased with increasing concentrations of the oils. Further, the oil of C. citratus was more potent than that of T. minuta with regard to protection time and biting deterrence. The effective doses at 50% (ED 50 ) and at 90% (ED 90 ) for the oil of C. citratus, were 0.04 and 0.79 mg/ml, respectively. Those of the oil of T. minuta were 0.10 and 12.58 mg/ml. In addition, the percentage repellency of 1 mg/ml of the essential oils of C. citratus and T. minuta against sandflies was 100% and 88.89%, respectively. A lower dose of 0.5 mg/ml of the oils, elicited 89.13% repellency for C. citratus and 52.22% for T. minuta. The laboratory tests showed that the essential oils of the two plants were highly repellent to adult sand flies, P. duboscqi. Thus, the two essential oils are candidate natural repellents that can be used against P. duboscqi due to their high efficacy at very low doses, hence, the envisaged safety in their use over chemical repellents. It remains to carry out clinical studies on human subjects with appropriate formulations of the oils prior to recommending their

  17. Anesthesia and anesthetic action mechanism of essential oils of Aloysia triphylla and Cymbopogon flexuosus in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen).

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Alessandro C; Junior, Guerino B; Zago, Daniane C; Zeppenfeld, Carla C; da Silva, Daniela T; Heinzmann, Berta M; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; da Cunha, Mauro A

    2017-01-01

    To document the time for anesthesia induction and recovery using different concentrations of essential oils (EOs) of Cymbopogon flexuosus and Aloysia triphylla in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen), and to determine whether the mechanism of action of either EO involves the benzodiazepine (BDZ) site of the GABA A receptor. Experimental study. A total of 144 silver catfish, length 7.5 ± 1.1 cm, weighing 3.95 ± 0.85 g. Essential oils were evaluated at concentrations of 25, 150 and 300 μL L -1 , and also ethanol alone (seven groups, n = 6 per group). Induction of sedation or anesthesia and recovery were assessed. In a further six groups (n = 6 per group), fish were exposed to both EOs (25, 150 or 300 μL L -1 ) with diazepam 150 μm, and also diazepam (10 μm) alone. Flumazenil (5 or 10 μm) was added to the recovery water of fish exposed to diazepam (150 μm) or both EOs (150 and 300 μL L -1 ) (total of 10 groups = 60 fish). Both EOs induced anesthesia at concentrations of 150 and 300 μL L -1 , and sedation at 25 μL L -1 . There was no significant difference between EOs for reaching deep anesthesia; there was a significantly longer recovery time for the EO of C. flexuosus. The addition of diazepam (150 μm) resulted in faster induction of anesthesia with both EOs, with no significant change in recovery times. Flumazenil (10 μm) reversed the diazepam-induced anesthesia, but not the anesthesia induced by EOs. The EO of C. flexuosus induced effective sedation (25 μL L -1 ) and anesthesia (150 and 300 μL L -1 ) without short-term mortality. The modulation of the BDZ site of the GABA A receptor in the anesthetic action mechanism of both EOs was not demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. "Singing in the Tube"--audiovisual assay of plant oil repellent activity against mosquitoes (Culex pipiens).

    PubMed

    Adams, Temitope F; Wongchai, Chatchawal; Chaidee, Anchalee; Pfeiffer, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Plant essential oils have been suggested as a promising alternative to the established mosquito repellent DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide). Searching for an assay with generally available equipment, we designed a new audiovisual assay of repellent activity against mosquitoes "Singing in the Tube," testing single mosquitoes in Drosophila cultivation tubes. Statistics with regression analysis should compensate for limitations of simple hardware. The assay was established with female Culex pipiens mosquitoes in 60 experiments, 120-h audio recording, and 2580 estimations of the distance between mosquito sitting position and the chemical. Correlations between parameters of sitting position, flight activity pattern, and flight tone spectrum were analyzed. Regression analysis of psycho-acoustic data of audio files (dB[A]) used a squared and modified sinus function determining wing beat frequency WBF ± SD (357 ± 47 Hz). Application of logistic regression defined the repelling velocity constant. The repelling velocity constant showed a decreasing order of efficiency of plant essential oils: rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), citronella (Cymbopogon nardus), tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), lemon (Citrus limon), patchouli (Pogostemon cablin), DEET, cedar wood (Cedrus atlantica). In conclusion, we suggest (1) disease vector control (e.g., impregnation of bed nets) by eight plant essential oils with repelling velocity superior to DEET, (2) simple mosquito repellency testing in Drosophila cultivation tubes, (3) automated approaches and room surveillance by generally available audio equipment (dB[A]: ISO standard 226), and (4) quantification of repellent activity by parameters of the audiovisual assay defined by correlation and regression analyses.

  19. Oviposition-altering and ovicidal potentials of five essential oils against female adults of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Warikoo, Radhika; Wahab, Naim; Kumar, Sarita

    2011-10-01

    The oviposition deterrence and ovicidal potential of five different essential oils, peppermint oil (Mentha piperita), basil oil (Ocimum basilicum), rosemary oil (Rosemarinus officinalis), citronella oil (Cymbopogon nardus), and celery seed oil (Apium graveolens), were assessed against female adults of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L. Multiple concentration tests were carried out where cups containing 1 mL of different concentrations (100%, 10%, 1%, 0.1%) of the oils and 199 mL of water were used for oviposition. The number of eggs laid and the larvae hatched in each cup were scored to evaluate the oviposition deterrent and ovicidal potentials of the oils. Our investigations revealed that the addition of 100% oil (pure oil) caused complete oviposition deterrence except in A. graveolens which resulted in 75% effective repellency. The use of 10% oil resulted in the maximum deterrence of 97.5% as shown by the M. piperita oil while other oils caused 36-97% oviposition deterrence as against the control. The oviposition medium with 1% oil showed decreased deterrent potential with 30-64% effective repellency, the M. piperita oil being exceptional. However, as the concentrations of the oil were reduced further to 0.1%, the least effective oil observed was A. graveolens (25% ER). Also, the M. piperita oil showed much reduced activity (40%) as compared to the control, while the other oils exhibited 51-58% repellency to oviposition. The studies on the ovicidal effects of these oils revealed that the eggs laid in the water with 100% essential oils did not hatch at all, whereas when 10% oils were used, only the R. officinalis oil resulted in 28% egg hatch. At lower concentrations (1%), the oils of M. piperita, O. basilicum, and C. nardus showed complete egg mortality while those of A. graveolens and R. officinalis resulted in 71% and 34% egg hatches, respectively. When used at 0.1%, the O. basilicum oil was found to be the only effective oil with 100% egg mortality, whereas

  20. Microscopic investigation to determine the effect of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. treatment on different life stages of Musca domestica (L.).

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sapna; Kumar, Peeyush; Malik, Anushree

    2017-06-01

    Microscopic investigation was done to determine the effect of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana and essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus on different life stages of Musca domestica . Scanning electron microscopy investigation of fungal infected larvae showed sluggish movement, rigor, and failure of body to balance in water. Treated larvae also revealed varied level of cuticle shrinkage and extreme dehydration. Surface of B. bassiana infected pupae showed varied stage of mycelial growth, while the cadaver of adult fly was observed to have extensive fungal growth covering their entire body surface. The application of C. citratus oils on M. domestica larvae resulted in skin shrinkage, spinous cells proliferation and bleb formation, while the treated pupae showed high incidence of incomplete emergence and malformation in emerged adult flies. The current study establishes effect of C. citratus essential oil and B. bassiana infection on different life stages of M. domestica .

  1. Scientific validation of synergistic antioxidant effects in commercialised mixtures of Cymbopogon citratus and Pterospartum tridentatum or Gomphrena globosa for infusions preparation.

    PubMed

    Roriz, Custódio Lobo; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-10-15

    Pterospartum tridentatum (L.) Willk., Gomphrena globosa L. and Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. are examples of medicinal plants with antioxidant properties on their own, but that can be improved when mixed. In the present work, the antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds were determined in the infusions prepared from the individual plants, and from mixtures of these plants in different proportions. P. tridentatum > C. citratus > G. globosa was the order observed for antioxidant efficacy, which can be related to their different composition in phenolic compounds. Synergism was the main effect observed among the tested mixtures, mainly for the infusions prepared from the plants in proportion 40%:60% (either P. tridentatum and C. citratus; or G. globosa and C. citratus). The infusion obtained with 40% of P. tridentatum and 60% of C. citratus gave the highest antioxidant properties. The present study validates the commercialisation of the studied plants combined in specific proportions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Trace and Essential Elements Analysis in Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf Samples by Graphite Furnace-Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and Its Health Concern

    PubMed Central

    Anal, Jasha Momo H.

    2014-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf commonly known as lemon grass is used extensively as green tea and even as herbal tea ingredient across the world. Plants have the ability to uptake metals as nutrient from the soil and its environment which are so essential for their physiological and biochemical growth. Concentrations of these twelve trace elements, namely, Mg, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, As, Cd, and Pb, are analysed by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS) and are compared with the permissible limits of FAO/WHO, ICMR, and NIH, USA, which are found to be within permissible limits. Toxic metals like As, Cd, and Pb, analysed are within the tolerable daily diet limit and at low concentration. PMID:25525430

  3. Patent literature on mosquito repellent inventions which contain plant essential oils--a review.

    PubMed

    Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Gama, Renata Antonaci; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Neto, Valter Ferreira de Andrade

    2011-04-01

    Bites Bites of mosquitoes belonging to the genera Anopheles Meigen, Aedes Meigen, Culex L. and Haemagogus L. are a general nuisance and are responsible for the transmission of important tropical diseases such as malaria, hemorrhagic dengue and yellow fevers and filariasis (elephantiasis). Plants are traditional sources of mosquito repelling essential oils (EOs), glyceridic oils and repellent and synergistic chemicals. A Chemical Abstracts search on mosquito repellent inventions containing plant-derived EOs revealed 144 active patents mostly from Asia. Chinese, Japanese and Korean language patents and those of India (in English) accounted for roughly 3/4 of all patents. Since 1998 patents on EO-containing mosquito repellent inventions have almost doubled about every 4 years. In general, these patents describe repellent compositions for use in topical agents, cosmetic products, incense, fumigants, indoor and outdoor sprays, fibers, textiles among other applications. 67 EOs and 9 glyceridic oils were individually cited in at least 2 patents. Over 1/2 of all patents named just one EO. Citronella [Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle, C.winterianus Jowitt ex Bor] and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus LʼHér. spp.) EOs were each cited in approximately 1/3 of all patents. Camphor [Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl], cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume), clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry], geranium (Pelargonium graveolens LʼHér.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), lemon [Citrus × limon (L.) Osbeck], lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf] and peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) EOs were each cited in > 10% of patents. Repellent chemicals present in EO compositions or added as pure “natural” ingredients such as geraniol, limonene, p-menthane-3,8-diol, nepetalactone and vanillin were described in approximately 40% of all patents. About 25% of EO-containing inventions included or were made to be used with synthetic insect control agents having mosquito

  4. Monoterpenic aldehydes as potential anti-Leishmania agents: activity of Cymbopogon citratus and citral on L. infantum, L. tropica and L. major.

    PubMed

    Machado, M; Pires, P; Dinis, A M; Santos-Rosa, M; Alves, V; Salgueiro, L; Cavaleiro, C; Sousa, M C

    2012-03-01

    In order to contribute for the search of new drugs for leishmaniasis, we study the susceptibility of Leishmania infantum, Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major to Cymbopogon citratus essential oil and major compounds, mrycene and citral. C. citratus and citral were the most active inhibiting L. infantum, L. tropica and L. major growth at IC(50) concentrations ranging from 25 to 52 μg/ml and from 34 to 42 μg/ml, respectively. L. infantum promastigotes exposed to essential oil and citral underwent considerable ultrastructural alterations, namely mitochondrial and kinetoplast swelling, autophagosomal structures, disruption of nuclear membrane and nuclear chromatin condensation. C. citratus essential oil and citral promoted the leishmanicidal effect by triggering a programmed cell death. In fact, the leishmanicidal activity was mediated via apoptosis as evidenced by externalization of phosphatidylserine, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and cell-cycle arrest at the G(0)/G(1) phase. Taken together, ours findings lead us to propose that citral was responsible for anti-Leishmania activity of the C. citratus and both may represent a valuable source for therapeutic control of leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Preventive efficacy of hydroalcoholic extract of Cymbopogon citratus against radiation-induced DNA damage on V79 cells and free radical scavenging ability against radicals generated in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rao, B S S; Shanbhoge, R; Rao, B N; Adiga, S K; Upadhya, D; Aithal, B K; Kumar, M R S

    2009-04-01

    This study presents the findings of free radical scavenging and antigenotoxic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Cymbopogon citratus (CCE). The CCE at a concentration of 60 microg/mL resulted in a significant scavenging ability of 2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH; (85%), 2,2-azinobis (3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS; 77%), hydroxyl (70%), superoxide (76%), nitric oxide (78%) free radicals generated using in vitro and also a moderate anti-lipid peroxidative effect (57%). Further, the radiation-induced antigenotoxic potential of CCE was assessed in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells (V79) using micronucleus assay. The CCE resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the yield of radiation-induced micronuclei, with a maximum effect at 125 microg/mL CCE for 1 h before 2 Gy of radiation. Similarly, there was a significant (P < 0.05-0.0001) decrease in percentage of micronuclei when V79 cells were treated with optimal dose of CCE (125 microg/mL) before exposure to different doses of gamma radiation, that is, 0.5-4 Gy, compared with radiation alone groups. The results of the micronucleus study indicated antigenotoxic effect demonstrating the radioprotective potential of CCE and, which may partly due to its and antioxidant capacity as it presented its ability to scavenge various free radicals in vitro and anti-lipid peroxidative potential.

  6. Angolan Cymbopogon citratus used for therapeutic benefits: nutritional composition and influence of solvents in phytochemicals content and antioxidant activity of leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Soares, Marta O; Alves, Rita C; Pires, Pedro C; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Vinha, Ana F

    2013-10-01

    Folk medicine is a relevant and effective part of indigenous healthcare systems which are, in practice, totally dependent on traditional healers. An outstanding coincidence between indigenous medicinal plant uses and scientifically proved pharmacological properties of several phytochemicals has been observed along the years. This work focused on the leaves of a medicinal plant traditionally used for therapeutic benefits (Angolan Cymbopogon citratus), in order to evaluate their nutritional value. The bioactive phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of leaf extracts prepared with different solvents (water, methanol and ethanol) were also evaluated. The plant leaves contained ∼60% of carbohydrates, protein (∼20%), fat (∼5%), ash (∼4%) and moisture (∼9%). The phytochemicals screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, and terpenoids in all extracts. Methanolic extracts also contained alkaloids and steroids. Several methods were used to evaluate total antioxidant capacity of the different extracts (DPPH·, NO·, and H₂O₂ scavenging assays, reducing power, and FRAP). Ethanolic extracts presented a significantly higher antioxidant activity (p<0.05) except for FRAP, in which the best results were achieved by the aqueous extracts. Methanolic extracts showed the lowest radical scavenging activities for both DPPH· and NO· radicals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Control of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species in guava, mango and papaya using synergistic combinations of chitosan and Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. ex Nees) Stapf. essential oil.

    PubMed

    Lima Oliveira, Priscila Dinah; de Oliveira, Kataryne Árabe Rimá; Vieira, Willie Anderson Dos Santos; Câmara, Marcos Paz Saraiva; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2018-02-02

    This study assessed the efficacy of chitosan (Chi) and Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. ex Nees) Stapf. essential oil (CCEO) combinations to control the mycelial growth of five pathogenic Colletotrichum species (C. asianum, C. siamense, C. fructicola, C. tropicale and C. karstii) in vitro, as well as the anthracnose development in guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. Paluma, mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Tommy Atkins and papaya (Carica papaya L.) cv. Papaya artificially inoculated with these species. Combinations of Chi (2.5, 5 or 7.5mg/mL) and CCEO (0.15, 0.3, 0.6 or 1.25μL/mL) inhibited the mycelial growth of all tested fungal species in vitro. Examined Chi-CCEO combinations showed additive or synergistic interactions to inhibit the target Colletotrichum species based on the Abbott index. Coatings formed by synergistic Chi (5mg/mL) and CCEO (0.15, 0.3 or 0.6μL/mL) combinations decreased anthracnose lesion development in guava, mango and papaya inoculated with any of the tested Colleotrichum species during storage. Overall, anthracnose lesion development inhibition in fruit coated with synergistic Chi-CCEO combinations was higher than that observed in fruit treated with synthetic fungicides. These results show that the application of coatings formed by Chi-CCEO synergistic combinations could be effective to control postharvest anthracnose development in fruit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Activity of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum canum, and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils against Plasmodium falciparum and mature-stage larvae of Anopheles funestus s.s.

    PubMed

    Akono Ntonga, Patrick; Baldovini, Nicolas; Mouray, Elisabeth; Mambu, Lengo; Belong, Philippe; Grellier, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The biological activities of essential oils from three plants grown in Cameroon: Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum canum, and Cymbopogon citratus were tested against Plasmodium falciparum and mature-stage larvae of Anopheles funestus. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry analyses showed that the main compounds are geranial, 1,8-cineole and linalool in C. citratus, O. canum and O. basilicum, respectively. Larvicidal tests carried out according to the protocol recommended by the World Health Organization showed that the essential oil of leaves of C. citratus is the most active against larvae of An. funestus (LC50 values = 35.5 ppm and 34.6 ppm, respectively, for larval stages III and IV after 6 h of exposure). Besides, the in vitro anti-plasmodial activity evaluated by the radioisotopic method showed that the C. citratus oil is the most active against P. falciparum, with an IC50 value of 4.2 ± 0.5 μg/mL compared with O. canum (20.6 ± 3.4 μg/mL) and O. basilicum (21 ± 4.6 μg/mL). These essential oils can be recommended for the development of natural biocides for fighting the larvae of malaria vectors and for the isolation of natural products with anti-malarial activity. © P. Akono Ntonga et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014.

  9. Activity of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum canum, and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils against Plasmodium falciparum and mature-stage larvae of Anopheles funestus s.s.

    PubMed Central

    Akono Ntonga, Patrick; Baldovini, Nicolas; Mouray, Elisabeth; Mambu, Lengo; Belong, Philippe; Grellier, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The biological activities of essential oils from three plants grown in Cameroon: Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum canum, and Cymbopogon citratus were tested against Plasmodium falciparum and mature-stage larvae of Anopheles funestus. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography – mass spectrometry analyses showed that the main compounds are geranial, 1,8-cineole and linalool in C. citratus, O. canum and O. basilicum, respectively. Larvicidal tests carried out according to the protocol recommended by the World Health Organization showed that the essential oil of leaves of C. citratus is the most active against larvae of An. funestus (LC50 values = 35.5 ppm and 34.6 ppm, respectively, for larval stages III and IV after 6 h of exposure). Besides, the in vitro anti-plasmodial activity evaluated by the radioisotopic method showed that the C. citratus oil is the most active against P. falciparum, with an IC50 value of 4.2 ± 0.5 μg/mL compared with O. canum (20.6 ± 3.4 μg/mL) and O. basilicum (21 ± 4.6 μg/mL). These essential oils can be recommended for the development of natural biocides for fighting the larvae of malaria vectors and for the isolation of natural products with anti-malarial activity. PMID:24995776

  10. Growth and physiological response of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf.) under different levels of fly ash-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Panda, Debabrata; Panda, Dibyajyoti; Padhan, Bandana; Biswas, Meghali

    2018-05-12

    Revegetation with metal tolerant plants for management of fly ash deposits is an important environmental perspective nowadays. Growth performance, photosynthesis, and antioxidant defense of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf.) were evaluated under various combination of fly ash amended with garden soil in order to assess its fly ash tolerance potential. Under low level of fly ash (25%) amended soil, the plant growth parameters such as shoot, root, and total plant biomass as well as metal tolerance index were increased compared to the control plants grown on garden soil, followed by decline under higher concentration of fly ash (50%, 75% and 100%). In addition, leaf photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and photosystem (PS) II activity were not significantly changed under low level of fly ash (25%) amended soil compared to the garden soil but these parameters were significantly decreased further with increase of fly ash concentrations. Furthermore, increase of activities of some antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and guaiacol peroxidase over control were noticed in lemongrass under all fly ash treatments. Taken together, the study suggests that lemongrass can be used for phytoremediation of fly ash at 25% amended soil.

  11. Cholesterol reduction and lack of genotoxic or toxic effects in mice after repeated 21-day oral intake of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Celso A R A; Bidinotto, Lucas T; Takahira, Regina K; Salvadori, Daisy M F; Barbisan, Luís F; Costa, Mirtes

    2011-09-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) is currently used in traditional folk medicine. Although this species presents widespread use, there are no scientific data on its efficacy or safety after repeated treatments. Therefore, this work investigated the toxicity and genotoxicity of this lemongrass's essential oil (EO) in male Swiss mice. The single LD(50) based on a 24h acute oral toxicity study was found to be around 3500 mg/kg. In a repeated-dose 21-day oral toxicity study, mice were randomly assigned to two control groups, saline- or Tween 80 0.01%-treated groups, or one of the three experimental groups receiving lemongrass EO (1, 10 or 100mg/kg). No significant changes in gross pathology, body weight, absolute or relative organ weights, histology (brain, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, stomach, spleen and urinary bladder), urinalysis or clinical biochemistry were observed in EO-treated mice relative to the control groups. Additionally, blood cholesterol was reduced after EO-treatment at the highest dose tested. Similarly, data from the comet assay in peripheral blood cells showed no genotoxic effect from the EO. In conclusion, our findings verified the safety of lemongrass intake at the doses used in folk medicine and indicated the beneficial effect of reducing the blood cholesterol level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Organic Manures on the Growth of Cymbopogon citratus and Chrysopogon zizanioides for the Phytoremediation of Chromite-Asbestos Mine Waste: A Pot Scale Experiment.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Adarsh; Maiti, Subodh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The abandoned chromite-asbestos mines are located in the Roro hills, West Singhbhum, Jharkhand, India, where mining operation ceased in 1983, and since then these mines are causing environmental pollution. The present study was planned to phytoremediate these metalloid and metal contaminated mine waste by using two aromatic grasses, Cymbopogon citratus and Chrysopogon zizanioides by applying different proportions of amendments (chicken manure, farmyard manure and garden soil). Mine waste has neutral pH, low electrical conductivity and organic carbon with higher concentration of total metals (Cr and Ni) as compared to soil. Application of manures resulted significant improvements of mine waste characteristics and plant growth, reduction in the availability of total extractable toxic metals (Cr, Ni) and increase in Mn, Zn and Cu concentration in the substrate. The maximum growth and biomass production for C. citratus and C. zizanioides were found in T-IV combination comprising of mine waste (90%), chicken manure (2.5%), farmyard manure (2.5%) and garden soil (5%). Addition of T-IV combination also resulted in low Cr and Ni accumulation in roots and reduction in translocation to shoots. Study indicates that C. citratus and C. zizanioides can be used for phytostabilization of abandoned chromite-asbestos mine waste with amendments.

  13. Effect of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oils on the morphology and mortality of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles dirus larvae.

    PubMed

    Soonwera, Mayura; Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn

    2016-04-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oils were evaluated to determine mortality rates, morphological aberrations, and persistence when used against third and fourth larval instars of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles dirus. The oils were evaluated at 1, 5, and 10 % concentrations in mixtures with soybean oil. Persistence of higher concentrations was measured over a period of 10 days. For Ae. aegypti, both plant oils caused various morphological aberrations to include deformed larvae, incomplete eclosion, white pupae, deformed pupae, dead normal pupae, and incomplete pupal eclosion. All of these aberrations led to larval mortality. In Ae. aegypti larvae, there were no significant differences in mortality at days 1, 5, and 10 or between third and fourth larval instar exposure. In An. dirus, morphological aberrations were rare and S. aromaticum oil was more effective in causing mortality among all larval stages. Both oils were equally effective at producing mortality on days 1, 5, and 10. Both oils had slightly increased LT50 rates from day 1 to day 10. In conclusion, both lemongrass and clove oils have significant effects on the immature stages of Ae. aegypti and An. dirus and could potentially be developed for use as larvicides.

  14. Preparation, Characterization, and Pharmacological Activity of Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt ex Bor (Poaceae) Leaf Essential Oil of β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Priscila L.; Araújo, Adriano A. S.; Quintans, Jullyana S. S.; Oliveira, Makson G. B.; Brito, Renan G.; Serafini, Mairim R.; Menezes, Paula P.; Santos, Marcio R. V.; Alves, Pericles B.; de Lucca Júnior, Waldecy; Blank, Arie F.; La Rocca, Viviana; Almeida, Reinaldo N.; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the orofacial antinociceptive effect of the Cymbopogon winterianus essential oil (LEO) complexed in β-cyclodextrin (LEO-CD) and to assess the possible involvement of the central nervous system (CNS). The LEO was extracted, chromatographed, and complexed in β-cyclodextrin. The complex was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry derivative (TG/DTG). Male Swiss mice (2-3 months) were treated with LEO-CD (50–200 mg/kg, p.o.), vehicle (distilled water, p.o.), or standard drug (i.p.) and subjected to the orofacial nociception formalin-, capsaicin-, and glutamate-induced. After the formalin test, the animals were perfused and the brains subjected to immunofluorescence for Fos. The rota-rod test (7 rpm/min) was carried out. Geraniol (37.57%) was the main compound of LEO. DSC and TG/DTG proved the complexation. The orofacial nociceptive behavior was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced. The number of Fos-positive cells was significantly changed in the dorsal raphe nucleus (p < 0.01), locus coeruleus (p < 0.001), trigeminal nucleus (p < 0.05), and trigeminal thalamic tract (p < 0.05). LEO-CD did not cause changes in motor coordination in the rota-rod test. Thus, our results suggested that LEO-CD has an orofacial antinociceptive profile, probably mediated by the activation of the CNS without changing the motor coordination. PMID:26246838

  15. Housefly (Musca domestica L.) control potential of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. (Poales: Poaceae) essential oil and monoterpenes (citral and 1,8-cineole).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Peeyush; Mishra, Sapna; Malik, Anushree; Satya, Santosh

    2013-01-01

    In spite of being a major vector for several domestic, medical, and veterinary pests, the control aspect of the common housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) is often neglected. In the present study, the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus and its major components were evaluated for control of housefly. The chemical composition analysis of C. citratus oil by gas chromatographic mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed citral (47 %) and 1,8-cineole (7.5 %) as principal components. The analysis of oil vapor by solid phase microextraction (SPME/GC-MS) showed increase in citral (74.9 %) and 1,8-cineole (8.6 %) content. Assay of oil against housefly larvae and pupae through contact toxicity assay showed lethal concentration (LC)(50) value of 0.41 μl/cm(2) and of percentage inhibition rate (PIR) of 77.3 %, respectively. Fumigation assay was comparatively more effective with LC(50) of 48.6 μl/L against housefly larvae, and a PIR value of 100 % against housefly pupae. The monoterpenes, citral, and 1,8-cineole, when assessed for their insecticidal activity against housefly larvae, showed LC(50) of 0.002 and 0.01 μl/cm(2) (contact toxicity assay) and LC(50) of 3.3 and 2.4 μl/L (fumigation assay). For pupicidal assay, both citral and 1,8-cineole had a PIR value of 100 %. High efficacy of citral and 1,8-cineole against housefly, established them to be an active insecticidal agent of C. citratus oil. The study demonstrates potentiality of C. citratus oil as an excellent insecticide for housefly control, and the results open up the opportunity of oil/monoterpenes being developed into an eco-friendly, economical, and acceptable product.

  16. Inactivation of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Enteritidis by Cymbopogon citratus D.C. Stapf. Essential Oil in Pineapple Juice.

    PubMed

    Leite, Caroline Junqueira Barcellos; de Sousa, Jossana Pereira; Medeiros, José Alberto da Costa; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; dos Santos Falcão-Silva, Vivyanne; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, the efficacy of Cymbopogon citratus D.C. Stapf. essential oil (CCEO) to provoke a 5-log CFU/ml (5-log) inactivation in a mixed composite of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merril) juice (4°C) was assessed. Moreover, the effects of CCEO on the physicochemical and sensory quality parameters of pineapple juice were evaluated. The MIC of CCEO was 5 μl/ml against the composite mix examined. For L. monocytogenes and E. coli inoculated in juice containing CCEO (5, 2.5, and 1.25 μl/ml), a ≥5-log reduction was detected after 15 min of exposure. This same result was obtained for Salmonella Enteritidis incubated alone in pineapple juice containing CCEO at 5 and 2.5 μl/ml. Overall, Salmonella Enteritidis was the most tolerant and L. monocytogenes was the most sensitive to CCEO. The physicochemical properties (pH, titratable acidic [citric acid per 100 g], and soluble solids) of pineapple juice containing CCEO (2.5 and 1.25 μl/ml) were maintained. Juice containing CCEO (2.5 and 1.25 μl/ml) exhibited similar scores for odor, appearance, and viscosity compared with juice without CCEO. However, unsatisfactory changes in taste and aftertaste were observed in juices containing CCEO. These results suggest that CCEO could be used as an alternative antimicrobial compound to ensure the safety of pineapple juice, although CCEO at the tested concentrations negatively impacted its taste. Therefore, further studies are needed to determine the balance between microbial safety and taste acceptability of pineapple juice containing CCEO.

  17. The anti-allergic activity of Cymbopogon citratus is mediated via inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B (Nf-Κb) activation.

    PubMed

    Santos Serafim Machado, Marta; Ferreira Silva, Hugo Bernardino; Rios, Raimon; Pires de Oliveira, Anaque; Vilany Queiroz Carneiro, Noma; Santos Costa, Ryan; Santos Alves, William; Meneses Souza, Fabio-Luis; da Silva Velozo, Eudes; Alves de Souza, Silvana; Sarmento Silva, Tania Maria; Silva, Maria Lenise; Pontes-de-Carvalho, Lain Carlos; Alcântara-Neves, Neuza Maria; Figueiredo, Camila Alexandrina

    2015-06-06

    The prevalence of allergic diseases such as asthma has significantly increased worldwide, making it a public health concern. There is an urgent need for new anti-inflammatory agents with selective pharmacology and lower toxicity. Plant extracts have been used for centuries in traditional medicine to alleviate inflammatory diseases. In this work, we evaluated the anti-allergic activity of Cymbopogon citratus (Cy), a medicinal herb used by folk medicine to treat asthma. We used a murine model of respiratory allergy to the mite Blomia tropicalis (Bt) and evaluated certain parameters known to be altered in this model. A/J mice were sensitized (100 μg/animal s.c.) and challenged (10 μg/animal i.n.) with Bt mite extract and treated with 60, 120 or 180 mg/kg of Cy standardized hexane extract. The parameters evaluated included: cellular infiltrate in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL); eosinophil peroxidase activity (EPO); histopathological examination of the lung; serum levels of specific IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a; Th2 cytokine concentrations in BAL and expression of NF-κB. Our results showed that oral administration of a Cy hexane extract (especially 180 mg/Kg) reduced the numbers of leukocytes/eosinophils in BAL; the eosinophil peroxidase activity in BAL; the infiltration of leukocytes in lung tissue; the production of mucus in the respiratory tract; the level of IL-4 in BAL and the nuclear expression of NF-κB. The results presented demonstrate the potential of the Cy hexane extract to modulate allergic asthma; this extract may be an alternative future approach to treat this pathology.

  18. Liquid and vapour-phase antifungal activities of selected essential oils against candida albicans: microscopic observations and chemical characterization of cymbopogon citratus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Use of essential oils for controlling Candida albicans growth has gained significance due to the resistance acquired by pathogens towards a number of widely-used drugs. The aim of this study was to test the antifungal activity of selected essential oils against Candida albicans in liquid and vapour phase and to determine the chemical composition and mechanism of action of most potent essential oil. Methods Minimum Inhibitory concentration (MIC) of different essential oils in liquid phase, assayed through agar plate dilution, broth dilution & 96-well micro plate dilution method and vapour phase activity evaluated through disc volatilization method. Reduction of C. albicans cells with vapour exposure was estimated by kill time assay. Morphological alteration in treated/untreated C. albicans cells was observed by the Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and chemical analysis of the strongest antifungal agent/essential oil has been done by GC, GC-MS. Results Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil exhibited the strongest antifungal effect followed by mentha (Mentha piperita) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) essential oil. The MIC of lemon grass essential oil in liquid phase (288 mg/l) was significantly higher than that in the vapour phase (32.7 mg/l) and a 4 h exposure was sufficient to cause 100% loss in viability of C. albicans cells. SEM/AFM of C. albicans cells treated with lemon grass essential oil at MIC level in liquid and vapour phase showed prominent shrinkage and partial degradation, respectively, confirming higher efficacy of vapour phase. GC-MS analysis revealed that lemon grass essential oil was dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes (78.2%); α-citral or geranial (36.2%) and β-citral or neral (26.5%), monoterpene hydrocarbons (7.9%) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (3.8%). Conclusion Lemon grass essential oil is highly effective in vapour phase against C. albicans, leading to deleterious morphological

  19. Proliferating effect of radiolytically depolymerized carrageenan on physiological attributes, plant water relation parameters, essential oil production and active constituents of Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud. under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Singh, Minu; Khan, M Masroor A; Uddin, Moin; Naeem, M; Qureshi, M Irfan

    2017-01-01

    Carrageenan has been proved as potent growth promoting substance in its depolymerized form. However, relatively little is known about its role in counteracting the adverse effects of drought stress on plants. In a pot experiment, lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud.), grown under different water stress regimes [(100% field capacity (FC), 80% FC and 60% FC)], was sprayed with 40, 80 and 120 mg L-1 of gamma irradiated carrageenan (ICA). Foliar application of ICA mitigated the harmful effects of drought stress to various extents and improved the biochemical characteristics, quality attributes and active constituents (citral and geraniol) of lemongrass significantly. Among the applied treatments, ICA-80 mg L-1 proved the best in alleviating detrimental effects of drought. However, drought stress (80 and 60% FC), irrespective of the growth stages, had an adverse impact on most of the studied attributes. Generally, 60% FC proved more deleterious than 80% FC. At 80% FC, application of ICA-80 mg L-1 elevated the essential oil (EO) content by 18.9 and 25%, citral content by 7.33 and 8.19% and geraniol content by 9.2 and 8.9% at 90 and 120 days after planting (DAP), respectively, as compared to the deionized-water (DW) spray treatment (80% FC+ DW). Whereas, at 60% FC, foliar application of 80 mg L-1 ICA significantly augmented the EO content by 15.4 and 17.8% and active constituents viz. citral and geraniol, by 5.01 and 5.62% and by 6.06 and 5.61% at 90 and 120 DAP, respectively, as compared to the control (water-spray treatment).

  20. Proliferating effect of radiolytically depolymerized carrageenan on physiological attributes, plant water relation parameters, essential oil production and active constituents of Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud. under drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M. Masroor A.; Uddin, Moin; Naeem, M.; Qureshi, M. Irfan

    2017-01-01

    Carrageenan has been proved as potent growth promoting substance in its depolymerized form. However, relatively little is known about its role in counteracting the adverse effects of drought stress on plants. In a pot experiment, lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud.), grown under different water stress regimes [(100% field capacity (FC), 80% FC and 60% FC)], was sprayed with 40, 80 and 120 mg L-1 of gamma irradiated carrageenan (ICA). Foliar application of ICA mitigated the harmful effects of drought stress to various extents and improved the biochemical characteristics, quality attributes and active constituents (citral and geraniol) of lemongrass significantly. Among the applied treatments, ICA-80 mg L-1 proved the best in alleviating detrimental effects of drought. However, drought stress (80 and 60% FC), irrespective of the growth stages, had an adverse impact on most of the studied attributes. Generally, 60% FC proved more deleterious than 80% FC. At 80% FC, application of ICA-80 mg L-1 elevated the essential oil (EO) content by 18.9 and 25%, citral content by 7.33 and 8.19% and geraniol content by 9.2 and 8.9% at 90 and 120 days after planting (DAP), respectively, as compared to the deionized-water (DW) spray treatment (80% FC+ DW). Whereas, at 60% FC, foliar application of 80 mg L-1 ICA significantly augmented the EO content by 15.4 and 17.8% and active constituents viz. citral and geraniol, by 5.01 and 5.62% and by 6.06 and 5.61% at 90 and 120 DAP, respectively, as compared to the control (water-spray treatment). PMID:28708833

  1. Geranyl acetate esterase controls and regulates the level of geraniol in lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Nees ex Steud.) mutant cv. GRL-1 leaves.

    PubMed

    Ganjewala, Deepak; Luthra, Rajesh

    2009-01-01

    Essential oil isolated from lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) mutant cv. GRL-1 leaves is mainly composed of geraniol (G) and geranyl acetate (GA). The proportion of G and GA markedly fluctuates during leaf development. The proportions of GA and G in the essential oil recorded at day 10 after leaf emergence were approximately 59% and approximately 33% respectively. However, the level of GA went down from approximately 59 to approximately 3% whereas the level of G rose from approximately 33 to approximately 91% during the leaf growth period from day 10 to day 50. However, the decline in the level of GA was most pronounced in the early (day 10 to day 30) stage of leaf growth. The trend of changes in the proportion of GA and G has clearly indicated the role of an esterase that must be involved in the conversion of GA to G during leaf development. We isolated an esterase from leaves of different ages that converts GA into G and has been given the name geranyl acetate esterase (GAE). The GAE activity markedly varied during the leaf development cycle; it was closely correlated with the monoterpene (GA and G) composition throughout leaf development. GAE appeared as several isoenzymes but only three (GAE-I, GAE-II, and GAE-III) of them had significant GA cleaving activity. The GAE isoenzymes pattern was greatly influenced by the leaf developmental stages and so their GA cleaving activities. Like the GAE activity, GAE isoenzyme patterns were also found to be consistent with the monoterpene (GA and G) composition. GAE had an optimum pH at 8.5 and temperature at 30 degrees C. Besides GAE, a compound with phosphatase activity capable of hydrolyzing geranyl diphosphate (GPP) to produce geraniol has also been isolated.

  2. Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus (D.C) Stapf) polyphenols protect human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs) from oxidative damage induced by high glucose, hydrogen peroxide and oxidised low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Campos, J; Schmeda-Hirschmann, G; Leiva, E; Guzmán, L; Orrego, R; Fernández, P; González, M; Radojkovic, C; Zuñiga, F A; Lamperti, L; Pastene, E; Aguayo, C

    2014-05-15

    The aromatic herb Cymbopogon citratus Stapf is widely used in tropical and subtropical countries in cooking, as a herbal tea, and in traditional medicine for hypertension and diabetes. Some of its properties have been associated with the in vitro antioxidant effect of polyphenols isolated from their aerial parts. However, little is known about C. citratus effects on endothelial cells oxidative injury. Using chromatographic procedures, a polyphenol-rich fraction was obtained from C. citratus (CCF) and their antioxidant properties were assessed by cooper-induced LDL oxidation assay. The main constituents of the active CCF, identified by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS), were chlorogenic acid, isoorientin and swertiajaponin. CCF 10 and 100 μg/ml diminishes reactive oxidative species (ROS) production in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs), challenged with high D-glucose (60% inhibition), hydrogen peroxide (80% inhibition) or oxidised low-density lipoprotein (55% inhibition). CCF 10 or 100 μg/ml did not change nitric oxide (NO) production. However, CCF was able to inhibit vasoconstriction induced by the thromboxane A2 receptor agonist U46619, which suggest a NO-independent vasodilatador effect on blood vessels. Our results suggest that lemon grass antioxidant properties might prevent endothelial dysfunction associated to an oxidative imbalance promoted by different oxidative stimuli. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 27 CFR 21.105 - Citronella oil, natural.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... percent by weight. (2) Aldehyde content (as Citronellal). Not less than 30 percent by weight. (3...) Aldehyde content (as Citronellal). Not less than 7 percent by weight. (3) Refractive index at 20 °C. 1.4790...

  4. 27 CFR 21.105 - Citronella oil, natural.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... percent by weight. (2) Aldehyde content (as Citronellal). Not less than 30 percent by weight. (3...) Aldehyde content (as Citronellal). Not less than 7 percent by weight. (3) Refractive index at 20 °C. 1.4790...

  5. 27 CFR 21.105 - Citronella oil, natural.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... percent by weight. (2) Aldehyde content (as Citronellal). Not less than 30 percent by weight. (3...) Aldehyde content (as Citronellal). Not less than 7 percent by weight. (3) Refractive index at 20 °C. 1.4790...

  6. 27 CFR 21.105 - Citronella oil, natural.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... percent by weight. (2) Aldehyde content (as Citronellal). Not less than 30 percent by weight. (3...) Aldehyde content (as Citronellal). Not less than 7 percent by weight. (3) Refractive index at 20 °C. 1.4790...

  7. 27 CFR 21.105 - Citronella oil, natural.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... percent by weight. (2) Aldehyde content (as Citronellal). Not less than 30 percent by weight. (3...) Aldehyde content (as Citronellal). Not less than 7 percent by weight. (3) Refractive index at 20 °C. 1.4790...

  8. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammatory response by polysaccharide fractions of Khaya grandifoliola (C.D.C.) stem bark, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta (Lindl.) Schltr and Cymbopogon citratus Stapf leaves in raw 264.7 macrophages and U87 glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mediesse, Francine Kengne; Boudjeko, Thaddée; Hasitha, Anantharaju; Gangadhar, Matharasala; Mbacham, Wilfred Fon; Yogeeswari, Perumal

    2018-03-12

    Khaya grandifoliola (C.D.C.) stem bark, Cymbopogon citratus (Stapf) and Cryptolepis sanguinolenta (Lindl.) Schltr leaves are used in Cameroonian traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Several studies have been performed on the biological activities of secondary metabolites extracted from these plants. However, to the best of our knowledge, the anti-neuro inflammatory and protective roles of the polysaccharides of these three plants have not yet been elucidated. This study aimed at investigating potential use of K. grandifoliola, C. sanguinolenta and C. citratus polysaccharides in the prevention of chronic inflammation. Firstly, the composition of polysaccharide fractions isolated from K. grandifoliola stem bark (KGF), C. sanguinolenta (CSF) and C. citratus (CCF) leaves was assessed. Secondly, the cytotoxicity was evaluated on Raw 264.7 macrophages and U87-MG glioblastoma cell lines by the MTT assay. This was followed by the in vitro evaluation of the ability of KGF, CSF and CCF to inhibit lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induced overproduction of various pro-inflammatory mediators (NO, ROS and IL1β, TNFα, IL6, NF-kB cytokines). This was done in Raw 264.7 and U87-MG cells. Finally, the in vitro protective effect of KGF, CSF and CCF against LPS-induced toxicity in the U87-MG cells was evaluated. CCF was shown to mostly contain sugar and no polyphenol while KGP and CSP contained very few amounts of these metabolites (≤ 2%). The three polysaccharide fractions were non-toxic up to 100 μg.mL - 1 . All the polysaccharides at 10 μg/mL inhibited NO production, but only KGF and CCF at 12.5 μg/mL down-regulated LPS-induced ROS overproduction. Finally, 100 μg/mL LPS reduced 50% of U87 cell viability, and pre-treatment with the three polysaccharides significantly increased the proliferation. These results suggest that the polysaccharides of K. grandifoliola, C. citratus and C. sanguinolenta could be beneficial in preventing

  9. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ocheng, Francis; Bwanga, Freddie; Joloba, Moses; Softrata, Abier; Azeem, Muhammad; Pütsep, Katrin; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Obua, Celestino; Gustafsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia) used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents. PMID:26170872

  10. Antinociceptive action and redox properties of citronellal, an essential oil present in lemongrass.

    PubMed

    Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo; da Rocha, Ricardo Fagundes; Caregnato, Fernanda Freitas; Moreira, José Claudio Fonseca; da Silva, Francilene Amaral; Araújo, Adriano Antunes de Souza; dos Santos, João Paulo Almeida; Melo, Mônica Santos; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; Gelain, Daniel Pens

    2011-06-01

    Citronellal (CT) is a monoterpenoid and the major constituent of the mixture of terpenoids that give the citronella oil its lemon scent. Citronella oil is widely used around the world for various purposes and is mainly obtained from plants of the Cymbopogon genus, which are known as "lemongrass." Considering these plants have been used worldwide for various medicinal purposes, the interest of researchers to understand the biological activities of monoterpenoids related to the Cymbopogon genus has been increasing. In the present work, we investigated the antinociceptive action and the redox properties of CT. Our results indicate that intraperitoneal injection of CT was effective in reducing nociceptive face-rubbing behavior in both phases of the formalin test, which was also naloxone-sensitive. CT also evoked antinociceptive response in the capsaicin and glutamate tests. The total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter and total antioxidant reactivity assays indicate that CT at doses of 0.1 and 1 mg/mL exerts a significant antioxidant activity, which is probably related to its ability to scavenge superoxide and nitric oxide, but not H(2)O(2) or hydroxyl radicals, as evaluated separately by specific in vitro tests. These results show for the first time the antinociceptive potential of CT and indicate that the antioxidant properties of this compound may rely on its mechanism of biological actions because CT-containing natural products are used to treat various diseases related to oxidative stress and reactive species.

  11. Antihypertensive potential of the aqueous extract which combine leaf of Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae), stems and leaf of Cymbopogon citratus (D.C) Stapf. (Poaceae), fruits of Citrus medical L. (Rutaceae) as well as honey in ethanol and sucrose experimental model.

    PubMed

    Dzeufiet, Paul Désiré Djomeni; Mogueo, Amélie; Bilanda, Danielle Claude; Aboubakar, Bibi-Farouck Oumarou; Tédong, Léonard; Dimo, Théophile; Kamtchouing, Pierre

    2014-12-17

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of the aqueous extract obtained from the mixture of fresh leaf of Persea americana, stems and fresh leaf of Cymbopogon citratus, fruits of Citrus medica and honey on ethanol and sucrose induced hypertension in rats. Rats were divided into eight groups of 6 rats each and daily treated for 5 weeks. The control group received distilled water (1 mL/kg) while rats of groups 2, 3 and 4 received ethanol 40 degrees (3 g/kg/day), 10% sucrose as drinking water and the two substances respectively. The remaining groups received in addition to sucrose and ethanol, the aqueous extract (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg) or nifedipine (10 mg/kg) respectively. Many parameters including hemodynamic, biochemical and histopathological were assessed at the end of the study. The concomitant consumption of ethanol and sucrose significantly (p < 0.001) increased the blood pressure and the heart rate compared to distilled water treated-rats. The levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, atherogenic index, glucose, proteins, AST, ALT, creatinin, potassium, sodium and albumin increased while the HDL-cholesterol decreased under ethanol and sucrose feeding. Chronic ethanol and sucrose intake significantly decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) as well as the contents of reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitrites whereas elevated the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Histological analysis revealed among other vascular congestion, inflammation, tubular clarification and thickening of the vessel wall in rats treated with alcohol and sucrose. Administration of the aqueous extract or nifedipine prevented the hemodynamic, biochemical, oxidative and histological impairments induced chronic ethanol and sucrose consumption. Current results suggest that the aqueous extract used in this study possess antihypertensive activity against ethanol and sucrose induced hypertension in rats by the improvement of biochemical

  12. Repellent and Anti-quorum Sensing Activity of Six Aromatic Plants Occurring in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Ceballos, Leonor; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus

    2015-10-01

    Essential oils (EOs) are widely used as biopesticides and to control bacterial infections. This study describes the ability of six EOs isolated from plants cultivated in Colombia to perform as repellents against Ulomoides dermestoides and as quorum sensing (QS) inhibitors. EOs from Aloysia triphylla, Cymbopogon nardus, Lippia origanoides, Hyptis suaveolens, Swinglea glutinosa and Eucalyptus globulus were repellents classified as Class IV, IV, IV, III, II, and II, respectively, whereas the commercial repellent IR3535 only reached Class II after 2 h exposure. All EOs presented small, but significant inhibitory properties against the QS system in Escherichia coli (pJBA132) at 25 μg/mL after 4 h exposure. These data suggest evaluated EOs from Colombia are sustainable, promising new sources of natural repellents and could be important as anti-quorum sensing molecules.

  13. The effects of herbal essential oils on the oviposition-deterrent and ovicidal activities of Aedes aegypti (Linn.), Anopheles dirus (Peyton and Harrison) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say).

    PubMed

    Siriporn, P; Mayura, S

    2012-03-01

    The effect of oviposition-deterrent and ovicidal of seven essential oils were evaluated towards three mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles dirus and Culex quinquefasciatus. The oviposition activity index (OAI) values of six essential oils namely Cananga odorata, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Eucalyptus citriodora, Ocimum basilicum and Syzygium aromaticum indicated that there were more deterrent than the control whereas Citrus sinensis oil acted as oviposition attractant. At higher concentration (10%) of Ca. odorata (ylang ylang flowers) showed high percent effective repellency (ER) against oviposition at 99.4% to Ae. aegypti, 97.1% to An. dirus and 100% to Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The results showed that mean numbers of eggs were lower in treated than in untreated water. In addition, there was an inverse relationship between essential oil concentrations and ovicidal activity. As the concentration of essential oil increased from 1%, 5% and up to 10% conc., the hatching rate decreased. The essential oil of Ca. odorata at 10% conc. gave minimum egg hatch of 10.4% (for Ae. aegypti), 0.8% (for An. dirus) and 1.1% (for Cx. quinquefasciatus) respectively. These results clearly revealed that the essential oil of Ca. odorata served as a potential oviposition-deterrent and ovicidal activity against Ae. aegypti, An. dirus and Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  14. Seasonal temperature variations influence tapetum mitosis patterns associated with reproductive fitness.

    PubMed

    Lavania, Umesh C; Basu, Surochita; Kushwaha, Jyotsana Singh; Lavania, Seshu

    2014-09-01

    Environmental stress in plants impacts many biological processes, including male gametogenesis, and affects several cytological mechanisms that are strongly interrelated. To understand the likely impact of rising temperature on reproductive fitness in the climate change regime, a study of tapetal mitosis and its accompanying meiosis over seasons was made to elucidate the influence of temperature change on the cytological events occurring during microsporogenesis. For this we used two species of an environmentally sensitive plant system, i.e., genus Cymbopogon Sprengel (Poaceae), namely Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle var. confertiflorus (Steud.) Bor (2n = 20) and Cymbopogon jwaruncusha (Jones) Schult. (2n = 20). Both species flower profusely during extreme summer (48 °C) and mild winter (15 °C) but support low and high seed fertility, respectively, in the two seasons. We have shown that tapetal mitotic patterns over seasons entail differential behavior for tapetal mitosis. During the process of tapetum development there are episodes of endomitosis that form either (i) an endopolyploid genomically imbalanced uninucleate and multinucleate tapetum, and (or) (ii) an acytokinetic multinucleate genomically balanced tapetum, with the progression of meiosis in the accompanying sporogenous tissue. The relative frequency of occurrence of the two types of tapetum mitosis patterns is significantly different in the two seasons, and it is found to be correlated with the temperature conditions. Whereas, the former (genomically imbalanced tapetum) are prevalent during the hot summer, the latter (genomically balanced tapetum) are frequent under optimal conditions. Such a differential behaviour in tapetal mitosis vis-à-vis temperature change is also correspondingly accompanied by substantial disturbances or regularity in meiotic anaphase disjunction. Both species show similar patterns. The study underpins that tapetal mitotic behaviour per se could be a reasonable indicator to

  15. Naturally occurring bioactive compounds from four repellent essential oils against Bemisia tabaci whiteflies.

    PubMed

    Deletre, Emilie; Chandre, Fabrice; Barkman, Barbara; Menut, Chantal; Martin, Thibaud

    2016-01-01

    In tropical countries, netting is an effective sustainable tool for protecting horticultural crops against Lepidoptera, although not against small pests such as Bemisia tabaci, while smaller mesh netting can be used in temperate regions. A solution is to combine a net with a repellent. Previously we identified repellent essential oils: lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), cumin (Cuminum cyminum) and citronella (Cymbopogon winternarius). The present study was designed to identify the active compounds of these essential oils, characterise their biological activity and examine their potential for coating nets. We investigated the efficiency and toxicity of nets dipped in different solutions. We then studied the repellent effect with an olfactometer and the irritant effect by videotracking. Geraniol and citronellol were the most promising net coatings owing to their repellent effect. The repellency, irritancy or toxicity varied with the product and concentration, and these features were independent, indicating that the repellent and the irritant/toxic mechanisms were not the same. The combined effects of these different compounds account for the bioactivity of the mixture, suggesting interactions between the compounds. This new sustainable strategy for protecting vegetable crops against whiteflies is discussed, in addition to the use of companion plants that could produce such bioactive compounds. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Eco-restoration of a high-sulphur coal mine overburden dumping site in northeast India: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowarah, J.; Deka Boruah, H. P.; Gogoi, J.; Pathak, N.; Saikia, N.; Handique, A. K.

    2009-10-01

    Eco-restoration of mine overburden (OB) or abandoned mine sites is a major environmental concern. In the present investigation, an integrated approach was used to rejuvenate a high-sulphur mine OB dumping site in the Tirap Collieries, Assam, India, which is situated in the Indo-Burma mega-biodiversity hotspot. A mine OB is devoid of true soil character with poor macro and micronutrient content and contains elevated concentrations of trace and heavy metals. Planting of herbs, shrubs, cover crops and tree species at close proximity leads to primary and secondary sere state succession within a period of 3 to 5 years. A variety of plant species were screened for potential use in restoration: herbs, including Sccharum spontaneum, Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (citronella), and Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemon grass) cover plants, including Mimosa strigillosa, M. striata, and M. pigra; shrubs, including Sesbania rostrata (dhaincha) and Cassia streata (cassia); and tree species, including Gmelina arborea (gomari) and Dalbergia sissoo (sissoo). Amendment with unmined soil and bio-organic matter was required for primary establishment of some plant species. Management of these plant species at the site will ensure long term sustainable eco-restoration of the coal mine-degraded land.

  17. Relative efficacy of various oils in repelling mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Ansari, M A; Razdan, R K

    1995-09-01

    Field studies were carried out to determine the relative efficacy of repellant action of vegetable, essential and chemical base oils against vector mosquitoes. Results revealed that essential oils viz. Cymbopogan martinii martinii var. Sofia (palmarosa), Cymbopogan citratus (lemon grass) and Cymbopogan nardus (citronella) oils are as effective as chemical base oil namely mylol. These oils provide almost complete protection against Anopheles culicifacies and other anopheline species. Per cent protection against Culex quinquefasciatus ranged between 95-96%. Camphor (C. camphora) oil also showed repellent action and provided 97.6% protection against An. culicifacies and 80.7% against Cx. quinquefasciatus. Vegetable oils namely mustard (B. compestris) and coconut (C. nucisera) showed repellent action, however the efficacy of these oils was not much pronounced against Cx. quinquefasciatus. Results of statistical analysis revealed significant difference between vegetable and essential oils (p < 0.01) against tested species of mosquitoes. Essential oils were found marginally superior in repellancy than camphor and mylol (p < 0.01) against An. culicifacies and Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  18. Comparison of conventional and plant-extract disinfectant solutions on the hardness and color stability of a maxillofacial elastomer after artificial aging.

    PubMed

    Guiotti, Aimée Maria; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Vechiato-Filho, Aljomar José; Cunha, Bruno Guandalini; Paulini, Marcela Borghi; Moreno, Amália; de Almeida, Margarete Teresa Gottardo

    2016-04-01

    Silicone elastomers undergo physical and chemical degradation with disinfecting solutions. Phytotherapy may be a suitable solution for disinfection. However, its effect on the properties of the silicone material is unknown. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of disinfection with conventional and plant-extract solutions and of artificial aging on the hardness and color stability of a facial silicone associated with pigments and an opacifier. Four hundred specimens of silicone (MDX4-4210) were fabricated (5×6 mm). Two pigment shades and 1 dry opacifier were combined in the tested material, and 4 groups (n=10) were obtained: colorless (GI), colorless with opacifier (GII), medium pigment with opacifier (GIII), and black pigment with opacifier (GIV). Specimens were subjected to disinfection (30 days) using saline solution, water, and neutral soap (digital friction, 30 seconds), chlorhexidine 4%, Hydrastis canadensis, and Cymbopogon nardus extracts (immersion, 10 minutes). Shore A hardness (ASTM D2240) and color analyses were performed before and after disinfection. Specimens were then exposed to 1008 hours of artificial aging (ASTM 53) and subjected to final hardness and color readings. The results were analyzed with ANOVA and the Tukey significant difference test (α=.05). The opacifier increased the hardness (GII). For GII, the H. canadensis solution and the friction with water and soap promoted significantly reduced hardness; the friction also promoted a reduction in this property for GIV. The GIII was not affected after disinfection. A significant difference was found between the ΔE values of the specimens disinfected with H. canadensis, C. nardus, and chlorhexidine, and specimens subjected to saline solution and neutral soap. The hardness of MDX4-4210 after the experimental procedure was considered clinically acceptable for facial prostheses. All groups showed clinically unacceptable color alterations regardless of the disinfecting

  19. Antimicrobial activity, cytotoxicity and chemical analysis of lemongrass essential oil (Cymbopogon flexuosus) and pure citral.

    PubMed

    Adukwu, Emmanuel C; Bowles, Melissa; Edwards-Jones, Valerie; Bone, Heather

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial effects of lemongrass essential oil (C. flexuosus) and to determine cytotoxic effects of both test compounds on human dermal fibroblasts. Antimicrobial susceptibility screening was carried out using the disk diffusion method. Antimicrobial resistance was observed in four of five Acinetobacter baumannii strains with two strains confirmed as multi-drug-resistant (MDR). All the strains tested were susceptible to both lemongrass and citral with zones of inhibition varying between 17 to 80 mm. The mean minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of citral (mic-0.14 % and mbc-0.3 % v/v) was lower than that of Lemongrass (mic-0.65 % and mbc-1.1 % v/v) determined using the microtitre plate method. Cell viability using human dermal fibroblasts (HDF; 106-05a) was determined following exposure to both compounds and a control (Grapeseed oil) using the XTT assay and the IC 50 determined at 0.095 % (v/v) for citral and 0.126 % (v/v) for lemongrass. Grapeseed oil had no effect on cell viability. Live cell imaging was performed using the LumaScope 500 imaging equipment and changes in HDF cell morphology such as necrotic features and shrinkage were observed. The ability of lemongrass essential oil (EO) and citral to inhibit and kill MDR A. baumannii highlights its potential for use in the management of drug-resistant infections; however, in vitro cytotoxicity does suggest further tests are needed before in vivo or ex vivo human exposure.

  20. Chemical analysis and giardicidal effectiveness of the aqueous extract of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.

    PubMed

    Méabed, Eman M H; Abou-Sreea, Alaa I B; Roby, Mohamed H H

    2018-06-01

    Searching for new effective and safe treatment of Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) parasite is mandatory. The aim was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo effectiveness of an aqueous extract prepared from the leaves of Cymbagogon citratus (CcAE) against G. lamblia and to reveal the phenolic and antioxidant properties of CcAE. CcAE (25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 500 μg/ml) was in vitro incubated with G. lamblia trophozoites in comparison with metronidazole (MTZ 10 and 25 μg/ml). Growth inhibition was evaluated after 3, 24, and 48 h of drug exposure. Infected groups of mice were orally treated for 7 days with CcAE at 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg/day/mouse, in comparison with a group treated with 15 mg/kg/day/mouse MTZ for the same period. The total phenolic components (TPC), the total flavonoid components (TFC), the 2,2,diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, and the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for quantitative and qualitative phenolic content were chemically estimated. After 24 and 48 h of in vitro incubation, the estimated minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were 500 and 400 μg/ml, respectively, and the concentrations that induced 50% growth inhibition (IC 50 ) were 93.8 and 60.4 μg/ml, respectively (P < 0.001). Mice given 500 mg/kg CcAE showed 100% stool clearance of G. lamblia stages, similar to MTZ-treated control group (P < 0.001). The TPC was 10.7 ± 0.2 mg GAE/g and the TFC was 23.9 ± 0.3 mg quercetin/g, and the estimated IC 50 for DPPH free radical scavenging was 16.4 ± 0.1 mg/ml. HPLC revealed the major phenolic components of CcAE to be carnosic acid, p-coumaric acid, cinnamiac acid, quercetin, rutin, and chlorogenic acid. In conclusion, CcAE is significantly effective against G. lamblia in vitro and in vivo, and has considerable phenolic and antioxidant properties.

  1. Evaluation of Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oil in lambs experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hematophagous gastrointestinal parasites cause significant economic losses in small ruminant grazing systems. The growing reports of multi-drug resistant parasites call for intensive research on alternative treatments for anthelmintics to help small ruminants cope with these parasites. Two-month-o...

  2. Antimicrobial property of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) oil against pathogenic bacteria isolated from pet turtles.

    PubMed

    De Silva, B C J; Jung, Won-Gi; Hossain, Sabrina; Wimalasena, S H M P; Pathirana, H N K S; Heo, Gang-Joon

    2017-06-01

    The usage of essential oils as antimicrobial agents is gaining attention. Besides, pet turtles were known to harbor a range of pathogenic bacteria while the turtle keeping is a growing trend worldwide.The current study examined the antimicrobial activity of lemon grass oil (LGO) against seven species of Gram negative bacteria namely; Aeromonas hydrophila , A. caviae , Citrobacter freundii , Salmonella enterica , Edwardsiella tarda , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Proteus mirabilis isolated from three popular species of pet turtles. Along with the results of disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentration (MIC and MBC) tests, LGO was detected as effective against 6 species of bacteria excluding P. aeruginosa . MIC of LGO for the strains except P. aeruginosa ranged from 0.016 to 0.5% (V/V). The lowest MIC recorded in the E. tarda strain followed by A. hydrophilla , C. freundii , P. mirabilis , and S. enterica . Interestingly, all the bacterial species except E. tarda were showing high multiple antimicrobial resistance (MAR) index values ranging from 0.36 to 0.91 upon the 11 antibiotics tested although they were sensitive to LGO.

  3. Identification of geranic acid, a tyrosinase inhibitor in lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus).

    PubMed

    Masuda, Toshiya; Odaka, Yuka; Ogawa, Natsuko; Nakamoto, Katsuo; Kuninaga, Hideki

    2008-01-23

    Lemongrass is a popular Asian herb having a lemon-like flavor. Very recently, potent tyrosinase inhibitory activity has been found in lemongrass in addition to various biological activities reported in the literature. The aim of the present study is to identify the active compounds in the lemongrass. An assay-guided purification revealed that one of the active substances was geranic acid. Geranic acid has two stereoisomers, which are responsible for the trans and cis geometry on the conjugated double bond. Both isomers are present in the active ethyl acetate-soluble extract of the lemongrass, and their IC50 values were calculated to be 0.14 and 2.3 mM, respectively. The structure requirement of geranic acid for the potent tyrosinase inhibitory activity was investigated using geranic acid-related compounds.

  4. Antimicrobial property of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) oil against pathogenic bacteria isolated from pet turtles

    PubMed Central

    De Silva, B.C.J.; Jung, Won-Gi; Hossain, Sabrina; Wimalasena, S.H.M.P.; Pathirana, H.N.K.S.

    2017-01-01

    The usage of essential oils as antimicrobial agents is gaining attention. Besides, pet turtles were known to harbor a range of pathogenic bacteria while the turtle keeping is a growing trend worldwide.The current study examined the antimicrobial activity of lemon grass oil (LGO) against seven species of Gram negative bacteria namely; Aeromonas hydrophila, A. caviae, Citrobacter freundii, Salmonella enterica, Edwardsiella tarda, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis isolated from three popular species of pet turtles. Along with the results of disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentration (MIC and MBC) tests, LGO was detected as effective against 6 species of bacteria excluding P. aeruginosa. MIC of LGO for the strains except P. aeruginosa ranged from 0.016 to 0.5% (V/V). The lowest MIC recorded in the E. tarda strain followed by A. hydrophilla, C. freundii, P. mirabilis, and S. enterica. Interestingly, all the bacterial species except E. tarda were showing high multiple antimicrobial resistance (MAR) index values ranging from 0.36 to 0.91 upon the 11 antibiotics tested although they were sensitive to LGO. PMID:28747972

  5. Phytoremediation of metals using lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf.) grown under different levels of red mud in soil amended with biowastes.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Meenu; Pandey, Divya; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2017-06-03

    Due to hostile condition of red mud (RM), its utilization for vegetation is restricted. Therefore, RM with biowastes as soil amendment may offer suitable combination to support plant growth with reduced risk of metal toxicity. To evaluate the effects of RM on soil properties, plant growth performance, and metal accumulation in lemongrass, a study was conducted using different RM concentrations (0, 5, 10, and 15% w/w) in soil amended with biowastes [cow dung manure (CD) or sewage-sludge (SS)]. Application of RM in soil with biowastes improved organic matter and nutrient contents and caused reduction in phytoavailable metal contents. Total plant biomass was increased under all treatments, maximally at 5% RM in soil with SS (91.4%) and CD (51.7%) compared to that in control (no RM and biowastes). Lemongrass acted as a potential metal-tolerant plant as its metal tolerance index is >100%. Based on translocation and bioconcentration factors, lemongrass acted as a potential phytostabilizer of Fe, Mn, and Cu in roots and was found efficient in translocation of Al, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, As, and Ni from roots to shoot. The study suggests that 5% RM with biowastes preferably SS may be used to enhance phytoremediation potential of lemongrass.

  6. Antimicrobial action and anti-corrosion effect against sulfate reducing bacteria by lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil and its major component, the citral

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The anti-corrosion effect and the antimicrobial activity of lemongrass essential oil (LEO) against the planktonic and sessile growth of a sulfate reducing bacterium (SRB) were evaluated. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of LEO and its major component, the citral, was 0.17 mg ml-1. In addition, both LEO and citral showed an immediate killing effect against SRB in liquid medium, suggesting that citral is responsible for the antimicrobial activity of LEO against SRB. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the MIC of LEO caused discernible cell membrane alterations and formed electron-dense inclusions. Neither biofilm formation nor corrosion was observed on carbon steel coupons after LEO treatment. LEO was effective for the control of the planktonic and sessile SRB growth and for the protection of carbon steel coupons against biocorrosion. The application of LEO as a potential biocide for SRB growth control in petroleum reservoirs and, consequently, for souring prevention, and/or as a coating protection against biocorrosion is of great interest for the petroleum industries. PMID:23938023

  7. The anti-biofilm activity of lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) essential oils against five strains of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Adukwu, E C; Allen, S C H; Phillips, C A

    2012-11-01

    To determine the sensitivity of five strains of Staphylococcus aureus to five essential oils (EOs) and to investigate the anti-biofilm activity of lemongrass and grapefruit EOs. Antimicrobial susceptibility screening was carried out using the disk diffusion method. All of the strains tested were susceptible to lemongrass, grapefruit, bergamot and lime EOs with zones of inhibition varying from 2·85 to 8·60 cm although they were resistant to lemon EO. Lemongrass EO inhibited biofilm formation at 0·125% (v/v) as measured by colorimetric assay and at 0·25% (v/v) no metabolic activity was observed as determined by 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) reduction. Grapefruit EO did not show any anti-biofilm activity. Following exposure to lemongrass EO extensive disruption to Staph. aureus biofilms was shown under scanning electron microscopy. In comparison to the other EOs tested, lemongrass exhibited the most effective antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activity. The effect of lemongrass EO highlights its potential against antibiotic resistant Staph. aureus in the healthcare environment. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Antimicrobial action and anti-corrosion effect against sulfate reducing bacteria by lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil and its major component, the citral.

    PubMed

    Korenblum, Elisa; Regina de Vasconcelos Goulart, Fátima; de Almeida Rodrigues, Igor; Abreu, Fernanda; Lins, Ulysses; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Valoni, Erika; Sebastián, Gina V; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Seldin, Lucy

    2013-08-10

    The anti-corrosion effect and the antimicrobial activity of lemongrass essential oil (LEO) against the planktonic and sessile growth of a sulfate reducing bacterium (SRB) were evaluated. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of LEO and its major component, the citral, was 0.17 mg ml-1. In addition, both LEO and citral showed an immediate killing effect against SRB in liquid medium, suggesting that citral is responsible for the antimicrobial activity of LEO against SRB. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the MIC of LEO caused discernible cell membrane alterations and formed electron-dense inclusions. Neither biofilm formation nor corrosion was observed on carbon steel coupons after LEO treatment. LEO was effective for the control of the planktonic and sessile SRB growth and for the protection of carbon steel coupons against biocorrosion. The application of LEO as a potential biocide for SRB growth control in petroleum reservoirs and, consequently, for souring prevention, and/or as a coating protection against biocorrosion is of great interest for the petroleum industries.

  9. Fungicidal and anti-aflatoxigenic effects of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. (lemongrass) against Aspergillus flavus Link. isolated from stored rice.

    PubMed

    Paranagama, P A; Abeysekera, K H T; Abeywickrama, K; Nugaliyadde, L

    2003-01-01

    To develop a natural fungicide against aflatoxigenic fungi, to protect stored rice, using the essential oil of lemongrass. Aspergillus flavus Link. was isolated from stored rice and identified as an aflatoxigenic strain. Lemongrass oil was tested against A. flavus and the test oil was fungistatic and fungicidal against the test pathogen at 0.6 and 1.0 mg ml(-1), respectively. Aflatoxin production was completely inhibited at 0.1 mg ml(-1). The results obtained from the thin layer chromatographic bioassay and gas chromatography indicated citral a and b as the fungicidal constituents in lemongrass oil. During the fumigant toxicity assay of lemongrass oil, the sporulation and the mycelial growth of the test pathogen were inhibited at the concentrations of 2.80 and 3.46 mg ml(-1), respectively. Lemongrass oil could be used to manage aflatoxin formation and fungal growth of A. flavus in stored rice. Currently, fungicides are not used to control fungal pests or mycotoxin production on stored rice. Rice treated with the essential oil of lemongrass could be used to manage fungal pests as well as the insect pests in stored rice. The essential oil is chemically safe and acceptable to consumers, as synthetic chemical fungicides can cause adverse health effects to consumers.

  10. Anti-proliferative effect of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf (lemongrass) on intracellular amastigotes, bloodstream trypomastigotes and culture epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi (Protozoa: Kinetoplastida).

    PubMed

    Santoro, G F; Cardoso, M G; Guimarães, L G L; Freire, J M; Soares, M J

    2007-10-01

    This study analyses the anti-proliferative effect of lemongrass essential oil and its main constituent (citral) on all 3 evolutive forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. Steam distillation was used to obtain lemongrass essential oil, with chemical composition determined by gas chromatography (GC) and GC coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The IC50/24 h (concentration that reduced the parasite population by 50%) of the oil and of citral upon T. cruzi was determined by cell counting in a Neubauer chamber, while morphological alterations were visualized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Treatment with the essential oil resulted in epimastigote growth inhibition with IC50=126.5 microg/ml, while the IC50 for trypomastigote lysis was 15.5 microg/ml. The IC50/48 h for the Association Index (% macrophage infection x number of amastigotes per cell) was 5.1 microg/ml, with a strong inhibition of intracellular amastigote proliferation. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated cytoplasmic and nuclear extraction, while the plasma membrane remained morphologically preserved. Our data show that lemongrass essential oil is effective against T. cruzi trypomastigotes and amastigotes, and that its main component, citral, is responsible for the trypanocidal activity. These results indicate that essential oils can be promising anti-parasitic agents, opening perspectives to the discovery of more effective drugs of vegetal origin for treatment of parasitic diseases. However, additional cytotoxicity experiments on different cell lines and tests in a T. cruzi-mouse model are needed to support these data.

  11. Avoidance behavior to essential oils by Anopheles minimus, a malaria vector in Thailand

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Excito-repellency tests were used to characterize behavioral responses of laboratory colonized Anopheles minimus, a malaria vector in Thailand, using four essential oils, citronella (Cymbopogom nadus), hairy basil (Ocimum americanum), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides), ...

  12. Laboratory evaluation of four commercial repellents against larval Leptotrombidium deliense (Acari: Trombiculidae).

    PubMed

    Hanifah, Azima Laili; Ismail, Siti Hazar Awang; Ming, Ho Tze

    2010-09-01

    Four commercial repellents were evaluated in the laboratory against Leptotrombidium deliense chiggers. Both in vitro and in vivo methods were used to determine repellency of the compounds. The repellents were Kellis (containing citronella oil, jojoba oil and tea tree oil), Kaps (containing citronella oil), BioZ (containing citronella oil, geranium oil and lemon grass oil) and Off (containing DEET). The combination of three active ingredients: citronella oil, geranium oil, lemon grass oil gave the highest repellency (87%) followed by DEET (84%). In vitro repellencies ranged from 73% to 87%. There was no significant difference between the four products. All the repellents had 100% in vivo repellency compared to 41-57% for the controls.

  13. Skin-Applied Repellent Ingredients

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Active ingredients in EPA-registered insect repellents include catnip oil, oil of citronella, DEET, IR 3535, picaridin, oil of lemon eucalyptus, and 2-undecanone. Find fact sheets and pesticide regulatory information.

  14. 21 CFR 182.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Capsicum Capsicum frutescens L. and Capsicum annuum L. Caraway Carum carvi L. Cardamom seed (cardamon... Origanum spp. Palmarosa Cymbopogon martini Stapf. Paprika Capsicum annuum L. Parsley Petroselinum crispum...

  15. Docking, characterization and investigation of β-cyclodextrin complexed with citronellal, a monoterpene present in the essential oil of Cymbopogon species, as an anti-hyperalgesic agent in chronic muscle pain model.

    PubMed

    Santos, Priscila L; Brito, Renan G; Oliveira, Marlange A; Quintans, Jullyana S S; Guimarães, Adriana G; Santos, Márcio R V; Menezes, Paula P; Serafini, Mairim R; Menezes, Irwin R A; Coutinho, Henrique D M; Araújo, Adriano A S; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J

    2016-08-15

    Citronellal (CT) is a monoterpene with antinociceptive acute effect. β-Cyclodextrin (βCD) has enhanced the analgesic effect of various substances. To evaluate the effect of CT both complexed in β-cyclodextrin (CT-βCD) and non-complexed, in a chronic muscle pain model (CMP) in mice. The complex containing CT in βCD was obtained and characterized in the laboratory. The anti-hyperalgesic effect of CT and CT-βCD was evaluated in a pre-clinical in vivo study in a murine CMP. The complex was characterized through differential scanning calorimetry, derivative thermogravimetry, moisture determination, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Male Swiss mice were pre-treated with CT (50mg/kg, po), CT-βCD (50mg/kg, po), vehicle (isotonic saline, po) or standard drug (tramadol4 mg/kg, ip). 60 min after the treatment and then each 1h, the mechanic hyperalgesia was evaluated to obtain the time effect. In addition, the muscle strength using grip strength meter and hyperalgesia were also performed daily, for 7 days. We assessed by immunofluorescence for Fos protein on brains and spinal cords of mice. The involvement of the CT with the glutamatergic system was studied with molecular docking. All characterization methods showed the CT-βCD complexation. CT-induced anti-hyperalgesic effect lasted until 6h (p <0.001) while CT-βCD lasted until 8h (p <0.001vs vehicle and p <0.001vs CT from the 6th h). CT-βCD reduced mechanical hyperalgesia on all days of treatment (p <0.05), without changing muscle strength. Periaqueductal gray (p <0.01) and rostroventromedular area (p <0.05) showed significant increase in the Fos protein expression while in the spinal cord, there was a reduction (p <0.001). CT showed favorable energy binding (-5.6 and -6.1) to GluR2-S1S2J protein based in the docking score function. We can suggest that βCD improved the anti-hyperalgesic effect of CT, and that effect seems to involve the descending pain-inhibitory mechanisms, with a possible interaction of the glutamate receptors, which are considered as promising molecules for the management of chronic pain such as CMP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of metals on essential oil content and composition of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf.) grown under different levels of red mud in sewage sludge amended soil.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Meenu; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2017-05-01

    Lemongrass is a commercially important perennial herb with medicinal value and ability to tolerate high alkaline and saline conditions. Essential oil bearing plants can grow safely in soil contaminated with heavy metals without severe effects on morphology and oil yield. The present study was aimed to assess the essential oil content and composition in lemongrass in response to elevated metals in above-ground plant parts. Pot experiment was conducted for six months using sewage sludge as soil amendment (soil: sludge: 2:1 w/w) followed by red mud treatments (0, 5, 10 and 15% w/w). Garden soil without sludge and red mud was control and there were ten replicates of each treatment. Oil content in leaves was differently affected due to presence of metals in soil under different treatments. Oil content under S RM5 (5% red mud) treatment was raised by 42.9 and 11.5% compared to the control and S RM0 treatment, respectively. Among identified compounds in oil under red mud treatments, 17 compounds contributed more than 90% of total volatiles (citral contributing approximately 70%). Under S RM10 treatment, essential oil showed maximum citral content (75.3%). Contents of Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni and Pb in above-ground plant parts exceeded, whereas Mn was detected within WHO permissible limits for medicinal plants. However, metal contents in essential oil were well within FSSAI limits for food. The study suggests utilization of 5 and 10% red mud in sludge amended soil for lemongrass cultivation to have better oil yield and quality, without metal contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of feeding dried sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel and lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) leaves on growth performance, carcass traits, serum metabolites and antioxidant status in broiler during the finisher phase.

    PubMed

    Alzawqari, M H; Al-Baddany, A A; Al-Baadani, H H; Alhidary, I A; Khan, Rifat Ullah; Aqil, G M; Abdurab, A

    2016-09-01

    The current experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding dried sweet orange peel (SOP) and lemon grass leaves (LGL) as feed additives on broiler growth performance, serum metabolites, and antioxidant status. A total of 192-day-old (Ross 308) broiler chickens were distributed randomly into 4 dietary treatments with 4 replicates per each treatment. The dietary treatments included a control diet without any feed additive (T1), a diet containing 0.8 % SOP (T2), a diet containing 0.8 % LGL (T3), and a diet containing combination of 0.4 % SOP + 0.4 % LGL (T4) was fed during the growth period from 22 to 42 days. Feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), carcass traits, serum components, and antioxidant status were measured. At the end of the experimental period, the results indicated that supplementation of SOP and LGL alone or in combination did not significantly (P > 0.05) affect BWG, FI, FCR, and carcass characteristics in broiler chickens. Serum total protein was increased significantly (P < 0.05) in T3 and T4 compared to the other treatments. Also, serum globulin increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the treated groups. Serum glucose, low density lipoprotein, triglyceride, and very low density lipoprotein decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in the treatment groups, while cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein decreased in T2 compared to the other groups. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher total antioxidant status was observed in T2 compared to the other treatments. In conclusion, these results indicate that SOP, LGL, and their combination may positively modify some serum components and the antioxidant status without any beneficial effect on growth performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens.

  18. An in situ study of growth of Lemongrass Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees ex Steud.) W. Watson on varying concentration of Chromium (Cr+6) on soil and its bioaccumulation: Perspectives on phytoremediation potential and phytostabilisation of chromium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Patra, Deepak Kumar; Pradhan, Chinmay; Patra, Hemanta Kumar

    2018-02-01

    Chromium (Cr) contamination in soil is a growing concern in sustainable agricultural production and food safety. Remediation of Cr from contaminated soils is a challenging task which may not only help in sustaining agriculture but also in minimizing adverse environmental impacts. Pot culture experiments were performed with the application of varied concentration of Cr +6 to assess the Chromium accumulation potential of Lemongrass and to study the impact of toxic concentration of Cr +6 on morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters of the plant. The results showed an increasing accumulation trend of Chromium with increasing Chromium concentrations in both root and shoot of 60 days old Lemongrass plants, while the protein and chlorophyll contents decreased. Similarly, accumulation of Cr increased the levels of proline and antioxidant enzymes indicating the enhanced damage control activity. The potentiality of the plant with the capacity to accumulate and stabilize Cr compound in Cr contaminated soil by phytoremediation process has been explored in the present investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Repellent activity of herbal essential oils against Aedes aegypti (Linn.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say.)

    PubMed Central

    Sritabutra, Duangkamon; Soonwera, Mayura

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the mosquito repellent activity of herbal essential oils against female Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods On a volunteer's forearm, 0.1 mL of each essential oil was applied to 3 cm×10 cm of exposed skin. The protection time was recorded for 3 min after every 30 min. Results Essential oil from clove oil in olive oil and in coconut oil gave the longest lasting period of 76.50 min and 96.00 min respectively against Aedes aegypti. The citronella grass oil in olive oil, citronella grass oil in coconut oil and lemongrass oil in coconut oil exhibited protection against Culex quinquefasciatus at 165.00, 105.00, and 112.50 min respectively. Conclusions The results clearly indicated that clove, citronella and lemongrass oil were the most promising for repellency against mosquito species. These oils could be used to develop a new formulation to control mosquitoes.

  20. 21 CFR 582.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Cananga Cananga odorata Hook. f. and Thoms. Capsicum Capsicum frutescens L. and Capsicum annuum L. Caraway.... Origanum Origanum spp. Palmarosa Cymbopogon martini Stapf. Paprika Capsicum annuum L. Parsley Petroselinum...

  1. 21 CFR 582.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Cananga Cananga odorata Hook. f. and Thoms. Capsicum Capsicum frutescens L. and Capsicum annuum L. Caraway.... Origanum Origanum spp. Palmarosa Cymbopogon martini Stapf. Paprika Capsicum annuum L. Parsley Petroselinum...

  2. 21 CFR 582.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Cananga Cananga odorata Hook. f. and Thoms. Capsicum Capsicum frutescens L. and Capsicum annuum L. Caraway.... Origanum Origanum spp. Palmarosa Cymbopogon martini Stapf. Paprika Capsicum annuum L. Parsley Petroselinum...

  3. 21 CFR 582.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Cananga Cananga odorata Hook. f. and Thoms. Capsicum Capsicum frutescens L. and Capsicum annuum L. Caraway.... Origanum Origanum spp. Palmarosa Cymbopogon martini Stapf. Paprika Capsicum annuum L. Parsley Petroselinum...

  4. 21 CFR 582.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Cananga Cananga odorata Hook. f. and Thoms. Capsicum Capsicum frutescens L. and Capsicum annuum L. Caraway.... Origanum Origanum spp. Palmarosa Cymbopogon martini Stapf. Paprika Capsicum annuum L. Parsley Petroselinum...

  5. Effects of a Synthetic Predator Odor (TMT) on Freezing, Analgesia, Stereotypy, and Spatial Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jon L.; Baez, Catherine; Hladky, Katherine J.; Camacho, Cheri A.

    2005-01-01

    Exposing rats to the predator odor of trimethylthiazoline (TMT), obtained from the red fox, was compared to exposure to the novel control odor of citronella. In Experiment 1, TMT produced defensive freezing and an analgesic reaction that was reversed by an opiate antagonist. In Experiment 2, TMT augmented response stereotypy induced by an…

  6. The Role of the United States Military in the Development of Vector Control Products, Including Insect Repellents, Insecticides, and Bed Nets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    involves overseas laboratories. Repellents and pesticides used by the U.S. military at present must be U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...eucalyptus, citronella, catnip, sage, lavender, basil , thyme, and the tea tree) contain oils that repel arthropods when applied to skin, hair, or wood (that

  7. 9 CFR 327.25 - Disposition procedures for product condemned or ordered destroyed under import inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... coloring, 40 parts water, 40 parts liquid detergent, and 40 parts oil of citronella, or other proprietary... dipping it in a solution of 0.0625 percent tannic acid, followed by immersion in a water bath, then... tannic acid for 1 minute followed by immersion in a water bath, then immersing it for 1 minute in a...

  8. 9 CFR 325.13 - Denaturing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... water, 40 parts liquid detergent, and 40 parts oil of citronella, or other proprietary substance... immersion in a water bath, then immersing it for 1 minute in a solution of 0.022 percent FD&C yellow No. 5... immersion in a water bath, then dipping it in a solution of 0.0625 percent ferric acid; and (5) When meat...

  9. 9 CFR 325.13 - Denaturing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... water, 40 parts liquid detergent, and 40 parts oil of citronella, or other proprietary substance... immersion in a water bath, then immersing it for 1 minute in a solution of 0.022 percent FD&C yellow No. 5... immersion in a water bath, then dipping it in a solution of 0.0625 percent ferric acid; and (5) When meat...

  10. 9 CFR 327.25 - Disposition procedures for product condemned or ordered destroyed under import inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... coloring, 40 parts water, 40 parts liquid detergent, and 40 parts oil of citronella, or other proprietary... dipping it in a solution of 0.0625 percent tannic acid, followed by immersion in a water bath, then... tannic acid for 1 minute followed by immersion in a water bath, then immersing it for 1 minute in a...

  11. 9 CFR 325.13 - Denaturing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... water, 40 parts liquid detergent, and 40 parts oil of citronella, or other proprietary substance... immersion in a water bath, then immersing it for 1 minute in a solution of 0.022 percent FD&C yellow No. 5... immersion in a water bath, then dipping it in a solution of 0.0625 percent ferric acid; and (5) When meat...

  12. 9 CFR 327.25 - Disposition procedures for product condemned or ordered destroyed under import inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... coloring, 40 parts water, 40 parts liquid detergent, and 40 parts oil of citronella, or other proprietary... dipping it in a solution of 0.0625 percent tannic acid, followed by immersion in a water bath, then... tannic acid for 1 minute followed by immersion in a water bath, then immersing it for 1 minute in a...

  13. [Effectiveness of aqueous extracts of aromatic and medicinal plants against tomato grey mould in Morocco].

    PubMed

    Kasmi, Manal; Aourach, Mohammed; El Boukari, Mohammed; Barrijal, Said; Essalmani, Haiat

    2017-08-01

    Grey mould is a major disease threatening the Moroccan tomato; this disease is often controlled by fungicides. However, the latter are a real danger to human health and environment. Thus, this study is part of the research of harmless alternatives such extracts of aromatic and medicinal plants (Lavandula officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Cymbopogon citratus, and Melissa officinalis). In this study, the extracts of four medicinal and aromatic plants were tested for their antifungal potency in vitro and in vivo in order to select the most effective. The results show that, in vitro, the Lavandula officinalis, Thymus vulgaris and Cymbopogon citratus aqueous extracts all possess significant antifungal activity, whereas Melissa officinalis shows the least effective. Also in vivo only the aqueous extract of Cymbopogon citratus proves most effective against B. cinerea on tomato fruit. The test of the plants confirms that aqueous extracts of Cymbopogon citratus and Thymus vulgaris are most effective, while the aqueous extracts of Melissa officinalis and Lavandula officinalis always seem to be the least effective. Therefore, the aqueous extracts of Cymbopogon citratus and Thymus vulgaris are the most envisaged for the biological control of grey mould. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. 27 CFR 21.65 - Formula No. 38-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Cinnamic aldehyde, N.F. IX. Cinnamon oil, N.F. Citronella oil, natural. Clove oil, N.F. Coal tar, U.S.P..., terpeneless. Spike lavender oil, natural. Storax, U.S.P. Thyme oil, N.F. XII. Thymol, N.F. Tolu balsam, U.S.P... the denaturant for analysis. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent: 111.Hair and scalp preparations...

  15. 27 CFR 21.65 - Formula No. 38-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Cinnamic aldehyde, N.F. IX. Cinnamon oil, N.F. Citronella oil, natural. Clove oil, N.F. Coal tar, U.S.P..., terpeneless. Spike lavender oil, natural. Storax, U.S.P. Thyme oil, N.F. XII. Thymol, N.F. Tolu balsam, U.S.P... the denaturant for analysis. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent: 111.Hair and scalp preparations...

  16. 27 CFR 21.65 - Formula No. 38-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Cinnamic aldehyde, N.F. IX. Cinnamon oil, N.F. Citronella oil, natural. Clove oil, N.F. Coal tar, U.S.P..., terpeneless. Spike lavender oil, natural. Storax, U.S.P. Thyme oil, N.F. XII. Thymol, N.F. Tolu balsam, U.S.P... the denaturant for analysis. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent: 111.Hair and scalp preparations...

  17. 27 CFR 21.65 - Formula No. 38-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Cinnamic aldehyde, N.F. IX. Cinnamon oil, N.F. Citronella oil, natural. Clove oil, N.F. Coal tar, U.S.P..., terpeneless. Spike lavender oil, natural. Storax, U.S.P. Thyme oil, N.F. XII. Thymol, N.F. Tolu balsam, U.S.P... the denaturant for analysis. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent: 111.Hair and scalp preparations...

  18. 27 CFR 21.65 - Formula No. 38-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Cinnamic aldehyde, N.F. IX. Cinnamon oil, N.F. Citronella oil, natural. Clove oil, N.F. Coal tar, U.S.P..., terpeneless. Spike lavender oil, natural. Storax, U.S.P. Thyme oil, N.F. XII. Thymol, N.F. Tolu balsam, U.S.P... the denaturant for analysis. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent: 111.Hair and scalp preparations...

  19. Decline in atmospheric sulphur deposition and changes in climate are the major drivers of long-term change in grassland plant communities in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Ruth J; Hewison, Richard L; Fielding, Debbie A; Fisher, Julia M; Gilbert, Diana J; Hurskainen, Sonja; Pakeman, Robin J; Potts, Jacqueline M; Riach, David

    2018-04-01

    The predicted long lag time between a decrease in atmospheric deposition and a measured response in vegetation has generally excluded the investigation of vegetation recovery from the impacts of atmospheric deposition. However, policy-makers require such evidence to assess whether policy decisions to reduce emissions will have a positive impact on habitats. Here we have shown that 40 years after the peak of SO x emissions, decreases in SO x are related to significant changes in species richness and cover in Scottish Calcareous, Mestrophic, Nardus and Wet grasslands. Using a survey of vegetation plots across Scotland, first carried out between 1958 and 1987 and resurveyed between 2012 and 2014, we test whether temporal changes in species richness and cover of bryophytes, Cyperaceae, forbs, Poaceae, and Juncaceae can be explained by changes in sulphur and nitrogen deposition, climate and/or grazing intensity, and whether these patterns differ between six grassland habitats: Acid, Calcareous, Lolium, Nardus, Mesotrophic and Wet grasslands. The results indicate that Calcareous, Mesotrophic, Nardus and Wet grasslands in Scotland are starting to recover from the UK peak of SO x deposition in the 1970's. A decline in the cover of grasses, an increase in cover of bryophytes and forbs and the development of a more diverse sward (a reversal of the impacts of increased SO x ) was related to decreased SO x deposition. However there was no evidence of a recovery from SO x deposition in the Acid or Lolium grasslands. Despite a decline in NO x deposition between the two surveys we found no evidence of a reversal of the impacts of increased N deposition. The climate also changed significantly between the two surveys, becoming warmer and wetter. This change in climate was related to significant changes in both the cover and species richness of bryophytes, Cyperaceae, forbs, Poaceae and Juncaceae but the changes differed between habitats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  20. Effect of plant essential oils on Ralstonia solanacearum race 4 causing bacterial wilt of edible ginger

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Palmarosa (Cymbopogon martini), lemongrass (C. citratus) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) oils were investigated for their effects on Ralstonia solanacearum race 4, and their potential use as bio-fumigants for treating pathogen- infested edible ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) fields. Three conce...

  1. Effect of synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) on the toxicity of some essential oils against mosquito larvae.

    PubMed

    Yadav, S; Mittal, P K; Saxena, P N; Singh, R K

    2008-12-01

    Effect of a known synergist piperonyl butoxide on the toxicity of steam distillate essential oils of Jamarosa (Cymbopogan nardus), Pacholli (Pogostemon pacholli), Basil (Ocimum basilicum), and Peppermint (Mentha pipreta) plant species against Anopheles stephensi larvae were evaluated. The purpose of the present study was to identify the insecticidal potential of these oils against mosquito larvae. The Piperonyl Butoxide (PBO) was used to enhance the activity of these oils with the aim of developing essential oil based formulations. The bioassays of these oils with and without PBO were performed against late 3rd instar larvae of An. stephensi. The LC50 values against An. stephensi were 44.19 ppm for Ocimum basilicum oil, followed by, Mentha pipreta, Cymbopogan nardus, and Pogostemon pacholli oil which gave LC50 values above 250 ppm. Thus in the present study the Ocimum basilicum oil was found to be most effective, whereas Pogostemon pacholli oil was found to least effective against mosquitoes for larvicidal action. The effect of synergist PBO led to the enhancement of toxicity of oils, the LC50 value for Ocimum basilicum were reduced from 44.19 ppm to 23.87 ppm. Similarly the oil of Pogostemon pacholli showed most significant results where the LC50 value was >250 ppm it was reduced to 50 ppm with PBO.

  2. Effect of synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) on the toxicity of some essential oils against mosquito larvae.

    PubMed

    Yadav, S; Mittal, P K; Saxena, P N; Singh, R K

    2009-03-01

    Effect of a known synergist piperonyl butoxide on the toxicity of steam distillate essential oils of Jamarosa (Cymbopogan nardus), Pacholli (Pogostemon pacholli), Basil (Ocimum basilicum), and Peppermint (Mentha pipreta) plant species against Anopheles stephensi larvae were evaluated. The purpose of the present study was to identify the insecticidal potential of these oils against mosquito larvae. The Piperonyl Butoxide (PBO) was used to enhance the activity of these oils with the aim of developing essential oil based formulations. The bioassays of these oils with and without PBO were performed against late 3rd instar larvae of An. stephensi. The LC50 values against An. stephensi were 44.19 ppm for Ocimum basilicum oil, followed by, Mentha pipreta, Cymbopogan nardus, and Pogostemon pacholli oil which gave LC50 values above 250 ppm. Thus in the present study the Ocimum basilicum oil was found to be most effective, whereas Pogostemon pacholli oil was found to least effective against mosquitoes for larvicidal action. The effect of synergist PBO led to the enhancement of toxicity of oils, the LC50 value for Ocimum basilicum were reduced from 44.19 ppm to 23.87 ppm. Similarly the oil of Pogostemon pacholli showed most significant results where the LC50 value was > 250 ppm it was reduced to 50 ppm with PBO.

  3. Vascular plants as ecological indicators of metals in alpine vegetation (Karkonosze, SW Poland).

    PubMed

    Wojtuń, Bronisław; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Żołnierz, Ludwik; Rajsz, Adam; Kempers, Alexander J

    2017-08-01

    Calluna vulgaris, Carex rigida, Deschampsia flexuosa, Nardus stricta and Vaccinium myrtillus are abundant in the vegetation of mountainous areas in Northern and Central Europe. Knowledge of their ability to accumulate increased amounts of metals could be useful in the evaluation of environmental pollution in the alpine tundra of high mountains. Additionally, this investigation may contribute to understanding the rate and direction of recent vegetation change in Karkonosze and similar types of environments. Our investigation revealed that Carex rigida, C. vulgaris and V. myrtillus contain excessive Mn concentrations in shoots with the highest BF for this element compared to the BFs of other elements. C. rigida, with Cu, Mn and Zn concentrations exceeding the toxicity thresholds for plants, seems to be the best metal phytoaccumulator for Nardus stricta grasslands Carici (rigidae)-Nardetum (CrN) and alpine heathlands Carici (rigidae)-Festucetum airoidis (CrFa) associations in the Karkonosze. Based on relevant BFs >1, it can be stated that the following plant available metals were transferred to shoots: Cu, Mn and Ni by C. vulgaris; Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn by C. rigida; Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn by D. flexuosa; Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn by N. stricta and Cu, Mn and Zn by V. myrtillus.

  4. Repellent effect of some household products on fly attraction to cadavers.

    PubMed

    Charabidze, Damien; Bourel, Benoit; Hedouin, Valery; Gosset, Didier

    2009-08-10

    The most common task of a forensic entomologist is to determine an accurate minimum post-mortem interval (PMI) using necrophagous fly larvae found on carrion. More often, blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are the first insects to detect the cadaver and, if the circumstances are favourable, to leave eggs on the body. However, several studies reveal that products such as gas or paint found on the cadaver induce a delay in the colonisation of the body, leading to an under-estimate of the PMI. Six common household products (gas, mosquito citronella repellent, perfume, bleach, hydrochloric acid and soda) were added to dead rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a field (Lille Forensic Institute, France). The presence of necrophagous flies was checked at regular intervals during 1 month. This experiment was repeated at the same period for four consecutive years. Results clearly showed the repellent effect of three of the six tested substances: gas (petroleum spirit), perfume and mosquito citronella repellent, which resulted in a mean delay of several days in the appearance of the first Dipteran species. Experiments were then carried out in controlled conditions in order to confirm previous observations. An olfactometer was specially designed to observe the behaviour of female Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in response to mice (Mus musculus) cadaver odour stimuli combined with household products. Dead mouse odour was a strong attractive stimulus for most of the tested individuals. Furthermore, it was noticed that the presence of mosquito citronella repellent, perfume, hydrochloric acid and paradichlorobenzene produced a significant repellent effect on female flies. All these results together confirm the repellent effect of some household products on flies and the necessity for forensic entomologists to consider this hypothesis when estimating the PMI.

  5. Preparation and characterization of Ni based on natural zeolite catalyst for citronellol conversion to 3,7-Dimethyl-1-Octanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudiyarmanto, Hidayati, Luthfiana N.; Kristiani, Anis; Ghaisani, Almira; Sukandar, Dede; Adilina, Indri B.; Tursiloadi, Silvester

    2017-11-01

    Citronella oil is a kind of essential oil that contains three main components, namely citronellal, citronellol, and geraniol. The high demand of citronellal and geraniol derivative prompted scientists to develop methods which are stereo-selective synthesis. A hydrogenation reaction using heterogeneous catalyst is one way of synthesis of citronella oil derivatives. In this research, synthesis of citronellol oil derivatives using Ni based on natural zeolite (Ni/ZAB) catalyst which is expected to produce the compound of 3,7-dimethyl-1-octanol. The catalyst was prepared by supporting Ni on natural zeolite by impregnation method. The physical and chemical properties of Ni/ZAB catalyst have been characterized by TGA, BET, XRD and FTIR instrumentations. Variation of pressure and temperature reactions were conducted to determine the optimum conditions for the hydrogenation of citronellol. The products from this reaction were analyzed using GC-MS instrumentation. The yield and selectivity of 3,7-dimethyl-1-octanol compound were achieved with optimum conditions at 200°C and 20 bar during 3 hours which produced around 51.97% and 47.81% respectively.

  6. In vitro characterization and mosquito (Aedes aegypti) repellent activity of essential-oils-loaded nanoemulsions.

    PubMed

    Nuchuchua, Onanong; Sakulku, Usawadee; Uawongyart, Napaporn; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit; Soottitantawat, Apinan; Ruktanonchai, Uracha

    2009-01-01

    The nanoemulsions composed of citronella oil, hairy basil oil, and vetiver oil with mean droplet sizes ranging from 150 to 220 nm were prepared and investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Larger emulsion droplets (195-220 nm) shifted toward a smaller size (150-160 nm) after high-pressure homogenization and resulted in higher release rate. We proposed that thin films obtained from the nanoemulsions with smaller droplet size would have higher integrity, thus increasing the vaporization of essential oils and subsequently prolonging the mosquito repellant activity. The release rates were fitted with Avrami's equations and n values were in the same range of 0.6 to 1.0, implying that the release of encapsulated limonene was controlled by the diffusion mechanism from the emulsion droplet. By using high-pressure homogenization together with optimum concentrations of 5% (w/w) hairy basil oil, 5% (w/w) vetiver oil (5%), and 10% (w/w) citronella oil could improve physical stability and prolong mosquito protection time to 4.7 h due to the combination of these three essential oils as well as small droplet size of nanoemulsion.

  7. Investigation of the dermal sensitization potential of various essential oils in the local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Lalko, J; Api, A M

    2006-05-01

    Essential oils are commonly used fragrance ingredients. The oils themselves are complex mixtures, which may contain naturally occurring contact sensitizers. The local lymph node assay was used to evaluate the dermal sensitization potential of basil, citronella, clove leaf, geranium, litsea cubeba, lemongrass, and palmarosa oils. Three of the major components--citral, eugenol, and geraniol--were included to investigate any difference in sensitization potential arising from their exposure in a mixture. Each fragrance material was tested at five concentration ranging from 2.5% to 50% w/v in 1:3 ethanol:diethyl phthalate. The stimulation index (SI) values were calculated for each dose level, an SI > or = 3 was considered a positive response. The estimated concentration (EC3) required to elicit a positive was calculated and taken as a measure of relative potency. The EC3 values and potency classification for basil, clove leaf, litsea cubeba, lemongrass and palmarosa oils were calculated to be <2.5% (> or = moderate), 7.1% (weak), 8.4% (weak), 6.5% (weak) and 9.6% (weak), respectively. Citronella and geranium oils were negative. The individual components citral, eugenol and geraniol resulted in EC3 values of 6.3%, 5.4% and 11.4%, respectively. In general, the potency of each essential oil did not differ significantly from that observed for its main individual component.

  8. De Novo Sequencing and Analysis of Lemongrass Transcriptome Provide First Insights into the Essential Oil Biosynthesis of Aromatic Grasses.

    PubMed

    Meena, Seema; Kumar, Sarma R; Venkata Rao, D K; Dwivedi, Varun; Shilpashree, H B; Rastogi, Shubhra; Shasany, Ajit K; Nagegowda, Dinesh A

    2016-01-01

    Aromatic grasses of the genus Cymbopogon (Poaceae family) represent unique group of plants that produce diverse composition of monoterpene rich essential oils, which have great value in flavor, fragrance, cosmetic, and aromatherapy industries. Despite the commercial importance of these natural aromatic oils, their biosynthesis at the molecular level remains unexplored. As the first step toward understanding the essential oil biosynthesis, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of C. flexuosus (lemongrass) by employing Illumina sequencing. Mining of transcriptome data and subsequent phylogenetic analysis led to identification of terpene synthases, pyrophosphatases, alcohol dehydrogenases, aldo-keto reductases, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases, alcohol acetyltransferases, and aldehyde dehydrogenases, which are potentially involved in essential oil biosynthesis. Comparative essential oil profiling and mRNA expression analysis in three Cymbopogon species (C. flexuosus, aldehyde type; C. martinii, alcohol type; and C. winterianus, intermediate type) with varying essential oil composition indicated the involvement of identified candidate genes in the formation of alcohols, aldehydes, and acetates. Molecular modeling and docking further supported the role of identified protein sequences in aroma formation in Cymbopogon. Also, simple sequence repeats were found in the transcriptome with many linked to terpene pathway genes including the genes potentially involved in aroma biosynthesis. This work provides the first insights into the essential oil biosynthesis of aromatic grasses, and the identified candidate genes and markers can be a great resource for biotechnological and molecular breeding approaches to modulate the essential oil composition.

  9. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Trichosporon ovoides causing Piedra Hair Infection.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Seema; Uniyal, Veena; Bhatt, R P

    2012-10-01

    Piedra, is an asymptomatic fungal infection of the hair shaft, resulting in the formation of nodules of different hardness on the infected hair. The infection also known as Trichomycosis nodularis is a superficial fungal infection arising from the pathogen being restricted to the stratum corneum with little or no tissue reaction. The nodules are a concretion of hyphae and fruiting bodies of the fungus. Two varieties of Piedra may be seen, Black Piedra and White Piedra. The fungus Trichosporon ovoides is involved in the occurrence of both types of Piedras. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of selected essential oils for the control of growth of the fungus and to determine whether the antifungal effect was due to the major compounds of the oils. Two screening methods viz. Agar well diffusion assay and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration were adopted for the study. MIC and MFC were determined by tube dilution method. Essential oils from Eucalyptus, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Cymbopogon winterians, Trachyspermum ammi, Zingiber officinalis, Citrus limon, Cinnamomon zeylanicum, Salvia sclarea, Citrus aurantifolia, Melaleuca alternifolia, Citrus aurantium, Citrus bergamia, Pogostemon pathchouli, Cedrus atlantica, Jasminum officinale, Juniperus communis, Abelmoschus moschatus, Cyperus scariosus, Palargonium graveolens, Boswellia carterii, Rosa damascene, Veteveria zizanoides and Commiphora myrrha were evaluated. The essential oils of Cymbopogon winterians, Mentha piperita, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Melaleuca alternifolia and Eucalyptus globulus were proved to be most effective against the fungus Trichosporon ovoides.

  10. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Trichosporon ovoides causing Piedra Hair Infection

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Seema; Uniyal, Veena; Bhatt, R.P.

    2012-01-01

    Piedra, is an asymptomatic fungal infection of the hair shaft, resulting in the formation of nodules of different hardness on the infected hair. The infection also known as Trichomycosis nodularis is a superficial fungal infection arising from the pathogen being restricted to the stratum corneum with little or no tissue reaction. The nodules are a concretion of hyphae and fruiting bodies of the fungus. Two varieties of Piedra may be seen, Black Piedra and White Piedra. The fungus Trichosporon ovoides is involved in the occurrence of both types of Piedras. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of selected essential oils for the control of growth of the fungus and to determine whether the antifungal effect was due to the major compounds of the oils. Two screening methods viz. Agar well diffusion assay and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration were adopted for the study. MIC and MFC were determined by tube dilution method. Essential oils from Eucalyptus, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Cymbopogon winterians, Trachyspermum ammi, Zingiber officinalis, Citrus limon, Cinnamomon zeylanicum, Salvia sclarea, Citrus aurantifolia, Melaleuca alternifolia, Citrus aurantium, Citrus bergamia, Pogostemon pathchouli, Cedrus atlantica, Jasminum officinale, Juniperus communis, Abelmoschus moschatus, Cyperus scariosus, Palargonium graveolens, Boswellia carterii, Rosa damascene, Veteveria zizanoides and Commiphora myrrha were evaluated. The essential oils of Cymbopogon winterians, Mentha piperita, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Melaleuca alternifolia and Eucalyptus globulus were proved to be most effective against the fungus Trichosporon ovoides. PMID:24031963

  11. De Novo Sequencing and Analysis of Lemongrass Transcriptome Provide First Insights into the Essential Oil Biosynthesis of Aromatic Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Seema; Kumar, Sarma R.; Venkata Rao, D. K.; Dwivedi, Varun; Shilpashree, H. B.; Rastogi, Shubhra; Shasany, Ajit K.; Nagegowda, Dinesh A.

    2016-01-01

    Aromatic grasses of the genus Cymbopogon (Poaceae family) represent unique group of plants that produce diverse composition of monoterpene rich essential oils, which have great value in flavor, fragrance, cosmetic, and aromatherapy industries. Despite the commercial importance of these natural aromatic oils, their biosynthesis at the molecular level remains unexplored. As the first step toward understanding the essential oil biosynthesis, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of C. flexuosus (lemongrass) by employing Illumina sequencing. Mining of transcriptome data and subsequent phylogenetic analysis led to identification of terpene synthases, pyrophosphatases, alcohol dehydrogenases, aldo-keto reductases, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases, alcohol acetyltransferases, and aldehyde dehydrogenases, which are potentially involved in essential oil biosynthesis. Comparative essential oil profiling and mRNA expression analysis in three Cymbopogon species (C. flexuosus, aldehyde type; C. martinii, alcohol type; and C. winterianus, intermediate type) with varying essential oil composition indicated the involvement of identified candidate genes in the formation of alcohols, aldehydes, and acetates. Molecular modeling and docking further supported the role of identified protein sequences in aroma formation in Cymbopogon. Also, simple sequence repeats were found in the transcriptome with many linked to terpene pathway genes including the genes potentially involved in aroma biosynthesis. This work provides the first insights into the essential oil biosynthesis of aromatic grasses, and the identified candidate genes and markers can be a great resource for biotechnological and molecular breeding approaches to modulate the essential oil composition. PMID:27516768

  12. Ethnobotanical study of some of mosquito repellent plants in north-eastern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kweka, Eliningaya J; Mosha, Franklin; Lowassa, Asanterabi; Mahande, Aneth M; Kitau, Jovin; Matowo, Johnson; Mahande, Michael J; Massenga, Charles P; Tenu, Filemoni; Feston, Emmanuel; Lyatuu, Ester E; Mboya, Michael A; Mndeme, Rajabu; Chuwa, Grace; Temu, Emmanuel A

    2008-01-01

    Background The use of plant repellents against nuisance biting insects is common and its potential for malaria vector control requires evaluation in areas with different level of malaria endemicity. The essential oils of Ocimum suave and Ocimum kilimandscharicum were evaluated against malaria vectors in north-eastern Tanzania. Methodology An ethnobotanical study was conducted at Moshi in Kilimanjaro region north-eastern Tanzania, through interviews, to investigate the range of species of plants used as insect repellents. Also, bioassays were used to evaluate the protective potential of selected plants extracts against mosquitoes. Results The plant species mostly used as repellent at night are: fresh or smoke of the leaves of O. suave and O. kilimandscharicum (Lamiaceae), Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), Eucalyptus globules (Myrtaceae) and Lantana camara (Verbenaceae). The most popular repellents were O. kilimandscharicum (OK) and O. suave (OS) used by 67% out of 120 households interviewed. Bioassay of essential oils of the two Ocimum plants was compared with citronella and DEET to study the repellence and feeding inhibition of untreated and treated arms of volunteers. Using filter papers impregnated with Ocimum extracts, knockdown effects and mortality was investigated on malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae, including a nuisance mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus. High biting protection (83% to 91%) and feeding inhibition (71.2% to 92.5%) was observed against three species of mosquitoes. Likewise the extracts of Ocimum plants induced KD90 of longer time in mosquitoes than citronella, a standard botanical repellent. Mortality induced by standard dosage of 30 mg/m2 on filter papers, scored after 24 hours was 47.3% for OK and 57% for OS, compared with 67.7% for citronella. Conclusion The use of whole plants and their products as insect repellents is common among village communities of north-eastern Tanzania and the results indicate that the use of

  13. Essential Oils, Part IV: Contact Allergy.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Anton C; Schmidt, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 80 essential oils (including 2 jasmine absolutes) have caused contact allergy. Fifty-five of these have been tested in consecutive patients suspected of contact dermatitis, and nine (laurel, turpentine, orange, tea tree, citronella, ylang-ylang, sandalwood, clove, and costus root) showed greater than 2% positive patch test reactions. Relevance data are generally missing or inadequate. Most reactions are caused by application of pure oils or high-concentration products. The clinical picture depends on the responsible product. Occupational contact dermatitis may occur in professionals performing massages. The (possible) allergens in essential oils are discussed. Several test allergens are available, but patients should preferably be tested with their own products. Co-reactivity with other essential oils and the fragrance mix is frequent, which may partly be explained by common ingredients. Patch test concentrations for essential oils are suggested.

  14. In vitro repellent effect of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) and andiroba (Carapa guianensis) oils on Haemotobia irritans and Chrysomya megacephala flies.

    PubMed

    Klauck, V; Pazinato, R; Radavelli, W M; Volpato, A; Stefani, L M; Santos, R C V; Vaucher, R A; Boligon, A A; Athayde, M L; Da Silva, A S

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the repellent effect of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) and andiroba (Carapa guianensis) essential oils on two species of flies (Haemotobia irritans and Chrysomya megacephala). For the in vitro studies, free-living adult flies were captured and reared in the laboratory. To verify the repellency effect, an apparatus was constructed where H. irritans and C. megacephala were exposed to andiroba and tea tree oils (5.0%), as well as to a known repellent (citronella, 5.0%) to validate the test. The study demonstrated that all three oils used showed in vitro repellent effect against both species of flies. It is possible to conclude that the essential oils (tea tree and andiroba) have repellent effect on these species of flies used in this study.

  15. The additive properties of Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay: the case of essential oils.

    PubMed

    Bentayeb, Karim; Vera, Paula; Rubio, Carlos; Nerín, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    The ORAC assay is applied to measure the antioxidant capacity of foods or dietary supplements. Sometimes, the manufacturers claim antioxidant capacities that may not correspond to the constituents of the product. These statements are sheltered by the general understanding that antioxidants might exhibit synergistic properties, but this is not necessarily true when dealing with ORAC assay values. This contribution applies the ORAC assay to measure the antioxidant capacity of ten essential oils typically added to foodstuffs: citronella, dill, basil, red thyme, thyme, rosemary, oregano, clove and cinnamon. The major components of these essential oils were twenty-one chemicals in total. After a preliminary discrimination, the antioxidant capacity of eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, α-pinene, limonene and linalool was determined. The results showed that 72-115% of the antioxidant capacity of the essential oils corresponded to the addition of the antioxidant capacity of their constituents. Thus, the ORAC assay showed additive properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficient Egress of Escaping Ants Stressed with Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Boari, Santiago; Josens, Roxana; Parisi, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    In the present work we investigate the egress times of a group of Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) stressed with different heating speeds. We found that the higher the temperature ramp is, the faster ants evacuate showing, in this sense, a group-efficient evacuation strategy. It is important to note that even when the life of ants was in danger, jamming and clogging was not observed near the exit, in accordance with other experiments reported in the literature using citronella as aversive stimuli. Because of this clear difference between ants and humans, we recommend the use of some other animal models for studying competitive egress dynamics as a more accurate approach to understanding competitive egress in human systems. PMID:24312264

  17. Evaluation of different methods for immobilization of Candida antarctica lipase B (CalB lipase) in polyurethane foam and its application in the production of geranyl propionate.

    PubMed

    Nicoletti, Gabrieli; Cipolatti, Eliane P; Valério, Alexsandra; Carbonera, NatáliaThaisa Gamba; Soares, Nicole Spillere; Theilacker, Eron; Ninow, Jorge L; de Oliveira, Débora

    2015-09-01

    With the aim of studying the best method for the interaction of polyurethane (PU) foam and Candida antarctica lipase B, different methods of CalB immobilization were studied: adsorption (PU-ADS), bond (using polyethyleneimine) (PU-PEI), ionic adsorption by PEI with cross-linking with glutaraldehyde (PU-PEI-GA) and entrapment (PU). The characterization of immobilized enzyme derivatives was performed by apparent density and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The free enzyme and enzyme preparations were evaluated at different pH values and temperatures. The highest enzyme activity was obtained using the PU method (5.52 U/g). The methods that stood out to compare the stabilities and kinetic parameters were the PU and PU-ADS. Conversions of 83.5 and 95.9 % for PU and PU-ADS derivatives were obtained, in 24 h reaction, using citronella oil and propionic acid as substrates.

  18. Selective Essential Oils from Spice or Culinary Herbs Have High Activity against Stationary Phase and Biofilm Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jie; Zhang, Shuo; Shi, Wanliang; Zubcevik, Nevena; Miklossy, Judith; Zhang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Although the majority of patients with acute Lyme disease can be cured with the standard 2–4 week antibiotic treatment, about 10–20% of patients continue suffering from chronic symptoms described as posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome. While the cause for this is debated, one possibility is that persister bacteria are not killed by the current Lyme antibiotics and remain active in the system. It has been reported that essential oils have antimicrobial activities and some have been used by patients with persisting Lyme disease symptoms. However, the activity of essential oils against the causative agent Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi) has not been well studied. Here, we evaluated the activity of 34 essential oils against B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture as a model for persister bacteria. We found that not all essential oils had activity against the B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture, with top five essential oils (oregano, cinnamon bark, clove bud, citronella, and wintergreen) at a low concentration of 0.25% showing high anti-persister activity that is more active than the known persister drug daptomycin. Interestingly, some highly active essential oils were found to have excellent anti-biofilm ability as shown by their ability to dissolve the aggregated biofilm-like structures. The top three hits, oregano, cinnamon bark, and clove bud completely eradicated all viable cells without any regrowth in subculture in fresh medium, whereas but not citronella and wintergreen did not have this effect. Carvacrol was found to be the most active ingredient of oregano oil showing excellent activity against B. burgdorferi stationary phase cells, while other ingredients of oregano oil p-cymene and α-terpinene had no apparent activity. Future studies are needed to characterize and optimize the active essential oils in drug combination studies in vitro and in vivo and to address their safety and pharmacokinetic properties before they can be considered as a

  19. Selective Essential Oils from Spice or Culinary Herbs Have High Activity against Stationary Phase and Biofilm Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jie; Zhang, Shuo; Shi, Wanliang; Zubcevik, Nevena; Miklossy, Judith; Zhang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Although the majority of patients with acute Lyme disease can be cured with the standard 2-4 week antibiotic treatment, about 10-20% of patients continue suffering from chronic symptoms described as posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome. While the cause for this is debated, one possibility is that persister bacteria are not killed by the current Lyme antibiotics and remain active in the system. It has been reported that essential oils have antimicrobial activities and some have been used by patients with persisting Lyme disease symptoms. However, the activity of essential oils against the causative agent Borrelia burgdorferi ( B. burgdorferi ) has not been well studied. Here, we evaluated the activity of 34 essential oils against B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture as a model for persister bacteria. We found that not all essential oils had activity against the B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture, with top five essential oils (oregano, cinnamon bark, clove bud, citronella, and wintergreen) at a low concentration of 0.25% showing high anti-persister activity that is more active than the known persister drug daptomycin. Interestingly, some highly active essential oils were found to have excellent anti-biofilm ability as shown by their ability to dissolve the aggregated biofilm-like structures. The top three hits, oregano, cinnamon bark, and clove bud completely eradicated all viable cells without any regrowth in subculture in fresh medium, whereas but not citronella and wintergreen did not have this effect. Carvacrol was found to be the most active ingredient of oregano oil showing excellent activity against B. burgdorferi stationary phase cells, while other ingredients of oregano oil p-cymene and α-terpinene had no apparent activity. Future studies are needed to characterize and optimize the active essential oils in drug combination studies in vitro and in vivo and to address their safety and pharmacokinetic properties before they can be considered as a

  20. Lemongrass and citral effect on cytokines production by murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bachiega, Tatiana Fernanda; Sforcin, José Maurício

    2011-09-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf (Poaceae-Gramineae), an herb commonly known as lemongrass (LG), is an important source of ethnomedicines as well as citral, the major constituent of Cymbopogon citratus, used in perfumery, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries for controlling pathogens. Thus, the goal of this work was to analyze the effect of LG and citral on cytokines production (IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10) in vitro, as well as before or after LPS incubation. Peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice were treated with LG or citral in different concentrations for 24h. The concentrations that inhibited cytokines production were tested before or after macrophages challenge with LPS, in order to evaluate a possible anti-inflammatory action. Supernatants of cell cultures were used for cytokines determination by ELISA. As to IL-1β, only citral inhibited its release, exerting an efficient action before LPS challenge. LG and citral inhibited IL-6 release. Cymbopogon citratus showed inhibitory effects only after LPS challenge, whereas citral prevented efficiently LPS effects before and after LPS addition. Citral inhibited IL-10 production and although LG did not inhibit its production, the concentration of 100 μg/well was tested in the LPS-challenge protocol, because it inhibited IL-6 production. LG inhibited LPS action after macrophages incubation with LPS, while citral counteracted LPS action when added before or after LPS incubation. LG exerted an anti-inflammatory action and citral may be involved in its inhibitory effects on cytokines production. We suggest that a possible mechanism involved in such results could be the inhibition of the transcription factor NF-κB. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hypotensive and vasorelaxant effects of citronellol, a monoterpene alcohol, in rats.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Joana F A; Moreira, Italo J A; Ribeiro, Thaís P; Medeiros, Isac A; Antoniolli, Angelo R; De Sousa, Damião P; Santos, Márcio R V

    2010-04-01

    Citronellol is an essential oil constituent from the medicinal plants Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon winterianus and Lippia alba which are thought to possess antihypertensive properties. Citronellol-induced cardiovascular effects were evaluated in this study. In rats, citronellol (1-20 mg/kg, i.v.) induced hypotension, which was not affected by pre-treatment with atropine, hexamethonium, N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride or indomethacin, and tachycardia, which was only attenuated by pre-treatment with atropine and hexamethonium. These responses were less than those obtained for nifedipine, a reference drug. In intact rings of rat mesenteric artery pre-contracted with 10 microM phenylephrine, citronellol induced relaxations (pD(2) = 0.71 +/- 0.11; E(max) = 102 +/- 5%; n = 6) that were not affected by endothelium removal, after tetraethylamonium in rings without endothelium pre-contracted with KCl 80 mM. Citronellol strongly antagonized (maximal inhibition = 97 +/- 4%; n = 6) the contractions induced by CaCl(2) (10(-6) to 3 x 10(-3 )M) and did not induce additional effects on the maximal response of nifedipine (10 microM). Finally, citronellol inhibited the contractions induced by 10 microM phenylephrine or 20 mM caffeine. The present results suggest that citronellol lowers blood pressure by a direct effect on the vascular smooth muscle leading to vasodilation.

  2. Insecticidal and Repellent Activity of Several Plant-Derived Essential Oils Against Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Ruth M; Stashenko, Elena; Duque, Jonny E

    2017-03-01

    We examined the pupicidal, adulticidal, repellent, and oviposition-deterrent activities of essential oils (EOs) from Lippia alba, L. origanoides, Eucalyptus citriodora, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Citrus sinensis , Cananga odorata , Swinglea glutinosa, and Tagetes lucida plants against Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions. Pupicidal and adulticidal activities were assessed at exploratory concentrations of 250, 310, and 390 parts per million (ppm); and 30, 300, and 1,000 ppm, respectively. The greatest pupicidal activity was exhibited at 390 ppm with a 24-h exposure by L. origanoides, and 390 ppm with a 48-h exposure by Citrus sinensis . Lippia origanoides killed all adult mosquitoes at 300 ppm after 120 min of exposure. Only L. origanoides and E. citriodora EOs, applied at 1,000 ppm to human skin, produced the greatest repellency (100%) to host-seeking Ae. aegypti after 2 min of exposure; the repellency decreased between 12% and 10% after 15 min. Complete oviposition deterrence by gravid Ae. aegypti was observed for E. citriodora EOs at 200 ppm with an oviposition activity index of -1.00. These results confirm that the EOs assessed in this study have insecticidal, repellent, and oviposition-deterrent activities against the dengue vector, Ae. aegypti.

  3. Screening of some essential oils against Trichosporon species.

    PubMed

    Uniyal, Veena; Saxena, Seema; Bhatt, R P

    2013-01-01

    White Piedra is a superficial mycoses characterized by nodules on the hair shaft, caused by the basidiomycetous yeast Trichosporon species. In this study 25 essential oils were extracted and screened against two Trichosporon species i.e. Trichosporon asahii and Trichosporon cutaneum. Both these fungi procured from MTCC Chandigarh were maintained on yeast malt agar plates and tubes at 25 degrees C. Two screening methods viz., agar well diffusion assay and minimum inhibitory concentration were adopted for the study. The results showed that the maximum anti-yeast activity against T. asahii and T. cutaneum was demonstrated by oil of Mentha piperita showing full inhibition of both the fungi, Melaleuca alternifolia with an inhibition zone of 45 and 40 mm, Cymbopogon winterians with inhibition zone of 45 and 45 mm and Cymbopogon flexuosus with 35 and 30 mm inhibition zones. The oil of Trachyspermum ammi exhibited 10 and 20 mm, Abelmoschus moschatus exhibited 30 and 20 mm, Salvia sclarea showed 20 and 18 mm and Jasminum officinale exhibited 25 and 15 mm inhibition zones showing moderate activity. The oil of Cyperus scariosus, Pogostemon patchouli and Rosa damascene showed no inhibition zone against both the fungi while Vetiveria zizanoides exhibited no inhibition in case of T. asahii and inhibition zone of 10 mm in case of T. cutaneum demonstrating comparatively low activity against both the fungi. These results support that the essential oils can be used to cure superficial mycoses and these oils may have significant role as pharmaceuticals and preservatives.

  4. Action of Coriandrum sativum L. Essential Oil upon Oral Candida albicans Biofilm Formation.

    PubMed

    Furletti, V F; Teixeira, I P; Obando-Pereda, G; Mardegan, R C; Sartoratto, A; Figueira, G M; Duarte, R M T; Rehder, V L G; Duarte, M C T; Höfling, J F

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of extracts and essential oils from Allium tuberosum, Coriandrum sativum, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, and Santolina chamaecyparissus was evaluated against Candida spp. isolates from the oral cavity of patients with periodontal disease. The most active oil was fractionated and tested against C. albicans biofilm formation. The oils were obtained by water-distillation and the extracts were prepared with macerated dried plant material. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration-MIC was determined by the microdilution method. Chemical characterization of oil constituents was performed using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). C. sativum activity oil upon cell and biofilm morphology was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The best activities against planktonic Candida spp. were observed for the essential oil and the grouped F(8-10) fractions from C. sativum. The crude oil also affected the biofilm formation in C. albicans causing a decrease in the biofilm growth. Chemical analysis of the F(8-10) fractions detected as major active compounds, 2-hexen-1-ol, 3-hexen-1-ol and cyclodecane. Standards of these compounds tested grouped provided a stronger activity than the oil suggesting a synergistic action from the major oil constituents. The activity of C. sativum oil demonstrates its potential for a new natural antifungal formulation.

  5. Development of shampoo, soap and ointment formulated by green synthesised silver nanoparticles functionalised with antimicrobial plants oils in veterinary dermatology: treatment and prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Bansod, Sunita Dashrath; Bawaskar, Manisha Subrashrao; Gade, Aniket Krishnarao; Rai, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Many scientists have focused their research on the role of nanotechnology for the control of human pathogens, but there are also many topical pathogens present in animals, which infect animals and transfer to humans. Topical therapy is extremely important for the management of dermatological condition in animals. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the efficacy of biogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in combination with herbal oils against animal skin infections which may be responsible for causing infections in human beings. Here, the authors synthesised and characterised the AgNPs from Azadirachta indica. The oils were extracted from medicinal plants including Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon martini, Eucalyptus globules, A. indica and Ocimum sanctum and the antifungal and antibacterial activity of plant oils along with AgNPs were evaluated. An excision wound model was used for the study of wound healing activity in rabbits. AgNPs functionalised oil has demonstrated remarkable antimicrobial activity against pathogens present on the skin of animals. The nano-functionalised antimicrobial oils were used in the formulation of shampoo, soap and ointment for veterinary dermatology. Antimicrobial products of plant origin with AgNPs are valuable, safe and have a specific role in controlling diseases. The authors believe that this approach will be a good alternative therapy to solve the continuous antibiotic resistance developed by many bacterial pathogens and will be utilised in various animal contacting areas in medicine.

  6. Effect of medicinal plants extracts on the incidence of mosaic disease caused by cucumber mosaic virus and growth of chili

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidson, H.; Damiri, N.; Angraini, E.

    2018-01-01

    This research was conducted to study the effect of the application of several extracts of medicinal plants on the incidence of mosaic disease caused by Cucumber Mosaic Virus infection on the chili (Capsicum annuum L.) plantation. A Randomized Block Design with eight treatments including control was used throughout the experiment. Treatments consisted of Azadiracta indica (A), Piper bitle (B), Cymbopogon citrates (C), Curcuma domestica (D), Averroa bilimbi (E), Datura stramonium (F), Annona Muricata (G) and control (H). Each treatment consist of three replications. The parameters observed were the incidence of mosaic attack due to CMV, disease severity, plant height, wet and dry weight and production (number of fruits and the weight of total fruits) each plant. Results showed that the application of medicinal plant extracts reduced the disease severity due to CMV. Extracts of Annona muricata and Datura stramonium were most effective in suppressing disease severity caused by the virus as they significantly different from control and from a number of treatment. The plants medicinal extracts were found to have increased the plant height and total weight of the plant, fruit amount and fruit weight. Extracts of Curcuma domestica, Piper bitle and Cymbopogon citrates were the third highest in fruit amount and weight and significantly different from the control.

  7. Effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production: a potential source of botanical food preservative

    PubMed Central

    Gemeda, Negero; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Asrat, Daniel; Debella, Asfaw

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production. Method In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity of essential oils was carried out using poisoned food techniques, spore germination assay, agar dilution assay, and aflatoxin arresting assay on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Results Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) essential oils were tested against toxicogenic isolates of Aspergillus species. T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 µl/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed, complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 µl/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting aflatoxin production from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 µl/mL, respectively. Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and T. ammi oils as antifungal were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5 336.297 µl/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity and strengthening its traditional reputations. Conclusions In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by storage fungi. PMID:25183114

  8. New Perspectives on Antiacne Plant Drugs: Contribution to Modern Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Narayan Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Acne is a common but serious skin disease, which affects approximately 80% adolescents and young adults in 11–30 age group. 42.5% of men and 50.9% of women continue to suffer from this disease into their twenties. Bacterial resistance is now at the alarming stage due to the irrational use of antibiotics. Hence, search for new lead molecule/bioactive and rational delivery of the existing drug (for better therapeutic effect) to the site of action is the need of the hour. Plants and plant-derived products have been an integral part of health care system since time immemorial. Therefore, plants that are currently used for the treatment of acne and those with a high potential are summarized in the present review. Most active plant extracts, namely, P. granatum, M. alba, A. anomala, and M. aquifolium exhibit minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the range of 4–50 µg/mL against P. acnes, while aromatic oils of C. obovoides, C. natsudaidai, C. japonica, and C. nardus possess MICs 0.005–0.6 μL/mL and phytomolecules such as rhodomyrtone, pulsaquinone, hydropulsaquinone, honokiol, magnolol, xanthohumol lupulones, chebulagic acid and rhinacanthin-C show MIC in the range of 0.5–12.5 μg/mL. Novel drug delivery strategies of important plant leads in the treatment of acne have also been discussed. PMID:25147793

  9. Nutrient and energy content, in vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics and methanogenic potential of alpine forage plant species during early summer.

    PubMed

    Jayanegara, Anuraga; Marquardt, Svenja; Kreuzer, Michael; Leiber, Florian

    2011-08-15

    Plants growing on alpine meadows are reported to be rich in phenols. Such compounds may affect ruminal fermentation and reduce the plants' methanogenic potential, making alpine grazing advantageous in this respect. The objective of this study was to quantify nutrients and phenols in Alpine forage grasses, herbs and trees collected over 2 years and, in a 24 h in vitro incubation, their effects on ruminal fermentation parameters. The highest in vitro gas production, resulting in metabolisable energy values around 10 MJ kg⁻¹, were found with Alchemilla xanthochlora and Crepis aurea (herbaceous species) and with Sambucus nigra leaves and flowers (tree species). Related to the amount of total gas production, methane formation was highest with Nardus stricta, and lowest with S. nigra and A. xanthochlora. In addition, Castanea sativa leaves led to an exceptional low methane production, but this was accompanied by severely impaired ruminal fermentation. When the data were analysed by principal component analysis, phenol concentrations were negatively related with methane proportion in total gas. Variation in methane production potential across the investigated forages was small. The two goals of limited methane production potential and high nutritive value for ruminants were met best by A. xanthochlora and S. nigra. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Preferential uptake of soil nitrogen forms by grassland plant species.

    PubMed

    Weigelt, Alexandra; Bol, Roland; Bardgett, Richard D

    2005-02-01

    In this study, we assessed whether a range of temperate grassland species showed preferential uptake for different chemical forms of N, including inorganic N and a range of amino acids that commonly occur in temperate grassland soil. Preferential uptake of dual-labelled (13C and 15N) glycine, serine, arginine and phenylalanine, as compared to inorganic N, was tested using plants growing in pots with natural field soil. We selected five grass species representing a gradient from fertilised, productive pastures to extensive, low productivity pastures (Lolium perenne, Holcus lanatus, Anthoxanthum odoratum, Deschampsia flexuosa, and Nardus stricta). Our data show that all grass species were able to take up directly a diversity of soil amino acids of varying complexity. Moreover, we present evidence of marked inter-species differences in preferential use of chemical forms of N of varying complexity. L. perenne was relatively more effective at using inorganic N and glycine compared to the most complex amino acid phenylalanine, whereas N. stricta showed a significant preference for serine over inorganic N. Total plant N acquisition, measured as root and shoot concentration of labelled compounds, also revealed pronounced inter-species differences which were related to plant growth rate: plants with higher biomass production were found to take up more inorganic N. Our findings indicate that species-specific differences in direct uptake of different N forms combined with total N acquisition could explain changes in competitive dominance of grass species in grasslands of differing fertility.

  11. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of plant essential oils from Benin against Anopheles gambiae (Giles)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Insecticide resistance in sub-Saharan Africa and especially in Benin is a major public health issue hindering the control of the malaria vectors. Each Anopheles species has developed a resistance to one or several classes of the insecticides currently in use in the field. Therefore, it is urgent to find alternative compounds to conquer the vector. In this study, the efficacies of essential oils of nine plant species, which are traditionally used to avoid mosquito bites in Benin, were investigated. Methods Essential oils of nine plant species were extracted by hydrodistillation, and their chemical compositions were identified by GC-MS. These oils were tested on susceptible “kisumu” and resistant “ladji-Cotonou” strains of Anopheles gambiae, following WHO test procedures for insecticide resistance monitoring in malaria vector mosquitoes. Results Different chemical compositions were obtained from the essential oils of the plant species. The major constituents identified were as follows: neral and geranial for Cymbopogon citratus, Z-carveol, E-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol and E-p-mentha-2,8-dienol for Cymbopogon giganteus, piperitone for Cymbopogon schoenanthus, citronellal and citronellol for Eucalyptus citriodora, p-cymene, caryophyllene oxide and spathulenol for Eucalyptus tereticornis, 3-tetradecanone for Cochlospermum tinctorium and Cochlospermum planchonii, methyl salicylate for Securidaca longepedunculata and ascaridole for Chenopodium ambrosioides. The diagnostic dose was 0.77% for C. citratus, 2.80% for E. tereticornis, 3.37% for E. citriodora, 4.26% for C. ambrosioides, 5.48% for C. schoenanthus and 7.36% for C. giganteus. The highest diagnostic doses were obtained with S. longepedunculata (9.84%), C. tinctorium (11.56%) and C. planchonii (15.22%), compared to permethrin 0.75%. A. gambiae cotonou, which is resistant to pyrethroids, showed significant tolerance to essential oils from C. tinctorium and S. longepedunculata as expected but was

  12. [Diagnostic workup of fragrance allergy].

    PubMed

    Geier, J; Uter, W

    2015-09-01

    The diagnostic workup of contact allergy to fragrances must not be limited to patch testing with the two well-established fragrance mixes. False-positive reactions to these mixes occur in up to 50 % of the patch tested patients. For the diagnostic work-up of positive reactions, and in cases of suspected fragrance allergy, patch testing with the single mix components and additional fragrances is mandatory. Frequently sensitizing fragrance materials are the 14 components of the two fragrance mixes and tree moss (Evernia furfuracea), ylang ylang oil (I + II; Cananga odorata), lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon schoenanthus), sandalwood oil (Santalum album), jasmine absolute (Jasminum spp.), and, less frequently, clove oil (Eugenia caryophyllus), cedarwood oil (Cedrus atlantica/deodara, Juniperus virginiana), Neroli oil (Citrus aurantium amara flower oil), salicylaldehyde, narcissus absolute (Narcissus spp.), and patchouli oil (Pogostemon cablin).

  13. Evaluation of some essential oils for their toxicity against fungi causing deterioration of stored food commodities.

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, A K; Dubey, N K

    1994-01-01

    During screening of essential oils for their antifungal activities against Aspergillus flavus, the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus was found to exhibit fungitoxicity. The MIC of the oil was found to be 1,000 ppm, at which it showed its fungistatic nature, wide fungitoxic spectrum, nonphytotoxic nature, and superiority over synthetic fungicides, i.e., Agrosan G. N., Thiride, Ceresan, Dithane M-45, Agrozim, Bavistin, Emison, Thiovit, wettable sulfur, and copper oxychloride. The fungitoxic potency of the oil remained unaltered for 7 months of storage and upon introduction of high doses of inoculum of the test fungus. It was thermostable in nature with treatment at 5 to 100 degrees C. These findings thus indicate the possibility of exploitation of the essential oil of C. citratus as an effective inhibitor of storage fungi. PMID:8017906

  14. In vitro inhibitory activity of essential oil vapors against Ascosphaera apis.

    PubMed

    Kloucek, Pavel; Smid, Jakub; Flesar, Jaroslav; Havlik, Jaroslav; Titera, Dalibor; Rada, Vojtech; Drabek, Ondrej; Kokoska, Ladislav

    2012-02-01

    This work evaluates the in vitro inhibitory activity of 70 essential oils (EOs) in the vapor phase for the control of Chalkbrood disease caused by Ascosphaera apis Maassen ex Claussen (Olive et Spiltoir). Two wild strains isolated from infected honey bee colonies together with one standard collection strain were tested by the microatmosphere method. From 70 EOs, 39 exhibited an antifungal effect against A. apis standard and wild strains. The greatest antifungal action was observed for EO vapors from Armoracia rusticana, followed by Thymus vulgaris, Cymbopogon flexosus, Origanum vulgare and Allium sativum. An investigation of chemical composition by GC-MS revealed, that the most active EOs contained allyl isothiocyanate, citral, carvacrol and diallyl sulfides as the main constituents. The chemical composition plays a key role, as activities of different EOs from the same botanical species were different according to their composition.

  15. Hydroquinone; A novel bioactive compound from plant-derived smoke can cue seed germination of lettuce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamran, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul L.; Ali, Liaqat; Hussain, Javid; Waqas, Muhammad; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Imran, Qari M.; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Kang, Sang-Mo; Yun, Byung-Wook; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-05-01

    Plant-derived smoke has been known to play an important role in distribution and growth of vegetation. Using a proficiently designed furnace, we extracted smoke from the leaves of four plant viz. Helianthus annuus, Aloe vera, Ginkgo biloba, and Cymbopogon jwarancusa. Smoke dilutions obtained from these plants were obtained in different concentrations to identify potential lettuce growth promoting smoke solution. Results revealed that smoke obtained from Ginkgo biloba significantly enhanced the lettuce seed germination. This solution was then partitioned into ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, n-hexane, chloroform and ether fractions. Ethyl acetate fraction was found to be potent to enhance seed germination. This fraction was subjected to column chromatography and spectroscopic techniques to obtain compound 1. This compound was identified as hydroquinone using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. At low concentrations (5, 10 and 20 ppm), compound 1 enhanced the lettuce seed germination; however, higher concentrations inhibited its growth as compared to control.

  16. Effect of lemongrass water extract supplementation on atherogenic index and antioxidant status in rats.

    PubMed

    Somparn, Nuntiya; Saenthaweeuk, Suphaket; Naowaboot, Jarinyaporn; Thaeomor, Atcharaporn; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol

    2018-06-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf., commonly known as lemongrass, possesses strong antioxidant and cardiotonic properties. Lemongrass water extract contains several polyphenolic compounds including gallic acid, isoquercetin, quercetin, rutin, catechin and tannic acid. Rutin, isoquercetin catechin and quercetin are the flavonoids most abundantly found in the extract. The extract significantly decreased total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein and atherogenic index in rats after treatment (p < 0.05). Expression of genes and protein of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP1c) and HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) was also lowered significantly in treated groups (p < 0.05). Moreover, serum antioxidant capacity increased in treated rats in comparison with untreated ones (p < 0.05) and was associated with decreased serum lipid peroxidation.

  17. Evaluation of some essential oils for their toxicity against fungi causing deterioration of stored food commodities.

    PubMed

    Mishra, A K; Dubey, N K

    1994-04-01

    During screening of essential oils for their antifungal activities against Aspergillus flavus, the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus was found to exhibit fungitoxicity. The MIC of the oil was found to be 1,000 ppm, at which it showed its fungistatic nature, wide fungitoxic spectrum, nonphytotoxic nature, and superiority over synthetic fungicides, i.e., Agrosan G. N., Thiride, Ceresan, Dithane M-45, Agrozim, Bavistin, Emison, Thiovit, wettable sulfur, and copper oxychloride. The fungitoxic potency of the oil remained unaltered for 7 months of storage and upon introduction of high doses of inoculum of the test fungus. It was thermostable in nature with treatment at 5 to 100 degrees C. These findings thus indicate the possibility of exploitation of the essential oil of C. citratus as an effective inhibitor of storage fungi.

  18. Hydroquinone; A Novel Bioactive Compound from Plant-Derived Smoke Can Cue Seed Germination of Lettuce

    PubMed Central

    Kamran, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul L.; Ali, Liaqat; Hussain, Javid; Waqas, Muhammad; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Imran, Qari M.; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Kang, Sang-Mo; Yun, Byung-Wook; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-01-01

    Plant-derived smoke has been known to play an important role in distribution and growth of vegetation. Using a proficiently designed furnace, we extracted smoke from the leaves of four plant viz. Helianthus annuus,Aloe vera,Ginkgo biloba, and Cymbopogon jwarancusa. Smoke dilutions obtained from these plants were obtained in different concentrations to identify potential lettuce growth promoting smoke solution. Results revealed that smoke obtained from G. biloba significantly enhanced the lettuce seed germination. This solution was then partitioned into ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, n-hexane, chloroform and ether fractions. Ethyl acetate fraction was found to be potent to enhance seed germination. This fraction was subjected to column chromatography and spectroscopic techniques to obtain compound 1. This compound was identified as hydroquinone using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. At low concentrations (5, 10, and 20 ppm), compound 1 enhanced the lettuce seed germination; however, higher concentrations inhibited its growth as compared to control. PMID:28553632

  19. Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of 10 medicinal plants used in northeast Mexico.

    PubMed

    Molina-Garza, Zinnia Judith; Bazaldúa-Rodríguez, Aldo Fabio; Quintanilla-Licea, Ramiro; Galaviz-Silva, Lucio

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to screen the trypanocidal activity of plants used in traditional Mexican medicine for the treatment of various diseases related to parasitic infections. Cultured Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes were incubated for 96h with different concentrations of methanolic extracts obtained from Artemisia mexicana, Castela texana, Cymbopogon citratus, Eryngium heterophyllum, Haematoxylum brasiletto, Lippia graveolens, Marrubium vulgare, Persea americana, Ruta chalepensis and Schinus molle. The inhibitory concentration (IC50) was determined for each extract via a colorimetric method. Among the evaluated species, the methanolic extracts of E. heterophyllum, H. brasiletto, M. vulgare and S. molle exhibited the highest trypanocidal activity, showing percentages of growth inhibition between 88 and 100% at a concentration of 150μg/ml. These medicinal plants may represent a valuable source of new bioactive compounds for the therapeutic treatment of trypanosomiasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydroquinone; A Novel Bioactive Compound from Plant-Derived Smoke Can Cue Seed Germination of Lettuce.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul L; Ali, Liaqat; Hussain, Javid; Waqas, Muhammad; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Imran, Qari M; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Kang, Sang-Mo; Yun, Byung-Wook; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-01-01

    Plant-derived smoke has been known to play an important role in distribution and growth of vegetation. Using a proficiently designed furnace, we extracted smoke from the leaves of four plant viz. Helianthus annuus , Aloe vera , Ginkgo biloba , and Cymbopogon jwarancusa . Smoke dilutions obtained from these plants were obtained in different concentrations to identify potential lettuce growth promoting smoke solution. Results revealed that smoke obtained from G. biloba significantly enhanced the lettuce seed germination. This solution was then partitioned into ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, n -hexane, chloroform and ether fractions. Ethyl acetate fraction was found to be potent to enhance seed germination. This fraction was subjected to column chromatography and spectroscopic techniques to obtain compound 1 . This compound was identified as hydroquinone using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. At low concentrations (5, 10, and 20 ppm), compound 1 enhanced the lettuce seed germination; however, higher concentrations inhibited its growth as compared to control.

  1. Construction of conductive multilayer films of biogenic triangular gold nanoparticles and their application in chemical vapour sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Amit; Chaudhari, Minakshi; Sastry, Murali

    2006-05-01

    Metal nanoparticles are interesting building blocks for realizing films for a number of applications that include bio- and chemical sensing. To date, spherical metal nanoparticles have been used to generate functional electrical coatings. In this paper we demonstrate the synthesis of electrically conductive coatings using biologically prepared gold nanotriangles as the building blocks. The gold nanotriangles are prepared by the reduction of aqueous chloroaurate ions using an extract of the lemongrass plant (Cymbopogon flexuosus) which are thereafter assembled onto a variety of substrates by simple solution casting. The conductivity of the film shows a drastic fall upon mild heat treatment, leading to the formation of electrically conductive thin films of nanoparticles. We have also investigated the possibility of using the gold nanotriangle films in vapour sensing. A large fall in film resistance is observed upon exposure to polar molecules such as methanol, while little change occurs upon exposure to weakly polar molecules such as chloroform.

  2. Gd(OTf)3-catalyzed synthesis of geranyl esters for the intramolecular radical cyclization of their epoxides mediated by titanocene(III).

    PubMed

    García Santos, William H; Puerto Galvis, Carlos E; Kouznetsov, Vladimir V

    2015-02-07

    A selective and mild method for the esterification of a variety of carboxylic acids with geraniol is developed. We demonstrated that the use of triphenylphosphine, I2, 2-methylimidazole or imidazole and a catalytic amount of Gd(OTf)3 resulted to be more active than the previous protocols, providing a 16-membered library of geranyl esters in higher yields and in shorter reaction times. The use of essential oil of palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii), enriched with geraniol, as a raw material for the synthesis of the target compounds complemented and proved how sustainable and eco-friendly this protocol is. Finally, the selective 6,7-epoxidation of the obtained geranyl esters led us to study their regio-controlled radical cyclization mediated by titanocene(III) for the synthesis of novel (8-hydroxy-9,9-dimethyl-5-methylene cyclohexyl)methyl esters in moderate yields and with excellent stereoselectivities.

  3. Zein Nanoparticles as Eco-Friendly Carrier Systems for Botanical Repellents Aiming Sustainable Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Jhones L de; Campos, Estefânia V R; Pereira, Anderson E S; Pasquoto, Tatiane; Lima, Renata; Grillo, Renato; Andrade, Daniel Junior de; Santos, Fabiano Aparecido Dos; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes

    2018-02-14

    Botanical repellents represent one of the main ways of reducing the use of synthetic pesticides and the contamination of soil and hydric resources. However, the poor stability and rapid degradation of these compounds in the environment hinder their effective application in the field. Zein nanoparticles can be used as eco-friendly carrier systems to protect these substances against premature degradation, provide desirable release characteristics, and reduce toxicity in the environment and to humans. In this study, we describe the preparation and characterization of zein nanoparticles loaded with the main constituents of the essential oil of citronella (geraniol and R-citronellal). The phytotoxicity, cytotoxicity, and insect activity of the nanoparticles toward target and nontarget organisms were also evaluated. The botanical formulations showed high encapsulation efficiency (>90%) in the nanoparticles, good physicochemical stability, and effective protection of the repellents against UV degradation. Cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity assays showed that encapsulation of the botanical repellents decreased their toxicity. Repellent activity tests showed that nanoparticles containing the botanical repellents were highly repellent against the Tetranychus urticae Koch mite. This nanotechnological formulation offers a new option for the effective use of botanical repellents in agriculture, reducing toxicity, protecting against premature degradation, and providing effective pest control.

  4. Development and characterization of biodegradable chitosan films containing two essential oils.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhu; Kamdem, Donatien Pascal

    2015-03-01

    Active biodegradable films from chitosan containing 10% to 30% w/w of citronella essential oil (CEO) and cedarwood oil (CWO) were developed by casting and solvent-evaporation method, and their physical, mechanical and thermal properties were investigated. Possible interactions between the chitosan chains and the essential oils were confirmed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Various amounts of CEO or CWO had significant effects on the films' mechanical properties, with the exception of 10% of CEO, which did not significantly affect the tensile strength of the films. The incorporation of the two tested oils provoked a remarkable reduction in the water-vapor permeability properties, with a decrease of about 63% when 30% CEO was added in chitosan films. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that degradation temperatures of the films containing CEO and CWO improved only slightly in comparison to control films without essential oils. FTIR spectra analysis provided some insights on the possible interactions between chitosan and the two essential oils used. This study suggests that active films can be developed by including CEO and CWO in a chitosan matrix. Such films can provide new formulation options for packaging industries in developing active packaging with potential food-technology applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya].

    PubMed

    Kantor, Isabel N

    2016-01-01

    Arboviruses are transmitted by arthropods, including those responsible for the current pandemic: alphavirus (Chikungunya) and flaviviruses (dengue and Zika). Its importance increased in the Americas over the past 20 years. The main vectors are Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. Dengue infection provides long lasting immunity against the specific serotype and temporary to the other three. Subsequent infection by another serotype determines more serious disease. There is a registered vaccine for dengue, Dengvaxia (Sanofi Pasteur). Other two (Butantan and Takeda) are in Phase III in 2016. Zika infection is usually asymptomatic or occurs with rash, conjunctivitis and not very high fever. There is no vaccine or specific treatment. It can be transmitted by parental, sexual and via blood transfusion. It has been associated with microcephaly. Chikungunya causes prolonged joint pain and persistent immune response. Two candidate vaccines are in Phase II. Dengue direct diagnosis is performed by virus isolation, RT-PCR and ELISA for NS1 antigen detection; indirect methods are ELISA-IgM (cross-reacting with other flavivirus), MAC-ELISA, and plaque neutralization. Zika is diagnosed by RT-PCR and virus isolation. Serological diagnosis cross-reacts with other flavivirus. For CHIKV culture, RT-PCR, MAC-ELISA and plaque neutralization are used. Against Aedes organophosphate larvicides (temephos), organophosphorus insecticides (malathion and fenitrothion) and pyrethroids (permethrin and deltamethrin) are usually employed. Resistance has been described to all these products. Vegetable derivatives are less expensive and biodegradable, including citronella oil, which microencapsulated can be preserved from evaporation.

  6. Insecticidal Properties of Essential Oils and Some of Their Constituents on the Turkestan Cockroach (Blattodea: Blattidae).

    PubMed

    Gaire, Sudip; O'Connell, Mary; Holguin, Francisco O; Amatya, Anup; Bundy, Scott; Romero, Alvaro

    2017-04-01

    The Turkestan cockroach, Blatta lateralis (Walker), has become the most important peridomestic species in urban areas of the Southwestern United States. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of botanical compounds to control this urban pest. We tested the acute toxicity and repellency of six botanical constituents and three essential oils on Turkestan cockroach nymphs. Chemical composition of the essential oils was also determined. Topical and fumigant assays with nymphs showed that thymol was the most toxic essential oil constituent, with a LD50 of 0.34 mg/nymph and a LC50 of 27.6 mg/liter air, respectively. Contact toxicity was also observed in assays with trans-Cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, geraniol, methyl eugenol, and p-Cymene. Methyl eugenol and geraniol had limited fumigant toxicity. The essential oils from red thyme, clove bud, and Java citronella exhibited toxicity against nymphs. Cockroaches avoided fresh dry residues of thymol and essential oils. Chemical analysis of the essential oils confirmed high contents of effective essential oil constituents. Our results demonstrated that essential oils and some of their constituents have potential as eco-friendly insecticides for the management of Turkestan cockroaches. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Determination of Ignitable Liquids in Fire Debris: Direct Analysis by Electronic Nose

    PubMed Central

    Ferreiro-González, Marta; Barbero, Gerardo F.; Palma, Miguel; Ayuso, Jesús; Álvarez, José A.; Barroso, Carmelo G.

    2016-01-01

    Arsonists usually use an accelerant in order to start or accelerate a fire. The most widely used analytical method to determine the presence of such accelerants consists of a pre-concentration step of the ignitable liquid residues followed by chromatographic analysis. A rapid analytical method based on headspace-mass spectrometry electronic nose (E-Nose) has been developed for the analysis of Ignitable Liquid Residues (ILRs). The working conditions for the E-Nose analytical procedure were optimized by studying different fire debris samples. The optimized experimental variables were related to headspace generation, specifically, incubation temperature and incubation time. The optimal conditions were 115 °C and 10 min for these two parameters. Chemometric tools such as hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were applied to the MS data (45–200 m/z) to establish the most suitable spectroscopic signals for the discrimination of several ignitable liquids. The optimized method was applied to a set of fire debris samples. In order to simulate post-burn samples several ignitable liquids (gasoline, diesel, citronella, kerosene, paraffin) were used to ignite different substrates (wood, cotton, cork, paper and paperboard). A full discrimination was obtained on using discriminant analysis. This method reported here can be considered as a green technique for fire debris analyses. PMID:27187407

  8. Efficacy of Some Wearable Devices Compared with Spray-On Insect Repellents for the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hae-Na; Gonzales, Kristina K.; Vulcan, Julia; Li, Yiyi; Ahumada, Jorge A.; Romero, Hector M.; De La Torre, Mario; Shu, Fangjun; Hansen, Immo A.

    2017-01-01

    The current Zika health crisis in the Americas has created an intense interest in mosquito control methods and products. Mosquito vectors of Zika are of the genus Aedes, mainly the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. L. The use of repellents to alter mosquito host seeking behavior is an effective method for the prevention of mosquito-borne diseases. A large number of different spray-on repellents and wearable repellent devices are commercially available. The efficacies of many repellents are unknown. This study focuses on the efficacy of eleven different repellents in reducing the number of Ae. aegypti female mosquitoes attracted to human bait. We performed attraction-inhibition assays using a taxis cage in a wind tunnel setting. One person was placed upwind of the taxis cage and the mosquito movement towards or away from the person was recorded. The person was treated with various spray-on repellents or equipped with different mosquito repellent devices. We found that the spray-on repellents containing N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide and p-menthane-3,8-diol had the highest efficacy in repelling mosquitoes compared to repellents with other ingredients. From the five wearable devices that we tested, only the one that releases Metofluthrin significantly reduced the numbers of attracted mosquitoes. The citronella candle had no effect. We conclude that many of the products that we tested that were marketed as repellents do not reduce mosquito attraction to humans. PMID:28423421

  9. Biological nanopesticides: a greener approach towards the mosquito vector control.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Prabhakar; Tyagi, Brij Kishore; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2018-04-01

    Mosquitoes, being a vector for some potentially dreadful diseases, pose a considerable threat to people all around the world. The control over the growth and propagation of mosquitoes comprises conventional pesticides, insect growth regulators and other microbial control agents. However, the usage of these common chemicals and conventional pesticides eventually has a negative impact on human health as well as the environment, which therefore becomes a major concern. The lacuna allows nanotechnology to come into action and exploit nanopesticides. Nanopesticides are majorly divided into two categories-synthetic and biological. Several nanoformulations serve as a promising nanopesticide viz. nanoparticles, e.g. biologically synthesised nanoparticles through plant extracts, nanoemulsions prepared using the essential oils like neem oil and citronella oil and nanoemulsion of conventional pesticides like pyrethroids. These green approaches of synthesising nanopesticides make use of non-toxic and biologically derived compounds and hence are eco-friendly with a better target specificity. Even though there are numerous evidences to show the effectiveness of these nanopesticides, very few efforts have been made to study the possible non-target effects on other organisms prevalent in the aquatic ecosystem. This study focuses on the role of these nanopesticides towards the vector control and its eco-safe property against the other non-target species.

  10. Repellent Activity of Botanical Oils against Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kuhns, Emily H.; Martini, Xavier; Hoyte, Angel; Stelinski, Lukasz L.

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the insect vector of the pathogen causing huanglongbing. We selected three botanical oils to evaluate behavioral activity against D. citri. In laboratory olfactometer assays, fir oil was repellent to D. citri females, while litsea and citronella oils elicited no response from D. citri females. In choice settling experiments, D. citri settled almost completely on control plants rather than on plants treated with fir oil at a 9.5 mg/day release rate. Therefore, we conducted field trials to determine if fir oil reduced D. citri densities in citrus groves. We found no repellency of D. citri from sweet orange resets that were treated with fir oil dispensers releasing 10.4 g/day/tree as compared with control plots. However, we found a two-week decrease in populations of D. citri as compared with controls when the deployment rate of these dispensers was doubled. Our results suggest that treatment of citrus with fir oil may have limited activity as a stand-alone management tool for D. citri and would require integration with other management practices. PMID:27429006

  11. Repellent Activity of Botanical Oils against Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    PubMed

    Kuhns, Emily H; Martini, Xavier; Hoyte, Angel; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2016-07-14

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the insect vector of the pathogen causing huanglongbing. We selected three botanical oils to evaluate behavioral activity against D. citri. In laboratory olfactometer assays, fir oil was repellent to D. citri females, while litsea and citronella oils elicited no response from D. citri females. In choice settling experiments, D. citri settled almost completely on control plants rather than on plants treated with fir oil at a 9.5 mg/day release rate. Therefore, we conducted field trials to determine if fir oil reduced D. citri densities in citrus groves. We found no repellency of D. citri from sweet orange resets that were treated with fir oil dispensers releasing 10.4 g/day/tree as compared with control plots. However, we found a two-week decrease in populations of D. citri as compared with controls when the deployment rate of these dispensers was doubled. Our results suggest that treatment of citrus with fir oil may have limited activity as a stand-alone management tool for D. citri and would require integration with other management practices.

  12. The effects of plant essential oils on escape response and mortality rate of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles minimus.

    PubMed

    Sathantriphop, Sunaiyana; Achee, Nicole L; Sanguanpong, Unchalee; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2015-12-01

    The High Throughput Screening System (HITSS) has been applied in insecticide behavioral response studies with various mosquito species. In general, chemical or natural compounds can produce a range of insect responses: contact irritancy, spatial repellency, knock-down, and toxicity. This study characterized these actions in essential oils derived from citronella, hairy basil, catnip, and vetiver in comparison to DEET and picaridin against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles minimus mosquito populations. Results indicated the two mosquito species exhibited significantly different (P<0.05) contact irritant escape responses between treatment and control for all tested compound concentrations, except with the minimum dose of picaridin (P>0.05) against Ae. aegypti. Spatial repellency responses were elicited in both mosquito species when exposed to all compounds, but the strength of the repellent response was dependent on compound and concentration. Data show that higher test concentrations had greatest toxic effects on both mosquito populations, but vetiver had no toxic effect on Ae. aegypti and picaridin did not elicit toxicity in either Ae. aegypti or An. minimus at any test concentration. Ultimately, this study demonstrates the ability of the HITSS assay to guide selection of effective plant essential oils for repelling, irritating, and killing mosquitoes. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  13. Toxicity of plant essential oils to Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Il; Lee, Sang-Geui; Park, Hyung-Man; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2004-04-01

    Fifty-three plant essential oils were tested for their toxicity against eggs and adults of Tetranychus urticae Koch as well as adults of Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, by using a filter paper diffusion bioassay without allowing direct contact. Responses varied according to oil type and dose, and mite species. In a plastic container (4.5 by 9.5 cm) bioassay at 14 x 10(-3) microl/ml air, caraway seed, citronella java, lemon eucalyptus, pennyroyal, and peppermint oils gave > 90% mortality against adult T. urticae, whereas 82 and 81% mortality was observed with sage and spearmint oils, respectively. With the exception of sage oil, the other six essential oils were highly effective against T. urticae eggs at 9.3 x 10(-3) microl/ml air. Against adult P. persimilis, these six test oils caused > 90% mortality at 7.1 x 10(-3) microl/ml air. Particularly peppermint oil at 4.7 x 10(-3) microl/ml air was highly toxic. In an acrylic cage (30 by 30 by 40 cm ) test, lemon eucalyptus, pennyroyal, peppermint, and spearmint oils were highly effective against adult T. urticae at 1.4 x 10(-3) microl/ml air. These results indicate that the mode of delivery of these essential oils was largely a result of action in the vapor phase via the respiratory system. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential fumigants for T. urticae control.

  14. UV-blocking potential of oils and juices.

    PubMed

    Gause, S; Chauhan, A

    2016-08-01

    Sunscreens are commonly used to protect the body from damage caused by UV light. Some components of organic sunscreens have been shown to pass through the skin during wear which could raise toxicity concerns for these compounds. This study explores the potential for oils and fruit and vegetable juices to be substitutes for these compounds. The absorptivity of various oils (canola oil, citronella oil, coconut oil, olive oil, soya bean oil, vitamin E, as well as aloe vera) and fruit and vegetable juices (acerola, beet, grape, orange carrot, purple carrot and raspberry) was measured in vitro. The mean absorptivity was compared with FDA-approved UV absorbers to gauge the potential of the natural products. The most promising candidates were incorporated into formulations, and the UV transmittance of a 20-μm-thick film of the formulation was measured. The formulations were also imaged by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The absorptivity of oils was at least two orders of magnitude lower compared to the commercial UV blockers. The fruit juice powders were more effective at UV blocking but still showed an order of magnitude lower absorptivity compared to commercial UV blockers. The UV blocking from most natural oils is insufficient to obtain a significant UV protection. Formulations containing 50wt% purple carrot showed good UV-blocking capabilities and represent a promising ingredient for sunscreen and cosmetic applications. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  15. Developing eco-friendly biofungicide for the management of major seed borne diseases of rice and assessing their physical stability and storage life.

    PubMed

    Naveenkumar, Ramasamy; Muthukumar, Arjunan; Sangeetha, Ganesan; Mohanapriya, Ramanathan

    2017-04-01

    Three plant oils (Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon martini, and Pelargonium graveolens) were developed as EC formulations and tested for their physical stabilities. EC formulations (10EC, 20EC and 30EC) of C. citratus, C. martini and P. graveolens had emulsion stability, spontaneity property, heat and cold stability. EC formulated plant oils were screened against the major seed borne fungi of rice such as Curvularia lunata, Fusarium moniliforme, Bipolaris oryzae, and Sarocladium oryzae. The level of inhibition varied among the concentrations of EC formulations. Among the three EC formulations, that of C. citratus oil 30EC recorded 100% inhibition on the mycelial growth of test pathogens. In the blotter paper method, rice seeds treated with a formulation of C. citratus oil 30EC controlled the infection of C. lunata, F. moniliforme, B. oryzae and S. oryzae in rice seed to the tune of 66.0%, 60.4%, 66.0% and 69.1%, respectively. Seed soaking with formulation of C. citratus oil 30EC showed the highest percentage of normal seedlings, the lowest number of abnormal seedling and fresh ungerminated seeds when tested with the roll-towel method. Seed soaking with 30EC formulation of C. citratus oil increased seed germination, shoot length, root length and vigour of rice seedlings when tested with the plastic tray method. Transmission of pathogens from seed to seedling was reduced significantly by the 30EC formulation of C. citratus oil when tested with the plastic pot method. The effect of the storage life of the 30EC formulation of C. citratus oil showed that it had retained their antifungal effect till the end of the incubation period (120 days), and is able to inhibit the mycelial growth of all test pathogens to the 100% level. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemical composition, antioxidant activity and antifungal effects of five Iranian essential oils against Candida strains isolated from urine samples.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, A R; Sharifzadeh, A; Nikaein, D; Almaie, Z; Gandomi Nasrabadi, H

    2018-06-01

    Systemic candidiasis has become an emerging fungal infection in recent years. Anti-Candida resistance to conventional antifungal agents has subsequently increased. This study reported the chemical composition, antioxidant and anti-Candida activity of Origanum majorana, Artemisia dracunculus, Cymbopogon citrate, Cinnamomum verum and Caryophyllus aromaticus essential oils. Different Candida species, from urine tracts of hospitalized patients, were included to be challenged with understudied essential oils. Chemical compositions were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis and antioxidant activity was measured using DDPH assay. MIC of these essential oils was evaluated using broth micro-dilution test. Caryophyllus aromaticus had the highest antioxidant activity while the lowest antioxidant activity was for Artemisia dracunculus. MICs of Cinnamomum verum, Caryophillium aromaticus, Artemisia dracunculus, Origanum vulgare and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils ranged from 125 to 175μg/mL (mean value: 147.7±25.5μg/mL), 700 to 1000μg/mL (mean value: 740.9±105.4μg/mL), 1000 to 2000μg/mL (mean value: 1454.5±509.6μg/mL), 173 to 350μg/mL (mean value: 208±55.8μg/mL) and 125 to 175μg/mL (mean value: 156.8±24.6μg/mL) for different Candida species, respectively. In general, natural compounds are suitable to be used as anti-Candida and antioxidant agents. However in this stage, these compounds could be applied as supplementary agents along with conventional antifungal drugs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Toxic Elements in Different Medicinal Plants and the Impact on Human Health.

    PubMed

    Brima, Eid I

    2017-10-11

    Local medicinal plants from Madina, Saudi Arabia, are used to cure various diseases. However, some can cause adverse health effects. Five different medicinal plants were collected in the city of Madina: mahareeb ( Cymbopogon ), sheeh ( Artemisia ), harjal ( Cynanchum argel delile ), nabipoot ( Equisetum ), and kafmariam ( Vitex agnus-castus ). In total, four toxic elements including Al, Pb, As, and Cd were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The range of recoveries fell between 86.1 and 90.6% for all measured elements. Al levels were the highest of any of the studied elements in all plant samples, with Cymbopogon showing the highest levels. The range of concentrations of Al was 156-1609 mg/kg. Cd appeared at the lowest levels in all plants samples, with Vitex agnus-castus containing this element at the highest levels. Cd concentrations were in the range of 0.01-0.10 mg/kg. A washing process lowered the toxic elements in all plants; average % recoveries were Al (47.32%), As (59.1%), Cd (62.03%), and Pb (32.40%). The calculated human health risk assessment in one dose for toxic elements in all plants was as follows: Al (1.33 × 10 -3 -5.57 × 10 -2 mg/kg.bw), Pb (0-8.86 × 10 -5 mg/kg.bw), As (3.43 × 10 -7 -1.33 × 10 -5 mg/kg.bw), and Cd (0-3.14 × 10 -6 mg/kg.bw). Medicinal plants are a source of exposure to toxic elements. However, none of the plants in this study exceeded the daily guideline set by the WHO for any element based on conventional use by the local population. We may cautiously conclude that these medicinal plants pose no risk to users based on conventional use.

  18. Toxic Elements in Different Medicinal Plants and the Impact on Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Brima, Eid I.

    2017-01-01

    Local medicinal plants from Madina, Saudi Arabia, are used to cure various diseases. However, some can cause adverse health effects. Five different medicinal plants were collected in the city of Madina: mahareeb (Cymbopogon), sheeh (Artemisia), harjal (Cynanchum argel delile), nabipoot (Equisetum), and kafmariam (Vitex agnus-castus). In total, four toxic elements including Al, Pb, As, and Cd were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The range of recoveries fell between 86.1 and 90.6% for all measured elements. Al levels were the highest of any of the studied elements in all plant samples, with Cymbopogon showing the highest levels. The range of concentrations of Al was 156–1609 mg/kg. Cd appeared at the lowest levels in all plants samples, with Vitex agnus-castus containing this element at the highest levels. Cd concentrations were in the range of 0.01–0.10 mg/kg. A washing process lowered the toxic elements in all plants; average % recoveries were Al (47.32%), As (59.1%), Cd (62.03%), and Pb (32.40%). The calculated human health risk assessment in one dose for toxic elements in all plants was as follows: Al (1.33 × 10−3–5.57 × 10−2 mg/kg.bw), Pb (0–8.86 × 10−5 mg/kg.bw), As (3.43 × 10−7–1.33 × 10−5 mg/kg.bw), and Cd (0–3.14 × 10−6 mg/kg.bw). Medicinal plants are a source of exposure to toxic elements. However, none of the plants in this study exceeded the daily guideline set by the WHO for any element based on conventional use by the local population. We may cautiously conclude that these medicinal plants pose no risk to users based on conventional use. PMID:29019913

  19. Alleviation of salt stress in lemongrass by salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Idrees, Mohd; Naeem, M; Khan, M Nasir; Aftab, Tariq; Khan, M Masroor A; Moinuddin

    2012-07-01

    Soil salinity is one of the key factors adversely affecting the growth, yield, and quality of crops. A pot study was conducted to find out whether exogenous application of salicylic acid could ameliorate the adverse effect of salinity in lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud. Wats.). Two Cymbopogon varieties, Krishna and Neema, were used in the study. Three salinity levels, viz, 50, 100, and 150 mM of NaCl, were applied to 30-day-old plants. Salicylic acid (SA) was applied as foliar spray at 10(-5) M concentration. Totally, six SA-sprays were carried out at 10-day intervals, following the first spray at 30 days after sowing. The growth parameters were progressively reduced with the increase in salinity level; however, growth inhibition was significantly reduced by the foliar application of SA. With the increase in salt stress, a gradual decrease in the activities of carbonic anhydrase and nitrate reductase was observed in both the varieties. SA-treatment not only ameliorated the adverse effects of NaCl but also showed a significant improvement in the activities of these enzymes compared with the untreated stressed-plants. The plants supplemented with NaCl exhibited a significant increase in electrolyte leakage, proline content, and phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase activity. Content and yield of essential oil was also significantly decreased in plants that received salinity levels; however, SA overcame the unfavorable effects of salinity stress to a considerable extent. Lemongrass variety Krishna was found to be more adapted to salt stress than Neema, as indicated by the overall performance of the two varieties under salt conditions.

  20. Essential oils with insecticidal activity against larvae of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Vera, Sharon Smith; Zambrano, Diego Fernando; Méndez-Sanchez, Stelia Carolina; Rodríguez-Sanabria, Fernando; Stashenko, Elena E; Duque Luna, Jonny E

    2014-07-01

    Insecticidal activity of the essential oils (EOs) isolated from Tagetes lucida, Lippia alba, Lippia origanoides, Eucalyptus citriodora, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Citrus sinensis, Swinglea glutinosa, and Cananga odorata aromatic plants, grown in Colombia (Bucaramanga, Santander), and of a mixture of L. alba and L. origanoides EOs were evaluated on Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti Rockefeller larvae. The EOs were extracted by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main components of the EOs were identified using their linear retention indices and mass spectra. The lethal concentrations (LCs) of the EOs were determined between the third and fourth instar of A. aegypti. LC50 was determined by probit analysis using mortality rates of bioassays. All essential oils tested showed insecticidal activity. The following values were obtained for C. flexuosus (LC50 = 17.1 ppm); C. sinensis (LC50 = 20.6 ppm); the mixture of L. alba and L. origanoides (LC50 = 40.1 ppm); L. alba (LC50 = 42.2 ppm); C. odorata (LC50 = 52.9 ppm); L. origanoides (LC50 = 53.3 ppm); S. glutinosa (LC50 = 65.7 ppm); T. lucida (LC50 = 66.2 ppm); E. citriodora (LC50 = 71.2 ppm); and C. citratus (LC50 = 123.3 ppm). The EO from C. flexuosus, with citral (geranial + neral) as main component, showed the highest larvicidal activity.

  1. The Effect of Different Type of Herbivores, Grazing Types and Grazing Intensities on Alpine Basiphillous Vegetation of the Romanian Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballová, Zuzana; Pekárik, Ladislav; Šibík, Jozef

    2017-04-01

    increased the most in restricted areas compared to irregularly and regularly grazed sites. When analyzing soil properties, Generalized mixed models revealed reliable results in the differences among categories of grazing types and intensity. These differences were only noticeable in calcium concentration being calcium the most decreased by medium grazing intensity and the most increased by irregular grazing. Grazing had significant effects on individual plant species occurrences and covers. Horses decreased presence of Anthoxanthum odoratum and regular grazing sites as well as fences had significantly higher occurrence of trampling tolerant species Nardus stricta compared to sites with irregular grazing. The type of grazing herbivores influenced covers of Agrostis capillaris, A. rupestris, Campanula rotundifolia, Festuca supina, Luzula multiflora, and Ranunculus pseudomontanus. The grazing types significantly altered covers of Agrostis capillaris, Alchemilla sp. div., Campanula rotundifolia, Festuca supina, Luzula multiflora, Nardus stricta, and Potentilla ternata (Potentilla aurea subsp. chrysocraspeda). The intensity of grazing had important impact on covers of Agrostis rupestris, Alchemilla sp. div., Campanula rotundifolia, Festuca supina, Luzula multiflora, Poa alpina, Potentilla ternata, and Ranunculus pseudomontanus. Key words: alpine meadows; pastures; GLMM; NMDS; (nested) PERMANOVA

  2. Wide-area mapping of small-scale features in agricultural landscapes using airborne remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, Jerome; Bradter, Ute; Benton, Tim G.

    2015-11-01

    Natural and semi-natural habitats in agricultural landscapes are likely to come under increasing pressure with the global population set to exceed 9 billion by 2050. These non-cropped habitats are primarily made up of trees, hedgerows and grassy margins and their amount, quality and spatial configuration can have strong implications for the delivery and sustainability of various ecosystem services. In this study high spatial resolution (0.5 m) colour infrared aerial photography (CIR) was used in object based image analysis for the classification of non-cropped habitat in a 10,029 ha area of southeast England. Three classification scenarios were devised using 4 and 9 class scenarios. The machine learning algorithm Random Forest (RF) was used to reduce the number of variables used for each classification scenario by 25.5 % ± 2.7%. Proportion of votes from the 4 class hierarchy was made available to the 9 class scenarios and where the highest ranked variables in all cases. This approach allowed for misclassified parent objects to be correctly classified at a lower level. A single object hierarchy with 4 class proportion of votes produced the best result (kappa 0.909). Validation of the optimum training sample size in RF showed no significant difference between mean internal out-of-bag error and external validation. As an example of the utility of this data, we assessed habitat suitability for a declining farmland bird, the yellowhammer (Emberiza citronella), which requires hedgerows associated with grassy margins. We found that ˜22% of hedgerows were within 200 m of margins with an area >183.31 m2. The results from this analysis can form a key information source at the environmental and policy level in landscape optimisation for food production and ecosystem service sustainability.

  3. The Efficacy of Some Commercially Available Insect Repellents for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Stacy D.; Drake, Lisa L.; Price, David P.; Hammond, John I.; Hansen, Immo A.

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the number of host-vector interactions is an effective way to reduce the spread of vector-borne diseases. Repellents are widely used to protect humans from a variety of protozoans, viruses, and nematodes. DEET (N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide), a safe and effective repellent, was developed during World War II. Fear of possible side effects of DEET has created a large market for “natural” DEET-free repellents with a variety of active ingredients. We present a comparative study on the efficacy of eight commercially available products, two fragrances, and a vitamin B patch. The products were tested using a human hand as attractant in a Y-tube olfactometer setup with Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse), both major human disease vectors. We found that Ae. albopictus were generally less attracted to the test subject’s hand compared with Ae, aegypti. Repellents with DEET as active ingredient had a prominent repellency effect over longer times and on both species. Repellents containing p-menthane-3,8-diol produced comparable results but for shorter time periods. Some of the DEET-free products containing citronella or geraniol did not have any significant repellency effect. Interestingly, the perfume we tested had a modest repellency effect early after application, and the vitamin B patch had no effect on either species. This study shows that the different active ingredients in commercially available mosquito repellent products are not equivalent in terms of duration and strength of repellency. Our results suggest that products containing DEET or p-menthane-3,8-diol have long-lasting repellent effects and therefore provide good protection from mosquito-borne diseases. PMID:26443777

  4. Efficacy of Some Wearable Devices Compared with Spray-On Insect Repellents for the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Stacy D; Chung, Hae-Na; Gonzales, Kristina K; Vulcan, Julia; Li, Yiyi; Ahumada, Jorge A; Romero, Hector M; De La Torre, Mario; Shu, Fangjun; Hansen, Immo A

    2017-01-01

    The current Zika health crisis in the Americas has created an intense interest in mosquito control methods and products. Mosquito vectors of Zika are of the genus Aedes, mainly the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. L. The use of repellents to alter mosquito host seeking behavior is an effective method for the prevention of mosquito-borne diseases. A large number of different spray-on repellents and wearable repellent devices are commercially available. The efficacies of many repellents are unknown. This study focuses on the efficacy of eleven different repellents in reducing the number of Ae. aegypti female mosquitoes attracted to human bait. We performed attraction-inhibition assays using a taxis cage in a wind tunnel setting. One person was placed upwind of the taxis cage and the mosquito movement towards or away from the person was recorded. The person was treated with various spray-on repellents or equipped with different mosquito repellent devices. We found that the spray-on repellents containing N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide and p-menthane-3,8-diol had the highest efficacy in repelling mosquitoes compared to repellents with other ingredients. From the five wearable devices that we tested, only the one that releases Metofluthrin significantly reduced the numbers of attracted mosquitoes. The citronella candle had no effect. We conclude that many of the products that we tested that were marketed as repellents do not reduce mosquito attraction to humans. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  5. Wide-area mapping of small-scale features in agricultural landscapes using airborne remote sensing

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Jerome; Bradter, Ute; Benton, Tim G.

    2015-01-01

    Natural and semi-natural habitats in agricultural landscapes are likely to come under increasing pressure with the global population set to exceed 9 billion by 2050. These non-cropped habitats are primarily made up of trees, hedgerows and grassy margins and their amount, quality and spatial configuration can have strong implications for the delivery and sustainability of various ecosystem services. In this study high spatial resolution (0.5 m) colour infrared aerial photography (CIR) was used in object based image analysis for the classification of non-cropped habitat in a 10,029 ha area of southeast England. Three classification scenarios were devised using 4 and 9 class scenarios. The machine learning algorithm Random Forest (RF) was used to reduce the number of variables used for each classification scenario by 25.5 % ± 2.7%. Proportion of votes from the 4 class hierarchy was made available to the 9 class scenarios and where the highest ranked variables in all cases. This approach allowed for misclassified parent objects to be correctly classified at a lower level. A single object hierarchy with 4 class proportion of votes produced the best result (kappa 0.909). Validation of the optimum training sample size in RF showed no significant difference between mean internal out-of-bag error and external validation. As an example of the utility of this data, we assessed habitat suitability for a declining farmland bird, the yellowhammer (Emberiza citronella), which requires hedgerows associated with grassy margins. We found that ∼22% of hedgerows were within 200 m of margins with an area >183.31 m2. The results from this analysis can form a key information source at the environmental and policy level in landscape optimisation for food production and ecosystem service sustainability. PMID:26664131

  6. Application of Odor Sensors to Ore Sorting and Mill Feed Control

    SciTech Connect

    Michael G. Nelson

    2005-08-01

    Control of the feed provided to mineral processing facilities is a continuing challenge. Much effort is currently being devoted to overcoming these problems. These projects are usually described under the general headings of Mine-to-Mill Integration or Mine-Mill Optimization. It should be possible to combine the knowledge of ore type, mineralogy, and other characteristics (located in the mine modeling system), with the advanced capabilities of state-of-the-art mill control systems, to achieve an improved level of control in mineral processing that will allow optimization of the mill processes on an almost real-time basis. This is not happening because mill feed it ismore » often treated as a uniform material, when in reality it varies in composition and characteristics. An investigation was conducted to assess the suitability of odor sensors for maintaining traceability in ore production and processing. Commercially available sensors are now used in food processing, environmental monitoring, and other applications and can detect the presence of very small amounts (0.1-500 ppm) of some molecules. An assortment of such molecules could be used to ''tag'' blocks of ore as they are mined, according to their respective characteristics. Then, as the ore came into the mill, an array of ''electronic noses'' could be used to assess its characteristics in real time. It was found that the Cyranose 320{trademark}, a commercially available odor sensor, can easily distinguish among samples of rock marked with almond, cinnamon, citronella, lemon, and orange oils. Further, the sensor could detect mixtures of rocks marked with various combinations of these oils. Treatment of mixtures of galena and silica with odorant compounds showed no detrimental effects on flotation response in laboratory tests. Additional work is recommended to determine how this concept can be extended to the marking of large volumes of materials.« less

  7. Temporal evolution of ultrafine particles and of alveolar deposited surface area from main indoor combustion and non-combustion sources in a model room.

    PubMed

    Manigrasso, Maurizio; Vitali, Matteo; Protano, Carmela; Avino, Pasquale

    2017-11-15

    Aerosol number size distributions, PM mass concentrations, alveolar deposited surface areas (ADSAs) and VOC concentrations were measured in a model room when aerosol was emitted by sources frequently encountered in indoor environments. Both combustion and non-combustion sources were considered. The most intense aerosol emission occurred when combustion sources were active (as high as 4.1×10 7 particlescm -3 for two meat grilling sessions; the first with exhaust ventilation, the second without). An intense spike generation of nucleation particles occurred when appliances equipped with brush electric motors were operating (as high as 10 6 particlescm -3 on switching on an electric drill). Average UFP increments over the background value were highest for electric appliances (5-12%) and lowest for combustion sources (as low as -24% for tobacco cigarette smoke). In contrast, average increments in ADSA were highest for combustion sources (as high as 3.2×10 3 μm 2 cm -3 for meat grilling without exhaust ventilation) and lowest for electric appliances (20-90μm 2 cm -3 ). The health relevance of such particles is associated to their ability to penetrate cellular structures and elicit inflammatory effects mediated through oxidative stress in a way dependent on their surface area. The highest VOC concentrations were measured (PID probe) for cigarette smoke (8ppm) and spray air freshener (10ppm). The highest PM mass concentration (PM 1 ) was measured for citronella candle burning (as high as 7.6mgm -3 ). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. UV photostability of insect repellents evaluated through Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bório, Viviane G.; Fernandes, Adjaci U.; Silveira, Landulfo

    2016-02-01

    The use of insect repellents either indoors or at places with incidence of solar radiation has been common due to dengue epidemics in Brazil. The lack of studies on the photostability of these substances has motivated this study, where the main goal was to verify the photostability and photodegradation of some of the commercially insect repellents available under the simulated ultraviolet (UV) radiation, by evaluating the molecular changes using dispersive Raman spectroscopy (830 nm excitation). A laboratory-made chamber was used for irradiating the repellents, where UV-A + UV-B radiations (UV-A: 5.5 mW/cm2 and UV-B 1.5 mW/cm2) can be obtained. The chamber internal temperature did not exceed 31 °C during experiments. The compounds n,n-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), IR-3535, andiroba and citronella oils, used as active ingredients in insect repellents, and commercial formula containing DEET (14.5% in ethanol and isopropyl myristate) and IR-3535 (16% in carbopol) were continuously irradiated for 8 h. The Raman spectrum of each sample was obtained before and after UV exposure. The compounds and the commercial formula containing IR-3535 showed photo-stability when irradiated, since no changes in the peaks were found. The commercial formula containing DEET showed spectral decrease at 524, 690, 1003 and 1606 cm-1, assigned to the DEET, and increase at 884 cm-1, assigned to the ethanol. These results indicate that the excipient could influence the photostability of the active ingredient. The Raman spectroscopy can be suitable to monitor the photodegradation under UV irradiation rapidly and reliably.

  9. Wide-area mapping of small-scale features in agricultural landscapes using airborne remote sensing.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Jerome; Bradter, Ute; Benton, Tim G

    2015-11-01

    Natural and semi-natural habitats in agricultural landscapes are likely to come under increasing pressure with the global population set to exceed 9 billion by 2050. These non-cropped habitats are primarily made up of trees, hedgerows and grassy margins and their amount, quality and spatial configuration can have strong implications for the delivery and sustainability of various ecosystem services. In this study high spatial resolution (0.5 m) colour infrared aerial photography (CIR) was used in object based image analysis for the classification of non-cropped habitat in a 10,029 ha area of southeast England. Three classification scenarios were devised using 4 and 9 class scenarios. The machine learning algorithm Random Forest (RF) was used to reduce the number of variables used for each classification scenario by 25.5 % ± 2.7%. Proportion of votes from the 4 class hierarchy was made available to the 9 class scenarios and where the highest ranked variables in all cases. This approach allowed for misclassified parent objects to be correctly classified at a lower level. A single object hierarchy with 4 class proportion of votes produced the best result (kappa 0.909). Validation of the optimum training sample size in RF showed no significant difference between mean internal out-of-bag error and external validation. As an example of the utility of this data, we assessed habitat suitability for a declining farmland bird, the yellowhammer ( Emberiza citronella ), which requires hedgerows associated with grassy margins. We found that ∼22% of hedgerows were within 200 m of margins with an area >183.31 m 2 . The results from this analysis can form a key information source at the environmental and policy level in landscape optimisation for food production and ecosystem service sustainability.

  10. A new tower-based hyperspectral system for the estimation of CO2 fluxes and biophysical parameters in a subalpine grassland ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vescovo, L.; Gianelle, D.; Marcolla, B.; Zaldei, A.; Sakowska, K.

    2013-12-01

    Linking optical remote sensing with carbon fluxes and biophysical parameters is critical to exploit spatial and temporal extensive information useful for validating model simulations at different scales. Proximal sensing is fundamental to quantify and understand the seasonal dynamics of ecosystems and to upscale the observations carried out at the ground level. In this study, we present the results from an ongoing research project at the FLUXNET eddy covariance site of Monte Bondone (Italy). The site is located at 1550 m a.s.l. on a mountain plateau in the Italian Alps (Viote del Monte Bondone). The area is managed as an extensively-managed meadow, cut once a year, and dominated by Nardus stricta and Festuca nigrescens. The climate of this area is sub-continental (warm and wet summer), with precipitation peaks in spring and autumn. A new hyperspectral system (WhiteRef Box, developed by Fondazione Edmund Mach in collaboration with the Institute of Biometeorology, CNR, Italy) based on the ASD FieldSpec spectrometer (spectral range 350-2500 nm, resolution ~3 nm at 700 nm) was designed to acquire continuous radiometric measurements. The system was installed on the eddy covariance tower at a height of 6 m, with a field of view of 25°. To obtain reflectance values, white panel radiance spectra and canopy radiance spectra were collected every 5 minutes between 10:00 a.m. and 1:00 p.m. (solar time) during the growing season of 2013. In addition, measurements of biophysical parameters such as above-ground biomass, fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (fAPAR), Plant Area Index, Canopy Chlorophyll Content, Canopy Water Content and Green Herbage Ratio were performed at weekly intervals within the spectrometer footprint (~5 m2). In this work, we present some preliminary results regarding the potential of spectral vegetation indices - based on VNIR and SWIR spectral bands- for capturing seasonal trends of CO2 fluxes as well as vegetation biophysical

  11. Nematicidal activity of essential oils and volatiles derived from Portuguese aromatic flora against the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, P.; Lima, A. S.; Vieira, P.; Dias, L. S.; Tinoco, M. T.; Barroso, J. G.; Pedro, L. G.; Figueiredo, A. C.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty seven essential oils, isolated from plants representing 11 families of Portuguese flora, were screened for their nematicidal activity against the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and the volatiles by distillation-extraction, and both were analysed by GC and GC-MS. High nematicidal activity was achieved with essential oils from Chamaespartium tridentatum, Origanum vulgare, Satureja montana, Thymbra capitata, and Thymus caespititius. All of these essential oils had an estimated minimum inhibitory concentration ranging between 0.097 and 0.374 mg/ml and a lethal concentration necessary to kill 100% of the population (LC100) between 0.858 and 1.984 mg/ml. Good nematicidal activity was also obtained with the essential oil from Cymbopogon citratus. The dominant components of the effective oils were 1–octen-3-ol (9%), n–nonanal, and linalool (both 7%) in C. tridentatum, geranial (43%), neral (29%), and β-myrcene (25%) in C. citratus, carvacrol (36% and 39%), γ-terpinene (24% and 40%), and p-cymene (14% and 7%) in O. vulgare and S. montana, respectively, and carvacrol (75% and 65%, respectively) in T. capitata and T. caespititius. The other essential oils obtained from Portuguese flora yielded weak or no activity. Five essential oils with nematicidal activity against PWN are reported for the first time. PMID:22736831

  12. Bioactive natural constituents from lemongrass tea and erythropoiesis boosting effects: potential use in prevention and treatment of anemia.

    PubMed

    Ekpenyong, Christopher E; Daniel, Nyebuk E; Antai, Atim B

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) tea on hematologic indices in human volunteers. One hundred five subjects (55 men and 50 women), aged 18 to 35 years, were randomly assigned to groups set to orally receive infusion prepared from 2, 4, or 8 g of C. citratus leaves once daily for 30 days. Assessment of hematologic indices (hemoglobin concentration [Hb], packed cell volume [PCV], red blood cell [RBC] count, mean cell Hb [MCH], mean cell volume [MCV], mean cell Hb concentration [MCHC], total white blood cell [WBC-total] and differentials, and platelets) were performed 1 day before (baseline), and at 10 (acute) and 30 days (subchronic phase) after the initiation of treatment. Results obtained on days 10 and 30 were compared with baseline values. Infusions prepared from C. citratus leaf powder, which tested positive for tannins, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, macro- and micronutrients, significantly increased PCV, Hb, and RBC (P<.05) in all subjects, particularly in the subchronic phase of the study. MCH, MCV, and MCHC were not significantly different from baseline values in both the sexes. WBCs and differentials significantly decreased (P<.05) with the exception of neutrophils and lymphocytes, which significantly increased in some or all groups (P<.05), respectively. C. citratus leaf infusion appears to exert an erythropoiesis boosting effect, likely due to some nutritional constituents and its antioxidant and pharmacologic properties.

  13. Chemical composition and antioxidant and anti-Listeria activities of essential oils obtained from some Egyptian plants.

    PubMed

    Viuda-Martos, Manuel; El Gendy, Abd El-Nasser G S; Sendra, Esther; Fernández-López, Juana; Abd El Razik, K A; Omer, Elsayed A; Pérez-Alvarez, Jose A

    2010-08-25

    The aim of this work was to (i) determine the chemical composition of the essential oils of six spices widely cultivated in Egypt (Origanum syriacum, Majorana hortensis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Cymbopogon citratus, Thymus vulgaris, and Artemisia annua); (ii) determine the antioxidant activity of the Egyptian essential oils by means of five different antioxidant tests; and (iii) determine the effectiveness of these essential oils on the inhibition of Listeria innocua CECT 910. There is a great variability in the chemical composition of essential oils obtained from the six Egyptian aromatic plants. Overall, thyme (highest percentage of inhibition of DPPH radical: 89.40%) and oregano (highest percentage of inhibition of TBARS: 85.79) essential oils presented the best antioxidant profiles, whereas marjoram, lemongrass, and artemisia were highly effective in metal chelating but had a pro-oxidative behavior by Rancimat induction test. Lemongrass essential oil showed the highest antibacterial activity against L. innocua with an inhibition zone of 49.00 mm, followed in effectiveness by thyme, marjoram, and oregano.

  14. Activity of selected essential oils on spoiling fungi cultured from Marzolino cheese.

    PubMed

    Nardoni, Simona; D'Ascenzi, Carlo; Caracciolo, Irene; Mannaioni, Gaia; Papini, Roberto Amerigo; Pistelli, Luisa; Najar, Basma; Mancianti, Francesca

    2018-06-20

    Microscopic fungi can be present on a variety of foodstuff, including cheese. They can be responsible for fungal spoilage, causing sensory changes making food unacceptable for human consumption, and posing severe health concerns. Furthermore, some of these organisms are able to resist antimicrobial preservatives provided for by law. Antifungal activity of 15 chemically defined EOs, alone and in mixture, were checked by a microdilution test against isolates of Penicillium funiculosum and Mucor racemosus cultured from rinds of Marzolino, a typical Italian fresh pecorino cheese. Origanum vulgare yielded the lowest MIC values, followed by Salvia sclarea, Ocimum basilicum and Cymbopogon citratus, while Citrus paradisi and Citrus limon were not active. All mixtures showed antifungal activity at lower concentration with respect to MIC values of each EO component, when not in combination. This study is the first to describe the setting up of EOs mixtures to limit spoiling moulds.

  15. In vitro effects of citral on trypanosoma cruzi metacyclogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Josiane; Soares, Maurilio José

    2010-12-01

    Citral, the main constituent of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil, was added to Trypanosoma cruzi cultures grown in TAU3AAG medium to observe the effect on the epimastigote-to-trypomastigote differentiation process (metacyclogenesis). Our results showed that citral (20 μg/mL) did not affect epimastigote viability or inhibit the differentiation process. Concentrations higher than 60 μg/mL, however, led to 100% cell death (both epimastigote and trypomastigote forms). Although epimastigotes incubated with 30 μg/mL citral were viable and able to adhere to the substrate, we observed around 50% inhibition in metacyclogenesis, with a calculated concentration that inhibited metacyclogenesis by 50% after 24 h (IC50/24 h) of about 31 μg/mL. Treatment with 30 μg/mL citral did not hinder epimastigote multiplication because epimastigote growth resumed when treated cells were transferred to a drug-free liver infusion tryptose culture medium. Metacyclogenesis was almost totally abolished at 40 μg/mL after 24 h of incubation. Furthermore, the metacyclic trypomastigotes obtained in vitro were similarly susceptible to citral, with an IC50/24 h, concentration that killed 50% of the cells after 24 h, of about 24.5 μg/mL. Therefore, citral appears to be a good candidate as an inhibitory drug for further studies analyzing the T. cruzi metacyclogenesis process.

  16. Improved delivery of the anticancer agent citral using BSA nanoparticles and polymeric wafers.

    PubMed

    White, Benjamin; Evison, Anna; Dombi, Eszter; Townley, Helen E

    2017-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children, with a 5-year survival rate of between 30 and 65%. Standard treatment involves surgery, radiation treatment, and chemotherapy. However, there is a high recurrence rate, particularly from locoregional spread. We investigated the use of the natural compound citral (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal), which can be found in a number of plants, but is particularly abundant in lemon grass ( Cymbopogon citratus ) oil, for activity against immortalized RMS cells. Significant cancer cell death was seen at concentrations above 150 μM citral, and mitochondrial morphological changes were seen after incubation with 10 μM citral. However, since citral is a highly volatile molecule, we prepared albumin particles by a desolvation method to encapsulate citral, as a means of stabilization. We then further incorporated the loaded nanoparticles into a biodegradable polyanhydride wafer to generate a slow release system. The wafers were shown to degrade by 50% over the course of 25 days and to release the active compound. We therefore propose the use of the citral-nanoparticle-polymer wafers for implantation into the tumor bed after surgical removal of a sarcoma as a means to control locoregional spread due to any remaining cancerous cells.

  17. Improved delivery of the anticancer agent citral using BSA nanoparticles and polymeric wafers

    PubMed Central

    White, Benjamin; Evison, Anna; Dombi, Eszter; Townley, Helen E

    2017-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children, with a 5-year survival rate of between 30 and 65%. Standard treatment involves surgery, radiation treatment, and chemotherapy. However, there is a high recurrence rate, particularly from locoregional spread. We investigated the use of the natural compound citral (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal), which can be found in a number of plants, but is particularly abundant in lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) oil, for activity against immortalized RMS cells. Significant cancer cell death was seen at concentrations above 150 μM citral, and mitochondrial morphological changes were seen after incubation with 10 μM citral. However, since citral is a highly volatile molecule, we prepared albumin particles by a desolvation method to encapsulate citral, as a means of stabilization. We then further incorporated the loaded nanoparticles into a biodegradable polyanhydride wafer to generate a slow release system. The wafers were shown to degrade by 50% over the course of 25 days and to release the active compound. We therefore propose the use of the citral-nanoparticle-polymer wafers for implantation into the tumor bed after surgical removal of a sarcoma as a means to control locoregional spread due to any remaining cancerous cells. PMID:29263655

  18. Metabolism of citral, the major constituent of lemongrass oil, in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, and effects of enzyme inhibitors on toxicity and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Tak, Jun-Hyung; Isman, Murray B

    2016-10-01

    Although screening for new and reliable sources of botanical insecticides remains important, finding ways to improve the efficacy of those already in use through better understanding of their modes-of-action or metabolic pathways, or by improving formulations, deserves greater attention as the latter may present lesser regulation hurdles. Metabolic processing of citral (a combination of the stereoisomers geranial and neral), a main constituent of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil has not been previously examined in insects. To address this, we investigated insecticidal activities of lemongrass oil and citral, as well as the metabolism of citral in larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, in associations with well-known enzyme inhibitors. Among the inhibitors tested, piperonyl butoxide showed the highest increase in toxicity followed by triphenyl phosphate, but no synergistic interaction between the inhibitors was observed. Topical application of citral to fifth instar larvae produced mild reductions in food consumption, and frass analysis after 24h revealed geranic acid (99.7%) and neric acid (98.8%) as major metabolites of citral. Neither citral nor any other metabolites were found following in vivo analysis of larvae after 24h, and no significant effect of enzyme inhibitors was observed on diet consumption or citral metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemical Profiling and Evaluation of Antioxidant and Anti-Microbial Properties of Selected Commercial Essential Oils: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Luís, Ângelo; Duarte, Ana Paula; Pereira, Luísa; Domingues, Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    Background: The last decades have seen an increased awareness by the scientific community of the extent of resistance to conventional antibiotics, particularly with respect to the emerging multidrug-resistant pathogenic microbes. Additionally, natural antioxidants have received significant attention among food professionals and consumers because of their assumed safety and potential therapeutic value. The aim of this work was to assess the antioxidant activities of eight selected commercial essential oils (EOs), together with the evaluation of their antibacterial and anti-quorum sensing properties. Methods: The chemical profiling of the EOs was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The antioxidant properties of the EOs were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and by β-carotene bleaching test. Disc diffusion assays were employed to evaluate the anti-bacterial and anti-quorum sensing activities of the EOs. Results: It was observed that EOs from three Eucalyptus species are rich in eucalyptol. Generally, linalool is abundant in EOs from four Lavandula species. The oil of Cymbopogon citratus is the one with the best capacity to scavenge the DPPH free radicals and presented great antibacterial activity. Conclusions: The geographical origins of the plant species are determinant factors in the EO composition and in the corresponding biological activities. PMID:28930251

  20. Chemical Profiling and Evaluation of Antioxidant and Anti-Microbial Properties of Selected Commercial Essential Oils: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Luís, Ângelo; Duarte, Ana Paula; Pereira, Luísa; Domingues, Fernanda

    2017-06-05

    Background : The last decades have seen an increased awareness by the scientific community of the extent of resistance to conventional antibiotics, particularly with respect to the emerging multidrug-resistant pathogenic microbes. Additionally, natural antioxidants have received significant attention among food professionals and consumers because of their assumed safety and potential therapeutic value. The aim of this work was to assess the antioxidant activities of eight selected commercial essential oils (EOs), together with the evaluation of their antibacterial and anti-quorum sensing properties. Methods : The chemical profiling of the EOs was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The antioxidant properties of the EOs were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and by β-carotene bleaching test. Disc diffusion assays were employed to evaluate the anti-bacterial and anti-quorum sensing activities of the EOs. Results : It was observed that EOs from three Eucalyptus species are rich in eucalyptol. Generally, linalool is abundant in EOs from four Lavandula species. The oil of Cymbopogon citratus is the one with the best capacity to scavenge the DPPH free radicals and presented great antibacterial activity. Conclusions : The geographical origins of the plant species are determinant factors in the EO composition and in the corresponding biological activities.

  1. Analytical optimization of a phenolic-rich herbal extract and supplementation in fermented milk containing sweet potato pulp.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Lorena Rodrigues; Santos, Jânio Sousa; Daguer, Heitor; Valese, Andressa Camargo; Cruz, Adriano Gomes; Granato, Daniel

    2017-04-15

    The aims of the present study were to optimize and characterize the phenolic composition of a herbal extract composed of green mate (Ilex paraguariensis), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) and to propose the addition of this polyphenol-rich extract to fermented milks (FM) with/without sweet potato pulp (Ipomoea batatas). Proximate composition, pH, acidity, instrumental texture profile, total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity (AA) of all formulations were measured, and sensory attributes were also investigated. The addition of a lyophilized extract (1g 100g -1 ) containing 87.5% clove and 12.5% green mate increased the AA and TPC, while FM with added sweet potato pulp had the best sensory acceptance. The TPC and total reducing capacity had a slight change during 21days of storage. The data showed that herbal extracts and sweet potato pulp may be used to develop new dairy foods with potential functional properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. In Vitro antifungal activity of essential oils against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusoff, Nor Hanis Aifaa; Abdullah, Siti Aisyah; Othman, Zaulia; Zainal, Zamri

    2018-04-01

    The efficacy of Citrus hystrix, Azadirachta indica and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils were evaluated for controlling the growth of mycelia and spore germination of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. In order to determine the best essential oil (EO) and suitable concentration of essential oil, in vitro experiment was conducted by preparing a pure culture of antrachnose on Potato Dextrose Agar containing EOs of C. hystrix, A. indica and C. citratus with different concentrations (0.2%, 0.6%, 1% and 1.4% (v/v)). The result shows that C. hystrix essential oil at a concentration of 1.4% (v/v) reduced of mycelia growth of C. gloeosporioides by 29.49%. A second experiment was conducted, but at higher concentration of each essential oils (1.8%, 2.2%, 2.6% and 2.8% (v/v)). Significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) inhibition of mycelia growth was obtained in all treatments except the control. The antifungal index values of essential oils were proportionally increased with concentration of essential oil applied in each treatment. It is concluded that essential oil from C. hystrix are efficient in inhibiting C. gloeosporioides.

  3. Effects of essential oils from medicinal plants acclimated to Benin on in vitro ruminal fermentation of Andropogon gayanus grass.

    PubMed

    Kouazounde, Jacques B; Jin, Long; Assogba, Fidele M; Ayedoun, Marc A; Wang, Yuxi; Beauchemin, Karen A; McAllister, Tim A; Gbenou, Joachim D

    2015-03-30

    Plants from West Africa commonly used in both human and veterinary medicine contain various secondary metabolites. However, their potential in mitigating ruminal methane production has not been explored. This study examined the effects of seven essential oils (EOs) from plants acclimated to Benin at four dosages (100, 200, 300 and 400 mg L(-1)), on in vitro rumen microbial fermentation and methane production using Andropogon gayanus grass as a substrate. Compared to control, Laurus nobilis (300-400 mg L(-1) ), Citrus aurantifolia (300-400 mg L(-1)) and Ocimum gratissimum (200-400 mg L(-1)) decreased (P < 0.05) methane production (mL g(-1) DM) by 8.1-11.8%, 11.9-17.8% and 7.9-30.6%, respectively. Relative to the control, reductions in methane (mL g(-1) DM) of 11.4%, 13.5% and 14.2% were only observed at 400 mg L(-1) for Eucalyptus citriodora, Ocimum basilicum and Cymbopogon citratus, respectively. These EOs lowered methane without reducing concentrations of total volatile fatty acids or causing a shift from acetate to propionate production. All EOs (except M. piperita) reduced (P < 0.05) apparent dry matter (DM) disappearance of A. gayanus. The current study demonstrated that EOs from plants grown in Benin inhibited in vitro methane production mainly through a reduction in apparent DM digestibility. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Evaluation of In Vitro Activity of Essential Oils against Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Trypanosoma evansi.

    PubMed

    Habila, Nathan; Agbaji, Abel S; Ladan, Zakari; Bello, Isaac A; Haruna, Emmanuel; Dakare, Monday A; Atolagbe, Taofiq O

    2010-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) from Cymbopogon citratus (CC), Eucalyptus citriodora (EC), Eucalyptus camaldulensis (ED), and Citrus sinensis (CS) were obtained by hydrodistillation process. The EOs were evaluated in vitro for activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei (Tbb) and Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi). The EOs were found to possess antitrypanosomal activity in vitro in a dose-dependent pattern in a short period of time. The drop in number of parasite over time was achieved doses of 0.4 g/ml, 0.2 g/mL, and 0.1 g/mL for all the EOs. The concentration of 0.4 g/mL CC was more potent at 3 minutes and 2 minutes for Tbb and T. evansi, respectively. The GC-MS analysis of the EOs revealed presence of Cyclobutane (96.09%) in CS, 6-octenal (77.11%) in EC, Eucalyptol (75%) in ED, and Citral (38.32%) in CC among several other organic compounds. The results are discussed in relation to trypanosome chemotherapy.

  5. Endophytic l-asparaginase-producing fungi from plants associated with anticancer properties.

    PubMed

    Chow, YiingYng; Ting, Adeline S Y

    2015-11-01

    Endophytes are novel sources of natural bioactive compounds. This study seeks endophytes that produce the anticancer enzyme l-asparaginase, to harness their potential for mass production. Four plants with anticancer properties; Cymbopogon citratus, Murraya koenigii, Oldenlandia diffusa and Pereskia bleo, were selected as host plants. l-Asparaginase-producing endophytes were detected by the formation of pink zones on agar, a result of hydrolyzes of asparagine into aspartic acid and ammonia that converts the phenol red dye indicator from yellow (acidic condition) to pink (alkaline condition). The anticancer enzyme asparaginase was further quantified via Nesslerization. Results revealed that a total of 89 morphotypes were isolated; mostly from P. bleo (40), followed by O. diffusa (25), C. citratus (14) and M. koenigii (10). Only 25 of these morphotypes produced l-asparaginase, mostly from P. bleo and their asparaginase activities were between 0.0069 and 0.025 μM mL(-1) min(-1). l-Asparaginase producing isolates were identified as probable species of the genus Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Phoma and Penicillium. Studies here revealed that endophytes are good alternative sources for l-asparaginase production and they can be sourced from anticancer plants, particularly P. bleo.

  6. Endophytic l-asparaginase-producing fungi from plants associated with anticancer properties

    PubMed Central

    Chow, YiingYng; Ting, Adeline S.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Endophytes are novel sources of natural bioactive compounds. This study seeks endophytes that produce the anticancer enzyme l-asparaginase, to harness their potential for mass production. Four plants with anticancer properties; Cymbopogon citratus, Murraya koenigii, Oldenlandia diffusa and Pereskia bleo, were selected as host plants. l-Asparaginase-producing endophytes were detected by the formation of pink zones on agar, a result of hydrolyzes of asparagine into aspartic acid and ammonia that converts the phenol red dye indicator from yellow (acidic condition) to pink (alkaline condition). The anticancer enzyme asparaginase was further quantified via Nesslerization. Results revealed that a total of 89 morphotypes were isolated; mostly from P. bleo (40), followed by O. diffusa (25), C. citratus (14) and M. koenigii (10). Only 25 of these morphotypes produced l-asparaginase, mostly from P. bleo and their asparaginase activities were between 0.0069 and 0.025 μM mL−1 min−1. l-Asparaginase producing isolates were identified as probable species of the genus Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Phoma and Penicillium. Studies here revealed that endophytes are good alternative sources for l-asparaginase production and they can be sourced from anticancer plants, particularly P. bleo. PMID:26644924

  7. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils from five selected herbs.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Mei-Lin; Lin, Chih-Chien; Lin, Wei-Chao; Yang, Chao-Hsun

    2011-01-01

    Eucalyptus bridgesiana, Cymbopogon martinii, Thymus vulgaris, Lindernia anagallis, and Pelargonium fragrans are five species of herbs used in Asia. Their essential oils were analyzed by GC-MS, and a total of 36 components were detected. The results of our study indicated that, except for the essential oil of P. fragrans, all of the essential oils demonstrated obvious antimicrobial activity against a broad range of microorganisms. The C. martinii essential oil, which is rich in geraniol, was the most effective antimicrobial additive. All of the essential oils demonstrated antioxidant activities on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, β-carotene/linoleic acid assay, and nitric oxide radical scavenging assay. Furthermore, the T. vulgaris essential oil, which possesses plentiful thymol, exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. For P. acnes-induced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the essential oils of P. aeruginosa, C. martinii, and T. vulgaris reduced the TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-8 secretion levels of THP-1 cells.

  8. An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starliper, Clifford E.; Ketola, H. George; Noyes, Andrew D.; Schill, William B.; Henson, Fred G.; Chalupnicki, Marc; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2015-01-01

    Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments of captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine whether selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC’s) were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum) and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBCs (0.02–0.04%) were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBCs for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14% to 0.30% and 0.10% to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11% and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5%) of Allimed® tested resulted in MBCs to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBCs for all but one isolate.

  9. An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starliper, Clifford E.; Ketolab, Henry G.; Noyes, Andrew D.; Schill, William B.; Henson, Fred G.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2015-01-01

    Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments for captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine if selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC’s) were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum) and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBC’s (0.02 to 0.04%) were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBC’s for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14 to 0.30% and 0.10 to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11 and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5%) of Allimed® tested resulted in MBC’s to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBC’s for all but one isolate

  10. Inhibitory effect of formulated lemongrass shampoo on Malassezia furfur: a yeast associated with dandruff.

    PubMed

    Wuthi-Udomlert, Mansuang; Chotipatoomwan, Ployphand; Panyadee, Sasikan; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2011-03-01

    Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf) has been used in cooking and in many traditional medicines; the essential oil contains citral as a major constituent. This study evaluated the antifungal activity of lemongrass oil against Malassezia furfur, an opportunistic yeast associated with dandruff, by using a broth dilution assay. From the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) obtained, the oil was then incorporated at different percentages into shampoo formulations. The formulated shampoos were kept at room temperature (28 degrees-30 degrees C) and under accelerated condition (45 degrees C). At the end of the first and sixth weeks, after preparation, all formulations were tested again and the appearance was recorded. Selection of an appropriate formula was based on antifungal activity against M. furfur, the physical appearance, the chemical properties and stability of the formula. Two percent lemongrass oil shampoo provided the required qualities necessary for commercial use. After being kept for 6 weeks at 28 degrees-30 degrees C and 45 degrees C, this formulated shampoo gave MFCs against M. furfur of 75 microl/ml and 18.75 microl/ml, respectively.

  11. Evaluation of five essential oils from aromatic plants of Cameroon for controlling food spoilage and mycotoxin producing fungi.

    PubMed

    Nguefack, J; Leth, V; Amvam Zollo, P H; Mathur, S B

    2004-08-01

    Five essential oils (EO) extracted from Cymbopogon citratus, Monodora myristica, Ocimum gratissimum, Thymus vulgaris and Zingiber officinale were investigated for their inhibitory effect against three food spoilage and mycotoxin producing fungi, Fusarium moniliforme, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus. Five strains of each fungus were tested. The agar dilution technique was used to determine the inhibitory effect of each EO on the radial growth of the fungus, and a dose response was recorded. The EO from O. gratissimum, T. vulgaris and C. citratus were the most effective and prevented conidial germination and the growth of all three fungi on corn meal agar at 800, 1000 and 1200 ppm, respectively. Moderate activity was observed for the EO from Z. officinale between 800 and 2500 ppm, while the EO from M. myristica was less inhibitory. These effects against food spoilage and mycotoxin producing fungi indicated the possible ability of each essential oil as a food preservative. A comparative test on the preservative ability of the EO from O. gratissimum and potassium sorbate against A. flavus at pH 3.0 and 4.5 showed that the EO remained stable at both pH, whereas the efficacy of potassium sorbate was reduced at higher pH. We concluded that the EO from O. gratissimum is a potential food preservative with a pH dependent superiority against potassium sorbate, and these are novel scientific information.

  12. Bactericidal activity of herbal volatile oil extracts against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Intorasoot, Amornrat; Chornchoem, Piyaorn; Sookkhee, Siriwoot; Intorasoot, Sorasak

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate the antibacterial activity of 10 volatile oils extracted from medicinal plants, including galangal (Alpinia galanga Linn.), ginger (Zingiber officinale), plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC.), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.), tree basil (Ocimum gratissimum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus DC.), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) against four standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and 30 clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDR-A. baumannii). Materials and Methods: Agar diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were employed for the determination of bactericidal activity of water distilled medicinal plants. Tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) was used as positive control in this study. Results: The results indicated the volatile oil extracted from cinnamon exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the most common human pathogens, S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and A. baumannii. Most of volatile oil extracts were less effective against non-fermentative bacteria, P. aeruginosa. In addition, volatile oil extracted from cinnamon, clove, and tree basil possessed potent bactericidal activity against MDR-A. baumannii with MBC90 of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: The volatile oil extracts would be useful as alternative natural product for the treatment of the most common human pathogens and MDR-A. baumannii infections. PMID:28512603

  13. Antioxidant Potential of a Polyherbal Antimalarial as an Indicator of Its Therapeutic Value

    PubMed Central

    Arrey Tarkang, Protus; Nwachiban Atchan, Achille Parfait; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Okalebo, Faith Apoelot; Guantai, Anastasia Nkatha; Agbor, Gabriel Agbor

    2013-01-01

    Nefang is a polyherbal product composed of Mangifera indica (bark and leaf), Psidium guajava, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Citrus sinensis, and Ocimum gratissimum (leaves), used for the treatment of malaria. Compounds with antioxidant activity are believed to modulate plasmodial infection. Antioxidant activity of the constituent aqueous plants extracts, in vitro, was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), total phenolic content (TPC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods and, in vivo, Nefang (100 and 500 mg kg−1) activity was evaluated in carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stressed Wistar rats. Superoxide dismutase, catalase activities, and lipid peroxidation by the malondialdehyde and total proteins assays were carried out. P. guajava, M. indica leaf, and bark extracts had the highest antioxidant properties in all three assays, with no statistically significant difference. Rats treated with the carbon tetrachloride had a statistically significant decrease in levels of triglycerides, superoxide dismutase, and catalase (P < 0.05) and increase in malondialdehyde activity, total protein levels, and liver and renal function markers, whereas rats treated with Nefang showed increased levels in the former and dose-dependent decrease towards normal levels in the later. These results reveal the constituent plants of Nefang that contribute to its in vivo antioxidant potential. This activity is a good indication of the therapeutic potential of Nefang. PMID:24454347

  14. Repellent, irritant and toxic effects of 20 plant extracts on adults of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae mosquito.

    PubMed

    Deletre, Emilie; Martin, Thibaud; Campagne, Pascal; Bourguet, Denis; Cadin, Andy; Menut, Chantal; Bonafos, Romain; Chandre, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides induce an excito-repellent effect that reduces contact between humans and mosquitoes. Insecticide use is expected to lower the risk of pathogen transmission, particularly when impregnated on long-lasting treated bednets. When applied at low doses, pyrethroids have a toxic effect, however the development of pyrethroid resistance in several mosquito species may jeopardize these beneficial effects. The need to find additional compounds, either to kill disease-carrying mosquitoes or to prevent mosquito contact with humans, therefore arises. In laboratory conditions, the effects (i.e., repellent, irritant and toxic) of 20 plant extracts, mainly essential oils, were assessed on adults of Anopheles gambiae, a primary vector of malaria. Their effects were compared to those of DEET and permethrin, used as positive controls. Most plant extracts had irritant, repellent and/or toxic effects on An. gambiae adults. The most promising extracts, i.e. those combining the three types of effects, were from Cymbopogon winterianus, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Thymus vulgaris. The irritant, repellent and toxic effects occurred apparently independently of each other, and the behavioural response of adult An. gambiae was significantly influenced by the concentration of the plant extracts. Mechanisms underlying repellency might, therefore, differ from those underlying irritancy and toxicity. The utility of the efficient plant extracts for vector control as an alternative to pyrethroids may thus be envisaged.

  15. Levels of Essential Elements in Different Medicinal Plants Determined by Using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the content of essential elements in medicinal plants in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Five different medical plants (mahareeb (Cymbopogon schoenanthus), sheeh (Artemisia vulgaris), harjal (Cynanchum argel delile), nabipoot (Equisetum arvense), and cafmariam (Vitex agnus-castus)) were collected from Madina city in the KSA. Five elements Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Se were determined by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Fe levels were the highest and Se levels were the lowest in all plants. The range levels of all elements in all plants were as follows: Fe 193.4–1757.9, Mn 23.6–143.7, Zn 15.4–32.7, Se 0.13–0.92, and Cu 11.3–21.8 µg/g. Intakes of essential elements from the medical plants in infusion were calculated: Fe 4.6–13.4, Mn 6.7–123.2, Zn 7.0–42.7, Se 0.14–1.5, and Cu 1.5–5.0 µg/dose. The calculated intakes of essential elements for all plants did not exceed the daily intake set by the World Health Organization (WHO) and European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). These medicinal plants may be useful sources of essential elements, which are vital for health. PMID:29744234

  16. Ethnobotanical survey of the medicinal flora used by the Caribs of Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Girón, L M; Freire, V; Alonzo, A; Cáceres, A

    1991-09-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was conducted among the Carib population of Guatemala in 1988-1989. In general terms, the sample surveyed possessed a relatively good standard of living. Results indicated that health services were utilized by the population, and that domestic medicine, mainly plants (96.9%) was used by 15% of the population. One hundred and nineteen plants used for medicinal purposes were collected, of which 102 (85.7%) could be identified; a list of these together with the information provided for each plant is presented. The most frequently reported plants used as medicine are: Acalypha arvensis, Cassia alata, Cymbopogon citratus, Melampodium divaricatum. Momordica charantia, Neurolaena lobata, Ocimum basilicum, Petiveria alliacea and Solanum nigrescens. Most of these plants are found in the region, but some are brought from the Highlands or outside of the country, such as Malva parviflora, Matricaria chamomilla, Peumus boldus, Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis and Tagetes lucida. This survey demonstrated that the Carib population of Guatemala has survived in a transcultural environment of African and native Amerindian beliefs.

  17. SciTech Connect

    Joyce, Blake L.; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Sykes, Robert

    Cymbopogon flexuosus, lemongrass, and C. martinii, palmarosa, are perennial grasses grown to produce essential oils for the fragrance industry. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate biomass and oil yields as a function of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization, and (2) to characterize their utility for lignocellulosic ethanol compared to Panicum virgatum (switchgrass). Mean biomass yields were 12.83 Mg lemongrass ha -1 and 15.11 Mg palmarosa ha -1 during the second harvest year resulting in theoretical biofuel yields of 2541 and 2569 L ethanol ha -1 respectively compared to reported 1749–3691 L ethanol ha -1 for switchgrass. Pretreated lemongrassmore » yielded 198 mL ethanol (g biomass) -1 and pretreated palmarosa yielded 170 mL ethanol (g biomass) -1. Additionally, lemongrass yielded 85.7 kg essential oil ha-1 and palmarosa yielded 67.0 kg ha -1 with an estimated value of USD $857 and $1005 ha -1. These data suggest that dual-use crops such as lemongrass and palmarosa may increase the economic viability of lignocellulosic biofuels.« less

  18. Bioactivities of Traditional Medicinal Plants in Alexandria

    PubMed Central

    Szopa, Agnieszka; Kubica, Paweł; Ekiert, Halina; Elshikh, Mohamed S.; Abdel-Salam, Eslam M.; El-Ansary, Diaa O.

    2018-01-01

    In traditional folklore, medicinal herbs play a vital role in the prevention and treatment of microbial diseases. In the present study, the phenolic profiles of the medicinal plants Asparagus aethiopicus L., Citrullus colocynthis L., Senna alexandrina L., Kalanchoe delagoensis L., Gasteria pillansii L., Cymbopogon citratus, Brassica juncea, and Curcuma longa L. were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode-array detector method. The results revealed rich sources of important compounds such as robinin in the fruits and leaves of A. aethiopicus; caffeic acid in the tubers of A. aethiopicus and quercitrin in the leaves of G. pillansii. Further, relatively high antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activities were observed in C. colocynthis fruit coat, S. alexandrina pods, and A. aethiopicus leaves, respectively. The relatively higher the bioactivities of plants extracts associated with the phenols in these plants, in particular, the more abundant the phenols. Therefore, it was concluded that the fruit coat of C. colocynthis, pods of S. alexandrina, and leaves of A. aethiopicus might be excellent sources of natural products. These plant extracts also have a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activities that could be used in the pharmaceutical industries and to control diseases. PMID:29636772

  19. Bactericidal activity of herbal volatile oil extracts against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Intorasoot, Amornrat; Chornchoem, Piyaorn; Sookkhee, Siriwoot; Intorasoot, Sorasak

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the antibacterial activity of 10 volatile oils extracted from medicinal plants, including galangal ( Alpinia galanga Linn.), ginger ( Zingiber officinale ), plai ( Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.), lime ( Citrus aurantifolia ), kaffir lime ( Citrus hystrix DC.), sweet basil ( Ocimum basilicum Linn.), tree basil ( Ocimum gratissimum ), lemongrass ( Cymbopogon citratus DC.), clove ( Syzygium aromaticum ), and cinnamon ( Cinnamomum verum ) against four standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Acinetobacter baumannii , and 30 clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDR- A. baumannii ). Agar diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were employed for the determination of bactericidal activity of water distilled medicinal plants. Tea tree oil ( Melaleuca alternifolia ) was used as positive control in this study. The results indicated the volatile oil extracted from cinnamon exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the most common human pathogens, S. aureus , E. coli , P. aeruginosa , and A. baumannii . Most of volatile oil extracts were less effective against non-fermentative bacteria, P. aeruginosa . In addition, volatile oil extracted from cinnamon, clove, and tree basil possessed potent bactericidal activity against MDR- A. baumannii with MBC 90 of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/mL, respectively. The volatile oil extracts would be useful as alternative natural product for the treatment of the most common human pathogens and MDR- A. baumannii infections.

  20. Vasorelaxation induced by common edible tropical plant extracts in isolated rat aorta and mesenteric vascular bed.

    PubMed

    Runnie, I; Salleh, M N; Mohamed, S; Head, R J; Abeywardena, M Y

    2004-06-01

    In this study, the vasodilatory actions of nine edible tropical plant extracts were investigated. Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato leaf), Piper betle (betel leaf), Anacardium occidentale (cashew leaf), Gynandropsis gynandra (maman leaf), Carica papaya (papaya leaf), and Mentha arvensis (mint leaf) extracts exhibited more than 50% relaxing effect on aortic ring preparations, while Piper betle and Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass stalk) showed comparable vasorelaxation on isolated perfused mesenteric artery preparation. The vascular effect on the aortic ring preparations were mainly endothelium-dependent, and mediated by nitric oxide (NO) as supported by the inhibition of action in the presence of N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (NOLA), an nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, or by the removal of endothelium. In contrast, vasodilatory actions in resistance vessels (perfused mesenteric vascular beds) appear to involve several biochemical mediators, including NO, prostanoids, and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs). Total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities varied among different extracts and found to be independent of vascular relaxation effects. This study demonstrates that many edible plants common in Asian diets to possess potential health benefits, affording protection at the vascular endothelium level.

  1. Distribution, feeding behavior and control strategies of the exotic land snail Achatina fulica (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) in the northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, F S; Peso-Aguiar, M C; Assunção-Albuquerque, M J T

    2008-11-01

    The goal of this study was to document the distribution and establishment A. fulica such as their feeding preference and behavior in situ. The study was carried out at the city of Lauro de Freitas, Bahia state, Brazil, between November 2001 and November 2002. We used catch per unit effort methods to determine abundance, distribution, habitat choice and food preferences. The abundance and distribution of A. fulica was most representative in urban area, mainly near to the coastline. Lots and house gardens were the most preferred sites during active hours. The results indicated that A. fulica started their activity at the end of the evening and stopped in mid-morning. Their preferred food were vascular plants such as Hibiscus syriacus, Ricinus communis, Carica papaya, Galinsonga coccinea, Lippia alba, Ixora coccinea, Musa parasidisiaca, Mentha spicata and Cymbopogon citrates. Our results indicate that A. fulica are well adapted and established in this city and modified environments facilitate their establishment and dispersion. However, human perturbation, such as clearance of lots could be limiting for the persistence of A. fulica populations.

  2. Characterization of potent anticholinesterase plant oil based microemulsion.

    PubMed

    Chaiyana, Wantida; Saeio, Kiattisak; Hennink, Wim E; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2010-11-30

    In the present study, essential oils of three edible Thai plants, Cymbopogon citratus (Gramineae), Citrus hystrix (Rutaceae) and Zingiber cassumunar (Zingiberaceae) were comparatively tested for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities using Ellman's colorimetric method. C. citratus oil exhibited the highest activity with IC(50) values of 0.34±0.07μl/ml and 2.14±0.18μl/ml against BChE and AChE activity, respectively. It was further investigated whether microemulsions of this oil could be obtained. The effects of type of surfactant and co-surfactant as well as pH and ionic strength on the phase behavior of the oil/water system were investigated. Brij 97, Triton X-114, Tween 20 and Tween 85 were employed as surfactant whereas ethanol and hexanol were used as cosurfactants. The size analysis, electrical conductivity measurements and cholinesterase inhibition assays were done in selected microemulsion. The results revealed that the type and concentration of surfactant and co-surfactant exhibited a distinct influence on the C. citratus oil microemulsions. Moreover, the inhibitory activities of the microemulsion formulation were remarkable. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of essential oils on the growth of Fusarium verticillioides and fumonisin contamination in corn.

    PubMed

    Fandohan, Pascal; Gbenou, Joachim D; Gnonlonfin, Benoit; Hell, Kerstin; Marasas, Walter F O; Wingfield, Michael J

    2004-11-03

    Essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from local plants in Benin, western Africa, and oil from seeds of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) were evaluated in vitro and in vivo for their efficacy against Fusarium verticillioides infection and fumonisin contamination. Fumonisin in corn was quantified using a fluorometer and the Vicam method. Oils from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum basilicum, and Ocimum gratissimum were the most effective in vitro, completely inhibiting the growth of F. verticillioides at lower concentrations over 21 days of incubation. These oils reduced the incidence of F. verticillioides in corn and totally inhibited fungal growth at concentrations of 8, 6.4, and 4.8 microL/g, respectively, over 21 days. At the concentration of 4.8 microL/g, these oils did not affect significantly fumonisin production. However, a marked reduction of fumonisin level was observed in corn stored in closed conditions. The oils adversely affected kernel germination at 4.8 microL/g and therefore cannot be recommended for controlling F. verticillioides on stored corn used as seeds, when used at this concentration. The oil of neem seeds showed no inhibitory effect but rather accelerated the growth of F. verticillioides.

  4. A reversed-phase compatible thin-layer chromatography autography for the detection of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ramallo, I Ayelen; García, Paula; Furlan, Ricardo L E

    2015-11-01

    A dual readout autographic assay to detect acetylcholinesterase inhibitors present in complex matrices adsorbed on reversed-phase or normal-phase thin-layer chromatography plates is described. Enzyme gel entrapment with an amphiphilic copolymer was used for assay development. The effects of substrate and enzyme concentrations, pH, incubation time, and incubation temperature on the sensitivity and the detection limit of the assay were evaluated. Experimental design and response surface methodology were used to optimize conditions with a minimum number of experiments. The assay allowed the detection of 0.01% w/w of physostigmine in both a spiked Sonchus oleraceus L. extract chromatographed on normal phase and a spiked Pimenta racemosa (Mill.) J.W. Moore leaf essential oil chromatographed on reversed phase. Finally, the reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography assay was applied to reveal the presence of an inhibitor in the Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf essential oil. The developed assay is able to detect acetylcholinesterase inhibitors present in complex matrixes that were chromatographed in normal phase or reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography. The detection limit for physostigmine on both normal and reversed phase was of 1×10(-4) μg. The results can be read by a change in color and/or a change in fluorescence. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Toxicity of twenty-two plant essential oils against pathogenic bacteria of vegetables and mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Todorović, Biljana; Potočnik, Ivana; Rekanović, Emil; Stepanović, Miloš; Kostić, Miroslav; Ristić, Mihajlo; Milijašević-Marčić, Svetlana

    2016-12-01

    ASBTRACT Toxicity of twenty-two essential oils to three bacterial pathogens in different horticultural systems: Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (causing blight of bean), Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (bacterial wilt and canker of tomato), and Pseudomonas tolaasii (causal agent of bacterial brown blotch on cultivated mushrooms) was tested. Control of bacterial diseases is very difficult due to antibiotic resistance and ineffectiveness of chemical products, to that essential oils offer a promising alternative. Minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations are determined by applying a single drop of oil onto the inner side of each plate cover in macrodilution assays. Among all tested substances, the strongest and broadest activity was shown by the oils of wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus. Carvacrol (64.0-75.8%) was the dominant component of oregano oils, while geranial (40.7%) and neral (26.7%) were the major constituents of lemongrass oil. Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli was the most sensitive to plant essential oils, being susceptible to 19 oils, while 11 oils were bactericidal to the pathogen. Sixteen oils inhibited the growth of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and seven oils showed bactericidal effects to the pathogen. The least sensitive species was Pseudomonas tolaasii as five oils inhibited bacterial growth and two oils were bactericidal. Wintergreen, oregano, and lemongrass oils should be formulated as potential biochemical bactericides against different horticultural pathogens.

  6. An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.

    PubMed Central

    Starliper, Clifford E.; Ketola, Henry G.; Noyes, Andrew D.; Schill, William B.; Henson, Fred G.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2014-01-01

    Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments of captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine whether selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC’s) were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum) and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBCs (0.02–0.04%) were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBCs for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14% to 0.30% and 0.10% to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11% and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5%) of Allimed® tested resulted in MBCs to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBCs for all but one isolate. PMID:25685547

  7. The repellency of lemongrass oil against stable flies, tested using video tracking

    PubMed Central

    Baldacchino, Frédéric; Tramut, Coline; Salem, Ali; Liénard, Emmanuel; Delétré, Emilie; Franc, Michel; Martin, Thibaud; Duvallet, Gérard; Jay-Robert, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon citratus) is an effective repellent against mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae). In this study, its effectiveness was assessed on stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in laboratory conditions. First, we demonstrated that lemongrass oil is an active substance for antennal olfactory receptor cells of Stomoxys calcitrans as indicated by a significant increase in the electroantennogram responses to increasing doses of lemongrass oil. Feeding-choice tests in a flight cage with stable flies having access to two blood-soaked sanitary pads, one of which was treated with lemongrass oil, showed that stable flies (n = 24) spent significantly more time in the untreated zone (median value = 218.4 s) than in the treated zone (median value = 63.7 s). No stable flies fed on the treated pad, whereas nine fed on the untreated pad. These results suggest that lemongrass oil could be used as an effective repellent against stable flies. Additional studies to confirm its spatial repellent and feeding deterrent effects are warranted. PMID:23759542

  8. Reduction of Aeromonas hidrophyla biofilm on stainless stell surface by essential oils

    PubMed Central

    Millezi, Alessandra Farias; Cardoso, Maria das Graças; Alves, Eduardo; Piccoli, Roberta Hilsdorf

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates the possibility of using sanitizing detergents based on natural products for the elimination and/or reduction of Aeromonas hydrophila biofilm formed on stainless steel surfaces. The goal of this work was to determine the reduction effect of sanitizing detergents containing essential oils of Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) on biofilm formed by A. hydrophila on AISI 304 stainless steel coupons, using UHT skimmed milk as substratum. There was adhesion and biofilm formation by A. hydrophila at 28 °C, presenting 7.60 log cfu.cm−2 after the fourth day of cultivation. There was no significant difference between the lemongrass treatment and that of the thyme oil (p < 0.05). However, both treatments significantly reduced the biofilm, differing significantly from the NaOH control (p > 0.05). The treatment with lemongrass solution reduced the biofilm by 4.51 log cfu cm−2 at 25 °C. The thyme detergent also reduced the number of cfu cm−2 by 3.84 log cycles at 25 °C. The use of the lemongrass and thyme solutions efficiently reduced the A. hydrophila biofilm. PMID:24159286

  9. A Weibull model to describe antimicrobial kinetics of oregano and lemongrass essential oils against Salmonella Enteritidis in ground beef during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Thales Leandro Coutinho; Soares, Rodrigo de Araújo; Piccoli, Roberta Hilsdorf

    2013-03-01

    The antimicrobial effect of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.) essential oils (EOs) against Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis in in vitro experiments, and inoculated in ground bovine meat during refrigerated storage (4±2 °C) for 6 days was evaluated. The Weibull model was tested to fit survival/inactivation bacterial curves (estimating of p and δ parameters). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value for both EOs on S. Enteritidis was 3.90 μl/ml. The EO concentrations applied in the ground beef were 3.90, 7.80 and 15.60 μl/g, based on MIC levels and possible activity reduction by food constituents. Both evaluated EOs in all tested levels, showed antimicrobial effects, with microbial populations reducing (p≤0.05) along time storage. Evaluating fit-quality parameters (RSS and RSE) Weibull models are able to describe the inactivation curves of EOs against S. Enteritidis. The application of EOs in processed meats can be used to control pathogens during refrigerated shelf-life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Modifying effects of lemongrass essential oil on specific tissue response to the carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitrosurea in female BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Bidinotto, Lucas T; Costa, Celso A R A; Costa, Mirtes; Rodrigues, Maria A M; Barbisan, Luís F

    2012-02-01

    Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf) essential oil has been used worldwide because of its ethnobotanical and medicinal usefulness. Regarding its medicinal usefulness, the present study evaluated the beneficial effects of lemongrass essential oil (LGEO) oral treatment on cell proliferation and apoptosis events and on early development of hyperplastic lesions in the mammary gland, colon, and urinary bladder induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) in female BALB/c mice. The animals were allocated into three groups: G1, treated with LGEO vehicle for 5 weeks (five times per week); G2, treated with LGEO vehicle as for G1 and MNU (two injections each of 30 mg/kg of body weight at weeks 3 and 5); and G3, treated with LGEO (five times each with 500 mg/kg of body weight per week) and MNU as for G2. Twenty-four hours after the last MNU application, all animals were euthanized, and mammary glands, colon, and urinary bladder were collected for histological and immunohistochemical analysis. LGEO oral treatment significantly changed the indexes of apoptosis and/or cellular proliferation for the tissues analyzed. In particular, the treatment reduced the incidence of hyperplastic lesions and increased apoptosis in mammary epithelial cells. This increment in the apoptosis response may be related to a favorable balance in Bcl-2/Bax immunoreactivity in mammary epithelial cells. These findings indicate that LGEO presented a protective role against early MNU-induced mammary gland alterations in BALB/c mice.

  11. Lemongrass essential oil gel as a local drug delivery agent for the treatment of periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Warad, Shivaraj B.; Kolar, Sahana S.; Kalburgi, Veena; Kalburgi, Nagaraj B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: It has been long recognized that periodontal diseases are infections of the periodontium, comprising the bacterial etiology, an immune response, and tissue destruction. Treatment strategies aiming primarily at suppressing or eliminating specific periodontal pathogens include adjunct use of local and systemic antibiotics as part of nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Unwanted side effects and resistance of microorganisms toward antibiotics due to their widespread use have modified the general perception about their efficacy. Research in phytosciences has revealed various medicinal plants offering a new choice of optional antimicrobial therapy. Cymbopogon citratus, Stapf. (lemongrass) is a popular medicinal plant. At a concentration ≤2%, lemongrass essential oil inhibits the growth of several kinds of microorganisms including periodontal pathogens, especially the reference strains Actinomyces naeslundii and Porphyromonas gingivalis, which were resistant to tetracycline hydrochloride. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of locally delivered 2% lemongrass essential oil in gel form as an adjunct to scaling and root planing, as compared to scaling and root planing alone for the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: 2% Lemongrass essential oil gel was prepared and placed in moderate to deep periodontal pockets after scaling and root planing. Results: Statistically significant reduction in probing depth and gingival index and gain in relative attachment level were noted in the experimental group as compared to the control group at 1 and 3 months. Conclusion: Locally delivered 2% lemongrass essential oil gel offers a new choice of safe and effective adjunct to scaling and root planing in periodontal therapy. PMID:24991068

  12. Lemongrass effects on IL-1beta and IL-6 production by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sforcin, J M; Amaral, J T; Fernandes, A; Sousa, J P B; Bastos, J K

    2009-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus has been widely recognised for its ethnobotanical and medicinal usefulness. Its insecticidal, antimicrobial and therapeutic properties have been reported, but little is known about its effect on the immune system. This work aimed to investigate the in vivo effect of a water extract of lemongrass on pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1beta and IL-6) production by macrophages of BALB/c mice. The action of lemongrass essential oil on cytokine production by macrophages was also analysed in vitro. The chemical composition of the extract and the oil was also investigated. Treatment of mice with water extract of lemongrass inhibited macrophages to produce IL-1beta but induced IL-6 production by these cells. Lemongrass essential oil inhibited the cytokine production in vitro. Linalool oxide and epoxy-linalool oxide were found to be the major components of lemongrass water extract, and neral and geranial were the major compounds of its essential oil. Taken together, these data suggest an anti-inflammatory action of this natural product.

  13. Contact allergy to essential oils cannot always be predicted from allergy to fragrance markers in the baseline series.

    PubMed

    Sabroe, Ruth A; Holden, Catherine R; Gawkrodger, David J

    2016-04-01

    Essential oils are fragrance substances that are labelled on cosmetic products by their INCI names, potentially confusing consumers. To establish whether contact allergy to essential oils might be missed if not specifically tested for. We tested 471 patients with 14 essential oils and 2104 patients with Melaleuca alternifolia oil between January 2008 and June 2014. All patients were tested with fragrance mix I, fragrance mix II, hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde, and Myroxylon pereirae. Three hundred and twenty-six patients were tested with hydroperoxides of limonene and linalool. Thirty-four patients had a +/++/+++ reaction to at least one essential oil. Eleven had no reaction to any of the six marker fragrance substances. Thus, 4 of 11 positive reactions to M. alternifolia oil, 2 of 7 reactions to Cymbopogon flexuosus oil, 1 of 5 reactions to Cananga odorata oil, 3 of 4 reactions to Santalum album oil and 2 of 3 reactions to Mentha piperita oil would have been missed without individual testing. A small number of patients who are allergic to essential oils could be missed if these are not specifically tested. Labelling by INCI names means that exposure may not be obvious. Careful inspection of so-called 'natural' products and targeted testing is recommended. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Repellent activity of essential oils: a review.

    PubMed

    Nerio, Luz Stella; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Stashenko, Elena

    2010-01-01

    Currently, the use of synthetic chemicals to control insects and arthropods raises several concerns related to environment and human health. An alternative is to use natural products that possess good efficacy and are environmentally friendly. Among those chemicals, essential oils from plants belonging to several species have been extensively tested to assess their repellent properties as a valuable natural resource. The essential oils whose repellent activities have been demonstrated, as well as the importance of the synergistic effects among their components are the main focus of this review. Essential oils are volatile mixtures of hydrocarbons with a diversity of functional groups, and their repellent activity has been linked to the presence of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. However, in some cases, these chemicals can work synergistically, improving their effectiveness. In addition, the use of other natural products in the mixture, such as vanillin, could increase the protection time, potentiating the repellent effect of some essential oils. Among the plant families with promising essential oils used as repellents, Cymbopogon spp., Ocimum spp. and Eucalyptus spp. are the most cited. Individual compounds present in these mixtures with high repellent activity include alpha-pinene, limonene, citronellol, citronellal, camphor and thymol. Finally, although from an economical point of view synthetic chemicals are still more frequently used as repellents than essential oils, these natural products have the potential to provide efficient, and safer repellents for humans and the environment.

  15. Therapeutic switching: from antidermatophytic essential oils to new leishmanicidal products

    PubMed Central

    Houël, Emeline; Gonzalez, German; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Odonne, Guillaume; Eparvier, Véronique; Deharo, Eric; Stien, Didier

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether the antidermatophytic activity of essential oils (EOs) can be used as an indicator for the discovery of active natural products against Leishmania amazonensis. The aerial parts of seven plants were hydrodistilled. Using broth microdilution techniques, the obtained EOs were tested against three strains of dermatophytes (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum and Microsporum canis). To compare the EOs antifungal and antiparasitic effects, the EOs activities against axenic amastigotes of L. amazonensis were concurrently evaluated. For the most promising EOs, their antileishmanial activities against parasites infecting peritoneal macrophages of BALB/c mice were measured. The most interesting antifungal candidates were the EOs from Cymbopogon citratus, Otacanthus azureus and Protium heptaphyllum, whereas O. azureus, Piper hispidum and P. heptaphyllum EOs exhibited the lowest 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values against axenic amastigotes, thus revealing a certain correspondence between both activities. The P. hispidum EO was identified as the most promising product in the results from the infected macrophages model (IC50: 4.7 µg/mL, safety index: 8). The most abundant compounds found in this EO were sesquiterpenes, notably curzerene and furanodiene. Eventually, the evaluation of the antidermatophytic activity of EOs appears to be an efficient method for identifying new potential drugs for the treatment of L. amazonensis. PMID:25742270

  16. Repellent, Irritant and Toxic Effects of 20 Plant Extracts on Adults of the Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae Mosquito

    PubMed Central

    Deletre, Emilie; Martin, Thibaud; Campagne, Pascal; Bourguet, Denis; Cadin, Andy; Menut, Chantal; Bonafos, Romain; Chandre, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides induce an excito-repellent effect that reduces contact between humans and mosquitoes. Insecticide use is expected to lower the risk of pathogen transmission, particularly when impregnated on long-lasting treated bednets. When applied at low doses, pyrethroids have a toxic effect, however the development of pyrethroid resistance in several mosquito species may jeopardize these beneficial effects. The need to find additional compounds, either to kill disease-carrying mosquitoes or to prevent mosquito contact with humans, therefore arises. In laboratory conditions, the effects (i.e., repellent, irritant and toxic) of 20 plant extracts, mainly essential oils, were assessed on adults of Anopheles gambiae, a primary vector of malaria. Their effects were compared to those of DEET and permethrin, used as positive controls. Most plant extracts had irritant, repellent and/or toxic effects on An. gambiae adults. The most promising extracts, i.e. those combining the three types of effects, were from Cymbopogon winterianus, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Thymus vulgaris. The irritant, repellent and toxic effects occurred apparently independently of each other, and the behavioural response of adult An. gambiae was significantly influenced by the concentration of the plant extracts. Mechanisms underlying repellency might, therefore, differ from those underlying irritancy and toxicity. The utility of the efficient plant extracts for vector control as an alternative to pyrethroids may thus be envisaged. PMID:24376515

  17. Five essential oils from aromatic plants of Cameroon: their antibacterial activity and ability to permeabilize the cytoplasmic membrane of Listeria innocua examined by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Nguefack, J; Budde, B B; Jakobsen, M

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the antibacterial effect of five essential oils (EO) extracted from aromatic plants (Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimumbasilicum, Ocimum gratissimum, Thymus vulgaris and Zingiber officinale) of Cameroon against strains of Listeria monocytogenes, L. innocua and Staphylococcus aureus. The ability of selected EO to permeabilize the cytoplasmic membrane of L. innocua was also examined. The antibacterial activity of the EO determined by the agar diffusion method showed that T. vulgaris had the highest activity followed by O. gratissimum and C. citratus. Lowest activity was recorded from Z. officinale and O. basilicum. Significant differences in sensitivity between strains of Listeria and S. aureus were observed. Flow cytometry of L. innocua stained with carboxy-fluorescein diacetate showed that the fluorescence intensity of cells exposed to EO decreased faster than nonexposed cells, indicating that EO permeabilized the cytoplasmic membrane with the leakage of carboxy-fluorescein. Almost all the EO tested showed antibacterial activity to a different extent. The antibacterial effect was due to permeabilization of the cytoplasmic membrane. This study has identified the preservative potential of the EO examined. The use of sensitive method, such as flow cytometry, is advantageous for quick generation of data on the antibacterial effect of EO.

  18. Stepwise drying of medicinal plants as alternative to reduce time and energy processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuervo-Andrade, S. P.; Hensel, O.

    2016-07-01

    The objective of drying medicinal plants is to extend the shelf life and conserving the fresh characteristics. This is achieved by reducing the water activity (aw) of the product to a value which will inhibit the growth and development of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, significantly reducing enzyme activity and the rate at which undesirable chemical reactions occur. The technical drying process requires an enormous amount of thermal and electrical energy. An improvement in the quality of the product to be dried and at the same time a decrease in the drying cost and time are achieved through the utilization of a controlled conventional drying method, which is based on a good utilization of the renewable energy or looking for other alternatives which achieve lower processing times without sacrificing the final product quality. In this work the method of stepwise drying of medicinal plants is presented as an alternative to the conventional drying that uses a constant temperature during the whole process. The objective of stepwise drying is the decrease of drying time and reduction in energy consumption. In this process, apart from observing the effects on decreases the effective drying process time and energy, the influence of the different combinations of drying phases on several characteristics of the product are considered. The tests were carried out with Melissa officinalis L. variety citronella, sowed in greenhouse. For the stepwise drying process different combinations of initial and final temperature, 40/50°C, are evaluated, with different transition points associated to different moisture contents (20, 30, 40% and 50%) of the product during the process. Final quality of dried foods is another important issue in food drying. Drying process has effect in quality attributes drying products. This study was determining the color changes and essential oil loses by reference the measurement of the color and essential oil content of the fresh product was

  19. Insecticide and Repellent Mixture Pour-On Protects Cattle against Animal Trypanosomosis

    PubMed Central

    Abdoulmoumini, Mamoudou; Zoli, Andre; Cene, Bylah; Adakal, Hassane; Bouyer, Jérémy

    2016-01-01

    Background African animal trypanosomosis (AAT), transmitted by tsetse flies and tick-borne diseases are the main constraints to livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa. Vector control methods such as pour-on offer individual protection against ticks but not against tsetse so far, for which protection has always been communal, through a reduction of their density. The latter requires the treatment of a large part of the herd in a given landscape and is not instantaneous. Methodology/Principal Findings Two prospective surveys were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and persistence of a pour-on formulation composed of cypermetrhin, chlorpyrifos, piperonyl butoxid and citronella (Vectoclor, CEVA Santé Animal). In experimental conditions, tsetse flies were exposed to treated and control cattle. Flies knockdown and engorgement rates were determined and the product persistence was assessed as the time for these parameters to drop below 50% (T50). T50 was 37 days (95%CI: [33–41] days) and 46 days (95%CI: [39–56] days) for the knockdown and engorgement rates respectively. In field conditions, two cattle herds were monitored following a case-control experimental design, in the Adamaoua region of Cameroon. One herd was treated once with Vectoclor pour-on (treated group) and the second used as a control group (not treated). Ticks infestation rate, trypanosomosis prevalence and packed-cell volume were measured over the two months following treatment. The treatment was highly effective against ticks with a complete elimination three days after application in the treated group. Trypanosomosis prevalence was also significantly reduced during the study (by 4, P<0.001) and PCV of the treated group increased significantly in the same time (P<0.001), contrary to the control group. Conclusions/Significance The protection of this new pour-on against tsetse bites and trypanosomosis is demonstrated here for the first time. Moreover, this insecticide and repellent mixture offer a

  20. Repellent effect of microencapsulated essential oil in lotion formulation against mosquito bites.

    PubMed

    Misni, Norashiqin; Nor, Zurainee Mohamed; Ahmad, Rohani

    2017-01-01

    Many essential oils have been reported as natural sources of insect repellents; however, due to high volatility, they present low repellent effect. Formulation technique by using microencapsulation enables to control the volatility of essential oil and thereby extends the duration of repellency. In this study, the effectiveness of microencapsulated essential oils of Alpinia galanga, Citrus grandis and C. aurantifolia in the lotion formulations were evaluated against mosquito bites. Essential oils and N,N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) were encapsulated by using interfacial pre- cipitation techniques before incorporation into lotion base to form microencapsulated (ME) formulation. The pure essential oil and DEET were also prepared into lotion base to produce non-encapsulated (NE) formulation. All the prepared formulations were assessed for their repellent activity against Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory condition. Field evaluations also were conducted in three different study sites in Peninsular Malaysia. In addi- tion, Citriodiol® (Mosiquard®) and citronella-based repellents (KAPS®, MozAway® and BioZ Natural®) were also included for comparison. In laboratory conditions, the ME formulations of the essential oils showed no significant difference with regard to the duration of repellent effect compared to the microencapsulated DEET used at the highest con- centration (20%). It exhibited >98% repellent effect for duration of 4 h (p = 0.06). In the field conditions, these formulations demonstrated comparable repellent effect (100% for a duration of 3 h) to Citriodiol® based repellent (Mosiguard®) (p = 0.07). In both test conditions, the ME formulations of the essential oils presented longer duration of 100% repellent effect (between 1 and 2 h) compared to NE formulations. The findings of the study demonstrate that the application of the microencapsulation technique during the preparation of the formulations significantly increases the duration of the

  1. Real-time monitoring of particles, PAH, and CO in an occupied townhouse.

    PubMed

    Wallace, L

    2000-01-01

    Beginning in October 1996, indoor and sometimes outdoor air at an occupied house in a suburban area of Virginia has been monitored continuously for particles, PAH, and CO. Two Climet monitors have been used to count particles in six size ranges between 0.3 and > 10 microns, with 1-minute averages being collected every 5 minutes. Two Ecochem PAH monitors have been used to sample for particle-bound PAHs once every minute. Also, two Langan CO monitor-data loggers have measured CO once each minute while logging the PAH data. Two Aethalometers measure black carbon. A single Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) measures ultrafine particles. The pairs of monitors are set up either to provide an indoor/outdoor or an upstairs office/downstairs kitchen comparison. Air exchange is occasionally measured using a Bruel & Kjaer 1302 SF6 monitor, as a parameter necessary for estimating deposition rates for particles and PAH. Results from the first 16 months of monitoring (approximately 10 M observations) include: neighborhood woodburning and morning rush hour traffic are the most important sources of PAH and black carbon outdoors; candles, matches, incense, and frying, sauteeing, broiling, deep-frying, and stir-frying are additional important indoor sources of PM. One citronella candle was an extremely powerful PAH source. Neither woodburning nor vehicles appears to be an important source of particles indoors, but frying, grilling, and sauteeing are extremely strong indoor sources, together with combustion events such as use of matches and candles. Physical movement was an important source of coarse but not fine particles. Use of the gas stove for extended periods of time led to increased CO concentrations--vehicles and woodburning were relatively minor sources in comparison. The gas oven, gas burners, and electric toaster oven were important sources of ultrafine particles (< 0.1 micron). A source-proximity effect was noted with the kitchen monitor reading two to five times

  2. A vapour phase assay for evaluating the antimicrobial activities of essential oils against bovine respiratory bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Amat, S; Baines, D; Alexander, T W

    2017-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a new assay for the evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of essential oils (EOs) in vapour phase and to demonstrate the antimicrobial activities of commercial EOs against BRPs. To achieve the first objective, a microtube cap containing 100 μl of EO was embedded in an agar plate. An agar plug (diameter 13 mm) inoculated with a bacterial suspension containing10 8  CFU per ml was then placed over the cap and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Subsequently, bacteria were recovered from the agar plug by immersion in 5 ml of broth for 10 min, followed by vortexing for 30 s, and the broths were then plated for enumeration. To demonstrate the usefulness of the assay, nine commercial EOs derived from the following specific plants: ajowan, carrot seed, cinnamon leaf, citronella, fennel, ginger grass, lavender, rosemary and thyme were first evaluated for their vapour phase antimicrobial activities against Mannheimia haemolytica serotype 1. Selected EOs were further tested against Pasteurella multocida and Histophilus somni. The EOs of ajowan, thyme and cinnamon leaf completely or partially inhibited BRPs growth. This new assay provided reproducible results on the vapour phase antimicrobial activities of EOs against BRPs. These results support further study of EOs as a potential mitigation strategy against BRPs. In this study, we present a new vapour phase assay for evaluating the antimicrobial activities of essential oils (EO) against bovine respiratory pathogens (BRPs). Using this assay, we identified EOs, such as ajowan, thyme and cinnamon leaf, that can effectively inhibit growth of the BRPs Mannheimia haemolytica serotype 1, Pasteurella multocida and Histophilus somni. This is the first study to demonstrate the vapour phase antimicrobial activity of EOs against BRPs. © 2017 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology Reproduced with the permission of the Minister of the

  3. Reduced Efficacy of Commercial Acaricides Against Populations of Resistant Cattle Tick Rhipicephalus microplus from Two Municipalities of Antioquia, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Arias, Anderson; Villar-Argaiz, David; Chaparro-Gutierrez, Jenny J; Miller, Robert J; Perez de Leon, Adalberto A

    2014-01-01

    ppm) and cypermethrin (150 ppm) was less efficacious than the amitraz alone. A generic product based on amitraz + citronella (208 ppm + 10 ppm, respectively) was shown to be less efficacious than the name-brand amitraz product. Products containing the organophosphate chlorpyrifos or trichlorfon exhibited intermediate efficacies of approximately 60% at the Tarso farm. We conclude that at these two locations, there is a high degree of resistance to many of the acaricides available in Colombia and confirm suspicions that ivermectin is no longer able to eliminate tick infestations. PMID:25987840

  4. β-Citronellol, an alcoholic monoterpene with inhibitory properties on the contractility of rat trachea

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, T.B.; Ribeiro-Filho, H.V.; Lucetti, L.T.; Magalhães, P.J.C.

    2015-01-01

    β-Citronellol is an alcoholic monoterpene found in essential oils such Cymbopogon citratus (a plant with antihypertensive properties). β-Citronellol can act against pathogenic microorganisms that affect airways and, in virtue of the popular use of β-citronellol-enriched essential oils in aromatherapy, we assessed its pharmacologic effects on the contractility of rat trachea. Contractions of isolated tracheal rings were recorded isometrically through a force transducer connected to a data-acquisition device. β-Citronellol relaxed sustained contractions induced by acetylcholine or high extracellular potassium, but half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for K+-elicited stimuli were smaller than those for cholinergic contractions. It also inhibited contractions induced by electrical field stimulation or sodium orthovanadate with pharmacologic potency equivalent to that seen against acetylcholine-induced contractions. When contractions were evoked by selective recruitment of Ca2+ from the extracellular medium, β-citronellol preferentially inhibited contractions that involved voltage-operated (but not receptor-operated) pathways. β-Citronellol (but not verapamil) inhibited contractions induced by restoration of external Ca2+ levels after depleting internal Ca2+ stores with the concomitant presence of thapsigargin and recurrent challenge with acetylcholine. Treatment of tracheal rings with L-NAME, indomethacin or tetraethylammonium did not change the relaxing effects of β-citronellol. Inhibition of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) or transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) receptors with selective antagonists caused no change in the effects of β-citronellol. In conclusion, β-citronellol exerted inhibitory effects on rat tracheal rings, with predominant effects on contractions that recruit Ca2+ inflow towards the cytosol by voltage-gated pathways, whereas it appears less active against contractions elicited by receptor

  5. The Effect of Chemical Composition and Bioactivity of Several Essential Oils on Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuegui; Hao, Qiang; Chen, Yiqu; Jiang, Surong; Yang, Qunfang; Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The major chemical components of four essential oils (EOs) extracted from dry leaves of Citrus limonum, Cymbopogon citratus, Litsea cubeba, and Muristica fragrans were analyzed with gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and their fumigant, contact, and repellent activities against 10th instar and adults of Tenebrio molitor were also assayed. The results indicated that the major constituents of C. limonum and Cy. citrates were D-limonene (38.22%) and 3,7-dimethyl-6-octenal (26.21%), while which of L. cubeba and M. fragrans were (E)-3, 7-dimethyl-2, 6-octadienal (49.78%) and (E)-cinnamaldehyde (79.31%), respectively. Contact activities of L. cubeba and C. limonum with LC50 values of 21.2 and 13.9 µg/cm2 at 48 h and repellence activities (>89.0% repellence indexes) (P < 0.05) at 12 h on 10th instar were better than those of the other two EOs. Nevertheless, the fumigation activities of L. cubeba on 10th instar and adults (LC50 = 2.7, 3.7 μl/liter) were stronger than those of C. limonum (LC50 = 10.9, 12.0 μl/liter) at 96 h and significant (not overlapping confidence intervals). The EOs of L. cubeba and C. limonum have clearly elongated the growth and development of larvae, egg, and slightly shorten pupae and adults of T. molitor compared with the control. The mainly active ingredients of L. cubeba and C. limonum, including D-limonene and β-pinene, were demonstrated to coinhibit the actives of AChE and enhance the toxicities on 10th instar of T. molitor. These results indicate that the EOs of L. cubeba and C. limonum could have great potential as botanical insecticides against T. molitor. PMID:26254287

  6. Cardioprotective effect of lemon grass as evidenced by biochemical and histopathological changes in experimentally induced cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Gayathri, K; Jayachandran, K S; Vasanthi, Hannah R; Rajamanickam, G Victor

    2011-08-01

    Isoproterenol is a synthetic catecholamine found to cause toxicity leading to severe stress in the myocardium of experimental animals. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of Cymbopogon citratus, which is used as a culinary item and commonly known as lemon grass (LG), in isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity. Male Wistar albino rats were segregated into five different groups as follows. Groups I and II rats were treated with vehicle. Groups III and IV rats were treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg b.wt. of LG. Group V with 100 mg/kg b.wt. of vitamin E. Myocardial necrosis was induced in Groups II, III, IV and V on 58(th) and 59(th) day using isoproterenol at a dose of 85 mg/kg twice at 24-hour interval. Animals were sacrificed on the 60( th) day. LG pretreatment exhibited cardioprotective activity as evidenced by decreased activity of cardiac markers in serum and increased the same in heart homogenate (p < 0.05). LG administration decreased the toxic events of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) in both serum and heart tissue, by increasing the level of enzymatic antioxidants and non-enzymatic antioxidants significantly in both heart homogenate and serum sample (p < 0.05). The histopathological observations also revealed that the cardioprotective effect of LG extract was observed at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.wt. The results of the present study reveal that LG is cardioprotective and antilipid peroxidative by increasing various antioxidants at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.wt., which is comparable with that of vitamin E.

  7. Chemical Composition and In Vitro Antimicrobial Efficacy of Sixteen Essential Oils against Escherichia coli and Aspergillus fumigatus Isolated from Poultry.

    PubMed

    Ebani, Valentina Virginia; Najar, Basma; Bertelloni, Fabrizio; Pistelli, Luisa; Mancianti, Francesca; Nardoni, Simona

    2018-06-25

    Escherichia coli and Aspergillus fumigatus are two pathogens largely present among poultry. They can cause mild or severe forms of disease, and are associated with significant economic losses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition and the in vitro antimicrobial activity of sixteen essential oils (EOs) and five mixtures against E. coli and A. fumigatus strains previously isolated from poultry. The study was performed with the following EOs: Aloysia tryphilla , Boswellia sacra , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Citrus aurantium , Citrus bergamia , Citrus limon , Citrus reticulata , Cymbopogon citratus , Eucalyptus globulus , Lavandula hybrida , Litsea cubeba , Ocimum basilicum , Melaleuca alternifolia , Mentha piperita , Pelargonium graveolens , and Syzygium aromaticum . Moreover, the following mixtures were also tested: L. cubeba and C. citratus (M1), L. cubeba and A. triphylla (M2), A. triphylla and C. citratus (M3), A. triphylla , C. citratus and L. cubeba (M4), S. aromaticum and C. zeylanicum (M5). One hundred and ninety-one compounds were identified in the tested EOs and mixtures. MIC determination found good anti- E. coli activity with C. zeylanicum (2.52 mg/mL), C. citratus (1.118 mg/mL), L. cubeba (1.106 mg/mL), M. piperita (1.14 mg/mL) and S. aromaticum (1.318 mg/mL) EOs. Among the mixtures, M5 showed the best result with a MIC value of 2.578 mg/mL. The best antimycotic activity was showed by A. triphylla (0.855 mg/mL), followed by C. citratus (0.895 mg/mL), while C. aurantium , M. piperita , B. sacra and P. graveolens did not yield any antifungal effect at the highest dilution. The mixtures exhibited no antifungal activity at all. This study shows promising results in order to use EOs in the environment for disinfection purposes in poultry farms and/or in hatcheries.

  8. Development and validation of reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography for citral analysis from essential oils.

    PubMed

    Gaonkar, Roopa; Yallappa, S; Dhananjaya, B L; Hegde, Gurumurthy

    2016-11-15

    Citral is a widely used monoterpene aldehyde in aromatherapy, food and pesticide industries. A new validated reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP - HPLC) procedure for the detection and quantification of cis-trans isomers of citral was developed. The RP-HPLC analysis was carried out using Enable C - 18G column (250×4.6mm, 5μ), with acetonitrile and water (70: 30) mobile phase in isocratic mode at 1mL/min flow. A photodiode array (PDA) detector was set at 233nm for the detection of citral. The method showed linearity, selectivity and accuracy for citral in the range of 3-100μg/mL. In order to compare the new RP-HPLC method with the available methods, one of the commercially available essential oil from Cymbopogon flexuosus was analyzed using new RP-HPLC method and the same was analyzed using GC-MS for the comparison of the method for the detection of citral. The GC-MS analysis was done using mass selective detector (MSD) showed citral content to be of 72.76%; wherein the new method showed to contain that same at 74.98%. To prove the application of the new method, essential oils were extracted from lemongrass, lemon leaves and mosambi peels by steam distillation. The citral content present in the essential and also in the condensate was analyzed. The method was found to be suitable for the analysis of citral in essential oils and water based citral formulations with a very good resolution of its components geranial and neral. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of lemongrass oil and citral on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes, oxidative stress, and acetaminophen toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Chien-Chun; Yu, Hsiang-Fu; Chang, Chun-Hua; Liu, Yun-Ta; Yao, Hsien-Tsung

    2018-01-01

    The essential oil from a lemongrass variety of Cymbopogon flexuosus [lemongrass oil (LO)] is used in various food and aroma industry products and exhibits biological activities, such as anticancer and antimicrobial activities. To investigate the effects of 200 LO (200 mg/kg) and 400 LO (400 mg/kg) and its major component, citral (240 mg/kg), on drug-metabolizing enzymes, oxidative stress, and acetaminophen toxicity in the liver, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a pelleted diet and administered LO or citral by gavage for 2 weeks. After 2 weeks of feeding, the effects of LO and citral on the metabolism and toxicity of acetaminophen were determined. The results showed that rats treated with 400 LO or citral had significantly reduced hepatic testosterone 6β-hydroxylation and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation activities. In addition, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 activity was significantly increased by citral, and Uridine 5'-diphospho (UDP) glucurosyltransferase activity was significantly increased by 400 LO in the rat liver. Treatment with 400 LO or citral reduced lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species levels in the liver. After acetaminophen treatment, however, LO and citral treatment resulted in little or no change in plasma alanine aminotransferase activity and acetaminophen-protein adducts content in the liver. Our results indicate that LO and citral may change the activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes and reduce oxidative stress in the liver. However, LO and citral may not affect the detoxification of acetaminophen. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Essential oils showing in vitro anti MRSA and synergistic activity with penicillin group of antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Uzair, Bushra; Niaz, Naheed; Bano, Asma; Khan, Barkat Ali; Zafar, Naheed; Iqbal, Muhammad; Tahira, Riffat; Fasim, Fehmida

    2017-09-01

    This study was planned in order to investigate effective essential oils to inhibit in-vitro growth of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In this study using disc diffusion method anti MRSA activity of ten diverse essential oils extracted from traditional plants namely Thymus vulgaris L, Mentha pulegium, Ocimum sanctum, Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon citratus, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Cortex cinnamom, Citrus nobilis x Citrus deliciosa, Origanum vulgare and Mentha sp. was examined. All the essential oils inhibited growth of S. aureus to different extent, by exhibiting moderate to elevated zones of inhibitions. Essential oils of cinnamon (Cortex cinnamomi) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L) were observed to be the most powerful against MRSA strains used in this study. At lowest concentration of 25μl/ml essential oils comprehensible zone of inhibition was found 9±0.085mm and 8±0.051mm respectively, and at elevated concentrations there was a total decline in growth of MRSA and a very clear zone of inhibition was observed. A synergistic effect of essential oils in amalgamation with amoxicillin a Penicillin group of antibiotic was also examined. Interestingly a strong synergism was observed with oregano (Origanum vulgare) and pennyroyal mint (Mentha pulegium) essential oils, which were not so effective alone driven out to be important synergistic candidate. Our results demonstrated that essential oils of cinnamon and thyme can be used as potential antimicrobial agent against the Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections and Amoxicillin antibacterial activity can be enhanced using active constituents present in oregano and pennyroyal mint essential oils.

  11. In Vitro Antiplasmodial Activities and Synergistic Combinations of Differential Solvent Extracts of the Polyherbal Product, Nefang

    PubMed Central

    Arrey Tarkang, Protus; Franzoi, Kathrin Diehl; Lee, Eunyoung; Freitas-Junior, Lucio; Liuzzi, Michel; Nolé, Tsabang; Ayong, Lawrence S.; Agbor, Gabriel A.; Okalebo, Faith A.; Guantai, Anastasia N.

    2014-01-01

    Nefang, a polyherbal product composed of Mangifera indica (bark and leaf), Psidium guajava, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Citrus sinensis, and Ocimum gratissimum (leaves), is a potential therapy against P. falciparum malaria. In vitro antiplasmodial activities of its constituent solvent extracts were analyzed on CQ-sensitive (3D7) and multidrug resistant (Dd2) P. falciparum strains. The interactions involving the differential solvent extracts were further analyzed using a variable potency ratio drug combination approach. Effective concentration 50 (EC50) values were determined by nonlinear regression curve-fitting of the dose-response data and used in calculating the fractional inhibitory concentration 50 (FIC50) and combination indices (CI) for each pair. The derived EC50 values (3D7/Dd2, μg/mL) are Nefang-96.96/55.08, MiB-65.33/34.58, MiL-82.56/40.04, Pg-47.02/25.79, Cp-1188/317.5, Cc-723.3/141, Cs-184.4/105.1, and Og-778.5/118.9. Synergism was obtained with MiB/Pg (CI = 0.351), MiL/Pg (0.358), MiB/Cs (0.366), MiL/Cs (0.482), Pg/Cs (0.483), and Cs/Og (0.414) when analyzed at equipotency ratios. Cytotoxicity testing of Nefang and the solvent extracts on two human cell lines (Hep G2 and U2OS) revealed no significant toxicity relative to their antiplasmodial activities (SI > 20). Taken together, our data confirm the antimalarial activities of Nefang and its constituent plant extracts and identified extract pairs with promising synergistic interactions for exploitation towards a rational phytotherapeutic and evidence-based antimalarial drug discovery. PMID:24877138

  12. Geraniol Induces Antinociceptive Effect in Mice Evaluated in Behavioural and Electrophysiological Models.

    PubMed

    La Rocca, Viviana; da Fonsêca, Diogo Vilar; Silva-Alves, Kerly Shamyra; Ferreira-da-Silva, Francisco Walber; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; Santos, Priscila Laise; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José; Leal-Cardoso, José Henrique; de Almeida, Reinaldo Nóbrega

    2017-01-01

    Geraniol (GER) is a monoterpene alcohol with various biochemical and pharmacological properties present in the essential oil of more than 160 species of herbs (especially the Cymbopogon genus). In this study, we evaluated the antinociceptive activity of GER in behavioural and electrophysiological in vitro experimental models of nociception using male Swiss mice. GER (12.5, 25 or 50 mg/kg i.p. and 50 or 200 mg/kg p.o.) reduced the number of writhes induced by acetic acid. The opioid antagonist naloxone (5 mg/kg s.c.) administered in mice subsequently treated with GER (25 mg/kg i.p.) did not reverse such antinociceptive activity, suggesting a non-opioid pathway for the mechanism of action. GER (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg i.p.) reduced paw licking time in the second phase of the formalin test. Also, in the glutamate test, GER when administered 50 mg/kg i.p. reduced paw licking time, probably modulating glutamatergic neurotransmission. GER blocked reversibly components of the compound action potential (CAP) recorded in isolated sciatic nerve in a concentration- and drug exposure time-dependent manner: 1 mM to 120 min. for the first component and 0.6 mM to 90 min. for the second component. The IC 50 was calculated for the peak-to-peak amplitude (PPA) at 0.48 ± 0.04 mM. The conduction velocity was also reduced by exposure to GER starting from the concentration of 0.3 mM for both components of the CAP. In conclusion, it is suggested that GER has antinociceptive activity, especially in pain related to inflammation, and in part related to reduced peripheral nerve excitability. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  13. Susceptibility of MED-Q1 and MED-Q3 Biotypes of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Populations to Essential and Seed Oils.

    PubMed

    Samuel Fogné, Drabo; Olivier, Gnankine; Bassolé, Imael H N; Nébié, Roger Charles; Laurence, Mouton

    2017-06-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a major pest of many agricultural and ornamental crops in tropical and subtropical regions causing damages that result in important economic losses. Insecticides are commonly used in greenhouses or fields to control B. tabaci populations leading to rapid evolution of resistance that render treatments inefficient. Therefore, and for environmental and human health concerns, other approaches must be developed for this pest management. In the present study, we compare, using the leaf dip method, the toxicity of three essential oils (Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum americanum, and Hyptis spicigera) and three seed oils (Lannea microcarpa, Lannea acida, and Carapa procera) with three chemical insecticides (acetamiprid, deltamethrin, and chlorpyrifos-ethyl) on adults. Two B. tabaci biotypes (MED-Q1 and MED-Q3) belonging to the Mediterranean species and collected in Burkina Faso were used. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. We showed that these two biotypes have different levels of resistance to the three insecticides, MED-Q3 being more sensitive than MED-Q1. Moreover, they differ in the frequency of resistance alleles to insecticides, especially for organophosphates, as these alleles are almost fixed in MED-Q1. On the other hand, the two biotypes prove to be more susceptible to the plant extracts than to insecticides except for chlorpyrifos-ethyl, with essential oils that showed the highest insecticidal activities. Monoterpenes content were the most abundant and showed the highest insecticidal activities. Our results indicated that essential oils, but also seed oils, have the potential to constitute an alternative strategy of pest management. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. In vitro susceptibility of Trypanosoma brucei brucei to selected essential oils and their major components.

    PubMed

    Costa, Sonya; Cavadas, Cláudia; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Lígia; do Céu Sousa, Maria

    2018-07-01

    Aiming for discovering effective and harmless antitrypanosomal agents, 17 essential oils and nine major components were screened for their effects on T. b. brucei. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation from fresh plant material and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The trypanocidal activity was assessed using blood stream trypomastigotes cultures of T. b. brucei and the colorimetric resazurin method. The MTT test was used to assess the cytotoxicity of essential oils on macrophage cells and Selectivity Indexes were calculated. Of the 17 essential oils screened three showed high trypanocidal activity (IC 50  < 10 μg/mL): Juniperus oxycedrus (IC 50 of 0.9 μg/mL), Cymbopogon citratus (IC 50 of 3.2 μg/mL) and Lavandula luisieri (IC 50 of 5.7 μg/mL). These oils had no cytotoxic effects on macrophage cells showing the highest values of Selectivity Index (63.4, 9.0 and 11.8, respectively). The oils of Distichoselinum tenuifolium, Lavandula viridis, Origanum virens, Seseli tortuosom, Syzygium aromaticum, and Thymbra capitata also exhibited activity (IC 50 of 10-25 μg/mL) but showed cytotoxicity on macrophages. Of the nine compounds tested, α-pinene (IC 50 of 2.9 μg/mL) and citral (IC 50 of 18.9 μg/mL) exhibited the highest anti-trypanosomal activities. Citral is likely the active component of C. citratus and α-pinene is responsible for the antitrypanosomal effects of J. oxycedrus. The present work leads us to propose the J. oxycedrus, C. citratus and L. luisieri oils as valuable sources of new molecules for African Sleeping Sickness treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Medicinal plants used by the people of Nsukka Local Government Area, south-eastern Nigeria for the treatment of malaria: An ethnobotanical survey.

    PubMed

    Odoh, Uchenna E; Uzor, Philip F; Eze, Chidimma L; Akunne, Theophine C; Onyegbulam, Chukwuma M; Osadebe, Patience O

    2018-05-23

    Malaria is a serious public health problem especially in sub-Saharan African countries such as Nigeria. The causative parasite is increasingly developing resistance to the existing drugs. There is urgent need for alternative and affordable therapy from medicinal plants which have been used by the indigenous people for many years. This study was conducted to document the medicinal plant species traditionally used by the people of Nsukka Local Government Area in south-eastern Nigeria for the treatment of malaria. A total of 213 respondents, represented by women (59.2%) and men (40.8%), were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. The results were analysed and discussed in the context of previously published information on anti-malarial and phytochemical studies of the identified plants. The survey revealed that 50 plant species belonging to 30 botanical families were used in this region for the treatment of malaria. The most cited families were Apocynaceae (13.3%), Annonaceae (10.0%), Asteraceae (10.0%), Lamiaceae (10.0%), Poaceae (10.0%), Rubiaceae (10.0%) and Rutaceae (10.0%). The most cited plant species were Azadirachta indica (11.3%), Mangifera indica (9.1%), Carica papaya (8.5%), Cymbopogon citratus (8.5%) and Psidium guajava (8.5%). The present findings showed that the people of Nsukka use a large variety of plants for the treatment of malaria. The identified plants are currently undergoing screening for anti-malarial, toxicity and chemical studies in our laboratory. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. In vitro effects of plant essential oils on non-specific immune parameters of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus L.

    PubMed

    Sutili, F J; Gatlin, D M; Rossi, W; Heinzmann, B M; Baldisserotto, B

    2016-12-01

    Phytochemicals such as plant essential oils (EOs) have been reported to favour various activities in the innate immune system of fish. Thus, the aim of this study was to verify the in vitro effect of three different plant EOs (Ocimum americanum, Cymbopogon flexuosus and Melaleuca alternifolia) on non-specific immune parameters and erythrocyte osmotic fragility of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus. Concentrations of each plant EO evaluated in preparations of head-kidney macrophages, blood leucocytes and blood plasma were as follows: 0.0 (control), 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, and 16.0 μg/ml. Red drum head-kidney macrophages significantly increased extracellular superoxide anion production when exposed (20 h) to O. americanum EO (1.0-8.0 μg/ml) and C. flexuosus EO (2.0 and 4.0 μg/ml). The respiratory burst of blood leucocytes (NBT test) significantly increased in all concentrations when compared to the respective control group, for all EOs. At the highest concentration (16.0 μg/ml), C. flexuosus EO significantly inhibited the haemolytic activity of complement system in red drum blood after 1 h exposure. None of the tested concentrations significantly altered plasma lysozyme activity or erythrocyte osmotic fragility after exposing (1 h) red drum whole blood to each EO. This study demonstrated that these plant EOs are capable of triggering superoxide anion production in red drum leucocytes (head-kidney macrophages and/or blood leucocytes). In vivo studies are warranted to address their potential as immunostimulants in the diet of red drum and other aquacultured species. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. The Effect of Chemical Composition and Bioactivity of Several Essential Oils on Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuegui; Hao, Qiang; Chen, Yiqu; Jiang, Surong; Yang, Qunfang; Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The major chemical components of four essential oils (EOs) extracted from dry leaves of Citrus limonum, Cymbopogon citratus, Litsea cubeba, and Muristica fragrans were analyzed with gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and their fumigant, contact, and repellent activities against 10th instar and adults of Tenebrio molitor were also assayed. The results indicated that the major constituents of C. limonum and Cy. citrates were D-limonene (38.22%) and 3,7-dimethyl-6-octenal (26.21%), while which of L. cubeba and M. fragrans were (E)-3, 7-dimethyl-2, 6-octadienal (49.78%) and (E)-cinnamaldehyde (79.31%), respectively. Contact activities of L. cubeba and C. limonum with LC50 values of 21.2 and 13.9 µg/cm(2) at 48 h and repellence activities (>89.0% repellence indexes) (P < 0.05) at 12 h on 10th instar were better than those of the other two EOs. Nevertheless, the fumigation activities of L. cubeba on 10th instar and adults (LC50 = 2.7, 3.7 μl/liter) were stronger than those of C. limonum (LC50 = 10.9, 12.0 μl/liter) at 96 h and significant (not overlapping confidence intervals). The EOs of L. cubeba and C. limonum have clearly elongated the growth and development of larvae, egg, and slightly shorten pupae and adults of T. molitor compared with the control. The mainly active ingredients of L. cubeba and C. limonum, including D-limonene and β-pinene, were demonstrated to coinhibit the actives of AChE and enhance the toxicities on 10th instar of T. molitor. These results indicate that the EOs of L. cubeba and C. limonum could have great potential as botanical insecticides against T. molitor. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  18. Laboratory evaluation of traditionally used plant-based insect repellent against the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Karunamoorthi, Kaliyaperumal; Ilango, Kandan; Murugan, Kadarkarai

    2010-04-01

    A laboratory study was carried out to evaluate the repellent efficacy of a methanol-leaf extract of Ethiopian traditionally used insect repellent plant viz., Lomi sar [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. (Poaceae)] against Anopheles arabiensis at four different concentrations viz., 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mg/cm(2). The percentage protection in relation to the dose method was performed. C. citratus extract has shown various degrees of repellency impact against A. arabiensis. It provided the maximum total percentage protection of 78.83% at 2.5 mg/cm(2) and followed 68.06% at 2.0 mg/cm(2) for 12 h. All four tested concentrations of C. citratus extract offered significant protection and Student's t test results shows statistically significant (p value = 0.001) [1.0 mg/cm(2) (t = 22.89; df = 4); 1.5 mg/cm(2) (t = 24.03; df = 4); 2.0 mg/cm(2) (t = 36.92; df = 4); 2.5 mg/cm(2) (t = 22.31; df = 4)] difference between treated and control groups. The result suggests that it could serve as a potent insect repellent against vectors of disease. Globally, C. citratus is renowned for its therapeutic values. Above and beyond, due to its user- as well as environmental-friendly nature, it should be promoted among the marginalized populations in order to reduce man-vector contact. In addition, this appropriate strategy affords the opportunity to minimize chemical repellent usage and the risks associated with adverse side effects. At the end of the day, traditionally used plant-based insect repellents could be viable safer alternative sources for chemical insect repellents.

  19. P-glycoprotein mediated efflux in Caco-2 cell monolayers: the influence of herbals on digoxin transport.

    PubMed

    Oga, Enoche F; Sekine, Shuichi; Shitara, Yoshihisa; Horie, Toshiharu

    2012-12-18

    Several herbal medicines are concomitantly used with conventional medicines with a resultant increase in the recognition of herb-drug interactions. The phytomedicines Vernonia amygdalina Delile (VA), family Asteraceae; Azadiractha indica A. Juss (NL), family Meliaceae; Morinda lucida Benth (MLB), family Rubiaceae; Cymbopogon citratus Stapf (LG), family Poaceae; Curcuma longa L. (CUR), family Zingiberaceae; Carica papaya L. (CP), family Caricaceae and Tapinanthus sessilifolius Blume (ML), family Loranthaceae are used in African traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria. They are also used in several regions world over in managing other ailments like cancer and diabetes. This study investigated their interaction with digoxin (DIG) with a view to predict the potential of P-glycoprotein (p-gp) mediated drug-herb interactions occurring with p-gp substrate drugs. To assess p-gp mediated transport and inhibition, bidirectional transport studies were carried out on Caco-2 cell monolayers using digoxin (DIG) as a model p-gp substrate. Cell functionality was demonstrated using the determinations of transepithelial electric resistance (TEER), cell cytotoxicity testing utilizing the MTT assay as well as the inclusion of inhibition controls. Under the conditions of this study, extracts of ML, VA and CP showed significant inhibition to (3)H-Digoxin basolateral-to-apical (B-A) transport at 0.02-20mg/mL; the concentrations examined. Their apical-to-basolateral (A-B) transport was further investigated. Increases in the mean A-B transport and significant decreases in the B-A transport and efflux ratio values were observed. The apparent permeability coefficient and efflux ratio were computed providing an estimate of drug absorption. The findings show that extracts of ML, VA and CP significantly inhibit p-gp in vitro and interactions with conventional p-gp substrate drugs are likely to occur on co-administration which may result in altered therapeutic outcomes. Copyright

  20. Efficacy of Thai herbal essential oils as green repellent against mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Soonwera, Mayura; Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn

    2015-02-01

    Repellency activity of Thai essential oils derived from ylang ylang (Cananga odorata (Lamk.) Hook.f. & Thomson: Annonaceae) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf: Poaceae) were tested against two mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). There were compared with two chemical repellents (DEET 20% w/w; Sketolene Shield(®) and IR3535, ethyl butylacetylaminopropionate 12.5% w/w; Johnson's Baby Clear Lotion Anti-Mosquito(®)). Each herbal repellent was applied in three diluents; coconut oil, soybean oil and olive oil at 0.33 μl/cm(2) on the forearm of volunteers. All herbal repellent exhibited higher repellent activity than IR3535 12.5% w/w, but lower repellent activity than DEET 20% w/w. The C. odorata oil in coconut oil exhibited excellent activity with 98.9% protection from bites of A. aegypti for 88.7±10.4 min. In addition, C. citratus in olive oil showed excellent activity with 98.8% protection from bites of C. quinquefasciatus for 170.0±9.0 min. While, DEET 20% w/w gave protection for 155.0±7.1-182.0±12.2 min and 98.5% protection from bites of two mosquito species. However, all herbal repellent provided lower repellency activity (97.4-98.9% protection for 10.5-88.7 min) against A. aegypti than C. quinquefasciatus (98.3-99.2% protection for 60-170 min). Our data exhibited that C. odorata oil and C. citratus oil are suitable to be used as green repellents for mosquito control, which are safe for humans, domestic animals and environmental friendly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An ethnobotanical study of plants used to treat liver diseases in the Maritime region of Togo.

    PubMed

    Kpodar, Madje S; Karou, Simplice D; Katawa, Gnatoulma; Anani, Kokou; Gbekley, Holaly E; Adjrah, Yao; Tchacondo, Tchadjobo; Batawila, Komlan; Simpore, Jacques

    2016-04-02

    In Togo, many persons still rely on plants for healing, however very little is known about the medicinal practices of the indigenous people. The present study aimed to document the medicinal plant utilization for the management of liver diseases in the Maritime region of the country. This was an ethnobotanical survey conducted in the Maritime region of Togo from June to August 2015. The data were gathered from 104 traditional healers (TH) by direct interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire. The calculated use values (UV) were used to analyze the importance of the cited plants. A total of 99 plant species belonging to 88 genera and 49 families were cited by the TH as curing the hepatic diseases. The most represented families were Caesalpiniaceae with 8 species, followed by Euphorbiaceae with 7 species, Apocynaceae and Asteraceae with 6 species each. The highest UV were recorded with Gomphrena celosioides (0.13), Xylopia ethiopica (0.12), Senna occidentalis (0.12), Bridelia ferruginea (0.12), Cymbopogon citratus (0.12), Kigellia Africana (0.09), Cassia sieberiana (0.08) and Sanseviera liberica (0.08), showing their importance in the management of liver dysfunction in the surveyed region. The main used parts were the leaves, followed by the roots, the whole plant, the rhizome and the bark, accounting for more than 10% each. The herbal medicines were mostly prepared in the form of decoction and administrated by oral route. This study showed that Maritime region of Togo has an important plant biodiversity that is exploited by the indigenous TH. However, some plants cited by the TH have not been studied for their possible hepatoprotective effects. These plants are therefore a starting point for biological screenings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Phytotoxic Effects and Phytochemical Fingerprinting of Hydrodistilled Oil, Enriched Fractions, and Isolated Compounds Obtained from Cryptocarya massoy (Oken) Kosterm. Bark.

    PubMed

    Rolli, Enrico; Marieschi, Matteo; Maietti, Silvia; Guerrini, Alessandra; Grandini, Alessandro; Sacchetti, Gianni; Bruni, Renato

    2016-01-01

    The hydrodistilled oil of Cryptocarya massoy bark was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses, allowing the identification of unusual C10 massoia lactone (3, 56.2%), C12 massoia lactone (4, 16.5%), benzyl benzoate (1, 12.7%), C8 massoia lactone (3.4%), δ-decalactone (5, 1.5%), and benzyl salicylate (2, 1.8%) as main constituents. The phytotoxic activities of the oil, three enriched fractions (lactone-rich, ester-rich, and sesquiterpene-rich), and four constituents (compounds 1, 2, 5, and δ-dodecalactone (6)) against Lycopersicon esculentum and Cucumis sativus seeds and seedlings were screened. At a concentration of 1000 μl/l, the essential oil and the massoia lactone-rich fraction caused a complete inhibition of the germination of both seeds, and, when applied on tomato plantlets, they induced an 85 and 100% dieback, respectively. These performances exceeded those of the well-known phytotoxic essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum and Cymbopogon citratus, already used in commercial products for the weed and pest management. The same substances were also evaluated against four phytopathogenic bacteria and ten phytopathogenic fungi, providing EC50 values against the most susceptible strains in the 100-500 μl/l range for the essential oil and in the 10-50 μl/l range for compound 6 and the lactone-rich fraction. The phytotoxic behavior was related mainly to massoia lactones and benzyl esters, while a greater amount of 6 may infer a good activity against some phytopathogenic fungi. Further investigations of these secondary metabolites are warranted, to evaluate their use as natural herbicides. Copyright © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  3. Interdependence of soil and agricultural practice in a two - year phytoremediation in situ experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwaichi, Eucharia; Onyeike, Eugene; Frac, Magdalena; Iwo, Godknows

    2016-04-01

    A two - year plant - based soil clean - up was carried out at a crude oil spill agricultural site in a Niger Delta community in Nigeria to access further clean - up potentials of Cymbopogon citratus. Applied diagnostic ratios identified mixed petrogenic and pyrogenic sources as the main contributors of PAHs. Up to 90.8% sequestration was obtained for carcinogenic PAHs especially Benz (a) pyrene in a 2 - phase manner. A community level approach for assessing patterns of sole carbon source utilization by mixed microbial samples was employed to differentiate spatial and temporal changes in the soil microbial communities. In relation to pollution, soil conditioning notably decreased the lag times and showed mixed effects for colour development rates, maximum absorbance and the overall community pattern. For rate and utilization of different carbon substrates in BIOLOG wells, after day 3, in comparison to control soil communities, contamination with hydrocarbons and associated types increased amines and amides consumption. Consumption of carbohydrates in all polluted and unamended regimes decreased markedlyin comparison to those cultivated with C. citratus. We found a direct relationship between cellulose breakdown, measurable with B-glucosidase activity, organic matter content and CO2 realease within all soils in the present study. Organic amendment rendered most studied contaminants unavailable for uptake in preference to inorganic fertilizer in both study years. Generally, phytoremediation improved significantly the microbial community activity and thus would promote ecosystem restoration in relation to most patronised techniques. Supplementation with required nutrients, in a long - term design would present many ecological benefits. Keywords: Agricultural soils; Recovery; Hydrocarbon pollution; Ecology; Management practice.

  4. Medicinal plants used to treat TB in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Nguta, Joseph Mwanzia; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Addo, Phyllis G A

    2015-06-01

    The current study was designed to document medicinal plant species that are traditionally used to treat tuberculosis (TB) by Ghanaian communities. The medicinal plants used against TB or its signs and symptoms were selected using library and online published data searches. A guided questionnaire interview was also conducted with a botanist involved in plant collection at the Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine (CSRPM) at Mampong. Data obtained were entered in Excel and summarized into means and frequencies using SPSS 12.0.1 for windows, and expressed as tables and bar graphs. A total of 15 medicinal plant species distributed between 13 genera and 13 families were documented. The following medicinal plant species were found to be used against TB in Greater Accra and Eastern parts of Ghana: Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Stem bark (Meliaceae), Hygrophila auriculata Heine, whole plant (Acanthaceae), Chenopodium ambrosioides L. leaves (Amaranthaceae), Coix lacryma-jobi L. glumes (Poaceae), Solanum torvum Sw. unripe fruits (Solanaceae), Solanum torvum Sw. leaves (Solanaceae), Bidens pilosa L. whole plant (Asteraceae), Phyllanthus fraternus G.L. Webster leaves (Phyllanthaceae), Dissotis rotundifolia (Sm.) Triana, leaves (Melastomataceae), Cymbopogon giganteus Chiov. Leaves (Poaceae), Cyperus articulatus L. roots (Cyperaceae), Allium sativum L. bulb (Amaryllidaceae), Zingiber officinale Roscoe, rhizomes (Zingiberaceae), Allium cepa L. bulbs (Amaryllidaceae), Allium cepa L. leaves (Amaryllidaceae), Aloe vera var. barbadensis aqueous extract from leaves (Xanthorrhoeaceae), Aloe vera var. barbadensis organic extract from leaves (Xanthorrhoeaceae), Cocos nucifera Linn, water (Arecaceae) and Cocos nucifera Linn. Husk (Arecaceae). The collected plant species could be a source of a new class of drugs against TB. Bioactivity guided fractionation is recommended to identify lead compounds for antimycobacterial activity. The current paper documents for the first time

  5. [Insecticidal action of synthetic girgensohnine analogues and essential oils on Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)].

    PubMed

    Cuadros, Juliana; Carreño, Aurora L; Kouznetsov, Vladimir V; Duque, Jonny E

    2017-03-29

    The alkaloid girgensohnine has been used as a natural model in the synthesis of new alkaloid-like alpha-aminonitriles with insecticidal effect against disease vectors. To evaluate the biocide activity of girgensohnine analogues and essential oils of Cymbopogon flexuosus, Citrus sinensis and Eucalyptus citriodora in stage I and stage V Rhodnius prolixus nymphs. We used a topical application model in tergites and sternites, as well as exposure to treated surfaces with different exploratory doses of each of the molecules and essential oils to determine the lethal doses (LD50 and LD95). Analogue 3 showed the highest insecticidal activity with 83.3±16.7% of mortality when applied on tergites, 38.9±4.8% on sternites and 16.7±0% on treated surfaces in stage I nymphs at 72 hours (h) and 500 mg.L-1. In stage V nymphs, the compounds induced mortality only in sternums (11.1±9.6% for analogue 6 and 5.5±4.7% for analogues 3 and 7 at 72 h and 1500 mg.L-1). The lethal doses for molecule 3 on tergites in stage I nymphs were LD50 225.60 mg.L-1 and LD95 955.90 mg.L-1. The insecticidal effect of essential oils was observed only in stage I nymphs, with 11.1±4.8% for C. flexuosus when applied in sternites, while using exposure to surfaces treated it was 5.6±4.8% for C. sinensis applied on tergites and 8.3±0% on sternites at 72 h and 1000 mg.L-1. Synthetic girgensohnine analogues, and C. flexuosus and C. sinensis essential oils showed insecticidal activity in R. prolixus. Analogue 3 showed the greatest insecticidal activity among all molecules and oils evaluated under our laboratory conditions.

  6. Screening and characterization of selected drugs having antibacterial potential.

    PubMed

    Javed, Hina; Tabassum, Sobia; Erum, Shazia; Murtaza, Iram; Muhammad, Aish; Amin, Farhana; Nisar, Muhammad Farrukh

    2018-05-01

    Due to ever increasing antibiotic resistance offered by pathogenic bacterial strains and side effects of synthetic antibiotics, thereof, there is a need to explore the effective phytochemicals from natural resources. In order to help overcoming the problem of effective natural drug and the side effects posed by the use of the synthetic drugs, five different plants namely Thymus vulgaris, Lavandula angustifolia, Rosmarinus officinalis, Cymbopogon citratus and Achillea millefolium were selected to study their antibacterial potential. Antibacterial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) checked against the selected bacterial strains. As compared to other test plants, ethanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis leaves showed the most promising inhibitory effect i.e: inhibition zone (18.17± 0.44mm) against Klebsiella pneumoniae and the lowest inhibition (15.5±0.29mm) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli (p<0.05). The MIC values were recorded in the range of 1 to 20mg/ml. Screening of the selected extracts for the test plants additionally indicate some unique variations. Results were further confirmed through TLC for alkaloids and terpenoids (15% sulphuric acid and Dragedroff's reagent) in ethanolic extract. Characterization of Rosmarinus officinalis of ethanolic extract was carried out using column chromatography. The appearance of orange crystals may indicate the presence of alkaloidal bioactive compounds which need to be further investigated. The tested plants may have a potential for fighting against some infectious diseases caused by selected human pathogenic bacterial strains. This knowledge may incite a gateway to effective drug search and so on.

  7. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Clement, Y N; Baksh-Comeau, Y S; Seaforth, C E

    2015-09-15

    An ethnobotanical survey was conducted on the Caribbean island of Trinidad to identify medicinal plants commonly used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of medical conditions. A pilot survey was conducted to identify the top ten most common ailments where medicinal plants were used. The results of the foregoing study guided a wider national survey conducted between October 2007 and July 2008. A total of 450 households from 50 rural communities were interviewed using the TRAMIL (Traditional Medicine in the Islands) questionnaire for data collection. Details of plants, part(s) used, and remedy formulations were elicited from informants and voucher specimens collected for identification at the National Herbarium of Trinidad and Tobago. The TRAMIL methodology set a limit of a plant with 20 % or more citations for any particular ailment as having significant or popular use. At the end of the survey 917 single plant remedies were identified. The majority of species were from the following families; Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Leguminosae, Verbenaceae and Poaceae. Applying the TRAMIL 20 % citation of a plant for popular use as significant, Leonotis nepetifolia (for cough/common cold), Gomphrena globosa (for "stoppage-of-water"), Curcuma longa and Senna occidentalis (for "afterbirth"), Cymbopogon citratus and Neurolaena lobata (for fever), and Citrus limon (for kidney stones) qualified in our study. Those not reaching the TRAMIL 20 % significant (popular) use were Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl, Senna alata (L.) Roxb.and Momordica charantia L. which were widely used as "'cooling/cleanser'" in our survey. Our survey showed significant retention of traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in rural Trinidad. More interestingly, a large remnant of medico-cultural concepts such as "cooling/cleanser", "afterbirth", "stoppage-of-water" and "womb infection" persist in the rural population. Although the scientific literature show that some of the cited plants possessed

  8. Antifungal activities of selected essential oils against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322, with emphasis on Syzygium aromaticum essential oil.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Abhishek; Rajendran, Sasireka; Srivastava, Ankit; Sharma, Satyawati; Kundu, Bishwajit

    2017-03-01

    The antifungal effects of four essential oils viz., clove (Syzygium aromaticum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), mint (Mentha × piperita) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) were evaluated against wilt causing fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322. The inhibitory effect of oils showed dose-dependent activity on the tested fungus. Most active being the clove oil, exhibiting complete inhibition of mycelial growth and spore germination at 125 ppm with IC 50 value of 18.2 and 0.3 ppm, respectively. Essential oils of lemongrass, mint and eucalyptus were inhibitory at relatively higher concentrations. The Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of clove oil was 31.25 ppm by broth microdilution method. Thirty one different compounds of clove oil, constituting approximately ≥99% of the oil, were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis. The major components were eugenol (75.41%), E-caryophyllene (15.11%), α-humulene (3.78%) and caryophyllene oxide (1.13%). Effect of clove oil on surface morphology of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322 was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SEM observation revealed shrivelled hyphae while AFM observation showed shrunken and disrupted spores in clove oil treated samples. In pots, 5% aqueous emulsion of clove oil controlled F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322 infection on tomato plants. This study demonstrated clove oil as potent antifungal agent that could be used as biofungicide for the control of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in both preventive and therapeutic manner. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of 19 essential oils.

    PubMed

    Chaftar, Naouel; Girardot, Marion; Labanowski, Jérôme; Ghrairi, Tawfik; Hani, Khaled; Frère, Jacques; Imbert, Christine

    2016-01-01

    In our research on natural compounds efficient against human pathogen or opportunist microorganisms contracted by food or water, the antimicrobial activity of 19 essential oils (EOs) was investigated against 11 bacterial species (6 Gram positive, 5 Gram negative) and 7 fungal species (2 dermatophytes, 1 mould, 4 yeasts) using microdilution assays. Five essential oils were obtained from Tunisian plants (EOtun): Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Juniperus phoenicea L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta graveolens L. and Thymus vulgaris L., whereas others were commercial products (EOcom). Overall, T. vulgaris EOtun was the most efficient EO against both bacteria (Gram negative: MIC ≤ 0.34 mg/mL; Gram positive: MIC ≤ 0.70 mg/mL) and fungi (yeasts: MIC ≤ 0.55 mg/mL; mould: MIC = 0.30 mg/mL; dermatophytes: MIC ≤ 0.07 mg/mL). Two EOcom displayed both acceptable antibacterial and antifungal potency, although weaker than T. vulgaris EOtun activity: Origanum vulgare EOcom (bacteria: MIC ≤ 1.13 mg/mL, fungi: MIC ≤ 1.80 mg/mL), and Cymbopogon martinii var. motia EOcom (bacteria: MIC ≤ 1.00 mg/mL, fungi: MIC ≤ 0.80 mg/mL). Bacillus megaterium, Legionella pneumophila, Listeria monocytogenes and Trichophyton spp. were the most sensitive species to both EOcom and EOtun. This study demonstrated the noteworthy antimicrobial activity of two commercial EOs and points out the remarkable efficiency of T. vulgaris EOtun on all tested bacterial and fungal species, certainly associated with its high content in carvacrol (85 %). These three oils could thus represent promising candidates for applications in water and food protections.

  10. Penicillium expansum Inhibition on Bread by Lemongrass Essential Oil in Vapor Phase.

    PubMed

    Mani López, Emma; Valle Vargas, Georgina P; Palou, Enrique; López Malo, Aurelio

    2018-02-23

    The antimicrobial activity of lemongrass ( Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil (EO) in the vapor phase on the growth of Penicillium expansum inoculated on bread was evaluated, followed by a sensory evaluation of the bread's attributes after EO exposure. The lemongrass EO was extracted from dry leaves of lemongrass by microwave-assisted steam distillation. The chemical composition of the lemongrass EO was determined using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The refractive index and specific gravity of the EO were also determined. Bread was prepared and baked to reach two water activity levels, 0.86 or 0.94, and then 10 μL of P. expansum spore (10 6 spores per mL) suspension was inoculated on the bread surface. Concentrations of lemongrass EO were tested from 125 to 4,000 μL/L air , whereas mold radial growth was measured for 21 days. For sensory evaluation, breads were treated with lemongrass EO vapor at 0, 500, or 1,000 μL/L air for 48 h and tested by 25 untrained panelists. The EO yield was 1.8%, with similar physical properties to those reported previously. Thirteen compounds were the main components in the EO, with citral being the major compound. P. expansum was inhibited for 21 days at 20°C with 750 μL of EO/L air , and its inhibition increased with increasing concentrations of EO. Sensory acceptance of bread exposed to vapor concentrations of 500 or 1,000 μL of EO/L air or without EO was favorable; similar and no significant differences ( P > 0.05) were observed among them.

  11. Analysis of Indonesian Spice Essential Oil Compounds That Inhibit Locomotor Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Muchtaridi; Diantini, Adjeng; Subarnas, Anas

    2011-01-01

    Some fragrance components of spices used for cooking are known to have an effect on human behavior. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of the essential oils of basil (Ocimum formacitratum L.) leaves, lemongrass (Cymbopogon citrates L.) herbs, ki lemo (Litsea cubeba L.) bark, and laja gowah (Alpinia malaccencis Roxb.) rhizomes on locomotor activity in mice and identify the active component(s) that might be responsible for the activity. The effect of the essential oils was studied by a wheel cage method and the active compounds of the essential oils were identified by GC/MS analysis. The essential oils were administered by inhalation at doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mL/cage. The results showed that the four essential oils had inhibitory effects on locomotor activity in mice. Inhalation of the essential oils of basil leaves, lemongrass herbs, ki lemo bark, and laja gowah rhizomes showed the highest inhibitory activity at doses of 0.5 (57.64%), 0.1 (55.72%), 0.5 (60.75%), and 0.1 mL/cage (47.09%), respectively. The major volatile compounds 1,8-cineole, α-terpineol, 4-terpineol, citronelol, citronelal, and methyl cinnamate were identified in blood plasma of mice after inhalation of the four oils. These compounds had a significant inhibitory effect on locomotion after inhalation. The volatile compounds of essential oils identified in the blood plasma may correlate with the locomotor-inhibiting properties of the oil when administered by inhalation.

  12. Design and formulation of a topical hydrogel integrating lemongrass-loaded nanosponges with an enhanced antifungal effect: in vitro/in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Aldawsari, Hibah M; Badr-Eldin, Shaimaa M; Labib, Gihan S; El-Kamel, Amal H

    2015-01-01

    Lemongrass oil (LGO) is a volatile oil extracted from the leaves of Cymbopogon citratus that has become one of the most important natural oils in the pharmaceutical industry because of its diverse pharmacologic and clinical effects. However, LGO suffers from low aqueous solubility, which could lead to a reduced effect. Moreover, the instability of its major active constituent, citral, could lead to volatilization, reaction with other formulation ingredients, and consequently, skin irritation. To surmount these problems, this research aims to formulate lemongrass-loaded ethyl cellulose nanosponges with a topical hydrogel with an enhanced antifungal effect and decreased irritation. The minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal fungicidal concentration of LGO against Candida albicans strain ATC 100231, determined using the broth macrodilution method, were found to be 2 and 8 μL/mL, respectively. The emulsion solvent evaporation technique was used for the preparation of the nanosponges. The nanosponge dispersions were then integrated into carbopol hydrogels (0.4%). Nine formulations were prepared based on a 32 full factorial design employing the ethyl cellulose:polyvinyl alcohol ratio and stirring rate as independent variables. The prepared formulations were evaluated for particle size, citral content, and in vitro release. Results revealed that all the nanosponge dispersions were nanosized, with satisfactory citral content and sustained release profiles. Statistical analysis revealed that both ethyl cellulose:polyvinyl alcohol ratio and stirring rate have significant effects on particle size and percentage released after 6 hours; however, the effect of the stirring rate was more prominent on both responses. The selected hydrogel formulation, F9, was subjected to surface morphological investigations, using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, where results showed that the nanosponges possess a spherical uniform shape with a spongy structure, the integrity

  13. Lemongrass-Incorporated Tissue Conditioner Against Candida albicans Culture

    PubMed Central

    Amornvit, Pokpong; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tissue conditioner is applied popularly with dental prosthesis during wound healing process but it becomes a reservoir of oral microbiota, especially Candida species after long-term usage. Several antifungal drugs have been mixed with this material to control fungal level. In this study, lemongrass essential oil was added into COE-COMFORT tissue conditioner before being determined for anti-Candida efficacy. Materials and Methods: Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil was primarily determined for antifungal activity against C. albicans American type culture collection (ATCC) 10231 and MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) value by agar disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods, respectively. COE-COMFORT tissue conditioner was prepared as recommended by the manufacturer after a fixed volume of the oil at its MIC or higher concentrations were mixed thoroughly in its liquid part. Antifungal efficacy of the tissue conditioner with/without herb was finally analyzed. Results: Lemongrass essential oil displayed potent antifungal activity against C. albicans ATCC 10231and its MIC value was 0.06% (v/v). Dissimilarly, the tissue conditioner containing the oil at MIC level did not cease the growth of the tested fungus. Both reference and clinical isolates of C. albicans were completely inhibited after exposed to the tissue conditioner containing at least 0.25% (v/v) of the oil (approximately 4-time MIC). The tissue conditioner without herb or with nystatin was employed as negative or positive control, respectively. Conclusion: COE-COMFORT tissue conditioner supplemented with lemongrass essential oil obviously demonstrated another desirable property as in vitro anti-Candida efficacy to minimize the risk of getting Candidal infection. PMID:25177638

  14. Design and formulation of a topical hydrogel integrating lemongrass-loaded nanosponges with an enhanced antifungal effect: in vitro/in vivo evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Aldawsari, Hibah M; Badr-Eldin, Shaimaa M; Labib, Gihan S; El-Kamel, Amal H

    2015-01-01

    Lemongrass oil (LGO) is a volatile oil extracted from the leaves of Cymbopogon citratus that has become one of the most important natural oils in the pharmaceutical industry because of its diverse pharmacologic and clinical effects. However, LGO suffers from low aqueous solubility, which could lead to a reduced effect. Moreover, the instability of its major active constituent, citral, could lead to volatilization, reaction with other formulation ingredients, and consequently, skin irritation. To surmount these problems, this research aims to formulate lemongrass-loaded ethyl cellulose nanosponges with a topical hydrogel with an enhanced antifungal effect and decreased irritation. The minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal fungicidal concentration of LGO against Candida albicans strain ATC 100231, determined using the broth macrodilution method, were found to be 2 and 8 μL/mL, respectively. The emulsion solvent evaporation technique was used for the preparation of the nanosponges. The nanosponge dispersions were then integrated into carbopol hydrogels (0.4%). Nine formulations were prepared based on a 32 full factorial design employing the ethyl cellulose:polyvinyl alcohol ratio and stirring rate as independent variables. The prepared formulations were evaluated for particle size, citral content, and in vitro release. Results revealed that all the nanosponge dispersions were nanosized, with satisfactory citral content and sustained release profiles. Statistical analysis revealed that both ethyl cellulose:polyvinyl alcohol ratio and stirring rate have significant effects on particle size and percentage released after 6 hours; however, the effect of the stirring rate was more prominent on both responses. The selected hydrogel formulation, F9, was subjected to surface morphological investigations, using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, where results showed that the nanosponges possess a spherical uniform shape with a spongy structure, the integrity

  15. In vitro comparison of three common essential oils mosquito repellents as inhibitors of the Ross River virus

    PubMed Central

    Ralambondrainy, Miora; Belarbi, Essia; Viranaicken, Wildriss; Baranauskienė, Renata; Venskutonis, Petras Rimantas; Desprès, Philippe; El Kalamouni, Chaker; Sélambarom, Jimmy

    2018-01-01

    Background The essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus (CC), Pelargonium graveolens (PG) and Vetiveria zizanioides (VZ) are commonly used topically to prevent mosquito bites and thus the risk of infection by their vectored pathogens such as arboviruses. However, since mosquito bites are not fully prevented, the effect of these products on the level of viral infection remains unknown. Objectives To evaluate in vitro the essentials oils from Reunion Island against one archetypal arbovirus, the Ross River virus (RRV), and investigate the viral cycle step that was impaired by these oils. Methods The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by a combination of GC-FID and GC×GC-TOF MS techniques. In vitro studies were performed on HEK293T cells to determine their cytotoxicity, their cytoprotective and virucidal capacities on RRV-T48 strain, and the level of their inhibitory effect on the viral replication and residual infectivity prior, during or following viral adsorption using the reporter virus RRV-renLuc. Results Each essential oil was characterized by an accurate quantification of their terpenoid content. PG yielded the least-toxic extract (CC50 > 1000 μg.mL-1). For the RRV-T48 strain, the monoterpene-rich CC and PG essential oils reduced the cytopathic effect but did not display virucidal activity. The time-of-addition assay using the gene reporter RRV-renLuc showed that the CC and PG essential oils significantly reduced viral replication and infectivity when applied prior, during and early after viral adsorption. Overall, no significant effect was observed for the low monoterpene-containing VZ essential oil. Conclusion The inhibitory profiles of the three essential oils suggest the high value of the monoterpene-rich essential oils from CC and PG against RRV infection. Combined with their repellent activity, the antiviral activity of the essential oils of CC and PG may provide a new option to control arboviral infection. PMID:29771946

  16. Adjunctive use of essential oils following scaling and root planing -a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Azad, Mohammad Fallah; Schwiertz, Andreas; Jentsch, Holger F R

    2016-06-07

    Hitherto no study has been published on the effect of the adjunctive administration of essential oils following scaling and root planing (SRP). This study describes the effect of a mouthrinse consisting of essential oils (Cymbopogon flexuosus, Thymus zygis and Rosmarinus officinalis) following SRP by clinical and microbiological variables in patients with generalized moderate chronic periodontitis. Forty-six patients (aged 40-65 years) with moderate chronic periodontitis were randomized in a double-blind study and rinsed their oral cavity following SRP with an essential oil mouthrinse (n  =  23) or placebo (n  =  23) for 14 days. Probing depth (PD), attachment level (AL), bleeding on probing (BOP) and modified sulcus bleeding index (SBI) were recorded at baseline and after 3 and 6 months. Subgingival plaque was taken for assessment of major bacteria associated with periodontitis. AL, PD, BOP and SBI were significantly improved in both groups after three (p   <   0.001) and 6 months (p   ≤   0.015). AL improved significantly better in the test than in the control group after 3 and 6 months (p < 0.001), so did PD after three months in the tendency (p  =  0.1). BOP improved better in the test group after 3 months (p  =  0.065). Numbers of Treponema denticola (p  =  0.044) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (p  =  0.029) decreased more in the test than in the control group after 3 months, those of Tannerella forsythia after 6 months (p  =  0.039). Prevotella micra (p  <  0.001, p  =  0.035) and Campylobacter rectus (p  =  0.002 , p  =  0.012) decreased significantly in both groups after 3 months. The adjunctive use of a mouthrinse containing essential oils following SRP has a positive effect on clinical variables and on bacterial levels in the subgingival biofilm. 332-12-24092012, DRKS 00009387, German Clinical Trials Register, Freiburg i. Br., 16.09.2015.

  17. Ethnobotanical survey of plants used as repellents against housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) in Budondo Subcounty, Jinja District, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Baana, Kalori; Angwech, Harriet; Malinga, Geoffrey Maxwell

    2018-05-10

    The housefly, Musca domestica L., is a major public health and domestic pest that spoils food and causes irritation and is a vector of many infectious disease pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. Currently, its control relies largely on chemical pesticides. However, the adverse health and environmental effects of pesticides, risk of development of insect resistance, and bioaccumulation through the food chain emphasize the need to search for environmentally friendly alternatives. This study aimed at documenting traditional knowledge about plants used as repellents against the houseflies by the people of Budondo Subcounty, Uganda. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted between November 2016 and June 2017. A total of 372 household members were interviewed on knowledge and use of traditional insect repellents, through face-to-face interviews guided by semi-structured questionnaires administered in nine villages in Budondo Subcounty. Overall, only 24.5% of the respondents had ample knowledge about insect repellent plants. A chi-square analysis shows a significant association between respondents' knowledge of insect repellent plants and age, educational status, occupation, religion, and marital status although not with gender. Overall, eight plants from seven families and eight genera were mentioned as repellents. The growth forms encountered were tree, shrub, and herb. Plants that were commonly mentioned by respondents were Cupressus sempervirens L. (16.9%), followed by Lantana camara L.(16.1%), Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (11.0%), Carica papaya L. (8.6%), Cymbopogon citratus (de Candolle) Stapf (4.3%), Mentha × piperita L. (2.4%), Azadirachta indica A. Juss (2.2%), and Ocimum kilimandscharicum Gürke (0.8%) in descending order. Leaves were the most commonly used plant part (76.9%), followed by the stem/bark (19.8%), flowers (2.2%), and root (1.1%). Burning of the plant materials in order to generate smoke was the most popular method of application. This

  18. Root strength of tropical plants - An investigation in the Western Ghats of Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukose Kuriakose, S.; van Beek, L. P. H.; van Westen, C. J.

    2009-04-01

    Earlier research on debris flows in the Tikovil River basin of the Western Ghats concluded that root cohesion is significant in maintaining the overall stability of the region. In this paper we present the most recent results (December 2008) of root tensile strength tests conducted on nine species of plants that are commonly found in the region. They are 1) Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis), 2) Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera), 3) Jackfruit trees (Artocarpus heterophyllus), 4) Teak (Tectona grandis), 5) Mango trees (Mangifera indica), 6) Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), 7) A variety of Tamarind (Garcinia gummigutta), 8) Coffee (Coffea Arabica) and Tea (Camellia sinensis). About 1500 samples were collected of which only 380 could be tested (in the laboratory) due to breakage of roots during the tests. In the successful tests roots failed in tension. Roots having diameters between 2 mm and 12 mm were tested. Each sample tested has a length of 15 cm. Results indicate that the roots of Coffee, Tamarind, Lemon grass and Jackfruit are the strongest of the nine plant types tested whereas Tea and Teak plants had the most fragile roots. Coconut roots behaved atypical to the others, as the bark of the roots was crushed and slipped from the clamp when tested whereas its internal fiber was the strongest of all tested. Root tensile strength decreases with increasing diameters, Rubber showing more ductile behaviour than Coffee and Tamarind that behaved more brittle, root tensile strength increasing exponentially for finer roots. Teak and Tea showed almost a constant root tensile strength over the range of diameters tested and little variability. Jack fruit and mango trees showed the largest variability, which may be explained by the presence of root nodules, preventing the derivation of an unequivocal relationship between root diameters and tensile strength. This results in uncertainty of root strength estimates that are applicable. These results provide important information to

  19. Antifungal activity by vapor contact of essential oils added to amaranth, chitosan, or starch edible films.

    PubMed

    Avila-Sosa, Raúl; Palou, Enrique; Jiménez Munguía, María Teresa; Nevárez-Moorillón, Guadalupe Virginia; Navarro Cruz, Addí Rhode; López-Malo, Aurelio

    2012-02-01

    Antimicrobial agents can be incorporated into edible films to provide microbiological stability, since films can be used as carriers of a variety of additives to extend product shelf life and reduce the risk of microbial growth on food surfaces. Addition of antimicrobial agents to edible films offers advantages such as the use of small antimicrobial concentrations and low diffusion rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate inhibition by vapor contact of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium digitatum by selected concentrations of Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) or lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oils (EOs) added to amaranth, chitosan, or starch edible films. Essential oils were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Amaranth, chitosan and starch edible films were formulated with essential oil concentrations of 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 2.00, or 4.00%. Antifungal activity was evaluated by determining the mold radial growth on agar media inoculated with A. niger and P. digitatum after exposure to vapors arising from essential oils added to amaranth, chitosan or starch films using the inverted lid technique. The modified Gompertz model adequately described mold growth curves (mean coefficient of determination 0.991 ± 0.05). Chitosan films exhibited better antifungal effectiveness (inhibition of A. niger with 0.25% of Mexican oregano and cinnamon EO; inhibition of P. digitatum with 0.50% EOs) than amaranth films (2.00 and 4.00% of cinnamon and Mexican oregano EO were needed to inhibit the studied molds, respectively). For chitosan and amaranth films a significant increase (p<0.05) of lag phase was observed among film concentrations while a significant decrease (p<0.05) of maximum specific growth was determined. Chitosan edible films incorporating Mexican oregano or cinnamon essential oil could improve the quality of foods by the action of the volatile compounds on surface growth

  20. Could essential oils enhance biopolymers performance for wound healing? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Recalde, Mercedes; Ruiz Arias, Ignacio E; Hermida, Élida B

    2018-01-01

    Millions of people in the world suffer from chronic wounds of different etiologies such as diabetic foot and leg ulcers, without solutions nowadays. Molecules obtained from plants offer an alternative to aid wound healing. Strong evidence about essential oils (EO) anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties is thoroughly described in literature and their chemical compositions are well characterized. More recently, EO effects in experimental wounds have begun to be analyzed. We aim to summarize the evidence of EO in experimental wounds, and the possibility of combining them with biopolymers commonly used in skin regeneration. Electronic databases such as ScienceDirect, PubMed and Scopus were used to search scientific contributions until March 2017, using relevant keywords. In a first step, literature focusing on EO and/or mono- or sesqui-terpenoids effects in rodent wounds was identified and summarized. In all cases, chemical structures and EO composition were detailed, as well as references to in vitro activities previously determined, e.g. antibacterial, antioxidant or anti-inflammatory. In a second step, scientific literature devoted to combine EO and biopolymers with the focus set on wound healing innovations, was collected and analyzed. Treatments with EO from species of genders Lavandula, Croton, Blumea, Eucalyptus, Pinus, Cymbopogon, Eucalyptus, Cedrus, Abies, Rosmarinus, Origanum, Salvia and Plectranthus, have shown positive results in rodent wounds. All of these EO were mainly composed by monoterpenoids-thymol, 1,8-cineole, linalool-or monoterpenes, as limonene or pinenes. Experimental wounds in rodents have shown faster closure rate, better collagen deposition and/or enhanced fibroblasts proliferation. In blends with biopolymers, several EO combined with chitosan, alginate, gelatin or collagen, were processed to give active films or nanofibers, with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory or antimicrobial activities. Curiously, all of these works were carried

  1. Traditional medicine practices among community members with chronic kidney disease in northern Tanzania: an ethnomedical survey.

    PubMed

    Stanifer, John W; Lunyera, Joseph; Boyd, David; Karia, Francis; Maro, Venance; Omolo, Justin; Patel, Uptal D

    2015-10-23

    In sub-Saharan Africa, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is being recognized as a non-communicable disease (NCD) with high morbidity and mortality. In countries like Tanzania, people access many sources, including traditional medicines, to meet their healthcare needs for NCDs, but little is known about traditional medicine practices among people with CKD. Therefore, we sought to characterize these practices among community members with CKD in northern Tanzania. Between December 2013 and June 2014, we administered a previously-developed survey to a random sample of adult community-members from the Kilimanjaro Region; the survey was designed to measure traditional medicine practices such as types, frequencies, reasons, and modes. Participants were also tested for CKD, diabetes, hypertension, and HIV as part of the CKD-AFRiKA study. To identify traditional medicines used in the local treatment of kidney disease, we reviewed the qualitative sessions which had previously been conducted with key informants. We enrolled 481 adults of whom 57 (11.9 %) had CKD. The prevalence of traditional medicine use among adults with CKD was 70.3 % (95 % CI 50.0-84.9 %), and among those at risk for CKD (n = 147; 30.6 %), it was 49.0 % (95 % CI 33.1-65.0 %). Among adults with CKD, the prevalence of concurrent use of traditional medicine and biomedicine was 33.2 % (11.4-65.6 %). Symptomatic ailments (66.7 %; 95 % CI 17.3-54.3), malaria/febrile illnesses (64.0 %; 95 % CI 44.1-79.9), and chronic diseases (49.6 %; 95 % CI 28.6-70.6) were the most prevalent uses for traditional medicines. We identified five plant-based traditional medicines used for the treatment of kidney disease: Aloe vera, Commifora africana, Cymbopogon citrullus, Persea americana, and Zanthoxylum chalybeum. The prevalence of traditional medicine use is high among adults with and at risk for CKD in northern Tanzania where they use them for a variety of conditions including other NCDs. Additionally, many of these same people

  2. Effect of lemongrass tea consumption on estimated glomerular filtration rate and creatinine clearance rate.

    PubMed

    Ekpenyong, Christopher E; Daniel, Nyebuk E; Antai, Atim B

    2015-01-01

    The existing research findings regarding the effects of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) tea on renal function indices are conflicting and inconclusive. In the present study, we investigated the effects of infusions prepared from C citratus leaves on creatinine clearance rate (CCr) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in humans. One hundred five subjects (55 men and 50 women) aged 18 to 35 years were randomly assigned to groups set to orally receive infusions prepared from 2, 4, or 8 g of C citratus leaf powder once daily, for 30 days. Serum and urinary levels of urea, creatinine, pH, specific gravity, uric acid, electrolytes, diuretic indices, and eGFR were assessed at days 0, 10, and 30 after the initiation of treatment. Results obtained on days10 and 30 were compared with baseline values. CCr and eGFR decreased significantly at day 30 in both male and female subjects in all the groups and in females treated with infusion prepared from 8 g of C citratus leaf powder for 10 days. At day 10, CCr and eGFR were unchanged in those treated with infusions prepared from 2 or 4 g of the leaf powder, whereas diuretic indices (urine volume, urination frequency, diuretic action, and saliuretic indices) increased above the baseline levels. Serum and urinary creatinine levels significantly increased (P < .05) in both male and female subjects in all the groups. Serum urea significantly increased in the groups treated with infusions prepared from 4 or 8 g of the leaf powder (P < .05) for 30 days. Serum electrolytes remained unchanged, but their urinary levels increased. We observed dose- and time-dependent adverse effects of C citratus on CCr and eGFR. At a high dose or with prolonged treatment with a low dose, eGFR decrease may be followed by a decline in the other renal function indices. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ethnomedicinal survey of a maroon community in Brazil's Atlantic tropical forest.

    PubMed

    de Santana, Bruna Farias; Voeks, Robert A; Funch, Ligia Silveira

    2016-04-02

    species (45%), and non-cultivated species (51%) were slightly more numerous than cultivated species (49%). In spite of abundant nearby old-growth forests, trails and gardens were the most common collection sites. A mean of 13.2 medicinal plant species were cited per participant. The highest CV was recorded for Cymbopogon citratus (0.20) followed by Lippia alba (0.19) and Stryphnodendron cf. adstringens (0.17). The highest RF included C. citratus (0.69), L. alba (0.59), and Eugenia uniflora (0.55). The highest UV figures were recorded for S. cf. adstringens (1.68), followed by Sida cf. cordifolia (0.97) and C. citratus (0.93).Fifteen species (13%) of this maroon medicinal flora trace their ancestry to Africa or African-derived healing traditions. The Salamina maroon community maintains considerable knowledge of the medicinal value of the local flora. However, little of this knowledge is derived from the surrounding old-growth tropical forests. Their pharmacopoeia is a hybrid mix of wild and cultivated species, natives and exotics. Among those species representing the community's isolation and African ancestry, most are associated with spiritual and magical medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Root reinforcement and its contribution to slope stability in the Western Ghats of Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukose Kuriakose, Sekhar; van Beek, L. P. H.

    2010-05-01

    The Western Ghats of Kerala, India is prone to shallow landslides and consequent debris flows. An earlier study (Kuriakose et al., DOI:10.1002/esp.1794) with limited data had already demonstrated the possible effects of vegetation on slope hydrology and stability. Spatially distributed root cohesion is one of the most important data necessary to assess the effects of anthropogenic disturbances on the probability of shallow landslide initiation, results of which are reported in sessions GM6.1 and HS13.13/NH3.16. Thus it is necessary to the know the upper limits of reinforcement that the roots are able to provide and its spatial and vertical distribution in such an anthropogenically intervened terrain. Root tensile strength and root pull out tests were conducted on nine species of plants that are commonly found in the region. They are 1) Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis), 2) Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera), 3) Jackfruit trees (Artocarpus heterophyllus), 4) Teak (Tectona grandis), 5) Mango trees (Mangifera indica), 6) Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), 7) Gambooge (Garcinia gummi-gutta), 8) Coffee (Coffea Arabica) and 9) Tea (Camellia sinensis). About 1500 samples were collected of which only 380 could be tested (in the laboratory) due to breakage of roots during the tests. In the successful tests roots failed in tension. Roots having diameters between 2 mm and 12 mm were tested. Each sample tested had a length of 15 cm. Root pull out tests were conducted in the field. Root tensile strength vs root diameter, root pull out strength vs diameter, root diameter vs root depth and root count vs root depth relationships were derived. Root cohesion was computed for nine most dominant plants in the region using the perpendicular root model of Wu et al. (1979) modified by Schimidt et al. (2001). A soil depth map was derived using regression kriging as suggested by Kuriakose et al., (doi:10.1016/j.catena.2009.05.005) and used along with the land use map of 2008 to distribute the