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Sample records for citrus active germplasm

  1. Past and future of a century old Citrus Tristeza Virus collection: A California citrus germplasm tale

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The California Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP), Riverside, CA provides a mechanism for introduction and distribution of citrus germplasm from any citrus-growing area of the world to California for use in research, variety improvement, or by industry. Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a serious ...

  2. Content evaluation of 4 furanocoumarin monomers in various citrus germplasms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Juan; Ma, Lili; Jiang, Dong; Zhu, Shiping; Yan, Fuhua; Xie, Yunxia; Xie, Zongzhou; Guo, Wenwu; Deng, Xiuxin

    2015-11-15

    Due to the furanocoumarin compounds in the fruit, the production and consumption of grapefruit have been affected in the past decades since the 'grapefruit juice effect' was declared. To provide elite germplasm and obtain knowledge for future citrus breeding programs, the contents of 4 furanocoumarin monomers (FCMs) in the juice sacs from 73 citrus germplasms were evaluated using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. 6',7'-Dihydroxybergamottin and bergamottin were dominant in all the tested grapefruits, while there were some pomelos with dominant epoxybergamottin, and some with dominant 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin and bergamottin. The contents of FCMs were low or below detection in sweet oranges, mandarins, lemons and trifoliate oranges. The results also show that the dominant patterns of FCMs are genotype-related, and crossing and selection are effective approaches to alter FCM profiles in citrus breeding. Furthermore, the contribution of pomelo as a parent to grapefruit regarding their FCM profiles was discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Conservation of citrus germplasm - an international survey

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Citrus is an economically important tree fruit crop in many subtropical and tropical areas. Most cultivated species likely originated in Southern China, Northeast India and Southeast Asia. Many species are inter-fertile and some cultivated citrus types including sweet orange, lemon and grapefruit, ...

  4. Evaluating citrus germplasm for huanglongbing (HLB) resistance: USDA-ARS Inoculation Program

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, is an important pest because it vectors bacteria responsible for a serious disease of citrus known as huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). USDA-ARS researchers recently established a program for screening citrus germplasm for resistance to the di...

  5. Cryopreservation of citrus in the USDA-ARS national plant germplasm system collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diverse Citrus germplasm from the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System, University of California Riverside, and the California citrus industry is at risk of being lost as a result of disease infestations and unexpected weather disasters. At the National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation ...

  6. Abundance of citrus leafminer larvae on citrus and citrus-related germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), is a key pest in most citrus growing regions worldwide. Adult citrus leafminers oviposit primarily on young elongating flush of citrus as well as other Rutaceae and some ornamental plants. Larvae feed on the epiderm...

  7. Past and future of a century old Citrus tristeza virus collection: a California citrus germplasm tale.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinbo; Bozan, Orhan; Kwon, Sun-Jung; Dang, Tyler; Rucker, Tavia; Yokomi, Raymond K; Lee, Richard F; Folimonova, Svetlana Y; Krueger, Robert R; Bash, John; Greer, Greg; Diaz, James; Serna, Ramon; Vidalakis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates collected from citrus germplasm, dooryard and field trees in California from 1914 have been maintained in planta under quarantine in the Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP), Riverside, California. This collection, therefore, represents populations of CTV isolates obtained over time and space in California. To determine CTV genetic diversity in this context, genotypes of CTV isolates from the CCPP collection were characterized using multiple molecular markers (MMM). Genotypes T30, VT, and T36 were found at high frequencies with T30 and T30+VT genotypes being the most abundant. The MMM analysis did not identify T3 and B165/T68 genotypes; however, biological and phylogenetic analysis suggested some relationships of CCPP CTV isolates with these two genotypes. Phylogenetic analysis of the CTV coat protein (CP) gene sequences classified the tested isolates into seven distinct clades. Five clades were in association with the standard CTV genotypes T30, T36, T3, VT, and B165/T68. The remaining two identified clades were not related to any standard CTV genotypes. Spatiotemporal analysis indicated a trend of reduced genotype and phylogenetic diversity as well as virulence from southern California (SC) at early (1907-1957) in comparison to that of central California (CC) isolates collected from later (1957-2009) time periods. CTV biological characterization also indicated a reduced number and less virulent stem pitting (SP) CTV isolates compared to seedling yellows isolates introduced to California. This data provides a historical insight of the introduction, movement, and genetic diversity of CTV in California and provides genetic and biological information useful for CTV quarantine, eradication, and disease management strategies such as CTV-SP cross protection.

  8. Past and future of a century old Citrus tristeza virus collection: a California citrus germplasm tale

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinbo; Bozan, Orhan; Kwon, Sun-Jung; Dang, Tyler; Rucker, Tavia; Yokomi, Raymond K.; Lee, Richard F.; Folimonova, Svetlana Y.; Krueger, Robert R.; Bash, John; Greer, Greg; Diaz, James; Serna, Ramon; Vidalakis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates collected from citrus germplasm, dooryard and field trees in California from 1914 have been maintained in planta under quarantine in the Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP), Riverside, California. This collection, therefore, represents populations of CTV isolates obtained over time and space in California. To determine CTV genetic diversity in this context, genotypes of CTV isolates from the CCPP collection were characterized using multiple molecular markers (MMM). Genotypes T30, VT, and T36 were found at high frequencies with T30 and T30+VT genotypes being the most abundant. The MMM analysis did not identify T3 and B165/T68 genotypes; however, biological and phylogenetic analysis suggested some relationships of CCPP CTV isolates with these two genotypes. Phylogenetic analysis of the CTV coat protein (CP) gene sequences classified the tested isolates into seven distinct clades. Five clades were in association with the standard CTV genotypes T30, T36, T3, VT, and B165/T68. The remaining two identified clades were not related to any standard CTV genotypes. Spatiotemporal analysis indicated a trend of reduced genotype and phylogenetic diversity as well as virulence from southern California (SC) at early (1907–1957) in comparison to that of central California (CC) isolates collected from later (1957–2009) time periods. CTV biological characterization also indicated a reduced number and less virulent stem pitting (SP) CTV isolates compared to seedling yellows isolates introduced to California. This data provides a historical insight of the introduction, movement, and genetic diversity of CTV in California and provides genetic and biological information useful for CTV quarantine, eradication, and disease management strategies such as CTV-SP cross protection. PMID:24339822

  9. Past and future of a century old Citrus Tristeza virus collection: A California citrus germplasm tale

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The California Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP) provides a mechanism for introduction and distribution of pathogen-free citrus varieties to California for use in research, variety improvement, or commercial production. Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a serious citrus pathogen worldwide. The pr...

  10. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented.

  11. Apparent tolerance to huanglongbing in citrus and citrus-related germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In a Ft. Pierce, Florida field planting, growth and huanglongbing (HLB) severity were assessed as indicators of HLB-tolerance on progenies of 83 seed-source accessions of citrus and citrus-relatives from the Riverside, California genebank. The HLB-pathogen (Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus) and vec...

  12. Screening Citrus germplasm for tolerance to HLB and Diaphorina citri--progress

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This article summarizes a project that is being funded in part by the California Citrus Research Board. In a previous field trial, 87 genotypes of citrus were planted in the field in Florida and the different genotypes were evaluated for tolerance to Asian citrus psyllid, citrus leaf miner, and hua...

  13. Assessment of the genetic diversity of the Tunisian citrus rootstock germplasm.

    PubMed

    Snoussi, Hager; Duval, Marie-France; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Belfalah, Zina; Froelicher, Yann; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Perrier, Xavier; Jacquemoud-Collet, Jean-Pierre; Navarro, Luis; Harrabi, Moncef; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2012-03-19

    Citrus represents a substantial income for farmers in the Mediterranean Basin. However, the Mediterranean citrus industry faces increasing biotic and abiotic constraints. Therefore the breeding and selection of new rootstocks are now of the utmost importance. In Tunisia, in addition to sour orange, the most widespread traditional rootstock of the Mediterranean area, other citrus rootstocks and well adapted to local environmental conditions, are traditionally used and should be important genetic resources for breeding. To characterize the diversity of Tunisian citrus rootstocks, two hundred and one local accessions belonging to four facultative apomictic species (C. aurantium, sour orange; C. sinensis, orange; C. limon, lemon; and C. aurantifolia, lime) were collected and genotyped using 20 nuclear SSR markers and four indel mitochondrial markers. Multi-locus genotypes (MLGs) were compared to references from French and Spanish collections. The differentiation of the four varietal groups was well-marked. The groups displayed a relatively high allelic diversity, primarily due to very high heterozygosity. Sixteen distinct MLGs were identified. Ten of these were noted in sour oranges. However, the majority of the analysed sour orange accessions corresponded with only two MLGs, differentiated by a single allele, likely due to a mutation. The most frequent MLG is shared with the reference sour oranges. No polymorphism was found within the sweet orange group. Two MLGs, differentiated by a single locus, were noted in lemon. The predominant MLG was shared with the reference lemons. Limes were represented by three genotypes. Two corresponded to the 'Mexican lime' and 'limonette de Marrakech' references. The MLG of 'Chiiri' lime was unique. The Tunisian citrus rootstock genetic diversity is predominantly due to high heterozygosity and differentiation between the four varietal groups. The phenotypic diversity within the varietal groups has resulted from multiple introductions

  14. Assessment of the genetic diversity of the Tunisian citrus rootstock germplasm

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Citrus represents a substantial income for farmers in the Mediterranean Basin. However, the Mediterranean citrus industry faces increasing biotic and abiotic constraints. Therefore the breeding and selection of new rootstocks are now of the utmost importance. In Tunisia, in addition to sour orange, the most widespread traditional rootstock of the Mediterranean area, other citrus rootstocks and well adapted to local environmental conditions, are traditionally used and should be important genetic resources for breeding. To characterize the diversity of Tunisian citrus rootstocks, two hundred and one local accessions belonging to four facultative apomictic species (C. aurantium, sour orange; C. sinensis, orange; C. limon, lemon; and C. aurantifolia, lime) were collected and genotyped using 20 nuclear SSR markers and four indel mitochondrial markers. Multi-locus genotypes (MLGs) were compared to references from French and Spanish collections. Results The differentiation of the four varietal groups was well-marked. The groups displayed a relatively high allelic diversity, primarily due to very high heterozygosity. Sixteen distinct MLGs were identified. Ten of these were noted in sour oranges. However, the majority of the analysed sour orange accessions corresponded with only two MLGs, differentiated by a single allele, likely due to a mutation. The most frequent MLG is shared with the reference sour oranges. No polymorphism was found within the sweet orange group. Two MLGs, differentiated by a single locus, were noted in lemon. The predominant MLG was shared with the reference lemons. Limes were represented by three genotypes. Two corresponded to the 'Mexican lime' and 'limonette de Marrakech' references. The MLG of 'Chiiri' lime was unique. Conclusions The Tunisian citrus rootstock genetic diversity is predominantly due to high heterozygosity and differentiation between the four varietal groups. The phenotypic diversity within the varietal groups has

  15. Comparison of antifungal activities of Vietnamese citrus essential oils.

    PubMed

    Van Hung, Pham; Chi, Pham Thi Lan; Phi, Nguyen Thi Lan

    2013-03-01

    Citrus essential oils (EOs) are volatile compounds from citrus peels and widely used in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps and aromatherapy. In this study, inhibition of citrus EOs extracted from Vietnamese orange (Citrus sinensis), mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), pomelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) on the growth of plant pathogenic fungi, Mucor hiemalis, Penicillium expansum and Fusarium proliferatum was investigated. The EOs of the citrus peels were obtained by cold-pressing method and the antifungal activity of EOs was evaluated using the agar dilution method. The results show that the EOs had significant antifungal activity. Lime EO was the best inhibitor of M. hiemalis and F. proliferatum while pomelo EO was the most effective against P. expansum. These results indicate that citrus EOs can be used as antifungal natural products in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.

  16. Dietary antioxidant activities in different germplasms of Mucuna.

    PubMed

    Uma, Sundaram; Gurumoorthi, Parameswaran

    2013-07-01

    Mucuna pruriens, an underutilized native legume of South India has been reported to have high levels of L-Dopa, and used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Cellular damage arising from reactive oxygen and nitrogen species is said to cause neurodegenerative disorders. Antioxidants could assuage this oxidative damage of tissue directly and/or indirectly by enhancing natural defenses and also scavenging the free radicals. In this context, the antioxidative potential of different germplasm of Mucuna species was analyzed. Assays were performed to evaluate the enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants in the extracts. Methanolic extracts of Mucuna (black germplasm) yielded high levels dietary antioxidants viz., flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, steroids and phlobotannins qualitatively. Tannins, total phenols, flavanoids, and steroids accounted for 13.60±1.8 tannic acid equivalents, 58.47±3.19 gallic acid equivalents, 23.7±3.12 quercetin equivalents, and 20.3±1.0 mg per 100 mg β-sitosterol equivalents, respectively. Percentage of scavenging activity against hydroxyl, superoxide anion, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide radicals were 39.12%; 57.1%; 41.26%, and 25.68%, respectively. Reducing capacity (17.74%) was seen to concurrently increase with extract concentration. Catalase, glutathione reductase, and polyphenol oxidase activities were found to be 30.15; 26.6 and 42.5 μmol/mg of protein, respectively. The methanolic extract yielded the most potent levels of dietary antioxidants and exhibited high free-radical-scavenging activity.

  17. Mushroom tyrosinase inhibition activity of Aloe vera L. gel from different germplasms.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S Dutta; Masakapalli, S K

    2013-11-01

    In this study, lyophilized and methanolic extracts of aloe gel from different germplasms were evaluated for their potential to inhibit mushroom tyrosinase activity. The results showed potent inhibitory effect of Aloe vera gel extracts on L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) oxidation catalyzed by tyrosinase in a dose-dependent manner. Significant differences in % inhibition of tyrosinase among the extraction methods and the germplasms were observed. The relative performance of the germplasms was evaluated with the help of posthoc multicomparison test. The methanolic extract was more effective than the lyophilized crude gel in all the germplasms. The inhibitory effect of the lyophilized gel and methanolic extract tested from five germplasms followed the order: RM > TN > S24 > OR > RJN. The germplasm RM showed the highest tyrosinase inhibition, and the maximum % inhibition noted was 26.04% and 41.18%, respectively for the lyophilized and methanolic extracts at 6 mg · mL(-1) concentration. Lineweaver-Burk plots of the different concentrations of L-DOPA in the absence and presence of lyophilized gel extract showed competitive inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase in all the germplasms. This study suggests that the germplasm RM could potentially be used for the isolation and identification of the effective tyrosinase inhibitory component, and ascertains the critical role of selecting the best source of germplasm for natural product isolation and characterization. Copyright © 2013 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. National Date Palm Germplasm Repository

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The National Clonal Germplasm Repository for Citrus & Dates (NCGRCD), located in Riverside, California USA, is a project of the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The NCGRCD maintains a collection of germplasm of date palm (Phoneix dactylifera ...

  19. National Date Palm Germplasm Repository

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The National Clonal Germplasm Repository for Citrus & Dates (NCGRCD), located in Riverside, California USA, is a project of the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The NCGRCD maintains a collection of germplasm of date palm (Phoneix dactylifera ...

  20. Antifungal Activity of Citrus Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Jing, Li; Lei, Zhentian; Li, Ligai; Xie, Rangjin; Xi, Wanpeng; Guan, Yu; Sumner, Lloyd W; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2014-03-27

    Citrus essential oils (CEOs) are a mixture of volatile compounds consisting mainly of monoterpene hydrocarbons and are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries because of their antifungal activities. To face the challenge of growing public awareness and concern about food and health safety, studies concerning natural biopreservatives have become the focus of multidisciplinary research efforts. In the past decades, a large amount of literature has been published on the antifungal activity of CEOs. This paper reviews the advances of research on CEOs and focuses on their in vitro and food antifungal activities, chemical compositions of CEOs, and the methods used in antifungal assessment. Furthermore, the antifungal bioactive components in CEOs and their potential mechanism of action are summarized. Finally, the applications of CEOs in the food industry are discussed in an attempt to provide new information for future utilization of CEOs in modern industries.

  1. Investigation of heat treating conditions for enhancing the anti-inflammatory activity of citrus fruit (Citrus reticulata) peels.

    PubMed

    Ho, Su-Chen; Lin, Chih-Cheng

    2008-09-10

    In traditional Chinese medicine, dried citrus fruit peels are widely used as remedies to alleviate coughs and reduce phlegm in the respiratory tract. Induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in inflammatory cells and increased airway production of nitric oxide (NO) are well recognized as key events in inflammation-related respiratory tract diseases. Despite the fact that the enhancing effect of heat treatment on the antioxidant activity of citrus fruit peels has been well documented, the impact of heat treatment on citrus peel beneficial activities regarding anti-inflammation is unclear. To address this issue, we determined the anti-inflammatory activities of heat-treated citrus peel extracts by measuring their inhibitory effect upon NO production by lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Results showed that the anti-inflammatory activity of citrus peel was significantly elevated after 100 degrees C heat treatment in a time-dependent fashion during a period from 0 to 120 min. Inhibition of iNOS gene expression was the major NO-suppressing mechanism of the citrus peel extract. Additionally, the anti-inflammatory activity of citrus peel extract highly correlated with the content of nobiletin and tangeretin. Conclusively, proper and reasonable heat treatment helped to release nobiletin and tangeretin, which were responsible for the increased anti-inflammatory activity of heat-treated citrus peels.

  2. Chlorophyllase activity in chlorophyll-free citrus chromoplasts.

    PubMed

    Hirschfeld, K R; Goldschmidt, E E

    1983-06-01

    Chromoplast fractions from mature, chlorophyll-less 'Valencia' orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) flavedo (= the outer coloured layer of citrus peel) showed considerable chlorophyllase activity. Acetone powders prepared from chromoplast fractions had 2.5× higher specific activity than those prepared from whole flavedo. Exposure of mature, chlorophyll-less fruit to ethylene caused a 2.5 to 4.0 fold increase in chlorophyllase activity. Juice chromoplasts showed negligible chlorophyllase activity. The results suggest that chlorophyllase activity as well as its induction by ethylene are not dependent upon the presence of chlorophyll in the tissue.

  3. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity by essential oil from Citrus paradisi.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, M; Tougo, H; Ishihara, M

    2001-01-01

    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity by essential oils of Citrus paradisi (grapefruit pink in USA) was studied. Inhibition of AChE was measured by the colorimetric method. Nootkatone and auraptene were isolated from C. paradisi oil and showed 17-24% inhibition of AChE activity at the concentration of 1.62 microg/mL.

  4. Antibacterial activity of Citrus reticulata peel extracts.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Negi, P S; Sikder, S; Rao, L J; Sakariah, K K

    2000-01-01

    Citrus peels were successively extracted with hexane, chloroform and acetone using a soxhlet extractor. The hexane and chloroform extracts were fractionated into alcohol-soluble and alcohol-insoluble fractions. These fractions were tested against different gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The EtOH-soluble fraction was found to be most effective. Fractionation of EtOH-soluble fraction on silica gel column yielded three polymethoxylated flavones, namely desmethylnobiletin, nobiletin and tangeretin. Their structures were confirmed by UV, 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectral studies. The findings indicated a potential of these natural compounds as biopreservatives in food applications.

  5. Phytochemical, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities of different citrus juice concentrates.

    PubMed

    Oikeh, Ehigbai I; Omoregie, Ehimwenma S; Oviasogie, Faith E; Oriakhi, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    The search for new antimicrobial compounds is ongoing. Its importance cannot be overemphasized in an era of emerging resistant pathogenic organisms. This study therefore investigated the phytochemical composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of different citrus juice concentrates. Fruit juices of Citrus tangerine (tangerine), Citrus paradisi (grape), Citrus limon (lemon), and Citrus aurantifolia (lime) were evaluated. Antimicrobial activities against five bacterial and three fungal strains were evaluated. The results revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and reducing sugars in all the juice concentrates. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging capacities varied with tangerine and grape juices having better scavenging capacities than lemon and lime juices. Grape juice was observed to have a significantly higher (P < 0.05) ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) value (364.2 ± 10.25 μmol/L Fe(II)/g of the extract) than the reference antioxidant, ascorbic acid (312.88 ± 5.61 μmol/L). Antimicrobial studies revealed differential antimicrobial activities against different microbial strains. Zones of inhibition ranging from 4 to 26 mm were observed for the antibacterial tests with 0-24 mm for antifungal test. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bacteriostatic concentrations (MBC) for concentrates against bacterial strains ranged from 12.5 to 200 μg/mL. Lemon and lime juice concentrates had lower MIC and MBC values with orange and tangerine having the highest values. Minimum fungicidal concentrations ranged from 50 to 200 μg/mL. The results of this study suggest that these juice concentrates may have beneficial antimicrobial roles that can be exploited in controlling unwanted microbial growth.

  6. Anticancer Activity of Key Lime, Citrus aurantifolia

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Nithithep; Jiraungkoorskul, Wannee

    2016-01-01

    Citrus aurantifolia (family: Rutaceae) is mainly used in daily consumption, in many cultural cuisines, and in juice production. It is widely used because of its antibacterial, anticancer, antidiabetic, antifungal, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammation, anti-lipidemia, and antioxidant properties; moreover, it can protect heart, liver, bone, and prevent urinary diseases. Its secondary metabolites are alkaloids, carotenoids, coumarins, essential oils, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and triterpenoids. The other important constituents are apigenin, hesperetin, kaempferol, limonoids, quercetin, naringenin, nobiletin, and rutin, all of these contribute to its remedial properties. The scientific searching platforms were used for publications from 1990 to present. The abstracts and titles were screened, and the full-text articles were selected. The present review is up-to-date of the phytochemical property of C. aurantifolia to provide a reference for further study. PMID:28082795

  7. Anticancer Activity of Key Lime, Citrus aurantifolia.

    PubMed

    Narang, Nithithep; Jiraungkoorskul, Wannee

    2016-01-01

    Citrus aurantifolia (family: Rutaceae) is mainly used in daily consumption, in many cultural cuisines, and in juice production. It is widely used because of its antibacterial, anticancer, antidiabetic, antifungal, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammation, anti-lipidemia, and antioxidant properties; moreover, it can protect heart, liver, bone, and prevent urinary diseases. Its secondary metabolites are alkaloids, carotenoids, coumarins, essential oils, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and triterpenoids. The other important constituents are apigenin, hesperetin, kaempferol, limonoids, quercetin, naringenin, nobiletin, and rutin, all of these contribute to its remedial properties. The scientific searching platforms were used for publications from 1990 to present. The abstracts and titles were screened, and the full-text articles were selected. The present review is up-to-date of the phytochemical property of C. aurantifolia to provide a reference for further study.

  8. Antimutagenic and antioxidant activity of the essential oils of Citrus sinensis and Citrus latifolia.

    PubMed

    Toscano-Garibay, J D; Arriaga-Alba, M; Sánchez-Navarrete, J; Mendoza-García, M; Flores-Estrada, J J; Moreno-Eutimio, M A; Espinosa-Aguirre, J J; González-Ávila, M; Ruiz-Pérez, N J

    2017-09-13

    The essential oils of Citrus sinensis and Citrus latifolia showed antimycotic activity against Candida spp. isolated from the oral cavity; they are neither mutagenic on the Ames test nor cytotoxic. Their main components are R-(+)-limonene, β-thujene, α-myrcene and γ-terpinene. The aim of this work was to evaluate their antimutagenic and antioxidant capacities. Antimutagenic properties were evaluated against MNNG and ENNG on S. typhimurium TA100; against 2AA on strain TA98 and in front of 4NQO and NOR on strain TA102. Both were antimutagenic against MNNG (p < 0.001) but only C. latifolia was antimutagenic against ENNG (p < 0.001). Both presented antimutagenic activity against 2AA (p < 0.001). They were antioxidant against the ROS-generating compound 4NQO (p < 0.001) and the antibiotic NOR (p < 0.001). In the antioxidant evaluation, the activity in DPPH assay was in a range of 6-23% for C. sinensis and of 22-71% for C. latifolia. Both were antioxidant compared with BHT in β-carotene bleaching assay and were able to decreased apoptosis in HaCat cells stimulated with H2O2. The levels of intracellular superoxide ion were lower in the presence of both oils. In conclusion, the essential oils of C. sinensis and C. latifolia are antimutagenic against at least three types of mutagens and have antioxidants properties.

  9. Antimycotic Activity and Genotoxic Evaluation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus latifolia Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Pérez, Nancy J; González-Ávila, Marisela; Sánchez-Navarrete, Jaime; Toscano-Garibay, Julia D; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A; Sandoval-Hernández, Teresa; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam

    2016-05-03

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils (EOs) of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) and Citrus latifolia (C. latifolia) against five Candida species: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida lusitaniae and Candida guilliermondii; and perform its genotoxic evaluation. The EOs of C. sinensis and C. latifolia were obtained from the peel by hydro-distillation. The major components determined by GC-MS were in C. sinensis, d-limonene (96%) and α-myrcene (2.79%); and in C. latifolia, d-limonene (51.64%), β-thujene (14.85%), β-pinene (12.79%) and γ-terpinene (12.8%). Antifungal properties were studied by agar diffusion method, where C. sinensis presented low activity and C. latifolia essential oil was effective to inhibit growing of C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii with IC50 of 6.90 and 2.92 μg respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for C. sinensis were in a range of 0.42-3.71 μg and for C. latifolia of 0.22-1.30 μg. Genotoxic evaluation was done by Ames test where none of the oils induced point mutations. Flow cytometry was used to measure toxicity in human oral epithelial cells, C. sinensis was not cytotoxic and C. latifolia was toxic at 21.8 μg. These properties might bestow different odontological applications to each essential oil.

  10. Antibacterial activity of Citrus limonum fruit juice extract.

    PubMed

    Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; Okoli, Arinze Stanley; Eze, Edith Nneka; Ekwume, Grace Chinwe; Okosa, Evangelin Uchena; Iroegbu, Christian Ukwuoma

    2015-09-01

    The fruit juice extract of Citrus limonum was investigated for antibacterial activity. The antibacterial activity of the extract on ten strains of bacteria was determined by both agar well diffusion and macro-broth dilution methods. The extract was variously bacteriostatic and bactericidal against Bacillussubtilis ATCC 6051, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12600, Escherichia coli ATCC 11775, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 as well as locally isolated clinical strains of the above bacteria and Salmonella kintambo (Human: 13, 23: mt:-), Salmonella typhi and Proteus sp. The MICs ranged from 0.78 mg/ml to 50mg/ml; MBCs, 25.0mg/ml to >100mg/ml and MBC/MIC ratios 2.0 to >16.0. These results provide scientific justification for the medicinal use of Citrus limonum fruit juice by Nigerian herbalists in the treatment of diseases in which strains of the test organisms have been implicated as etiologic agents.

  11. Antioxidant activity of Citrus paradisi seeds glyceric extract.

    PubMed

    Giamperi, Laura; Fraternale, Daniele; Bucchini, Anahi; Ricci, Donata

    2004-03-01

    The antioxidant activity of Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) seeds glyceric extract dissolved in ethanol and in aqueous media was evaluated using three different methods: evaluation by DPPH assay, by 5-lipoxygenase assay and by luminol/xanthine/xanthine oxidase chemiluminescence assay. The total phenolic content was determined by the Prussian Blue method opportunely modified. The grapefruit seeds glyceric extract utilized as aqueous solutions demonstrated antioxidant properties better than those displayed by alcoholic solutions.

  12. Antioxidant activity of citrus cultivars and chemical composition of Citrus karna essential oil.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Swadesh; Suri, Samiksha; Tuli, Rakesh

    2009-01-01

    The genus Citrus has a number of species and hybrids that are well established for their pharmaceutical and economic importance. The essential oil from Citrus karna Raf (Rutaceae) was analyzed for D-limonene (92.31%), the major chemical constituent, along with other minor constituents such as alpha-pinene (1.23%) and beta-pinene (1.80%). It showed significant inhibition for the oxidation of linoleic acid in the beta-carotene-linoleic acid system. Essential oils A and B obtained from C. sinensis, with 35.08% and 76.68% d-limonene, respectively, were used to evaluate the effect of the d-limonene concentration on antioxidant potential. Studies showed that d-limonene and C. karna essential oil have a similar antioxidant potential (39.6 and 38.3%, respectively). C. sinensis oils A and B showed only 10.5% and 30% antioxidant potential, respectively, indicating the possible role of d-limonene in antioxidant activity.

  13. Antimycotic Activity and Genotoxic Evaluation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus latifolia Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Pérez, Nancy J.; González-Ávila, Marisela; Sánchez-Navarrete, Jaime; Toscano-Garibay, Julia D.; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A.; Sandoval-Hernández, Teresa; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils (EOs) of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) and Citrus latifolia (C. latifolia) against five Candida species: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida lusitaniae and Candida guilliermondii; and perform its genotoxic evaluation. The EOs of C. sinensis and C. latifolia were obtained from the peel by hydro-distillation. The major components determined by GC-MS were in C. sinensis, d-limonene (96%) and α-myrcene (2.79%); and in C. latifolia, d-limonene (51.64%), β-thujene (14.85%), β-pinene (12.79%) and γ-terpinene (12.8%). Antifungal properties were studied by agar diffusion method, where C. sinensis presented low activity and C. latifolia essential oil was effective to inhibit growing of C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii with IC50 of 6.90 and 2.92 μg respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for C. sinensis were in a range of 0.42–3.71 μg and for C. latifolia of 0.22–1.30 μg. Genotoxic evaluation was done by Ames test where none of the oils induced point mutations. Flow cytometry was used to measure toxicity in human oral epithelial cells, C. sinensis was not cytotoxic and C. latifolia was toxic at 21.8 μg. These properties might bestow different odontological applications to each essential oil. PMID:27137128

  14. Citrus quarantine, sanitary and certification programs in the USA. Prevention of introduction and distribution of citrus diseases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Citrus germplasm originated in Australasia, the Far East, and Africa, thus all citrus grown in the New World was imported. This importation of citrus also resulted in importation of graft transmissible pathogens of citrus, many of which are latent in their original host but can cause epidemics of t...

  15. Structure-activity relationship of citrus polymethoxylated flavones and their inhibitory effects on Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Xu, Xiaoyun; Cheng, Dan; Yao, Xiaolin; Pan, Siyi

    2012-05-02

    Citrus peels are rich in polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) and are potential sources of natural preservatives. Six PMFs extracts, isolated and purified from the peels of three mandarins (Citrus reticulata) and three sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis), were identified and quantitated. Their inhibitory effects on Aspergillus niger were evaluated using a microbroth dilution assay. The Red tangerine variety exhibited the greatest antifungal activity (MIC = 0.2 mg/mL), while Jincheng showed the lowest activity (MIC = 1.8 mg/mL). An analysis of principal components was applied to the results in order to elucidate the structure-activity relationships of the citrus PMFs. The structure-activity relationship analysis revealed that, for good inhibitory effect, the 5-OH, 3-OCH₃, and 8-OCH₃ functionalities were essential, while the presence of 3-OH and 3'-OCH₃ greatly reduced inhibition. The findings of this study provide important information for the exploitation and utilization of citrus PMFs as natural biopreservatives.

  16. Inhibition of lipase activities by citrus pectin.

    PubMed

    Tsujita, Takahiro; Sumiyosh, Maho; Han, Li-Kun; Fujiwara, Tsutomu; Tsujita, Junji; Okuda, Hiromichi

    2003-10-01

    The oral administration of pectin to rats reduced and delayed the peak plasma triacylglycerol concentration. Pectin inhibited the hydrolysis of trioleoylglycerol emulsified with soybean phosphatidylcholine by pancreatic, carboxylester, and lingual lipases in a concentration-dependent manner. However, the effective concentration of pectin for lingual lipase was 100 times lower than that for pancreatic lipase. Pectin did not inhibit the tributyrin- and p-nitrophenylbutyrate-hydrolyzing activities by pancreatic and carboxylester lipase. When low molecular weight pectin was assayed, pectin at a molecular weight of 90,000 (MW 90) most strongly inhibited three lipase activities. When the effect of pH on pectin inhibition was analyzed using pancreatic lipase, strong inhibition was observed at an acidic pH (below pH 7.0). In the assay system, the pancreatic lipase protein levels in the supernatant and fat layer were estimated by Western blotting with an anti-pancreatic lipase antibody. Pectin reduced the amount of pancreatic lipase protein in the fat layer in a concentration-dependent manner and concomitantly increased that in the supernatant. These results suggest that pectin may interact with emulsified substrates and inhibit the adsorption of lipase to the surface of substrate emulsion.

  17. Phytochemistry and biological activity of Spanish Citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    The evaluation of the potential inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase by Citrus spp. fruits of Spanish origin (lemon, orange, grapefruit, lime, and mandarin) together with the evaluation of their phytochemical content and antioxidant capacity (DPPH˙, ORACFL, ABTS(+), FRAP and O2˙(-)) aiming for new applications of the fruits in nutrition and health was carried out. As far as we are aware, the presence of 3-O-caffeoylferuoylquinic acid and two hydrated feruloylquinic acids in orange and the presence of 3,5-diferuoylquinic acid in grapefruit have been reported for the first time. Although grapefruit showed higher contents of phytochemicals such as flavanones and vitamin C, lemon and lime showed higher potential for inhibitory effects on lipase, and lime also showed the best results for in vitro α-glucosidase inhibition. On the other hand, higher antioxidant capacity was reported for grapefruit, lemon and lime, which correlated well with their phytochemical composition. Based on the results, it could be concluded that Citrus fruits are of great value for nutrition and treatment of diet-related diseases such as obesity and diabetes, and consequently, a new field of interest in the food industry regarding new bioactive ingredients would be considered.

  18. Nobiletin: a citrus flavonoid displaying potent physiological activity.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Shuji; Atsumi, Haruka; Iwao, Yasunori; Kan, Toshiyuki; Itai, Shigeru

    2016-02-01

    Nobiletin [systematic name: 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-5,6,7,8-tetramethoxy-4H-chromen-4-one; C21H22O8] is a flavonoid found in citrus peels, and has been reported to show a wide range of physiological properties, including anti-inflammatory, anticancer and antidementia activities. We have solved the crystal structure of nobiletin, which revealed that the chromene and arene rings of its flavone moiety, as well as the two methoxy groups bound to its arene ring, were coplanar. In contrast, the C atoms of the four methoxy groups bound to the chromene ring are out of the plane, making the molecule conformationally chiral. A comparison of the crystal structures of nobiletin revealed that it could adopt a variety of different conformations through rotation of the covalent bond between the chromene and arene rings, and the orientations of methoxy groups bound to the chromene ring.

  19. Flavonoid composition and antioxidant activities of Chinese local pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck.) varieties.

    PubMed

    Xi, Wanpeng; Fang, Bo; Zhao, Qiyang; Jiao, Bining; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2014-10-15

    China is one of the most important diversity centres of the genus Citrus L. and is particularly rich in pummelo germplasm. In this study, the flavonoids in the peels and pulps of 28 Chinese local pummelos and four grapefruits were determined by optimised Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC), and their antioxidant capacities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH), ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and superoxide anion methods. We found that naringin was the predominant flavonoid in pummelo, while naringin and neohesperidin were the predominant flavonoids in grapefruit. The fruit peels of Citrus paradisi cvs. Rio Red and Cocktail had the highest contents of naringin (9871.69mg/kg FW) and neohesperidin (7011.15mg/kg FW), respectively. Overall, C. paradisi cvs. Cocktail, Rio Red and Changshanhuyou, Citrus grandis cvs. 28-19, Chandler, and Hongxinyou contained more flavonoids and exhibited higher antioxidant capacities and are potentially good sources of phytochemicals and natural antioxidants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of acid-hydrolyzed Citrus unshiu peel extract in milk.

    PubMed

    Min, Keun Young; Kim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Kyoung Ah; Kim, Kee-Tae; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Citrus fruit (Citrus unshiu) peels were extracted with hot water and then acid-hydrolyzed using hydrochloric acid. Antimicrobial activities of acid-hydrolyzed Citrus unshiu peel extract were evaluated against pathogenic bacteria, including Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. Antilisterial effect was also determined by adding extracts at 1, 2, and 4% to whole, low-fat, and skim milk. The cell numbers of B. cereus, Staph. aureus, and L. monocytogenes cultures treated with acid-hydrolyzed extract for 12h at 35°C were reduced from about 8log cfu/mL to <1log cfu/mL. Bacillus cereus was more sensitive to acid-hydrolyzed Citrus unshiu peel extract than were the other bacteria. The addition of 4% acid-hydrolyzed Citrus unshiu extracts to all types of milk inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes within 1d of storage at 4°C. The results indicated that Citrus unshiu peel extracts, after acid hydrolysis, effectively inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria. These findings indicate that acid hydrolysis of Citrus unshiu peel facilitates its use as a natural antimicrobial agent for food products.

  1. Cryopreservation of Citrus shoot tips using micrografting for recovery

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) and the University of California Citrus Variety Collection maintain more than 888 unique accessions representing 132 taxa of Citrus, Fortunella, and Citrus wild species relatives within field, screenhouse, and greenhouse collections. We have ident...

  2. Biotransformation effects on anti lipogenic activity of citrus extracts.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Vânia Mayumi; Madeira, José Valdo; Macedo, Gabriela Alves; Macedo, Juliana Alves

    2016-04-15

    Citrus peel is a good source of flavonoids, with higher content in relation to pulp. This study proposed to investigate the anti-lipogenic potential of a newly developed citrus flavonoids extract, obtained from citrus industrial residue, bioprocessed in order to generate a commercial source of some flavonoids naturally found in low quantity. The results showed that the citrus peel extract obtained after biotransformation was a good source of hesperitin and naringenin, flavonoids that has no source for production on a large scale, as in supplements or medicines. Still, the results showed that all extracts could be used in obesity treatment. The original extract, "In Natura", would be useful to reduce new adipocytes synthesis and lipid accumulation, and the extract bioprocessed, "Biotransformed" extract could be used to induce lipolysis on fat tissue.

  3. Bioavailable Citrus sinensis Extract: Polyphenolic Composition and Biological Activity.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Giacomo; Pagano, Francesco; Adesso, Simona; Sommella, Eduardo; Ostacolo, Carmine; Manfra, Michele; Chieppa, Marcello; Sala, Marina; Russo, Mariateresa; Marzocco, Stefania; Campiglia, Pietro

    2017-04-15

    Citrus plants contain large amounts of flavonoids with beneficial effects on human health. In the present study, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of bioavailable polyphenols from Citrus sinensis was evaluated in vitro and ex vivo, using the murine macrophages cell line J774A.1 and primary peritoneal macrophages. Following simulated gastro-intestinal digestion, the in vitro bioavailability of Citrus sinensis polyphenolic extract was assessed using the human cell line Caco-2 grown as monolayers on a transwell membrane. Data demonstrated a relative permeation of its compounds (8.3%). Thus, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of polyphenolic Citrus sinensis fraction (Cs) was compared to the bioavailable one (CsB). Results revealed that Citrus extract were able to reduce macrophages pro-inflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide, iNOS, COX-2 and different cytokines. Moreover, the effect of Citrus sinensis polyphenols was associated with antioxidant effects, such as a reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) increased expression. Our results provide evidence that the bioavailable polyphenolic constituents of the Citrussinensis extract accumulate prevalently at intestinal level and could reach systemic circulation exerting their effect. The bioavailable fraction showed a higher anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential compared to the initial extract, thus highlighting its potential nutraceutical value.

  4. Didymin: an orally active citrus flavonoid for targeting neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Sharad S; Singhal, Sulabh; Singhal, Preeti; Singhal, Jyotsana; Horne, David; Awasthi, Sanjay

    2017-02-08

    Neuroblastoma, a rapidly growing yet treatment responsive cancer, is the third most common cancer of children and the most common solid tumor in infants. Unfortunately, neuroblastoma that has lost p53 function often has a highly treatment-resistant phenotype leading to tragic outcomes. In the context of neuroblastoma, the functions of p53 and MYCN (which is amplified in ~25% of neuroblastomas) are integrally linked because they are mutually transcriptionally regulated, and because they together regulate the catalytic activity of RNA polymerases. Didymin is a citrus-derived natural compound that kills p53 wild-type as well as drug-resistant p53-mutant neuroblastoma cells in culture. In addition, orally administered didymin causes regression of neuroblastoma xenografts in mouse models, without toxicity to non-malignant cells, neural tissues, or neural stem cells. RKIP is a Raf-inhibitory protein that regulates MYCN activation, is transcriptionally upregulated by didymin, and appears to play a key role in the anti-neuroblastoma actions of didymin. In this review, we discuss how didymin overcomes drug-resistance in p53-mutant neuroblastoma through RKIP-mediated inhibition of MYCN and its effects on GRK2, PKCs, Let-7 micro-RNA, and clathrin-dependent endocytosis by Raf-dependent and -independent mechanisms. In addition, we will discuss studies supporting potential clinical impact and translation of didymin as a low cost, safe, and effective oral agent that could change the current treatment paradigm for refractory neuroblastoma.

  5. Antioxidant activity of oils extracted from orange (Citrus sinensis) seeds.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Neuza; Silva, Ana Carolina da; Aranha, Caroline P M

    2016-05-31

    Due to the increasing production of food in the world with consequent increase of the production of waste, the importance of developing researches for its use is noticed. Thus, the interest in vegetable oils with bioactive compounds, such as the ones extracted from fruit seeds, is growing. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize the oils extracted from seeds of Hamlin, Natal, Pera-rio and Valencia orange varieties (Citrus sinensis), as to the levels of total carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, tocopherols and phytosterols, as well as to determine their antioxidant activity. The orange seed oils presented important content of total carotenoids (19.01 mg/kg), total phenolic compounds (4.43 g/kg), α-tocopherol (135.65 mg/kg) and phytosterols (1304.2 mg/kg). The antioxidant activity ranged from 56.0% (Natal) to 70.2% (Pera-rio). According to the results it is possible to conclude that the orange seed oils can be used as specialty oils in diet, since they contain considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidants.

  6. Antifeedant Activity of Citrus Waste Wax and Its Fractions Against the Dry Wood Termite, Cryptotermes brevis

    PubMed Central

    Sbeghen-Loss, Ana Carolina; Mato, Mauricio; Cesio, Maria Veronica; Frizzo, Caren; de Barros, Neiva Monteiro; Heinzen, Horacio

    2011-01-01

    The wood protective action of citrus wax, a waste from the citrus industry that is a mixture of citrus fruit epicuticular waxes and essential oils, was evaluated against the termite Cryptotermes brevis Walker (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae). The antifeedant index (AI) of the total wax and fractions was calculated. The total citrus wax exhibited an AI50 value of 24.69 mg/cm3, the wax after hydrodistillation showed the strongest antifeedant property (AI50 11.68 mg/cm3). Fractionation of the wax and gas chromatography—mass spectrometric analysis allowed the identification of coumarins and furancoumarins as the active compounds. These results suggest the potential use of these industrial residues as a natural approach to termite control. PMID:22243487

  7. Hypocholesterolemic properties of grapefruit (Citrus paradisii) and shaddock (Citrus maxima) juices and inhibition of angiotensin-1-converting enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Bello, Fatai O; Ademosun, Ayokunle O

    2014-12-01

    Grapefruit (Citrus paradisii) and shaddock (Citrus maxima) juices are used in folk medicine for the management of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases, but the mechanism of action by which they exert their therapeutic action is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of grapefruit and shaddock juices on angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in vitro and the hypocholesterolemic properties of the juices in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. Grapefruit juice had higher total phenol and flavonoid contents than shaddock juice, while both juices inhibited ACE activity in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, administration of the juices to rats fed a high-cholesterol diet caused a significant reduction in plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and an increase in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. The inhibition of ACE activity in vitro and in vivo hypocholesterolemic effect of the juices could explain the use of the juices in the management of cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Antioxidant and anti-ageing activities of citrus-based juice mixture.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dan-Bi; Shin, Gi-Hae; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Young-Hyun; Lee, Jin-Ha; Lee, Jong Seok; Song, Hye-Jin; Choe, Soo Young; Park, In-Jae; Cho, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Ok-Hawn

    2016-03-01

    The production of excessive reactive oxygen species by exposure to oxidative stress and solar radiation are primary factors in skin damage. We examined the effects of a citrus-based juice mixture and its bioactive compounds on antioxidant and anti-ageing activities in human dermal fibroblasts and hairless mice via the regulation of antioxidant enzymes and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. The citrus-based juice mixture reduced H2O2-induced cell damage and intracellular reactive oxygen species production in human dermal fibroblasts. Citrus-based juice mixture pretreatment suppressed the activation of the H2O2-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway by activating the expression of activator protein 1 and matrix metalloproteinases. Moreover, it increased the expression levels of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione reductase, catalase and manganese superoxide dismutase. In addition, oral administration of the citrus-based juice mixture decreased skin thickness and wrinkle formation and increased collagen content on an ultraviolet light B-exposed hairless mouse. These results indicate that the citrus-based juice mixture is a potentially healthy beverage for the prevention of oxidative stress-induced premature skin ageing.

  9. Characterization of coumarin-specific prenyltransferase activities in Citrus limon peel.

    PubMed

    Munakata, Ryosuke; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Koeduka, Takao; Sasaki, Kanako; Tsurumaru, Yusuke; Sugiyama, Akifumi; Uto, Yoshihiro; Hori, Hitoshi; Azuma, Jun-Ichi; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2012-01-01

    Coumarins, a large group of polyphenols, play important roles in the defense mechanisms of plants, and they also exhibit various biological activities beneficial to human health, often enhanced by prenylation. Despite the high abundance of prenylated coumarins in citrus fruits, there has been no report on coumarin-specific prenyltransferase activity in citrus. In this study, we detected both O- and C-prenyltransferase activities of coumarin substrates in a microsome fraction prepared from lemon (Citrus limon) peel, where large amounts of prenylated coumarins accumulate. Bergaptol was the most preferred substrate out of various coumarin derivatives tested, and geranyl diphosphate (GPP) was accepted exclusively as prenyl donor substrate. Further enzymatic characterization of bergaptol 5-O-geranyltransferase activity revealed its unique properties: apparent K(m) values for GPP (9 µM) and bergaptol (140 µM) and a broad divalent cation requirement. These findings provide information towards the discovery of a yet unidentified coumarin-specific prenyltransferase gene.

  10. A novel carotenoid cleavage activity involved in the biosynthesis of Citrus fruit-specific apocarotenoid pigments

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, María J.; Alquézar, Berta; Al-Babili, Salim

    2013-01-01

    Citrus is the first tree crop in terms of fruit production. The colour of Citrus fruit is one of the main quality attributes, caused by the accumulation of carotenoids and their derivative C30 apocarotenoids, mainly β-citraurin (3-hydroxy-β-apo-8′-carotenal), which provide an attractive orange-reddish tint to the peel of oranges and mandarins. Though carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation have been extensively studied in Citrus fruits, little is known about the formation of C30 apocarotenoids. The aim of this study was to the identify carotenoid cleavage enzyme(s) [CCD(s)] involved in the peel-specific C30 apocarotenoids. In silico data mining revealed a new family of five CCD4-type genes in Citrus. One gene of this family, CCD4b1, was expressed in reproductive and vegetative tissues of different Citrus species in a pattern correlating with the accumulation of C30 apocarotenoids. Moreover, developmental processes and treatments which alter Citrus fruit peel pigmentation led to changes of β-citraurin content and CCD4b1 transcript levels. These results point to the involvement of CCD4b1 in β-citraurin formation and indicate that the accumulation of this compound is determined by the availability of the presumed precursors zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin. Functional analysis of CCD4b1 by in vitro assays unequivocally demonstrated the asymmetric cleavage activity at the 7′,8′ double bond in zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin, confirming its role in C30 apocarotenoid biosynthesis. Thus, a novel plant carotenoid cleavage activity targeting the 7′,8′ double bond of cyclic C40 carotenoids has been identified. These results suggest that the presented enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of C30 apocarotenoids in Citrus which are key pigments in fruit coloration. PMID:24006419

  11. A novel carotenoid cleavage activity involved in the biosynthesis of Citrus fruit-specific apocarotenoid pigments.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, María J; Alquézar, Berta; Alós, Enriqueta; Medina, Víctor; Carmona, Lourdes; Bruno, Mark; Al-Babili, Salim; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2013-11-01

    Citrus is the first tree crop in terms of fruit production. The colour of Citrus fruit is one of the main quality attributes, caused by the accumulation of carotenoids and their derivative C30 apocarotenoids, mainly β-citraurin (3-hydroxy-β-apo-8'-carotenal), which provide an attractive orange-reddish tint to the peel of oranges and Mandarins. Though carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation have been extensively studied in Citrus fruits, little is known about the formation of C30 apocarotenoids. The aim of this study was to the identify carotenoid cleavage enzyme(s) [CCD(s)] involved in the peel-specific C30 apocarotenoids. In silico data mining revealed a new family of five CCD4-type genes in Citrus. One gene of this family, CCD4b1, was expressed in reproductive and vegetative tissues of different Citrus species in a pattern correlating with the accumulation of C30 apocarotenoids. Moreover, developmental processes and treatments which alter Citrus fruit peel pigmentation led to changes of β-citraurin content and CCD4b1 transcript levels. These results point to the involvement of CCD4b1 in β-citraurin formation and indicate that the accumulation of this compound is determined by the availability of the presumed precursors zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin. Functional analysis of CCD4b1 by in vitro assays unequivocally demonstrated the asymmetric cleavage activity at the 7',8' double bond in zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin, confirming its role in C30 apocarotenoid biosynthesis. Thus, a novel plant carotenoid cleavage activity targeting the 7',8' double bond of cyclic C40 carotenoids has been identified. These results suggest that the presented enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of C30 apocarotenoids in Citrus which are key pigments in fruit coloration.

  12. Cryopreservation of Citrus seeds via dehydration and direct immersion in liquid nitrogen

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Citrus germplasm is conventionally conserved in clonal orchards and greenhouses, where it is subjected to potential losses due to pests, diseases and climatic hazards. In recent years, many studies reported preservation of germplasm in the genus Citrus. As a result, effective freezing protocols have...

  13. Inhibition of metalloproteinase and proteasome activities in colon cancer cells by citrus peel extracts.

    PubMed

    Ademosun, Ayokunle O; Oboh, Ganiyu; Passamonti, Sabina; Tramer, Federica; Ziberna, Lovro; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde

    2015-09-01

    Citrus peels are consumed in the form of infusions, candy or wine, based on their well-documented nutritional and medicinal properties. This study sought to investigate the effect of some citrus peels' [grapefruit (Citrus paradisii), orange (Citrus sinensis) and shaddock (Citrus maxima)] extracts on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and proteasome activities in primary human colonic tumor (Caco-2) and the metastatic cell lines (LoVo and LoVo/ADR) in a bid to explain the possible mechanism by which the peels could manage/prevent colon cancer. The inhibition of MMP and proteasome activities in the cells by the peel extracts, as well as the identification of phenolic compounds using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD), was determined. Orange peel extracts had the strongest inhibition of MMP in Caco-2 and LoVo cells, while shaddock had the least. Shaddock peel extracts also had the least MMP inhibition in LoVo/ADR lysates. Grapefruit had the least proteasome inhibition in Caco-2 and LoVo lysates, while there was no significant (p>0.05) difference in the proteasome inhibition of the peel extracts in LoVo/ADR lysates. The extracts inhibited proteasome activity in extract-treated cells, and HPLC fingerprinting of the extracts revealed the presence of some phenolic compounds such as quercetin, caffeic acid, kaempferol, catechin and naringin. The inhibition of MMP and proteasome activities in colon cancer cell lines suggests the potential use of citrus peels as functional food in the management and/or prevention of colon cancer.

  14. Mosquito larvicidal activity of citrus limonoids against Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, Faisal; Akram, Waseem; Shaalan, Essam Abdel-Salam

    2011-07-01

    Citrus limonoids, nomilin and limonin, were used for larvicidal assay against Aedes albopictus utilizing WHO methodology. LC(50s) were 305.83, 176.08, and 136.07 μM for nomilin and 850.09, 600.72, and 407.09 μM for limonin after 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. LT(50) assays exhibited that Savage citrange oil was the best at all concentrations (400, 500, 600, and 700 ppm) while Fairchild and Cassa grande were the weakest oils at 400 ppm, but at 500, 600, and 700 ppm, Carrizo citrange remained at the bottom with highest LT(50) values. Results exhibited that nomilin was more toxic than limonin and therefore provided a clear indication that limonoids in sample oils influenced the potential of respective oil. Out of the 10 tested citrus seed oils, Savage citrange (Citrus sinensis) comprised the maximum amount of limonin (2823.59 μg/ml) followed by grapefruit, Sacaton citrumelo, and Jaffa. When this oil (Savage citrange) was evaluated for bioassay against larvae of Ae. albopictus, it reflected complete dominance (LC(50) and LT(50)) as compared to rest of the oils. Although Jaffa (Citrus paradisi) was found to contain nomilin and limonin, it was found less effective as compared to Savage citrange. The oils from Minneola and Chinese lime did not contain limonin and nomilin, and were therefore weak in terms of LC(50) values. Presence of limonin and nomilin in plant products is therefore a significant indicator of the pest control that needs to be exploited in other plants as well.

  15. The Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Cold-Pressed and Distilled Essential Oils of Citrus paradisi and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck.

    PubMed

    Ou, Ming-Chiu; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Sun, Yung-Wei; Chan, Chin-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and functional activities of cold-pressed and water distilled peel essential oils of Citrus paradisi (C. paradisi) and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck (C. grandis) were investigated in present study. Yields of cold-pressed oils were much higher than those of distilled oils. Limonene was the primary ingredient of essential oils of C. paradisi (cold 92.83%; distilled 96.06%) and C. grandis (cold 32.63%; distilled 55.74%). In addition, C. grandis oils obtained were rich in oxygenated or nitrogenated compounds which may be involved in reducing cardiovascular diseases or enhancing sleep effectiveness. The order of free radical scavenging activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. grandis oil > cold-pressed C. grandis oil. Cold-pressed C. grandis oil exhibited the lowest activity in all antioxidative assays. The order of antimicrobial activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. grandis oil, cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil. Surprisingly, distilled C. grandis oil exhibited better antimicrobial activities than distilled C. paradisi oil, especially against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica subsp. The results also indicated that the antimicrobial activities of essential oils may not relate to their antioxidative activities.

  16. The Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Cold-Pressed and Distilled Essential Oils of Citrus paradisi and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Ming-Chiu; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Sun, Yung-Wei; Chan, Chin-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and functional activities of cold-pressed and water distilled peel essential oils of Citrus paradisi (C. paradisi) and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck (C. grandis) were investigated in present study. Yields of cold-pressed oils were much higher than those of distilled oils. Limonene was the primary ingredient of essential oils of C. paradisi (cold 92.83%; distilled 96.06%) and C. grandis (cold 32.63%; distilled 55.74%). In addition, C. grandis oils obtained were rich in oxygenated or nitrogenated compounds which may be involved in reducing cardiovascular diseases or enhancing sleep effectiveness. The order of free radical scavenging activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. grandis oil > cold-pressed C. grandis oil. Cold-pressed C. grandis oil exhibited the lowest activity in all antioxidative assays. The order of antimicrobial activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. grandis oil, cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil. Surprisingly, distilled C. grandis oil exhibited better antimicrobial activities than distilled C. paradisi oil, especially against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica subsp. The results also indicated that the antimicrobial activities of essential oils may not relate to their antioxidative activities. PMID:26681970

  17. Citrus fruits as a treasure trove of active natural metabolites that potentially provide benefits for human health.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xinmiao; Zhao, Siyu; Ning, Zhangchi; Zeng, Honglian; Shu, Yisong; Tao, Ou; Xiao, Cheng; Lu, Cheng; Liu, Yuanyan

    2015-01-01

    Citrus fruits, which are cultivated worldwide, have been recognized as some of the most high-consumption fruits in terms of energy, nutrients and health supplements. What is more, a number of these fruits have been used as traditional medicinal herbs to cure diseases in several Asian countries. Numerous studies have focused on Citrus secondary metabolites as well as bioactivities and have been intended to develop new chemotherapeutic or complementary medicine in recent decades. Citrus-derived secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, alkaloids, limonoids, coumarins, carotenoids, phenolic acids and essential oils, are of vital importance to human health due to their active properties. These characteristics include anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, as well as cardiovascular protective effects, neuroprotective effects, etc. This review summarizes the global distribution and taxonomy, numerous secondary metabolites and bioactivities of Citrus fruits to provide a reference for further study. Flavonoids as characteristic bioactive metabolites in Citrus fruits are mainly introduced.

  18. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from New Caledonian Citrus macroptera and Citrus hystrix.

    PubMed

    Waikedre, Jean; Dugay, Annabelle; Barrachina, Isabel; Herrenknecht, Christine; Cabalion, Pierre; Fournet, Alain

    2010-04-01

    The essential oils from the leaves of Citrus macroptera and C. hystrix, collected in New Caledonia, have been analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. A total of 35 and 38 constituents were identified, representing 99.1 and 89.0% of the essential oils, respectively. Both essential oils were rich in monoterpenes (96.1 and 87.0%, resp.), with beta-pinene as major component (33.3 and 10.9%, resp.), and poor in limonene (2.4 and 4.7%, resp.). Other main components of C. macroptera oil were alpha-pinene (25.3%), p-cimene (17.6%), (E)-beta-ocimene (6.7%), and sabinene (4.8%). The essential oil of C. hystrix was characterized by high contents of terpinen-4-ol (13.0%), alpha-terpineol (7.6%), 1,8-cineole (6.4%), and citronellol (6.0%). The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against five bacteria and five fungi strains. Both oils were inactive against bacteria. However, the C. macroptera leaf oil exhibited a pronounced activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, with a minimal-inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 12.5 microg/ml.

  19. Quarantine, sanitary and certification programs to prevent citrus quarantine pests in the USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Citrus germplasm has moved from its geographic origin in the Far East, distributing also several graft-transmissible diseases in all the citrus growing areas of the world. In spite of the plethora of such diseases, the citrus industry has survived through the decades and prospered in many countries ...

  20. Control of Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) via Trunk Injection of Plant Activators and Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiahuai; Jiang, Junxi; Wang, Nian

    2017-09-15

    Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) or greening is a devastating disease of citrus worldwide and no effective control measure is currently available. Plant activators represent environment friendly compounds capable of inducing resistance against many plant pathogens. Earlier studies showed that foliar spray of plant defense inducers could slow down HLB disease progress. In this study, eight plant activators and three antibiotics were evaluated in 3 field trials for their effect to control HLB by trunk injection of young and mature sweet orange trees. Results showed that 4 trunk injections of several activators including salicylic acid, oxalic acid, acibenzolar-S-methyl and potassium phosphate provided significant control of HLB by suppressing Las titer and disease progress. Trunk injection of penicillin, streptomycin and oxytetracycline hydrochloride resulted in excellent control of HLB. In general, antibiotics were more effective in reduction of Las titer and HLB symptom expressions than plant activators. These treatments also resulted in increased yield and better fruit quality. Injection of both salicylic acid and acibenzolar-S-methyl led to significant induction of PR-1 and PR-2 genes. Meanwhile, injection of either potassium phosphate or oxalic acid resulted in significant induction of PR-2 or PR-15 gene expression, respectively. These results suggested that HLB diseased trees remained inducible for systemic acquired resistance (SAR) under field conditions. In summary, this study presents information regarding controlling HLB via trunk injection of plant defense activators and antibiotics, which helps citrus growers in decision-making regarding developing an effective HLB management program. .

  1. Antitumor Activity of Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. Leaves in Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma Cell-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    KunduSen, Sriparna; Gupta, Malaya; Mazumder, Upal K.; Haldar, Pallab K.; Saha, Prerona; Bala, Asis

    2011-01-01

    Context. The plant Citrus maxima Merr. (Rutaceae), commonly known as shaddock or pomelo is indigenous to tropical parts of Asia. The objective of present study is to evaluate the methanol extract of Citrus maxima leaves for its antitumor activity against Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma cell in Swiss albino mice. Experimental design. The antitumor activity of methanol extract of Citrus maxima leaves (MECM) was evaluated against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) cell line in Swiss albino mice. 2 × 106 cells were inoculated in different groups of animals. MECM (200 and 400 mg/kg BW i.p.) was administered for nine consecutive days. On day 10th half the animals of different groups were sacrificed for determination of tumor and haematological parameters and the rest half were kept with sufficient food and water ad libitum for determination of increase in life span. Result and Discussions. Oral administration of the extract at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly decreased tumor parameters such as tumor volume, viable tumor cell count and increased body weight, hematological parameters and life span in respect of the EAC control mice. Conclusion. Experimental design exhibits significant antitumor activity of the extract (MECM) in a dose dependant manner. PMID:22084708

  2. Antitumor Activity of Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. Leaves in Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma Cell-Treated Mice.

    PubMed

    Kundusen, Sriparna; Gupta, Malaya; Mazumder, Upal K; Haldar, Pallab K; Saha, Prerona; Bala, Asis

    2011-01-01

    Context. The plant Citrus maxima Merr. (Rutaceae), commonly known as shaddock or pomelo is indigenous to tropical parts of Asia. The objective of present study is to evaluate the methanol extract of Citrus maxima leaves for its antitumor activity against Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma cell in Swiss albino mice. Experimental design. The antitumor activity of methanol extract of Citrus maxima leaves (MECM) was evaluated against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) cell line in Swiss albino mice. 2 × 10(6) cells were inoculated in different groups of animals. MECM (200 and 400 mg/kg BW i.p.) was administered for nine consecutive days. On day 10th half the animals of different groups were sacrificed for determination of tumor and haematological parameters and the rest half were kept with sufficient food and water ad libitum for determination of increase in life span. Result and Discussions. Oral administration of the extract at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly decreased tumor parameters such as tumor volume, viable tumor cell count and increased body weight, hematological parameters and life span in respect of the EAC control mice. Conclusion. Experimental design exhibits significant antitumor activity of the extract (MECM) in a dose dependant manner.

  3. Antioxidant enzymatic activity is linked to waterlogging stress tolerance in citrus.

    PubMed

    Arbona, Vicent; Hossain, Zahed; López-Climent, María F; Pérez-Clemente, Rosa M; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2008-04-01

    Soil flooding constitutes a seasonal factor that negatively affects plant performance and crop yields. In this work, the relationship between oxidative damage and flooding sensitivity was addressed in three citrus genotypes with different abilities to tolerate waterlogging. We examined leaf visible damage, oxidative damage in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, leaf proline concentration, leaf and root ascorbate and glutathione contents and the antioxidant enzyme activities superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione reductase (EC 1.8.1.7). No differences in the extent of oxidative damage relative to controls were found among genotypes. However, a different ability to delay the apparition of oxidative damage was associated to a higher tolerance to waterlogging. This ability was linked to an enhanced activated oxygen species' scavenging capacity in terms of an increased antioxidant enzyme activity and higher content in polar antioxidant compounds. Therefore, the existence of a direct relationship between stress sensitivity and the early accumulation of MDA is proposed. In addition, data indicate that the protective role of proline has to be considered minimal as its accumulation was inversely correlated with tolerance to the stress. The positive antioxidant response in Carrizo citrange (Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf. x Citrus sinensis L. Osb.) and Citrumelo CPB 4475 (Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf. x Citrus paradisi L. Macf.) might be responsible for a higher tolerance to flooding stress, whereas in Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. Ex Tan.), the early accumulation of MDA seems to be associated to an impaired ability for H2O2 scavenging.

  4. Repellent Activity of Botanical Oils against Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kuhns, Emily H.; Martini, Xavier; Hoyte, Angel; Stelinski, Lukasz L.

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the insect vector of the pathogen causing huanglongbing. We selected three botanical oils to evaluate behavioral activity against D. citri. In laboratory olfactometer assays, fir oil was repellent to D. citri females, while litsea and citronella oils elicited no response from D. citri females. In choice settling experiments, D. citri settled almost completely on control plants rather than on plants treated with fir oil at a 9.5 mg/day release rate. Therefore, we conducted field trials to determine if fir oil reduced D. citri densities in citrus groves. We found no repellency of D. citri from sweet orange resets that were treated with fir oil dispensers releasing 10.4 g/day/tree as compared with control plots. However, we found a two-week decrease in populations of D. citri as compared with controls when the deployment rate of these dispensers was doubled. Our results suggest that treatment of citrus with fir oil may have limited activity as a stand-alone management tool for D. citri and would require integration with other management practices. PMID:27429006

  5. Repellent Activity of Botanical Oils against Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    PubMed

    Kuhns, Emily H; Martini, Xavier; Hoyte, Angel; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2016-07-14

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the insect vector of the pathogen causing huanglongbing. We selected three botanical oils to evaluate behavioral activity against D. citri. In laboratory olfactometer assays, fir oil was repellent to D. citri females, while litsea and citronella oils elicited no response from D. citri females. In choice settling experiments, D. citri settled almost completely on control plants rather than on plants treated with fir oil at a 9.5 mg/day release rate. Therefore, we conducted field trials to determine if fir oil reduced D. citri densities in citrus groves. We found no repellency of D. citri from sweet orange resets that were treated with fir oil dispensers releasing 10.4 g/day/tree as compared with control plots. However, we found a two-week decrease in populations of D. citri as compared with controls when the deployment rate of these dispensers was doubled. Our results suggest that treatment of citrus with fir oil may have limited activity as a stand-alone management tool for D. citri and would require integration with other management practices.

  6. Update on uses and properties of citrus flavonoids: new findings in anticancer, cardiovascular, and anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Benavente-García, O; Castillo, J

    2008-08-13

    Significantly, much of the activity of Citrus flavonoids appears to impact blood and microvascular endothelial cells, and it is not surprising that the two main areas of research on the biological actions of Citrus flavonoids have been inflammation and cancer. Epidemiological and animal studies point to a possible protective effect of flavonoids against cardiovascular diseases and some types of cancer. Although flavonoids have been studied for about 50 years, the cellular mechanisms involved in their biological action are still not completely known. Many of the pharmacological properties of Citrus flavonoids can be linked to the abilities of these compounds to inhibit enzymes involved in cell activation. Attempts to control cancer involve a variety of means, including the use of suppressing, blocking, and transforming agents. Suppressing agents prevent the formation of new cancers from procarcinogens, and blocking agents prevent carcinogenic compounds from reaching critical initiation sites, while transformation agents act to facilitate the metabolism of carcinogenic components into less toxic materials or prevent their biological actions. Flavonoids can act as all three types of agent. Many epidemiological studies have shown that regular flavonoid intake is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. In coronary heart disease, the protective effects of flavonoids include mainly antithrombotic, anti-ischemic, anti-oxidant, and vasorelaxant. It is suggested that flavonoids decrease the risk of coronary heart disease by three major actions: improving coronary vasodilatation, decreasing the ability of platelets in the blood to clot, and preventing low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) from oxidizing. The anti-inflammatory properties of the Citrus flavonoids have also been studied. Several key studies have shown that the anti-inflammatory properties of Citrus flavonoids are due to its inhibition of the synthesis and biological activities of different pro

  7. Influence of citrus source and test genotypes on inoculations with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Assessments of the resistance of citrus germplasm to huanglongbing (HLB) can be expedited by inoculating plants under laboratory or greenhouse settings with the Huanglonbing bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas). Consistent rapid screening is critical to efficiently assess disease resi...

  8. Anti-inflammatory activity of a new cyclic peptide, citrusin XI, isolated from the fruits of Citrus unshiu.

    PubMed

    Noh, Hyung Jun; Hwang, Dukhyun; Lee, Eun Suk; Hyun, Jae Wook; Yi, Pyoung Ho; Kim, Geum Soog; Lee, Seung Eun; Pang, Changhyun; Park, Yong Joo; Chung, Kyu Hyuck; Kim, Gun Do; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2015-04-02

    Citrus unshiu (Rutaceae) is an easy-peeling citrus fruit, which has been used as a traditional Korean medicine for improving skin elasticity, relieving fatigue and cough, and preventing bronchitis, flu, and various cancers. However, its active components associated with anti-inflammation and underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the active constituents from the fruits of Citrus unshiu and evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity in order to support the traditional usage of Citrus unshiu. Repeated column chromatography, together with a semi-preparative HPLC purification was used to separate the bioactive constituent from the EtOAc soluble fraction of the EtOH extract of Citrus unshiu fruits. Anti-inflammatory effects of the isolated compounds on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of pro-inflammatory mediators were examined using RAW264.7 macrophage cells. A new cyclic peptide, citrusin XI (1), was isolated and identified from the fruits of Citrus unshiu. The structure of compound 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) ((1)H, (13)C, COSY, HMQC and HMBC experiments), and high resolution (HR)-mass spectrometry, and its absolute configurations were further confirmed by the Marfey׳s method. Compound 1 decreased NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 70μM. Compound 1 suppressed NO production by decreasing iNOS expression but COX-2 expression was slightly associated with the reduction by compound 1 in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, compound 1 inhibited NF-κB activation by blocking IκBα degradation and NF-κB phosphorylation in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. These results indicate that a new cyclic peptide, citrusin XI, from Citrus unshiu fruits has anti-inflammatory properties that inhibit the release of pro-inflammatory mediators. Compound 1 decreases NO production by decreasing iNOS expression and NF

  9. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using citrus sinensis peel extract and its antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaviya, S.; Santhanalakshmi, J.; Viswanathan, B.; Muthumary, J.; Srinivasan, K.

    2011-08-01

    Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was achieved by a novel, simple green chemistry procedure using citrus sinensis peel extract as a reducing and a capping agent. The effect of temperature on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles was carried out at room temperature (25 °C) and 60 °C. The successful formation of silver nanoparticles has been confirmed by UV-vis, FTIR, XRD, EDAX, FESEM and TEM analysis and their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram-negative), and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) has been studied. The results suggest that the synthesized AgNPs act as an effective antibacterial agent.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of wax and hexane extracts from Citrus spp. peels.

    PubMed

    Johann, Susana; Oliveira, Vetúria Lopes de; Pizzolatti, Moacir G; Schripsema, Jan; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Branco, Alexsandro; Smânia Jr, Artur

    2007-09-01

    Antibacterial and antifungal properties of wax and hexane extracts of Citrus spp. peels were tested using bioautographic and microdilution techniques against three plant pathogenic fungi (Penicillium digitatum, Curvularia sp., and Colletotrichum sp.), two human pathogens (Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis), and two opportunistic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus). Two polymethoxylated flavonoids and a coumarin derivative, were isolated and identified from peel extracts, which presented antimicrobial activity especially against M. canis and T. mentagrophytes: 4',5,6,7,8-pentamethoxyflavone (tangeritin) and 3',4',5,6,7,8-hexamethoxyflavone (nobiletin) from C. reticulata; and 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin (also known as escoparone, scoparone or scoparin) from C. limon.

  11. Volatile composition and biological activity of key lime Citrus aurantifolia essential oil.

    PubMed

    Spadaro, Federica; Costa, Rosaria; Circosta, Clara; Occhiuto, Francesco

    2012-11-01

    The essential oil of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) Swingle fruits (limes) was studied for its potential spasmolytic effects in relation to its chemical composition. The essential oil, extracted by hydrodistillation (HD), was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The antispasmodic activity was evaluated on isolated rabbit jejunum, aorta and uterus. The results indicated that the essential oil of C. aurantifolia possesses important spasmolytic properties, which are likely to be due to its major constituents, limonene (58.4%), beta-pinene (15.4%), gamma-terpinene (8.5%), and citral (4.4%).

  12. In Vitro Lipophilic Antioxidant Capacity, Antidiabetic and Antibacterial Activity of Citrus Fruits Extracts from Aceh, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Ernawita; Wahyuono, Ruri Agung; Hesse, Jana; Hipler, Uta-Christina; Elsner, Peter; Böhm, Volker

    2017-01-01

    This study reports in vitro lipophilic antioxidant, inhibition of α-amylase and antibacterial activities of extracts of peel and pulp of citrus samples from Aceh, Indonesia. HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography), phytochemical, and FTIR (fourier transform infrared) analysis detected carotenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids and terpenoids, contributing to the biological potencies. Most peel and pulp extracts contained lutein and lower concentrations of zeaxanthin, α-carotene, β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin. The extracts also contained flavanone glycosides (hesperidin, naringin and neohesperidin), flavonol (quercetin) and polymethoxylated flavones (sinensetin, tangeretin). L-TEAC (lipophilic trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) test determined for peel extracts higher antioxidant capacity compared to pulp extracts. All extracts presented α-amylase inhibitory activity, pulp extracts showing stronger inhibitory activity compared to peel extracts. All extracts inhibited the growth of both gram (+) and gram (−) bacteria, with peel and pulp extracts of makin showing the strongest inhibitory activity. Therefore, local citrus species from Aceh are potential sources of beneficial compounds with possible health preventive effects. PMID:28165379

  13. Polymethoxyflavones in peel of Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' and their biological activities.

    PubMed

    Duan, Li; Dou, Li-Li; Yu, Ke-Yun; Guo, Long; Bai-Zhong, Chen; Li, Ping; Liu, E-Hu

    2017-11-01

    Citrus polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) have been of increasing interest due to their extensive biological activities. In the present study, a total of eight PMFs were isolated from the peel of Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' (CRC). They were individually identified as 5-hydroxy-6,7,8,4'-tetramethoxyflavone (1), 5,6,7,3',4'-pentamethoxyflavanone (2), 5-hydroxy-6,7,8,3',4'-pentamethoxyflavone (3), 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'- heptamethoxyflavone (4), 5,6,7,8,3',4'-hexamethoxyflavone (5), 5,6,7,8,4'-pentamethoxyflavone (6), 6,7,8,3',4'-pentamethoxyflavanone (7) and 5,6,7,3',4'-pentamethoxyflavone (8) by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopic analysis. 6,7,8,3',4'-Pentamethoxyflavanone was isolated from the peel of CRC for the first time. The content of PMFs was firstly quantified in both the peel of CRC and PMF-rich extract by HPLC analysis. Furthermore, the biological activities of PMF compounds were investigated. 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-Heptamethoxyflavone demonstrated potent sterol regulatory element-binding proteins inhibition activity and 5-hydroxy-6,7,8,3',4'-pentamethoxyflavone exhibited strong antiproliferative activity against tumor cell lines. The isolated PMF compounds could also significantly inhibit NO production and the effect varied mainly depending on the number of methoxy groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Anticancer activities of citrus peel polymethoxyflavones related to angiogenesis and others.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liwen; Wang, Jinhan; Fang, Lianying; Zheng, Zuliang; Zhi, Dexian; Wang, Suying; Li, Shiming; Ho, Chi-Tang; Zhao, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Citrus is a kind of common fruit and contains multiple beneficial nutrients for human beings. Flavonoids, as a class of plant secondary metabolites, exist in citrus fruits abundantly. Due to their broad range of pharmacological properties, citrus flavonoids have gained increased attention. Accumulative in vitro and in vivo studies indicate protective effects of polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) against the occurrence of cancer. PMFs inhibit carcinogenesis by mechanisms like blocking the metastasis cascade, inhibition of cancer cell mobility in circulatory systems, proapoptosis, and antiangiogenesis. This review systematically summarized anticarcinogenic effect of citrus flavonoids in cancer therapy, together with the underlying important molecular mechanisms, in purpose of further exploring more effective use of citrus peel flavonoids.

  15. The effect of viroid infection of citrus trees on the amoebicidal activity of 'Maltese half-blood' (Citrus sinensis) against trophozoite stage of Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff.

    PubMed

    Zouaghi, Ghaya; Najar, Asma; Chiboub, Olfa; Sifaoui, Ines; Abderrabba, Manef; Lorenzo Morales, Jacob

    2017-09-12

    In order to promote a local Tunisian product, this study was designed to examine, for the first time, the anti-Acanthamoeba activity (Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff) of the essential oils of Tunisian Citrus sinensis peels (Maltese half-blood) and the effect of viroid plant infection on this activity. To do so, three samples of peels' essential oils were studied: from a healthy plant (Control), a plant inoculated with Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd) and one inoculated with hot stunt cachexia viroid (HSVd). The samples were extracted by hydrodistillation from dried peels and characterized by GC-MS. Limonene was the major component with a percentage ranging from 90.76 to 93.34% for (CEVd) sample and (Control), respectively. Anti-Acanthamoeba activity of the tested oils was determined by the Alamar Blue(®) assay. Primary results showed a strong potential anti-Acanthamoeba activity with an IC50 ranging from 36.6 to 54.58 μg/ml for (HSVd) and (CEVd) samples, respectively. In terms of the effect of viroid infection, a strong positive correlation was observed between different chemical classes and anti-Acanthamoeba activity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. A survey of survival and activity of citrus canker lesion populations on foliage, fruit and shoots in a Florida grapefruit orchard in 2009 and 2010

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc)) can infect several species of citrus. The disease can develop on the leaves, shoots and fruit, causing erumpent lesions, that on fruit precludes sale to the fresh market. We assessed lesion activity in orchard-grown grapefruit to provide informa...

  17. Volatile aroma components and antioxidant activities of the flavedo peel extract of unripe Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata).

    PubMed

    Asikin, Yonathan; Taira, Ikuko; Inafuku, Sayuri; Sumi, Hidekazu; Sawamura, Masayoshi; Takara, Kensaku; Wada, Koji

    2012-04-01

    The flavedo peel extracts of unripe Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) fruits were extracted using steam distillation (SD) or a cold-press (CP) system. Volatile aroma content and composition were determined using gas chromatography (GC) and each compound was identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS). The major constituents of the extracts were monoterpene hydrocarbons (91.75-93.75%[709.32-809.05 mg/100 g of fresh flavedo peel]) including limonene (43.08-45.13%[341.46-379.81 mg/100 g of fresh flavedo peel]), γ-terpinene (27.88-29.06%[219.90-245.86 mg/100 g of fresh flavedo peel]), and p-cymene (8.13-11.02%[61.47-97.22 mg/100 g of fresh flavedo peel]). The extraction process used was determined to be a decisive factor that affects the composition of key citrus aroma components, as well as the antioxidant activities of the Shiikuwasha fruit. Antioxidant capabilities of the extracts were examined by assay of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and β-carotene bleaching inhibition. The cold-press extraction system may better retain the total phenolic content of the flavedo peel and display superior antioxidant activities, compared to the steam distillation extraction method. Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) is a type of small citrus fruit, and has been used as raw material for beverage and food additive productions in Japan. It had a unique aroma composition in which the limonene content of its peels is lower than that of other commonly known citrus peels. The present study detailed the volatile aroma composition, as well as antioxidant capabilities of Shiikuwasha peel extracts of different extraction methods, that are cold-press and steam distillation methods. The results of this study may provide a basis for selection of Shiikuwasha peel extracts in food industry for citrus flavor production. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Chemical composition and anti-inflammation activity of essential oils from Citrus unshiu flower.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Jin; Yang, Kyong-Wol; Kim, Sang Suk; Park, Suk Man; Park, Kyung Jin; Kim, Kwang Sik; Choi, Young Hun; Cho, Kwang Keun; Hyun, Chang-Gu

    2014-05-01

    Though many essential oils from citrus peels are claimed to have several medicinal functions, the chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oils of Citrus flowers have not been well described. Therefore, this study intended to investigate the chemical composition and anti-inflammatory potential of essential oils from C. unshiu flower (CEO) to support its purported beneficial health effects. The chemical constituents of the CEO, analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), included y-terpinene (24.7%), 2-beta-pinene (16.6%), 1-methyl-2-isopropylbenzene (11.5%), L-limonene (5.7%), beta3-ocimene (5.6%), and alpha-pinene (4.7%). The effects of the CEO on nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages were also examined. The results indicate that the CEO is an effective inhibitor of LPS-induced NO and PGE2 production in RAW 264.7 cells. Additionally, CEO was shown to suppress the production of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and IL-6. Based on these results, CEO may be considered a potential anti-inflammatory candidate with human health benefits.

  19. Synthesis of Oxylipin Mimics and Their Antifungal Activity against the Citrus Postharvest Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jimei; Li, Yupeng; Chen, Hangwei; Zeng, Zhen; Li, Zi-Long; Jiang, Hong

    2016-02-22

    Nine oxylipin mimics were designed and synthesized starting from d-mannose. Their antifungal activity against three citrus postharvest pathogens was evaluated by spore germination assay. The results indicated that all the compounds significantly inhibited the growth of Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium italicum and Aspergillus niger. The compound (3Z,6Z,8S,9R,10R)-octadeca-3,6-diene-8,9,10-triol (3) exhibited excellent inhibitory effect on both Penicillium digitatum (IC50 = 34 ppm) and Penicillium italicum (IC50 = 94 ppm). Their in vivo antifungal activities against citrus postharvest blue mold were tested with fruit inoculated with the pathogen Penicillium italicum. The compound (3R,4S)-methyl 3,4-dihydroxy-5-octyltetrahydrofuran-2-carboxylate (9) demonstrated significant efficacy by reducing the disease severity to 60%. The antifungal mechanism of these oxylipin mimics was postulated in which both inhibition of pathogenic mycelium and stimuli of the host oxylipin-mediated defense response played important roles.

  20. Molecular diversity of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) strains collected over the past 50 years and maintained in CTV collections in California

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tristeza, caused by Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), is a serious citrus disease worldwide. Because severe strains of CTV reduce fruit production and quality, CTV has been eliminated from citrus germplasm sources by a certification program. CTV is also a regulated pathogen in quarantine zones and infec...

  1. Phenolic compounds from Citrus leaves: antioxidant activity and enzymatic browning inhibition.

    PubMed

    Khettal, Bachra; Kadri, Nabil; Tighilet, Karim; Adjebli, Ahmed; Dahmoune, Farid; Maiza-Benabdeslam, Fadila

    2017-03-01

    Background Phenolic compounds from Citrus are known to be a topic of many studies due to their biological properties including antioxidant activity. Methods Methanolic and aqueous extracts were isolated from Citrus leaves of different species (C. clementina, C. limon, C. hamlin, C. navel, C. aurantifolia, C. aurantium and C. grandis) harvested in Algeria. Results The results showed that aqueous extracts of all species are rich in total phenolic compounds and flavonoids (from 68.23 to 125.28 mg GAE/g DM) and (from 11.99 to 46.25 mg QE/g DM) respectively. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were examined for in vitro antioxidant properties using various antioxidant assays. For aqueous extracts, C. limon showed an important DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 35.35 µg/mL), and C. clementina exerted the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity (1,174.43 µM ET/g DM) and a significant ferric reducing potential (30.60 mg BHAE/g DM). For methanolic extracts, C. clementina showed the highest antioxidant activity for all the realized assays (IC50 41.85 µg/mL, 378.63 µM ET/g DM and 13.85 mg BHAE/g DM) for DPPH, ABTS radicals scavenging activities and ferric reducing potential respectively. Antiperoxidase and antipolyphenol oxidase activities of these samples were also evaluated. Conclusions In this investigation, the assessment of antiperoxidase activity proved that the leaves extracts of different species were able to inhibit peroxidase activity. However, this inhibition varied with the species and the source of these enzymes. On the other hand, the aqueous extracts of different species showed moderate inhibition of polyphenol oxidase, while no effect on these enzymes was obtained with methanolic extracts.

  2. Comparison of the Inhibition of Monoamine Oxidase and Butyrylcholinesterase Activities by Infusions from Green Tea and Some Citrus Peels

    PubMed Central

    Ademosun, Ayokunle O.

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the effect of infusions from green tea (Camellia sinensis) and some citrus peels [shaddock (Citrus maxima), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), and orange (Citrus sinensis)] on key enzymes relevant to the management of neurodegenerative conditions [monoamine oxidase (MAO) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)]. The total phenol contents and antioxidant activities as typified by their 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radicals scavenging abilities, ferric reducing antioxidant properties, and Fe2+ chelating abilities were also investigated. Green tea had the highest total phenol (43.3 mg/g) and total flavonoid (16.4 mg/g) contents, when compared to orange [total phenol (19.6 mg/g), total flavonoid (6.5 mg/g)], shaddock [total phenol (16.3 mg/g), total flavonoid (5.2 mg/g)], and grapefruit [total phenol (17.7 mg/g), total flavonoid (5.9 mg/g)]. Orange (EC50 = 1.78 mg/mL) had the highest MAO inhibitory ability, while green tea had the least MAO inhibitory ability (EC50 = 2.56 mg/mL). Similarly, green tea had the least BChE inhibitory ability (EC50 = 5.43 mg/mL) when compared to the citrus peels' infusions. However, green tea infusions had the strongest highest ABTS radical scavenging ability, reducing power, and Fe2+ chelating ability. The inhibition of MAO and BChE activities by the green tea and citrus peels infusions could make them good dietary means for the prevention/management of neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:25243093

  3. Different Citrus rootstocks present high dissimilarities in their antioxidant activity and vitamins content according to the ripening stage.

    PubMed

    Cardeñosa, Vanessa; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C M; Arenas, Francisco; Moreno-Rojas, José M; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-02-01

    "Lane Late" sweet orange grafted on six different citrus rootstocks and grown in the Guadalquivir valley (Seville, Spain) were picked at different ripening stages in two consecutive seasons to characterize their antioxidant activity (free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition) and quantify their main antioxidant compounds (vitamin E and vitamin C). Linear discriminant analysis and 2-way ANOVA were applied to compare the effects induced by citrus rootstock and ripening stage. The results showed that differences in antioxidant activity and related compounds are mainly dependent on the citrus rootstock, despite ripening stage had also some particular effects. Changes observed in 2012 showed less marked differences among the citrus rootstock. Nevertheless, Cleopatra rootstock showed the highest antioxidant activity in both years, indicating that an increase in its cultivation might be a good solution to sweet orange farmers. Concerning the ripening stage, samples collected in January presented higher vitamin contents, while those collected in April showed higher antioxidant activity. This result allows deciding the harvesting period according to the desired effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemical profile, antifungal, antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant activity of Citrus maxima Burm. and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck essential oils and their cyclic monoterpene, DL-limonene.

    PubMed

    Singh, Priyanka; Shukla, Ravindra; Prakash, Bhanu; Kumar, Ashok; Singh, Shubhra; Mishra, Prashant Kumar; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2010-06-01

    The study deals with antifungal, antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant activity of Citrus maxima and Citrus sinensis essential oils (EOs) and their phytochemical composition. The EOs were obtained by hydrodistillation and their chemical profile was determined through GC and GC-MS analysis. Both the EOs and their 1:1 combination showed broad fungitoxic spectrum against different food contaminating moulds. The EOs and their combination completely inhibited aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) production at 500 ppm, whereas, DL-limonene, the major component of EOs showed better antiaflatoxigenic efficacy even at 250 ppm. Both the oils exhibited antioxidant activity as DPPH free radical scavenger in dose dependent manner. The IC(50) for radical scavenging efficacy of C. maxima and C. sinensis oils were to be 8.84 and 9.45 microl ml(-1), respectively. The EOs were found non-mammalian toxic showing high LD(50) for mice (oral, acute). The oils may be recommended as safe plant based antimicrobials as well as antioxidants for enhancement of shelf life of food commodities by checking their fungal infestation, aflatoxin production as well as lipid peroxidation.

  5. Screening a core collection of citrus genetic resources for resistance to Fusarium solani (Mart) Sacc

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A causal agent for Dry root rot (DRR) of citrus has not been definitively identified, but the organism most consistently associated with DRR is Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc. To efficiently screen a citrus germplasm collection for resistance to F. solani, a core subset of the collection was evaluated...

  6. Citrus genebank collections: International collaboration opportunities between the U.S. and Russia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Citrus germplasm is conserved in genebanks at sites around the world to provide genetic resources for breeding and research programs. The value of genebank collections is particularly evident as diseases and climate change threaten citrus production areas. We provide historical, inventory, and maint...

  7. Effect of heat treatment on the antioxidant activity of extracts from citrus peels.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seok-Moon; Kim, So-Young; Kim, Dong-Ryul; Jo, Seong-Chun; Nam, K C; Ahn, D U; Lee, Seung-Cheol

    2004-06-02

    The effect of heat treatment on the antioxidant activity of extracts from Citrus unshiu peels was evaluated. Citrus peels (CP) (5 g) were placed in Pyrex Petri dishes (8.0 cm diameter) and heat-treated at 50, 100, or 150 degrees C for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min in an electric muffle furnace. After heat treatment, 70% ethanol extract (EE) and water extract (WE) (0.1 g/10 mL) of CP were prepared, and total phenol contents (TPC), radical scavenging activity (RSA), and reducing power of the extracts were determined. The antioxidant activities of CP extracts increased as heating temperature increased. For example, heat treatment of CP at 150 degrees C for 60 min increased the TPC, RSA, and reducing power of EE from 71.8 to 171.0 microM, from 29.64 to 64.25%, and from 0.45 to 0.82, respectively, compared to non-heat-treated control. In the case of WE from CP heat-treated at the same conditions (150 degrees C for 60 min), the TPC, RSA, and reducing power also increased from 84.4 to 204.9 microM, from 15.81 to 58.26%, and from 0.27 to 0.96, respectively. Several low molecular weight phenolic compounds such as 2,3-diacetyl-1-phenylnaphthalene, ferulic acid, p-hydroxybenzaldoxime, 5-hydroxyvaleric acid, 2,3-diacetyl-1-phenylnaphthalene, and vanillic acid were newly formed in the CP heated at 150 degrees C for 30 min. These results indicated that the antioxidant activity of CP extracts was significantly affected by heating temperature and duration of treatment on CP and that the heating process can be used as a tool for increasing the antioxidant activity of CP.

  8. Regulation of the pacemaker activities in cultured interstitial cells of Cajal by Citrus unshiu peel extracts.

    PubMed

    Shim, Ji Hwan; Lee, Soo Jin; Gim, Huijin; Kim, Hyun Jung; Han, Taewon; Kim, Jae Goo; Lim, Eun Yeong; Kim, Yun Tai; Kim, Byung Joo

    2016-10-01

    The Citrus unshiu peel has been widely used for the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders in Eastern traditional medicine. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Citrus unshiu peel extract (CPE) on the pacemaker activity of the GI tract in cultured interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) derived from the mouse small intestine. The whole‑cell patch‑clamp configuration was used to record pacemaker potentials. In current clamp mode, exposure to CPE caused membrane pacemaker depolarization in a concentration‑dependent manner. In the presence of the muscarinic M2 receptor antagonist, methoctramine, CPE induced membrane pacemaker depolarization, whereas treatment with the muscarinic M3 receptor antagonist, 1,1-dimethyl-4-diphenylacetoxypiperidinium iodide, inhibited CPE‑induced responses. When the pipette solution contained guanosine 5'-(β-thio) diphosphate trilithium salt (1 mM), CPE marginally induced membrane pacemaker depolarization. In addition, CPE‑induced membrane pacemaker depolarization was inhibited following exposure to the active phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U‑73122, but not the inactive PLC inhibitor U‑73343. In the presence of a p42/p44 mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor (PD98059), a p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) or a c‑jun NH2‑terminal kinase (JNK) II inhibitor, CPE failed to induce membrane pacemaker depolarization. These results suggest that CPE may affect GI motility through modulating ICC pacemaker activity by activating the muscarinic M3 receptor and inducing the G‑protein dependent PLC and MAPK signaling pathways.

  9. Cytotoxicity and anti-Leishmania amazonensis activity of Citrus sinensis leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Andreza R; Amaral, Ana Claudia F; Azevedo, Mariana M B; Corte-Real, Suzana; Lopes, Rosana C; Alviano, Celuta S; Pinheiro, Anderson S; Vermelho, Alane B; Rodrigues, Igor A

    2017-12-01

    Leishmania amazonensis is the main agent of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, a disease characterized by lesional polymorphism and the commitment of skin surface. Previous reports demonstrated that the Citrus genus possess antimicrobial activity. This study evaluated the anti-L. amazonensis activity of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae) extracts. Citrus sinensis dried leaves were subjected to maceration with hexane (CH), ethyl acetate (CEA), dichloromethane/ethanol (CD/Et - 1:1) or ethanol/water (CEt/W - 7:3). Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes were treated with C. sinensis extracts (1-525 μg/mL) for 120 h at 27 °C. Ultrastructure alterations of treated parasites were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. Cytotoxicity of the extracts was assessed on RAW 264.7 and J774.G8 macrophages after 48-h treatment at 37 °C using the tetrazolium assay. In addition, Leishmania-infected macrophages were treated with CH and CD/Et (10-80 μg/mL). CH, CD/Et and CEA displayed antileishmanial activity with 50% inhibitory activity (IC50) of 25.91 ± 4.87, 54.23 ± 3.78 and 62.74 ± 5.04 μg/mL, respectively. Parasites treated with CD/Et (131.2 μg/mL) presented severe alterations including mitochondrial swelling, lipid body formation and intense cytoplasmic vacuolization. CH and CD/Et demonstrated cytotoxic effects similar to that of amphotericin B in the anti-amastigote assays (SI of 2.16, 1.98 and 1.35, respectively). Triterpene amyrins were the main substances in CH and CD/Et extracts. In addition, 80 μg/mL of CD/Et reduced the number of intracellular amastigotes and the percentage of infected macrophages in 63% and 36%, respectively. The results presented here highlight C. sinensis as a promising source of antileishmanial agents.

  10. Chemical Compositions of the Peel Essential Oil of Citrus aurantium and Its Natural Larvicidal Activity against the Malaria Vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) in Comparison with Citrus paradisi.

    PubMed

    Sanei-Dehkordi, Alireza; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abai, Mohammad Reza

    2016-12-01

    Recently, essential oils and extracts derived from plants have received much interest as potential bio-active agents against mosquito vectors. The essential oils extract from fresh peel of ripe fruit of Citrus aurantium and Citrus paradisi were tested against mosquito vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory condition. Then chemical composition of the essential oil of C. aurantium was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The essential oils obtained from C. aurantium, and C. paradisi showed good larviciding effect against An. stephensi with LC50 values 31.20 ppm and 35.71 ppm respectively. Clear dose response relationships were established with the highest dose of 80 ppm plant extract evoking almost 100% mortality. Twenty-one (98.62%) constituents in the leaf oil were identified. The main constituent of the leaf oil was Dl-limonene (94.81). The results obtained from this study suggest that the limonene of peel essential oil of C. aurantium is promising as larvicide against An. stephensi larvae and could be useful in the search for new natural larvicidal compounds.

  11. Chemical Compositions of the Peel Essential Oil of Citrus aurantium and Its Natural Larvicidal Activity against the Malaria Vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) in Comparison with Citrus paradisi

    PubMed Central

    Sanei-Dehkordi, Alireza; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abai, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recently, essential oils and extracts derived from plants have received much interest as potential bio-active agents against mosquito vectors. Methods: The essential oils extract from fresh peel of ripe fruit of Citrus aurantium and Citrus paradisi were tested against mosquito vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory condition. Then chemical composition of the essential oil of C. aurantium was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Results: The essential oils obtained from C. aurantium, and C. paradisi showed good larviciding effect against An. stephensi with LC50 values 31.20 ppm and 35.71 ppm respectively. Clear dose response relationships were established with the highest dose of 80 ppm plant extract evoking almost 100% mortality. Twenty-one (98.62%) constituents in the leaf oil were identified. The main constituent of the leaf oil was Dl-limonene (94.81). Conclusion: The results obtained from this study suggest that the limonene of peel essential oil of C. aurantium is promising as larvicide against An. stephensi larvae and could be useful in the search for new natural larvicidal compounds. PMID:28032110

  12. Stable Silver Nanoparticles Synthesis by Citrus Sinensis (Orange) and Assessing Activity Against Food Poisoning Microbes.

    PubMed

    Naila, Arooj; Nadia, Dar; Zahoor, Qadir Samra

    2014-10-01

    Silver nanoparticles are considered as good antimicrobial agent. AgNPs were synthesized by mixing silver nitrate solution with citrus sinesis extract for 2 h at 37 °C and analyzed by UV-visible spectra, SEM, XRD, and FTIR. AgNPs were tested against B. subtilis, Shigella, S. aureus, and E. coli. Minimum inhibitory concentration of AgNPs was 20 µg/mL for B. subtilis and Shigella and 30 µg/mL for S. aureus and E. coli. Antibiofilm activity (80% to 90%) was observed at 25 µg/mL. AgNPs were stable for five months with sustained antimicrobial activity. Biosynthesized AgNPs can be used to inhibit food poisoning microbial growth. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  13. Major phytochemical composition of 3 native Korean citrus varieties and bioactive activity on V79-4 cells induced by oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Kyung Mi; Hwang, In Kyeong; Park, Ji Hyun; Moon, BoKyung

    2009-08-01

    Three citrus varieties grown in Korea, namely, Yuza (Citrus junos Sieb ex Tanaka), Kjool (Citrus unshiu Marcow), and Dangyooja (Citrus grandis Osbeck), were evaluated for their dietary fiber, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and total carotenoids as well as individual flavonoids composition. The biochemical characteristics of citrus varieties were examined by the antioxidant capacity (731 to 1221 micromol of Trolox equivalent/g), total phenolic (334 to 411 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalent/100 g), total flavonoid contents (214 to 281 mg of catechin equivalent/100 g), and total carotenoid contents (63 to 84 mg/100 g). Six flavonoids, including naringin, naringenin, hesperidin, hesperetin, neohesperidin, and luteolin, were tentatively identified. Naringin, hesperidin, and neohesperidin were the predominant flavonoids in 3 citrus varieties. Among the citrus varieties studied, Yuza showed higher antioxidant activity, total phenolics, total carotenoids, and lower superoxide radical scavenging assay (SRSA) IC(50) values than other varieties. Furthermore, Korean citrus showed higher protective effect on gap-junction intercellular communication (GJIC) as compared to vitamin C and luteolin.

  14. Characterization of essential oil from Citrus aurantium L. flowers: antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Ben Hsouna, Anis; Hamdi, Naceur; Ben Halima, Nihed; Abdelkafi, Slim

    2013-01-01

    Citrus aurantium L. essential oil is commonly used as a flavouring agent. In the present study, the essential oil of fresh Citrus aurantium L. (CaEO) flowers cultivated in North East of Tunisia (Nabeul) was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. 33 compounds were identified, representing 99% of the total oil. Limonene (27.5%) was the main component followed by E-nerolidol (17.5%), α-terpineol (14%), α-terpinyl acetate (11.7%) and E. E-farnesol (8%). The antimicrobial activity of the CaEO was evaluated against a panel of 13 bacteria and 8 fungal strains using agar diffusion and broth microdilution methods. Results have shown that the CaEO exhibited moderate to strong antimicrobial activity against the tested species. The investigation of the mode of action of the CaEO by the time-kill curve showed a drastic bactericidal effect after 5 min using a concentration of 624 μg/ml. The antioxidant activities of the CaEO were assayed by DPPH and beta carotene tests. Results showed that CaEO displayed an excellent DPPH scavenging ability with an IC₅₀ of 1.8 μg/ml and a strong Beta-carotene bleaching inhibition after 120 min of incubation with an IC₅₀ of 15.3 μg/ml. The results suggested that the CaEO possesses antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, and is therefore a potential source of active ingredients for food and pharmaceutical industry.

  15. Polyamines and transglutaminase activity are involved in compatible and self-incompatible pollination of Citrus grandis.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Alessandra; Antognoni, Fabiana; Iorio, Rosa Anna; Distefano, Gaetano; Las Casas, Giuseppina; La Malfa, Stefano; Serafini-Fracassini, Donatella; Del Duca, Stefano

    2012-02-01

    Pollination of pummelo (Citrus grandis L. Osbeck) pistils has been studied in planta by adding compatible and self-incompatible (SI) pollen to the stigma surface. The pollen germination has been monitored inside the pistil by fluorescent microscopy showing SI altered morphologies with irregular depositions of callose in the tube walls, and heavy callose depositions in enlarged tips. The polyamine (PA) content as free, perchloric acid (PCA)-soluble and -insoluble fractions and transglutaminase (TGase) activity have been analyzed in order to deepen their possible involvement in the progamic phase of plant reproduction. The conjugated PAs in PCA-soluble fraction were definitely higher than the free and the PCA-insoluble forms, in both compatible and SI pollinated pistils. In pistils, pollination caused an early decrease of free PAs and increase of the bound forms. The SI pollination, showed highest values of PCA-soluble and -insoluble PAs with a maximum in concomitance with the pollen tube arrest. As TGase mediates some of the effects of PAs by covalently binding them to proteins, its activity, never checked before in Citrus, was examined with two different assays. In addition, the presence of glutamyl-PAs confirmed the enzyme assay data and excluded the possibility of a misinterpretation. The SI pollination caused an increase in TGase activity, whereas the compatible pollination caused its decrease. Similarly to bound PAs, the glutamyl-PAs and the enzyme activity peaked in the SI pollinated pistils in concomitance with the observed block of the pollen tube growth, suggesting an involvement of TGase in SI response.

  16. Enhancement of anti-complementary and radical scavenging activities in the submerged culture of Cordyceps sinensis by addition of citrus peel.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jang Won; Ra, Kyung Soo; Kim, Seong Yeong; Yoon, Taek Joon; Yu, Kwang-Won; Shin, Kwang-Soon; Lee, Sam Pin; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the optimal conditions for the production of Cordyceps sinensis by the submerged culture method, glucosamine and exopolysaccharide (EPS) productivities were determined in culture broth containing different carbon sources, principally rice bran and citrus peel. An optimal medium composition (1.5% rice bran, 0.5% molasses, 3% CSL, 0.1% KH(2)PO(4), and 0.05% MgSO(4)) and the optimal condition (25 degrees C and 5-6 d culture time) for high EPS productivity with potent immune-stimulating activities were obtained. The addition of citrus peel to the culture of C. sinensis under the optimized conditions improved EPS productivity and glucosamine content. Furthermore, anti-complementary activity was higher (58.0-80.8%) using citrus peel as compared to no addition of citrus peel (48.2-68.7%). Antioxidant activity (AEAC value) of the citrus peel culture was high (284.3-384.6 mg/100g) compared to that of the culture without citrus peel (142.8-219.5mg/100g), indicating that the citrus peel helped enhance the anti-complementary and antioxidant activities of C. sinensis.

  17. Anti-dementia Activity of Nobiletin, a Citrus Flavonoid: A Review of Animal Studies.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Akira; Ohizumi, Yasushi; Yamada, Kiyofumi

    2014-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia among the elderly, is characterized by the progressive decline of cognitive function and has a detrimental impact worldwide. Despite intensive laboratory and clinical research over the last three decades, pharmacological options for the prevention and effective long-term treatment of AD are not currently available. Consequently, successful therapeutic and preventive treatments for AD are needed. When researching materials from natural resources having anti-dementia drug activity, we identified nobiletin, a polymethoxylated flavone from the peel of Citrus depressa. Nobiletin exhibited memory-improving effects in various animal models of dementia and exerted a wide range of beneficial effects against pathological features of AD including amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology, tau hyperphosphorylation, oxidative stress, cholinergic neurodegeneration and dysfunction of synaptic plasticity-related signaling, suggesting this natural compound could become a novel drug for the treatment and prevention of AD.

  18. Anti-dementia Activity of Nobiletin, a Citrus Flavonoid: A Review of Animal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia among the elderly, is characterized by the progressive decline of cognitive function and has a detrimental impact worldwide. Despite intensive laboratory and clinical research over the last three decades, pharmacological options for the prevention and effective long-term treatment of AD are not currently available. Consequently, successful therapeutic and preventive treatments for AD are needed. When researching materials from natural resources having anti-dementia drug activity, we identified nobiletin, a polymethoxylated flavone from the peel of Citrus depressa. Nobiletin exhibited memory-improving effects in various animal models of dementia and exerted a wide range of beneficial effects against pathological features of AD including amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology, tau hyperphosphorylation, oxidative stress, cholinergic neurodegeneration and dysfunction of synaptic plasticity-related signaling, suggesting this natural compound could become a novel drug for the treatment and prevention of AD. PMID:25191498

  19. Anticancer Activities of Citrus Peel Polymethoxyflavones Related to Angiogenesis and Others

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liwen; Wang, Jinhan; Fang, Lianying; Zheng, Zuliang; Zhi, Dexian; Wang, Suying; Li, Shiming; Ho, Chi-Tang; Zhao, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Citrus is a kind of common fruit and contains multiple beneficial nutrients for human beings. Flavonoids, as a class of plant secondary metabolites, exist in citrus fruits abundantly. Due to their broad range of pharmacological properties, citrus flavonoids have gained increased attention. Accumulative in vitro and in vivo studies indicate protective effects of polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) against the occurrence of cancer. PMFs inhibit carcinogenesis by mechanisms like blocking the metastasis cascade, inhibition of cancer cell mobility in circulatory systems, proapoptosis, and antiangiogenesis. This review systematically summarized anticarcinogenic effect of citrus flavonoids in cancer therapy, together with the underlying important molecular mechanisms, in purpose of further exploring more effective use of citrus peel flavonoids. PMID:25250322

  20. In Vitro Studies on Phytochemical Content, Antioxidant, Anticancer, Immunomodulatory, and Antigenotoxic Activities of Lemon, Grapefruit, and Mandarin Citrus Peels.

    PubMed

    Diab, Kawthar Ae

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been considerable research on recycling of agroindustrial waste for production of bioactive compounds. The food processing industry produces large amounts of citrus peels that may be an inexpensive source of useful agents. The present work aimed to explore the phytochemical content, antioxidant, anticancer, antiproliferation, and antigenotxic activities of lemon, grapefruit, and mandarin peels. Peels were extracted using 98% ethanol and the three crude extracts were assessed for their total polyphenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant activity using DPPH (1, 1diphenyl2picrylhydrazyl). Their cytotoxic and mitogenic proliferation activities were also studied in human leukemia HL60 cells and mouse splenocytes by CCK8 assay. In addition, genotoxic/ antigenotoxic activity was explored in mouse splenocytes using chromosomal aberrations (CAs) assay. Lemon peels had the highest of TPC followed by grapefruit and mandarin. In contrast, mandarin peels contained the highest of TFC followed by lemon and grapefruit peels. Among the extracts, lemon peel possessed the strongest antioxidant activity as indicated by the highest DPPH radical scavenging, the lowest effective concentration 50% (EC50= 42.97 ?g extract/ mL), and the highest Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC=0.157). Mandarin peel exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity (IC50 = 77.8 ?g/mL) against HL60 cells, whereas grapefruit and lemon peels were ineffective antileukemia. Further, citrus peels possessed immunostimulation activity via augmentation of proliferation of mouse splenocytes (Tlymphocytes). Citrus extracts exerted noncytotoxic, and antigenotoxic activities through remarkable reduction of CAs induced by cisplatin in mouse splenocytes for 24 h. The phytochemical constituents of the citrus peels may exert biological activities including anticancer, immunostimulation and antigenotoxic potential.

  1. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication.

    PubMed

    Wu, G Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Aurélio; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel; Cattonaro, Federica; Del Fabbro, Cristian; Pinosio, Sara; Zuccolo, Andrea; Chapman, Jarrod; Grimwood, Jane; Tadeo, Francisco R; Estornell, Leandro H; Muñoz-Sanz, Juan V; Ibanez, Victoria; Herrero-Ortega, Amparo; Aleza, Pablo; Pérez-Pérez, Julián; Ramón, Daniel; Brunel, Dominique; Luro, François; Chen, Chunxian; Farmerie, William G; Desany, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Harkins, Tim; Fredrikson, Karin; Burns, Paul; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Reforgiato, Giuseppe; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Quetier, Francis; Navarro, Luis; Roose, Mikeal; Wincker, Patrick; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Talon, Manuel; Jaillon, Olivier; Ollitrault, Patrick; Gmitter, Frederick; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Cultivated citrus are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species whose identities and contributions to citrus domestication remain controversial. Here we sequence and compare citrus genomes--a high-quality reference haploid clementine genome and mandarin, pummelo, sweet-orange and sour-orange genomes--and show that cultivated types derive from two progenitor species. Although cultivated pummelos represent selections from one progenitor species, Citrus maxima, cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into the ancestral mandarin species Citrus reticulata. The most widely cultivated citrus, sweet orange, is the offspring of previously admixed individuals, but sour orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, thus implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. A Chinese wild 'mandarin' diverges substantially from C. reticulata, thus suggesting the possibility of other unrecognized wild citrus species. Understanding citrus phylogeny through genome analysis clarifies taxonomic relationships and facilitates sequence-directed genetic improvement.

  2. Citrus Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Talon, Manuel; Gmitter Jr., Fred G.

    2008-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most widespread fruit crops globally, with great economic and health value. It is among the most difficult plants to improve through traditional breeding approaches. Currently, there is risk of devastation by diseases threatening to limit production and future availability to the human population. As technologies rapidly advance in genomic science, they are quickly adapted to address the biological challenges of the citrus plant system and the world's industries. The historical developments of linkage mapping, markers and breeding, EST projects, physical mapping, an international citrus genome sequencing project, and critical functional analysis are described. Despite the challenges of working with citrus, there has been substantial progress. Citrus researchers engaged in international collaborations provide optimism about future productivity and contributions to the benefit of citrus industries worldwide and to the human population who can rely on future widespread availability of this health-promoting and aesthetically pleasing fruit crop. PMID:18509486

  3. CIBMAN: Database exploring Citrus biodiversity of Manipur

    PubMed Central

    Sanabam, Rakesh; Somkuwar, Bharat Gopalrao; Thingnam, Gourshyam; Moirangthem, Sila; Handique, Pratap Jyoti; Huidrom, Sunitibala

    2012-01-01

    The rich wealth of Citrus genetic resources makes India to enjoy a remarkable position in the “Citrus belt of the world”. We have developed CIBMAN, a unique database on Citrus biodiversity of Manipur which comprises 33 accessions collected through extensive survey for more than three years. CIBMAN provides integrated access to Citrus species through sophisticated web interface which has following capabilities a) morphological details, b) socio-economic details, c) taxonomic details and d) geographical distribution. Morphological variability among Citrus accessions is due to variance in their genome which contributes to diverse agronomical traits and diverse bioactive compounds of high value. This diverse gene pool can be potential source for genetic improvement of existing cultivars and rootstocks. Systematic collection, characterization and conservation of the underutilized or lesser exploited varieties is required for incorporating in breeding program and conserve the germplasm from ever going on genetic erosion. This database will be useful for scientific validations and updating of traditional wisdom in bioprospecting aspects especially industrialization of Citrus found in the state. Further, the features will be suited for detailed investigation on potential medicinal and edible Citrus that make CIBMAN a powerful tool for sustainable management. Availability http://ibsd.gov.in/cibman PMID:23139595

  4. Antibacterial Activity of Biosecur® Citrus Extract Surface Cleaner Against Vibrio Vulnificus

    PubMed Central

    Cormier, Jiemin; Scott, Ronson; Janes, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the antibacterial activity of Biosecur® citrus extract surface cleaner against Vibrio vulnificus using plate count method. Two concentrations, 0.5% and 2% of Biosecur® surface cleaner were plated on Vibrio vulnificus Agar (VVA) and tested for reduction of Vibrio vulnificus. In order to investigate the lasting residual activity of Biosecur®, antibacterial activity tests were also performed at time intervals up to 2.5 h after Biosecur® was plated on VVA. Biosecur® showed 6-log reduction of Vibrio vulnificus at 2%, and 3-log reduction of Vibrio vulnificus at 0.5%. The antibacterial activity of 2% Biosecur® against Vibrio vulnificus was shown to be equivalent to that of tetracycline. The residual activity of 2% Biosecur® was shown to maintain for at least 2.5 h after application. This study confirmed the high activity and long lasting residual effect of a safe, non-toxic organic food grade surface cleaner. PMID:24302976

  5. Variety and Harvesting Season Effects on Antioxidant Activity and Vitamins Content of Citrus sinensis Macfad.

    PubMed

    Cardeñosa, Vanessa; Barreira, João C M; Barros, Lillian; Arenas-Arenas, Francisco J; Moreno-Rojas, José M; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-05-07

    Five sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) varieties cultivated in Huelva (Spain) and picked at two seasons during two consecutive years, were characterized for their antioxidant activity (free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition) and vitamin content (vitamin E and vitamin C). The effects induced by sweet orange variety and stage of maturity were comprehensively compared by applying 2-way ANOVA and linear discriminant analysis. The results indicated higher differences in antioxidant activity and vitamin contents in response to the effect of the harvesting season, when compared to the effect of sweet orange variety. Nevertheless, the results observed in 2012 showed less marked differences among the assayed sweet orange varieties. Either way, it might be concluded that oranges sampled in January show the highest antioxidant activity and vitamin contents. Furthermore, concerning the properties evaluated in this work, all sweet orange varieties represent good alternatives, except for Rhode Summer, which would not be the preferable choice as a target to enhance sweet orange overall characteristics.

  6. Diurnal patterns in flight activity and effects of light on host finding behavior of the Asian citrus psyllid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is an invasive pest of citrus in the United States. The psyllid feeds and reproduces primarily on new flush growth of citrus and other rutaceous plants. Because it vectors the bacterial causal agents of the deadly citrus green...

  7. Evaluation of the inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes, the antioxidant activity, and the polyphenolic content of Citrus limetta peel extract.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Lazcano-Díaz, Estefania; Flores-Fernandez, José Miguel; Owolabi, Moses S; Allen, Kirk; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Socorro

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the most frequent causes of death in Mexico, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. One alternative strategy for this metabolic abnormality is inhibiting the enzymes responsible for the metabolism of carbohydrates. We evaluated whether the aqueous Citrus limetta peel extract could inhibit the metabolism of carbohydrates. We found that this extract inhibited primarily the enzyme α-amylase by 49.6% at a concentration of 20 mg/mL and to a lesser extent the enzyme α-glucosidase with an inhibition of 28.2% at the same concentration. This inhibition is likely due to the high polyphenol content in the Citrus limetta peel (19.1 mg GAE/g). Antioxidant activity of the Citrus limetta peel demonstrated dose-dependent antioxidant activity, varying from 6.5% at 1.125 mg/mL to 42.5% at 20 mg/mL. The study of these polyphenolic compounds having both antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities may provide a new approach to the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  8. Evaluation of the Inhibition of Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes, the Antioxidant Activity, and the Polyphenolic Content of Citrus limetta Peel Extract

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Fernandez, José Miguel; Owolabi, Moses S.; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Socorro

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the most frequent causes of death in Mexico, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. One alternative strategy for this metabolic abnormality is inhibiting the enzymes responsible for the metabolism of carbohydrates. We evaluated whether the aqueous Citrus limetta peel extract could inhibit the metabolism of carbohydrates. We found that this extract inhibited primarily the enzyme α-amylase by 49.6% at a concentration of 20 mg/mL and to a lesser extent the enzyme α-glucosidase with an inhibition of 28.2% at the same concentration. This inhibition is likely due to the high polyphenol content in the Citrus limetta peel (19.1 mg GAE/g). Antioxidant activity of the Citrus limetta peel demonstrated dose-dependent antioxidant activity, varying from 6.5% at 1.125 mg/mL to 42.5% at 20 mg/mL. The study of these polyphenolic compounds having both antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities may provide a new approach to the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25587557

  9. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus maxima peel extract and their catalytic/antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chun-Gang; Huo, Can; Gui, Bing; Cao, Wei-Ping

    2017-08-01

    The peel of Citrus maxima (C. maxima) is the primary byproducts during the process of fruit or juice in food industries, and it was always considered as biomass waste for further treatments. In this study, the authors reported a simple and eco-friendly method to synthesise gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using C. maxima peel extract as reducing and capping agents. The synthesised AuNPs were characterised by UV-visible spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The UV-visible spectrum of the AuNPs colloid showed a characteristic peak at 540 nm. The peaks of XRD analysis at (2θ) 38.30°, 44.28°, 64.62°, 77.57° and 81.75° were assigned to (111), (200), (220), (311) and (222) planes of the face-centered cubic (fcc) lattice of gold. The TEM images showed that AuNPs were nearly spherical in shape with the size of 8-25 nm. The FTIR spectrum revealed that some bioactive compounds capped the surface of synthesised AuNPs. The biosynthesised AuNPs performed strong catalytic activity in degradation of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol and good antibacterial activity against both gram negative (Escherichia coli) and gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacterium. The synthesis procedure was proved simple, cost effective and environment friendly.

  10. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles by Citrus medica Linn. (Idilimbu) juice and its antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Shende, Sudhir; Ingle, Avinash P; Gade, Aniket; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-06-01

    We report an eco-friendly method for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) using Citron juice (Citrus medica Linn.), which is nontoxic and cheap. The biogenic copper nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer showing a typical resonance (SPR) at about 631 nm which is specific for CuNPs. Nanoparticles tracking analysis by NanoSight-LM20 showed the particles in the range of 10-60 nm with the concentration of 2.18 × 10(8) particles per ml. X-ray diffraction revealed the FCC nature of nanoparticles with an average size of 20 nm. The antimicrobial activity of CuNPs was determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method against some selected species of bacteria and plant pathogenic fungi. It was reported that the synthesized CuNPs demonstrated a significant inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Propionibacterium acnes and Salmonella typhi. Among the plant pathogenic fungi tested, Fusarium culmorum was found to be most sensitive followed by F. oxysporum and F. graminearum. The novelty of this work is that for the first time citron juice was used for the synthesis of CuNPs.

  11. Secondary metabolites of ponderosa lemon (Citrus pyriformis) and their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic activities.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Dalia; El-Readi, Mahmoud Zaki; Tahrani, Ahmad; Herrmann, Florian; Kaufmann, Dorothea; Farrag, Nawal; El-Shazly, Assem; Wink, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Column chromatography of the dichloromethane fraction from an aqueous methanolic extract of fruit peel of Citrus pyriformis Hassk. (Rutaceae) resulted in the isolation of seven compounds including one coumarin (citropten), two limonoids (limonin and deacetylnomilin), and four sterols (stigmasterol, ergosterol, sitosteryl-3-beta-D-glucoside, and sitosteryl-6'-O-acyl-3-beta-D-glucoside). From the ethyl acetate fraction naringin, hesperidin, and neohesperidin were isolated. The dichloromethane extract of the defatted seeds contained three additional compounds, nomilin, ichangin, and cholesterol. The isolated compounds were identified by MS (EI, CI, and ESI), 1H, 13C, and 2D-NMR spectral data. The limonoids were determined qualitatively by LC-ESI/MS resulting in the identification of 11 limonoid aglycones. The total methanolic extract of the peel and the petroleum ether, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate fractions were screened for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The ethyl acetate fraction exhibited a significant scavenging activity for DPPH free radicals (IC50 = 132.3 microg/mL). The petroleum ether fraction inhibited 5-lipoxygenase with IC50 = 30.6 microg/mL indicating potential anti-inflammatory properties. Limonin has a potent cytotoxic effect against COS7 cells [IC50 = (35.0 +/- 6.1) microM] compared with acteoside as a positive control [IC50 = (144.5 +/- 10.96) microM].

  12. Anti-fungal activity of Citrus reticulata Blanco essential oil against Penicillium italicum and Penicillium digitatum.

    PubMed

    Tao, Nengguo; Jia, Lei; Zhou, Haien

    2014-06-15

    The chemical composition of Citrus reticulata Blanco essential oil was analysed using GC/MS. Monoterpene hydrocarbons (C10H16) constituted the majority (88.96%, w/w) of the total oil. The oils dose-dependently inhibited Penicillium italicum and Penicillium digitatum. The anti-fungal activity of the oils against P. italicum was attributed to citronellol, octanal, citral, decanal, nonanal, β-pinene, linalool, and γ-terpinene, whereas anti-fungal activity against P. digitatum is attributed to octanal, decanal, nonanal, limonene, citral, γ-terpinene, linalool, and α-terpineol. The oils altered the hyphal morphology of P. italicum and P. digitatum by causing loss of cytoplasm and distortion of the mycelia. The oils significantly altered extracellular conductivity, the release of cell constituents, and the total lipid content of P. italicum and P. digitatum. The results suggest that C. reticulata Blanco essential oils generate cytotoxicity in P. italicum and P. digitatum by disrupting cell membrane integrity and causing the leakage of cell components. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Antitumor metastasis activity of pectic polysaccharide purified from the peels of Korean Citrus Hallabong.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Hye; Park, Hye-Ryung; Shin, Myoung-Sook; Cho, Sun Young; Choi, Hyuk-Joon; Shin, Kwang-Soon

    2014-10-13

    A polysaccharide fraction, HBE-III, was successfully purified in a high yield (40.4%) from its crude polysaccharide (HBE-0) which was prepared from pectinase hydrolysates of the peels of the Korean Citrus Hallabong. In experimental lung metastasis studies of Colon 26-M3.1 carcinoma cells, prophylactic administration of HBE-III significantly inhibited lung metastasis in a dose-dependent manner. In an in vitro cytotoxicity analysis, HBE-III (up to 1000 μg/mL) did not affect the growth of Colon 26-M3.1 cells and normal cells. HBE-III enhanced production of IL-6 and IL-12 by murine peritoneal macrophages. In an assay for natural killer (NK) cell activity, HBE-III (1000 μg/mouse, i.v.) significantly augmented NK cytotoxicity against Yac-1 tumor cells. The depletion of NK cells by injection of mouse anti-asialo GM1 serum abolished the inhibitory effect of HBE-III on lung metastasis of Colon 26-M3.1 cells. These data suggest that HBE-III may inhibit tumor metastasis via activation of macrophages and NK cells.

  14. Anticonvulsant activity of Citrus aurantium blossom essential oil (neroli): involvment of the GABAergic system.

    PubMed

    Azanchi, Taravat; Shafaroodi, Hamed; Asgarpanah, Jinous

    2014-11-01

    Citrus aurantium L. blossoms are an important medicinal plant part in Iran and some other countries. It is used in traditional medicine as an antiseizure and anticonvulsant natural agent. Early in vitro research of the anticonvulsant activity of the blossom extracts were done but there has been no investigation focused on the blossom essential oil and its anticonvulsant activity. The anticonvulsant activity of the essential oil of C. aurantium blossoms (neroli) was investigated. The anticonvulsant activity of neroli was assessed in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsion by i.v. and i.p. methods and maximal electroshock (MES) in mice, with diazepam as the standard drug. While mechanistic studies were conducted using flumazenil, a GABA A-benzodiazepine receptor complex site antagonist. Neroli produced protection against clonic by i.v adminiatration of PTZ at 20 and 40 mg/kg, compared with protection with benzodiazepine. The mean onset and percentage protection against convulsion in neroli-treated mice were reduced by flumazenil. Intraperitonaeal PTZ also decreased the latency of clonic seizure in the neroli (40 mg/kg) treated group. We also showed that neroli (20 and 40 mg/kg), exhibited inhibition of the tonic convulsion induced by MES and decreased the mortality rate. Neroli was analyzed by GC and GC-MS and twenty three constituents, representing 91.0 % of the chromatographical oil were identified. The major components of neroli were characterized as linalool (28.5%), linalyl acetate (19.6%), nerolidol (9.1%) E,E-farnesol (9.1%), α-terpineol (4.9%) and limonene (4.6%) which might be responsible for the anticonvulsant activity. The results suggest that neroli possesses biologically active constituent(s) that have anticonvulsant activity which supports the ethnomedicinal claims of the use of the plant in the management of seizure.

  15. Citrus pulp for cattle.

    PubMed

    Arthington, John D; Kunkle, William E; Martin, Amy M

    2002-07-01

    Citrus pulp is classified as an energy concentrate by-product feed. Citrus by-products fed to beef cattle include citrus molasses, citrus meal, wet citrus pulp, dried citrus pulp, and pelleted citrus pulp; however, in current production systems, pulp (wet, dry, and pelleted) is the only by-product commonly used. Citrus pulp production in the United States is limited to specific subtropical regions, of which south central Florida remains the largest with additional production in California and Texas.

  16. Maintaining Medicinal Plant Germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For all plant genetic resources collections, including medicinal plant germplasm, maintaining the genetic integrity of material held ex situ is of major importance. This holds true for all intended end uses of the material whether it is as a source for crop improvement, medical research, as voucher...

  17. Citrus (Rutaceae) SNP markers based on Competitive Allele-Specific PCR; transferability across the Aurantioideae subfamily1

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Lor, Andres; Ancillo, Gema; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers based on Competitive Allele-Specific PCR (KASPar) were developed from sequences of three Citrus species. Their transferability was tested in 63 Citrus genotypes and 19 relative genera of the subfamily Aurantioideae to estimate the potential of SNP markers, selected from a limited intrageneric discovery panel, for ongoing broader diversity analysis at the intra- and intergeneric levels and systematic germplasm bank characterization. • Methods and Results: Forty-two SNP markers were developed using KASPar technology. Forty-one were successfully genotyped in all of the Citrus germplasm, where intra- and interspecific polymorphisms were observed. The transferability and diversity decreased with increasing taxonomic distance. • Conclusions: SNP markers based on the KASPar method developed from sequence data of a limited intrageneric discovery panel provide a valuable molecular resource for genetic diversity analysis of germplasm within a genus and should be useful for germplasm fingerprinting at a much broader diversity level. PMID:25202535

  18. Evaluation of Antihyperglycemic Activity of Citrus limetta Fruit Peel in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    KunduSen, Sriparna; Haldar, Pallab K.; Gupta, Malaya; Mazumder, Upal K.; Saha, Prerona; Bala, Asis; Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Kar, Biswakanth

    2011-01-01

    The present paper aims to evaluate antihyperglycemic activity of methanol extract of Citrus limetta fruit peel (MECL) in streptozotocin-induced (STZ; 65 mg/kg b.w.) diabetic rats. Three days after STZ induction, diabetic rats received MECL orally at 200 and 400 mg kg−1 body weight daily for 15 days. Glibenclamide (0.5 mg kg−1 p. o.) was used as reference drug. Blood glucose levels were measured on 0th, 4th, 8th, and 15th days of study. Serum biochemical parameters namely, SGOT, SGPT and ALP were estimated. The TBARS and GSH levels of pancreas, kidney, and liver were determined. MECL significantly (P < 0.001) and dose dependently normalized blood glucose levels and serum biochemical parameters, decreased lipid peroxidation, and recovered GSH as compared to those of STZ control. The present paper infers that in STZ-induced diabetic Wistar rats, C. limetta fruit peel demonstrated a potential antihyperglycemic effect which may be attributed to its antioxidant property. PMID:22363893

  19. Evaluation of bioactive flavonoids and antioxidant activity in Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (Citrus reticulata 'Chachi') during storage.

    PubMed

    Fu, Manqin; Xu, Yujuan; Chen, Yulong; Wu, Jijun; Yu, Yuanshan; Zou, Bo; An, Kejing; Xiao, Gengsheng

    2017-09-01

    A simple and accurate method using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with dual wavelength detection was developed to simultaneously determine the contents of one flavanone glycoside (hesperidin) and five polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs: sinensetin, 4',5,7,8-tetramethoxyflavone, nobiletin, tangeretin and 5-O-desmethyl nobiletin) in Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (Citrus reticulata 'Chachi') ('Chachi' PCR). By modifying the mobile phase compositions and detection wavelengths, an optimal HPLC condition was obtained, under which the calibration curves of all six compounds exhibited good linearity (R(2)>0.99). For all the tested compounds, the relative standard deviation (RSD) was less than 4%, and the accuracy ranged from 97.58 to 103.2%. The developed method was successfully applied to monitor the changes in the contents of six flavonoids in 'Chachi' PCR during storage at 25°C, over a three year period. Color parameters and antioxidant capacity were also determined to evaluate the sample quality. The contents of hesperidin decreased while all the polymethoxylated flavones and antioxidant activities increased throughout the storage period, demonstrating that polymethoxylated flavones could be used as indices for the quality change of Chachi' PCR during storage. The results from this study suggest that the longer storage periods increased the quality of PCR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Antidiarrheal activity of hexane extract of Citrus limon peel in an experimental animal model.

    PubMed

    Adeniyi, Olasupo Stephen; Omale, James; Omeje, Samuel Chukwuma; Edino, Victoria Ojimaojo

    2017-03-01

    Acute diarrhea is one of the major illnesses that cause death in children, despite clinical interventions and the use of oral rehydration therapy. Thus, there is need to discover other effective, affordable and accessible treatments for this disease. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the effects of hexane extract of Citrus limon peel (HECLP) on castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats. Diarrhea was induced in male albino Wistar rats weighing 100-150 g. The antidiarrheal activity of HECLP at different oral dosages (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) was investigated by counting the number of wet fecal pellets. Animals were further treated with propranolol, prazosin, nifedipine and atropine to assess the effects of receptor blockers on the activities of the extract. The effects of HECLP on castor oil-induced enteropooling and the intestinal transit time of activated charcoal were also evaluated. Each of the 3 doses of C. limon significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the number of wet fecal pellets produced by animals, with 20 mg/kg HECLP producing the highest percentage inhibition (34.2%). Wet fecal pellet inhibition by the standard drug loperamide (3 mg/kg p.o.) was 68.4% relative to the negative control. Blockage of β adrenergic receptors by propanolol abolished the antidiarrheal effects of HECLP. Intestinal fluid accumulation was inhibited by 68.7% and 78.5% by 20 mg/kg HECLP and loperamide respectively. Furthermore, 20 mg/kg HECLP significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the percentage intestinal transit time (21.4% ± 1.42%), relative to the control (34.2% ± 4.29%); atropine (5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) significantly (P < 0.001) reduced the percentage intestinal transit time to 11.2% ± 0.85%. These results suggest that C. limon peel possesses antidiarrheal effects through antisecretory and antimotility mechanisms that act through the β adrenergic system.

  1. Spasmolytic and Antibacterial Activity of Two Citrus sinensis Osbeck Varieties Cultivated in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Recillas, Amanda; Arroyo-Herrera, Ana Ly; Araujo-León, Jesús Alfredo; Hernández Núñez, Emanuel

    2017-01-01

    Antibacterial activity on ATCC strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Salmonella enteritidis, and Salmonella choleraesuis and spasmolytic effect on contraction on rat ileum trips were determinate. Eight organic extracts (hexanic and methanolic) of albedo (mesocarp) and flavedo (pericarp) of two varieties (Valencian and National) of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck of Yucatán, México, were studied. Additionally, chromatographic fingerprints were obtained and correlated with their pharmacological effects. MAN, MAV, and HFN extract caused inhibition against S. choleraesuis (MIC: 1000 µg/mL) and S. enteritidis (MIC: 1000 µg/mL). Regarding the spasmolytic effect, the Valencian extracts variety was more efficient on spontaneous contraction, HAV (Emax = 51.98 ± 1.98%), MAV (Emax = 35.98 ± 1.42%), HFV (Emax = 68.91 ± 4.14%), and MFV (Emax = 51.28 ± 2.59%), versus National variety, HAN (Emax = 43.80 ± 6.32%), MAN (Emax = 14.62 ± 1.69%), HFN (Emax = 64.87 ± 3.04%), and MFN (Emax = 31.01 ± 3.92%). Chromatographic fingerprints of HFV and HFN were found to have some similar signals that belong to monoterpenes, whereas for HAN and HAV similar signals were found belonging to fatty acids and triterpenoids. Methanolic extracts showed signals of (1) furfural, (2) furfural acetone (3) furfuraldehyde and (4) β–sitosterol compounds. Flavedo portion of C. sinensis possessed spasmolytic effect on rat ileum strips and antibacterial activity against Salmonella strains. This species is source for obtaining bioactive compounds with therapeutic potential in the treatment of infectious diarrhea. PMID:28356916

  2. Spasmolytic and Antibacterial Activity of Two Citrus sinensis Osbeck Varieties Cultivated in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Recillas, Amanda; Arroyo-Herrera, Ana Ly; Araujo-León, Jesús Alfredo; Hernández Núñez, Emanuel; Ortiz Andrade, Rolffy

    2017-01-01

    Antibacterial activity on ATCC strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Salmonella enteritidis, and Salmonella choleraesuis and spasmolytic effect on contraction on rat ileum trips were determinate. Eight organic extracts (hexanic and methanolic) of albedo (mesocarp) and flavedo (pericarp) of two varieties (Valencian and National) of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck of Yucatán, México, were studied. Additionally, chromatographic fingerprints were obtained and correlated with their pharmacological effects. MAN, MAV, and HFN extract caused inhibition against S. choleraesuis (MIC: 1000 µg/mL) and S. enteritidis (MIC: 1000 µg/mL). Regarding the spasmolytic effect, the Valencian extracts variety was more efficient on spontaneous contraction, HAV (Emax = 51.98 ± 1.98%), MAV (Emax = 35.98 ± 1.42%), HFV (Emax = 68.91 ± 4.14%), and MFV (Emax = 51.28 ± 2.59%), versus National variety, HAN (Emax = 43.80 ± 6.32%), MAN (Emax = 14.62 ± 1.69%), HFN (Emax = 64.87 ± 3.04%), and MFN (Emax = 31.01 ± 3.92%). Chromatographic fingerprints of HFV and HFN were found to have some similar signals that belong to monoterpenes, whereas for HAN and HAV similar signals were found belonging to fatty acids and triterpenoids. Methanolic extracts showed signals of (1) furfural, (2) furfural acetone (3) furfuraldehyde and (4) β-sitosterol compounds. Flavedo portion of C. sinensis possessed spasmolytic effect on rat ileum strips and antibacterial activity against Salmonella strains. This species is source for obtaining bioactive compounds with therapeutic potential in the treatment of infectious diarrhea.

  3. Properties and antioxidant activity of fish skin gelatin film incorporated with citrus essential oils.

    PubMed

    Tongnuanchan, Phakawat; Benjakul, Soottawat; Prodpran, Thummanoon

    2012-10-01

    Properties of protein-based film from fish skin gelatin incorporated with different citrus essential oils, including bergamot, kaffir lime, lemon and lime (50% based on protein) in the presence of 20% and 30% glycerol were investigated. Films containing 20% glycerol had higher tensile strength (TS) but lower elongation at break (EAB), compared with those prepared with 30% glycerol, regardless of essential oils incorporated (p<0.05). Films incorporated with essential oils, especially from lime, at both glycerol levels showed the lower TS but higher EAB than the control films (without incorporated essential oil) (p<0.05). Water vapour permeability (WVP) of films containing essential oils was lower than that of control films for both glycerol levels (p<0.05). Films with essential oils had varying ΔE(*) (total colour difference), where the highest value was observed in that added with bergamot essential oil (p<0.05). Higher glycerol content increased EAB and WVP but decreased TS of films. Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectra indicated that films added with essential oils exhibited higher hydrophobicity with higher amplitude at wavenumber of 2874-2926 cm(-1) and 1731-1742 cm(-1) than control film. Film incorporated with essential oils exhibited slightly lower thermal degradation resistance, compared to the control film. Varying effect of essential oil on thermal degradation temperature and weight loss was noticeable, but all films prepared using 20% glycerol had higher thermal degradation temperature with lower weight loss, compared with those containing 30% glycerol. Films added with all types of essential oils had rough cross-section, compared with control films, irrespective of glycerol levels. However, smooth surface was observed in all film samples. Film incorporated with lemon essential oil showed the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) (p<0.05), while the other films had lower activity. Thus, the

  4. Bioconversion of Citrus unshiu peel extracts with cytolase suppresses adipogenic activity in 3T3-L1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Heejin; Yeo, Eunju; Song, Eunju; Chang, Yun-Hee; Han, Bok-Kyung; Choi, Hyuk-Joon

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Citrus flavonoids have a variety of physiological properties such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, and anti-obesity. We investigated whether bioconversion of Citrus unshiu with cytolase (CU-C) ameliorates the anti-adipogenic effects by modulation of adipocyte differentiation and lipid metabolism in 3T3-L1 cells. MATERIALS/METHODS Glycoside forms of Citrus unshiu (CU) were converted into aglycoside forms with cytolase treatment. Cell viability of CU and CU-C was measured at various concentrations in 3T3L-1 cells. The anti-adipogenic and lipolytic effects were examined using Oil red O staining and free glycerol assay, respectively. We performed real time-polymerase chain reaction and western immunoblotting assay to detect mRNA and protein expression of adipogenic transcription factors, respectively. RESULTS Treatment with cytolase decreased flavanone rutinoside forms (narirutin and hesperidin) and instead, increased flavanone aglycoside forms (naringenin and hesperetin). During adipocyte differentiation, 3T3-L1 cells were treated with CU or CU-C at a dose of 0.5 mg/ml. Adipocyte differentiation was inhibited in CU-C group, but not in CU group. CU-C markedly suppressed the insulin-induced protein expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) as well as the mRNA levels of CEBPα, PPARγ, and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP1c). Both CU and CU-C groups significantly increased the adipolytic activity with the higher release of free glycerol than those of control group in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CU-C is particularly superior in suppression of adipogenesis, whereas CU-C has similar effect to CU on stimulation of lipolysis. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that bioconversion of Citrus unshiu peel extracts with cytolase enhances aglycoside flavonoids and improves the anti-adipogenic metabolism via both inhibition of key adipogenic

  5. Bioconversion of Citrus unshiu peel extracts with cytolase suppresses adipogenic activity in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Heejin; Yeo, Eunju; Song, Eunju; Chang, Yun-Hee; Han, Bok-Kyung; Choi, Hyuk-Joon; Hwang, Jinah

    2015-12-01

    Citrus flavonoids have a variety of physiological properties such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, and anti-obesity. We investigated whether bioconversion of Citrus unshiu with cytolase (CU-C) ameliorates the anti-adipogenic effects by modulation of adipocyte differentiation and lipid metabolism in 3T3-L1 cells. Glycoside forms of Citrus unshiu (CU) were converted into aglycoside forms with cytolase treatment. Cell viability of CU and CU-C was measured at various concentrations in 3T3L-1 cells. The anti-adipogenic and lipolytic effects were examined using Oil red O staining and free glycerol assay, respectively. We performed real time-polymerase chain reaction and western immunoblotting assay to detect mRNA and protein expression of adipogenic transcription factors, respectively. Treatment with cytolase decreased flavanone rutinoside forms (narirutin and hesperidin) and instead, increased flavanone aglycoside forms (naringenin and hesperetin). During adipocyte differentiation, 3T3-L1 cells were treated with CU or CU-C at a dose of 0.5 mg/ml. Adipocyte differentiation was inhibited in CU-C group, but not in CU group. CU-C markedly suppressed the insulin-induced protein expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) as well as the mRNA levels of CEBPα, PPARγ, and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP1c). Both CU and CU-C groups significantly increased the adipolytic activity with the higher release of free glycerol than those of control group in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CU-C is particularly superior in suppression of adipogenesis, whereas CU-C has similar effect to CU on stimulation of lipolysis. These results suggest that bioconversion of Citrus unshiu peel extracts with cytolase enhances aglycoside flavonoids and improves the anti-adipogenic metabolism via both inhibition of key adipogenic transcription factors and induction of adipolytic activity.

  6. Chemical Profile, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activity of Algerian Citrus Essential Oils and Their Application in Sardina pilchardus

    PubMed Central

    Djenane, Djamel

    2015-01-01

    Stored fish are frequently contaminated by foodborne pathogens. Lipid oxidation and microbial growth during storage are also important factors in the shelf-life of fresh fish. In order to ensure the safety of fish items, there is a need for control measures which are effective through natural inhibitory antimicrobials. It is also necessary to determine the efficacy of these products for fish protection against oxidative damage, to avoid deleterious changes and loss of commercial and nutritional value. Some synthetic chemicals used as preservatives have been reported to cause harmful effects to the environment and the consumers. The present investigation reports on the extraction by hydrodistillation and the chemical composition of three citrus peel essential oils (EOs): orange (Citrus sinensis L.), lemon (Citrus limonum L.) and bergamot (Citrus aurantium L.) from Algeria. Yields for EOs were between 0.50% and 0.70%. The chemical composition of these EOs was determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that the studied oils are made up mainly of limonene (77.37%) for orange essential oil (EO); linalyl acetate (37.28%), linalool (23.36%), for bergamot EO; and finally limonene (51.39%), β-pinene (17.04%) and γ-terpinene (13.46%) for lemon EO. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the EOs was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) using the agar diffusion technique. Results revealed that lemon EO had more antibacterial effects than that from other EOs. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) showed a range of 0.25–0.40 μL/mL. Lemon and bergamot citrus peel EOs were added at 1 × MIC and 4 × MIC values to Sardina pilchardus (S. pilchardus) experimentally inoculated with S. aureus at a level of 3.5 log10 CFU/g and stored at 8 ± 1 °C. The results obtained revealed that the 4 × MIC value of bergamot reduced completely the growth of S. aureus from day 2 until the end of storage. The presence of EOs

  7. Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids extracted from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) peel, a byproduct of the essential oil industry.

    PubMed

    Mandalari, G; Bennett, R N; Bisignano, G; Trombetta, D; Saija, A; Faulds, C B; Gasson, M J; Narbad, A

    2007-12-01

    To evaluate the antimicrobial properties of flavonoid-rich fractions derived from bergamot peel, a byproduct from the Citrus fruit processing industry and the influence of enzymatic deglycosylation on their activity against different bacteria and yeast. Bergamot ethanolic fractions were tested against Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida, Salmonella enterica), Gram-positive bacteria (Listeria innocua, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactococcus lactis) and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Bergamot fractions were found to be active against all the Gram-negative bacteria tested, and their antimicrobial potency increased after enzymatic deglycosylation. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the fractions and the pure flavonoids, neohesperidin, hesperetin (aglycone), neoeriocitrin, eriodictyol (aglycone), naringin and naringenin (aglycone), were found to be in the range 200 to 800 microg ml(-1). The interactions between three bergamot flavonoids were also evaluated. The enzyme preparation Pectinase 62L efficiently converted common glycosides into their aglycones from bergamot extracts, and this deglycosylation increased the antimicrobial potency of Citrus flavonoids. Pairwise combinations of eriodictyol, naringenin and hesperetin showed both synergistic and indifferent interactions that were dependent on the test indicator organism. Bergamot peel is a potential source of natural antimicrobials that are active against Gram-negative bacteria.

  8. Acaricidal activity against Tetranychus urticae and chemical composition of peel essential oils of three Citrus species cultivated in NE Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Claudio Pereira; da Camara, Claudio Augusto Gomes; Neves, Ilzenayde Araújo; Ribeiro, Nicolle de Carvalho; Gomes, Cristianne Araújo; de Moraes, Marcílio Martins; Botelho, Priscilla de Sousa

    2010-03-01

    The repellency and fumigant toxicities of the peel essential oils of Citrus sinensis var. pêra (LP), C. sinensis var. mimo (LM), and C. aurantium (LL) cultivated in northeast Brazil were evaluated against Tetranychus urticae. Analysis of the oils by GC and GC/MS led to the identification of twenty-eight components, which represented 99.9%, 99.7% and 99.3% of the total constituents of the LP, LM and LL oils, respectively. Limonene was the main component found in all three oils. Other main components were alpha-pinene (1.5% in LP; 1.4% in LM), myrcene (5.7% in LP; 5.9% in LM and 5.6% in LL) and linalool (2.4% in LP; 2.3% in LM and 3.9% in LL). The best repellency action was observed for LM at 2.0%, followed by LL oil and eugenol, both of them at 2.5%. The Citrus oils were less active than eugenol (LC50 = 0.004 microL/L air) and phosphine, which revealed 100% mortality at 2 x 10(-3) g/L (66.7% of the recommended dose). However, the most potent fumigant toxicity was found with LL oil, with an LC50 value of 1.63 microL/L air, followed by the oils from LM and LP with LC50 values of 2.22 microL/L air and 4.63 microL/L air, respectively. The associated fumigant and repellent properties of these Citrus peel oils, particularly those of C. aurantium and C. senensis var. mimo, could be used to advantage for the control of T. urticae.

  9. Citrus Inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    An aerial color infrared (CIR) mapping system developed by Kennedy Space Center enables Florida's Charlotte County to accurately appraise its citrus groves while reducing appraisal costs. The technology was further advanced by development of a dual video system making it possible to simultaneously view images of the same area and detect changes. An image analysis system automatically surveys and photo interprets grove images as well as automatically counts trees and reports totals. The system, which saves both time and money, has potential beyond citrus grove valuation.

  10. Citrus Inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Florida's Charlotte County Property Appraiser is using an aerial color infrared mapping system for inventorying citrus trees for valuation purposes. The ACIR system has significantly reduced the time and manpower required for appraisal. Aerial photographs are taken and interpreted by a video system which makes it possible to detect changes from previous years. Potential problems can be identified. KSC's TU Office has awarded a contract to the Citrus Research and Education Center to adapt a prototype system which would automatically count trees and report totals.

  11. Characterization of bioactive compounds in Tunisian bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) peel and juice and determination of their antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Jabri Karoui, Iness; Marzouk, Brahim

    2013-01-01

    Citrus aurantium peel and juice aroma compounds were investigated by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), whereas phenolic compounds analysis was performed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Limonene was the major volatile compound of bitter orange peel (90.25%) and juice (91.61%). HPLC analysis of bitter orange peel and juice methanolic extracts indicated that phenolic acids constitute their main phenolic class representing 73.80% and 71.25%, respectively, followed by flavonoids (23.02% and 23.13%, resp.). p-Coumaric and ferulic acids were the most abundant phenolic compounds representing 24.68% and 23.79%, respectively, in the peel, while the juice contained 18.02% and 19.04%, respectively. The antioxidant activities of bitter orange peel and juice methanolic extracts have been evaluated using four in vitro assays, and the results were compared with the standard antioxidants (BHT, BHA, and ascorbic acid). Our findings demonstrated that Citrus aurantium peel and juice possess antioxidant activities which were less effective than those of antioxidant standards. Both extracts may be suggested as a new potential source of natural antioxidant.

  12. Characterization of Bioactive Compounds in Tunisian Bitter Orange (Citrus aurantium L.) Peel and Juice and Determination of Their Antioxidant Activities

    PubMed Central

    Jabri karoui, Iness; Marzouk, Brahim

    2013-01-01

    Citrus aurantium peel and juice aroma compounds were investigated by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), whereas phenolic compounds analysis was performed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Limonene was the major volatile compound of bitter orange peel (90.25%) and juice (91.61%). HPLC analysis of bitter orange peel and juice methanolic extracts indicated that phenolic acids constitute their main phenolic class representing 73.80% and 71.25%, respectively, followed by flavonoids (23.02% and 23.13%, resp.). p-Coumaric and ferulic acids were the most abundant phenolic compounds representing 24.68% and 23.79%, respectively, in the peel, while the juice contained 18.02% and 19.04%, respectively. The antioxidant activities of bitter orange peel and juice methanolic extracts have been evaluated using four in vitro assays, and the results were compared with the standard antioxidants (BHT, BHA, and ascorbic acid). Our findings demonstrated that Citrus aurantium peel and juice possess antioxidant activities which were less effective than those of antioxidant standards. Both extracts may be suggested as a new potential source of natural antioxidant. PMID:23841062

  13. Peyer's patch-mediated intestinal immune system modulating activity of pectic-type polysaccharide from peel of Citrus unshiu.

    PubMed

    Suh, Hyung-Joo; Yang, Hyun-Seuk; Ra, Kyung-Soo; Noh, Dong-Ouk; Kwon, Ki-Han; Hwang, Jong-Hyun; Yu, Kwang-Won

    2013-06-01

    An intestinal immune system modulating polysaccharide (CUI-3IIb-3-2, 18kDa) was purified from Citrus unshiu peel. CUI-3IIb-3-2 mainly comprised GalA, GlcA, Ara, Gal and Rha, and it consisted of 4-linked GalA, terminal Araf, 4- or 5-linked/3,4- or 3,5-branched Ara, terminal Gal, and 2-linked/2,4-branched Rha. After CUI-3IIb-3-2 digestion by endo-α-d-(1→4)-polygalacturonase, its hydrolysate was fractionated into PG-1 and PG-2. Methylation analyses of PG-1 and PG-2 using base-catalysed β-elimination suggested that CUI-3IIb-3-2 be assumed as pectic-type polysaccharide. Since the activities of PG-1 and PG-2 were potently decreased, the whole polysaccharide structure of CUI-3IIb-3-2 would be essential to maintain the activity. Meanwhile, when CUI-3IIb was orally administered in mice, bone marrow cell proliferation and GM-CSF/IL-6 production from Peyer's patch cell were significantly higher (1.76- and 2.03/2.51-fold, respectively) than a saline. Therefore, a pectic-type polysaccharide from citrus peel could stimulate Peyer's patches and produce hematopoietic growth factors resulted in bone marrow cell proliferation.

  14. Insecticidal activity of Citrus aurantium fruit, leaf, and shoot extracts against adult olive fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Siskos, E P; Konstantopoulou, M A; Mazomenos, B E; Jervis, M

    2007-08-01

    Solvent extracts of differing polarity from Citrus aurantium (L.) (Rutaceae) fruit, leaves, and shoots were evaluated for biological activity against adults of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Using a petri dish residual exposure bioassay, we found that the petroleum ether extract from fruit alone showed insecticidal activity against the flies. The extract of the three fruit tissues (flavedo [peel], albedo, and flesh) indicated that bioactivity was limited to the flavedo, and this activity was significantly higher than that of the whole fruit extract. The most effective extract was obtained when fresh flavedo was used, whereas extracts of oven-dried flavedo were inactive. Fruit maturity also affected bioactivity; extracts of ripe fruit were more effective than those of unripe fruit. Our results suggest that C. aurantium flavedo contains secondary metabolites with insecticidal activity against B. oleae adults.

  15. Variation in major antioxidants and total antioxidant activity of Yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb ex Tanaka) during maturation and between cultivars.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Kyung Mi; Lee, Ki Won; Park, Jae Bok; Lee, Hyong Joo; Hwang, In Kyeong

    2004-09-22

    Epidemiological studies suggest that a high consumption of fruits can reduce the risk of some cancers and cardiovascular disease, and this may be attributable to the antioxidant activity of vitamins and phenolic compounds. The present study investigated the variations in vitamin C, total phenolic, hesperidin, and naringin contents, and total antioxidant activity of yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb ex Tanaka)-which is a popular citrus fruit in Korea and Japan-between cultivars and during maturity. The amounts of phenolics and vitamin C and the antioxidant activity in all tested yuzu cultivars were higher in peel than in flesh. Ripening increased the total antioxidant activity and vitamin C content in both peel and flesh of yuzu. However, the amounts of all total phenolics, hesperidin, and naringin in peel increased with ripening, whereas they decreased slightly in flesh. There was a highly linear relationship between the vitamin C content and the total antioxidant activity in both peel (r(2) = 1.000) and flesh (r(2) =0.998), suggesting that vitamin C plays a key role in the antioxidant activity of yuzu. In addition, the contribution of each antioxidant to the total antioxidant activity of yuzu was determined using a 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging assay and is expressed here in terms of the vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC). The means of vitamin C, naringin, and hesperidin in yuzu were 90.4, 63.8, and 65.7 mg/100 g fresh yuzu, respectively. The relative VCEAC values of these compounds were in the following order: vitamin C (1.00) > naringin (0.195) > hesperidin (0.162). Therefore, the estimated contribution of each antioxidant to the total antioxidant capacity of 100 g of fresh yuzus is as follows (in mg of VCEAC): vitamin C (90.36 mg) > naringin (12.44 mg) > hesperidin (10.64 mg). Our results indicate that mature yuzu contains higher amounts of vitamin C and phenolics than other citrus fruits and could therefore be

  16. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka Essential Oil and Limonene in Experimental Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Kummer, Raquel; Fachini-Queiroz, Fernanda Carolina; Estevão-Silva, Camila Fernanda; Grespan, Renata; Silva, Expedito Leite; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2013-01-01

    The genus Citrus (Rutaceae) includes several species of plants that produce some of the most cultivated fruits in the world, providing an appreciable content of essential oil. In folk medicine, they are used as a cholagogue, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, sedative, and antitoxic effects. Lemon essential oil has been used since ancient times for its antiseptic, carminative, diuretic, and eupeptic effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka essential oil (CLEO) and its main constituent LIM. In the cell viability assay, CLEO and LIM (3, 10, 30, and 90  μ g/mL) had low cytotoxicity. In zymosan-induced peritonitis, LIM (500 mg/kg) decreased the infiltration of peritoneal exudate leukocytes and decreased the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. In vitro chemotaxis revealed that CLEO and LIM (1, 3, and 10 µg/mL) promoted a significant reduction of neutrophil migration toward fMLP and LTB4. LIM (500 mg/kg) also reduced TNF- α levels but did not alter IL-10 levels in the peritoneal exudate. In conclusion, this study showed that LIM isolated from CLEO had potential anti-inflammatory effects, likely by inhibiting proinflammatory mediators present in inflammatory exudate and leukocyte chemotaxis.

  17. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka Essential Oil and Limonene in Experimental Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Kummer, Raquel; Fachini-Queiroz, Fernanda Carolina; Estevão-Silva, Camila Fernanda; Grespan, Renata; Silva, Expedito Leite; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2013-01-01

    The genus Citrus (Rutaceae) includes several species of plants that produce some of the most cultivated fruits in the world, providing an appreciable content of essential oil. In folk medicine, they are used as a cholagogue, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, sedative, and antitoxic effects. Lemon essential oil has been used since ancient times for its antiseptic, carminative, diuretic, and eupeptic effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka essential oil (CLEO) and its main constituent LIM. In the cell viability assay, CLEO and LIM (3, 10, 30, and 90 μg/mL) had low cytotoxicity. In zymosan-induced peritonitis, LIM (500 mg/kg) decreased the infiltration of peritoneal exudate leukocytes and decreased the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. In vitro chemotaxis revealed that CLEO and LIM (1, 3, and 10 µg/mL) promoted a significant reduction of neutrophil migration toward fMLP and LTB4. LIM (500 mg/kg) also reduced TNF-α levels but did not alter IL-10 levels in the peritoneal exudate. In conclusion, this study showed that LIM isolated from CLEO had potential anti-inflammatory effects, likely by inhibiting proinflammatory mediators present in inflammatory exudate and leukocyte chemotaxis. PMID:23762165

  18. Volatile constituents and antioxidant activity of peel, flowers and leaf oils of Citrus aurantium L. growing in Greece.

    PubMed

    Sarrou, Eirini; Chatzopoulou, Paschalina; Dimassi-Theriou, Kortessa; Therios, Ioannis

    2013-09-02

    The volatile constituents of the essential oils of the peel, flower (neroli) and leaves (petitgrain) of bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) growing in Greece were studied by GC-MS. The analytical procedures enabled the quantitative determination of 31 components. More specifically, the components of the essential oils identified were: twelve in the peel, twenty-six in the flowers, and twenty and sixteen in old and young leaves, respectively. The major constituents of the different parts of Citrus aurantium L. essential oils were: β-pinene (0.62%-19.08%), limonene (0.53%-94.67%), trans-β-ocimene (3.11%-6.06%), linalool (0.76%-58.21%), and α-terpineol (0.13%-12.89%). The DPPH test demonstrated that the essential oils in the old leaves had the maximum antioxidant activity, followed by the flowers, young leaves and the peel in that order. This study updates the data in the literature on the essential oils of bitter orange, and provides information on the composition of the oils for a further evaluation of this product.

  19. Effect of an active packaging with citrus extract on lipid oxidation and sensory quality of cooked turkey meat.

    PubMed

    Contini, Claudia; Álvarez, Rocío; O'Sullivan, Michael; Dowling, Denis P; Gargan, Sean Óg; Monahan, Frank J

    2014-03-01

    An antioxidant active packaging was prepared by coating a citrus extract, consisting of a mixture of carboxylic acids and flavanones, on polyethylene terephthalate trays. The effect of the packaging in reducing lipid oxidation in cooked turkey meat and on meat pH, colour characteristics and sensorial parameters was investigated. An untrained sensory panel evaluated the odour, taste, tenderness, juiciness and overall acceptability of the meat, using triangle, paired preference and quantitative response scale tests. A comparison between the antioxidant effects of the different components of the extract was also carried out. The packaging led to a significant reduction in lipid oxidation. After 2 days of refrigerated storage the sensory panel detected differences in odour and, after 4 days, rated the meat stored in the active packaging higher for tenderness and overall acceptability. Citric acid appeared to be the most important component of the extract with regard to its antioxidant potency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Somatic hybridization for citrus rootstock breeding: an effective tool to solve some important issues of the Mediterranean citrus industry.

    PubMed

    Dambier, Dominique; Benyahia, Hamid; Pensabene-Bellavia, Giovanni; Aka Kaçar, Yildiz; Froelicher, Yann; Belfalah, Zina; Lhou, Beniken; Handaji, Najat; Printz, Bruno; Morillon, Raphael; Yesiloglu, Turgut; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2011-05-01

    The prevalence of sour orange rootstock in the southern and eastern part of the Mediterranean Basin is presently threatened by the spread of Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV) and its main vector Toxoptera citricida, combined with abiotic constraints such as drought, salinity and alkalinity. The search for alternative CTV-resistant rootstocks that also withstand the other constraints is now considered an urgent priority for a sustainable citrus industry in the area. Complementary progenitors can be found in citrus germplasm to combine the desired traits, particularly between Poncirus and Citrus genera. The production of somatic hybrids allows cumulating all dominant traits irrespective of their heterozygosity level, and would appear to be an effective way to solve the rootstock challenge facing the Mediterranean citrus industry. This paper presents the results obtained during a regional collaborative effort between five countries, to develop new rootstocks by somatic hybridization. New embryogenic callus lines to be used for somatic hybridization have been created. Protoplast fusions have been performed at CIRAD and IVIA laboratories, focusing on intergeneric combinations. Analysis of ploidy level by flow cytometry and molecular markers confirmed the acquisition of new interesting tetraploid somatic hybrids for six combinations. Diploid cybrids with intergeneric (Citrus × Poncirus) nucleus and C. reticulata or C. aurantifolia mitochondria were also identified for four combinations. The agronomical performance of a pre-existing somatic hybrid between Poncirus trifoliata and Citrus reticulata was validated in calcareous soils in Morocco. Somatic hybridization is now integrated into the breeding programs of the five Mediterranean countries.

  1. Aromatic effects of a Japanese citrus fruit-yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka)-on psychoemotional states and autonomic nervous system activity during the menstrual cycle: a single-blind randomized controlled crossover study.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Tamaki; Kimura, Tetsuya; Hayashi, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka), a yellow-golden colored citrus fruit, has traditionally been used to promote psychosomatic health in Japan. While the yuzu produces a distinctive, pleasing aroma of citrus and floral, the efficacy of its fragrance remains unknown. The present study investigated the soothing effects of the fragrance of yuzu essential oil from the perspective of autonomic nervous system activity, which plays a crucial role in the integrity of the mind-body connection. Twenty one women in their 20s participated in a single-blind randomized controlled crossover study. Subjects were examined twice each in the follicular and late-luteal phases. Two kinds of aromatic stimulation (yuzu and water as a control) were used. This experiment measured heart rate variability (HRV) reflecting autonomic nervous system activity and used the Profile of Mood States (POMS) as a psychological index before and after the aromatic stimulation. Only a 10-min inhalation of the yuzu scent significantly decreased heart rate and increased high frequency power of HRV reflecting parasympathetic nervous system activity, regardless of menstrual phase. This significant physiological effect continued for at least 25 min. In addition, the POMS tests revealed that inhalation of the aromatic yuzu oil significantly decreased total mood disturbance, a global measure of affective state, together with two POMS subscales-tension-anxiety and fatigue, as long as 35 min after the aroma stimulation, both in the symptomatic late-luteal and non-symptomatic follicular phases. The present study provides the novel information that yuzu's aromatic effects could serve to alleviate negative emotional stress, which, at least in part, would contribute to the improvement of parasympathetic nervous system activity.

  2. Citrus leprosis research update

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Citrus leprosis is one of the oldest citrus diseases, but is also one of the most important emerging citrus diseases in South and Central America, and it is apparently spreading northward towards the U.S. Research in our labs and by others has shown that citrus leprosis disease is caused by a compl...

  3. Citrus blight research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With HLB now occurring throughout Florida citrus groves, citrus blight has been getting less attention even though the problem still exists. In fact, the combination of HLB and citrus blight has compounded the problem that the citrus industry is facing with decreased yields, small fruit size and tre...

  4. Seasonal variations of antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of essential oils extracted from three Citrus limon L. Burm. cultivars.

    PubMed

    Settanni, L; Randazzo, W; Palazzolo, E; Moschetti, M; Aleo, A; Guarrasi, V; Mammina, C; San Biagio, P L; Marra, F P; Moschetti, G; Germanà, M A

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the seasonal variations of antimicrobial properties and chemical composition of essential oils (EOs), three different cultivars of Citrus limon L. Burm. spp. (Femminello Santa Teresa, Monachello and Femminello Continella) were collected at 6-week intervals, from December 2012 to April 2013, for a total of four harvests. The EOs were extracted from lemon peel by hydro-distillation. The antimicrobial activity, tested by paper disc diffusion method, was evaluated against common food-related pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica and Enterobacter spp.). EOs were more effective against Gram-positive than Gram-negative bacteria at each collection time, but a strong strain dependence was evidenced. Monachello EOs showed the highest inhibition power. The chemical characterisation of the EOs performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry identified from 36 to 42 molecules. The chemical difference registered among samples and seasons may explain the different antimicrobial efficacies recorded.

  5. Citrus Allergy from Pollen to Clinical Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Iorio, Rosa Anna; Del Duca, Stefano; Calamelli, Elisabetta; Pula, Chiara; Lodolini, Magda; Scamardella, Fortuna; Pession, Andrea; Ricci, Giampaolo

    2013-01-01

    Allergy to citrus fruits is often associated with pollinosis and sensitization to other plants due to a phenomenon of cross-reactivity. The aims of the present study were to highlight the cross-reactivity among citrus and the major allergenic pollens/fruits, throughout clinical and molecular investigations, and to evaluate the sensitization frequency to citrus fruits in a population of children and adults with pollinosis. We found a relevant percentage of sensitisation (39%) to citrus fruits in the patients recruited and in all of them the IgE-mediated mechanism has been confirmed by the positive response to the prick-to-prick test. RT-PCR experiments showed the expression of Cit s 1, Cit s 3 and a profilin isoform, already described in apple, also in Citrus clementine pollen. Data of multiple sequence alignments demonstrated that Citrus allergens shared high percentage identity values with other clinically relevant species (i.e. Triticum aestivum, Malus domestica), confirming the possible cross-allergenicity citrus/grasses and citrus/apple. Finally, a novelty of the present work has been the expression of two phospholipaseA2 isoforms (PLA2 α and β) in Citrus as well as in Triticum pollens; being PLA2 able to generate pro-inflammatory factors, this enzyme could participate in the activation of the allergenic inflammatory cascade. PMID:23308273

  6. Polymethoxyflavones Isolated from the Peel of Miaray Mandarin (Citrus miaray) Have Biofilm Inhibitory Activity in Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed

    Uckoo, Ram M; Jayaprakasha, G K; Vikram, Amit; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2015-08-19

    Citrus fruits are a good source of bioactive compounds with numerous beneficial biological activities. In the present study, fruits of the unexplored Miaray mandarin were used for the isolation of 10 bioactive compounds. Dried peels were sequentially extracted with hexane and chloroform in a Soxhlet-type apparatus for 8 h. The extracts were concentrated under vacuum and separated by flash chromatography to obtain nine polymethoxyflavones and a limonoid. The purity of each compound was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the compounds were identified by spectral analysis using MALDI-TOF-MS and NMR. The isolated compounds were identified as 5-hydroxy-3,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone, 5,6,7,8,4'-pentamethoxyflavone (tangeretin), 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone, 5,6,7,8,3',4'-hexamethoxyflavone (nobiletin), 3,5,7,8,3',4'-hexamethoxyflavone, 3,5,7,3',4'-pentamethoxyflavone (pentamethylquercetin), 5,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone, 5,7,8,4'-tetramethoxyflavone, 5,7,8,3',4'-pentamethoxyflavone, and limonin. These compounds were further tested for their ability to inhibit cell-cell signaling and biofilm formation in Vibrio harveyi. Among the evaluated polymethoxyflavones, 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone and 3,5,7,8,3',4'-hexamethoxyflavone inhibited autoinducer-mediated cell-cell signaling and biofilm formation. These results suggest that Miaray mandarin fruits are a good source of polymethoxyflavones. This is the first report on the isolation of bioactive compounds from Miaray mandarin and evaluation of their biofilm inhibitory activity as well as isolation of pentamethylquercetin from the Citrus genus.

  7. The compositional characterisation and antioxidant activity of fresh juices from sicilian sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) varieties.

    PubMed

    Proteggente, Anna R; Saija, Antonella; De Pasquale, Anna; Rice-Evans, Catherine A

    2003-06-01

    Epidemiological evidence has suggested that consumption of fruit and vegetables reduces the risk of both cancer and cardiovascular diseases, potentially through the biological actions of components such as vitamin C, vitamin E, flavonoids and carotenoids. Citrus species are extremely rich sources in vitamin C and flavanones, a class of compounds which belongs to the flavonoids family. A comparison of the phenolic compositions, the ascorbic acid contents and the antioxidant activities of fresh Sicilian orange juices from pigmented (Moro, Tarocco and Sanguinello) and non-pigmented (Ovale, Valencia and Navel) varieties of orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), was undertaken. The simultaneous characterisation and quantification of the major flavanone, anthocyanin and hydroxycinnamate components were attained by HPLC with diode array detection. Differences between varieties in terms of the flavanone glycoside content, particularly hesperidin, were observed, with the Tarocco juices reporting the highest content. Furthermore, cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-(6"-malonyl)-glucoside were predominant in all the pigmented varieties, but their concentration was higher in the juices of the Moro variety. Quantitatively, the major antioxidant component of all juices was ascorbic acid and its concentration was significantly correlated (r = 0.74, P < 0.001) with the total antioxidant activity of the juices, determined in vitro using the ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Similarly, hydroxycinnamates (r = 0.73, P < 0.01) and anthocyanins (r = 0.98, P < 0.001) content showed a good correlation with the determined antioxidant capacity. Therefore orange juices, particularly those rich in anthocyanins, may represent a significant dietary source of flavonoids.

  8. Larvicidal and irritant activities of hexane leaf extracts of Citrus sinensis against dengue vector Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed Central

    Warikoo, Radhika; Ray, Ankita; Sandhu, Jasdeep Kaur; Samal, Roopa; Wahab, Naim; Kumar, Sarita

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the larvicidal and irritant activities of the hexane extracts of leaves of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) against the early fourth instars and female adults of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti). Methods The larvicidal potential of the prepared leaf extract was evaluated against early fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti using WHO protocol. The mortality counts were made after 24 h and LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. The efficacy of extract as mosquito irritant was assessed by contact irritancy assays. Extract-impregnated paper was placed on a glass plate over which a perspex funnel with a hole on the top was kept inverted. Single female adult, 3-day old unfed/blood-fed, was released inside the funnel. After 3 min of acclimatization time, the time taken for the first take-off and total number of flights undertaken during 15 min were scored. Results The citrus leaf extracts from hexane possessed moderate larvicidal efficiency against dengue vector. The bioassays resulted in an LC50 and LC90 value of 446.84 and 1 370.96 ppm, respectively after 24 h of exposure. However, the extracts were proved to be remarkable irritant against adults Ae. aegypti, more pronounced effects being observed on blood-fed females than unfed females. The extract-impregnated paper was thus proved to be 7–11 times more irritable as compared with the control paper. Conclusions The hexane extracts from C. sinensis leaves are proved to be reasonably larvicidal but remarkably irritant against dengue vector. Further studies are needed to identify the possible role of extract as adulticide, oviposition deterrent and ovicidal agent. The isolation of active ingredient from the extract could help in formulating strategies for mosquito control. PMID:23569887

  9. Larvicidal and irritant activities of hexane leaf extracts of Citrus sinensis against dengue vector Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Warikoo, Radhika; Ray, Ankita; Sandhu, Jasdeep Kaur; Samal, Roopa; Wahab, Naim; Kumar, Sarita

    2012-02-01

    To assess the larvicidal and irritant activities of the hexane extracts of leaves of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) against the early fourth instars and female adults of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti). The larvicidal potential of the prepared leaf extract was evaluated against early fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti using WHO protocol. The mortality counts were made after 24 h and LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. The efficacy of extract as mosquito irritant was assessed by contact irritancy assays. Extract-impregnated paper was placed on a glass plate over which a perspex funnel with a hole on the top was kept inverted. Single female adult, 3-day old unfed/blood-fed, was released inside the funnel. After 3 min of acclimatization time, the time taken for the first take-off and total number of flights undertaken during 15 min were scored. The citrus leaf extracts from hexane possessed moderate larvicidal efficiency against dengue vector. The bioassays resulted in an LC50 and LC90 value of 446.84 and 1 370.96 ppm, respectively after 24 h of exposure. However, the extracts were proved to be remarkable irritant against adults Ae. aegypti, more pronounced effects being observed on blood-fed females than unfed females. The extract-impregnated paper was thus proved to be 7-11 times more irritable as compared with the control paper. The hexane extracts from C. sinensis leaves are proved to be reasonably larvicidal but remarkably irritant against dengue vector. Further studies are needed to identify the possible role of extract as adulticide, oviposition deterrent and ovicidal agent. The isolation of active ingredient from the extract could help in formulating strategies for mosquito control.

  10. Insecticidal activity against Bemisia tabaci biotype B of peel essential oil of Citrus sinensis var. pear and Citrus aurantium cultivated in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Nicolle de Carvalho; da Camara, Claudio Augusto Gomes; Born, Flávia de Souza; de Siqueira, Herbert Alvaro Abreu

    2010-11-01

    The fumigant action of peel essential oils of Citrus sinensis var. pear (pear orange = PO) and C. aurantium (bitter orange = BO) from the northeast of Brazil were evaluated against Bemisia tabaci biotype B and compared with eugenol as a positive control. The oil concentration in the PO at 8.5 microL/L of air caused 97% mortality, while the oil concentration of BO at 9.5 microL/L of air caused 99% mortality. However, the LC50 estimates for both oils (LC50 = 3.80 microL/L of air for PO and LC50 = 5.80 microL/L of air for BO) did not differ from each other, but they did when compared with eugenol (LC50 = 0.20 microL/L of air). Regarding their effects on oviposition, the Citrus oils showed concentration-response dependence, reducing the number of eggs as the concentration increased, which was not observed for eugenol. The minimum concentrations of the oils that caused a significant reduction in the egg lay were 3.5 and 7.0 microL/L of air for BO and PO, respectively. These results suggest that oils from PO and BO peels may be promising as models to develop new insecticides that might be applied into the integrated management of whiteflies.

  11. Flowering and Growth Responses of Cultivated Lentil and Wild Lens Germplasm toward the Differences in Red to Far-Red Ratio and Photosynthetically Active Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hai Y.; Saha, Shyamali; Vandenberg, Albert; Bett, Kirstin E.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding environmental responses of pulse crop species and their wild relatives will play an important role in developing genetic strategies for crop improvement in response to changes in climate. This study examined how cultivated lentil and wild Lens germplasm responded to different light environments, specifically differences in red/far-red ratio (R/FR) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Three genotypes of each the seven Lens species were grown in environmentally controlled growth chambers equipped to provide light treatments consisting of different R/FR ratios and PAR values. Our results showed that overall, days to flower of Lens genotypes were mainly influenced by the R/FR induced light quality change but not by the PAR related light intensity change. The cultivated lentil (L. culinaris) showed consistent, accelerated flowering in response to the low R/FR light environment together with three wild lentil genotypes (L. orientalis IG 72611, L. tomentosus IG 72830, and L. ervoides IG 72815) while most wild lentil genotypes had reduced responses and flowering time was not significantly affected. The longest shoot length, longest internode length, and largest leaflet area were observed under the low R/FR low PAR environment for both cultivated and wild lentils. The distinctly different responses between flowering time and elongation under low R/FR conditions among wild Lens genotypes suggests discrete pathways controlling flowering and elongation, which are both components of shade avoidance responses. The yield and above-ground biomass of Lens genotypes were the highest under high R/FR high PAR conditions, intermediate under low R/FR low PAR conditions, and lowest under high R/FR low PAR light conditions. Three L. lamottei genotypes (IG 110809, IG 110810, and IG 110813) and one L. ervoides genotype (IG 72646) were less sensitive in their time to flower responses while maintaining similar yield, biomass, and harvest index across all three light

  12. Flowering and Growth Responses of Cultivated Lentil and Wild Lens Germplasm toward the Differences in Red to Far-Red Ratio and Photosynthetically Active Radiation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hai Y; Saha, Shyamali; Vandenberg, Albert; Bett, Kirstin E

    2017-01-01

    Understanding environmental responses of pulse crop species and their wild relatives will play an important role in developing genetic strategies for crop improvement in response to changes in climate. This study examined how cultivated lentil and wild Lens germplasm responded to different light environments, specifically differences in red/far-red ratio (R/FR) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Three genotypes of each the seven Lens species were grown in environmentally controlled growth chambers equipped to provide light treatments consisting of different R/FR ratios and PAR values. Our results showed that overall, days to flower of Lens genotypes were mainly influenced by the R/FR induced light quality change but not by the PAR related light intensity change. The cultivated lentil (L. culinaris) showed consistent, accelerated flowering in response to the low R/FR light environment together with three wild lentil genotypes (L. orientalis IG 72611, L. tomentosus IG 72830, and L. ervoides IG 72815) while most wild lentil genotypes had reduced responses and flowering time was not significantly affected. The longest shoot length, longest internode length, and largest leaflet area were observed under the low R/FR low PAR environment for both cultivated and wild lentils. The distinctly different responses between flowering time and elongation under low R/FR conditions among wild Lens genotypes suggests discrete pathways controlling flowering and elongation, which are both components of shade avoidance responses. The yield and above-ground biomass of Lens genotypes were the highest under high R/FR high PAR conditions, intermediate under low R/FR low PAR conditions, and lowest under high R/FR low PAR light conditions. Three L. lamottei genotypes (IG 110809, IG 110810, and IG 110813) and one L. ervoides genotype (IG 72646) were less sensitive in their time to flower responses while maintaining similar yield, biomass, and harvest index across all three light

  13. Sodium hydroxide-mediated hydrogel of citrus pectin for preparation of fluorescent carbon dots for bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xi Juan; Zhang, Wen Lin; Zhou, Zhi Qin

    2014-11-01

    The citrus process industry produces annually a huge amount of pomace, which is a rich source of citrus pectin. Here, we report the hydrogel of citrus pectin mediated by sodium hydroxide can be used to prepare fluorescent carbon dots (CDs). The introduction of hydrogel can not only make the temperature of the hydrothermal reaction down to 100 °C, but also avoid visually carbonized precipitates in the synthesis process even up to 180 °C. The as-synthesized CDs are well dispersed in water with an average size of 2.7 nm and show cyan fluorescence with high photostability, good biocompatibility. Furthermore, the CDs can act as a potential fluorescent probe for cell imaging. Citrus pectin as a non-toxic carbonaceous precursor for preparation of fluorescent CDs provides a new approach for the efficient utilization of citrus germplasm in future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication

    PubMed Central

    Wu, G. Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Aurélio; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel; Cattonaro, Federica; Del Fabbro, Cristian; Pinosio, Sara; Zuccolo, Andrea; Chapman, Jarrod; Grimwood, Jane; Tadeo, Francisco R.; Estornell, Leandro H.; Muñoz-Sanz, Juan V.; Ibanez, Victoria; Herrero-Ortega, Amparo; Aleza, Pablo; Pérez-Pérez, Julián; Ramón, Daniel; Brunel, Dominique; Luro, François; Chen, Chunxian; Farmerie, William G.; Desany, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Harkins, Tim; Fredrikson, Karin; Burns, Paul; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Reforgiato, Giuseppe; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Quetier, Francis; Navarro, Luis; Roose, Mikeal; Wincker, Patrick; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Talon, Manuel; Jaillon, Olivier; Ollitrault, Patrick; Gmitter, Frederick; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The domestication of citrus, is poorly understood. Cultivated types are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species, whose identities and contributions remain controversial. By comparative analysis of a collection of citrus genomes, including a high quality haploid reference, we show that cultivated types were derived from two progenitor species. Though cultivated pummelos represent selections from a single progenitor species, C. maxima, cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into the ancestral mandarin species, C. reticulata. The most widely cultivated citrus, sweet orange, is the offspring of previously admixed individuals, but sour orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. A wild “mandarin” from China exhibited substantial divergence from C. reticulata, suggesting the possibility of other unrecognized wild citrus species. Understanding citrus phylogeny through genome analysis clarifies taxonomic relationships and enables sequence-directed genetic improvement. PMID:24908277

  15. Physical activity increases the bioavailability of flavanones after dietary aronia-citrus juice intake in triathletes.

    PubMed

    Medina, S; Domínguez-Perles, R; García-Viguera, C; Cejuela-Anta, R; Martínez-Sanz, J M; Ferreres, F; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2012-12-15

    Control and triathlete volunteers (n=8 and n=15, respectively) were given 400 mL and 200 mL of aronia-citrus juice (AC-juice), respectively. The 24h urine samples were hydrolysed to determine the flavanones concentration by UPLC-QqQ-MS/MS. The flavanones metabolites in both groups of volunteers were glucuronides, sulfates, and sulfo-glucuronides, and the total excretion of flavanones increased fivefold in the triathletes compared with the control volunteers. The increase of ninefold in the homoeriodictyol of triathletes compared to control volunteers may suggest the overactivation of the microbiota metabolism caused by physical exercise. No differences concerning the bioavailability were detected between men and women in controlboth groups. The AC-juice could provide synergistic effects on health due to the increase in the bioavailability of flavanones, avoiding the deleterious effects caused by the overdosage of nutritional supplements.

  16. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Citrus bergamia Derivatives: Where Do We Stand?

    PubMed

    Ferlazzo, Nadia; Cirmi, Santa; Calapai, Gioacchino; Ventura-Spagnolo, Elvira; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Navarra, Michele

    2016-09-23

    Inflammatory diseases affect a large portion of the worldwide population, and chronic inflammation is a major risk factor for several dangerous pathologies. To limit the side effects of both synthetic and biological anti-inflammatory drugs, the use of herbal medicines, nutraceuticals and food supplements has increased tremendously as alternative and/or complementary medicine to treat several pathologies, including inflammation. During the last decades, the biological properties of Citrus bergamia (bergamot) derivatives have obtained important scientific achievements, and it has been suggested their use in a context of a multitarget pharmacological strategy. Here, we present an overview of the anti-inflammatory properties of bergamot extracts that could represent the scientific basis for develop novel and alternative strategies to improve health status and attenuate inflammatory conditions.

  17. Comprehensive comparative analysis of volatile compounds in citrus fruits of different species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haipeng; Xie, Yunxia; Liu, Cuihua; Chen, Shilin; Hu, Shuangshuang; Xie, Zongzhou; Deng, Xiuxin; Xu, Juan

    2017-09-01

    The volatile profiles of fruit peels and juice sacs from 108 citrus accessions representing seven species were analyzed. Using GC-MS 162 and 107 compounds were determined in the peels and juice sacs, respectively. In the peels, monoterpene alcohols were accumulated in loose-skin mandarins; clementine tangerines and papedas were rich in sesquiterpene alcohols, sesquiterpenes, monoterpene alcohols and monoterpene aldehydes. β-pinene and sabinene were specifically accumulated in 4 of 5 lemon germplasms. Furthermore, concentrations of 34 distinctive compounds were selected to best represent the volatile profiles of seven species for HCA analysis, and the clustering results were in agreement with classic citrus taxonomy. Comparison of profiles from different growing seasons and production areas indicated that environmental factors play important roles in volatile metabolism. In addition, a few citrus germplasms that accumulated certain compounds were determined as promising breeding materials. Notably, volatile biosynthesis via MVA pathway in C. ichangensis 'Huaihua' was enhanced. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Ornamental Plants and the US National Plant Germplasm System: Conserving, Evaluating, Seeking, and Sharing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report presents an overview of the US National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) for an audience of plant propagators from the nursery industry, academia, and public gardens. It describes the active sites that conserve germplasm of interest to propagators and how those sites conserve their germpla...

  19. Chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Citrus aurantium l. flowers essential oil (Neroli oil).

    PubMed

    Ammar, A Haj; Bouajila, J; Lebrihi, A; Mathieu, F; Romdhane, M; Zagrouba, F

    2012-11-01

    Neroli essential oil is extracted from the fragrant blossoms of the bitter orange tree. It is one of the most widely used floral oils in perfumery. In this study chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of neroli oil are investigated. The essential oil of fresh Citrus aurantium L. Flowers (Neroli oil) cultivated in North East of Tunisia (Nabeul) were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. About 33 compounds were identified, representing 99% of the total oil. Limonene (27.5%) was the main component followed by (E)-nerolidol (17.5%), alpha-terpineol (14%), alpha-terpinyl acetate (11.7%) and (E, E)-farnesol (8%). Antimicrobial activity was determined by Agar-well-diffusion method against 6 bacteria (3 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative), 2 yeasts and 3 fungi. Neroli oil exhibited a marked antibacterial activity especially against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Moreover, Neroli oil exhibited a very strong antifungal activity compared with the standard antibiotic (Nystatin) as evidenced by their inhibition zones. Antioxidant activity determined by ABTS assay showed IC50 values of 672 mg L(-1). Finally, this study may be considered as the first report on the biological properties of this essential oil. The results of this study have provided a starting point for the investigations to exploit new natural substances present in the essential oil of C. aurantium L. flowers.

  20. Building a comprehensive collection of ash germplasm

    Treesearch

    Mark P. Widrlechner

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) has conserved seed collections of ash (Fraxinus) germplasm at the USDA-ARS North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) in Ames, IA, since the 1970s.

  1. Activation of Secondary Metabolism in Citrus Plants Is Associated to Sensitivity to Combined Drought and High Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Zandalinas, Sara I.; Sales, Carlos; Beltrán, Joaquim; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Arbona, Vicent

    2017-01-01

    Drought and heat stresses are two of the most frequent environmental factors that take place simultaneously in the field constraining global crop productivity. Metabolism reconfiguration is often behind the adaptation of plants to adverse environmental conditions. Carrizo citrange and Cleopatra mandarin, two citrus genotypes with contrasting ability to tolerate combined heat and drought conditions, showed different metabolite patterns. Increased levels of phenylpropanoid metabolites were observed in Cleopatra in response to stress, including scopolin, a metabolite involved in defense mechanisms. Tolerant Carrizo accumulated sinapic acid and sinapoyl aldehyde, direct precursors of lignins. Finally, Cleopatra showed an accumulation of flavonols and glycosylated and polymethoxylated flavones such as tangeritin. The activation of flavonoid biosynthesis in Cleopatra could be aimed to mitigate the higher oxidative damage observed in this genotype. In general, limonoids were more severely altered in Cleopatra than in Carrizo in response to stress imposition. To conclude, all metabolite changes observed in Cleopatra suggest the activation of energy metabolism along with metabolic pathways leading to the accumulation of photoprotective and antioxidant secondary metabolites, oriented to mitigate the damaging effects of stress. Conversely, the higher ability of Carrizo to retain a high photosynthetic activity and to cope with oxidative stress allowed the maintenance of the metabolic activity and prevented the accumulation of antioxidant metabolites. PMID:28119698

  2. Activation of Secondary Metabolism in Citrus Plants Is Associated to Sensitivity to Combined Drought and High Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zandalinas, Sara I; Sales, Carlos; Beltrán, Joaquim; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Arbona, Vicent

    2016-01-01

    Drought and heat stresses are two of the most frequent environmental factors that take place simultaneously in the field constraining global crop productivity. Metabolism reconfiguration is often behind the adaptation of plants to adverse environmental conditions. Carrizo citrange and Cleopatra mandarin, two citrus genotypes with contrasting ability to tolerate combined heat and drought conditions, showed different metabolite patterns. Increased levels of phenylpropanoid metabolites were observed in Cleopatra in response to stress, including scopolin, a metabolite involved in defense mechanisms. Tolerant Carrizo accumulated sinapic acid and sinapoyl aldehyde, direct precursors of lignins. Finally, Cleopatra showed an accumulation of flavonols and glycosylated and polymethoxylated flavones such as tangeritin. The activation of flavonoid biosynthesis in Cleopatra could be aimed to mitigate the higher oxidative damage observed in this genotype. In general, limonoids were more severely altered in Cleopatra than in Carrizo in response to stress imposition. To conclude, all metabolite changes observed in Cleopatra suggest the activation of energy metabolism along with metabolic pathways leading to the accumulation of photoprotective and antioxidant secondary metabolites, oriented to mitigate the damaging effects of stress. Conversely, the higher ability of Carrizo to retain a high photosynthetic activity and to cope with oxidative stress allowed the maintenance of the metabolic activity and prevented the accumulation of antioxidant metabolites.

  3. Study of Antiobesity Effect through Inhibition of Pancreatic Lipase Activity of Diospyros kaki Fruit and Citrus unshiu Peel

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gyo-Nam; Shin, Mi-Rae; Shin, Sung Ho; Lee, Ah Reum; Lee, Joo Young; Seo, Bu-Il; Kim, Min Yeong; Kim, Tae Hoon; Noh, Jeong Sook; Rhee, Man Hee

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic lipase is the enzyme responsible for digestion and absorption of triglycerides, being its inhibition one of the widest studied methods used to determine the potential activity of natural products to inhibit dietary fat absorption. Decrease of energy intake from dietary fat through inhibition of this enzyme may be an excellent strategy to prevent and treat obesity. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase enzyme of Diospyros kaki fruit and Citrus unshiu peel mixture extract (PCM) was evaluated in vitro and its antiobesity effects were studied based on the serum lipid parameters analysis from high-fat diet- (HFD-) fed mice in vivo. PCM was orally administered at a dose of 50 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 6 weeks. In addition, the activity of pancreatic lipase was assessed using orlistat (positive control). PCM exhibited inhibitory effect on lipase activity with IC50 value of 507.01 μg/mL. Moreover, serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol levels, and visceral fat weight were significantly reduced compared to HFD control mice in PCM 200 mg/kg-treated mice (p < 0.05). These results suggest that PCM administration may be a novel potential antiobesity agent for reduction of fat absorption via inhibition of pancreatic lipase. PMID:27529064

  4. Study of Antiobesity Effect through Inhibition of Pancreatic Lipase Activity of Diospyros kaki Fruit and Citrus unshiu Peel.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gyo-Nam; Shin, Mi-Rae; Shin, Sung Ho; Lee, Ah Reum; Lee, Joo Young; Seo, Bu-Il; Kim, Min Yeong; Kim, Tae Hoon; Noh, Jeong Sook; Rhee, Man Hee; Roh, Seong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic lipase is the enzyme responsible for digestion and absorption of triglycerides, being its inhibition one of the widest studied methods used to determine the potential activity of natural products to inhibit dietary fat absorption. Decrease of energy intake from dietary fat through inhibition of this enzyme may be an excellent strategy to prevent and treat obesity. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase enzyme of Diospyros kaki fruit and Citrus unshiu peel mixture extract (PCM) was evaluated in vitro and its antiobesity effects were studied based on the serum lipid parameters analysis from high-fat diet- (HFD-) fed mice in vivo. PCM was orally administered at a dose of 50 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 6 weeks. In addition, the activity of pancreatic lipase was assessed using orlistat (positive control). PCM exhibited inhibitory effect on lipase activity with IC50 value of 507.01 μg/mL. Moreover, serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol levels, and visceral fat weight were significantly reduced compared to HFD control mice in PCM 200 mg/kg-treated mice (p < 0.05). These results suggest that PCM administration may be a novel potential antiobesity agent for reduction of fat absorption via inhibition of pancreatic lipase.

  5. Evaluation of Citrus aurantifolia peel and leaves extracts for their chemical composition, antioxidant and anti-cholinesterase activities.

    PubMed

    Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Tundis, Rosa; Bonesi, Marco; Menichini, Federica; De Luca, Damiano; Colica, Carmela; Menichini, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    The replacement of synthetic antioxidants by safe natural antioxidants fosters research on the screening of vegetables and food as sources of new antioxidants. Moreover, oxidative degeneration of cells is associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. On the basis of these considerations this work aimed to investigate the antioxidant properties [by using the diphenyl picryl hydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and ferric reducing ability of plasma assays, and the β-carotene bleaching test] and the anti-cholinesterase activity of Citrus aurantifolia peel and leaves from different areas of growth. Methanol extracts of the peel and leaves demonstrated the strongest radical scavenging activity. A similar trend was observed with the reducing ability, with values from 112.1 to 146.0 µmol L(-1) Fe(II) g(-1). The relationship between phenol and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity was statistically investigated. Based on analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography, the most abundant flavonoids found in C. aurantifolia extracts were apigenin, rutin, quercetin, kaempferol and nobiletin. n-Hexane fractions of both peel and leaves showed a good acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity with IC(50) values in the range 91.4-107.4 µg mL(-1). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes as most common components. The findings of this study suggest a potential use of C. aurantifolia peel and leaves for supplements for human health. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Usefulness of descriptors in phenotyping germplasm collections

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A large number of crop germplasm collections are maintained within the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS). For each of these crop collections, Crop Germplasm committees (CGC), crop curators, and collection staff have established extensive lists of descriptors or phenotypic traits by which t...

  7. Safflower Germplasm: Past, Present, and Future.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Germplasm collections are a critical resource for development and improving safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) cultivars and germplasm. Our objective is to describe the safflower germplasm collection at the Western Regional Plant Introduction Station (WRPIS), Pullman WA, USA, in light of past, pre...

  8. Chemical Profile, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activity of Algerian Citrus Essential Oils and Their Application in Sardina pilchardus.

    PubMed

    Djenane, Djamel

    2015-06-05

    Stored fish are frequently contaminated by foodborne pathogens. Lipid oxidation and microbial growth during storage are also important factors in the shelf-life of fresh fish. In order to ensure the safety of fish items, there is a need for control measures which are effective through natural inhibitory antimicrobials. It is also necessary to determine the efficacy of these products for fish protection against oxidative damage, to avoid deleterious changes and loss of commercial and nutritional value. Some synthetic chemicals used as preservatives have been reported to cause harmful effects to the environment and the consumers. The present investigation reports on the extraction by hydrodistillation and the chemical composition of three citrus peel essential oils (EOs): orange (Citrussinensis L.), lemon (Citruslimonum L.) and bergamot (Citrusaurantium L.) from Algeria. Yields for EOs were between 0.50% and 0.70%. The chemical composition of these EOs was determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that the studied oils are made up mainly of limonene (77.37%) for orange essential oil (EO); linalyl acetate (37.28%), linalool (23.36%), for bergamot EO; and finally limonene (51.39%), β-pinene (17.04%) and γ-terpinene (13.46%) for lemon EO. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the EOs was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) using the agar diffusion technique. Results revealed that lemon EO had more antibacterial effects than that from other EOs. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) showed a range of 0.25-0.40 μL/mL. Lemon and bergamot citrus peel EOs were added at 1 × MIC and 4 × MIC values to Sardina pilchardus (S. pilchardus) experimentally inoculated with S. aureus at a level of 3.5 log10 CFU/g and stored at 8 ± 1 °C. The results obtained revealed that the 4 × MIC value of bergamot reduced completely the growth of S. aureus from day 2 until the end of storage. The presence of EOs

  9. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Flavonoids from Pomelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) Peel and Their Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    He, Jin-Zhe; Shao, Ping; Liu, Jian-Hua; Ru, Qiao-Mei

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of flavonoids from pomelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) peel and their antioxidant activity were investigated. Box-Behnken design combined with response surface methodology was employed to maximize the extraction yield of flavonoids. Correlation analysis of the mathematical-regression model indicated that a quadratic polynomial model could be used to optimize the SC-CO2 extraction of flavonoids. The optimal conditions for obtaining the highest extraction yield of flavonoids from pomelo peel were a temperature of 80 °C, a pressure of 39 MPa and a static extraction time of 49 min in the presence of 85% ethanol as modifier. Under these conditions, the experimental yield was 2.37%, which matched positively with the value predicted by the model. Furthermore, flavonoids obtained by SC-CO2 extraction showed a higher scavenging activity on hydroxyl, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radicals than those obtained by conventional solvent extraction (CSE). Therefore, SC-CO2 extraction can be considered as a suitable technique for the obtainment of flavonoids from pomelo peel. PMID:23202938

  10. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of flavonoids from pomelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) peel and their antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    He, Jin-Zhe; Shao, Ping; Liu, Jian-Hua; Ru, Qiao-Mei

    2012-10-12

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) extraction of flavonoids from pomelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) peel and their antioxidant activity were investigated. Box-Behnken design combined with response surface methodology was employed to maximize the extraction yield of flavonoids. Correlation analysis of the mathematical-regression model indicated that a quadratic polynomial model could be used to optimize the SC-CO(2) extraction of flavonoids. The optimal conditions for obtaining the highest extraction yield of flavonoids from pomelo peel were a temperature of 80 °C, a pressure of 39 MPa and a static extraction time of 49 min in the presence of 85% ethanol as modifier. Under these conditions, the experimental yield was 2.37%, which matched positively with the value predicted by the model. Furthermore, flavonoids obtained by SC-CO(2) extraction showed a higher scavenging activity on hydroxyl, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radicals than those obtained by conventional solvent extraction (CSE). Therefore, SC-CO(2) extraction can be considered as a suitable technique for the obtainment of flavonoids from pomelo peel.

  11. Antiallergic activity of unripe Citrus hassaku fruits extract and its flavanone glycosides on chemical substance-induced dermatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Kimihisa; Masuda, Megumi; Naruto, Shunsuke; Murata, Kazuya; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2009-10-01

    Oral administration of a 50% ethanolic extract (CH-ext) obtained from unripe Citrus hassaku fruits collected in July exhibited a potent dose-dependent inhibition of IgE (immunoglobulin E)-mediated triphasic cutaneous reaction at 1 h [immediate phase response (IPR)], 24 h [late phase response (LPR)] and 8 days [very late phase response (vLPR)] after dinitrofluorobenzene challenge in mice. Naringin, a major flavanone glycoside component of CH-ext, showed a potent dose-dependent inhibition against IPR, LPR and vLPR. Neohesperidin, another major glycoside component of CH-ext, showed an inhibition against vLPR. The effect of CH-ext on type IV allergic reaction was examined by determining inhibitory activity against ear swelling in mice by using the picryl chloride-induced contact dermatitis (PC-CD) model. Oral administration (p.o.) of CH-ext and subcutaneous administration (s.c.) of prednisolone inhibited ear swelling during the induction phase of PC-CD. The inhibitory activities of combinations of CH-ext (p.o.) and prednisolone (s.c.) against PC-CD in mice were more potent than those of CH-ext alone and prednisolone alone, without enhancing the adverse effects. Other combinations of prednisolone (s.c.) and flavanone glycoside (p.o.) components of CH-ext, i.e. naringin and neohesperidin, exerted similar synergistic effects.

  12. Increasing antibiotic activity against a multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter spp by essential oils of Citrus limon and Cinnamomum zeylanicum.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento; Mendes, Juliana Moura; Sousa, Janiere Pereira de; Morais-Braga, Maria F B; Santos, Bernadete Helena Cavalcante; Melo Coutinho, Henrique Douglas; Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    The genus Acinetobacter has gained importance in recent years due to involvement in serious infections and antimicrobial resistance. Many plants have been evaluated not only for direct antimicrobial activity, but also as resistance modifying agents. The Essential oil of Citrus limon (EOCL) addition at 156.25 µgmL(-1) (MIC/8) sub-inhibitory concentration in the growth medium led to MIC decrease for amikacin, imipenem and meropenem. The Essential oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (EOCZ) addition at 78.125 µg mL(-1) (MIC/8) sub-inhibitory concentrations in the growth medium caused drastic MIC reduction of amikacin. Results of combining antibiotics and essential oils had shown us a synergistic effect with both essential oils/amikacin combinations. An additive effect was observed with the combinations of both essential oils and gentamicin. The results of this study suggest that essential oil of C. limon and C. zeylanicum may suppress the growth of Acinetobacter species and could be a source of metabolites with antibacterial modifying activity.

  13. Chemical composition of hexane extract of Citrus aurantifolia and anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of some of its constituents.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Montemayor, Nallely E; García, Abraham; Elizondo-Treviño, Elizabeth; Garza-González, Elvira; Alvarez, Laura; del Rayo Camacho-Corona, María

    2012-09-19

    The main aim of this study was to isolate and characterize the active compounds from the hexane extract of the fruit peels of Citrus aurantiifolia, which showed activity against one sensitive and three monoresistant (isoniazid, streptomycin or ethambutol) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. The active extract was fractionated by column chromatography, yielding the following major compounds: 5-geranyloxypsoralen (1); 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin (2); 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin (3); 5-methoxypsoralen (4); and 5,8-dimethoxypsoralen (5). The structures of these compounds were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. In addition, GC-MS analysis of the hexane extract allowed the identification of 44 volatile compounds, being 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin (15.79%), 3-methyl-1,2-cyclopentanedione (8.27%), 1-methoxy-ciclohexene (8.0%), corylone (6.93%), palmitic acid (6.89%), 5,8-dimethoxypsoralen (6.08%), a-terpineol (5.97%), and umbelliferone (4.36%), the major constituents. Four isolated coumarins and 16 commercial compounds identified by GC-MS were tested against M. tuberculosis H37Rv and three multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains using the Microplate Alamar Blue Assay. The constituents that showed activity against all strains were 5 (MICs = 25-50 mg/mL), 1 (MICs = 50-100 mg/mL), palmitic acid (MICs = 25-50 mg/mL), linoleic acid (MICs = 50-100 mg/mL), oleic acid (MICs = 100 mg/mL), 4-hexen-3-one (MICs = 50-100 mg/mL), and citral (MICs = 50-100 mg/mL). Compound 5 and palmitic acid were the most active ones. The antimycobacterial activity of the hexane extract of C. aurantifolia could be attributed to these compounds.

  14. Germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our contribution to this annual report is a summary of research accomplishments for 2006 in germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance in barley at the USDA-ARS Wheat, Peanut and Other Field Crops Research Unit, Stillwater, OK. RWA is a serious pest of barley in the intermountain regions of the weste...

  15. Germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our contribution to this annual report is a summary of research accomplishments for 2008 in germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance in barley at the USDA-ARS Wheat, Peanuts and other Field Crops Research Unit, Stillwater, OK. RWA is a serious pest of barley in the intermountain regions of the west...

  16. Germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our contribution to this annual report is a summary of research accomplishments for 2010 in germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance in barley at the USDA-ARS, Wheat, Peanuts and other Field Crops Research Unit, Stillwater, OK. RWA is a serious pest of barley in the intermountain regions of the wes...

  17. Germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our contribution to this annual report is a summary of research accomplishments for 2007 in germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance in barley at the USDA-ARS Wheat, Peanuts and other Field Crops Research Unit, Stillwater, OK. RWA is a serious pest of barley in the intermountain regions of the west...

  18. Notice of release of Fanny Germplasm, Carmel Germplasm, and Bonneville Germplasm Searls' prairie clover: Selected class of natural germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three natural-track selected germplasms of Searls' prairie clover (Dalea searlsiae [A. Gray] Barneby [Fabaceae]) have been released for use in revegetation/restoration of semi-arid rangelands in the western US. Searls' prairie clover is a perennial leguminous forb that is native to Utah, Nevada, Ar...

  19. Germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our contribution to this annual newsletter is a summary of research accomplishments in the past year in germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance in barley at the USDA-ARS, Wheat, Peanut and Other Field Crops Research Unit, Stillwater, OK. RWA is a serious pest of barley in the intermountain regions...

  20. Germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our contribution to this annual newsletter is a summary of research accomplishments in the past year in germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance in barley at the USDA-ARS Wheat, Peanut and Other Field Crops Research Unit, Stillwater, OK. Russian wheat aphid (RWA) is a serious pest of barley in the ...

  1. Germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our contribution to this annual newsletter is a summary of research accomplishments in the past year in germplasm enhancement for RWA resistance in barley at the USDA-ARS Wheat, Peanut and Other Field Crops Research Unit, Stillwater, OK. RWA is a serious pest of barley in the intermountain regions ...

  2. Activation of human T-helper/inducer cell, T-cytotoxic/suppressor cell, B-cell, and natural killer (NK)-cells and induction of NK cell activity against K562 chronic myeloid leukemia cells with modified citrus pectin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background Modified citrus pectin (MCP) is known for its anti-cancer effects and its ability to be absorbed and circulated in the human body. In this report we tested the ability of MCP to induce the activation of human blood lymphocyte subsets including T-helper/inducer cell, Tcytotoxic/suppres...

  3. Comparison of chemical profiling and antioxidant activities of fruits, leaves, branches, and flowers of Citrus grandis 'Tomentosa'.

    PubMed

    Duan, Li; Guo, Long; Dou, Li-Li; Yu, Ke-Yun; Liu, E-Hu; Li, Ping

    2014-11-19

    Citrus grandis 'Tomentosa' (CGT) is particularly cultivated in China and widely used in health foods. In this study, the chemical profiles of different parts of CGT were comprehensively compared by rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method. A total of 22 compounds were identified and two C-glucosyl flavones were found for the first time in CGT. Four main constituents (rhiofolin, naringin, meranzin hydrate, and isoimperatorin) in different parts of CGT were simultaneously determined. Overall, the contents of the four main compounds decreased with the ripening process. In parallel, the antioxidant activities of their extracts were also evaluated by three assays (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazolinesulfonic acid) diammonium salt, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, ferric reducing antioxidant power), and the results indicated a similar tendency: small fruit > flower ∼ medium fruit > large fruit > leaf ∼ branch. The results obtained in the present work may provide useful information for future utilization of CGT.

  4. Citrus-Peel-Derived, Nanoporous Carbon Nanosheets Containing Redox-Active Heteroatoms for Sodium-Ion Storage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Na Rae; Yun, Young Soo; Song, Min Yeong; Hong, Sung Ju; Kang, Minjee; Leal, Cecilia; Park, Yung Woo; Jin, Hyoung-Joon

    2016-02-10

    Advanced design of nanostructured functional carbon materials for use in sustainable energy storage systems suffers from complex fabrication procedures and the use of special methods and/or expensive precursors, limiting their practical applications. In this study, nanoporous carbon nanosheets (NP-CNSs) containing numerous redox-active heteroatoms (C/O and C/N ratios of 5.5 and 34.3, respectively) were fabricated from citrus peels by simply heating the peels in the presence of potassium ions. The NP-CNSs had a 2D-like morphology with a high aspect ratio of >100, high specific surface area of 1167 m(2) g(-1), and a large amount of nanopores between 1 and 5 nm. The NP-CNSs also had an electrical conductivity of 2.6 × 10(1) s cm(-1), which is approximately 50 times higher than that of reduced graphene oxide. These unique material properties resulted in superior electrochemical performance with a high specific capacity of 140 mAh g(-1) in the cathodic potential range. In addition, symmetric full-cell devices based on the NP-CNSs showed excellent cyclic performance over 100,000 repetitive cycles.

  5. Fragile Sites of 'Valencia' Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis) Chromosomes Are Related with Active 45s rDNA.

    PubMed

    Lan, Hong; Chen, Chun-Li; Miao, Yin; Yu, Chang-Xiu; Guo, Wen-Wu; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Citrus sinensis chromosomes present a morphological differentiation of bands after staining by the fluorochromes CMA and DAPI, but there is still little information on its chromosomal characteristics. In this study, the chromosomes in 'Valencia' C. sinensis were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using telomere DNA and the 45S rDNA gene as probes combining CMA/DAPI staining, which showed that there were two fragile sites in sweet orange chromosomes co-localizing at distended 45S rDNA regions, one proximally locating on B-type chromosome and the other subterminally locating on D-type chromosome. While the chromosomal CMA banding and 45S rDNA FISH mapping in the doubled haploid line of 'Valencia' C. sinensis indicated six 45S rDNA regions, four were identified as fragile sites as doubled comparing its parental line, which confirmed the cytological heterozygosity and chromosomal heteromorphisms in sweet orange. Furthermore, Ag-NOR identified two distended 45S rDNA regions to be active nucleolar organizing regions (NORs) in diploid 'Valencia' C. sinensis. The occurrence of quadrivalent in meiosis of pollen mother cells (PMCs) in 'Valencia' sweet orange further confirmed it was a chromosomal reciprocal translocation line. We speculated this chromosome translocation was probably related to fragile sites. Our data provide insights into the chromosomal characteristics of the fragile sites in 'Valencia' sweet orange and are expected to facilitate the further investigation of the possible functions of fragile sites.

  6. Anti-inflammatory activities of Dangyuja (Citrus grandis Osbeck) in concanavalin A stimulated murine splenocytes and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced murine skin edema.

    PubMed

    Herath, Kalahe Hewage Iresha Nadeeka Madushani; Bing, So Jin; Cho, Jinhee; Kim, Areum; Shin, Sumin; Kim, Gi-Ok; Lee, Jong-Chul; Jee, Youngheun

    2016-10-01

    Dangyuja (Citrus grandis Osbeck), a citrus cultivated in southern Korea, has been used in traditional medicine for its anti-inflammatory effect. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory potential of extract of Citrus grandis Osbeck (ECGO). In in vitro assays, ECGO treatment of concanavalin A (10μg/ml, for 24h) stimulated splenocytes showed significant reduction in CD44/CD62L(+) T cell population and a marked decrease in the production of inflammatory cytokines IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-4. Interestingly, in vivo assays of ECGO topical treatment (100μg/20μl/ear) significantly mitigated the TPA (4μg/20μl/ear) induced edema induction and Myeloperoxidase activity. Anti-inflammatory potential of ECGO were further evidenced through its potent decrease in expression of inducible nitric oxide, cyclooxygenase-2, IL-1β and TNF-α and suppressed homing of CD3(+) T cells and F4/80(+) macrophages to site of inflammation. This study emphasizes the possibility of developing ECGO as an alternative natural topical agent to combat inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic variation and selection within glandless cotton germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is a renewed interest in research and use of glandless (free of gossypol) cotton that can produce edible seeds for human food and animal feed. However, there was a lack of information on yield potential of existing glandless germplasm since intermittent breeding activities for glandless cotton...

  8. Emerging crops in the USDA arid lands germplasm collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA National Plant Germplasm System maintains collections of several emerging crops for arid lands at the National Arid Land Plant Genetic Resources Unit in Parlier, CA (NALPGRU). The guayule, jojoba, and prickly pear collections are most active in terms of current research and crop development...

  9. Antioxidant Capacity, Anticancer Ability and Flavonoids Composition of 35 Citrus (Citrus reticulata Blanco) Varieties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Qian, Jing; Cao, Jinping; Wang, Dengliang; Liu, Chunrong; Yang, Rongxi; Li, Xian; Sun, Chongde

    2017-07-05

    Citrus (Citrus reticulate Blanco) is one of the most commonly consumed and widely distributed fruit in the world, which is possessing extensive bioactivities. Present study aimed to fully understand the flavonoids compositions, antioxidant capacities and in vitro anticancer abilities of different citrus resources. Citrus fruits of 35 varieties belonging to 5 types (pummelos, oranges, tangerines, mandarins and hybrids) were collected. Combining li quid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with diode array detector (UPLC-DAD), a total of 39 flavonoid compounds were identified, including 4 flavones, 9 flavanones and 26 polymethoxylated flavonoids (PMFs). Each citrus fruit was examined and compared by 4 parts, flavedo, albedo, segment membrane and juice sacs. The juice sacs had the lowest total phenolics, following by the segment membrane. Four antioxidant traits including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) were applied for the antioxidant capacities evaluation. Three gastric cancer cell lines, SGC-7901, BGC-823 and AGS were applied for the cytotoxicity evaluation. According to the results of correlation analysis, phenolics compounds might be the main contributor to the antioxidant activity of citrus extracts, while PMFs existing only in the flavedo might be closely related to the gastric cancer cell line cytotoxicity of citrus extracts. The results of present study might provide a theoretical guidance for the utilization of citrus resources.

  10. Genetic Transformation in Citrus

    PubMed Central

    Donmez, Dicle; Simsek, Ozhan; Izgu, Tolga; Aka Kacar, Yildiz; Yalcin Mendi, Yesim

    2013-01-01

    Citrus is one of the world's important fruit crops. Recently, citrus molecular genetics and biotechnology work have been accelerated in the world. Genetic transformation, a biotechnological tool, allows the release of improved cultivars with desirable characteristics in a shorter period of time and therefore may be useful in citrus breeding programs. Citrus transformation has now been achieved in a number of laboratories by various methods. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used mainly in citrus transformation studies. Particle bombardment, electroporation, A. rhizogenes, and a new method called RNA interference are used in citrus transformation studies in addition to A. tumefaciens. In this review, we illustrate how different gene transformation methods can be employed in different citrus species. PMID:23983635

  11. Changes in Anthocyanin Production during Domestication of Citrus1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Lor, Andrés; Licciardello, Concetta; Las Casas, Giuseppina; Ramadugu, Chandrika; Krueger, Robert; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure; Froelicher, Yann

    2017-01-01

    Mandarin (Citrus reticulata), citron (Citrus medica), and pummelo (Citrus maxima) are important species of the genus Citrus and parents of the interspecific hybrids that constitute the most familiar commercial varieties of Citrus: sweet orange, sour orange, clementine, lemon, lime, and grapefruit. Citron produces anthocyanins in its young leaves and flowers, as do species in genera closely related to Citrus, but mandarins do not, and pummelo varieties that produce anthocyanins have not been reported. We investigated the activity of the Ruby gene, which encodes a MYB transcription factor controlling anthocyanin biosynthesis, in different accessions of a range of Citrus species and in domesticated cultivars. A white mutant of lemon lacks functional alleles of Ruby, demonstrating that Ruby plays an essential role in anthocyanin production in Citrus. Almost all the natural variation in pigmentation by anthocyanins in Citrus species can be explained by differences in activity of the Ruby gene, caused by point mutations and deletions and insertions of transposable elements. Comparison of the allelic constitution of Ruby in different species and cultivars also helps to clarify many of the taxonomic relationships in different species of Citrus, confirms the derivation of commercial varieties during domestication, elucidates the relationships within the subgenus Papeda, and allows a new genetic classification of mandarins. PMID:28196843

  12. Transmission Rates of ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ by Asian Citrus Psyllid Are Enhanced by the Presence and Developmental Stage of Citrus Flush.

    PubMed

    Hall, David G; Albrecht, Ute; Bowman, Kim D

    2016-04-01

    Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) transmits a bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas) putatively responsible for a devastating citrus disease known as Asiatic huanglongbing (HLB) (citrus greening disease). The psyllid and disease have invaded many citrus-growing regions including the United States, where the disease is seriously jeopardizing the Florida citrus industry. We recently concluded research that showed CLas transmission rates are increased when citrus flush is present. Flush is any new leaf growth ranging in development from first emergence up until the leaves are fully expanded yet still tender. In an experiment with seedlings of a rootstock cultivar ‘US-942’, a 1-wk infestation of 20 Asian citrus psyllids from an infected colony resulted in 53–60% of seedlings becoming infected when flush was present compared with only 7% when no flush was present. In a second experiment with ‘US-942’, 77–97% of seedlings became infected when flush was present compared with 40% when no flush was present. A similar experiment with ‘Valencia’ sweet orange resulted in 23, 80, and 3% seedlings becoming infected when young, older, or no flush was present, respectively. Young plants are therefore more likely to contract HLB if flush is present, with older flush promoting higher infection rates under the conditions of this study. Based on this finding, healthy citrus should be protected from Asian citrus psyllid infestations throughout a flush. To evaluate germplasm for CLas resistance, inoculations using infected Asian citrus psyllid would best be achieved if flush is present.

  13. Comparative study on the antioxidant capacity and cholinesterase inhibitory activity of Citrus aurantifolia Swingle, C. aurantium L., and C. bergamia Risso and Poit. peel essential oils.

    PubMed

    Tundis, Rosa; Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Bonesi, Marco; Menichini, Federica; Mastellone, Vincenzo; Colica, Carmela; Menichini, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The interest in medicinal plant research and in the aroma-therapeutic effects of essential oils in humans has increased in recent years, especially for the treatment of pathologies of relevant social impact such as Alzheimer's disease. The present study was taken up to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity of the peel essential oils from three Citrus species, C. aurantifolia Swingle, C. aurantium L., and C. bergamia Risso & Poit. Essential oils were analyzed by GC and GC-MS and they contain mainly limonene, α-pinene, β-pinene, γ-terpinene, and linalyl acetate. C. aurantifolia oil showed the highest radical scavenging activity on ABTS assay (IC₅₀ value of 19.6 μg/mL), while C. bergamia exhibited a good antioxidant activity evaluated by the β-carotene bleaching test (IC₅₀ = 42.6 μg/mL after 60 min of incubation). C. aurantifolia inhibited more selectively AChE. Obtained data suggest a potential use of Citrus oils as a valuable new flavor with functional properties for food or nutraceutical products with particular relevance to supplements for the elderly. The demonstrated antioxidant activity and procholinesterase properties of Citrus essential oils suggested their use as a new potential source of natural antioxidant to added as extra-nutrient for using in food industries as a valuable new flavor with functional properties for food or nutraceutical products with particular relevance to supplements for the elderly. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Antimicrobial activity of commercial citrus-based natural extracts against Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates and mutant strains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Due to increasing concerns about the development of antimicrobial resistance amongst pathogenic bacteria, alternative strategies have been sought that do not use antibiotics to reduce pathogenic bacteria from foods and patients. A natural compound that has potent antimicrobial properties is citrus ...

  15. Anti-amnesic activity of Citrus aurantium flowers extract against scopolamine-induced memory impairments in rats.

    PubMed

    Rahnama, Samira; Rabiei, Zahra; Alibabaei, Zahra; Mokhtari, Shiva; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Deris, Fatemeh

    2015-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurological disorder that mostly affects the elderly population. Learning and memory impairment as the most characteristic manifestation of dementia could be induced chemically by scopolamine, a cholinergic antagonist. Cholinergic neurotransmission mediated brain oxidative stress. Citrus aurantium (CA) has traditionally been used for the treatment of insomnia, anxiety and epilepsy. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Citrus aurantium on scopolamine-induced learning and memory deficit in rats. Forty-two Wistar rats were divided into six equal groups. (1) Control (received saline), (2) SCOP (scopolamine at a dose of 1 mg/kg for 15 days), (3) and (4) SCOP + CA (scopolamine and CA extract at doses of 300 and 600 mg/kg per day for 15 days), (5) and (6) intact groups (CA extract at 300 and 600 mg/kg per day for 15 days, respectively). Administration of CA flower extract significantly restored memory and learning impairments induced by scopolamine in the passive avoidance test and also reduced escape latency during trial sessions in the Morris water maze test. Citrus aurantium flower extract significantly decreased the serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Citrus aurantium flower extract has repairing effects on memory and behavioral disorders produced by scopolamine and may have beneficial effects in the treatment of AD.

  16. Fragile Sites of ‘Valencia’ Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis) Chromosomes Are Related with Active 45s rDNA

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Hong; Chen, Chun-Li; Miao, Yin; Yu, Chang-Xiu; Guo, Wen-Wu; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Citrus sinensis chromosomes present a morphological differentiation of bands after staining by the fluorochromes CMA and DAPI, but there is still little information on its chromosomal characteristics. In this study, the chromosomes in ‘Valencia’ C. sinensis were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using telomere DNA and the 45S rDNA gene as probes combining CMA/DAPI staining, which showed that there were two fragile sites in sweet orange chromosomes co-localizing at distended 45S rDNA regions, one proximally locating on B-type chromosome and the other subterminally locating on D-type chromosome. While the chromosomal CMA banding and 45S rDNA FISH mapping in the doubled haploid line of ‘Valencia’ C. sinensis indicated six 45S rDNA regions, four were identified as fragile sites as doubled comparing its parental line, which confirmed the cytological heterozygosity and chromosomal heteromorphisms in sweet orange. Furthermore, Ag-NOR identified two distended 45S rDNA regions to be active nucleolar organizing regions (NORs) in diploid ‘Valencia’ C. sinensis. The occurrence of quadrivalent in meiosis of pollen mother cells (PMCs) in ‘Valencia’ sweet orange further confirmed it was a chromosomal reciprocal translocation line. We speculated this chromosome translocation was probably related to fragile sites. Our data provide insights into the chromosomal characteristics of the fragile sites in ‘Valencia’ sweet orange and are expected to facilitate the further investigation of the possible functions of fragile sites. PMID:26977938

  17. Biobanking genetic resources: challenges and implementation at the USDA National Animal Germplasm Program.

    PubMed

    Purdy, P H; Wilson, C S; Spiller, S F; Blackburn, H D

    2015-12-18

    There is adequate infrastructure in the US to identify and acquire germplasm from the major beef and dairy cattle and swine breeds. However, when we venture outside these species, the same tasks become more difficult because of a lack of breed associations, databases that include genotypic and phenotypic data and low numbers of animals. Furthermore, acquisition of germplasm from non-cattle and non-swine species can be difficult because these animals are often not located near the National Animal Germplasm Program, which makes collection and preservation of the samples in a timely manner that much more complicated. This problem is compounded because not all preservation protocols are optimised for field collection conditions or for all types of germplasm. Since 1999, the USDA National Animal Germplasm Program has worked to overcome these obstacles by developing policies, procedures and techniques in order to create a germplasm repository for all agricultural species (wild and domesticated) in the US. Herein, we describe these activities and illustrate them via a case study on how our efforts collecting Navajo-Churro sheep have created a secure backup of germplasm and how we specifically overcome these issues as they relate to rare and minor breeds of agricultural species.

  18. Barley germplasm conservation and resources. Chapter 7 in barley: improvement, production, and uses. Blackwell Publishing, ED.S.E. Ullrich

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The history and current status of barley germplasm preservation activities is presented on a global scale and specifically for the United States. Total of barley germplasm holdings at 47 major barley collections (those with more than 500 accessions) worldwide is approximately 402,000 accessions. I...

  19. Citrus Waste Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    Karel Grohman; Scott Stevenson

    2007-01-30

    Renewable Spirits is developing an innovative pilot plant bio-refinery to establish the commercial viability of ehtanol production utilizing a processing waste from citrus juice production. A novel process based on enzymatic hydrolysis of citrus processing waste and fermentation of resulting sugars to ethanol by yeasts was successfully developed in collaboration with a CRADA partner, USDA/ARS Citrus and Subtropical Products Laboratory. The process was also successfully scaled up from laboratory scale to 10,000 gal fermentor level.

  20. Effect of cultivation line and peeling on food composition, taste characteristic, aroma profile, and antioxidant activity of Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) juice.

    PubMed

    Asikin, Yonathan; Fukunaga, Hibiki; Yamano, Yoshimasa; Hou, De-Xing; Maeda, Goki; Wada, Koji

    2014-09-01

    Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) juice from four main cultivation lines subjected to two peeling practices (with or without peeling) were discriminated in terms of quality attributes, represented by sugar and organic acid composition, taste characteristic, aroma profile, and antioxidant activity. Shiikuwasha juice from these lines had diverse food compositions; 'Izumi kugani' juice had lower acidity but contained more ascorbic acid than that of other cultivation lines. The composition of volatile aroma components was influenced by fruit cultivation line, whereas its content was affected by peeling process (20.26-53.73 mg L(-1) in whole juice versus 0.82-1.58 mg L(-1) in flesh juice). Peeling also caused Shiikuwasha juice to be less astringent and acidic bitter and to lose its antioxidant activity. Moreover, the total phenolic and ascorbic acid content of Shiikuwasha juice positively influenced its antioxidant activity. Each fruit cultivation line had a distinct food composition, taste characteristic, and aroma profile. Peeling in Shiikuwasha juice production might reduce aftertaste, and thus might improve its palatability. Comprehensive information on the effect of cultivation line and peeling on quality attributes will be useful for Shiikuwasha juice production, and can be applied to juice production of similar small citrus fruits. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Micropropagation of Citrus spp. by organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chiancone, Benedetta; Germanà, Maria Antonietta

    2013-01-01

    Citrus spp., the largest fruit crops produced worldwide, are usually asexually propagated by cuttings or grafting onto seedling rootstocks. Most of Citrus genotypes are characterized by polyembryony due to the occurrence of adventive nucellar embryos, which lead to the production of true-to-type plants by seed germination. Tissue culture and micropropagation, in particular, are valuable alternatives to traditional propagation to obtain a high number of uniform and healthy plants in a short time and in a small space. Moreover, in vitro propagation provides a rapid system to multiply the progeny obtained by breeding programs, allows the use of monoembryonic and seedless genotypes as rootstocks, and it is very useful also for breeding and germplasm preservation.In this chapter, two protocols regarding organogenesis of a rootstock and somatic embryogenesis of a cultivar have been described.

  2. The aconitate hydratase family from Citrus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Research on citrus fruit ripening has received considerable attention because of the importance of citrus fruits for the human diet. Organic acids are among the main determinants of taste and organoleptic quality of fruits and hence the control of fruit acidity loss has a strong economical relevance. In citrus, organic acids accumulate in the juice sac cells of developing fruits and are catabolized thereafter during ripening. Aconitase, that transforms citrate to isocitrate, is the first step of citric acid catabolism and a major component of the citrate utilization machinery. In this work, the citrus aconitase gene family was first characterized and a phylogenetic analysis was then carried out in order to understand the evolutionary history of this family in plants. Gene expression analyses of the citrus aconitase family were subsequently performed in several acidic and acidless genotypes to elucidate their involvement in acid homeostasis. Results Analysis of 460,000 citrus ESTs, followed by sequencing of complete cDNA clones, identified in citrus 3 transcription units coding for putatively active aconitate hydratase proteins, named as CcAco1, CcAco2 and CcAco3. A phylogenetic study carried on the Aco family in 14 plant species, shows the presence of 5 Aco subfamilies, and that the ancestor of monocot and dicot species shared at least one Aco gene. Real-time RT-PCR expression analyses of the three aconitase citrus genes were performed in pulp tissues along fruit development in acidic and acidless citrus varieties such as mandarins, oranges and lemons. While CcAco3 expression was always low, CcAco1 and CcAco2 genes were generally induced during the rapid phase of fruit growth along with the maximum in acidity and the beginning of the acid reduction. Two exceptions to this general pattern were found: 1) Clemenules mandarin failed inducing CcAco2 although acid levels were rapidly reduced; and 2) the acidless "Sucreña" orange showed unusually high levels

  3. The aconitate hydratase family from Citrus.

    PubMed

    Terol, Javier; Soler, Guillermo; Talon, Manuel; Cercos, Manuel

    2010-10-19

    Research on citrus fruit ripening has received considerable attention because of the importance of citrus fruits for the human diet. Organic acids are among the main determinants of taste and organoleptic quality of fruits and hence the control of fruit acidity loss has a strong economical relevance. In citrus, organic acids accumulate in the juice sac cells of developing fruits and are catabolized thereafter during ripening. Aconitase, that transforms citrate to isocitrate, is the first step of citric acid catabolism and a major component of the citrate utilization machinery. In this work, the citrus aconitase gene family was first characterized and a phylogenetic analysis was then carried out in order to understand the evolutionary history of this family in plants. Gene expression analyses of the citrus aconitase family were subsequently performed in several acidic and acidless genotypes to elucidate their involvement in acid homeostasis. Analysis of 460,000 citrus ESTs, followed by sequencing of complete cDNA clones, identified in citrus 3 transcription units coding for putatively active aconitate hydratase proteins, named as CcAco1, CcAco2 and CcAco3. A phylogenetic study carried on the Aco family in 14 plant species, shows the presence of 5 Aco subfamilies, and that the ancestor of monocot and dicot species shared at least one Aco gene. Real-time RT-PCR expression analyses of the three aconitase citrus genes were performed in pulp tissues along fruit development in acidic and acidless citrus varieties such as mandarins, oranges and lemons. While CcAco3 expression was always low, CcAco1 and CcAco2 genes were generally induced during the rapid phase of fruit growth along with the maximum in acidity and the beginning of the acid reduction. Two exceptions to this general pattern were found: 1) Clemenules mandarin failed inducing CcAco2 although acid levels were rapidly reduced; and 2) the acidless "Sucreña" orange showed unusually high levels of expression of

  4. Discrimination of Citrus reticulata Blanco and Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach.

    PubMed

    Duan, Li; Guo, Long; Dou, Li-Li; Zhou, Chang-Lin; Xu, Feng-Guo; Zheng, Guo-Dong; Li, Ping; Liu, E-Hu

    2016-12-01

    Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium, mainly including the pericarp of Citrus reticulata Blanco and the pericarp of Citrus reticulata 'Chachi', has been consumed daily as food and dietary supplement for centuries. In this study, GC-MS based metabolomics was employed to compare comprehensively the volatile constituents in Citrus reticulata Blanco and Citrus reticulata 'Chachi'. Principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis indicated that samples could be distinguished effectively from one another. Fifteen metabolites were finally identified for use as chemical markers in discrimination of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium samples. The antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria of the volatile oil from Citrus reticulata Blanco and Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' was investigated preliminarily.

  5. Nuclear Species-Diagnostic SNP Markers Mined from 454 Amplicon Sequencing Reveal Admixture Genomic Structure of Modern Citrus Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Curk, Franck; Ancillo, Gema; Ollitrault, Frédérique; Perrier, Xavier; Jacquemoud-Collet, Jean-Pierre; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Most cultivated Citrus species originated from interspecific hybridisation between four ancestral taxa (C. reticulata, C. maxima, C. medica, and C. micrantha) with limited further interspecific recombination due to vegetative propagation. This evolution resulted in admixture genomes with frequent interspecific heterozygosity. Moreover, a major part of the phenotypic diversity of edible citrus results from the initial differentiation between these taxa. Deciphering the phylogenomic structure of citrus germplasm is therefore essential for an efficient utilization of citrus biodiversity in breeding schemes. The objective of this work was to develop a set of species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for the four Citrus ancestral taxa covering the nine chromosomes, and to use these markers to infer the phylogenomic structure of secondary species and modern cultivars. Species-diagnostic SNPs were mined from 454 amplicon sequencing of 57 gene fragments from 26 genotypes of the four basic taxa. Of the 1,053 SNPs mined from 28,507 kb sequence, 273 were found to be highly diagnostic for a single basic taxon. Species-diagnostic SNP markers (105) were used to analyse the admixture structure of varieties and rootstocks. This revealed C. maxima introgressions in most of the old and in all recent selections of mandarins, and suggested that C. reticulata × C. maxima reticulation and introgression processes were important in edible mandarin domestication. The large range of phylogenomic constitutions between C. reticulata and C. maxima revealed in mandarins, tangelos, tangors, sweet oranges, sour oranges, grapefruits, and orangelos is favourable for genetic association studies based on phylogenomic structures of the germplasm. Inferred admixture structures were in agreement with previous hypotheses regarding the origin of several secondary species and also revealed the probable origin of several acid citrus varieties. The developed species-diagnostic SNP

  6. Nuclear species-diagnostic SNP markers mined from 454 amplicon sequencing reveal admixture genomic structure of modern citrus varieties.

    PubMed

    Curk, Franck; Ancillo, Gema; Ollitrault, Frédérique; Perrier, Xavier; Jacquemoud-Collet, Jean-Pierre; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Most cultivated Citrus species originated from interspecific hybridisation between four ancestral taxa (C. reticulata, C. maxima, C. medica, and C. micrantha) with limited further interspecific recombination due to vegetative propagation. This evolution resulted in admixture genomes with frequent interspecific heterozygosity. Moreover, a major part of the phenotypic diversity of edible citrus results from the initial differentiation between these taxa. Deciphering the phylogenomic structure of citrus germplasm is therefore essential for an efficient utilization of citrus biodiversity in breeding schemes. The objective of this work was to develop a set of species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for the four Citrus ancestral taxa covering the nine chromosomes, and to use these markers to infer the phylogenomic structure of secondary species and modern cultivars. Species-diagnostic SNPs were mined from 454 amplicon sequencing of 57 gene fragments from 26 genotypes of the four basic taxa. Of the 1,053 SNPs mined from 28,507 kb sequence, 273 were found to be highly diagnostic for a single basic taxon. Species-diagnostic SNP markers (105) were used to analyse the admixture structure of varieties and rootstocks. This revealed C. maxima introgressions in most of the old and in all recent selections of mandarins, and suggested that C. reticulata × C. maxima reticulation and introgression processes were important in edible mandarin domestication. The large range of phylogenomic constitutions between C. reticulata and C. maxima revealed in mandarins, tangelos, tangors, sweet oranges, sour oranges, grapefruits, and orangelos is favourable for genetic association studies based on phylogenomic structures of the germplasm. Inferred admixture structures were in agreement with previous hypotheses regarding the origin of several secondary species and also revealed the probable origin of several acid citrus varieties. The developed species-diagnostic SNP

  7. HPLC-UV-MS profiles of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of fruits from three citrus species consumed in Northern Chile.

    PubMed

    Brito, Anghel; Ramirez, Javier E; Areche, Carlos; Sepúlveda, Beatriz; Simirgiotis, Mario J

    2014-10-29

    Peels and edible pulp from three species of citrus including Citrus aurantifolia (varieties pica and sutil) and Citrus x lemon var. Genova widely cultivated and consumed in Northern Chile (I and II region) were analyzed for phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity for the first time. A high performance electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV-ESI-MS) method was developed for the rapid identification of phenolics in extracts from peels and juices of all species. Several flavonoids including one kaempferol-O-hexoside (peak 16) and one hesperidin derivative (peak 22) three quercetin derivatives (peaks 4, 19 and 36), five isorhamnetin derivatives (peaks 5, 23, 24, 26 and 29) four luteolin derivatives (peaks 14, 25, 27 and 40), seven apigenin derivatives (peaks 2, 3, 12, 20, 34, 35 and 39), seven diosmetin derivatives (peaks 7-9, 17, 21, 31 and 37), three chrysoeriol derivatives (peaks 10, 18 and 30), and four eryodictiol derivatives (peaks 6, 13, 15 and 38) were identified in negative and positive mode using full scan mass measurements and MSn fragmentations. Ascorbic acid content was higher in the pulps of the varieties Genova and Sutil (60.13 ± 1.28 and 56.53 ± 1.06 mg ascorbic acid per g dry weight, respectively) while total phenolic content was higher in Pica peels followed by Sutil peels (34.59 ± 0.81 and 25.58 ± 1.02 mg/g GAE dry weight, respectively). The antioxidant capacity was also higher for Pica peels (10.34 ± 1.23 µg/mL in the DPPH assay and 120.63 ± 2.45 µM trolox equivalents/g dry weight in the FRAP assay). The antioxidant features together with the high polyphenolic contents can support at least in part, the usage of the peel extracts as nutraceutical supplements, especially to be used as anti-ageing products.

  8. The USDA Pearl Millet Germplasm Collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA National Plant Germplasm System pearl millet collection is maintained at the Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit located in Griffin, Ga. The germplasm collection contains 1297 unique accessions collected from 31 different countries. The majority of the accessions were collected or d...

  9. Global view of cotton germplasm resources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper reports the status of several large cotton germplasm collections present across the world. Cotton germplasm collections discussed include those from the US, India, France, China, Australia, Uzbekistan, and Brazil. These collections represent a large portion of the curated cotton germpla...

  10. Melon Trait and Germplasm Resources Survey 2011

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Cucurbit Crop Germplasm Committee (CCGC), which operates under the auspices of the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS), is composed of ARS, university and industry scientists, and provides guidance to NPGS on matters relating to cucurbit crop and wild related species. The CCGC is res...

  11. Strategic Sugar Beet Germplasm Resource Development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Smooth-root varieties (SR) have been recognized as desirable since the 1940’s for their potential to reduce soil tare at harvest and at the factory. Until the 1990’s this germplasm had low sugar and was unacceptable. Since 2000, USDA-ARS SR germplasm releases increased sugar content to acceptable le...

  12. Endophytic Fungi in a Hordeum Germplasm Collection

    Treesearch

    A. Dan Wilson; S.L. Clement; W.J. Kaiser

    1991-01-01

    The incidence of clavicipitaceous anamorphic endophytes in a Hordeum spp. germplasm collection is reported. The potential application of endophytes as biocontrol agents against pests of cereal crops is recognized. Suggestions are proposed to modify existing germplasm maintenance procedures to ensure that both seed viability and endophyte viability...

  13. Molecular characterization of patchouli (Pogostemon spp) germplasm.

    PubMed

    Sandes, S S; Zucchi, M I; Pinheiro, J B; Bajay, M M; Batista, C E A; Brito, F A; Arrigoni-Blank, M F; Alvares-Carvalho, S V; Silva-Mann, R; Blank, A F

    2016-02-19

    Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.] is an aromatic, herbaceous plant belonging to the Lamiaceae family native to Southeast Asia. Its leaves produce an essential oil regularly used by the perfume and cosmetics industries. However, since patchouli from the Philippines and India were described and named Pogostemon patchouli, there has been a divergence in the identity of these species. The objective of the current study was to study the genetic diversity of patchouli accessions in the Active Germplasm Bank of Universidade Federal de Sergipe using microsatellite and inter simple sequence repeat markers. The results of both types of molecular markers showed that there are two well-defined clusters of accessions that harbor exclusive alleles. It was observed that these two clusters are genetically distant, suggesting that they belong to two different species. Based on the results, two accessions were classified as Pogostemon heyneanus and the remaining accessions were classified as P. cablin.

  14. Citrus tissue culture employing vegetative explants.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, H C; Singh, S K; Sharma, A K; Agnihotri, S

    2001-11-01

    Citrus being a number one fruit of the world due to its high nutritional value, huge production of fruits and fruit products, the citrus industry may be considered a major fruit industry. Though citrus orchard area in India is comparable to USA, the produce is far less, while its export is nil. Biotechnology has played an outstanding role in boosting the citrus industry, e.g., in Spain, which is now the biggest exporter of citrus fruit with the application of micrografting. Amongst the fruit trees, perhaps the maximum tissue culture research has been done in citrus during the past four decades, however, the results of practical value are meagre. The shortfalls in citrus tissue culture research and some advancements made in this direction along with bright prospects are highlighted, restricting the review to vegetative explants only. Whilst utilization of nucellar embryogenesis is limited to rootstocks, the other aspects, like, regeneration and proliferation of shoot meristems measuring 200 microm in length--a global breakthrough--of two commercially important scion species, Citrus aurantifolia and C. sinensis and an important rootstock, C. limonia, improvement of micrografting technique, cloning of the same two scion species as well as some Indian rootstock species, employing nodal stem segments of mature trees, of immense practical value have been elaborated. A rare phenomenon of shift in the morphogenetic pattern of differentiation from shoot bud differentiation to embryoid formation occurred during the long-term culture of stem callus of C. grandis. Stem callus-regenerated plants of C. aurantifolia, C. sinensis and C. grandis showed variation in their ploidy levels and a somaclonal variant of C. sinensis, which produced seedless fruits was isolated. Tailoring of rooting in microshoots to a tap root-like system by changing the inorganic salt composition of the rooting medium, resulting in 100% transplant success, and germplasm preservation through normal growth

  15. Antiviral activity of polymethoxylated flavones from "Guangchenpi", the edible and medicinal pericarps of citrus reticulata 'Chachi'.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiao-Jiao; Wu, Xia; Li, Man-Mei; Li, Guo-Qiang; Yang, Yi-Ting; Luo, Hu-Jie; Huang, Wei-Huang; Chung, Hau Yin; Ye, Wen-Cai; Wang, Guo-Cai; Li, Yao-Lan

    2014-03-12

    The present study found that the supercritical fluid extract of "Guangchenpi" possessed in vitro antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Bioassay-guided isolation and identification of this extract led to obtain five active polymethoxylated flavones (1-5). Cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction assay exhibited that tangeretin (2) and nobiletin (3), two major polymethoxylated flavones in the extract, possessed better anti-RSV effect comparable to the positive control ribavirin. Plaque reduction assay revealed that tangeretin dose-dependently inhibited RSV-induced plaque formation on the HEp-2 cells. This polymethoxylated flavone mainly affected the intracellular replication of RSV, and it also could inhibit RSV entry into the HEp-2 cells. Further investigations with quantitative real-time PCR and confocal and Western blot assays indicated that tangeretin downregulated the expression of RSV phosphoprotein (P protein). Results suggest the potential application of the supercritical fluid extract of "Guangchenpi" and tangeretin in the treatment and the prevention of RSV infection.

  16. Rapid and reproducible determination of active gibberellins in citrus tissues by UPLC/ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Manzi, Matías; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Arbona, Vicent

    2015-09-01

    Phytohormone determination is crucial to explain the physiological mechanisms during growth and development. Therefore, rapid and precise methods are needed to achieve reproducible determination of phytohormones. Among many others, gibberellins (GAs) constitute a family of complex analytes as most of them share similar structure and chemical properties although only a few hold biological activity (namely GA1; GA3; GA4 and GA7). A method has been developed to extract GAs from plant tissues by mechanical disruption using ultrapure water as solvent and, in this way, ion suppression was reduced whereas sensitivity increased. Using this methodology, the four active GAs were separated and quantified by UPLC coupled to MS/MS using the isotope-labeled internal standards [(2)H2]-GA1 and [(2)H2]-GA4. To sum up, the new method provides a fast and reproducible protocol to determine bioactive GAs at low concentrations, using minimal amounts of sample and reducing the use of organic solvents.

  17. Cercosporoid diseases of Citrus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Feng; Groenewald, J Z; Zhu, Li; Crous, P W; Li, Hongye

    2015-01-01

    Citrus leaves and fruits exhibiting disease symptoms ranging from greasy spot, yellow spot, small or large brown spot, black dot, and brown dot were sampled from Fujian, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangxi, Yunnan, Zhejiang provinces and the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in China. In total 82 isolates representing various cercosporoid genera were isolated from these disease symptoms, which were supplemented with eight Citrus cercosporoid isolates collected from other countries. Based on a morphological and phylogenetic study using sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal DNA's ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 regions (ITS), and partial actin (act), β-tubulin (tub2), 28S nuclear ribosomal RNA (28S rDNA) and translation elongation factor 1-α (tef1) genes, these strains were placed in the following genera: Cercospora, Pallidocercospora, Passalora, Pseudocercospora, Verrucisporota and Zasmidium. All isolates tended to be sterile, except the Zasmidium isolates associated with citrus greasy spot-like symptoms, which subsequently were compared with phylogenetically similar isolates occurring on Citrus and other hosts elsewhere. From these results four Zasmidium species were recognized on Citrus, namely Z. indonesianum on Citrus in Indonesia, Z. fructicola and Z. fructigenum on Citrus in China and Z. citri-griseum, which appears to have a wide host range including Acacia, Citrus, Eucalyptus and Musa, as well as a global distribution.

  18. Certification Programs for Citrus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Citrus certification programs designed to ensure that healthy plants of the highest genetic potential are being planted in the field are the basic building block of an integrated pest management program. Certification programs began for citrus began with the discovery that the diseases were graft t...

  19. Citrus juice extraction systems: effect on chemical composition and antioxidant activity of clementine juice.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Rafael; Carvalho, Catarina P; Sierra, Jelver; Lara, Oscar; Cardona, David; Londoño-Londoño, Julian

    2012-01-25

    Clementines are especially appreciated for their delicious flavor, and recent years have seen a great increase in the consumption of clementine juice. In previous decades, antioxidant compounds have received particular attention because of widely demonstrated beneficial health effects. In this work, the organoleptic, volatile flavor, and antioxidant quality of clementine juice were studied with regard to the influence on them by different juice extraction systems: plug inside fruit and rotating cylinders. The results showed that juice extracted by the former method presented higher yields and hesperidin content, which was related to higher antioxidant activity, demonstrated by ORAC and LDL assays. The organoleptic quality was not affected by the processing technique, whereas there were significant differences in the chemical flavor profile. There are important differences in chemical and functional quality between juice extraction techniques, which must be taken into account when employing processing systems to produce high-quality products.

  20. Effect of water activity and temperature on competing abilities of common postharvest citrus fungi.

    PubMed

    Plaza, Pilar; Usall, Josep; Teixidó, Neus; Viñas, Immaculada

    2004-01-01

    The effect of temperature (4-30 degrees C) and water activity (a(w), 0.995-0.90) on the 'in vitro' interactions between Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium italicum and Geotrichum candidum were evaluated. The effect of temperature on growth of green and blue mould decays and their interactions on wounded oranges was also studied. The major competing abilities were observed at optimal conditions of temperature and a(w) for growth (25 degrees C and 0.995 a(w)), and no differences between growth rates when the fungi were growing alone or paired were observed in the other studied conditions. P. italicum and G. candidum were able to reduce the growth rate of P. digitatum when it was growing paired 'in vitro', suggesting that inhibitory metabolites were produced. In the 'in vivo' assays, growth rates of green mould were higher than those of blue mould at any temperature studied. However, at 4 degrees C, P. italicum began its rot development 1 week before P. digitatum. When these two pathogens were inoculated into the same wound at 25 degrees C, blue mould was practically inhibited. The difference between the results obtained in 'in vitro' and 'in vivo' assays suggests that other factors could interact with fungi, favoring the development of one pathogen to the detriment of the others.

  1. Synephrine Content of Juice from Satsuma Mandarins (Citrus unshiu Marcovitch)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Synephrine, the main protoalkaloid in Citrus species, is commonly analyzed as the active component in citrus peel-containing herbal supplements, but the edible parts of mandarins have been largely ignored. We determined the synephrine concentration in the juices of C. unshiu mandarins harvested fro...

  2. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 gene in Citrus reticulata.

    PubMed

    Miao, Hong-Xia; Qin, Yong-Hua; Ye, Zi-Xing; Hu, Gui-Bing

    2013-01-25

    Ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 (UBE1) catalyzes the first step in the ubiquitination reaction, which targets a protein for degradation via a proteasome pathway. UBE1 plays an important role in metabolic processes. In this study, full-length cDNA and DNA sequences of UBE1 gene, designated CrUBE1, were obtained from 'Wuzishatangju' (self-incompatible, SI) and 'Shatangju' (self-compatible, SC) mandarins. 5 amino acids and 8 bases were different in cDNA and DNA sequences of CrUBE1 between 'Wuzishatangju' and 'Shatangju', respectively. Southern blot analysis showed that there existed only one copy of the CrUBE1 gene in genome of 'Wuzishatangju' and 'Shatangju'. The temporal and spatial expression characteristics of the CrUBE1 gene were investigated using semi-quantitative RT-PCR (SqPCR) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The expression level of the CrUBE1 gene in anthers of 'Shatangju' was approximately 10-fold higher than in anthers of 'Wuzishatangju'. The highest expression level of CrUBE1 was detected in pistils at 7days after self-pollination of 'Wuzishatangju', which was approximately 5-fold higher than at 0 h. To obtain CrUBE1 protein, the full-length cDNA of CrUBE1 genes from 'Wuzishatangju' and 'Shatangju' were successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris. Pollen germination frequency of 'Wuzishatangju' was significantly inhibited with increasing of CrUBE1 protein concentrations from 'Wuzishatangju'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Nutritional and physicochemical characteristic of commercial Spanish citrus juices.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, J; Pastoriza, S; Alonso-Olalla, R; Delgado-Andrade, C; Rufián-Henares, J A

    2014-12-01

    Citrus juices are perceived as healthy foods by consumers due to their richness in antioxidant compounds. Despite the large number of papers about the antioxidant activity of citrus juices, less is known about the relationship with physicochemical properties. This paper shows that the overall antioxidant activity of citrus juices is underestimated with the standard methodologies, being up to 10-times higher with the GAR method (including an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion). 70% of the antioxidant activity was found in the soluble fraction and citrus juices contributed up to 12% of the overall antioxidant intake within the Spanish diet. Physicochemical parameters, such as colour, fluorescence, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural contents, were correlated with nutritional parameters in some samples. The intake of HMF was negligible from commercial citrus juices and was absent in freshly squeezed ones. Finally, a mathematical model is developed to classify juices depending on their nature or storage conditions.

  4. Hydrogen peroxide- and nitric oxide-induced systemic antioxidant prime-like activity under NaCl-stress and stress-free conditions in citrus plants.

    PubMed

    Tanou, Georgia; Molassiotis, Athanassios; Diamantidis, Grigorios

    2009-11-15

    We tested whether pre-treatments of roots with H(2)O(2) (10mM for 8h) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 100microM for 48h), a donor of ()NO, could induce prime antioxidant defense responses in the leaves of citrus plants grown in the absence or presence of 150mM NaCl for 16d. Both root pre-treatments increased leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities, and induced related-isoform(s) expression under non-NaCl-stress conditions. When followed by salinity, certain enzymatic activities also exhibited an up-regulation in response to H(2)O(2) or SNP pre-exposure. An NaCl-stress-provoked decrease in the ascorbate redox state was partially prevented by both pre-treatments, whereas the glutathione redox state under normal and NaCl-stress conditions was increased by SNP. Real-time imaging of ()NO production was found in vascular tissues and epidermal cells. Furthermore, NaCl-induced inhibition in ()OH scavenging activity and promotion of ()OH-mediated DNA strand cleavage was partially prevented by SNP. Moreover, NaCl-dependent protein oxidation (carbonylation) was totally reversed by both pre-treatments as revealed by quantitative assay and protein blotting analysis. These results provide strong evidence that H(2)O(2) and ()NO elicit long-lasting systemic primer-like antioxidant activity in citrus plants under physiological and NaCl-stress conditions.

  5. Volatile constituents of wild citrus Mangshanyegan (Citrus nobilis Lauriro) peel oil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cuihua; Cheng, Yunjiang; Zhang, Hongyan; Deng, Xiuxin; Chen, Feng; Xu, Juan

    2012-03-14

    Volatiles of a wild mandarin, Mangshanyegan (Citrus nobilis Lauriro), were characterized by GC-MS, and their aroma active compounds were identified by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). The volatile profile of Mangshanyegan was compared with those of other four citrus species, Kaopan pummelo (Citrus grandis), Eureka lemon (Citrus limon), Huangyanbendizao tangerine (Citrus reticulata), and Seike navel orange (Citrus sinensis). Monoterpene hydrocarbons predominated in Mangshanyegan, in particular d-limonene and β-myrcene, which accounted for 85.75 and 10.89% of total volatiles, respectively. Among the 12 compounds with flavor dilution factors (FD) = 27, 8 oxygenated compounds, including (Z)- and (E)-linalool oxides, were present only in Mangshanyegan. The combined results of GC-O, quantitative analysis, odor activity values (OAVs), and omission tests revealed that β-myrcene and (Z)- and (E)-linalool oxides were the characteristic aroma compounds of Mangshanyegan, contributing to the balsamic and floral notes of its aroma.

  6. Selected activities of Citrus maxima Merr. fruits on human endothelial cells: enhancing cell migration and delaying cellular aging.

    PubMed

    Buachan, Paiwan; Chularojmontri, Linda; Wattanapitayakul, Suvara K

    2014-04-21

    Endothelial injury and damage as well as accumulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in aging play a significant role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recent studies show an association of high citrus fruit intake with a lower risk of CVD and stroke but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. This study investigated the effects of pummelo (Citrus maxima Merr. var. Tubtim Siam, CM) fruit extract on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs) migration and aging. The freeze-dried powder of fruit extract was characterized for antioxidant capacity (FRAP assay) and certain natural antioxidants, including ascorbic acid, gallic acid, hesperidin, and naringin (HPLC). Short-term (48 h) co-cultivation of HUVECs with CM enhanced cell migration as evaluated by a scratch wound assay and Boyden chamber assay. A long-term treatment with CM for 35 days significantly increased HUVEC proliferation capability as indicated by population doubling level (PDL). CM also delayed the onset of aging phenotype shown by senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining. Furthermore, CM was able to attenuate increased ROS levels in aged cells when determined by 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCDHF) while eNOS mRNA expression was increased but the eNOS protein level was not changed. Thus, further in vivo and clinical studies are warranted to support the use of pummelo as a functional fruit for endothelial health and CVD risk reduction.

  7. Phytochemical analysis and radical scavenging profile of juices of Citrus sinensis, Citrus anrantifolia, and Citrus limonum.

    PubMed

    Rauf, Abdur; Uddin, Ghias; Ali, Jawad

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current investigation was to identify bioactive secondary metabolites including phenols, tannins, flavonoids, terpinedes, and steroids and compare the phytochemical analysis and antioxidant profile of the juice extracted from the fruits of Citrus sinensis, Citrus anrantifolia, and Citrus limonum. Phytochemical screening is important for the isolation of new, novel, and rare secondary metabolites before bulk extraction. Phytochemical analysis of the desired plant fruits of family Rutaceae revealed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, reducing sugars, steroids, terpinedes and tannins. The fruits of C. sinensis and C. anrantifolia exhibited the presence of phenols, flavonoids, reducing sugars, steroids, terpinedes and tannins, while the fruits of C. limonum indicated the presence of phenols, flavonoids, reducing sugars, terpinedes, and tannins. The fruits of selected plants were also subjected to antioxidant potential by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay against ascorbic acid at various concentrations. Among the tested plants, C. sinensis showed promising antiradical effect (84.81%) which was followed by C. Anrantifolia (80.05%) at 100 μg/ml against ascorbic acid (96.36%). The C. limonum showed low antioxidant activity among the three selected plants of family Rutaceae. The current finding is baseline information in the use of the fruits of selected plants as food supplement which may be due to the presence of antioxidant molecules in the family Rutaceae. Further research is needed in this area to isolate the phenolic constituents which possess ideal antiradical potential.

  8. Phytochemical analysis and radical scavenging profile of juices of Citrus sinensis, Citrus anrantifolia, and Citrus limonum

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the current investigation was to identify bioactive secondary metabolites including phenols, tannins, flavonoids, terpinedes, and steroids and compare the phytochemical analysis and antioxidant profile of the juice extracted from the fruits of Citrus sinensis, Citrus anrantifolia, and Citrus limonum. Results Phytochemical screening is important for the isolation of new, novel, and rare secondary metabolites before bulk extraction. Phytochemical analysis of the desired plant fruits of family Rutaceae revealed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, reducing sugars, steroids, terpinedes and tannins. The fruits of C. sinensis and C. anrantifolia exhibited the presence of phenols, flavonoids, reducing sugars, steroids, terpinedes and tannins, while the fruits of C. limonum indicated the presence of phenols, flavonoids, reducing sugars, terpinedes, and tannins. The fruits of selected plants were also subjected to antioxidant potential by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay against ascorbic acid at various concentrations. Among the tested plants, C. sinensis showed promising antiradical effect (84.81%) which was followed by C. Anrantifolia (80.05%) at 100 μg/ml against ascorbic acid (96.36%). The C. limonum showed low antioxidant activity among the three selected plants of family Rutaceae. Conclusions The current finding is baseline information in the use of the fruits of selected plants as food supplement which may be due to the presence of antioxidant molecules in the family Rutaceae. Further research is needed in this area to isolate the phenolic constituents which possess ideal antiradical potential. PMID:25024932

  9. Molecular Characterization of the Meyer Lemon Isolate of Citrus Tatter Leaf Virus: Complete Genome Sequence and Development of Biologically Active In Vitro Transcripts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Citrus tatter leaf virus isolated from Meyer lemon trees (CTLV-ML) from California and Florida induces bud union incompatibility of citrus trees grafted on the widely used trifoliate and trifoliate hybrid rootstocks. The complete genome sequence of CTLV-ML was determined to be 6,495 nucleotides (nts...

  10. Citrus essential oils: Extraction, authentication and application in food preservation.

    PubMed

    Mahato, Neelima; Sharma, Kavita; Koteswararao, Rakoti; Sinha, Mukty; Baral, Ek Raj; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2017-09-28

    Citrus EOs is an economic, eco-friendly and natural alternatives to chemical preservatives and other synthetic antioxidants, such as sodium nitrites, nitrates or benzoates, commonly utilized in food preservation. Citrus based EOs is obtained mainly from the peels of citrus fruits which are largely discarded as wastes and cause environmental problems. The extraction of citrus oils from the waste peels not only saves environment but can be used in various applications including food preservation. The present article presents elaborated viewpoints on the nature and chemical composition of different EOs present in main citrus varieties widely grown across the globe; extraction, characterization and authentication techniques/methods of the citrus EOs; and reviews the recent advances in the application of citrus EOs for the preservation of fruits, vegetables, meat, fish and processed food stuffs. The probable reaction mechanism of the EOs based thin films formation with biodegradable polymers is presented. Other formulation, viz., EOs microencapsulation incorporating biodegradable polymers, nanoemulsion coatings, spray applications and antibacterial action mechanism of the active compounds present in the EOs have been elaborated. Extensive research is required on overcoming the challenges regarding allergies and obtaining safer dosage limits. Shift towards greener technologies indicate optimistic future towards safer utilization of citrus based EOs in food preservation.

  11. Notice of release of Amethyst Germplasm hoaty tansyaster: Selected class of natural germplasm

    Treesearch

    Derek J. Tilley

    2015-01-01

    The US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Aberdeen Plant Materials Center, Aberdeen, Idaho, announces the release of Amethyst Germplasm hoary tansyaster (Machaeronthero canescens (Pursh) A. Gray [Asteraceae]}, a selected class natural track germplasm identified by NRCS accession number 9076670 for conservation plantings in...

  12. Notice of release of Charleston Peak Germplasm: selected class, genetically manipulated track pre-variety germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) announces the release of Charleston Peak Germplasm slender wheatgrass [Elymus trachycaulus (Link) Gould ex Shinners] as a selected class, genetically manipulated track pre-variety germplasm selected directly from collection D-3269. This collection is uni...

  13. Notice of release of Majestic Germplasm and Spectrum Germplasm Western prairie clover

    Treesearch

    Douglas A. Johnson; B. Shaun Bushman; Kishor Bhattarai; Kevin J. Connors

    2011-01-01

    Two natural-track selected germplasms of western prairie clover (Dalea ornata (Douglas ex Hook.) Eaton & J. Wright [Fabaceae]) have been released for use in revegetation of semiarid rangelands in the western US. Western prairie clover is a perennial leguminous forb that occurs naturally in Idaho, Washington, Oregon, California, and Nevada. Majestic Germplasm...

  14. Citrus diseases with global ramifications including citrus canker and huanglongbing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although there are a number of diseases that plague citrus production worldwide, two bacterial diseases are particularly problematic. Both are of Asian origin and currently cause severe economic damage: Asiatic citrus canker (ACC) and citrus huanglongbing (HLB). Although ACC has been found in the ...

  15. Developing Transgenic Citrus for Resistance to Huanglongbing and Citrus Canker

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Huanglongbing (HLB) and Citrus Bacterial Canker (CBC) are serious threats to citrus production, and resistant transgenic citrus is desirable. Genes for antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with diverse promoters have been used to generate thousands of rootstock and scion transformants. D35S::D4E1 transfor...

  16. Citrus aurantium L. essential oil exhibits anxiolytic-like activity mediated by 5-HT1A-receptors and reduces cholesterol after repeated oral treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The current treatments for anxiety disorders and depression have multiple adverse effects in addition to a delayed onset of action, which has prompted efforts to find new substances with potential activity in these disorders. Citrus aurantium was chosen based on ethnopharmacological data because traditional medicine refers to the Citrus genus as useful in diminishing the symptoms of anxiety or insomnia, and C. aurantium has more recently been proposed as an adjuvant for antidepressants. In the present work, we investigated the biological activity underlying the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of C. aurantium essential oil (EO), the putative mechanism of the anxiolytic-like effect, and the neurochemical changes in specific brain structures of mice after acute treatment. We also monitored the mice for possible signs of toxicity after a 14-day treatment. Methods The anxiolytic-like activity of the EO was investigated in a light/dark box, and the antidepressant activity was investigated in a forced swim test. Flumazenil, a competitive antagonist of benzodiazepine binding, and the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 were used in the experimental procedures to determine the mechanism of action of the EO. To exclude false positive results due to motor impairment, the mice were submitted to the rotarod test. Results The data suggest that the anxiolytic-like activity observed in the light/dark box procedure after acute (5 mg/kg) or 14-day repeated (1 mg/kg/day) dosing was mediated by the serotonergic system (5-HT1A receptors). Acute treatment with the EO showed no activity in the forced swim test, which is sensitive to antidepressants. A neurochemical evaluation showed no alterations in neurotransmitter levels in the cortex, the striatum, the pons, and the hypothalamus. Furthermore, no locomotor impairment or signs of toxicity or biochemical changes, except a reduction in cholesterol levels, were observed after treatment with the EO. Conclusion

  17. Pharmacological properties of citrus and their ancient and medieval uses in the Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Arias, Beatriz Alvarez; Ramón-Laca, Luis

    2005-02-10

    This paper reviews the pharmacological properties of Mediterranean-grown citrus species (Citrus L., Rutaceae), including citron (Citrus medica L.), lime (Citrus xauantiifolia [Christm.] Swingle), lemon (Citrus xlimon [L.] Osbeck), bitter orange (Citrus xaurantium L.) and pomelo (Citrus maxima [Burm.] Merr.), as referred to in ancient, medieval and 16th century sources. The virtues of the species reported in these texts were compared to those known to modern science. A much broader spectrum of pharmacological properties was recorded by these early writers than one might expect. The use of the citron and lemon as antidotes for 'poison and venom' is recorded in the very earliest material. According to modern scientific literature the citron and the bitter orange may possess anti-cancer activity, lime may have an immunomodulatory effect in humans, and the pomelo may be useful for treating circulatory problems. Lemons might even ease hangover symptoms. Research is required to confirm these properties.

  18. The value of citrus genebanking

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Access to diverse citrus genetic resources is critical for breeding new citrus cultivars that have higher quality fruit and improved resistance to pathogens and changing environmental conditions. The USDA-ARS National Clonal Repository for Citrus and Dates (NCGRCD) maintains a very diverse collectio...

  19. Huanglongbing: Devastating disease of citrus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) disease is devastating the citrus industry worldwide, from Asia to the Americas. The only major citrus regions free of this disease are the Mediterranean and Australia/New Zealand. To date there is no cure, no resistance and no therapy for HLB and production ra...

  20. [Numerical analysis of morphological variation of germplasm resources of dioscorea].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Xian; Wang, Feng-Qing; Du, Jia-Fang; Hua, Shu-Mei; Lei, Fu-Gui; Xu, Xu-Ming; Liang, Kang-Jing; Zhang, Zhong-Yi

    2013-02-01

    Botanical characters of germplasm resources of Dioscorea were observed and compared, which could to offer reference for its genetic improvement, germplasm resource identification and classification. Based on field cultivation, twenty-four morphological traits of ninety-four Dioscorea germplasm resources were observed or determined. And the morphological differences among germplasm resources were compared by principal component analysis and cluster analysis. There were ample morphological diversity in the twenty-four traits, in especially in leaf size and tuber characters of the ninety-four Dioscorea germplasm resources. The first seven principal components which accounted for 80. 957% of total variance were extracted from the principal component analysis. The ninety-four germplasm resources could be divided into four clusters, which belonging to Dioscorea opposite, D. persimili, D. fordii and D. alata respectively. There were large morphological variation among germplasm resources on Dioscorea. Identification of germplasm resources of Dioscorea should focus on leaf size and tuber characters.

  1. Citrus lemon essential oil: chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities with its preservative effect against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in minced beef meat.

    PubMed

    Ben Hsouna, Anis; Ben Halima, Nihed; Smaoui, Slim; Hamdi, Naceur

    2017-08-03

    Lemon (Citrus limon) is a flowing plant belonging to the Rutaceae family. Citrus plants constitute one of the main valuable sources of essential oil used in foods and medicinal purposes. In this study, we assessed chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of C. limon essential oil (ClEO) with its preservative effect against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in minced beef meat. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the major components of the obtained ClEO. The antioxidant activities of this ClEO were determined according to the β-carotene bleaching assay, as well as by 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. For antimicrobial activity, agar well diffusion method was used and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) as well as the minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) were determined. The in situ effect of the ClEO was evaluated through physicochemical parameters (pH and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), as well as against L. monocytogenes in minced beef meat model. Twenty one components were identified in the ClEO and the two dominant compounds were limonene (39.74%) and β-Pinene (25.44%). This ClEO displayed an excellent DPPH scavenging ability with an extract concentration providing 50% inhibition (IC50) of 15.056 μg/ml and a strong β-carotene bleaching inhibition after 120 min of incubation with an IC50 of 40.147 μg/ml. The MICs varied from 0.039 to 1.25 mg/ml for Gram positive bacteria and from 0.25 to 2.5 mg/ml for Gram-negative bacteria. The meat preserving potential of ClEO was investigated against L. monocytogenes. ClEO successfully inhibited development of L. monocytogenes in minced beef meat. The application of ClEO at a 0.06 and 0.312 mg/g, may open new promising opportunities for the prevention of contamination from and growth of pathogenic bacteria, particularly L. monocytogenes, during minced beef meat storage at 4 °C. Additionally, during

  2. 75 FR 17289 - Citrus Seed Imports; Citrus Greening and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD07 Citrus Seed Imports; Citrus Greening and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION...'' that attack the vascular system of host plants. The pathogens are phloem-limited, inhabiting the...

  3. The phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity assessment of orange peel (Citrus sinensis) cultivated in Greece-Crete indicates a new commercial source of hesperidin.

    PubMed

    Kanaze, Firas I; Termentzi, Aikaterini; Gabrieli, Chrysi; Niopas, Ioannis; Georgarakis, Manolis; Kokkalou, Eugene

    2009-03-01

    The flavonoid content of several methanolic extract fractions of Navel orange peel (flavedo and albedo of Citrus sinensis) cultivated in Crete (Greece) was first analysed phytochemically and then assessed for its antioxidant activity in vitro. The chemical structures of the constituents fractionated were originally determined by comparing their retention times and the obtained UV spectral data with the available bibliographic data and further verified by detailed LC-DAD-MS (ESI+) analysis. The main flavonoid groups found within the fractions examined were polymethoxylated flavones, O-glycosylated flavones, C-glycosylated flavones, O-glycosylated flavonols, O-glycosylated flavanones and phenolic acids along with their ester derivatives. In addition, the quantitative HPLC analysis confirmed that hesperidin is the major flavonoid glycoside found in the orange peel. Interestingly enough, its quantity at 48 mg/g of dry peel permits the commercial use of orange peel as a source for the production of hesperidin. The antioxidant activity of the orange peel methanolic extract fractions was evaluated by applying two complementary methodologies, DPPH(*) assay and the Co(II)/EDTA-induced luminol chemiluminescence approach. Overall, the results have shown that orange peel methanolic extracts possess moderate antioxidant activity as compared with the activity seen in tests where the corresponding aglycones, diosmetin and hesperetin were assessed in different ratios.

  4. 7 CFR 301.76-3 - Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus psyllid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-3 Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus...

  5. 7 CFR 301.76-3 - Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus psyllid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-3 Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus...

  6. 7 CFR 301.76-3 - Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus psyllid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-3 Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus...

  7. Broadening the U.S. alfalfa germplasm base

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over 4000 alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plant introductions (PIs) exist in the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS). NAAIC has discussed/proposed pre-breeding efforts to utilize this germplasm for creating pre-commercial alfalfa germplasm. Funding constraints have been one impediment to th...

  8. Root phenotyping of new oilseed crop lesquerella germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The utility of germplasm collections rely on the availability of associated characterization and evaluation data for researchers and germplasm users. The information enables users to select accessions with characters of interest thereby saving time and resources. Most germplasm collections in the US...

  9. Preserving oak (Quercus sp.) germplasm to promote ex situ conservation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Germplasm banks are increasingly used as an ex situ conservation strategy. Germplasm banks are able to maintain extraordinary levels of diversity for long periods at relatively low cost. Studies using seeds – the preferred propagules in plant germplasm banks – have revealed the underlying reasons wh...

  10. Citrus bergamia Juice Extract Attenuates β-Amyloid-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Activation of THP-1 Cells Through MAPK and AP-1 Pathways.

    PubMed

    Currò, Monica; Risitano, Roberto; Ferlazzo, Nadia; Cirmi, Santa; Gangemi, Chiara; Caccamo, Daniela; Ientile, Riccardo; Navarra, Michele

    2016-02-08

    Flavonoids have been shown to be effective in protecting against age-related cognitive and motor decline in both in vitro and in vivo models. Recently, a flavonoid-rich extract of Citrus bergamia juice (BJe) has been shown to display anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties against LPS-induced activation of human THP-1 monocytes. In the light of these observations, we wondered whether BJe may be beneficial against neuroinflammatory processes, such as those observed in Alzheimer's disease. To this aim we used THP-1 monocytes to investigate the mechanisms underlying the beneficial potential of BJe against amyloid-beta1-42 (Aβ1-42) -mediated inflammation. Exposure of THP-1 cells to Aβ1-42 significantly induced the expression and secretion of IL-6 and IL-1β in THP-1 cells and increased the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 as well as p46 and p54 members of JNK family. Moreover, Aβ1-42 raises AP-1 DNA binding activity in THP-1-treated cells. Interestingly, all these effects were reduced in the presence of BJe. Our data indicate that BJe may effectively counteract the pro-inflammatory activation of monocytes/microglial cells exposed to amyloid fibrils, suggesting a promising role as a natural drug against neuroinflammatory processes.

  11. Citrus bergamia Juice Extract Attenuates β-Amyloid-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Activation of THP-1 Cells Through MAPK and AP-1 Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Currò, Monica; Risitano, Roberto; Ferlazzo, Nadia; Cirmi, Santa; Gangemi, Chiara; Caccamo, Daniela; Ientile, Riccardo; Navarra, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids have been shown to be effective in protecting against age-related cognitive and motor decline in both in vitro and in vivo models. Recently, a flavonoid-rich extract of Citrus bergamia juice (BJe) has been shown to display anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties against LPS-induced activation of human THP-1 monocytes. In the light of these observations, we wondered whether BJe may be beneficial against neuroinflammatory processes, such as those observed in Alzheimer’s disease. To this aim we used THP-1 monocytes to investigate the mechanisms underlying the beneficial potential of BJe against amyloid-beta1–42 (Aβ1−42) -mediated inflammation. Exposure of THP-1 cells to Aβ1−42 significantly induced the expression and secretion of IL-6 and IL-1β in THP-1 cells and increased the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 as well as p46 and p54 members of JNK family. Moreover, Aβ1−42 raises AP-1 DNA binding activity in THP-1-treated cells. Interestingly, all these effects were reduced in the presence of BJe. Our data indicate that BJe may effectively counteract the pro-inflammatory activation of monocytes/microglial cells exposed to amyloid fibrils, suggesting a promising role as a natural drug against neuroinflammatory processes. PMID:26853104

  12. Exploiting BAC-end sequences for the mining, characterization and utility of new short sequences repeat (SSR) markers in Citrus.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Chai, Lijun; Mayer, Christoph; Xu, Qiang; Guo, Wenwu; Deng, Xiuxin

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a large set of microsatellite markers based on publicly available BAC-end sequences (BESs), and to evaluate their transferability, discriminating capacity of genotypes and mapping ability in Citrus. A set of 1,281 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed from the 46,339 Citrus clementina BAC-end sequences (BES), of them 20.67% contained SSR longer than 20 bp, corresponding to roughly one perfect SSR per 2.04 kb. The most abundant motifs were di-nucleotide (16.82%) repeats. Among all repeat motifs (TA/AT)n is the most abundant (8.38%), followed by (AG/CT)n (4.51%). Most of the BES-SSR are located in the non-coding region, but 1.3% of BES-SSRs were found to be associated with transposable element (TE). A total of 400 novel SSR primer pairs were synthesized and their transferability and polymorphism tested on a set of 16 Citrus and Citrus relative's species. Among these 333 (83.25%) were successfully amplified and 260 (65.00%) showed cross-species transferability with Poncirus trifoliata and Fortunella sp. These cross-species transferable markers could be useful for cultivar identification, for genomic study of Citrus, Poncirus and Fortunella sp. Utility of the developed SSR marker was demonstrated by identifying a set of 118 markers each for construction of linkage map of Citrus reticulata and Poncirus trifoliata. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship among 40 Citrus and its related species were conducted with the aid of 25 randomly selected SSR primer pairs and results revealed that citrus genomic SSRs are superior to genic SSR for genetic diversity and germplasm characterization of Citrus spp.

  13. Germplasm Conservation and Access to Genetic Resources: National Plant Germplasm System and the National Clonal Germplasm Repository

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The US National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) conserves more than 550,000 accessions of genetic resources of crop wild relatives and cultivated, economically important crops. These accessions represent more than 20,000 plant species and are stored at about 25 locations throughout the United States. ...

  14. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of essential oil and organic extract from the peel and kernel parts of Citrus japonica Thunb. (kumquat) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Amrah; Shafaghatlonbar, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The constituents of essential oils and organic extracts from peel and kernels of Citrus japonica were analysed by GC and GC/MS. The content of essential oil in peel and kernel was 1.1 and 0.8% based on dry weight. The essential oil of C. japonica peel and kernel was characterised by a higher amount of limonene (51.0 and 47.1%) and germacrene D (12.1 and 6.3%), and the hexane extracts of its peel and kernel were characterised by a higher amount of dodecanol-1(12.9 and 20.8%) and linolenic acid (13.1 and 16.3%), respectively. The antioxidant activities of oils were evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The results indicate that both oils from different parts of C. japonica possess considerable antioxidant activity. The fruit peel and kernel essential oil could thus be useful in the industries, chiefly in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  15. Synergistic in vitro antioxidant activity and observational clinical trial of F105, a phytochemical formulation including Citrus bergamia, in subjects with moderate cardiometabolic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Babish, John G; Dahlberg, Clinton J; Ou, Joseph J; Keller, William J; Gao, Wei; Kaadige, Mohan R; Brabazon, Holly; Lamb, Joseph; Soudah, Hani C; Kou, Xiaolan; Zhang, Zhe; Pacioretty, Linda M; Tripp, Matthew L

    2016-12-01

    We examined the clinical safety and efficacy of F105 in 11 subjects with moderate dyslipidemia. F105 is a combination of bergamot fruit extract (Citrus bergamia, BFE) and 9 phytoextracts selected for their ability to improve the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of BFE. In vitro F105 exhibited a synergistic inhibition of oxygen radical absorbing capacity, peroxynitrite formation, and myeloperoxidase activity. Following 12 weeks of F105 daily, no treatment-related adverse events or changes in body mass were seen. Statistically significant changes were noted in total cholesterol (-7.3%), LDL-cholesterol (-10%), non-HDL cholesterol (-7.1%), cholesterol/HDL (-26%), and apolipoprotein B (-2.8%). A post hoc analysis of 8 subjects with HbA1c > 5.4 and HOMA-IR score > 2 or elevated triglycerides revealed additional statistically significant changes in addition to those previously observed in all subjects including triglycerides (-27%), oxLDL (-19%), LDL/HDL (-25%), triglycerides/HDL (-27%), oxLDL/HDL (-25%), and PAI-1 (-37%). A follow-up case report of a 70-year-old female patient, nonresponsive to statin therapy and placed on F105 daily, demonstrated improved cardiometabolic variables over 12 weeks similar to the subgroup. In summary, F105 was clinically well-tolerated and effective for ameliorating dyslipidemia in subjects with moderate cardiometabolic risk factors, particularly in the individuals with HbA1c > 5.4%.

  16. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Citrus sinensis, Citrus paradisi, and their combinations.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Neelam; Khan, Rafeeq Alam

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia, extensively contributes in the progression of coronary heart diseases and atherosclerosis, but may be managed through alterations in the nutritional pattern. Several studies show that diet rich in polyphenols and antioxidants have antiatherogenic effects. Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi are widely known for health benefits and have found to produce antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic effects, hence current research was planned to determine the hypolipidemic effects of C. sinensis and C. paradisi in rats receiving diet rich in cholesterol. All rats were divided into 11 groups each comprising 10 animals: Normal control group and hyperlipidemic control. C. sinensis treated three groups, C. paradisi treated three groups, C. sinensis and C. paradisi combination treated two groups, and group treated atorvastatin. All rats in the respective groups were treated orally with sterile water, juices, and standard drug for 8 weeks and lipid profile was estimated at the end of dosing. Cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were decreased at all the three doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi but rise in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was only significant at 8 ml/kg, and 0.3 ml/kg, respectively. Animals received the combination doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi also showed a highly significant fall in cholesterol, LDL, and TGs, however HDL level was significantly elevated by SPJ-2 combination. Results suggest that C. sinensis and C. paradisi possess antihyperlipidemic activity due to phytochemicals and other essential nutrients, hence may serve as cardioprotective by preventing thrombosis.

  17. Variation for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds and oils are rich sources of phytosterols, which are important compounds for human nutrition. There is limited information on variability for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm. The objective of the present research was to evaluate kernel phytosterol cont...

  18. Clavicipitaceous anamorphic endophytes in Hordeum germplasm

    Treesearch

    A. Dan Wilson

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of clavicipitaceous anamorphic endophytes, non-choke inducing endosymbiotic fungi of the genus Neotyphodium that systemically infect grasses, in eighteen Hordeum species from the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System was examined using light and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Seventeen plant inventory accessions...

  19. Relationships Between Oases and Germplasm Collections

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Traditional date palm oases have served as conservators of date palm genetic resources. There have been only a few studies on the population structure of these oases or evaluations of non-fruit-related characteristics. A system is needed in which regional germplasm repositories for date palm genetic...

  20. Public Germplasm Collections and Revolutions in Biotechnology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Public germplasm collections provided the biological material critical for launching the three most important revolutions in modern biotechnology: (i) An isolate of Penicillium chrysogenum, NRRL 1951, the basis for industrial production of penicillan, originated from the ARS Culture Collection in Pe...

  1. Emerging avenues for utilization of exotic germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Breeders have been successful in increasing crop performance by exploiting genetic diversity over time. However, the reported annual yield increases are not sufficient in view of rapid human population growth and global environmental changes. Exotic germplasm such as landraces and wild relatives pos...

  2. Chemical and biological comparison of the fruit extracts of Citrus wilsonii Tanaka and Citrus medica L.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pan; Duan, Li; Guo, Long; Dou, Li-Li; Dong, Xin; Zhou, Ping; Li, Ping; Liu, E-Hu

    2015-04-15

    Citri Fructus (CF), the mature fruit of Citrus wilsonii Tanaka (CWT) or Citrus medica L. (CML), is an important citrus by-product with health promoting and nutritive properties. The present study compares the chemical and biological differences of CWT and CML. Thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry techniques, were employed to compare the chemical profiles of CWT and CML. A total of 25 compounds were identified and the results indicated that there were significant differences in chemical composition between the two CF species. The quantitative results obtained by HPLC coupled with diode array detector method demonstrated that naringin was present in the highest amounts in CWT, whilst nomilin was the most dominant constituent in CML. It was also found that CWT had significantly higher free radical-scavenging activity than CML.

  3. Nobiletin, a polymethoxylated flavonoid from citrus, shows anti-angiogenic activity in a zebrafish in vivo model and HUVEC in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Lam, Kai Heng; Alex, Deepa; Lam, In Kei; Tsui, Stephen Kwok Wing; Yang, Zi Feng; Lee, Simon Ming Yuen

    2011-11-01

    Traditional Chinese medicinal herbs are a rich source of compounds with reported anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic effects. Growing evidence shows the codependence of chronic inflammation and angiogenesis, and the potential benefits of targeting angiogenesis in the treatment of chronic inflammation and targeting inflammation in the treatment of diseases with impaired angiogenesis. We hypothesized that the anti-inflammatory activity of the natural compounds may owe at least some of its efficacy to their anti-angiogenic activity and hence we investigated the anti-angiogenic activity of these compounds in vivo in zebrafish embryos and in vitro in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Nobiletin, a polymethoxylated flavonoid from citrus fruits, showed anti-angiogenic activity in both assays. Nobiletin inhibited the formation of intersegmental vessels (ISVs) in live transgenic zebrafish embryos expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the vasculature. Cell cycle analysis of dissociated zebrafish embryo cells showed that nobiletin induced G0/G1 phase accumulation in a dose-dependent manner in GFP-positive endothelial cells. Nobiletin also dose-dependently induced VEGF-A mRNA expression. In HUVECs, nobiletin inhibited endothelial cell proliferation and, to a greater extent, tube formation in a dose-dependent manner. As in the in vivo study, nobiletin induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in HUVECs. However, this arrest was not accompanied by an increase in apoptosis, indicating a cytostatic effect of nobiletin. This study, for the first time, identifies nobiletin as having potent anti-angiogenic activity and suggests that nobiletin has a great potential for future research and development as a cytostatic anti-proliferative agent.

  4. Synergistic Effect of Sodium Chlorite and Edible Coating on Quality Maintenance of Minimally Processed Citrus grandis under Passive and Active MAP.

    PubMed

    Ban, Zhaojun; Feng, Jianhua; Wei, Wenwen; Yang, Xiangzheng; Li, Jilan; Guan, Junfeng; Li, Jiang

    2015-08-01

    Edible coating has been an innovation within the bioactive packaging concept. The comparative analysis upon the effect of edible coating, sodium chlorite (SC) and their combined application on quality maintenance of minimally processed pomelo (Citrus grandis) fruits during storage at 4 °C was conducted. Results showed that the combination of edible coating and SC dipping delayed the microbial development whereas the sole coating or dipping treatment was less efficient. The synergetic application of edible coating and SC treatment under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, 10% O2 , 10% CO2 ) was able to maintain the total soluble solids level and ascorbic acid content, while reduce the weight loss as well as development of mesophiles and psychrotrophs. Nonetheless, the N, O-carboxymethyl chitosan solely coated samples showed significantly higher level of weight loss during storage with comparison to the untreated sample. Furthermore, the combined application of edible coating and SC dipping under active MAP best maintained the sensory quality of minimally processed pomelo fruit during storage.

  5. Larvicidal activity of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck essential oils and their antagonistic effects with temephos in resistant populations of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Adriana Faraco de Oliveira; Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu; Deus, Juliana Telles de; Cavalcanti, Sócrates Cabral de Holanda; Nunes, Rogéria de Souza; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Macoris, Maria de Lourdes da Graça

    2016-07-04

    Environmentally friendly botanical larvicides are commonly considered as an alternative to synthetic larvicides against Aedes aegypti Linn. In addition, mosquito resistance to currently used larvicides has motivated research to find new compounds acting via different mechanisms of action, with the goal of controlling the spread of mosquitos. Essential oils have been widely studied for this purpose. This work aims to evaluate the larvicidal potential of Syzygium aromaticum and Citrus sinensis essential oils, either alone or in combination with temephos, on Ae. aegypti populations having different levels of organophosphate resistance. The 50% lethal concentration (LC50) of the essential oils alone and in combination with temephos and the influence of essential oils on vector oviposition were evaluated. The results revealed that essential oils exhibited similar larvicidal activity in resistant populations and susceptible populations. However, S. aromaticum and C. sinensis essential oils in combination with temephos did not decrease resistance profiles. The presence of the evaluated essential oils in oviposition sites significantly decreased the number of eggs compared to sites with tap water. Therefore, the evaluated essential oils are suitable for use in mosquito resistance management, whereas their combinations with temephos are not recommended. Additionally, repellency should be considered during formulation development to avoid mosquito deterrence.

  6. Larvicidal activity of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck essential oils and their antagonistic effects with temephos in resistant populations of Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Adriana Faraco de Oliveira; Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu; de Deus, Juliana Telles; Cavalcanti, Sócrates Cabral de Holanda; Nunes, Rogéria de Souza; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Macoris, Maria de Lourdes da Graça

    2016-01-01

    Environmentally friendly botanical larvicides are commonly considered as an alternative to synthetic larvicides against Aedes aegypti Linn. In addition, mosquito resistance to currently used larvicides has motivated research to find new compounds acting via different mechanisms of action, with the goal of controlling the spread of mosquitos. Essential oils have been widely studied for this purpose. This work aims to evaluate the larvicidal potential of Syzygium aromaticum and Citrus sinensis essential oils, either alone or in combination with temephos, on Ae. aegypti populations having different levels of organophosphate resistance. The 50% lethal concentration (LC50) of the essential oils alone and in combination with temephos and the influence of essential oils on vector oviposition were evaluated. The results revealed that essential oils exhibited similar larvicidal activity in resistant populations and susceptible populations. However, S. aromaticum and C. sinensis essential oils in combination with temephos did not decrease resistance profiles. The presence of the evaluated essential oils in oviposition sites significantly decreased the number of eggs compared to sites with tap water. Therefore, the evaluated essential oils are suitable for use in mosquito resistance management, whereas their combinations with temephos are not recommended. Additionally, repellency should be considered during formulation development to avoid mosquito deterrence. PMID:27384083

  7. C- and O-glycosyl flavonoids in Sanguinello and Tarocco blood orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) juice: Identification and influence on antioxidant properties and acetylcholinesterase activity.

    PubMed

    Barreca, Davide; Gattuso, Giuseppe; Laganà, Giuseppina; Leuzzi, Ugo; Bellocco, Ersilia

    2016-04-01

    Sanguinello and Tarocco are the blood orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) cultivars most diffused worldwide. Reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled with MS-MS analysis showed that these two varieties have a similar chromatographic pattern, characterised by the presence of C- and O-glycosyl flavonoids. Of the two, Sanguinello was found to be far richer in flavonoids than Tarocco. In the juices, twelve individual components were identified for the first time, namely, four C-glycosyl flavones (lucenin-2, vicenin-2, stellarin-2, lucenin-2 4'-methyl ether and scoparin), three flavonol derivatives (quercetin-3-O-(2-rhamnosyl)-rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-hexoside, quercetin 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-glycoside), an O-triglycosyl flavanone (narirutin 4'-O-glucoside) and a flavone O-glycosides (chrysoeriol 7-O-neoesperidoside). Moreover, the influence of the identified C- and O-glycosyl flavonoids on the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase activity of these juices has been evaluated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Overexpression of a citrus basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor (CubHLH1), which is homologous to Arabidopsis activation-tagged bri1 suppressor 1 interacting factor genes, modulates carotenoid metabolism in transgenic tomato.

    PubMed

    Endo, Tomoko; Fujii, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Aiko; Nakano, Michiharu; Nakajima, Naoko; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-02-01

    To explore the transcription factors associated with carotenoid metabolism in citrus fruit, one transcription factor (CubHLH1) was selected through microarray screening in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) fruit, which was treated with exogenous ethylene or gibberellin (GA), accelerating or retarding carotenoid accumulation in peel, respectively. The amino acid sequence of CubHLH1 has homology to Arabidopsis activation-tagged bri1 suppressor 1 (ATBS1) interacting factor (AIF), which is functionally characterized as a negative regulator of the brassinolide (BR) signalling pathway. Yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed that protein for CubHLH1 could interact with Arabidopsis and tomato ATBS1. Overexpression of CubHLH1 caused a dwarf phenotype in transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), suggesting that CubHLH1 has a similar function to Arabidopsis AIF. In the transgenic tomato fruit at ripening stage, the lycopene content was reduced along with the changes in carotenoid biosynthetic gene expression. The abscisic acid (ABA) content of all the transgenic tomato fruit was higher than that of the wild type. These results implied that CubHLH1 is considered to have a similar function to Arabidopsis AIFs and might be directly involved in carotenoid metabolism in mature citrus fruit.

  9. Assessment of genetic diversity of Tunisian orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck using microsatellite (SSR) markers.

    PubMed

    Mahjbi, A; Oueslati, A; Baraket, G; Salhi-Hannachi, A; Zehdi Azouzi, S

    2016-05-20

    Citrus are one of the most cultivated crops in the world. Economically, they are very important fruit trees in Tunisia. Little is known about the genetic diversity of the Tunisian Citrus germplasm. Exploring this diversity is a prerequisite for the identification and characterization of the local germplasm to circumvent and controlling genetic erosion caused by biotic and abiotic stress to aid its conservation and use. In the present study, we explored the genetic diversity of 20 Tunisian orange cultivars [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and established their relationships by using seven simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci. In total, 37 alleles and 44 genotypes were scored. The sizes of alleles ranged from 90 to 280 bp. The number of alleles per locus was from 4 to 7, with an average of 5.28. Polymorphic information content value changed from 0.599 to 0.769 with an average of 0.675. Analysis of the genotypes revealed a heterozygote deficiency across all the genotypes. The observed heterozygosity varied from 0 to 1 (average of 0.671). Cluster analysis showed that three groups could be distinguished and the polymorphism occurred independently of the geographical origin of the studied orange cultivars. The detected SSR genotypes allowed the establishment of an identification key with a discriminating power of 100%. Multivariate analysis and the neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree indicated a narrow genetic base for the orange cultivars. The usefulness of SSR markers for orange fingerprinting and evaluation of the genetic diversity in the Tunisian germplasm are discussed in this paper.

  10. Chemical composition of the essential oils of variegated pink-fleshed lemon (Citrus x limon L. Burm. f.) and their anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Dalia; Ashour, Mohamed L; Mulyaningsih, Sri; El-Shazly, Assem; Wink, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The volatile secondary metabolites of essential oils from fruit peel and leaves of variegated pink-fleshed lemon (Citrus x limon) were investigated using GLC and GLC-MS (gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy). Altogether 141 compounds were identified and quantified, accounting for 99.59% and 96.33% of the total hydrodistilled peel and leaf oil, respectively. Limonene occurred in higher amounts in fruit peel (52.73%) than in leaf oil (29.13%). Neral (12.72%), neryl acetate (8.53%), p-menth-1-en-7-al (4.63%), beta-pinene (6.35%), and nerol (4.42%) were the most abundant constituents in leaf oil, whereas gamma-terpinene (9.88%), beta-pinene (7.67%), geranial (4.44%), and neral (3.64%) dominated in the fruit peel oil. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitrypanosomal, and antimicrobial activities of the fruit peel essential oil were evaluated. The oil had a low antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of (26.66 +/- 2.07) mg/ml as compared to the efficient antioxidant ascorbic acid [IC50 (16.32 +/- 0.16) microg/ml]. The oil moderately inhibited soybean 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) with an IC50 value of (32.05 +/- 3.91) microg/ml and had moderate antitrypanosomal activity [IC50 (60.90 +/- 0.91) microg/ml]. In addition, moderate antimicrobial activities were detected against Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus capitis, Micrococcus luteus), one Gram-negative bacterium (Pseudomonas fluorescens), and yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida parapsilosis).

  11. In vitro absorption and metabolism of a citrus chemopreventive agent, auraptene, and its modifying effects on xenobiotic enzyme activities in mouse livers.

    PubMed

    Murakami, A; Wada, K; Ueda, N; Sasaki, K; Haga, M; Kuki, W; Takahashi, Y; Yonei, H; Koshimizu, K; Ohigashi, H

    2000-01-01

    We previously reported that auraptene (7-geranyloxycoumarin, AUR), widely occurring in citrus fruit, is a structurally novel type of effective cancer-preventive agent, as manifested in several rodent models. However, its bio-availability and metabolism in biological systems have yet to be investigated. In the present study, we examined the chemical stability of AUR at pH 1.57 and 37 degrees C (as a stomach digestion model) and observed its stoichiometric conversion to umbelliferone [7-hydroxycoumarin, UMB; half-life (t1/2) = 15 h; 7-ethoxycoumarin (ETC) was stable for 24 h]. Differentiated Caco-2 cells, a human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line, were used as a small intestine model. ETC permeated the basolateral (portal vein) side of Caco-2 cells in a time-dependent manner; AUR slightly permeated the cells, but with an intracellular accumulation. Epoxyauraptene and UMB were detected when AUR was treated with the rat liver S-9 mixture. ETC was also converted to UMB, but its t1/2 of two hours was much shorter than that of AUR (> 24 h). This suggests that AUR, bearing a geranyloxyl side chain, is a relatively metabolism-resistant substrate for cytochrome P-450 enzymes and, thus, is stable in the liver compared with ETC. Oral administration of AUR by gavage at 50-200 mg/kg body wt dose dependently induced glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in mouse livers without affecting cytochrome P-450 activity. Using 10 coumarin-related compounds, we found that only those coumarins having a 7-alkyloxyl group induced GST, but not cytochrome P-450, activity. The present study presumes that AUR accumulates in the epithelial cells of the small intestine and then gradually permeates into the portal vein. Stable localizability of AUR in the colon and liver may be associated with the induction of GST activity, which is important as the action mechanism for suppression of rodent chemical carcinogenesis.

  12. Molecular characterization of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] germplasm in the United States using microsatellite markers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] is an important medicinal fruit with immense health benefits and antioxidant activity. In this study, microsatellite markers were used as DNA fingerprinting tools for the identification and characterization of peach germplasm in the United States. Eleven microsatel...

  13. Curative and preventive activity of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid edible composite coatings containing antifungal food additives to control citrus postharvest green and blue molds.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Chamorro, Silvia A; Pérez-Gago, María B; Del Río, Miguel A; Palou, Lluís

    2009-04-08

    Edible composite coatings based on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), lipid components (beeswax and shellac), and food preservatives with antifungal properties were evaluated in vivo on clementine mandarins cv. Clemenules, hybrid mandarins cv. Ortanique, and oranges cv. Valencia. Their curative and preventive activity against citrus postharvest green (GM) and blue molds (BM), caused by Penicillium digitatum (PD) or Penicillium italicum (PI), respectively, were determined. Fruits were artificially inoculated before or after the application of the coatings and incubated up to 7 days at 20 degrees C. Selected food preservatives included mineral salts, organic acid salts, parabens, and 2-deoxy-d-glucose. Inoculated but uncoated fruits were used as controls. For curative activity, HPMC-lipid edible composite coatings containing sodium benzoate (SB) were most effective in reducing the incidence and severity of GM on clementine mandarins cv. Clemenules (86 and 90%, respectively). On this cultivar, the reduction in GM incidence by the SB-based coating was twice that of potassium sorbate (PS)-based coating. On mandarins cv. Ortanique, PS- and SB-based coatings reduced the incidence of GM and BM by more than 40 and 21%, respectively. However, the HPMC-lipid coating containing a mixture of PS and sodium propionate (PS + SP) exhibited a synergistic effect in the reduction of the incidence of GM (78%) and BM (67%). Coatings with parabens modestly reduced disease incidence and severity. On oranges cv. Valencia, coatings with food preservatives better controlled BM than GM. Coatings containing SB + PS and SB + SP reduced the incidence and severity of BM by 85% and 95%, respectively. PS- and SB- based coatings controlled GM more effectively than coatings formulated with other food preservatives. In every cultivar, fruit coated before inoculation did not show any incidence or severity reduction of both GM and BM (preventive activity). In every test, the antifungal action of the

  14. Aluminum-induced decrease in CO2 assimilation in citrus seedlings is unaccompanied by decreased activities of key enzymes involved in CO2 assimilation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Song; Qi, Yi-Ping; Smith, Brandon Rhett; Liu, Xing-Hui

    2005-03-01

    'Cleopatra' tangerine (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tanaka) seedlings were irrigated daily for 8 weeks with 1/4 strength Hoagland's nutrient solution containing 0 (control) or 2 mM aluminum (Al). Leaves from Al-treated plants had decreased CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance, but increased intercellular CO2 concentrations compared with control leaves. On a leaf area basis, 2 mM Al increased activities of key enzymes in the Calvin cycle, including ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), NADP-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), phosphoribulokinase (PRK), stromal fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase), and a key enzyme in starch synthesis, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), compared with control leaves. Aluminum had no effect on cytosolic FBPase activity, but it decreased sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activity. Aluminum had no effect on area-based concentrations of carbohydrates, glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) and fructose 6-phosphate (F6P) or the G6P:F6P ratio, but it decreased the area-based concentration of 3-phosphoglycerate (PGA). Photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) and electron transport rate through PSII were greatly reduced by Al. Non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) was less affected by Al than qP and electron transport rate through PSII. We conclude that the reduced rate of CO2 assimilation in Al-treated leaves was probably caused by a combination of factors such as reduced electron transport rate through PSII, increased closure of PSII reaction centers and increased photorespiration.

  15. 7 CFR 301.76-2 - Regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and citrus greening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and citrus...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-2 Regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and...

  16. 7 CFR 301.76-2 - Regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and citrus greening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and citrus...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-2 Regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and...

  17. 7 CFR 301.76-2 - Regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and citrus greening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and citrus...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-2 Regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and...

  18. Of the major phenolic acids formed during human microbial fermentation of tea, citrus, and soy flavonoid supplements, only 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid has antiproliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Gao, Kun; Xu, Anlong; Krul, Cyrille; Venema, Koen; Liu, Yong; Niu, Yantao; Lu, Jinxiu; Bensoussan, Liath; Seeram, Navindra P; Heber, David; Henning, Susanne M

    2006-01-01

    Dietary flavonoids are poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Colonic bacteria convert flavonoids into smaller phenolic acids (PA), which can be absorbed into the circulation and may contribute to the chemopreventive activity of the parent compounds. The purpose of our study was to determine whether flavonoids from green and black tea (GT, BT), citrus fruit with rutin (CF+R) and soy (S) supplements exposed to the same conditions in a dynamic in vitro model of the colon (TIM-2) will form the same phenolic acid products of microbial metabolism. About 600 mg of flavonoids from GT, BT, CF+R and S extracts were infused at t = 0 and 12 h into the TIM-2. Samples from the lumen and dialysate were collected at t = 0,4,8,12,16,24 and 28h. The flavonoid and PA concentrations were measured by HPLC and GC-MS. GT, BT, and CF+R formed 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (3M4HPAA), 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid (4HPAA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (3,4DHPAA), and 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid (3,3HPPA). BT flavonoids were also metabolized to 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoic acid (2,4,6THBA) and CF+R flavonoids to 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) propionic acid (3,4H3MPPA), 3-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid (3HPAA) and a small amount of hippuric acid. After S infusion, we found 3M4HPAA and 4HPAA only. Among these phenolic acids, only 3,4DHPAA exhibited antiproliferative activity in prostate and colon cancer cells. 3,4DHPAA was significantly (P < 0.005) more inhibitory in colon cancer cells (HCT116) compared with an immortalized normal intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC6). In summary, fermentation by intestinal microbes of GT, BT, C+R, and S flavonoids resulted in the conversion to the same major phenolic acids.

  19. The Citrus Flavanone Naringenin Produces Cardioprotective Effects in Hearts from 1 Year Old Rat, through Activation of mitoBK Channels

    PubMed Central

    Testai, Lara; Da Pozzo, Eleonora; Piano, Ilaria; Pistelli, Luisa; Gargini, Claudia; Breschi, Maria Cristina; Braca, Alessandra; Martini, Claudia; Martelli, Alma; Calderone, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Incidence of cardiovascular disorders increases with age, because of a dramatic fall of endogenous self-defense mechanisms and increased vulnerability of myocardium. Conversely, the effectiveness of many cardioprotective drugs is blunted in hearts of 1 year old rat. The Citrus flavanone naringenin (NAR) was reported to promote cardioprotective effects against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, through the activation of mitochondrial large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (mitoBK). These effects were observed in young adult rats, but no data are available about the possible cardioprotective effects of NAR in aged animals. Experimental Approach: This study aimed at evaluating the potential cardioprotective effects of NAR against I/R damage in 1 year old rats, and the possible involvement of mitoBK. Key Results: Naringenin protected the hearts of 1 year old rats in both ex vivo and in vivo I/R protocols. Noteworthy, these effects were antagonized by paxilline, a selective BK-blocker. The cardioprotective effects of NAR were also observed in senescent H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. In isolated mitochondria from hearts of 1 year old, NAR exhibited the typical profile of a mitoBK opener. Finally, Western Blot analysis confirmed a significant (albeit reduced) presence of BK-forming alpha and beta subunits, both in cardiac tissue of 1 year old rats and in senescent H9c2 cells. Conclusion and Implications: This is the first work reporting cardioprotective effects of NAR in 1 year old rats. Although further studies are needed to better understand the whole pathway involved in the NAR-mediated cardioprotection, these preliminary data represent a promising perspective for a rational nutraceutical use of NAR in aging. PMID:28289383

  20. Agreement: Citrus College Faculty Association and Citrus Community College District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citrus Community Coll. District, Glendora, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Citrus Community College District Board of Trustees and the Citrus College Faculty/California Teachers Association/National Education Association is presented. This contract, covering the period from July 1988 through June 1990, deals with the following topics: bargaining agent recognition and…

  1. Citrus Huanglongbing tolerance in Australian Citrus Relatives, Microcitrus and Eremocirus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tolerance, or resistance to citrus huanglongbing will be important as a long term solution for this disease. In a field trial conducted with over 1000 plants belonging to different genera in the sub-family Aurantioideae, we observed field tolerance in many Australian citrus relatives. To confirm the...

  2. Agreement: Citrus College Faculty Association and Citrus Community College District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citrus Community Coll. District, Glendora, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Citrus Community College District Board of Trustees and the Citrus College Faculty/California Teachers Association/National Education Association is presented. This contract, covering the period from July 1988 through June 1990, deals with the following topics: bargaining agent recognition and…

  3. Genetic structure of Argentinean hexaploid wheat germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Vanzetti, Leonardo S.; Yerkovich, Nadia; Chialvo, Eugenia; Lombardo, Lucio; Vaschetto, Luis; Helguera, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    The identification of genetically homogeneous groups of individuals is an ancient issue in population genetics and in the case of crops like wheat, it can be valuable information for breeding programs, genetic mapping and germplasm resources. In this work we determined the genetic structure of a set of 102 Argentinean bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) elite cultivars using 38 biochemical and molecular markers (functional, closely linked to genes and neutral ones) distributed throughout 18 wheat chromosomes. Genetic relationships among these lines were examined using model-based clustering methods. In the analysis three subpopulations were identified which correspond largely to the origin of the germplasm used by the main breeding programs in Argentina. PMID:24130447

  4. Kochia prostrata germplasm collection expedition to Kazakhstan

    Treesearch

    Blair L. Waldron; R. Deane Harrison; Nicolai I. Dzyubenko; Auskhan Khusainov; Sergey Shuvalov; Sergey Alexanian

    2001-01-01

    The low stature of ‘Immigrant’ forage kochia (Kochia prostrata) limits its use as winter forage and habitat for livestock and wildlife. In October 1999, a germplasm collection trip was undertaken to obtain forage kochia ecotypes that have potential to improve fall and winter forage. The collection area was north of the Aral Sea in the Clay and Sand Desert Steppes of...

  5. Production of tetraploid plants of non apomictic citrus genotypes.

    PubMed

    Aleza, Pablo; Juárez, José; Ollitrault, Patrick; Navarro, Luis

    2009-12-01

    Ploidy manipulation in Citrus is a major issue of current breeding programs aiming to develop triploid seedless mandarins to address consumer demands for seedless fruits. The most effective method to obtain triploid hybrids is to pollinate tetraploid non apomictic cultivars with pollen of diploid varieties. Such non apomictic tetraploid lines are not found in the citrus germplasm and need to be created. In this work we describe a new methodology based on in vitro shoot-tip grafting combined with treatment of the micro-grafted shoot-tip with colchicine and oryzalin to achieve chromosome doubling and a dechimerization procedure assisted by flow cytometry. Stable tetraploid plants of Clemenules, Fina and Marisol clementines and Moncada mandarin have been obtained directly from shoot tip grafting combined with colchicine and oryzalin treatments or after dechimerization of mixoploids plants (2x-4x). These stable tetraploid plants have been used in 4x x 2x hybridizations, to recover over 3,250 triploid hybrids in 3 years.

  6. Morphological, molecular and virulence characterization of three Lencanicillium species infecting Asian citrus psyllids in Huangyan citrus groves.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lianming; Cheng, Baoping; Du, Danchao; Hu, Xiurong; Peng, Aitian; Pu, Zhanxu; Zhang, Xiaoya; Huang, Zhendong; Chen, Guoqing

    2015-02-01

    Citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) is caused by the infection of Candidatus Liberibacter spp. in citrus plants. Since Asian citrus psyllid is the primary vector of this bacterial pathogen, the spread of HLB can be mitigated by suppressing Asian citrus psyllid populations in citrus groves using entomopathogens. To expand the current data on entomopathogens infecting Asian citrus psyllids, we isolated and characterized three different entomopathogens. Strains ZJLSP07, ZJLA08, and ZJLP09 infected the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, in Huangyan citrus groves. Based on molecular and morphological analyses, two were identified as Lecanicillium attenuatum and Lecanicillium psalliotae, and the third was recognized as an unidentified species of the genus, Lecanicillium. The corrected mortalities caused by strains ZJLSP07, ZJLA08 were 100% at 7days post-inoculation, while by ZJLP09 complete mortality occurred at 6days after inoculation, with 1.0×10(8)conidia/ml at 25°C and a relative humidity of 90% in the laboratory. Under the same condition, the corrected mortalities caused by strains ZJLSP07, ZJLA08 and ZJLP09 were 100%, 92.55% and 100%, respectively at 9days post-inoculation in the greenhouse. Our findings also revealed that these fungal strains infected D. citri using hyphae that penetrated deep into the insect tissues. Further, all three strains secreted the enzymes proteinases, chitinases and lipases with a potential to destroy insect tissues. Interestingly, strain ZJLP09 had an earlier invasion time and the highest levels of enzyme activities when compared to the other two strains. These findings have expanded the existing pool of entomopathogenic fungi that infect D. citri and can be potentially used for the management of D. citri populations.

  7. New depside from Citrus reticulata Blanco.

    PubMed

    Phetkul, Uraiwan; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Watanapokasin, Ramida; Mahabusarakam, Wilawan

    2014-01-01

    A new depside, named depcitrus A (1), and 31 known compounds were isolated from the peels, leaves and branch barks of Citrus reticulata Blanco. Methylation of the high polarity fractions from the branch barks and peels gave one new methylated compound named depcitrus B (14) and five known compounds. Their structures were established based on spectroscopic evidence. The antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of some pure compounds were evaluated.

  8. Induction of apoptosis by Citrus paradisi essential oil in human leukemic (HL-60) cells.

    PubMed

    Hata, Tomona; Sakaguchi, Ikuyo; Mori, Masahiro; Ikeda, Norikazu; Kato, Yoshiko; Minamino, Miki; Watabe, Kazuhito

    2003-01-01

    Limonene is a primary component of citrus essential oils (EOs) and has been reported to induce apoptosis on tumor cells. Little is known about induction of apoptosis by citrus EOs. In this study, we examined induction of apoptosis by Citrus aurantium var. dulcis (sweet orange) EO, Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) EO and Citrus limon (lemon) EO. These EOs induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells and the apoptosis activities were related to the limonene content of the EOs. Moreover, sweet orange EO and grapefruit EO may contain components besides limonene that have apoptotic activity. To identify the components with apoptotic activity, grapefruit EO was fractionated using silica gel columns, and the components were analyzed by GC-MS. The n-hexane fraction contained limonene, and the dichloromethane fraction (DF) contained aldehyde compounds and nootkatone. Decanal, octanal and citral in the DF showed strong apoptotic activity, suggesting that the aldehyde compounds induced apoptosis strongly in HL-60 cells.

  9. Widespread applications of citrus cryopreservation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Citrus genetic resources can now be successfully cryopreserved, which means that they can be placed into long-term storage at liquid nitrogen temperatures. This cryopreservation technology was specifically developed to address the immediate need to have secure long-term back-up storage for citrus co...

  10. The flavor of citrus fruit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Citrus is the largest cultivated fruit tree crop in the world, with total production of more than 100 million tons per year. The genus Citrus consists of different species, including several producing economically important crops, such as oranges, mandarins, grapefruit, pummelo, lemons and limes, c...

  11. The potential for citrus cryotherapy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Citrus collections of pathogen-free plants are needed for breeding, research, and distribution to the user community. The Citrus Research Board funded research project “Development of cryotherapy as an improved method of eliminating graft transmissible pathogens in Citrus” sought to use cryotherapy,...

  12. Integrated Management of Citrus Canker

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fruit losses due to citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), vary each crop season depending on citrus variety, tree age, flushing condition, leafminer control, and coincidence of weather events with occurrence of susceptible fruit and foliage. In 2012, crop losses in Hamlin f...

  13. Network analysis of postharvest senescence process in citrus fruits revealed by transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuduan; Chang, Jiwei; Ma, Qiaoli; Chen, Lingling; Liu, Shuzhen; Jin, Shuai; Han, Jingwen; Xu, Rangwei; Zhu, Andan; Guo, Jing; Luo, Yi; Xu, Juan; Xu, Qiang; Zeng, YunLiu; Deng, Xiuxin; Cheng, Yunjiang

    2015-05-01

    Citrus (Citrus spp.), a nonclimacteric fruit, is one of the most important fruit crops in global fruit industry. However, the biological behavior of citrus fruit ripening and postharvest senescence remains unclear. To better understand the senescence process of citrus fruit, we analyzed data sets from commercial microarrays, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and validated physiological quality detection of four main varieties in the genus Citrus. Network-based approaches of data mining and modeling were used to investigate complex molecular processes in citrus. The Citrus Metabolic Pathway Network and correlation networks were constructed to explore the modules and relationships of the functional genes/metabolites. We found that the different flesh-rind transport of nutrients and water due to the anatomic structural differences among citrus varieties might be an important factor that influences fruit senescence behavior. We then modeled and verified the citrus senescence process. As fruit rind is exposed directly to the environment, which results in energy expenditure in response to biotic and abiotic stresses, nutrients are exported from flesh to rind to maintain the activity of the whole fruit. The depletion of internal substances causes abiotic stresses, which further induces phytohormone reactions, transcription factor regulation, and a series of physiological and biochemical reactions.

  14. Biotransformations of 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin and 6',7'-epoxybergamottin by the citrus-pathogenic fungi diminish cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitory activity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Penicillium digitatum, as well as five other citrus pathogenic species, (P. ulaiense Link, Geotrichum citri Link, Botrytis cinerea P. Micheli ex Pers., Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Pat.)Griffon & Maubl. and Phomopsis citri (teleomorph Diaporthe citri)) was observed to convert 6',7'-epoxybergamottin (1)...

  15. In vitro conservation of Dendrobium germplasm.

    PubMed

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Zeng, Songjun; Galdiano, Renato Fernandes; Dobránszki, Judit; Cardoso, Jean Carlos; Vendrame, Wagner A

    2014-09-01

    Dendrobium is a large genus in the family Orchidaceae that exhibits vast diversity in floral characteristics, which is of considerable importance to orchid breeders, biotechnologists and collectors. Native species have high value as a result of their medicinal properties, while their hybrids are important as ornamental commodities, either as cut flowers or potted plants and are thus veritable industrial crops. Thus, preservation of Dendrobium germplasm is valuable for species conservation, breeding programs and the floriculture industry. Cryopreservation represents the only safe, efficient and cost-effective long-term storage option to facilitate the conservation of genetic resources of plant species. This review highlights 16 years of literature related to the preservation of Dendrobium germplasm and comprises the most comprehensive assessment of thorough studies performed to date, which shows reliable and reproducible results. Air-drying, encapsulation-dehydration, encapsulation-vitrification, vitrification and droplet-vitrification are the current cryopreservation methodologies that have been used to cryopreserve Dendrobium germplasm. Mature seeds, pollen, protoplasts, shoot primordia, protocorms and somatic embryos or protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) have been cryopreserved with different levels of success. Encapsulation-vitrification and encapsulation-dehydration are the most used protocol, while PLBs represent the main explant explored.

  16. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Citrus sinensis, Citrus paradisi, and their combinations

    PubMed Central

    Mallick, Neelam; Khan, Rafeeq Alam

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Hyperlipidemia, extensively contributes in the progression of coronary heart diseases and atherosclerosis, but may be managed through alterations in the nutritional pattern. Several studies show that diet rich in polyphenols and antioxidants have antiatherogenic effects. Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi are widely known for health benefits and have found to produce antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic effects, hence current research was planned to determine the hypolipidemic effects of C. sinensis and C. paradisi in rats receiving diet rich in cholesterol. Materials and Methods: All rats were divided into 11 groups each comprising 10 animals: Normal control group and hyperlipidemic control. C. sinensis treated three groups, C. paradisi treated three groups, C. sinensis and C. paradisi combination treated two groups, and group treated atorvastatin. All rats in the respective groups were treated orally with sterile water, juices, and standard drug for 8 weeks and lipid profile was estimated at the end of dosing. Results: Cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were decreased at all the three doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi but rise in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was only significant at 8 ml/kg, and 0.3 ml/kg, respectively. Animals received the combination doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi also showed a highly significant fall in cholesterol, LDL, and TGs, however HDL level was significantly elevated by SPJ-2 combination. Conclusion: Results suggest that C. sinensis and C. paradisi possess antihyperlipidemic activity due to phytochemicals and other essential nutrients, hence may serve as cardioprotective by preventing thrombosis. PMID:27134462

  17. Laser-induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (LIFS) for Discrimination of Genetically Close Sweet Orange Accessions ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck).

    PubMed

    Massaiti Kuboyama Kubota, Thiago; Bebeachibuli Magalhães, Aida; Nery da Silva, Marina; Ribeiro Villas Boas, Paulino; Novelli, Valdenice M; Bastianel, Marinês; Sagawa, Cíntia H D; Cristofani-Yaly, Mariângela; Marcondes Bastos Pereira Milori, Débora

    2017-02-01

    Although there is substantial diversity among cultivated sweet oranges genotypes with respect to morphological, physiological, and agronomic traits, very little variation at DNA level has been observed. It is possible that this low DNA molecular variability is due to a narrow genetic basis commonly observed in this citrus group. The most different morphological characters observed were originated through mutations, which are maintained by vegetative propagation. Despite all molecular tools available for discrimination between these different accessions, in general, low polymorphism has been observed in all groups of sweet oranges and they may not be identified by molecular markers. In this context, this paper describes the results obtained by using laser-induced fluorescent spectroscopy (LIFS) as a tool to discriminate sweet orange accessions ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) including common, low acidity, pigmented, and navel orange groups, with very little variation at DNA level. The findings showed that LIFS combined with statistical methods is capable to discriminate different accessions. The basic idea is that citrus leaves have multiple fluorophores and concentration depends on their genetics and metabolism. Thus, we consider that the optical properties of citrus leaves may be different, depending on variety. The results have shown that the developed method, for the best classification rate, reaches an average sensitivity and specificity of 95% and 97.5%, respectively. An interesting application of this study is the development of an economically viable tool for early identification in seedling certification, in citrus breeding programs, in cultivar protection, or in germplasm core collection.

  18. [Phosphorus translocation and distribution in intercropping systems of soybean (Glycine max) and citrus (Citrus poonensis)].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weijun; Wang, Kairong; Li, Hesong

    2004-02-01

    A field mini-plot experiment was conducted on clay loamy oxisol using 32P trace technique when P fertilizer was applied in three depth soil (15, 35 and 55 cm soil layer) to compare P absorption, distribution and translocation in plant organ and soil profile under soybean and citrus monoculture and intercropping at Taoyuan Experimental Station of Agroecosystem Research of Chinese Academy of Science. Total P uptake (PT) and P accumulation in different parts (PA) of soybean were remarkably decreased under intercropping. When 32P was applied in topsoil (15 cm soil layer), 32P uptake (32PT) by soybean was significantly lower in intercropping than in monoculture. Whereas 32PT uptake by soybean was significantly greater in intercropping than in monoculture when 32P was applied in deep soil layer (35 cm or 55 cm soil layer). However, considerable difference was not observed for 32P translocation and distribution among soybean organs. 32PT uptake by citrus was much lower under intercropping than under monoculture. The P uptake by citrus newly could be transferred rapidly to aboveground and prior to active growing organ. Intercropping did not affect 32P distribution in citrus organ, but when P was applied in deep soil layer, the speed of 32P transferred to aboveground and active organ was slowed down. P mobility was strengthened in soil profile, and P of deep soil layer was promoted to move to topsoil in intercropping. The experimental results showed the optimal depth of applied P should be within 20 cm soil layer in soybean-citrus intercropping system.

  19. Larvicidal, pupicidal, repellent and adulticidal activity of Citrus sinensis orange peel extract against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Mahesh Kumar, Palanisamy; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Amerasan, Duraisamy; Subrmaniam, Jayapal; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2012-10-01

    Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikunguniya fever, West Nile virus and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. The present study explored the effects of orange peel ethanol extract of Citrus sinensis on larvicidal, pupicidal, repellent and adulticidal activity against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The orange peel material was shade dried at room temperature and powdered coarsely. From orange peel, 300 g powdered was macerated with 1 L of ethanol sequentially for a period of 72 h each and filtered. The yields of the orange peel ethanol crude extract of C. sinensis 13.86 g, respectively. The extracts were concentrated at reduced temperature on a rotary vacuum evaporator and stored at a temperature of 4 °C. The larvicidal, pupicidal and adult mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure; no mortality was observed in the control group. For C. sinensis, the median lethal concentration values (LC(50)) observed for the larvicidal and pupicidal activities against mosquito vector species A. stephensi first to fourth larval instars and pupae were 182.24, 227.93, 291.69, 398.00 and 490.84 ppm; A. aegypti values were 92.27, 106.60, 204.87, 264.26, 342.45, 436.93 and 497.41 ppm; and C. quinquefasciatus values were 244.70, 324.04, 385.32, 452.78 and 530.97 ppm, respectively. The results of maximum repellent activity were observed at 450 ppm in ethanol extracts of C. sinensis and the mean complete protection time ranged from 150 to 180 min was tested. The ethanol extract of C. sinensis showed 100% repellency in 150 min and showed complete protection in 90 min at 350 ppm against A. stephensi, A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The adult mortality was found in ethanol extract of C. sinensis with the LC(50) and LC(90) values of 272.19 and 457.14 ppm, A. stephensi; 289.62 and

  20. Complex history of admixture during citrus domestication revealed by genome analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, G. Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Auré lio,; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel; Cattonaro, Federica; Fabbro, Cristian Del; Pinosio, Sara; Zuccolo, Andrea; Chapman, Jarrod; Grimwood, Jane; Tadeo, Francisco; Estornell, Leandro H.; Mu?oz-Sanz, Juan V.; Ibanez, Victoria; Herrero-Ortega, Amparo; Aleza, Pablo; Pé rez, Juliá n Pé rez,; Ramon, Daniel; Brunel, Dominique; Luro, Francois; Chen, Chunxian; Farmerie, William G.; Desany, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Harkins, Tim; Fredrikson, Karin; Burns, Paul; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Reforgiato, Giuseppe; Freitas-Astua, Juliana; Quetier, Francis; Navarro, Luis; Roose, Mikeal; Wincker, Patrick; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Talon, Manuel; Jaillon, Olivier; Ollitrault, Patrick; Gmitter, Frederick; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-06-30

    Although Citrus is the most globally significant tree fruit, its domestication history is poorly understood. Cultivated citrus types are believed to comprise selections from and/or hybrids of several wild progenitor species, but the identities of these progenitors, and their contribution to modern cultivars, remain controversial. Here we report the genomes of a collection of mandarins, pummelos, and oranges, including a high quality reference sequence from a haploid Clementine mandarin. By comparative genome analysis we show that these cultivated types can be derived from two progenitor species. Cultivated pummelos represent selections from a single progenitor species C. maxima. Unexpectedly, however, we find that cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into a distinct second population that we identify with the ancestral wild mandarin species C. reticulata. Sweet and sour oranges are found to be interspecific hybrids. Sweet orange, the most widely cultivated citrus, arose as the offspring of previously admixed individuals. In contrast, sour (or Seville) orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. Surprisingly, we also find that a wild Chinese mandarin from Mangshan, China shows substantial sequence divergence from C. reticulata and appears to represent a distinct taxon. Understanding the relationships and phylogeny of cultivated citrus through genome analysis will clarify taxonomic relationships and enable previously inconceivable opportunities for sequence-directed genetic improvement. Citrus are widely consumed worldwide as juice or fresh fruit, providing important sources of vitamin C and other health-promoting compounds. Global production in 2012 exceeded 86 million metric tons, with an estimated value of US$9 billion (http://www.fas.usda.gov/psdonline/circulars/citrus.pdf). The very narrow genetic diversity of cultivated citrus makes it highly

  1. Effective antibiotics against 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in HLB-affected citrus plants identified via the graft-based evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Muqing; Guo, Ying; Powell, Charles A; Doud, Melissa S; Yang, Chuanyu; Duan, Yongping

    2014-01-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), caused by three species of fastidious, phloem-limited 'Candidatus Liberibacter', is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. To date, there is no established cure for this century-old and yet, newly emerging disease. As a potential control strategy for citrus HLB, 31 antibiotics were screened for effectiveness and phytotoxicity using the optimized graft-based screening system with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las)-infected citrus scions. Actidione and Oxytetracycline were the most phytotoxic to citrus with less than 10% of scions surviving and growing; therefore, this data was not used in additional analyses. Results of principal component (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analyses (HCA) demonstrated that 29 antibiotics were clustered into 3 groups: highly effective, partly effective, and not effective. In spite of different modes of actions, a number of antibiotics such as, Ampicillin, Carbenicillin, Penicillin, Cefalexin, Rifampicin and Sulfadimethoxine were all highly effective in eliminating or suppressing Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus indicated by both the lowest Las infection rate and titers of the treated scions and inoculated rootstock. The non-effective group, including 11 antibiotics alone with three controls, such as Amikacin, Cinoxacin, Gentamicin, Kasugamycin, Lincomycin, Neomycin, Polymixin B and Tobramycin, did not eliminate or suppress Las in the tested concentrations, resulting in plants with increased titers of Las. The other 12 antibiotics partly eliminated or suppressed Las in the treated and graft-inoculated plants. The effective and non-phytotoxic antibiotics could be potential candidates for control of citrus HLB, either for the rescue of infected citrus germplasm or for restricted field application.

  2. Musa spp. germplasm management: microsatellite fingerprinting of USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station (TARS) is responsible for conserving germplasm of a number of important agricultural crop species. A banana (Musa spp.) collection has been established at TARS that is comprised of diploid, triploid and tetraploid accessions of cultivated, ornament...

  3. Notice of release of: 1)Majestic germplasm and 2) Spectrum germplasm western prairie clover

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two natural-track selected germplasms of western prairie clover [Dalea ornata (Douglas ex Hook.) Eaton & J. Wright] [Fabaceae] have been released for use in revegetation of semiarid rangelands in the western USA. Western prairie clover is a perennial leguminous forb that occurs naturally in Idaho, ...

  4. Notice of release for Eagle Germplasm western yarrow (selected germplasm, natural track)

    Treesearch

    Scott M. Lambert; Stephen B. Monsen; Nancy Shaw

    2011-01-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station; United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Idaho State Office; Utah State University, Agricultural Experiment Station; and University of Idaho, Agricultural Experiment Station, announce the release of a selected germplasm (natural track) of western...

  5. Notice of release of Mountain Home germplasm Sandberg bluegrass (selected germplasm, natural track)

    Treesearch

    Scott M. Lambert; Stephen B. Monsen; Nancy Shaw

    2011-01-01

    Mountain Home germplasm Sandberg bluegrass is a small, densely tufted short-lived perennial bunchgrass adapted to low elevation, semi-arid sites with long, hot growing seasons. Mountain Home's drought tolerance, competitive nature, and ease of establishment make it an excellent choice for post-fire restoration of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) dominated...

  6. Cryopreserved storage of clonal germplasm in the USDA National Plant Germplasm System

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) plant collections are a critical source of genetic diversity for breeding and selection of improved crops, including vegetatively propagated plants. Information on these collections is...

  7. Chemical control of the Asian citrus psyllid and of huanglongbing disease in citrus.

    PubMed

    Boina, Dhana Raj; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R

    2015-06-01

    By 2014, huanglongbing (HLB), the most destructive disease of citrus, and its insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama), became established in all major citrus-growing regions of the world, including the United States, with the exception of California. At present, application of insecticides is the most widely followed option for reducing ACP populations, while application of antibiotics for suppressing HLB disease/symptoms is being practiced in some citrus-growing regions. Application of insecticides during the dormant winter season, along with cultivation of HLB-free seedlings and early detection and removal of symptomatic and asymptomatic trees, has been very effective in managing ACP. Area-wide management of ACP by application of insecticides at low volume in large areas of citrus cultivation has been shown to be effective in managing HLB and reducing management costs. As insecticide resistance is a major problem in sustainable management of ACP, rotation/alternation of insecticides with different chemistries and modes of action needs to be followed. Besides control of the insect vector, use of antibiotics has temporarily suppressed the symptoms of HLB in diseased trees. Recent efforts to discover and screen existing as well as new compounds for their antibiotic and antimicrobial activities have identified some promising molecules for HLB control. There is an urgent need to find a sustainable solution to the HLB menace through chemical control of ACP populations and within HLB-infected trees through the judicious use of labeled insecticides (existing and novel chemistries) and antibiotics in area-wide management programs with due consideration to the insecticide resistance problem.

  8. Alternatives to Honeybees for Pollinating Clover (Trifolium L.) Germplasm Accessions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our mission is to increase seed of perennial clover (Trifolium L.) species housed in the USDA, ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) germplasm collection. Each season we grow out 100-125 accessions of clover in Prosser, Washington. Historically, honeybees (Apis mellifera L) have been used as po...

  9. Powdery mildew reaction of hop cultivars and USDA germplasm, 2015

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This research was conducted to identify possible sources of resistance to the disease powdery mildew in publicly-available hop germplasm and cultivars. Germplasm with the highest levels of downy mildew resistance in the USDA collection and various cultivars of interest were screened for their reac...

  10. Tapping the US sweet sorghum collection to identify biofuel germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The narrow genetic base in sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] breeding programs is limiting the development of new varieties for biofuel production. Therefore, the identification of genetically diverse sweet sorghum germplasm in the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) collection is...

  11. Notice of release of Turkey Lake germplasm of bottlebrush squirreltail

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Turkey Lake Germplasm of bottlebrush squirreltail (Elymus elymoides ssp. californicus) was released by USDA-Agricultural Research Service in 2015 as a selected class of pre-variety germplasm (natural track). This new plant material originates in Gooding County in southern Idaho's Snake River Plain....

  12. Notice of release of Fowler germplasm green needlegrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fowler Germplasm is a new pre-variety germplasm release of green needlegrass developed by artificial selection from five local populations collected in southern Alberta. Selection emphasis was placed on seed yield and germinability. This plant material is expected to be used for restoration and wi...

  13. In vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of eugenol, limonene, and citrus extract against bacteria and yeasts, representative of the spoiling microflora of fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2010-05-01

    This article reports on the investigation on the bioactivity of eugenol, limonene, and citrus extract against three bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, and Bacillus coagulans) and three yeasts (Saccharomyces bayanus, Pichia membranifaciens, and Rhodotorula bacarum), representing the spoilage microflora of fruit juices. The experiments were performed with laboratory media by using a microdilution method. Data were fitted using the Gompertz equation, and the kinetic parameters were used to evaluate the MIC and the dose-dependent effect (at suboptimal doses for each essential oil). Citrus extract was the most effective essential oil, and the results suggested the following susceptibility hierarchy, from the most sensitive microorganism to the most resistant one (values in parentheses represent MICs): S. bayanus (2 ppm) > R. bacarum (3 ppm) > P. membranifaciens (5 ppm) > B. coagulans (cells, 20 ppm) > L. brevis (40 ppm) > L. plantarum (>40 ppm).

  14. Modeling huanglongbing transmission within a citrus tree

    PubMed Central

    Chiyaka, Christinah; Singer, Burton H.; Halbert, Susan E.; Morris, J. Glenn; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.

    2012-01-01

    The citrus disease huanglongbing (HLB), associated with an uncultured bacterial pathogen, is threatening the citrus industry worldwide. A mathematical model of the transmission of HLB between its psyllid vector and citrus host has been developed to characterize the dynamics of the vector and disease development, focusing on the spread of the pathogen from flush to flush (a newly developing cluster of very young leaves on the expanding terminal end of a shoot) within a tree. This approach differs from that of prior models for vector-transmitted plant diseases where the entire plant is the unit of analysis. Dynamics of vector and host populations are simulated realistically as the flush population approaches complete infection. Model analysis indicates that vector activity is essential for initial infection but is not necessary for continued infection because infection can occur from flush to flush through internal movement in the tree. Flush production, within-tree spread, and latent period are the most important parameters influencing HLB development. The model shows that the effect of spraying of psyllids depends on time of initial spraying, frequency, and efficacy of the insecticides. Similarly, effects of removal of symptomatic flush depend on the frequency of removal and the time of initiation of this practice since the start of the epidemic. Within-tree resistance to spread, possibly affected by inherent or induced resistance, is a major factor affecting epidemic development, supporting the notion that alternate routes of transmission besides that by the vector can be important for epidemic development. PMID:22783015

  15. Modeling huanglongbing transmission within a citrus tree.

    PubMed

    Chiyaka, Christinah; Singer, Burton H; Halbert, Susan E; Morris, J Glenn; van Bruggen, Ariena H C

    2012-07-24

    The citrus disease huanglongbing (HLB), associated with an uncultured bacterial pathogen, is threatening the citrus industry worldwide. A mathematical model of the transmission of HLB between its psyllid vector and citrus host has been developed to characterize the dynamics of the vector and disease development, focusing on the spread of the pathogen from flush to flush (a newly developing cluster of very young leaves on the expanding terminal end of a shoot) within a tree. This approach differs from that of prior models for vector-transmitted plant diseases where the entire plant is the unit of analysis. Dynamics of vector and host populations are simulated realistically as the flush population approaches complete infection. Model analysis indicates that vector activity is essential for initial infection but is not necessary for continued infection because infection can occur from flush to flush through internal movement in the tree. Flush production, within-tree spread, and latent period are the most important parameters influencing HLB development. The model shows that the effect of spraying of psyllids depends on time of initial spraying, frequency, and efficacy of the insecticides. Similarly, effects of removal of symptomatic flush depend on the frequency of removal and the time of initiation of this practice since the start of the epidemic. Within-tree resistance to spread, possibly affected by inherent or induced resistance, is a major factor affecting epidemic development, supporting the notion that alternate routes of transmission besides that by the vector can be important for epidemic development.

  16. Chemical Diversity in Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown Germplasm.

    PubMed

    Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Camêlo, Lídia Cristina Alves; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; Pinheiro, José Baldin; Andrade, Thiago Matos; Niculau, Edenilson dos Santos; Alves, Péricles Barreto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform chemical characterization of Lippia alba accessions from the Active Germplasm Bank of the Federal University of Sergipe. A randomized block experimental design with two replications was applied. The analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oils was conducted using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The chemical composition of the essential oils allowed the accessions to be allocated to the following six groups: group 1: linalool, 1,8-cineole, and caryophyllene oxide; group 2: linalool, geranial, neral, 1,8-cineol, and caryophyllene oxide; group 3: limonene, carvone, and sabinene; group 4: carvone, limonene, g-muurolene, and myrcene; group 5: neral, geranial, and caryophyllene oxide; and group 6: geranial, neral, o-cymene, limonene, and caryophyllene oxide.

  17. Chemical Diversity in Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Camêlo, Lídia Cristina Alves; Pinheiro, José Baldin; Andrade, Thiago Matos; Alves, Péricles Barreto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform chemical characterization of Lippia alba accessions from the Active Germplasm Bank of the Federal University of Sergipe. A randomized block experimental design with two replications was applied. The analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oils was conducted using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The chemical composition of the essential oils allowed the accessions to be allocated to the following six groups: group 1: linalool, 1,8-cineole, and caryophyllene oxide; group 2: linalool, geranial, neral, 1,8-cineol, and caryophyllene oxide; group 3: limonene, carvone, and sabinene; group 4: carvone, limonene, g-muurolene, and myrcene; group 5: neral, geranial, and caryophyllene oxide; and group 6: geranial, neral, o-cymene, limonene, and caryophyllene oxide. PMID:26075292

  18. Manipulating corn germplasm to increase recombinant protein accumulation.

    PubMed

    Hood, Elizabeth E; Devaiah, Shivakumar P; Fake, Gina; Egelkrout, Erin; Teoh, Keat Thomas; Requesens, Deborah Vicuna; Hayden, Celine; Hood, Kendall R; Pappu, Kameshwari M; Carroll, Jennifer; Howard, John A

    2012-01-01

    Using plants as biofactories for industrial enzymes is a developing technology. The application of this technology to plant biomass conversion for biofuels and biobased products has potential for significantly lowering the cost of these products because of lower enzyme production costs. However, the concentration of the enzymes in plant tissue must be high to realize this goal. We describe the enhancement of the accumulation of cellulases in transgenic maize seed as a part of the process to lower the cost of these dominant enzymes for the bioconversion process. We have used breeding to move these genes into elite and high oil germplasm to enhance protein accumulation in grain. We have also explored processing of the grain to isolate the germ, which preferentially contains the enzymes, to further enhance recovery of enzyme on a dry weight basis of raw materials. The enzymes are active on microcrystalline cellulose to release glucose and cellobiose.

  19. Microbial inhibitory and radical scavenging activities of cold-pressed terpeneless Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) oil in different dispersing agents.

    PubMed

    Chalova, Vesela I; Crandall, Philip G; Ricke, Steven C

    2010-04-15

    Due to their low solubility in water, oil-based bioactive compounds require dispersion in a surface-active agent or appropriate solvents to ensure maximum contact with microorganisms. These combinations, however, may change their physical and/or chemical characteristics and consequently alter the desired functionality. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of selected dispersing agents, ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and Tween-80, on cold-pressed terpeneless (CPT) Valencia orange oil to function as a free radical scavenger and an antimicrobial food additive. When dissolved in ethanol or DMSO, the orange oil fraction had similar minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19 115 (0.3% and 0.25% v/v respectively), which were significantly lower (P activities against any of the test bacteria. However, the 1% natural orange oil dispersed in Tween-80 exhibited 56.86% 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical inhibition versus 18.37% and 16.60% when the same level of orange oil was dissolved in DMSO or ethanol, respectively. At the same orange oil concentration, the oil/Tween-80 suspension yielded 57.92% neutralization of hydroxyl radicals. This represents 71.37% of the mannitol antioxidant activity, which was used as a positive control. These findings suggest that Tween-80 is an appropriate dispersing agent only if the antioxidant functionality is desired. If both antimicrobial and antioxidant properties are needed, the CPT Valencia orange oil should be dispersed in either DMSO or ethanol. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Citric acid compounds of tangerines peel extract (Citrus reticulata) as potential materials teeth whitening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratiwi, F.; Tinata, J. K.; Prakasa, A. W.; Istiqomah; Hartini, E.; Isworo, S.

    2017-04-01

    Peel of citrus fruit (Citrus reticulata) has a variety of possible chemical compounds that may serve as a potential whitening teeth. This research is conducted on a laboratory scale; therefore, it needs to be developed on an application scale. A quasi-experimental was employed in this study. Citric acid extraction was carried out on the type of Sweet Orange (Citrus Aurantium L), Tangerine (Citrus Reticulata Blanco or Citrus Nobilis), Pomelo (Citrus Maxima Merr, Citrus grandis Osbeck), and Lemon (Citrus Limon Linn). Citric acid’s ability test as teeth whitener was performed on premolar teeth with concentrations of 2.5%, 5%, and 10%. The experiments were replicated in 3 times, and teeth whiteness level was measured using Shade Guide VITA Classical. The result of this research showed that citric acid in every kind of orange peel with various concentration has different abilities on whitening teeth. The highest colour level obtained from Tangerine peel’s citric acid concentration of 5%. Orange peel extract has the best teeth whitening abilities tested by the method of Gass Chromatography to know the active ingredients.

  1. Chemical constituents from the peels of Citrus sudachi.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Takaishi, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Naonobu; Tsuchiya, Koichiro; Shibata, Hirofumi; Higuti, Tomihiko

    2006-08-01

    A methanol extract of the peels of Citrus sudachi gave five new compounds (1-5) and 27 known compounds. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Several of these compounds were assayed for antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Helicobacter pylori, and sudachitin (6) and 3'-demethoxysudachitin (7) were the most active.

  2. Variability in CitXET expression and XET activity in Citrus cultivar Huangguogan seedlings with differed degrees of etiolation.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Bo; Gu, Xianjie; Qiu, Xia; Dong, Zhixiang; Ye, Shuang; Sun, Guochao; Huang, Shengjia; Liu, Xinya; Xi, Lijuan; Wang, Zhihui

    2017-01-01

    Considering the known effects of xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET) on plant growth and development, we aimed to determine whether XETs help to regulate the growth and elongation of Huangguogan shoots and roots. We confirmed a possible role for XET during seedling etiolation. Our results revealed that the roots of etiolated seedlings (H-E) were longer than those of green seedlings (H-G). However, shoot length exhibited the opposite pattern. We also observed positive and negative effects on the xyloglucan-degrading activity of XET in the root sub-apical region and shoots of etiolated Huangguogan seedling, respectively. There was a significant down-regulation in CitXET expression in the etiolated shoots at 15 days after seed germination. On the contrary, it was significantly increased in the root sub-apical region of etiolated and multicolored seedlings at 15 days after seed germination. The XET coding sequence (i.e., CitXET) was cloned from Huangguogan seedlings using gene-specific primers. The encoded amino acid sequence was predicted by using bioinformatics-based methods. The 990-bp CitXET gene was highly homologous to other XET genes. The CitXET protein was predicted to contain 319 amino acids, with a molecular mass of 37.45 kDa and an isoelectric point of 9.05. The predicted molecular formula was C1724H2548N448O466S14, and the resulting protein included only one transmembrane structure. The CitXET secondary structure consisted of four main structures (i.e., 21% α-helix, 30.72% extended strand, 9.09% β-turn, and 39.18% random coil). Analyses involving the NCBI Conserved Domains Database (NCBI-CDD), InterPro, and ScanProsite revealed that CitXET was a member of the glycosyl hydrolase family 16 (GH16), and included the DEIDFEFLG motif. Our results indicate that the differed degrees of etiolation influenced the CitXET expression pattern and XET activity in Huangguogan seedlings. The differential changes in XET activity and CitXET expression levels in

  3. Exacerbation of citrus canker by citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Citrus canker (caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is an important bacterial disease of citrus that is spread naturally by rain and wind. Damage to citrus leaves by the citrus leafminer (CLM) , Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), has been shown to promote infect...

  4. DNA fingerprinting of jute germplasm by RAPD.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad Belayat; Haque, Samiul; Khan, Haseena

    2002-07-31

    The genotype characteristic of cultivars was investigated, along with varieties of both of the jute species, Corchorus olitorius and Corchorus capsularis, in the germplasm collection at the Bangladesh Jute Research Institute (BJRI). DNA fingerprinting was generated for 9 different varieties and 12 accessions of jute cultivars by using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). A total of 29 arbitrary oligonucleotide primers were screened. Seven primers gave polymorphism within the varieties, and 6 primers detected polymorphism within the accessions that were tested. A dendrogram was engendered from these data, and this gave a distinct clustering of the cultivated species of jute. Therefore, we generated RAPD markers, which are species-specific. These primers can distinguish between C. olitorius and C. capsularis. From the dendrogram that we generated between the various members of these two species, we found the existing genetic classification that agrees with our molecular marking data. A different dendrogram showed that jute accessions could be clustered into three groups. These data will be invaluable in the conservation and utilization of the genetic pool in the germplasm collection.

  5. Genetic diversity in European Pisum germplasm collections.

    PubMed

    Jing, R; Ambrose, M A; Knox, M R; Smykal, P; Hybl, M; Ramos, Á; Caminero, C; Burstin, J; Duc, G; van Soest, L J M; Święcicki, W K; Pereira, M G; Vishnyakova, M; Davenport, G F; Flavell, A J; Ellis, T H N

    2012-07-01

    The distinctness of, and overlap between, pea genotypes held in several Pisum germplasm collections has been used to determine their relatedness and to test previous ideas about the genetic diversity of Pisum. Our characterisation of genetic diversity among 4,538 Pisum accessions held in 7 European Genebanks has identified sources of novel genetic variation, and both reinforces and refines previous interpretations of the overall structure of genetic diversity in Pisum. Molecular marker analysis was based upon the presence/absence of polymorphism of retrotransposon insertions scored by a high-throughput microarray and SSAP approaches. We conclude that the diversity of Pisum constitutes a broad continuum, with graded differentiation into sub-populations which display various degrees of distinctness. The most distinct genetic groups correspond to the named taxa while the cultivars and landraces of Pisum sativum can be divided into two broad types, one of which is strongly enriched for modern cultivars. The addition of germplasm sets from six European Genebanks, chosen to represent high diversity, to a single collection previously studied with these markers resulted in modest additions to the overall diversity observed, suggesting that the great majority of the total genetic diversity collected for the Pisum genus has now been described. Two interesting sources of novel genetic variation have been identified. Finally, we have proposed reference sets of core accessions with a range of sample sizes to represent Pisum diversity for the future study and exploitation by researchers and breeders.

  6. [Study on quantitative assessment of Siraitia grosvenorii germplasms by general index].

    PubMed

    Bai, Long-Hua; Ma, Xiao-Jun; Mo, Chang-Ming; Shi, Lei; Feng, Shi-Xin; Jiang, Xiang-Jun

    2007-12-01

    To establish a weight-marking method and evaluate Siraitia grosvenorii germplasms. The characters of 21 kinds of S. grosvenorii germplasms in the field and the lab were analyzed, seven important characters were selected to weight the marks. A general evaluation index was made and used to evaluate S. grosvenorii germplasms. The evaluation result of 21 kinds of S. grosvenorii germplasms by the weight-marking method was consistent with production practice. Meanwhile, the new variety Yongqing No. 1 and major cultivars were the superior germplasms. A rational technique system of evaluating S. grosvenorii germplasms was established, and the superior germplasms were selected.

  7. Citrus flavonoid, naringenin, increases locomotor activity and reduces diacylglycerol accumulation in skeletal muscle of obese ovariectomized mice

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Jia-Yu; Cole, Rachel M; Hamad, Essam M; Hsiao, Yung-Hsuan; Cotten, Bradley M; Powell, Kimerly A; Belury, Martha A

    2016-01-01

    Scope Estrogen deficiency has been associated with central obesity, muscle loss, and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. This study assessed naringenin accumulation in tissues and investigated the hypothesis that naringenin reverses diet-induced metabolic disturbances in obese ovariectomized mice. Methods and results In study 1, we measured naringenin concentrations in plasma, liver, perigonadal and subcutaneous adipose tissues, and muscle of ovariectomized C57BL/6J female mice after 11 weeks of naringenin supplementation. Naringenin accumulated 5–12 times more in mice fed a 3% naringenin diet than in mice fed a 1% naringenin diet. In study 2, ovariectomized mice were fed a high-fat diet (60 kcal% fat) for 11 weeks and half of the mice were then supplemented with 3% naringenin for another 11 weeks. Dietary naringenin suppressed weight gain, lowered hyperglycemia, and decreased intra-abdominal adiposity evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. Naringenin-fed mice exhibited elevated locomotor activity monitored by infrared beam breaks, maintained muscle mass, and reduced muscle diacylglycerol content. Real-time PCR analysis in muscle revealed decreased mRNA level for genes involved in de novo lipogenesis, lipolysis, and triglyceride synthesis/storage. Conclusions Long-term 3% naringenin supplementation resulted in significant naringenin accumulation in plasma and tissues, associated with attenuated metabolic dysregulation and muscle loss in obese ovariectomized mice. PMID:26573879

  8. Nobiletin, a citrus flavonoid, activates vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein in human platelets through non-cyclic nucleotide-related mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Lin, Kao-Chang; Lu, Wan-Jung; Lin, Chia-Ying; Pitchairaj, Geraldine; Li, Jiun-Yi; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2017-01-01

    Nobiletin, a bioactive polymethoxylated flavone, has been described to possess a diversity of biological effects through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) is a common substrate for cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP-regulated protein kinases [i.e., cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA; also known as protein kinase A) and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG; also known as protein kinase G)] and it has been shown to be directly phosphorylated by protein kinase C (PKC). In the present study, we demonstrate that VASP is phosphorylated by nobiletin in human platelets via a non-cyclic nucleotide-related mechanism. This was confirmed by the use of inhibitors of adenylate cyclase (SQ22536) and guanylate cyclase [1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ)], since they prevented VASP phosphorylation induced by nobiletin. Furthormore, this event was also not affected by specific inhibitors of PKA (H-89), PKG (KT5823) and PKC (Ro318220), representing cyclic nucleotide-dependent pathways upon nobiletin-induced VASP phosphorylation. Similarly, inhibitors of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK; SB203580), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2; PD98059), c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1; SP600125), Akt (LY294002) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB; Bay11-7082) did not affect nobiletin‑induced VASP phosphorylation. Moreover, electron spin resonance, dichlorofluorescein fluorescence and western blotting techniques revealed that nobiletin did not affect hydroxyl radicals (OH•), intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and on protein carbonylation, respectively. Furthermore, the nobiletin‑induced VASP phosphorylation was surprisingly reversed by the intracellular antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), but not by the inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI). It was surprising to observe the differential effects of nobiletin and NAC on VASP

  9. Nobiletin, a citrus flavonoid, activates vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein in human platelets through non-cyclic nucleotide-related mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Lin, Kao-Chang; Lu, Wan-Jung; Lin, Chia-Ying; Pitchairaj, Geraldine; Li, Jiun-Yi; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2017-01-01

    Nobiletin, a bioactive polymethoxylated flavone, has been described to possess a diversity of biological effects through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) is a common substrate for cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP-regulated protein kinases [i.e., cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA; also known as protein kinase A) and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG; also known as protein kinase G)] and it has been shown to be directly phosphorylated by protein kinase C (PKC). In the present study, we demonstrate that VASP is phosphorylated by nobiletin in human platelets via a non-cyclic nucleotide-related mechanism. This was confirmed by the use of inhibitors of adenylate cyclase (SQ22536) and guanylate cyclase [1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ)], since they prevented VASP phosphorylation induced by nobiletin. Furthormore, this event was also not affected by specific inhibitors of PKA (H-89), PKG (KT5823) and PKC (Ro318220), representing cyclic nucleotide-dependent pathways upon nobiletin-induced VASP phosphorylation. Similarly, inhibitors of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK; SB203580), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2; PD98059), c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1; SP600125), Akt (LY294002) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB; Bay11-7082) did not affect nobiletin-induced VASP phosphorylation. Moreover, electron spin resonance, dichlorofluorescein fluorescence and western blotting techniques revealed that nobiletin did not affect hydroxyl radicals (OH•), intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and on protein carbonylation, respectively. Furthermore, the nobiletin-induced VASP phosphorylation was surprisingly reversed by the intracellular antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), but not by the inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI). It was surprising to observe the differential effects of nobiletin and NAC on VASP phosphorylation in human platelets, since

  10. Citrus Grove Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Citrus growers have long used aerial photography to inventory the number of groves in production. A new development at Kennedy Space Center, aerial mapping of groves with color infrared (CIR) film, affords an important advance in grove management by detecting and locating unhealthy trees long before they could be detected by ground survey methods. Aerial CIR photography picks up light reflected from foliage-- light not visible to the human eye--and enables differentiation between healthy and "stressed" (diseased) trees of a Florida orange/grapefruit grove. Computer aided photo interpretation techniques permit grading diseased trees lightly, moderately or severely stressed or dead. Method of grove mapping has offered advantage to growers in early disease warning, possible savings through water regulation and provision of a permanent record of grove growth patterns.

  11. Control of virus diseases of citrus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    Citrus is thought to have originated in Southeast Asia and horticulturally desirable clonal selections have been clonally cultivated for hundreds of years. While some citrus species have nucellar embryony, most cultivation of citrus has been by clonal propagation to ensure that propagated plants have the same traits as the parent selection. Clonal propagation also avoids juvenility, and the propagated plants produce fruit sooner. Because of the clonal propagation of citrus, citrus has accumulated a large number of viruses; many of these viruses are asymptomatic until a susceptible rootstock and/or scion is encountered. The viruses reported to occur in citrus will be summarized in this review. Methods of therapy to clean selected clones from viruses will be reviewed; the use of quarantine, clean stock, and certification programs for control of citrus viruses and other strategies to control insect spread citrus viruses, such as mild strain cross-protection and the use of pest management areas will be discussed.

  12. False-positive results with amylase testing of citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Ugo; Carboni, Ilaria; Torricelli, Francesca

    2014-09-01

    In a case of robbery in which the criminals passed through the garden adorned with calamondin trees (Citrus madurensis), the investigators found in the grass six calamondin fruits, some undamaged, while others apparently bitten. The fruits were collected and sent to the laboratory for DNA analysis to verify the presence of saliva and robbers' DNA profile. A specific immunochromatographic strip test for saliva confirmed the presence of human salivary α-amylase, but similar positive results were also observed for intact calamondin and other citrus fruits. Further analysis with a specific automated amylase test confirmed the absence of amylase activity. DNA quantification and typing using a specific forensic kit revealed no human DNA presence in any fruits. This case report demonstrates for the first time the occurrence of false positives when human saliva is sought on citrus fruits. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Overexpression of citrus polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein in citrus black rot pathogen Alternaria citri.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Nalumpang, Sarunya; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Akimitsu, Kazuya

    2007-05-01

    The rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri) gene encoding polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (RlemPGIPA) was overexpressed in the pathogenic fungus Alternaria citri. The overexpression mutant AcOPI6 retained the ability to utilize pectin as a sole carbon source, and the overexpression of polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein did not have any effect on the growth of AcOPI6 in potato dextrose and pectin medium. The pathogenicity of AcOPI6 to cause a black rot symptom in citrus fruits was also unchanged. Polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein was secreted together with endopolygalacturonase into culture filtrates of AcOPI6, and oligogalacturonides were digested from polygalacturonic acid by both proteins in the culture filtrates. The reaction mixture containing oligogalacturonides possessed activity for induction of defense-related gene, RlemLOX, in rough lemon leaves.

  14. Overexpression of a citrus NDR1 ortholog increases disease resistance in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hua; Zhang, Chong; Albrecht, Ute; Shimizu, Rena; Wang, Guanfeng; Bowman, Kim D.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging devastating diseases, such as Huanglongbing (HLB) and citrus canker, have caused tremendous losses to the citrus industry worldwide. Genetic engineering is a powerful approach that could allow us to increase citrus resistance against these diseases. The key to the success of this approach relies on a thorough understanding of defense mechanisms of citrus. Studies of Arabidopsis and other plants have provided a framework for us to better understand defense mechanisms of citrus. Salicylic acid (SA) is a key signaling molecule involved in basal defense and resistance (R) gene-mediated defense against broad-spectrum pathogens. The Arabidopsis gene NDR1 (NON-RACE-SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE 1) is a positive regulator of SA accumulation and is specifically required for signaling mediated by a subset of R genes upon recognition of their cognate pathogen effectors. Our bioinformatic analysis identified an ortholog of NDR1 from citrus, CsNDR1. Overexpression of CsNDR1 complemented susceptibility conferred by the Arabidopsis ndr1-1 mutant to Pseudomonas syringae strains and also led to enhanced resistance to an oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Such heightened resistance is associated with increased SA production and expression of the defense marker gene PATHOGENESIS RELATED 1 (PR1). In addition, we found that expression of PR1 and accumulation of SA were induced to modest levels in citrus infected with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the bacterial pathogen associated with HLB disease. Thus, our data suggest that CsNDR1 is a functional ortholog of Arabidopsis NDR1. Since Ca. L. asiaticus infection only activates modest levels of defense responses in citrus, we propose that genetically increasing SA/NDR1-mediated pathways could potentially lead to enhanced resistance against HLB, citrus canker, and other destructive diseases challenging global citrus production. PMID:23761797

  15. Overexpression of a citrus NDR1 ortholog increases disease resistance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hua; Zhang, Chong; Albrecht, Ute; Shimizu, Rena; Wang, Guanfeng; Bowman, Kim D

    2013-01-01

    Emerging devastating diseases, such as Huanglongbing (HLB) and citrus canker, have caused tremendous losses to the citrus industry worldwide. Genetic engineering is a powerful approach that could allow us to increase citrus resistance against these diseases. The key to the success of this approach relies on a thorough understanding of defense mechanisms of citrus. Studies of Arabidopsis and other plants have provided a framework for us to better understand defense mechanisms of citrus. Salicylic acid (SA) is a key signaling molecule involved in basal defense and resistance (R) gene-mediated defense against broad-spectrum pathogens. The Arabidopsis gene NDR1 (NON-RACE-SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE 1) is a positive regulator of SA accumulation and is specifically required for signaling mediated by a subset of R genes upon recognition of their cognate pathogen effectors. Our bioinformatic analysis identified an ortholog of NDR1 from citrus, CsNDR1. Overexpression of CsNDR1 complemented susceptibility conferred by the Arabidopsis ndr1-1 mutant to Pseudomonas syringae strains and also led to enhanced resistance to an oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Such heightened resistance is associated with increased SA production and expression of the defense marker gene PATHOGENESIS RELATED 1 (PR1). In addition, we found that expression of PR1 and accumulation of SA were induced to modest levels in citrus infected with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the bacterial pathogen associated with HLB disease. Thus, our data suggest that CsNDR1 is a functional ortholog of Arabidopsis NDR1. Since Ca. L. asiaticus infection only activates modest levels of defense responses in citrus, we propose that genetically increasing SA/NDR1-mediated pathways could potentially lead to enhanced resistance against HLB, citrus canker, and other destructive diseases challenging global citrus production.

  16. Citrus tristeza virus-host interactions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or s...

  17. Citrus tristeza virus-aphid interactions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A review chapter on aphid transmission of Citrus tristeza virus is provided for a book on “Vector-Mediated Transmission of Plant Pathogens”. Earliest uses of citrus goes back over two millennia as items of trade, gifts and medicinal compounds. Citrus propagation during this period was by seed and si...

  18. Weeping dragon, a unique ornamenal citrus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Weeping Dragon’ is a new ornamental citrus cultivar developed by intercrossing of two unusual and unique citrus types, Poncirus trifoliata cultivated variety (cv.) Flying Dragon, and Citrus sinensis cv. ‘Cipo’. This new hybrid cultivar combines strongly contorted and weeping growth traits in a smal...

  19. Citrus Limonoids: Analysis, Bioactivity, and Biomedical Prospects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This publication is a review of the chemistry, biochemistry and bioactivity of limonoids occurring in citrus. The review chronologically relates the evolution of research in citrus limonoids beginning with their association with bitterness development in citrus juices. The chemical and biochemical...

  20. Inhibition of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein expression and apolipoprotein B100 secretion by the citrus flavonoid naringenin and by insulin involves activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Allister, Emma M; Borradaile, Nica M; Edwards, Jane Y; Huff, Murray W

    2005-06-01

    Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is necessary for hepatocyte assembly and secretion of apolipoprotein (apo)B100-containing lipoproteins. The citrus flavonoid naringenin, like insulin, decreased MTP expression in HepG2 cells, resulting in inhibition of apoB100 secretion; however, the mechanism for naringenin is independent of insulin receptor substrate-1/2. Recently, it was reported that insulin decreased MTP expression in HepG2 cells via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) (MAPK(erk)) pathway. We hypothesized that naringenin acts via a similar mechanism. Inhibition of MAPK kinase (MEK) 1/2 in HepG2 cells significantly attenuated the naringenin- and insulin-induced reduction in MTP expression. Both naringenin and insulin increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation, which was completely inhibited by MEK1/2 inhibition and enhanced by inhibition of MAPK(p38), a negative regulator of MAPK(erk) activity. Inhibition of MEK1/2 significantly attenuated both the naringenin- and insulin-induced decrease in apoB100 secretion demonstrating a direct link between MAPK(erk) activation and apoB100 secretion. Furthermore, both compounds increased MAPK(p38) activation, and therefore inhibition of MAPK(p38) amplified thenaringenin- and insulin-induced decrease in apoB100 secretion. We conclude that MAPK(erk) signaling in hepatocytes is critical for inhibition of apoB100 secretion by naringenin and insulin. Therefore, naringenin may prove useful for activating insulin-signaling pathways important for regulation of hepatocyte lipid homeostasis.

  1. Fast Separation and Sensitive Quantitation of Polymethoxylated Flavonoids in the Peels of Citrus Using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Xing, Tian Tian; Zhao, Xi Juan; Zhang, Yi Dan; Li, Yuan Fang

    2017-03-29

    A rapid, sensitive, and efficient ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) method has been developed to analyze polymethoxylated flavonoids (PMFs) in 14 Citrus peels, including 7 Citrus reticulata (C. reticulata) and 7 Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis). In this study, fast separation can be achieved within 12 min and 42 PMFs have been identified including 33 flavones and 9 flavanones. Most C. reticulata were shown to contain more than 20 PMFs, except Guangxihongpisuanju (GX) containing only 12 PMFs, while most C. sinensis contained fewer than 20 PMFs, except Edangan (EG) containing as many as 32 PMFs. To our knowledge, there are few reports about the quantitation of PMFs using the MS response. Here, a MS quantitative method was established and systematically validated in linearity, precision, and recovery. The linearity was from 1.25 ng/mL to 1.0 μg/mL with the limit of detection (LOD) as low as 75 pg/mL and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) as low as 0.25 ng/mL. Up to 13 PMFs, more types than ever before, were undoubtedly identified and quantitated according to the PMF standards. The results showed that the contents of PMFs in the C. reticulata were generally higher than those in the C. sinensis. This study is systematic for analyzing PMFs and is of great significance because it can provide guidance on utilization of both PMFs and citrus germplasm resources in the future.

  2. A graft-based chemotherapy method for screening effective molecules and rescuing huanglongbing-affected citrus plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Muqing; Powell, Charles A; Guo, Ying; Doud, Melissa S; Duan, Yongping

    2012-06-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most devastating disease of citrus. The global citrus industry is in urgent need of effective chemical treatments for HLB control because of its rapid spreading worldwide. Due to the fastidious nature of the pathogens, and the poor permissibility of citrus leaf surfaces, effective screening of chemicals for the HLB control can be challenging. In this study, we developed a graft-based chemotherapy method to rapidly screen potential HLB-controlling chemical compounds. In addition, we improved transmission efficiency by using the best HLB-affected scion-rootstock combination, and demonstrated the HLB bacterial titer was the critical factor in transmission. The HLB-affected lemon scions had a high titer of HLB bacterium, survival rate (83.3%), and pathogen transmission rate (59.9%). Trifoliate, a widely used commercial rootstock, had the highest survival rate (>70.0%) compared with grapefruit (52.6%) and sour orange (50.4%). Using this method, we confirmed a mixture of penicillin and streptomycin was the most effective compounds in eliminating the HLB bacterium from the HLB-affected scions, and in successfully rescuing severely HLB-affected citrus germplasms. These findings are useful not only for chemical treatments but also for graft-based transmission studies in HLB and other Liberibacter diseases.

  3. Genetic and chemical diversity of citron (Citrus medica L.) based on nuclear and cytoplasmic markers and leaf essential oil composition.

    PubMed

    Luro, François; Venturini, Nicolas; Costantino, Gilles; Paolini, Julien; Ollitrault, Patrick; Costa, Jean

    2012-05-01

    Native to southeast Asia, the citron (Citrus medica L.) was the first citrus fruit to be introduced to the Mediterranean area, in the third century BC, and remained its only citrus representative until the tenth century. The citron was used for its aroma - stemming from its essential oils in leaves and fruit peels - and as symbols in the Jewish religion. Subsequently, the cultivation of citron was extended significantly, peaking in the nineteenth century, when its fruits were used in cosmetics and confectioneries. The objective of this study was to examine the genetic diversity of the Mediterranean citron with regard to the multiplication and dissemination practices that were related to its uses. We studied the polymorphisms of 27 nuclear and cytoplasmic genetic markers of 24 citron varieties, preserved in the citrus germplasm of INRA-CIRAD, San Giuliano, France. The composition of leaf essential oils was determined to establish varieties and phylogenic relationships between accessions. Other major citrus species were included in the molecular analysis, which demonstrated the existence of 13 genetically linked citrons, differing from other citrus species, based on low heterozygosity and specific alleles; these citrons were considered true-type citrons, confirmed by their convergent chemical profiles. We also detected a polymorphism in the chloroplastic genome in these 13 citrons, which, when combined with allelic diversity of 2.4 alleles per locus, suggests that multiple citrons were introduced to the Mediterranean area in last 2 millennia. We determined the genetic origin and relationships of several varieties, such as Corsican, which could have arisen from the selfing of Poncire Commun. We noted a higher-than-expected polymorphism rate among Mediterranean citron varieties, likely due to crossfecundation. The chemical leaf oil composition of several economical varieties, such as Corsican, is distinct and can increase the quality of specific agriculture products

  4. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Citrus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Favela-Hernández, Juan Manuel J; González-Santiago, Omar; Ramírez-Cabrera, Mónica A; Esquivel-Ferriño, Patricia C; Camacho-Corona, María del Rayo

    2016-02-22

    Presently the search for new drugs from natural resources is of growing interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Natural products have been the source of new drugs since ancient times. Plants are a good source of secondary metabolites which have been found to have beneficial properties. The present study is a review of the chemistry and pharmacology of Citrus sinensis. This review reveals the therapeutic potential of C. sinensis as a source of natural compounds with important activities that are beneficial for human health that could be used to develop new drugs.

  5. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Citrus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Favela-Hernández, Juan Manuel J; González-Santiago, Omar; Ramírez-Cabrera, Mónica A; Esquivel-Ferriño, Patricia C; Camacho-Corona, María del Rayo

    2016-02-22

    Presently the search for new drugs from natural resources is of growing interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Natural products have been the source of new drugs since ancient times. Plants are a good source of secondary metabolites which have been found to have beneficial properties. The present study is a review of the chemistry and pharmacology of Citrus sinensis. This review reveals the therapeutic potential of C. sinensis as a source of natural compounds with important activities that are beneficial for human health that could be used to develop new drugs.

  6. Network Analysis of Postharvest Senescence Process in Citrus Fruits Revealed by Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Profiling1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yuduan; Chang, Jiwei; Ma, Qiaoli; Chen, Lingling; Liu, Shuzhen; Jin, Shuai; Han, Jingwen; Xu, Rangwei; Zhu, Andan; Guo, Jing; Luo, Yi; Xu, Juan; Xu, Qiang; Zeng, YunLiu; Deng, Xiuxin

    2015-01-01

    Citrus (Citrus spp.), a nonclimacteric fruit, is one of the most important fruit crops in global fruit industry. However, the biological behavior of citrus fruit ripening and postharvest senescence remains unclear. To better understand the senescence process of citrus fruit, we analyzed data sets from commercial microarrays, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and validated physiological quality detection of four main varieties in the genus Citrus. Network-based approaches of data mining and modeling were used to investigate complex molecular processes in citrus. The Citrus Metabolic Pathway Network and correlation networks were constructed to explore the modules and relationships of the functional genes/metabolites. We found that the different flesh-rind transport of nutrients and water due to the anatomic structural differences among citrus varieties might be an important factor that influences fruit senescence behavior. We then modeled and verified the citrus senescence process. As fruit rind is exposed directly to the environment, which results in energy expenditure in response to biotic and abiotic stresses, nutrients are exported from flesh to rind to maintain the activity of the whole fruit. The depletion of internal substances causes abiotic stresses, which further induces phytohormone reactions, transcription factor regulation, and a series of physiological and biochemical reactions. PMID:25802366

  7. New acridone from the wood of Citrus reticulata Blanco.

    PubMed

    Phetkul, Uraiwan; Wanlaso, Nutthakran; Mahabusarakam, Wilawan; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Carroll, Anthony R

    2013-10-01

    A new acridone, named citruscridone (1) together with five known compounds were isolated from the wood of Citrus reticulata Blanco. Their structures were established based on spectroscopic evidence. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the wood extracts and pure compounds were evaluated.

  8. HPLC-PDA-MS and NMR characterization of a hydroalcoholic extract of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara peel with antiedematogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Mencherini, Teresa; Campone, Luca; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Mesa, Milagros García; Sánchez, Dulce María; Aquino, Rita Patrizia; Rastrelli, Luca

    2013-02-27

    The phytochemical profile of a hydroalcoholic extract of Citrus aurantium var. amara L. peel, used as herbal medicine, was characterized by HPLC-PDA-MS. Two di-C-glycosyl flavones (vincenin II and diosmetin 6,8-di-C-glucoside), a series of flavones (luteolin 7-O-neohesperidoside, rhoifolin, and neodiosmin), and flavanone (neoeriocitrin, naringin, and neohesperidin) 7-O-neohesperidosides and two methoxyflavones (nobiletin and tangeretin), commonly present in Citrus, were identified. Furthermore, brutieridin and melitidin, two 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl flavanone glycosides, were also characterized along with rhoifolin 4'-glucoside and three coumarins (8,3'-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy-2'-hydroxy-3'-methylbutyl-7-methoxycoumarin, merazin hydrate, and isomerazin). A preparative isolation procedure followed by NMR spectroscopy confirmed the proposed structures of the major flavonoids and identified the coumarins. The phenolic content was found to be 14.8 mg mL(-1), and naringin and neohesperidin were the compounds present in the highest concentration (3.6 and 2.6 mg mL(-1)). The extract of C. aurantium peel inhibited significantly (p < 0.05) both histamine- and dextran-induced edema in rats in a concentration-dependent manner (IC(50) = 119.6 and 118.3 mg kg(-1), respectively), providing evidence for the therapeutic use of C. aurantium var. amara peel.

  9. Notice of release of NBR-1 Germplasm basalt milkvetch

    Treesearch

    Douglas A. Johnson; Thomas A. Jones; Kevin J. Connors; Kishor Bhattarai; B. Shaun Bushman; Kevin B. Jensen

    2008-01-01

    A selected-class pre-variety germplasm of basalt milkvetch (Astragalus filipes Torr. ex A. Gray [Fabaceae]) has been released for reclamation, rehabilitation, and restoration of semiarid rangelands in the northern Great Basin Region of the western US.

  10. The World's Crop Plant Germplasm--An Endangered Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkes, Garrison

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the fact that many food plants derive from domesticated rather than natural strains, and that natural germplasm or genetic strains used in the plant-improvement process must be carefully preserved. (MLH)

  11. Juice components and antioxidant capacity of four Tunisian Citrus varieties.

    PubMed

    Tounsi, Moufida Saidani; Wannes, Wissem Aidi; Ouerghemmi, Ines; Jegham, Sabrine; Ben Njima, Yosra; Hamdaoui, Ghaith; Zemni, Hassene; Marzouk, Brahim

    2011-01-15

    Juices from four Citrus species of Tunisia were investigated mainly for quality parameters and antioxidant capacity. Citrus reticulata (mandarin) juice had the highest content of total flavonoids (85.33 mg CE L(-1)). The latter also occurred in high quantity (82.01 mg CE L(-1)) in Citrus lemon (lemon) juice which was also marked by its richness in total aroma (70.16 µg mL(-1)) and in total fatty acids (48.10 µg mL(-1)). Mandarin and lemon juices had the highest antioxidant activity, as determined b the β-carotene bleaching assay (26.67% and 22.67%, respectively). Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) juice was characterised by the highest content of total polyphenols (784.67 mg GAE L(-1)) and by the greatest inhibition of DPPH (96.10%). Citrus sinensis (blood orange) juice was only marked by the high quantity of ascorbic acid (36.90 mg mL(-1)). GC/MS analysis of juice aroma showed the predominance of limonene (48.85-69.59%) in mandarin and in bitter and blood oranges, but of camphene (89.05%) in lemon. GC analysis of juice fatty acids revealed their richness in oleic acid (23.13-39.52%). HPLC analysis of juice phenolics indicated the predominance of phenolic acids (73.13-86.40%). The Citrus species used in this study were considered valuable varieties from the point of view of antioxidant capacity and nutrition. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Genomic characterization of a core set of the USDA-NPGS Ethiopian sorghum germplasm collection: implications for germplasm conservation, evaluation, and utilization in crop improvement

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) preserves the largest sorghum germplasm collection in the world and includes 7,217 accessions from the center of diversity located in Ethiopia. This exotic germplasm has not been characterized on a genome-wide basis to better inform its conservati...

  13. Metabolism of Flavonoids in Novel Banana Germplasm during Fruit Development

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Chen; Hu, Huigang; Hu, Yulin; Xie, Jianghui

    2016-01-01

    Banana is a commercially important fruit, but its flavonoid composition and characteristics has not been well studied in detail. In the present study, the metabolism of flavonoids was investigated in banana pulp during the entire developmental period of fruit. ‘Xiangfen 1,’ a novel flavonoid-rich banana germplasm, was studied with ‘Brazil’ serving as a control. In both varieties, flavonoids were found to exist mainly in free soluble form and quercetin was the predominant flavonoid. The most abundant free soluble flavonoid was cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride, and quercetin was the major conjugated soluble and bound flavonoid. Higher content of soluble flavonoids was associated with stronger antioxidant activity compared with the bound flavonoids. Strong correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride content, suggesting that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride is one of the major antioxidants in banana. In addition, compared with ‘Brazil,’ ‘Xiangfen 1’ fruit exhibited higher antioxidant activity and had more total flavonoids. These results indicate that soluble flavonoids play a key role in the antioxidant activity of banana, and ‘Xiangfen 1’ banana can be a rich source of natural antioxidants in human diets. PMID:27625665

  14. Methods for acquisition, storage, and evaluation of leguminous tree germplasm

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, P.

    1980-01-01

    Simple methods for establishing, maintaining, and planting of a small scale tree legume (Prosopis) germplasm collection by one or two people are described. Suggestions are included for: developing an understanding of the worldwide distribution of genus; becoming acquainted with basic and applied scientists working on the taxa; devising seed cleaning, fumigation, cataloging, and storage techniques; requesting seed from international seed collections; collecting seed from native populations; and for field designs for planting the germplasm collection.

  15. Structural characterization of the thermally-tolerant pectin methylesterase purified from Citrus sinensis fruit and its gene sequence

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite the longstanding importance for the thermally-tolerant pectin methylesterase (TT-PME) activity in citrus juice processing and product quality, unequivocal identification of the protein and its corresponding gene has remained elusive. We purified TT-PME from sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.)...

  16. Spectral sensitivity of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Asian Citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, as a vector of the bacteria causing citrus greening, is considered one of the most important citrus pests globally. Movement of infected psyllids onto uninfected young citrus remains a key concern for the maintenance of citrus production. Attraction of d...

  17. Determination of catechin content in representative Chinese tea germplasms.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ji-Qiang; Ma, Jian-Qiang; Ma, Chun-Lei; Yao, Ming-Zhe; Chen, Liang

    2014-10-01

    To understand tea germplasms better and to use them effectively for production and breeding, the catechin content of 403 accessions of representative tea germplasms collected from various locations in China were studied using HPLC. The catechin content of these tea germplasms varied from 56.6 to 231.9 mg/g and averaged 154.5 ± 18.1 mg/g. One germplasm with low total catechin (TC) content (<60 mg/g) and three with high TC (>200 mg/g) contents were found. Averages of the TC content of the three varieties of Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze, namely, sinensis, assamica, and pubilimba, were 152.9 ± 16.2 mg/g, 162.8 ± 22.3 mg/g, and 165.1 ± 21.3 mg/g, respectively. The TC content of the sinensis variety was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that of the other two varieties. The assamica variety had the highest levels of (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), and (-)-epicatechin (EC), whereas the pubilimba variety had the highest levels of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (+)-gallocatechin (GC), (+)-catechin (C), and (-)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG). Factor analysis indicated that GC, C, GCG, catechin index, and ECG greatly influenced the classification. The TC content of germplasms collected from the various provinces showed significant differences (P < 0.05). Tea germplasms of the southern provinces had higher degrees of variation in TC.

  18. Assessment of the genetic variability amongst mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) accessions in Bhutan using AFLP markers.

    PubMed

    Dorji, Kinley; Yapwattanaphun, Chinawat

    2015-04-18

    Bhutan is a small Himalayan country lying within the region considered to be the origin of citrus. Diverse citrus wild types grow naturally in different climates, elevations and edaphic conditions, but only mandarin is cultivated commercially. The first report of Huanglongbing (also known as greening disease) in Bhutan in 2003, and the threat it posed to the country's citrus orchards prompted the collection of mandarin germplasm from across the country. This paper describes the genetic diversity of mandarin accessions in Bhutan using amplified fragment length polymorphic (AFLP) markers. Twenty three accessions of Bhutanese mandarin were analyzed using AFLP markers to assess the genetic variability that is believed to exist only in Bhutan and some parts of North East India and South China. Five primer pairs (E-ACA/M-CAG, E-ACG/M-CAT, E-ACC/M-CTT, E-AAG/M-CAA and E-ACA/M-CTC) were identified (based on the number and quality of polymorphic bands produced) and used for the analyses. A total of 244 bands were scored visually of which 126 (52%) were polymorphic with an average polymorphism information content of 0.95 per marker. A cluster dendrogram based on multiscale bootstrap sampling categorized twenty three accessions into two broad groups containing eight and 14 accessions, respectively. Group A consisted accessions (Tsirang1, Tsirang3, Sarpang1, Dagana4, Samtse4, Dagana1, and Trongsa2) from five districts (Tsirang, Sarpang, Samtse, Dagana and Trongsa) and their grouping was strongly supported by bootstrap analysis (B p-value = 96%, AU p-value = 86%). Cluster B consisted of 14 accessions divided into three sub-groups (1, 2 and 3). However, bootstrap value supported significantly for subgroup1 (containing accessions: Tsirang4, Sarpang5, and Tsirang2) and subgroup3 (with accessions - Zhemgang2, Zhemgang3 and Zhemgang4). This study indicates that Bhutanese mandarin germplasm collected from across the country are genetically diverse although the level of variability

  19. Genetic diversity of Lippia sidoides Cham. and L. gracilis Schauer germplasm.

    PubMed

    Santos, C P; Pinheiro, J B; Zucchi, M I; Bajay, M M; Campos, J B; Arrigoni-Blank, M F; Pinto, J A O; Blank, A F

    2016-09-23

    The conservation of plants in germplasm banks ensures the characterization and availability of these resources for future generations. The present study used DNA markers to obtain genetic information about germplasm collections of Lippia sidoides and L. gracilis, which are maintained in an Active Germplasm Bank (AGB). Genetic variability of samples in the AGB was assessed using 12 combinations of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) primers (EcoRI/MseI). Twenty simple sequence repeat primers designed for L. alba were tested to determine their transferability in L. sidoides and L. gracilis. The AFLP markers generated 789 markers. The assessed loci exhibited a moderate Shannon diversity index (I = 0.42) in both species, suggesting that the conserved accessions possess an intermediate level of genetic diversity. Twelve microsatellite loci amplified satisfactorily, and nine loci were polymorphic in each species. A total of 23, 22, and 36 alleles, with an average of 2.5, 2.4, and 3.27 alleles per locus were identified for L. sidoides and L. gracilis accessions in the AGB, and Lippia sp sampled plants, respectively. Analyses of genetic structure permitted the identification of three different groups using both sets of markers, of which two were representative of L. sidoides. The information generated in this study may help to create, expand, and maintain collections of these species and may assist in genetic-breeding programs.

  20. In vitro/in vivo effect of Citrus limon (L. Burm. f.) juice on blood parameters, coagulation and anticoagulation factors in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Azra; Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Mirza, Talat; Mustansir, Tazeen; Ahmed, Mansoor

    2014-07-01

    The genus Citrus of the family Rutaceae includes many species e.g. Citrus indica, Citrus aurantifolia and Citrus limon, among which Citrus limon L. Burm. f. has been reported to have highest antimicrobial activity. It is used as antidote against certain venom, due to its platelet inhibitory effect and also reported to have hypocholesterolemic effect. However its anticoagulant and thrombolytic effect were not been investigated, hence a prospective in-vitro/in-vivo study was designed to determine the effect of Citrus limon on blood parameters, coagulation and anticoagulation factors. In-vitro tests revealed highly significant increase in thrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time by Citrus limon, whereas fibrinogen concentration was significantly reduced in comparison to control, however prothrombin time was not affected significantly. In-vivo testing of Citrus limon was done at three different doses i.e. 0.2ml/kg, 0.4ml/kg and 0.6ml/kg in healthy rabbits. Significant changes were observed in hematological parameters such as erythrocytes, hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. Bleeding time and thrombin time was significantly prolonged and there was increase in protein C and thrombin antithrombin complex levels. These results may be due to inactivation of thrombin because it significantly decreases fibrinogen concentration and inhibit platelet aggregation. Citrus limon showed maximal anticoagulant effect at 0.4ml/kg, which suggest that Citrus limon possesses an anti-thrombin component and could prevent thrombosis playing a cardio protective role.

  1. Citrus Functional Genomics and Molecular Modeling in Relation to Citrus sinensis (Sweet Orange) Infection with Xylella fastidiosa (Citrus Variegated Chlorosis).

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Upendra N; Tiwari, Sameeksha; Prasanna, Pragya; Awasthi, Manika; Singh, Swati; Pandey, Veda P

    2016-08-01

    Citrus are among the economically most important fruit tree crops in the world. Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), caused by Xylella fastidiosa infection, is a serious disease limiting citrus production at a global scale. With availability of citrus genomic resources, it is now possible to compare citrus expressed sequence tag (EST) data sets and identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within and among different citrus cultivars that can be exploited for citrus resistance to infections, citrus breeding, among others. We report here, for the first time, SNPs in the EST data sets of X. fastidiosa-infected Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) and their functional annotation that revealed the involvement of eight C. sinensis candidate genes in CVC pathogenesis. Among these genes were xyloglucan endotransglycosylase, myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase, and peroxidase were found to be involved in plant cell wall metabolism. These have been further investigated by molecular modeling for their role in CVC infection and defense. Molecular docking analyses of the wild and the mutant (SNP containing) types of the selected three enzymes with their respective substrates revealed a significant decrease in the binding affinity of substrates for the mutant enzymes, thus suggesting a decrease in the catalytic efficiency of these enzymes during infection, thereby facilitating a favorable condition for infection by the pathogen. These findings offer novel agrigenomics insights in developing future molecular targets and strategies for citrus fruit cultivation in ways that are resistant to X. fastidiosa infection, and by extension, with greater harvesting efficiency and economic value.

  2. Molecular characterization of Citrus tatter leaf virus historically associated with Meyer lemon trees: complete genome sequence and development of biologically active in vitro transcripts.

    PubMed

    Tatineni, Satyanarayana; Afunian, Mohammad R; Hilf, Mark E; Gowda, Siddarame; Dawson, William O; Garnsey, Stephen M

    2009-04-01

    Citrus tatter leaf virus isolated from Meyer lemon trees (CTLV-ML) from California and Florida induces bud union incompatibility of citrus trees grafted on the widely used trifoliate and trifoliate hybrid rootstocks. The complete genome sequence of CTLV-ML was determined to be 6,495 nucleotides (nts), with two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) and a poly (A) tail at the 3' end. The genome organization is similar to other capilloviruses, with ORF1 (nts 37 to 6,354) encoding a putative 242-kDa polyprotein which contains replication-associated domains plus a coat protein (CP), and ORF2 (nts 4,788 to 5,750), which is located within ORF1 in a different reading frame and encodes a putative movement protein. Although the proteins encoded by CTLV-ML possesses 84 to 96% amino acid sequence identity with strains of Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), we observed two strikingly different regions in ORF1: variable region I (amino acids 532 to 570) and variable region II (amino acids 1,583 to 1,868), with only 15 to 18 and 56 to 62% identities, respectively, with the corresponding regions of ASGV strains. Conditions for a herbaceous systemic assay host were optimized in which the wild-type virus induced systemic infection in Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Light Red Kidney (LRK) bean plants at 19 or 22 degrees C but not at higher temperatures. In vitro transcripts generated from full-length cDNA clones induced systemic symptoms on LRK bean plants similar to that of the wild-type virus. Replication of the recombinant virus was confirmed by hybridization of a 5' positive-stranded RNA-specific probe to a genome-sized RNA and by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction.

  3. Effective Antibiotics against ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ in HLB-Affected Citrus Plants Identified via the Graft-Based Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Charles A.; Doud, Melissa S.; Yang, Chuanyu; Duan, Yongping

    2014-01-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), caused by three species of fastidious, phloem-limited ‘Candidatus Liberibacter’, is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. To date, there is no established cure for this century-old and yet, newly emerging disease. As a potential control strategy for citrus HLB, 31 antibiotics were screened for effectiveness and phytotoxicity using the optimized graft-based screening system with ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las)-infected citrus scions. Actidione and Oxytetracycline were the most phytotoxic to citrus with less than 10% of scions surviving and growing; therefore, this data was not used in additional analyses. Results of principal component (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analyses (HCA) demonstrated that 29 antibiotics were clustered into 3 groups: highly effective, partly effective, and not effective. In spite of different modes of actions, a number of antibiotics such as, Ampicillin, Carbenicillin, Penicillin, Cefalexin, Rifampicin and Sulfadimethoxine were all highly effective in eliminating or suppressing Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus indicated by both the lowest Las infection rate and titers of the treated scions and inoculated rootstock. The non-effective group, including 11 antibiotics alone with three controls, such as Amikacin, Cinoxacin, Gentamicin, Kasugamycin, Lincomycin, Neomycin, Polymixin B and Tobramycin, did not eliminate or suppress Las in the tested concentrations, resulting in plants with increased titers of Las. The other 12 antibiotics partly eliminated or suppressed Las in the treated and graft-inoculated plants. The effective and non-phytotoxic antibiotics could be potential candidates for control of citrus HLB, either for the rescue of infected citrus germplasm or for restricted field application. PMID:25372135

  4. Site Plan & Site Section of Citrus Landscape (Showing Relationship ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Site Plan & Site Section of Citrus Landscape (Showing Relationship of Victoria Avenue to Citrus Groves) - Arlington Heights Citrus Landscape, Southwestern portion of city of Riverside, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  5. Chipping citrus wood for gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, D.B.; Hedden, S.L.; Whitney, J.D.; Shaw, L.N.

    1985-01-01

    Non-productive citrus trees were chipped with a portable fly-wheel-type chipper powered by a 45 kW engine. Chips were air dried under an open shed to 14% (w.b.) moisture content. By weight, approximately 50% of the total tree could be made into usable chips. The root system averaged 36% of the total tree weight.

  6. 7 CFR 301.76-3 - Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus psyllid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....usda.gov/services/report_pest_disease/report_pest_disease.shtml). After a change is made to the... interstate spread of citrus greening or Asian citrus psyllid. (c) Criteria for designation of a State, or a...

  7. Evaluation of citrus fibers as a tablet excipient.

    PubMed

    Cespi, Marco; Bonacucina, Giulia; Roberts, Matthew; Hanson, Samuel; Jones, Stephen; Makevica, Elina; Casettari, Luca; Palmieri, Giovanni Filippo

    2014-04-01

    The consumption of fibers is associated with many health benefits, such as a reduction of cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases, control of body weight, and prevention of diabetes. Despite the widespread use of fiber supplements such as capsules or tablets, there is an almost complete lack of information concerning the technological properties of functional fibers used in nutraceutical formulations. The aim of this work was to characterize the technological properties of citrus fibers necessary for their use as a processing aid in tableting. The results obtained showed that citrus fibers share many properties of other polysaccharides used as tableting excipients, such as thermal behavior and compaction mechanism, together with an appreciable tabletability. However, the most interesting properties resulted from their disintegration power. Citrus fibers behaved in a similar manner to the well-known super disintegrant croscarmellose sodium and resulted to be little susceptible to their concentration, to lubricant type, and lubricant concentration. Thus, this work supports the idea of a potential use of citrus fibers as "active" substances and processing aid in the tableting of nutraceutical products and also as functional excipient in pharmaceutical tablets formulation.

  8. Essential Oils from the Malaysian Citrus (Rutaceae) Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Md Othman, Siti Nur Atiqah; Hassan, Muhammad Aizam; Nahar, Lutfun; Basar, Norazah; Jamil, Shajarahtunnur; Sarker, Satyajit D.

    2016-01-01

    This review article appraises the extraction methods, compositions, and bioactivities of the essential oils from the Citrus species (family: Rutaceae) endemic to Malaysia including C. aurantifolia, C. grandis, C. hystrix, and C. microcarpa. Generally, the fresh peels and leaves of the Citrus species were extracted using different methods such as steam and water distillation, Likens-Nikerson extraction, solvent extraction, and headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME). Most of the Citrus oils were found to be rich in monoterpene hydrocarbons with limonene (1) as the major component identified in the peels of C. aurantifolia (39.3%), C. grandis (81.6%–96.9%), and C. microcarpa (94.0%), while sabinene (19) was the major component in the peels of C. hystrix (36.4%–48.5%). In addition, citronellal (20) (61.7%–72.5%), linalool (18) (56.5%), and hedycaryol (23) (19.0%) were identified as the major components in the oil of C. hystrix leaves, C. grandis blossom and C. microcarpa leaves, respectively. The C. hystrix essential oil has been experimentally shown to have antimicrobial and antifeedant activities, while no bioactivity study has been reported on the essential oils of other Malaysian Citrus species. PMID:28930124

  9. Essential Oils from the Malaysian Citrus (Rutaceae) Medicinal Plants.

    PubMed

    Md Othman, Siti Nur Atiqah; Hassan, Muhammad Aizam; Nahar, Lutfun; Basar, Norazah; Jamil, Shajarahtunnur; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2016-06-03

    This review article appraises the extraction methods, compositions, and bioactivities of the essential oils from the Citrus species (family: Rutaceae) endemic to Malaysia including C. aurantifolia, C. grandis, C. hystrix, and C. microcarpa. Generally, the fresh peels and leaves of the Citrus species were extracted using different methods such as steam and water distillation, Likens-Nikerson extraction, solvent extraction, and headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME). Most of the Citrus oils were found to be rich in monoterpene hydrocarbons with limonene (1) as the major component identified in the peels of C. aurantifolia (39.3%), C. grandis (81.6%-96.9%), and C. microcarpa (94.0%), while sabinene (19) was the major component in the peels of C. hystrix (36.4%-48.5%). In addition, citronellal (20) (61.7%-72.5%), linalool (18) (56.5%), and hedycaryol (23) (19.0%) were identified as the major components in the oil of C. hystrix leaves, C. grandis blossom and C. microcarpa leaves, respectively. The C. hystrix essential oil has been experimentally shown to have antimicrobial and antifeedant activities, while no bioactivity study has been reported on the essential oils of other Malaysian Citrus species.

  10. [Historical and pharmalogical study of Citrus hassaku.].

    PubMed

    Kubo, Minchinori; Matsuda, Hideaki; Tomohiro, Norimichi; Harima, Shouichi

    2005-01-01

    The original plant of Citrus hassaku Hort. Tanaka was found at the Jyoudo Temple in Inno-shima, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan by Ekei Shounin in the Edo Era. Citrus hassaku has been called "jagada" when it was first discovered. Since this fruit was seasoned for eating around "hassaku" (August 1st of the lunar calendar), it was given the scientific name as "C. hassaku." Today, the fresh raw fruits of C. Hassaku are cultivated as a seasonal food, and the most famous producing district of C. hassaku fruit is Wakayama Prefecture, representing about 60% of the Japanese output. The immature fruits of C. hassaku and its three main flavanone glycosides (naringin, neohesperidin and narirutin) was found to shown inhibitory activities on a compound 48/80 induced histamine released from mast cells, and anti-allergic effects on dinitrofluorobenzen (DNFB)-induced triphasic skin reactions in mice. The contents of the three flavanone glycosides in the immature fruits were higher than those in mature fruits. The application of extracts from the immature fruits of C. hassaku to skin care for patients with atopitic dermatitis has resulted in improving effects for 76% of the patients. Similar efficacy was obtained for patients pollinosis.

  11. Screening Prosopis (mesquite) germplasm for biomass production and nitrogen fixation

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, P.; Cannell, G.H.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The nitrogen-fixing trees of the genus Prosopis (mesquite or algaroba) are well adapted to the semi-arid and often saline regions of the world. These trees may produce firewood or pods for livestock food, they may stabilize sand dunes and they may enrich the soil by production of leaf litter supported by nitrogen fixation. A collection of nearly 500 Prosopis accessions representing North and South American and African germplasm has been established. Seventy of these accessions representing 14 taxa are being grown under field conditions where a 30-fold range in biomass productivity among accessions has been estimated. In a greehouse experiment, 13 Prosopis taxa grew on nitrogen-free medium nodulated, and had a 10-fold difference in nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction). When Prosopis is propagated by seed the resulting trees are extremely variable in growth rate and presence or absence of thorns. Propagation of 6 Prosopis taxa by stem cuttings has been achieved with low success (1 to 10%) in field-grown plants and with higher success (50 to 100%) with young actively growing greenhouse plants.

  12. Anticarcinogenic Effects of Dried Citrus Peel in Colon Carcinogenesis Due to Inhibition of Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Wakana; Asai, Daichi; Tomono, Susumu; Miyamoto, Shingo; Fujii, Gen; Hamoya, Takahiro; Nagano, Aya; Takahashi, Satoru; Masumori, Shoji; Miyoshi, Noriyuki; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Mutoh, Michihiro

    2017-07-18

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Reactive oxygen species produce oxidative stress and contribute to colorectal carcinogenesis. Because dietary citrus has been shown to reduce oxidative stress, we investigated the effects of citrus peel extract at dilutions of 1/200-1/500 on the activity of oxidative-stress-related transcription factors, including AP-1, NF-κB, NRF2, p53, and STAT3, in human colon cancer cell line HCT116 cells using a luciferase reporter gene assay. NRF2 transcriptional activities were 1.8- to 2.0-fold higher than the untreated control value. In addition, NF-κB, p53, and STAT3 transcriptional activities were 12-26% lower than the untreated control value. Administration of dried citrus peel in the diet of F344 rats at a dose of 1,000 ppm prevented the formation of azoxymethane-induced precancerous aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the colon. The total number of ACF in rats fed with dried citrus peel was reduced to 75% of the control value. Moreover, the levels of oxidative-stress-related markers, reactive carbonyl species, in the serum of F344 rats were significantly reduced following the administration of dried citrus peel. These data suggest that citrus peel possesses an ability to suppress cellular oxidative stress through induction of NRF2, thereby preventing azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis.

  13. Application of natural colorants on citrus fruit as alternatives to Citrus Red II

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Warm field temperatures can often result in poor peel color of some citrus varieties, especially early in the harvest season. Under these conditions, Florida oranges, temples, tangelos, and K-Early citrus fruit are allowed to be treated with Citrus Red No.2 (CR2) to help produce a more acceptable pe...

  14. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Citrus viroid VI variants from citrus in China

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Citrus viroid VI (CVd-VI) was originally found from citrus and persimmon in Japan. We report here the identification and molecular characterization of CVd-VI from four production regions of China. A total of 90 cDNA clones from nine infected citrus cultivars were sequenced. The sequence homologies o...

  15. Citrus Research Board-sponsored review of the University of California Riverside citrus breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In October 2015 the Citrus Research Board (CRB) assembled a panel of experts to review the Citrus Research Board-sponsored Citrus Research and Genetics Programs at University of California Riverside (UCR). The panel consisted of: Gennaro Fazio, USDA/ARS, Geneva, NY; Maria Angeles Forner-Giner, Insti...

  16. Evaluation of resistance to asiatic citrus canker among selections of pera sweet orange (Citrus sinensis)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Asiatic citrus canker (ACC, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri) is a destructive disease of citrus in Brazil and in several other citrus-producing countries. ACC management is problematic, and bactericides such as copper can be reasonably efficacious but do not completely control...

  17. Field ID guide to citrus relative hosts of Asian citrus psyllid & Huanglongbing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Rutaceae family of plants includes not only species within the genus Citrus, but also several other genera and species that may not be easily recognized as having any relationship to citrus at all. However, many of these citrus relatives are used for ornamental, culinary, or religious purposes. ...

  18. Production of transgenic citrus resistant to citrus canker and Huanglongbing diseases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening disease) caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is a great threat to the U.S. citrus industry. There are no proven strategies to eliminate HLB disease and no cultivars identified with strong HLB resistance. Citrus canker is also an economically import...

  19. 76 FR 23449 - Citrus Canker, Citrus Greening, and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Interstate Movement of Regulated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... conditions, the articles are treated with methyl bromide and shipped in a container that has been sealed with... of any regulated article, including citrus nursery stock, provided that: The article is treated with methyl bromide in accordance with 7 CFR part 305. That part contains our phytosanitary treatment...

  20. 78 FR 63369 - Citrus Canker, Citrus Greening, and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Interstate Movement of Regulated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ..., and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Interstate Movement of Regulated Nursery Stock AGENCY: Animal and Plant... nonsubstantive changes, an interim rule that amended the regulations governing the interstate movement of... (ACP) to allow the movement of regulated nursery stock under a certificate to any area within the...

  1. Photographic Remote Sensing of Sick Citrus Trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.

    1971-01-01

    Remote sensing with infrared color aerial photography (Kodak Ektachrome Infrared Aero 8443 film) for detecting citrus tree anomalies is described. Illustrations and discussions are given for detecting nutrient toxicity symptoms, for detecting foot rot and sooty mold fungal diseases, and for distinguishing among citrus species. Also, the influence of internal leaf structure on light reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance are considered; and physiological and environmental factors that affect citrus leaf light reflectance are reviewed briefly and illustrated.

  2. Citrus orchards management and soil water repellency in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, A.; González Peñaloza, F. A.; Jordán, A.; Zavala, L. M.

    2012-04-01

    Water repellent soils are found around the world, although originally was found on fire affected soil (DeBano, 1981). However, for decades, water repellency was found to be a rare soil property. One of the pioneer research that shown that water repellency was a common soil property is the Wander (1949) publication in Science. Wander researched the water repellency on citrus groves, and since then, no information is available about the water repellency on citrus plantations. The Mediterranean soils are prone to water repellency due to the summer dry conditions (Cerdà and Doerr, 2007). And Land Use and Land Management are key factors (Harper et al., 2000; Urbanek et al., 2007) to understand the water repellency behaviour of agriculture soils. Valencia region (Eastern Spain) is the largest exporter in the world and citrus plantations located in the alluvial plains and fluvial terraces are moving to alluvial fans and slopes where the surface wash is very active (Cerdà et al., 2009). This research aims to show the water repellency on citrus orchards located on the sloping terrain (< 15 % angle slope). Measurement were conducted in four experimental plots located in the Canyoles River watershed to assess the soil water repellency in citrus orchards under different managements: annual addition of plant residues and manure with no tilling and no fertilizer (MNT), annual addition of plant residues with no tillage (NT), application of conventional herbicides and no tilling (HNT) and conventional tillage in June (CT). The period for each type of management ranged from 2 and 27 (MNT), 1 and 25 (NT), 2 and 27 (HNT) and 3 and 29 years (CT). At each plot, a ten points were selected every 10 cm along inter-rows and water drop penetration time test (WDTP; DeBano, 1981) was performed. The results show that the MNT treatment induced slight water repellency in citrus-cropped soils compared to other treatments. Small but significant soil water repellency was observed under NT and HNT

  3. Registration of WSRC01, WSRC02, and WSRC03 Winter Hardy Safflower Germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Winter hardy safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) germplasm lines WSRC01, WSRC02, and WSRC03 were developed at the USDA-ARS, Western Regional Plant Introduction Station, Pullman WA. All three lines originated from germplasm introduced from China to the USDA-ARS national safflower germplasm collectio...

  4. Expansion of the USDA-ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) database to accommodate molecular data

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) provides both germplasm and data on genetic resources to researchers and breeders world wide. New tables and codes that hold data relating to molecular markers and multi-locus genotypes have been added to the Germplasm Resources Information Networ...

  5. Genomic characterization of a core set of the USDA-NPGS Ethiopian sorghum germplasm collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA Agriculture Research Service National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) preserves the largest sorghum germplasm collection in the world, which includes 7,217 accessions from the center of diversity in Ethiopia. The characterization of this exotic germplasm at a genome-wide scale will improve co...

  6. Diversity analysis of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) germplasm using the CottonSNP63K Array

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton germplasm resources contain beneficial alleles that can be exploited to develop germplasm adapting to emerging environmental and climate conditions, and this germplasm has commonly been characterized based on phenotypes. However, phenotypic profiles are limited by what can be observed and me...

  7. Occurrence of citrus viroids in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, W; Rivera, C; Hammond, R W

    1997-09-01

    A survey for citrus viroids was conducted in the major citrus commercial growing areas in Costa Rica. Screening of 36 sweet orange and 12 lemon trees resulted in the detection of members of four of the five citrus viroid groups as determined by nucleic acid hybridization using specific RNA probes and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific oligonucleotide primers. CEVd, CVd-IIa, CVD-IIb and CVd-III viroids were found to be widespread in the three main regions of commercial citrus production. CVd-Ib was only found in lemon in Nicoya.

  8. Experimental Evidence and In Silico Identification of Tryptophan Decarboxylase in Citrus Genus.

    PubMed

    De Masi, Luigi; Castaldo, Domenico; Pignone, Domenico; Servillo, Luigi; Facchiano, Angelo

    2017-02-11

    Plant tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC) converts tryptophan into tryptamine, precursor of indolealkylamine alkaloids. The recent finding of tryptamine metabolites in Citrus plants leads to hypothesize the existence of TDC activity in this genus. Here, we report for the first time that, in Citrus x limon seedlings, deuterium labeled tryptophan is decarboxylated into tryptamine, from which successively deuterated N,N,N-trimethyltryptamine is formed. These results give an evidence of the occurrence of the TDC activity and the successive methylation pathway of the tryptamine produced from the tryptophan decarboxylation. In addition, with the aim to identify the genetic basis for the presence of TDC, we carried out a sequence similarity search for TDC in the Citrus genomes using as a probe the TDC sequence reported for the plant Catharanthus roseus. We analyzed the genomes of both Citrus clementina and Citrus sinensis, available in public database, and identified putative protein sequences of aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase. Similarly, 42 aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase sequences from 23 plant species were extracted from public databases. Potential sequence signatures for functional TDC were then identified. With this research, we propose for the first time a putative protein sequence for TDC in the genus Citrus.

  9. Profiling gene expression in citrus fruit calyx abscission zone (AZ-C) treated with ethylene.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chunzhen; Zhang, Lingyun; Yang, Xuelian; Zhong, Guangyan

    2015-10-01

    On-tree storage and harvesting of mature fruit account for a large proportion of cost in the production of citrus, and a reduction of the cost would not be achieved without a thorough understanding of the mechani sm of the mature fruit abscission. Genome-wide gene expression changes in ethylene-treated fruit calyx abscission zone (AZ-C) of Citrus sinensis cv. Olinda were therefore investigated using a citrus genome array representing up to 33,879 citrus transcripts. In total, 1313 and 1044 differentially regulated genes were identified in AZ-C treated with ethylene for 4 and 24 h, respectively. The results showed that mature citrus fruit abscission commenced with the activation of ethylene signal transduction pathway that led to the activation of ethylene responsive transcription factors and the subsequent transcriptional regulation of a large set of ethylene responsive genes. Significantly down-regulated genes included those of starch/sugar biosynthesis, transportation of water and growth promoting hormone synthesis and signaling, whereas significantly up-regulated genes were those involved in defense, cell wall degradation, and secondary metabolism. Our data unraveled the underlying mechanisms of some known important biochemical events occurring at AZ-C and should provide informative suggestions for future manipulation of the events to achieve a controllable abscission for mature citrus fruit.

  10. Changes of Peel Essential Oil Composition of Four Tunisian Citrus during Fruit Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Bourgou, Soumaya; Rahali, Fatma Zohra; Ourghemmi, Iness; Saïdani Tounsi, Moufida

    2012-01-01

    The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis), and mandarin (Citrus reticulate) and on their antibacterial activity. Essential oils yields varied during ripening from 0.46 to 2.70%, where mandarin was found to be the richest. Forty volatile compounds were identified. Limonene (67.90–90.95%) and 1,8-cineole (tr-14.72%) were the most represented compounds in bitter orange oil while limonene (37.63–69.71%), β-pinene (0.63–31.49%), γ-terpinene (0.04–9.96%), and p-cymene (0.23–9.84%) were the highest ones in lemon. In the case of mandarin, the predominant compounds were limonene (51.81–69.00%), 1,8-cineole (0.01–26.43%), and γ-terpinene (2.53–14.06%). However, results showed that orange peel oil was dominated mainly by limonene (81.52–86.43%) during ripening. The results showed that ripening stage influenced significantly the antibacterial activity of the oils against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This knowledge could help establish the optimum harvest date ensuring the maximum essential oil, limonene, as well as antibacterial compounds yields of citrus. PMID:22645427

  11. Changes of peel essential oil composition of four Tunisian citrus during fruit maturation.

    PubMed

    Bourgou, Soumaya; Rahali, Fatma Zohra; Ourghemmi, Iness; Saïdani Tounsi, Moufida

    2012-01-01

    The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis), and mandarin (Citrus reticulate) and on their antibacterial activity. Essential oils yields varied during ripening from 0.46 to 2.70%, where mandarin was found to be the richest. Forty volatile compounds were identified. Limonene (67.90-90.95%) and 1,8-cineole (tr-14.72%) were the most represented compounds in bitter orange oil while limonene (37.63-69.71%), β-pinene (0.63-31.49%), γ-terpinene (0.04-9.96%), and p-cymene (0.23-9.84%) were the highest ones in lemon. In the case of mandarin, the predominant compounds were limonene (51.81-69.00%), 1,8-cineole (0.01-26.43%), and γ-terpinene (2.53-14.06%). However, results showed that orange peel oil was dominated mainly by limonene (81.52-86.43%) during ripening. The results showed that ripening stage influenced significantly the antibacterial activity of the oils against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This knowledge could help establish the optimum harvest date ensuring the maximum essential oil, limonene, as well as antibacterial compounds yields of citrus.

  12. Antinociceptive and Antihyperalgesic Activity of a Traditional Maya Herbal Preparation Composed of Pouteria Campechiana, Chrysophyllum Cainito, Citrus Limonum, and Annona Muricata.

    PubMed

    Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Ortiz-Andrade, Rolffy; Sanchez-Recillas, Amanda; Flores-Guido, José Salvador; Ramírez Camacho, Mario A

    2017-02-08

    Preclinical Research The purpose of this work was to assess the antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic properties of an herbal preparation, composed of four vegetal species: Pouteria campechiana (P. campechiana), Chrysophyllum cainito (C. cainito), Citrus limonum (C. limonum), and Annona muricata (A. muricata), that is commonly used in combination (PCCA) in traditional Mayan medicine for the treatment of diabetes and pain. An ethanolic extract of PCCA was prepared at a ratio of 1:1:1:1 for each plant. The systemic antinociceptive effect of PCCA extract (50-600 mg/kg, p.o.) was dose-dependent in the rat formalin (1%) producing 66% antinociceptive response at 400 mg/kg, p.o. A concentration-dependent antinociceptive effect of the PCCA extract (20-160 mg/paw) was also demonstrated in the rat capsaicin (0.2%) test. The PCCA extract (100-400 mg/kg, p.o.) had antihyperalgesic effects in alloxan diabetic rats. These findings demonstrate the antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic effects of PCCA and supports the use of the plant extracts in Mayan folk medicine.Drug Dev Res, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Biological Characteristics and Antimicrobial Activity of Endophytic Streptomyces sp. TQR12-4 Isolated from Elite Citrus nobilis Cultivar Ham Yen of Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Mai-Linh, Nguyen Vu; Hong-Lien, Nguyen Thi; Van Hieu, Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Ham Yen orange (Citrus nobilis Lour) is the highly valuable commercial fruit of Vietnam. With the blooming of fruit production and farming area, this specialty crop is facing threats from several serious diseases; therefore the search for new effective biocontrollers is required to prevent the existing excessive use of fertilizers and plant protection chemicals. Endophytic actinomycetes are of great scientific interest due to their high potential of application in agriculture and pharmaceutical research. In this work, endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from a native orange species of Northeast mountainous province Tuyen Quang. Among 49 isolates obtained, the isolate TQR12-4 strongly inhibited test pathogens Colletotrichum truncatum, Geotrichum candidum, Fusarium oxysporum, and F. udum. This isolate gave comparatively high biomass yields on different substrates, for example, carboxy methyl cellulose, starch, protein, and chitin, within a wide range of temperature from 15 to 45°C and pH from 4 to 10. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA gene showed that TQR12-4 shared 99% similarity to Streptomyces prasinopilosus; however, it slightly differed from the latter in spore morphology and hence was named as Streptomyces sp. TQR12-4. A thermostable antifungal substance of nonpeptide nature produced by Streptomyces sp. TQR12-4 had MIC against Fusarium udum of 100 μg/mL and 400 μg/mL respective to extract fractions X4 and X5. PMID:27795709

  14. HPLC-PDA-MS and NMR characterization of C-glycosyl flavones in a hydroalcoholic extract of Citrus aurantifolia leaves with antiplatelet activity.

    PubMed

    Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; García Mesa, Milagros; Armenteros, Dulce María; Alfonso, María Antonia; Arevalo, Ana Carolina; Campone, Luca; Rastrelli, Luca

    2008-03-12

    A hydroalcoholic extract of lime ( Citrus aurantifolia) leaves has been developed in Cuba to be used as a nutritional supplement and phytomedicine in the form of tincture (TLL). A HPLC-PDA-ESI/MS/MS method has been used for the comprehensive analysis of C-glycosyl flavones in TLL. Six C-glycosyl flavones were characterized and, to confirm the proposed structures and to elucidate the nature of the sugar units, a preparative procedure was applied, and isolated compounds were characterized by NMR. Apigenin-6,8-di-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside (vicenin II) (1), diosmetin-6,8-di- C-beta- d-glucopyranoside (2), apigenin-8-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside (vitexin) (3), apigenin-8-C-[alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->6)]-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), apigenin-6-C-[alpha-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->6)]-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5). and apigenin-6-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside (isovitexin) (6) were identified in TLL and quantified by HPLC-PDA. Compounds 4 and 5 were two new arabinosyl derivatives of vitexin and isovitexin. Inhibitor effect of TLL on platelet aggregation induced by physiological agonists of platelets was evaluated in human plasma. TLL inhibited significantly ADP and epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation in a concentration-dependent manner (IC 50=0.40 and 0.32 mg/mL, respectively).

  15. Variability of Root Traits in Spring Wheat Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Sruthi; Mohan, Amita; Gill, Kulvinder S.; Prasad, P. V. Vara

    2014-01-01

    Root traits influence the amount of water and nutrient absorption, and are important for maintaining crop yield under drought conditions. The objectives of this research were to characterize variability of root traits among spring wheat genotypes and determine whether root traits are related to shoot traits (plant height, tiller number per plant, shoot dry weight, and coleoptile length), regions of origin, and market classes. Plants were grown in 150-cm columns for 61 days in a greenhouse under optimal growth conditions. Rooting depth, root dry weight, root: shoot ratio, and shoot traits were determined for 297 genotypes of the germplasm, Cultivated Wheat Collection (CWC). The remaining root traits such as total root length and surface area were measured for a subset of 30 genotypes selected based on rooting depth. Significant genetic variability was observed for root traits among spring wheat genotypes in CWC germplasm or its subset. Genotypes Sonora and Currawa were ranked high, and genotype Vandal was ranked low for most root traits. A positive relationship (R2≥0.35) was found between root and shoot dry weights within the CWC germplasm and between total root surface area and tiller number; total root surface area and shoot dry weight; and total root length and coleoptile length within the subset. No correlations were found between plant height and most root traits within the CWC germplasm or its subset. Region of origin had significant impact on rooting depth in the CWC germplasm. Wheat genotypes collected from Australia, Mediterranean, and west Asia had greater rooting depth than those from south Asia, Latin America, Mexico, and Canada. Soft wheat had greater rooting depth than hard wheat in the CWC germplasm. The genetic variability identified in this research for root traits can be exploited to improve drought tolerance and/or resource capture in wheat. PMID:24945438

  16. Risk assessment of various insecticides used for management of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri in Florida citrus, against honey bee, Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue Dong; Gill, Torrence A; Pelz-Stelinski, Kirsten S; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2017-01-23

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is a major pest of citrus trees worldwide. A wide variety of insecticides are used to manage D. citri populations within citrus groves in Florida. However, in areas shared by citrus growers and beekeepers the use of insecticides may increase the risks of Apis mellifera  L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) loss and contaminated honey. The objective of this research was to determine the environmental toxicity of insecticides, spanning five different modes of action used to control D. citri, to A. mellifera. The insecticides investigated were imidacloprid, fenpropathrin, dimethoate, spinetoram and diflubenzuron. In laboratory experiments, LD50 values were determined and ranged from 0.10 to 0.53 ng/μl for imidacloprid, fenpropathrin, dimethoate and spinetoram. LD50 values for diflubenzuron were >1000 ng/μl. Also, a hazard quotient was determined and ranged from 1130.43 to 10893.27 for imidacloprid, fenpropathrin, dimethoate, and spinetoram. This quotient was <0.447 for diflubenzuron. In field experiments, residual activity of fenpropathrin and dimethoate applied to citrus caused significant mortality of A. mellifera 3 and 7 days after application. Spinetoram and imidacloprid were moderately toxic to A. mellifera at the recommended rates for D. citri. Diflubenzuron was not toxic to A. mellifera in the field as compared with untreated control plots. Phenoloxidase (PO) activity of A. mellifera was higher than in untreated controls when A. mellifera were exposed to 14 days old residues. The results indicate that diflubenzuron may be safe to apply in citrus when A. mellifera are foraging, while most insecticides used for management of D. citri in citrus are likely hazardous under various exposure scenarios.

  17. Alternative oxidase (AOX) constitutes a small family of proteins in Citrus clementina and Citrus sinensis L. Osb.

    PubMed

    Araújo Castro, Jacqueline; Gomes Ferreira, Monique Drielle; Santana Silva, Raner José; Andrade, Bruno Silva; Micheli, Fabienne

    2017-01-01

    The alternative oxidase (AOX) protein is present in plants, fungi, protozoa and some invertebrates. It is involved in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, providing an alternative route for the transport of electrons, leading to the reduction of oxygen to form water. The present study aimed to characterize the family of AOX genes in mandarin (Citrus clementina) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) at nucleotide and protein levels, including promoter analysis, phylogenetic analysis and C. sinensis gene expression. This study also aimed to do the homology modeling of one AOX isoform (CcAOXd). Moreover, the molecular docking of the CcAOXd protein with the ubiquinone (UQ) was performed. Four AOX genes were identified in each citrus species. These genes have an open reading frame (ORF) ranging from 852 bp to 1150 bp and a number of exons ranging from 4 to 9. The 1500 bp-upstream region of each AOX gene contained regulatory cis-elements related to internal and external response factors. CsAOX genes showed a differential expression in citrus tissues. All AOX proteins were predicted to be located in mitochondria. They contained the conserved motifs LET, NERMHL, LEEEA and RADE-H as well as several putative post-translational modification sites. The CcAOXd protein was modeled by homology to the AOX of Trypanosona brucei (45% of identity). The 3-D structure of CcAOXd showed the presence of two hydrophobic helices that could be involved in the anchoring of the protein in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The active site of the protein is located in a hydrophobic environment deep inside the AOX structure and contains a diiron center. The molecular docking of CcAOXd with UQ showed that the binding site is a recessed pocket formed by the helices and submerged in the membrane. These data are important for future functional studies of citrus AOX genes and/or proteins, as well as for biotechnological approaches leading to AOX inhibition using UQ homologs.

  18. Alternative oxidase (AOX) constitutes a small family of proteins in Citrus clementina and Citrus sinensis L. Osb

    PubMed Central

    Araújo Castro, Jacqueline; Gomes Ferreira, Monique Drielle; Santana Silva, Raner José; Andrade, Bruno Silva

    2017-01-01

    The alternative oxidase (AOX) protein is present in plants, fungi, protozoa and some invertebrates. It is involved in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, providing an alternative route for the transport of electrons, leading to the reduction of oxygen to form water. The present study aimed to characterize the family of AOX genes in mandarin (Citrus clementina) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) at nucleotide and protein levels, including promoter analysis, phylogenetic analysis and C. sinensis gene expression. This study also aimed to do the homology modeling of one AOX isoform (CcAOXd). Moreover, the molecular docking of the CcAOXd protein with the ubiquinone (UQ) was performed. Four AOX genes were identified in each citrus species. These genes have an open reading frame (ORF) ranging from 852 bp to 1150 bp and a number of exons ranging from 4 to 9. The 1500 bp-upstream region of each AOX gene contained regulatory cis-elements related to internal and external response factors. CsAOX genes showed a differential expression in citrus tissues. All AOX proteins were predicted to be located in mitochondria. They contained the conserved motifs LET, NERMHL, LEEEA and RADE-H as well as several putative post-translational modification sites. The CcAOXd protein was modeled by homology to the AOX of Trypanosona brucei (45% of identity). The 3-D structure of CcAOXd showed the presence of two hydrophobic helices that could be involved in the anchoring of the protein in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The active site of the protein is located in a hydrophobic environment deep inside the AOX structure and contains a diiron center. The molecular docking of CcAOXd with UQ showed that the binding site is a recessed pocket formed by the helices and submerged in the membrane. These data are important for future functional studies of citrus AOX genes and/or proteins, as well as for biotechnological approaches leading to AOX inhibition using UQ homologs. PMID:28459876

  19. Comparison of FTIR spectra between Huanglongbing (citrus greening) and other citrus maladies.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Samantha A; Park, Bosoon; Poole, Gavin H; Gottwald, Tim R; Windham, William R; Albano, Joseph; Lawrence, Kurt C

    2010-05-26

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has the ability to quickly identify the presence of specific carbohydrates in plant materials. The presence of the disease huanglongbing (HLB) in the leaves of infected citrus plants has a distinctive spectrum that can be used to distinguish an infected plant from a healthy plant. However, many citrus diseases display similar visible symptoms and are of concern to citrus growers. In this study several citrus diseases (citrus leaf rugose virus, citrus tristeza virus, citrus psorosis virus, and Xanthomonas axonopodis ) and nutrient deficiencies (iron, copper, zinc, manganese, and magnesium) were compared with HLB using FTIR spectroscopy to determine if the spectra alone can be used to identify plants that are infected with HLB instead of another disease. The results indicate that the spectra of some diseases and deficiencies more closely resemble those of apparently healthy plants and some share the carbohydrate transformation that has been seen in the spectra of HLB-infected plants.

  20. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujitha, Mohanan V.; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2013-02-01

    This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl4 by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0 mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (1 1 1, 2 0 0, 2 2 0 and 2 2 2 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

  1. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization.

    PubMed

    Sujitha, Mohanan V; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2013-02-01

    This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl(4) by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (111, 200, 220 and 222 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp(3) of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp(3) of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

  2. Gibberellin reactivates and maintains ovary-wall cell division causing fruit set in parthenocarpic Citrus species.

    PubMed

    Mesejo, Carlos; Yuste, Roberto; Reig, Carmina; Martínez-Fuentes, Amparo; Iglesias, Domingo J; Muñoz-Fambuena, Natalia; Bermejo, Almudena; Germanà, M Antonietta; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Agustí, Manuel

    2016-06-01

    Citrus is a wide genus in which most of the cultivated species and cultivars are natural parthenocarpic mutants or hybrids (i.e. orange, mandarin, tangerine, grapefruit). The autonomous increase in GA1 ovary concentration during anthesis was suggested as being the stimulus responsible for parthenocarpy in Citrus regardless of the species. To determine the exact GA-role in parthenocarpic fruit set, the following hypothesis was tested: GA triggers and maintains cell division in ovary walls causing fruit set. Obligate and facultative parthenocarpic Citrus species were used as a model system because obligate parthenocarpic Citrus sp (i.e. Citrus unshiu) have higher GA levels and better natural parthenocarpic fruit set compared to other facultative parthenocarpic Citrus (i.e. Citrus clementina). The autonomous activation of GA synthesis in C. unshiu ovary preceded cell division and CYCA1.1 up-regulation (a G2-stage cell cycle regulator) at anthesis setting a high proportion of fruits, whereas C. clementina lacked this GA-biosynthesis and CYCA1.1 up-regulation failing in fruit set. In situ hybridization experiments revealed a tissue-specific expression of GA20ox2 only in the dividing tissues of the pericarp. Furthermore, CYCA1.1 expression correlated endogenous GA1 content with GA3 treatment, which stimulated cell division and ovary growth, mostly in C. clementina. Instead, paclobutrazol (GA biosynthesis inhibitor) negated cell division and reduced fruit set. Results suggest that in parthenocarpic citrus the specific GA synthesis in the ovary walls at anthesis triggers cell division and, thus, the necessary ovary growth rate to set fruit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Beneficial Effects of Citrus Juice Fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 on Japanese Cedar Pollinosis

    PubMed Central

    HARIMA-MIZUSAWA, Naomi; IINO, Tohru; ONODERA-MASUOKA, Norie; KATO-NAGAOKA, Noriko; KIYOSHIMA-SHIBATA, Junko; GOMI, Atsushi; SHIBAHARA-SONE, Harue; KANO, Mitsuyoshi; SHIDA, Kan; SAKAI, Masashi; MIYAZAKI, Kouji; ISHIKAWA, Fumiyasu

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the prevalence of allergies in Japan has been increasing. Certain types of fruit juice and lactic acid bacteria are known to alleviate allergic symptoms. Therefore, we examined whether citrus juice fermented by a specific lactic acid bacteria can improve the symptoms of Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCPsis). Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 (LP0132) was selected based on its high proliferative activity in citrus juice and anti-inflammatory interleukin-10-inducing activity. Dietary administration of heat-killed LP0132 cells or citrus juice fermented with LP0132 was found to significantly suppress nasal rubbing in a JCPsis mouse model, indicating relief of allergy symptoms. To evaluate the effects of LP0132-fermented citrus juice on pollinosis symptoms and quality of life (QOL) in humans with JCPsis, a single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial was conducted. The participants were 42 adults with JCPsis. They ingested 100 mL of sterilized LP0132-fermented citrus juice (active group) or unfermented citrus juice (placebo group) once daily for 8 weeks. Immediately after the pollen peak when allergy symptoms and QOL loss were most severe, itchy eyes, itchy skin, and QOL loss by JCPsis were alleviated in the active group compared with the placebo group. At 10 weeks after starting the intervention, increased the levels of blood eosinophils were significantly suppressed in the active group compared with the placebo group. We conclude that continuous ingestion of citrus juice fermented with LP0132 may help alleviate the allergy symptoms and impaired QOL caused by JCPsis. PMID:25379362

  4. Beneficial Effects of Citrus Juice Fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 on Japanese Cedar Pollinosis.

    PubMed

    Harima-Mizusawa, Naomi; Iino, Tohru; Onodera-Masuoka, Norie; Kato-Nagaoka, Noriko; Kiyoshima-Shibata, Junko; Gomi, Atsushi; Shibahara-Sone, Harue; Kano, Mitsuyoshi; Shida, Kan; Sakai, Masashi; Miyazaki, Kouji; Ishikawa, Fumiyasu

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the prevalence of allergies in Japan has been increasing. Certain types of fruit juice and lactic acid bacteria are known to alleviate allergic symptoms. Therefore, we examined whether citrus juice fermented by a specific lactic acid bacteria can improve the symptoms of Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCPsis). Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 (LP0132) was selected based on its high proliferative activity in citrus juice and anti-inflammatory interleukin-10-inducing activity. Dietary administration of heat-killed LP0132 cells or citrus juice fermented with LP0132 was found to significantly suppress nasal rubbing in a JCPsis mouse model, indicating relief of allergy symptoms. To evaluate the effects of LP0132-fermented citrus juice on pollinosis symptoms and quality of life (QOL) in humans with JCPsis, a single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial was conducted. The participants were 42 adults with JCPsis. They ingested 100 mL of sterilized LP0132-fermented citrus juice (active group) or unfermented citrus juice (placebo group) once daily for 8 weeks. Immediately after the pollen peak when allergy symptoms and QOL loss were most severe, itchy eyes, itchy skin, and QOL loss by JCPsis were alleviated in the active group compared with the placebo group. At 10 weeks after starting the intervention, increased the levels of blood eosinophils were significantly suppressed in the active group compared with the placebo group. We conclude that continuous ingestion of citrus juice fermented with LP0132 may help alleviate the allergy symptoms and impaired QOL caused by JCPsis.

  5. A Comparative In Vitro Study of the Effects of Separate and Combined Products of Citrus e fructibus and Cydonia e fructibus on Immunological Parameters of Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Baars, E. W.; Jong, M. C.; Boers, I.; Nierop, A. F. M.; Savelkoul, H. F. J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examined the effects of the combined product, Citrus e fructibus/Cydonia e fructibus (Citrus/Cydonia; Citrus and Cydonia: each 0.01 g/mL), and separate products of Citrus (0.01 g/mL) and Cydonia (0.01 g/mL) on the immunological pathways involved in seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from five healthy and five grass pollen-allergic donors were isolated and analyzed in vitro after polyclonal and allergen-specific stimulation of T cells in the presence of the three extracts. The analyses demonstrated acceptable cell survival with no signs of toxicity. Citrus mainly had a selective effect on reducing allergen-specific chronic inflammatory (TNF-α; Citrus compared to Cydonia and Citrus/Cydonia: −87.4 (P < 0.001) and −68.0 (P < 0.05), resp.) and Th2 pathway activity (IL-5; Citrus compared to Cydonia: −217.8 (P < 0.01); while, both Cydonia and Citrus/Cydonia mainly affected the induction of the allergen-specific Th1 pathway (IFN-γ; Cydonia and Citrus/Cydonia compared to Citrus: 3.8 (P < 0.01) and 3.0 (P < 0.01), resp.). Citrus and Cydonia demonstrated different working mechanisms in the treatment of SAR and the combination product did not demonstrate larger effects than the separate preparations. Further effectiveness and efficacy studies comparing the effects of the products on SAR in vivo are indicated. PMID:22315506

  6. A comparison of plant species for rearing Asian citrus psyllid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Five plant genotypes were compared with respect to Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) reproduction potential: Bergera koenigii, Citrus aurantiifolia, C. macrophylla, C. taiwanica and Murraya paniculata. Asian citrus psyllid reproduction is dependent on young flush and thus Asian citrus psyllid production po...

  7. Cooperation in the Conservation of Citrus Genetic Resources: Riverside, California

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A consortium of cooperating programs for the conservation and utilization of citrus genetic resources is centered at the University of California, Riverside (UCR). University units include the Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP), Citrus Variety Collection (CVC), and Citrus Breeding Program (CBP...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-38 Citrus from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-38 Citrus from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata...

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-38 Citrus from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata...

  11. Plant resistance within the Rutaceae to Asian citrus psyllid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    USDA-ARS recently initiated research on host plant resistance to the Asian citrus psyllid. The psyllid is an important invasive pest of citrus in the United States because it transmits a serious disease of citrus known as huanglongbing (citrus greening). There is no cure for this bacterial disease. ...

  12. Activity of citrus essential oils against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. and effects on beef subprimal cuts under refrigeration.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Curtis I; Pendleton, Sean; Bisha, Bledar; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Belk, Keith E; Goodridge, Lawrence; Crandall, Philip G; Ricke, Steven C

    2011-08-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. are bacterial pathogens often associated with beef, and cause many cases of foodborne illness each year in the United States. During beef slaughter and processing, these bacteria may spread from the hide or intestines to the carcass. The objective of this research was to investigate the use of naturally occurring compounds citrus essential oils (CEOs) extracted from orange peel to reduce or eliminate these pathogens at the chilling stage of processing, or during fabrication. Brisket flats (used to simulate beef subprimals) were spot inoculated with approximately 6 log of surrogate generic E. coli cocktail (previously shown to be identical in growth and survival parameters to E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp.). Following drying, CEOs were applied by spraying at concentrations of 3% and 6% to the surface of different pieces of meat. Treatments were applied using a custom built spray cabinet at 2.07 bar and applied at a rate of 3.79 L/min to replicate commercial practices. The CEOs significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the concentration of E. coli on the brisket flats in comparison to inoculated no spray or water sprayed controls over a period of 90 d, while causing an initial reduction of approximately 1.4 log units. Total aerobic bacteria and psychrotrophic counts were also reduced on uninoculated briskets following treatment. These results indicate that 3% cold-pressed terpeneless Valencia orange oil could be used as an additional intervention against E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. at the refrigerated storage stage of processing. CEOs are natural compounds that have been designated as Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS). They can be used to control Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7 on beef carcasses at the chilling stage. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Asian citrus psyllid RNAi pathway - RNAi evidence

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In silico analyses of the draft genome of Diaphorina citri, the Asian citrus psyllid, for genes within the Ribonucleic acid interference(RNAi), pathway was successful. The psyllid is the vector of the plant-infecting bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), which is linked to citrus gree...

  14. Rapid cyling plant breeding in citrus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Resistance or tolerance to huanglongbing (HLB) and other important traits have been identified in several citrus types and relatives and associated markers should be identified soon. What is urgently needed in addition is an accelerated strategy for citrus variety breeding. Identification and use of...

  15. Resistance and tolerance to Huanglongbing in citrus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Stover-led research team focuses on developing improved citrus scion varieties, through both conventional breeding and transgenics, with special attention to confronting the threat of citrus huanglongbing (HLB). Collaborations are underway with more than 20 research groups around the world to ha...

  16. Citrus Community College District Mentor Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinds, Diane; Sprague, Caroline

    The Citrus College faculty and staff addressed the problem of lower career aspirations among women by establishing a support group, Citrus Women in Higher Education (CWHE). In addition to group meetings and special programs of interest, the CWHE has developed a mentor program to address the problem of blocked careers faced by women. The goals of…

  17. Functional analysis of block deesterified citrus pectins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    After removal of soluble sugars and other compounds by washing, citrus peel is largely composed of pectin, cellulose and hemicellulose. In order to utilize the greatest amount of citrus peel product, it would appear reasonable that one or all three of these polysaccharides be converted to a useful ...

  18. Citrus Community College District Mentor Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinds, Diane; Sprague, Caroline

    The Citrus College faculty and staff addressed the problem of lower career aspirations among women by establishing a support group, Citrus Women in Higher Education (CWHE). In addition to group meetings and special programs of interest, the CWHE has developed a mentor program to address the problem of blocked careers faced by women. The goals of…

  19. Cryopreservation and Cryotherapy of Citrus Cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Long-term conservation of Citrus clones can be accomplished by cryopreservation. Shoot tips will survive liquid nitrogen exposure and storage when appropriately desiccated and treated with cryoprotectant solutions. In our research, vegetative Citrus budwood is shipped from Riverside to Fort Collin...

  20. Registration of CA0469C025C chickpea germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chickpea (Cicer arientinum L.) germplasm CA0469C025C (Reg. No. XXX; PI XXX), was released by the USDA-ARS in 2010. CA0469C025C was released based on its improved yield and reaction to Ascochyta blight relative to the popular commercial cultivars ‘Dwelley’, ‘Sierra’, and ‘Sawyer’. CA0490C025C is deri...

  1. Collecting in Central Asia: National Plant Germplasm System Plant Explorations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System is charged with the preservation of economically important crop plants and their wild relatives. Curators in the System strive to develop collections capturing the genetic diversity of each species. One mechanism for filling gaps in collections is through...

  2. Ashes to ashes: Large Fraxinus germplasm collections and their fates

    Treesearch

    Kim C. Steiner; Paul. Lupo

    2010-01-01

    As the emerald ash borer (EAB) threatens the survival of our ash species, measures should be taken to preserve their genetic variability in the event that we discover a way to restore populations destroyed by the beetle. As it happens, large germplasm collections exist for our most important and widely distributed eastern species of the genus, white ash (...

  3. Development of core SSR markers for Gossypium germplasm characterization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A set of 105 portable DNA markers were carefully developed to provide a common basis for systematic characterization of cotton germplasm collections in the U.S. and throughout the world. The 105 PCR-based SSR markers of different origins were evenly distributed on each of the 26 cotton chromosomes ...

  4. Fingerprinting soybean germplasm and its utility in genomic research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The annual accessions in the United States Department of Agriculture, Soybean Germplasm Collection including 18,480 domesticated and 1,168 wild soybeans introduced from 84 countries or developed in the U.S. were genotyped with the SoySNP50K BeadChip containing >50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SN...

  5. Registration of EL54 and EL55 sugarbeet germplasms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    EL54 (PI 654357) is a sugarbeet germplasm derived from wild beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima) accession WB879 (PI 540625), released in the interest of broadening the genetic base of sugar beet. The parent accession WB879, collected in 1989 from Port-de-Houet, France. EL54 has shown excellent Aphan...

  6. Capturing Positive Transgressive Variation From Wild And Exotic Germplasm Resources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Only a small fraction of the naturally occurring genetic diversity available in rice germplasm repositories around the world has been explored to date. This is beginning to change with the advent of affordable, high throughput genotyping approaches coupled with robust statistical analysis methods th...

  7. Notice of Release of NBR-1 Germplasm Basalt Milkvetch

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Basalt milkvetch or threadstalk milkvetch (Astragalus filipes Torr. ex A. Gray) is a perennial legume that is widely distributed on rangelands in western North America and holds promise for rangeland revegetation and restoration programs. No germplasms or cultivars are commercially available for ba...

  8. Optimized scarification protocols improve germination of diverse Rubus germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seed collections of the wild relatives of cultivated blackberry and raspberry (Rubus species) are maintained at the National Clonal Germplasm Repository, Corvallis, OR. Seeds of Rubus species are orthodox and can be stored dry and remain viable for many years; however germination is often poor or er...

  9. National Plant Germplasm System: Critical Role of Customer Service

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) conserves plant genetic resources, not only for use by future generations, but for immediate use by scientists and educators around the world. With a great deal of interaction between genebank curators and users of plant genetic resources, customer service...

  10. Registration of N96076L peanut germplasm line

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    N96076L (Reg. no. GP-125, PI 641950) is a large-seeded Virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea) germplasm line with resistance to multiple diseases including early leafspot (caused by Cercospora arachidicola S. Hori), Cylindrocladium black rot (CBR) {caused by Cylindr...

  11. Morphological characterization of a Daucus L. germplasm collection in Tunisia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genus Daucus includes about 25 recognized species worldwide. Northern Africa represents a major center of diversity of Daucus, with Tunisia containing at least 12 species and six subspecies. We assessed morphological diversity from a Daucus L. germplasm collection of 103 accessions at the Nation...

  12. Cryopreservation of Juglans sp. germplasm using winter dormant buds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA-ARS, National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS), preserves 20 different Juglans species with over 680 different accessions that are maintained as field plantings. Cryopreservation of these genetic resources is an economic alternative to a costly back-up planting in another location. One of the ...

  13. Identification and evaluation of Forsythia germplasm using molecular markers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study identified Forsythia germplasm and evaluated the genetic relationships of F. ×intermedia hybrids, cultivars and their putative parental species. Leaf samples of F. ×intermedia cultivars and species, such as F. koreana and F. suspensa, were collected in the Netherlands, Korea, and USA. T...

  14. Genetic Diversity and Agronomic Improvement of North American Soybean Germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    From 1970 to 2008 there were 2,242 soybean cultivars registered in North America through U.S. PVP, U.S. utility patent, and journal registration. Of these, 80% were developed through proprietary and 20% through public programs. The most frequently used germplasm for cultivar development were the cul...

  15. Notice of release of Rattlesnake germplasm bottlebrush squirreltail

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rattlesnake Germplasm bottlebrush squirreltail (Elymus elymoides [Raf.] Swezey ssp. elymoides) was released 29 Oct. 2007 for use in rangeland seedings. This plant material was developed from T-1175, an accession collected in Elmore County, Idaho. Seeds of eight T-1175 lines selected for dry-matter...

  16. 50 years of sugarcane germplasm enhancement - roadblocks, hurdles, and success

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 1959, a sugarcane germplasm enhancement program was initiated in Houma Louisiana, USA. This program was intended to develop parental material with an expanded genetic base for the commercial breeding program. What has come to be known as the “basic breeding program” is a long-term undertaking ...

  17. Registration of a tufted-naked seed upland cotton germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A tufted-naked cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) mutant, 9023n4t (Reg. No. GP-971, PI 667553) was developed from the cultivar SC 9023 (9023) (PI 590933) through chemical mutagenesis. Germplasm line 9023n4t was developed by the Department of Plant and Soil Science, Texas Tech University, and released in...

  18. Cryopreservation and maintenance of hop material in USDA germplasm collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR-Corvallis) is responsible for conservation of the hop (Humulus lupulus L.) genetic resources for the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS). The collection includes 675 accessions representing 7 related taxa (species an...

  19. Lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) oviposition on Prunus germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was used as an oviposition surrogate for the congeneric S. exitiosa (Say) to examine possible preference for Prunus germplasm. We assayed limbs of a peach cultivar (Prunus persica), peach rootstocks, plum-peach hybrid rootstocks, the...

  20. Anthracnose disease evaluation of sorghum germplasm from Honduras

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Germplasm collections are important resources for sorghum improvement and 17 accessions from Honduras were inoculated with Colletotrichum sublineolum and evaluated at the Tropical Agriculture Research Station in Isabela, Puerto Rico during the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons to identify sources of ant...

  1. Screening germplasm for resistance to phomopsis seed decay in soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phomopsis longicolla is the primarily cause of soybean Phomopsis seed decay (PSD), a major cause of poor seed quality in the United States. To identify new sources of soybean lines resistant to PSD, field screening of 135 selected soybean germplasm lines representing 28 worldwide origins and maturit...

  2. Characterization of saccharum species germplasm for starch content

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The renewed interest in wild Saccharum species germplasm across sugarcane breeding programs has been necessitated by the need to widen the genetic base of breeding populations. Modern sugarcane cultivars were derived from inter-specific hybridization between S. officinarum and S. spontaneum. Very fe...

  3. Notice of release of Columbia Germplasm of bluebunch wheatgrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Columbia Germplasm of bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata [Pursh] A. Love) was released by USDA-ARS in 2015. It was developed through five cycles of selection, primarily for increased numbers of spikes, from K68, a population collected in 1980 in Adams County in eastern Washington. The c...

  4. Improving in vitro mineral nutrition for diverse germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Complex chemical interactions in growth media and variation in genotype response make it very difficult to optimize mineral nutrition of in vitro plants. Germplasm collections contain diverse species and cultivars that often do not grow well on standard tissue culture media or do not grow at all. Se...

  5. Evaluation of cotton germplasm and breeding populations for salt tolerance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three experiments were conducted in 2005 and 2007 to evaluate a total of 211 cotton germplasm and breeding lines for salt tolerance in the greenhouses. The randomized complete block designs with two or three replications were employed for those experiments. 200 mM salt solutions or tap water were ap...

  6. Current biotechnologies and future possibilities in preservation of animal germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Animal germplasm (semen, eggs, embryos, DNA, tissue) can be preserved from all agricultural species and result in the regeneration of animal lines or breeds. However, there are limitations to successful utilization of the material that are attributed to the type, post-thaw quality, and available as...

  7. Assessing genetic diversity in Valencia peanut germplasm using SSR markers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Valencia peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.ssp. fastigiata var. fastigiata) are well known for their in-shell market value. Assessment of genetic diversity of the available Valencia germplasm is key to the success of developing improved cultivars with desirable agronomic and quality traits. In the pres...

  8. The National Plant Germplasm System and GRIN-Global

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) is a cooperative effort by public and private organizations to preserve plant genetic diversity. Federal and State personnel at 20 sites are responsible for approximately 547,000 unique accessions of a wide array of plant genetic resources (PGR) representi...

  9. Portable DNA markers tailored for systematic characterization of Gossypium germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many small-scale ad-hoc studies on characterization of Gossypium germplasm have been conducted that use different sets of markers. Coordination with the cotton community is needed to reach a consensus on the appropriate initial set of DNA markers. In consultation with the cotton community, a set o...

  10. Anthracnose field evaluation of sorghum germplasm from Botswana

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sorghum anthracnose is a disease of worldwide importance and host-plant resistance is the most practical method of disease management. In this study, 154 sorghum accessions from the Botswana collection maintained by the United States National Plant Germplasm System were inoculated with Colletotrich...

  11. Tolerance of the trifoliate citrus hybrid US-897 (Citrus reticulata Blanco x Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.) to Huanglongbing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a destructive disease of citrus in most citrus-producing countries worldwide. The disease, presumably caused by phloem-limited bacteria of the genus Candidatus Liberibacter, affects all known citrus species and citrus relatives with little known resistance. Typical disease s...

  12. Antennal and behavioral response of the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) to degradation products of citrus volatiles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) vectors the bacterial causal pathogen of the deadly citrus disease, Huanglongbing (citrus greening) which is a major threat to citrus industry worldwide. We studied antennal and behavioral responses to principal components of head...

  13. The WRKY Transcription Factor Family in Citrus: Valuable and Useful Candidate Genes for Citrus Breeding.

    PubMed

    Ayadi, M; Hanana, M; Kharrat, N; Merchaoui, H; Marzoug, R Ben; Lauvergeat, V; Rebaï, A; Mzid, R

    2016-10-01

    WRKY transcription factors belong to a large family of plant transcriptional regulators whose members have been reported to be involved in a wide range of biological roles including plant development, adaptation to environmental constraints and response to several diseases. However, little or poor information is available about WRKY's in Citrus. The recent release of completely assembled genomes sequences of Citrus sinensis and Citrus clementina and the availability of ESTs sequences from other citrus species allowed us to perform a genome survey for Citrus WRKY proteins. In the present study, we identified 100 WRKY members from C. sinensis (51), C. clementina (48) and Citrus unshiu (1), and analyzed their chromosomal distribution, gene structure, gene duplication, syntenic relation and phylogenetic analysis. A phylogenetic tree of 100 Citrus WRKY sequences with their orthologs from Arabidopsis has distinguished seven groups. The CsWRKY genes were distributed across all ten sweet orange chromosomes. A comprehensive approach and an integrative analysis of Citrus WRKY gene expression revealed variable profiles of expression within tissues and stress conditions indicating functional diversification. Thus, candidate Citrus WRKY genes have been proposed as potentially involved in fruit acidification, essential oil biosynthesis and abiotic/biotic stress tolerance. Our results provided essential prerequisites for further WRKY genes cloning and functional analysis with an aim of citrus crop improvement.

  14. 78 FR 55241 - Foreign-Trade Zone 79-Tampa, Florida, Foreign-Trade Subzone 79C-Cutrale Citrus Juices USA, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 79--Tampa, Florida, Foreign-Trade Subzone 79C--Cutrale Citrus... to the existing activation limit of FTZ 79, on behalf of Cutrale Citrus Juices USA, Inc....

  15. Release of EL54 Sugarbeet Germplasm Derived from WB879 Wild Germplasm With Resistance to Aphanomyces and Excellent Stand Establishment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    EL54 (PI 654357) is a sugarbeet germplasm derived from wild beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima) accession WB879 (PI 540625). EL54 is being released in the interest of broadening the genetic base of sugar beet. The parent accession WB879, collected in 1989 from Port-de-Houet, France (3 m elevation), w...

  16. Assessing the breeding potential of day-neutral converted racestock germplasm in the Pee Dee cotton germplasm enhancement program

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The primitive, upland cotton landrace collection represents one of the untapped genetic resources in cotton breeding programs. Efforts to utilize these resources have been slow, but the development of day-neutral converted germplasm lines offers tremendous potential for broadening the genetic base i...

  17. Efficacy of mint (Mentha arvensis) leaf and citrus (Citrus aurantium) peel extracts as natural preservatives for shelf life extension of chill stored Indian mackerel.

    PubMed

    Viji, Pankyamma; Binsi, Puthanpurakkal Kizhakkathil; Visnuvinayagam, Sivam; Bindu, Jaganath; Ravishankar, Chandragiri Nagarajarao; Srinivasa Gopal, Teralandur Krishnaswamy

    2015-10-01

    Efficacy of mint (Mentha arvensis) leaf and citrus (Citrus aurantium) peel extracts in retarding the quality changes in Indian mackerel during chilled storage was investigated. Mint leaf extract showed higher quantity of phenolics and superior in-vitro antioxidant activities than citrus peel extract. Gutted mackerel were given a dip treatment in mint extract (0.5 %, w/v) and citrus extract (1 % w/v), packed in LDPE pouches and stored at 0-2 °C. The biochemical quality indices viz. total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), trimethylamine nitrogen (TMA-N), free fattyacids (FFA) were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in mint extract (ME) treated fishes compared to citrus extract (CE) treated and control fishes (C) without any treatment. Plant extract treatment significantly inhibited lipid oxidation in mackerel as indicated by peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Aerobic plate count (APC) was markedly higher in C group followed by CE group throughout the storage period. As per sensory evaluation, shelf life of Indian mackerel was determined to be 11-13 days for C group, 13-15 days for CE group and 16-17 days for ME group, during storage at 0-2 °C.

  18. [Effects of Bioactive Substances from Citrus on the Central Nervous System and Utilization as Food Material].

    PubMed

    Okuyama, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    We have recently shown that 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone (HMF) and auraptene (AUR) have neuroprotective effects on the central nervous system. HMF, a citrus flavonoid, altered NMDA-type glutamate receptor antagonist MK-801-induced memory dysfunction and schizophrenia-positive symptom-like behavior. HMF also showed a protective effect against ischemia-induced short-term memory dysfunction. In the ischemic brain, HMF induced the following protective effects against brain dysfunction: 1) rescue of neuronal cell death in the hippocampus; 2) increased production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor; 3) stimulation of neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus subgranular zone; 4) activation of the autophosphorylation of calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II; and 5) suppression of microglial activation. On the other hand, AUR, a citrus coumarin, ameliorated lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in the brain as shown by inhibition of microglial activation and inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in the hippocampus. AUR also showed antiinflammatory effects on the ischemic brain by inhibiting microglial activation, COX-2 expression, and neuronal cell death in the hippocampus. The peel of kawachibankan (Citrus kawachiensis), a noted citrus product of Ehime prefecture, Japan, contains AUR, HMF, naringin, and narirutin. The dried powder of both the peel and juice had antiinflammatory effects in the mouse hippocampus, suggesting that citrus compounds may be beneficial as neuroprotective agents in the treatment of neurological disorders.

  19. Evaluation of Antidepressant-like Effect of Citrus Maxima Leaves in Animal Models of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Potdar, Vikram H; Kibile, Swati J

    2011-01-01

    Objective(s) This study planned to assess antidepressant like activity of aqueous extract from leaves of Citrus maxima Merr. (Rutaceae). Materials and Methods Boiling was used for aqueous extraction. Acute toxicity study was performed in mice. Antidepressant activity was studied using locomotor activity test, modified forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Three doses 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg of aqueous extract of leaves were selected for testing. Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, i.p.) and imipramine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) were used as the standard drugs. Results Aqueous extract of Citrus maxima leaves significantly reduced immobility time in both TST and FST. In locomotor activity testing it showed psychostimulant effect. Extract increased the climbing behavior in FST, which is similar to effect observed with imipramine. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that antidepressant like effect of Citrus maxima seems to be mediated by an increase in norepinephrine level in synapses. PMID:23492865

  20. Annotation of the Asian citrus psyllid genome reveals a reduced innate immune system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Citrus production worldwide is currently facing significant losses due to citrus greening disease, also known as huanglongbing. The citrus greening bacteria, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), is a persistent propagative pathogen transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuway...

  1. Improved annotation of the insect vector of citrus greening disease: Biocuration by a diverse genomics community

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) is the insect vector of the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the pathogen associated with citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, citrus greening). HLB threatens citrus production worldwide. Suppression or reduction of the insect vector usin...

  2. Thermal degradation of antioxidant micronutrients in citrus juice: kinetics and newly formed compounds.

    PubMed

    Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie; Tbatou, Manal; Carail, Michel; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Dornier, Manuel; Amiot, Marie Josephe

    2007-05-16

    The thermal degradation kinetics of vitamin C, two carotenoids (beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin), and hesperidin, as a function of temperature, were determined for Citrus juice [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck and Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan]. The influence of dissolved oxygen on the rate of ascorbic acid degradation was also assessed. Analysis of kinetic data suggested a first-order reaction for the degradation of vitamin C and carotenoids. The kinetics parameters Dtheta, z, and Ea have been calculated. Following the Arrhenius relationship, the activation energy of ascorbic acid was 35.9 kJ mol-1 and agreed with the range of literature reported value. The results on vitamin C and carotenoids from citrus juice made it possible to validate the predicting model. Thermal degradation of carotenoids revealed differences in stability among the main provitamin A carotenoids and between these and other carotenoids belonging to the xanthophyll family. The activation energies for the two provitamin A carotenoids were 110 and 156 kJ mol-1 for beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin, respectively. On the other hand, no degradation of hesperidin was observed during thermal treatment. Finally, the vitamin C in citrus juice was not as heat sensitive as expected and the main provitamin A carotenoids present in citrus juice displayed a relative heat stability. The high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-mass spectrometry analysis of degradation products showed that the isomerization of the epoxide function in position 5,6 into a furanoxide function in position 5,8 was a common reaction for several xanthophylls. These findings will help determine optimal processing conditions for minimizing the degradation of important quality factors such as vitamin C and carotenoid in citrus juice.

  3. Accumulation of the sesquiterpenes nootkatone and valencene by callus cultures of Citrus paradisi, Citrus limonia and Citrus aurantium.

    PubMed

    Del Río, J A; Ortuño, A; Puig, D G; Iborra, J L; Sabater, F

    1991-10-01

    The production of the sesquiterpenes nootkatone and valencene by callus cultures of Citrus species is described. The levels of these compounds were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their yields were compared with the amounts found in mature fruits. A simultaneous increase and decrease in the levels of nootkatone and valencene, respectively, were observed with the aging of callus cultures of Citrus paradisi. These results suggest that valencene might be a possible precursor of nootkatone in this species. The high level of nootkatone detected in 9-month-old callus cultures of Citrus paradisi might be associated with the corresponding cell morphological changes observed.

  4. Citrus leprosis virus vectored by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on citrus in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, J C V; Kitajima, E W; Childers, C C; Chagas, C M

    2003-01-01

    Citrus leprosis is caused by Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV) that is transmitted by mites in the genus Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). This disease directly reduces production and the life span of the citrus plant. The main symptoms of the disease include lesions on fruits, leaves, and twigs or small branches, causing premature fruit drop, defoliation, and death of the twigs or branches leading to serious tree decline. Leprosis is a highly destructive disease of citrus, wherever it occurs. The Brazilian citrus industry spends over 100 million US dollars annually on acaricides to control the vector, Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes). This review contains information about the history of the etiology of citrus leprosis, its geographical distribution, host range, the role of the mite vectors, viral morphology and relationships with the infected cell, and transmissibility of the virus by the mite. In addition, data on the mite-virus-plant relationship, disease damage, and strategies for controlling disease spread are presented.

  5. Potent activity of nobiletin-rich Citrus reticulata peel extract to facilitate cAMP/PKA/ERK/CREB signaling associated with learning and memory in cultured hippocampal neurons: identification of the substances responsible for the pharmacological action.

    PubMed

    Kawahata, Ichiro; Yoshida, Masaaki; Sun, Wen; Nakajima, Akira; Lai, Yanxin; Osaka, Naoya; Matsuzaki, Kentaro; Yokosuka, Akihito; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Naganuma, Akira; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Yamakuni, Tohru

    2013-10-01

    cAMP/PKA/ERK/CREB signaling linked to CRE-mediated transcription is crucial for learning and memory. We originally found nobiletin as a natural compound that stimulates this intracellular signaling and exhibits anti-dementia action in animals. Citrus reticulata or C. unshiu peels are employed as "chinpi" and include a small amount of nobiletin. We here provide the first evidence for beneficial pharmacological actions on the cAMP/PKA/ERK/CREB cascade of extracts from nobiletin-rich C.reticulata peels designated as Nchinpi, the nobiletin content of which was 0.83 ± 0.13% of the dry weight or 16-fold higher than that of standard chinpi extracts. Nchinpi extracts potently facilitated CRE-mediated transcription in cultured hippocampal neurons, whereas the standard chinpi extracts showed no such activity. Also, the Nchinpi extract, but not the standard chinpi extract, stimulated PKA/ERK/CREB signaling. Interestingly, treatment with the Nchinpi extract at the concentration corresponding to approximately 5 μM nobiletin more potently facilitated CRE-mediated transcriptional activity than did 30 μM nobiletin alone. Consistently, sinensetin, tangeretin, 6-demethoxynobiletin, and 6-demethoxytangeretin were also identified as bioactive substances in Nchinpi that facilitated the CRE-mediated transcription. Purified sinensetin enhanced the transcription to a greater degree than nobiletin. Furthermore, samples reconstituted with the four purified compounds and nobiletin in the ratio of each constituent's content in the extract showed activity almost equal to that of the Nchinpi extract to stimulate CRE-mediated transcription. These findings suggest that above four compounds and nobiletin in the Nchinpi extract mainly cooperated to facilitate potently CRE-mediated transcription linked to the upstream cAMP/PKA/ERK/CREB pathway in hippocampal neurons.

  6. Chipping citrus wood for gasifiction

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, D.B.; Hedden, S.L.; Whitney, J.D.; Shaw, L.N.

    1984-01-01

    Both green and dead citrus trees were used for chipping. Chip moisture content, fuel analysis, drying time, and data on fuel/tonne of chips were obtained. The average moisture contents of green and dead trees when chipped were 25% and 16% (wet basis) respectively. Chips were sized to a minimum of 0.32 squared cm x 0.32 cm thick to a maximum of 5.0 cm squared x 0.32 cm thick and normally required 4 weeks to air dry to 14% (wet basis) moisture content before use. Approximately 50% of the total tree by weight could be made into usable chips. 9 references.

  7. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering. PMID:27069387

  8. Asian Citrus Psyllid RNAi Pathway - RNAi evidence.

    PubMed

    Taning, Clauvis N T; Andrade, Eduardo C; Hunter, Wayne B; Christiaens, Olivier; Smagghe, Guy

    2016-11-30

    Diaphorina citri, known as the Asian citrus psyllid, is an important pest of citrus because it transmits a phloem-limited bacteria strongly implicated in huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). Emerging biotechnologies, such as RNA interference, could provide a new sustainable and environmentally friendly strategy for the management of this pest. In this study, genome and functional analysis were performed to verify whether the RNAi core genes are present in the Asian psyllid genome and if the RNAi machinery could be exploited to develop a management strategy for this pest. Analyses of RNAi-related genes in the Asian citrus psyllid genome showed an absence of sequences encoding R2D2, a dsRNA-binding protein that functions as a cofactor of Dicer-2 in Drosophila. Nevertheless, bioassays using an in Planta System showed that the Asian citrus psyllid was very sensitive to ingested dsRNA, demonstrating a strong RNAi response. A small dose of dsRNA administered through a citrus flush was enough to trigger the RNAi mechanism, causing significant suppression of the targeted transcript, and increased psyllid mortality. This study provides evidence of a functional RNAi machinery, which could be further exploited to develop RNAi based management strategies for the control of the Asian citrus psyllid.

  9. Supplementation of Citrus maxima Peel Powder Prevented Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Hepatic Damage in Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Treated Rats.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Mohammed Riaz Hasan; Sagor, Md Abu Taher; Tabassum, Nabila; Potol, Md Abdullah; Hossain, Hemayet; Alam, Md Ashraful

    2015-01-01

    Citrus maxima peel is rich in natural phenolic compounds and has a long use in the traditional medicine. HPLC-DAD analysis on Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited the presence of various phenolic compounds such as caffeic acid and (-)-epicatechin. To determine the plausible hepatoprotective activity of Citrus maxima peel powder, we used carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treated rat model. Liver damage in rats was confirmed by measuring the AST, ALT, and ALP enzyme activities. In addition, lipid peroxidation products (MDA), nitric oxide, advanced protein oxidation products level (APOP), and catalase activities were also analyzed along with the histological profiling for the inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in liver. Dietary supplementation of Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited significant reduction of serum AST, ALT, and ALP activities in carbon tetrachloride treated rats. Moreover, Citrus maxima peel powder also showed a significant reduction of the oxidative stress markers (MDA, NO, and APOP level) and restored the catalase activity in CCl4 treated rats. Histological examination of the liver section revealed reduced inflammatory cells infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in CCl4 treated rats. The results from this study demonstrated that Citrus maxima peel powder produced significant hepatoprotective action in CCl4 administered rats.

  10. Supplementation of Citrus maxima Peel Powder Prevented Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Hepatic Damage in Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Treated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Mohammed Riaz Hasan; Sagor, Md Abu Taher; Tabassum, Nabila; Potol, Md Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Citrus maxima peel is rich in natural phenolic compounds and has a long use in the traditional medicine. HPLC-DAD analysis on Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited the presence of various phenolic compounds such as caffeic acid and (−)-epicatechin. To determine the plausible hepatoprotective activity of Citrus maxima peel powder, we used carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treated rat model. Liver damage in rats was confirmed by measuring the AST, ALT, and ALP enzyme activities. In addition, lipid peroxidation products (MDA), nitric oxide, advanced protein oxidation products level (APOP), and catalase activities were also analyzed along with the histological profiling for the inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in liver. Dietary supplementation of Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited significant reduction of serum AST, ALT, and ALP activities in carbon tetrachloride treated rats. Moreover, Citrus maxima peel powder also showed a significant reduction of the oxidative stress markers (MDA, NO, and APOP level) and restored the catalase activity in CCl4 treated rats. Histological examination of the liver section revealed reduced inflammatory cells infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in CCl4 treated rats. The results from this study demonstrated that Citrus maxima peel powder produced significant hepatoprotective action in CCl4 administered rats. PMID:26106435

  11. Evaluation of bioactive components and antioxidant and anticancer properties of citrus wastes generated during bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Im, Soon Jae; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Min Young

    2014-04-01

    In the bioethanol production process employing citrus peels, a large amount of enzymatic hydrolyzed residues is generated as waste material. The bioactive compounds, and antioxidant and anticancer activities of these residues were investigated in the present study. Hydrolyzed citrus residues exhibited similar antioxidant activity as the unhydrolyzed control, which was positively correlated to the contents of total phenols, flavonoids and total carotenoid. Some flavonoids (naringin, naringenin, hesperetin and neohesperidin) and two high value co-products (D-limonene and galacturonic acid) were detected only in hydrolyzed residues. In addition, hydrolyzed residues showed antiproliferative activity and sub-G1 arrest in human melanoma A375 and colon cancer HCT116 cells. These results provide an alternative use for hydrolyzed citrus residues in the functional food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  12. Selection of Small Synthetic Antimicrobial Peptides Inhibiting Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri Causing Citrus Canker

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jeahyuk; Park, Euiho; Lee, Se-Weon; Hyun, Jae-Wook; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Citrus canker disease decreases the fruit quality and yield significantly, furthermore, emerging of streptomycin-resistant pathogens threatens the citrus industry seriously because of a lack of proper control agents. Small synthetic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) could be a promising alternative. Fourteen hexapeptides were selected by using positional scanning of synthetic peptide combinatorial libraries. Each hexapeptide showed different antimicrobial spectrum against Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas, and Candida species. Intriguingly, BHC10 showed bactericidal activity exclusively on Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), while BHC7 was none-active exclusively against two Pseudomonas spp. at concentration of 100 μg/ml suggesting potential selectivity constrained in hexapeptide frame. Three hexapeptides, BHC02, 06 and 11, showed bactericidal activities against various Xcc strains at concentration of 10 μg/ml. When they were co-infiltrated with pathogens into citrus leaves the disease progress was suppressed significantly. Further study would be needed to confirm the actual disease control capacity of the selected hexapeptides. PMID:28167892

  13. Characterization of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Reese, Justin; Christenson, Matthew K; Leng, Nan; Saha, Surya; Cantarel, Brandi; Lindeberg, Magdalen; Tamborindeguy, Cecilia; Maccarthy, Justin; Weaver, Daniel; Trease, Andrew J; Steven V, Ready; Davis, Vincent M; McCormick, Courtney; Haudenschild, Christian; Han, Shunsheng; Johnson, Shannon L; Shelby, Kent S; Huang, Hong; Bextine, Blake R; Shatters, Robert G; Hall, David G; Davis, Paul H; Hunter, Wayne B

    2014-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a vector for the causative agents of Huanglongbing, which threatens citrus production worldwide. This study reports and discusses the first D. citri transcriptomes, encompassing the three main life stages of D. citri, egg, nymph and adult. The transcriptomes were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO) and insecticide-related genes within each life stage were identified to aid the development of future D. citri insecticides. Transcriptome assemblies and other sequence data are available for download at the International Asian Citrus Psyllid Genome Consortium website [http://psyllid.org/download] and at NCBI [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/29447].

  14. Characterization of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Justin; Christenson, Matthew K.; Leng, Nan; Saha, Surya; Cantarel, Brandi; Lindeberg, Magdalen; Tamborindeguy, Cecilia; MacCarthy, Justin; Weaver, Daniel; Trease, Andrew J.; Ready, Steven V.; Davis, Vincent M.; McCormick, Courtney; Haudenschild, Christian; Han, Shunsheng; Johnson, Shannon L.; Shelby, Kent S.; Huang, Hong; Bextine, Blake R.; Shatters, Robert G.; Hall, David G.; Davis, Paul H.; Hunter, Wayne B.

    2014-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a vector for the causative agents of Huanglongbing, which threatens citrus production worldwide. This study reports and discusses the first D. citri transcriptomes, encompassing the three main life stages of D. citri, egg, nymph and adult. The transcriptomes were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO) and insecticide-related genes within each life stage were identified to aid the development of future D. citri insecticides. Transcriptome assemblies and other sequence data are available for download at the International Asian Citrus Psyllid Genome Consortium website [http://psyllid.org/download] and at NCBI [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/29447]. PMID:24511328

  15. Synephrine content of juice from Satsuma mandarins (Citrus unshiu Marcovitch).

    PubMed

    Dragull, Klaus; Breksa, Andrew P; Cain, Brian

    2008-10-08

    Synephrine, the main protoalkaloid in Citrus species, is commonly analyzed as the active component in citrus peel-containing herbal supplements, but the edible parts of mandarins have been largely ignored. The synephrine concentration has been determined in the juices of Citrus unshiu mandarins harvested from 10 different groves located in a major growing region in California. For comparison, the physicochemical properties of the juices, including pH, conductivity, soluble solids content, and titratable acidity, were also measured. The synephrine values among 10 groves ranged from 73.3 to 158.1 mg L (-1). Repeat sampling of fruit from the 10 locations showed that the intragrove variability in synephrine concentrations ranged from 1.0 to 27.7% CV and was grove dependent. Among the physicochemical properties, titratable acidity weakly correlated with synephrine, and for one sample a low maturity index was linked to high synephrine content. The overall mean synephrine concentration of 92.8 mg L (-1) is up to 6-fold higher than values previously determined for orange juices and suggests that mandarin juice could constitute a significant dietary source of synephrine. Furthermore, the results suggest that grove location and maturity affect synephrine content.

  16. Chemical Composition and in Vitro Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic, and Central Nervous System Activities of the Essential Oils of Citrus medica L. cv. 'Liscia' and C. medica cv. 'Rugosa' Cultivated in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Aliberti, Luigi; Caputo, Lucia; De Feo, Vincenzo; De Martino, Laura; Nazzaro, Filomena; Souza, Lucéia Fátima

    2016-09-18

    Citrus medica cv. 'liscia' and C. medica cv. 'rugosa' are two taxa of citron, belonging to the biodiversity of South Italy, in particular of Amalfi Coast, in the Campania region. The chemical composition of the essential oils (EOs) from fruit peels of both C. medica cultivars was studied by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. In all, 100 compounds were identified, 82 for C. medica cv. 'liscia', accounting for 91.4% of the total oil, and 88 for C. medica cv. 'rugosa', accounting for 92.0% of the total oil. Monoterpene hydrocarbons are the main constituents in both oils of C. medica cv. 'liscia' (79.1%) and C. medica cv. 'rugosa' (80.2%). In both oils, limonene (67.2%-62.8%) and camphene (8.5%-10.9%) are the main constituents. The antimicrobial activity of the EOs was assayed against some bacterial strains: Bacillus cereus (DSM 4313), Bacillus cereus (DSM 4384), Staphylococcus aureus (DSM 25693), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 50071), and Escherichia coli (DSM 8579). Low concentrations of C. medica cv. 'rugosa' EO showed an inhibitory effect on P. aeruginosa and higher concentrations inhibited more B. cereus (4384) and E. coli than S. aureus. The cytotoxicity of the EO was evaluated against SH-SY5Y cell line. The influence of the EO on the expression of adenylate cyclase 1 (ADCY1) was also studied. The antimicrobial activity registered confirm their traditional uses as food preserving agents and led us to hypothesize the possible use of these oils as antimicrobials. The alterations in ADCY1 expression suggested a role for limonene in effects on the central nervous system.

  17. Isolation and Functional Characterization of a Lycopene β-cyclase Gene Promoter from Citrus

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Suwen; Zhang, Yin; Zheng, Xiongjie; Zhu, Kaijie; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2016-01-01

    Lycopene β-cyclases are key enzymes located at the branch point of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway. However, the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of LCYb1 in citrus with abundant carotenoid accumulation are still unclear. To understand the molecular basis of CsLCYb1 expression, we isolated and functionally characterized the 5′ upstream sequences of CsLCYb1 from citrus. The full-length CsLCYb1 promoter and a series of its 5′ deletions were fused to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene and transferred into different plants (tomato, Arabidopsis and citrus callus) to test the promoter activities. The results of all transgenic species showed that the 1584 bp upstream region from the translational start site displayed maximal promoter activity, and the minimal promoter containing 746 bp upstream sequences was sufficient for strong basal promoter activity. Furthermore, the CsLCYb1 promoter activity was developmentally and tissue-specially regulated in transgenic Arabidopsis, and it was affected by multiple hormones and environmental cues in transgenic citrus callus under various treatments. Finer deletion analysis identified an enhancer element existing as a tandem repeat in the promoter region between -574 to -513 bp and conferring strong promoter activity. The copy numbers of the enhancer element differed among various citrus species, leading to the development of a derived simple sequence repeat marker to distinguish different species. In conclusion, this study elucidates the expression characteristics of the LCYb1 promoter from citrus and further identifies a novel enhancer element required for the promoter activity. The characterized promoter fragment would be an ideal candidate for genetic engineering and seeking of upstream trans-acting elements. PMID:27679644

  18. Ozone fluxes from Citrus species exposed to different levels of atmospheric ozone concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fares, S.; Ormeño, E.; Park, J.; Gentner, D. R.; McKay, M.; Karlik, J. F.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2009-12-01

    Citrus includes a large number of species and varieties widely cultivated in the Central Valley of California and in many other countries having Mediterranean climates. Orchards in California often experience high levels of tropospheric ozone, formed from reactions of VOC and NOx. On one hand, citrus trees may contribute to cleaning the air when the ozone is deposited on the canopies through stomatal and non-stomatal mechanisms, but on the other hand ozone is known to oxidize leaf tissues after entering stomata, resulting in a decrease of carbon assimilation and decrease in crop yield. To characterize ozone deposition for lemon (Citrus limon), mandarin (Citrus reticulata), and orange (Citrus sinensis), we designed branch enclosures which allowed a direct measurement of ozone uptake under different physiological conditions obtained in a greenhouse-controlled environment. A second aim of this study was to test the capability of Citrus species to emit volatile organic compounds which may play a key role in locally removing ozone through chemical reactions in the intercellular spaces and in the gas phase or forming more ozone on the regional scale through reactions with NO¬x. Ozone uptake was quantified to be in the range of 5-12 nmol m-2 s-1 under the highest conditions of physiological activity. Under high levels of ozone concentration, measured ozone deposition was lower than modeled ozone deposition based on the level of stomatal aperture. Our study evaluates the possible role of VOC in scavenging ozone through gas-phase reactions, but the results instead lead to the hypothesis of an accumulation of ozone in the intercellular spaces resulting in a decrease of ozone fluxes for the citrus species studied.

  19. Antimicrobial effects of Citrus sinensis peel extracts against dental caries bacteria: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Sapna B.; Mahin-Syed-Ismail, Prabu; Varghese, Shaji; Thomas-George, Bibin; Kandathil- Thajuraj, Pathinettam; Baby, Deepak; Haleem, Shaista; Sreedhar, Sreeja

    2016-01-01

    Background Ethnomedicine is gaining admiration since years but still there is abundant medicinal flora which is unrevealed through research. The study was conducted to assess the in vitro antimicrobial potential and also determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Citrus sinensis peel extracts with a view of searching a novel extract as a remedy for dental caries pathogens. Material and Methods Aqueous and ethanol (cold and hot) extracts prepared from peel of Citrus sinensis were screened for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus, using agar well diffusion method. The lowest concentration of every extract considered as the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for both test organisms. One way ANOVA with Post Hoc Bonferroni test was applied for statistical analysis. Confidence level and level of significance were set at 95% and 5% respectively. Results Dental caries pathogens were inhibited most by hot ethanolic extract of Citrus sinensispeel followed by cold ethanolic extract. Aqueous extracts were effective at very high concentrations. Minimum inhibitory concentration of hot and cold ethanolic extracts of Citrus sinensis peel ranged between 12-15 mg/ml against both the dental caries pathogens. Conclusions Citrus sinensispeels extract was found to be effective against dental caries pathogens and contain compounds with therapeutic potential. Nevertheless, clinical trials on the effect of these plants are essential before advocating large-scale therapy. Key words:Agar well diffusion, antimicrobial activity, dental caries, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus. PMID:26855710

  20. Antimicrobial effects of Citrus sinensis peel extracts against dental caries bacteria: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Sapna B; Mahin-Syed-Ismail, Prabu; Varghese, Shaji; Thomas-George, Bibin; Kandathil-Thajuraj, Pathinettam; Baby, Deepak; Haleem, Shaista; Sreedhar, Sreeja; Devang-Divakar, Darshan

    2016-02-01

    Ethnomedicine is gaining admiration since years but still there is abundant medicinal flora which is unrevealed through research. The study was conducted to assess the in vitro antimicrobial potential and also determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Citrus sinensis peel extracts with a view of searching a novel extract as a remedy for dental caries pathogens. Aqueous and ethanol (cold and hot) extracts prepared from peel of Citrus sinensis were screened for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus, using agar well diffusion method. The lowest concentration of every extract considered as the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for both test organisms. One way ANOVA with Post Hoc Bonferroni test was applied for statistical analysis. Confidence level and level of significance were set at 95% and 5% respectively. Dental caries pathogens were inhibited most by hot ethanolic extract of Citrus sinensispeel followed by cold ethanolic extract. Aqueous extracts were effective at very high concentrations. Minimum inhibitory concentration of hot and cold ethanolic extracts of Citrus sinensis peel ranged between 12-15 mg/ml against both the dental caries pathogens. Citrus sinensispeels extract was found to be effective against dental caries pathogens and contain compounds with therapeutic potential. Nevertheless, clinical trials on the effect of these plants are essential before advocating large-scale therapy. Agar well diffusion, antimicrobial activity, dental caries, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus.

  1. RAPD analysis of the genetic diversity of mango (Mangifera indica) germplasm in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, I G B; Valente, S E S; Britto, F B; de Souza, V A B; Lima, P S C

    2011-12-14

    We evaluated genetic variability of mango (Mangifera indica) accessions maintained in the Active Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Meio-Norte in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, using RAPDs. Among these accessions, 35 originated from plantings in Brazil, six from the USA and one from India. Genomic DNA, extracted from leaf material using a commercial purification kit, was subjected to PCR with the primers A01, A09, G03, G10, N05, and M16. Fifty-five polymorphic loci were identified, with mean of 9.16 ± 3.31 bands per primer and 100% polymorphism. Application of unweighted pair group method using arithmetic average cluster analysis demonstrated five genotypic groups among the accessions examined. The genotypes Rosa 41, Rosa 48 and Rosa 49 were highly similar (94% similarity), whereas genotypes Sensation and Rosa 18 were the most divergent (only 7% similarity). The mango accessions were found to have considerable genetic variability, demonstrating the importance of analyzing each genotype in a collection in order to efficiently maintain the germplasm collection.

  2. Neutral Genetic Markers and Conservation Genetics: Simulated Germplasm Collections

    PubMed Central

    Bataillon, T. M.; David, J. L.; Schoen, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    This study examines the use of neutral genetic markers to guide sampling from a large germplasm collection with the objective of establishing from it a smaller, but genetically representative sample. We simulated evolutionary change and germplasm sampling in a subdivided population of a diploid hermaphrodite annual plant to create an initially large collection. Several strategies of sampling from this collection were then compared. Our results show that a strategy based on information obtained from marker genes led to retention of the maximum number of neutral and nonneutral alleles in the smaller sample. This occurred when demes were composed of self-fertilizing individuals or when no migration occurred among demes, but not when demes of an outcrossing population were connected by high levels of migration. PMID:8878704

  3. Digital Gene Expression Analysis of Ponkan Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in Response to Asia Citrus Psyllid-Vectored Huanglongbing Infection.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yun; Cheng, Chunzhen; Jiang, Bo; Jiang, Nonghui; Zhang, Yongyan; Hu, Minlun; Zhong, Guangyan

    2016-07-02

    Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), the most destructive citrus disease, can be transmitted by psyllids and diseased budwoods. Although the final symptoms of the two main HLB transmission ways were similar and hard to distinguish, the host responses might be different. In this study, the global gene changes in leaves of ponkan (Citrus reticulata) mandarin trees following psyllid-transmission of HLB were analyzed at the early symptomatic stage (13 weeks post inoculation, wpi) and late symptomatic stage (26 wpi) using digital gene expression (DGE) profiling. At 13 wpi, 2452 genes were downregulated while only 604 genes were upregulated in HLB infected ponkan leaves but no pathway enrichment was identified. Gene function analysis showed impairment in defense at the early stage of infection. At late stage of 26 wpi, however, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in carbohydrate metabolism, plant defense, hormone signaling, secondary metabolism, transcription regulation were overwhelmingly upregulated, indicating that the defense reactions were eventually activated. The results indicated that HLB bacterial infection significantly influenced ponkan gene expression, and a delayed response of the host to the fast growing bacteria might be responsible for its failure in fighting against the bacteria.

  4. Digital Gene Expression Analysis of Ponkan Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in Response to Asia Citrus Psyllid-Vectored Huanglongbing Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yun; Cheng, Chunzhen; Jiang, Bo; Jiang, Nonghui; Zhang, Yongyan; Hu, Minlun; Zhong, Guangyan

    2016-01-01

    Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), the most destructive citrus disease, can be transmitted by psyllids and diseased budwoods. Although the final symptoms of the two main HLB transmission ways were similar and hard to distinguish, the host responses might be different. In this study, the global gene changes in leaves of ponkan (Citrus reticulata) mandarin trees following psyllid-transmission of HLB were analyzed at the early symptomatic stage (13 weeks post inoculation, wpi) and late symptomatic stage (26 wpi) using digital gene expression (DGE) profiling. At 13 wpi, 2452 genes were downregulated while only 604 genes were upregulated in HLB infected ponkan leaves but no pathway enrichment was identified. Gene function analysis showed impairment in defense at the early stage of infection. At late stage of 26 wpi, however, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in carbohydrate metabolism, plant defense, hormone signaling, secondary metabolism, transcription regulation were overwhelmingly upregulated, indicating that the defense reactions were eventually activated. The results indicated that HLB bacterial infection significantly influenced ponkan gene expression, and a delayed response of the host to the fast growing bacteria might be responsible for its failure in fighting against the bacteria. PMID:27384559

  5. Involvement of ethylene in chlorophyll degradation in peel of citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Purvis, A C; Barmore, C R

    1981-10-01

    The effect of ethylene on chlorophyll degradation in the peel of Robinson tangerine (X Citrus reticulata Blanco) and calamondin (X Citrofortunellamitis [Blanco] Ingram and Moore) fruits was studied. The chlorophyll degrading system in the peel of these two citrus species was not self-sustaining but required ethylene to function. Chlorophyll degradation ceased immediately when fruit were removed from ethylene and held in ethylene-free air at 0.2 atmospheric pressure. However, at atmospheric pressure, chlorophyll degradation continued for 24 hours in the absence of exogenous ethylene. Although chlorophyllase levels were negatively correlated with chlorophyll content in the peel (r = -0.981; P < 0.01), the level of chlorophyllase activity did not change when fruit were removed from ethylene, even though chlorophyll degradation had stopped. From these observations, it was concluded that ethylene is necessary for chlorophyll degradation in the two species of citrus studied, but its primary role is not solely for the induction of chlorophyllase activity.

  6. Involvement of an extracellular fungus laccase in the flavonoid metabolism in Citrus fruits inoculated with Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Licinio; Del Río, José Antonio; Pérez-Gilabert, Manuela; Ortuño, Ana

    2015-04-01

    Fungi of the genus Alternaria are responsible for substantial pre-harvest losses in Citrus. In this study a degradative metabolism of flavonoids (flavanones, flavones and polymethoxyflavones) was observed when 'Fortune' mandarin, Citrus limon and Citrus paradisi, fruits were inoculated with Alternaria alternata, a pre-harvest pathogenic fungus. Associated to this flavonic metabolism the de novo synthesis of the phytoalexin scoparone was detected. This metabolism of flavonoids is caused by an extracellular fungus laccase. The kinetic characterisation of this enzyme revealed that the activity was induced by Citrus flavonoids and was dependent on flavonoid concentrations. The enzyme exhibited a Km of 1.9 mM using ABTS as substrate with an optimum pH of 3.5 in citrate buffer 100 mM. The enzyme is active between 15 and 45 °C, the optimum temperature being around 35 °C, although 50% of the initial activity is lost after 45 min at 35 °C. The A. alternata laccase was inhibited by 0.5 mM l-cysteine and by caffeic acid. Study of the substrate specificity of this enzyme revealed that Citrus flavonoids are substrates of A. alternata laccase. These results suggest that the laccase enzyme could be involved in the pathogenesis of A. alternata in Citrus.

  7. Citrus fruit recognition using color image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Huirong; Ying, Yibin

    2004-10-01

    An algorithm for the automatic recognition of citrus fruit on the tree was developed. Citrus fruits have different color with leaves and branches portions. Fifty-three color images with natural citrus-grove scenes were digitized and analyzed for red, green, and blue (RGB) color content. The color characteristics of target surfaces (fruits, leaves, or branches) were extracted using the range of interest (ROI) tool. Several types of contrast color indices were designed and tested. In this study, the fruit image was enhanced using the (R-B) contrast color index because results show that the fruit have the highest color difference among the objects in the image. A dynamic threshold function was derived from this color model and used to distinguish citrus fruit from background. The results show that the algorithm worked well under frontlighting or backlighting condition. However, there are misclassifications when the fruit or the background is under a brighter sunlight.

  8. Molecular Characterization of Apricot Germplasm from an Old Stone Collection

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Carolina; Herrero, María; Hormaza, José I.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing germplasm erosion requires the recovery and conservation of traditional cultivars before they disappear. Here we present a particular case in Spain where a thorough prospection of local fruit tree species was performed in the 1950s with detailed data of the origin of each genotype but, unfortunately, the accessions are no longer conserved in ex situ germplasm collections. However, for most of those cultivars, an old stone collection is still preserved. In order to analyze the diversity present at the time when the prospection was made and to which extent variability has been eroded, we developed a protocol in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) to obtain DNA from maternal tissues of the stones of a sufficient quality to be amplified by PCR. The results obtained have been compared with the results from the profiles developed from apricot cultivars currently conserved in ex situ germplasm collections. The results highlight the fact that most of the old accessions are not conserved ex situ but provide a tool to prioritize the recovery of particular cultivars. The approach used in this work can also be applied to other plant species where seeds have been preserved. PMID:21901149

  9. Genetic diversity in a world germplasm collection of tall fescue

    PubMed Central

    Cuyeu, Romina; Rosso, Beatriz; Pagano, Elba; Soto, Gabriela; Fox, Romina; Ayub, Nicolás Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Festuca arundinacea Schreb., commonly known as tall fescue, is a major forage crop in temperate regions. Recently, a molecular analysis of different accessions of a world germplasm collection of tall fescue has demonstrated that it contains different species from the genus Festuca and allowed their rapid classification into the three major morphotypes (Continental, Mediterranean and Rhizomatous). In this study, we explored the genetic diversity of 161 accessions of Festuca species from 29 countries, including 28 accessions of INTA (Argentina), by analyzing 15 polymorphic SSR markers by capillary electrophoresis. These molecular markers allowed us to detect a total of 214 alleles. The number of alleles per locus varied between 5 and 24, and the values of polymorphic information content ranged from 0.627 to 0.840. In addition, the accessions analyzed by flow cytometry showed different ploidy levels (diploid, tetraploid, hexaploid and octaploid), placing in evidence that the world germplasm collection consisted of multiple species, as previously suggested. Interestingly, almost all accessions of INTA germplasm collection were true hexaploid tall fescue, belonging to two eco-geographic races (Continental and Mediterranean). Finally, the data presented revealed an ample genetic diversity of tall fescue showing the importance of preserving the INTA collection for future breeding programs. PMID:23885206

  10. Evaluation of popcorn germplasm for resistance to Sesamia nonagrioides attack.

    PubMed

    Butrón, A; Sandoya, G; Revilla, P; Ordás, A; Malvar, R A

    2005-10-01

    Popcorn adapted to Spanish conditions could be an interesting and profitable alternative to field corn. However, little is known about breeding popcorn germplasm for adaptation to Spain. Sesamia nonagrioides Lefèvbre is the main insect pest affecting popcorn quality and yield under Spanish growing conditions. The objectives of the study were the search for sources of resistance to S. nonagrioides among popcorn germplasm and to study the genetics of the resistance to S. nonagrioides attack. Eight breeding populations along with a five-inbred line diallel and two popcorn commercial checks were evaluated under S. nonagrioides infestation in 2 yr. Significant differences were found among general combining ability (GCA) effects for days to silking, S. nonagrioides tunnel length, general appearance of the ear, kernel moisture, and yield. Specific combining ability (SCA) effects were found to be significant for yield and ear damage. Therefore, heterotic patterns among popcorn materials should be taken into account to generate new popcorn hybrids that are not only more productive but also have higher kernel quality. Breeding popcorn populations BSP4APC0 and PSPW1C1 could be base germplasms in a breeding program for obtaining parental inbreds of healthy kernel popcorn hybrids. New inbred lines could be generated from the cross BP1 x BP2 that would have improved GCA and SCA effects for S. nonagrioides resistance when crossed to South American inbreds.

  11. Evaluation of bioefficacy of three Citrus essential oils against the dengue vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in correlation to their components enantiomeric distribution.

    PubMed

    Giatropoulos, Athanassios; Papachristos, Dimitrios P; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Koliopoulos, George; Polissiou, Moschos G; Emmanouel, Nickolaos; Michaelakis, Antonios

    2012-12-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to study the bioefficacy against Ae. albopictus of three Citrus essential oils, derived from peels of Citrus sinensis, Citrus limon, and Citrus paradise and of their components. Chiral gas chromatography analysis revealed the dominant occurrence of R-(+)-limonene and (-)-β-pinene in all three essential oils while in the case of lemon oil γ-terpinene, neral, and geranial detected also among other components. The tested Citrus essential oils were toxic against mosquito larvae with LC(50) values ranging from 25.03 to 37.03 mg l(-1). Among citrus essential oils components tested, γ-terpinene was the most toxic (LC(50) = 20.21 mg l(-1)) followed by both enantiomeric forms of limonene (LC(50) = 35.99 and 34.89 mg l(-1), for R-(+)-limonene and S-(-)-limonene, respectively). The delayed toxic effects after exposure of larvae to sublethal (LC(50)) doses were also investigated for citrus essential oils and their major component R-(+)-limonene, indicating a significant reduction of pupal survival. In repellent bioassays, lemon essential oil, S-(-)-limonene, citral (mixture of neral\\geranial) and (+)-β-pinene were the most effective compared with other citrus essential oils and components against adult mosquitoes. Repellent bioassays also revealed that limonenes and β-pinenes showed an isomer dependence repellent activity. Finally, according to enantiomeric distribution of limonene and α- and β-pinene, the repellency of lemon essential oil is possibly attributed to the presence of citral.

  12. Citrus nobiletin suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression in interleukin-1β-treated hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshigai, Emi; Machida, Toru; Okuyama, Tetsuya; Mori, Masatoshi; Murase, Hiromitsu; Yamanishi, Ryota; Okumura, Tadayoshi; Ikeya, Yukinobu; Nishino, Hoyoku; Nishizawa, Mikio

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •Nobiletin is a polymethoxylated flavone that is abundant in citrus peels. •Nobiletin is a major constituent of the Citrus unshiu peel extract. •Nobiletin suppresses induction of NO and reduces iNOS expression in hepatocytes. •Nobiletin reduces the iNOS promoter activity and the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. -- Abstract: Background: Nobiletin is a polymethoxylated flavone that is abundant in the peels of citrus fruits, such as Citrus unshiu (Satsuma mandarin) and Citrus sinensis. The dried peels of C. unshiu (chinpi) have been included in several formulae of Japanese Kampo medicines. Nobiletin may suppress the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which synthesizes the inflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO) in hepatocytes. Methods: A C. unshiu peel (CUP) extract was prepared. Primary cultured rat hepatocytes were treated with the CUP extract or nobiletin in the presence of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), which induces iNOS expression. NO production and iNOS gene expression were analyzed. Results: High-performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed that the nobiletin content in the CUP extract was 0.14%. Nobiletin dose-dependently reduced the NO levels and decreased iNOS expression at the protein, mRNA and antisense transcript levels. Flavone, which does not contain any methoxy groups, also suppressed iNOS induction. Nobiletin reduced the transcriptional activity of iNOS promoter-luciferase constructs and the DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in the nuclei. Conclusions: The suppression of iNOS induction by nobiletin suggests that nobiletin may be responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of citrus peels and have a therapeutic potential for liver diseases.

  13. Combination of Kluyveromyces marxianus and sodium bicarbonate for controlling green mold of citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Geng, Peng; Chen, Shaohua; Hu, Meiying; Rizwan-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Lai, Kaiping; Qu, Fei; Zhang, Yanbo

    2011-12-02

    Biocontrol efficacy of an antagonistic yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus was evaluated individually or in combination with sodium bicarbonate (SBC) against green mold of citrus fruit caused by Penicillium digitatum. Their effects on postharvest quality of citrus fruit were also investigated. The results indicated that the antagonistic activity of K. marxianus at 1×10⁸ CFU/mL on green mold of citrus fruit was enhanced by 2% SBC treatment. In artificial inoculation trials, disease control after 3 and 6 days, respectively, with the mixture of K. marxianus and 2% SBC (18.33%, 58.33%) was significantly improved over that obtained with K. marxianus (41.67%, 70.00%) or SBC (43.33%, 81.67%) alone. The combination of K. marxianus with SBC was as effective as the imazalil treatment in natural infection trials, which gave about 90% control of green mold. Addition of 2% SBC significantly stimulated the growth of K. marxianus in citrus fruit wounds after 72 h. Moreover, K. marxianus, SBC and their combination did not impair quality parameters including weight loss, fruit firmness, total soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid at 4 °C for 30 days followed by 20 °C for 15 days. These results suggested that the use of SBC is a useful approach to improve the efficacy of K. marxianus for the postharvest green mold of citrus fruit.

  14. Expression of Arabidopsis Hexokinase in Citrus Guard Cells Controls Stomatal Aperture and Reduces Transpiration

    PubMed Central

    Lugassi, Nitsan; Kelly, Gilor; Fidel, Lena; Yaniv, Yossi; Attia, Ziv; Levi, Asher; Alchanatis, Victor; Moshelion, Menachem; Raveh, Eran; Carmi, Nir; Granot, David

    2015-01-01

    Hexokinase (HXK) is a sugar-phosphorylating enzyme involved in sugar-sensing. It has recently been shown that HXK in guard cells mediates stomatal closure and coordinates photosynthesis with transpiration in the annual species tomato and Arabidopsis. To examine the role of HXK in the control of the stomatal movement of perennial plants, we generated citrus plants that express Arabidopsis HXK1 (AtHXK1) under KST1, a guard cell-specific promoter. The expression of KST1 in the guard cells of citrus plants has been verified using GFP as a reporter gene. The expression of AtHXK1 in the guard cells of citrus reduced stomatal conductance and transpiration with no negative effect on the rate of photosynthesis, leading to increased water-use efficiency. The effects of light intensity and humidity on stomatal behavior were examined in rooted leaves of the citrus plants. The optimal intensity of photosynthetically active radiation and lower humidity enhanced stomatal closure of AtHXK1-expressing leaves, supporting the role of sugar in the regulation of citrus stomata. These results suggest that HXK coordinates photosynthesis and transpiration and stimulates stomatal closure not only in annual species, but also in perennial species. PMID:26734024

  15. Expression of Arabidopsis Hexokinase in Citrus Guard Cells Controls Stomatal Aperture and Reduces Transpiration.

    PubMed

    Lugassi, Nitsan; Kelly, Gilor; Fidel, Lena; Yaniv, Yossi; Attia, Ziv; Levi, Asher; Alchanatis, Victor; Moshelion, Menachem; Raveh, Eran; Carmi, Nir; Granot, David

    2015-01-01

    Hexokinase (HXK) is a sugar-phosphorylating enzyme involved in sugar-sensing. It has recently been shown that HXK in guard cells mediates stomatal closure and coordinates photosynthesis with transpiration in the annual species tomato and Arabidopsis. To examine the role of HXK in the control of the stomatal movement of perennial plants, we generated citrus plants that express Arabidopsis HXK1 (AtHXK1) under KST1, a guard cell-specific promoter. The expression of KST1 in the guard cells of citrus plants has been verified using GFP as a reporter gene. The expression of AtHXK1 in the guard cells of citrus reduced stomatal conductance and transpiration with no negative effect on the rate of photosynthesis, leading to increased water-use efficiency. The effects of light intensity and humidity on stomatal behavior were examined in rooted leaves of the citrus plants. The optimal intensity of photosynthetically active radiation and lower humidity enhanced stomatal closure of AtHXK1-expressing leaves, supporting the role of sugar in the regulation of citrus stomata. These results suggest that HXK coordinates photosynthesis and transpiration and stimulates stomatal closure not only in annual species, but also in perennial species.

  16. Antifeedant and sublethal effects of imidacloprid on Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri.

    PubMed

    Boina, Dhana Raj; Onagbola, Ebenezer O; Salyani, Masoud; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2009-08-01

    Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, transmits the causal bacteria of the devastating citrus disease huanglongbing (HLB). Because of the variation in spatial and temporal uptake and systemic distribution of imidacloprid applied to citrus trees and its degradation over time in citrus trees, ACP adults and nymphs are exposed to concentrations that may not cause immediate mortality but rather sublethal effects. The objective of this laboratory study was to determine the effects of sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid on ACP life stages. Feeding by ACP adults and nymphs on plants treated daily with a sublethal concentration (0.1 microg mL(-1)) of imidacloprid significantly decreased adult longevity (8 days), fecundity (33%) and fertility (6%), as well as nymph survival (12%) and developmental rate compared with untreated controls. The magnitude of these negative effects was directly related to exposure duration and concentration. Furthermore, ACP adults that fed on citrus leaves treated systemically with lethal and sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid excreted significantly less honeydew (7-94%) compared with controls in a concentration-dependent manner suggesting antifeedant activity of imidacloprid. Sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid negatively affect development, reproduction, survival and longevity of ACP, which likely contributes to population reductions over time. Also, reduced feeding by ACP adults on plants treated with sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid may potentially decrease the capacity of ACP to successfully acquire and transmit the HLB causal pathogen.

  17. Exogenous nitric oxide-induced postharvest disease resistance in citrus fruit to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yahan; Li, Shunmin; Zeng, Kaifang

    2016-01-30

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule involved in numerous plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. To investigate the effects of NO on the control of postharvest anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in citrus fruit and its possible mechanisms, citrus fruit were treated with an NO donor. The results showed that exogenous NO released from 50 µmol L(-1) sodium nitroprusside aqueous solution could effectively reduce the disease incidence and lesion diameter of citrus fruit inoculated with C. gloeosporioides during storage at 20 °C. Exogenous NO could regulate hydrogen peroxide levels, stimulate the synthesis of phenolic compounds, and induce phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, catalase activities, and the ascorbate-glutathione cycle. Furthermore, exogenous NO could inhibit weight loss, improve the ascorbic acid and titratable acidity content, and delay the increase in total soluble solids content in citrus fruit during storage at 20 °C. The results suggest that the use of exogenous NO is a potential method for inducing the disease resistance of fruit to fungal pathogens and for extending the postharvest life of citrus fruit. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Minerals, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant capacity of citrus peel extract by hot water.

    PubMed

    Xu, G H; Chen, J C; Liu, D H; Zhang, Y H; Jiang, P; Ye, X Q

    2008-01-01

    Some dried citrus peels, more familiar as chenpi in China, have been widely used in traditional Chinese medicines from ancient times. This paper reports the efficiency of infusion cooking on extracting minerals and phenolic compounds (flavanone glycosides [FGs], polymethoxylated flavones [PMFs], and phenolic acids), and also antioxidant activity of hot water extract of citrus peels. Peels of 2 citrus varieties, namely, Satsuma mandarin (C. unshiu Marc.) and Ponkan (C. poonensis Hort. ex Tanaka), which belong to C. reticulata, were selected. As a result, hot water extraction was efficient in extracting phenolic acids and some minerals. As for citrus flavonoids, narirutin, nobiletin, and tangeretin were easier to extract than hesperidin. The result of antioxidant capacity assays indicated that for citrus peels, hot water extract had almost the same capacity as the methanol extract. We suggested that Ponkan was more suitable as the source of chenpi, since its hot water extract had much higher content of phenolic acids, FGs and PMFs, and higher antioxidant capacity than those of Satsuma mandarin. Generally, to raise the extraction temperature or to prolong the time could not yield higher content of phenolic compounds and stronger antioxidant capacity, though the content of minerals increased to some extent. Furthermore, a 2nd-time extraction seemed necessary since considerable minerals and phenolic compounds could be obtained by doing so. Finally, we suggested that 2 times extraction at 100 degrees C for 30 min was proper to extract the minerals and phenolic compounds in chenpi.

  19. H NMR analyses of Citrus macrophylla subjected to Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) feeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) is a phloem feeding insect that can host and transmit the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), which is the putative causative agent of the economically important citrus disease, Huanglongbing (HLB). ACP are widespread in Florida, and are spreading in Ca...

  20. Phagostimulants for the Asian citrus psyllid also elicit volatile release from citrus leaves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chemical cues that elicit orientation by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), are of great interest because it is the primary vector of the causal pathogen of citrus greening disease. We identified an optimal blend ratio of formic and acetic acids that stimulate...