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Sample records for citronella cymbopogon winterianus

  1. Vermicomposting of distillation waste of citronella plant (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt.) employing Eudrilus eugeniae.

    PubMed

    Deka, H; Deka, S; Baruah, C K; Das, J; Hoque, S; Sarma, N S

    2011-07-01

    Laboratory experiment on vermicomposting of distillation waste of java citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt.) was carried out employing Eudrilus eugeniae, in two seasonal trials, covering summer and winter periods. Two vermicomposting treatments were conducted in earthen pots, one with citronella plant waste only (CW) and the other, a mixture of citronella waste and cowdung in the proportion 5:1 (CW+CD). Vermicomposting of citronella waste resulted reduction in C/N ratio (83.5-87.7%), enhancement of ash content and a number of macro and micronutrients. The FT-IR spectroscopy of the vermicompost revealed the reduction in aliphatic and aromatic compound as well as increase in amide group after the 105 days stabilization process. The vermicompost output was significantly enhanced in CW+CD treatment than CW treatment. Even, nutrient content of the vermicompost was also higher in CW+CD treatment than CW alone indicating the positive role of cowdung in improvement of quantity and quality.

  2. Response of Java citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt) to toxic heavy metal cadmium.

    PubMed

    Boruah, H P; Handique, A K; Borah, G C

    2000-12-01

    Cadmium at 200 mg kg-1 soil and above concentrations was fatal as growth was inhibited ultimately leading to death of Java citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt.). The surviving plants at 50 and 100 mg kg-1 treatments also exhibited pronounced retardation of growth and biomass yield. There was considerable reduction in the level of essential oil in herbage and oil quality deteriorated. Cadmium accumulation profile showed that highest accumulation was in root, followed by stem, leaf sheath and leaf. Very high accumulation in root for higher doses appeared to be the reason for fatality.

  3. Solvent-Free Production of Bioflavors by Enzymatic Esterification of Citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Paroul, Natália; Grzegozeski, Luana Paula; Chiaradia, Viviane; Treichel, Helen; Cansian, Rogério L; Oliveira, J Vladimir; de Oliveira, Débora

    2012-01-01

    Enzymatic esterification of citronella essential oil towards the production of geranyl and citronellyl esters may present great scientific and technological interest due to the well-known drawbacks of the chemical-catalyzed route. In this context, this work reports the maximization of geranyl and citronellyl esters production by esterification of oleic and propionic acids in a solvent-free system using a commercial immobilized lipase as catalyst. Results of the reactions showed that the strategy adopted for the experimental design proved to be useful in evaluating the effects of the studied variables on the reaction conversion using Novozym 435 as catalyst. The operating conditions that maximized the production of each ester were determined, leading, in a general way, to conversions of about 90% for all systems. New experimental data on enzymatic esterification of crude citronella essential oil for geranyl and citronellyl esters production in solvent-free system are reported in this work.

  4. Biochemical parameters of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) treated with citronella oil (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt ex Bor) and its influence on reproduction.

    PubMed

    Silva, Cristiane Thalita Dos Santos; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valéria; Cunha, Franklin Magliano da; Oliveira, José Vargas de; Dutra, Kamilla de Andrade; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Teixeira, Álvaro Aguiar Coelho

    2016-05-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda is the principal corn pest in Brazil. Searches for new control methods that minimize the adverse effects of synthetic insecticides have initiated a resurgence of the use of botanical insecticides. Citronella oil (a product of Cymbopogon winterianus) is an effective repellent and insecticide. Thus, biochemical profile changes in oil-treated larvae and its influence on reproduction were assessed. Corn leaves dipped in a 50mg/mL concentration were offered to third instar larvae for 24h and assessed in sixth instar to estimate protein, lipid, sugar, and glycogen levels. Adult testes and ovarioles were collected for histological and histochemical analysis 24h after emergence. Number of eggs and hatching rate were also measured. Oil-treated larvae showed an increase in glycogen and a decrease in protein, lipid, and totals sugar content. Control testes exhibited connective tissue lining and cysts with abundant spermatozoids. However, intense peripheral vacuolation and neutral carbohydrates reduction occurred in oil-treated individuals. Control ovarioles showed normal morphologic characteristics. On the other hand, oil-treatment ovarioles showed follicular cell stratification and removal, reduced nurse cell development, reduced yolk quantity, a thinner conjunctiva sheath, and a reduction in proteins and neutral carbohydrates. Eggs derived from oil-treated pairs were unviable. Therefore, sub-lethal doses of citronella oil alters the biochemical profile of S. frugiperda larvae, causing damage to their reproductive histophysiology and results in diminished reproduction or reproductive failure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Molluscicidal and larvicidal activities and essential oil composition of Cymbopogon winterianus.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da F; Dias, Clarice N; do Amaral, Flavia Maria M; Moraes, Denise F C; Mouchrek Filho, Victor E; Andrade, Eloisa Helena A; Maia, Jose Guilherme S

    2013-10-01

    CONTEXT. Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt ex Bor (Poaceae), known as citronella grass, is an aromatic herbaceous plant and the essential oil extracted from this grass is used in cosmetics, perfumes, hygiene and cleanliness products worldwide. This study investigated the composition and molluscicidal and larvicidal activities of the essential oil of C. winterianus cultivated in North Brazil. The oil was obtained by hydrodistillation, analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry and then its molluscicidal and larvicidal activities against snails (Biomphalaria glabrata) and hatched larvae of Artemia salina, respectively, were evaluated at concentrations from 10 to 1000 mg/L. The main constituents of oil were citronellal (26.5%), geraniol (16.2%), elemol (14.5%) and citronellol (7.3%). The molluscicidal test revealed significant lethal concentration (LC) values (LC90=97.0 mg/L, LC50=54.0 mg/L and LC20=22.0 mg/L), indicating the presence of molluscicidal compounds in the oil. In addition, the oil showed moderate larvicidal activity (LC50=181.0 mg/L) against the larvae of A. salina, which could justify its use in the aquatic environment without affecting other living organisms. The results suggest that the oil of C. winterianus could be an effective alternative to control schistosomiasis, with an average margin of safety to other living organisms that coexist with snails.

  6. Genome wide transcriptome profiling reveals differential gene expression in secondary metabolite pathway of Cymbopogon winterianus

    PubMed Central

    Devi, Kamalakshi; Mishra, Surajit K.; Sahu, Jagajjit; Panda, Debashis; Modi, Mahendra K.; Sen, Priyabrata

    2016-01-01

    Advances in transcriptome sequencing provide fast, cost-effective and reliable approach to generate large expression datasets especially suitable for non-model species to identify putative genes, key pathway and regulatory mechanism. Citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) is an aromatic medicinal grass used for anti-tumoral, antibacterial, anti-fungal, antiviral, detoxifying and natural insect repellent properties. Despite of having number of utilities, the genes involved in terpenes biosynthetic pathway is not yet clearly elucidated. The present study is a pioneering attempt to generate an exhaustive molecular information of secondary metabolite pathway and to increase genomic resources in Citronella. Using high-throughput RNA-Seq technology, root and leaf transcriptome was analysed at an unprecedented depth (11.7 Gb). Targeted searches identified majority of the genes associated with metabolic pathway and other natural product pathway viz. antibiotics synthesis along with many novel genes. Terpenoid biosynthesis genes comparative expression results were validated for 15 unigenes by RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. Thus the coverage of these transcriptome is comprehensive enough to discover all known genes of major metabolic pathways. This transcriptome dataset can serve as important public information for gene expression, genomics and function genomics studies in Citronella and shall act as a benchmark for future improvement of the crop. PMID:26877149

  7. Genome wide transcriptome profiling reveals differential gene expression in secondary metabolite pathway of Cymbopogon winterianus.

    PubMed

    Devi, Kamalakshi; Mishra, Surajit K; Sahu, Jagajjit; Panda, Debashis; Modi, Mahendra K; Sen, Priyabrata

    2016-02-15

    Advances in transcriptome sequencing provide fast, cost-effective and reliable approach to generate large expression datasets especially suitable for non-model species to identify putative genes, key pathway and regulatory mechanism. Citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) is an aromatic medicinal grass used for anti-tumoral, antibacterial, anti-fungal, antiviral, detoxifying and natural insect repellent properties. Despite of having number of utilities, the genes involved in terpenes biosynthetic pathway is not yet clearly elucidated. The present study is a pioneering attempt to generate an exhaustive molecular information of secondary metabolite pathway and to increase genomic resources in Citronella. Using high-throughput RNA-Seq technology, root and leaf transcriptome was analysed at an unprecedented depth (11.7 Gb). Targeted searches identified majority of the genes associated with metabolic pathway and other natural product pathway viz. antibiotics synthesis along with many novel genes. Terpenoid biosynthesis genes comparative expression results were validated for 15 unigenes by RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. Thus the coverage of these transcriptome is comprehensive enough to discover all known genes of major metabolic pathways. This transcriptome dataset can serve as important public information for gene expression, genomics and function genomics studies in Citronella and shall act as a benchmark for future improvement of the crop.

  8. Acaricidal properties of the formulations based on essential oils from Cymbopogon winterianus and Syzygium aromaticum plants.

    PubMed

    de Mello, Valéria; Prata, Márcia Cristina de Azevedo; da Silva, Márcio Roberto; Daemon, Erik; da Silva, Luciane Santos; Guimarães, Flávia del Gaudio; de Mendonça, Alessandra Esther; Folly, Evelize; Vilela, Fernanda Maria Pinto; do Amaral, Lilian Henriques; Cabral, Lucio Mendes; do Amaral, Maria da Penha Henriques

    2014-12-01

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has caused serious harm to livestock raising in Brazil, considering the costs of controlling it, loss of revenue due to smaller production of milk and meat, and damage to leather, in addition to transmitting diseases. The use of medicinal plants is considered an alternative to the recurring resistance to chemicals. Due to the need for efficient alternatives with less environmental impact, this study aimed to develop contact formulations with essential oils from the Java citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) plants and to assess in vitro the effects in different stages of the tick cycle. In the present study, concentrations from 0.5-15.0% of the essential oils incorporated in the formulations were used. The ticks from different geographical areas were treated with those formulations, and their effects on the production levels of eggs, on the larvae hatching, and their efficiency on ticks were assessed. The obtained results were compared with other commercial acaricidal products. After the 20th day of treatment, the formulations with citronella essential oil had 2.09-55.51% efficiency, depending on the concentration of the oil incorporated. The efficiency of the treatment with formulations containing clove essential oil was higher, from 92.47-100%. The results showed the acaricidal effects of the formulations tested when compared to commercial chemical products. In vivo studies should be performed in order to assess the efficiency of those formulations in the fields, aiming to use these products as an alternative for controlling cattle ticks.

  9. An Insight Into Structure, Function, and Expression Analysis of 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Reductase of Cymbopogon winterianus.

    PubMed

    Devi, Kamalakshi; Patar, Lochana; Modi, Mahendra K; Sen, Priyabrata

    2017-01-01

    Citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) is one of the richest sources of high-value isoprenoid aromatic compounds used as flavour, fragrance, and therapeutic elements. These isoprenoid compounds are synthesized by 2 independent pathways: mevalonate pathway and 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate pathway. Evidence suggests that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) is a rate-controlling enzyme for the synthesis of variety of isoprenoids. This study reports the isolation, characterization, and tissue-specific expression analysis of HMGR from citronella. The modelled HMGR is a class I type of HMGR enzyme with 3-domain architecture. The active site comprises a cofactor (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) and the substrate-binding motifs. The real-time and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction results revealed equal expression level in both leaf sheath and root tissue. The results from our study shall be a valuable resource for future molecular intervention to alter the metabolic flux towards improvement of key active ingredient in this important medicinal plant.

  10. An Insight Into Structure, Function, and Expression Analysis of 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Reductase of Cymbopogon winterianus

    PubMed Central

    Devi, Kamalakshi; Patar, Lochana; Modi, Mahendra K; Sen, Priyabrata

    2017-01-01

    Citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) is one of the richest sources of high-value isoprenoid aromatic compounds used as flavour, fragrance, and therapeutic elements. These isoprenoid compounds are synthesized by 2 independent pathways: mevalonate pathway and 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate pathway. Evidence suggests that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) is a rate-controlling enzyme for the synthesis of variety of isoprenoids. This study reports the isolation, characterization, and tissue-specific expression analysis of HMGR from citronella. The modelled HMGR is a class I type of HMGR enzyme with 3-domain architecture. The active site comprises a cofactor (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) and the substrate-binding motifs. The real-time and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction results revealed equal expression level in both leaf sheath and root tissue. The results from our study shall be a valuable resource for future molecular intervention to alter the metabolic flux towards improvement of key active ingredient in this important medicinal plant. PMID:28469419

  11. Influence of extraction methodologies on the analysis of five major volatile aromatic compounds of citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) grown in Thailand

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infusions of citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) have been commonly used in folk medicine in Thailand and other Asian countries. This study focuses on a systematic comparison of two extraction methods for major volatile aromatic compounds (VACs) of citronella g...

  12. Phythochemical screening and anticonvulsant activity of Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (Poaceae) leaf essential oil in rodents.

    PubMed

    Quintans-Júnior, L J; Souza, T T; Leite, B S; Lessa, N M N; Bonjardim, L R; Santos, M R V; Alves, P B; Blank, A F; Antoniolli, A R

    2008-08-01

    Cymbopogon winterianus (Poaceae) is used for its analgesic, anxiolytic and anticonvulsant properties in Brazilian folk medicine. This report aimed to perform phythochemical screening and to investigate the possible anticonvulsant effects of the essential oil (EO) from fresh leaves of C. winterianus in different models of epilepsy. The phytochemical analysis of EO showed presence of geraniol (40.06%), citronellal (27.44%) and citronellol (10.45%) as the main compounds. A behavioral screening demonstrated that EO (100, 200 and 400mg/kg; ip) caused depressant activity on CNS. When administered concurrently, EO (200 and 400mg/kg, ip) significantly reduced the number of animals that exhibited PTZ- and PIC-induced seizures in 50% of the experimental animals (p<0.05). Additionally, EO (100, 200 and 400mg/kg, ip) significantly increased (p<0.05) the latencies of clonic seizures induced by STR. Our results demonstrated a possible activity anticonvulsant of the EO.

  13. Novel insights into structure–function mechanism and tissue-specific expression profiling of full-length dxr gene from Cymbopogon winterianus

    PubMed Central

    Devi, Kamalakshi; Dehury, Budheswar; Phukon, Munmi; Modi, Mahendra Kumar; Sen, Priyabrata

    2015-01-01

    The 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR; EC1.1.1.267), an NADPH-dependent reductase, plays a pivotal role in the methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway (MEP), in the conversion of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate (DXP) into MEP. The sheath and leaf of citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) accumulates large amount of terpenes and sesquiterpenes with proven medicinal value and economic uses. Thus, sequencing of full length dxr gene and its characterization seems to be a valuable resource in metabolic engineering to alter the flux of isoprenoid active ingredients in plants. In this study, full length DXR from citronella was characterized through in silico and tissue-specific expression studies to explain its structure–function mechanism, mode of cofactor recognition and differential expression. The modelled DXR has a three-domain architecture and its active site comprised of a cofactor (NADPH) binding pocket and the substrate-binding pocket. Molecular dynamics simulation studies indicated that DXR model retained most of its secondary structure during 10 ns simulation in aqueous solution. The modelled DXR superimposes well with its closest structural homolog but subtle variations in the charge distribution over the cofactor recognition site were noticed. Molecular docking study revealed critical residues aiding tight anchoring NADPH within the active pocket of DXR. Tissue-specific differential expression analysis using semi-quantitative RT-PCR and qRT-PCR in various tissues of citronella plant revealed distinct differential expression of DXR. To our knowledge, this is the first ever report on DXR from the important medicinal plant citronella and further characterization of this gene will open up better avenues for metabolic engineering of secondary metabolite pathway genes from medicinal plants in the near future. PMID:25941629

  14. Novel insights into structure-function mechanism and tissue-specific expression profiling of full-length dxr gene from Cymbopogon winterianus.

    PubMed

    Devi, Kamalakshi; Dehury, Budheswar; Phukon, Munmi; Modi, Mahendra Kumar; Sen, Priyabrata

    2015-01-01

    The 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR; EC1.1.1.267), an NADPH-dependent reductase, plays a pivotal role in the methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway (MEP), in the conversion of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate (DXP) into MEP. The sheath and leaf of citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) accumulates large amount of terpenes and sesquiterpenes with proven medicinal value and economic uses. Thus, sequencing of full length dxr gene and its characterization seems to be a valuable resource in metabolic engineering to alter the flux of isoprenoid active ingredients in plants. In this study, full length DXR from citronella was characterized through in silico and tissue-specific expression studies to explain its structure-function mechanism, mode of cofactor recognition and differential expression. The modelled DXR has a three-domain architecture and its active site comprised of a cofactor (NADPH) binding pocket and the substrate-binding pocket. Molecular dynamics simulation studies indicated that DXR model retained most of its secondary structure during 10 ns simulation in aqueous solution. The modelled DXR superimposes well with its closest structural homolog but subtle variations in the charge distribution over the cofactor recognition site were noticed. Molecular docking study revealed critical residues aiding tight anchoring NADPH within the active pocket of DXR. Tissue-specific differential expression analysis using semi-quantitative RT-PCR and qRT-PCR in various tissues of citronella plant revealed distinct differential expression of DXR. To our knowledge, this is the first ever report on DXR from the important medicinal plant citronella and further characterization of this gene will open up better avenues for metabolic engineering of secondary metabolite pathway genes from medicinal plants in the near future.

  15. Comparative anticonvulsant activities of the essential oils (EOs) from Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt and Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. in mice.

    PubMed

    Silva, Monalisa Ribeiro; Ximenes, Rafael Matos; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Leal, L Kalyne A M; de Lopes, Amanda A; Viana, Glauce Socorro de Barros

    2010-05-01

    The fresh leaves of Cymbopogon citratus are a good source of an essential oil (EO) rich in citral, and its tea is largely used in the Brazilian folk medicine as a sedative. A similar source of EO is Cymbopogon winterianus, rich in citronellal. The literature presents more studies on the EO of C. citratus and their isolated bioactive components, but only a few are found on the EO of C. winterianus. The objective of the present study was then to study, in a comparative way, the effects of both EOs on three models of convulsions (pentylenetetrazol, pilocarpine, and strychnine) and on the barbiturate-induced sleeping time on male Swiss mice. The animals (20-30 g) were acutely treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg kg(-1), intraperitoneally, of each EO, and 30 min later, the test was initiated. The observed parameters were: latency to the first convulsion and latency to death in seconds. Furthermore, the in vitro effects of the EOs were also studied on myeloperoxidase (MPO; a biomarker for inflammation) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; an index of cytotoxicity) releases from human neutrophils. The EOs radical-scavenging activities were also evaluated by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The results showed that both EOs were more active on the pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsion model, and C. citratus was even more efficient in increasing latency to the first convulsion and latency to death. Both parameters were potentiated in the presence of a lower dose of diazepam (reference drug) when associated to a lower dose of each EO (25 mg kg(-1)). Besides, their anticonvulsant effects were blocked by flumazenil, a known benzodiazepine antagonist. This effect was somewhat lower on the pilocarpine-induced convulsion, and better effects were seen only with the EOs' higher doses (200 mg kg(-1)). A similar result was observed on the strychnine-induced convulsion model. Both EOs potentiated the barbiturate-induced sleeping time. However, C. citratus was more efficient

  16. Assessment of antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of Cymbopogon winterianus leaf essential oil.

    PubMed

    Leite, Bárbara L S; Bonfim, Rangel R; Antoniolli, Angelo R; Thomazzi, Sara M; Araújo, Adriano A S; Blank, Arie F; Estevam, Charles S; Cambui, Erica V F; Bonjardim, Leonardo R; Albuquerque Júnior, Ricardo L C; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J

    2010-10-01

    The present study investigated the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of the leaf essential oil (LEO) of Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (Poaceae). In the acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin tests, the LEO (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced (p < 0.05) the number of writhings and paw licking times in the first (0-5 min) and second (15-30 min) phases, respectively. In contrast, the LEO did not alter the latency time for mice licking the rear paws in hot-plate test. The LEO inhibited the carrageenan-induced neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity in a dose-dependent manner (35.5%, 42.8%, and 66.1% at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively, p < 0.001). Moreover, LEO exhibited higher scavenging activity toward 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals with an IC(50) (12.66 ± 0.56 μg/mL). Our present results demonstrated that the LEO has antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties.

  17. Antifungal activity of Cymbopogon winterianus jowitt ex bor against Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Wylly Araújo; de Oliveira Pereira, Fillipe; de Luna, Giliara Carol Diniz Gomes; Lima, Igara Oliveira; Wanderley, Paulo Alves; de Lima, Rita Baltazar; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes

    2011-01-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic yeast and a member of the normal human flora that commonly causes infections in patients with any type of deficiency of the immune system. The essential oils have been tested for antimycotic activity and pose much potential as antifungal agents. This work investigated the activity of the essential oil of Cymbopogon winterianus against C. albicans by MIC, MFC and time-kill methods. The essential oil (EO) was obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. It was tested fifteen strains of C. albicans. The MIC was determined by the microdilution method and the MFC was determined when an aliquot of the broth microdilution was cultivated in SDA medium. The phytochemical analysis of EO showed presence of citronellal (23,59%), geraniol (18,81%) and citronellol (11,74%). The EO showed antifungal activity, and the concentrations 625 µg/mL and 1250 µg/mL inhibited the growth of all strains tested and it was fungicidal, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of various concentrations of EO was analyzed over time, it was found concentration-dependent antifungal activity, whose behavior was similar to amphotericin B and nystatin. PMID:24031651

  18. Antifungal activity of Cymbopogon winterianus jowitt ex bor against Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Wylly Araújo; de Oliveira Pereira, Fillipe; de Luna, Giliara Carol Diniz Gomes; Lima, Igara Oliveira; Wanderley, Paulo Alves; de Lima, Rita Baltazar; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes

    2011-04-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic yeast and a member of the normal human flora that commonly causes infections in patients with any type of deficiency of the immune system. The essential oils have been tested for antimycotic activity and pose much potential as antifungal agents. This work investigated the activity of the essential oil of Cymbopogon winterianus against C. albicans by MIC, MFC and time-kill methods. The essential oil (EO) was obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. It was tested fifteen strains of C. albicans. The MIC was determined by the microdilution method and the MFC was determined when an aliquot of the broth microdilution was cultivated in SDA medium. The phytochemical analysis of EO showed presence of citronellal (23,59%), geraniol (18,81%) and citronellol (11,74%). The EO showed antifungal activity, and the concentrations 625 µg/mL and 1250 µg/mL inhibited the growth of all strains tested and it was fungicidal, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of various concentrations of EO was analyzed over time, it was found concentration-dependent antifungal activity, whose behavior was similar to amphotericin B and nystatin.

  19. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle (CITRONELLA) AGAINST Microsporum canis FROM ANIMALS AND HOME ENVIRONMENT

    PubMed Central

    CAPOCI, Isis Regina Grenier; da CUNHA, Michele Milano; BONFIM-MENDONÇA, Patricia de Souza; GHIRALDI-LOPES, Luciana Dias; BAEZA, Lilian Cristiane; KIOSHIMA, Erika Seki; SVIDZINSKI, Terezinha Inez Estivalet

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytosis is a common zoonosis in urban centers. Dogs and cats have played an important role as its disseminators. Environmental decontamination is essential for the prevention of its propagation to humans and animals. However, sanitizers or disinfectants with antifungal activity, currently available, have high toxicity. The present study evaluated the in vitro effects of an extract of citronella (Cymbopogon nardus) on 31 Microsporum canis isolates from animals and home environments. Susceptibility tests were performed based on document M38-A2 (2008) of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute with modifications for natural products. Although susceptibility variation was observed between the fungus tested, the concentrations that inhibited the growth of 50 and 90% of the microorganisms were low (19.5 and 78 µg/mL, respectively). Thus, this citronella extract showed potent fungistatic and fungicide activities against M. canis isolated from animals and home environments. Therefore, it could be an alternative for dermatophytosis prophylaxis in the home environment. PMID:27049705

  20. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle (CITRONELLA) AGAINST Microsporum canis FROM ANIMALS AND HOME ENVIRONMENT.

    PubMed

    Capoci, Isis Regina Grenier; Cunha, Michele Milano da; Bonfim-Mendonça, Patricia de Souza; Ghiraldi-Lopes, Luciana Dias; Baeza, Lilian Cristiane; Kioshima, Erika Seki; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet

    2015-12-01

    Dermatophytosis is a common zoonosis in urban centers. Dogs and cats have played an important role as its disseminators. Environmental decontamination is essential for the prevention of its propagation to humans and animals. However, sanitizers or disinfectants with antifungal activity, currently available, have high toxicity. The present study evaluated the in vitro effects of an extract of citronella (Cymbopogon nardus) on 31 Microsporum canis isolates from animals and home environments. Susceptibility tests were performed based on document M38-A2 (2008) of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute with modifications for natural products. Although susceptibility variation was observed between the fungus tested, the concentrations that inhibited the growth of 50 and 90% of the microorganisms were low (19.5 and 78 µg/mL, respectively). Thus, this citronella extract showed potent fungistatic and fungicide activities against M. canis isolated from animals and home environments. Therefore, it could be an alternative for dermatophytosis prophylaxis in the home environment.

  1. Laboratory assessment of acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon winterianus, Vitex negundo and Withania somnifera extracts against deltamethrin resistant Hyalomma anatolicum.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nirbhay Kumar; Jyoti; Vemu, Bhaskar; Nandi, Abhijit; Singh, Harkirat; Kumar, Rajender; Dumka, V K

    2014-07-01

    Larval packet test was used for detection of resistance levels against cypermethrin and deltamethrin, the most commonly used synthetic pyrethroids, in the multi-host tick Hyalomma anatolicum collected from district Moga, Punjab (India). Results indicated the presence of level I resistance against deltamethrin (RF = 2.81), whereas the tick isolate was susceptible to cypermethrin (RF = 0.2). The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaves of Cymbopogon winterianus, Vitex negundo and Withania somnifera along with roots of Vitex negundo were assessed for their acaricidal activity against the larvae of deltamethrin resistant H. anatolicum. The efficacy was assessed by measuring per cent larval mortality and determination of LC50 values. The various ethanolic extracts produced a concentration dependent increase in larval tick mortality, whereas the aqueous extracts exhibited a much lower mortality. The highest mortality (93.7 ± 0.66 %) was observed at the 5.0 % concentration of ethanolic extract of leaves of C. winterianus and the lowest LC50 value (0.011 %) was recorded for ethanolic extracts of leaves of V. negundo. The results indicated that these plant extracts have potential to be developed as herbal acaricides.

  2. Acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon winterianus, Vitex negundo and Withania somnifera against synthetic pyrethroid resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nirbhay Kumar; Jyoti; Vemu, Bhaskar; Nandi, Abhijit; Singh, Harkirat; Kumar, Rajender; Dumka, V K

    2014-01-01

    Detection of resistance levels against cypermethrin and deltamethrin, the most commonly used synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Moga, Punjab (India) was carried out using larval packet test. Results indicated the presence of resistance of level I and III against cypermethrin (resistance factors (RF) = 4.67) and deltamethrin (RF = 34.2), respectively. Adult immersion test was used to assess the acaricidal activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaves of Cymbopogon winterianus, Vitex negundo, and Withania somnifera along with roots of V. negundo against the SP resistant engorged females of R. (B.) microplus. The efficacy of various extracts was assessed by estimation of percent adult mortality, reproductive index (RI), percent inhibition of oviposition (%IO), and hatching rate. A concentration dependent increase in tick mortality was recorded which was more marked with various ethanolic extracts, and highest mortality was recorded in ticks treated with ethanolic extract of leaves of C. winterianus. The LC50 values were determined by applying regression equation analysis to the probit transformed data of mortality for various aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Acaricidal property was recorded to be higher in ethanolic extracts, and high activity was found with the ethanolic extract of leaves of C. winterianus with LC50 (95% CL) values of 0.46% (0.35-0.59%), followed by W. somnifera as 5.21% (4.45-6.09%) and V. negundo as 7.02% (4.58-10.74%). The egg mass weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the various extract was significantly (p < 0.01) lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the RI and the %IO value of the treated ticks were reduced. Further, complete inhibition of hatching was recorded in eggs laid by ticks treated with ethanolic extracts of leaves of V. negundo and aqueous extracts of leaves of W. somnifera. The results of the current study indicate that extracts of C

  3. Biodelignification of Lemon Grass and Citronella Bagasse by White-Rot Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Rolz, C.; de Leon, R.; de Arriola, M. C.; de Cabrera, S.

    1986-01-01

    Twelve white-rot fungi were grown in solid-state culture on lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) and citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) bagasse. The two lignocellulosic substrates had 11% permanganate lignin and a holocellulose fraction of 58%. After 5 to 6 weeks at 20°C, nine fungi produced a solid residue from lemon grass with a higher in vitro dry matter enzyme digestibility than the original bagasse; seven did the same for citronella. The best fungus for both substrates was Bondarzewia berkeleyi; it increased the in vitro dry matter enzyme digestibility to 22 and 24% for lemon grass and citronella, respectively. The increases were correlated with weight loss and lignin loss. All fungi decreased lignin contents: 36% of the original value for lemon grass and 28% for citronella. Practically all fungi showed a preference for hemicellulose over cellulose. PMID:16347155

  4. Biodelignification of lemon grass and citronella bagasse by white-rot fungi.

    PubMed

    Rolz, C; de Leon, R; de Arriola, M C; de Cabrera, S

    1986-10-01

    Twelve white-rot fungi were grown in solid-state culture on lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) and citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) bagasse. The two lignocellulosic substrates had 11% permanganate lignin and a holocellulose fraction of 58%. After 5 to 6 weeks at 20 degrees C, nine fungi produced a solid residue from lemon grass with a higher in vitro dry matter enzyme digestibility than the original bagasse; seven did the same for citronella. The best fungus for both substrates was Bondarzewia berkeleyi; it increased the in vitro dry matter enzyme digestibility to 22 and 24% for lemon grass and citronella, respectively. The increases were correlated with weight loss and lignin loss. All fungi decreased lignin contents: 36% of the original value for lemon grass and 28% for citronella. Practically all fungi showed a preference for hemicellulose over cellulose.

  5. Growth Inhibition and Morphological Alterations of Trichophyton Rubrum Induced by Essential oil from Cymbopogon Winterianus Jowitt Ex Bor.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Pereira, Fillipe; Alves Wanderley, Paulo; Cavalcanti Viana, Fernando Antônio; Baltazar de Lima, Rita; Barbosa de Sousa, Frederico; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes

    2011-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is one of the most common fungi causer of dermatophytosis, mycosis that affect humans and animals around the world. Researches aiming new products with antifungal activity become necessary to overcome difficulties on treatment of these infections. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of essential oil from Cymbopogon winterianus against the dermatophyte T. rubrum. The antifungal screening was performed by solid medium diffusion method with 16 T. rubrum strains, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicide concentration (MFC) were determined using the microdilution method. The effects on mycelial dry weight and morphology were also observed. Screening showed essential oil in natura inhibited all the tested strains, with inhibition zones between 24-28 mm diameter. MIC50 and MIC90 values of the essential oil were 312 μg/mL for nearly all the essayed strains (93.75 %) while the MFC50 and MFC90 values were about eight times higher than MIC for all tested strains. All tested essential oil concentrations managed to inhibit strongly the mycelium development. Main morphological changes on the fungal strains observed under light microscopy, which were provided by the essential oil include loss of conidiation, alterations concerning form and pigmentation of hyphae. In the oil presence, colonies showed folds, cream color and slightly darker than the control, pigment production was absent on the reverse and with evident folds. It is concluded that C. winterianus essential oil showed activity against T. rubrum. Therefore, it could be known as potential antifungal compound especially for protection against dermatophytosis.

  6. Growth Inhibition and Morphological Alterations of Trichophyton Rubrum Induced by Essential oil from Cymbopogon Winterianus Jowitt Ex Bor

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Pereira, Fillipe; Alves Wanderley, Paulo; Cavalcanti Viana, Fernando Antônio; Baltazar de Lima, Rita; Barbosa de Sousa, Frederico; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes

    2011-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is one of the most common fungi causer of dermatophytosis, mycosis that affect humans and animals around the world. Researches aiming new products with antifungal activity become necessary to overcome difficulties on treatment of these infections. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of essential oil from Cymbopogon winterianus against the dermatophyte T. rubrum. The antifungal screening was performed by solid medium diffusion method with 16 T. rubrum strains, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicide concentration (MFC) were determined using the microdilution method. The effects on mycelial dry weight and morphology were also observed. Screening showed essential oil in natura inhibited all the tested strains, with inhibition zones between 24-28 mm diameter. MIC50 and MIC90 values of the essential oil were 312 μg/mL for nearly all the essayed strains (93.75 %) while the MFC50 and MFC90 values were about eight times higher than MIC for all tested strains. All tested essential oil concentrations managed to inhibit strongly the mycelium development. Main morphological changes on the fungal strains observed under light microscopy, which were provided by the essential oil include loss of conidiation, alterations concerning form and pigmentation of hyphae. In the oil presence, colonies showed folds, cream color and slightly darker than the control, pigment production was absent on the reverse and with evident folds. It is concluded that C. winterianus essential oil showed activity against T. rubrum. Therefore, it could be known as potential antifungal compound especially for protection against dermatophytosis. PMID:24031626

  7. Cardiovascular effects induced by Cymbopogon winterianus essential oil in rats: involvement of calcium channels and vagal pathway.

    PubMed

    de Menezes, Igor Alexandre Côrtes; Moreira, Italo José Alves; de Paula, José Welton Azevedo; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Antoniolli, Angelo Roberto; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana

    2010-02-01

    This study has investigated the cardiovascular effects of the Cymbopogon winterianus essential oil (EOCW) in rats. C. winterianus is a plant used in folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension. For the measurement of haemodynamic and ECG parameters, male Wistar rats under anaesthesia were cannulated in the abdominal aorta and lower vena cava and electrodes were subcutaneously implanted in their paws. For an in-vitro approach, the rats were killed and the superior mesenteric artery was removed and cut into rings (1-2 mm). These rings were then mounted in organ baths containing Tyrode's solution at 37 degrees C and gassed with carbogen. In rats, EOCW (1-20 mg/kg, i.v.) induced dose-dependent hypotension and tachycardia. These effects were not affected by L-NAME or indometacin, but were partially reduced after atropine administration. EOCW (20 mg/kg only) also induced bradycardia-associated sinoatrial blockade, junctional rhythm, and first-degree atrioventricular block, which was abolished after atropine administration or vagotomy. In arterial rings, EOCW (0.1-3000 microg/ml) induced relaxation of phenylephrine tonus that was not affected by removal of the endothelium. These relaxations were similar to those observed in rings without endothelium precontracted with KCl 80 mm. EOCW was able to antagonize the CaCl(2) (30-300 mum) induced contractions in depolarizing solution (KCl 60 mm). These results demonstrated that EOCW induced hypotension and vasorelaxation. These effects appeared to be mainly mediated by Ca(+2)-channel blocking. Furthermore, the higher dose of EOCW induced transient bradycardia and arrhythmias due to a cardiac muscarinic activation secondary to a vagal discharge.

  8. Effect of different organic manures/composts on the herbage and essential oil yield of Cymbopogon winterianus and their influence on the native AM population in a marginal alfisol.

    PubMed

    Tanu; Prakash, Anil; Adholeya, Alok

    2004-05-01

    Four organic amendments: leaf compost (LC), vegetable compost (VC), poultry manure (PM) and sewage sludge (SSL) applied at four doses (40, 80, 100 and 120 tha(-1)) were evaluated for their effect on the herbage yield, essential oil content and inoculum potential (IP) of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on three varieties of Java citronella, Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (Manjusha, Mandakini, and Bio-13). PM applied at 100 t ha(-1) followed by SSL increased the herbage, essential oil content and dry matter yield significantly. Bio-13 performed better and produced the highest herbage, essential oil and dry matter yield. The type and dose of the various organic amendments also significantly influenced the indigenous AMF infectious propagules in soil. Highest number of AMF propagules were recorded in the LC amended plots in all the three varieties. Amongst the varieties, highest native mycorrhizal inoculum was recorded in the Bio-13. Least number of AM infectious propagules were recorded in the Mandakini plants grown in 40 t ha(-1) SSL.

  9. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon nardus citronella essential oil against systemic bacteria of aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lee Seong; Wee, Wendy

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon nardus citronella essential oil against Edwardsiella spp. (n = 21), Vibrio spp. (n = 6), Aeromonas spp. (n = 2), Escherichia coli (n = 2), Salmonella spp. (n = 2), Flavobacterium spp. (n = 1), Pseudomonas spp. (n = 1) and Streptococcus spp. (n = 1) isolated from internal organs of aquatic animals. Due to the ban of antibiotics for aquaculture use, this study was carried out to evaluate the potential of citronella essential oil as alternative to commercial antibiotic use against systemic bacteria in cultured aquatic animals. The essential oil of C. nardus was prepared by using the steam distillation method and the chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil tested against bacterial isolates from various aquatic animals and ATCC type strains were determined using two-fold broth micro dilution method with kanamycin and eugenol as positive controls. A total of 22 chemical compounds were detected in C. nardus essential oil with 6-octenal, 3, 7-dimethyl- or citronellal representing the major compounds (29.6%). The MIC values of the citronella oil ranged from 0.244 µg/ml to 0.977 µg/ml when tested against the bacterial isolates. The results of the present study revealed the potential of C. nardus essential oil as alternative to commercial antibiotics for aquaculture use.

  10. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon nardus citronella essential oil against systemic bacteria of aquatic animals

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Lee Seong; Wee, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Background & Objectives This paper describes chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon nardus citronella essential oil against Edwardsiella spp. (n = 21), Vibrio spp. (n = 6), Aeromonas spp. (n = 2), Escherichia coli (n = 2), Salmonella spp. (n = 2), Flavobacterium spp. (n = 1), Pseudomonas spp. (n = 1) and Streptococcus spp. (n = 1) isolated from internal organs of aquatic animals. Due to the ban of antibiotics for aquaculture use, this study was carried out to evaluate the potential of citronella essential oil as alternative to commercial antibiotic use against systemic bacteria in cultured aquatic animals. Materials & Methods The essential oil of C. nardus was prepared by using the steam distillation method and the chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil tested against bacterial isolates from various aquatic animals and ATCC type strains were determined using two-fold broth micro dilution method with kanamycin and eugenol as positive controls. Results A total of 22 chemical compounds were detected in C. nardus essential oil with 6-octenal, 3, 7-dimethyl- or citronellal representing the major compounds (29.6%). The MIC values of the citronella oil ranged from 0.244 µg/ml to 0.977 µg/ml when tested against the bacterial isolates. Conclusion The results of the present study revealed the potential of C. nardus essential oil as alternative to commercial antibiotics for aquaculture use. PMID:23825733

  11. Preparation, Characterization, and Pharmacological Activity of Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt ex Bor (Poaceae) Leaf Essential Oil of β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes.

    PubMed

    Santos, Priscila L; Araújo, Adriano A S; Quintans, Jullyana S S; Oliveira, Makson G B; Brito, Renan G; Serafini, Mairim R; Menezes, Paula P; Santos, Marcio R V; Alves, Pericles B; de Lucca Júnior, Waldecy; Blank, Arie F; La Rocca, Viviana; Almeida, Reinaldo N; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the orofacial antinociceptive effect of the Cymbopogon winterianus essential oil (LEO) complexed in β-cyclodextrin (LEO-CD) and to assess the possible involvement of the central nervous system (CNS). The LEO was extracted, chromatographed, and complexed in β-cyclodextrin. The complex was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry derivative (TG/DTG). Male Swiss mice (2-3 months) were treated with LEO-CD (50-200 mg/kg, p.o.), vehicle (distilled water, p.o.), or standard drug (i.p.) and subjected to the orofacial nociception formalin-, capsaicin-, and glutamate-induced. After the formalin test, the animals were perfused and the brains subjected to immunofluorescence for Fos. The rota-rod test (7 rpm/min) was carried out. Geraniol (37.57%) was the main compound of LEO. DSC and TG/DTG proved the complexation. The orofacial nociceptive behavior was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced. The number of Fos-positive cells was significantly changed in the dorsal raphe nucleus (p < 0.01), locus coeruleus (p < 0.001), trigeminal nucleus (p < 0.05), and trigeminal thalamic tract (p < 0.05). LEO-CD did not cause changes in motor coordination in the rota-rod test. Thus, our results suggested that LEO-CD has an orofacial antinociceptive profile, probably mediated by the activation of the CNS without changing the motor coordination.

  12. Preparation, Characterization, and Pharmacological Activity of Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt ex Bor (Poaceae) Leaf Essential Oil of β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Priscila L.; Araújo, Adriano A. S.; Quintans, Jullyana S. S.; Oliveira, Makson G. B.; Brito, Renan G.; Serafini, Mairim R.; Menezes, Paula P.; Santos, Marcio R. V.; Alves, Pericles B.; de Lucca Júnior, Waldecy; Blank, Arie F.; La Rocca, Viviana; Almeida, Reinaldo N.; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the orofacial antinociceptive effect of the Cymbopogon winterianus essential oil (LEO) complexed in β-cyclodextrin (LEO-CD) and to assess the possible involvement of the central nervous system (CNS). The LEO was extracted, chromatographed, and complexed in β-cyclodextrin. The complex was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry derivative (TG/DTG). Male Swiss mice (2-3 months) were treated with LEO-CD (50–200 mg/kg, p.o.), vehicle (distilled water, p.o.), or standard drug (i.p.) and subjected to the orofacial nociception formalin-, capsaicin-, and glutamate-induced. After the formalin test, the animals were perfused and the brains subjected to immunofluorescence for Fos. The rota-rod test (7 rpm/min) was carried out. Geraniol (37.57%) was the main compound of LEO. DSC and TG/DTG proved the complexation. The orofacial nociceptive behavior was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced. The number of Fos-positive cells was significantly changed in the dorsal raphe nucleus (p < 0.01), locus coeruleus (p < 0.001), trigeminal nucleus (p < 0.05), and trigeminal thalamic tract (p < 0.05). LEO-CD did not cause changes in motor coordination in the rota-rod test. Thus, our results suggested that LEO-CD has an orofacial antinociceptive profile, probably mediated by the activation of the CNS without changing the motor coordination. PMID:26246838

  13. Applicability of citronella oil (Cymbopogon winteratus) for the prevention of mosquito-borne diseases in the rural area of Tikapur, far-western Nepal.

    PubMed

    Sajo, Ma Easter Joy; Song, Soon-Bong; Bajgai, Johny; Kim, Young-Je; Kim, Pan-Suk; Ahn, Dong-Won; Khanal, Narendra; Lee, Kyu-Jae

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are a serious global problem, particularly in tropical and sub-tropical countries such as Nepal. Citronella oil is a natural mosquito repellent as well as a local fragrance in Nepal, which is accessible at very low cost because citronella plants are widely cultivated in rural areas of the Terai belt in Nepal. This study was conducted using a real-life randomized controlled pilot trial to confirm the effectiveness and applicability of locally-produced citronella oil as a mosquito repellent for the prevention of mosquito-borne diseases in Nepal. A repellency activity test was performed with 100% citronella oil (Cymbopogon winteratus) from April to May 2013 in the Tikapur Municipality of the Kailali district, Nepal. The test was divided into two trials: an indoor exposure (IE) test (N=101) and an outdoor exposure (OE) test (N=140) from 5.00 pm to 7.00 pm. Each trial contained an experimental citronella oil-applied group and a non-applied (control) group. The outcome measures were the protective effect of citronella oil against mosquitoes, the number of mosquito bites, the repellency percentage, the smell satisfaction and the irritation level. Experimental group had a significant protective effect against mosquito bites in IE (96.5%, n=57) and OE (95.7%, n=70) tests compared to the control group in IE (29.5%, n=44) and OE (28.6%, n=70) tests (experimental vs control groups, p<0.001). The repellency percentage for the OE test was 96.7%. In the smell satisfaction test (n=127), most of the participants responded with high satisfaction: 'good' (67.7%), 'very good' (16.5%), 'bad' (13.4%) and 'very bad' (2.4%). IE and OE tests showed similar satisfaction levels in each category. In the irritation level test (n=127), 87.4% and 12.6% responded with no irritation and slight irritation, respectively. There were no reports of moderate or severe irritation. The topical application of citronella oil can be employed as an easily-available, affordable and

  14. Protection capacity of mosquito repellent ink from citronella (Cymbopogon nardus L.) and clove leaf oils (Syzygium aromaticum) againts Aedes aegypti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harismah, Kun; Vitasari, Denny; Mirzaei, Mahmoud; Fuadi, Ahmad Muhammad; Aryanto, Yanur Hendra

    2017-06-01

    The study of combination citronella and clove oils in mosquito repellent newspaper ink has been done. The background of this study was there prevalences of diseases such as malaria, zikka, and dengue fever that are carried by mosquitoes which hunt in the morning, at time while people usually read newspaper. Tests were undertaken in 3 (three) repetitions to determine the effectiveness of ink (as a control) and two types of mosquito repellent inks that consisted of ink and citronella-clove leaf oil with ratio of 4:1 and 1:1 of substances that were presumed to have insect repellent qualities. The results of this study indicated that the mixture of newspaper ink and citronella-clove oil with ratio of 1:4 and 1:1 offer limited protection against mosquitoes bite in the range of 1-5 hours. The efficacy of the citronella-clove leaf oi mixture as mosquito repellent was between 75.85 to 91.10%. Hece, a blend of citronella and clove leaf oil could be added to printing ink and could be commercial potential as a short-period mosquito repellent. However, it is important in disseminating public health messages to emphasize the greater effectiveness of citronella and clove oils-based repellents ink in areas with risks of mosquito-borne disease.

  15. Influence of extraction methodologies on the analysis of five major volatile aromatic compounds of citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) grown in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chanthai, Saksit; Prachakoll, Sujitra; Ruangviriyachai, Chalerm; Luthria, Devanand L

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the systematic comparison of extraction of major volatile aromatic compounds (VACs) of citronella grass and lemongrass by classical microhydrodistillation (MHD), as well as modern accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). Sixteen VACs were identified by GC/MS. GC-flame ionization detection was used for the quantification of five VACs (citronellal, citronellol, geraniol, citral, and eugenol) to compare the extraction efficiency of the two different methods. Linear range, LOD, and LOQ were calculated for the five VACs. Intraday and interday precisions for the analysis of VACs were determined for each sample. The extraction recovery, as calculated by a spiking experiment with known standards of VACs, by ASE and MHD ranged from 64.9 to 91.2% and 74.3 to 95.2%, respectively. The extraction efficiency of the VACs was compared for three solvents of varying polarities (hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol), seven different temperatures (ranging from 40 to 160 degrees C, with a gradual increment of 20 degrees C), five time periods (from 1 to 10 min), and three cycles (1, 2, and 3 repeated extractions). Optimum extraction yields of VACs were obtained when extractions were carried out for 7 min with dichloromethane and two extraction cycles at 120 degrees C. The results showed that the ASE technique is more efficient than MHD, as it results in improved yields and significant reduction in extraction time with automated extraction capabilities.

  16. Efficacy of citronella and cinnamon essential oils on Candida albicans biofilms.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Leopoldina de Fátima Dantas de; Paula, Jacqueline Felipe de; Almeida, Rossana Vanessa Dantas de; Williams, David Wynne; Hebling, Josimeri; Cavalcanti, Yuri Wanderley

    2016-07-01

    The discovery of new antimicrobials derived from plants could aid in the management of biofilm-associated infections, including denture-induced stomatitis (DS). DS is an oral infection caused by Candida biofilms on the surfaces of poorly cleansed dentures. Effective treatment of DS requires the use of an appropriate denture cleanser and preferably one that exhibits antimicrobial properties. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-Candida and anti-biofilm efficacy of two essential plant oils from Cymbopogon winterianus (citronella) and Cinnamon cassia (cinnamon). Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentrations (MFCs) were determined by broth microdilution, whilst anti-biofilm activity was measured against mature (cultured for 72 h) biofilms on acrylic surfaces. Candida cell viability was assessed immediately (0 h) after treatment (T0) and 48 h after biofilm re-growth (T48). Biofilm structure was determined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) at T0 and T48. The respective MICs of cinnamon and citronella oils were 65 and 250 μg/ml and these were also the MFC values. For anti-biofilm efficacy, both oils significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the number of viable micro-organisms and accumulation of biofilms at T0. However, at T48, there was no difference between treated and untreated biofilms. It is concluded that citronella and cinnamon essential oils have potential for daily anti-candidal denture cleansing.

  17. Electrophysiological and behavioral characterization of bioactive compounds of the Thymus vulgaris, Cymbopogon winterianus, Cuminum cyminum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oils against Anopheles gambiae and prospects for their use as bednet treatments.

    PubMed

    Deletre, Emilie; Chandre, Fabrice; Williams, Livy; Duménil, Claire; Menut, Chantal; Martin, Thibaud

    2015-06-11

    Laboratory and field studies showed that repellent, irritant and toxic actions of common public health insecticides reduce human-vector contact and thereby interrupt disease transmission. One of the more effective strategies to reduce disease risk involves the use of long-lasting treated bednets. However, development of insecticide resistance in mosquito populations makes it imperative to find alternatives to these insecticides. Our previous study identified four essential oils as alternatives to pyrethroids: Thymus vulgaris, Cymbopogon winterianus, Cuminum cyminum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum. The objectives of this study were to identify active compounds of these essential oils, to characterize their biological activity, and to examine their potential as a treatment for bednets. We evaluated the electrophysiological, behavioural (repellency, irritancy) and toxic effects of the major compounds of these oils against Anopheles gambiae strain 'Kisumu'. Aldehydes elicited the strongest responses and monoterpenes the weakest responses in electroantennogram (EAG) trials. However, EAG responses did not correlate consistently with results of behavioral assays. In behavioral and toxicity studies, several of the single compounds did exhibit repellency, irritancy or toxicity in An. gambiae; however, the activity of essential oils did not always correlate with activity expected from the major components. On the contrary, the biological activity of essential oils appeared complex, suggesting interactions between individual compounds and the insect under study. Data also indicated that the three effects appeared independent, suggesting that repellency mechanism(s) may differ from mechanisms of irritancy and toxicity. Based on the bioassays reported here, some of the compounds merit consideration as alternative bednet treatments.

  18. Vermicomposting potentiality of Perionyx excavatus for recycling of waste biomass of Java citronella--an aromatic oil yielding plant.

    PubMed

    Deka, H; Deka, S; Baruah, C K; Das, J; Hoque, S; Sarma, H; Sarma, N S

    2011-12-01

    Laboratory investigation on vermicomposting efficacy of Perionyx excavatus for recycling of distillation waste biomass of java citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt) was carried out in two seasonal trials i.e. summer and winter periods. The experiment was conducted in earthen pots using a mixture of citronella waste material and cowdung in the proportion of 5:1. A control treatment without earthworms was setup for comparison of the results. The vermicompost had shown 5.8 folds reduction in C/N ratio and 5.6 folds enhancement in ash content. The nutrient contents (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) in the vermicompost had increase in the range of 1.2 - 4.1 fold than the initial level. The FT-IR spectra of the vermicompost confirmed increase in nitrogen rich compounds and decrease in aliphatic/aromatic compounds as compared to the initial level of the biowaste materials. The vermicomposting process is influenced by seasonal variation and summer was more productive than winter.

  19. Photosynthetic rates of citronella and lemongrass.

    PubMed

    Herath, H M; Ormrod, D P

    1979-02-01

    Ten selections of citronella (Cymbopogon nardus [L.] Rendle) were grown at 32/27, 27/21, or 15/10 C day/night temperatures, and plants from three populations of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus [D.C.] Stapf from Japan or Sri Lanka and Cymbopogon flexuosus [D.C.] Stapf from India) were grown at 8- or 15-hour photoperiods. Net photosynthetic rates of mature leaves were measured in a controlled environment at 25 C and 260 microeinsteins per meter(2) per second. Rates declined with increasing leaf age, and from the tip to the base of the leaf blade. Rates for citronella leaves grown at 15/10 C were extremely low for all selections. Highest rates of net photosynthesis were recorded for four selections grown at 27/21 C and for two selections grown at 32/27 C. Lemongrass grown at 8-hour photoperiod had higher photosynthetic rates than that grown at 15-hour photoperiod.

  20. Photosynthetic Rates of Citronella and Lemongrass 1

    PubMed Central

    Herath, H. M. Walter; Ormrod, Douglas P.

    1979-01-01

    Ten selections of citronella (Cymbopogon nardus [L.] Rendle) were grown at 32/27, 27/21, or 15/10 C day/night temperatures, and plants from three populations of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus [D.C.] Stapf from Japan or Sri Lanka and Cymbopogon flexuosus [D.C.] Stapf from India) were grown at 8- or 15-hour photoperiods. Net photosynthetic rates of mature leaves were measured in a controlled environment at 25 C and 260 microeinsteins per meter2 per second. Rates declined with increasing leaf age, and from the tip to the base of the leaf blade. Rates for citronella leaves grown at 15/10 C were extremely low for all selections. Highest rates of net photosynthesis were recorded for four selections grown at 27/21 C and for two selections grown at 32/27 C. Lemongrass grown at 8-hour photoperiod had higher photosynthetic rates than that grown at 15-hour photoperiod. PMID:16660737

  1. Carbon dioxide compensation values in citronella and lemongrass.

    PubMed

    Herath, H M; Ormrod, D P

    1977-04-01

    Carbon dioxide compensation values of mature leaves from 10 selections of citronella (Cymbopogon nardus [L.] Rendle) grown at 32/27 or 27/21 C day/night temperatures and three strains of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus [D.C.] Stapf. and Cymbopogon flexuosus [D.C.] Stapf.) grown at 8- or 15-hour photoperiods were measured in a controlled environment at 25 C. All leaves had low compensation values but citronella varied from 1.3 to 9.7 mul/liter and lemongrass from 0.7 to 3.5 mul/liter. Lower growing temperature generally resulted in lower compensation values for citronella but there was no consistent photoperiod effect on lemongrass.

  2. Carbon Dioxide Compensation Values in Citronella and Lemongrass 1

    PubMed Central

    Herath, H. M. Walter; Ormrod, Douglas P.

    1977-01-01

    Carbon dioxide compensation values of mature leaves from 10 selections of citronella (Cymbopogon nardus [L.] Rendle) grown at 32/27 or 27/21 C day/night temperatures and three strains of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus [D.C.] Stapf. and Cymbopogon flexuosus [D.C.] Stapf.) grown at 8- or 15-hour photoperiods were measured in a controlled environment at 25 C. All leaves had low compensation values but citronella varied from 1.3 to 9.7 μl/liter and lemongrass from 0.7 to 3.5 μl/liter. Lower growing temperature generally resulted in lower compensation values for citronella but there was no consistent photoperiod effect on lemongrass. PMID:16659935

  3. Formulas of components of citronella oil against mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti).

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wey-Shin; Yen, Jui-Hung; Wang, Yei-Shung

    2013-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is an epidemic vector of several diseases such as dengue fever and yellow fever. Several pesticides are used to control the mosquito population. Because of their frequent use, some mosquitoes have developed resistance. In this study, we used the Y-tube olfactometer to test essential oils of Cymbopogon species and screened specific formulas of components as repellents against Ae. aegypti. At 400 μL, the extracted oil of citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) and myrcene produced a low-active response by inhibiting mosquito host-seeking activity. Citronella grass, lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), citral and myrcene also produced a low-treatment response to repellents, for more potential to affect host-seeking behavior. Furthermore, the mixture of citral, myrcene, and citronellal oil (C:M:Ci = 6:4:1) greatly affected and inhibited host-seeking behavior (76% active response; 26% treatment response with 40 μL; 42.5%, 18% with 400 μL; and 19%, 23% with 1000 μL). As compared with the result for N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET; 44%, 22% with 400 μL), adjusting the composition formulas of citronella oil had a synergistic effect, for more effective repellent against Ae. aegypti.

  4. In silico analysis of enzyme involved in enrichment of citronella oil.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Divya; Kumar, Ashutosh; Pandey, D M

    2011-01-01

    Citronella oil is one of the essential oils obtained from Cymbopogon sp. having medicinally important aromatic chemicals (like citronellal, citronellol, hydroxy-citronellol and geraniol) exhibiting insecticidal, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Geraniol Dehydrogenase (GDH) is responsible for the degradation of Citronella oil. Therefore, we aimed to generate 3D structure of GDH and a potent specific GDH inhibitor by homology modelling, virtual screening of ligand database and molecular docking. Inhibitor model indicated strong binding affinity to the binding pocket of GDH and varying affinity for different ligands. Obtained structures will open the possibility of testing new inhibitor families, in addition to new substituent for the already known lead structures.

  5. Effects of inhaled citronella oil and related compounds on rat body weight and brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve.

    PubMed

    Batubara, Irmanida; Suparto, Irma H; Sa'diah, Siti; Matsuoka, Ryunosuke; Mitsunaga, Tohru

    2015-03-12

    Citronella oil is one of the most famous Indonesian essential oils, having a distinctive aroma. As with other essential oils, it is crucial to explore the effects of inhalation of this oil. Therefore, the aim of this research was to elucidate the effects of inhalation of citronella oil and its components isolated from Cymbopogon nardus L. (Poaceae), Indonesian local name: "Sereh Wangi" on the body weight, blood lipid profile, and liver function of rats, as well as on the sympathetic nerve activity and temperature of brown adipose tissue. Sprague-Dawley male adult rats fed with high fat diet (HFD) were made to inhale citronella oil, R-(+)-citronellal, and β-citronellol for five weeks, and the observations were compared to those of HFD rats that were not subjected to inhalation treatment. The results showed that inhalation of β-citronellol decreased feed consumption. As a consequence, the percentage of weight gain decreased compared with that in control group and the blood cholesterol level in the β-citronellol group was significantly lowered. Concentration of liver function enzymes were not significantly different among the groups. In conclusion, inhalation of citronella oil, specifically β-citronellol, decreased body weight by decreasing appetite, without any marked changes in liver enzyme concentrations.

  6. Effects of Inhaled Citronella Oil and Related Compounds on Rat Body Weight and Brown Adipose Tissue Sympathetic Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Batubara, Irmanida; Suparto, Irma H.; Sa’diah, Siti; Matsuoka, Ryunosuke; Mitsunaga, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Citronella oil is one of the most famous Indonesian essential oils, having a distinctive aroma. As with other essential oils, it is crucial to explore the effects of inhalation of this oil. Therefore, the aim of this research was to elucidate the effects of inhalation of citronella oil and its components isolated from Cymbopogon nardus L. (Poaceae), Indonesian local name: “Sereh Wangi” on the body weight, blood lipid profile, and liver function of rats, as well as on the sympathetic nerve activity and temperature of brown adipose tissue. Sprague-Dawley male adult rats fed with high fat diet (HFD) were made to inhale citronella oil, R-(+)-citronellal, and β-citronellol for five weeks, and the observations were compared to those of HFD rats that were not subjected to inhalation treatment. The results showed that inhalation of β-citronellol decreased feed consumption. As a consequence, the percentage of weight gain decreased compared with that in control group and the blood cholesterol level in the β-citronellol group was significantly lowered. Concentration of liver function enzymes were not significantly different among the groups. In conclusion, inhalation of citronella oil, specifically β-citronellol, decreased body weight by decreasing appetite, without any marked changes in liver enzyme concentrations. PMID:25774603

  7. Organic aerosol formation in citronella candle plumes

    PubMed Central

    Bothe, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Citronella candles are widely used as insect repellants, especially outdoors in the evening. Because these essential oils are unsaturated, they have a unique potential to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via reaction with ozone, which is also commonly elevated on summer evenings when the candles are often in use. We investigated this process, along with primary aerosol emissions, by briefly placing a citronella tealight candle in a smog chamber and then adding ozone to the chamber. In repeated experiments, we observed rapid and substantial SOA formation after ozone addition; this process must therefore be considered when assessing the risks and benefits of using citronella candle to repel insects. PMID:20700379

  8. Organic aerosol formation in citronella candle plumes.

    PubMed

    Bothe, Melanie; Donahue, Neil McPherson

    2010-09-01

    Citronella candles are widely used as insect repellants, especially outdoors in the evening. Because these essential oils are unsaturated, they have a unique potential to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via reaction with ozone, which is also commonly elevated on summer evenings when the candles are often in use. We investigated this process, along with primary aerosol emissions, by briefly placing a citronella tealight candle in a smog chamber and then adding ozone to the chamber. In repeated experiments, we observed rapid and substantial SOA formation after ozone addition; this process must therefore be considered when assessing the risks and benefits of using citronella candle to repel insects.

  9. 27 CFR 21.105 - Citronella oil, natural.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Citronella oil, natural. 21.105 Section 21.105 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....105 Citronella oil, natural. (a) Java type: (1) Alcohol content (as Geraniol). Not less than 85...

  10. 27 CFR 21.105 - Citronella oil, natural.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Citronella oil, natural. 21.105 Section 21.105 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....105 Citronella oil, natural. (a) Java type: (1) Alcohol content (as Geraniol). Not less than 85...

  11. Antifungal effects of citronella oil against Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Ru; Shi, Qing-Shan; Ouyang, You-Sheng; Chen, Yi-Ben; Duan, Shun-Shan

    2013-08-01

    Essential oils are aromatic oily liquids obtained from some aromatic plant materials. Certain essential oils such as citronella oil contain antifungal activity, but the antifungal effect is still unknown. In this study, we explored the antifungal effect of citronella oil with Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404. The antifungal activity of citronella oil on conidia of A. niger was determined by poisoned food technique, broth dilution method, and disc volatility method. Experimental results indicated that the citronella oil has strong antifungal activity: 0.125 (v/v) and 0.25 % (v/v) citronella oil inhibited the growth of 5 × 10⁵ spore/ml conidia separately for 7 and 28 days while 0.5 % (v/v) citronella oil could completely kill the conidia of 5 × 10⁵ spore/ml. Moreover, the fungicidal kinetic curves revealed that more than 90 % conidia (initial concentration is 5 × 10⁵ spore/ml) were killed in all the treatments with 0.125 to 2 % citronella oil after 24 h. Furthermore, with increase of citronella oil concentration and treatment time, the antifungal activity was increased correspondingly. The 0.5 % (v/v) concentration of citronella oil was a threshold to kill the conidia thoroughly. The surviving conidia treated with 0.5 to 2 % citronella oil decreased by an order of magnitude every day, and no fungus survived after 10 days. With light microscope, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope, we found that citronella oil could lead to irreversible alteration of the hyphae and conidia. Based on our observation, we hypothesized that the citronella oil destroyed the cell wall of the A. niger hyphae, passed through the cell membrane, penetrated into the cytoplasm, and acted on the main organelles. Subsequently, the hyphae was collapsed and squashed due to large cytoplasm loss, and the organelles were severely destroyed. Similarly, citronella oil could lead to the rupture of hard cell wall and then act on the sporoplasm to kill the

  12. Evaluation of the efficacy of 3% citronella candles and 5% citronella incense for protection against field populations of Aedes mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, L R; Surgeoner, G A; Heal, J D; Gallivan, G J

    1996-06-01

    We assessed the efficacy of 3% citronella candles and 5% citronella incense in protecting subjects from bites of Aedes spp. under field conditions. The study was conducted in a deciduous woodlot in Guelph, Ontario, Canada from July 26 to August 10, 1995. Eight subjects, dressed identically, were assigned to one of 8 positions on a grid within the study area. Two citronella candles, 2 citronella incense, 2 plain unscented candles, or no candles (i.e., nontreated controls) were assigned to 2 positions on the grid each evening. Subjects conducted 5-min biting counts at each position and performed 16 biting counts per evening. On average, subjects received 6.2 +/- 0.4, 8.2 +/- 0.5, 8.2 +/- 0.4, and 10.8 +/- 0.5 bites/ 5 min at positions with citronella candles, citronella incense, plain candles, and no candles, respectively. Although significantly fewer bites were received by subjects at positions with citronella candles and incense than at nontreated locations, the overall reduction in bites provided by the citronella candles and incense was only 42.3 and 24.2%, respectively.

  13. Citronellal, a monoterpene present in Java citronella oil, attenuates mechanical nociception response in mice.

    PubMed

    de Santana, Marilia Trindade; de Oliveira, Makson Gleydson Brito; Santana, Michele Fraga; De Sousa, Damião Pergentino; Santana, Danielle Gomes; Camargo, Enilton Aparecido; de Oliveira, Aldeídia Pereira; Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José

    2013-09-01

    Citronellal is a monoterpene present in the oil of many species, including Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (Poaceae). The present study investigated the effect of citronellal on inflammatory nociception induced by different stimuli and examined the involvement of the NO-cGMP-ATP-sensitive K⁺ channel pathway. We used male Swiss mice (n = 6 per group) that were treated intraperitoneally with citronellal (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg) 0.5 h after the subplantar injection of 20 μl of carrageenan (CG; 300 µg/paw), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α; 100 pg/paw), prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂; 100 ng/paw) or dopamine (DA; 30 μg/paw). The mechanical nociception was evaluated at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 h after the injection of the agents, using a digital analgesimeter (von Frey). The effects of citronellal were also evaluated in the presence of L-NAME (30 mg/kg) or glibenclamide (5 mg/kg). At all times, citronellal in all doses inhibited the development of mechanical nociception induced by CG (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01) and TNF-α (p < 0.001, p < 0.01, and p < 0.05). The citronellal was able to increase the pain threshold in the DA test (p < 0.001, p < 0.01, and p < 0.05) and in the PGE₂ test at all times (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05). L-NAME and glibenclamide reversed the antinociceptive effects of the citronellal at higher doses in the PGE₂ test. These data suggest that citronellal attenuated mechanical nociception, mediated in part by the NO-cGMP-ATP-sensitive K⁺ channel pathway.

  14. Microencapsulated citronella oil for mosquito repellent finishing of cotton textiles.

    PubMed

    Specos, M M Miró; García, J J; Tornesello, J; Marino, P; Vecchia, M Della; Tesoriero, M V Defain; Hermida, L G

    2010-10-01

    Microcapsules containing citronella essential oil were prepared by complex coacervation and applied to cotton textiles in order to study the repellent efficacy of the obtained fabrics. Citronella released from treated textiles was indirectly monitored by the extractable content of its main components. Repellent activity was assessed by exposure of a human hand and arm covered with the treated textiles to Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Fabrics treated with microencapsulated citronella presented a higher and longer lasting protection from insects compared to fabrics sprayed with an ethanol solution of the essential oil, assuring a repellent effect higher than 90% for three weeks. Complex coacervation is a simple, low cost, scalable and reproducible method of obtaining encapsulated essential oils for textile application. Repellent textiles were achieved by padding cotton fabrics with microcapsules slurries using a conventional pad-dry method. This methodology requires no additional investment for textile finishing industries, which is a desirable factor in developing countries.

  15. Effectiveness of citronella preparations in preventing mosquito bites: systematic review of controlled laboratory experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Kongkaew, C; Sakunrag, I; Chaiyakunapruk, N; Tawatsin, A

    2011-07-01

    This review aims to examine the effectiveness of citronella preparation used as a mosquito repellent. Multiple computerized databases such as MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, CINAHL, and AMED, were searched for controlled laboratory experiments that compared the effectiveness of citronella products to control in repelling Aedes, Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes using the cage or room methods. Outcomes measures were protection time and percentage repellency. The weighted mean difference and 95% confidence interval were calculated comparing the outcomes in the citronella and control groups. Meta-analysis was performed using the DerSimonian and Laird method under a random-effects model. Eleven studies met inclusion criteria. Based on a meta-analysis of studies using the cage method, protection time of the citronella oil for preventing Aedes mosquitoes was less than that in the DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) group, with a difference in protection time of 253 min (95% confidence interval: 169-336). The combination of citronella oil and vanillin is likely to have a longer protection time compared with citronella oil alone. In studies using the room method, citronella oil and/or the combination of citronella oil and vanillin provided complete repellency at least 3 h. In Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes, a combination of citronella oil and vanillin product demonstrated a comparable protection time against DEET; however, it remained inconclusive due to a limited number of studies. Citronella products are less effective than DEET products in terms of duration of protection. Adding vanillin to citronella oil products could prolong the protection time. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Anthelmintic activity of Cymbopogon martinii, Cymbopogon schoenanthus and Mentha piperita essential oils evaluated in four different in vitro tests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Anthelmintic resistance is a worldwide concern in small ruminant industry and new plant derived compounds are being studied for their potential use against gastrointestinal nematodes. Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon martinii and Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oils were evaluated against developmenta...

  17. Antigenotoxic and antioxidant activities of palmarosa and citronella essential oils.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sonali; Biswas, Dhrubojyoti; Mukherjee, Anita

    2011-10-11

    Essential oils of palmarosa and citronella have been extensively used in ancient Indian and South-east Asian traditional medicines. These essential oils have been reported to exhibit antimicrobial, anti parasitic effects against bacteria, yeasts, filamentous fungi, and viruses. In the present study the oils were tested for their potential antigenotoxic and antioxidant properties in human lymphocyte cells. The antigenotoxic effect on human lymphocyte cells (measurement of cell viability, DNA damage) was studied using trypan blue dye exclusion test, plasmid pBR322 DNA strand scission, and comet assay. Anti-oxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH(+) free radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation assay. The essential oils showed a good antigenotoxic activity against methyl methanesulphonate (MMS) and hydrogen peroxide. In addition, a significant dose dependent antioxidant activity was observed. Our data provide evidence that support the usage of palmarosa and citronella essential oils in traditional herbal preparations. They can constitute a natural source of a new and safe antioxidant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sustained release formulations of citronella oil nanoemulsion using cavitational techniques.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Naveen; Maddikeri, Ganesh L; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2017-05-01

    Nanoemulsion synthesis has proven to be an effective way for transportation of immobile, insoluble bioactive compounds. Citronella Oil (lemongrass oil), a natural plant extract, can be used as a mosquito repellent and has less harmful effects compared to its available market counterpart DEET (N, N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide). Nanoemulsion of citronella oil in water was prepared using cavitation-assisted techniques while investigating the effect of system parameters like HLB (Hydrophilic Lipophilic Balance), surfactant concentration, input energy density and mode of power input on emulsion quality. The present work also examines the effect of emulsification on release rate to understand the relationship between droplet size and the release rate. Minimum droplet size (60nm) of the emulsion was obtained at HLB of 14, S/O(1) ratio of 1.0, ultrasound amplitude of 50% and irradiation time of 5min. This study revealed that hydrodynamic cavitation-assisted emulsification is more energy efficient compared to ultrasonic emulsification. It was also found that the release rate of nanoemulsion enhanced as the droplet size of emulsion reduced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of peppermint and citronella essential oils on properties of fish skin gelatin edible films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanwong, S.; Threepopnatkul, P.

    2015-07-01

    Fish skin gelatin films incorporated with peppermint and citronella essential oils at difference concentrations (10, 20 and 30% w/w) were prepared by solution casting. Addition of peppermint oil contributed to a significant decrease of tensile strength and Young's modulus, while the percent elongation at break showed an obvious increase except at 30% w/w. On the other hand, addition of citronella oils promoted a great increase of tensile strength and young's modulus, but an intense decrease of the percent elongation at break. At the predetermined content, the film incorporated with citronella oils outperformed the one with peppermint oils in term of water vapor transmission and solubility in water. Thermal properties of gelatin films with citronella oils exhibited an enhancement in heat stability, while the one with peppermint oils showed slight decrease in heat stability. The additions with both of essential oils exhibited excellent antibacterial properties against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

  20. Indoor protection against mosquito and sand fly bites: a comparison between citronella, linalool, and geraniol candles.

    PubMed

    Müller, Günter C; Junnila, Amy; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Revay, Edita E; Butlers, Jerry; Schlein, Yosef

    2008-03-01

    The repellent effect of 3 essential-oil-based candles was evaluated in a high biting pressure environment in Israel. In human landing assays, the repellency rate of 5% citronella candles against mosquitoes was 29.0%, of 5% linalool candles was 71.1%, and of 5% geraniol candles was 85.4%. The candles with geraniol were about twice as effective as those with linalool and were about 5 times as effective as citronella candles in protecting a person from being bitten indoors by mosquitoes. The repellency rate of 5% citronella candles towards sand flies was 24.7%, of 5% linalool candles was 55.2%, and of 5% geraniol candles was 79.7%. A geraniol candle was almost 5 times as effective as a citronella candle and about twice as effective as a linalool candle in protecting a person from being bitten indoors by sand flies.

  1. Effects of glucam P-20, vanillin, and fixolide on mosquito repellency of citronella oil lotions.

    PubMed

    Songkro, Sarunyoo; Jenboonlap, Maleewan; Boonprasertpon, Munchalee; Maneenuan, Duangkhae; Bouking, Khemmarat; Kaewnopparat, Nattha

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of three fragrance fixatives, Glucam P-20, Vanillin, and Fixolide, on the mosquito repellent property of citronella oil lotions. In the current study, two formulae (A and B) of oil-in-water citronella oil lotions were formulated using different ingredients (emulsifiers [Cremophors or Emulwax], stiffening agents, and emollients). Citronella oil was used at 10% wt:wt. The weight ratios tested between citronella oil and each fixative were 1:0.25, 1:0.5, and 1:1. Overall, 20 formulations, including one with no fixatives for both A and B, were produced, A1-A10 and B1-B10. The repellent activities of these 20 lotions against Aedes aegypti (L.) were tested using a human-bait technique. The types and concentrations of fixatives as well as the compositions of the formulations did affect the protection time of the citronella oil lotions. The lotion containing Emulwax and 5% vanillin (B6) was the most effective repellent. It provided the longest protection time of 4.8 h, which exceeded the minimum requirement of 2 h set by the National Institute of Health, Thailand. The shortest protection time (1 h) was observed in the lotion containing Emulwax and 2.5% Glucam P-20 (B2). It could be concluded that the tested fixatives affected the repellent activity of the citronella oil lotions.

  2. Determination of required hydrophilic-lipophilic balance of citronella oil and development of stable cream formulation.

    PubMed

    Meher, Jaya Gopal; Yadav, Narayan Prasad; Sahu, Jagat Jyoti; Sinha, Priyam

    2013-10-01

    Citronella oil is reported to have excellent mosquito-repellent activity. To develop a stable cream formulation (emulsion), its hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) value is important. To determine required hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (rHLB) value of citronella oil and to develop stable cream formulation. Emulsions of citronella oil were prepared by phase inversion temperature technique using water, Tween 80 and Span 80. A first series of 11 emulsions with HLB values ranging from 5.0 to 15.0 and a second series of eight emulsions with smaller interval in HLB values from 11.0 to 13.8 were prepared. Emulsions were evaluated for creaming index, droplet size and turbidity to determine rHLB. Utilizing determined rHLB, citronella oil cream was formulated and evaluated for different texture parameters. rHLB of light liquid paraffin was also determined for validation of methodology. rHLB of light liquid paraffin and citronella oil was determined to be 11.80 and 12.60, respectively. Stable citronella oil cream was developed with 10% emulsifier blend. Texture parameters were found to be consistent over the entire storage period. Creaming index, droplet diameter, percent increase in droplet diameter and turbidity are the established parameters to determine rHLB and to develop stable emulsion. Emulsions with optimum emulsifier concentration resulted in less percentage creaming index, smallest droplet, less percentage increase in droplet diameter and highest turbidity. Texture properties evaluation ensures the stability of the developed cream. rHLB value of citronella oil was found 12.6 and a stable cream was formulated utilizing determined rHLB.

  3. Efficacy of the botanical repellents geraniol, linalool, and citronella against mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Müller, Günter C; Junnila, Amy; Butler, Jerry; Kravchenko, Vassiliy D; Revay, Edita E; Weiss, Robert W; Schlein, Yosef

    2009-06-01

    We determined the degree of personal protection provided by citronella, linalool, and geraniol in the form of commercially available candles or diffusers, both indoors and outdoors. Under the uniform conditions of the experiments, all substances repelled significantly more mosquitoes than the unprotected control. Furthermore, the repellents tested were more active when in the form of a continuous release diffuser than in candle form. All candles were 88 g containing 5% of the active ingredient and all diffusers contained 20 g of 100% active ingredient. Indoors, the repellency rate of citronella candles was only 14% while the repellency rate of citronella diffusers was 68%. The repellency of geraniol candles was 50% while the diffusers provided a repellency rate of 97%. No linalool candles were available for study but linalool diffusers repelled mosquitoes by 93%. Outdoors, citronella diffusers placed 6 m from mosquito traps repelled female mosquitoes by 22%, linalool repelled females by 58%, and geraniol repelled females by 75%. Trap catches were significantly reduced again when diffusers were placed 3 m from the traps. We concluded that geraniol had significantly more repellent activity than citronella or linalool in both indoor and outdoor settings.

  4. Effect of citronella essential oil on the inhibition of postharvest Alternaria alternata in cherry tomato.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qianru; Xu, Shixiang; Wu, Tao; Guo, Jun; Sha, Sha; Zheng, Xiaodong; Yu, Ting

    2014-09-01

    Essential oils such as citronella oil exhibit antifungal activity and are potential alternative inhibitors to chemical synthetic fungicides for controlling postharvest diseases. In this study the antifungal activity of citronella oil against Alternaria alternata was investigated. In vitro, citronella oil showed strong inhibition activity against A. alternata. The minimum inhibitory concentration in potato dextrose agar and potato dextrose broth medium was determined as 1 and 0.8 µL mL(-1) respectively. In vivo the disease incidence of Lycopersicon esculentum (cherry tomato) treated with citronella oil was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced compared with the control after 5 days of storage at 25 °C and 95% relative humidity. The disease incidence at oil concentrations of 0.2-1.5 µL mL(-1) was 88-48%. The most effective dosage of the oil was 1.5 µL mL(-1), with 52% reduction, and the oil had no negative effect on fruit quality. Scanning electron microscopy observation revealed considerably abnormal mycelial morphology. Citronella oil can significantly inhibit A. alternata in vitro and in vivo and has potential as a promising natural product for controlling black rot in cherry tomato. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Essential oil biosynthesis and regulation in the genus Cymbopogon.

    PubMed

    Ganjewala, Deepak; Luthra, Rajesh

    2010-01-01

    Essential oils distilled from Cymbopogon species are of immense commercial value as flavors and fragrances in the perfumery, cosmetics, soaps, and detergents and in pharmaceutical industries. Two major constituents of the essential oil, geraniol and citral, due to their specific rose and lemon like aromas are widely used as flavors, fragrances and cosmetics. Citral is also used for the synthesis of vitamin A and ionones (for example, beta-ionone, methyl ionone). Moreover, Cymbopogon essential oils and constituents possess many useful biological activities including cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. Despite the immense commercial and biological significance of the Cymbopogon essential oils, little is known about their biosynthesis and regulatory mechanisms. So far it is known that essential oils are biosynthesized via the classical acetate-MVA route and existence of a newly discovered MEP pathway in Cymbopogon remains as a topic for investigation. The aim of the present review is to discuss the biosynthesis and regulation of essential oils in the genus Cymbopogon with given emphasis to two elite members, lemongrass (C. flexuosus Nees ex Steud) and palmarosa (C. martinii Roxb.). This article highlights the work done so far towards understanding of essential oil biosynthesis and regulation in the genus Cymbopogon. Also, based on our experiences with Cymbopogon species, we would like to propose C. flexuosus as a model system for the study of essential oil metabolism beyond the much studied plant family Lamiaceae.

  6. Antibacterial activity of the essential oil from Cymbopogon nervatus inflorescence.

    PubMed

    El-Kamali, H H; Hamza, M A; El-Amir, M Y

    2005-07-01

    Antibacterial activity of essential oil of dried inflorescence of Cymbopogon nervatus was investigated. The essential oil remarkably inhibited the growth of tested bacteria except for Salmonella typhi. The maximum activity was against Shigella dysenteriae and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

  7. Cymbopogon species; ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and the pharmacological importance.

    PubMed

    Avoseh, Opeyemi; Oyedeji, Opeoluwa; Rungqu, Pamela; Nkeh-Chungag, Benedicta; Oyedeji, Adebola

    2015-04-23

    Cymbopogon genus is a member of the family of Gramineae which are herbs known worldwide for their high essential oil content. They are widely distributed across all continents where they are used for various purposes. The commercial and medicinal uses of the various species of Cymbopogon are well documented. Ethnopharmacology evidence shows that they possess a wide array of properties that justifies their use for pest control, in cosmetics and as anti-inflammation agents. These plants may also hold promise as potent anti-tumor and chemopreventive drugs. The chemo-types from this genus have been used as biomarkers for their identification and classification. Pharmacological applications of Cymbopogon citratus are well exploited, though studies show that other species may also useful pharmaceutically. Hence this literature review intends to discuss these species and explore their potential economic importance.

  8. The repellent efficacy of eleven essential oils against adult Dermacentor reticulatus ticks.

    PubMed

    Štefanidesová, Katarína; Škultéty, Ľudovít; Sparagano, Olivier A E; Špitalská, Eva

    2017-08-01

    Dermacentor reticulatus ticks are among the most important arthropod vectors of zoonotic disease agents in Europe. Eleven essential oils, namely basil (Ocimum basilicum), bergamot (Citrus bergamia), clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum), citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus), creeping thyme (Thymus serpyllum), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), lemon-scented gum (Corymbia citriodora), marjoram (Origanum majorana), peppermint (Mentha piperita), spearmint (M. spicata), and red thyme (Thymus vulgaris) were tested for repellency against adult D. reticulatus ticks at concentrations of 1 and 3%. Clove bud, creeping thyme and red thyme essential oils were the most efficient - repelling 83, 82 and 68% of ticks when diluted to 3%, respectively. The mixture of creeping thyme and citronella containing 1.5% of each showed higher repellency (91%) than individual essential oils at the concentration of 3%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of Repellency Effect of Mosquito Repellents for DEET, Citronella, and Fennel Oil.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jong Kwang; Kim, Kang-Chang; Cho, Yeondong; Gwon, Yong-Dae; Cho, Han Sam; Heo, Yoonki; Park, Kihoon; Lee, Yang-Won; Kim, Mijeong; Oh, Yu-Kyoung; Kim, Young Bong

    2015-01-01

    To confirm that Korean Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) guidelines are applicable to test the efficacy of mosquito repellents, these guidelines were used to test the efficacy and complete protection times (CPTs) of three representative mosquito repellents: N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), citronella, and fennel oil. The repellency of citronella oil decreased over time, from 97.9% at 0 h to 71.4% at 1 h and 57.7% at 2 h, as did the repellency of fennel oil, from 88.6% at 0 h to 61.2% at 1 h and 47.4% at 2 h. In contrast, the repellency of DEET remained over 90% for 6 h. The CPT of DEET (360 min) was much longer than the CPTs of citronella (10.5 min) and fennel oil (8.4 min). These results did not differ significantly from previous findings, and hence confirm that the KFDA guidelines are applicable for testing the efficacy of mosquito repellents.

  10. Comparison of Repellency Effect of Mosquito Repellents for DEET, Citronella, and Fennel Oil

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jong Kwang; Kim, Kang-Chang; Cho, Yeondong; Gwon, Yong-Dae; Cho, Han Sam; Heo, Yoonki; Park, Kihoon; Lee, Yang-Won; Kim, Mijeong; Oh, Yu-Kyoung; Kim, Young Bong

    2015-01-01

    To confirm that Korean Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) guidelines are applicable to test the efficacy of mosquito repellents, these guidelines were used to test the efficacy and complete protection times (CPTs) of three representative mosquito repellents: N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), citronella, and fennel oil. The repellency of citronella oil decreased over time, from 97.9% at 0 h to 71.4% at 1 h and 57.7% at 2 h, as did the repellency of fennel oil, from 88.6% at 0 h to 61.2% at 1 h and 47.4% at 2 h. In contrast, the repellency of DEET remained over 90% for 6 h. The CPT of DEET (360 min) was much longer than the CPTs of citronella (10.5 min) and fennel oil (8.4 min). These results did not differ significantly from previous findings, and hence confirm that the KFDA guidelines are applicable for testing the efficacy of mosquito repellents. PMID:26527362

  11. Repellency of the Components of the Essential Oil, Citronella, to Triatoma rubida, Triatoma protracta, and Triatoma recurva (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Zamora, D; Klotz, S A; Meister, E A; Schmidt, J O

    2015-07-01

    The kissing bugs--Triatoma rubida (Uhler), Triatoma protracta (Uhler), and Triatoma recurva (Stal)--are common hematophagous bugs in southeastern Arizona and responsible for severe allergic reactions in some individuals who are bitten. They also possess the potential to transmit the blood parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi. We previously found the essential oil, citronella, to be an excellent deterrent of feeding of T. rubida on a restrained mouse. In this work, we tested major components--alcohols, aldehydes, and monoterpenes--of citronella oil for repellency against the three common triatome species endemic in southern Arizona. The following citronella oil components--geraniol, citronellol, limonene, and citronellal--in different concentrations and combinations were tested. All components of citronella oil demonstrated some inhibition of feeding, ranging from very weak inhibition (limonene) to significant inhibition (geraniol and citronellol). A mixture of geraniol and citronellol was found to be repellant at concentrations of .165 and .165 vol%, respectively, for all three triatome species. Citronellal and limonene had no significant repellent activity. The repellent activity of citronella oil appears to be acting through direct contact with the bugs rather than diffusion of vapors. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Ethanol and high-value terpene co-production from lignocellulosic biomass of Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cymbopogon flexuosus and C. martinii are perennial grasses grown to produce essential oils for the fragrance industry. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate biomass and oil yields as a function of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization, and (2) to characterize their utility for lignocellulosi...

  13. Composition of the Essential Oil of Cymbopogon travancorensis.

    PubMed

    Mallavarapu, G R; Ramesh, S; Kulkarni, R N; Syamasundar, K V

    1992-04-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil of CYMBOPOGON TRAVANCORENSIS Bor. (Poaceae) was investigated by capillary GC and GC-MS. Thirty-five compounds were identified. The oil contains mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (39.60%), oxygenated terpenes (30.45%), and phenyl propanoids (22.04%). The main constituents of the oil are camphene (11.86%), limonene (18.07%), borneol (9.71%), elemicin (17.22%), and elemol (11.21%).

  14. Essential oil compositions of Cymbopogon parkeri STAPF from Iran.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, R; Mohamadi, S; Abkar, A; Fazlollahi, A

    2007-10-01

    Aerial parts of aromatic grass, Cymbopogon parkeri STAPF, were collected at flowering stage from Kerman province of Iran. The essential oil of air dried samples obtained by hydro-distillation method. The compositions of the essential oil were determined by the use of GC and GC-MS. Nineteen (98.7%) constituents were identified. The main constituents were piperitone (80.8%), germacrene-D (5.1%), santolinyl acetate (2.1%) and alpha-eudesmol (2.1%).

  15. Bioindustry development based on citronella essential oil to meet the needs for renewable energy: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizal, M.; Wiharna, S.; Wahyudi, A.

    2017-05-01

    In 2015, national domestic fuel consumption is already above 1.5 million barrels per day, while production is under 800,000 barrels per day. The gap between production and consumption will be considerably widened, serious efforts is needed to save the use of petroleum and also look for alternative replacement with renewable natural energy. Two approaches that can be taken: First, save the use of fossil fuel directly by using citronella essential oil-based bioadditive by 20 percents, equal to at least Rp. 55.2 trillions of national petroleum subsidies. Second, encourage increased utilization of biofuel mixed with that bioaditives that gradually reduce dependence on fossil fuels while developing machines which will fully operated with biofuels. Development of Sustainable Agricultural Bioindustry (SAB) system by integrating crops (candle nut, citronella) with livestock (dairy cattle) in a specific region. could contribute to: a) production of biodiesel and bioadditive feedstocks, b) production foodstuffs like beef and/or milk, c) utilitization of non-productive land, d) employment, by absorbing large number of farmer, e) increase the farmers income, f), biogas that can be used to meet daily household energy needs, and g) environmental conservation and sequestration of carbon emissions.

  16. Biochemical Activities of Iranian Cymbopogon olivieri (Boiss) Bor. Essential Oil

    PubMed Central

    Mahboubi, M.; Kazempour, N.

    2012-01-01

    Cymbopogon olivieri essential oil from aerial parts was analyzed by gas chromotography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and led to the identification of 38 compounds. Piperitone (72.8%), 4-carene (11.8%) and β-himachalene (7.6%) were found as the major components of the oil. The antimicrobial activity was achieved using disc-diffusion and microbroth dilution assays and microbicidal kinetics of oil was screened against different microorganisms. The possible antioxidant activity of oil was evaluated by diphenylpicrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging system. The oil had excellent antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The oil exhibited inhibitory effect against Bacillus subtilis and fungi. Dvalues of oil were 12.5, 10 and 2.4 min for Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, respectively. The IC50 value of Cymbopogon olivieri oil was 35 mg/ml and its antioxidant activity was lower than that of butylated hydroxytoluene. Cymbopogon olivieri oil possesses compounds with antimicrobial properties that can be used as antimicrobial agents. PMID:23626392

  17. Biochemical Activities of Iranian Cymbopogon olivieri (Boiss) Bor. Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, M; Kazempour, N

    2012-07-01

    Cymbopogon olivieri essential oil from aerial parts was analyzed by gas chromotography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and led to the identification of 38 compounds. Piperitone (72.8%), 4-carene (11.8%) and β-himachalene (7.6%) were found as the major components of the oil. The antimicrobial activity was achieved using disc-diffusion and microbroth dilution assays and microbicidal kinetics of oil was screened against different microorganisms. The possible antioxidant activity of oil was evaluated by diphenylpicrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging system. The oil had excellent antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The oil exhibited inhibitory effect against Bacillus subtilis and fungi. Dvalues of oil were 12.5, 10 and 2.4 min for Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, respectively. The IC50 value of Cymbopogon olivieri oil was 35 mg/ml and its antioxidant activity was lower than that of butylated hydroxytoluene. Cymbopogon olivieri oil possesses compounds with antimicrobial properties that can be used as antimicrobial agents.

  18. Determination of antioxidant capacity and a-amylase inhibitory activity of the essential oils from citronella grass and lemongrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of the present study was to determine the antioxidant capacity of and in vitro a-amylase inhibitory activity of the essential oils extracted from citronella grass and lemongrass. The chemical composition of the extracted essential oils was determined by GC-MS. The antioxidant capacity ...

  19. Antibacterial activity of essential oils from Cymbopogon: inter- and intra-specific differences.

    PubMed

    Pattnaik, S; Subramanyam, V R; Kole, C R; Sahoo, S

    1995-01-01

    The influence of the genetic background of a plant on the antibacterial activity of essential oil derived from it was investigated. Essential oils from six distinct strains of Cymbopogon were tested against eighteen bacteria. Interspecific and intra-specific differences were evident in the antibacterial activity of the essential oils derived from the the six Cymbopogon strains.

  20. Anthelmintic activity of Cymbopogon martinii, Cymbopogon schoenanthus and Mentha piperita essential oils evaluated in four different in vitro tests.

    PubMed

    Katiki, L M; Chagas, A C S; Bizzo, H R; Ferreira, J F S; Amarante, A F T

    2011-12-29

    Anthelmintic resistance is a worldwide concern in small ruminant industry and new plant-derived compounds are being studied for their potential use against gastrointestinal nematodes. Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon martinii and Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oils were evaluated against developmental stages of trichostrongylids from sheep naturally infected (95% Haemonchus contortus and 5% Trichostrogylus spp.) through the egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), larval feeding inhibition assay (LFIA), and the larval exsheathment assay (LEA). The major constituent of the essential oils, quantified by gas chromatography for M. piperita oil was menthol (42.5%), while for C. martinii and C. schoenanthus the main component was geraniol (81.4% and 62.5%, respectively). In all in vitro tests C. schoenanthus essential oil had the best activity against ovine trichostrongylids followed by C. martini, while M. piperita presented the least activity. Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oil had LC(50) value of 0.045 mg/ml in EHA, 0.063 mg/ml in LDA, 0.009 mg/ml in LFIA, and 24.66 mg/ml in LEA. The anthelmintic activity of essential oils followed the same pattern in all in vitro tests, suggesting C. schoenanthus essential oil could be an interesting candidate for nematode control, although in vivo studies are necessary to validate the anthelmintic properties of this oil.

  1. Evaluation of toxicity of essential oils palmarosa, citronella, lemongrass and vetiver in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sonali; Jothiramajayam, Manivannan; Ghosh, Manosij; Mukherjee, Anita

    2014-06-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to study the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of the essential oils (palmarosa, citronella, lemongrass and vetiver) and monoterpenoids (citral and geraniol) in human lymphocytes. Trypan blue dye exclusion and MTT test was used to evaluate cytotoxicity. The genotoxicity studies were carried out by comet and DNA diffusion assays. Apoptosis was confirmed by Annexin/PI double staining. In addition, generation of reactive oxygen species was evaluated by DCFH-DA staining using flow cytometry. The results demonstrated that the four essential oils and citral induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity at higher concentrations. The essential oils were found to induce oxidative stress evidenced by the generation of reactive oxygen species. With the exception of geraniol, induction of apoptosis was confirmed at higher concentrations of the test substances. Based on the results, the four essential oils are considered safe for human consumption at low concentrations.

  2. Laboratory evaluation of citronella, picaridin, and deet repellents against Psorophora ciliata and Psorophora howardii.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jodi M; Hossain, Tanjim; Davidson, Claudia; Smith, Michael L; Xue, Rui-De

    2014-06-01

    Commercial formulations of 3 repellents: OFF Active (active ingredient [AI] 15% N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide [deet]), OFF Family Care (AI 5% picaridin), and CVS Pharmacy Fresh Insect Repellent (AI 10% citronella, 2% lauryl sulfate, and 0.2% potassium sorbate) were evaluated to determine the mean protection time provided against the large floodwater mosquitoes, Psorophora ciliata and Ps. howardii. Each of these products contained different active ingredients and displayed different protection times, but repellency was in accordance with each product's label reapplication times/repellency durations. The CVS Pharmacy Fresh Insect Repellent provided the least protection (2 h and 26 min), followed by OFF Family Care (3 h and 46 min). OFF Active afforded the longest protection (5 h and 41 min), which was significantly higher than the other treatments (P < 0.001).

  3. Neurobehavioral effect of essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus in mice.

    PubMed

    Blanco, M M; Costa, C A R A; Freire, A O; Santos, J G; Costa, M

    2009-03-01

    Tea obtained from leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf is used for its anxiolytic, hypnotic and anticonvulsant properties in Brazilian folk medicine. Essential oil (EO) from fresh leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation and orally administered to Swiss male mice 30 min before experimental procedures. EO at 0.5 or 1.0 g/kg was evaluated for sedative/hypnotic activity through pentobarbital sleeping time, anxiolytic activity by elevated plus maze and light/dark box procedures and anticonvulsant activity through seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole and maximal electroshock. EO was effective in increasing the sleeping time, the percentage of entries and time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze as well as the time spent in the light compartment of light/dark box. In addition, EO delayed clonic seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole and blocked tonic extensions induced by maximal electroshock, indicating the elevation of the seizure threshold and/or blockage of seizures spread. These effects were observed in the absence of motor impairment evaluated on the rotarod and open field test. Our results are in accord with the ethnopharmacological use of Cymbopogon citratus, and after complementary toxicological studies it can support investigations assessing their use as anxiolytic, sedative or anticonvulsive agent.

  4. Bronchodilator, vasodilator and spasmolytic activities of Cymbopogon martinii.

    PubMed

    Janbaz, K H; Qayyum, A; Saqib, F; Imran, I; Zia-Ul-Haq, M; de Feo, V

    2014-12-01

    Cymbopogon martinii (Cm.Cr) is traditionally used in south Asian communities for the management of multiple ailments including gastrointestinal, respiratory and vascular disorders and the present study was undertaken to validate these folkloric uses. The application of a methanol extract of the plant (Cm.Cr) to isolated rabbit jejunum preparation exhibited relaxation through decrease in magnitude and frequency of spontaneous contractions. The Cm.Cr also exerted relaxant effect on high K(+) (80 mM) induced contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum preparations. The Cm.Cr and its dichloromethane (Cm.Dcm) and aqueous (Cm.Aq) fractions also caused concentration-dependent relaxation in spontaneous and K(+) (80 mM) induced contractions which are comparables to effects produced by verapamil. Cm.Cr caused shifting of the Ca(2+)-curves toward right, suggesting the presence of a Ca(2+) channel blocking activity. Subsequently, Cm.Cr, Cm.Dcm and Cm.Aq caused relaxation of CCh (1 μM) and K(+) (80 mM) induced contractions in isolated rabbit tracheal preparations, suggesting that the observed relaxant effect can be mediated through antimuscarinic and/or Ca(2+) channel blocking activities. Cm.Cr tested against phenylephrine (PE; 1 μM) and K(+) (80 mM) induced contractions exhibited partial relaxation of isolated rabbit aortic preparations. The above-mentioned studies provided a scientific basis for the folkloric use of Cymbopogon martini in the management of multiple ailments in traditional systems of medicines.

  5. Variability in yield and composition of essential oil in Cymbopogon jawarancusa.

    PubMed

    Dhar, A K; Thappa, R K; Atal, C K

    1981-04-01

    Variability in the oil content in natural populations of Cymbopogon jawarancusa is discussed. Races rich in piperitone, phellandrene and other chemical constituents have been identified. The oil producing ability was largely genetic and showed heritability of 79.0 percent.

  6. Inhibition of calcium oxalate nephrotoxicity with Cymbopogon schoenanthus (Al-Ethkher).

    PubMed

    Al-Ghamdi, Saeed S; Al-Ghamdi, Abdullah A; Shammah, Ahmed A

    2007-12-01

    We investigated the effects of Cymbopogon schoenanthus herb on experimental induced kidney stones in male Wistar albino rats. Oxalate nephrotoxicity was experimentally induced by 200 mg single dose of glycolic acid given orally (gavage). Rats were divided into three groups, glycolic acid, glycolic acid plus Cymbopogon schoenanthus, and control (D. water). Urine analysis of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, and calcium revealed significant differences comparing to the control. In addition, significant pathological changes were found in the kidney revealed by histopathological studies. Daily oral treatment with Cymbopogon schoenanthus (1 ml of the extract) significantly corrected the incidence of nephrotoxicity, BUN, creatinine, and calcium level differences. Moreover, optimization studies showed highly potent diuretic activity of Cymbopogon schoenanthus. After three days of experiments, four rats treated with the glycolic acid only died. The rest of animal survived and looked healthy.

  7. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon citratus and Cymbopogon giganteus essential oils alone and in combination.

    PubMed

    Bassolé, I H N; Lamien-Meda, A; Bayala, B; Obame, L C; Ilboudo, A J; Franz, C; Novak, J; Nebié, R C; Dicko, M H

    2011-09-15

    As part of ongoing research on the chemical composition and the antimicrobial properties of Burkinabe plants essential oils alone and in combination, essential oils (EOs) from leaves of Cymbopogon citratus and Cymbopogon giganteus from Burkina Faso were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Five constituents, which accounted for 96.3% of the oil, were identified in the EO of C. citratus. Geranial (48.1%), neral (34.6%) and myrcene (11.0%) were the major constituents. For C. giganteus a total of eight compounds were identified which represented 86.0% of the oils extracted. The dominant compounds were limonene (42%) and a set of monoterpene alcohols: trans-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol (14.2%), cis-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol (12%), trans-p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol (5.6%) and cis-p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol (5.2%). The EOs were tested against nine bacteria by using disc diffusion and microdilution methods. C. giganteus EO showed antimicrobial effects against all microorganisms tested whereas C. citratus EO failed to inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of combinations of the two EOs was quantified by the checkerboard method. Combinations of the two EOs exerted synergistic, additive and indifferent antimicrobial effects. Results of the present investigation provide evidence that the combinations of plant EOs could be assessed for synergistic activity in order to reduce their minimum effective dose.

  8. Authenticity control of essential oils containing citronellal and citral by chiral and stable-isotope gas-chromatographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Nhu-Trang, Tran-Thi; Casabianca, Hervé; Grenier-Loustalot, Marie-Florence

    2006-12-01

    Enantioselective capillary GC on a Supelco beta-DEX 225 column (heptakis(2,3-di-O-acetyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-beta-cyclodextrin SPB 20poly--20% diphenyl, 80% dimethylsiloxane) and isotope-ratio mass spectrometry, coupled online with capillary GC on an HP5 column have been used for origin-specific analysis and authenticity control of essential oils, for example lemon (Citrus limon), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus and Cymbopogon flexuosus), citronella (Cymbopogon nardus L.--Ceylon type and Cymbopogon winterianus--Java type), Litsea cubeba, Lippia citriodora, lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora), lemon gum (Eucalyptus citriodora), and, especially, precious lemon balm oil (Melissa officinalis L.). Isotope data (delta13C(PDB) and delta2H(V-SMOW)) for citral (neral + geranial) and citronellal from on-line GC-C/Py-IRMS and chiral data for citronellal in these essential oils are reported. The possibility of using these data to determine the origin of these essential oils and to detect adulteration is discussed. Principal-components analysis (PCA) of specific compounds in two essential oils of lemongrass and Litsea cubeba was performed as a practical statistical method for distinguishing between these two types of oil.

  9. LC determination of citral in Cymbopogon citratus volatile oil.

    PubMed

    Rauber, Cristiane da S; Guterres, Sílvia S; Schapoval, Elfrides E S

    2005-03-09

    It was the aim of this study to develop and validate a HPLC method for the quantitative determination of citral in Cymbopogon citratus volatile oil. The HPLC assay was performed using a Spherisorb CN column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm), a n-hexane:ethanol (85:15) mobile phase and an UV detector (set at 233 nm). The following parameters were evaluated: linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, quantification and detection limits. The method showed linearity in the range of 10.0-30.0 microg ml(-1). Precision and accuracy were determined at the concentration of 20 microg ml(-1). The concentration of citral in C. citratus volatile oil obtained with this assay was 75%. The HPLC method developed in this study showed an excellent performance (linearity, precision, accuracy and specificity) and can be applied to assay citral in volatile oil.

  10. Volatile constituents of the fruit and roots of Cymbopogon olivieri.

    PubMed

    Asgarpanah, Jinous; Bahrani, Setareh; Bina, Elham

    2015-02-01

    The essential oil contents of the fruit and roots of Cymbopogon olivieri growing wild in south of Iran were found to be 0.7% and 0.4% (v/w), respectively based on the fresh weight. The oils were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Forty and twenty six constituents, representing 93.1% and 93.4% of the oils were identified, respectively. The major components of the C. olivieri fruit oil were identified as piperitone (44.1%), α-terpinene (13.7%), neral (6.3%), elemol (5.6%) and β-eudesmol (5.3%), while the main components of that of roots were characterized as piperitone (20.6%), α-muurolol (9.5%), β-eudesmol (8.5%), selina-6-en-4-ol (7.9%), 5-epi-7-epi-α-eudesmol (6.8%) and elemol (5.8%).

  11. [A new lanostane-type triterpenoid from Cymbopogon citratus].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng-Meng; Sun, Li-Li; Li, Cheng; Gao, Wan; Yang, Jian-Bo; Wang, Ai-Guo; Su, Ya-Lun; Ji, Teng-Fei

    2014-05-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Cymbopogon citratus, isolation and purification of constituents were carried out on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and prepatative HPLC. The structures of the compounds were identified by physicchemical properties and spectral data analysis. Eight compounds were isolated and identified as 3beta-methoxy lanosta-9(11)-en-27-ol (1), 3beta-hydroxylanosta-9 (11)-en (2), (24S) -3beta-methoxylanosta-9(11), 25-dien-24-ol (3), 8-hydroxyl-neo-menthol (4), (2E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,7-octadiene-1, 6-diol (5), (+)-citronellol (6), 7-hydroxymenthol (7) and ethyl nonadecanoate(8). Compounds 1 is a new one. Compounds 2-3 are obtained from C. citratus for the first time.

  12. Exploring the antimalarial potential of whole Cymbopogon citratus plant therapy.

    PubMed

    Chukwuocha, Uchechukwu M; Fernández-Rivera, Omar; Legorreta-Herrera, Martha

    2016-12-04

    Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass) has been used in traditional medicine as an herbal infusion to treat fever and malaria. Generally, whole plant extracts possess higher biological activity than purified compounds. However, the antimalarial activity of the whole C. citratus plant has not been experimentally tested. To evaluate the antimalarial activity of an herbal infusion and the whole Cymbopogon citratus plant in two experimental models of malaria. The plant was dried for 10 days at room temperature and was then milled and passed through brass sieves to obtain a powder, which was administered to CBA/Ca mice with a patent Plasmodium chabaudi AS or P. berghei ANKA infection. We analysed the effects of two different doses (1600 and 3200mg/kg) compared with those of the herbal infusion and chloroquine, used as a positive control. We also assessed the prophylactic antimalarial activities of the whole C. citratus plant and the combination of the whole plant and chloroquine. The C. citratus whole plant exhibited prolonged antimalarial activity against both P. chabaudi AS and P. berghei ANKA. The low dose of the whole C. citratus plant displayed higher antimalarial activity than the high dose against P. berghei ANKA. As a prophylactic treatment, the whole plant exhibited higher antimalarial activity than either the herbal infusion or chloroquine. In addition, the combination of the whole C. citratus plant and chloroquine displayed higher activity than chloroquine alone against P. berghei ANKA patent infection. We demonstrated the antimalarial activity of the whole C. citratus plant in two experimental models. The whole C. citratus plant elicited higher anti-malarial activity than the herbal infusion or chloroquine when used as a prophylactic treatment. The antimalarial activity of the whole C. citratus plant supports continued efforts towards developing whole plant therapies for the management of malaria and other infectious diseases prevalent in resource

  13. Assessment of the repellent effect of citronella and lemon eucalyptus oil against South African Culicoides species.

    PubMed

    Venter, Gert J; Labuschagne, Karien; Boikanyo, Solomon N B; Morey, Liesl

    2014-08-08

    The use of insect repellents to reduce the attack rate of Culicoides species (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae) should form part of an integrated control programme to combat African horse sickness and other diseases transmitted by these blood-feeding midges. In the present study the repellent effects of a commercially available mosquito repellent, a combination of citronella and lemon eucalyptus oils, on Culicoides midges was determined. The number of midges collected with two 220 V Onderstepoort traps fitted with 8 W 23 cm white light tubes and baited with peel-stick patches, each containing 40 mg of active ingredient, was compared with that of two unbaited traps. Two trials were conducted and in each trial the four traps were rotated in two replicates of a 4 x 4 randomised Latin square design. Although more midges were collected in the baited traps, the mean number in the baited and unbaited traps was not significantly different. This mosquito repellent did not influence either the species composition or the physiological groups of Culicoides imicola Kieffer. The higher mean numbers in the baited traps, although not statistically significant, may indicate that this mosquito repellent might even attract Culicoides midges under certain conditions.

  14. A novel approach for development and characterization of effective mosquito repellent cream formulation containing citronella oil.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Narayan Prasad; Rai, Vineet Kumar; Mishra, Nidhi; Sinha, Priyam; Bawankule, Dnyaneshwar Umrao; Pal, Anirban; Tripathi, Arun Kumar; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh

    2014-01-01

    Citronella essential oil (CEO) has been reported as an excellent mosquito repellent; however, mild irritancy and rapid volatility limit its topical application. It was aimed to develop a nonirritant, stable, and consistent cream of CEO with improved residence time on skin using an industrial approach. Phase inversion temperature technique was employed to prepare the cream. It was optimized and characterized based on sensorial evaluation, emulsification, and consistency in terms of softness, greasiness, stickiness, and pH. The optimum batch (B5) was evaluated for viscosity (90249.67±139.95 cP), texture profile with respect to firmness (38.67±0.88 g), spreadability (70.33±0.88 mJ), and extrudability (639.67±8.09±0.1 mJ) using texture analyzer along with two most popular marketed products selected as reference standard. Subsequently, B5 was found to be stable for more than 90 days and showed enhanced duration of mosquito repellency as compared to CEO. HS-GC ensured the intactness of CEO in B5. Investigated primary irritation index (PII 0.45) positioned B5 into the category of irritation barely perceptible. The pronounced texture profile and stability of B5 with extended residence time and less PII revealed its potential application in industry and offered a promising alternative to the marketed products of synthetic origin.

  15. Duration of repellency of N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide, citronella oil and cypermethrin against Culicoides species when applied to polyester mesh.

    PubMed

    Page, P C; Labuschagne, K; Nurton, J P; Venter, G J; Guthrie, A J

    2009-07-07

    The repellent efficacy of 15% N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), 0.6% citronella oil, and 0.3% alpha-cyano-cypermethrin against Culicoides species was compared in three 5x5 Latin squares (15 replicates) under South African field conditions. DEET, citronella oil or alpha-cyano-cypermethrin were applied to polyester meshes that were fitted to down-draught suction 220V UV light traps which were operated overnight. No significant repellent effect against Culicoides was found for the citronella oil or the alpha-cyano-cypermethrin. DEET had a significant repellent effect against Culicoides species and C. imicola for all catches made from after sunset to before sunrise.

  16. Repellency of volatile oils from plants against three mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Tawatsin, A; Wratten, S D; Scott, R R; Thavara, U; Techadamrongsin, Y

    2001-06-01

    Volatile oils extracted by steam distillation from four plant species (turmeric (Curcuma longa), kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix), citronella grass (Cymbopogon winterianus) and hairy basil (Ocimum americanum)), were evaluated in mosquito cages and in a large room for their repellency effects against three mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles dirus and Culex quinquefasciatus. The oils from turmeric, citronella grass and hairy basil, especially with the addition of 5% vanillin, repelled the three species under cage conditions for up to eight hours. The oil from kaffir lime alone, as well as with 5% vanillin added, was effective for up to three hours. With regard to the standard repellent, deet alone provided protection for at least eight hours against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus, but for six hours against An. dirus. However, deet with the addition of 5% vanillin gave protection against the three mosquito species for at least eight hours. The results of large room evaluations confirmed the responses for each repellent treatment obtained under cage conditions. This study demonstrates the potential of volatile oils extracted from turmeric, citronella grass and hairy basil as topical repellents against both day- and night-biting mosquitoes. The three volatile oils can be formulated with vanillin as mosquito repellents in various forms to replace deet (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide), the most common chemical repellent currently available.

  17. Cymbopogon citratus Protects against the Renal Injury Induced by Toxic Doses of Aminoglycosides in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ullah, N; Khan, M A; Khan, T; Ahmad, W

    2013-03-01

    Renal injury is the most common side-effect of aminoglycosides. These antimicrobial drugs are particularly effective against Gram-negative microorganisms. The present study was conducted to investigate the renal protective activity of Cymbopogon citratus in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Male rabbits were divided into four groups (n=6) including group 1 (0.9% saline treated), group 2 (80 mg/kg/day gentamicin-treated), group 3 (200 mg/kg/day Cymbopogon citratus treated) and group 4 (80 mg/kg/day gentamicin and 200 mg/kg/day Cymbopogon citratus treated). Biochemical kidney functioning parameters, urinary enzymes and histopathological examination were performed. The results of the present study showed that simultaneous administration of Cymbopogon citrates and gentamicin significantly protected alteration in body weight, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, serum uric acid, serum electrolytes, urinary volume, urinary protein, urinary lactate dehydrogenase and urinary alkaline phosphatase induced by gentamicin. Histological examination of the kidney also suggested the same. It is concluded from the current study that co-administration of Cymbopogon citratus with gentamicin for 3 weeks successfully prevented renal damage associated with aminoglycosides.

  18. A report on identification of sequence polymorphism in barcode region of six commercially important Cymbopogon species.

    PubMed

    Bishoyi, Ashok Kumar; Kavane, Aarti; Sharma, Anjali; Geetha, K A

    2017-02-01

    CYMBOPOGON: is an important member of grass family Poaceae, cultivated for essential oils which have greater medicinal and industrial value. Taxonomic identification of Cymbopogon species is determined mainly by morphological markers, odour of essential oils and concentration of bioactive compounds present in the oil matrices which are highly influenced by environment. Authenticated molecular marker based taxonomical identification is also lacking in the genus; hence effort was made to evaluate potential DNA barcode loci in six commercially important Cymbopogon species for their individual discrimination and authentication at the species level. Four widely used DNA barcoding regions viz., ITS 1 & ITS 2 spacers, matK, psbA-trnH and rbcL were taken for the study. Gene sequences of the same or related genera of the concerned loci were mined from NCBI domain and primers were designed and validated for barcode loci amplification. Out of the four loci studied, sequences from matK and ITS spacer loci revealed 0.46% and 5.64% nucleotide sequence diversity, respectively whereas the other two loci i.e., psbA-trnH and rbcL showed 100% sequence homology. The newly developed primers can be used for barcode loci amplification in the genus Cymbopogon. The identified Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms from the studied sequences may be used as barcodes for the six Cymbopogon species. The information generated can also be utilized for barcode development of the genus by including more number of Cymbopgon species in future.

  19. Varietal Discrimination and Genetic Variability Analysis of Cymbopogon Using RAPD and ISSR Markers Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bishoyi, Ashok Kumar; Sharma, Anjali; Kavane, Aarti; Geetha, K A

    2016-06-01

    Cymbopogon is an important genus of family Poaceae, cultivated mainly for its essential oils which possess high medicinal and economical value. Several cultivars of Cymbopogon species are available for commercial cultivation in India and identification of these cultivars was conceded by means of morphological markers and essential oil constitution. Since these parameters are highly influenced by environmental factors, in most of the cases, it is difficult to identify Cymbopogon cultivars. In the present study, Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were employed to discriminate nine leading varieties of Cymbopogon since prior genomic information is lacking or very little in the genus. Ninety RAPD and 70 ISSR primers were used which generated 63 and 69 % polymorphic amplicons, respectively. Similarity in the pattern of UPGMA-derived dendrogram of RAPD and ISSR analysis revealed the reliability of the markers chosen for the study. Varietal/cultivar-specific markers generated from the study could be utilised for varietal/cultivar authentication, thus monitoring the quality of the essential oil production in Cymbopogon. These markers can also be utilised for the IPR protection of the cultivars. Moreover, the study provides molecular marker tool kit in both random and simple sequence repeats for diverse molecular research in the same or related genera.

  20. Cymbopogon citratus Protects against the Renal Injury Induced by Toxic Doses of Aminoglycosides in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, N.; Khan, M. A.; Khan, T.; Ahmad, W.

    2013-01-01

    Renal injury is the most common side-effect of aminoglycosides. These antimicrobial drugs are particularly effective against Gram-negative microorganisms. The present study was conducted to investigate the renal protective activity of Cymbopogon citratus in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Male rabbits were divided into four groups (n=6) including group 1 (0.9% saline treated), group 2 (80 mg/kg/day gentamicin-treated), group 3 (200 mg/kg/day Cymbopogon citratus treated) and group 4 (80 mg/kg/day gentamicin and 200 mg/kg/day Cymbopogon citratus treated). Biochemical kidney functioning parameters, urinary enzymes and histopathological examination were performed. The results of the present study showed that simultaneous administration of Cymbopogon citrates and gentamicin significantly protected alteration in body weight, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, serum uric acid, serum electrolytes, urinary volume, urinary protein, urinary lactate dehydrogenase and urinary alkaline phosphatase induced by gentamicin. Histological examination of the kidney also suggested the same. It is concluded from the current study that co-administration of Cymbopogon citratus with gentamicin for 3 weeks successfully prevented renal damage associated with aminoglycosides. PMID:24019578

  1. Gas chromatographic mass analysis and further pharmacological actions of Cymbopogon proximus essential oil.

    PubMed

    Al-Taweel, A M; Fawzy, G A; Perveen, S; El Tahir, K E H

    2013-09-01

    The present study reports Gas chromatographic mass analysis (GC-MS) as well as important biological activities of Cymbopogon proximus essential oil. The chemical composition of the essential oil of Cymbopogon proximus was investigated by GC-MS. Furthermore, the effects of Cymbopogon proximus essential oil on the cardiac parasympathetic ganglia in rats, the intra-tracheal pressure in guinea-pigs and on carrageenan-induced inflammation in the rats paw, were studied. The GC-MS study led to the identification of 22 components with Piperitone representing (73.81%), Elemol (9.32%), alpha-Eudesmol (5.21%) and alpha-Terpineol (3.01%) of the oils composition. The percentage protective effect of the oil on the vagus-induced bradycardia in rats was 90.1±3.1%, which represents a significant protection. As for the effect of Cymbopogon oil on bronchoconstrictors-induced increase in intra-tracheal pressure in guinea-pigs, the oil antagonized the actions of 5-HT and histamine by 80±3.7 and 93±8.3%, respectively. Pharmacological investigations using Cymbopogon oil revealed its inherent ability to possess a bronchodilator activity mediated via blockade of both histamine and serotonin receptors. It possessed a significant ganglionic blocking action and a limited anti-inflammatory activity that seemed to involve blockade of histamine and serotonin receptors in the rats' paws. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. A Novel Approach for Development and Characterization of Effective Mosquito Repellent Cream Formulation Containing Citronella Oil

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Narayan Prasad; Rai, Vineet Kumar; Mishra, Nidhi; Sinha, Priyam; Bawankule, Dnyaneshwar Umrao; Pal, Anirban; Tripathi, Arun Kumar; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh

    2014-01-01

    Citronella essential oil (CEO) has been reported as an excellent mosquito repellent; however, mild irritancy and rapid volatility limit its topical application. It was aimed to develop a nonirritant, stable, and consistent cream of CEO with improved residence time on skin using an industrial approach. Phase inversion temperature technique was employed to prepare the cream. It was optimized and characterized based on sensorial evaluation, emulsification, and consistency in terms of softness, greasiness, stickiness, and pH. The optimum batch (B5) was evaluated for viscosity (90249.67 ± 139.95 cP), texture profile with respect to firmness (38.67 ± 0.88 g), spreadability (70.33 ± 0.88 mJ), and extrudability (639.67 ± 8.09 ± 0.1 mJ) using texture analyzer along with two most popular marketed products selected as reference standard. Subsequently, B5 was found to be stable for more than 90 days and showed enhanced duration of mosquito repellency as compared to CEO. HS-GC ensured the intactness of CEO in B5. Investigated primary irritation index (PII 0.45) positioned B5 into the category of irritation barely perceptible. The pronounced texture profile and stability of B5 with extended residence time and less PII revealed its potential application in industry and offered a promising alternative to the marketed products of synthetic origin. PMID:25379509

  3. Microencapsulation of citronella oil for mosquito-repellent application: formulation and in vitro permeation studies.

    PubMed

    Solomon, B; Sahle, F F; Gebre-Mariam, T; Asres, K; Neubert, R H H

    2012-01-01

    Citronella oil (CO) has been reported to possess a mosquito-repellent action. However, its application in topical preparations is limited due to its rapid volatility. The objective of this study was therefore to reduce the rate of evaporation of the oil via microencapsulation. Microcapsules (MCs) were prepared using gelatin simple coacervation method and sodium sulfate (20%) as a coacervating agent. The MCs were hardened with a cross-linking agent, formaldehyde (37%). The effects of three variables, stirring rate, oil loading and the amount of cross-linking agent, on encapsulation efficiency (EE, %) were studied. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the EE (%), and a polynomial regression model equation was generated. The effect of the amount of cross-linker was insignificant on EE (%). The response surface plot constructed for the polynomial equation provided an optimum area. The MCs under the optimized conditions provided EE of 60%. The optimized MCs were observed to have a sustained in vitro release profile (70% of the content was released at the 10th hour of the study) with minimum initial burst effect. Topical formulations of the microencapsulated oil and non-microencapsulated oil were prepared with different bases, white petrolatum, wool wax alcohol, hydrophilic ointment (USP) and PEG ointment (USP). In vitro membrane permeation of CO from the ointments was evaluated in Franz diffusion cells using cellulose acetate membrane at 32 °C, with the receptor compartment containing a water-ethanol solution (50:50). The receptor phase samples were analyzed with GC/MS, using citronellal as a reference standard. The results showed that microencapsulation decreased membrane permeation of the CO by at least 50%. The amount of CO permeated was dependent on the type of ointment base used; PEG base exhibited the highest degree of release. Therefore, microencapsulation reduces membrane permeation of CO while maintaining a constant supply of the oil

  4. Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of Cymbopogon citratus, stapf (Lemon grass).

    PubMed

    Shah, Gagan; Shri, Richa; Panchal, Vivek; Sharma, Narender; Singh, Bharpur; Mann, A S

    2011-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus, Stapf (Lemon grass) is a widely used herb in tropical countries, especially in Southeast Asia. The essential oil of the plant is used in aromatherapy. The compounds identified in Cymbopogon citratus are mainly terpenes, alcohols, ketones, aldehyde and esters. Some of the reported phytoconstituents are essential oils that contain Citral α, Citral β, Nerol Geraniol, Citronellal, Terpinolene, Geranyl acetate, Myrecene and Terpinol Methylheptenone. The plant also contains reported phytoconstituents such as flavonoids and phenolic compounds, which consist of luteolin, isoorientin 2'-O-rhamnoside, quercetin, kaempferol and apiginin. Studies indicate that Cymbopogon citratus possesses various pharmacological activities such as anti-amoebic, antibacterial, antidiarrheal, antifilarial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties. Various other effects like antimalarial, antimutagenicity, antimycobacterial, antioxidants, hypoglycemic and neurobehaviorial have also been studied. These results are very encouraging and indicate that this herb should be studied more extensively to confirm these results and reveal other potential therapeutic effects.

  5. Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of Cymbopogon citratus, stapf (Lemon grass)

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Gagan; Shri, Richa; Panchal, Vivek; Sharma, Narender; Singh, Bharpur; Mann, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus, Stapf (Lemon grass) is a widely used herb in tropical countries, especially in Southeast Asia. The essential oil of the plant is used in aromatherapy. The compounds identified in Cymbopogon citratus are mainly terpenes, alcohols, ketones, aldehyde and esters. Some of the reported phytoconstituents are essential oils that contain Citral α, Citral β, Nerol Geraniol, Citronellal, Terpinolene, Geranyl acetate, Myrecene and Terpinol Methylheptenone. The plant also contains reported phytoconstituents such as flavonoids and phenolic compounds, which consist of luteolin, isoorientin 2’-O-rhamnoside, quercetin, kaempferol and apiginin. Studies indicate that Cymbopogon citratus possesses various pharmacological activities such as anti-amoebic, antibacterial, antidiarrheal, antifilarial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties. Various other effects like antimalarial, antimutagenicity, antimycobacterial, antioxidants, hypoglycemic and neurobehaviorial have also been studied. These results are very encouraging and indicate that this herb should be studied more extensively to confirm these results and reveal other potential therapeutic effects. PMID:22171285

  6. The effect of surfactant on headspace single drop microextraction for the determination of some volatile aroma compounds in citronella grass and lemongrass leaves by gas chromatography

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A rapid method for the determination of some volatile aromatic compounds (VACs), including citronellal, citronellol, neral, geranial, geraniol, and eugenol in citronella grass and lemongrass leaves, was developed using surfactant as a surface tension modifier while performing headspace single drop m...

  7. Biofilm inhibition by Cymbopogon citratus and Syzygium aromaticum essential oils in the strains of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohd Sajjad Ahmad; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2012-03-27

    Oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Syzygium aromaticum have been used in traditional medicine to treat fungal infections of skin, mouth, urinary and vaginal tract in Asian countries particularly India and other developing countries. To evaluate essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Syzygium aromaticum for their anti-biofilm activity against strong biofilm forming strains of Candida albicans. XTT reduction assay, Time kill assays, light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to determine the effect of test oils on the Candida albicans biofilms. Most of the Candida albicans strains tested displayed formation of moderate to strong biofilms. Preformed Candida biofilms showed ≥1024 times increased resistance to antifungal drugs, 2 times to Syzygium aromaticum, but no increased tolerance for Cymbopogon citratus. Test oils were more active against preformed biofilms compared to amphotericin B and fluconazole. At 0.5× MIC, Cymbopogon citratus followed by Syzygium aromaticum were most inhibitory against biofilm formation. Light and electron microscopic studies revealed the deformity of three dimensional structures of biofilms formed in the presence of sub-MICs of Cymbopogon citratus. The cell membranes appeared to be the target site of compounds in sessile cells as displayed by SEM observations. Our data had demonstrated promising in vitro anti-biofilm activity by Cymbopogon citratus and Syzygium aromaticum and confirm the ethnopharmacological use of these oils in muco-cutaneous Candida infections. Furthermore, it suggests exploitation of these oils as new anti-biofilm products to deal with the problem of drug-resistance and recurrent infection associated with biofilm mode of growth of Candida spp. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antimicrobial action of palmarosa oil (Cymbopogon martinii) on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Prashar, Anjali; Hili, Pauline; Veness, Robert G; Evans, Christine S

    2003-07-01

    The essential oil extracted from palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii) has proven anti-microbial properties against cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Low concentrations of the oil (0.1%) inhibited the growth of S. cerevisiae cells completely. The composition of the sample of palmarosa oil was determined as 65% geraniol and 20% geranyl acetate as confirmed by GC-FTIR. The effect of palmarosa oil in causing K(+) leakage from yeast cells was attributed mainly to geraniol. Some leakage of magnesium ions was also observed. Blocking potassium membrane channels with caesium ions before addition of palmarosa oil did not change the extent of K(+) ion leakage, which was equal to the total sequestered K(+) in the cells. Palmarosa oil led to changes in the composition of the yeast cell membrane, with more saturated and less unsaturated fatty acids in the membrane after exposure of S. cerevisiae cells to the oil. Some of the palmarosa oil was lost by volatilization during incubation of the oil with the yeast cells. The actual concentration of the oil components affecting the yeast cells could not therefore be accurately determined.

  9. Anti-dandruff Hair Tonic Containing Lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) Oil.

    PubMed

    Chaisripipat, Wannee; Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree

    2015-01-01

    Natural remedies for treating dandruff are becoming popular. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, split-head efficacy evaluation was conducted 30 Thai volunteers aged 20-60 years experiencing dandruff measured at level 3 on D-Squame® scale. An easy to use hair tonic containing essential oil of lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) active against lipophilic yeasts was developed and then evaluated for efficacy and preference. The base formulation with the significantly highest preference (p < 0.05) was stowed with the oil at 5, 10 or 15%. Subjects applied the formulation twice a day, and an efficacy assessment with D-Squame® scale was conducted on days 7 and 14 of application. The application of lemongrass oil hair tonics with 5, 10, or 15% reduced dandruff significant (p < 0.005) at day 7 (33, 75, and 51%) and increased the effect even more (p < 0.005) at day 14 (52, 81, and 74%). The hair tonic formulation with 10% of lemongrass oil seems to be the most effective preparation. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  10. Anthelmintic activity of Cymbopogon citratus against Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Iara Tersia Freitas; Oliveira, Lorena Mayana Beserra de; Ribeiro, Wesley Lyeverton Correia; Santos, Jessica Maria Leite dos; Silva, Kaline das Chagas; Araújo Filho, José Vilemar de; Camurça-Vasconcelos, Ana Lourdes Fernandes; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes are of major economic importance in livestock. An alternative for the control of parasites is phytotherapy. This study evaluated the efficacy of Cymbopogon citratus decoction (CcD), C. citratus essential oil (CcEo) and citral against Haemonchus contortus using in vitro egg hatch test (EHT) and larval development test (LDT) and an in vivo test using a Meriones unguiculatus (gerbil) model. The effect of 800 mg/kg CcEo was evaluated in gerbils that had been artificially infected with 5,000 third-stage H. contortus larvae. The effective concentrations required to inhibit 50% (EC50) of egg hatching were 0.46, 0.14 and 0.13 mg/mL for CcD, CcEo and citral, respectively. The EC50 values in the LDT were 5.04, 1.92 and 1.37 mg/mL for CcD, CcEo and citral, respectively. H. contortus population in the group treated with C. citratus essential oil was reduced by 38.5% (P< 0.05) in comparison to the control group. These results suggest that it may be possible to use C. citratus essential oil to control of H. contortus parasite of small ruminant.

  11. Ethanol and High-Value Terpene Co-Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass of Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, Blake L.; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Sykes, Robert; Cantrell, Charles L.; Hamilton, Choo; Mann, David G. J.; Rodriguez, Miguel; Mielenz, Jonathan R.; Astatkie, Tess; C. Neal Stewart Jr.

    2015-10-05

    Cymbopogon flexuosus, lemongrass, and C. martinii, palmarosa, are perennial grasses grown to produce essential oils for the fragrance industry. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate biomass and oil yields as a function of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization, and (2) to characterize their utility for lignocellulosic ethanol compared to Panicum virgatum (switchgrass). Mean biomass yields were 12.83 Mg lemongrass ha-1 and 15.11 Mg palmarosa ha-1 during the second harvest year resulting in theoretical biofuel yields of 2541 and 2569 L ethanol ha-1 respectively compared to reported 1749–3691 L ethanol ha-1 for switchgrass. Pretreated lemongrass yielded 198 mL ethanol (g biomass) -1 and pretreated palmarosa yielded 170 mL ethanol (g biomass) -1. Additionally, lemongrass yielded 85.7 kg essential oil ha-1 and palmarosa yielded 67.0 kg ha-1 with an estimated value of USD $857 and $1005 ha-1. These data suggest that dual-use crops such as lemongrass and palmarosa may increase the economic viability of lignocellulosic biofuels.

  12. Ethanol and High-Value Terpene Co-Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass of Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii

    DOE PAGES

    Joyce, Blake L.; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Sykes, Robert; ...

    2015-10-05

    Cymbopogon flexuosus, lemongrass, and C. martinii, palmarosa, are perennial grasses grown to produce essential oils for the fragrance industry. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate biomass and oil yields as a function of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization, and (2) to characterize their utility for lignocellulosic ethanol compared to Panicum virgatum (switchgrass). Mean biomass yields were 12.83 Mg lemongrass ha-1 and 15.11 Mg palmarosa ha-1 during the second harvest year resulting in theoretical biofuel yields of 2541 and 2569 L ethanol ha-1 respectively compared to reported 1749–3691 L ethanol ha-1 for switchgrass. Pretreated lemongrass yielded 198 mL ethanolmore » (g biomass) -1 and pretreated palmarosa yielded 170 mL ethanol (g biomass) -1. Additionally, lemongrass yielded 85.7 kg essential oil ha-1 and palmarosa yielded 67.0 kg ha-1 with an estimated value of USD $857 and $1005 ha-1. These data suggest that dual-use crops such as lemongrass and palmarosa may increase the economic viability of lignocellulosic biofuels.« less

  13. Ethanol and High-Value Terpene Co-Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass of Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Blake L; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Sykes, Robert; Cantrell, Charles L; Hamilton, Choo; Mann, David G J; Rodriguez, Miguel; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Astatkie, Tess; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-01-01

    Cymbopogon flexuosus, lemongrass, and C. martinii, palmarosa, are perennial grasses grown to produce essential oils for the fragrance industry. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate biomass and oil yields as a function of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization, and (2) to characterize their utility for lignocellulosic ethanol compared to Panicum virgatum (switchgrass). Mean biomass yields were 12.83 Mg lemongrass ha-1 and 15.11 Mg palmarosa ha-1 during the second harvest year resulting in theoretical biofuel yields of 2541 and 2569 L ethanol ha-1 respectively compared to reported 1749-3691 L ethanol ha-1 for switchgrass. Pretreated lemongrass yielded 198 mL ethanol (g biomass)-1 and pretreated palmarosa yielded 170 mL ethanol (g biomass)-1. Additionally, lemongrass yielded 85.7 kg essential oil ha-1 and palmarosa yielded 67.0 kg ha-1 with an estimated value of USD $857 and $1005 ha-1. These data suggest that dual-use crops such as lemongrass and palmarosa may increase the economic viability of lignocellulosic biofuels.

  14. Ethanol and High-Value Terpene Co-Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass of Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Blake L.; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Sykes, Robert; Cantrell, Charles L.; Hamilton, Choo; Mann, David G. J.; Rodriguez, Miguel; Mielenz, Jonathan R.; Astatkie, Tess; Stewart, C. Neal

    2015-01-01

    Cymbopogon flexuosus, lemongrass, and C. martinii, palmarosa, are perennial grasses grown to produce essential oils for the fragrance industry. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate biomass and oil yields as a function of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization, and (2) to characterize their utility for lignocellulosic ethanol compared to Panicum virgatum (switchgrass). Mean biomass yields were 12.83 Mg lemongrass ha-1 and 15.11 Mg palmarosa ha-1 during the second harvest year resulting in theoretical biofuel yields of 2541 and 2569 L ethanol ha-1 respectively compared to reported 1749–3691 L ethanol ha-1 for switchgrass. Pretreated lemongrass yielded 198 mL ethanol (g biomass)-1 and pretreated palmarosa yielded 170 mL ethanol (g biomass)-1. Additionally, lemongrass yielded 85.7 kg essential oil ha-1 and palmarosa yielded 67.0 kg ha-1 with an estimated value of USD $857 and $1005 ha-1. These data suggest that dual-use crops such as lemongrass and palmarosa may increase the economic viability of lignocellulosic biofuels. PMID:26437026

  15. Anticancer activity of an essential oil from Cymbopogon flexuosus.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Parduman R; Mondhe, Dilip M; Muthiah, Shanmugavel; Pal, Harish C; Shahi, Ashok K; Saxena, Ajit K; Qazi, Ghulam N

    2009-05-15

    The essential oil from a lemon grass variety of Cymbopogon flexuosus was studied for its in vitro cytotoxicity against twelve human cancer cell lines. The in vivo anticancer activity of the oil was also studied using both solid and ascitic Ehrlich and Sarcoma-180 tumor models in mice. In addition, the morphological changes in tumor cells were studied to ascertain the mechanism of cell death. The in vitro cytotoxicity studies showed dose-dependent effects against various human cancer cell lines. The IC(50) values of oil ranged from 4.2 to 79 microg/ml depending upon the cell line. In 502713 (colon) and IMR-32 (neuroblastoma) cell lines, the oil showed highest cytotoxicity with IC(50) value of 4.2 and 4.7 microg/ml, respectively. Intra-peritoneal administration of the oil significantly inhibited both ascitic and solid forms of Ehrlich and Sarcoma-180 tumors in a dose-dependent manner. The tumor growth inhibition at 200 mg/kg (i.p.) of the oil observed with both ascitic and solid tumor forms of Ehrlich Ascites carcinoma was 97.34 and 57.83 respectively. In case of Sarcoma-180, the growth inhibition at similar dose of oil was 94.07 and 36.97% in ascitic and solid forms respectively. Morphological studies of the oil treated HL-60 cells revealed loss of surface projections, chromatin condensation and apoptosis. The mitochondria showed apparent loss of cristae in the cells undergoing apoptosis. The morphological studies of Sarcoma-180 solid tumor cells from animals treated with the oil revealed condensation and fragmentation of nuclei typical of apoptosis. Morphological studies of ascites cells from animals treated with the oil too revealed the changes typical of apoptosis. Our results indicate that the oil has a promising anticancer activity and causes loss in tumor cell viability by activating the apoptotic process as identified by electron microscopy.

  16. Polysaccharides from Cymbopogon citratus with antitumor and immunomodulatory activity.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xiao-Li; Yuan, Hui-Hui; Wang, Cheng-Zhong; Fan, Wei; Lan, Min-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Context: Most of the present studies on the antitumor efficiency of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf (Gramineae) are limited to its low-mass compounds, and little information about the antitumor activity of polysaccharides from this plant is available. This study focused on the potential antitumor and immunomodulatory activities of polysaccharides (CCPS) from C. citratus. CCPS was isolated using the water extraction-ethanol precipitation method. The sarcoma 180 (S180) cells-inoculated mice were intraperitoneally administrated with CCPS (30-200 mg/kg/d) for seven consecutive days. The effects of CCPS on tumor growth, thymus and spleen weights, splenocyte proliferation, and cytokine secretion in the tumor-bearing mice were measured. The cytotoxicity of CCPS (50-800 μg/mL) towards S180 cells was also studied. CCPS significantly inhibited the growth of the transplanted S180 tumors, with the inhibition rates ranging from 14.8 to 37.8%. Simultaneously, CCPS dose-dependently improved the immunity of the tumor-bearing mice. With the highest dose of 200 mg/kg/d, the thymus and spleen indices were increased by 21.9 and 91.9%, respectively; ConA- and LSP-induced splenocyte proliferations were increased by 32.7 and 35.3%, respectively. The secretions of interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 2 (IL-12), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were increased by 103.2, 40.2, 23.6, and 26.3%, respectively. Nevertheless, almost no toxicity of CCPS towards S180 cells was observed, with the maximal inhibition rate less than 15% at the CCPS concentration of 800 μg/mL. CCPS exhibited antitumor activity in vivo, and this activity might be achieved by immunoenhancement rather than direct cytotoxicity.

  17. [Effects of Cymbopogon goeringii (Steud.) A. Camus volatile oil on physiologic properties of the isolated guinea pig myocardium].

    PubMed

    Liu, M; Feng, G H

    1989-10-01

    In isolated guinea pig papillary muscles and atrium, Cymbopogon goeringii volatile oil (CGCO) markedly inhibited the contraction, prolonged the functional refractory period (FRP) and depressed epinephrine-induced automatically. The results suggested that CGCO may possess antiarrhythmic action.

  18. Evaluation of repellent activities of Cymbopogon essential oils against mosquito vectors of Malaria, Filariasis and Dengue Fever in India.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, B K; Shahi, A K; Kaul, B L

    1998-08-01

    Essential oils of four species and two hybrid varieties of Cymbopogon grasses were evaluated for their repellent properties against the major vector mosquitoes, namely, Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinque-fasciatus and Aedes aegypti, both in laboratory and field. The magnitude of repellency in the Cymbopogon essential oils was found to be of moderate to high order. All grass species protected completely from mosquito bites for 4 hrs, whereas C. nardus provided protection for as much as 8-10 hrs overnight.

  19. Essential Oil Prepared from Cymbopogon citrates Exerted an Antimicrobial Activity Against Plant Pathogenic and Medical Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Mi-Ran; Park, Pyeong Beom; Kim, Dae-Hyuk; Jang, Yong-Suk; Jeong, Han Sol; Choi, Sang-Hoon

    2009-03-01

    Essential oils are mixtures of volatile, lipophilic compounds originating from plants. Some essential oils have useful biological activities including antimicrobial, spasmolytic, antiplasmodial, and insect-repelling activities. In this study, we tested the antimicrobial activity of essential oil prepared from the aromatic plant, Cymbopogon citrates, against three important plant pathogenic and medical microorganisms, Pectobacterium carotovorum, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and Aspergillus niger. It effectively inhibited the growth of the bacterium, Pectobacterium carotovorum, in a dose-dependent fashion, and 0.5% of the oil inhibited the growth of bacteria completely. Similarly, the essential oil inhibited the growth of plant pathogenic fungus, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and the addition of 1% of essential oil completely inhibited the growth of fungus even after 5 days of culture. Finally, it effectively inhibited the growth of the medically and industrially important fungal species, Aspergillus spp. These results suggest that the essential oil from Cymbopogon citrates may be an environmentally safe alternative to inhibit antimicrobial agents for various uses.

  20. Control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (penz.) Sacc. In yellow passion fruit using Cymbopogon citratus essential oil.

    PubMed

    Anaruma, Nina Duarte; Schmidt, Flávio Luís; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Delarmelina, Camila; Benato, Liane Aparecida; Sartoratto, Adilson

    2010-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in agriculture is limited when compared to their applications in human and veterinary medicine. On the other hand, the use of antimicrobials in agriculture contributes to the drug resistance of human pathogens and has stimulated the search for new antibiotics from natural products. Essential oils have been shown to exert several biological activities including antibacterial and antifungal actions. The aim of this study was to determine the activity of 28 essential oils from medicinal plants cultivated at CPMA (Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Collection), CPQBA/UNICAMP, against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc., the anthracnose agent in yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg), as well as evaluating their effect in the control of post-harvest decay. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system and their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) determined by the micro-dilution method. According to the results, 15 of the 28 essential oils presented activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and the following four oils presented MIC values between 0.25 and 0.3 mg/mL: Coriandrum sativum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon flexuosus and Lippia alba. The evaluation of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil in the control of post-harvest decay in yellow passion fruit showed that the disease index of the samples treated with the essential oil did not differ (P ≤ 0.05) from that of the samples treated with fungicide. The present study shows the potential of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil in the control of the anthracnose agent in yellow passion fruit.

  1. Control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (penz.) Sacc. In yellow passion fruit using Cymbopogon citratus essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Anaruma, Nina Duarte; Schmidt, Flávio Luís; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Delarmelina, Camila; Benato, liane Aparecida; Sartoratto, Adilson

    2010-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in agriculture is limited when compared to their applications in human and veterinary medicine. On the other hand, the use of antimicrobials in agriculture contributes to the drug resistance of human pathogens and has stimulated the search for new antibiotics from natural products. Essential oils have been shown to exert several biological activities including antibacterial and antifungal actions. The aim of this study was to determine the activity of 28 essential oils from medicinal plants cultivated at CPMA (Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Collection), CPQBA/UNICAMP, against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc., the anthracnose agent in yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg), as well as evaluating their effect in the control of post-harvest decay. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system and their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) determined by the micro-dilution method. According to the results, 15 of the 28 essential oils presented activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and the following four oils presented MIC values between 0.25 and 0.3 mg/mL: Coriandrum sativum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon flexuosus and Lippia alba. The evaluation of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil in the control of post-harvest decay in yellow passion fruit showed that the disease index of the samples treated with the essential oil did not differ (P ≤ 0.05) from that of the samples treated with fungicide. The present study shows the potential of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil in the control of the anthracnose agent in yellow passion fruit. PMID:24031465

  2. Comparative effects of Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oil and piperitone on Callosobruchus maculatus development.

    PubMed

    Ketoh, Guillaume K; Koumaglo, Honore K; Glitho, Isabelle A; Huignard, Jacques

    2006-12-01

    The insecticidal activity of crude essential oil extracted from Cymbopogon schoenanthus and of its main constituent, piperitone, was assessed on different developmental stages of Callosobruchus maculatus. Piperitone was more toxic to adults with a LC(50) value of 1.6 microl/l vs. 2.7 microl/l obtained with the crude extract. Piperitone inhibited the development of newly laid eggs and of neonate larvae, but was less toxic than the crude extract to individuals developing inside the seeds.

  3. Cellulase production by six Trichoderma spp. fermented on medicinal plant processings.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Mahesh; Kalra, Alok; Sharma, Pradeep K; Sangwan, Rajender S

    2009-04-01

    Capabilities of cellulase production, using delignified bioprocessings of medicinal and aromatic plants, viz. citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) and Artemisia annua (known as marc of Artemisia) and garden waste (chiefly containing Cynodon dactylon), by the six species of Trichoderma were comparatively evaluated. Among the members of Trichoderma studied, T. citrinoviride was found to be the most efficient producer of cellulases along with a high level of beta-glucosidase (produced 102.4 IU g(-1) on marc of Artemisia; 101.33 IU g(-1) on garden waste; 81.86 IU g(-1) on distillation waste of citronella and 94.77 IU g(-1) on pure cellulose). Although T. virens was noticed to be the minimal enzyme producer fungus, it interestingly could not produce complete cellulase enzyme complex on any test waste or pure cellulose, except on marc of Artemisia, where it produced all three enzymes of the complex. Immediate reduction in pH was also noticed during fermentation in the case of pure polymer (cellulose) by all tested fungi, while it was delayed with delignified agrowastes. The pH profile varied with the substrate used as well as with individual species of Trichoderma. On the other hand, no alteration in pH with any species of Trichoderma was noticed when grown on marc of A. annua, which might be due to the buffering capacity of this marc.

  4. Chemical composition, cytotoxicity and in vitro antitrypanosomal and antiplasmodial activity of the essential oils of four Cymbopogon species from Benin.

    PubMed

    Kpoviessi, Salomé; Bero, Joanne; Agbani, Pierre; Gbaguidi, Fernand; Kpadonou-Kpoviessi, Bénédicta; Sinsin, Brice; Accrombessi, Georges; Frédérich, Michel; Moudachirou, Mansourou; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

    2014-01-01

    Cymbopogon species are largely used in folk medicine for the treatment of many diseases some of which related to parasitical diseases as fevers and headaches. As part of our research on antiparasitic essential oils from Beninese plants, we decided to evaluate the in vitro antiplasmodial and antitrypanosomal activities of essential oils of four Cymbopogon species used in traditional medicine as well as their cytotoxicity. The essential oils of four Cymbopogon species Cymbopogon citratus (I), Cymbopogon giganteus (II), Cymbopogon nardus (III) and Cymbopogon schoenantus (IV) from Benin obtained by hydrodistillation were analysed by GC/MS and GC/FID and were tested in vitro against Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Plasmodium falciparum respectively for antitrypanosomal and antiplasmodial activities. Cytotoxicity was evaluated in vitro against Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells and the human non cancer fibroblast cell line (WI38) through MTT assay to evaluate the selectivity. All tested oils showed a strong antitrypanosomal activity with a good selectivity. Sample II was the most active against Trypanosoma brucei brucei and could be considered as a good candidate. It was less active against Plasmodium falciparum. Samples II, III and IV had low or no cytotoxicity, but the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (I), was toxic against CHO cells and moderately toxic against WI38 cells and needs further toxicological studies. Sample I (29 compounds) was characterised by the presence as main constituents of geranial, neral, β-pinene and cis-geraniol; sample II (53 compounds) by trans-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol, trans-carveol, trans-p-mentha-2,8-dienol, cis-p-mentha-2,8-dienol, cis-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol, limonene, cis-carveol and cis-carvone; sample III (28 compounds) by β-citronellal, nerol, β-citronellol, elemol and limonene and sample IV (41 compounds) by piperitone, (+)-2-carene, limonene, elemol and β-eudesmol. Our study shows that essential oils of Cymbopogon genus can

  5. Encapsulation of Citronellal from Citronella Oil using β-Cyclodextrin and Its Application as Mosquito (Aedes aegypti) Repellent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujiastuti, A.; Cahyono, E.; Sumarni, W.

    2017-04-01

    Mosquito (Aedes aegypti) is a threat to human health due to its capability to spread dengue fever. Citronellal in citronella oil is one ofnatural active compound that has repellent activity. Essential oil is a sensitive material whichiseasy to degrade. Encapsulation is coating technology use to avoid essential oil from degradation problems. β-Cyclodextrin is frequently used as acoating material in encapsulation. The aims of this study wereto prepare the citronellal encapsulation and to evaluate its control-released and repellency. In this study, encapsulated citronellal was prepared using 83.65% citronellal and encapsulation were prepared with the theemulsion-based method and dried using freeze-dryer. The best-controlled release was performed in citronellal encapsulate with a weight ratio of 1:1 (citronellal : β-Cyclodextrin). The morphology of encapsulated citronellal was analyzed using SEM. SEM result showed it has three dimensions random shape and agglomerate in some part with thebrighter spot. Citronellal encapsulate showed the highest repellent effect at 84,67% for 5 minutes in mosquito repellency test although it has lower result compared with citronellal inliquid form.

  6. Eco-restoration of a high-sulphur coal mine overburden dumping site in northeast India: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowarah, J.; Deka Boruah, H. P.; Gogoi, J.; Pathak, N.; Saikia, N.; Handique, A. K.

    2009-10-01

    Eco-restoration of mine overburden (OB) or abandoned mine sites is a major environmental concern. In the present investigation, an integrated approach was used to rejuvenate a high-sulphur mine OB dumping site in the Tirap Collieries, Assam, India, which is situated in the Indo-Burma mega-biodiversity hotspot. A mine OB is devoid of true soil character with poor macro and micronutrient content and contains elevated concentrations of trace and heavy metals. Planting of herbs, shrubs, cover crops and tree species at close proximity leads to primary and secondary sere state succession within a period of 3 to 5 years. A variety of plant species were screened for potential use in restoration: herbs, including Sccharum spontaneum, Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (citronella), and Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemon grass) cover plants, including Mimosa strigillosa, M. striata, and M. pigra; shrubs, including Sesbania rostrata (dhaincha) and Cassia streata (cassia); and tree species, including Gmelina arborea (gomari) and Dalbergia sissoo (sissoo). Amendment with unmined soil and bio-organic matter was required for primary establishment of some plant species. Management of these plant species at the site will ensure long term sustainable eco-restoration of the coal mine-degraded land.

  7. Antimutagenicity of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf) to various known mutagens in salmonella mutation assay.

    PubMed

    Vinitketkumnuen, U; Puatanachokchai, R; Kongtawelert, P; Lertprasertsuke, N; Matsushima, T

    1994-11-01

    Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf) was extracted with 80% ethanol. The extract was not found to be mutagenic in the Salmonella mutation test with or without metabolic activation. However, the extract was found to possess antimutagenic properties towards chemical-induced mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. Mutagenicity of AFB1, Trp-P-1, Trp-P-2, Glu-P-1, Glu-P-2, IQ, MNNG and AF-2, was inhibited by the extract of lemon grass in a dose-dependent manner, but no effect was found on the mutagenic activity of benzo[a]pyrene.

  8. Combination of Cymbopogon citratus and Allium cepa essential oils increased antibacterial activity in leafy vegetables.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Ramirez, Luis A; Silva-Espinoza, Brenda A; Vargas-Arispuro, Irasema; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Cruz-Valenzuela, M Reynaldo; Nazzaro, Filomena; Ayala-Zavala, J Fernando

    2017-05-01

    Cymbopogon citratus and Allium cepa essential oils (EOs) are rich in terpenes and sulfur compounds respectively, both with antibacterial activity and different cell targets, supporting the idea that their combination can increase their efficacy. Major constituents of C. citratus were geranial and neral, while A. cepa presented dipropyl disulfide and dipropyl trisulfide. Cymbopogon citratus and A. cepa EOs inhibited the in vitro growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (minimal inhibitory concentrations of 2.21 and 5.13 g L(-1) respectively), Salmonella Choleraesuis (3.04 and 1.28 g L(-1) ), Listeria monocytogenes (1.33 and 2.56 g L(-1) ) and Staphylococcus aureus (0.44 and 5.26 g L(-1) ). Application of the EO combination to spinach caused a greater reduction in E. coli (2.34 log colony-forming units (CFU) g(-1) ), S. Choleraesuis (2.94 log CFU g(-1) ), L. monocytogenes (2.06 log CFU g(-1) ) and S. aureus (1.37 log CFU g(-1) ) compared with higher doses of individual EOs; a similar effect was observed for romaine lettuce. Individual and combined EOs caused a reduction in flavor acceptability level; however, no significant differences were found among odor acceptability of control vegetables and those treated with the EO combination and C. citratus EO. Leafy vegetables treated with the EO combination showed higher antibacterial protection and odor acceptability compared with individual EO treatments. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Antifungal activity of Cymbopogon parkeri stapf. essential oil on some important phytopathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Hajieghrari, B; Mohammadi, M R; Hadian, D

    2006-01-01

    The genus Cymbopogon that belongs to the Poaceae (Graminae) has some important aromatic species whit remarkable commercial value. Essential oils from different species of the Cymbopogon are used in the perfumery, cosmetic and soap industries and some of them have antifungal and insecticide activity. In this study, antifungal activity of C. parkeri essential oil on the growth of Rhizoctonia solani, Pyricularia orizea and Fusarium oxysporum, three important phytopathogenic fungi, was investigated. The essential oil was extracted from the air-dried parts in flowering stage by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger type apparatus, and Growth inhibition of Rhizoctonia solani, Pyricularia orizea, Fusarium oxysporum for 15, 30, 75,150, 300 and 600 microl L(-1) dosage of the essential oil in PDA was examined in vitro by media mixed method and was compared with control. Antifungal activity was determined in terms of growth inhibitory concentration for 50% growth inhibitory (EC50 microI L(-1)) and inhibition percentage of some dosages was obtained. The results showed that concentration of 600 microl L(-1) of the essential oil completely inhibits the growth of all tested fungi. EC50 for Rhizoctonia solani, Pyricularia orizea, Fusarium oxysporum were counted 39.82, 72.00 and 43.63 microl L(-1) respectively. The results indicated that the essential oil has strong fungi state activity.

  10. Neuroprotective activityof Cymbopogon martinii against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Buch, Prakruti; Patel, Vishal; Ranpariya, Vishavas; Sheth, Navin; Parmar, Sachin

    2012-06-26

    Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb.) Watson (Family: Graminae), commonly known as Palmarosa, is traditionally prescribed for central nervous system (CNS) disorders such as neuralgia, epileptic fits and anorexia. Although the plant possesses diverse pharmacological actions, the neuroprotective action has got little attention. The present study evaluated neuroprotective effect of essential oil of Cymbopogon martinii (EOCM) against global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced oxidative stress in rats. Global ischemic brain damage was induced by bilateral common carotid artery (BCCA) occlusion for 30 min, followed by 60 min reperfusion on Wistar albino rats. The biochemical levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), total thiols and glutathione (GSH) were estimated and brain coronal sections and histopathological studies were performed. BCCA occlusion, followed by reperfusion caused varied biochemical/enzymatic alterations viz. increase in LPO and decrease in SOD, CAT, total thiols and GSH. The prior treatment of EOCM (50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, p.o. for 10 days) markedly reversed these changes and restored to normal levels as compared to I/R groups. Moreover, brain coronal sections and histopathological studies revealed protection against ischemic brain damage in the EOCM-treated groups. This study, for the first time, shows potent neuroprotective effect of EOCM against global cerebral I/R-induced oxidative stress in rats, suggesting its therapeutic potential in cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) including stroke.

  11. Cytogenotoxicity of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf (lemon grass) aqueous extracts in vegetal test systems.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Saulo M; Silva, Pâmela S; Viccini, Lyderson F

    2010-06-01

    The lemon grass, Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf, is an important species of Poaceae family commonly used in the folk medicine in many countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts from C. citratus leaves on Lactuca sativa (lettuce) root tip meristem cells by cytogenetic studies that have never been done before for lemon grass extracts. For this, lettuce seeds were treated for 72h with different concentrations of lemon grass aqueous extracts (5; 10; 20 and 30 mg/mL). The percentage of germination, root development and cellular behavior were analyzed, and the results showed that the highest concentration of aqueous extracts reduced the mitotic index, the seed germination and the root development of lettuce. The extracts have also induced chromosome aberrations and cellular death in the roots cells of L. sativa.

  12. Evaluation of the chemical composition of Brazilian commercial Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) stapf samples.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Luiz Cláudio Almeida; Pereira, Ulisses Alves; Martinazzo, Ana Paula; Maltha, Célia Regina Alvares; Teixeira, Róbson Ricardo; Melo, Evandro de Castro

    2008-08-27

    The concentration and the chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from different samples of Cymbopogon citratus were evaluated. Among the 12 samples investigated (11 dried leaf samples and fresh plant leaves), seven presented essential oil concentrations within the threshold established by the Brazilian legislation. The moisture content was also determined and the majority of the samples presented humidity contents near 12%. The GC and GC/MS analyses of the essential oils led to identification of 22 compounds, with neral and geranial as the two major components. The total percentage of these two compounds varied within the investigated sample oils from 40.7% to 75.4%. In addition, a considerable variation in the chemical composition of the analyzed samples was observed. The process of grinding the leaves significantly decreased (by up to 68%) the essential oil content, as well as the percentage of myrcene in the oils.

  13. [Alcoholic extract of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) on the control of Boophilus microplus in cattle].

    PubMed

    Heimerdinger, Arli; Olivo, Clair J; Molento, Marcelo B; Agnolin, Carlos A; Ziech, Magnos F; Scaravelli, Luciene Fernanda B; Skonieski, Fernando R; Both, José F; Charão, Pablo S

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) alcoholic extracts on the control of Boophilus microplus in naturally infested Holstein cows. Twelve animals were allocated in three groups of four animals. Group 1 was treated with amitraz at 0.025%, Group 2 was treated with lemongrass extracts at 1.36% and Group 3 with the same product at 2.72% of the plant. Engorged ticks were evaluated on animals with length superior to 4.0 mm, before (mean of days -3, -2, -1) and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 14 days after treatment. The mean efficacy of amitraz was 97.93%. Lemongrass extract at 2.72% reduced tick infestation by 40.3, 46.6 and 41.5% on day 3, 7 and 14 post-treatment, respectively.

  14. Phytostabilisation potential of lemon grass (Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees ex Stend) Wats) on iron ore tailings.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, M; Dhal, N K; Patra, P; Das, B; Reddy, P S R

    2012-01-01

    The present pot culture study was carried out for the potential phytostabilisation of iron ore tailings using lemon grass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) a drought tolerant, perennial, aromatic grass. Experiments have been conducted by varying the composition of garden soil (control) with iron ore tailings. The various parameters, viz. growth of plants, number of tillers, biomass and oil content of lemon grass are evaluated. The studies have indicated that growth parameters of lemon grass in 1:1 composition of garden soil and iron ore tailings are significantly more (-5% increase) compared to plants grown in control soil. However, the oil content of lemon grass in both the cases more or less remained same. The results also infer that at higher proportion of tailings the yield of biomass decreases. The studies indicate that lemongrass with its fibrous root system is proved to be an efficient soil binder by preventing soil erosion.

  15. Chemical composition and in vitro antitrypanosomal activity of fractions of essential oil from Cymbopogon nardus L.

    PubMed

    Muhd Haffiz, J; Norhayati, I; Getha, K; Nor Azah, M A; Mohd Ilham, A; Lili Sahira, H; Roshan Jahn, M S; Muhd Syamil, A

    2013-03-01

    Essential oil from Cymbopogon nardus was evaluated for activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei BS221 (IC50 = 0.31 ± 0.03 μg/mL) and cytotoxic effect on normal kidney (Vero) cells (IC50 = >100 μg/mL). The crude essential oil was subjected to various chromatography techniques afforded active sub fractions with antitrypanosomal activity; F4 (IC50 = 0.61 ± 0.06 μg/mL), F6 (IC50= 0.73 ± 0.33 μg/mL), F7 (IC50 = 1.15 ± 0 μg/mL) and F8 (IC50 = 1.11 ± 0.01 μg/mL). These active fractions did not exhibit any toxic effects against Vero cell lines and the chemical profiles investigation indicated presence of α-and γ-eudesmol, elemol, α-cadinol and eugenol by GC/MS analysis.

  16. Use of Cymbopogon Citratus Essential Oil in Food Preservation: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ekpenyong, Christopher E; Akpan, Ernest E

    2015-07-06

    The economic burdens and health implications of food spoilage are increasing. Contamination of food sources by fungi, bacteria, yeast, nematodes, insects, and rodents remains a major public health concern. Research has focused on developing safer natural products and innovations to meet consumers' acceptance as alternatives to synthetic food preservatives. Many recent novel preservative techniques and applications of both natural and synthetic origin continue to proliferate in food and chemical industries. In particular, some essential oils of plant origin are potent food preservatives and are thus attractive alternatives to synthetic preservatives. This paper provides an overview of recent advances and future prospects in assessing the efficacy of theuse of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) essential oil in food preservation. The possible mechanisms of action and toxicological profile as well as evidence for or against the use of this essential oil as an alternative to synthetic food preservatives in domestic and industrial applications are discussed.

  17. Antibacterial constituents in the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.

    PubMed

    Onawunmi, G O; Yisak, W A; Ogunlana, E O

    1984-12-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf., commonly known as lemon grass and used, over many years, for medicinal purposes in West Africa, produces a volatile oil on steam extraction of its leaves. The antibacterial properties of the essential oil have been studied. These activities are shown in two of the three main components of the oil identified through chromatographic and mass spectrometric methods. While the alpha-citral (geranial) and beta-citral (neral) components individually elicit antibacterial action on gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, the third component, myrcene, did not show observable antibacterial activity on its own. However, myrcene provided enhanced activities when mixed with either of the other two main components identified.

  18. Essential oil yield and chemical composition changes during leaf ontogeny of palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii var. motia).

    PubMed

    Rao, Bhaskaruni R Rajeswara; Rajput, Dharmendra K; Patel, Rajendra P; Purnanand, Somasi

    2010-12-01

    Changes in leaf biomass yield, essential oil yield, and chemical composition were investigated during leaf ontogeny of palmarosa {Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb.) Wats. var. motia Burk., family Poaceae}. Eleven leaves representing different developmental stages, serially numbered from the apex to the base of the plant were utilized for the study. Leaf biomass yield increased up to the eighth leaf. Essential oil recovery increased up to the third leaf; thereafter it decreased. Minimum essential oil recovery was observed in the eleventh leaf. Essential oil yield/leaf increased up to the sixth leaf. Essential oil yield and concentrations of linalool, alpha-terpineol, geranyl isobutyrate and geraniol were relatively higher in the essential oils of mature, older leaves. Essential oil recovery, and percentages of myrcene, beta-caryophyllene, geranyl acetate, (E,Z) farnesol and geranyl hexanoate were higher in the essential oils of young, expanding leaves.

  19. Antinociceptive effect of the essential oil from Cymbopogon citratus in mice.

    PubMed

    Viana, G S; Vale, T G; Pinho, R S; Matos, F J

    2000-06-01

    The essential oil (EO) from leaves of Cymbopogon citratus increased the reaction time to thermal stimuli both after oral (25 mg/kg) and intraperitoneal (25-100 mg/kg) administration. EO (50-200 mg/kg, p.o. or i.p.) strongly inhibited the acetic acid-induced writhings in mice. In the formalin test, EO (50 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited preferentially the second phase of the response, causing inhibitions of 100 and 48% at 200 mg/kg, i.p. and 100 mg/kg, p.o., respectively. On the other hand, the opioid antagonist naloxone blocked the central antinociceptive effect of EO, suggesting that EO acts both at peripheral and central levels.

  20. Evaluation of Cymbopogon martinii oil extract for control of postharvest insect deterioration in cereals and legumes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh; Srivastava, Manisha; Dubey, N K

    2007-01-01

    The essential oil of Cymbopogon martinii was tested for its potency as a botanical pesticide to protect stored wheat (Triticum aestivum) and gram (garbanzo bean, Cicer arietinum) from insect infestation. The C. martinii oil was potent as a fumigant in stored gram. The oil was an effective repellent against the beetles Callosobruchus chinensis and Tribolium castaneum. Geraniol, the major component of the oil, was not as effective as the oil itself. C. martinii oil significantly affected oviposition, adult development, and mortality of C. chinensis in cow peas (Vigna unguiculata). The C. martinii oil when used as fumigant did not affect viability, germination, and seedling growth of gram. Because of its insecticidal and semiochemical nature, the oil could be used as an alternative to synthetic pesticides in an integrated pest management program to protect stored food commodities.

  1. In Vitro Mass Propagation of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf., a Medicinal Gramineae.

    PubMed

    Quiala, Elisa; Barbón, Raúl; Capote, Alina; Pérez, Naivy; Jiménez, Elio

    2016-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf. is a medicinal plant source of lemon grass oils with multiple uses in the pharmaceutical and food industry. Conventional propagation in semisolid culture medium has become a fast tool for mass propagation of lemon grass, but the production cost must be lower. A solution could be the application of in vitro propagation methods based on liquid culture advantages and automation. This chapter provides two efficient protocols for in vitro propagation via organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis of this medicinal plant. Firstly, we report the production of shoots using a temporary immersion system (TIS). Secondly, a protocol for somatic embryogenesis using semisolid culture for callus formation and multiplication, and liquid culture in a rotatory shaker and conventional bioreactors for the maintenance of embryogenic culture, is described. Well-developed plants can be achieved from both protocols. Here we provide a fast and efficient technology for mass propagation of this medicinal plant taking the advantage of liquid culture and automation.

  2. Larvicidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. and Croton macrostachyus Del. against Anopheles arabiensis Patton, a potent malaria vector.

    PubMed

    Karunamoorthi, K; Ilango, K

    2010-01-01

    Methanol leaf extracts of two Ethiopian traditional medicinal plants viz., Lomisar [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. (Poaceae)] and Bisana [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Croton macrostachyus Del. (Euphorbiaceae)] were screened for larvicidal activity against late third instar larvae of Anopheles arabiensis Patton, a potent malaria vector in Ethiopia. The larval mortality was observed 24 h of post treatment. Both plant extracts demonstrated varying degrees of larvicidal activity against Anopheles arabiensis. Cymbopogon citratus extract has exhibited potent larvicidal activity than Croton macrostachyus at lower concentrations. The LC50 and LC90 values of Cymbopogon citratus were 74.02 and 158.20 ppm, respectively. From this data, a chi-square value 2.760 is significant at the P < 0.05 level. While, the LC50 and LC90 values of Croton macrostachyus were 89.25 and 224.98 ppm, respectively and the chi-square value 1.035 is significant at the P < 0.05 level. The present investigation establishes that these plant extracts could serve as potent mosquito larvicidal agents against Anopheles arabiensis. However, their mode of actions and larvicidal efficiency under the field conditions should be scrutinized and determined in the near future.

  3. Investigation of the mechanisms underlying the gastroprotective effect of cymbopogon citratus essential oil.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Cn; De Souza, Hf; De Oliveria, G; Costa, Jgm; Kerntopf, Mr; Campos, Ar

    2012-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus is a medicinal plant popularly used in Brazil for the treatment of various diseases, and the research interest in this plant is justifiable because of its potential medicinal value in stomachache and gastric ulcer. This study was aimed to test the validity of this practice by using experimental models of gastric ulcer and to clarify the mechanisms of gastroprotection by C. citratus leaves essential oil (EOCC). EOCC was evaluated for the ability to protect the gastric mucosa against injuries caused by necrotizing agents (absolute ethanol and aspirin) in rodents. The results of this study revealed that EOCC posses a dose-independent anti-ulcer effect against the different experimental models. EOCC pretreatment depicted a higher preventive index in ethanol-(88%) and aspirin-induced (76%) acute ulceration. On pretreatment of mice with indomethacin, the cyclooxygenase inhibitor slightly suppressed the gastroprotective effect of EOCC (48.5%). Furthermore, EOCC gastroprotection was not attenuated in mice pretreated with L-NAME (85.2%), glibenclamide (100%), or yohimbine (79.7%), the respective inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase, K(+) (ATP) channel activation, and α(2) receptors. These results confirmed the traditional use of C. citratus for the treatment of gastric ulcer. Thus, we provide the first evidence that EOCC reduces gastric damage induced by ethanol, at least in part, by mechanisms that involve endogenous prostaglandins.

  4. Effect of Cymbopogon citratus and Citral on Vascular Smooth Muscle of the Isolated Thoracic Rat Aorta.

    PubMed

    Devi, R Chitra; Sim, S M; Ismail, R

    2012-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus has been shown to have antioxidant, antimicrobial, antispasmodic and chemo-protective properties. Citral, is the major constituent of C. citratus. This study investigated the effects of methanolic extracts of leaves (LE), stems (SE), and roots (RE) of C. citratus and citral on vascular smooth muscle and explored their possible mechanisms of action. The experiment was conducted using isolated tissue preparations, where citral, LE, SE, and RE were added separately into a tissue bath that contained aortic rings, which were pre-contracted with phenylephrine (PE). Citral, LE, and RE exhibited a dose-dependent relaxant effect on the PE-induced contractions. Citral appeared to partially act via NO as its vasorelaxant effect was attenuated by L-NAME. However, the effect of LE may involve prostacyclin as indomethacin reversed the relaxant effect of LE on the PE-induced contraction. Furthermore, citral, LE, and RE abolished the restoration of PE-induced contraction caused by the addition of increasing doses of calcium in both endothelium intact and denuded rings. These findings suggest that the relaxation effect of citral, LE, and RE is endothelium-independent and may be mainly by affecting the intracellular concentration of calcium. Citral may partially act through the NO pathway while a vasodilator prostaglandin may mediate the effect of LE.

  5. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil from Cuba and Brazil against housefly.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Zeneida Teixeira; Sánchez, Félix Fernández; dos Santos, Arith Ramos; Amaral, Ana Claudia Fernandes; Ferreira, José Luiz Pinto; Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus collected from Brazil and Cuba was tested to a chemical characterization and then was tested on the post-embryonic development of Musca domestica. The chemical composition analysis by GC-MS of the oils from Brazil/Cuba allowed the identification of 13 and 12 major constituents respectively; nine of them common to both. In the both oils, the main components were the isomers geranial and neral, which together form the compound citral. This corresponds to a total of 97.92%/Brazil and 97.69%/Cuba of the compounds identified. The monoterpene myrcene, observed only in the sample of Cuba, presented a large relative abundance (6.52%). The essential oil of C. citratus (Brazil/Cuba) was dissolved in DMSO and tested at concentrations of 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% and citral was prepared by mixing 16.8 mg with 960 µL DMSO. Both essential oils and monoterpene citral were applied topically to newly-hatched larvae (1µL/larva). The results showed a lethal concentration (LC50) of 4.25 and 3.24% for the Brazilian and Cuban essential oils, respectively. Mortalities of larval and newly-hatched larvae to adult periods were dose-dependent for the two both oils as for monoterpene citral, reaching 90%. Both essential oils and citral caused morphological changes in adult specimens.

  6. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of fresh leaf aqueous extract of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. in rats.

    PubMed

    Adeneye, Adejuwon Adewale; Agbaje, Esther Oluwatoyin

    2007-07-25

    The present study was designed to investigate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of the single, daily oral dosing of 125-500 mg/kg of fresh leaf aqueous extract of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. (CCi) in normal, male Wistar rats for 42 days. The average weights of rats per group were taken at 2 weeks interval for 42 days. On day 43, blood samples from the rats were collected for fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoproteins (LDL-c), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-c) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-c) assays through cardiac puncture under halothane anesthesia. Acute oral dose toxicity study of CCi was also conducted using limit dose test of the Up and Down Procedure statistical program (AOT425StatPgm, Version 1.0) at a dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight/oral route. Our results showed CCi to lower FPG and lipid parameters dose dependently (p<0.05) while raising the plasma HDL-c level (p<0.05) in same dose-related fashion but with no effect on plasma triglycerides level (p>0.05). Results of acute oral toxicity showed CCi to be of low toxicity and as such could be considered relatively safe on acute exposure. Thus, confirming its folkloric use and safety in suspected Type 2 diabetic patients.

  7. Comparative analysis of the oil and supercritical CO(2) extract of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.

    PubMed

    Marongiu, Bruno; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Tuveri, Enrica

    2006-05-10

    Dried and ground leaves of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.) were used as a matrix for supercritical extraction of essential oil with CO(2). The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of pressure on the supercritical extraction. A series of experiments were carried out, for 360 min, at 50 degrees C and at different pressures: 90, 100, 110 and 120 bar. Extraction conditions were chosen to maximize citral content in the extract oil. The collected extracts were analysed by GC-MS and their composition was compared with that of the essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation and by steam distillation. At higher solvent density the extract aspect changes passing from a characteristic yellow essential oil to yellowish semi-solid mass because of the extraction of high molecular mass compounds. The optimum conditions for citral extraction were 90 bar and 50 degrees C, at these conditions citral represent more than 68% of the essential oil and the extraction yield was 0.65% while the yield obtained from hydrodistillation was 0.43% with a content of citral of 73%.

  8. Ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and biological activities of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf extracts.

    PubMed

    Ekpenyong, Christopher E; Akpan, Ernest; Nyoh, Azah

    2015-05-01

    Cymbopogon citratus is a widely distributed perennial herb belonging to the Poaceae family and has been extensively consumed for its medicinal, cosmetic, and nutritional effects for centuries. A large number of reports have been published describing the pharmacological, biological, and therapeutic actions of this herb. In this review, we summarized the literatures on related studies (up to January, 2014) that highlighted the pharmacologic and biological effects of the major phytochemicals isolated from C. citratus extracts and its essential oil. The components of the essential oils found in C. citratus have a similar pharmacokinetic properties, including absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. They are quickly absorbed following oral, pulmonary, and dermal administration. Based on the published reports, it can also be inferred that, after absorption from the small intestine, some phytochemicals in C. citratus can undergo oxidation, glucuronidation, sulfation, and/or O-methylation. Excretion is through urine, feces and/or expired volatiles. The biotransformation reactions of C. citratus bioactive constituents are essential for its relatively safe consumption and therapeutic applications. The data available so far warrant further studies evaluating C. citratus pharmacokinetics. Reliable pharmacokinetic data in humans would be critical for a better understanding of the the systemic handling of C. citratus.

  9. Free radical scavengers and antioxidants from Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.).

    PubMed

    Cheel, José; Theoduloz, Cristina; Rodríguez, Jaime; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2005-04-06

    Methanol, MeOH/water extracts, infusion, and decoction of Cymbopogon citratus were assessed for free radical scavenging effects measured by the bleaching of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, scavenging of the superoxide anion, and inhibition of the enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO) and lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes. The extracts presented effect in the DPPH and superoxide anion assay, with values ranging between 40 and 68% and 15-32% at 33 and 50 microg/mL, respectively, inhibited lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes by 19-71% at 500 microg/mL and were inactive toward the XO at 50 microg/mL. Isoorientin, isoscoparin, swertiajaponin, isoorientin 2' '-O-rhamnoside, orientin, chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid were isolated and identified by spectroscopic methods. Isoorientin and orientin presented similar activities toward the DPPH (IC(50): 9-10 microM) and inhibited lipid peroxidation by 70% at 100 microg/mL. Caffeic and chlorogenic acid were active superoxide anion scavengers with IC(50) values of 68.8 and 54.2 microM, respectively, and a strong effect toward DPPH. Caffeic acid inhibited lipid peroxidation by 85% at 100 microg/mL.

  10. Pyrolysis and kinetic analyses of Camel grass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) for bioenergy.

    PubMed

    Mehmood, Muhammad Aamer; Ye, Guangbin; Luo, Huibo; Liu, Chenguang; Malik, Sana; Afzal, Ifrah; Xu, Jianren; Ahmad, Muhammad Sajjad

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was to study the thermal degradation of grass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) under an inert environment at three heating rates, including 10, 30, and 50°Cmin(-1) in order to evaluate its bioenergy potential. Pyrolysis experiments were performed in a simultaneous Thermogravimetry-Differential Scanning Calorimetry analyzer. Thermal data were used to analyze kinetic parameters through isoconversional models of Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) and Kissenger-Akahira-Sunose (KSA) methods. The pre-exponential factors values have shown the reaction to follow first order kinetics. Activation energy values were shown to be 84-193 and 96-192kJmol(-1) as calculated by KSA and FWO methods, respectively. Differences between activation energy and enthalpy of reaction values (∼5 to 6kJmol(-1)) showed product formation is favorable. The Gibb's free energy (173-177kJmol(-1)) and High Heating Value (15.00MJkg(-1)) have shown the considerable bioenergy potential of this low-cost biomass.

  11. Acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus and Azadirachta indica against house dust mites

    PubMed Central

    Hanifah, Azima Laili; Awang, Siti Hazar; Ming, Ho Tze; Abidin, Suhaili Zainal; Omar, Maizatul Hashima

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the acaricidal effects of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus leaf extract (lemongrass) and ethanolic Azadirachta indica leaf extract (neem) against house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus). Methods Twenty-five adults mites were placed onto treated filter paper that is soaked with plant extract and been tested at different concentrations (50.00%, 25.00%, 12.50%, 6.25% and 3.13%) and exposure times (24hrs, 48hrs, 72hrs and 96 hrs). All treatments were replicated 7 times, and the experiment repeated once. The topical and contact activities of the two herbs were investigated. Results Mortalities from lemongrass extract were higher than neem for both topical and contact activities. At 50 % concentration, both 24 hrs topical and contact exposures to lemongrass resulted in more than 91% mortalities for both species of mites. At the same concentration and exposure time, neem resulted in topical mortalities of 40.3% and 15.7% against D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae respectively; contact mortalities were 8.0% and 8.9% against the 2 mites, respectively. There was no difference in topical mortalities of D. pteronyssinus from exposure to concentrations of lemongrass and neem up to 12.50%; lemongrass was more effective than neem at the higher concentrations. Conclusions Generally, topical mortalities of D. farinae due to lemongrass are higher than that due to neem. Contact mortalities of lemongrass are always higher that neem against both species of mites. PMID:23569794

  12. Green synthesis, characterization and biological activities of silver nanoparticles from alkalinized Cymbopogon citratus Stapf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajayi, Emmanuel; Afolayan, Anthony

    2017-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been synthesized from the alkalinized leaf extract of Cymbopogon citratus, also known as lemon grass (LG), and characterized for their size and shape using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The total formation of the AgNPs was observed visually with a color change from yellow to brownish-black. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS/EDX) were conducted to determine the various functional groups and the concentration of metal ions in the nanoparticles. The data analysis showed spherically shaped nanoparticles with a size of 10-33 nm, as revealed by TEM, thereby complementing the result for SEM. FTIR identifies the ethylene group as a reducing and capping agent for the formation of the nanoparticles. The x-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the presence of silver crystallites as well as their size, further confirming the result of the TEM. AgNPs do not exhibit very good potential as free radical scavengers when compared to the standards. The synthesized AgNPs in suspension showed activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in the range of 31.25-62.5 µg ml-1. In summary, the synthesized AgNPs possessed an acceptable size and shape.

  13. Rapid propagation of lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees) Wats.) through somatic embryogenesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nayak, S; Debata, B K; Sahoo, S

    1996-01-01

    Somatic embryos induced from callus cultures of lemongrass [Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees) Wats.] on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 5 mg/l of 2,4-D, 0.1 mg/l of NAA and 0.5 mg/l of Kn developed into plantlets when plated on a medium supplemented with 3 mg/l of BA, 1 mg/l of GA3 and 0.1 mg/l of NAA. The regeneration potential of callus was retained for more than 2 years on the nutrient medium supplemented with comparatively lower levels of growth regulators (2,4-D at 2 mg/l, NAA at 0.1 mg/l and Kn at 0.25 mg/l). Approximately 30-35 plantlets were produced after two months of culture per 100 mg of callus inoculated. Regenerants were transplanted into soil and transferred to the field for assessment of various morphological and biochemical characteristics. The results of 1 year of field trials showed that plants derived from somatic embryoids were more uniform in all the characteristics examined when compared with the field performance of plants raised through slips by standard propagation procedures. Thus, a procedure has been developed for high frequency long term plant production of lemongrass through in vitro methods.

  14. Investigation of the Mechanisms Underlying the Gastroprotective Effect of Cymbopogon Citratus Essential Oil

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, CN; De Souza, HF; De Oliveria, G; Costa, JGM; Kerntopf, MR; Campos, AR

    2012-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus is a medicinal plant popularly used in Brazil for the treatment of various diseases, and the research interest in this plant is justifiable because of its potential medicinal value in stomachache and gastric ulcer. This study was aimed to test the validity of this practice by using experimental models of gastric ulcer and to clarify the mechanisms of gastroprotection by C. citratus leaves essential oil (EOCC). EOCC was evaluated for the ability to protect the gastric mucosa against injuries caused by necrotizing agents (absolute ethanol and aspirin) in rodents. The results of this study revealed that EOCC posses a dose-independent anti-ulcer effect against the different experimental models. EOCC pretreatment depicted a higher preventive index in ethanol-(88%) and aspirin-induced (76%) acute ulceration. On pretreatment of mice with indomethacin, the cyclooxygenase inhibitor slightly suppressed the gastroprotective effect of EOCC (48.5%). Furthermore, EOCC gastroprotection was not attenuated in mice pretreated with L-NAME (85.2%), glibenclamide (100%), or yohimbine (79.7%), the respective inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase, K+ATP channel activation, and α2 receptors. These results confirmed the traditional use of C. citratus for the treatment of gastric ulcer. Thus, we provide the first evidence that EOCC reduces gastric damage induced by ethanol, at least in part, by mechanisms that involve endogenous prostaglandins. PMID:22523457

  15. Isolation of Bioactive Compounds That Relate to the Anti-Platelet Activity of Cymbopogon ambiguus

    PubMed Central

    Grice, I. Darren; Rogers, Kelly L.; Griffiths, Lyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Infusions and decoctions of Cymbopogon ambiguus have been used traditionally in Australia for the treatment of headache, chest infections and muscle cramps. The aim of the present study was to screen and identify bioactive compounds from C. ambiguus that could explain this plant's anti-headache activity. A dichloromethane extract of C. ambiguus was identified as having activity in adenosine-diphosphate-induced human platelet aggregation and serotonin-release inhibition bioassays. Subsequent fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of four phenylpropenoids, eugenol, elemicin, eugenol methylether and trans-isoelemicin. While both eugenol and elemicin exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of ADP-induced human platelet serotonin release, only eugenol displayed potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 46.6 μM, in comparison to aspirin, with an IC50 value of 46.1 μM. These findings provide evidence to support the therapeutic efficacy of C. ambiguus in the non-conventional treatment of headache and inflammatory conditions. PMID:20047890

  16. Cymbopogon citratus industrial waste as a potential source of bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Filipa; Costa, Gustavo; Francisco, Vera; Liberal, Joana; Figueirinha, Artur; Lopes, Maria Celeste; Cruz, Maria Teresa; Batista, Maria Teresa

    2015-10-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (Cc), commonly known as lemongrass, is a very important crop worldwide, being grown in tropical countries. It is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and perfumery industries for its essential oil. Cc aqueous extracts are also used in traditional medicine. They contain high levels of polyphenols, which are known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Hydrodistillation of lemongrass essential oil produces an aqueous waste (CcHD) which is discarded. Therefore a comparative study between CcHD and Cc infusion (CcI) was performed to characterize its phytochemical profile and to research its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential. HPLC-PDA/ESI-MS(n) analysis showed that CcI and CcHD have similar phenolic profiles, with CcHD presenting a higher amount of polyphenols. Additionally, both CcI and CcHD showed antioxidant activity against DPPH (EC50 of 41.72 ± 0.05 and 42.29 ± 0.05 µg mL(-1) respectively) and strong anti-inflammatory properties, by reducing NO production and iNOS expression in macrophages and through their NO-scavenging activity, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, no cytotoxicity was observed. The data of this study encourage considering the aqueous solution from Cc leaf hydrodistillation as a source of bioactive compounds, which may add great industrial value to this crop. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Effect of Cymbopogon citratus and Citral on Vascular Smooth Muscle of the Isolated Thoracic Rat Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Devi, R. Chitra; Sim, S. M.; Ismail, R.

    2012-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus has been shown to have antioxidant, antimicrobial, antispasmodic and chemo-protective properties. Citral, is the major constituent of C. citratus. This study investigated the effects of methanolic extracts of leaves (LE), stems (SE), and roots (RE) of C. citratus and citral on vascular smooth muscle and explored their possible mechanisms of action. The experiment was conducted using isolated tissue preparations, where citral, LE, SE, and RE were added separately into a tissue bath that contained aortic rings, which were pre-contracted with phenylephrine (PE). Citral, LE, and RE exhibited a dose-dependent relaxant effect on the PE-induced contractions. Citral appeared to partially act via NO as its vasorelaxant effect was attenuated by L-NAME. However, the effect of LE may involve prostacyclin as indomethacin reversed the relaxant effect of LE on the PE-induced contraction. Furthermore, citral, LE, and RE abolished the restoration of PE-induced contraction caused by the addition of increasing doses of calcium in both endothelium intact and denuded rings. These findings suggest that the relaxation effect of citral, LE, and RE is endothelium-independent and may be mainly by affecting the intracellular concentration of calcium. Citral may partially act through the NO pathway while a vasodilator prostaglandin may mediate the effect of LE. PMID:22675383

  18. Antistress Effects of the Ethanolic Extract from Cymbopogon schoenanthus Growing Wild in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ben Othman, Mahmoud; Han, Junkyu; El Omri, Abdelfatteh; Ksouri, Riadh; Neffati, Mohamed; Isoda, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antistress properties of the ethanol extract of Cymbopogon schoenanthus (CSEE), growing wild in the southern part of Tunisia. The effect of extracts on H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and stress in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Its effect on stress-induced in ICR mice was exposed to force swim and tail suspension, in concordance with heat shock protein expression (HSP27 and HSP90), corticosterone, and catecholamine neurotransmitters level. Our results demonstrated that pretreatment of SH-SY5Y cells with CSEE at 1/2000, 1/1000, and 1/500 v/v dilutions significantly inversed H2O2-induced neurotoxicity. Moreover, CSEE treatments significantly reversed heat shock protein expression in heat-stressed HSP47-transformed cells (42°C, for 90 min) and mRNA expression of HSP27 and HSP90 in H2O2-treated SH-SY5Y. Daily oral administration of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg CSEE was conducted to ICR mice for 2 weeks. It was resulted in a significant decrease of immobility time in forced swimming and tail suspension tests. The effect of CSEE on animal behavior was concordant with a significant regulation of blood serum corticosterone and cerebral cortex levels of catecholamine (dopamine, adrenaline, and noradrenaline). Therefore, this study was attempted to demonstrate the preventive potential of CSEE against stress disorders at in vitro and in vivo levels.

  19. Repellent constituents of essential oil of Cymbopogon distans aerial parts against two stored-product insects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing Song; Zhao, Na Na; Liu, Qi Zhi; Liu, Zhi Long; Du, Shu Shan; Zhou, Ligang; Deng, Zhi Wei

    2011-09-28

    The screening for bioactive principles from several Chinese medicinal herbs showed that the essential oil of Cymbopogon distans aerial parts possessed strong repellency against the booklouse, Liposcelis bostrychophila , and the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum . A total of 36 components of the essential oil were identified by GC and GC-MS. trans-Geraniol (16.54%), (R)-citronellal (15.44%), (+)-citronellol (11.51%), and α-elemol (9.06%) were the main components of the essential oil followed by β-eudesmol (5.71%) and (+)-limonene (5.05%). From the essential oil, four monoterpenes were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation. The compounds were identified as limonene, citronellol, citronellal, and trans-geraniol. Geraniol and citronellol were strongly repellent against the booklouse, L. bostrychophila, whereas citronellal and limonene exhibited weak repellency against the booklouse. Geraniol and citronellol exhibited comparable repellency against the booklouse relative to the positive control, DEET. Moreover, geraniol and citronellol exhibited stronger repellency against the red flour beetle than DEET, whereas the two other compounds showed the same level of repellency against the red flour beetle compared with DEET.

  20. Attraction behaviour of Anagrus nilaparvatae to remote lemongrass (Cymbopogon distans) oil and its volatile compounds.

    PubMed

    Mao, Guo-Feng; Mo, Xiao-Chang; Fouad, Hatem; Abbas, Ghulam; Mo, Jian-Chu

    2017-05-15

    Utilisation of Anagrus nilaparvatae is a promising and effective method for planthoppers manipulation. Twenty-seven components of remote lemongrass (Cymbopogon distans) oil were identified by GC/MS and nine volatiles were selected for behavioural experiments. In this study, we noted that the remote lemongrass oil was attractive to female A. nilaparvatae at concentrations of 0.1 and 1 mg/L. α-Pinene, β-pinene, eucalyptol, carveol and D-carvone attracted female wasps in the dose-dependent bioassays. Blend 1 (a mixture of eucalyptol, D-carvone, carveol, α-pinene, and β-pinene with ratios of remote lemongrass oil volatiles of 625:80:11:5:3) attracted female wasps at 10 mg/L, while blend 2 (a mixture of the same five volatiles at the same loading ratio) attracted them at 0.1 and 1 mg/L. These results suggested that plant essential oils could be attractants for natural enemies to control pests. The ratios of volatiles in the mixtures affect the attractiveness of the synthetic mixtures.

  1. Optimized extraction of polysaccharides from Cymbopogon citratus and its biological activities.

    PubMed

    Thangam, Ramar; Suresh, Veeraperumal; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2014-04-01

    In this study the extraction of hot water soluble polysaccharides (HWSPs) from Cymbopogon citratus using hot water decoction was discussed. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a three level, three variable central composite rotatable design (CCRD), was employed to obtain best possible combination of extraction time (X1: 30-180 min), extraction temperature (X2: 70-100 °C) and water to the raw material ratio (X3: 10-60) for maximum HWSPs extraction. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: extraction time was around 113.81 min, extraction temperature at 99.66 °C and the ratio of water to raw material was 33.11 g/mL. Under these conditions, the experimental yield was 13.24±0.23%, which is well in close agreement with the value predicted by RSM model yield (13.19%). The basic characterization of HWSPs was determined by using the FTIR. These preliminary in vitro biological studies indicated that lemongrass polysaccharides were useful for anticancer therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Gastroprotective effect of Cymbopogon citratus infusion on acute ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats.

    PubMed

    Sagradas, Joana; Costa, Gustavo; Figueirinha, Artur; Castel-Branco, Maria Margarida; Silvério Cabrita, António Manuel; Figueiredo, Isabel Vitória; Batista, Maria Teresa

    2015-09-15

    Treatment of gastric ulcers with medicinal plants is quite common in traditional medicine worldwide. Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. leaves infusion has been used in folk medicine of many tropical and subtropical regions to treat gastric disturbances. The aim of this study was to assess the potential gastroprotective activity of an essential oil-free infusion from C. citratus leaves in acute gastric lesions induced by ethanol in rat. The study was performed on adult male Wistar rats (234.0±22.7g) fasted for 24h but with free access to water. The extract was given orally before (prevention) or after (treatment) intragastric administration of absolute ethanol. Effects of dose (28 or 56mg/kg of body weight) and time of contact of the extract with gastric mucosa (1 or 2h) were also assessed. Animals were sacrificed, being the stomachs removed and the lesions were assessed by macroscopic observation and histopathology. C. citratus extract, given orally before or after ethanol, significantly (P<0.01) reduced gastric mucosal injury compared with control group (vehicle+ethanol). The effect does not appear to be dose-dependent. Results also suggested that the extract is more effective when the time of contact with gastric mucosa increases. The results of this assay confirm the gastroprotective activity of C. citratus extract on experimental gastric lesions induced by ethanol, contributing for the pharmacological validation of its traditional use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Protective Effect of Cymbopogon citratus Essential Oil in Experimental Model of Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Nancy Sayuri; Silva-Filho, Saulo Euclides; Aguiar, Rafael Pazinatto; Wiirzler, Luiz Alexandre Marques; Cardia, Gabriel Fernando Esteves; Cavalcante, Heitor Augusto Otaviano; Silva-Comar, Francielli Maria de Souza; Becker, Tânia Cristina Alexandrino; Silva, Expedito Leite; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the hepatoprotective effect of Cymbopogon citratus or lemongrass essential oil (LGO), it was used in an animal model of acute liver injury induced by acetaminophen (APAP). Swiss mice were pretreated with LGO (125, 250 and 500[Formula: see text]mg/kg) and SLM (standard drug, 200[Formula: see text]mg/kg) for a duration of seven days, followed by the induction of hepatotoxicity of APAP (single dose, 250[Formula: see text]mg/kg). The liver function markers alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyl transferase were determined to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of the LGO. The livers were used to determine myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, nitric oxide (NO) production and histological analysis. The effect of LGO on leukocyte migration was evaluated in vitro. Anti-oxidant activity was performed by assessing the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in vitro. LGO pretreatment decreased significantly the levels of ALT, AST and ALP compared with APAP group. MPO activity and NO production were decreased. The histopathological analysis showed an improved of hepatic lesions in mice after LGO pretreatment. LGO inhibited neutrophil migration and exhibited anti-oxidant activity. Our results suggest that LGO has protective activity against liver toxicity induced by paracetamol.

  4. Acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus and Azadirachta indica against house dust mites.

    PubMed

    Hanifah, Azima Laili; Awang, Siti Hazar; Ming, Ho Tze; Abidin, Suhaili Zainal; Omar, Maizatul Hashima

    2011-10-01

    To examine the acaricidal effects of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus leaf extract (lemongrass) and ethanolic Azadirachta indica leaf extract (neem) against house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus). Twenty-five adults mites were placed onto treated filter paper that is soaked with plant extract and been tested at different concentrations (50.00%, 25.00%, 12.50%, 6.25% and 3.13%) and exposure times (24hrs, 48hrs, 72hrs and 96 hrs). All treatments were replicated 7 times, and the experiment repeated once. The topical and contact activities of the two herbs were investigated. Mortalities from lemongrass extract were higher than neem for both topical and contact activities. At 50 % concentration, both 24 hrs topical and contact exposures to lemongrass resulted in more than 91% mortalities for both species of mites. At the same concentration and exposure time, neem resulted in topical mortalities of 40.3% and 15.7% against D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae respectively; contact mortalities were 8.0% and 8.9% against the 2 mites, respectively. There was no difference in topical mortalities of D. pteronyssinus from exposure to concentrations of lemongrass and neem up to 12.50%; lemongrass was more effective than neem at the higher concentrations. Generally, topical mortalities of D. farinae due to lemongrass are higher than that due to neem. Contact mortalities of lemongrass are always higher that neem against both species of mites.

  5. Activation of intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in cancer cells by Cymbopogon citratus polysaccharide fractions.

    PubMed

    Thangam, Ramar; Sathuvan, Malairaj; Poongodi, Arasu; Suresh, Veeraperumal; Pazhanichamy, Kalailingam; Sivasubramanian, Srinivasan; Kanipandian, Nagarajan; Ganesan, Nalini; Rengasamy, Ramasamy; Thirumurugan, Ramasamy; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2014-07-17

    Essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus were already reported to have wide ranging medical and industrial applications. However, information on polysaccharides from the plant and their anticancer activities are limited. In the present study, polysaccharides from C. citratus were extracted and fractionated by anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Two different polysaccharide fractions such as F1 and F2 were obtained, and these fractions were found to have distinct acidic polysaccharides as characterized by their molecular weight and sugar content. NMR spectral analysis revealed the presence of (1→4) linked b-d-Xylofuranose moiety in these polysaccharides. Using these polysaccharide fractions F1 and F2, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities were evaluated against cancer cells in vitro and the mechanism of action of the polysaccharides in inducing apoptosis in cancer cells via intrinsic pathway was also proposed. Two different reproductive cancer cells such as Siha and LNCap were employed for in vitro studies on cytotoxicity, induction of apoptosis and apoptotic DNA fragmentation, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, and profiles of gene and protein expression in response to treatment of cells by the polysaccharide fractions. These polysaccharide fractions exhibited potential cytotoxic and apoptotic effects on carcinoma cells, and they induced apoptosis in these cells through the events of up-regulation of caspase 3, down-regulation of bcl-2 family genes followed by cytochrome c release. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of salt stress on essential oil yield and composition of lemon grass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus L. Spreng. ssp. Laniger (Hook) Maire et Weil).

    PubMed

    Khadhri, Ayda; Neffati, Mohamed; Smiti, Samira; Nogueira, José Manuel F; Araujo, Maria Eduarda M

    2011-01-01

    Cymbopogon is an aromatic plant valued for its citrus scent aroma. In this article, the effect of saline irrigation water on yield and quality of Cymbopogon schoenanthus L. was evaluated. Compounds of essential oils were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and/or (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. Results showed that the growth of the aerial part was not affected at a concentration of 50 mmol NaCl. Under salt stress, the content of major chemical compounds was affected differently by the treatment level.

  7. Testing the use of a citronella-based repellent as an effective method to reduce the prevalence and abundance of biting flies in avian nests.

    PubMed

    Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Merino, Santiago; Lobato, Elisa; Rivero-de Aguilar, Juan; del Cerro, Sara; Ruiz-de-Castañeda, Rafael

    2009-04-01

    Here, we validate the use of a citronella (natural oil) based repellent to reduce the abundance of flying blood-sucking insects in avian nests. These insects are important parasites of birds affecting them as blood feeders and as vectors of a diversity of pathogens. When nestling were 10 days old, we assigned wild great tit Parus major nests to one of two treatments, control and fumigated nests. The abundance of biting midges and blackflies captured during 3 days following the treatment application were lower in fumigated nests with respect to control ones. By contrast, the abundance of blowfly pupae measured when nestlings left their nests was not affected by the treatment. Although many experimental studies modify the abundance of nest-dweller ectoparasites, to our knowledge, this is the first one describing an easy, safe, and effective method, reducing the total abundance of both biting midges and blackflies in wild avian nests. Our results could be used in future conservation projects and experimental studies on host-parasite evolution affecting the abundance of flying blood-feeder insects under natural conditions.

  8. Microcalorimetric and electron microscopic investigation on the effects of essential oil from Cymbopogon densiflorus on Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Takaisi-Kikuni, N B; Krüger, D; Gnann, W; Wecke, J

    1996-01-01

    Microcalorimetry, optical density measurements and electron microscopy, were used to assess the influence of various amounts of the essential oil of Cymbopogon densiflorus (lemongrass oil) on the metabolic activity, growth and morphology of Staphylococcus aureus. Relatively high concentrations of the oil impaired staphylococcal growth in a bacteriostatic manner (chloramphenicol type), and in low doses metabolism became ineffective due to energy losses in the form of heat. Ultrastructural data revealed morphological changes characteristic for the influence of bactericidal antibiotics inducing bacteriolysis (penicillin type). The essential oil may have antibacterial activity by influencing bacterial targets involved in cytoplasmic and cell wall metabolism.

  9. Antimicrobial constituents and synergism effect of the essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus and Alpinia galanga.

    PubMed

    Tadtong, Sarin; Watthanachaiyingcharoen, Rith; Kamkaen, Narisa

    2014-02-01

    From the fresh leaf sheathes of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) and rhizomes of galanga (Alpinia galanga) light yellow and colorless oils, respectively, were obtained by hydrodistillation and microwave assisted extraction (MAE) in yields of 0.24% and 0.03%, and 0.11% and trace (w/w), respectively. By GC/MS analysis, five major constituents were identified in lemongrass oil, E-citral, Z-citral, beta-myrcene, selina-6-en-4-ol, and cis-ocimene, and five in galanga oil, 1,8-cineole, phenol 4-(2-propenyl)-acetate, dl-limonene, alpha-pinene, and a-terpineol. Three major components of the combined lemongrass and galanga oils (ratio 7:3, 1:1, 3:7) were 1,8-cineole (46.3%, 31.5%, 19.3%), E-citral (12.8%, 22.7%, 32.8%) and Z-citral (8.5%, 15.2%, 21.6%). The MICs of lemongrass and galanga oils were: against Staphylococcus aureus 0.5% and 4%, v/v, against Pseudomonas aeruginosa 40% and >40%,v/v, against Streptococcus bovis 0.25% and 0.5%, v/v, and against Candida albicans 0.25% and 0.5%, v/v. Citral (from lemongrass oil) gave greater potentiation than 1,8-cineole (from galanga oil). The combination profiles of galanga oil with lemongrass oil (volume ratios 3:7, 1:1, and 7:3) were tested against the four pathogenic microorganisms. Synergistic activity was best noted for only one ratio (volume ratio 3:7) as the sigmafic< 1 against all tested microorganisms. The present investigation provides evidenc that the utilization of two essential oils in combination should be assessed for synergistic antimicrobial activity in order to reduce their minimum effective dose.

  10. Antioxidant effects of different extracts from Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Romaiana Picada; Fachinetto, Roselei; de Souza Prestes, Alessandro; Puntel, Robson Luiz; Santos da Silva, Gloria Narjara; Heinzmann, Berta Maria; Boschetti, Ticiane Krapf; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Bürger, Marilise Escobar; Morel, Ademir Farias; Morsch, Vera Maria; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2009-05-01

    Considering the important role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of several neurological diseases, and the growing evidence of the presence of compounds with antioxidant properties in the plant extracts, the aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant capacity of three plants used in Brazil to treat neurological disorders: Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus. The antioxidant effect of phenolic compounds commonly found in plant extracts, namely, quercetin, gallic acid, quercitrin and rutin was also examined for comparative purposes. Cerebral lipid peroxidation (assessed by TBARS) was induced by iron sulfate (10 microM), sodium nitroprusside (5 microM) or 3-nitropropionic acid (2 mM). Free radical scavenger properties and the chemical composition of plant extracts were assessed by 1'-1' Diphenyl-2' picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), respectively. M. officinalis aqueous extract caused the highest decrease in TBARS production induced by all tested pro-oxidants. In the DPPH assay, M. officinalis presented also the best antioxidant effect, but, in this case, the antioxidant potencies were similar for the aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts. Among the purified compounds, quercetin had the highest antioxidant activity followed by gallic acid, quercitrin and rutin. In this work, we have demonstrated that the plant extracts could protect against oxidative damage induced by various pro-oxidant agents that induce lipid peroxidation by different process. Thus, plant extracts could inhibit the generation of early chemical reactive species that subsequently initiate lipid peroxidation or, alternatively, they could block a common final pathway in the process of polyunsaturated fatty acids peroxidation. Our study indicates that M. officinalis could be considered an effective agent in the prevention of various neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  11. Manipulation of rumen ecology by dietary lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.) powder supplementation.

    PubMed

    Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A; Pakdee, P; Wanapat, S

    2008-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.] powder (LGP) on rumen ecology, rumen microorganisms, and digestibility of nutrients. Four ruminally fistulated crossbred (Brahman native) beef cattle were randomly assigned according to a 4 x 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were LGP supplementation at 0, 100, 200, and 300 g/d with urea-treated rice straw (5%) fed to allow ad libitum intake. Digestibilities of DM, ether extract, and NDF were significantly different among treatments and were greatest at 100 g/d of supplementation. However, digestibility of CP was decreased with LGP supplementation (P < 0.05), whereas ruminal NH(3)-N and plasma urea N were decreased with incremental additions of LGP (P < 0.05). Ruminal VFA concentrations were similar among supplementation concentrations (P > 0.05). Total viable bacteria, amylolytic bacteria, and cellulolytic bacteria were significantly different among treatments and were greatest at 100 g/d of supplementation (4.7 x 10(9), 1.7 x 10(7), and 2.0 x 10(9) cfu/mL, respectively). Protozoal populations were significantly decreased by LGP supplementation. In addition, efficiency of rumen microbial N synthesis based on OM truly digested in the rumen was enriched by LGP supplementation, especially at 100 g/d (34.2 g of N/kg of OM truly digested in the rumen). Based on this study, it could be concluded that supplementation of LGP at 100 g/d improved digestibilities of nutrients, rumen microbial population, and microbial protein synthesis efficiency, thus improving rumen ecology in beef cattle.

  12. Spasmolytic effect of citral and extracts of Cymbopogon citratus on isolated rabbit ileum.

    PubMed

    Devi, Ramachandran Chitra; Sim, Si Mui; Ismail, Rosnah

    2011-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus, commonly known as lemongrass, has been shown to have antioxidant, antimicrobial and chemo-protective properties. Citral, a monoterpenoid, is the major constituent of C. citratus that gives off a lemony scent and is postulated to be responsible for most of its actions. In addition, C. citratus has been traditionally used to treat gastrointestinal discomforts, however, the scientific evidence for this is still lacking. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the extracts of various parts of C. citratus (leaves, stems and roots) and citral on the visceral smooth muscle activity of rabbit ileum. The effect of the test substances were tested on the spontaneous contraction, acetylcholine (ACh)- and KCl-induced contractions. Citral at doses between 0.061 mM to 15.6 mM and the extract of leaves at doses between 0.001 mg/mL to 1 mg/mL significantly reduced the spontaneous, ACh- and KCl-induced ileal contractions. When the ileum was incubated in K(+)-rich-Ca(2+)-free Tyrode's solution, it showed only minute contractions. However, the strength of contraction was increased with the addition of increasing concentrations of CaCl(2). The presence of citral almost abolished the effect of adding CaCl(2), while the leaf extract shifted the calcium concentration-response curve to the right, suggesting a calcium antagonistic effect. These results were similar to that elicited by verapamil, a known calcium channel blocker. In addition, the spasmolytic effect of citral was observed to be reduced by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-NAME. In conclusion, citral and the leaf extract of C. citratus exhibited spasmolytic activity and it appeared that they may act as calcium antagonists. Furthermore, the relaxant effect of citral, but not that of the leaf extract may be mediated by nitric oxide suggesting the presence of other chemical components in the leaf extract other than citral.

  13. Polyphenols from Cymbopogon citratus leaves as topical anti-inflammatory agents.

    PubMed

    Costa, Gustavo; Ferreira, João Pinto; Vitorino, Carla; Pina, Maria Eugénia; Sousa, João José; Figueiredo, Isabel Vitória; Batista, Maria Teresa

    2016-02-03

    A variety of plant polyphenols have been reported to have anti-inflammatory, frequently associated with erythema, edema, hyperplasia, skin photoaging and photocarcinogenesis. Cymbopogon citratus (DC). Stapf (Poaceae) is a worldwide known medicinal plant, used in traditional medicine in inflammation-related conditions. In this work, the anti-inflammatory potential of C. citratus infusion (CcI) and its polyphenols as topical agents was evaluated in vivo. The plant extract was prepared and its fractioning led two polyphenol-rich fractions: flavonoids fraction (CcF) and tannins fraction (CcT). An oil/water emulsion was developed with each active (CcI, CcF+CcT and diclofenac), pH and texture having been evaluated. Release tests were further performed using static Franz diffusion cells and all collected samples were monitored by HPLC-PDA. In vivo topical anti-inflammatory activity evaluation was performed by the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. The texture analysis revealed statistically significant differences for all tested parameters to CcF+CcT, supporting its topical application. Release experiments lead to the detection of the phenolic compounds from each sample in the receptor medium and the six major flavonoids were quantified, by HPLC-PDA: carlinoside, isoorientin, cynaroside, luteolin 7-O-neohesperidoside, kurilesin A and cassiaoccidentalin B. The CcF+CcT formulation prompted to the higher release rate for all these flavonoids. CcI4%, CcI1% and CcF+CcT exhibited an edema reduction of 43.18, 29.55 and 59.09%, respectively. Our findings highlight that CcI, containing luteolin 7-O-neohesperidoside, cassiaoccidentalin B, carlinoside, cynaroside and tannins have a potential anti-inflammatory topical activity, suggesting their promising application in the treatment of skin inflammatory pathologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Anti-Proliferative Effect and Phytochemical Analysis of Cymbopogon citratus Extract

    PubMed Central

    Halabi, Mohammed F.; Sheikh, Bassem Y.

    2014-01-01

    The antiproliferative and antioxidant potential of Cymbopogon citratus (Lemon grass) extracts were investigated. The extracts were isolated by solvent maceration method and thereafter subjected to antiproliferative activity test on five different cancer cells: human colon carcinoma (HCT-116), breast carcinoma (MCF-7 and MDA-MB 231), ovarian carcinoma (SKOV-3 and COAV), and a normal liver cell line (WRL 68). The cell viability was determined using MTT assay. The DPPH radical scavenging assay revealed a concentration dependent trend. A maximum percentage inhibition of 45% and an IC50 of 278 μg/mL were observed when aqueous extract was evaluated. In contrast, 48.3% and IC50 of 258.9 μg/mL were observed when 50% ethanolic extract was evaluated. Both extracts at concentration of 50 to 800 μg/mL showed appreciative metal chelating activity with IC50 value of 172.2 ± 31 μg/mL to 456.5 ± 30 μg/mL. Depending on extraction solvent content, extract obtained from 50% ethanolic solvent proved to be more potent on breast cancer MCF-7 cell line (IC50 = 68 μg/mL). On the other hand, 90% ethanolic extract showed a moderate potency on the ovarian cancer (COAV) and MCF-7 cells having an IC50 of 104.6 μg/mL each. These results suggested antiproliferative efficacy of C. citratus ethanolic extract against human cancer cell lines. PMID:24791006

  15. Antistress Effects of the Ethanolic Extract from Cymbopogon schoenanthus Growing Wild in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Ben Othman, Mahmoud; Han, Junkyu; El Omri, Abdelfatteh; Ksouri, Riadh; Neffati, Mohamed; Isoda, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antistress properties of the ethanol extract of Cymbopogon schoenanthus (CSEE), growing wild in the southern part of Tunisia. The effect of extracts on H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and stress in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Its effect on stress-induced in ICR mice was exposed to force swim and tail suspension, in concordance with heat shock protein expression (HSP27 and HSP90), corticosterone, and catecholamine neurotransmitters level. Our results demonstrated that pretreatment of SH-SY5Y cells with CSEE at 1/2000, 1/1000, and 1/500 v/v dilutions significantly inversed H2O2-induced neurotoxicity. Moreover, CSEE treatments significantly reversed heat shock protein expression in heat-stressed HSP47-transformed cells (42°C, for 90 min) and mRNA expression of HSP27 and HSP90 in H2O2-treated SH-SY5Y. Daily oral administration of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg CSEE was conducted to ICR mice for 2 weeks. It was resulted in a significant decrease of immobility time in forced swimming and tail suspension tests. The effect of CSEE on animal behavior was concordant with a significant regulation of blood serum corticosterone and cerebral cortex levels of catecholamine (dopamine, adrenaline, and noradrenaline). Therefore, this study was attempted to demonstrate the preventive potential of CSEE against stress disorders at in vitro and in vivo levels. PMID:24228063

  16. Palmarosa [Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb.) Wats.] as a putative crop for phytoremediation, in tannery sludge polluted soil.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Janhvi; Chand, Sukhmal; Pandey, Shipra; Rajkumari; Patra, D D

    2015-12-01

    A field experiment using tannery sludge as a soil amendment material and palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii) as a potential phytostabilizer was conducted to investigate their synergistic effect in relation to the improvement in soil quality/property. Three consecutive harvests of two cultivars of palmarosa-PRC-1 and Trishna, were examined to find out the influence of different tannery sludge doses on their herb, dry matter, essential oil yield and heavy metal accumulation. Soil fertility parameters (N, P, K, Organic carbon) were markedly affected by different doses of sludge. Enhanced soil nitrogen was positively correlated with herb yield (0.719*) and plant height (0.797*). The highest dose of tannery sludge (100 t ha(-1)) exhibited best performance than other treatments with respect to herb, dry matter and oil yield in all three harvests. Trishna was found to be superior to PRC-1 in relation to same studied traits. Quality of oil varied, but was insignificant statistically. Uptake of heavy metals followed same order (Cr>Ni>Pb>Cd) in roots and shoots. Translocation factor <1 for all trace elements and Bioconcentration factor >1 was observed in case of all heavy metals. Overall, tannery sludge enhanced the productivity of crop and metal accumulation occurred in roots with a meager translocation to shoots, hence it can be used as a phytostabiliser. The major advantage of taking palmarosa in metal polluted soil is that unlike food and agricultural crops, the product (essential oil) is extracted by hydro-distillation and there is no chance of oil contamination, thus is commercially acceptable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Proline accumulation in lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Stapf.) due to heavy metal stress.

    PubMed

    Handique, G K; Handique, A K

    2009-03-01

    Toxic heavy metals viz. lead, mercury and cadmium induced differential accumulation of proline in lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Stapf.) grown in soil amended with 50, 100, 200, 350 and 500 mg kg(-1) of the metals have been studied. Proline accumulation was found to be metal specific, organ specific and linear dose dependant. Further, proline accumulation following short term exposure (two months after transplantation) was higher than long term exposure (nine months after transplantation). Proline accumulation following short term exposure was 2.032 to 3.839 micro moles g(-1) for cadmium (50-200 mg kg(-1)); the corresponding range for mercury was 1.968 to 5.670 micro moles g(-1) and 0.830 to 4.567 micro moles g(-1) for lead (50-500 mg kg(-1) for mercury and lead). Proline accumulation was consistently higher in young tender leaf than old leaf, irrespective of the metal or duration of exposure. For cadmium treatment proline level was 2.032 to 3.839 micro moles g(-1) for young leaves while the corresponding value for old leaf was 1.728 to 2.396 micro moles g(-1) following short term exposure. The same trend was observed for the other two metals and duration of exposure. For control set proline accumulation in root was 0.425 micro moles g(-1) as against 0.805 and 0.533 micro moles g(-1) in young and old leaves respectively indicating that proline accumulation in root are lower than leaves, under both normal and stressed condition.

  18. Anti-proliferative effect and phytochemical analysis of Cymbopogon citratus extract.

    PubMed

    Halabi, Mohammed F; Sheikh, Bassem Y

    2014-01-01

    The antiproliferative and antioxidant potential of Cymbopogon citratus (Lemon grass) extracts were investigated. The extracts were isolated by solvent maceration method and thereafter subjected to antiproliferative activity test on five different cancer cells: human colon carcinoma (HCT-116), breast carcinoma (MCF-7 and MDA-MB 231), ovarian carcinoma (SKOV-3 and COAV), and a normal liver cell line (WRL 68). The cell viability was determined using MTT assay. The DPPH radical scavenging assay revealed a concentration dependent trend. A maximum percentage inhibition of 45% and an IC50 of 278  μg/mL were observed when aqueous extract was evaluated. In contrast, 48.3% and IC50 of 258.9  μg/mL were observed when 50% ethanolic extract was evaluated. Both extracts at concentration of 50 to 800  μg/mL showed appreciative metal chelating activity with IC50 value of 172.2 ± 31  μg/mL to 456.5 ± 30  μg/mL. Depending on extraction solvent content, extract obtained from 50% ethanolic solvent proved to be more potent on breast cancer MCF-7 cell line (IC50 = 68  μg/mL). On the other hand, 90% ethanolic extract showed a moderate potency on the ovarian cancer (COAV) and MCF-7 cells having an IC50 of 104.6  μg/mL each. These results suggested antiproliferative efficacy of C. citratus ethanolic extract against human cancer cell lines.

  19. Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil as a potent anti-inflammatory and antifungal drugs.

    PubMed

    Boukhatem, Mohamed Nadjib; Ferhat, Mohamed Amine; Kameli, Abdelkrim; Saidi, Fairouz; Kebir, Hadjer Tchoketch

    2014-01-01

    Volatile oils obtained from lemon grass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf, Poaceae family] are used in traditional medicine as remedies for the treatment of various diseases. In the present study, lemon grass essential oil (LGEO) was evaluated for its in vivo topical and oral anti-inflammatory effects, and for its in vitro antifungal activity using both liquid and vapor phases. The chemical profile of LGEO as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed two major components: geranial (42.2%), and neral (31.5%). The antifungal activity of LGEO was evaluated against several pathogenic yeasts and filamentous fungi using disc diffusion and vapor diffusion methods. LGEO exhibited promising antifungal effect against Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, and Aspergillus niger, with different inhibition zone diameters (IZDs) (35-90 mm). IZD increased with increasing oil volume. Significantly, higher anti-Candida activity was observed in the vapor phase. For the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect, LGEO (10 mg/kg, administered orally) significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema with a similar effect to that observed for oral diclofenac (50 mg/kg), which was used as the positive control. Oral administration of LGEO showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, topical application of LGEO in vivo resulted in a potent anti-inflammatory effect, as demonstrated by using the mouse model of croton oil-induced ear edema. To our knowledge, this is the first such report to be published. The topical application of LGEO at doses of 5 and 10 µL/ear significantly reduced acute ear edema induced by croton oil in 62.5 and 75% of the mice, respectively. In addition, histological analysis clearly confirmed that LGEO inhibits the skin inflammatory response in animal models. RESULTS of the present study indicate that LGEO has a noteworthy potential for the development of drugs for the treatment of fungal infections and skin inflammation that

  20. Evaluation of Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oil in lambs experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Katiki, L M; Chagas, A C S; Takahira, R K; Juliani, H R; Ferreira, J F S; Amarante, A F T

    2012-05-25

    Hematophagous gastrointestinal parasites cause significant economic losses in small ruminant grazing systems. The growing reports of multi-drug resistant parasites call for intensive research on alternative treatments for anthelmintics to help small ruminants cope with these parasites. Two-month-old lambs with mean body weight (BW) of 22.5 kg were experimentally infected with a multidrug-resistant Haemonchus contortus strain. Infected animals were dosed orally with Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oil to evaluate its anthelmintic potential. Eighteen animals were allocated into three groups of six animals, and each received one of the following treatments: Group 1 - control (10 mL of water), Group 2 - C. schoenanthus essential oil (180 mg/kg BW); and Group 3 - C. schoenanthus essential oil (360 mg/kg BW). Animals received the oil once a day for 3 consecutive days. Lambs were evaluated clinically for blood biochemistry before, at 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 days after treatment, and then were euthanized to assess the total worm burden. No statistically significant reduction in fecal egg count, packed cell volume or total worm count was observed after treatments. Also, no statistical difference among group means for blood levels of urea, creatinine, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and gamma glutamyl transferase was found. Larval development assay (LDA) and egg hatch assay (EHA) were performed from feces of treated animals at 1, 5, 10 and 15 days after essential oil administration. An inhibition in LDA was observed 1 day after the 3-day treatment in larvae from feces of animals treated with 360 mg/kg essential oil. In conclusion, the essential oil at the doses of 180 mg/kg and 360 mg/kg was safe to sheep, but failed as an anthelmintic treatment when applied to young sheep artificially infected with a multidrug-resistant H. contortus strain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf water extract on rat antioxidant defense system.

    PubMed

    Somparn, Nuntiya; Saenthaweesuk, Suphaket; Naowaboot, Jarinyaporn; Thaeomor, Atcharaporn

    2014-08-01

    Cymbopogon citratus, Stapf(CCS) is commonly known as lemon grass. Previous studies showed that it has a strong antioxidant property and have been traditionally used as analgesic, antipyretic, antiseptic in SoutheastAsia. However, the effect of CCS on antioxidant defense system has not been demonstrated. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of CCS water extract on rat antioxidant defense system, especially on the expression of y-glutamylcysteine ligase (γ-GCL) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). The CCS water extract was screenedfor its phytochemical contents and antioxidant activity in vitro. Moreover, the extract was studied in rats to evaluate its effects in vivo. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged eight weeks (250±20 g) were orally administered with CCS at 250, 500 and 1,000 mg/kg/day for one month. The extract contained flavonoids (496.17 mg gallic acid/g CCS extract) and phenolic compounds (4,020.18 mg catechin/g CCS extract). The scavenging activity (DPPH assay) of the extract was demonstrated by EC50 of 917.76±86.89 μg/ ml whereas the EC50 of the potent antioxidant, vitamin C was 31.22±1.84 μg/ml. In the animals, the protein expression of antioxidant enzymes, γGCL and HO-1 was significantly increased in the high dose-treated animals (1,000 mg/kg/day). This was consistent with elevation ofserum total antioxidant capacity. Taken together the present study provides evidence that CCS water extract exhibits antioxidant activity and antioxidant enzymes induction in vivo.

  2. Effects of Cymbopogon citratus and Ferula assa-foetida extracts on glutamate-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Tayeboon, Ghazaleh S; Tavakoli, Fatemeh; Hassani, Shokoufeh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Sabzevari, Omid; Ostad, S Nasser

    2013-10-01

    Many of CNS diseases can lead to a great quantity of release of glutamate and the extreme glutamate induces neuronal cell damage and death. Here, we wanted to investigate the effects of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil and Ferula assa-foetida extracts treatment on glutamate-induced cell damage in a primary culture of rat cerebellar granule neurons. Cerebellums were collected from 7-d rat brains and cerebellar granule neurons were obtained after 8-d culture. CGN cells were treated with C. citratus essential oil and F. assa-foetida extracts at concentration of 100 μg/ml before, after, and during exposure to 30 μM glutamate. The cellular viability was evaluated by 3-(4, 5-dimethytthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) staining. The flow cytometry assay was used to examine cell cycle and apoptosis. MTT assay showed a glutamate-induced reduction in cellular viability while treatment with C. citratus essential oil and F. assa-foetida extracts before, during, and after exposure to glutamate was increased. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that F. assa-foetida extracts treatment significantly (p < 0.001) attenuated glutamate-induced apoptotic/necrotic cell death and the necrotic rate was decreased by C. citratus essential oil treatment compared to glutamate group, significantly (p < 0.001). The results show that C. citratus essential oil and F. assa-foetida extracts display neuroprotective effects in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity. These extracts exert antiapoptotic activity in cerebellar granule neurons due to cell cycle arrest in G0G1 phase, which explain the beneficial effects of C. citratus essential oil and F. assa-foetida extracts as therapies for neurologic disorders.

  3. In vivo antimalarial activity of essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum gratissimum on mice infected with Plasmodium berghei.

    PubMed

    Tchoumbougnang, F; Zollo, P H; Dagne, E; Mekonnen, Y

    2005-01-01

    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from fresh leaves of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum gratissimum growing in Cameroon were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The main constituents of the oil of Ocimum gratissimum were gamma-terpinene (21.9 %), beta-phellandrene (21.1 %), limonene (11.4 %) and thymol (11.2 %), while the oil of Cymbopogon citratus contained geranial (32.8 %), neral (29.0 %), myrcene (16.2 %) and beta-pinene (10.5 %). The effects of these oils on the growth of Plasmodium berghei were investigated. Both oils showed significant antimalarial activities in the four-day suppressive in vivo test in mice. At concentrations of 200, 300 and 500 mg/kg of mouse per day, the essential oil of C. citratus produced the highest activity with the respective percentages of suppression of parasitaemia: 62.1 %, 81.7 % and 86.6 %. The corresponding values for the oil of O. gratissimum at the same concentrations were 55.0 %, 75.2 % and 77.8 %, respectively. Chloroquine (10 mg/kg of mouse, positive control) had a suppressive activity of 100 %.

  4. Effect of Citrus reticulata and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils on Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production on Asparagus racemosus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Priyanka; Shukla, Ravindra; Kumar, Ashok; Prakash, Bhanu; Singh, Shubhra; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2010-09-01

    Essential oils extracted from Citrus reticulata and Cymbopogon citratus were tested in vitro against the toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus, isolated from the tuberous roots of Asparagus racemosus, used in preparation of herbal drugs. The essential oils completely inhibited the growth of A. flavus at 750 ppm and also exhibited a broad fungitoxic spectrum against nine additional fungi isolated from the roots. Citrus reticulata and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils completely inhibited aflatoxin B(1) production at 750 and 500 ppm, respectively. During in vivo investigation, the incidence of fungi and aflatoxin B(1) production decreased considerably in essential oil-treated root samples. The findings thus indicate possible exploitation of the essential oils as effective inhibitor of aflatoxin B(1) production and as post-harvest fungitoxicant of traditionally used plant origin for the control of storage fungi. These essential oils may be recommended as plant-based antifungals as well as aflatoxin B(1) suppressors in post-harvest processing of herbal samples.

  5. Effects of Cymbopogon nardus (L.) W. Watson essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    de Billerbeck, V G; Roques, C G; Bessière, J M; Fonvieille, J L; Dargent, R

    2001-01-01

    The growth inhibitory effect of Cymbopogon nardus (L.) W. Watson var. nurdus essential oil on Aspergillus niger (Van Tieghem) mycelium was determined on agar medium. The mycelium growth was completely inhibited at 800 mg/L. This concentration was found to be lethal under the test conditions. Essential oil at 400 mg/L caused growth inhibition of 80% after 4 days of incubation, and a delay in conidiation of 4 days compared with the control. Microscopic observations were carried out to determine the ultrastructural modifications of A. niger hyphae after treatment with C. nardus essential oil. The main change observed by transmission electron microscopy concerned the hyphal diameter and the hyphal wall, which appeared markedly thinner. These modifications in cytological structure might be caused by the interference of the essential oil with the enzymes responsible for wall synthesis which disturb normal growth. Moreover, the essential oil caused plasma membrane disruption and mitochondrial structure disorganization. The findings thus indicate the possibility of exploiting Cymbopogon nardus essential oil as an effective inhibitor of biodegrading and storage-contaminating fungi.

  6. Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil as a potent anti-inflammatory and antifungal drugs

    PubMed Central

    Boukhatem, Mohamed Nadjib; Ferhat, Mohamed Amine; Kameli, Abdelkrim; Saidi, Fairouz; Kebir, Hadjer Tchoketch

    2014-01-01

    Background Volatile oils obtained from lemon grass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf, Poaceae family] are used in traditional medicine as remedies for the treatment of various diseases. Aims In the present study, lemon grass essential oil (LGEO) was evaluated for its in vivo topical and oral anti-inflammatory effects, and for its in vitro antifungal activity using both liquid and vapor phases. Methods The chemical profile of LGEO as determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis revealed two major components: geranial (42.2%), and neral (31.5%). The antifungal activity of LGEO was evaluated against several pathogenic yeasts and filamentous fungi using disc diffusion and vapor diffusion methods. Results LGEO exhibited promising antifungal effect against Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, and Aspergillus niger, with different inhibition zone diameters (IZDs) (35–90 mm). IZD increased with increasing oil volume. Significantly, higher anti-Candida activity was observed in the vapor phase. For the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect, LGEO (10 mg/kg, administered orally) significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema with a similar effect to that observed for oral diclofenac (50 mg/kg), which was used as the positive control. Oral administration of LGEO showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, topical application of LGEO in vivo resulted in a potent anti-inflammatory effect, as demonstrated by using the mouse model of croton oil-induced ear edema. To our knowledge, this is the first such report to be published. The topical application of LGEO at doses of 5 and 10 µL/ear significantly reduced acute ear edema induced by croton oil in 62.5 and 75% of the mice, respectively. In addition, histological analysis clearly confirmed that LGEO inhibits the skin inflammatory response in animal models. Conclusion Results of the present study indicate that LGEO has a noteworthy potential for the development of drugs for the treatment of

  7. Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil as a potent anti-inflammatory and antifungal drugs.

    PubMed

    Boukhatem, Mohamed Nadjib; Ferhat, Mohamed Amine; Kameli, Abdelkrim; Saidi, Fairouz; Kebir, Hadjer Tchoketch

    2014-01-01

    Background Volatile oils obtained from lemon grass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf, Poaceae family] are used in traditional medicine as remedies for the treatment of various diseases. Aims In the present study, lemon grass essential oil (LGEO) was evaluated for its in vivo topical and oral anti-inflammatory effects, and for its in vitro antifungal activity using both liquid and vapor phases. Methods The chemical profile of LGEO as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed two major components: geranial (42.2%), and neral (31.5%). The antifungal activity of LGEO was evaluated against several pathogenic yeasts and filamentous fungi using disc diffusion and vapor diffusion methods. Results LGEO exhibited promising antifungal effect against Candida albicans, C.tropicalis, and Aspergillus niger, with different inhibition zone diameters (IZDs) (35-90 mm). IZD increased with increasing oil volume. Significantly, higher anti-Candida activity was observed in the vapor phase. For the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect, LGEO (10 mg/kg, administered orally) significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema with a similar effect to that observed for oral diclofenac (50 mg/kg), which was used as the positive control. Oral administration of LGEO showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, topical application of LGEO in vivo resulted in a potent anti-inflammatory effect, as demonstrated by using the mouse model of croton oil-induced ear edema. To our knowledge, this is the first such report to be published. The topical application of LGEO at doses of 5 and 10 µL/ear significantly reduced acute ear edema induced by croton oil in 62.5 and 75% of the mice, respectively. In addition, histological analysis clearly confirmed that LGEO inhibits the skin inflammatory response in animal models. Conclusion Results of the present study indicate that LGEO has a noteworthy potential for the development of drugs for the treatment of

  8. Treatment of oral thrush in HIV/AIDS patients with lemon juice and lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) and gentian violet.

    PubMed

    Wright, S C; Maree, J E; Sibanyoni, M

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of lemon juice and lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) in the treatment of oral thrush in HIV/AIDS patients when compared with the control group using gentian violet aqueous solution 0.5%. Oral thrush is a frequent complication of HIV infection. In the Moretele Hospice, due to financial constraints, the treatment routinely given to patients with oral thrush is either lemon juice directly into the mouth or a lemon grass infusion made from lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) grown and dried at the hospice. These two remedies have been found to be very efficacious therefore are used extensively. Gentian violet, the first line medication for oral thrush in South Africa, is not preferred by the primary health clinic patients due to the visible purple stain which leads them to being stigmatized as HIV-positive. Cymbopogon citratus and Citrus limon have known antifungal properties. The study design was a randomised controlled trial. Ninety patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups: gentian violet, lemon juice or lemon grass. Inclusion criteria included being HIV-positive with a diagnosis of oral thrush. The study period was 11 days and patients were followed up every second day. International ethical principles were adhered to during the study. Of the 90 patients, 83 completed the study. In the intention-to-treat analysis, none of the p-values were significant therefore the null hypothesis could not be rejected. In the analysis of the participants who actually completed the trial, the lemon juice showed better results than the gentian violet aqueous solution 0.5% in the treatment of oral thrush in an HIV-positive population (p<0.02). The null hypothesis in terms of the lemon grass and gentian violet could also be rejected on the basis of the Chi-square test and the likelihood ratio test (p<0.05). Though the patient population was small, the use of lemon juice and lemon grass for the treatment of

  9. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon essential oil (lemon grass) and its interaction with silver ions.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Aijaz; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2015-06-01

    It is well known that Cymbopogon (lemon grass) essential oil exhibits antimicrobial activity while the efficacy of silver ions as a disinfectant is equally well reported. The antimicrobial activity of CEO and Ag(+) and their synergistic combinations will be useful in improving the current treatment strategies for various infections. In the present study, we determined the chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial activity of six different Cymbopogon essential oils (CEO's) alone and in combination with silver ions (Ag(+)) against two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis), two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Moraxella catarrhalis) and two yeast species (Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis). The nature of potential interactions was determined by fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICIs) for CEO's and Ag(+) calculated from microdilution assays and time-kill curves. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry results confirmed the presence of nerol, geranial and geraniol as major volatile compounds. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values confirmed that all the tested pathogens are variably susceptible to both CEO's as well as Ag(+). The MIC of CEO's and Ag(+) against all the tested pathogens ranged from 0.032 mg/ml to 1 mg/ml and 0.004 and 0.064 mg/ml respectively, whereas when assayed in combination the FICI values were drastically reduced to range between 0.258 and 2.186, indicating synergy, additive and indifferent interactions. The most prominent interaction was observed between Cymbopogon flexuosus essential oil and Ag(+) against C. albicans with ∑FIC = 0.254. The synergistic interactions were further confirmed through the construction of isobolograms and time-kill plots. Transmission electron microscopy showed disturbance in the cell envelope upon the concomitant treatment of CEO's and Ag(+), which ultimately leads to cell death. Results suggest that CEO's and Ag(+) when used in combination offers an opportunity

  10. Effectiveness of Cymbopogon citratus L. essential oil to inhibit the growth of some filamentous fungi and yeasts.

    PubMed

    Irkin, Reyhan; Korukluoglu, Mihriban

    2009-02-01

    Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus L.) oil has been known as having therapeutic and antibacterial properties, and its antifungal activity is currently the subject of renewed interest. This study aimed to verify the effectivenesses of C. citratus essential oil to inhibit the growth/survival of some fungi (Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, and Penicillium roquefortii) and yeasts (Candida albicans, Candida oleophila, Hansenula anomala, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomyces uvarum, and Metschnikowia fructicola). C. citratus essential oil showed effectiveness in inhibiting the growth of all fungi by disc diffusion and broth dilution bioassay. Minimum inhibitory and minimum fungicidal concentrations between 0.062 and 20 microL/mL were determined. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute agar-based method was also applied for A. niger and C. albicans. Data show the strong antifungal properties of lemon grass oil (C. citratus) in vitro.

  11. Lippia alba, Melissa officinalis and Cymbopogon citratus: effects of the aqueous extracts on the isolated hearts of rats.

    PubMed

    Gazola, Ruth; Machado, Denise; Ruggiero, Campos; Singi, Glenan; Macedo Alexandre, Mariângela

    2004-11-01

    1. This research was developed to evaluate the actions of the aqueous extracts of leaves of Lippia alba, Melissa officinalis and Cymbopogon citratus upon contractile force (CF) and cardiac rate (CR). 2. For the experiments in isolated heart, 21 male adult rats were used. The hearts were perfused according to Langendorff's method. The records of CF and CR were obtained in control and after application of the extracts. The extracts were utilized in doses: 0.038, 0.38, 3.8 and 38 mg. Results obtained were compared by statistic analyses. 3. The aqueous extracts provoked significant CR reduction and did not alter the CF. The negative CR effect may have occurred by cardiac muscarinics receptors stimulation.

  12. [Anti-Candida albicans activity of essential oils including Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) oil and its component, citral].

    PubMed

    Abe, Shigeru; Sato, Yuichi; Inoue, Shigeharu; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Maruyama, Naho; Takizawa, Toshio; Oshima, Haruyuki; Yamaguchi, Hideyo

    2003-01-01

    The effects of 12 essential oils, popularly used as antifungal treatments in aromatherapy, on growth of Candida albicans were investigated. Mycelial growth of C. albicans, which is known to give the fungus the capacity to invade mucosal tissues, was inhibited in the medium containing 100 micro g/ml of the oils: lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), patchouli (Pogostemon cablin) and cedarwood (Cedrus atlantica). Not only lemongrass oil but also citral, a major component of lemongrass oil (80%), in the range of 25 and 200 micro g/ml inhibited the mycelial growth but allowed yeast-form growth. More than 200 micro g/ml of citral clearly inhibited both mycelial and yeast-form growth of C. albicans. These results provide experimental evidence suggesting the potential value of lemongrass oil for the treatment of oral or vaginal candidiasis.

  13. GC-MS evaluation of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf oil obtained using modified hydrodistillation and microwave extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, E O; Sadimenko, A P; Afolayan, A J

    2016-10-15

    Bioactive compounds of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil, using different media have been tentatively identified with the aid of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Hydrodistillation was complemented using weakly acidic and alkaline media for the oil extraction. Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) was also used. Analyses of the oils revealed the presence of 7, 16, 22, and 15 compounds in the water-distilled (WD), microwave-distilled (MD), acid-distilled (AD), and base-distilled (BD), essential oils, respectively. Total yield of the volatile fractions was 0.73%, 0.64%, 0.70%, and 0.45%, respectively. Citral was found to be the major component, the base extraction having the highest content. This was followed by 2-isopropenyl-5-methylhex-4-enal, p-cymene, and 2-thujene. The antimicrobial, antibacterial, and antioxidant activities and assessment of medicinal/nutritional uses of the essential oils are subjects of future studies.

  14. Comparative chemical and analgesic properties of essential oils of Cymbopogon nardus (L) Rendle of Benin and Congo.

    PubMed

    Abena, A A; Gbenou, J D; Yayi, E; Moudachirou, M; Ongoka, R P; Ouamba, J M; Silou, T

    2007-02-16

    The chemical and analgesic comparison of essential oils of Cymbopogon nardus (L) Rendle of Benin and Congo was investigated. The chemical analysis wa carried out by using GS/MS for identification of components of the two essential oils while acetic acid-induced writhings, hot plate and tail flick test models were used for analgesic activity. The results showed that the two essential oils exhibited comparable activity on acetic acid-induced writhings, however, the essential oil of Benin induced more significant effect on hot plate model while the Congolese specie showed more effect in the tail flick test. These observations could be explained by some qualitative and/or quantitative differences observed between the constituents of the two essential oils studied.

  15. Bioactivity against Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) of Cymbopogon citratus and Eucalyptus citriodora essential oils grown in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesús; Nerio, Luz S; Stashenko, Elena E

    2010-06-01

    Essential oils isolated from Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. and Eucalyptus citriodora Hook grown in Colombia were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and tested for repellent activity and contact toxicity against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). The main components of C. citratus oil were geranial (34.4%), neral (28.4%) and geraniol (11.5%), whereas those of E. citriodora were citronellal (40%), isopulegol (14.6%) and citronellol (13%). The mean repellent doses after 4 h exposure were 0.021 and 0.084 mL L(-1) for C. citratus and E. citriodora oils respectively-values lower than that observed for the commercial product IR3535 (0.686 mL L(-1)). These studies showed the composition and repellent activity of essential oils of C. citratus and E. citriodora, suggesting that these are potential candidates as insect repellents.

  16. Anti-inflammatory activity of Cymbopogon citratus leaves infusion via proteasome and nuclear factor-κB pathway inhibition: contribution of chlorogenic acid.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Vera; Costa, Gustavo; Figueirinha, Artur; Marques, Carla; Pereira, Paulo; Miguel Neves, Bruno; Celeste Lopes, Maria; García-Rodríguez, Carmen; Teresa Cruz, Maria; Teresa Batista, Maria

    2013-06-21

    Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf leaves infusion is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammatory conditions, however little is known about their bioactive compounds. Investigate the compounds responsible for anti-inflammatory potential of Cymbopogon citratus (Cy) on cytokines production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in human and mouse macrophages, and the action mechanisms involved. An essential oil-free infusion of Cy was prepared and polyphenol-rich fractions (PFs) were obtained from it by column chromatography. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) was identified, by HPLC/PDA/ESI-MS(n). The expression of cytokines, namely TNF-α and CCL5, was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR, on LPS-stimulated human macrophages. Activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, a master regulator of inflammation, was investigated by western blot and gene reporter assay. Proteasome activity was assessed using a fluorogenic peptide. Cymbopogon citratus extract and its polyphenols inhibited the cytokine production on human macrophages. This supports the anti-inflammatory activity of Cy polyphenols in physiologically relevant cells. Concerning the effect on the activation of NF-κB pathway, the results pointed to an inhibition of LPS-induced NF-κB activation by Cy and PFs. CGA was identified, by HPLC/PDA/ESI-MS(n), as the main phenolic acid of the Cy infusion, and it demonstrated to be, at least in part, responsible by that effect. Additionally, it was verified for the first time that Cy and PFs inhibited the proteasome activity, a complex that controls NF-κB activation, having CGA a strong contribution. The results evidenced, for the first time, the anti-inflammatory properties of Cymbopogon citratus through proteasome inhibition and, consequently NF-κB pathway and cytokine expression. Additionally, Cy polyphenols, in particular chlorogenic acid, were highlighted as bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of Trace Metal Profile in Cymbopogon validus and Hyparrhenia hirta Used as Traditional Herbs from Environmentally Diverse Region of Komga, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tembeni, Babalwa; Oyedeji, Adebola O.

    2016-01-01

    FAAS was used for the analysis of trace metals in fresh and dry plant parts of Cymbopogon validus and Hyparrhenia hirta species with the aim of determining the trace metals concentrations in selected traditional plants consumed in Eastern Cape, South Africa. The trace metal concentration (mg/kg) in the samples of dry Cymbopogon validus leaves (DCVL) showed Cu of 12.40 ± 1.000; Zn of 2.42 ± 0.401; Fe of 2.50 ± 0.410; Mn of 1.31 ± 0.210; Pb of 3.36 ± 0.401 mg/kg, while the samples of fresh Hyparrhenia hirta flowers (FHHF) gave Cu of 9.77 ± 0.610; Zn of 0.70 ± 0.200; Fe of 2.11 ± 0.200; Mn of 1.15 ± 0.080; Pb of 3.15 ± 0.100 mg/kg. Abundance of metal concentrations follows the order: Cu > Fe > Pb > Mn > Zn in the flower samples of Cymbopogon validus and Hyparrhenia hirta species. The concentrations of trace metals in both plant parts were below the permissible limits (PL) set by WHO. It is suggested that pharmacovigilance be carried out periodically to improve the quality, safety, and efficiency of various herbal products. PMID:27795868

  18. The GABAergic system contributes to the anxiolytic-like effect of essential oil from Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass).

    PubMed

    Costa, Celso A Rodrigues de Almeida; Kohn, Daniele Oliveira; de Lima, Valéria Martins; Gargano, André Costa; Flório, Jorge Camilo; Costa, Mirtes

    2011-09-01

    The essential oil (EO) from Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf is reported to have a wide range of biological activities and is widely used in traditional medicine as an infusion or decoction. However, despite this widely use, there are few controlled studies confirming its biological activity in central nervous system. The anxiolytic-like activity of the EO was investigated in light/dark box (LDB) and marble-burying test (MBT) and the antidepressant activity was investigated in forced-swimming test (FST) in mice. Flumazenil, a competitive antagonist of benzodiazepine binding and the selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist WAY100635 was used in experimental procedures to determine the action mechanism of EO. To exclude any false positive results in experimental procedures, mice were submitted to the rota-rod test. We also quantified some neurotransmitters at specific brain regions after EO oral acute treatment. The present work found anxiolytic-like activity of the EO at the dose of 10mg/kg in a LDB. Flumazenil, but not WAY100635, was able to reverse the effect of the EO in the LDB, indicating that the EO activity occurs via the GABA(A) receptor-benzodiazepine complex. Only at higher doses did the EO potentiate diethyl-ether-induced sleeping time in mice. In the FST and MBT, EO showed no effect. Finally, the increase in time spent in the light chamber, demonstrated by concomitant treatment with ineffective doses of diazepam (DZP) and the EO, revealed a synergistic effect of the two compounds. The lack of activity after long-term treatment in the LDB test might be related to tolerance induction, even in the DZP-treated group. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between groups after either acute or repeated treatments with the EO in the rota-rod test. Neurochemical evaluation showed no amendments in neurotransmitter levels evaluated in cortex, striatum, pons, and hypothalamus. The results corroborate the use of Cymbopogon citratus in folk medicine and

  19. In vitro activity of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus and its major component (citral) on Leishmania amazonensis.

    PubMed

    Santin, Marta Regina; dos Santos, Adriana Oliveira; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Ferreira, Izabel Cristina Piloto; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia

    2009-11-01

    Leishmaniasis causes considerable mortality throughout the world, affecting more than 12 million people. Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf, Family Poaceae, is a widely used herb in tropical countries and is also known as a source of ethnomedicines. In this study, the inhibitory effect and the morphological and ultrastructural alterations on Leishmania amazonensis by the essential oil (EO) of C. citratus and its main constituent, citral, were evaluated. The results showed that the antiproliferative activity of EO on promastigotes and axenic amastigotes, and intracellular amastigote forms of L. amazonensis was significantly better than citral, and indicated a dose-dependent effect. Neither compound showed a cytotoxic effect on macrophage strain J774G8. The promastigote forms of L. amazonensis underwent remarkable morphological and ultrastructural alterations compared with untreated cultures. These alterations were visible by light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy of promastigotes treated with EO and citral at concentrations corresponding to the IC(50) (1.7 and 8.0 microg/ml) and IC(90) (3.2 and 25 microg/ml), respectively, after 72 h of incubation. This study revealed that citral-rich essential oil from C. citratus has promising antileishmanial properties, and is a good candidate for further research to develop a new anti-protozoan drug.

  20. Effects of Cymbopogon citratus L. essential oil on the growth, lipid content and morphogenesis of Aspergillus niger ML2-strain.

    PubMed

    Helal, G A; Sarhan, M M; Abu Shahla, A N K; Abou El-Khair, E K

    2006-01-01

    The mycelial growth of Aspergillus niger van Tieghem was completely inhibited using 1.5 (microl/ml or 2.0 (microl/ml of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil applied by fumigation or contact method in Czapek liquid medium, respectively. This oil was found also to be fungicidal at the same concentrations. The sublethal doses 1.0 and 1.5 (microl/ml inhibited about 70% of fungal growth after five days of incubation and delayed conidiation as compared with the control. Microscopic observations using Light Microscope (LM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) were carried out to determine the ultra structural modifications of A. niger hyphae after treatment with C. citratus essential oil. The hyphal diameter and hyphal wall appeared markedly thinner. This oil also caused plasma membrane disruption and mitochondrial structure disorganization. Moreover, Ca+2, K+ and Mg+2 leakages increased from the fumigated mycelium and its total lipid content decreased, while the saturated fatty acids decreased and unsaturated fatty acids increased. These findings increase the possibility of exploiting C. citratus essential oil as an effective inhibitor of biodegrading and storage contaminating fungi and in fruit juice preservation.

  1. Effect of Cymbopogon citratus L. essential oil on growth and morphogenesis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ML2-strain.

    PubMed

    Helal, G A; Sarhan, M M; Abu Shahla, A N K; Abou El-Khair, E K

    2006-01-01

    The growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was completely inhibited using 2.0 microl/ml or 4.0 microl/ml of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil applied by fumigation or contact method in Sabouraud's broth medium, respectively. This oil was found also to be fungicidal at the same concentrations. The sublethal doses 1.0 and 3.0 microl/ml inhibited about 98% of yeast growth after 24 hr of incubation as compared with the control. Microscopic observations using Light Microscope (LM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) showed morphogenic and ultrastructure changes in the fumigated cells with 1.0 microl/ml of the oil. These changes including decrease in cell size, depressions on the surface of the cells, alteration in cell wall thickness and disruption of plasma membrane. Moreover, Ca(+2), K(+) and Mg(+2) leakages increased from the fumigated cells and its total lipid content decreased. Also, the fatty acid composition was altered with decrease in the amount of saturated fatty acids and increase in the amount of unsaturated fatty acids.

  2. Effect of Inhaling Cymbopogon martinii Essential Oil and Geraniol on Serum Biochemistry Parameters and Oxidative Stress in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Bruna Fernanda Murbach Teles; Braga, Camila Pereira; dos Santos, Klinsmann Carolo; Barbosa, Lidiane Nunes; Rall, Vera Lúcia Mores; Sforcin, José Maurício; Fernandes, Ana Angélica Henrique; Fernandes Júnior, Ary

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the inhalation of Cymbopogon martinii essential oil (EO) and geraniol on Wistar rats were evaluated for biochemical parameters and hepatic oxidative stress. Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 8): G1 was control group, treated with saline solution; G2 received geraniol; and G3 received C. martinii EO by inhalation during 30 days. No significant differences were observed in glycemia and triacylglycerol levels; G2 and G3 decreased (P < 0.05) total cholesterol level. There were no differences in serum protein, urea, aspartate aminotransferase activity, and total hepatic protein. Creatinine levels increased in G2 but decreased in G3. Alanine aminotransferase activity and lipid hydroperoxide were higher in G2 than in G3. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were higher in G3. C. martinii EO and geraniol increased glutathione peroxidase. Oxidative stress caused by geraniol may have triggered some degree of hepatic toxicity, as verified by the increase in serum creatinine and alanine aminotransferase. Therefore, the beneficial effects of EO on oxidative stress can prevent the toxicity in the liver. This proves possible interactions between geraniol and numerous chemical compounds present in C. martinii EO. PMID:25574396

  3. Effects of Cymbopogon citratus L. essential oil on the growth, morphogenesis and aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus ML2-strain.

    PubMed

    Helal, G A; Sarhan, M M; Abu Shahla, A N K; Abou El-Khair, E K

    2007-02-01

    The mycelial growth of Aspergillus flavus Link was completely inhibited using 1.5 (microl/ml or 2.0 (microl/ml of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil applied by fumigation or contact method in Czapek's liquid medium, respectively. This oil was found also to be fungicidal at the same concentrations. The sublethal doses 1.0 and 1.5 (microl/ml inhibited about 65% of fungal growth after five days of incubation and delayed conidiation as compared with the control. Microscopic observations using Light Microscope (LM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) were carried out to determine the ultra structural modifications of A. flavus hyphae after treatment with C. citratus essential oil. The hyphal diameter decreased and hyphal wall appeared as precipitates and disappeared in some regions. This oil also caused plasma membrane disruption and mitochondrial structure disorganization. Moreover, Ca(+2), K(+) and Mg(+2) leakages increased from the fumigated mycelium and its total lipid content decreased, while the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids increased. One of the most important results obtained during this study was the ability of C. citratus essential oil at its sublethal dose to completely inhibit aflatoxin B(1) production from A. flavus. These findings increase the possibility of exploiting C. citratus essential oil as an effective inhibitor of biodegradation and storage contaminating fungi and also in fruit juice preservation.

  4. Inhibitory effect of three C-glycosylflavonoids from Cymbopogon citratus (Lemongrass) on human low density lipoprotein oxidation.

    PubMed

    Orrego, Roxana; Leiva, Elba; Cheel, José

    2009-09-30

    This study assessed the inhibitory effect of three C-glycosylflavonoids from Cymbopogon citratus leaves--isoorientin (1), swertiajaponin (2) and isoorientin 2"-Orhamnoside (3)--on human LDL oxidation. Isolated LDL was incubated with compounds 1-3 and the kinetics of lipid peroxidation were assessed by conjugated diene and malondialdehyde-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (MDA-TBARS) formation after addition of copper ions. Significant differences (p < 0.05) between the lag time phase of the control and the lag time phase in the presence of the compounds 1 (0.25 microM) and 2 (0.50 microM) were observed. After five hours of incubation all three compounds showed a significant inhibitory effect on MDA-TBARS formation with respect to the control. After six hours of incubation only compound 1 kept a remarkable antioxidant effect. This study demonstrates that isoorientin (1) is an effective inhibitor of in vitro LDL oxidation. As oxidative damage to LDL is a key event in the formation of atherosclerotic lesions, the use of this natural antioxidant may be beneficial to prevent or attenuate atherosclerosis.

  5. Anti-inflammatory activity of Cymbopogon citratus leaf infusion in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated dendritic cells: contribution of the polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Figueirinha, Artur; Cruz, Maria Teresa; Francisco, Vera; Lopes, M Celeste; Batista, Maria Teresa

    2010-06-01

    Cymbopogon citratus, an herb known worldwide as lemongrass, is widely consumed as an aromatic drink, and its fresh and dried leaves are currently used in traditional cuisine. However, little is known about the mechanism of action of C. citratus, namely, the anti-inflammatory effects of its dietary components. Because nitric oxide (NO), produced in large quantities by activated inflammatory cells, has been demonstrated to be involved in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic inflammation, we evaluated the effects of the infusion of dried leaves from C. citratus, as well as its polyphenolic fractions--flavonoid-, tannin-, and phenolic acid-rich fractions (FF, TF, and PAF, respectively)--on the NO production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a skin-derived dendritic cell line (FSDC). C. citratus infusion significantly inhibited the LPS-induced NO production and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) protein expression. All the polyphenolic fractions tested also reduced the iNOS protein levels and NO production stimulated by LPS in FSDC cells, without affecting cell viability, with the strongest effects being observed for the fractions with mono- and polymeric flavonoids (FF and TF, respectively). Our results also indicated that the anti-inflammatory properties of FF are mainly due to luteolin glycosides. In conclusion, C. citratus has NO scavenging activity and inhibits iNOS expression and should be explored for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, in particular of the gastrointestinal tract.

  6. A novel ionic amphiphilic chitosan derivative as a stabilizer of nanoemulsions: Improvement of antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil.

    PubMed

    Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Sandri, Giuseppina; Rossi, Silvia; Usai, Donatella; Liakos, Ioannis; Garzoni, Alice; Fiamma, Maura; Zanetti, Stefania; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Caramella, Carla; Ferrari, Franca

    2017-04-01

    Amphiphilic chitosans have been recently proposed to improve delivery of poorly soluble drugs. In the present paper a derivative obtained by ionic interaction between chitosan and oleic acid was for the first time studied to physically stabilize o/w nanoemulsions of an antimicrobial essential oil, Cymbopogon citratus (Lemongrass), in a low energy and mild conditions emulsification process. The novel combination of spontaneous emulsification process with chitosan oleate amphiphilic properties resulted in a stable dispersion of a few hundred nanometer droplets. Positive zeta potential confirmed the presence of a chitosan shell around the oil droplets, which is responsible for the nanoemulsion physical stabilization and for the maintenance of chitosan bioactive properties, such as mucoadhesion. Cytotoxicity test was performed on four different cell lines (HEp-2, Caco-2, WKD and McCoy cells) showing biocompatibility of the system. The maintenance and in some cases even a clear improvement in the essential oil antimicrobial activity towards nine bacterial and ten fungal strains, all of clinical relevance was verified for Lemongrass nanoemulsion.

  7. Biochemical characteristics of a novel vegetative tissue geraniol acetyltransferase from a monoterpene oil grass (Palmarosa, Cymbopogon martinii var. Motia) leaf.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pankaj K; Sangwan, Neelam S; Bose, Subir K; Sangwan, Rajender S

    2013-04-01

    Plants synthesize volatile alcohol esters on environmental insult or as metabolic induction during flower/fruit development. However, essential oil plants constitutively produce them as the oil constituents. Their synthesis is catalyzed by BAHD family enzymes called alcohol acyltransferases (AATs). However, no AAT has been characterized from plant foliage synthesizing acyclic monoterpenoids containing essential oils. Therefore, we have purified and biochemically characterized a geraniol: acetyl coenzyme A acetyltransferase (GAAT) from Palmarosa aroma grass (Cymbopogon martinii) leaf. MALDI-assisted proteomic study of the 43kDa monomeric enzyme revealed its sequence motif novelties e.g. relaxed conservation at Phe and Trp in DFGWG'. This suggests permissiveness of variations in the conserved motif without loss of catalytic ability. Also, some new conserved/semi-conserved motifs of AATs were recognized. The GAAT k(cat)/K(m) values (300-700M(-1)s(-1)) were low (a generic characteristic for secondary metabolism enzyme) but higher than those of some floral AATs. Wide substrate acceptability for catalyzing acetylation of diverse primary alcohols (chain of ≥C(6)) implied its catalytic description as a 'primary aliphatic alcohol acetyltransferase'. It signifies metabolic ability to deliver diverse aroma esters, should the acceptor alcohols be available in planta. To our knowledge, this is the first report of detailed kinetics of a vegetal monoterpenol acyltransferase.

  8. Flavan hetero-dimers in the Cymbopogon citratus infusion tannin fraction and their contribution to the antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Costa, Gustavo; González-Manzano, Susana; González-Paramás, Ana; Figueiredo, Isabel Vitória; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Batista, Maria Teresa

    2015-03-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) leaf infusion, a commonly used ingredient in Asian, African and Latin American cuisines, is also used in traditional medicine for the treatment of several pathological conditions; however, little is known about their bioactive compounds. Recent studies revealed the crucial role of the phenolic compounds namely flavonoids and tannins on the infusion bioactivity. Flavonoids have already been characterized; however the tannin fraction of lemongrass infusion is still uncharted. The aim of the present work is to characterize this fraction, and to evaluate its contribution to the antioxidant potential of this plant. Chemical characterization was achieved by HPLC-DAD-ESI/tandem MS and the antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays. Hetero-dimeric flavan structures have been described for the first time in lemongrass consisting of apigeniflavan or luteoliflavan units linked to a flavanone, either naringenin or eriodictyol, which may occur as aglycone or glycosylated forms. The antioxidant capacity of the fraction containing these compounds was significantly higher than the infusion, indicating its potential as a source of natural antioxidants.

  9. Fumigant Antifungal Activity of Corymbia citriodora and Cymbopogon nardus Essential Oils and Citronellal against Three Fungal Species

    PubMed Central

    Aguiar, Raimundo Wagner de S.; Ootani, Marcio A.; Ascencio, Sérgio Donizeti; Ferreira, Talita P. S.; dos Santos, Manoel M.; dos Santos, Gil R.

    2014-01-01

    Corymbia citriodora and Cymbopogon nardus essential oils samples were analyzed by GC and GC-MS and their qualitative and quantitative compositions established. The main component of essential oils of C. citriodora and C. nardus was citronellal, at 61.78% and 36.6%, respectively. The essential oils and citronellal were tested for their fumigant antifungal activity against Pyricularia (Magnaporthe) grisea, Aspergillus spp., and Colletotrichum musae. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranged from 100 to 200 ppm for the essential oils and 25 to 50 mg·mL−1 for citronellal. The contact assay using the essential oils and citronellal showed growth inhibition of the three fungal species. However, a concentration of 1.47 mg·mL−1 only reduced the inhibition of Aspergillus growth to 90% at 14 days of exposure. For the fumigant assay, 0.05, 0.11, and 0.23 mg·mL−1 of essential oils and citronellal drastically affected growth of P. grisea, Aspergillus spp., and C. musae. Harmful effects on the sporulation and germination of the three fungi were seen, and there was complete inhibition at 0.15 mg·mL−1 with both oils and citronellal. This showed that the crude component of essential oils of C. citriodora and C. nardus markedly suppressed spore production, germination, and growth inhibition of P. grisea, Aspergillus spp., and Colletotrichum musae. PMID:24600325

  10. Cymbopogon martinii essential oil and geraniol at noncytotoxic concentrations exerted immunomodulatory/anti-inflammatory effects in human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Murbach Teles Andrade, Bruna Fernanda; Conti, Bruno José; Santiago, Karina Basso; Fernandes Júnior, Ary; Sforcin, José Maurício

    2014-10-01

    In traditional medicine, plants have formed the basis of sophisticated systems that have been in existence for thousands of years and still provide mankind with new remedies. Cymbopogon martinii, known as palmarosa, has been used in aromatherapy as a skin tonic due to its antimicrobial properties. It has also used in Ayurvedic medicine for skin problems and to relieve nerve pain. The immunomodulatory action of C. martinii essential oil (EO) and geraniol was evaluated regarding the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-10, respectively) by human monocytes in vitro. Monocyte cultures were incubated with EO or geraniol. After 18 h, cytotoxicity assays were performed using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method, and cytokine production was determined by ELISA. The variables showed no cytotoxic effects on monocytes. TNF-α production was not affected by C. martinii and geraniol, and only the concentration of 5 μg/ml of C. martinii stimulated its production. On the other hand, all concentrations of C. martinii and geraniol increased IL-10 production by human monocytes. Data showed that noncytotoxic concentrations of EO and geraniol exerted an anti-inflammatory action by increasing IL-10 production; moreover, geraniol seemed to be probably responsible for EO immunomodulatory activity in our assay condition. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  11. Effect of the Cymbopogon citratus, Maytenus ilicifolia and Baccharis genistelloides extracts against the stannous chloride oxidative damage in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Melo, S F; Soares, S F; da Costa, R F; da Silva, C R; de Oliveira, M B; Bezerra, R J; Caldeira-de-Araújo, A; Bernardo-Filho, M

    2001-09-20

    Stannous ion has been used in different sectors of human interest, such as in food industry and in health sciences. Much is known about stannous chloride (SnCl(2)) toxicity, although, there is no general agreement regarding its genotoxicity. Cymbopogon citratus, Maytenus ilicifolia and Baccharis genistelloides extracts have been used in popular medicine. We evaluated the influence of these crude extracts on the survival of the Escherichia coli wild type (AB 1157) strain submitted to SnCl(2) treatment. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be generated by a Fenton like reaction induced by SnCl(2). E. coli culture was treated simultaneously with SnCl(2) and a specific extract. Our results showed a reduction of the SnCl(2) effect on the survival of the cultures in presence of the crude extracts. The extract of M. ilicifolia showed the highest level of protection action against the SnCl(2) effect in comparison with the other extracts. This protector effect could due to the redox properties of these crude extracts. The compounds in the crude extracts could (i) chelate stannous ions, protecting them against the oxidation and avoiding the generation of ROS, (ii) be a scavenger of the ROS generated by the SnCl(2) oxidation and/or (iii) have oxidant compounds that could oxidise the stannous ions, abolishing or reducing the SnCl(2) effect.

  12. Toxicity and gastric tolerance of essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Ocimum basilicum in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Fandohan, P; Gnonlonfin, B; Laleye, A; Gbenou, J D; Darboux, R; Moudachirou, M

    2008-07-01

    Oils of Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Ocimum basilicum are widely used for their medicinal properties, and as food flavours and perfumes. Recently in a study in West Africa, these oils have been recommended to combat Fusarium verticillioides and subsequent fumonisin contamination in stored maize, but their toxicological profile was not investigated. The current study was undertaken to provide data on acute and subacute toxicity as well as on gastric tolerance of these oils in rat. For this purpose, the oils were given by gavage to Wistar rats for 14 consecutive days. The animals were observed daily for their general behaviour and survival, and their visceral organs such as stomach and liver were taken after sacrifice for histological analyses. A dose-dependent effect of the tested oils was observed during the study. Applied at doses generally higher than 1500 mg/kg body weight, the oils caused significant functional damages to stomach and liver of rat. Unlike the other oils, administration of O. gratissimum oil did not result in adverse effects in rat liver at the tested doses. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of the tested oils has been established. The three tested oils can be considered as safe to human when applied on stored maize at recommended concentrations.

  13. Fumigant antifungal activity of Corymbia citriodora and Cymbopogon nardus essential oils and citronellal against three fungal species.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Raimundo Wagner de S; Ootani, Marcio A; Ascencio, Sérgio Donizeti; Ferreira, Talita P S; Dos Santos, Manoel M; dos Santos, Gil R

    2014-01-01

    Corymbia citriodora and Cymbopogon nardus essential oils samples were analyzed by GC and GC-MS and their qualitative and quantitative compositions established. The main component of essential oils of C. citriodora and C. nardus was citronellal, at 61.78% and 36.6%, respectively. The essential oils and citronellal were tested for their fumigant antifungal activity against Pyricularia (Magnaporthe) grisea, Aspergillus spp., and Colletotrichum musae. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranged from 100 to 200 ppm for the essential oils and 25 to 50 mg · mL(-1) for citronellal. The contact assay using the essential oils and citronellal showed growth inhibition of the three fungal species. However, a concentration of 1.47 mg · mL(-1) only reduced the inhibition of Aspergillus growth to 90% at 14 days of exposure. For the fumigant assay, 0.05, 0.11, and 0.23 mg · mL(-1) of essential oils and citronellal drastically affected growth of P. grisea, Aspergillus spp., and C. musae. Harmful effects on the sporulation and germination of the three fungi were seen, and there was complete inhibition at 0.15 mg · mL(-1) with both oils and citronellal. This showed that the crude component of essential oils of C. citriodora and C. nardus markedly suppressed spore production, germination, and growth inhibition of P. grisea, Aspergillus spp., and Colletotrichum musae.

  14. Treatment of pityriasis versicolor with topical application of essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf - therapeutic pilot study.

    PubMed

    Carmo, Egberto Santos; Pereira, Fillipe de Oliveira; Cavalcante, Neuza Maria; Gayoso, Carla Wanderley; Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Pityriasis versicolor is a fungal infection caused by Malassezia spp. that has frequent relapses. The main objective of this research was to perform phase I and II clinical studies, using formulations containing essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus in patients with pityriasis versicolor. Phase I study included twenty volunteers to ascertain the safety of the formulations. In phase II, 47 volunteers randomly received essential oil formulations at 1.25 μL/mL concentration, for forty days. The shampoo should be applied three times a week and the cream twice a day. A control group in phase II, consisting of 29 volunteers, received the same formulations but with 2% ketoconazole as the active ingredient. No significant adverse events were observed in volunteers during Phase I. In Phase II, 30 (63.83%) volunteers using essential oil and 18 (62.07%) using ketoconazole remained until the end of the study. We observed a predominance of lesions in disseminated form, with M. sympodialis detected as the predominant agent identified in cultures. After 40 days of treatment, the rate of mycological cure was 60% (p <0.05) for the group treated with essential oil of C. citratus and over 80% (p <0.05) for the group treated with ketoconazole formulations. Notwithstanding the safety and antifungal effects observed in this study after application of formulations containing the essential oil of C. citratus, further studies with larger populations should be performed to confirm the actual potential of these formulations in the treatment of patients with Pityriasis versicolor.

  15. Antioxidant potential of Cymbopogon citratus extract: alleviation of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic oxidative stress and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Koh, Pei Hoon; Mokhtar, Ruzaidi Azli Mohd; Iqbal, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Cymbopogon citratus against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-mediated hepatic oxidative damage in rats. Rats were administrated with C. citratus extract (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg b.w.) for 14 days before the challenge of CCl(4) (1.2 ml/kg b.w. p.o) on 13th and 14th days. Hepatic damage was evaluated by employing serum biochemical parameters (alanine aminotransferase-ALT, aspartate aminotransferase-AST and lactate dehydrogenase-LDH), malondialdehye (MDA) level, reduced GSH and antioxidant enzymes (catalase: CAT, glutathione peroxidase: GPX, quinone reductase: QR, glutathione S-transferase: GST, glutathione reductase: GR, glucose-6-phosphate dehyrogenase: G6PD). In addition, CCl(4)-mediated hepatic damage was further evaluated by histopathological examination. However, most of these changes were alleviated by prophylactic treatment of animals with C. citratus dose dependently (p < 0.05). The protection was further evident through decreased histopathological alterations in liver. The results of the present study indicated that the hepatoprotective effect of C. citratus might be ascribable to its antioxidant and free radical scavenging property.

  16. Efficacy of some essential oils and their constituents on few ubiquitous molds.

    PubMed

    Sarbhoy, A K; Varshney, J L; Maheshwari, M L; Saxena, D B

    1978-01-01

    Six essential oils of Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Anethum sowa, Cymbopogon winterianus, Nardostachys jatamansi, and Commiphora mukul were selected and tested for their efficacy against Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. sulphureus, Mucor fragilis, and Rhizopus stolonifer. These oils were fungistatic or fungicidal to one or the other molds, depending upon the concentrations.

  17. Use of dimethyldioxirane in the epoxidation of the main constituents of the essential oils obtained from Tagetes lucida, Cymbopogon citratus, Lippia alba and Eucalyptus citriodora.

    PubMed

    Veloza, Luz A; Orozco, Lina M; Sepúlveda-Arias, Juan C

    2011-07-01

    Dimethyldioxirane (DMDO), a widely used oxidant in organic synthesis is considered an environmentally friendly oxygen transfer reagent because acetone is the only byproduct formed in its oxidation reactions. This work describes the isolation of the main constituents (terpenes) in the essential oils obtained from Tagetes lucida, Cymbopogon citratus, Lippia alba and Eucalyptus citriodora, their epoxidation with DMDO in acetone solution and the characterization of the resulting epoxides by GC-MS (EI) and NMR. This is one of the first reports involving the application of dioxirane chemistry to essential oils in order to generate modified compounds with potential uses in several areas of medicine and industry.

  18. Data showing chemical compositions of the essential oils of the leaves of Cymbopogon citratus obtained by varying pH of the extraction medium.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, E O; Sadimenko, A P; Afolayan, A J

    2016-09-01

    This article describes the various chemical components as obtained from the oils in the leaves of Cymbopogon citratus using hydrodistillation and solvent-free microwave extraction methods. Furthermore, extractions of the oils were also carried out with a slight in pH variation and compared, "GC-MS evaluation of C. citratus (DC) Stapf oil obtained using modified hydrodistillation and microwave extraction methods" (Ajayi et al., 2016 [1]). The current article contains one table exhibiting a list of compounds in the four different methods of extraction. Comparative studies amongst the various methods of extraction are highlighted in the table.

  19. Pharmacology of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf). II. Effects of daily two month administration in male and female rats and in offspring exposed "in utero".

    PubMed

    Souza Formigoni, M L; Lodder, H M; Gianotti Filho, O; Ferreira, T M; Carlini, E A

    1986-07-01

    An infusion (abafado) prepared from leaves of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf) administered orally to adult rats for 2 months, in doses up to 20 times larger than the estimated corresponding human dosage, did not induce any effect which could be taken as evidence of toxicity. An absence of effects was also noted in male and female rats and in their offspring when the abafado was administered prior to mating or during pregnancy. These data strongly suggest that lemongrass, as used in Brazilian folk medicine, has no toxic properties.

  20. Phytomedical assessment of two Cymbopogon species found in Nkonkobe Municipality: toxicological effect on human Chang liver cell line.

    PubMed

    Omoruyi, Beauty E; Muchenje, Voster

    2017-06-02

    Cymbopogon species are widely used as herbal remedies by the traditional healers living in Nkonkobe Municipality for the treatment and management of skin and respiratory infections. According to our survey, the plants seem to be very important because of the higher demands. The leaves of C. validis and C. plurinodis were hydro-distilled and the resulted extracted oils were analyzed by GC/MS. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 7.8 to 500.0 μg/ml of the extracted oils were tested against eight bacterial strains, using micro-well dilution method. The human Chang liver cell viability was determined using the CellTiter-Blue cell assay. GC-MS analysis of the C. validis essential oil amounted to 87.03%, major components identified were Linalyl alcohol (18.9%), 2-Nephthalenemethanol (6.67%), Longifolene (6.53%), Cubedol (6.08%). Total oil percentage of C. plurinodis was 81.47% and the main components were characterized as 3-Cyclohexane-1-ol (13.58%), Nerolidol (13.6%) and 2-Carene (12.6%). The essential oils from both plants were found to be active against the growth of Gram positive than the Gram negative bacterial tested. Lethal dose at 50 (LD50) of both plants showed 74.87 ± 1.41 and 81.66 ± 1.40 degree of toxicity at 24 h. Both plants extracts were toxic to human Chang liver cell lines.

  1. Inhibitory activity of Syzygium aromaticum and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in bovine ground meat.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Thales Leandro Coutinho; das Graças Cardoso, Maria; de Araújo Soares, Rodrigo; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes; Piccoli, Roberta Hilsdorf; Tebaldi, Victor Maximiliano Reis

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated the antimicrobial effect of the clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.) essential oils (EOs) against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117 growth added to bovine ground meat stored under refrigeration (5 ± 2 °C) for three days. The EOs, extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), were tested in vitro using an agar well diffusion methodology for determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). The MIC concentrations for both essential oils on culture tested of L. monocytogenes were 1.56%. The EOs concentrations applied in contaminated ground beef were 1.56, 3.125 and 6.25% (w/v) based on MIC levels and possible activity reductions by food constituents. The bacteria populations were significantly reduced (p ≤ 0.05) after one day of storage in ground meat samples treated with clove and lemongrass EOs at concentrations of 1.56%. There were no significant counts of L. monocytogenes in samples at the other concentrations of the two oils applied after the second day of storage. The sensory acceptability evaluation of the bovine ground meat samples treated with EOs showed that the addition at concentrations higher than 1.56% promote undesirable alterations of taste, odor and characteristic color. The application of EOs at low concentrations in food products can be used in combination with other preservation methods, such as refrigeration, to control pathogens and spoilage bacteria during shelf-life; which goes according to current market trends, where consumers are requesting natural products.

  2. Protective effect of Cymbopogon citratus on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in the reproductive system of male rats.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Saleh M; Taha, Ekhlass M; Mubark, Zaid M; Aziz, Salam S; Simon, K D; Mazlan, A G

    2013-12-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (C. citratus) has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and chemoprotective properties. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of C. citratus aqueous extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress and injury in the reproductive system of male rats. The twenty-five rats used in this study were divided into five groups, comprised of five rats each. The control group received standard food and drink. The H2O2 group received standard food and water with 0.5% H2O2. The rats in the H2O2 + C. citratus group and H2O2 + vitamin E group received standard food, H2O2, and C. citratus [100 mg·kg(-1) body weight (bw)], or vitamin E as an antioxidant reference (500 mg·kg(-1) bw), respectively. The C. citratus group was given C. citratus (100 mg·kg(-1) bw) in addition to the standard food and drink. The treatments were administered for 30 days. The H2O2 treatment significantly (P < 0.05) decreased body, testicular, and epididymal weight, as well as glutathione (GSH) level, but markedly increased malonaldehyde (MDA) in serum and testes homogenates. The rats treated with H2O2 exhibited testicular degeneration and significant reduction in sperm viability, motility, count, and rate of normal sperm. The C. citratus, vitamin E, and H2O2 treatment significantly (P < 0.05) increased the body, testicular, and epididymal weight, testosterone level, the values of the various sperm characteristics, and GSH. However, this treatment markedly reduced MDA in serum and testes homogenates, as well as testicular histopathological alterations in the H2O2-treated rats. The C. citratus aqueous extract reduced oxidative stress and protected male rats against H2O2-induced reproductive system injury.

  3. Free radical scavengers from Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) stapf plants cultivated in bioreactors by the temporary immersion (TIS) principle.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Alejandro; Cheel, José; Theoduloz, Cristina; Rodríguez, Jaime; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Gerth, Andre; Wilken, Dirk; Jordan, Miguel; Jiménez-González, Elio; Gomez-Kosky, Rafael; Mendoza, Elisa Quiala

    2007-01-01

    The biomass production of Cymbopogon citratus shoots cultivated in bioreactors according to the temporary immersion (TIS) principle was assessed under different growth conditions. The effect of gassing with CO2-enriched air, reduced immersion frequency, vessel size and culture time on total phenolic and flavonoid content and free radical scavenging effect of the methanolic extracts was measured. From the TIS-culture of C. citratus, seven compounds were isolated and identified as caffeic acid (1), chlorogenic acid (2), neochlorogenic acid (3), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (4), p-hydroxybenzoic acid 3-O-beta-D-glucoside (5), glutamic acid (6) and luteolin 6-C-fucopyranoside (7). The occurrence of compounds 1-7 and their variability in C. citratus grown under different TIS conditions was determined by HPLC. The free radical scavenging effect of the methanolic extract and compounds was measured by the discoloration of the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The main metabolites in 6- and 8-week-old cultures, both in 5 and 10 1 vessels, were chlorogenic acid (2) (100-113 mg%) and neochlorogenic acid (3) (80-119 mg%), while in the cultures with CO2-enriched air and reduced immersion frequency the main compound detected in the extracts was glutamic acid (6) (400 and 670 mg% for the green and white biomass and 619 and 630 mg% for the green and white biomass, respectively). The most active compounds, as free radical scavengers, in the DPPH discoloration assay were caffeic acid (1), chlorogenic acid (2), neochlorogenic acid (3) and the flavonoid luteolin 6-C-fucopyranoside (7).

  4. Effect of Lippia alba and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils on biofilms of Streptococcus mutans and cytotoxicity in CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Tofiño-Rivera, A; Ortega-Cuadros, M; Galvis-Pareja, D; Jiménez-Rios, H; Merini, L J; Martínez-Pabón, M C

    2016-12-24

    Caries is a public health problem, given that it prevails in 60 to 90% of the school-age global population. Multiple factors interact in its etiology, among them dental plaque is necessary to have lactic acid producing microorganisms like Streptococcus from he Mutans group. Existing prevention and treatment measures are not totally effective and generate adverse effects, which is why it is necessary to search for complementary strategies for their management. The study sought to evaluate the eradication capacity of Streptococcus mutans biofilms and the toxicity on eukaryotic cells of Lippia alba and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils. Essential oils were extracted from plant material through steam distillation and then its chemical composition was determined. The MBEC-high-throughput (MBEC-HTP) (Innovotech, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada) assay used to determine the eradication concentration of S. mutans ATCC 35668 strain biofilms. Cytotoxicity was evaluated on CHO cells through the MTT cell proliferation assay. The major components in both oils were Geraniol and Citral; in L. alba 18.9% and 15.9%, respectively, and in C. citratus 31.3% and 26.7%. The L. alba essential oils presented eradication activity against S. mutans biofilms of 95.8% in 0.01mg/dL concentration and C. citratus essential oils showed said eradication activity of 95.4% at 0.1, 0.01mg/dL concentrations and of 93.1% in the 0.001mg/dL concentration; none of the concentrations of both essential oils showed toxicity on CHO cells during 24h. The L. alba and C. citratus essential oils showed eradication activity against S. mutans biofilms and null cytotoxicity, evidencing the need to conduct further studies that can identify their active components and in order to guide a safe use in treating and preventing dental caries. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Food preservative potential of essential oils and fractions from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris against mycotoxigenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Nguefack, J; Dongmo, J B Lekagne; Dakole, C D; Leth, V; Vismer, H F; Torp, J; Guemdjom, E F N; Mbeffo, M; Tamgue, O; Fotio, D; Zollo, P H Amvam; Nkengfack, A E

    2009-05-31

    The food preservative potential of essential oils from three aromatic plants Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris and their fractions was investigated against two mycotoxigenic strains each of Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium expansum and P. verrucosum. The fungicidal activity was determined and expressed as a Number of Decimal Reduction of the colony forming units per ml (NDR cfu). The influence of pH variation on this activity was studied. The NDR cfu varied with the essential oils and its concentration, the pH of the medium and the strain tested. The essential oils from O. gratissimum exhibited the highest activity against the six fungal strains under the three pH tested. T. vulgaris and C. citratus essential oils were less active against the Penicillium species tested and A. ochraceus, respectively. Potassium sorbate did not present any activity at pH 6 and 9. At pH 3, its NDR cfu was the lowest against the six fungal strains. At the same pH and at 4000 ppm, the three essential oils presented a NRD cfu > or = 6 against strains of A. ochraceus and P. expansum. The same result was obtained with T. vulgaris and C. citratus at 8000 ppm against both strains of P. verrucosum. The highest activity of the three essential oils was recorded at pH 3 against A. ochraceus strains and at pH 9 against both species of Penicillium. From the fractionation, three active fractions were obtained each from C. citratus and O. gratissimum, and two active fractions from T. vulgaris. These active fractions exhibited a NDR cfu, two to seven folds higher than that of the complete essential oils.

  6. The use of powder and essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus against mould deterioration and aflatoxin contamination of "egusi" melon seeds.

    PubMed

    Bankole, S A; Joda, A O; Ashidi, J S

    2005-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to determine the potential of using the powder and essential oil from dried ground leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass) to control storage deterioration and aflatoxin contamination of melon seeds. Four mould species: Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. tamarii and Penicillium citrinum were inoculated in the form of conidia suspension (approx. 10(6) conidia per ml) unto shelled melon seeds. The powdered dry leaves and essential oil from lemon grass were mixed with the inoculated seeds at levels ranging from 1-10 g/100 g seeds and 0.1 to 1.0 ml/100 g seeds respectively. The ground leaves significantly reduced the extent of deterioration in melon seeds inoculated with different fungi compared to the untreated inoculated seeds. The essential oil at 0.1 and 0.25 ml/100 g seeds and ground leaves at 10 g/100 g seeds significantly reduced deterioration and aflatoxin production in shelled melon seeds inoculated with toxigenic A. flavus. At higher dosages (0.5 and 1.0 ml/100 g seeds), the essential oil completely prevented aflatoxin production. After 6 months in farmers' stores, unshelled melon seeds treated with 0.5 ml/ 100 g seeds of essential oil and 10 g/100 g seeds of powdered leaves of C. citratus had significantly lower proportion of visibly diseased seeds and Aspergillus spp. infestation levels and significantly higher seed germination compared to the untreated seeds. The oil content, free fatty acid and peroxide values in seeds protected with essential oil after 6 months did not significantly differ from the values in seeds before storage. The efficacy of the essential oil in preserving the quality of melon seeds in stores was statistically at par with that of fungicide (iprodione) treatment.

  7. Effect of Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare, and Trachyspermum ammi Essential Oils on the Growth and Mycotoxins Production by Aspergillus Species

    PubMed Central

    Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Asrat, Daniel; Debella, Asfaw

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth, and mycotoxin production. In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activities of Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare, and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils were carried out on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Plant materials were hydrodistilled for 4-5 h in Clevenger apparatus. 0.25 μL/mL, 0.5 μL/mL, 1 μL/mL, 2 μL/mL, and 4 μL/mL concentrations of each essential oil were prepared in 0.1% Tween 80 (V/V). T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 μL/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 μL/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting toxin production from A. niger and A. flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 μL/mL, respectively. C. martinii, F. vulgare, and T. ammi oils as antifungals were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5336.297 μL/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity. In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by Aspergillus species. PMID:26904653

  8. Protective effects of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus STAPF) essential oil on DNA damage and carcinogenesis in female Balb/C mice.

    PubMed

    Bidinotto, Lucas T; Costa, Celso A R A; Salvadori, Daisy M F; Costa, Mirtes; Rodrigues, Maria A M; Barbisan, Luís F

    2011-08-01

    This study investigated the protective effect of oral treatment with lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus STAPF) essential oil (LGEO) on leukocyte DNA damage induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosurea (MNU). Also, the anticarcinogenic activity of LGEO was investigated in a multi-organ carcinogenesis bioassay induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)antracene, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxibuthyl)nitrosamine in Balb/C female Balb/c mice (DDB-initiated mice). In the short-term study, the animals were allocated into three groups: vehicle group (negative control), MNU group (positive control) and LGEO 500 mg kg⁻¹ (five times per week for 5 weeks) plus MNU group (test group). Blood samples were collected to analyze leukocyte DNA damage by comet assay 4 h after each MNU application at the end of weeks 3 and 5. The LGEO 500 mg kg⁻¹ treated group showed significantly lower (P < 0.01) leukocyte DNA damage than its respective positive group exposed to MNU alone at week 3. In the medium-term study, DDB-initiated mice were allocated into three groups: vehicle group (positive control) and LGEO 125 or 500 mg kg⁻¹ (five times per week for 6 weeks; test groups). At week 20, all animals were euthanized and mammary glands, colon and urinary bladder were processed for histopathological analyses for detection of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions. A slight non-significant effect of treatment with LGEO 500 mg kg⁻¹ in reducing development of alveolar and ductal mammary hyperplasia was found (P = 0.075). Our findings indicate that lemongrass essential oil provided protective action against MNU-induced DNA damage and a potential anticarcinogenic activity against mammary carcinogenesis in DDB-initiated female Balb/C mice.

  9. Inhibition of adherence of C. albicans to dental implants and cover screws by Cymbopogon nardus essential oil and citronellal.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Leonardo Antunes; de Araújo Oliveira, Julyana; de Castro, Ricardo Dias; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the biological activity of the essential oil from Cymbopogon nardus and of the phytoconstituent citronellal on Candida strains as to the inhibition of adherence to dental implants and cover screws. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and had its MIC and MFC determined against 12 strains of Candida. Then, tests of inhibition of adherence to the dental implants and cover screws were carried out using the MIC of the substances, followed by scanning electron microscopy analysis. Nystatin and chlorhexidine were used as positive controls, and experiments were performed in triplicate. The analysis by GC-MS of the essential oil identified citronellal as the major compound. The MICs of the essential oil, citronellal, chlorhexidine, and nystatin--able to inhibit 100 % of the strains--were found to be 64, 512, 64, and 32 μg/ml, respectively. The essential oil significantly inhibited the adherence of Candida albicans to the dental implants and cover screws (p < 0.001). Citronellal inhibited yeast adherence only to the dental implants (p < 0.001), and no significant results were found for the cover screws (p > 0.05) compared to the growth control. The essential oil and citronellal have proven antifungal activity and are able to inhibit the in vitro adherence of C. albicans. There has been a search for alternative natural product-containing formulations that should be effective in inhibiting adherence of yeasts to the surfaces of materials and also able to treat oral fungal infections. Further trials could make these products an alternative to chemical removal of peri-implant biofilm.

  10. Treatment of pityriasis versicolor with topical application of essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf - therapeutic pilot study*

    PubMed Central

    Carmo, Egberto Santos; Pereira, Fillipe de Oliveira; Cavalcante, Neuza Maria; Gayoso, Carla Wanderley; Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pityriasis versicolor is a fungal infection caused by Malassezia spp. that has frequent relapses. OBJECTIVES The main objective of this research was to perform phase I and II clinical studies, using formulations containing essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus in patients with pityriasis versicolor. METHODS Phase I study included twenty volunteers to ascertain the safety of the formulations. In phase II, 47 volunteers randomly received essential oil formulations at 1.25 μL/mL concentration, for forty days. The shampoo should be applied three times a week and the cream twice a day. A control group in phase II, consisting of 29 volunteers, received the same formulations but with 2% ketoconazole as the active ingredient. RESULTS No significant adverse events were observed in volunteers during Phase I. In Phase II, 30 (63.83%) volunteers using essential oil and 18 (62.07%) using ketoconazole remained until the end of the study. We observed a predominance of lesions in disseminated form, with M. sympodialis detected as the predominant agent identified in cultures. After 40 days of treatment, the rate of mycological cure was 60% (p <0.05) for the group treated with essential oil of C. citratus and over 80% (p <0.05) for the group treated with ketoconazole formulations. CONCLUSIONS Notwithstanding the safety and antifungal effects observed in this study after application of formulations containing the essential oil of C. citratus, further studies with larger populations should be performed to confirm the actual potential of these formulations in the treatment of patients with Pityriasis versicolor. PMID:23793205

  11. Inhibitory activity of Syzygium aromaticum and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in bovine ground meat

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Thales Leandro Coutinho; das Graças Cardoso, Maria; de Araújo Soares, Rodrigo; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes; Piccoli, Roberta Hilsdorf; Tebaldi, Victor Maximiliano Reis

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated the antimicrobial effect of the clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.) essential oils (EOs) against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117 growth added to bovine ground meat stored under refrigeration (5 ± 2 °C) for three days. The EOs, extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), were tested in vitro using an agar well diffusion methodology for determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). The MIC concentrations for both essential oils on culture tested of L. monocytogenes were 1.56%. The EOs concentrations applied in contaminated ground beef were 1.56, 3.125 and 6.25% (w/v) based on MIC levels and possible activity reductions by food constituents. The bacteria populations were significantly reduced (p ≤ 0.05) after one day of storage in ground meat samples treated with clove and lemongrass EOs at concentrations of 1.56%. There were no significant counts of L. monocytogenes in samples at the other concentrations of the two oils applied after the second day of storage. The sensory acceptability evaluation of the bovine ground meat samples treated with EOs showed that the addition at concentrations higher than 1.56% promote undesirable alterations of taste, odor and characteristic color. The application of EOs at low concentrations in food products can be used in combination with other preservation methods, such as refrigeration, to control pathogens and spoilage bacteria during shelf-life; which goes according to current market trends, where consumers are requesting natural products. PMID:24294222

  12. Hepatoprotective effect of Cymbopogon citratus aqueous extract against hydrogen peroxide-induced liver injury in male rats.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Saleh Muhammad; Taha, Ekhlass Muhi; Al-janabi, Muneef Saeb; Al-douri, Bushra Ismael; Simon, Kumar Das; Mazlan, Abd Gaffar

    2014-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (Poaceae) a tropical perennial herb plant that is widely cultivated to be eaten either fresh with food or dried in tea or soft drink has been reported to possess a number of medicinal and aromatic properties. This study aimed at evaluating the protective effects of C. citratus aqueous extract against liver injury induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), in male rats. Twenty-five rats were randomly divided into five different groups of five animals in each group; (1) Control. (2) Received H2O2 (0.5%) with drinking water. (3), and (4) received H2O2 and C. citratus (100 mg·kg(-1) b wt), vitamin C (250 mg·kg(-1) b wt) respectively. (5), was given C. citratus alone. The treatments were administered for 30 days. Blood samples were collected and serum was used for biochemical assay including liver enzymes activities, total protein, total bilirubin and malonaldehyde, glutathione in serum and liver homogenates. Liver was excised and routinely processed for histological examinations. C. citratus attenuated liver damage due to H2O2 administration as indicated by the significant reduction (p<0.05), in the elevated levels of ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, TB, and MDA in serum and liver homogenates; increase in TP and GSH levels in serum and liver homogenates; and improvement of liver histo-pathological changes. These effects of the extract were similar to that of vitamin C which used as antioxidant reference. C. citratus could effectively ameliorate H2O2-induced oxidative stress and prevent liver injury in male rats.

  13. Cymbopogon citratus-synthesized gold nanoparticles boost the predation efficiency of copepod Mesocyclops aspericornis against malaria and dengue mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Jeyalalitha, Tirupathi; Dinesh, Devakumar; Nicoletti, Marcello; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Suresh, Udaiyan; Madhiyazhagan, Pari

    2015-06-01

    Plant-borne compounds can be employed to synthesize mosquitocidal nanoparticles that are effective at low doses. However, how they affect the activity of mosquito predators in the aquatic environment is unknown. In this study, we synthesized gold nanoparticles (AuN) using the leaf extract of Cymbopogon citratus, which acted as a reducing and capping agent. AuN were characterized by a variety of biophysical methods and sorted for size in order to confirm structural integrity. C. citratus extract and biosynthesized AuN were tested against larvae and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. LC₅₀ of C. citratus extract ranged from 219.32 ppm to 471.36 ppm. LC₅₀ of AuN ranged from 18.80 ppm to 41.52 ppm. In laboratory, the predatory efficiency of the cyclopoid crustacean Mesocyclops aspericornis against A. stephensi larvae was 26.8% (larva I) and 17% (larva II), while against A. aegypti was 56% (I) and 35.1% (II). Predation against late-instar larvae was minimal. In AuN-contaminated environment,predation efficiency against A. stephensi was 45.6% (I) and 26.7% (II), while against A. aegypti was 77.3% (I) and 51.6% (II). Overall, low doses of AuN may help to boost the control of Anopheles and Aedes larval populations in copepod-based control programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Essential Oil of Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle: A Strategy to Combat Fungal Infections Caused by Candida Species

    PubMed Central

    De Toledo, Luciani Gaspar; Ramos, Matheus Aparecido Dos Santos; Spósito, Larissa; Castilho, Elza Maria; Pavan, Fernando Rogério; Lopes, Érica De Oliveira; Zocolo, Guilherme Julião; Silva, Francisca Aliny Nunes; Soares, Tigressa Helena; dos Santos, André Gonzaga; Bauab, Taís Maria; De Almeida, Margarete Teresa Gottardo

    2016-01-01

    Background: The incidence of fungal infections, especially those caused by Candida yeasts, has increased over the last two decades. However, the indicated therapy for fungal control has limitations. Hence, medicinal plants have emerged as an alternative in the search for new antifungal agents as they present compounds, such as essential oils, with important biological effects. Published data demonstrate important pharmacological properties of the essential oil of Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle; these include anti-tumor, anti-nociceptive, and antibacterial activities, and so an investigation of this compound against pathogenic fungi is interesting. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and biological potential of essential oil (EO) obtained from the leaves of C. nardus focusing on its antifungal profile against Candida species. Methods: The EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Testing of the antifungal potential against standard and clinical strains was performed by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), time-kill, inhibition of Candida albicans hyphae growth, and inhibition of mature biofilms. Additionally, the cytotoxicity was investigated by the IC50 against HepG-2 (hepatic) and MRC-5 (fibroblast) cell lines. Results: According to the chemical analysis, the main compounds of the EO were the oxygen-containing monoterpenes: citronellal, geranial, geraniol, citronellol, and neral. The results showed important antifungal potential for all strains tested with MIC values ranging from 250 to 1000 μg/mL, except for two clinical isolates of C. tropicalis (MIC > 1000 μg/mL). The time-kill assay showed that the EO inhibited the growth of the yeast and inhibited hyphal formation of C. albicans strains at concentrations ranging from 15.8 to 1000 μg/mL. Inhibition of mature biofilms of strains of C. albicans, C. krusei and C. parapsilosis occurred at a

  15. Chemical Composition and Anti-Candidiasis Mediated Wound Healing Property of Cymbopogon nardus Essential Oil on Chronic Diabetic Wounds.

    PubMed

    Kandimalla, Raghuram; Kalita, Sanjeeb; Choudhury, Bhaswati; Dash, Suvakanta; Kalita, Kasturi; Kotoky, Jibon

    2016-01-01

    Poor wound healing is one of the major complication of diabetic patients which arises due to different factors like hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, vascular insufficiency and microbial infections. Candidiasis of diabetic wounds is a difficult to treat condition and potentially can lead to organ amputation. There are a few number of medications available in market to treat this chronic condition; which demands for alternative treatment options. In traditional system of medicine like Ayurveda, essential oil extracted from leaves of Cymbopogon nardus L. (Poaceae) has been using for the treatment of microbial infections, inflammation and pain. In this regard, we have evaluated anti-Candida and anti-inflammatory activity mediated wound healing property of C. nardus essential oil (EO-CN) on candidiasis of diabetic wounds. EO-CN was obtained through hydro-distillation and subjected to Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis for chemical profiling. Anti-Candida activity of EO-CN was tested against Candida albicans, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis by in vitro zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays. Anti-candidiasis ability of EO-CN was evaluated on C. albicans infected diabetic wounds of mice through measuring candida load on the 7th, 14th, and 21st day of treatment. Further progression in wound healing was confirmed by measuring the inflammatory marker levels and histopathology of wounded tissues on last day of EO-CN treatment. A total of 95 compounds were identified through GC-MS analysis, with major compounds like citral, 2,6-octadienal-, 3,7-dimethyl-, geranyl acetate, citronellal, geraniol, and citronellol. In vitro test results demonstrated strong anti-Candida activity of EO-CN with a MIC value of 25 μg/ml against C. albicans, 50 μg/ml against C. glabrata and C. tropicalis. EO-CN treatment resulted in significant reduction of candida load on diabetic wounds. Acceleration in wound healing was indicated by declined levels of

  16. Repellent effects of the essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Tagetes minuta on the sandfly, Phlebotomus duboscqi.

    PubMed

    Kimutai, Albert; Ngeiywa, Moses; Mulaa, Margaret; Njagi, Peter G N; Ingonga, Johnstone; Nyamwamu, Lydia B; Ombati, Cyprian; Ngumbi, Philip

    2017-02-15

    The sandfly, Phlebotomus duboscqi is a vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) that is an important public health problem in Eastern Africa. Repellents have been used for protection of humans against vectors of ZCL and other vectors that transmit killer diseases including malaria, Rift Valley fever, dengue, and yellow fever. The repellent effects of different doses of the essential oils from the lemon grass, Cymbopogon citratus and Mexican marigold, Tagetes minuta were evaluated in a two-chamber bioassay against 3- to 7-day-old unfed females of P. duboscqi in the laboratory. The results were compared with those that were obtained when test animals were treated with an equivalent dose of diethyl-3-methylbenzamide, which is a repellent that is commonly used as a positive control. Overall, percentage repellency increased with increasing doses of the essential oils while biting rates decreased with increasing concentrations of the oils. Further, the oil of C. citratus was more potent than that of T. minuta with regard to protection time and biting deterrence. The effective doses at 50% (ED50) and at 90% (ED90) for the oil of C. citratus, were 0.04 and 0.79 mg/ml, respectively. Those of the oil of T. minuta were 0.10 and 12.58 mg/ml. In addition, the percentage repellency of 1 mg/ml of the essential oils of C. citratus and T. minuta against sandflies was 100% and 88.89%, respectively. A lower dose of 0.5 mg/ml of the oils, elicited 89.13% repellency for C. citratus and 52.22% for T. minuta. The laboratory tests showed that the essential oils of the two plants were highly repellent to adult sand flies, P. duboscqi. Thus, the two essential oils are candidate natural repellents that can be used against P. duboscqi due to their high efficacy at very low doses, hence, the envisaged safety in their use over chemical repellents. It remains to carry out clinical studies on human subjects with appropriate formulations of the oils prior to recommending their adoption

  17. Chemical Composition and Anti-Candidiasis Mediated Wound Healing Property of Cymbopogon nardus Essential Oil on Chronic Diabetic Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Kandimalla, Raghuram; Kalita, Sanjeeb; Choudhury, Bhaswati; Dash, Suvakanta; Kalita, Kasturi; Kotoky, Jibon

    2016-01-01

    Poor wound healing is one of the major complication of diabetic patients which arises due to different factors like hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, vascular insufficiency and microbial infections. Candidiasis of diabetic wounds is a difficult to treat condition and potentially can lead to organ amputation. There are a few number of medications available in market to treat this chronic condition; which demands for alternative treatment options. In traditional system of medicine like Ayurveda, essential oil extracted from leaves of Cymbopogon nardus L. (Poaceae) has been using for the treatment of microbial infections, inflammation and pain. In this regard, we have evaluated anti-Candida and anti-inflammatory activity mediated wound healing property of C. nardus essential oil (EO-CN) on candidiasis of diabetic wounds. EO-CN was obtained through hydro-distillation and subjected to Gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS) analysis for chemical profiling. Anti-Candida activity of EO-CN was tested against Candida albicans, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis by in vitro zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays. Anti-candidiasis ability of EO-CN was evaluated on C. albicans infected diabetic wounds of mice through measuring candida load on the 7th, 14th, and 21st day of treatment. Further progression in wound healing was confirmed by measuring the inflammatory marker levels and histopathology of wounded tissues on last day of EO-CN treatment. A total of 95 compounds were identified through GC–MS analysis, with major compounds like citral, 2,6-octadienal-, 3,7-dimethyl-, geranyl acetate, citronellal, geraniol, and citronellol. In vitro test results demonstrated strong anti-Candida activity of EO-CN with a MIC value of 25 μg/ml against C. albicans, 50 μg/ml against C. glabrata and C. tropicalis. EO-CN treatment resulted in significant reduction of candida load on diabetic wounds. Acceleration in wound healing was indicated by declined

  18. Essential Oil of Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle: A Strategy to Combat Fungal Infections Caused by Candida Species.

    PubMed

    De Toledo, Luciani Gaspar; Ramos, Matheus Aparecido Dos Santos; Spósito, Larissa; Castilho, Elza Maria; Pavan, Fernando Rogério; Lopes, Érica De Oliveira; Zocolo, Guilherme Julião; Silva, Francisca Aliny Nunes; Soares, Tigressa Helena; Dos Santos, André Gonzaga; Bauab, Taís Maria; De Almeida, Margarete Teresa Gottardo

    2016-08-09

    The incidence of fungal infections, especially those caused by Candida yeasts, has increased over the last two decades. However, the indicated therapy for fungal control has limitations. Hence, medicinal plants have emerged as an alternative in the search for new antifungal agents as they present compounds, such as essential oils, with important biological effects. Published data demonstrate important pharmacological properties of the essential oil of Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle; these include anti-tumor, anti-nociceptive, and antibacterial activities, and so an investigation of this compound against pathogenic fungi is interesting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and biological potential of essential oil (EO) obtained from the leaves of C. nardus focusing on its antifungal profile against Candida species. The EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Testing of the antifungal potential against standard and clinical strains was performed by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), time-kill, inhibition of Candida albicans hyphae growth, and inhibition of mature biofilms. Additionally, the cytotoxicity was investigated by the IC50 against HepG-2 (hepatic) and MRC-5 (fibroblast) cell lines. According to the chemical analysis, the main compounds of the EO were the oxygen-containing monoterpenes: citronellal, geranial, geraniol, citronellol, and neral. The results showed important antifungal potential for all strains tested with MIC values ranging from 250 to 1000 μg/mL, except for two clinical isolates of C. tropicalis (MIC > 1000 μg/mL). The time-kill assay showed that the EO inhibited the growth of the yeast and inhibited hyphal formation of C. albicans strains at concentrations ranging from 15.8 to 1000 μg/mL. Inhibition of mature biofilms of strains of C. albicans, C. krusei and C. parapsilosis occurred at a concentration of 10× MIC. The values of the IC50

  19. Cymbopogon citratus as source of new and safe anti-inflammatory drugs: bio-guided assay using lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Vera; Figueirinha, Artur; Neves, Bruno Miguel; García-Rodríguez, Carmen; Lopes, Maria Celeste; Cruz, Maria Teresa; Batista, Maria Teresa

    2011-01-27

    Aqueous extracts of Cymbopogon citratus (Cy) leaves are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammatory conditions, however, little is known about their mechanism of action. The aim of this study is to explore the anti-inflammatory properties of Cymbopogon citratus leaves and their polyphenol-rich fractions (PFs), as well its mechanism of action in murine macrophages. A lipid- and essential oil-free infusion of Cy leaves was prepared (Cy extract) and fractionated by column chromatography. Anti-inflammatory properties of Cy extract (1.115 mg/ml) and its PFs, namely phenolic acids (530 μg/ml), flavonoids (97.5 μg/ml) and tannins (78 μg/ml), were investigated using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Raw 264.7 macrophages as in vitro model. As inflammatory parameters, nitric oxide (NO) production was evaluated by Griess reaction, as well as effects on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression and on intracellular signaling pathways activation, which were analyzed by Western blot using specific antibodies. Cy extract inhibited iNOS expression, NO production and various LPS-induced pathways like p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), c-jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) 1/2 and the transcription nuclear factor (NF)-κB. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt activation were not affected by Cy extract. Both phenolic acid- and tannin-rich fractions significantly inhibited NF-κB activation, iNOS expression and NO production but none of the PFs modulated MAPKs or PI3K/Akt activation. Neither Cy extract nor PFs affected LPS-induced COX-2 expression but LPS-induced PGE(2) production is inhibited by Cy extract and by phenolic acid-rich fraction. Our data provide evidence that support the usage of Cymbopogon citratus leaves extract in traditional medicine, and suggest that Cy, in particular its polyphenolic compounds, could constitute a natural source of a new and safe

  20. Microscopic investigation to determine the effect of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. treatment on different life stages of Musca domestica (L.).

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sapna; Kumar, Peeyush; Malik, Anushree

    2017-06-01

    Microscopic investigation was done to determine the effect of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana and essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus on different life stages of Musca domestica. Scanning electron microscopy investigation of fungal infected larvae showed sluggish movement, rigor, and failure of body to balance in water. Treated larvae also revealed varied level of cuticle shrinkage and extreme dehydration. Surface of B. bassiana infected pupae showed varied stage of mycelial growth, while the cadaver of adult fly was observed to have extensive fungal growth covering their entire body surface. The application of C. citratus oils on M. domestica larvae resulted in skin shrinkage, spinous cells proliferation and bleb formation, while the treated pupae showed high incidence of incomplete emergence and malformation in emerged adult flies. The current study establishes effect of C. citratus essential oil and B. bassiana infection on different life stages of M. domestica.

  1. Trace and Essential Elements Analysis in Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf Samples by Graphite Furnace-Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and Its Health Concern.

    PubMed

    Anal, Jasha Momo H

    2014-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf commonly known as lemon grass is used extensively as green tea and even as herbal tea ingredient across the world. Plants have the ability to uptake metals as nutrient from the soil and its environment which are so essential for their physiological and biochemical growth. Concentrations of these twelve trace elements, namely, Mg, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, As, Cd, and Pb, are analysed by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS) and are compared with the permissible limits of FAO/WHO, ICMR, and NIH, USA, which are found to be within permissible limits. Toxic metals like As, Cd, and Pb, analysed are within the tolerable daily diet limit and at low concentration.

  2. Conversion of natural aldehydes from Eucalyptus citriodora, Cymbopogon citratus, and Lippia multiflora into oximes: GC-MS and FT-IR analysis.

    PubMed

    Ouédraogo, Igor W; Boulvin, Michael; Flammang, Robert; Gerbaux, Pascal; Bonzi-Coulibaly, Yvonne L

    2009-08-31

    Three carbonyl-containing extracts of essential oils from Eucalyptus citriodora (Myrtaceae), Cymbopogon citratus (Gramineae) and Lippia multiflora (Verbenaceae) were used for the preparation of oximes. The reaction mixtures were analyzed by GC-MS and different compounds were identified on the basis of their retention times and mass spectra. We observed quantitative conversion of aldehydes to their corresponding oximes with a purity of 95 to 99%. E and Z stereoisomers of the oximes were obtained and separated by GC-MS. During GC analysis, the high temperature in the injector was shown to cause partial dehydratation of oximes and the resulting nitriles were readily identified. Based on FT-IR spectroscopy, that revealed the high stability and low volatility of these compounds, the so-obtained oximes could be useful for future biological studies.

  3. Trace and Essential Elements Analysis in Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf Samples by Graphite Furnace-Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and Its Health Concern

    PubMed Central

    Anal, Jasha Momo H.

    2014-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf commonly known as lemon grass is used extensively as green tea and even as herbal tea ingredient across the world. Plants have the ability to uptake metals as nutrient from the soil and its environment which are so essential for their physiological and biochemical growth. Concentrations of these twelve trace elements, namely, Mg, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, As, Cd, and Pb, are analysed by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS) and are compared with the permissible limits of FAO/WHO, ICMR, and NIH, USA, which are found to be within permissible limits. Toxic metals like As, Cd, and Pb, analysed are within the tolerable daily diet limit and at low concentration. PMID:25525430

  4. Scientific validation of synergistic antioxidant effects in commercialised mixtures of Cymbopogon citratus and Pterospartum tridentatum or Gomphrena globosa for infusions preparation.

    PubMed

    Roriz, Custódio Lobo; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-10-15

    Pterospartum tridentatum (L.) Willk., Gomphrena globosa L. and Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. are examples of medicinal plants with antioxidant properties on their own, but that can be improved when mixed. In the present work, the antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds were determined in the infusions prepared from the individual plants, and from mixtures of these plants in different proportions. P. tridentatum > C. citratus > G. globosa was the order observed for antioxidant efficacy, which can be related to their different composition in phenolic compounds. Synergism was the main effect observed among the tested mixtures, mainly for the infusions prepared from the plants in proportion 40%:60% (either P. tridentatum and C. citratus; or G. globosa and C. citratus). The infusion obtained with 40% of P. tridentatum and 60% of C. citratus gave the highest antioxidant properties. The present study validates the commercialisation of the studied plants combined in specific proportions.

  5. In vitro antifungal, anti-elastase and anti-keratinase activity of essential oils of Cinnamomum-, Syzygium- and Cymbopogon-species against Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohd Sajjad Ahmad; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2011-12-15

    This study was aimed to evaluate effects of certain essential oils namely Cinnamomum verum, Syzygium aromaticum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon martini and their major components cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, citral and geraniol respectively, on growth, hyphal ultrastructure and virulence factors of Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichophyton rubrum. The antifungal activity of essential oils and their major constituents was in the order of cinnamaldehyde>eugenol>geraniol=C. verum>citral>S. aromaticum>C. citratus>C. martini, both in liquid and solid media against T. rubrum and A. fumigatus. Based on promising antifungal activity of eugenol and cinnamaldehyde, these oils were further tested for their inhibitory activity against ungerminated and germinated conidia in test fungi. Cinnamaldehyde was found to be more active than eugenol. To assess the possible mode of action of cinnamaldehyde, electron microscopic studies were conducted. The observations revealed multiple sites of action of cinnamaldehyde mainly on cell membranes and endomembranous structures of the fungal cell. Further, test oils were also tested for their anti-virulence activity. More than 70% reduction in elastase activity was recorded in A. fumigatus by the oils of C. verum, C. martini, eugenol, cinnamaldehyde and geraniol. Similar reduction in keratinase activity in A. niger was recorded for the oils of C. martini and geraniol. Maximum reduction (96.56%) in elastase activity was produced by cinnamaldehyde whereas; geraniol caused maximum inhibition (97.31%) of keratinase activity. Our findings highlight anti-elastase and anti-keratinase activity of above mentioned essential oils as a novel property to be exploited in controlling invasive and superficial mycoses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Patent literature on mosquito repellent inventions which contain plant essential oils--a review.

    PubMed

    Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Gama, Renata Antonaci; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Neto, Valter Ferreira de Andrade

    2011-04-01

    Bites Bites of mosquitoes belonging to the genera Anopheles Meigen, Aedes Meigen, Culex L. and Haemagogus L. are a general nuisance and are responsible for the transmission of important tropical diseases such as malaria, hemorrhagic dengue and yellow fevers and filariasis (elephantiasis). Plants are traditional sources of mosquito repelling essential oils (EOs), glyceridic oils and repellent and synergistic chemicals. A Chemical Abstracts search on mosquito repellent inventions containing plant-derived EOs revealed 144 active patents mostly from Asia. Chinese, Japanese and Korean language patents and those of India (in English) accounted for roughly 3/4 of all patents. Since 1998 patents on EO-containing mosquito repellent inventions have almost doubled about every 4 years. In general, these patents describe repellent compositions for use in topical agents, cosmetic products, incense, fumigants, indoor and outdoor sprays, fibers, textiles among other applications. 67 EOs and 9 glyceridic oils were individually cited in at least 2 patents. Over 1/2 of all patents named just one EO. Citronella [Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle, C.winterianus Jowitt ex Bor] and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus LʼHér. spp.) EOs were each cited in approximately 1/3 of all patents. Camphor [Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl], cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume), clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry], geranium (Pelargonium graveolens LʼHér.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), lemon [Citrus × limon (L.) Osbeck], lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf] and peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) EOs were each cited in > 10% of patents. Repellent chemicals present in EO compositions or added as pure “natural” ingredients such as geraniol, limonene, p-menthane-3,8-diol, nepetalactone and vanillin were described in approximately 40% of all patents. About 25% of EO-containing inventions included or were made to be used with synthetic insect control agents having mosquito

  7. Effects of essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf., Lippia sidoides Cham., and Ocimum gratissimum L. on growth and ultrastructure of Leishmania chagasi promastigotes.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Valéria C S; Moura, Daniela M S; Lopes, José A D; de Andrade, Paulo P; da Silva, Nicácio H; Figueiredo, Regina C B Q

    2009-04-01

    The current therapy for leishmaniasis, which affects annually about 2 million people, is far from satisfactory. All available drugs require parenteral administration and are potentially toxic. Plant essential oils have been traditionally used in folk medicine and appear as valuable alternative source for chemotherapeutic compounds. In this study, we demonstrated the effect of essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus, Lippia sidoides, and Ocimum gratissimum on growth and ultrastructure of Leishmania chagasi promastigote forms. Steam distillation was used to isolate the essential oils, and their constituents were characterized by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. All essential oils showed in vitro inhibitory action on L. chagasi promastigotes growth in a dose-dependent way, with IC(50)/72 h of 45, 89, and 75 microg/mL for C. citratus, L. sidoides, and O. gratissimum, respectively. Drastic morphological alterations were observed in all essential oil-treated parasites, including cell swelling, accumulation of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm, and increase of acidocalcisome volume. Furthermore, aberrant-shaped cells with multi-septate body were observed by scanning electron microscopy, suggesting an additional effect on cytokinesis. Taken together, our data show that these essential oils affect the parasite viability being the C. citratus essential oil the most effective against L. chagasi.

  8. Assessment of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) stapf essential oil as herbal preservatives based on antifungal, antiaflatoxin, and antiochratoxin activities and in vivo efficacy during storage.

    PubMed

    Sonker, Nivedita; Pandey, Abhay K; Singh, Pooja; Tripathi, N N

    2014-04-01

    Thirty-five randomly collected samples of stored table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) from different markets of Gorakhpur city, Uttar Pradesh, India, revealed occurrence of 11 types of fungi. Of which, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus ochraceus were dominant causing severe decay of grapes with 58%, 52%, and 67% incidence, respectively. On screening of 15 essential oils at 0.33 μL/mL, Cymbopogon citratus oil caused 100% mycelial inhibition against aforesaid dominant fungi. Oil was fungistatic at 0.29 μL/mL and exhibited broad fungitoxicity against other fruit rotting fungi associated with collected samples. C. citratus oil completely inhibited the growth and mycotoxin (AFB1 and OTA) secretion of the aflatoxigenic and ochratoxigenic strains of A. flavus, A. niger, and A. ochraceus at 0.8 μL/mL. E-Citral (52.9%) and Z-Citral (39.38%) were the major components of C. citratus oil during gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Application of 200 and 300 μL of C. citratus oil on 1 kg of stored grapes showed enhancement of shelf life up to 10 d. The oil did not exhibit any phytotoxic effect on fruits. These results confirm that C. citratus oil could be a natural alternative to commercial fungicide for control of fruit rotting fungi of stored grapes. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Preventive efficacy of hydroalcoholic extract of Cymbopogon citratus against radiation-induced DNA damage on V79 cells and free radical scavenging ability against radicals generated in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rao, B S S; Shanbhoge, R; Rao, B N; Adiga, S K; Upadhya, D; Aithal, B K; Kumar, M R S

    2009-04-01

    This study presents the findings of free radical scavenging and antigenotoxic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Cymbopogon citratus (CCE). The CCE at a concentration of 60 microg/mL resulted in a significant scavenging ability of 2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH; (85%), 2,2-azinobis (3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS; 77%), hydroxyl (70%), superoxide (76%), nitric oxide (78%) free radicals generated using in vitro and also a moderate anti-lipid peroxidative effect (57%). Further, the radiation-induced antigenotoxic potential of CCE was assessed in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells (V79) using micronucleus assay. The CCE resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the yield of radiation-induced micronuclei, with a maximum effect at 125 microg/mL CCE for 1 h before 2 Gy of radiation. Similarly, there was a significant (P < 0.05-0.0001) decrease in percentage of micronuclei when V79 cells were treated with optimal dose of CCE (125 microg/mL) before exposure to different doses of gamma radiation, that is, 0.5-4 Gy, compared with radiation alone groups. The results of the micronucleus study indicated antigenotoxic effect demonstrating the radioprotective potential of CCE and, which may partly due to its and antioxidant capacity as it presented its ability to scavenge various free radicals in vitro and anti-lipid peroxidative potential.

  10. Growth of Cymbopogon citratus and Vetiveria zizanioides on Cu mine tailings amended with chicken manure and manure-soil mixtures: a pot scale study.

    PubMed

    Das, Manab; Maiti, Subodh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    The Rakha Cu mines are located at East Singhbhum, Jharkhand, India and their activities ceased in 2001. The tailings (residue) were permanently stored in tailings ponds that require vegetation to reduce their impact on the environment. A pot scale study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Ex Nees and Vetiveria zizanioides (L) Nash for the reclamation of Cu tailings and to evaluate the effects of chicken manure and soil-manure mixtures on the revegetation of such tailings. Application of manure and soil-manure mixtures resulted in significant increase in pH, EC, OC, CEC and nutritional status of Cu tailings. The environmentally available and DTPA extractable Cu and Ni concentration reduced in amended tailings, while Mn and Zn content increased significantly. Plants grown on amended tailings accumulated lesser Cu and Ni but higher Mn and Zn. Plant biomass increased proportionally to manure and soil-manure mixtures application rates. Lemon grass produced more biomass than vetiver grass in either of the amended tailings. From the pot experiment, it can be suggested that application of chicken manure @ 5% (w/w) and in combination with lemon grass, could be a viable option for reclamation (phytostabilization) of toxic tailings.

  11. Angolan Cymbopogon citratus used for therapeutic benefits: nutritional composition and influence of solvents in phytochemicals content and antioxidant activity of leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Soares, Marta O; Alves, Rita C; Pires, Pedro C; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Vinha, Ana F

    2013-10-01

    Folk medicine is a relevant and effective part of indigenous healthcare systems which are, in practice, totally dependent on traditional healers. An outstanding coincidence between indigenous medicinal plant uses and scientifically proved pharmacological properties of several phytochemicals has been observed along the years. This work focused on the leaves of a medicinal plant traditionally used for therapeutic benefits (Angolan Cymbopogon citratus), in order to evaluate their nutritional value. The bioactive phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of leaf extracts prepared with different solvents (water, methanol and ethanol) were also evaluated. The plant leaves contained ∼60% of carbohydrates, protein (∼20%), fat (∼5%), ash (∼4%) and moisture (∼9%). The phytochemicals screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, and terpenoids in all extracts. Methanolic extracts also contained alkaloids and steroids. Several methods were used to evaluate total antioxidant capacity of the different extracts (DPPH·, NO·, and H₂O₂ scavenging assays, reducing power, and FRAP). Ethanolic extracts presented a significantly higher antioxidant activity (p<0.05) except for FRAP, in which the best results were achieved by the aqueous extracts. Methanolic extracts showed the lowest radical scavenging activities for both DPPH· and NO· radicals.

  12. Effect of Organic Manures on the Growth of Cymbopogon citratus and Chrysopogon zizanioides for the Phytoremediation of Chromite-Asbestos Mine Waste: A Pot Scale Experiment.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Adarsh; Maiti, Subodh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The abandoned chromite-asbestos mines are located in the Roro hills, West Singhbhum, Jharkhand, India, where mining operation ceased in 1983, and since then these mines are causing environmental pollution. The present study was planned to phytoremediate these metalloid and metal contaminated mine waste by using two aromatic grasses, Cymbopogon citratus and Chrysopogon zizanioides by applying different proportions of amendments (chicken manure, farmyard manure and garden soil). Mine waste has neutral pH, low electrical conductivity and organic carbon with higher concentration of total metals (Cr and Ni) as compared to soil. Application of manures resulted significant improvements of mine waste characteristics and plant growth, reduction in the availability of total extractable toxic metals (Cr, Ni) and increase in Mn, Zn and Cu concentration in the substrate. The maximum growth and biomass production for C. citratus and C. zizanioides were found in T-IV combination comprising of mine waste (90%), chicken manure (2.5%), farmyard manure (2.5%) and garden soil (5%). Addition of T-IV combination also resulted in low Cr and Ni accumulation in roots and reduction in translocation to shoots. Study indicates that C. citratus and C. zizanioides can be used for phytostabilization of abandoned chromite-asbestos mine waste with amendments.

  13. Activity of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum canum, and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils against Plasmodium falciparum and mature-stage larvae of Anopheles funestus s.s.

    PubMed Central

    Akono Ntonga, Patrick; Baldovini, Nicolas; Mouray, Elisabeth; Mambu, Lengo; Belong, Philippe; Grellier, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The biological activities of essential oils from three plants grown in Cameroon: Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum canum, and Cymbopogon citratus were tested against Plasmodium falciparum and mature-stage larvae of Anopheles funestus. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography – mass spectrometry analyses showed that the main compounds are geranial, 1,8-cineole and linalool in C. citratus, O. canum and O. basilicum, respectively. Larvicidal tests carried out according to the protocol recommended by the World Health Organization showed that the essential oil of leaves of C. citratus is the most active against larvae of An. funestus (LC50 values = 35.5 ppm and 34.6 ppm, respectively, for larval stages III and IV after 6 h of exposure). Besides, the in vitro anti-plasmodial activity evaluated by the radioisotopic method showed that the C. citratus oil is the most active against P. falciparum, with an IC50 value of 4.2 ± 0.5 μg/mL compared with O. canum (20.6 ± 3.4 μg/mL) and O. basilicum (21 ± 4.6 μg/mL). These essential oils can be recommended for the development of natural biocides for fighting the larvae of malaria vectors and for the isolation of natural products with anti-malarial activity. PMID:24995776

  14. Activity of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum canum, and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils against Plasmodium falciparum and mature-stage larvae of Anopheles funestus s.s.

    PubMed

    Akono Ntonga, Patrick; Baldovini, Nicolas; Mouray, Elisabeth; Mambu, Lengo; Belong, Philippe; Grellier, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The biological activities of essential oils from three plants grown in Cameroon: Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum canum, and Cymbopogon citratus were tested against Plasmodium falciparum and mature-stage larvae of Anopheles funestus. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry analyses showed that the main compounds are geranial, 1,8-cineole and linalool in C. citratus, O. canum and O. basilicum, respectively. Larvicidal tests carried out according to the protocol recommended by the World Health Organization showed that the essential oil of leaves of C. citratus is the most active against larvae of An. funestus (LC50 values = 35.5 ppm and 34.6 ppm, respectively, for larval stages III and IV after 6 h of exposure). Besides, the in vitro anti-plasmodial activity evaluated by the radioisotopic method showed that the C. citratus oil is the most active against P. falciparum, with an IC50 value of 4.2 ± 0.5 μg/mL compared with O. canum (20.6 ± 3.4 μg/mL) and O. basilicum (21 ± 4.6 μg/mL). These essential oils can be recommended for the development of natural biocides for fighting the larvae of malaria vectors and for the isolation of natural products with anti-malarial activity.

  15. In vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of essential oils of Cymbopogon martini and Chenopodium ambrosioides and their synergism against dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Chandra Shekhar; Shukla, Ravindra; Kumar, Ashok; Dubey, N K

    2010-03-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of essential oils (EO) of Cymbopogon martini, Chenopodium ambrosioides and of their combination against dermatophytes and some filamentous fungi in vitro as well as in vivo using a guinea pig model. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of EOs and of their combination were found between 150 and 500 ppm, while those of known antifungal drugs ranged from 1000 to 5500 ppm. EO ointments were prepared and applied against induced ringworm in guinea pig model and disease removal was observed in 7-21 days, and the hair samples showed negative results for fungal culture in a time-dependent manner after the application of EO ointments. Chemical constituents of EOs were determined by GC-MS. Both the EOs and their combination displayed strong antifungal effects. The results provide a scientific validation for the use of these EOs in the treatment of dermatophyte infections and may be recommended as an alternative to synthetic drug for topical application.

  16. Suppression of oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory mediators by Cymbopogon citratus D. Stapf extract in lipopolysaccharide stimulated murine alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, M; Dwivedi, U N; Kakkar, P

    2010-10-01

    Exploration of antioxidants of plant origin and their scientific validation for their immense pharmacological potential is emerging as an issue of intense research now-a-days.The effect of Cymbopogon citratus extract was seen on cell viability, oxidative stress markers i.e. ROS production, SOD activity, lipid peroxidation and GSH content of murine alveolar macrophages stressed with lipopolysaccharide. Modulation in release of NO and pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α along with alterations in mitochondrial membrane potential under stress were compared with known plant derived antioxidant quercetin. The extract was not found to be cytotoxic at any of the selected doses. At 5 and 10 μg the extract showed significant increase in SOD activity, GSH content (p<0.001), decrease in ROS production as seen by fluorescent dye DCFH-DA and also MDA formation (lipid peroxidation marker) significantly. The extract also showed reduction in the release of pro-inflammatory mediators TNF-α and NO significantly indicating an anti-inflammatory effect. The extract was able to restore mitochondrial membrane potential as estimated by spectrofluorimetry using the fluorescent dye Rhodamine 123. The results suggest potential use of the cytoprotective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory property of C. citratus in the form of dietary component and also in formulations against lung inflammatory diseases where oxidative stress plays an important role. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oils on the morphology and mortality of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles dirus larvae.

    PubMed

    Soonwera, Mayura; Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn

    2016-04-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oils were evaluated to determine mortality rates, morphological aberrations, and persistence when used against third and fourth larval instars of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles dirus. The oils were evaluated at 1, 5, and 10 % concentrations in mixtures with soybean oil. Persistence of higher concentrations was measured over a period of 10 days. For Ae. aegypti, both plant oils caused various morphological aberrations to include deformed larvae, incomplete eclosion, white pupae, deformed pupae, dead normal pupae, and incomplete pupal eclosion. All of these aberrations led to larval mortality. In Ae. aegypti larvae, there were no significant differences in mortality at days 1, 5, and 10 or between third and fourth larval instar exposure. In An. dirus, morphological aberrations were rare and S. aromaticum oil was more effective in causing mortality among all larval stages. Both oils were equally effective at producing mortality on days 1, 5, and 10. Both oils had slightly increased LT50 rates from day 1 to day 10. In conclusion, both lemongrass and clove oils have significant effects on the immature stages of Ae. aegypti and An. dirus and could potentially be developed for use as larvicides.

  18. Monoterpenic aldehydes as potential anti-Leishmania agents: activity of Cymbopogon citratus and citral on L. infantum, L. tropica and L. major.

    PubMed

    Machado, M; Pires, P; Dinis, A M; Santos-Rosa, M; Alves, V; Salgueiro, L; Cavaleiro, C; Sousa, M C

    2012-03-01

    In order to contribute for the search of new drugs for leishmaniasis, we study the susceptibility of Leishmania infantum, Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major to Cymbopogon citratus essential oil and major compounds, mrycene and citral. C. citratus and citral were the most active inhibiting L. infantum, L. tropica and L. major growth at IC(50) concentrations ranging from 25 to 52 μg/ml and from 34 to 42 μg/ml, respectively. L. infantum promastigotes exposed to essential oil and citral underwent considerable ultrastructural alterations, namely mitochondrial and kinetoplast swelling, autophagosomal structures, disruption of nuclear membrane and nuclear chromatin condensation. C. citratus essential oil and citral promoted the leishmanicidal effect by triggering a programmed cell death. In fact, the leishmanicidal activity was mediated via apoptosis as evidenced by externalization of phosphatidylserine, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and cell-cycle arrest at the G(0)/G(1) phase. Taken together, ours findings lead us to propose that citral was responsible for anti-Leishmania activity of the C. citratus and both may represent a valuable source for therapeutic control of leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cholesterol reduction and lack of genotoxic or toxic effects in mice after repeated 21-day oral intake of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Celso A R A; Bidinotto, Lucas T; Takahira, Regina K; Salvadori, Daisy M F; Barbisan, Luís F; Costa, Mirtes

    2011-09-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) is currently used in traditional folk medicine. Although this species presents widespread use, there are no scientific data on its efficacy or safety after repeated treatments. Therefore, this work investigated the toxicity and genotoxicity of this lemongrass's essential oil (EO) in male Swiss mice. The single LD(50) based on a 24h acute oral toxicity study was found to be around 3500 mg/kg. In a repeated-dose 21-day oral toxicity study, mice were randomly assigned to two control groups, saline- or Tween 80 0.01%-treated groups, or one of the three experimental groups receiving lemongrass EO (1, 10 or 100mg/kg). No significant changes in gross pathology, body weight, absolute or relative organ weights, histology (brain, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, stomach, spleen and urinary bladder), urinalysis or clinical biochemistry were observed in EO-treated mice relative to the control groups. Additionally, blood cholesterol was reduced after EO-treatment at the highest dose tested. Similarly, data from the comet assay in peripheral blood cells showed no genotoxic effect from the EO. In conclusion, our findings verified the safety of lemongrass intake at the doses used in folk medicine and indicated the beneficial effect of reducing the blood cholesterol level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Proliferating effect of radiolytically depolymerized carrageenan on physiological attributes, plant water relation parameters, essential oil production and active constituents of Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud. under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Singh, Minu; Khan, M Masroor A; Uddin, Moin; Naeem, M; Qureshi, M Irfan

    2017-01-01

    Carrageenan has been proved as potent growth promoting substance in its depolymerized form. However, relatively little is known about its role in counteracting the adverse effects of drought stress on plants. In a pot experiment, lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud.), grown under different water stress regimes [(100% field capacity (FC), 80% FC and 60% FC)], was sprayed with 40, 80 and 120 mg L-1 of gamma irradiated carrageenan (ICA). Foliar application of ICA mitigated the harmful effects of drought stress to various extents and improved the biochemical characteristics, quality attributes and active constituents (citral and geraniol) of lemongrass significantly. Among the applied treatments, ICA-80 mg L-1 proved the best in alleviating detrimental effects of drought. However, drought stress (80 and 60% FC), irrespective of the growth stages, had an adverse impact on most of the studied attributes. Generally, 60% FC proved more deleterious than 80% FC. At 80% FC, application of ICA-80 mg L-1 elevated the essential oil (EO) content by 18.9 and 25%, citral content by 7.33 and 8.19% and geraniol content by 9.2 and 8.9% at 90 and 120 days after planting (DAP), respectively, as compared to the deionized-water (DW) spray treatment (80% FC+ DW). Whereas, at 60% FC, foliar application of 80 mg L-1 ICA significantly augmented the EO content by 15.4 and 17.8% and active constituents viz. citral and geraniol, by 5.01 and 5.62% and by 6.06 and 5.61% at 90 and 120 DAP, respectively, as compared to the control (water-spray treatment).

  1. Liquid and vapour-phase antifungal activities of selected essential oils against candida albicans: microscopic observations and chemical characterization of cymbopogon citratus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Use of essential oils for controlling Candida albicans growth has gained significance due to the resistance acquired by pathogens towards a number of widely-used drugs. The aim of this study was to test the antifungal activity of selected essential oils against Candida albicans in liquid and vapour phase and to determine the chemical composition and mechanism of action of most potent essential oil. Methods Minimum Inhibitory concentration (MIC) of different essential oils in liquid phase, assayed through agar plate dilution, broth dilution & 96-well micro plate dilution method and vapour phase activity evaluated through disc volatilization method. Reduction of C. albicans cells with vapour exposure was estimated by kill time assay. Morphological alteration in treated/untreated C. albicans cells was observed by the Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and chemical analysis of the strongest antifungal agent/essential oil has been done by GC, GC-MS. Results Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil exhibited the strongest antifungal effect followed by mentha (Mentha piperita) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) essential oil. The MIC of lemon grass essential oil in liquid phase (288 mg/l) was significantly higher than that in the vapour phase (32.7 mg/l) and a 4 h exposure was sufficient to cause 100% loss in viability of C. albicans cells. SEM/AFM of C. albicans cells treated with lemon grass essential oil at MIC level in liquid and vapour phase showed prominent shrinkage and partial degradation, respectively, confirming higher efficacy of vapour phase. GC-MS analysis revealed that lemon grass essential oil was dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes (78.2%); α-citral or geranial (36.2%) and β-citral or neral (26.5%), monoterpene hydrocarbons (7.9%) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (3.8%). Conclusion Lemon grass essential oil is highly effective in vapour phase against C. albicans, leading to deleterious morphological

  2. Geranyl acetate esterase controls and regulates the level of geraniol in lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Nees ex Steud.) mutant cv. GRL-1 leaves.

    PubMed

    Ganjewala, Deepak; Luthra, Rajesh

    2009-01-01

    Essential oil isolated from lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) mutant cv. GRL-1 leaves is mainly composed of geraniol (G) and geranyl acetate (GA). The proportion of G and GA markedly fluctuates during leaf development. The proportions of GA and G in the essential oil recorded at day 10 after leaf emergence were approximately 59% and approximately 33% respectively. However, the level of GA went down from approximately 59 to approximately 3% whereas the level of G rose from approximately 33 to approximately 91% during the leaf growth period from day 10 to day 50. However, the decline in the level of GA was most pronounced in the early (day 10 to day 30) stage of leaf growth. The trend of changes in the proportion of GA and G has clearly indicated the role of an esterase that must be involved in the conversion of GA to G during leaf development. We isolated an esterase from leaves of different ages that converts GA into G and has been given the name geranyl acetate esterase (GAE). The GAE activity markedly varied during the leaf development cycle; it was closely correlated with the monoterpene (GA and G) composition throughout leaf development. GAE appeared as several isoenzymes but only three (GAE-I, GAE-II, and GAE-III) of them had significant GA cleaving activity. The GAE isoenzymes pattern was greatly influenced by the leaf developmental stages and so their GA cleaving activities. Like the GAE activity, GAE isoenzyme patterns were also found to be consistent with the monoterpene (GA and G) composition. GAE had an optimum pH at 8.5 and temperature at 30 degrees C. Besides GAE, a compound with phosphatase activity capable of hydrolyzing geranyl diphosphate (GPP) to produce geraniol has also been isolated.

  3. Inactivation of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Enteritidis by Cymbopogon citratus D.C. Stapf. Essential Oil in Pineapple Juice.

    PubMed

    Leite, Caroline Junqueira Barcellos; de Sousa, Jossana Pereira; Medeiros, José Alberto da Costa; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; dos Santos Falcão-Silva, Vivyanne; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, the efficacy of Cymbopogon citratus D.C. Stapf. essential oil (CCEO) to provoke a 5-log CFU/ml (5-log) inactivation in a mixed composite of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merril) juice (4°C) was assessed. Moreover, the effects of CCEO on the physicochemical and sensory quality parameters of pineapple juice were evaluated. The MIC of CCEO was 5 μl/ml against the composite mix examined. For L. monocytogenes and E. coli inoculated in juice containing CCEO (5, 2.5, and 1.25 μl/ml), a ≥5-log reduction was detected after 15 min of exposure. This same result was obtained for Salmonella Enteritidis incubated alone in pineapple juice containing CCEO at 5 and 2.5 μl/ml. Overall, Salmonella Enteritidis was the most tolerant and L. monocytogenes was the most sensitive to CCEO. The physicochemical properties (pH, titratable acidic [citric acid per 100 g], and soluble solids) of pineapple juice containing CCEO (2.5 and 1.25 μl/ml) were maintained. Juice containing CCEO (2.5 and 1.25 μl/ml) exhibited similar scores for odor, appearance, and viscosity compared with juice without CCEO. However, unsatisfactory changes in taste and aftertaste were observed in juices containing CCEO. These results suggest that CCEO could be used as an alternative antimicrobial compound to ensure the safety of pineapple juice, although CCEO at the tested concentrations negatively impacted its taste. Therefore, further studies are needed to determine the balance between microbial safety and taste acceptability of pineapple juice containing CCEO.

  4. Acaricidal activity of the essential oils from Eucalyptus citriodora and Cymbopogon nardus on larvae of Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) and Anocentor nitens (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Clemente, Mateus Aparecido; de Oliveira Monteiro, Caio Márcio; Scoralik, Márcio Goldner; Gomes, Fernando Teixeira; de Azevedo Prata, Márcia Cristina; Daemon, Erik

    2010-09-01

    The present study evaluated the acaricidal activity of essential oils from Eucalyptus citriodora and Cymbopogon nardus on non-engorged larvae of Amblyomma cajennense and Anocentor nitens. In order to carry out the study, six groups were formed, each concentration being a treatment (6.25%, 12.5%, 25%, and 50%, respectively) and also with the creation of a control group (distilled water) and a positive control (Deltametrine). For each treatment, approximately 100 larvae of these ticks were placed onto filter papers (2 x 2 cm) impregnated with the concentrations used to test. Next, the envelopes were closed bearing inside the filter paper with measurements of 6 x 6 cm. For each group, six repetitions were performed, and after 24 h live and dead larvae were counted. This procedure was carried out for two essential oils on the two species of ticks. For A. cajennense, the acaricide efficacy of E. citriodora oil was of 10.8%, 35.3%, 34.5%, and 53.1%, whereas the efficacy of C. nardus was of 0.0%, 0.0%, 0.0%, and 61.1% at concentrations of 6.25%, 12.5%, 25.0%, and 50.0%, respectively. In relation to A. nitens, the acaricide efficacy of E. citriodora oil was of 20.1%, 84.5%, 89.2%, and 100.0%, whereas the efficacy of C. nardus was of 0.0%, 90.8%, 100.0%, and 100.0% at concentrations of 6.25%, 12.5%, 25.0%, and 50.0%, respectively. The results indicate that the essential oils tested showed a promising acaricidal activity mainly on A. nitens larvae.

  5. Phytochemical composition of Cymbopogon citratus and Eucalyptus citriodora essential oils and their anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties on Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Gbenou, Joachin D; Ahounou, Judith F; Akakpo, Huguette B; Laleye, Anatole; Yayi, Eléonore; Gbaguidi, Fernand; Baba-Moussa, Lamine; Darboux, Raphael; Dansou, Pierre; Moudachirou, Mansourou; Kotchoni, Simeon O

    2013-02-01

    Cymbopogon citratus and Eucalyptus citriodora are widely used herbs/plants as a source of ethnomedicines in tropical regions of the world. In this work, we studied the anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective effects of C. citratus and E. citriodora essential oils on formol-induced edema, and acetic acid induced abdominal cramps in Wistar rats. To fully understand the chemically induced anti-inflammatory properties of these plants, we first analyzed the chemical composition of the essential oils. A total of 16 chemical constituents accounting for 93.69 % of the oil, were identified in C. citratus among which, Geranial (27.04 %), neral (19.93 %) and myrcene (27.04 %) were the major constituents. For E. citriodora, 19 compounds representing 97.2 % of the extracted oil were identified. The dominant compound of E. citriodora essential oil was citronellal (83.50 %). In vivo analysis and histological assay showed that the two essential oils displayed significant dose dependent edema inhibition effect over time. They displayed strong analgesic and antipyretic properties similar to that induced by 50 mg/kg of acetylsalicylate of lysine. However, the E. citriodora essential oil was more effective than that of C. citratus. We identified significant numbers of aldehyde molecules in both essential oils mediating antioxidant activity that may contribute to the anti-inflammatory effects observed on the rats. Altogether, this work demonstrates the anti-inflammatory property of C. citratus and E. citriodora suggesting their potential role as adjuvant therapeutic alternatives in dealing with inflammatory-related diseases.

  6. Anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oils of Cymbopogon validus (Stapf) Stapf ex Burtt Davy from Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Rungqu, Pamela; Oyedeji, Opeoluwa; Nkeh-Chungag, Benedicta; Songca, Sandile; Oluwafemi, Oluwatobi; Oyedeji, Adebola

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the essential oil composition and the anti-inflammatory activity of Cymbopogon validus (C. validus) leaves and flowers. A total of 300 g of fresh or dry (leaves and flowers) of C. validus were cut into small pieces and subjected to hydro-distillation method for approximately 5 h using the Clevenger apparatus. The extracted essential oils were then used for testing the anti-inflammatory activity. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by using egg albumin-induced paw edema. The extracted oils had the following yields 2.2% for fresh leaves, 2.0% for dry leaves and 2.4% v/w for dry flowers. GC-MS results revealed that the oils contained artemisia ketone (37.5%), linalool (3.2%-29.6%), northujane (4.4%-16.8%), verbenone (13.5%), naphthalene (1.7%-9.6%), δ-cadinene (0.5%-8.1%), hedycaryol (5.4%-7.6%) and α-eudesmol (6.5%-6.7%) as the major constituents. C. validus essential oils showed significant (P < 0.05) anti-inflammatory effects from the first 30 min after albumin injection compared to aspirin which had a later onset of effect. The findings of this study show that the essential oil extracted from C. validus fresh or dry leaves and flowers have anti-inflammatory properties; that might be associated with the major components and the minor components found in the essential oils. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Proliferating effect of radiolytically depolymerized carrageenan on physiological attributes, plant water relation parameters, essential oil production and active constituents of Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud. under drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M. Masroor A.; Uddin, Moin; Naeem, M.; Qureshi, M. Irfan

    2017-01-01

    Carrageenan has been proved as potent growth promoting substance in its depolymerized form. However, relatively little is known about its role in counteracting the adverse effects of drought stress on plants. In a pot experiment, lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud.), grown under different water stress regimes [(100% field capacity (FC), 80% FC and 60% FC)], was sprayed with 40, 80 and 120 mg L-1 of gamma irradiated carrageenan (ICA). Foliar application of ICA mitigated the harmful effects of drought stress to various extents and improved the biochemical characteristics, quality attributes and active constituents (citral and geraniol) of lemongrass significantly. Among the applied treatments, ICA-80 mg L-1 proved the best in alleviating detrimental effects of drought. However, drought stress (80 and 60% FC), irrespective of the growth stages, had an adverse impact on most of the studied attributes. Generally, 60% FC proved more deleterious than 80% FC. At 80% FC, application of ICA-80 mg L-1 elevated the essential oil (EO) content by 18.9 and 25%, citral content by 7.33 and 8.19% and geraniol content by 9.2 and 8.9% at 90 and 120 days after planting (DAP), respectively, as compared to the deionized-water (DW) spray treatment (80% FC+ DW). Whereas, at 60% FC, foliar application of 80 mg L-1 ICA significantly augmented the EO content by 15.4 and 17.8% and active constituents viz. citral and geraniol, by 5.01 and 5.62% and by 6.06 and 5.61% at 90 and 120 DAP, respectively, as compared to the control (water-spray treatment). PMID:28708833

  8. Liquid and vapour-phase antifungal activities of selected essential oils against Candida albicans: microscopic observations and chemical characterization of Cymbopogon citratus.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Amit K; Malik, Anushree

    2010-11-10

    Use of essential oils for controlling Candida albicans growth has gained significance due to the resistance acquired by pathogens towards a number of widely-used drugs. The aim of this study was to test the antifungal activity of selected essential oils against Candida albicans in liquid and vapour phase and to determine the chemical composition and mechanism of action of most potent essential oil. Minimum Inhibitory concentration (MIC) of different essential oils in liquid phase, assayed through agar plate dilution, broth dilution & 96-well micro plate dilution method and vapour phase activity evaluated through disc volatilization method. Reduction of C. albicans cells with vapour exposure was estimated by kill time assay. Morphological alteration in treated/untreated C. albicans cells was observed by the Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and chemical analysis of the strongest antifungal agent/essential oil has been done by GC, GC-MS. Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil exhibited the strongest antifungal effect followed by mentha (Mentha piperita) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) essential oil. The MIC of lemon grass essential oil in liquid phase (288 mg/l) was significantly higher than that in the vapour phase (32.7 mg/l) and a 4 h exposure was sufficient to cause 100% loss in viability of C. albicans cells. SEM/AFM of C. albicans cells treated with lemon grass essential oil at MIC level in liquid and vapour phase showed prominent shrinkage and partial degradation, respectively, confirming higher efficacy of vapour phase. GC-MS analysis revealed that lemon grass essential oil was dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes (78.2%); α-citral or geranial (36.2%) and β-citral or neral (26.5%), monoterpene hydrocarbons (7.9%) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (3.8%). Lemon grass essential oil is highly effective in vapour phase against C. albicans, leading to deleterious morphological changes in cellular structures and cell

  9. Housefly (Musca domestica L.) control potential of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. (Poales: Poaceae) essential oil and monoterpenes (citral and 1,8-cineole).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Peeyush; Mishra, Sapna; Malik, Anushree; Satya, Santosh

    2013-01-01

    In spite of being a major vector for several domestic, medical, and veterinary pests, the control aspect of the common housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) is often neglected. In the present study, the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus and its major components were evaluated for control of housefly. The chemical composition analysis of C. citratus oil by gas chromatographic mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed citral (47 %) and 1,8-cineole (7.5 %) as principal components. The analysis of oil vapor by solid phase microextraction (SPME/GC-MS) showed increase in citral (74.9 %) and 1,8-cineole (8.6 %) content. Assay of oil against housefly larvae and pupae through contact toxicity assay showed lethal concentration (LC)(50) value of 0.41 μl/cm(2) and of percentage inhibition rate (PIR) of 77.3 %, respectively. Fumigation assay was comparatively more effective with LC(50) of 48.6 μl/L against housefly larvae, and a PIR value of 100 % against housefly pupae. The monoterpenes, citral, and 1,8-cineole, when assessed for their insecticidal activity against housefly larvae, showed LC(50) of 0.002 and 0.01 μl/cm(2) (contact toxicity assay) and LC(50) of 3.3 and 2.4 μl/L (fumigation assay). For pupicidal assay, both citral and 1,8-cineole had a PIR value of 100 %. High efficacy of citral and 1,8-cineole against housefly, established them to be an active insecticidal agent of C. citratus oil. The study demonstrates potentiality of C. citratus oil as an excellent insecticide for housefly control, and the results open up the opportunity of oil/monoterpenes being developed into an eco-friendly, economical, and acceptable product.

  10. The anti-allergic activity of Cymbopogon citratus is mediated via inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B (Nf-Κb) activation.

    PubMed

    Santos Serafim Machado, Marta; Ferreira Silva, Hugo Bernardino; Rios, Raimon; Pires de Oliveira, Anaque; Vilany Queiroz Carneiro, Noma; Santos Costa, Ryan; Santos Alves, William; Meneses Souza, Fabio-Luis; da Silva Velozo, Eudes; Alves de Souza, Silvana; Sarmento Silva, Tania Maria; Silva, Maria Lenise; Pontes-de-Carvalho, Lain Carlos; Alcântara-Neves, Neuza Maria; Figueiredo, Camila Alexandrina

    2015-06-06

    The prevalence of allergic diseases such as asthma has significantly increased worldwide, making it a public health concern. There is an urgent need for new anti-inflammatory agents with selective pharmacology and lower toxicity. Plant extracts have been used for centuries in traditional medicine to alleviate inflammatory diseases. In this work, we evaluated the anti-allergic activity of Cymbopogon citratus (Cy), a medicinal herb used by folk medicine to treat asthma. We used a murine model of respiratory allergy to the mite Blomia tropicalis (Bt) and evaluated certain parameters known to be altered in this model. A/J mice were sensitized (100 μg/animal s.c.) and challenged (10 μg/animal i.n.) with Bt mite extract and treated with 60, 120 or 180 mg/kg of Cy standardized hexane extract. The parameters evaluated included: cellular infiltrate in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL); eosinophil peroxidase activity (EPO); histopathological examination of the lung; serum levels of specific IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a; Th2 cytokine concentrations in BAL and expression of NF-κB. Our results showed that oral administration of a Cy hexane extract (especially 180 mg/Kg) reduced the numbers of leukocytes/eosinophils in BAL; the eosinophil peroxidase activity in BAL; the infiltration of leukocytes in lung tissue; the production of mucus in the respiratory tract; the level of IL-4 in BAL and the nuclear expression of NF-κB. The results presented demonstrate the potential of the Cy hexane extract to modulate allergic asthma; this extract may be an alternative future approach to treat this pathology.

  11. Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus (D.C) Stapf) polyphenols protect human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs) from oxidative damage induced by high glucose, hydrogen peroxide and oxidised low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Campos, J; Schmeda-Hirschmann, G; Leiva, E; Guzmán, L; Orrego, R; Fernández, P; González, M; Radojkovic, C; Zuñiga, F A; Lamperti, L; Pastene, E; Aguayo, C

    2014-05-15

    The aromatic herb Cymbopogon citratus Stapf is widely used in tropical and subtropical countries in cooking, as a herbal tea, and in traditional medicine for hypertension and diabetes. Some of its properties have been associated with the in vitro antioxidant effect of polyphenols isolated from their aerial parts. However, little is known about C. citratus effects on endothelial cells oxidative injury. Using chromatographic procedures, a polyphenol-rich fraction was obtained from C. citratus (CCF) and their antioxidant properties were assessed by cooper-induced LDL oxidation assay. The main constituents of the active CCF, identified by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS), were chlorogenic acid, isoorientin and swertiajaponin. CCF 10 and 100 μg/ml diminishes reactive oxidative species (ROS) production in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs), challenged with high D-glucose (60% inhibition), hydrogen peroxide (80% inhibition) or oxidised low-density lipoprotein (55% inhibition). CCF 10 or 100 μg/ml did not change nitric oxide (NO) production. However, CCF was able to inhibit vasoconstriction induced by the thromboxane A2 receptor agonist U46619, which suggest a NO-independent vasodilatador effect on blood vessels. Our results suggest that lemon grass antioxidant properties might prevent endothelial dysfunction associated to an oxidative imbalance promoted by different oxidative stimuli.

  12. [Chemical composition of the essential oil from melissa].

    PubMed

    Tittel, G; Wagner, H; Bos, R

    1982-10-01

    Different oil-samples of Melissa officinalis L. were analysed by capillary GC/MS, using fused silica columns and E.I.-Mass-spectrometry. Comparing the observed mass-spectra with those of a spectral collection, 70 compounds of the oil were identified. Geranial, neral, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, citronellal, geranyl-acetate, beta-caryophyllene, and beta-caryophyllene-oxide comprise about 96%. The fingerprint of the capillary gas-chromatogramm permitted differentiation of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis, Cymbopogon winterianus and Nepeta cataria var. citriodora., as well as a standardisation of pharmaceutical preparations containing Melissa oil.

  13. Activities of some Brazilian plants against larvae of the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    de Mendonça, Fernando A C; da Silva, K F S; dos Santos, K K; Ribeiro Júnior, K A L; Sant'Ana, A E G

    2005-12-01

    The insecticidal activities of extracts and oils of seventeen medicinal plants of Brazil have been determined using an Aedes aegypti larvicidal bioassay. Oils from Anacardium occidentalis, Copaifera langsdorffii, Carapa guianensis, Cymbopogon winterianus and Ageratum conyzoides showed high activities with LC50 values of 14.5, 41, 57, 98 and 148 microg/l, respectively. The most active ethanolic extract tested was that from the stem of Annona glabra which presented an LC50 value of 27 microg/l. The potential application of cashew nut oil, an industrial by-product with low commercial value, in the control of the vector of dengue and yellow fever, may be proposed.

  14. Anti-Candida activity of Brazilian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Sartoratto, Adilson; Rehder, Vera Lúcia Garcia; Delarmelina, Camila

    2005-02-28

    Essential oils and ethanolic extracts from the leaves and/or roots of 35 medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil were screened for anti-Candida albicans activity. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system. Essential oils from 13 plants showed anti-Candida activity, including Aloysia triphylla, Anthemis nobilis, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, Cyperus articulatus, Cyperus rotundus, Lippia alba, Mentha arvensis, Mikania glomerata, Mentha piperita, Mentha sp., Stachys byzantina, and Solidago chilensis. The ethanol extract was not effective at any of the concentrations tested. Chemical analyses showed the presence of compounds with known antimicrobial activity, including 1,8-cineole, geranial, germacrene-D, limonene, linalool, and menthol.

  15. Properties and limits of some essential oils: chemical characterisation, antimicrobial activity, interaction with antibiotics and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Scazzocchio, Francesca; Garzoli, Stefania; Conti, Cinzia; Leone, Claudia; Renaioli, Clio; Pepi, Federico; Angiolella, Letizia

    2016-09-01

    Because of the emergence of multi-drug resistance bacteria and fungi, alternatives to conventional antimicrobial therapy are needed. This study aims to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of: Mirtus communis, Coriandrum sativum, Pelargonium capitatum, Cuminum cyminum, Ocimum basilicum, Citrus aurantium amara, Cymbopogon. winterianus, Cymbopogon martini, Salvia sclarea, Melaleuca alternifolia and Mentha suaveolens essential oils on bacteria and fungi, in relation to their chemical composition. The potential interaction of M. alternifolia (TTO), C. sativum (CDO) and M. suaveolens (EOMS) essential oils when used in combination with gentamicin and fluconazole has been evaluated. The results obtained showed a synergic effect on some bacteria and fungi, with FICI values ≤5. The cytotoxicity of TTO, CDO and EOMS was investigated towards HeLa cells. Only EOMS did not result cytotoxic at the active concentrations on micro-organisms. Further studies are necessary to obtain optimal ratios and dosing regimens for higher therapeutic efficacy and to decrease toxicological profiles.

  16. In vitro and in vivo acaricide action of juvenoid analogs produced from the chemical modification of Cymbopogon spp. and Corymbia citriodora essential oil on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Ana Carolina S; Domingues, Luciana F; Fantatto, Rafaela R; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Márcia C S; Oliveira, Daniela H; Mano, Renata A; Jacob, Raquel G

    2014-09-15

    The present study aimed to evaluate the acaricidal action of the chemically modified essential oil of Cymbopogon spp. and Corymbia citriodora on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Citronellal was converted into N-butylcitronellylamine and in N-prop-2-inylcitronellylamine, analogs of juvenoids, by reductive amination using butylamine (N1 to N3) and propargylamine (N4 to N7). In vitro assays included the adult immersion, and larval packet tests. Engorged females were weighed in groups of 10 and tested in three replicates for six concentrations. They were immersed in the modified oils or control solution and incubated. In the larval packet test, the same substances and concentrations were evaluated in three replicates. In the in vivo test, six pastured heifers naturally infested with R. (B.) microplus were used per treatment: negative control, positive control (amitraz, Triatox(®)), original oil of C. citriodora at 1.5%, and modified oil containing 0.9% N-prop-2-inylcitronellylamine (N7). Ticks were counted in the right side of the body in 24 animals from day D-3 to D21. LC50 and LC90 were obtained by Probit analysis, while the in vivo results were log transformed and compared using the Tukey test. Among the nitrocellylamines tested in vitro, N6 was most effective on the engorged females (100% efficacy at 50mg/mL) and N7 on the larvae (100% efficacy at 6.25mg/mL). In the test with larvae, the original oil of C. citriodora was less effective than the counterpart modified oil (N7), proving that the chemical modification optimized its effect. In the in vivo test, no significant difference was observed between N7 and the negative control. The average numbers of ticks on the animals' right side were 32.8, 8.1, 37.9 and 35.4 for the negative control, positive control, original oil and N7, respectively. The chemical modification improved the efficacy in vitro, but it was not observed in vivo, perhaps due to the low stability of the amines under field conditions. The

  17. 27 CFR 21.105 - Citronella oil, natural.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Refractive index at 20 °C. 1.4660 to 1.4745. (4) Specific gravity at 25 °/25 °C. 0.875 to 0.893. (5) Odor... to 1.4850. (4) Specific gravity at 25 °/25 °C. 0.891 to 0.904. (5) Odor. Characteristic odor. ...

  18. 27 CFR 21.105 - Citronella oil, natural.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Refractive index at 20 °C. 1.4660 to 1.4745. (4) Specific gravity at 25 °/25 °C. 0.875 to 0.893. (5) Odor... to 1.4850. (4) Specific gravity at 25 °/25 °C. 0.891 to 0.904. (5) Odor. Characteristic odor. ...

  19. 27 CFR 21.105 - Citronella oil, natural.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Refractive index at 20 °C. 1.4660 to 1.4745. (4) Specific gravity at 25 °/25 °C. 0.875 to 0.893. (5) Odor... to 1.4850. (4) Specific gravity at 25 °/25 °C. 0.891 to 0.904. (5) Odor. Characteristic odor. ...

  20. Avoidance Behavior to Essential Oils by Anopheles minimus, a Malaria Vector in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nararak, Jirod; Sathantriphop, Sunaiyana; Chauhan, Kamal; Tantakom, Siripun; Eiden, Amanda L; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2016-03-01

    Essential oils extracted from 4 different plant species--citronella (Cymbopogon nardus), hairy basil (Ocimum americanum), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), and vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides)-were investigated for their irritant and repellent activities against Anopheles minimus, using an excito-repellency test system. Pure essential oils were used in absolute ethanol at the concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, 2.5%, and 5% (v/v) compared with deet. At the lowest concentration of 0.5%, hairy basil displayed the best irritant and repellent effects against An. minimus. Citronella and vetiver at 1-5% showed strong irritant effects with>80% escape, while repellent effects of both oils were observed at 1% and 2.5% citronella (73-89% escape) and at 5% vetiver (83.9% escape). Sweet basil had only moderate irritant action at 5% concentration (69.6% escape) and slightly repellent on test mosquitoes (<50% escape). The results found that hairy basil, citronella, and vetiver are promising potential mosquito repellent products for protection against An. minimus.

  1. [Peculicidal activity of plant essential oils and their based preparations].

    PubMed

    Lopatina, Iu V; Eremina, O Iu

    2014-01-01

    The peculicidal activity of eight plant essential oils in 75% isopropyl alcohol was in vitro investigated. Of them, the substances that were most active against lice were tea tree (Melaleuca), eucalyptus, neem, citronella (Cymbopogon nardus), and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oils; KT50 was not more than 3 minutes on average; KT95 was 4 minutes. After evaporating the solvent, only five (tea tree, cassia, clove, anise (Anisum vulgare), and Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum) oils) of the eight test botanical substances were active against lice. At the same time, KT50 and KT95 showed 1.5-5-fold increases. Citronella and anise oils had incomplete ovicidal activity. Since the lice were permethrin-resistant, the efficacy of preparations based on essential oils was much higher than permethrin.

  2. Efficacy of herbal essential oils as insecticide against Aedes aegypti (Linn.), Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) and Anopheles dirus (Peyton and Harrison).

    PubMed

    Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn; Soonwera, Mayura

    2011-09-01

    The essential oils of Cananga odorata (ylang ylang), Citrus sinensis (orange), Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass), Cymbopogon nardus (citronella grass), Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus), Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove), were tested for their insecticide activity against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles dirus using the WHO standard susceptibility test. These were applied in soybean oil at dose of 1%, 5% and 10% (w/v). C. citratus had the KT, values against the three mosquito species tested but the knockdown rates (at 10, 30 and 60 minutes) were lower than some essential oils. C. citratus oil had high insecticidal activity against Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. dirus, with LC50 values of < 0.1, 2.22 and < 0.1%, respectively. Ten percent C. citratus gave the highest mortality rates (100%) 24 hours after application. This study demonstrates the potential for the essential oil of C. citratus to be used as an insecticide against 3 species of mosquitoes.

  3. De Novo Sequencing and Analysis of Lemongrass Transcriptome Provide First Insights into the Essential Oil Biosynthesis of Aromatic Grasses.

    PubMed

    Meena, Seema; Kumar, Sarma R; Venkata Rao, D K; Dwivedi, Varun; Shilpashree, H B; Rastogi, Shubhra; Shasany, Ajit K; Nagegowda, Dinesh A

    2016-01-01

    Aromatic grasses of the genus Cymbopogon (Poaceae family) represent unique group of plants that produce diverse composition of monoterpene rich essential oils, which have great value in flavor, fragrance, cosmetic, and aromatherapy industries. Despite the commercial importance of these natural aromatic oils, their biosynthesis at the molecular level remains unexplored. As the first step toward understanding the essential oil biosynthesis, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of C. flexuosus (lemongrass) by employing Illumina sequencing. Mining of transcriptome data and subsequent phylogenetic analysis led to identification of terpene synthases, pyrophosphatases, alcohol dehydrogenases, aldo-keto reductases, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases, alcohol acetyltransferases, and aldehyde dehydrogenases, which are potentially involved in essential oil biosynthesis. Comparative essential oil profiling and mRNA expression analysis in three Cymbopogon species (C. flexuosus, aldehyde type; C. martinii, alcohol type; and C. winterianus, intermediate type) with varying essential oil composition indicated the involvement of identified candidate genes in the formation of alcohols, aldehydes, and acetates. Molecular modeling and docking further supported the role of identified protein sequences in aroma formation in Cymbopogon. Also, simple sequence repeats were found in the transcriptome with many linked to terpene pathway genes including the genes potentially involved in aroma biosynthesis. This work provides the first insights into the essential oil biosynthesis of aromatic grasses, and the identified candidate genes and markers can be a great resource for biotechnological and molecular breeding approaches to modulate the essential oil composition.

  4. De Novo Sequencing and Analysis of Lemongrass Transcriptome Provide First Insights into the Essential Oil Biosynthesis of Aromatic Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Seema; Kumar, Sarma R.; Venkata Rao, D. K.; Dwivedi, Varun; Shilpashree, H. B.; Rastogi, Shubhra; Shasany, Ajit K.; Nagegowda, Dinesh A.

    2016-01-01

    Aromatic grasses of the genus Cymbopogon (Poaceae family) represent unique group of plants that produce diverse composition of monoterpene rich essential oils, which have great value in flavor, fragrance, cosmetic, and aromatherapy industries. Despite the commercial importance of these natural aromatic oils, their biosynthesis at the molecular level remains unexplored. As the first step toward understanding the essential oil biosynthesis, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of C. flexuosus (lemongrass) by employing Illumina sequencing. Mining of transcriptome data and subsequent phylogenetic analysis led to identification of terpene synthases, pyrophosphatases, alcohol dehydrogenases, aldo-keto reductases, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases, alcohol acetyltransferases, and aldehyde dehydrogenases, which are potentially involved in essential oil biosynthesis. Comparative essential oil profiling and mRNA expression analysis in three Cymbopogon species (C. flexuosus, aldehyde type; C. martinii, alcohol type; and C. winterianus, intermediate type) with varying essential oil composition indicated the involvement of identified candidate genes in the formation of alcohols, aldehydes, and acetates. Molecular modeling and docking further supported the role of identified protein sequences in aroma formation in Cymbopogon. Also, simple sequence repeats were found in the transcriptome with many linked to terpene pathway genes including the genes potentially involved in aroma biosynthesis. This work provides the first insights into the essential oil biosynthesis of aromatic grasses, and the identified candidate genes and markers can be a great resource for biotechnological and molecular breeding approaches to modulate the essential oil composition. PMID:27516768

  5. Activity of essential oils from Brazilian medicinal plants on Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Leme, Ewerton Eduardo; Delarmelina, Camila; Soares, Andressa Almeida; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Sartoratto, Adilson

    2007-05-04

    Essential oils obtained from leaves of 29 medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil were screened against 13 different Escherichia coli serotypes. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system and their minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined by microdilution method. Essential oil from Cymbopogon martinii exhibited a broad inhibition spectrum, presenting strong activity (MIC between 100 and 500 microg/mL) against 10 out of 13 Escherichia coli serotypes: three enterotoxigenic, two enteropathogenic, three enteroinvasive and two shiga-toxin producers. C. winterianus inhibited strongly two enterotoxigenic, one enteropathogenic, one enteroinvasive and one shiga-toxin producer serotypes. Aloysia triphylla also shows good potential to kill Escherichia coli with moderate to strong inhibition. Other essential oils showed antimicrobial properties, however with a more restricted action against the serotypes studied. Chemical analysis of Cymbopogon martinii essential oil performed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed the presence of compounds with known antimicrobial activity, including geraniol, geranyl acetate and trans-cariophyllene, which tested separately, indicated geraniol as antimicrobial active compound. The significant antibacterial activity of Cymbopogon martinii oil suggests that they could serve as a source for compounds with therapeutic potential.

  6. Antihypertensive potential of the aqueous extract which combine leaf of Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae), stems and leaf of Cymbopogon citratus (D.C) Stapf. (Poaceae), fruits of Citrus medical L. (Rutaceae) as well as honey in ethanol and sucrose experimental model.

    PubMed

    Dzeufiet, Paul Désiré Djomeni; Mogueo, Amélie; Bilanda, Danielle Claude; Aboubakar, Bibi-Farouck Oumarou; Tédong, Léonard; Dimo, Théophile; Kamtchouing, Pierre

    2014-12-17

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of the aqueous extract obtained from the mixture of fresh leaf of Persea americana, stems and fresh leaf of Cymbopogon citratus, fruits of Citrus medica and honey on ethanol and sucrose induced hypertension in rats. Rats were divided into eight groups of 6 rats each and daily treated for 5 weeks. The control group received distilled water (1 mL/kg) while rats of groups 2, 3 and 4 received ethanol 40 degrees (3 g/kg/day), 10% sucrose as drinking water and the two substances respectively. The remaining groups received in addition to sucrose and ethanol, the aqueous extract (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg) or nifedipine (10 mg/kg) respectively. Many parameters including hemodynamic, biochemical and histopathological were assessed at the end of the study. The concomitant consumption of ethanol and sucrose significantly (p < 0.001) increased the blood pressure and the heart rate compared to distilled water treated-rats. The levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, atherogenic index, glucose, proteins, AST, ALT, creatinin, potassium, sodium and albumin increased while the HDL-cholesterol decreased under ethanol and sucrose feeding. Chronic ethanol and sucrose intake significantly decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) as well as the contents of reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitrites whereas elevated the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Histological analysis revealed among other vascular congestion, inflammation, tubular clarification and thickening of the vessel wall in rats treated with alcohol and sucrose. Administration of the aqueous extract or nifedipine prevented the hemodynamic, biochemical, oxidative and histological impairments induced chronic ethanol and sucrose consumption. Current results suggest that the aqueous extract used in this study possess antihypertensive activity against ethanol and sucrose induced hypertension in rats by the improvement of biochemical

  7. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Alouatta spp. Feces to Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Carregaro, Adriano Bonfim; Santurio, Deise Flores; de Sá, Mariangela Facco; Santurio, Janio Moraes; Alves, Sydney Hartz

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils from Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano), Origanum vulgaris (oregano), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Cymbopogon nardus (citronella), Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass), and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus) against Escherichia coli (n = 22) strains isolated from Alouatta spp. feces. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined for each isolate using the broth microdilution technique. Essential oils of Mexican oregano (MIC mean = 1818 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 2618 μg mL−1), thyme (MIC mean = 2618 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 2909 μg mL−1), and oregano (MIC mean = 3418 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 4800 μg mL−1) showed the best antibacterial activity, while essential oils of eucalyptus, rosemary, citronella, and lemongrass displayed no antibacterial activity at concentrations greater than or equal to 6400 μg mL−1. Our results confirm the antimicrobial potential of some essential oils, which deserve further research. PMID:27313638

  8. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Alouatta spp. Feces to Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Lara, Valéria Maria; Carregaro, Adriano Bonfim; Santurio, Deise Flores; de Sá, Mariangela Facco; Santurio, Janio Moraes; Alves, Sydney Hartz

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils from Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano), Origanum vulgaris (oregano), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Cymbopogon nardus (citronella), Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass), and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus) against Escherichia coli (n = 22) strains isolated from Alouatta spp. feces. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined for each isolate using the broth microdilution technique. Essential oils of Mexican oregano (MIC mean = 1818 μg mL(-1); MBC mean = 2618 μg mL(-1)), thyme (MIC mean = 2618 μg mL(-1); MBC mean = 2909 μg mL(-1)), and oregano (MIC mean = 3418 μg mL(-1); MBC mean = 4800 μg mL(-1)) showed the best antibacterial activity, while essential oils of eucalyptus, rosemary, citronella, and lemongrass displayed no antibacterial activity at concentrations greater than or equal to 6400 μg mL(-1). Our results confirm the antimicrobial potential of some essential oils, which deserve further research.

  9. Antinociceptive action and redox properties of citronellal, an essential oil present in lemongrass.

    PubMed

    Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo; da Rocha, Ricardo Fagundes; Caregnato, Fernanda Freitas; Moreira, José Claudio Fonseca; da Silva, Francilene Amaral; Araújo, Adriano Antunes de Souza; dos Santos, João Paulo Almeida; Melo, Mônica Santos; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; Gelain, Daniel Pens

    2011-06-01

    Citronellal (CT) is a monoterpenoid and the major constituent of the mixture of terpenoids that give the citronella oil its lemon scent. Citronella oil is widely used around the world for various purposes and is mainly obtained from plants of the Cymbopogon genus, which are known as "lemongrass." Considering these plants have been used worldwide for various medicinal purposes, the interest of researchers to understand the biological activities of monoterpenoids related to the Cymbopogon genus has been increasing. In the present work, we investigated the antinociceptive action and the redox properties of CT. Our results indicate that intraperitoneal injection of CT was effective in reducing nociceptive face-rubbing behavior in both phases of the formalin test, which was also naloxone-sensitive. CT also evoked antinociceptive response in the capsaicin and glutamate tests. The total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter and total antioxidant reactivity assays indicate that CT at doses of 0.1 and 1 mg/mL exerts a significant antioxidant activity, which is probably related to its ability to scavenge superoxide and nitric oxide, but not H(2)O(2) or hydroxyl radicals, as evaluated separately by specific in vitro tests. These results show for the first time the antinociceptive potential of CT and indicate that the antioxidant properties of this compound may rely on its mechanism of biological actions because CT-containing natural products are used to treat various diseases related to oxidative stress and reactive species.

  10. Excito-repellency of essential oils against an Aedes aegypti (L.) field population in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Boonyuan, Wasana; Grieco, John P; Bangs, Michael J; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Tantakom, Siripun; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2014-06-01

    An investigation of the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti (= Stegomyia aegypti) to various concentrations of essential oils (2.5, 5, and 10%) extracted from hairy basil (Ocimum americanum Linn), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf), citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus Rendle), and plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb) were performed using an excito-repellency test chamber. Results showed that Ae. aegypti exhibited varying levels of escape response in both the contact and noncontact chambers in response to different essential oils. The magnitude of the behaviors changed in a dose-response fashion depending on the percent volume to volume concentration of oil used. A 2.5% concentration of hairy basil oil produced a significantly greater escape response compared to the other extracts at the same concentration (P< 0.05). Oils of ginger, lemongrass, and citronella produced stronger irritant and repellent responses at the median 5% concentration compared to the lowest and highest concentrations. There was marked suppression of escape for both contact and noncontact tests using 10% concentrations of hairy basil, lemongrass, and citronella, with high knockdown for all three oils after 30 min. Hairy basil and lemongrass had the highest insecticidal activity to Ae. aegypti, with LC50 values of 6.3 and 6.7 percent, respectively. We conclude that the essential oils from native plants tested, and likely many other extracts found in plants, have inherent repellent and irritant qualities that should to be screened and optimized for their behavior-modifying properties against Ae. aegypti and other biting arthropods of public health and pest importance. © 2014 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  11. Screening the antifungal activity of essential oils against decay fungi from palmyrah leaf handicrafts.

    PubMed

    Mahilrajan, Subajini; Nandakumar, Jeyarani; Kailayalingam, Robika; Manoharan, Nilushiny Aloysius; SriVijeindran, SriThayalan

    2014-08-15

    The whitish tender leaves of Palmyrah are used for making handicrafts. The problem with these articles is discolouration with time and become more brittle due to fungal attack. This could be prevented by some protective coating. Instead of expensive and harmful chemicals we decided to test natural plant essential oils to control fungal attack. Palmyrah leaf article decay fungi were isolated from two different sites of Jaffna peninsula. In this investigation Antifungal Activity of different plant essential oils from neem (Azadirachta indica), castor (Ricinus communis), citronella (Cymbopogon sp) and camphor (Cinnamomum camphora) obtained from local market have been evaluated against isolated fungi. For screening of Antifungal activity, tests and controls were set to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Percentage of Growth Inhibition. Morphologically three different types of Palmyrah leaf decay fungi were isolated and characterized as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium sp. Neem and castor oils have recorded no significant (0.05 > P) antifungal activity while citronella and camphor oils showed significantly different antifungal activity compared with control. Camphor oil and Citronella oil showed 100, 58.13% of average growth inhibition for A. niger. 96.38, 51.32% for A.flavus and 84.99, 72.76% for Penicillium sp respectively. Camphor oil showed highest percentage of growth inhibition at lowest minimum inhibitory concentration compared with citronella oil. Camphor oil was found to be highly antifungal and most effective against A niger, and A. flavus, compared with Penicillium sp and gave 100 percentage of growth inhibitions at 5, 1 and 15 ml/dl minimum inhibitory concentration respectively. Significantly higher broad-spectrum of antifungal activity was observed in camphor oil than other tested oils because it showed highest percentage of growth inhibition at lowest inhibitory concentration. Therefore it could be used for the

  12. Hypotensive and vasorelaxant effects of citronellol, a monoterpene alcohol, in rats.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Joana F A; Moreira, Italo J A; Ribeiro, Thaís P; Medeiros, Isac A; Antoniolli, Angelo R; De Sousa, Damião P; Santos, Márcio R V

    2010-04-01

    Citronellol is an essential oil constituent from the medicinal plants Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon winterianus and Lippia alba which are thought to possess antihypertensive properties. Citronellol-induced cardiovascular effects were evaluated in this study. In rats, citronellol (1-20 mg/kg, i.v.) induced hypotension, which was not affected by pre-treatment with atropine, hexamethonium, N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride or indomethacin, and tachycardia, which was only attenuated by pre-treatment with atropine and hexamethonium. These responses were less than those obtained for nifedipine, a reference drug. In intact rings of rat mesenteric artery pre-contracted with 10 microM phenylephrine, citronellol induced relaxations (pD(2) = 0.71 +/- 0.11; E(max) = 102 +/- 5%; n = 6) that were not affected by endothelium removal, after tetraethylamonium in rings without endothelium pre-contracted with KCl 80 mM. Citronellol strongly antagonized (maximal inhibition = 97 +/- 4%; n = 6) the contractions induced by CaCl(2) (10(-6) to 3 x 10(-3 )M) and did not induce additional effects on the maximal response of nifedipine (10 microM). Finally, citronellol inhibited the contractions induced by 10 microM phenylephrine or 20 mM caffeine. The present results suggest that citronellol lowers blood pressure by a direct effect on the vascular smooth muscle leading to vasodilation.

  13. Action of Coriandrum sativum L. Essential Oil upon Oral Candida albicans Biofilm Formation.

    PubMed

    Furletti, V F; Teixeira, I P; Obando-Pereda, G; Mardegan, R C; Sartoratto, A; Figueira, G M; Duarte, R M T; Rehder, V L G; Duarte, M C T; Höfling, J F

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of extracts and essential oils from Allium tuberosum, Coriandrum sativum, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, and Santolina chamaecyparissus was evaluated against Candida spp. isolates from the oral cavity of patients with periodontal disease. The most active oil was fractionated and tested against C. albicans biofilm formation. The oils were obtained by water-distillation and the extracts were prepared with macerated dried plant material. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration-MIC was determined by the microdilution method. Chemical characterization of oil constituents was performed using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). C. sativum activity oil upon cell and biofilm morphology was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The best activities against planktonic Candida spp. were observed for the essential oil and the grouped F(8-10) fractions from C. sativum. The crude oil also affected the biofilm formation in C. albicans causing a decrease in the biofilm growth. Chemical analysis of the F(8-10) fractions detected as major active compounds, 2-hexen-1-ol, 3-hexen-1-ol and cyclodecane. Standards of these compounds tested grouped provided a stronger activity than the oil suggesting a synergistic action from the major oil constituents. The activity of C. sativum oil demonstrates its potential for a new natural antifungal formulation.

  14. Action of Coriandrum sativum L. Essential Oil upon Oral Candida albicans Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Furletti, V. F.; Teixeira, I. P.; Obando-Pereda, G.; Mardegan, R. C.; Sartoratto, A.; Figueira, G. M.; Duarte, R. M. T.; Rehder, V. L. G.; Duarte, M. C. T.; Höfling, J. F.

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of extracts and essential oils from Allium tuberosum, Coriandrum sativum, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, and Santolina chamaecyparissus was evaluated against Candida spp. isolates from the oral cavity of patients with periodontal disease. The most active oil was fractionated and tested against C. albicans biofilm formation. The oils were obtained by water-distillation and the extracts were prepared with macerated dried plant material. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration—MIC was determined by the microdilution method. Chemical characterization of oil constituents was performed using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). C. sativum activity oil upon cell and biofilm morphology was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The best activities against planktonic Candida spp. were observed for the essential oil and the grouped F8–10 fractions from C. sativum. The crude oil also affected the biofilm formation in C. albicans causing a decrease in the biofilm growth. Chemical analysis of the F8–10 fractions detected as major active compounds, 2-hexen-1-ol, 3-hexen-1-ol and cyclodecane. Standards of these compounds tested grouped provided a stronger activity than the oil suggesting a synergistic action from the major oil constituents. The activity of C. sativum oil demonstrates its potential for a new natural antifungal formulation. PMID:21660258

  15. Potential larvicidal and pupacidal activities of herbal essential oils against Culex quinquefasciatus say and Anopheles minimus (Theobald).

    PubMed

    Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn; Soonwera, Mayura

    2010-11-01

    The larvicidal and pupacidal effects of eight herbal essential oils were tested against third instar (L3), fourth instar (L4), and pupal stages of Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles minimus. Probit analysis was used to analyze the data. The larval mortality was recorded at 1, 5, 10, 30, and 60 minutes, and 24 hours. Pupal mortality was also recorded at 24 hours intervals for 96 hours when completed mortality was achieved. Citronella grass oil #2 (Cymbopogon nardus) proved to have the greatest toxicity against 3rd instar Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. minimus with LT50 at 1.2 and <0.2 minute, respectively. It exhibited a high level of effectiveness against 4th instar Cx. quinquefasciatus (LT50 at 5.1 minutes) and An. minimus (LT50 at 0.9 minute). Regarding pupacidal activity, Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. minimus pupae were susceptible to Lemon grass oil (LT50 at 1.2 hours) and Citronella grass oil #1 (LT50 at 0.6 hour), respectively. These oils had larvicidal and pupacidal activities with 100% mortality against L3, L4 and pupal stage Cx. quinquefasciatus at 10 minutes, 30 minutes and 24 hours. They also caused 100% mortality of An. minimus at 5 minutes (L3, L4), and 24 hours (pupal stage).

  16. Comparative repellency of 38 essential oils against mosquito bites.

    PubMed

    Trongtokit, Yuwadee; Rongsriyam, Yupha; Komalamisra, Narumon; Apiwathnasorn, Chamnarn

    2005-04-01

    The mosquito repellent activity of 38 essential oils from plants at three concentrations was screened against the mosquito Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions using human subjects. On a volunteer's forearm, 0.1 mL of oil was applied per 30 cm2 of exposed skin. When the tested oils were applied at a 10% or 50% concentration, none of them prevented mosquito bites for as long as 2 h, but the undiluted oils of Cymbopogon nardus (citronella), Pogostemon cablin (patchuli), Syzygium aromaticum (clove) and Zanthoxylum limonella (Thai name: makaen) were the most effective and provided 2 h of complete repellency. From these initial results, three concentrations (10%, 50% and undiluted) of citronella, patchouli, clove and makaen were selected for repellency tests against Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles dirus. As expected, the undiluted oil showed the highest protection in each case. Clove oil gave the longest duration of 100% repellency (2-4 h) against all three species of mosquito. (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Repellent, Irritant and Toxic Effects of 20 Plant Extracts on Adults of the Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae Mosquito

    PubMed Central

    Deletre, Emilie; Martin, Thibaud; Campagne, Pascal; Bourguet, Denis; Cadin, Andy; Menut, Chantal; Bonafos, Romain; Chandre, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides induce an excito-repellent effect that reduces contact between humans and mosquitoes. Insecticide use is expected to lower the risk of pathogen transmission, particularly when impregnated on long-lasting treated bednets. When applied at low doses, pyrethroids have a toxic effect, however the development of pyrethroid resistance in several mosquito species may jeopardize these beneficial effects. The need to find additional compounds, either to kill disease-carrying mosquitoes or to prevent mosquito contact with humans, therefore arises. In laboratory conditions, the effects (i.e., repellent, irritant and toxic) of 20 plant extracts, mainly essential oils, were assessed on adults of Anopheles gambiae, a primary vector of malaria. Their effects were compared to those of DEET and permethrin, used as positive controls. Most plant extracts had irritant, repellent and/or toxic effects on An. gambiae adults. The most promising extracts, i.e. those combining the three types of effects, were from Cymbopogon winterianus, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Thymus vulgaris. The irritant, repellent and toxic effects occurred apparently independently of each other, and the behavioural response of adult An. gambiae was significantly influenced by the concentration of the plant extracts. Mechanisms underlying repellency might, therefore, differ from those underlying irritancy and toxicity. The utility of the efficient plant extracts for vector control as an alternative to pyrethroids may thus be envisaged. PMID:24376515

  18. Repellent, irritant and toxic effects of 20 plant extracts on adults of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae mosquito.

    PubMed

    Deletre, Emilie; Martin, Thibaud; Campagne, Pascal; Bourguet, Denis; Cadin, Andy; Menut, Chantal; Bonafos, Romain; Chandre, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides induce an excito-repellent effect that reduces contact between humans and mosquitoes. Insecticide use is expected to lower the risk of pathogen transmission, particularly when impregnated on long-lasting treated bednets. When applied at low doses, pyrethroids have a toxic effect, however the development of pyrethroid resistance in several mosquito species may jeopardize these beneficial effects. The need to find additional compounds, either to kill disease-carrying mosquitoes or to prevent mosquito contact with humans, therefore arises. In laboratory conditions, the effects (i.e., repellent, irritant and toxic) of 20 plant extracts, mainly essential oils, were assessed on adults of Anopheles gambiae, a primary vector of malaria. Their effects were compared to those of DEET and permethrin, used as positive controls. Most plant extracts had irritant, repellent and/or toxic effects on An. gambiae adults. The most promising extracts, i.e. those combining the three types of effects, were from Cymbopogon winterianus, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Thymus vulgaris. The irritant, repellent and toxic effects occurred apparently independently of each other, and the behavioural response of adult An. gambiae was significantly influenced by the concentration of the plant extracts. Mechanisms underlying repellency might, therefore, differ from those underlying irritancy and toxicity. The utility of the efficient plant extracts for vector control as an alternative to pyrethroids may thus be envisaged.

  19. Identification of geranic acid, a tyrosinase inhibitor in lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus).

    PubMed

    Masuda, Toshiya; Odaka, Yuka; Ogawa, Natsuko; Nakamoto, Katsuo; Kuninaga, Hideki

    2008-01-23

    Lemongrass is a popular Asian herb having a lemon-like flavor. Very recently, potent tyrosinase inhibitory activity has been found in lemongrass in addition to various biological activities reported in the literature. The aim of the present study is to identify the active compounds in the lemongrass. An assay-guided purification revealed that one of the active substances was geranic acid. Geranic acid has two stereoisomers, which are responsible for the trans and cis geometry on the conjugated double bond. Both isomers are present in the active ethyl acetate-soluble extract of the lemongrass, and their IC50 values were calculated to be 0.14 and 2.3 mM, respectively. The structure requirement of geranic acid for the potent tyrosinase inhibitory activity was investigated using geranic acid-related compounds.

  20. Evaluation of Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oil in lambs experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hematophagous gastrointestinal parasites cause significant economic losses in small ruminant grazing systems. The growing reports of multi-drug resistant parasites call for intensive research on alternative treatments for anthelmintics to help small ruminants cope with these parasites. Two-month-o...

  1. Antimicrobial property of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) oil against pathogenic bacteria isolated from pet turtles

    PubMed Central

    De Silva, B.C.J.; Jung, Won-Gi; Hossain, Sabrina; Wimalasena, S.H.M.P.; Pathirana, H.N.K.S.

    2017-01-01

    The usage of essential oils as antimicrobial agents is gaining attention. Besides, pet turtles were known to harbor a range of pathogenic bacteria while the turtle keeping is a growing trend worldwide.The current study examined the antimicrobial activity of lemon grass oil (LGO) against seven species of Gram negative bacteria namely; Aeromonas hydrophila, A. caviae, Citrobacter freundii, Salmonella enterica, Edwardsiella tarda, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis isolated from three popular species of pet turtles. Along with the results of disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentration (MIC and MBC) tests, LGO was detected as effective against 6 species of bacteria excluding P. aeruginosa. MIC of LGO for the strains except P. aeruginosa ranged from 0.016 to 0.5% (V/V). The lowest MIC recorded in the E. tarda strain followed by A. hydrophilla, C. freundii, P. mirabilis, and S. enterica. Interestingly, all the bacterial species except E. tarda were showing high multiple antimicrobial resistance (MAR) index values ranging from 0.36 to 0.91 upon the 11 antibiotics tested although they were sensitive to LGO. PMID:28747972

  2. Antimicrobial activity, cytotoxicity and chemical analysis of lemongrass essential oil (Cymbopogon flexuosus) and pure citral.

    PubMed

    Adukwu, Emmanuel C; Bowles, Melissa; Edwards-Jones, Valerie; Bone, Heather

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial effects of lemongrass essential oil (C. flexuosus) and to determine cytotoxic effects of both test compounds on human dermal fibroblasts. Antimicrobial susceptibility screening was carried out using the disk diffusion method. Antimicrobial resistance was observed in four of five Acinetobacter baumannii strains with two strains confirmed as multi-drug-resistant (MDR). All the strains tested were susceptible to both lemongrass and citral with zones of inhibition varying between 17 to 80 mm. The mean minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of citral (mic-0.14 % and mbc-0.3 % v/v) was lower than that of Lemongrass (mic-0.65 % and mbc-1.1 % v/v) determined using the microtitre plate method. Cell viability using human dermal fibroblasts (HDF; 106-05a) was determined following exposure to both compounds and a control (Grapeseed oil) using the XTT assay and the IC50 determined at 0.095 % (v/v) for citral and 0.126 % (v/v) for lemongrass. Grapeseed oil had no effect on cell viability. Live cell imaging was performed using the LumaScope 500 imaging equipment and changes in HDF cell morphology such as necrotic features and shrinkage were observed. The ability of lemongrass essential oil (EO) and citral to inhibit and kill MDR A. baumannii highlights its potential for use in the management of drug-resistant infections; however, in vitro cytotoxicity does suggest further tests are needed before in vivo or ex vivo human exposure.

  3. In vitro screening of Cymbopogon jwarancusa and Conyza canadensis against liver flukes.

    PubMed

    Shafiq, Andeela; Kanwal, Rabia; Ullah Qureshi, Rahamat; Riaz Chaudhry, Farhana

    2015-09-01

    Aim of present study was to screen medicinal plants for flukicidal activity in vitro to develop alternative sources of treatment for trematodes infection. For this purpose, crude methanolic extracts (CME) of Cymbopogn jwarancusa and Conyza canadensis were prepared and live adult flukes viz; Fasciola gigantica, and Paramphistomum cervi isolated from liver and bile ducts of slaughtered buffalo were subjected to different drug concentrations as well as positive and negative control. Motility inhibition and paralysis leading to the death of parasites was considered as flukicidal activity of plants extracts. The results revealed that CME of C. jwarancusa and C. canadensis showed significant (P<0.05) flukicidal activity compared to positive control. Also there was a significant effect of different concentrations (P<0.05) and exposure of time on the flukes (P<0.05). Furthermore, ED50 for C. jwarancusa and C. canadensis against F. gigantica were 13.1 and 41.4 mg/ml, respectively. In the case of P. cervi, it was 10.8 and 29.0 mg/ml. It can be concluded that both tested plants showed greater flukicidal activity as compared to positive control with Albendazole till the 8(th) hr. These potent plants needs further studies invivo to elucidate their mode of action.

  4. Insect repellent activity of medicinal plant oils against Aedes aegypti (Linn.), Anopheles minimus (Theobald) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say based on protection time and biting rate.

    PubMed

    Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn; Soonwera, Mayura

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated insect bite protection and length of the protection with 30 repellents which were divided into 3 categories: plant oil, essential oil and essential oil with ethyl alcohol, tested against three mosquito species, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles minimus and Culex quinquefasciatus, under laboratory conditions. The plant oil group was comprised of Phlai (Zingiber cassumunar) and Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum). Both substances were effective as repellents and feeding deterrents against An. minimus (205 minutes protection time and a biting rate of 0.9%), Cx. quinquefasciatus (165 minutes protection time and 0.9% biting rate) and Ae. aegypti (90 minutes protection time and 0.8% biting rate). Essential oil from citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) exhibited protection against biting from all 3 mosquito species: for An. minimus, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, the results were 130 minutes and 0.9%, 140 minutes and 0.8%, and 115 minutes and 0.8%, respectively. The period of protection time against Ae. aegypti for all repellent candidates tested was lower than the Thai Industrial Standards Institute (TISI) determined time of greater than 2 hours.

  5. Changes in essential oil during enzyme-assisted ensiling of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.) and lemon eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora Hook).

    PubMed

    Dudai, N; Weinberg, Z G; Larkov, O; Ravid, U; Ashbell, G; Putievsky, E

    2001-05-01

    Changes in essential oil during ensiling of lemongrass and lemon eucalyptus were studied. Wilted lemongrass and eucalyptus leaves were ensiled in 0.25-L anaerobic jars. Samples consisted of a control (no additives) and a treated sample (0.5% glucose and lactic acid bacteria and 1% cellulase plus 1% hemicellulase plus pectinase). Three jars per treatment were sampled on days 2, 6, 10, and 36 for analysis of essential oil. Essential oil was obtained by extraction and by hydrodistillation. Extraction efficacy of essential oil from the lemongrass was improved by the enzyme treatment, but it was much lower than the amount obtained by distillation. The major components of the essential oil were neral and geranial. In the eucalyptus, total essential oils obtained by distillation decreased during ensiling, and the amount was similar to the amount obtained by extraction. Citronellal, which was the major component of the essential oil in the fresh eucalyptus leaves, decreased, whereas isopulegol and 3,8-terpinolhydrate increased during ensiling.

  6. Pharmacology of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf). III. Assessment of eventual toxic, hypnotic and anxiolytic effects on humans.

    PubMed

    Leite, J R; Seabra, M de L; Maluf, E; Assolant, K; Suchecki, D; Tufik, S; Klepacz, S; Calil, H M; Carlini, E A

    1986-07-01

    A herbal tea (called an abafado in Brazil) prepared from the dried leaves of lemongrass was administered to healthy volunteers. Following a single dose or 2 weeks of daily oral administration, the abafado produced no changes in serum glucose, urea, creatinine, cholesterol, triglycerides, lipids, total bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, GOT, GPT, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, albumin, LDH and CPK. Urine analysis (proteins, glucose, ketones, bilirubins, occult blood and urobilinogen) as well as EEG and EKG showed no abnormalities. There were slight elevations of direct bilirubin and of amylase in some of the volunteers, but without any clinical manifestation. These results taken together indicate that lemongrass as used in Brazilian folk medicine is not toxic for humans. The eventual hypnotic effect of lemongrass was investigated in 50 volunteers who ingested samples of lemongrass and a placebo under double-blind conditions. The parameters (i.e. sleep induction, sleep quality, dream recall and rewakening) did not show any effect of lemongrass as compared to the placebo. Eighteen subjects with high scores of trait-anxiety were submitted to an anxiety-inducing test following taking lemongrass or placebo under double-blind conditions. Their anxiety levels were similar, indicating that the abafado of the plant does not have anxiolytic properties. It is concluded that lemongrass, one of the most popular Brazilian herbal medicines, used for its alleged CNS-depressant effects, is atoxic but lacks hypnotic or anxiolytic properties.

  7. "Singing in the Tube"--audiovisual assay of plant oil repellent activity against mosquitoes (Culex pipiens).

    PubMed

    Adams, Temitope F; Wongchai, Chatchawal; Chaidee, Anchalee; Pfeiffer, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Plant essential oils have been suggested as a promising alternative to the established mosquito repellent DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide). Searching for an assay with generally available equipment, we designed a new audiovisual assay of repellent activity against mosquitoes "Singing in the Tube," testing single mosquitoes in Drosophila cultivation tubes. Statistics with regression analysis should compensate for limitations of simple hardware. The assay was established with female Culex pipiens mosquitoes in 60 experiments, 120-h audio recording, and 2580 estimations of the distance between mosquito sitting position and the chemical. Correlations between parameters of sitting position, flight activity pattern, and flight tone spectrum were analyzed. Regression analysis of psycho-acoustic data of audio files (dB[A]) used a squared and modified sinus function determining wing beat frequency WBF ± SD (357 ± 47 Hz). Application of logistic regression defined the repelling velocity constant. The repelling velocity constant showed a decreasing order of efficiency of plant essential oils: rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), citronella (Cymbopogon nardus), tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), lemon (Citrus limon), patchouli (Pogostemon cablin), DEET, cedar wood (Cedrus atlantica). In conclusion, we suggest (1) disease vector control (e.g., impregnation of bed nets) by eight plant essential oils with repelling velocity superior to DEET, (2) simple mosquito repellency testing in Drosophila cultivation tubes, (3) automated approaches and room surveillance by generally available audio equipment (dB[A]: ISO standard 226), and (4) quantification of repellent activity by parameters of the audiovisual assay defined by correlation and regression analyses.

  8. Antimicrobial action and anti-corrosion effect against sulfate reducing bacteria by lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil and its major component, the citral

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The anti-corrosion effect and the antimicrobial activity of lemongrass essential oil (LEO) against the planktonic and sessile growth of a sulfate reducing bacterium (SRB) were evaluated. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of LEO and its major component, the citral, was 0.17 mg ml-1. In addition, both LEO and citral showed an immediate killing effect against SRB in liquid medium, suggesting that citral is responsible for the antimicrobial activity of LEO against SRB. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the MIC of LEO caused discernible cell membrane alterations and formed electron-dense inclusions. Neither biofilm formation nor corrosion was observed on carbon steel coupons after LEO treatment. LEO was effective for the control of the planktonic and sessile SRB growth and for the protection of carbon steel coupons against biocorrosion. The application of LEO as a potential biocide for SRB growth control in petroleum reservoirs and, consequently, for souring prevention, and/or as a coating protection against biocorrosion is of great interest for the petroleum industries. PMID:23938023

  9. Antimicrobial action and anti-corrosion effect against sulfate reducing bacteria by lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil and its major component, the citral.

    PubMed

    Korenblum, Elisa; Regina de Vasconcelos Goulart, Fátima; de Almeida Rodrigues, Igor; Abreu, Fernanda; Lins, Ulysses; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Valoni, Erika; Sebastián, Gina V; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Seldin, Lucy

    2013-08-10

    The anti-corrosion effect and the antimicrobial activity of lemongrass essential oil (LEO) against the planktonic and sessile growth of a sulfate reducing bacterium (SRB) were evaluated. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of LEO and its major component, the citral, was 0.17 mg ml-1. In addition, both LEO and citral showed an immediate killing effect against SRB in liquid medium, suggesting that citral is responsible for the antimicrobial activity of LEO against SRB. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the MIC of LEO caused discernible cell membrane alterations and formed electron-dense inclusions. Neither biofilm formation nor corrosion was observed on carbon steel coupons after LEO treatment. LEO was effective for the control of the planktonic and sessile SRB growth and for the protection of carbon steel coupons against biocorrosion. The application of LEO as a potential biocide for SRB growth control in petroleum reservoirs and, consequently, for souring prevention, and/or as a coating protection against biocorrosion is of great interest for the petroleum industries.

  10. Phytoremediation of metals using lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf.) grown under different levels of red mud in soil amended with biowastes.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Meenu; Pandey, Divya; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2017-06-03

    Due to hostile condition of red mud (RM), its utilization for vegetation is restricted. Therefore, RM with biowastes as soil amendment may offer suitable combination to support plant growth with reduced risk of metal toxicity. To evaluate the effects of RM on soil properties, plant growth performance, and metal accumulation in lemongrass, a study was conducted using different RM concentrations (0, 5, 10, and 15% w/w) in soil amended with biowastes [cow dung manure (CD) or sewage-sludge (SS)]. Application of RM in soil with biowastes improved organic matter and nutrient contents and caused reduction in phytoavailable metal contents. Total plant biomass was increased under all treatments, maximally at 5% RM in soil with SS (91.4%) and CD (51.7%) compared to that in control (no RM and biowastes). Lemongrass acted as a potential metal-tolerant plant as its metal tolerance index is >100%. Based on translocation and bioconcentration factors, lemongrass acted as a potential phytostabilizer of Fe, Mn, and Cu in roots and was found efficient in translocation of Al, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, As, and Ni from roots to shoot. The study suggests that 5% RM with biowastes preferably SS may be used to enhance phytoremediation potential of lemongrass.

  11. The anti-biofilm activity of lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) essential oils against five strains of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Adukwu, E C; Allen, S C H; Phillips, C A

    2012-11-01

    To determine the sensitivity of five strains of Staphylococcus aureus to five essential oils (EOs) and to investigate the anti-biofilm activity of lemongrass and grapefruit EOs. Antimicrobial susceptibility screening was carried out using the disk diffusion method. All of the strains tested were susceptible to lemongrass, grapefruit, bergamot and lime EOs with zones of inhibition varying from 2·85 to 8·60 cm although they were resistant to lemon EO. Lemongrass EO inhibited biofilm formation at 0·125% (v/v) as measured by colorimetric assay and at 0·25% (v/v) no metabolic activity was observed as determined by 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) reduction. Grapefruit EO did not show any anti-biofilm activity. Following exposure to lemongrass EO extensive disruption to Staph. aureus biofilms was shown under scanning electron microscopy. In comparison to the other EOs tested, lemongrass exhibited the most effective antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activity. The effect of lemongrass EO highlights its potential against antibiotic resistant Staph. aureus in the healthcare environment. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Fungicidal and anti-aflatoxigenic effects of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. (lemongrass) against Aspergillus flavus Link. isolated from stored rice.

    PubMed

    Paranagama, P A; Abeysekera, K H T; Abeywickrama, K; Nugaliyadde, L

    2003-01-01

    To develop a natural fungicide against aflatoxigenic fungi, to protect stored rice, using the essential oil of lemongrass. Aspergillus flavus Link. was isolated from stored rice and identified as an aflatoxigenic strain. Lemongrass oil was tested against A. flavus and the test oil was fungistatic and fungicidal against the test pathogen at 0.6 and 1.0 mg ml(-1), respectively. Aflatoxin production was completely inhibited at 0.1 mg ml(-1). The results obtained from the thin layer chromatographic bioassay and gas chromatography indicated citral a and b as the fungicidal constituents in lemongrass oil. During the fumigant toxicity assay of lemongrass oil, the sporulation and the mycelial growth of the test pathogen were inhibited at the concentrations of 2.80 and 3.46 mg ml(-1), respectively. Lemongrass oil could be used to manage aflatoxin formation and fungal growth of A. flavus in stored rice. Currently, fungicides are not used to control fungal pests or mycotoxin production on stored rice. Rice treated with the essential oil of lemongrass could be used to manage fungal pests as well as the insect pests in stored rice. The essential oil is chemically safe and acceptable to consumers, as synthetic chemical fungicides can cause adverse health effects to consumers.

  13. Anti-proliferative effect of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf (lemongrass) on intracellular amastigotes, bloodstream trypomastigotes and culture epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi (Protozoa: Kinetoplastida).

    PubMed

    Santoro, G F; Cardoso, M G; Guimarães, L G L; Freire, J M; Soares, M J

    2007-10-01

    This study analyses the anti-proliferative effect of lemongrass essential oil and its main constituent (citral) on all 3 evolutive forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. Steam distillation was used to obtain lemongrass essential oil, with chemical composition determined by gas chromatography (GC) and GC coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The IC50/24 h (concentration that reduced the parasite population by 50%) of the oil and of citral upon T. cruzi was determined by cell counting in a Neubauer chamber, while morphological alterations were visualized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Treatment with the essential oil resulted in epimastigote growth inhibition with IC50=126.5 microg/ml, while the IC50 for trypomastigote lysis was 15.5 microg/ml. The IC50/48 h for the Association Index (% macrophage infection x number of amastigotes per cell) was 5.1 microg/ml, with a strong inhibition of intracellular amastigote proliferation. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated cytoplasmic and nuclear extraction, while the plasma membrane remained morphologically preserved. Our data show that lemongrass essential oil is effective against T. cruzi trypomastigotes and amastigotes, and that its main component, citral, is responsible for the trypanocidal activity. These results indicate that essential oils can be promising anti-parasitic agents, opening perspectives to the discovery of more effective drugs of vegetal origin for treatment of parasitic diseases. However, additional cytotoxicity experiments on different cell lines and tests in a T. cruzi-mouse model are needed to support these data.

  14. Oviposition-altering and ovicidal potentials of five essential oils against female adults of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Warikoo, Radhika; Wahab, Naim; Kumar, Sarita

    2011-10-01

    The oviposition deterrence and ovicidal potential of five different essential oils, peppermint oil (Mentha piperita), basil oil (Ocimum basilicum), rosemary oil (Rosemarinus officinalis), citronella oil (Cymbopogon nardus), and celery seed oil (Apium graveolens), were assessed against female adults of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L. Multiple concentration tests were carried out where cups containing 1 mL of different concentrations (100%, 10%, 1%, 0.1%) of the oils and 199 mL of water were used for oviposition. The number of eggs laid and the larvae hatched in each cup were scored to evaluate the oviposition deterrent and ovicidal potentials of the oils. Our investigations revealed that the addition of 100% oil (pure oil) caused complete oviposition deterrence except in A. graveolens which resulted in 75% effective repellency. The use of 10% oil resulted in the maximum deterrence of 97.5% as shown by the M. piperita oil while other oils caused 36-97% oviposition deterrence as against the control. The oviposition medium with 1% oil showed decreased deterrent potential with 30-64% effective repellency, the M. piperita oil being exceptional. However, as the concentrations of the oil were reduced further to 0.1%, the least effective oil observed was A. graveolens (25% ER). Also, the M. piperita oil showed much reduced activity (40%) as compared to the control, while the other oils exhibited 51-58% repellency to oviposition. The studies on the ovicidal effects of these oils revealed that the eggs laid in the water with 100% essential oils did not hatch at all, whereas when 10% oils were used, only the R. officinalis oil resulted in 28% egg hatch. At lower concentrations (1%), the oils of M. piperita, O. basilicum, and C. nardus showed complete egg mortality while those of A. graveolens and R. officinalis resulted in 71% and 34% egg hatches, respectively. When used at 0.1%, the O. basilicum oil was found to be the only effective oil with 100% egg mortality, whereas

  15. Avoidance behavior to essential oils by Anopheles minimus, a malaria vector in Thailand

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Excito-repellency tests were used to characterize behavioral responses of laboratory colonized Anopheles minimus, a malaria vector in Thailand, using four essential oils, citronella (Cymbopogom nadus), hairy basil (Ocimum americanum), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides), ...

  16. Skin-Applied Repellent Ingredients

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Active ingredients in EPA-registered insect repellents include catnip oil, oil of citronella, DEET, IR 3535, picaridin, oil of lemon eucalyptus, and 2-undecanone. Find fact sheets and pesticide regulatory information.

  17. Repellency of DEET, picaridin, and three essential oils to Triatoma rubida (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Terriquez, J A; Klotz, S A; Meister, E A; Klotz, J H; Schmidt, J O

    2013-05-01

    The kissing bug, Triatoma rubida (Uhler) is a common hematophagous bug in Tucson, AZ, and is responsible for causing severe allergic reactions in some bitten individuals. DEET, picaridin, tea tree oil, peppermint oil, and citronella oil were tested for repellency to T. rubida and its ability to probe and feed on a small restrained rat. No long range repellency was observed with any of the test materials. The lowest repellent concentrations observed were: 10% DEET, 7% picaridin; 30% tea tree oil, 3.3% peppermint oil, and 0.165% citronella oil. Only citronella oil was able to stop all probing and feeding by T. rubida. Citronella oil appears to be a promising potential repellent to prevent sleeping people from being bitten by kissing bugs.

  18. Influence of metals on essential oil content and composition of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf.) grown under different levels of red mud in sewage sludge amended soil.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Meenu; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2017-05-01

    Lemongrass is a commercially important perennial herb with medicinal value and ability to tolerate high alkaline and saline conditions. Essential oil bearing plants can grow safely in soil contaminated with heavy metals without severe effects on morphology and oil yield. The present study was aimed to assess the essential oil content and composition in lemongrass in response to elevated metals in above-ground plant parts. Pot experiment was conducted for six months using sewage sludge as soil amendment (soil: sludge: 2:1 w/w) followed by red mud treatments (0, 5, 10 and 15% w/w). Garden soil without sludge and red mud was control and there were ten replicates of each treatment. Oil content in leaves was differently affected due to presence of metals in soil under different treatments. Oil content under SRM5 (5% red mud) treatment was raised by 42.9 and 11.5% compared to the control and SRM0 treatment, respectively. Among identified compounds in oil under red mud treatments, 17 compounds contributed more than 90% of total volatiles (citral contributing approximately 70%). Under SRM10 treatment, essential oil showed maximum citral content (75.3%). Contents of Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni and Pb in above-ground plant parts exceeded, whereas Mn was detected within WHO permissible limits for medicinal plants. However, metal contents in essential oil were well within FSSAI limits for food. The study suggests utilization of 5 and 10% red mud in sludge amended soil for lemongrass cultivation to have better oil yield and quality, without metal contamination.

  19. Effect of feeding dried sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel and lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) leaves on growth performance, carcass traits, serum metabolites and antioxidant status in broiler during the finisher phase.

    PubMed

    Alzawqari, M H; Al-Baddany, A A; Al-Baadani, H H; Alhidary, I A; Khan, Rifat Ullah; Aqil, G M; Abdurab, A

    2016-09-01

    The current experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding dried sweet orange peel (SOP) and lemon grass leaves (LGL) as feed additives on broiler growth performance, serum metabolites, and antioxidant status. A total of 192-day-old (Ross 308) broiler chickens were distributed randomly into 4 dietary treatments with 4 replicates per each treatment. The dietary treatments included a control diet without any feed additive (T1), a diet containing 0.8 % SOP (T2), a diet containing 0.8 % LGL (T3), and a diet containing combination of 0.4 % SOP + 0.4 % LGL (T4) was fed during the growth period from 22 to 42 days. Feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), carcass traits, serum components, and antioxidant status were measured. At the end of the experimental period, the results indicated that supplementation of SOP and LGL alone or in combination did not significantly (P > 0.05) affect BWG, FI, FCR, and carcass characteristics in broiler chickens. Serum total protein was increased significantly (P < 0.05) in T3 and T4 compared to the other treatments. Also, serum globulin increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the treated groups. Serum glucose, low density lipoprotein, triglyceride, and very low density lipoprotein decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in the treatment groups, while cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein decreased in T2 compared to the other groups. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher total antioxidant status was observed in T2 compared to the other treatments. In conclusion, these results indicate that SOP, LGL, and their combination may positively modify some serum components and the antioxidant status without any beneficial effect on growth performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens.

  20. Docking, characterization and investigation of β-cyclodextrin complexed with citronellal, a monoterpene present in the essential oil of Cymbopogon species, as an anti-hyperalgesic agent in chronic muscle pain model.

    PubMed

    Santos, Priscila L; Brito, Renan G; Oliveira, Marlange A; Quintans, Jullyana S S; Guimarães, Adriana G; Santos, Márcio R V; Menezes, Paula P; Serafini, Mairim R; Menezes, Irwin R A; Coutinho, Henrique D M; Araújo, Adriano A S; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J

    2016-08-15

    Citronellal (CT) is a monoterpene with antinociceptive acute effect. β-Cyclodextrin (βCD) has enhanced the analgesic effect of various substances. To evaluate the effect of CT both complexed in β-cyclodextrin (CT-βCD) and non-complexed, in a chronic muscle pain model (CMP) in mice. The complex containing CT in βCD was obtained and characterized in the laboratory. The anti-hyperalgesic effect of CT and CT-βCD was evaluated in a pre-clinical in vivo study in a murine CMP. The complex was characterized through differential scanning calorimetry, derivative thermogravimetry, moisture determination, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Male Swiss mice were pre-treated with CT (50mg/kg, po), CT-βCD (50mg/kg, po), vehicle (isotonic saline, po) or standard drug (tramadol4 mg/kg, ip). 60 min after the treatment and then each 1h, the mechanic hyperalgesia was evaluated to obtain the time effect. In addition, the muscle strength using grip strength meter and hyperalgesia were also performed daily, for 7 days. We assessed by immunofluorescence for Fos protein on brains and spinal cords of mice. The involvement of the CT with the glutamatergic system was studied with molecular docking. All characterization methods showed the CT-βCD complexation. CT-induced anti-hyperalgesic effect lasted until 6h (p <0.001) while CT-βCD lasted until 8h (p <0.001vs vehicle and p <0.001vs CT from the 6th h). CT-βCD reduced mechanical hyperalgesia on all days of treatment (p <0.05), without changing muscle strength. Periaqueductal gray (p <0.01) and rostroventromedular area (p <0.05) showed significant increase in the Fos protein expression while in the spinal cord, there was a reduction (p <0.001). CT showed favorable energy binding (-5.6 and -6.1) to GluR2-S1S2J protein based in the docking score function. We can suggest that βCD improved the anti-hyperalgesic effect of CT, and that effect seems to involve the descending pain-inhibitory mechanisms, with a possible interaction of the glutamate receptors, which are considered as promising molecules for the management of chronic pain such as CMP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of repellent properties of volatile extracts from the Australian native plant Kunzea ambigua against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culcidae).

    PubMed

    Thomas, J; Webb, C E; Narkowicz, C; Jacobson, G A; Peterson, G M; Davies, N W; Russell, R C

    2009-11-01

    Kunzea ambigua (Smith) Druce (Myrtaceae) is an Australian native plant, commonly known as tick bush. The essential oil of the plant has been proposed as a potential mosquito repellent. Commercial K. ambigua oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and its composition compared with that of oils from two individual K. ambigua plants and citronella oil. K. ambigua oils were studied for their repellency against Aedes aegypti L. Formulations of three different K. ambigua essential oils (30% vol:vol) were tested for repellency to mosquitoes using human volunteers. One oil was compared with citronella and N,N'-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet) for repellency. Oil formulations were also tested for repellency with and without the addition of 5% vanillin. The formulation containing commercially produced K. ambigua oil had a mean complete protection time (CPT) of 49 +/- 24 (SD) min. All the K. ambigua formulations had comparable repellency to 40% citronella. However, the 60% citronella formulation showed higher repellency than the 40% K. ambigua formulation. The addition of 5% vanillin did not increase the repellency of K. ambigua oil. Both K. ambigua oil and citronella were significantly less repellent than deet. The K. ambigua essential oil formulations should not be advocated for use as repellents in regions prone to mosquito-borne disease.

  2. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of ten essential oils in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pattnaik, S; Subramanyam, V R; Kole, C

    1996-01-01

    The essential oils of aegle, ageratum, citronella, eucalyptus, geranium, lemongrass, orange, palmarosa, patchouli and peppermint, were tested for antibacterial activity against 22 bacteria, including Gram-positive cocci and rods and Gram-negative rods, and twelve fungi (3 yeast-like and 9 filamentous) by the disc diffusion method. Lemongrass, eucalyptus, peppermint and orange oils were effective against all the 22 bacterial strains. Aegle and palmarosa oils inhibited 21 bacteria; patchouli and ageratum oils inhibited 20 bacteria and citronella and geranium oils were inhibitory to 15 and 12 bacterial strains, respectively. All twelve fungi were inhibited by seven oils (aegle, citronella, geranium, lemongrass, orange, palmarosa and patchouli). Eucalyptus and peppermint oils were effective against eleven fungi. Ageratum oil was inhibitory to only four fungi tested. The MIC of eucalyptus, lemongrass, palmarosa and peppermint oils ranged from 0.16 to > 20 microliters ml-1 for eighteen bacteria and from 0.25 to 10 microliters ml-1 for twelve fungi.

  3. Repellent activity of herbal essential oils against Aedes aegypti (Linn.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say.)

    PubMed Central

    Sritabutra, Duangkamon; Soonwera, Mayura

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the mosquito repellent activity of herbal essential oils against female Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods On a volunteer's forearm, 0.1 mL of each essential oil was applied to 3 cm×10 cm of exposed skin. The protection time was recorded for 3 min after every 30 min. Results Essential oil from clove oil in olive oil and in coconut oil gave the longest lasting period of 76.50 min and 96.00 min respectively against Aedes aegypti. The citronella grass oil in olive oil, citronella grass oil in coconut oil and lemongrass oil in coconut oil exhibited protection against Culex quinquefasciatus at 165.00, 105.00, and 112.50 min respectively. Conclusions The results clearly indicated that clove, citronella and lemongrass oil were the most promising for repellency against mosquito species. These oils could be used to develop a new formulation to control mosquitoes.

  4. Effects of a Synthetic Predator Odor (TMT) on Freezing, Analgesia, Stereotypy, and Spatial Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jon L.; Baez, Catherine; Hladky, Katherine J.; Camacho, Cheri A.

    2005-01-01

    Exposing rats to the predator odor of trimethylthiazoline (TMT), obtained from the red fox, was compared to exposure to the novel control odor of citronella. In Experiment 1, TMT produced defensive freezing and an analgesic reaction that was reversed by an opiate antagonist. In Experiment 2, TMT augmented response stereotypy induced by an…

  5. Effects of a Synthetic Predator Odor (TMT) on Freezing, Analgesia, Stereotypy, and Spatial Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jon L.; Baez, Catherine; Hladky, Katherine J.; Camacho, Cheri A.

    2005-01-01

    Exposing rats to the predator odor of trimethylthiazoline (TMT), obtained from the red fox, was compared to exposure to the novel control odor of citronella. In Experiment 1, TMT produced defensive freezing and an analgesic reaction that was reversed by an opiate antagonist. In Experiment 2, TMT augmented response stereotypy induced by an…

  6. Antimicrobial activity of two essential oils.

    PubMed

    Mickienė, Rūta; Bakutis, Bronius; Baliukonienė, Violeta

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of essential oils in vitro for possible application to reduce the content of microorganisms in the air of animal houses. The essential oils of Cymbopogon citrarus L. and Malaleuca alternifolia L. were screened against bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and yeast Candida albicans. The minimal inhibitory concentration of the active essential oils was tested using broth dilution assay. The essential oils concentrations ranged from 0.1-50.0%. The combined effects of essential oils were tested for Malaleuca alternifolia L. and Cymbopogon citrarus L. concentrations ranged from 0.005-50.0%. The oils showed a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity. Concentrations of 0.1-0.5% of Cymbopogon citrarus L. and Malaleuca alternifolia L. reduced total microorganisms count of Proteus mirabilis and Candida albicans. High antibacterial activity was also revealed for Cymbopogon citrarus L. with bactericidal concentrations of 0.8% for Escherichia coli, 5.0% for Enterococcus faecium, 5.0% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 8.0% for Staphylococcus aureus. Bactericidal concentrations of Malaleuca alternifolia L. were 5.0% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecium, and 8.0% for Staphylococcus aureus. The essential oils of Cymbopogon citrarus and Malaleuca alternifolia may be a promising alternative of air disinfection in animal houses.

  7. [Effectiveness of aqueous extracts of aromatic and medicinal plants against tomato grey mould in Morocco].

    PubMed

    Kasmi, Manal; Aourach, Mohammed; El Boukari, Mohammed; Barrijal, Said; Essalmani, Haiat

    2017-08-01

    Grey mould is a major disease threatening the Moroccan tomato; this disease is often controlled by fungicides. However, the latter are a real danger to human health and environment. Thus, this study is part of the research of harmless alternatives such extracts of aromatic and medicinal plants (Lavandula officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Cymbopogon citratus, and Melissa officinalis). In this study, the extracts of four medicinal and aromatic plants were tested for their antifungal potency in vitro and in vivo in order to select the most effective. The results show that, in vitro, the Lavandula officinalis, Thymus vulgaris and Cymbopogon citratus aqueous extracts all possess significant antifungal activity, whereas Melissa officinalis shows the least effective. Also in vivo only the aqueous extract of Cymbopogon citratus proves most effective against B. cinerea on tomato fruit. The test of the plants confirms that aqueous extracts of Cymbopogon citratus and Thymus vulgaris are most effective, while the aqueous extracts of Melissa officinalis and Lavandula officinalis always seem to be the least effective. Therefore, the aqueous extracts of Cymbopogon citratus and Thymus vulgaris are the most envisaged for the biological control of grey mould. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Fungal pathogens associated with banana fruit in Sri Lanka, and their treatment with essential oils.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Sulali; Abeywickrama, Krishanthi; Dayananda, Ranjith; Wijeratnam, Shanthi Wilson; Arambewela, Luxshmi

    2004-01-01

    The crown rot pathogens isolated from banana samples collected from 12 localities in Sri Lanka were Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium proliferatum and Colletotrichum musae. Fungal pathogens isolated were able to cause crown rot disease alone or in combination. Disease severity was higher when combinations of virulent pathogens were used. Cymbopogon nardus and Ocimum basilicum oils displayed fungicidal activity against C. musae and F. proliferatum between 0.2-0.6% (v/v) in a Poisoned food bioassay. Slightly lower concentrations of the test oils were needed for similar activity during liquid bioassays. The combination of Cymbopogon nardus and O. basilicum oils demonstrated synergistic action during both in-vivo bioassays.

  9. Sky Glow from Cities: The Army Illumination Model v2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    corresponding to one 10th magnitude star per square degree and will not be pursued further here). Benn and Ellison find that the sky brightness at La Palma ...not have electricity, liquid and pressurized lamps are 23 included. For these latter two, liquid Citronella, lamp oil , liquid paraffin and...Properties; AFGL-TR-79-0214; Air Force Geophysics Laboratory: Hanscom Air Force Base, MA, 1979. 19. Benn, C. R. and Ellison, S. L. La Palma Night-Sky

  10. 27 CFR 21.65 - Formula No. 38-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 38-B. 21.65 Section 21.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT.... Cinnamic aldehyde, N.F. IX. Cinnamon oil, N.F. Citronella oil, natural. Clove oil, N.F. Coal tar, U.S.P...

  11. 27 CFR 21.65 - Formula No. 38-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 38-B. 21.65 Section 21.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT.... Cinnamic aldehyde, N.F. IX. Cinnamon oil, N.F. Citronella oil, natural. Clove oil, N.F. Coal tar, U.S.P...

  12. Redescription of the red-striped soft scale, Pulvinaria tenuivalvata (Newstead), with a new synonymy (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha, Coccidae)

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Razak, Soad I.; Matile-Ferrero, Daniele; Soulier-Perkins, Adeline

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The soft scale, Pulvinaria tenuivalvata (Newstead, 1911), is a major pest of sugarcane in Egypt. This paper provides a redescription and illustration of the adult female based on a microscopic study of the morphology of several adult female specimens and of the type series illustrated by De Lotto (1965) on citronella grass from Uganda. Two paratypes of Pulvinaria saccharia De Lotto, 1964 are also studied and the name is placed here as a junior synonym of Pulvinaria tenuivalvata. PMID:28325965

  13. Southeast Asia Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-13

    primary crops are citronella, bananas, corn, and soybeans. We recently harvested the first rice, providing 200 more dong a month for each soldier’s...working; matching our perception and activity with Marxism-Leninism, and with the actual results we have harvested in order to eliminate erroneous...ready-made clothing, the girl who ran the store was only 20 years old. Later on, I learned that her name was Oanh. She showed me a " crocodile " shirt

  14. Twelve-Hour Duration Testing of Cream Formulations of Three Repellents Against Amblyomma americanum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Greene, Jones & Dawson ( Childs & Paddock, 2003 ). Although increasingly effective area-wide tick control technologies are becoming available ( Pound et...tick-infested habitats ( Centers for Disease Control, 2002 ). Permethrin has proven to be an effective repellent against ticks, but its use is...h post-treatment. A 2% deet formulation containing 1% citronella oil had only 59% repellency against A. hebraeum at 1 h post-treatment. Bayrepel

  15. Preparation of Ecofriendly Formulations Containing Biologically Active Monoterpenes with Their Fumigant and Residual Toxicities against Adults of Culex pipiens

    PubMed Central

    Taktak, Nehad E. M.; Awad, Osama M.; Elfiki, Souraya A.; Abou El-Ela, Nadia E.

    2016-01-01

    Different mixtures of monoterpenes (ketone, alcohol, and alkene) were loaded on paper discs and wax and their knockdown activities were evaluated against Culex pipiens adults. Some individual monoterpenes were also evaluated by residual toxicity technique. Citronella oil as a reference was also loaded separately or in combination with monoterpenes on paper discs and wax. The ketone monoterpenes mixture (camphor, menthone, carvone, and fenchone) on paper discs was the most active (KT50 = 17.20 min) followed by ketone monoterpenes with citronella oil (KT50 = 20.79 min) and citronella oil alone (KT50 = 28.72 min). Wax formulations proved that the ketone and alcohol (geraniol, thymol, and menthol) monoterpenes gave the most activity as knockdown (KT50 = 31.79 and 43.39 min, resp.). Alcohol monoterpenes formulation recorded KT50 = 43.39 min. Residual activity of tested individual monoterpenes reported that the menthol was more toxic than camphor and camphene. Generally, this study suggests that the monoterpenes have the properties, which make them used as eco-friendly compounds in the control programs of Cx. pipiens adult. The use of paper discs is more applicable than wax in the adulticidal formulations. PMID:27891154

  16. Repellency of aerosol and cream products containing fennel oil to mosquitoes under laboratory and field conditions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soon-Il; Chang, Kyu-Sik; Yang, Young-Cheol; Kim, Byung-Seok; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2004-11-01

    The repellency of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller)-containing products (5% aerosol and 8% cream) against mosquitoes was compared with those of citronella oil, geranium oil and deet, as well as three commercial repellents, Baby Keeper cream containing IR3535, MeiMei cream containing citronella and geranium oils, and Repellan S aerosol containing 19% N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet) under laboratory and field conditions. In a laboratory study with female Aedes aegypti (L), fennel oil exhibited good repellency in a release-in-cage test and repellency in skin and patch tests of the oil was comparable with those of citronella and geranium oils. In paddy field tests with five human volunteers, 5% and 8% fennel oil-containing aerosol and cream produced 84% and 70% repellency, respectively, at 90 min after exposure, whereas Baby Keeper cream and MeiMei cream gave 71% and 57% repellency at 90 min after exposure, respectively, and Repellan S aerosol gave 89% repellency at 210 min. The species and ratio of mosquitoes collected were the genera Culex (44.1%), Anopheles (42.2%), Aedes (7.8%) and Armigeres (5.9%). Fennel oil-containing products could be useful for protection from humans and domestic animals from vector-borne diseases and nuisance caused by mosquitoes.

  17. Effect of plant essential oils on Ralstonia solanacearum race 4 causing bacterial wilt of edible ginger

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Palmarosa (Cymbopogon martini), lemongrass (C. citratus) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) oils were investigated for their effects on Ralstonia solanacearum race 4, and their potential use as bio-fumigants for treating pathogen- infested edible ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) fields. Three conce...

  18. Lemongrass productivity oil content and composition as a function of nitrogen sulfur and harvest time

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lemongrass [Cymbopogon flexuosus (Steud.) Wats, (syn. Andropogon nardus var. flexuosus Hack; A. flexuosus Nees)] is one of the most widely grown essential oil plants in the world. Field experiments were conducted at Verona and Poplarville, Mississippi, to evaluate the effects of N (0, 40, 80, and 16...

  19. Repellent effect of some household products on fly attraction to cadavers.

    PubMed

    Charabidze, Damien; Bourel, Benoit; Hedouin, Valery; Gosset, Didier

    2009-08-10

    The most common task of a forensic entomologist is to determine an accurate minimum post-mortem interval (PMI) using necrophagous fly larvae found on carrion. More often, blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are the first insects to detect the cadaver and, if the circumstances are favourable, to leave eggs on the body. However, several studies reveal that products such as gas or paint found on the cadaver induce a delay in the colonisation of the body, leading to an under-estimate of the PMI. Six common household products (gas, mosquito citronella repellent, perfume, bleach, hydrochloric acid and soda) were added to dead rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a field (Lille Forensic Institute, France). The presence of necrophagous flies was checked at regular intervals during 1 month. This experiment was repeated at the same period for four consecutive years. Results clearly showed the repellent effect of three of the six tested substances: gas (petroleum spirit), perfume and mosquito citronella repellent, which resulted in a mean delay of several days in the appearance of the first Dipteran species. Experiments were then carried out in controlled conditions in order to confirm previous observations. An olfactometer was specially designed to observe the behaviour of female Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in response to mice (Mus musculus) cadaver odour stimuli combined with household products. Dead mouse odour was a strong attractive stimulus for most of the tested individuals. Furthermore, it was noticed that the presence of mosquito citronella repellent, perfume, hydrochloric acid and paradichlorobenzene produced a significant repellent effect on female flies. All these results together confirm the repellent effect of some household products on flies and the necessity for forensic entomologists to consider this hypothesis when estimating the PMI.

  20. Evaluation of commercial products for personal protection against mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Revay, Edita E; Junnila, Amy; Xue, Rui-De; Kline, Daniel L; Bernier, Ulrich R; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Qualls, Whitney A; Ghattas, Nina; Müller, Günter C

    2013-02-01

    Human landing catch studies were conducted in a semi-field setting to determine the efficacy of seven commercial products used for personal protection against mosquitoes. Experiments were conducted in two empty, insecticide free, mesh-enclosed greenhouses, in Israel, with either 1500 Aedes albopictus or 1500 Culex pipiens released on consecutive study nights. The products tested in this study were the OFF!(®) Clip-On™ Mosquito Repellent (Metofluthrin 31.2%) and the Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) Sidekick Mosquito Repeller (Cinnamon oil 10.5%; Eugenol 13%; Geranium oil 21%; Peppermint 5.3%; Lemongrass oil 2.6%), which are personal diffusers; Super Band™ Wristband (22% Citronella oil) and the PIC(®) Citronella Plus Wristband (Geraniol 15%; Lemongrass oil 5%, Citronella oil 1%); the Sonic Insect Repeller Keychain; the Mosquito Guard Patch (Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus 80mg), an adhesive-backed sticker for use on textiles; and the Mosquito Patch (vitamin B1 300mg), a transdermal patch. It was determined that the sticker, transdermal patch, wristbands and sonic device did not provide significant protection to volunteers compared with the mosquito attack rate on control volunteers who were not wearing a repellent device. The personal diffusers: - OFF!(®) Clip-On™ and Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) Sidekick - provided superior protection compared with all other devices in this study. These diffusers reduced biting on the arms of volunteers by 96.28% and 95.26% respectively, for Ae. albopictus, and by 94.94% and 92.15% respectively, for Cx. pipiens. In a second trial conducted to compare these devices directly, biting was reduced by the OFF!(®) Clip-On™ and the Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) by 87.55% and 92.83%, respectively, for Ae. albopictus, and by 97.22% and 94.14%, respectively, for Cx. pipiens. There was no significant difference between the performances of the two diffusers for each species.

  1. Antibacterial activity of essential oils from palmarosa, evening primrose, lavender and tuberose.

    PubMed

    Lodhia, M H; Bhatt, K R; Thaker, V S

    2009-03-01

    Essential oils extracted from flower petals of palmarosa (Cymbopogon martini), evening primrose (Primula rosea), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and tuberose (Polianthus tuberosa) were tested for their antibacterial activities against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Different concentrations of each essential oil ranging from 10-100% were tested. Both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were found susceptible to the studied flower essential oils. With increase in concentration of essential oil, increase in zone of inhibition was observed thus dose-dependent response was clear for each essential oil. Essential oil extracted from Cymbopogon martini showed the highest activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria among the tested essential oils.

  2. Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils from Palmarosa, Evening Primrose, Lavender and Tuberose

    PubMed Central

    Lodhia, M. H.; Bhatt, K. R.; Thaker, V. S.

    2009-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from flower petals of palmarosa (Cymbopogon martini), evening primrose (Primula rosea), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and tuberose (Polianthus tuberosa) were tested for their antibacterial activities against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Different concentrations of each essential oil ranging from 10-100% were tested. Both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were found susceptible to the studied flower essential oils. With increase in concentration of essential oil, increase in zone of inhibition was observed thus dose-dependent response was clear for each essential oil. Essential oil extracted from Cymbopogon martini showed the highest activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria among the tested essential oils. PMID:20336210

  3. Antibacterial properties of essential oils from Thai medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Wannissorn, Bhusita; Jarikasem, Siripen; Siriwangchai, Thammathad; Thubthimthed, Sirinun

    2005-03-01

    By using disc diffusion assay, the antimicrobial activity of 32 essential oil samples extracted from local plants or plants cultivated in Thailand was evaluated against zoonotic enteropathogens including Salmonella spp., Escherichai coli O157, Campylobacter jejunii and Clostridium perferingens which are important for broiler export. Out of the essential oil tested, only the essential oil of Zingiber cassumuna, Cinnamomum bejolghota, Mentha arvensis var. piperacens, Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum var. citratum showed promising antibacterial activity against the bacteria tested.

  4. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Trichosporon ovoides causing Piedra Hair Infection

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Seema; Uniyal, Veena; Bhatt, R.P.

    2012-01-01

    Piedra, is an asymptomatic fungal infection of the hair shaft, resulting in the formation of nodules of different hardness on the infected hair. The infection also known as Trichomycosis nodularis is a superficial fungal infection arising from the pathogen being restricted to the stratum corneum with little or no tissue reaction. The nodules are a concretion of hyphae and fruiting bodies of the fungus. Two varieties of Piedra may be seen, Black Piedra and White Piedra. The fungus Trichosporon ovoides is involved in the occurrence of both types of Piedras. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of selected essential oils for the control of growth of the fungus and to determine whether the antifungal effect was due to the major compounds of the oils. Two screening methods viz. Agar well diffusion assay and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration were adopted for the study. MIC and MFC were determined by tube dilution method. Essential oils from Eucalyptus, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Cymbopogon winterians, Trachyspermum ammi, Zingiber officinalis, Citrus limon, Cinnamomon zeylanicum, Salvia sclarea, Citrus aurantifolia, Melaleuca alternifolia, Citrus aurantium, Citrus bergamia, Pogostemon pathchouli, Cedrus atlantica, Jasminum officinale, Juniperus communis, Abelmoschus moschatus, Cyperus scariosus, Palargonium graveolens, Boswellia carterii, Rosa damascene, Veteveria zizanoides and Commiphora myrrha were evaluated. The essential oils of Cymbopogon winterians, Mentha piperita, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Melaleuca alternifolia and Eucalyptus globulus were proved to be most effective against the fungus Trichosporon ovoides. PMID:24031963

  5. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Trichosporon ovoides causing Piedra Hair Infection.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Seema; Uniyal, Veena; Bhatt, R P

    2012-10-01

    Piedra, is an asymptomatic fungal infection of the hair shaft, resulting in the formation of nodules of different hardness on the infected hair. The infection also known as Trichomycosis nodularis is a superficial fungal infection arising from the pathogen being restricted to the stratum corneum with little or no tissue reaction. The nodules are a concretion of hyphae and fruiting bodies of the fungus. Two varieties of Piedra may be seen, Black Piedra and White Piedra. The fungus Trichosporon ovoides is involved in the occurrence of both types of Piedras. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of selected essential oils for the control of growth of the fungus and to determine whether the antifungal effect was due to the major compounds of the oils. Two screening methods viz. Agar well diffusion assay and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration were adopted for the study. MIC and MFC were determined by tube dilution method. Essential oils from Eucalyptus, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Cymbopogon winterians, Trachyspermum ammi, Zingiber officinalis, Citrus limon, Cinnamomon zeylanicum, Salvia sclarea, Citrus aurantifolia, Melaleuca alternifolia, Citrus aurantium, Citrus bergamia, Pogostemon pathchouli, Cedrus atlantica, Jasminum officinale, Juniperus communis, Abelmoschus moschatus, Cyperus scariosus, Palargonium graveolens, Boswellia carterii, Rosa damascene, Veteveria zizanoides and Commiphora myrrha were evaluated. The essential oils of Cymbopogon winterians, Mentha piperita, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Melaleuca alternifolia and Eucalyptus globulus were proved to be most effective against the fungus Trichosporon ovoides.

  6. Comparison of natural and artificial odor lures for nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in South Texas: Developing treatment for cattle fever tick eradication.

    PubMed

    Goolsby, John A; Singh, Nirbhay K; Ortega-S, Alfonso; Hewitt, David G; Campbell, Tyler A; Wester, David; Pérez de León, Adalberto A

    2017-08-01

    Cattle fever ticks (CFT), vectors of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis, were eradicated from the United States by 1943, but are frequently reintroduced from neighboring border states of Mexico via stray cattle and wildlife hosts including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) (WTD) and nilgai antelope (Boselaphus tragocamelus). Nilgai antelope are exotic bovids from India that are hosts of CFT, have large home ranges as compared to WTD, thus have the potential to spread CFT through the landscape. Currently, there are no methods to control CFT on nilgai. Odor lures were evaluated to determine if nilgai could be attracted to a central point for development of control methods. Four treatments, nilgai offal a natural odor lure was used as the positive control; and compared to three artificial odors; screw worm lure, volatile fatty acids, citronella oil. Studies were conducted on a free-ranging population of nilgai at the East Foundation's Santa Rosa Ranch (Kenedy Co., near Riviera, Texas, USA). Game cameras were used to document visitation to the lures. In the ten randomly placed transects, 110 nilgai and 104 WTD were photographed. Offal had significantly more visits by nilgai (71% of total visits) than screwworm (15%), VFA (11%), and citronella (4%). For WTD, there was no significant difference in visitation at the lure treatments.

  7. Insect repellents: historical perspectives and new developments.

    PubMed

    Katz, Tracy M; Miller, Jason H; Hebert, Adelaide A

    2008-05-01

    Arthropod bites remain a major cause of patient morbidity. These bites can cause local or systemic effects that may be infectious or inflammatory in nature. Arthropods, notably insects and arachnids, are vectors of potentially serious ailments including malaria, West Nile virus, dengue, and Lyme disease. Measures to curtail the impact of insect bites are important in the worldwide public health effort to safely protect patients and prevent the spread of disease. The history of insect repellent (IR) lends insight into some of the current scientific strategies behind newer products. Active ingredients of currently available IRs include N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), botanicals, citronella, and, the newest agent, picaridin. Currently, the Environmental Protection Agency's registered IR ingredients approved for application to the skin include DEET, picaridin, MGK-326, MGK-264, IR3535, oil of citronella, and oil of lemon eucalyptus. DEET has reigned as the most efficacious and broadly used IR for the last 6 decades, with a strong safety record and excellent protection against ticks, mosquitoes, and other arthropods. Newer agents, like picaridin and natural products such as oil of lemon eucalyptus are becoming increasingly popular because of their low toxicity, comparable efficacy, and customer approval. Various characteristics and individual product advantages may lead physicians to recommend one agent over another.

  8. Ability of essential oil candles to repel biting insects in high and low biting pressure environments.

    PubMed

    Müller, Günter C; Junnila, Amy; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Revay, Edita E; Butler, Jerry; Orlova, Olga B; Weiss, Robert W; Schlein, Yosef

    2008-03-01

    The first goal of this study was to compare the degree of personal protection against biting insects provided by geraniol, linalool, and citronella candle (5%) vapors outdoors, where such products are commonly used. At a distance of 1.0 m, citronella candles reduced the number of female mosquitoes caught in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention traps by 35.4% and sand flies by 15.4%, linalool candles reduced female mosquitoes by 64.9% and sand flies by 48.5%, while geraniol candles reduced female mosquitoes by 81.5% and sand flies by 69.8%. By increasing the distance to 2 m and 3 m, the repellency dropped significantly. The second goal was to compare the degree of personal protection provided by the best performing candle, geraniol, under conditions of high and low biting pressure. The introduction of geraniol candles to protect volunteers in a high biting pressure environment reduced the mosquito pressure by an average of 56% and the sand fly pressure by 62% over a distance of 1.0 m. In the low biting pressure environment, geraniol reduced the mosquito pressure by an average of 62%. No sand flies were present at this site.

  9. In vitro characterization and mosquito (Aedes aegypti) repellent activity of essential-oils-loaded nanoemulsions.

    PubMed

    Nuchuchua, Onanong; Sakulku, Usawadee; Uawongyart, Napaporn; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit; Soottitantawat, Apinan; Ruktanonchai, Uracha

    2009-01-01

    The nanoemulsions composed of citronella oil, hairy basil oil, and vetiver oil with mean droplet sizes ranging from 150 to 220 nm were prepared and investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Larger emulsion droplets (195-220 nm) shifted toward a smaller size (150-160 nm) after high-pressure homogenization and resulted in higher release rate. We proposed that thin films obtained from the nanoemulsions with smaller droplet size would have higher integrity, thus increasing the vaporization of essential oils and subsequently prolonging the mosquito repellant activity. The release rates were fitted with Avrami's equations and n values were in the same range of 0.6 to 1.0, implying that the release of encapsulated limonene was controlled by the diffusion mechanism from the emulsion droplet. By using high-pressure homogenization together with optimum concentrations of 5% (w/w) hairy basil oil, 5% (w/w) vetiver oil (5%), and 10% (w/w) citronella oil could improve physical stability and prolong mosquito protection time to 4.7 h due to the combination of these three essential oils as well as small droplet size of nanoemulsion.

  10. Ethnobotanical study of some of mosquito repellent plants in north-eastern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kweka, Eliningaya J; Mosha, Franklin; Lowassa, Asanterabi; Mahande, Aneth M; Kitau, Jovin; Matowo, Johnson; Mahande, Michael J; Massenga, Charles P; Tenu, Filemoni; Feston, Emmanuel; Lyatuu, Ester E; Mboya, Michael A; Mndeme, Rajabu; Chuwa, Grace; Temu, Emmanuel A

    2008-01-01

    Background The use of plant repellents against nuisance biting insects is common and its potential for malaria vector control requires evaluation in areas with different level of malaria endemicity. The essential oils of Ocimum suave and Ocimum kilimandscharicum were evaluated against malaria vectors in north-eastern Tanzania. Methodology An ethnobotanical study was conducted at Moshi in Kilimanjaro region north-eastern Tanzania, through interviews, to investigate the range of species of plants used as insect repellents. Also, bioassays were used to evaluate the protective potential of selected plants extracts against mosquitoes. Results The plant species mostly used as repellent at night are: fresh or smoke of the leaves of O. suave and O. kilimandscharicum (Lamiaceae), Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), Eucalyptus globules (Myrtaceae) and Lantana camara (Verbenaceae). The most popular repellents were O. kilimandscharicum (OK) and O. suave (OS) used by 67% out of 120 households interviewed. Bioassay of essential oils of the two Ocimum plants was compared with citronella and DEET to study the repellence and feeding inhibition of untreated and treated arms of volunteers. Using filter papers impregnated with Ocimum extracts, knockdown effects and mortality was investigated on malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae, including a nuisance mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus. High biting protection (83% to 91%) and feeding inhibition (71.2% to 92.5%) was observed against three species of mosquitoes. Likewise the extracts of Ocimum plants induced KD90 of longer time in mosquitoes than citronella, a standard botanical repellent. Mortality induced by standard dosage of 30 mg/m2 on filter papers, scored after 24 hours was 47.3% for OK and 57% for OS, compared with 67.7% for citronella. Conclusion The use of whole plants and their products as insect repellents is common among village communities of north-eastern Tanzania and the results indicate that the use of

  11. Seasonal temperature variations influence tapetum mitosis patterns associated with reproductive fitness.

    PubMed

    Lavania, Umesh C; Basu, Surochita; Kushwaha, Jyotsana Singh; Lavania, Seshu

    2014-09-01

    Environmental stress in plants impacts many biological processes, including male gametogenesis, and affects several cytological mechanisms that are strongly interrelated. To understand the likely impact of rising temperature on reproductive fitness in the climate change regime, a study of tapetal mitosis and its accompanying meiosis over seasons was made to elucidate the influence of temperature change on the cytological events occurring during microsporogenesis. For this we used two species of an environmentally sensitive plant system, i.e., genus Cymbopogon Sprengel (Poaceae), namely Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle var. confertiflorus (Steud.) Bor (2n = 20) and Cymbopogon jwaruncusha (Jones) Schult. (2n = 20). Both species flower profusely during extreme summer (48 °C) and mild winter (15 °C) but support low and high seed fertility, respectively, in the two seasons. We have shown that tapetal mitotic patterns over seasons entail differential behavior for tapetal mitosis. During the process of tapetum development there are episodes of endomitosis that form either (i) an endopolyploid genomically imbalanced uninucleate and multinucleate tapetum, and (or) (ii) an acytokinetic multinucleate genomically balanced tapetum, with the progression of meiosis in the accompanying sporogenous tissue. The relative frequency of occurrence of the two types of tapetum mitosis patterns is significantly different in the two seasons, and it is found to be correlated with the temperature conditions. Whereas, the former (genomically imbalanced tapetum) are prevalent during the hot summer, the latter (genomically balanced tapetum) are frequent under optimal conditions. Such a differential behaviour in tapetal mitosis vis-à-vis temperature change is also correspondingly accompanied by substantial disturbances or regularity in meiotic anaphase disjunction. Both species show similar patterns. The study underpins that tapetal mitotic behaviour per se could be a reasonable indicator to

  12. Antimicrobial activity of some essential oils against microorganisms deteriorating fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Helal, G A; Sarhan, M M; Abu Shahla, A N K; Abou El-Khair, E K

    2006-12-01

    Seventeen microbial species including 10 fungal taxa, two yeasts and five bacteria, were isolated from freshly prepared orange, guava and banana juices kept in open bottles at room temperature for 7 days. Eight different essential oils, from local herbs, were tested for their antimicrobial activity against these test organisms. The essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum basilicum and Origanum majorana were found to be highly effective against these microorganisms. Aspergillus niger, A. flavus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the most prevalent microorganisms in juice, showed the highest resistance against these essential oils. GC-MS analysis showed that while e-citral, a'-myrcene, and z-citral represent the major components (75.1%) of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus; bezynen,1-methyl-4-(2-propenyl), 1,8-cineole and trans-a'-bisabolene were the main components (90.6%) of Ocimum basilicum; whereas 3-cyclohexen-1-01,4-methyl-1(1-methylethyl)-(CAS), c-terpinene and trans-caryophyllene represent the major components (65.1%) of Origanum majorana. These three essential oils were introduced into juices by two techniques namely, fumigation and direct contact. The former technique showed more fungicidal effect than the latter one against A. flavus, A. niger, and S. cerevisiae. The essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus by comparison to other test oils showed the strongest effect against these fungi with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 1.5 µl/ml medium and a sublethal concentration of 1.0 µl/ml. The antimicrobial activity of this oil is thermostable at 121℃ for 30 min.

  13. Aflatoxin-albumin adduct formation after single and multiple doses of aflatoxin B(1) in rats treated with Thai medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Vinitketkumnuen, U; Chewonarin, T; Dhumtanom, P; Lertprasertsuk, N; Wild, C P

    1999-07-16

    The objective was to conduct an assessment of the ability of two Thai medicinal plants, Cymbopogon citratus Stapf and Murdannia loriformis, to modulate levels of serum aflatoxin-albumin (AF-albumin) adducts following aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) exposure in rats. The influence of the plant extracts on AF-albumin adduct formation after a single exposure to 250 microg/kg body weight (bw) AFB(1) was measured over a 48-h period. Rats received M. loriformis extract (3 g/kg bw) or C. citratus Stapf extract (5 g/kg bw) daily for the week prior to the AFB(1) administration. In control rats, maximum adduct levels were observed 12 h post-AFB(1) treatment but in the animals receiving Murdannia extract, maximum levels occurred earlier, at 4 h post-treatment. No such effect was observed with the Cymbopogon extract. Daily treatment of rats with AFB(1) at 250 microg/kg bw for 3 weeks caused serum AF-albumin adduct levels to accumulate over a 10-14 day period and reach plateau levels 4.4-fold higher than observed after a single dose. Treatment with Murdannia extract for 1 week before and then throughout the AFB(1) exposure period resulted in a slight decrease in the AF-albumin adduct levels in the first week of the intervention. After that time, however, the reduction in adduct levels in the Murdannia extract group did not differ significantly from controls. No significant alteration in the biomarker levels was seen with the Cymbopogon extract treatments compared to control rats.

  14. Antimicrobial Activity of Some Essential Oils Against Microorganisms Deteriorating Fruit Juices

    PubMed Central

    Sarhan, M. M.; Abu Shahla, A. N. K.; Abou El-Khair, E. K.

    2006-01-01

    Seventeen microbial species including 10 fungal taxa, two yeasts and five bacteria, were isolated from freshly prepared orange, guava and banana juices kept in open bottles at room temperature for 7 days. Eight different essential oils, from local herbs, were tested for their antimicrobial activity against these test organisms. The essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum basilicum and Origanum majorana were found to be highly effective against these microorganisms. Aspergillus niger, A. flavus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the most prevalent microorganisms in juice, showed the highest resistance against these essential oils. GC-MS analysis showed that while e-citral, a'-myrcene, and z-citral represent the major components (75.1%) of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus; bezynen,1-methyl-4-(2-propenyl), 1,8-cineole and trans-a'-bisabolene were the main components (90.6%) of Ocimum basilicum; whereas 3-cyclohexen-1-01,4-methyl-1(1-methylethyl)-(CAS), c-terpinene and trans-caryophyllene represent the major components (65.1%) of Origanum majorana. These three essential oils were introduced into juices by two techniques namely, fumigation and direct contact. The former technique showed more fungicidal effect than the latter one against A. flavus, A. niger, and S. cerevisiae. The essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus by comparison to other test oils showed the strongest effect against these fungi with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 1.5 µl/ml medium and a sublethal concentration of 1.0 µl/ml. The antimicrobial activity of this oil is thermostable at 121℃ for 30 min. PMID:24039503

  15. Susceptibility of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and its parasitoid Dinarmus basalis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to three essential oils.

    PubMed

    Ketoh, Guillaume K; Glitho, Adole I; Huignard, Jacques

    2002-02-01

    The bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) causes major losses during the storage of seeds of Vigna unguiculata (Walp.) in West Africa. An endemic parasitoid, the pteromalid Dinarmus basalis (Rond.) reduces the increase in bruchid populations in stores and could be used for biological control. African farmers often introduce essential oils into granaries at harvest time. In Togo, essential oils were extracted from two Gramineae, Cymbopogon nardus (L.) and Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) and from a Lamiaceae, Ocimum basilicum (L.). The major components of these essential oils were citronellal in C. nardus, carene-2 and piperitone in C. schoenanthus and estragol in O. basilicum. Cymbopogon schoenanthus was the most toxic oil for C. maculatus adults. D. basalis adults were more susceptible to the three essential oils than the adults of their hosts C. maculatus. In the presence of cowpea seeds, the LC50s of the three essential oils were lower than in their absence, suggesting that the seeds may absorb a part of the volatiles. High doses of three essential oils slightly affected the survival of the fourth instar or the pupae of C. maculatus. This high survival was due to protection of larvae from volatiles by the surrounding seeds. The D. basalis were more affected by the oil volatiles than their hosts. Sub-lethal doses of essential oils reduced the duration of the adult life of both insect species and fecundity of the females. The differences in sensitivity of the host and its parasitoid could influence their population dynamics. The introduction of the essential oils into storage systems potentially could reduce density of parasitoid populations and increase seed losses.

  16. Efficient egress of escaping ants stressed with temperature.

    PubMed

    Boari, Santiago; Josens, Roxana; Parisi, Daniel R

    2013-01-01

    In the present work we investigate the egress times of a group of Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) stressed with different heating speeds. We found that the higher the temperature ramp is, the faster ants evacuate showing, in this sense, a group-efficient evacuation strategy. It is important to note that even when the life of ants was in danger, jamming and clogging was not observed near the exit, in accordance with other experiments reported in the literature using citronella as aversive stimuli. Because of this clear difference between ants and humans, we recommend the use of some other animal models for studying competitive egress dynamics as a more accurate approach to understanding competitive egress in human systems.

  17. Efficient Egress of Escaping Ants Stressed with Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Boari, Santiago; Josens, Roxana; Parisi, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    In the present work we investigate the egress times of a group of Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) stressed with different heating speeds. We found that the higher the temperature ramp is, the faster ants evacuate showing, in this sense, a group-efficient evacuation strategy. It is important to note that even when the life of ants was in danger, jamming and clogging was not observed near the exit, in accordance with other experiments reported in the literature using citronella as aversive stimuli. Because of this clear difference between ants and humans, we recommend the use of some other animal models for studying competitive egress dynamics as a more accurate approach to understanding competitive egress in human systems. PMID:24312264

  18. Effect of varieties composition of wall material on physical and chemistry characteristics of microcapsulated kaffir lime leave oleoresin (Citrus hystrix DC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latifatunissa, Zhulfani Nur; Kawiji, Khasanah, Lia Umi; Utami, Rohula

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of variety composition of wall material on characteristic of micro capsulated kaffir lime leave oleoresin which includes yield, water content, and solubility in water, microstructure, residual solvent content and active compound content. This study used variety composition of maltodextrin and carrageenan (100%: 0%; 97%: 3%; 95%: 5%; 90%: 10%) as wall material, and kaffir lime leave oleoresin as core material which was extracted by maceration using ethanol as solvent. Analysis's result showed that the varieties composition of wall material influenced on yield and water content significantly. However, there was no significant influence discovered in solubility in water and residual solvent content. Active compounds contained in the product of oleoresin microcapsules kaffir lime leaves are citronella, citronellol, citronellyl acetate, nerolidol, phytol, farnesol while the levels of residual solvents in this study ranged from 0.01-0.015%. Based on experiment result showed that use carrageenan can produce preferable microstructure.

  19. Behavior of Ants Escaping from a Single-Exit Room

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shujie; Lv, Wei; Song, Weiguo

    2015-01-01

    To study the rules of ant behavior and group-formation phenomena, we examined the behaviors of Camponotus japonicus, a species of large ant, in a range of situations. For these experiments, ants were placed inside a rectangular chamber with a single exit that also contained a filter paper soaked in citronella oil, a powerful repellent. The ants formed several groups as they moved toward the exit to escape. We measured the time intervals between individual escapes in six versions of the experiment, each containing an exit of a different width, to quantify the movement of the groups. As the ants exited the chamber, the time intervals between individual escapes changed and the frequency distribution of the time intervals exhibited exponential decay. We also investigated the relationship between the number of ants in a group and the group flow rate. PMID:26125191

  20. The additive properties of Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay: the case of essential oils.

    PubMed

    Bentayeb, Karim; Vera, Paula; Rubio, Carlos; Nerín, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    The ORAC assay is applied to measure the antioxidant capacity of foods or dietary supplements. Sometimes, the manufacturers claim antioxidant capacities that may not correspond to the constituents of the product. These statements are sheltered by the general understanding that antioxidants might exhibit synergistic properties, but this is not necessarily true when dealing with ORAC assay values. This contribution applies the ORAC assay to measure the antioxidant capacity of ten essential oils typically added to foodstuffs: citronella, dill, basil, red thyme, thyme, rosemary, oregano, clove and cinnamon. The major components of these essential oils were twenty-one chemicals in total. After a preliminary discrimination, the antioxidant capacity of eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, α-pinene, limonene and linalool was determined. The results showed that 72-115% of the antioxidant capacity of the essential oils corresponded to the addition of the antioxidant capacity of their constituents. Thus, the ORAC assay showed additive properties.

  1. Comparison of two treatments for preventing dogs eating their own faeces.

    PubMed

    Wells, D L

    2003-07-12

    Twenty-eight domestic dogs with the behavioural problem of eating their own faeces were treated in two ways. Half of them were treated with a citronella spray collar, and the others were treated with sound therapy. To assess the relative efficacy of the treatments their owners rated the severity of their dog's faeces eating for a week before the study began, during each of three weeks of treatment, and at the end of a fourth week during which they had not been treated. The owners reported a significantly lower incidence of the behavioural problem during the first week of both treatments, but in the dogs treated by sound therapy its incidence subsequently increased. The behavioural problem was reduced most effectively in the dogs treated with the spray collar, and continued to decrease during the period of treatment.

  2. Larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti of essential oils from northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lavor, Patrícia L; Santiago, Gilvandete M P; Gois, Roberto W da Silva; de Sousa, Leôncio M; Bezerra, Gabrieli da P; Romero, Nirla R; Arriaga, Angela M C; Lemos, Telma L G; Alves, Péricles B; Gomes, Paulo C S

    2012-10-01

    The larvicidal activities of essential oils from the leaves of Artemisia vulgaris L., Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees ex Steud.) Wats. and Piper tuberculatum Jacq. were evaluated using third-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The essential oil of P. tuberculqatum had the lowest LC50 value (106.3 +/- 2.2 microg/mL), followed by that of A. vulgaris (114.1 +/- 1.7 microg/mL) and C. flexuosus (121.6 +/- 0.8 micro/mL). The results show that these essential oils may be potent sources of natural larvicides.

  3. Effect of plant volatile oils in protecting stored cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) infestation.

    PubMed

    Raja; Albert; Ignacimuthu; Dorn

    2001-04-01

    Adult Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) were introduced into cowpea seeds which were stored in containers with volatile oils derived from Mentha arvensis, M. piperata, M. spicata and Cymbopogon nardus. The numbers of eggs laid, adult mortality, adult emergence and subsequent seed damage were studied for four months. All oils significantly influenced all parameters (P<0.05) and results with different parameters were generally parallel. Significant differences for at least some time/parameters combinations indicated an order of potency of M. spicata>M. piperata>M. arvensis>C. nardus.

  4. Field evaluation of essential oils for reducing attraction by the Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Youssef, Nadeer N; Oliver, Jason B; Ranger, Christopher M; Reding, Michael E; Moyseenko, James J; Klein, Michael G; Pappas, Robert S

    2009-08-01

    Forty-one plant essential oils were tested under field conditions for the ability to reduce the attraction of adult Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), to attractant-baited or nonbaited traps. Treatments applied to a yellow and green Japanese beetle trap included a nonbaited trap, essential oil alone, a Japanese beetle commercial attractant (phenethyl proprionate:eugenol:geraniol, 3:7:3 by volume) (PEG), and an essential oil plus PEG attractant. Eight of the 41 oils reduced attractiveness of the PEG attractant to the Japanese beetle. When tested singly, wintergreen and peppermint oils were the two most effective essential oils at reducing attractiveness of the PEG attractant by 4.2x and 3.5x, respectively. Anise, bergamont mint, cedarleaf, dalmation sage, tarragon, and wormwood oils also reduced attraction of the Japanese beetle to the PEG attractant. The combination of wintergreen oil with ginger, peppermint, or ginger and citronella oils reduced attractiveness of the PEG attractant by 4.7x to 3.1x. Seventeen of the 41 essential oils also reduced attraction to the nonbaited yellow and green traps, resulting in 2.0x to 11.0x reductions in trap counts relative to nonbaited traps. Camphor, coffee, geranium, grapefruit, elemi, and citronella oils increased attractiveness of nonbaited traps by 2.1x to 7.9x when tested singly, but none were more attractive than the PEG attractant. Results from this study identified several plant essential oils that act as semiochemical disruptants against the Japanese beetle.

  5. Screening of some essential oils against Trichosporon species.

    PubMed

    Uniyal, Veena; Saxena, Seema; Bhatt, R P

    2013-01-01

    White Piedra is a superficial mycoses characterized by nodules on the hair shaft, caused by the basidiomycetous yeast Trichosporon species. In this study 25 essential oils were extracted and screened against two Trichosporon species i.e. Trichosporon asahii and Trichosporon cutaneum. Both these fungi procured from MTCC Chandigarh were maintained on yeast malt agar plates and tubes at 25 degrees C. Two screening methods viz., agar well diffusion assay and minimum inhibitory concentration were adopted for the study. The results showed that the maximum anti-yeast activity against T. asahii and T. cutaneum was demonstrated by oil of Mentha piperita showing full inhibition of both the fungi, Melaleuca alternifolia with an inhibition zone of 45 and 40 mm, Cymbopogon winterians with inhibition zone of 45 and 45 mm and Cymbopogon flexuosus with 35 and 30 mm inhibition zones. The oil of Trachyspermum ammi exhibited 10 and 20 mm, Abelmoschus moschatus exhibited 30 and 20 mm, Salvia sclarea showed 20 and 18 mm and Jasminum officinale exhibited 25 and 15 mm inhibition zones showing moderate activity. The oil of Cyperus scariosus, Pogostemon patchouli and Rosa damascene showed no inhibition zone against both the fungi while Vetiveria zizanoides exhibited no inhibition in case of T. asahii and inhibition zone of 10 mm in case of T. cutaneum demonstrating comparatively low activity against both the fungi. These results support that the essential oils can be used to cure superficial mycoses and these oils may have significant role as pharmaceuticals and preservatives.

  6. Evaluation of antipyretic activity of some medicinal plants from Cholistan desert Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Alam, Muhammad Khurshid; Ahmed, Saeed; Anjum, Shazia; Akram, Muhammad; Shah, Syed Muhammad Ali; Wariss, Hafiz Muhammad; Usmanghani, Khan

    2016-03-01

    Traditional herbal healers "Hakims" use various plants of the Cholistan desert, Pakistan for treating a number of infectious and non-infectious diseases. However, there has never been a scientific validation of these plant-based therapeutics. We compared the antipyretic effect of Echinops echinatus, Alhagi maurorum, Fagonia cretica, Cymbopogon jwarancusa and Panicum turgidum in animal model. These plants were used to reduce E.coli lysate induced pyrexia in rabbits. There were five groups of rabbits having five rabbits in each group. Among these five groups, three received various doses of experimental treatment, paracetamol was given to fourth group known as positive control. The fifth group of animals served as negative control and received no treatment. Ethanol extracts of Fagonia cretica (500 mg/kg), Panicum turgidum (500 mg/kg and 750 mg/kg), Alhagi maurorum (500 and 750 mg/kg), Cymbopogon jwarancusa (250 mg/kg) and Echinops echinatus (750 mg/kg) showed significant antipyretic effects when compared with controls and experimental counterparts. These results revealed that ethanol extracts of the plants evaluated in this study have dose dependent antipyretic activity. Further detailed screening of these plant species is recommended.

  7. Effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production: a potential source of botanical food preservative

    PubMed Central

    Gemeda, Negero; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Asrat, Daniel; Debella, Asfaw

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production. Method In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity of essential oils was carried out using poisoned food techniques, spore germination assay, agar dilution assay, and aflatoxin arresting assay on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Results Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) essential oils were tested against toxicogenic isolates of Aspergillus species. T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 µl/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed, complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 µl/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting aflatoxin production from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 µl/mL, respectively. Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and T. ammi oils as antifungal were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5 336.297 µl/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity and strengthening its traditional reputations. Conclusions In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by storage fungi. PMID:25183114

  8. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ocheng, Francis; Bwanga, Freddie; Joloba, Moses; Softrata, Abier; Azeem, Muhammad; Pütsep, Katrin; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Obua, Celestino; Gustafsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia) used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents. PMID:26170872

  9. The effects of herbal essential oils on the oviposition-deterrent and ovicidal activities of Aedes aegypti (Linn.), Anopheles dirus (Peyton and Harrison) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say).

    PubMed

    Siriporn, P; Mayura, S

    2012-03-01

    The effect of oviposition-deterrent and ovicidal of seven essential oils were evaluated towards three mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles dirus and Culex quinquefasciatus. The oviposition activity index (OAI) values of six essential oils namely Cananga odorata, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Eucalyptus citriodora, Ocimum basilicum and Syzygium aromaticum indicated that there were more deterrent than the control whereas Citrus sinensis oil acted as oviposition attractant. At higher concentration (10%) of Ca. odorata (ylang ylang flowers) showed high percent effective repellency (ER) against oviposition at 99.4% to Ae. aegypti, 97.1% to An. dirus and 100% to Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The results showed that mean numbers of eggs were lower in treated than in untreated water. In addition, there was an inverse relationship between essential oil concentrations and ovicidal activity. As the concentration of essential oil increased from 1%, 5% and up to 10% conc., the hatching rate decreased. The essential oil of Ca. odorata at 10% conc. gave minimum egg hatch of 10.4% (for Ae. aegypti), 0.8% (for An. dirus) and 1.1% (for Cx. quinquefasciatus) respectively. These results clearly revealed that the essential oil of Ca. odorata served as a potential oviposition-deterrent and ovicidal activity against Ae. aegypti, An. dirus and Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  10. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ocheng, Francis; Bwanga, Freddie; Joloba, Moses; Softrata, Abier; Azeem, Muhammad; Pütsep, Katrin; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Obua, Celestino; Gustafsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia) used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents.

  11. Antimicrobial effects of selected plant essential oils on the growth of a Pseudomonas putida strain isolated from meat.

    PubMed

    Oussalah, Mounia; Caillet, Stéphane; Saucier, Linda; Lacroix, Monique

    2006-06-01

    The inhibitory effect of 60 different essential oils was evaluated on a Pseudomonas putida strain of meat origin, associated with meat spoilage. Essential oils were tested at concentrations from 0.003 to 0.8% (wt/vol) to determine minimum inhibitory and maximal tolerated concentrations (MIC and MTC, respectively) using an agar medium culture. Of the 60 samples tested, Corydothymus capitatus essential oil was the most active showing a MIC of 0.025% and a MTC of 0.06%. Seven essential oils (Cinnamomum cassia, Origanum compactum, Origanum heracleoticum, Satureja hortensis, Satureja montana, Thymus vulgaris carvacroliferum, Thymus vulgaris thymoliferum) have shown a strong antimicrobial activity against P. putida with a MIC of 0.05% and a MTC ranging from 0.013% to 0.025%. Ten other oils (Cinnamomum verum (leaf and bark), Eugenia caryophyllus, Cymbopogon martinii var. motia, Cymbopogon nardus, Melaleuca linariifolia, Origanum majorana, Pimenta dioica, Thymus satureoides, Thymus serpyllum) showed a high antimicrobial activity showing a MIC ranging from 0.1% to 0.4%, while the remaining were less active showing a MIC⩾0.8%.

  12. Comparison of bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity of 13 essential oils against strains with varying sensitivity to antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Mayaud, L; Carricajo, A; Zhiri, A; Aubert, G

    2008-09-01

    To compare the bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity of 13 chemotyped essential oils (EO) on 65 bacteria with varying sensitivity to antibiotics. Fifty-five bacterial strains were tested with two methods used for evaluation of antimicrobial activity (CLSI recommendations): the agar dilution method and the time-killing curve method. EO containing aldehydes (Cinnamomum verum bark and Cymbopogon citratus), phenols (Origanum compactum, Trachyspermum ammi, Thymus satureioides, Eugenia caryophyllus and Cinnamomum verum leaf) showed the highest antimicrobial activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) <2% (v/v) against all strains except Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Alcohol-based EO (Melaleuca alternifolia, Cymbopogon martinii and Lavandula angustifolia) exhibited varying degrees of activity depending on Gram status. EO containing 1.8-cineole and hydrocarbons (Eucalyptus globulus, Melaleuca cajeputii and Citrus sinensis) had MIC(90%) > or = 10% (v/v). Against P. aeruginosa, only C. verum bark and O. compactum presented MIC < or =2% (v/v). Cinnamomum verum bark, O. compactum, T. satureioides, C. verum leaf and M. alternifolia were bactericidal against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli at concentrations ranging from to 0.31% to 10% (v/v) after 1 h of contact. Cinnamomum verum bark and O. compactum were bactericidal against P. aeruginosa within 5 min at concentrations <2% (v/v). Cinnamomum verum bark had the highest antimicrobial activity, particularly against resistant strains. Bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity of EO on nosocomial antibiotic-resistant strains.

  13. Development of shampoo, soap and ointment formulated by green synthesised silver nanoparticles functionalised with antimicrobial plants oils in veterinary dermatology: treatment and prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Bansod, Sunita Dashrath; Bawaskar, Manisha Subrashrao; Gade, Aniket Krishnarao; Rai, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Many scientists have focused their research on the role of nanotechnology for the control of human pathogens, but there are also many topical pathogens present in animals, which infect animals and transfer to humans. Topical therapy is extremely important for the management of dermatological condition in animals. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the efficacy of biogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in combination with herbal oils against animal skin infections which may be responsible for causing infections in human beings. Here, the authors synthesised and characterised the AgNPs from Azadirachta indica. The oils were extracted from medicinal plants including Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon martini, Eucalyptus globules, A. indica and Ocimum sanctum and the antifungal and antibacterial activity of plant oils along with AgNPs were evaluated. An excision wound model was used for the study of wound healing activity in rabbits. AgNPs functionalised oil has demonstrated remarkable antimicrobial activity against pathogens present on the skin of animals. The nano-functionalised antimicrobial oils were used in the formulation of shampoo, soap and ointment for veterinary dermatology. Antimicrobial products of plant origin with AgNPs are valuable, safe and have a specific role in controlling diseases. The authors believe that this approach will be a good alternative therapy to solve the continuous antibiotic resistance developed by many bacterial pathogens and will be utilised in various animal contacting areas in medicine.

  14. Effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production: a potential source of botanical food preservative.

    PubMed

    Gemeda, Negero; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Asrat, Daniel; Debella, Asfaw

    2014-05-01

    To investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production. In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity of essential oils was carried out using poisoned food techniques, spore germination assay, agar dilution assay, and aflatoxin arresting assay on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) essential oils were tested against toxicogenic isolates of Aspergillus species. T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 µl/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed, complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 µl/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting aflatoxin production from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 µl/mL, respectively. Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and T. ammi oils as antifungal were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5 336.297 µl/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity and strengthening its traditional reputations. In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by storage fungi.

  15. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of five medicinal plants on Allium cepa Linn.

    PubMed

    Akinboro, A; Bakare, A A

    2007-07-25

    The cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of five medicinal plants: Azadirachta indica (A. Juss), Morinda lucida (Benth.), Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf.), Mangifera indica (Linn.) and Carica papaya (Linn.) was evaluated using the Allium cepa assay. The extracts were prepared with tap water as practised locally. Onion bulbs were exposed to 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50%; and 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20% concentrations (v/v) of each of the extracts for macroscopic and microscopic analyses, respectively. There was concentration-dependent and statistically significant (P<0.05) inhibition of root growth by the extracts when compared with the control. The EC(50) obtained for decoctions of Azadirachta indica. Cymbopogon citratus, Mangifera indica and Carica papaya were 0.6, 3.0, 1.4 and 0.8%, respectively. It was 2.6 and 0.8% for the squeezed extracts of Azadirachta indica and Morinda lucida, respectively. All the tested extracts were observed to have mitodepressive effects on cell division and induced mitotic spindle disturbance in Allium cepa. These results suggest an inhibitory, mitodepressive and turbagenic activities of the aqueous extracts on Allium cepa.

  16. In vitro effect of seven essential oils on the reproduction of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus.

    PubMed

    Pazinato, Rafael; Volpato, Andréia; Baldissera, Matheus D; Santos, Roberto C V; Baretta, Dilmar; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Giongo, Janice L; Boligon, Aline A; Stefani, Lenita Moura; Da Silva, Aleksandro Schafer

    2016-11-01

    The acaricidal effect of seven essential oils was examined in vitro against the cattle tick (Rhipicephalus microplus). Engorged female ticks were manually collected in farms of Southern Brazil and placed into petri dishes (n = 10) in order to test the following oils: juniper (Juniperus communis), palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii), cedar (Cedrus atlantica), lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), ginger (Zingiber officinale), geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) and bergamot (Citrus aurantium var bergamia) at concentrations of 1%, 5%, and 10% each. A control group was used to validate the tests containing Triton X-100 only. Treatment effectiveness was measured considering inhibition of tick oviposition (partial or total), egg's weight, and hatchability. C. martinii, C. citratus and C. atlantica essential oils showed efficacy higher than 99% at all concentrations tested. In addition, J. communis, Z. officinale, P. graveolens, and C. aurantium var bergamia oils showed efficiency ranging from 73% to 95%, depending on the concentration tested, where higher concentrations showed greater efficacy. It was concluded that essential oils can affect tick reproduction in vitro by inhibiting oviposition and hatchability.

  17. Comparative study of antifungal activities of six selected essential oils against fungal isolates from cheese wagashi in Benin.

    PubMed

    Sessou, P; Farougou, S; Ahounou, S; Hounnankpon, Y; Azokpota, P; Youssao, I; Sohounhloue, D

    2013-12-01

    The study has compared the antifungal efficacy of six essential oils, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum, Pimenta racemosa, Syzygium aromaticum and Zingiber officinale, tested in culture medium and in traditional cheese wagashi system against moulds belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium and Scopulariopsis genera in perspective to select the most actives as substitutes of chemical preservatives for wagashi preservation. Results obtained from this work indicated that Syzygium aromaticum, Pimenta racemosa, Ocimum gratissimum and Cymbopogon citratus essentials oils were the most actives extracts at in vitro assay in decreasing order with strong fungistatic activity against the isolates tested; the pronounced activity was provided by S. aromaticum essential oil. The effectiveness of these actives oils on the less sensitive moulds common to these oils showed that, among these extracts that of Syzygium aromaticum in particular exerted high sporale reduction against all the strains tested. In sum, Syzygium aromaticum essential oil possessed the highest antifungal activity both in culture medium and in wagashi system. Essential oils of C. citratus, O. gratissimum, P. racemosa and above all that of S. aromaticum, among the six extracts investigated, were the most promising oils as wagashi additives in substitution of synthetic chemicals ones to extend shelf life time of this by-product of milk for its valorization. Further studies are needed to be performed on the safety of oils for human, the shelf life time of this cheese and its acceptability when treated with essential oils to reduce and control pathogen contamination or native microflora.

  18. Insecticidal and Repellent Activity of Several Plant-Derived Essential Oils Against Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Ruth M; Stashenko, Elena; Duque, Jonny E

    2017-03-01

    We examined the pupicidal, adulticidal, repellent, and oviposition-deterrent activities of essential oils (EOs) from Lippia alba, L. origanoides, Eucalyptus citriodora, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Citrus sinensis , Cananga odorata , Swinglea glutinosa, and Tagetes lucida plants against Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions. Pupicidal and adulticidal activities were assessed at exploratory concentrations of 250, 310, and 390 parts per million (ppm); and 30, 300, and 1,000 ppm, respectively. The greatest pupicidal activity was exhibited at 390 ppm with a 24-h exposure by L. origanoides, and 390 ppm with a 48-h exposure by Citrus sinensis . Lippia origanoides killed all adult mosquitoes at 300 ppm after 120 min of exposure. Only L. origanoides and E. citriodora EOs, applied at 1,000 ppm to human skin, produced the greatest repellency (100%) to host-seeking Ae. aegypti after 2 min of exposure; the repellency decreased between 12% and 10% after 15 min. Complete oviposition deterrence by gravid Ae. aegypti was observed for E. citriodora EOs at 200 ppm with an oviposition activity index of -1.00. These results confirm that the EOs assessed in this study have insecticidal, repellent, and oviposition-deterrent activities against the dengue vector, Ae. aegypti.

  19. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of plant essential oils from Benin against Anopheles gambiae (Giles)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Insecticide resistance in sub-Saharan Africa and especially in Benin is a major public health issue hindering the control of the malaria vectors. Each Anopheles species has developed a resistance to one or several classes of the insecticides currently in use in the field. Therefore, it is urgent to find alternative compounds to conquer the vector. In this study, the efficacies of essential oils of nine plant species, which are traditionally used to avoid mosquito bites in Benin, were investigated. Methods Essential oils of nine plant species were extracted by hydrodistillation, and their chemical compositions were identified by GC-MS. These oils were tested on susceptible “kisumu” and resistant “ladji-Cotonou” strains of Anopheles gambiae, following WHO test procedures for insecticide resistance monitoring in malaria vector mosquitoes. Results Different chemical compositions were obtained from the essential oils of the plant species. The major constituents identified were as follows: neral and geranial for Cymbopogon citratus, Z-carveol, E-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol and E-p-mentha-2,8-dienol for Cymbopogon giganteus, piperitone for Cymbopogon schoenanthus, citronellal and citronellol for Eucalyptus citriodora, p-cymene, caryophyllene oxide and spathulenol for Eucalyptus tereticornis, 3-tetradecanone for Cochlospermum tinctorium and Cochlospermum planchonii, methyl salicylate for Securidaca longepedunculata and ascaridole for Chenopodium ambrosioides. The diagnostic dose was 0.77% for C. citratus, 2.80% for E. tereticornis, 3.37% for E. citriodora, 4.26% for C. ambrosioides, 5.48% for C. schoenanthus and 7.36% for C. giganteus. The highest diagnostic doses were obtained with S. longepedunculata (9.84%), C. tinctorium (11.56%) and C. planchonii (15.22%), compared to permethrin 0.75%. A. gambiae cotonou, which is resistant to pyrethroids, showed significant tolerance to essential oils from C. tinctorium and S. longepedunculata as expected but was

  20. Effect of commercially available plant-derived essential oil products on arthropod pests.

    PubMed

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Galle, Cindy L; Keith, Stephen R; Kalscheur, Nanette A; Kemp, Kenneth E

    2009-08-01

    Plant-derived essential oil products, in general, are considered minimum-risk pesticides and are exempt from Environmental Protection Agency registration under section 25(b) of the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. However, many of the plant-derived essential products available to consumers (homeowners) have not been judiciously evaluated for both efficacy and plant safety. In fact, numerous plant-derived essential oil products labeled for control of arthropod pests have not been subject to rigorous evaluation, and there is minimal scientific information or supporting data associated with efficacy against arthropod pests. We conducted a series of greenhouse experiments to determine the efficacy and phytotoxicity of an array of plant-derived essential oil products available to consumers on arthropod pests including the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso); western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande); twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch; sweetpotato whitefly B-biotype, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius); and green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Although the products Flower Pharm (cottonseed, cinnamon, and rosemary oil) and Indoor Pharm (soybean, rosemary, and lavender oil) provided > 90% mortality of citrus mealybug, they were also the most phytotoxic to the coleus, Solenostemon scutellarioides (L.) Codd, plants. Both GC-Mite (cottonseed, clove, and garlic oil) and Bugzyme (citric acid) were most effective against the twospotted spider mite (> or = 90% mortality). However, SMC (canola, coriander oil, and triethanolamine), neem (clarified hydrophobic extract of neem oil), and Bug Assassin (eugenol, sodium lauryl sulfate, peppermint, and citronella oil) provided > 80% mortality. Monterey Garden Insect Spray, which contained 0.5% spinosad, was most effective against western flower thrips with 100% mortality. All the other products evaluated failed to provide sufficient control of western flower thrips with < 30

  1. Oxygenated monoterpenes-rich volatile oils as potential antifungal agents for dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Dias, N; Dias, M C; Cavaleiro, C; Sousa, M C; Lima, N; Machado, M

    2017-02-01

    Essential oils (EOs) extracted from Lavandula luisieri and Cymbopogon citratus were tested for their antifungal activity against ten clinical isolates of dermatophytes isolated from cases of tinea pedis. Inhibition of conidial germination and antifungal drug/EO combination assay were tested on two ATCC reference strains of Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. EOs were characterised by high amount of oxygenated monoterpenes in their composition. Strong antifungal activity was observed for the majority of clinical strains, and fungicidal activity was demonstrated. Positive interaction between L. luisieri EO combined with terbinafine was observed against terbinafine-resistant strain (Tr ATCC MYA-4438). Significative reduction of the germination was observed above 100 μg mL(-1). Both oils were safe to macrophage mammalian cells at tested concentration. This study describes the antifungal activity of L. luisieri and C. citratus EOs against dermatophytes, which could be useful in designing new formulations for topical treatments.

  2. Evaluation of some essential oils for their toxicity against fungi causing deterioration of stored food commodities.

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, A K; Dubey, N K

    1994-01-01

    During screening of essential oils for their antifungal activities against Aspergillus flavus, the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus was found to exhibit fungitoxicity. The MIC of the oil was found to be 1,000 ppm, at which it showed its fungistatic nature, wide fungitoxic spectrum, nonphytotoxic nature, and superiority over synthetic fungicides, i.e., Agrosan G. N., Thiride, Ceresan, Dithane M-45, Agrozim, Bavistin, Emison, Thiovit, wettable sulfur, and copper oxychloride. The fungitoxic potency of the oil remained unaltered for 7 months of storage and upon introduction of high doses of inoculum of the test fungus. It was thermostable in nature with treatment at 5 to 100 degrees C. These findings thus indicate the possibility of exploitation of the essential oil of C. citratus as an effective inhibitor of storage fungi. PMID:8017906

  3. HPLC-Profiles of Tocopherols, Sugars, and Organic Acids in Three Medicinal Plants Consumed as Infusions

    PubMed Central

    Roriz, Custódio Lobo; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2014-01-01

    Pterospartum tridentatum (L.) Willk, Gomphrena globosa L., and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf are medicinal plants that require a more detailed chemical characterization, given the importance of their consumption as infusions. Therefore, the individual profiles in tocopherols, free sugars, and organic acids were obtained by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to different detectors (fluorescence, refraction index, and photodiode array, resp.). C. citratus revealed the highest content of α-, and total tocopherols, glucose, sucrose, succinic, and ascorbic acids. P. tridentatum presented the highest fructose and total sugars content. Otherwise, G. globosa showed the highest organic acids concentration. As far as we know, this is the first study reporting the mentioned chemical compounds in G. globosa and C. citratus. PMID:26904623

  4. Construction of conductive multilayer films of biogenic triangular gold nanoparticles and their application in chemical vapour sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Amit; Chaudhari, Minakshi; Sastry, Murali

    2006-05-01

    Metal nanoparticles are interesting building blocks for realizing films for a number of applications that include bio- and chemical sensing. To date, spherical metal nanoparticles have been used to generate functional electrical coatings. In this paper we demonstrate the synthesis of electrically conductive coatings using biologically prepared gold nanotriangles as the building blocks. The gold nanotriangles are prepared by the reduction of aqueous chloroaurate ions using an extract of the lemongrass plant (Cymbopogon flexuosus) which are thereafter assembled onto a variety of substrates by simple solution casting. The conductivity of the film shows a drastic fall upon mild heat treatment, leading to the formation of electrically conductive thin films of nanoparticles. We have also investigated the possibility of using the gold nanotriangle films in vapour sensing. A large fall in film resistance is observed upon exposure to polar molecules such as methanol, while little change occurs upon exposure to weakly polar molecules such as chloroform.

  5. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Sfeir, Julien; Lefrançois, Corinne; Baudoux, Dominique; Derbré, Séverine; Licznar, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 essential oils chemotypes from aromatic medicinal plants against S. pyogenes. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of essential oils showing an important antibacterial activity was measured using broth dilution method. Out of 18 essential oils tested, 14 showed antibacterial activity against S. pyogenes. Among them Cinnamomum verum, Cymbopogon citratus, Thymus vulgaris CT thymol, Origanum compactum, and Satureja montana essential oils exhibited significant antibacterial activity. The in vitro results reported here suggest that, for patients suffering from bacterial throat infections, if aromatherapy is used, these essential oils, considered as potential antimicrobial agents, should be preferred.

  6. Inhibitory effect of citral on NO production by suppression of iNOS expression and NF-kappa B activation in RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwa Jeong; Jeong, Heon Sang; Kim, Dae Joong; Noh, Young Hee; Yuk, Dong Yeon; Hong, Jin Tae

    2008-03-01

    Citral is a major compound of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus L.) that has many pharmacological activities such as anti-fungal and anti-bacterial effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of citral and defined its mechanism of action in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Citral (3-12 microg/mL) significantly inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50: 6.5 microg/mL). Furthermore, it was found that citral effectively inhibited the transcriptional activity and expression of iNOS, and potently suppressed the DNA binding activity and nuclear translocation of NF-kappa B as well as I kappa B phosphorylation in a concentration dependent manner. These results suggest that citral is anti-inflammatory, and its effects may be due to the inhibition of NO production through the suppression of NF-kappa B activation.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of different tea varieties available in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Zakir, Muhammad; Sultan, Khush Bakht; Khan, Haroon; Ihsaanullah; Khan, Murad Ali; Fazal, Hina; Rauf, Abdur

    2015-11-01

    In this antimicrobial study, various extracts of Green and Black tea (Camellia sinensis) and Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citrates) were evaluated for antimicrobial activities against six bacterial strains including both human pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeuroginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi) and plant pathogenic bacteria (Erwinia carotovora, Agro bacterium tumifaciens) and one fungal strain Candida albicans by disc diffusion susceptibility method. Of human pathogens, P. aeruginosa was most susceptible to all three different tea varieties; though rest of the strains also demonstrated prominent sensitivity. In comparison, black tea extracts were less activities than green tea and lemon grass. However, all the three tea varieties illustrated profound activity against plant pathogenic bacteria. Similarly, when extracts of tea were tested against C. albicans, green tea and lemon grass exhibited significant activity while black tea was mostly inactive.

  8. Effects of lemongrass oil on the morphological characteristics and peptidoglycan synthesis of Escherichia coli cells.

    PubMed

    Ogunlana, E O; Höglund, S; Onawunmi, G; Sköld, O

    1987-01-01

    The antibacterial effect of lemongrass oil, obtained from the aerial part of Cymbopogon citratus, on cells of Escherichia coli was investigated by electron microscopy and by measuring cell wall formation. Two strains of E. coli K-12 were used, one of which required diaminopimelic acid in the growth medium for its murein formation. Lemongrass oil was found to elicit morphological changes like filamentation, inhibition of septum formation, spheroplast formation, production of 'blisters', 'bulges' or mesosomes, as well as lysis and development of abnormally shaped cells. The incorporation of radioactively labelled diaminopimelic acid into the cell wall murein of strain W7, was inhibited by lemongrass oil in a dose dependent way. The sequence of changes induced by lemongrass oil on bacterial cell morphology and also its interference with murein synthesis in E. coli cells were interpreted to involve the penicillin binding proteins PBP 2 and PBP 3.

  9. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Sfeir, Julien; Lefrançois, Corinne; Baudoux, Dominique; Derbré, Séverine; Licznar, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 essential oils chemotypes from aromatic medicinal plants against S. pyogenes. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of essential oils showing an important antibacterial activity was measured using broth dilution method. Out of 18 essential oils tested, 14 showed antibacterial activity against S. pyogenes. Among them Cinnamomum verum, Cymbopogon citratus, Thymus vulgaris CT thymol, Origanum compactum, and Satureja montana essential oils exhibited significant antibacterial activity. The in vitro results reported here suggest that, for patients suffering from bacterial throat infections, if aromatherapy is used, these essential oils, considered as potential antimicrobial agents, should be preferred. PMID:23662123

  10. Comparative larvicidal activity of essential oils from three medicinal plants against Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Flávia P; Freitas, Silvério P; Lemos, Gloria C S; Vieira, Ivo J C; Gravina, Geraldo A; Lemos, Francisco J A

    2010-11-01

    This work aimed at comparing larvicidal activity of essential oils extracted from the dried leaves of Alpinia speciosa, Cymbopogon citratus, and Rosmarinus officinalis against Ae. aegypti larvae. The larvae were observed for 4 h and at 24 h according to a completely randomized design with three replications and the following concentrations [μl/ml]: 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and controls were distilled water, and commercial standard citral, camphor, eucalyptol, α-pinene, and β-myrcene. The essential oil of C. citratus had the lowest LC₅₀ (0.28) and LC₉₀ (0.56) values, followed by that of A. speciosa (0.94 and 1.2, resp.) and of R. officinalis (1.18 and 1.67, resp.), and only the commercial standards citral and α-pinene were larvicidal.

  11. Comparative study of thermal properties of bio-coal from aromatic spent with low rank sub-bituminous coals.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Vineet; Baruah, B P; Khare, Puja

    2013-06-01

    In present investigation, biocoal samples were prepared from aromatic plant waste of two perennial grasses, i.e. Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemongrass) and Vetiveria zizanioides (khus) after oil extraction, root of Rosa damascene (rose), bark of Eucalyptus citriodora. These biocoals were characterized by proximate, ultimate, metal, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy and ash analyses. Activation energies, initial temperature of devolatilization, maximum rate of weight loss (Rmax), fouling, slagging and alkali index were determined on the basis of TGA and ash analysis. These biocoals have good calorific values. There is possibility of slagging and fouling in combustion system but it is not severe. Owing to their similar fuel properties as high sulphur sub-bituminous coal, they can be good candidates for co-firing. Blending of these biocoals with high sulphur coals will serve dual purpose as (i) alternate fuel, and (ii) reduction in SO2 emission. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. In vitro antibacterial activity of medicinal plant extracts against Escherichia coli strains from human clinical specimens and interactions with antimicrobial drugs.

    PubMed

    Ushimaru, P I; Barbosa, L N; Fernandes, A A H; Di Stasi, L C; Fernandes, A

    2012-01-01

    The biological properties of medicinal plants have been documented worldwide for many centuries. We aimed to evaluate interactions between crude extracts from Psidium guajava, Zingiber officinale, Cymbopogon citratus, Caryophyllus aromaticus, Mikania glomerata and Allium sativum samples and antimicrobial drugs against Escherichia coli strains. The susceptibility test performed was disc diffusion, and crude extracts were diluted (%v/v) into Müller-Hinton agar (MHA) at one quarter of the minimal inhibitory concentration for 90% (MIC(90%)) of E. coli strains found previously. Synergistic interactions were observed between C. citratus and polymyxin, and A. sativum extracts and gentamicin. The crude A. sativum extract was the only one that did not show any antagonism with the antimicrobial drugs. The results thus showed the potential use of these medicinal plants against E. coli strains, although antagonism with antimicrobial drugs is a negative aspect in the combined therapy of infectious diseases caused by E. coli.

  13. In vitro inhibitory activity of essential oil vapors against Ascosphaera apis.

    PubMed

    Kloucek, Pavel; Smid, Jakub; Flesar, Jaroslav; Havlik, Jaroslav; Titera, Dalibor; Rada, Vojtech; Drabek, Ondrej; Kokoska, Ladislav

    2012-02-01

    This work evaluates the in vitro inhibitory activity of 70 essential oils (EOs) in the vapor phase for the control of Chalkbrood disease caused by Ascosphaera apis Maassen ex Claussen (Olive et Spiltoir). Two wild strains isolated from infected honey bee colonies together with one standard collection strain were tested by the microatmosphere method. From 70 EOs, 39 exhibited an antifungal effect against A. apis standard and wild strains. The greatest antifungal action was observed for EO vapors from Armoracia rusticana, followed by Thymus vulgaris, Cymbopogon flexosus, Origanum vulgare and Allium sativum. An investigation of chemical composition by GC-MS revealed, that the most active EOs contained allyl isothiocyanate, citral, carvacrol and diallyl sulfides as the main constituents. The chemical composition plays a key role, as activities of different EOs from the same botanical species were different according to their composition.

  14. Larvicidal activity of essential oils from Brazilian plants against Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Eveline Solon Barreira; Morais, Selene Maia de; Lima, Michele Ashley A; Santana, Eddie William Pinho

    2004-08-01

    Aedes aegypti L. is the major vector of dengue fever, an endemic disease in Brazil. In an effort to find effective and affordable ways to control this mosquito, the larvicidal activities of essential oils from nine plants widely found in the Northeast of Brazil were analyzed by measurement of their LC50. The essential oils were extracted by steam distillation and their chemical composition determined by GL-chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy. The essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus and Lippia sidoides, reported in the literature to have larvicidal properties against A. aegypti, were used for activity comparison. The results show that Ocimum americanum and Ocimum gratissimum have LC50 of 67 ppm and 60 ppm respectively, compared to 63 ppm for L. sidoides and 69 ppm for C. citratus. These results suggest a potential utilization of the essential oil of these two Ocimum species for the control of A. aegypti.

  15. [Diagnostic workup of fragrance allergy].

    PubMed

    Geier, J; Uter, W

    2015-09-01

    The diagnostic workup of contact allergy to fragrances must not be limited to patch testing with the two well-established fragrance mixes. False-positive reactions to these mixes occur in up to 50 % of the patch tested patients. For the diagnostic work-up of positive reactions, and in cases of suspected fragrance allergy, patch testing with the single mix components and additional fragrances is mandatory. Frequently sensitizing fragrance materials are the 14 components of the two fragrance mixes and tree moss (Evernia furfuracea), ylang ylang oil (I + II; Cananga odorata), lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon schoenanthus), sandalwood oil (Santalum album), jasmine absolute (Jasminum spp.), and, less frequently, clove oil (Eugenia caryophyllus), cedarwood oil (Cedrus atlantica/deodara, Juniperus virginiana), Neroli oil (Citrus aurantium amara flower oil), salicylaldehyde, narcissus absolute (Narcissus spp.), and patchouli oil (Pogostemon cablin).

  16. Hydroquinone; A novel bioactive compound from plant-derived smoke can cue seed germination of lettuce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamran, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul L.; Ali, Liaqat; Hussain, Javid; Waqas, Muhammad; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Imran, Qari M.; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Kang, Sang-Mo; Yun, Byung-Wook; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-05-01

    Plant-derived smoke has been known to play an important role in distribution and growth of vegetation. Using a proficiently designed furnace, we extracted smoke from the leaves of four plant viz. Helianthus annuus, Aloe vera, Ginkgo biloba, and Cymbopogon jwarancusa. Smoke dilutions obtained from these plants were obtained in different concentrations to identify potential lettuce growth promoting smoke solution. Results revealed that smoke obtained from Ginkgo biloba significantly enhanced the lettuce seed germination. This solution was then partitioned into ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, n-hexane, chloroform and ether fractions. Ethyl acetate fraction was found to be potent to enhance seed germination. This fraction was subjected to column chromatography and spectroscopic techniques to obtain compound 1. This compound was identified as hydroquinone using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. At low concentrations (5, 10 and 20 ppm), compound 1 enhanced the lettuce seed germination; however, higher concentrations inhibited its growth as compared to control.

  17. Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of 10 medicinal plants used in northeast Mexico.

    PubMed

    Molina-Garza, Zinnia Judith; Bazaldúa-Rodríguez, Aldo Fabio; Quintanilla-Licea, Ramiro; Galaviz-Silva, Lucio

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to screen the trypanocidal activity of plants used in traditional Mexican medicine for the treatment of various diseases related to parasitic infections. Cultured Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes were incubated for 96h with different concentrations of methanolic extracts obtained from Artemisia mexicana, Castela texana, Cymbopogon citratus, Eryngium heterophyllum, Haematoxylum brasiletto, Lippia graveolens, Marrubium vulgare, Persea americana, Ruta chalepensis and Schinus molle. The inhibitory concentration (IC50) was determined for each extract via a colorimetric method. Among the evaluated species, the methanolic extracts of E. heterophyllum, H. brasiletto, M. vulgare and S. molle exhibited the highest trypanocidal activity, showing percentages of growth inhibition between 88 and 100% at a concentration of 150μg/ml. These medicinal plants may represent a valuable source of new bioactive compounds for the therapeutic treatment of trypanosomiasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Repellent and Anti-quorum Sensing Activity of Six Aromatic Plants Occurring in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Ceballos, Leonor; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus

    2015-10-01

    Essential oils (EOs) are widely used as biopesticides and to control bacterial infections. This study describes the ability of six EOs isolated from plants cultivated in Colombia to perform as repellents against Ulomoides dermestoides and as quorum sensing (QS) inhibitors. EOs from Aloysia triphylla, Cymbopogon nardus, Lippia origanoides, Hyptis suaveolens, Swinglea glutinosa and Eucalyptus globulus were repellents classified as Class IV, IV, IV, III, II, and II, respectively, whereas the commercial repellent IR3535 only reached Class II after 2 h exposure. All EOs presented small, but significant inhibitory properties against the QS system in Escherichia coli (pJBA132) at 25 μg/mL after 4 h exposure. These data suggest evaluated EOs from Colombia are sustainable, promising new sources of natural repellents and could be important as anti-quorum sensing molecules.

  19. Developing eco-friendly biofungicide for the management of major seed borne diseases of rice and assessing their physical stability and storage life.

    PubMed

    Naveenkumar, Ramasamy; Muthukumar, Arjunan; Sangeetha, Ganesan; Mohanapriya, Ramanathan

    2017-04-01

    Three plant oils (Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon martini, and Pelargonium graveolens) were developed as EC formulations and tested for their physical stabilities. EC formulations (10EC, 20EC and 30EC) of C. citratus, C. martini and P. graveolens had emulsion stability, spontaneity property, heat and cold stability. EC formulated plant oils were screened against the major seed borne fungi of rice such as Curvularia lunata, Fusarium moniliforme, Bipolaris oryzae, and Sarocladium oryzae. The level of inhibition varied among the concentrations of EC formulations. Among the three EC formulations, that of C. citratus oil 30EC recorded 100% inhibition on the mycelial growth of test pathogens. In the blotter paper method, rice seeds treated with a formulation of C. citratus oil 30EC controlled the infection of C. lunata, F. moniliforme, B. oryzae and S. oryzae in rice seed to the tune of 66.0%, 60.4%, 66.0% and 69.1%, respectively. Seed soaking with formulation of C. citratus oil 30EC showed the highest percentage of normal seedlings, the lowest number of abnormal seedling and fresh ungerminated seeds when tested with the roll-towel method. Seed soaking with 30EC formulation of C. citratus oil increased seed germination, shoot length, root length and vigour of rice seedlings when tested with the plastic tray method. Transmission of pathogens from seed to seedling was reduced significantly by the 30EC formulation of C. citratus oil when tested with the plastic pot method. The effect of the storage life of the 30EC formulation of C. citratus oil showed that it had retained their antifungal effect till the end of the incubation period (120 days), and is able to inhibit the mycelial growth of all test pathogens to the 100% level. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Essential oils with insecticidal activity against larvae of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Vera, Sharon Smith; Zambrano, Diego Fernando; Méndez-Sanchez, Stelia Carolina; Rodríguez-Sanabria, Fernando; Stashenko, Elena E; Duque Luna, Jonny E

    2014-07-01

    Insecticidal activity of the essential oils (EOs) isolated from Tagetes lucida, Lippia alba, Lippia origanoides, Eucalyptus citriodora, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Citrus sinensis, Swinglea glutinosa, and Cananga odorata aromatic plants, grown in Colombia (Bucaramanga, Santander), and of a mixture of L. alba and L. origanoides EOs were evaluated on Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti Rockefeller larvae. The EOs were extracted by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main components of the EOs were identified using their linear retention indices and mass spectra. The lethal concentrations (LCs) of the EOs were determined between the third and fourth instar of A. aegypti. LC50 was determined by probit analysis using mortality rates of bioassays. All essential oils tested showed insecticidal activity. The following values were obtained for C. flexuosus (LC50 = 17.1 ppm); C. sinensis (LC50 = 20.6 ppm); the mixture of L. alba and L. origanoides (LC50 = 40.1 ppm); L. alba (LC50 = 42.2 ppm); C. odorata (LC50 = 52.9 ppm); L. origanoides (LC50 = 53.3 ppm); S. glutinosa (LC50 = 65.7 ppm); T. lucida (LC50 = 66.2 ppm); E. citriodora (LC50 = 71.2 ppm); and C. citratus (LC50 = 123.3 ppm). The EO from C. flexuosus, with citral (geranial + neral) as main component, showed the highest larvicidal activity.

  1. Alleviation of salt stress in lemongrass by salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Idrees, Mohd; Naeem, M; Khan, M Nasir; Aftab, Tariq; Khan, M Masroor A; Moinuddin

    2012-07-01

    Soil salinity is one of the key factors adversely affecting the growth, yield, and quality of crops. A pot study was conducted to find out whether exogenous application of salicylic acid could ameliorate the adverse effect of salinity in lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud. Wats.). Two Cymbopogon varieties, Krishna and Neema, were used in the study. Three salinity levels, viz, 50, 100, and 150 mM of NaCl, were applied to 30-day-old plants. Salicylic acid (SA) was applied as foliar spray at 10(-5) M concentration. Totally, six SA-sprays were carried out at 10-day intervals, following the first spray at 30 days after sowing. The growth parameters were progressively reduced with the increase in salinity level; however, growth inhibition was significantly reduced by the foliar application of SA. With the increase in salt stress, a gradual decrease in the activities of carbonic anhydrase and nitrate reductase was observed in both the varieties. SA-treatment not only ameliorated the adverse effects of NaCl but also showed a significant improvement in the activities of these enzymes compared with the untreated stressed-plants. The plants supplemented with NaCl exhibited a significant increase in electrolyte leakage, proline content, and phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase activity. Content and yield of essential oil was also significantly decreased in plants that received salinity levels; however, SA overcame the unfavorable effects of salinity stress to a considerable extent. Lemongrass variety Krishna was found to be more adapted to salt stress than Neema, as indicated by the overall performance of the two varieties under salt conditions.

  2. Chemical composition, antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils from aromatic plants growing in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Sakina; Babiker, Randa; Tzanova, Tzvetomira; Schohn, Herve

    2016-08-01

    To explore the potential of essential oil, as therapeutic molecule source, from olibanum of Boswellia papyrifera (Burseraceae), leafy stems of Cymbopogon schoenanthus (Poaceae) and Croton zambesicus (Euphorbiaceae) and rhizome of Cyperus rotundus (Cyperaceae) found in Sudan. Respective essential oil was evaluated for anti-proliferative, antibacterial and antioxidant activity. Essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and then analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Anti-proliferative activity was determined against human cell lines (MCF7 and MDA-MB231, HT29 and HCT116) by the thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) procedure. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by diphenyl 2 pycril hydrazil (DPPH) assay. Antibacterial activity was determined against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria by microdilution method. The essential oil from olibanum of Boswellia papyrifera contained mainly alcohol and ester derivatives (46.82%) while monoterpenes (69.84%) dominated in Corton zambesicus oil. Sesquiterpenes were the most highly represented classes of terpene derivatives in Cyperus schoenanthus (71.59%) and Cyperus rotundus (44.26%). Oil of Cymbopogon schoenanthus revealed the best anti-proliferative activity against HCT116 cell line with IC50 value at (19.1 ± 2.0) μg/mL. Oil of Croton zambesicus showed the best antioxidant activity [EC50 (4.20 ± 0.19) mg/mL]. All oils showed good antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value ranged from 16 to 250 μg/mL. The results suggest that the essential oils of these plants could be used as a source of natural anti-proliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial agents. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. In vitro efficacy of plant extracts and synthesized substances on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) Microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    de Souza Chagas, Ana Carolina; de Barros, Luiz Daniel; Cotinguiba, Fernando; Furlan, Maysa; Giglioti, Rodrigo; de Sena Oliveira, Márcia Cristina; Bizzo, Humberto Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Herbal drugs have been widely evaluated as an alternative method of parasite control, aiming to slow development of resistance and obtain low-cost biodegradable parasiticides. This study evaluated the in vitro efficacy on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus of extracts from Carapa guianensis seed oil, Cymbopogon martinii and Cymbopogon schoenanthus leaf essential oil, and Piper tuberculatum leaf crude extract and similar synthesized substances. In the immersion test, engorged females were evaluated in five dilutions ranging from 10% to 0.030625% concentration. In the larval test on impregnated filter paper, the concentration ranged from 10% to 0.02%. The treatments and controls were done in three replicates. Chemical analysis of the oils was performed by gas chromatography. The main compounds were oleic acid (46.8%) for C. guianensis and geraniol for C. martinii (81.4%), and C. schoenanthus (62.5%). The isolated and synthesized substances showed no significant effect on larvae and adult. C. martinii and P. tuberculatum showed the best efficacy on the engorged females. The LC(50) and LC(90) were 2.93% and 6.66% and 3.76% and 25.03%, respectively. In the larval test, the LC(50) and LC(90) obtained for C. martinii, P. tuberculatum, and C. schoenanthus were 0.47% and 0.63%, 0.41% and 0.79%, 0.57% and 0.96%, respectively. The fact that geraniol is present in greater quantities in C. martinii explains its higher activity in relation to C. shoenanthus. It is necessary to validate the in vivo use of safe and effective phytoparasiticidal substances. Efforts should be focused on developing formulations that enhance the efficacy in vivo and lengthen the residual period.

  4. Description of a fertilization-independent obligate apomictic species: Corunastylis apostasioides Fitzg.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Anna-Marie; Rouse, D T; Clements, M A; John, P; Perotti, Enrico

    2009-09-01

    The Australian midge orchid Corunastylis apostasioides of the tribe Diurideae has completely eliminated any male contribution in the process of seed formation, which occurs directly from the maternal tissue by a process termed apomixis. Here, we report C. apostasioides to be an obligate apomictic species devoid of any sexuality and compare its development to a close sexual relative C. fimbriata (R. Br.) D.L. Jones & M.A. Clem. Apomictic characteristics in C. apostasioides include production of seed in absence of fertilization, frequently closed flowers, production of immature pollen in non-dehiscent anthers, expansion of ovaries despite the lack of fertilization and the absence of a citronella scent that is found in C. fimbriata produced to attract pollinating vinegar flies (Jones 2006). The nature of apomixis in C. apostasioides was examined by ovule histology and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) in each case drawing comparison with sexual C. fimbriata. In C. apostasioides the central megaspore mother cell undergoes diplosporic apomixis, while additional embryos are derived from nucellar or integument initials formed by sporophytic apomixis. Typical of apomicts, C. apostasioides is polyploid compared to the sexual C. fimbriata. The divergences of C. apostasioides from sexuality to apomictic development are discussed.

  5. Toxicity of plant essential oils to acaricide-susceptible and -resistant Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Han, Jun; Choi, Byeoung-Ryeol; Lee, Sang-Gyeu; Kim, Soon Il; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2010-08-01

    The toxicity of 10 plant essential oils to adults of acaricide-susceptible, chlorfenapyr-resistant (CRT-53), fenpropathrin-resistant (FRT-53), pyridaben-resistant (PRT-53), and abamectin-resistant (ART-53) strains of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and to female Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was examined using spray or vapor-phase mortality bioassays. In bioassay with the susceptible adults, lemon eucalyptus (19.3 microg/cm3) was the most toxic oil, followed by peppermint, citronella Java, thyme red, caraway seed, clove leaf, and pennyroyal oils (LC50, 20.6-23.7 microg/cm3). The toxicity of these oils was almost identical against adults from either of the susceptible and resistant strains, even though CRT-53, FRT-53, PRT-53, and ART-53 adults exhibited high levels of resistance to chlorfenapyr (resistance ratio [RR], > 9,140), fenpropathrin (RR, 94), pyridaben (RR, > 390), and abamectin (RR, 85), respectively. Against female N. californicus, lemon eucalyptus (LC50, 21.4 microg/cm3) was the most toxic oil, whereas the LC50 values of the other nine oils ranged from 23.2 to 72.6 microg/cm3. N. californicus was 1-2 times more tolerant than T. urticae to the test essential oils. Thus, these essential oils merit further study as potential acaricides for the control of acaricide-resistant T. urticae populations as fumigants.

  6. The First Order Transfer Function in the Analysis of Agrochemical Data in Honey Bees (Apis Mellifera L.): Proboscis Extension Reflex (PER) Studies.

    PubMed

    De Stefano, Lisa A; Stepanov, Igor I; Abramson, Charles I

    2014-01-07

    This paper describes a mathematical model of the learning process suitable for studies of conditioning using the proboscis extension reflex (PER) in honey bees when bees are exposed to agrochemicals. Although procedural variations exist in the way laboratories use the PER paradigm, proboscis conditioning is widely used to investigate the influence of pesticides and repellents on honey bee learning. Despite the availability of several mathematical models of the learning process, no attempts have been made to apply a mathematical model to the learning curve in honey bees exposed to agrochemicals. Our model is based on the standard transfer function in the form Y=B3 e(-B2 (X-1)) +B4(1-e(-B2 (X-1))) where X is the trial number, Y is the proportion of correct responses, B2 is the learning rate, B3 is readiness to learn, and B4 is ability to learn. We reanalyze previously published data on the effect of several classes of agrochemicals including: (1) those that are considered harmless to bees (e.g., pymetrozine, essential oils, dicofol); (2) sublethal exposure to pesticides known to harm honey bees (e.g., coumaphos, cyfluthrin, fluvalinate, permethrin); and (3) putative repellents of honey bees (e.g., butyric acid, citronella). The model revealed additional effects not detected with standard statistical tests of significance.

  7. Efficacy of Some Wearable Devices Compared with Spray-On Insect Repellents for the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hae-Na; Gonzales, Kristina K.; Vulcan, Julia; Li, Yiyi; Ahumada, Jorge A.; Romero, Hector M.; De La Torre, Mario; Shu, Fangjun; Hansen, Immo A.

    2017-01-01

    The current Zika health crisis in the Americas has created an intense interest in mosquito control methods and products. Mosquito vectors of Zika are of the genus Aedes, mainly the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. L. The use of repellents to alter mosquito host seeking behavior is an effective method for the prevention of mosquito-borne diseases. A large number of different spray-on repellents and wearable repellent devices are commercially available. The efficacies of many repellents are unknown. This study focuses on the efficacy of eleven different repellents in reducing the number of Ae. aegypti female mosquitoes attracted to human bait. We performed attraction-inhibition assays using a taxis cage in a wind tunnel setting. One person was placed upwind of the taxis cage and the mosquito movement towards or away from the person was recorded. The person was treated with various spray-on repellents or equipped with different mosquito repellent devices. We found that the spray-on repellents containing N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide and p-menthane-3,8-diol had the highest efficacy in repelling mosquitoes compared to repellents with other ingredients. From the five wearable devices that we tested, only the one that releases Metofluthrin significantly reduced the numbers of attracted mosquitoes. The citronella candle had no effect. We conclude that many of the products that we tested that were marketed as repellents do not reduce mosquito attraction to humans. PMID:28423421

  8. Determination of Ignitable Liquids in Fire Debris: Direct Analysis by Electronic Nose

    PubMed Central

    Ferreiro-González, Marta; Barbero, Gerardo F.; Palma, Miguel; Ayuso, Jesús; Álvarez, José A.; Barroso, Carmelo G.

    2016-01-01

    Arsonists usually use an accelerant in order to start or accelerate a fire. The most widely used analytical method to determine the presence of such accelerants consists of a pre-concentration step of the ignitable liquid residues followed by chromatographic analysis. A rapid analytical method based on headspace-mass spectrometry electronic nose (E-Nose) has been developed for the analysis of Ignitable Liquid Residues (ILRs). The working conditions for the E-Nose analytical procedure were optimized by studying different fire debris samples. The optimized experimental variables were related to headspace generation, specifically, incubation temperature and incubation time. The optimal conditions were 115 °C and 10 min for these two parameters. Chemometric tools such as hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were applied to the MS data (45–200 m/z) to establish the most suitable spectroscopic signals for the discrimination of several ignitable liquids. The optimized method was applied to a set of fire debris samples. In order to simulate post-burn samples several ignitable liquids (gasoline, diesel, citronella, kerosene, paraffin) were used to ignite different substrates (wood, cotton, cork, paper and paperboard). A full discrimination was obtained on using discriminant analysis. This method reported here can be considered as a green technique for fire debris analyses. PMID:27187407

  9. Repellent Activity of Botanical Oils against Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kuhns, Emily H.; Martini, Xavier; Hoyte, Angel; Stelinski, Lukasz L.

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the insect vector of the pathogen causing huanglongbing. We selected three botanical oils to evaluate behavioral activity against D. citri. In laboratory olfactometer assays, fir oil was repellent to D. citri females, while litsea and citronella oils elicited no response from D. citri females. In choice settling experiments, D. citri settled almost completely on control plants rather than on plants treated with fir oil at a 9.5 mg/day release rate. Therefore, we conducted field trials to determine if fir oil reduced D. citri densities in citrus groves. We found no repellency of D. citri from sweet orange resets that were treated with fir oil dispensers releasing 10.4 g/day/tree as compared with control plots. However, we found a two-week decrease in populations of D. citri as compared with controls when the deployment rate of these dispensers was doubled. Our results suggest that treatment of citrus with fir oil may have limited activity as a stand-alone management tool for D. citri and would require integration with other management practices. PMID:27429006

  10. The effects of plant essential oils on escape response and mortality rate of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles minimus.

    PubMed

    Sathantriphop, Sunaiyana; Achee, Nicole L; Sanguanpong, Unchalee; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2015-12-01

    The High Throughput Screening System (HITSS) has been applied in insecticide behavioral response studies with various mosquito species. In general, chemical or natural compounds can produce a range of insect responses: contact irritancy, spatial repellency, knock-down, and toxicity. This study characterized these actions in essential oils derived from citronella, hairy basil, catnip, and vetiver in comparison to DEET and picaridin against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles minimus mosquito populations. Results indicated the two mosquito species exhibited significantly different (P<0.05) contact irritant escape responses between treatment and control for all tested compound concentrations, except with the minimum dose of picaridin (P>0.05) against Ae. aegypti. Spatial repellency responses were elicited in both mosquito species when exposed to all compounds, but the strength of the repellent response was dependent on compound and concentration. Data show that higher test concentrations had greatest toxic effects on both mosquito populations, but vetiver had no toxic effect on Ae. aegypti and picaridin did not elicit toxicity in either Ae. aegypti or An. minimus at any test concentration. Ultimately, this study demonstrates the ability of the HITSS assay to guide selection of effective plant essential oils for repelling, irritating, and killing mosquitoes.

  11. Insecticidal Properties of Essential Oils and Some of Their Constituents on the Turkestan Cockroach (Blattodea: Blattidae).

    PubMed

    Gaire, Sudip; O'Connell, Mary; Holguin, Francisco O; Amatya, Anup; Bundy, Scott; Romero, Alvaro

    2017-04-01

    The Turkestan cockroach, Blatta lateralis (Walker), has become the most important peridomestic species in urban areas of the Southwestern United States. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of botanical compounds to control this urban pest. We tested the acute toxicity and repellency of six botanical constituents and three essential oils on Turkestan cockroach nymphs. Chemical composition of the essential oils was also determined. Topical and fumigant assays with nymphs showed that thymol was the most toxic essential oil constituent, with a LD50 of 0.34 mg/nymph and a LC50 of 27.6 mg/liter air, respectively. Contact toxicity was also observed in assays with trans-Cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, geraniol, methyl eugenol, and p-Cymene. Methyl eugenol and geraniol had limited fumigant toxicity. The essential oils from red thyme, clove bud, and Java citronella exhibited toxicity against nymphs. Cockroaches avoided fresh dry residues of thymol and essential oils. Chemical analysis of the essential oils confirmed high contents of effective essential oil constituents. Our results demonstrated that essential oils and some of their constituents have potential as eco-friendly insecticides for the management of Turkestan cockroaches. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. EPA-Registered Repellents for Mosquitoes Transmitting Emerging Viral Disease.

    PubMed

    Patel, Radha V; Shaeer, Kristy M; Patel, Pooja; Garmaza, Aleksey; Wiangkham, Kornwalee; Franks, Rachel B; Pane, Olivia; Carris, Nicholas W

    2016-12-01

    In many parts of the United States, mosquitoes were previously nuisance pests. However, they now represent a potential threat in the spread of viral diseases. The Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex species mosquitoes are endemic to the United States and together may transmit a variety of viral diseases of growing concern, including West Nile virus, chikungunya, dengue fever, and Zika virus. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommend N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) as a first-line mosquito repellent, but for patients refusing to use DEET or other conventional repellents, guidance is limited to any EPA-registered product. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify which EPA-registered personal mosquito repellent provides the best protection from A. aegypti, A. albopictus, and Culex spp. mosquitoes. We abstracted data from 62 published reports of EPA-registered mosquito repellents. The conventional repellent picaridin has the strongest data to support its use as a second-line agent, while IR3535 and oil of lemon eucalyptus are reasonably effective natural products. Citronella, catnip, and 2-undecanone offer limited protection or have limited data. These results can be used by pharmacists and other health care professionals to advise patients on the selection of an EPA-registered mosquito repellent. Regardless of the repellent chosen, it is vital for patients to follow all instructions/precautions in the product labeling to ensure safe and effective use.

  13. Acaricidal effects of herb essential oils against Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) and qualitative analysis of a herb Mentha pulegium (pennyroyal)

    PubMed Central

    Rim, In-Sook

    2006-01-01

    This experiment was undertaken to screen the acaricidal effects of herb essential oils (pennyroyal, ylang ylang, citronella, lemon grass, tea tree, and rosemary) at different doses (0.1, 0.05, 0.025, 0.0125, and 0.00625 µl/cm2) and exposure times (5, 10, 20, 20, 30 and 60 min) on house dust mites Dermatophgoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus. The most effective acaricidal components of pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) were analyzed using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Of these essential oils, the most effective was pennyroyal, which is composed essentially of pulegone (> 99%), at a dose of 0.025 µl/cm2 which at an exposure time of 5 min killed more than 98% of house dust mites. In the pennyroyal fumigation test, the closed method was more effective than the open method and maximum acaricidal effect was 100% at 0.025 µl/cm2, 60 min. The results show that herb essential oils, in particular, pennyroyal was proved to have potent acaricidal activity. PMID:16809961

  14. Repellent Activity of Botanical Oils against Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    PubMed

    Kuhns, Emily H; Martini, Xavier; Hoyte, Angel; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2016-07-14

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the insect vector of the pathogen causing huanglongbing. We selected three botanical oils to evaluate behavioral activity against D. citri. In laboratory olfactometer assays, fir oil was repellent to D. citri females, while litsea and citronella oils elicited no response from D. citri females. In choice settling experiments, D. citri settled almost completely on control plants rather than on plants treated with fir oil at a 9.5 mg/day release rate. Therefore, we conducted field trials to determine if fir oil reduced D. citri densities in citrus groves. We found no repellency of D. citri from sweet orange resets that were treated with fir oil dispensers releasing 10.4 g/day/tree as compared with control plots. However, we found a two-week decrease in populations of D. citri as compared with controls when the deployment rate of these dispensers was doubled. Our results suggest that treatment of citrus with fir oil may have limited activity as a stand-alone management tool for D. citri and would require integration with other management practices.

  15. Visual and olfactory associative learning in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Memory and learning are critical aspects of the ecology of insect vectors of human pathogens because of their potential effects on contacts between vectors and their hosts. Despite this epidemiological importance, there have been only a limited number of studies investigating associative learning in insect vector species and none on Anopheline mosquitoes. Methods A simple behavioural assays was developed to study visual and olfactory associative learning in Anopheles gambiae, the main vector of malaria in Africa. Two contrasted membrane qualities or levels of blood palatability were used as reinforcing stimuli for bi-directional conditioning during blood feeding. Results Under such experimental conditions An. gambiae females learned very rapidly to associate visual (chequered and white patterns) and olfactory cues (presence and absence of cheese or Citronella smell) with the reinforcing stimuli (bloodmeal quality) and remembered the association for up to three days. Associative learning significantly increased with the strength of the conditioning stimuli used. Importantly, learning sometimes occurred faster when a positive reinforcing stimulus (palatable blood) was associated with an innately preferred cue (such as a darker visual pattern). However, the use of too attractive a cue (e.g. Shropshire cheese smell) was counter-productive and decreased learning success. Conclusions The results address an important knowledge gap in mosquito ecology and emphasize the role of associative memory for An. gambiae's host finding and blood-feeding behaviour with important potential implications for vector control. PMID:22284012

  16. Acaricidal effects of herb essential oils against Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) and qualitative analysis of a herb Mentha pulegium(pennyroyal).

    PubMed

    Rim, In-Sook; Jee, Cha-Ho

    2006-06-01

    This experiment was undertaken to screen the acaricidal effects of herb essential oils (pennyroyal, ylang ylang, citronella, lemon grass, tea tree, and rosemary) at different doses (0.1, 0.05, 0.025, 0.0125, and 0.00625 microliter/cm(2)) and exposure times (5, 10, 20, 20, 30 and 60 min) on house dust mites Dermatophgoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus. The most effective acaricidal components of pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) were analyzed using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Of these essential oils, the most effective was pennyroyal, which is composed essentially of pulegone (> 99%), at a dose of 0.025 microliter/cm(2), which at an exposure time of 5 min killed more than 98% of house dust mites. In the pennyroyal fumigation test, the closed method was more effective than the open method and maximum acaricidal effect was 100% at 0.025 microliter/cm(2), 60 min. The results show that herb essential oils, in particular, pennyroyal was proved to have potent acaricidal activity.

  17. Development and characterization of biodegradable chitosan films containing two essential oils.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhu; Kamdem, Donatien Pascal

    2015-03-01

    Active biodegradable films from chitosan containing 10% to 30% w/w of citronella essential oil (CEO) and cedarwood oil (CWO) were developed by casting and solvent-evaporation method, and their physical, mechanical and thermal properties were investigated. Possible interactions between the chitosan chains and the essential oils were confirmed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Various amounts of CEO or CWO had significant effects on the films' mechanical properties, with the exception of 10% of CEO, which did not significantly affect the tensile strength of the films. The incorporation of the two tested oils provoked a remarkable reduction in the water-vapor permeability properties, with a decrease of about 63% when 30% CEO was added in chitosan films. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that degradation temperatures of the films containing CEO and CWO improved only slightly in comparison to control films without essential oils. FTIR spectra analysis provided some insights on the possible interactions between chitosan and the two essential oils used. This study suggests that active films can be developed by including CEO and CWO in a chitosan matrix. Such films can provide new formulation options for packaging industries in developing active packaging with potential food-technology applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Determination of Ignitable Liquids in Fire Debris: Direct Analysis by Electronic Nose.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro-González, Marta; Barbero, Gerardo F; Palma, Miguel; Ayuso, Jesús; Álvarez, José A; Barroso, Carmelo G

    2016-05-13

    Arsonists usually use an accelerant in order to start or accelerate a fire. The most widely used analytical method to determine the presence of such accelerants consists of a pre-concentration step of the ignitable liquid residues followed by chromatographic analysis. A rapid analytical method based on headspace-mass spectrometry electronic nose (E-Nose) has been developed for the analysis of Ignitable Liquid Residues (ILRs). The working conditions for the E-Nose analytical procedure were optimized by studying different fire debris samples. The optimized experimental variables were related to headspace generation, specifically, incubation temperature and incubation time. The optimal conditions were 115 °C and 10 min for these two parameters. Chemometric tools such as hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were applied to the MS data (45-200 m/z) to establish the most suitable spectroscopic signals for the discrimination of several ignitable liquids. The optimized method was applied to a set of fire debris samples. In order to simulate post-burn samples several ignitable liquids (gasoline, diesel, citronella, kerosene, paraffin) were used to ignite different substrates (wood, cotton, cork, paper and paperboard). A full discrimination was obtained on using discriminant analysis. This method reported here can be considered as a green technique for fire debris analyses.

  19. Repellent efficacy of four commercial DEET lotions against Amblyomma hebraeum (Acari: Ixodidae), the principal vector of Rickettsia africae in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Jensenius, Mogens; Pretorius, Anne-Marié; Clarke, Francoise; Myrvang, Bjørn

    2005-09-01

    African tick bite fever, caused by Rickettsia africae, is an emerging zoonotic infection in rural sub-Saharan Africa and the French West Indies. We tested the repellent efficacy of four commercial diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) lotions against Amblyomma hebraeum Koch, the principal vector of R. africae in southern Africa, by using a human bioassay in which repellent-treated fingers were presented to questing tick nymphs hourly for 4h. Three lotions with 19.5, 31.6 and 80% DEET concentrations, respectively, had a repellent efficacy of > or =90% at 1h post-application, of > or =77% at 2h post-application and of <70% during the rest of the experiment. By contrast, a lotion with 2% DEET plus 1% citronella oil provided only a 59% repellency at 1h post-application, with a drop to <22% during the following hours. Hourly negative control trials repelled <5% of tick attacks. Our results suggest that commercial repellents containing > or =19.5% DEET provide a significant but short-lasting protection against questing A. hebraeum ticks.

  20. [Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya].

    PubMed

    Kantor, Isabel N

    2016-01-01

    Arboviruses are transmitted by arthropods, including those responsible for the current pandemic: alphavirus (Chikungunya) and flaviviruses (dengue and Zika). Its importance increased in the Americas over the past 20 years. The main vectors are Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. Dengue infection provides long lasting immunity against the specific serotype and temporary to the other three. Subsequent infection by another serotype determines more serious disease. There is a registered vaccine for dengue, Dengvaxia (Sanofi Pasteur). Other two (Butantan and Takeda) are in Phase III in 2016. Zika infection is usually asymptomatic or occurs with rash, conjunctivitis and not very high fever. There is no vaccine or specific treatment. It can be transmitted by parental, sexual and via blood transfusion. It has been associated with microcephaly. Chikungunya causes prolonged joint pain and persistent immune response. Two candidate vaccines are in Phase II. Dengue direct diagnosis is performed by virus isolation, RT-PCR and ELISA for NS1 antigen detection; indirect methods are ELISA-IgM (cross-reacting with other flavivirus), MAC-ELISA, and plaque neutralization. Zika is diagnosed by RT-PCR and virus isolation. Serological diagnosis cross-reacts with other flavivirus. For CHIKV culture, RT-PCR, MAC-ELISA and plaque neutralization are used. Against Aedes organophosphate larvicides (temephos), organophosphorus insecticides (malathion and fenitrothion) and pyrethroids (permethrin and deltamethrin) are usually employed. Resistance has been described to all these products. Vegetable derivatives are less expensive and biodegradable, including citronella oil, which microencapsulated can be preserved from evaporation.

  1. Use of repellents as prophylactic agents.

    PubMed

    Nentwig, Günther

    2003-06-01

    Many biting insects are able to transmit diseases or are a regarded as pests. The use of repellents is one personal protection measure to avoid to been bitten. The first components which were used for this purpose were of plant origin. Some are still used, e.g., citronella oil. Systematic evaluation of synthetic repellents began during the Second World War. The most important compound resulting from these efforts is Deet, followed by less important ones such as dimethylphthalate or ethyl hexane diol. Compounds of more recent research are MERCK 3535 (aminopropionic acid ethylester), p-menthane-3,8 diol, CIC 4 (a lacton) and the piperidine derivatives AI3-37220 and Bayrepel (Icaridin). An overview of the toxicity and efficacy is given. A chance to improve the cosmetic properties and long duration efficacy is the development of new formulations. Applications other than the dermal one are the use of repellents as slow release formulations to achieve a long range effect and the development of systemic compounds, which are taken orally. To date, neither strategy has led to successful solutions.

  2. Relative efficacy of various oils in repelling mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Ansari, M A; Razdan, R K

    1995-09-01

    Field studies were carried out to determine the relative efficacy of repellant action of vegetable, essential and chemical base oils against vector mosquitoes. Results revealed that essential oils viz. Cymbopogan martinii martinii var. Sofia (palmarosa), Cymbopogan citratus (lemon grass) and Cymbopogan nardus (citronella) oils are as effective as chemical base oil namely mylol. These oils provide almost complete protection against Anopheles culicifacies and other anopheline species. Per cent protection against Culex quinquefasciatus ranged between 95-96%. Camphor (C. camphora) oil also showed repellent action and provided 97.6% protection against An. culicifacies and 80.7% against Cx. quinquefasciatus. Vegetable oils namely mustard (B. compestris) and coconut (C. nucisera) showed repellent action, however the efficacy of these oils was not much pronounced against Cx. quinquefasciatus. Results of statistical analysis revealed significant difference between vegetable and essential oils (p < 0.01) against tested species of mosquitoes. Essential oils were found marginally superior in repellancy than camphor and mylol (p < 0.01) against An. culicifacies and Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  3. Behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles minimus against various synthetic and natural repellent compounds.

    PubMed

    Sathantriphop, Sunaiyana; White, Sabrina A; Achee, Nicole L; Sanguanpong, Unchalee; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2014-12-01

    The behavioral responses of colony populations of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles minimus to four essential oils (citronella, hairy basil, catnip, and vetiver), two standard repellents (DEET and picaridin), and two synthetic pyrethroids (deltamethrin and permethrin) were conducted in the laboratory using an excito-repellency test system. Results revealed that Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. minimus exhibited much stronger behavioral responses to all test compounds (65-98% escape for contact, 21.4-94.4% escape for non-contact) compared to Ae. aegypti (3.7-72.2% escape (contact), 0-31.7% (non-contact)) and Ae. albopictus (3.5-94.4% escape (contact), 11.2-63.7% (non-contact)). In brief, essential oil from vetiver elicited the greatest irritant responses in Cx. quinquefasciatus (96.6%) and An. minimus (96.5%) compared to the other compounds tested. The synthetic pyrethroids caused a stronger contact irritant response (65-97.8% escape) than non-contact repellents (0-50.8% escape for non-contact) across all four mosquito species. Picaridin had the least effect on all mosquito species. Findings from the current study continue to support the screening of essential oils from various plant sources for protective properties against field mosquitoes. © 2014 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  4. Risks for Ross River virus disease in tropical Australia.

    PubMed

    Harley, David; Ritchie, Scott; Bain, Chris; Sleigh, Adrian C

    2005-06-01

    There are no analytical studies of individual risks for Ross River virus (RRV) disease. Therefore, we set out to determine individual risk and protective factors for RRV disease in a high incidence area and to assess the utility of the case-control design applied for this purpose to an arbovirus disease. We used a prospective matched case-control study of new community cases of RRV disease in the local government areas of Cairns, Mareeba, Douglas, and Atherton, in tropical Queensland, from January 1 to May 31, 1998. Protective measures against mosquitoes reduced the risk for disease. Mosquito coils, repellents, and citronella candles each decreased risk by at least 2-fold, with a dose-response for the number of protective measures used. Light-coloured clothing decreased risk 3-fold. Camping increased the risk 8-fold. These risks were substantial and statistically significant, and provide a basis for educational programs on individual protection against RRV disease in Australia. Our study demonstrates the utility of the case-control method for investigating arbovirus risks. Such a risk analysis has not been done before for RRV infection, and is infrequently reported for other arbovirus infections.

  5. Efficacy of several commercially formulated essential oils against caged female Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus when operationally applied via an automatic-timed insecticide application system.

    PubMed

    Cilek, J E; Hallmon, C F; Johnson, R

    2011-09-01

    The effectiveness of several commercially available products containing plant essential oils against caged female Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus was studied. Products operationally applied via an automatic-timed insecticide application system (MistAway) at maximum label rates were EcoExempt MC (9.0 ml/liter, rosemary oil [18% AI], cinnamon oil [2% AI], lemongrass oil [2% AI], plus 78% "other ingredients" in wintergreen oil). Misting System Concentrate (4 ml/liter, oil of Juniperus virginiana [85% AI]), Mosquito Barrier (31.1 ml/liter, garlic oil [99.3% AI], and citric acid [0.5% AI]), and No-See-Um Organic Repellent (99.5 ml/liter, lemongrass [4% AI], citronella [3% AI], castor oil [3% AI], sodium laurate [3%], and garlic oil [1% AI] in an 86% [AI] mixture of wintergreen oil, lecithin, and water). All products were compared with a commercial formulation of synergized pyrethrins, Riptide (9.0 ml/liter, pyrethrins [5% AI], piperonyl butoxide [25% AI]), as a standard. Mortality was the greatest for Riptide to both mosquito species with effectiveness influenced by distance from the nozzle (ranging from > 80% at 3 m to > 10% at 20 m). The essential oil products resulted in < 10% mortality for each species regardless of application exposure distance with the exception of EcoExempt, which gave approximately 13% mortality of caged female Ae. albopictus 6 m from the nozzles.

  6. The First Order Transfer Function in the Analysis of Agrochemical Data in Honey Bees (Apis Mellifera L.): Proboscis Extension Reflex (PER) Studies

    PubMed Central

    De Stefano, Lisa A.; Stepanov, Igor I.; Abramson, Charles I.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a mathematical model of the learning process suitable for studies of conditioning using the proboscis extension reflex (PER) in honey bees when bees are exposed to agrochemicals. Although procedural variations exist in the way laboratories use the PER paradigm, proboscis conditioning is widely used to investigate the influence of pesticides and repellents on honey bee learning. Despite the availability of several mathematical models of the learning process, no attempts have been made to apply a mathematical model to the learning curve in honey bees exposed to agrochemicals. Our model is based on the standard transfer function in the form Y = B3e−B2 (X−1) + B4 (1−e−B2 (X−1)) where X is the trial number, Y is the proportion of correct responses, B2 is the learning rate, B3 is readiness to learn, and B4 is ability to learn. We reanalyze previously published data on the effect of several classes of agrochemicals including: (1) those that are considered harmless to bees (e.g., pymetrozine, essential oils, dicofol); (2) sublethal exposure to pesticides known to harm honey bees (e.g., coumaphos, cyfluthrin, fluvalinate, permethrin); and (3) putative repellents of honey bees (e.g., butyric acid, citronella). The model revealed additional effects not detected with standard statistical tests of significance. PMID:26462584

  7. An in vitro bioassay for the quantitative evaluation of mosquito repellents against Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti) mosquitoes using a novel cocktail meal.

    PubMed

    Huang, T-H; Tien, N-Y; Luo, Y-P

    2015-09-01

    To assess the efficacy of new insect repellents, an efficient and safe in vitro bioassay system using a multiple-membrane blood-feeding device and a cocktail meal was developed. The multiple-membrane blood-feeding device facilitates the identification of new insect repellents by the high-throughput screening of candidate chemicals. A cocktail meal was developed as a replacement for blood for feeding females of Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti) (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). The cocktail meal consisted of a mixture of salt, albumin and dextrose, to which adenosine triphosphate was added to induce engorging. Feeding rates of St. aegypti on the cocktail meal and pig blood, respectively, did not differ significantly, but were significantly higher than the feeding rate on citrate phosphate dextrose-adenine 1 (CPDA-1) solutions, which had been used to replace bloodmeals in previous repellent assays. Dose-dependent biting inhibition rates were analysed using probit analysis. The RD(50) (the dose producing 50% repellence of mosquito feeding) values of DEET, citronella, carvacrol, geraniol, eugenol and thymol were 1.62, 14.40, 22.51, 23.29, 23.83 and 68.05 µg/cm(2), respectively.

  8. Are vectors able to learn about their hosts? A case study with Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Wladimir J; Wyatt, Tristram D; Kelly, David W

    2003-07-01

    The way in which vectors distribute themselves amongst their hosts has important epidemiological consequences. While the role played by active host choice is largely unquestioned, current knowledge relates mostly to the innate response of vectors towards stimuli signalling the presence or quality of their hosts. Many of those cues, however, can be unpredictable, and therefore prevent the incorporation of the appropriate response into the vector's behavioural repertoire unless some sort of associative learning is possible. We performed a wide range of laboratory experiments to test the learning abilities of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Mosquitoes were exposed to choice procedures in (1) an olfactomenter and (2) a 'visual arena'. Our goal was to determine whether the mosquitoes were able to associate unconditional stimuli (blood feeding, human breath, vibration and electrical shock) with particular odours (citral, carvone, citronella oil and eugenol) and visual patterns (horizontal or vertical black bars) to which they had been previously observed to be responsive. We found no evidence supporting the hypothesis that associative learning abilities are present in adult Ae. aegypti. We discuss the possibilities that the assays employed were either inappropriate or insufficient to detect associative learning, or that associative learning is not possible in this species.

  9. Colorimetric method for identifying plant essential oil components that affect biofilm formation and structure.

    PubMed

    Niu, C; Gilbert, E S

    2004-12-01

    The specific biofilm formation (SBF) assay, a technique based on crystal violet staining, was developed to locate plant essential oils and their components that affect biofilm formation. SBF analysis determined that cinnamon, cassia, and citronella oils differentially affected growth-normalized biofilm formation by Escherichia coli. Examination of the corresponding essential oil principal components by the SBF assay revealed that cinnamaldehyde decreased biofilm formation compared to biofilms grown in Luria-Bertani broth, eugenol did not result in a change, and citronellol increased the SBF. To evaluate these results, two microscopy-based assays were employed. First, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to examine E. coli biofilms cultivated in flow cells, which were quantitatively analyzed by COMSTAT, an image analysis program. The overall trend for five parameters that characterize biofilm development corroborated the findings of the SBF assay. Second, the results of an assay measuring growth-normalized adhesion by direct microscopy concurred with the results of the SBF assay and CLSM imaging. Viability staining indicated that there was reduced toxicity of the essential oil components to cells in biofilms compared to the toxicity to planktonic cells but revealed morphological damage to E. coli after cinnamaldehyde exposure. Cinnamaldehyde also inhibited the swimming motility of E. coli. SBF analysis of three Pseudomonas species exposed to cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, or citronellol revealed diverse responses. The SBF assay could be useful as an initial step for finding plant essential oils and their components that affect biofilm formation and structure.

  10. In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Bounihi, Amina; Hajjaj, Ghizlane; Alnamer, Rachad; Cherrah, Yahia; Zellou, Amina

    2013-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) had been reported in traditional Moroccan medicine to exhibit calming, antispasmodic, and strengthening heart effects. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory activities of M. officinalis L. leaves. The effect of the essential oil of the leaves of this plant was investigated for anti-inflammatory properties by using carrageenan and experimental trauma-induced hind paw edema in rats. The essential oil extracted from leaves by hydrodistillation was characterized by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). M. officinalis contained Nerol (30.44%), Citral (27.03%), Isopulegol (22.02%), Caryophyllene (2.29%), Caryophyllene oxide (1.24%), and Citronella (1.06%). Anti-inflammatory properties of oral administration of essential oil at the doses of 200, 400 mg/kg p.o., respectively, showed significant reduction and inhibition of edema with 61.76% and 70.58%, respectively, (P < 0.001) induced by carrageenan at 6 h when compared with control and standard drug (Indomethacin). On experimental trauma, M. officinalis L. essential oil showed pronounced reduction and inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan at 6 h at 200 and 400 mg/kg with 91.66% and 94.44%, respectively (P < 0.001). We can conclude that the essential oil of M. officinalis L. possesses potential anti-inflammatory activities, supporting the traditional application of this plant in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain.

  11. Application of Odor Sensors to Ore Sorting and Mill Feed Control

    SciTech Connect

    Michael G. Nelson

    2005-08-01

    Control of the feed provided to mineral processing facilities is a continuing challenge. Much effort is currently being devoted to overcoming these problems. These projects are usually described under the general headings of Mine-to-Mill Integration or Mine-Mill Optimization. It should be possible to combine the knowledge of ore type, mineralogy, and other characteristics (located in the mine modeling system), with the advanced capabilities of state-of-the-art mill control systems, to achieve an improved level of control in mineral processing that will allow optimization of the mill processes on an almost real-time basis. This is not happening because mill feed it is often treated as a uniform material, when in reality it varies in composition and characteristics. An investigation was conducted to assess the suitability of odor sensors for maintaining traceability in ore production and processing. Commercially available sensors are now used in food processing, environmental monitoring, and other applications and can detect the presence of very small amounts (0.1-500 ppm) of some molecules. An assortment of such molecules could be used to ''tag'' blocks of ore as they are mined, according to their respective characteristics. Then, as the ore came into the mill, an array of ''electronic noses'' could be used to assess its characteristics in real time. It was found that the Cyranose 320{trademark}, a commercially available odor sensor, can easily distinguish among samples of rock marked with almond, cinnamon, citronella, lemon, and orange oils. Further, the sensor could detect mixtures of rocks marked with various combinations of these oils. Treatment of mixtures of galena and silica with odorant compounds showed no detrimental effects on flotation response in laboratory tests. Additional work is recommended to determine how this concept can be extended to the marking of large volumes of materials.

  12. Wide-area mapping of small-scale features in agricultural landscapes using airborne remote sensing

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Jerome; Bradter, Ute; Benton, Tim G.

    2015-01-01

    Natural and semi-natural habitats in agricultural landscapes are likely to come under increasing pressure with the global population set to exceed 9 billion by 2050. These non-cropped habitats are primarily made up of trees, hedgerows and grassy margins and their amount, quality and spatial configuration can have strong implications for the delivery and sustainability of various ecosystem services. In this study high spatial resolution (0.5 m) colour infrared aerial photography (CIR) was used in object based image analysis for the classification of non-cropped habitat in a 10,029 ha area of southeast England. Three classification scenarios were devised using 4 and 9 class scenarios. The machine learning algorithm Random Forest (RF) was used to reduce the number of variables used for each classification scenario by 25.5 % ± 2.7%. Proportion of votes from the 4 class hierarchy was made available to the 9 class scenarios and where the highest ranked variables in all cases. This approach allowed for misclassified parent objects to be correctly classified at a lower level. A single object hierarchy with 4 class proportion of votes produced the best result (kappa 0.909). Validation of the optimum training sample size in RF showed no significant difference between mean internal out-of-bag error and external validation. As an example of the utility of this data, we assessed habitat suitability for a declining farmland bird, the yellowhammer (Emberiza citronella), which requires hedgerows associated with grassy margins. We found that ∼22% of hedgerows were within 200 m of margins with an area >183.31 m2. The results from this analysis can form a key information source at the environmental and policy level in landscape optimisation for food production and ecosystem service sustainability. PMID:26664131

  13. The Efficacy of Some Commercially Available Insect Repellents for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Stacy D.; Drake, Lisa L.; Price, David P.; Hammond, John I.; Hansen, Immo A.

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the number of host-vector interactions is an effective way to reduce the spread of vector-borne diseases. Repellents are widely used to protect humans from a variety of protozoans, viruses, and nematodes. DEET (N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide), a safe and effective repellent, was developed during World War II. Fear of possible side effects of DEET has created a large market for “natural” DEET-free repellents with a variety of active ingredients. We present a comparative study on the efficacy of eight commercially available products, two fragrances, and a vitamin B patch. The products were tested using a human hand as attractant in a Y-tube olfactometer setup with Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse), both major human disease vectors. We found that Ae. albopictus were generally less attracted to the test subject’s hand compared with Ae, aegypti. Repellents with DEET as active ingredient had a prominent repellency effect over longer times and on both species. Repellents containing p-menthane-3,8-diol produced comparable results but for shorter time periods. Some of the DEET-free products containing citronella or geraniol did not have any significant repellency effect. Interestingly, the perfume we tested had a modest repellency effect early after application, and the vitamin B patch had no effect on either species. This study shows that the different active ingredients in commercially available mosquito repellent products are not equivalent in terms of duration and strength of repellency. Our results suggest that products containing DEET or p-menthane-3,8-diol have long-lasting repellent effects and therefore provide good protection from mosquito-borne diseases. PMID:26443777

  14. Efficacy of Some Wearable Devices Compared with Spray-On Insect Repellents for the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Stacy D; Chung, Hae-Na; Gonzales, Kristina K; Vulcan, Julia; Li, Yiyi; Ahumada, Jorge A; Romero, Hector M; De La Torre, Mario; Shu, Fangjun; Hansen, Immo A

    2017-01-01

    The current Zika health crisis in the Americas has created an intense interest in mosquito control methods and products. Mosquito vectors of Zika are of the genus Aedes, mainly the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. L. The use of repellents to alter mosquito host seeking behavior is an effective method for the prevention of mosquito-borne diseases. A large number of different spray-on repellents and wearable repellent devices are commercially available. The efficacies of many repellents are unknown. This study focuses on the efficacy of eleven different repellents in reducing the number of Ae. aegypti female mosquitoes attracted to human bait. We performed attraction-inhibition assays using a taxis cage in a wind tunnel setting. One person was placed upwind of the taxis cage and the mosquito movement towards or away from the person was recorded. The person was treated with various spray-on repellents or equipped with different mosquito repellent devices. We found that the spray-on repellents containing N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide and p-menthane-3,8-diol had the highest efficacy in repelling mosquitoes compared to repellents with other ingredients. From the five wearable devices that we tested, only the one that releases Metofluthrin significantly reduced the numbers of attracted mosquitoes. The citronella candle had no effect. We conclude that many of the products that we tested that were marketed as repellents do not reduce mosquito attraction to humans. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  15. Wide-area mapping of small-scale features in agricultural landscapes using airborne remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, Jerome; Bradter, Ute; Benton, Tim G.

    2015-11-01

    Natural and semi-natural habitats in agricultural landscapes are likely to come under increasing pressure with the global population set to exceed 9 billion by 2050. These non-cropped habitats are primarily made up of trees, hedgerows and grassy margins and their amount, quality and spatial configuration can have strong implications for the delivery and sustainability of various ecosystem services. In this study high spatial resolution (0.5 m) colour infrared aerial photography (CIR) was used in object based image analysis for the classification of non-cropped habitat in a 10,029 ha area of southeast England. Three classification scenarios were devised using 4 and 9 class scenarios. The machine learning algorithm Random Forest (RF) was used to reduce the number of variables used for each classification scenario by 25.5 % ± 2.7%. Proportion of votes from the 4 class hierarchy was made available to the 9 class scenarios and where the highest ranked variables in all cases. This approach allowed for misclassified parent objects to be correctly classified at a lower level. A single object hierarchy with 4 class proportion of votes produced the best result (kappa 0.909). Validation of the optimum training sample size in RF showed no significant difference between mean internal out-of-bag error and external validation. As an example of the utility of this data, we assessed habitat suitability for a declining farmland bird, the yellowhammer (Emberiza citronella), which requires hedgerows associated with grassy margins. We found that ˜22% of hedgerows were within 200 m of margins with an area >183.31 m2. The results from this analysis can form a key information source at the environmental and policy level in landscape optimisation for food production and ecosystem service sustainability.

  16. UV photostability of insect repellents evaluated through Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bório, Viviane G.; Fernandes, Adjaci U.; Silveira, Landulfo

    2016-02-01

    The use of insect repellents either indoors or at places with incidence of solar radiation has been common due to dengue epidemics in Brazil. The lack of studies on the photostability of these substances has motivated this study, where the main goal was to verify the photostability and photodegradation of some of the commercially insect repellents available under the simulated ultraviolet (UV) radiation, by evaluating the molecular changes using dispersive Raman spectroscopy (830 nm excitation). A laboratory-made chamber was used for irradiating the repellents, where UV-A + UV-B radiations (UV-A: 5.5 mW/cm2 and UV-B 1.5 mW/cm2) can be obtained. The chamber internal temperature did not exceed 31 °C during experiments. The compounds n,n-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), IR-3535, andiroba and citronella oils, used as active ingredients in insect repellents, and commercial formula containing DEET (14.5% in ethanol and isopropyl myristate) and IR-3535 (16% in carbopol) were continuously irradiated for 8 h. The Raman spectrum of each sample was obtained before and after UV exposure. The compounds and the commercial formula containing IR-3535 showed photo-stability when irradiated, since no changes in the peaks were found. The commercial formula containing DEET showed spectral decrease at 524, 690, 1003 and 1606 cm-1, assigned to the DEET, and increase at 884 cm-1, assigned to the ethanol. These results indicate that the excipient could influence the photostability of the active ingredient. The Raman spectroscopy can be suitable to monitor the photodegradation under UV irradiation rapidly and reliably.

  17. The Efficacy of Some Commercially Available Insect Repellents for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Stacy D; Drake, Lisa L; Price, David P; Hammond, John I; Hansen, Immo A

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the number of host-vector interactions is an effective way to reduce the spread of vector-borne diseases. Repellents are widely used to protect humans from a variety of protozoans, viruses, and nematodes. DEET (N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide), a safe and effective repellent, was developed during World War II. Fear of possible side effects of DEET has created a large market for "natural" DEET-free repellents with a variety of active ingredients. We present a comparative study on the efficacy of eight commercially available products, two fragrances, and a vitamin B patch. The products were tested using a human hand as attractant in a Y-tube olfactometer setup with Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse), both major human disease vectors. We found that Ae. albopictus were generally less attracted to the test subject's hand compared with Ae, aegypti. Repellents with DEET as active ingredient had a prominent repellency effect over longer times and on both species. Repellents containing p-menthane-3,8-diol produced comparable results but for shorter time periods. Some of the DEET-free products containing citronella or geraniol did not have any significant repellency effect. Interestingly, the perfume we tested had a modest repellency effect early after application, and the vitamin B patch had no effect on either species. This study shows that the different active ingredients in commercially available mosquito repellent products are not equivalent in terms of duration and strength of repellency. Our results suggest that products containing DEET or p-menthane-3,8-diol have long-lasting repellent effects and therefore provide good protection from mosquito-borne diseases. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  18. [Early resumption of food intake after cesarean section in black African women: liquid versus solid food].

    PubMed

    Zoumenou, E; Denakpo, J L; Assouto, P; Tchaou, B; Lokossou, T; Chobli, M

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of early resumption of solid versus liquid food intake after emergency cesarean section in black African women, in terms of gastrointestinal complications and maternal satisfaction. A total of 120 patients were randomly distributed into two groups of 60 each. In group L, liquid food intake in the form of sweetened citronella drink was allowed at will starting 6 six hours after the procedure but no solid food was allowed for 24 hours. In group S, normal solid food intake was resumed six hours after the procedure. The two study groups were not significantly different with regard to age, medical history, ASA class, obstetrical status, indications for cesarean section, anesthetic protocol, mean procedural duration, and postoperative analgesia. Study variables included tolerance of food intake, gastro-intestinal complications, time necessary to resume full activity and patient satisfaction. Overall, 6% of patients reported complications involving nausea, vomiting and bloating. There was no statistical difference between the two groups. Normal intestinal transit resumed earlier in group S but the difference was not significant. Auscultation of the abdomen at 16 hours after the procedure demonstrated presence of peristalsis in 59 patients in group S and 51 in group L (p = 0.008). The maternal satisfaction rate was 92% in group S and 43% in group L (p <0.01). All dissatisfied patients said that they would opt for solid food in case of future cesarean. Early solid food intake after cesarean in black African women is as well tolerated as early liquid feeding. Resumption of solid food intake allows earlier rehabilitation and improves patient satisfaction.

  19. Temporal evolution of ultrafine particles and of alveolar deposited surface area from main indoor combustion and non-combustion sources in a model room.

    PubMed

    Manigrasso, Maurizio; Vitali, Matteo; Protano, Carmela; Avino, Pasquale

    2017-11-15

    Aerosol number size distributions, PM mass concentrations, alveolar deposited surface areas (ADSAs) and VOC concentrations were measured in a model room when aerosol was emitted by sources frequently encountered in indoor environments. Both combustion and non-combustion sources were considered. The most intense aerosol emission occurred when combustion sources were active (as high as 4.1×10(7)particlescm(-3) for two meat grilling sessions; the first with exhaust ventilation, the second without). An intense spike generation of nucleation particles occurred when appliances equipped with brush electric motors were operating (as high as 10(6)particlescm(-3) on switching on an electric drill). Average UFP increments over the background value were highest for electric appliances (5-12%) and lowest for combustion sources (as low as -24% for tobacco cigarette smoke). In contrast, average increments in ADSA were highest for combustion sources (as high as 3.2×10(3)μm(2)cm(-3) for meat grilling without exhaust ventilation) and lowest for electric appliances (20-90μm(2)cm(-3)). The health relevance of such particles is associated to their ability to penetrate cellular structures and elicit inflammatory effects mediated through oxidative stress in a way dependent on their surface area. The highest VOC concentrations were measured (PID probe) for cigarette smoke (8ppm) and spray air freshener (10ppm). The highest PM mass concentration (PM1) was measured for citronella candle burning (as high as 7.6mgm(-3)). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of an HS-MS for the detection of ignitable liquids from fire debris.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro-González, Marta; Ayuso, Jesús; Álvarez, José A; Palma, Miguel; Barroso, Carmelo G

    2015-09-01

    In arson attacks, accelerants such as ignitable liquids are commonly used to initiate or accelerate a fire. The detection of ignitable liquid residues at fire scenes is therefore a key step in fire investigations. The most widely used analytical technique for the analysis of accelerants is GC-MS. However, pre-concentration of the ignitable liquid residues is required prior to the chromatographic analysis. The standard method, ASTM E1412, involves passive headspace concentration with activated charcoal strips as a method to isolate the ignitable liquid residues from fire debris and these residues are subsequently desorbed from the carbon strip with solvents such as carbon disulfide. In the work described here, an alternative analytical technique based on an HS-MS (headspace mass spectrometry) has been developed for the thermal desorption of the carbon strips and analysis of different ignitable liquid residues in fire debris. The working conditions for the HS-MS analytical procedure were optimized using different types of fire debris (pine wood burned with gasoline and diesel). The optimized variables were desorption temperature and desorption time. The optimal conditions were 145°C and 15 min. The optimized method was applied to a set of fire debris samples. In order to simulate post burn samples several accelerants (gasoline, diesel, citronella, kerosene, paraffin, and alcohol) were used to ignite different substrates (wood, cotton, cork, paper, and paperboard). chemometric methods (cluster analysis and discriminant analysis) were applied to the total ion spectrum obtained from the MS (45-200 m/z) to discriminate between the burned samples according to the accelerant used. The method was validated by analyzing all samples by GC-MS according to the standard methods ASTM E1412 and ASTM E1618. The results obtained on using the method developed in this study were comparable to those obtained with the reference method. However, the newly developed HS-MS method is

  1. Wide-area mapping of small-scale features in agricultural landscapes using airborne remote sensing.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Jerome; Bradter, Ute; Benton, Tim G

    2015-11-01

    Natural and semi-natural habitats in agricultural landscapes are likely to come under increasing pressure with the global population set to exceed 9 billion by 2050. These non-cropped habitats are primarily made up of trees, hedgerows and grassy margins and their amount, quality and spatial configuration can have strong implications for the delivery and sustainability of various ecosystem services. In this study high spatial resolution (0.5 m) colour infrared aerial photography (CIR) was used in object based image analysis for the classification of non-cropped habitat in a 10,029 ha area of southeast England. Three classification scenarios were devised using 4 and 9 class scenarios. The machine learning algorithm Random Forest (RF) was used to reduce the number of variables used for each classification scenario by 25.5 % ± 2.7%. Proportion of votes from the 4 class hierarchy was made available to the 9 class scenarios and where the highest ranked variables in all cases. This approach allowed for misclassified parent objects to be correctly classified at a lower level. A single object hierarchy with 4 class proportion of votes produced the best result (kappa 0.909). Validation of the optimum training sample size in RF showed no significant difference between mean internal out-of-bag error and external validation. As an example of the utility of this data, we assessed habitat suitability for a declining farmland bird, the yellowhammer (Emberiza citronella), which requires hedgerows associated with grassy margins. We found that ∼22% of hedgerows were within 200 m of margins with an area >183.31 m(2). The results from this analysis can form a key information source at the environmental and policy level in landscape optimisation for food production and ecosystem service sustainability.

  2. In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil

    PubMed Central

    Bounihi, Amina; Hajjaj, Ghizlane; Cherrah, Yahia; Zellou, Amina

    2013-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) had been reported in traditional Moroccan medicine to exhibit calming, antispasmodic, and strengthening heart effects. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory activities of M. officinalis L. leaves. The effect of the essential oil of the leaves of this plant was investigated for anti-inflammatory properties by using carrageenan and experimental trauma-induced hind paw edema in rats. The essential oil extracted from leaves by hydrodistillation was characterized by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). M. officinalis contained Nerol (30.44%), Citral (27.03%), Isopulegol (22.02%), Caryophyllene (2.29%), Caryophyllene oxide (1.24%), and Citronella (1.06%). Anti-inflammatory properties of oral administration of essential oil at the doses of 200, 400 mg/kg p.o., respectively, showed significant reduction and inhibition of edema with 61.76% and 70.58%, respectively, (P < 0.001) induced by carrageenan at 6 h when compared with control and standard drug (Indomethacin). On experimental trauma, M. officinalis L. essential oil showed pronounced reduction and inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan at 6 h at 200 and 400 mg/kg with 91.66% and 94.44%, respectively (P < 0.001). We can conclude that the essential oil of M. officinalis L. possesses potential anti-inflammatory activities, supporting the traditional application of this plant in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain. PMID:24381585

  3. Bacillus safensis with plant-derived smoke stimulates rice growth under saline conditions.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Hafeez Ullah; Khattak, Jabar Zaman Khan; Jamil, Muhammad; Malook, Ijaz; Khan, Shahid Ullah; Jan, Mehmood; Din, Ismail; Saud, Shah; Kamran, Muhammad; Alharby, Hesham; Fahad, Shah

    2017-09-03

    Salinity is a worldwide environmental problem of agricultural lands. Smoke and plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPR) are individually used to improve plant growth, but the combined effects of these have not been studied yet under saline conditions. The combined effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria Bacillus safensis and plant-derived smoke Cymbopogon jwarancusa was studied under different salinity level as 50, 100, and 150 mM on rice (cv. Basmati-385). Smoke dilutions of C. jwarancusa (C-500 and C-1000) and bacterial culture of B. safensis were used to soak seeds for 10 h. It was observed that the salt concentration decreases the germination percentage, vegetative growth, ion contents (K(+) and Ca(2+)), and photosynthetic pigments (Chl "a," Chl "b," and carotene) while an increase occurred in Na(+), total soluble protein (TSP), proline, total soluble sugar, catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) contents. The combined effect of B. safensis and smoke primed seeds increased the germination percentage, seedling growth, ion contents (K(+), Ca(2+)), and photosynthetic pigments (Chl "a," Chl "b," carotene) and reduced the Na(+) ion content, total soluble protein, proline content, total soluble sugar, CAT, and POD activity by lowering the drastic effect of salt stress. It was concluded that combined effect of smoke and PGPR is more effective than individual effect.

  4. Application of poly(dimethylsiloxane) fiber sol-gel coated onto NiTi alloy electrodeposited with zirconium oxide for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in herbal infusions.

    PubMed

    Budziak, Dilma; Martendal, Edmar; Carasek, Eduardo

    2008-08-01

    A PDMS fiber sol-gel coated onto an NiTi alloy previously electrodeposited with zirconium oxide (named NiTi-ZrO(2)-PDMS) was applied to the determination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in infusions of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf), chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.), and anise seeds (Pimpinella anisum L.). Salting-out effect, extraction time, and extraction temperature were optimized firstly by means of a full-factorial design and then using a Doehlert matrix. No salt addition and 50 min of extraction at 70 degrees C were the optimum conditions. Satisfactory LODs in the range of 2-17 ng/L, as well as good correlation coefficients (at least 0.9981) in the linear range studied, were obtained. Calibration was successfully applied using an infusion of M. recutita L. and recovery tests were performed to ensure the accuracy of the method, with values in the range of 77-120%. Comparison of the NiTi-ZrO(2)-PDMS with commercially available PDMS fibers showed that the proposed fiber has an extraction efficiency comparable to that of PDMS 30 microm for the compounds evaluated, demonstrating its potential applicability.

  5. Evaluation of biological and chemical insect repellents and their potential adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Semmler, Margit; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Schmidt, Jürgen; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Plant extracts, particularly plant oils, had been used and were still in use as repellents against mosquitoes. Some of them (e.g., lavender, geraniol, and citriodiol) have been notified by the European Commission as active substances to be used in repellents, which are categorized as biocides in product type 19. In the literature, it is known that these substances must be added to repellent products in high concentrations (e.g., 20% and more) in order to reach repellent efficacy. Therefore, the question arose whether they also have repellent effects if they were added as fragrances at low concentrations of 0.25 or 1% to registered active substances in order to obtain a better scent of this product. In the present study, the repellent effects of 0.25 and 1% additions of 15 plant extracts (citronellol, cinerol, citral, menthol, linalyl acetate, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Cymbopogon nardus, lilac, sandalwood, Vitex agnus castus, rosewood, lavender, geraniol, and paramenthan diol) when exposed on skin to hungry Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. These experiments showed that there was no repellent effect in any of these compounds even when the test was done already 10 min after distributing any of the compounds onto the hands of volunteers. These experiments have proven that these 15 compounds do not produce repellent effects as long as they are used in low concentrations of 0.25 or 1% as fragrances to ameliorate the odor of a notified repellent that is brought onto the skin.

  6. Reduction of Aeromonas hidrophyla biofilm on stainless stell surface by essential oils

    PubMed Central

    Millezi, Alessandra Farias; Cardoso, Maria das Graças; Alves, Eduardo; Piccoli, Roberta Hilsdorf

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates the possibility of using sanitizing detergents based on natural products for the elimination and/or reduction of Aeromonas hydrophila biofilm formed on stainless steel surfaces. The goal of this work was to determine the reduction effect of sanitizing detergents containing essential oils of Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) on biofilm formed by A. hydrophila on AISI 304 stainless steel coupons, using UHT skimmed milk as substratum. There was adhesion and biofilm formation by A. hydrophila at 28 °C, presenting 7.60 log cfu.cm−2 after the fourth day of cultivation. There was no significant difference between the lemongrass treatment and that of the thyme oil (p < 0.05). However, both treatments significantly reduced the biofilm, differing significantly from the NaOH control (p > 0.05). The treatment with lemongrass solution reduced the biofilm by 4.51 log cfu cm−2 at 25 °C. The thyme detergent also reduced the number of cfu cm−2 by 3.84 log cycles at 25 °C. The use of the lemongrass and thyme solutions efficiently reduced the A. hydrophila biofilm. PMID:24159286

  7. Growth Inhibition of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Produced Water from the Petroleum Industry Using Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Souza, Pamella Macedo de; Goulart, Fátima Regina de Vasconcelos; Marques, Joana Montezano; Bizzo, Humberto Ribeiro; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Groposo, Claudia; Sousa, Maíra Paula de; Vólaro, Vanessa; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Moreno, Daniela Sales Alviano; Seldin, Lucy

    2017-04-19

    Strategies for the control of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the oil industry involve the use of high concentrations of biocides, but these may induce bacterial resistance and/or be harmful to public health and the environment. Essential oils (EO) produced by plants inhibit the growth of different microorganisms and are a possible alternative for controlling SRB. We aimed to characterize the bacterial community of produced water obtained from a Brazilian petroleum facility using molecular methods, as well as to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of EO from different plants and their major components against Desulfovibrio alaskensis NCIMB 13491 and against SRB growth directly in the produced water. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of the genera Pelobacter and Marinobacterium, Geotoga petraea, and the SRB Desulfoplanes formicivorans in our produced water samples. Sequencing of dsrA insert-containing clones confirmed the presence of sequences related to D. formicivorans. EO obtained from Citrus aurantifolia, Lippia alba LA44 and Cymbopogon citratus, as well as citral, linalool, eugenol and geraniol, greatly inhibited (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 78 µg/mL) the growth of D. alaskensis in a liquid medium. The same MIC was obtained directly in the produced water with EO from L. alba LA44 (containing 82% citral) and with pure citral. These findings may help to control detrimental bacteria in the oil industry.

  8. Distribution, feeding behavior and control strategies of the exotic land snail Achatina fulica (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) in the northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, F S; Peso-Aguiar, M C; Assunção-Albuquerque, M J T

    2008-11-01

    The goal of this study was to document the distribution and establishment A. fulica such as their feeding preference and behavior in situ. The study was carried out at the city of Lauro de Freitas, Bahia state, Brazil, between November 2001 and November 2002. We used catch per unit effort methods to determine abundance, distribution, habitat choice and food preferences. The abundance and distribution of A. fulica was most representative in urban area, mainly near to the coastline. Lots and house gardens were the most preferred sites during active hours. The results indicated that A. fulica started their activity at the end of the evening and stopped in mid-morning. Their preferred food were vascular plants such as Hibiscus syriacus, Ricinus communis, Carica papaya, Galinsonga coccinea, Lippia alba, Ixora coccinea, Musa parasidisiaca, Mentha spicata and Cymbopogon citrates. Our results indicate that A. fulica are well adapted and established in this city and modified environments facilitate their establishment and dispersion. However, human perturbation, such as clearance of lots could be limiting for the persistence of A. fulica populations.

  9. Repellent, larvicidal and pupicidal properties of essential oils and their formulations against the housefly, Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Mishra, S; Malik, A; Satya, S

    2011-09-01

    The essential oils of six plant species [peppermint, Mentha piperita, and bergamot mint, Mentha citrata (both, Lamiales: Lamiaceae); blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtales: Myrtaceae); lemongrass, Cymbopogon citratus, and khus grass, Vetiver zizanoides (both, Poales: Poaceae), and turmeric, Curcuma longa (Ziniberales: Zingiberaceae)] were screened for repellent, larvicidal and pupicidal activities against the housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae). Subsequently, emulsifiable concentrate (EC) formulations of the two most effective oils were prepared and tested in the laboratory as well as in the field. In repellency bioassays, M. piperita (RC(84) , 61.0 µg/cm(2) ) was found to be most effective, followed by E. globulus (RC(84) , 214.5 µg/cm(2) ) and C. citratus (RC(84) , 289.2 µg/cm(2) ). Formulated M. piperita and E. globulus showed RC(84) values of 1.6 µg/cm(2) and 4.1 µg/cm(2) , respectively. Formulated M. piperita and E. globulus achieved larval mortality (LC(50) ) in 72 h at 5.12 µg/cm(2) and 6.09 µg/cm(2) , respectively. In pupicidal bioassays, crude oils of M. piperita and E. globulus suppressed the emergence of adult flies by 100%. Field experiments with the M. piperita formulation showed reductions in fly density (number of flies/h) of 96% on treated cattle and 98% on treated plots. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of EC formulations of selected essential oils in reducing housefly populations in field conditions.

  10. Ethnobotanical survey of the medicinal flora used by the Caribs of Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Girón, L M; Freire, V; Alonzo, A; Cáceres, A

    1991-09-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was conducted among the Carib population of Guatemala in 1988-1989. In general terms, the sample surveyed possessed a relatively good standard of living. Results indicated that health services were utilized by the population, and that domestic medicine, mainly plants (96.9%) was used by 15% of the population. One hundred and nineteen plants used for medicinal purposes were collected, of which 102 (85.7%) could be identified; a list of these together with the information provided for each plant is presented. The most frequently reported plants used as medicine are: Acalypha arvensis, Cassia alata, Cymbopogon citratus, Melampodium divaricatum. Momordica charantia, Neurolaena lobata, Ocimum basilicum, Petiveria alliacea and Solanum nigrescens. Most of these plants are found in the region, but some are brought from the Highlands or outside of the country, such as Malva parviflora, Matricaria chamomilla, Peumus boldus, Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis and Tagetes lucida. This survey demonstrated that the Carib population of Guatemala has survived in a transcultural environment of African and native Amerindian beliefs.

  11. Contact allergy to essential oils cannot always be predicted from allergy to fragrance markers in the baseline series.

    PubMed

    Sabroe, Ruth A; Holden, Catherine R; Gawkrodger, David J

    2016-04-01

    Essential oils are fragrance substances that are labelled on cosmetic products by their INCI names, potentially confusing consumers. To establish whether contact allergy to essential oils might be missed if not specifically tested for. We tested 471 patients with 14 essential oils and 2104 patients with Melaleuca alternifolia oil between January 2008 and June 2014. All patients were tested with fragrance mix I, fragrance mix II, hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde, and Myroxylon pereirae. Three hundred and twenty-six patients were tested with hydroperoxides of limonene and linalool. Thirty-four patients had a +/++/+++ reaction to at least one essential oil. Eleven had no reaction to any of the six marker fragrance substances. Thus, 4 of 11 positive reactions to M. alternifolia oil, 2 of 7 reactions to Cymbopogon flexuosus oil, 1 of 5 reactions to Cananga odorata oil, 3 of 4 reactions to Santalum album oil and 2 of 3 reactions to Mentha piperita oil would have been missed without individual testing. A small number of patients who are allergic to essential oils could be missed if these are not specifically tested. Labelling by INCI names means that exposure may not be obvious. Careful inspection of so-called 'natural' products and targeted testing is recommended. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effect of H2O2 concentrations on copper removal using the modified hydrothermal biochar.

    PubMed

    Zuo, XiaoJun; Liu, Zhengang; Chen, MinDong

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated effect of H2O2 concentrations on copper removal using H2O2 modified hydrothermal carbonization Cymbopogon schoenanthus L. Spreng (HLG). Sorption behaviors of Cu (II) on the modified HLG by 20% H2O2 (mHLG2) could be the most desirable. Based on Langmuir isotherm, the maximum amount of Cu (II) uptake was in the sequence of mHLG2 (53.8mgg(-1))>mHLG1 (44.2mgg(-1))>mHLG3 (42.0mgg(-1))>mHLG0 (35.8mgg(-1)), which was higher than the results from majority of previous studies, suggesting that H2O2 modification advanced sorption capacity of hydrothermal biochars evidently. Effect mechanisms exploration indicated that the difference of Cu (II) removal by biochars before and after the modification was mainly related to functional groups. Carboxylic group was responsible for the best sorption property of Cu (II) by mHLG2, which was attributed to its significant relationships with H2O2 modification and Cu (II) removal.

  13. Chemical composition and antioxidant and anti-Listeria activities of essential oils obtained from some Egyptian plants.

    PubMed

    Viuda-Martos, Manuel; El Gendy, Abd El-Nasser G S; Sendra, Esther; Fernández-López, Juana; Abd El Razik, K A; Omer, Elsayed A; Pérez-Alvarez, Jose A

    2010-08-25

    The aim of this work was to (i) determine the chemical composition of the essential oils of six spices widely cultivated in Egypt (Origanum syriacum, Majorana hortensis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Cymbopogon citratus, Thymus vulgaris, and Artemisia annua); (ii) determine the antioxidant activity of the Egyptian essential oils by means of five different antioxidant tests; and (iii) determine the effectiveness of these essential oils on the inhibition of Listeria innocua CECT 910. There is a great variability in the chemical composition of essential oils obtained from the six Egyptian aromatic plants. Overall, thyme (highest percentage of inhibition of DPPH radical: 89.40%) and oregano (highest percentage of inhibition of TBARS: 85.79) essential oils presented the best antioxidant profiles, whereas marjoram, lemongrass, and artemisia were highly effective in metal chelating but had a pro-oxidative behavior by Rancimat induction test. Lemongrass essential oil showed the highest antibacterial activity against L. innocua with an inhibition zone of 49.00 mm, followed in effectiveness by thyme, marjoram, and oregano.

  14. Elevated Atmospheric CO2 Triggers Compensatory Feeding by Root Herbivores on a C3 but Not a C4 Grass

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Scott N.; Lopaticki, Goran; Hartley, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    Predicted increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations often reduce nutritional quality for herbivores by increasing the C∶N ratio of plant tissue. This frequently triggers compensatory feeding by aboveground herbivores, whereby they consume more shoot material in an attempt to meet their nutritional needs. Little, however, is known about how root herbivores respond to such changes. Grasslands are particularly vulnerable to root herbivores, which can collectively exceed the mass of mammals grazing aboveground. Here we provide novel evidence for compensatory feeding by a grass root herbivore, Sericesthis nigrolineata, under elevated atmospheric CO2 (600 µmol mol−1) on a C3 (Microlaena stipoides) but not a C4 (Cymbopogon refractus) grass species. At ambient CO2 (400 µmol mol−1) M. stipoides roots were 44% higher in nitrogen (N) and 7% lower in carbon (C) concentrations than C. refractus, with insects performing better on M. stipoides. Elevated CO2 decreased N and increased C∶N in M. stipoides roots, but had no impact on C. refractus roots. Root-feeders displayed compensatory feeding on M. stipoides at elevated CO2, consuming 118% more tissue than at ambient atmospheric CO2. Despite this, root feeder biomass remained depressed by 24%. These results suggest that compensatory feeding under elevated atmospheric CO2 may make some grass species particularly vulnerable to attack, potentially leading to future shifts in the community composition of grasslands. PMID:24651855

  15. Elevated atmospheric CO2 triggers compensatory feeding by root herbivores on a C3 but not a C4 grass.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Scott N; Lopaticki, Goran; Hartley, Susan E

    2014-01-01

    Predicted increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations often reduce nutritional quality for herbivores by increasing the C:N ratio of plant tissue. This frequently triggers compensatory feeding by aboveground herbivores, whereby they consume more shoot material in an attempt to meet their nutritional needs. Little, however, is known about how root herbivores respond to such changes. Grasslands are particularly vulnerable to root herbivores, which can collectively exceed the mass of mammals grazing aboveground. Here we provide novel evidence for compensatory feeding by a grass root herbivore, Sericesthis nigrolineata, under elevated atmospheric CO2 (600 µmol mol(-1)) on a C3 (Microlaena stipoides) but not a C4 (Cymbopogon refractus) grass species. At ambient CO2 (400 µmol mol(-1)) M. stipoides roots were 44% higher in nitrogen (N) and 7% lower in carbon (C) concentrations than C. refractus, with insects performing better on M. stipoides. Elevated CO2 decreased N and increased C:N in M. stipoides roots, but had no impact on C. refractus roots. Root-feeders displayed compensatory feeding on M. stipoides at elevated CO2, consuming 118% more tissue than at ambient atmospheric CO2. Despite this, root feeder biomass remained depressed by 24%. These results suggest that compensatory feeding under elevated atmospheric CO2 may make some grass species particularly vulnerable to attack, potentially leading to future shifts in the community composition of grasslands.

  16. Effect of essential oils on the growth of Fusarium verticillioides and fumonisin contamination in corn.

    PubMed

    Fandohan, Pascal; Gbenou, Joachim D; Gnonlonfin, Benoit; Hell, Kerstin; Marasas, Walter F O; Wingfield, Michael J

    2004-11-03

    Essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from local plants in Benin, western Africa, and oil from seeds of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) were evaluated in vitro and in vivo for their efficacy against Fusarium verticillioides infection and fumonisin contamination. Fumonisin in corn was quantified using a fluorometer and the Vicam method. Oils from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum basilicum, and Ocimum gratissimum were the most effective in vitro, completely inhibiting the growth of F. verticillioides at lower concentrations over 21 days of incubation. These oils reduced the incidence of F. verticillioides in corn and totally inhibited fungal growth at concentrations of 8, 6.4, and 4.8 microL/g, respectively, over 21 days. At the concentration of 4.8 microL/g, these oils did not affect significantly fumonisin production. However, a marked reduction of fumonisin level was observed in corn stored in closed conditions. The oils adversely affected kernel germination at 4.8 microL/g and therefore cannot be recommended for controlling F. verticillioides on stored corn used as seeds, when used at this concentration. The oil of neem seeds showed no inhibitory effect but rather accelerated the growth of F. verticillioides.

  17. An investigation into the effectiveness of sand media amended with biochar to remove BOD5, suspended solids and coliforms using wetland mesocosms.

    PubMed

    de Rozari, P; Greenway, M; El Hanandeh, A

    2015-01-01

    Constructed wetland ecotechnologies (CWEs) are a promising solution to effectively treat domestic wastewater in developing countries at low cost. This paper reports the findings of the effectiveness of sand media amended with woody biochar and two plants species (Melaleuca quinquenervia and Cymbopogon citratus) in removing biological oxygen demand (BOD5), suspended solids and coliforms. The experimental design consisted of 21 vertical flow (VF) mesocosms. There were seven media treatments using sand amended with varying proportions of biochar. During the first 8 months, the mesocosms were loaded with secondary clarified wastewater (SCW) then septage. The influent had a 4-day hydraulic retention time. Samples were monitored for BOD5, total suspended solids (TSS), total volatile solids (TVS), total coliforms and faecal coliforms. In the first 8 months, there were no significant performance differences between media treatments in the outflow concentrations of BOD5, TSS and TVS. The significant differences occurred during the last 3 months; using septage with biochar additions performed better than pure sand. For coliforms, the significant differences occurred after 6 months. In conclusion, the addition of biochar was not effective for SCW. The VF mesocosms system proved to be more effective in removing BOD5, TSS, TVS and coliforms when septage was loaded into the media.

  18. Comparative screening of plant essential oils: phenylpropanoid moiety as basic core for antiplatelet activity.

    PubMed

    Tognolini, M; Barocelli, E; Ballabeni, V; Bruni, R; Bianchi, A; Chiavarini, M; Impicciatore, M

    2006-02-23

    Essential oils extracted from different plants (Anthemis nobilis L., Artemisia dracunculus L., Cannabis sativa L., Cupressus sempervirens L., Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf., Curcuma longa L., Foeniculum vulgare L., Hypericum perforatum L., Hyssopus officinalis L., Mentha spicata L., Monarda didyma L., Ocimum basilicum L., Ocotea quixos Kosterm., Origanum vulgare L., Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold, Pinus silvestris L., Piper crassinervium Kunth., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Salvia sclarea L., Santolina chamaecyparissus L., Thymus vulgaris L., Zingiber officinaie L.) were screened in guinea pig and rat plasma in order to assess antiplatelet activity and inhibition of clot retraction. The oils were chemically analysed and a relationship between components and ability to affect hemostasis was evidenced. O. quixos, F. vulgaris, and A. dracunculus showed the highest antiplatelet activity against ADP, Arachidonic Acid and the Thromboxane A2 agonist U46619 (IC50, 4-132 microg ml(-1)), and a good ability to destabilize clot retraction (IC50, 19-180 microg ml(-1)). For these oils a significant correlation between antiplatelet potency and phenylpropanoids content (54-86%) was evidenced thus suggesting a key role for this moiety in the prevention of clot formation. These findings provide the rationale to take in account the antiplatelet activity in the pharmacological screening of natural products containing phenylpropanoids.

  19. Evaluation of In Vitro Activity of Essential Oils against Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Trypanosoma evansi

    PubMed Central

    Habila, Nathan; Agbaji, Abel S.; Ladan, Zakari; Bello, Isaac A.; Haruna, Emmanuel; Dakare, Monday A.; Atolagbe, Taofiq O.

    2010-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) from Cymbopogon citratus (CC), Eucalyptus citriodora (EC), Eucalyptus camaldulensis (ED), and Citrus sinensis (CS) were obtained by hydrodistillation process. The EOs were evaluated in vitro for activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei (Tbb) and Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi). The EOs were found to possess antitrypanosomal activity in vitro in a dose-dependent pattern in a short period of time. The drop in number of parasite over time was achieved doses of 0.4 g/ml, 0.2 g/mL, and 0.1 g/mL for all the EOs. The concentration of 0.4 g/mL CC was more potent at 3 minutes and 2 minutes for Tbb and T. evansi, respectively. The GC-MS analysis of the EOs revealed presence of Cyclobutane (96.09%) in CS, 6-octenal (77.11%) in EC, Eucalyptol (75%) in ED, and Citral (38.32%) in CC among several other organic compounds. The results are discussed in relation to trypanosome chemotherapy. PMID:20700425

  20. Lemongrass effects on IL-1beta and IL-6 production by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sforcin, J M; Amaral, J T; Fernandes, A; Sousa, J P B; Bastos, J K

    2009-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus has been widely recognised for its ethnobotanical and medicinal usefulness. Its insecticidal, antimicrobial and therapeutic properties have been reported, but little is known about its effect on the immune system. This work aimed to investigate the in vivo effect of a water extract of lemongrass on pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1beta and IL-6) production by macrophages of BALB/c mice. The action of lemongrass essential oil on cytokine production by macrophages was also analysed in vitro. The chemical composition of the extract and the oil was also investigated. Treatment of mice with water extract of lemongrass inhibited macrophages to produce IL-1beta but induced IL-6 production by these cells. Lemongrass essential oil inhibited the cytokine production in vitro. Linalool oxide and epoxy-linalool oxide were found to be the major components of lemongrass water extract, and neral and geranial were the major compounds of its essential oil. Taken together, these data suggest an anti-inflammatory action of this natural product.

  1. Bioactive natural constituents from lemongrass tea and erythropoiesis boosting effects: potential use in prevention and treatment of anemia.

    PubMed

    Ekpenyong, Christopher E; Daniel, Nyebuk E; Antai, Atim B

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) tea on hematologic indices in human volunteers. One hundred five subjects (55 men and 50 women), aged 18 to 35 years, were randomly assigned to groups set to orally receive infusion prepared from 2, 4, or 8 g of C. citratus leaves once daily for 30 days. Assessment of hematologic indices (hemoglobin concentration [Hb], packed cell volume [PCV], red blood cell [RBC] count, mean cell Hb [MCH], mean cell volume [MCV], mean cell Hb concentration [MCHC], total white blood cell [WBC-total] and differentials, and platelets) were performed 1 day before (baseline), and at 10 (acute) and 30 days (subchronic phase) after the initiation of treatment. Results obtained on days 10 and 30 were compared with baseline values. Infusions prepared from C. citratus leaf powder, which tested positive for tannins, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, macro- and micronutrients, significantly increased PCV, Hb, and RBC (P<.05) in all subjects, particularly in the subchronic phase of the study. MCH, MCV, and MCHC were not significantly different from baseline values in both the sexes. WBCs and differentials significantly decreased (P<.05) with the exception of neutrophils and lymphocytes, which significantly increased in some or all groups (P<.05), respectively. C. citratus leaf infusion appears to exert an erythropoiesis boosting effect, likely due to some nutritional constituents and its antioxidant and pharmacologic properties.

  2. Modifying effects of lemongrass essential oil on specific tissue response to the carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitrosurea in female BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Bidinotto, Lucas T; Costa, Celso A R A; Costa, Mirtes; Rodrigues, Maria A M; Barbisan, Luís F

    2012-02-01

    Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf) essential oil has been used worldwide because of its ethnobotanical and medicinal usefulness. Regarding its medicinal usefulness, the present study evaluated the beneficial effects of lemongrass essential oil (LGEO) oral treatment on cell proliferation and apoptosis events and on early development of hyperplastic lesions in the mammary gland, colon, and urinary bladder induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) in female BALB/c mice. The animals were allocated into three groups: G1, treated with LGEO vehicle for 5 weeks (five times per week); G2, treated with LGEO vehicle as for G1 and MNU (two injections each of 30 mg/kg of body weight at weeks 3 and 5); and G3, treated with LGEO (five times each with 500 mg/kg of body weight per week) and MNU as for G2. Twenty-four hours after the last MNU application, all animals were euthanized, and mammary glands, colon, and urinary bladder were collected for histological and immunohistochemical analysis. LGEO oral treatment significantly changed the indexes of apoptosis and/or cellular proliferation for the tissues analyzed. In particular, the treatment reduced the incidence of hyperplastic lesions and increased apoptosis in mammary epithelial cells. This increment in the apoptosis response may be related to a favorable balance in Bcl-2/Bax immunoreactivity in mammary epithelial cells. These findings indicate that LGEO presented a protective role against early MNU-induced mammary gland alterations in BALB/c mice.

  3. Inhibitory effect of formulated lemongrass shampoo on Malassezia furfur: a yeast associated with dandruff.

    PubMed

    Wuthi-Udomlert, Mansuang; Chotipatoomwan, Ployphand; Panyadee, Sasikan; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2011-03-01

    Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf) has been used in cooking and in many traditional medicines; the essential oil contains citral as a major constituent. This study evaluated the antifungal activity of lemongrass oil against Malassezia furfur, an opportunistic yeast associated with dandruff, by using a broth dilution assay. From the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) obtained, the oil was then incorporated at different percentages into shampoo formulations. The formulated shampoos were kept at room temperature (28 degrees-30 degrees C) and under accelerated condition (45 degrees C). At the end of the first and sixth weeks, after preparation, all formulations were tested again and the appearance was recorded. Selection of an appropriate formula was based on antifungal activity against M. furfur, the physical appearance, the chemical properties and stability of the formula. Two percent lemongrass oil shampoo provided the required qualities necessary for commercial use. After being kept for 6 weeks at 28 degrees-30 degrees C and 45 degrees C, this formulated shampoo gave MFCs against M. furfur of 75 microl/ml and 18.75 microl/ml, respectively.

  4. A Weibull model to describe antimicrobial kinetics of oregano and lemongrass essential oils against Salmonella Enteritidis in ground beef during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Thales Leandro Coutinho; Soares, Rodrigo de Araújo; Piccoli, Roberta Hilsdorf

    2013-03-01

    The antimicrobial effect of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.) essential oils (EOs) against Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis in in vitro experiments, and inoculated in ground bovine meat during refrigerated storage (4±2 °C) for 6 days was evaluated. The Weibull model was tested to fit survival/inactivation bacterial curves (estimating of p and δ parameters). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value for both EOs on S. Enteritidis was 3.90 μl/ml. The EO concentrations applied in the ground beef were 3.90, 7.80 and 15.60 μl/g, based on MIC levels and possible activity reduction by food constituents. Both evaluated EOs in all tested levels, showed antimicrobial effects, with microbial populations reducing (p≤0.05) along time storage. Evaluating fit-quality parameters (RSS and RSE) Weibull models are able to describe the inactivation curves of EOs against S. Enteritidis. The application of EOs in processed meats can be used to control pathogens during refrigerated shelf-life.

  5. An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starliper, Clifford E.; Ketola, H. George; Noyes, Andrew D.; Schill, William B.; Henson, Fred G.; Chalupnicki, Marc; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2015-01-01

    Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments of captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine whether selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC’s) were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum) and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBCs (0.02–0.04%) were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBCs for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14% to 0.30% and 0.10% to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11% and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5%) of Allimed® tested resulted in MBCs to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBCs for all but one isolate.

  6. Metabolism of citral, the major constituent of lemongrass oil, in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, and effects of enzyme inhibitors on toxicity and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Tak, Jun-Hyung; Isman, Murray B

    2016-10-01

    Although screening for new and reliable sources of botanical insecticides remains important, finding ways to improve the efficacy of those already in use through better understanding of their modes-of-action or metabolic pathways, or by improving formulations, deserves greater attention as the latter may present lesser regulation hurdles. Metabolic processing of citral (a combination of the stereoisomers geranial and neral), a main constituent of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil has not been previously examined in insects. To address this, we investigated insecticidal activities of lemongrass oil and citral, as well as the metabolism of citral in larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, in associations with well-known enzyme inhibitors. Among the inhibitors tested, piperonyl butoxide showed the highest increase in toxicity followed by triphenyl phosphate, but no synergistic interaction between the inhibitors was observed. Topical application of citral to fifth instar larvae produced mild reductions in food consumption, and frass analysis after 24h revealed geranic acid (99.7%) and neric acid (98.8%) as major metabolites of citral. Neither citral nor any other metabolites were found following in vivo analysis of larvae after 24h, and no significant effect of enzyme inhibitors was observed on diet consumption or citral metabolism.

  7. An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starliper, Clifford E.; Ketolab, Henry G.; Noyes, Andrew D.; Schill, William B.; Henson, Fred G.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2015-01-01

    Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments for captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine if selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC’s) were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum) and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBC’s (0.02 to 0.04%) were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBC’s for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14 to 0.30% and 0.10 to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11 and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5%) of Allimed® tested resulted in MBC’s to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBC’s for all but one isolate

  8. Repellent activity of plant-derived compounds against Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs.

    PubMed

    Soares, Sara Fernandes; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira; de Sousa Braga, Raquel; Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Louly, Carla Cristina Braz; Tresvenzol, Leonice Manrique Faustino; de Paula, José Realino; Ferri, Pedro Henrique

    2010-01-20

    Repellence responses of Amblyomma cajennense nymphs to callicarpenal, intermedeol, Hyptis suaveolens essential oil, extract of Melia azedarach, Cymbopogon nardus, Spiranthera odoratissima, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Ageratum conyzoides, Mentha pulegium, Ruta graveolens, and Memora nodosa were studied. Among these the extract of C. nardus stood out because of the long-lasting repellence, maintaining, in the highest concentration, 35h of protection against 90% of the nymphs. The essential oil of H. suaveolens and the extracts of C. ambrosioides and A. conyzoides showed good repellence index (66%) when applied in high concentrations. However, greater protection could be obtained at higher concentrations but with a shorter repellence time. Callicarpenal, intermedeol, extract of M. Pulegium, and M. nodosa leaves showed moderate repellence in high concentrations. Extracts from M. azedarach, R. graveolens, S. odoratissima, and M. nodosa roots showed little or no repellent effect. These results show that some plant extracts may represent a promising alternative in the control of infestations by A. cajennense. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Essential Oils from Ugandan Medicinal Plants: In Vitro Cytotoxicity and Effects on IL-1β-Induced Proinflammatory Mediators by Human Gingival Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Ocheng, Francis; Bwanga, Freddie; Almer Boström, Elisabeth; Joloba, Moses; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay; Obua, Celestino; Gustafsson, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated cytotoxicity of essential oils from four medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon nardus, and Zanthoxylum chalybeum) on human gingival fibroblasts and their effects on proinflammatory mediators' secretion. Cytotoxicity of essential oils was investigated using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay. Effects of essential oils at subcytotoxicity concentrations on interleukin- (IL-) 6, IL-8, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretions by gingival fibroblasts treated with IL-1β (300 pg/mL) were evaluated by ELISA and EIA. IC50 values of the essential oils ranged from 26 μg/mL to 50 μg/mL. Baseline and IL-1β-induced secretion of PGE2 was inhibited by treatment with essential oil from O. gratissimum. Essential oils from B. pilosa and C. nardus had synergistic effects with IL-1β on PGE2 seceretion. In conclusion, the study suggests that essential oil from O. gratissimum decreases gingival fibroblasts secretion of PGE2, while essential oils from B. pilosa and C. nardus increase PGE2 secretion. Essential oil from Z. chalybeum was the most cytotoxic, while oil from C. nardus was the least cytotoxic. Although the clinical significance of these findings remains to be determined, it may be suggested that essential oil from O. gratissimum, applied at subcytotoxicity concentrations, could reduce the participation of gingival fibroblasts in the gingival inflammation and tissue destruction associated with periodontitis.

  10. Essential Oils from Ugandan Medicinal Plants: In Vitro Cytotoxicity and Effects on IL-1β-Induced Proinflammatory Mediators by Human Gingival Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Bwanga, Freddie; Joloba, Moses; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay; Obua, Celestino

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated cytotoxicity of essential oils from four medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon nardus, and Zanthoxylum chalybeum) on human gingival fibroblasts and their effects on proinflammatory mediators' secretion. Cytotoxicity of essential oils was investigated using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay. Effects of essential oils at subcytotoxicity concentrations on interleukin- (IL-) 6, IL-8, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretions by gingival fibroblasts treated with IL-1β (300 pg/mL) were evaluated by ELISA and EIA. IC50 values of the essential oils ranged from 26 μg/mL to 50 μg/mL. Baseline and IL-1β-induced secretion of PGE2 was inhibited by treatment with essential oil from O. gratissimum. Essential oils from B. pilosa and C. nardus had synergistic effects with IL-1β on PGE2 seceretion. In conclusion, the study suggests that essential oil from O. gratissimum decreases gingival fibroblasts secretion of PGE2, while essential oils from B. pilosa and C. nardus increase PGE2 secretion. Essential oil from Z. chalybeum was the most cytotoxic, while oil from C. nardus was the least cytotoxic. Although the clinical significance of these findings remains to be determined, it may be suggested that essential oil from O. gratissimum, applied at subcytotoxicity concentrations, could reduce the participation of gingival fibroblasts in the gingival inflammation and tissue destruction associated with periodontitis. PMID:27807462

  11. Bactericidal activity of herbal volatile oil extracts against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Intorasoot, Amornrat; Chornchoem, Piyaorn; Sookkhee, Siriwoot; Intorasoot, Sorasak

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate the antibacterial activity of 10 volatile oils extracted from medicinal plants, including galangal (Alpinia galanga Linn.), ginger (Zingiber officinale), plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC.), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.), tree basil (Ocimum gratissimum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus DC.), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) against four standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and 30 clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDR-A. baumannii). Materials and Methods: Agar diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were employed for the determination of bactericidal activity of water distilled medicinal plants. Tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) was used as positive control in this study. Results: The results indicated the volatile oil extracted from cinnamon exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the most common human pathogens, S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and A. baumannii. Most of volatile oil extracts were less effective against non-fermentative bacteria, P. aeruginosa. In addition, volatile oil extracted from cinnamon, clove, and tree basil possessed potent bactericidal activity against MDR-A. baumannii with MBC90 of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: The volatile oil extracts would be useful as alternative natural product for the treatment of the most common human pathogens and MDR-A. baumannii infections. PMID:28512603

  12. Bactericidal activity of herbal volatile oil extracts against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Intorasoot, Amornrat; Chornchoem, Piyaorn; Sookkhee, Siriwoot; Intorasoot, Sorasak

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the antibacterial activity of 10 volatile oils extracted from medicinal plants, including galangal (Alpinia galanga Linn.), ginger (Zingiber officinale), plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC.), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.), tree basil (Ocimum gratissimum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus DC.), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) against four standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and 30 clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDR-A. baumannii). Agar diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were employed for the determination of bactericidal activity of water distilled medicinal plants. Tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) was used as positive control in this study. The results indicated the volatile oil extracted from cinnamon exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the most common human pathogens, S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and A. baumannii. Most of volatile oil extracts were less effective against non-fermentative bacteria, P. aeruginosa. In addition, volatile oil extracted from cinnamon, clove, and tree basil possessed potent bactericidal activity against MDR-A. baumannii with MBC90 of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/mL, respectively. The volatile oil extracts would be useful as alternative natural product for the treatment of the most common human pathogens and MDR-A. baumannii infections.

  13. In vitro antimicrobial activity of plants in Acute Otitis Externa.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Janaina Cândida Rodrigues; Diniz, Margareth de Fátima Melo; Lima, Edeltrudes O

    2008-01-01

    Acute Otitis Externa is an inflammation of the outer auditory meatus, and according to popular saying, medicinal plant extracts can be used in its treatment. to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the following plants: Aleolanthus suaveolens; Caryophyllus aromaticus; Cymbopogon citratus; Matricaria chamomila; Pithecellobium avaremotemo; Plectranthus amboinicus and Ruta graveolens on the germs that cause otitis externa. the minimum inhibitory concentration of extracts and oils from these plants was obtained from otitis externa samples. Staphylococcus aureus in 10 cultures, Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 8, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus together in 5 cultures and Candida albicans and Candida krusei in 4 cultures. P. aeruginosa was resistant to all oils and extracts tested; extracts from A. suaveolens, P. avaremotemo and R. graveolens were inactive; the essential oil from C. aromaticus and M. chamomila were active against 3 strains of S. aureus and the Candida strains; seven of the S. aureus strains were sensitive to the P. amboinicus extract; however, the oil was inactive against 4 S. aureus strains and the Candida strains were sensitive to the R. graveolens essential oil. depending on the etiological agent, some plants presented satisfactory results, however we still need more detailed studies in order to better use these plants.

  14. Anti-candidal activity of essential oils alone and in combination with amphotericin B or fluconazole against multi-drug resistant isolates of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohd Sajjad Ahmad; Malik, Abida; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2012-01-01

    Therapy for candidiasis is becoming problematic due to the toxicities of currently available antifungal agents and the increasing prevalence of resistance among the etiologic agents. Therefore, new antifungals and alternative approaches are needed. In this study, 20 fluconazole-resistant strains of Candida albicans were found to have varying levels of resistance to other azoles, i.e., itraconazole (MIC of 4-128 μg/ml) and ketoconazole (2-256 μg/ml). In addition, 13 of these isolates appeared resistant to amphotericin B (32-128 μg/ml). A total of 21 plant essential oils were screened for their antifungal activity against these multi-drug resistant isolates. The oils of Cymbopogon martini, i.e., citral and cinnamaldehyde, exhibited strong inhibitory activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC(50)) ranging from 90-100 μg/ml. The test oils were more effective than fluconazole and amphotericin B in inhibiting azole- and amphotericin B-resistant, as well as amphotericin B-susceptible isolates. The test oils and especially eugenol, exhibited significant synergy with fluconazole or amphotericin B against the test isolates. These findings suggest the possible effective use of certain oils alone or in combination with fluconazole or amphotericin B, against multi-drug resistant isolates of C. albicans.

  15. Correlation between chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils of some aromatic medicinal plants growing in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Cimanga, K; Kambu, K; Tona, L; Apers, S; De Bruyne, T; Hermans, N; Totté, J; Pieters, L; Vlietinck, A J

    2002-02-01

    The chemical composition of essential oils from 15 aromatic medicinal plant species growing in the Democratic Republic of Congo have been studied. More than 15 constituents in an amount higher than 0.1% were identified in each essential oil. 1,8-cineole, alpha and beta-pinene, p-cymene, myrcene, gamma-terpinene, alpha-terpineol and limonene were prevalent constituents in almost more than 10 selected plant species. Results from the antibacterial testing by the diffusion method indicate that all essential oils (5 microl per disc) inhibited the growth of selected bacteria at different extents. The most active antibacterial essential oils were those of the leaves of Eucalyptus camadulensis and Eucalyptus terticornis (12-30 mm zone diameter of inhibition). They showed particularly a most potent inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth (15-16 mm), followed by Eucalyptus robusta (12 mm). Essential oils from the leaves of Eucalyptus alba, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus deglupta, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus robusta, Aframomum stipulatum, Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum americanum and that of the seeds of Monodora myristica showed also a good antibacterial activity (10-18 mm). Eucalyptus propinqua, Eucalyptus urophylla and Ocimum gratissimum essential oils were the less active samples against the selected bacteria. No correlation between the amount of major constituents such as 1,8-cineol, alpha-pinene, p-cymene, cryptone or thymol and the antibacterial activity was observed.

  16. Five essential oils from aromatic plants of Cameroon: their antibacterial activity and ability to permeabilize the cytoplasmic membrane of Listeria innocua examined by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Nguefack, J; Budde, B B; Jakobsen, M

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the antibacterial effect of five essential oils (EO) extracted from aromatic plants (Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimumbasilicum, Ocimum gratissimum, Thymus vulgaris and Zingiber officinale) of Cameroon against strains of Listeria monocytogenes, L. innocua and Staphylococcus aureus. The ability of selected EO to permeabilize the cytoplasmic membrane of L. innocua was also examined. The antibacterial activity of the EO determined by the agar diffusion method showed that T. vulgaris had the highest activity followed by O. gratissimum and C. citratus. Lowest activity was recorded from Z. officinale and O. basilicum. Significant differences in sensitivity between strains of Listeria and S. aureus were observed. Flow cytometry of L. innocua stained with carboxy-fluorescein diacetate showed that the fluorescence intensity of cells exposed to EO decreased faster than nonexposed cells, indicating that EO permeabilized the cytoplasmic membrane with the leakage of carboxy-fluorescein. Almost all the EO tested showed antibacterial activity to a different extent. The antibacterial effect was due to permeabilization of the cytoplasmic membrane. This study has identified the preservative potential of the EO examined. The use of sensitive method, such as flow cytometry, is advantageous for quick generation of data on the antibacterial effect of EO.

  17. Synergism between plant extract and antimicrobial drugs used on Staphylococcus aureus diseases.

    PubMed

    Betoni, Joyce Elaine Cristina; Mantovani, Rebeca Passarelli; Barbosa, Lidiane Nunes; Di Stasi, Luiz Claudio; Fernandes Junior, Ary

    2006-06-01

    Searches for substances with antimicrobial activity are frequent, and medicinal plants have been considered interesting by some researchers since they are frequently used in popular medicine as remedies for many infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to verify the synergism between 13 antimicrobial drugs and 8 plant extracts--"guaco" (Mikania glomerata), guava (Psidium guajava), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), garlic (Allium sativum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), ginger (Zingiber officinale), "carqueja" (Baccharis trimera), and mint (Mentha piperita)--against Staphylococcus aureus strains, and for this purpose, the disk method was the antimicrobial susceptibility test performed. Petri dishes were prepared with or without dilution of plant extracts at sub-inhibitory concentrations in Mueller-Hinton Agar (MHA), and the inhibitory zones were recorded in millimeters. In vitro anti-Staphylococcus aureus activities of the extracts were confirmed, and synergism was verified for all the extracts; clove, guava, and lemongrass presented the highest synergism rate with antimicrobial drugs, while ginger and garlic showed limited synergistic capacity.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Tomoyuki; Kita, Masakazu; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Imamura, Shigeyoshi; Yamamoto, Toshiro; Mitsufuji, Shoji; Kodama, Tadashi; Kashima, Kei; Imanishi, JirO

    2003-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an important pathogen responsible for gastroduodenal diseases in humans. Although the eradication of H. pylori using antibiotics often improves gastroduodenal diseases, resistance to the antibiotics is emerging. The antimicrobial effect of essential oils and the development of resistance to the essential oils were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Thirteen essential oils used in this study completely inhibited the growth of H. pylori in vitro at a concentration of 0.1% (v/v). Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) and Lippia citriodora (lemon verbena) were bactericidal against H. pylori at 0.01% at pH 4.0 and 5.0. Resistance to lemongrass did not develop even after 10 sequential passages, whereas resistance to clarithromycin developed under the same conditions. In in vivo studies, the density of H. pylori in the stomach of mice treated with lemongrass was significantly reduced compared with untreated mice. These results demonstrate that the essential oils are bactericidal against H. pylori without the development of acquired resistance, suggesting that essential oils may have potential as new and safe agents for inclusion in anti-H. pylori regimens.

  19. Therapeutic effects on murine oral candidiasis by oral administration of cassia (Cinnamomum cassia) preparation.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Yuuki; Takizawa, Toshio; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Sagawa, Takehito; Arai, Ryo; Inoue, Shigeharu; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Abe, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    We examined the effects of spices and herbs on Candida albicans growth using in vitro assay and therapeutic activity of some selected herbal preparations against murine oral candidiasis. All tested samples: lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa), green tea (Camellia sinensis), and cassia (Cinnamomum cassia) inhibited Candida mycelial growth in vitro. The results of this assay showed that the anti-Candida activity of lemongrass, green tea, and cassia is stronger than that of the other tested herbs. Oral administration of lemongrass or green tea did not result in significant improvement in the murine oral candidiasis, while the administration of cassia improved the symptoms and reduced the number of viable Candida cells in the oral cavity. The results of in vitro Candida growth assay including GC/MS analysis suggested that cinnamaldehyde in the cassia preparation was the principal component responsible for the inhibitory activity of Candida mycelial growth. These findings suggest that oral intake of a cassia preparation is a clinical candidate for a prophylactic or therapeutic tool against oral Candida infection.

  20. Antioxidant Potential of a Polyherbal Antimalarial as an Indicator of Its Therapeutic Value

    PubMed Central

    Arrey Tarkang, Protus; Nwachiban Atchan, Achille Parfait; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Okalebo, Faith Apoelot; Guantai, Anastasia Nkatha; Agbor, Gabriel Agbor

    2013-01-01

    Nefang is a polyherbal product composed of Mangifera indica (bark and leaf), Psidium guajava, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Citrus sinensis, and Ocimum gratissimum (leaves), used for the treatment of malaria. Compounds with antioxidant activity are believed to modulate plasmodial infection. Antioxidant activity of the constituent aqueous plants extracts, in vitro, was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), total phenolic content (TPC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods and, in vivo, Nefang (100 and 500 mg kg−1) activity was evaluated in carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stressed Wistar rats. Superoxide dismutase, catalase activities, and lipid peroxidation by the malondialdehyde and total proteins assays were carried out. P. guajava, M. indica leaf, and bark extracts had the highest antioxidant properties in all three assays, with no statistically significant difference. Rats treated with the carbon tetrachloride had a statistically significant decrease in levels of triglycerides, superoxide dismutase, and catalase (P < 0.05) and increase in malondialdehyde activity, total protein levels, and liver and renal function markers, whereas rats treated with Nefang showed increased levels in the former and dose-dependent decrease towards normal levels in the later. These results reveal the constituent plants of Nefang that contribute to its in vivo antioxidant potential. This activity is a good indication of the therapeutic potential of Nefang. PMID:24454347

  1. Effect of Lemongrass Aroma on Experimental Anxiety in Humans.

    PubMed

    Goes, Tiago Costa; Ursulino, Fábio Reis Carvalho; Almeida-Souza, Thiago Henrique; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Teixeira-Silva, Flavia

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential anxiolytic effect of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) aroma in healthy volunteers submitted to an anxiogenic situation. Forty male volunteers were allocated to four different groups for the inhalation of lemongrass essential oil (test aroma: three or six drops), tea tree essential oil (control aroma: three drops), or distilled water (nonaromatic control: three drops). Immediately after inhalation, each volunteer was submitted to an experimental model of anxiety, the video-monitored version of the Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT). Psychologic parameters (state anxiety, subjective tension, tranquilization, and sedation) and physiologic parameters (heart rate and gastrocnemius electromyogram activity) were evaluated before the inhalation period and before, during, and after the SCWT. Individuals exposed to the test aroma (three and six drops), unlike the control groups, presented a reduction in state anxiety and subjective tension, immediately after treatment administration. In addition, although they presented an anxious response to the task, they completely recovered from it in 5 min, unlike the control groups. Physiologic alterations along the test were not prevented by any treatment, in the same way as has previously been observed for diazepam. Although more investigations are necessary to clarify the clinical relevance of lemongrass essential oil as an anxiety treatment, this work shows that very brief exposure to this aroma has some perceived anxiolytic effects.

  2. Characterization of potent anticholinesterase plant oil based microemulsion.

    PubMed

    Chaiyana, Wantida; Saeio, Kiattisak; Hennink, Wim E; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2010-11-30

    In the present study, essential oils of three edible Thai plants, Cymbopogon citratus (Gramineae), Citrus hystrix (Rutaceae) and Zingiber cassumunar (Zingiberaceae) were comparatively tested for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities using Ellman's colorimetric method. C. citratus oil exhibited the highest activity with IC(50) values of 0.34±0.07μl/ml and 2.14±0.18μl/ml against BChE and AChE activity, respectively. It was further investigated whether microemulsions of this oil could be obtained. The effects of type of surfactant and co-surfactant as well as pH and ionic strength on the phase behavior of the oil/water system were investigated. Brij 97, Triton X-114, Tween 20 and Tween 85 were employed as surfactant whereas ethanol and hexanol were used as cosurfactants. The size analysis, electrical conductivity measurements and cholinesterase inhibition assays were done in selected microemulsion. The results revealed that the type and concentration of surfactant and co-surfactant exhibited a distinct influence on the C. citratus oil microemulsions. Moreover, the inhibitory activities of the microemulsion formulation were remarkable. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Enantioselective effects of (+)- and (-)-citronellal on animal and plant microtubules.

    PubMed

    Altshuler, Osnat; Abu-Abied, Mohamad; Chaimovitsh, David; Shechter, Alona; Frucht, Hilla; Dudai, Nativ; Sadot, Einat

    2013-09-27

    Citronellal is a major component of Corymbia citriodora and Cymbopogon nardus essential oils. Herein it is shown that whereas (+)-citronellal (1) is an effective microtubule (MT)-disrupting compound, (-)-citronellal (2) is not. Quantitative image analysis of fibroblast cells treated with 1 showed total fluorescence associated with fibers resembling that in cells treated with the MT-disrupting agents colchicine and vinblastine; in the presence of 2, the fluorescence more closely resembled that in control cells. The distribution of tubulin in soluble and insoluble fractions in the presence of 1 also resembled that in the presence of colchicine, whereas similar tubulin distribution was obtained in the presence of 2 and in control cells. In vitro polymerization of MTs was inhibited by 1 but not 2. Measurements of MT dynamics in plant cells showed similar MT elongation and shortening rates in control and 2-treated cells, whereas in the presence of 1, much fewer and shorter MTs were observed and no elongation or shrinkage was detected. Taken together, the MT system is suggested to be able to discriminate between different enantiomers of the same compound. In addition, the activity of essential oils rich in citronellal is affected by the relative content of the two enantiomers of this monoterpenoid.

  4. An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.

    PubMed

    Starliper, Clifford E; Ketola, Henry G; Noyes, Andrew D; Schill, William B; Henson, Fred G; Chalupnicki, Marc A; Dittman, Dawn E

    2015-01-01

    Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments of captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine whether selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC's) were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum) and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBCs (0.02-0.04%) were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBCs for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14% to 0.30% and 0.10% to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11% and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5%) of Allimed® tested resulted in MBCs to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBCs for all but one isolate.

  5. Nematicidal activity of essential oils and volatiles derived from Portuguese aromatic flora against the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, P.; Lima, A. S.; Vieira, P.; Dias, L. S.; Tinoco, M. T.; Barroso, J. G.; Pedro, L. G.; Figueiredo, A. C.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty seven essential oils, isolated from plants representing 11 families of Portuguese flora, were screened for their nematicidal activity against the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and the volatiles by distillation-extraction, and both were analysed by GC and GC-MS. High nematicidal activity was achieved with essential oils from Chamaespartium tridentatum, Origanum vulgare, Satureja montana, Thymbra capitata, and Thymus caespititius. All of these essential oils had an estimated minimum inhibitory concentration ranging between 0.097 and 0.374 mg/ml and a lethal concentration necessary to kill 100% of the population (LC100) between 0.858 and 1.984 mg/ml. Good nematicidal activity was also obtained with the essential oil from Cymbopogon citratus. The dominant components of the effective oils were 1–octen-3-ol (9%), n–nonanal, and linalool (both 7%) in C. tridentatum, geranial (43%), neral (29%), and β-myrcene (25%) in C. citratus, carvacrol (36% and 39%), γ-terpinene (24% and 40%), and p-cymene (14% and 7%) in O. vulgare and S. montana, respectively, and carvacrol (75% and 65%, respectively) in T. capitata and T. caespititius. The other essential oils obtained from Portuguese flora yielded weak or no activity. Five essential oils with nematicidal activity against PWN are reported for the first time. PMID:22736831

  6. Usefulness of the SOS Chromotest in the study of medicinal plants as radioprotectors.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Jorge Luis; Alonso, Alena; Cuétara, Elizabeth; Vernhe, Mariolys; Alvarez, Nadine; Sánchez-Lamar, Angel; Llagostera, Montserrat

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the usefulness of a modified protocol of the SOS Chromotest to detect antigenotoxicity activities against gamma-rays of plant extracts with proven antioxidant activity, and to elucidate the antigenotoxic mechanisms involved in radioprotection using this system. The methodology developed was assayed with amifostine, the most studied radioprotector, and with Phyllanthus orbicularis HBK, Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf and Pinus caribaea Morelet extracts, using pre- and post-treatment procedures. The P. caribaea and C. citratus extracts were antigenotoxic against gamma-rays when the cells were pre-treated with both extracts, suggesting a possible antigenotoxic action through a free radical scavenging mechanisms. Amifostine and the P. orbicularis extract were also antigenotoxic under pre- and post-treatment conditions, indicating that several antimutagenic components of this plant extract may also operate by some intracellular mechanism, unlike its antioxidant activity. The results have demonstrated the usefulness of the modified SOS Chromotest assay in the screening of phytochemical radioprotectors as well as in the study of their antimutagenic mechanisms.

  7. Chemical Profiling and Evaluation of Antioxidant and Anti-Microbial Properties of Selected Commercial Essential Oils: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Luís, Ângelo; Duarte, Ana Paula; Pereira, Luísa; Domingues, Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    Background: The last decades have seen an increased awareness by the scientific community of the extent of resistance to conventional antibiotics, particularly with respect to the emerging multidrug-resistant pathogenic microbes. Additionally, natural antioxidants have received significant attention among food professionals and consumers because of their assumed safety and potential therapeutic value. The aim of this work was to assess the antioxidant activities of eight selected commercial essential oils (EOs), together with the evaluation of their antibacterial and anti-quorum sensing properties. Methods: The chemical profiling of the EOs was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The antioxidant properties of the EOs were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and by β-carotene bleaching test. Disc diffusion assays were employed to evaluate the anti-bacterial and anti-quorum sensing activities of the EOs. Results: It was observed that EOs from three Eucalyptus species are rich in eucalyptol. Generally, linalool is abundant in EOs from four Lavandula species. The oil of Cymbopogon citratus is the one with the best capacity to scavenge the DPPH free radicals and presented great antibacterial activity. Conclusions: The geographical origins of the plant species are determinant factors in the EO composition and in the corresponding biological activities. PMID:28930251

  8. Nematicidal activity of essential oils and volatiles derived from Portuguese aromatic flora against the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, P; Lima, A S; Vieira, P; Dias, L S; Tinoco, M T; Barroso, J G; Pedro, L G; Figueiredo, A C; Mota, M

    2010-03-01

    Twenty seven essential oils, isolated from plants representing 11 families of Portuguese flora, were screened for their nematicidal activity against the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and the volatiles by distillation-extraction, and both were analysed by GC and GC-MS. High nematicidal activity was achieved with essential oils from Chamaespartium tridentatum, Origanum vulgare, Satureja montana, Thymbra capitata, and Thymus caespititius. All of these essential oils had an estimated minimum inhibitory concentration ranging between 0.097 and 0.374 mg/ml and a lethal concentration necessary to kill 100% of the population (LC(100)) between 0.858 and 1.984 mg/ml. Good nematicidal activity was also obtained with the essential oil from Cymbopogon citratus. The dominant components of the effective oils were 1-octen-3-ol (9%), n-nonanal, and linalool (both 7%) in C. tridentatum, geranial (43%), neral (29%), and β-myrcene (25%) in C. citratus, carvacrol (36% and 39%), γ-terpinene (24% and 40%), and p-cymene (14% and 7%) in O. vulgare and S. montana, respectively, and carvacrol (75% and 65%, respectively) in T. capitata and T. caespititius. The other essential oils obtained from Portuguese flora yielded weak or no activity. Five essential oils with nematicidal activity against PWN are reported for the first time.

  9. The inhibition of Candida albicans by selected essential oils and their major components.

    PubMed

    Tampieri, Maria Paola; Galuppi, Roberta; Macchioni, Fabio; Carelle, Maria Stella; Falcioni, Laura; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Morelli, Ivano

    2005-04-01

    Many volatile oils are known to possess antifungal properties and are potentially applicable as antimycotic agents. By studying the efficacy of essential oils against different pathogenic mycetes, we have evaluated the in-vitro inhibiting activity of some essential oils and their main constituents against a strain of Candida albicans. Sixteen commercial essential oils and forty-two pure constituents (alcohols, aldehydes, ketons, phenols and hydrocarbons), were tested by using a semisolid agar antifungal susceptibility (SAAS) method. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analyses of the oils tested were performed. The essential oils of Origanum vulgare, Satureja montana, Mentha piperita, Cinnamomum verum, Cymbopogon flexuosus showed maximum inhibitory activity (MIC = 500 ppm) after 7 days. According to the results of the examination of pure constituents, beta-phellandrene proved to be the most interesting component among cyclic monoterpenic hydrocarbons as it showed a strong activity (MIC = 50 ppm). The most active of phenols was carvacrol (MIC 100 ppm). The open-chain alcohol 1-decanol was the most active of alcohols at 50 ppm. Finally, among aldehydes, a strong activity was shown by trans-cynnamaldehyde (MIC 50 ppm).

  10. Ultra-low level optical detection of mercuric ions using biogenic gold nanotriangles.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amit; Pasricha, Renu; Sastry, Murali

    2012-07-07

    Mercury is a serious environmental pollutant known to have detrimental health effects in all life forms. Here, we report the use of biologically synthesized aqueous gold nanotriangles for sensitive and selective optical detection of femto-molar levels of mercury ions by exploiting the high amalgamation tendency of mercury metal towards gold. Aqueous ch