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Sample records for citrus compost-based growing

  1. Utilisation of citrus compost-based growing media amended with Trichodermaharzianum T-78 in Cucumismelo L. seedling production.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Mondejar, R; Bernal-Vicente, A; Ros, M; Tittarelli, F; Canali, S; Intrigiolo, F; Pascual, J A

    2010-05-01

    Two citrus composts (C1: composed of 40% citrus wastes, 20% sludge obtained from a citrus industry waste-water treatment facility and 40% green residues; C2: composed of 60% citrus wastes and 40% green residues, and no sludge) and their water extracts amended with Trichodermaharzianum T-78 (T. harzianum T-78) were assayed in order to verify if these composts could act as a partial substitute for peat-based growing media as well as enhance suppressiveness against Fusarium wilt in the production of melon (Cucumismelo L.) seedlings at greenhouse nurseries. Over a 43-day growth cycle of melon seedlings, measurements were taken of the nutriactive effect (the capability of a substrate to express additional and/or synergistic nutritional and biostimulating effects), the pathogen incidence (percentage of fresh weight loss of melon plants grown on treatments infected with Fusariumoxysporum with respect to the same treatment without inoculation of the phytopathogen) and the trend of the T.harzianum T-78 population. A nutriactive effect was observed in the tested citrus compost-based growing media (96% and 112% plant weight increase with respect to peat for C1Th and C2Th, respectively). Pathogen incidence was significantly lower in C2Th than peat (12% compared to 33%), while no difference was observed in C1Th. The T.harzianum T-78 population showed a significant decrease at the first sampling time compared to the initial quantity (from 10(6) to 10(5)CFUg(-1)), but later recovered over time. These results demonstrate that the combination of citrus compost and T.harzianum T-78 can be a viable alternative to peat and can minimise the application of chemicals necessary to control Fusarium wilt in greenhouse nurseries for melon seedling production. PMID:20096572

  2. Compost-based growing media: influence on growth and nutrient use of bedding plants.

    PubMed

    Grigatti, Marco; Giorgioni, Maria Eva; Ciavatta, Claudio

    2007-12-01

    The agronomic performance and the mineral composition and trace element content in Begonia semperflorens "Bellavista F1", Mimulus "Magic x hybridus", Salvia splendens "maestro", and Tagete patula xerecta "Zenith Lemon Yellow", were tested by growing the plants on substrates of white peat and 25-50-75-100% green waste and sewage sludge (80%+20%v/v) compost (CP). A commercial peat medium of black and white peat (2:1v/v) was used as control. At flowering, the agronomic parameters were compared by ANOVA and plant nutritional status was compared by vector analysis. Substrate-species interactions (P<0.001) were evident for all measured parameters. In the 25% CP medium all the species showed an increase or preservation of the studied agronomic parameters. Begonia grown in 25% CP, showed the highest dry weight (DW) and number of flowers. Other treatments were comparable to the control. Mimulus and Salvia showed the highest DW in the 25-50% CP. Mimulus, after a DW increase up to 50% CP, showed the steepest reduction as the CP increased further. Tagete showed no differences in DW up to 50% CP, or in flower number up to 25% CP, compared to the control. The additional increases of CP in the medium showed a DW decrease similar to that of Salvia. Vector analysis showed the use of compost mainly induced a decrease of P concentration in tissues, except for Begonia which remained unchanged. Plant tissues showed a general P reduction due to a dilution effect in the low compost mixtures (25-50%) and a deficiency in the higher CP mixtures. In contrast, an increase of Mg in the aboveground tissues of all species was detectable as compost usage increased, with the exception of Salvia which suffered a Mg deficiency. Vector analysis also highlighted a Ni and partial Fe deficiency in Tagete and Salvia.

  3. qRT-PCR quantification of the biological control agent Trichoderma harzianum in peat and compost-based growing media.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Robert; López-Mondéjar, Rubén; Tittarelli, Fabio; Ros, Margarita; Pascual, José Antonio

    2011-02-01

    To ensure proper use of Trichoderma harzianum in agriculture, accurate data must be obtained in population monitoring. The effectiveness of qRT-PCR to quantify T. harzianum in different growing media was compared to the commonly used techniques of colony counting and qPCR. Results showed that plate counting and qPCR offered similar T. harzianum quantification patterns of an initial rapid increase in fungal population that decreased over time. However, data from qRT-PCR showed a population curve of active T. harzianum with a delayed onset of initial growth which then increased throughout the experiment. Results demonstrated that T. harzianum can successfully grow in these media and that qRT-PCR can offer a more distinct representation of active T. harzianum populations. Additionally, compost amended with T. harzianum exhibited a lower Fusarium oxysporum infection rate (67%) and lower percentage of fresh weight loss (11%) in comparison to amended peat (90% infection rate, 23% fresh weight loss).

  4. Nucleotide sequence of a hop stunt viroid variant isolated from citrus growing in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Y H; Chen, W; Owens, R A

    1995-01-01

    The 303 nucleotide sequence of HSVd-citrus(T), a hop stunt viroid (HSVd) variant present in Etrog citron growing in Taiwan, was determined from cDNAs amplified by the polymerase chain reaction. HSVd-citrus(T) is very similar to several HSVd isolates previously recovered from citrus or cucumber, and exhibits microsequence heterogeneity at positions 154 and 181. Phylogenetic analysis using maximum parsimony grouped HSVd-citrus(T) with seven other isolates from citrus and cucumber in a large cluster of "citrus-type" isolates. A similar analysis revealed marked differences in both the extent and distribution of sequence variation among naturally occurring isolates of potato spindle tuber viroid.

  5. Past and future of a century old Citrus Tristeza Virus collection: A California citrus germplasm tale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The California Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP), Riverside, CA provides a mechanism for introduction and distribution of citrus germplasm from any citrus-growing area of the world to California for use in research, variety improvement, or by industry. Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a serious ...

  6. A Climatic Classification for Citrus Winter Survival in China.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shou, Bo Huang

    1991-05-01

    The citrus tree is susceptible to frost damage. Winter injury to citrus from freezing weather is the major meteorological problem in the northern pail of citrus growing regions in China. Based on meteorological data collected at 120 stations in southern China and on the extent of citrus freezing injury, five climatic regions for citrus winter survival in China were developed. They were: 1) no citrus tree injury. 2) light injury to mandarins (citrus reticulate) or moderate injury to oranges (citrus sinensis), 3) moderate injury to mandarins or heavy injury to oranges, 4) heavy injury to mandarins, and 5) impossible citrus tree growth. This citrus climatic classification was an attempt to provide guidelines for regulation of citrus production, to effectively utilize land and climatic resources, to chose suitable citrus varieties, and to develop methods to prevent injury by freezing.

  7. Citrus tristeza virus-host interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or s...

  8. Horsfall-Barratt recalibration and replicated severity estimates of citrus canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker is a serious disease of citrus in tropical and subtropical citrus growing regions. Accurate and precise assessment of citrus canker and other plant pathogens is needed to obtain good quality data. Citrus canker assessment data were used to ascertain some of the mechanics of the Horsfal...

  9. Citrus Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Talon, Manuel; Gmitter Jr., Fred G.

    2008-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most widespread fruit crops globally, with great economic and health value. It is among the most difficult plants to improve through traditional breeding approaches. Currently, there is risk of devastation by diseases threatening to limit production and future availability to the human population. As technologies rapidly advance in genomic science, they are quickly adapted to address the biological challenges of the citrus plant system and the world's industries. The historical developments of linkage mapping, markers and breeding, EST projects, physical mapping, an international citrus genome sequencing project, and critical functional analysis are described. Despite the challenges of working with citrus, there has been substantial progress. Citrus researchers engaged in international collaborations provide optimism about future productivity and contributions to the benefit of citrus industries worldwide and to the human population who can rely on future widespread availability of this health-promoting and aesthetically pleasing fruit crop. PMID:18509486

  10. Transmission rates of ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ by Asian citrus psyllid are enhanced by the presence and developmental stage of citrus flush

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) transmits a bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas) putatively responsible for a devastating citrus disease known as Asiatic huanglongbing (HLB) (= citrus greening disease). The psyllid and disease have invaded many citrus-growing regions around the world incl...

  11. Application of a GIS-AF/RF model to assess the risk of herbicide leaching in a citrus-growing area of the Valencia Community, Spain.

    PubMed

    de Paz, José M; Rubio, José L

    2006-12-01

    We integrated an index-based attenuation factor/retardation factor (AF/RF) model into a GIS to evaluate the risk of leaching of the most frequently applied herbicides (glyphosate, diuron, diquat, bromacil, simazine, linuron, terbuthylazine, and terbumeton) used in citrus orchards of the Valencia Community, Spain. The GIS-model system was applied to a region of 33,800 ha located near Valencia City. The soil and climate data required by the model were stored in an Arc/Info GIS in which the model algorithms were integrated using the AML programming language. A graphical user interface was developed to facilitate the use of the GIS-model system. The resulting simulation maps indicate that terbumeton, bromacil, and simazine herbicides have the highest risk of leaching because of their high mobility and low K(oc) (32-158 mg l(-1)). The remaining herbicides are strongly adsorbed by clay particles and organic matter, thus minimising the risk of leaching through the soil profile and into groundwater. The obtained ranking of the leaching potential of analysed herbicides is as follows, from highest to lowest risk: terbumeton>bromacil>simazine>terbuthylazine>diuron>linuron>glyphosate>diquat. PMID:16930681

  12. Application of a GIS-AF/RF model to assess the risk of herbicide leaching in a citrus-growing area of the Valencia Community, Spain.

    PubMed

    de Paz, José M; Rubio, José L

    2006-12-01

    We integrated an index-based attenuation factor/retardation factor (AF/RF) model into a GIS to evaluate the risk of leaching of the most frequently applied herbicides (glyphosate, diuron, diquat, bromacil, simazine, linuron, terbuthylazine, and terbumeton) used in citrus orchards of the Valencia Community, Spain. The GIS-model system was applied to a region of 33,800 ha located near Valencia City. The soil and climate data required by the model were stored in an Arc/Info GIS in which the model algorithms were integrated using the AML programming language. A graphical user interface was developed to facilitate the use of the GIS-model system. The resulting simulation maps indicate that terbumeton, bromacil, and simazine herbicides have the highest risk of leaching because of their high mobility and low K(oc) (32-158 mg l(-1)). The remaining herbicides are strongly adsorbed by clay particles and organic matter, thus minimising the risk of leaching through the soil profile and into groundwater. The obtained ranking of the leaching potential of analysed herbicides is as follows, from highest to lowest risk: terbumeton>bromacil>simazine>terbuthylazine>diuron>linuron>glyphosate>diquat.

  13. Citrus Inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    An aerial color infrared (CIR) mapping system developed by Kennedy Space Center enables Florida's Charlotte County to accurately appraise its citrus groves while reducing appraisal costs. The technology was further advanced by development of a dual video system making it possible to simultaneously view images of the same area and detect changes. An image analysis system automatically surveys and photo interprets grove images as well as automatically counts trees and reports totals. The system, which saves both time and money, has potential beyond citrus grove valuation.

  14. Citrus Inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Florida's Charlotte County Property Appraiser is using an aerial color infrared mapping system for inventorying citrus trees for valuation purposes. The ACIR system has significantly reduced the time and manpower required for appraisal. Aerial photographs are taken and interpreted by a video system which makes it possible to detect changes from previous years. Potential problems can be identified. KSC's TU Office has awarded a contract to the Citrus Research and Education Center to adapt a prototype system which would automatically count trees and report totals.

  15. Citrus blight research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With HLB now occurring throughout Florida citrus groves, citrus blight has been getting less attention even though the problem still exists. In fact, the combination of HLB and citrus blight has compounded the problem that the citrus industry is facing with decreased yields, small fruit size and tre...

  16. Citrus leprosis research update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus leprosis is one of the oldest citrus diseases, but is also one of the most important emerging citrus diseases in South and Central America, and it is apparently spreading northward towards the U.S. Research in our labs and by others has shown that citrus leprosis disease is caused by a compl...

  17. Organic and compost-based growing media for tree seedling nurseries. Forestry series. World Bank technical paper

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.H.; Jones, N.

    1995-04-01

    Experience in the support of tree planting projects has indicated that inadequate attention is currently paid to root development on container grown seedlings, particularly for projects in the tropics. A literature review combined with extensive consultation with international tree planters in both tropical and temperate countries indicated that organic matter should form the major fraction of the container media. This component is not easily obtained in many tropical and subtropical countries. However, elements for the manufacture of compost are often available or could be made available. The paper outlines the characteristics of good potting media indicating to nursery or plantation managers the type of product they should aim at. This is followed by a section dealing specifically with different methods of making compost because this is likely to be the most important component of their organic fraction. Finally there is a chapter dealing with raw materials for making compost and how they can be blended.

  18. Quarantine, sanitary and ceritification programs to prevent citrus quarantine pests in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus germplasm has moved from its geographic origin in the Far East, distributing also several graft-transmissible diseases in all the citrus growing areas of the world. In spite of the plethora of such diseases, the citrus industry has survived through the decades and prospered in many countries ...

  19. Feasibility of Using Phytoextraction to Remediate a Compost-Based Soil Contaminated with Cadmium.

    PubMed

    Parisien, Michele A; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A

    2015-01-01

    Greenhouse and in-situ field experiments were used to determine the potential for phytoextraction to remediate soil contaminated with Cd from municipal solid waste (MSW) and sewage sludge (SS) compost application at a Peterborough (Canada) site. For the greenhouse experiment, one native (Chenopodium album) and three naturalized (Poa compressa, Brassica juncea, Helianthus annuus) plant species were planted in soil containing no detectable Cd (<1.0 μg·g(-1)), and soil from the site containing low (5.0 ± 0.3 μg·g(-1) Cd), and high (16.5 ± 1.2 μg⋅g(-1) Cd) Cd concentrations. Plant uptake was low (root BAFs ≤0.5) for all species except P. compressa in the low Cd treatment (BAF 1.0). Only B. juncea accumulated Cd in its shoots, though uptake was low (BAF ≤0.3). For the field experiment, B. juncea was planted in-situ in areas of low and high Cd concentrations. Brassica juncea Cd uptake was low (root and shoot BAFs <0.2) in both treatments. Sequential extraction analysis indicated that Cd is retained primarily by low bioavailability soil fractions, and phytoextraction is therefore not feasible at this site. Though low Cd bioavailability has negative implications for Cd phytoextraction from MSW/SS compost-based soils, it may limit receptor exposure to Cd sufficiently to eliminate the potential for risk at this site. PMID:25848836

  20. Plants growing in Apollo 15 lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A close view of germ free plants - lettuce (left), tomato (right center and left center) and citrus (right). This type of testing is an effort at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) to grow germ-free plants.

  1. Comparison of NOx Removal Efficiencies in Compost Based Biofilters Using Four Different Compost Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lacey, Jeffrey Alan; Lee, Brady Douglas; Apel, William Arnold

    2001-06-01

    In 1998, 3.6 trillion kilowatt-hours of electricity were generated in the United States. Over half of this was from coal-fired power plants, resulting in more than 8.3 million tons of nitrogen oxide (NOx) compounds being released into the environment. Over 95% of the NOx compounds produced during coal combustion are in the form of nitric oxide (NO). NOx emission regulations are becoming increasingly stringent, leading to the need for new, cost effective NOx treatment technologies. Biofiltration is such a technology. NO removal efficiencies were compared in compost based biofilters using four different composts. In previous experiments, removal efficiencies were typically highest at the beginning of the experiment, and decreased as the experiments proceeded. This work tested different types of compost in an effort to find a compost that could maintain NO removal efficiencies comparable to those seen early in the previous experiments. One of the composts was wood based with manure, two were wood based with high nitrogen content sludge, and one was dairy compost. The wood based with manure and one of the wood based with sludge composts were taken directly from an active compost pile while the other two composts were received in retail packaging which had been out of active piles for an indeterminate amount of time. A high temperature (55-60°C) off-gas stream was treated in biofilters operated under denitrifying conditions. Biofilters were operated at an empty bed residence time of 13 seconds with target inlet NO concentrations of 500 ppmv. Lactate was the carbon and energy source. Compost was sampled at 10-day intervals to determine aerobic and anaerobic microbial densities. Compost was mixed at a 1:1 ratio with lava rock and calcite was added at 100g/kg of compost. In each compost tested, the highest removal efficiencies occurred within the first 10 days of the experiment. The wood based with manure peaked at day 3 (77.14%), the dairy compost at day 1 (80.74%), the

  2. Visual rating and the use of image analysis for assessing different symptoms of citrus canker on grapefruit leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker is caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri (Xac) and infects several citrus species in wet tropical and subtropical citrus growing regions. Accurate, precise and reproducible disease assessment is needed for monitoring epidemics and disease response in breeding...

  3. Citrus Waste Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    Karel Grohman; Scott Stevenson

    2007-01-30

    Renewable Spirits is developing an innovative pilot plant bio-refinery to establish the commercial viability of ehtanol production utilizing a processing waste from citrus juice production. A novel process based on enzymatic hydrolysis of citrus processing waste and fermentation of resulting sugars to ethanol by yeasts was successfully developed in collaboration with a CRADA partner, USDA/ARS Citrus and Subtropical Products Laboratory. The process was also successfully scaled up from laboratory scale to 10,000 gal fermentor level.

  4. Cercosporoid diseases of Citrus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Feng; Groenewald, J Z; Zhu, Li; Crous, P W; Li, Hongye

    2015-01-01

    Citrus leaves and fruits exhibiting disease symptoms ranging from greasy spot, yellow spot, small or large brown spot, black dot, and brown dot were sampled from Fujian, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangxi, Yunnan, Zhejiang provinces and the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in China. In total 82 isolates representing various cercosporoid genera were isolated from these disease symptoms, which were supplemented with eight Citrus cercosporoid isolates collected from other countries. Based on a morphological and phylogenetic study using sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal DNA's ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 regions (ITS), and partial actin (act), β-tubulin (tub2), 28S nuclear ribosomal RNA (28S rDNA) and translation elongation factor 1-α (tef1) genes, these strains were placed in the following genera: Cercospora, Pallidocercospora, Passalora, Pseudocercospora, Verrucisporota and Zasmidium. All isolates tended to be sterile, except the Zasmidium isolates associated with citrus greasy spot-like symptoms, which subsequently were compared with phylogenetically similar isolates occurring on Citrus and other hosts elsewhere. From these results four Zasmidium species were recognized on Citrus, namely Z. indonesianum on Citrus in Indonesia, Z. fructicola and Z. fructigenum on Citrus in China and Z. citri-griseum, which appears to have a wide host range including Acacia, Citrus, Eucalyptus and Musa, as well as a global distribution.

  5. Cercosporoid diseases of Citrus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Feng; Groenewald, J Z; Zhu, Li; Crous, P W; Li, Hongye

    2015-01-01

    Citrus leaves and fruits exhibiting disease symptoms ranging from greasy spot, yellow spot, small or large brown spot, black dot, and brown dot were sampled from Fujian, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangxi, Yunnan, Zhejiang provinces and the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in China. In total 82 isolates representing various cercosporoid genera were isolated from these disease symptoms, which were supplemented with eight Citrus cercosporoid isolates collected from other countries. Based on a morphological and phylogenetic study using sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal DNA's ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 regions (ITS), and partial actin (act), β-tubulin (tub2), 28S nuclear ribosomal RNA (28S rDNA) and translation elongation factor 1-α (tef1) genes, these strains were placed in the following genera: Cercospora, Pallidocercospora, Passalora, Pseudocercospora, Verrucisporota and Zasmidium. All isolates tended to be sterile, except the Zasmidium isolates associated with citrus greasy spot-like symptoms, which subsequently were compared with phylogenetically similar isolates occurring on Citrus and other hosts elsewhere. From these results four Zasmidium species were recognized on Citrus, namely Z. indonesianum on Citrus in Indonesia, Z. fructicola and Z. fructigenum on Citrus in China and Z. citri-griseum, which appears to have a wide host range including Acacia, Citrus, Eucalyptus and Musa, as well as a global distribution. PMID:26432805

  6. Citrus diseases with global ramifications including citrus canker and huanglongbing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although there are a number of diseases that plague citrus production worldwide, two bacterial diseases are particularly problematic. Both are of Asian origin and currently cause severe economic damage: Asiatic citrus canker (ACC) and citrus huanglongbing (HLB). Although ACC has been found in the ...

  7. Developing Transgenic Citrus for Resistance to Huanglongbing and Citrus Canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) and Citrus Bacterial Canker (CBC) are serious threats to citrus production, and resistant transgenic citrus is desirable. Genes for antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with diverse promoters have been used to generate thousands of rootstock and scion transformants. D35S::D4E1 transfor...

  8. Taiwan: growing, growing, gone.

    PubMed

    Hanson, R

    1979-10-01

    Accommodation between Taiwan and the People's Republic of China may not be inconceivable as trade contacts (though officially disallowed) grow. Because of Taiwan's well-established success and the pressing need in China to industrialize, it appears, however, that such an accommodation will occur only after China becomes more like Taiwan. Taiwan owes its success, first, to land reform and then, in the 1960s, to steady industrialization. Besides broad controls over money supply and capital designed to ward off inflationary pressures when needed, and the grand outlines for development, another factor in the island's economic success is that the government has interfered little with private enterprise. The economy has an underpinning of small to medium size businesses. There are more than 10,000 trading companies. This diverse foundation has given the economy as a whole a flexible buffer on which more sophisticated industires can be formed. PMID:12278253

  9. The value of citrus genebanking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Access to diverse citrus genetic resources is critical for breeding new citrus cultivars that have higher quality fruit and improved resistance to pathogens and changing environmental conditions. The USDA-ARS National Clonal Repository for Citrus and Dates (NCGRCD) maintains a very diverse collectio...

  10. Cold Hardening in Citrus Stems

    PubMed Central

    Yelenosky, George

    1975-01-01

    Stem cold hardening developed to different levels in citrus types tested in controlled environments. Exotherms indicated ice spread was more uniform and rapid in unhardened than in cold-hardened stems. All attempts to inhibit the functioning of citrus leaves resulted in less cold hardening in the stems. Citrus leaves contribute a major portion of cold hardening in the wood. PMID:16659340

  11. 7 CFR 301.76-3 - Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus psyllid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-3 Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus...

  12. 7 CFR 301.76-3 - Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus psyllid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-3 Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus...

  13. 7 CFR 301.76-3 - Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus psyllid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-3 Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus...

  14. 7 CFR 301.76-3 - Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus psyllid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-3 Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus...

  15. Pathogen infection drives patterns of nutrient resorption in citrus plants

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jirong; Cheng, Chunzhen; Yang, Junjie; Wang, Qibing

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient resorption processes in the plants infected by pathogen remain poorly understood. Huanglongbing (HLB) is a destructive disease of citrus. HLB-pathogen ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ grows specifically in the phloem of hosts and may cause problems in the plant vascular system after infection. Therefore, it brings a great concern about the phloem nutrient transport and nutrient intra-cycling in HLB-affected plants. We investigated the effects of ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ infection on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and resorption in different citrus species (i.e. Citrus reticulata, Citrus limon and Citrus maxima). HLB-pathogen infection had distinctive impacts on nutrient resorption in different species. P resorption efficiency substantially decreased in infected C. reticulata plants relative to the healthy plants in summer, which may account for the marked decrease in the average fruit yield. P resorption was more efficient in infected C. limon plants than in the healthy plants. However, for C. maxima plants, HLB had no significant effects on N:P ratio in live leaves and resorption efficiency as well as on fruit yield. Keeping efficient internal nutrient cycling can be a strategy of citrus species being tolerant to HLB. PMID:26419510

  16. Pathogen infection drives patterns of nutrient resorption in citrus plants.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jirong; Cheng, Chunzhen; Yang, Junjie; Wang, Qibing

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient resorption processes in the plants infected by pathogen remain poorly understood. Huanglongbing (HLB) is a destructive disease of citrus. HLB-pathogen 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' grows specifically in the phloem of hosts and may cause problems in the plant vascular system after infection. Therefore, it brings a great concern about the phloem nutrient transport and nutrient intra-cycling in HLB-affected plants. We investigated the effects of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' infection on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and resorption in different citrus species (i.e. Citrus reticulata, Citrus limon and Citrus maxima). HLB-pathogen infection had distinctive impacts on nutrient resorption in different species. P resorption efficiency substantially decreased in infected C. reticulata plants relative to the healthy plants in summer, which may account for the marked decrease in the average fruit yield. P resorption was more efficient in infected C. limon plants than in the healthy plants. However, for C. maxima plants, HLB had no significant effects on N:P ratio in live leaves and resorption efficiency as well as on fruit yield. Keeping efficient internal nutrient cycling can be a strategy of citrus species being tolerant to HLB. PMID:26419510

  17. Pathogen infection drives patterns of nutrient resorption in citrus plants.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jirong; Cheng, Chunzhen; Yang, Junjie; Wang, Qibing

    2015-09-30

    Nutrient resorption processes in the plants infected by pathogen remain poorly understood. Huanglongbing (HLB) is a destructive disease of citrus. HLB-pathogen 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' grows specifically in the phloem of hosts and may cause problems in the plant vascular system after infection. Therefore, it brings a great concern about the phloem nutrient transport and nutrient intra-cycling in HLB-affected plants. We investigated the effects of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' infection on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and resorption in different citrus species (i.e. Citrus reticulata, Citrus limon and Citrus maxima). HLB-pathogen infection had distinctive impacts on nutrient resorption in different species. P resorption efficiency substantially decreased in infected C. reticulata plants relative to the healthy plants in summer, which may account for the marked decrease in the average fruit yield. P resorption was more efficient in infected C. limon plants than in the healthy plants. However, for C. maxima plants, HLB had no significant effects on N:P ratio in live leaves and resorption efficiency as well as on fruit yield. Keeping efficient internal nutrient cycling can be a strategy of citrus species being tolerant to HLB.

  18. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented.

  19. Chemical control of the Asian citrus psyllid and of huanglongbing disease in citrus.

    PubMed

    Boina, Dhana Raj; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R

    2015-06-01

    By 2014, huanglongbing (HLB), the most destructive disease of citrus, and its insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama), became established in all major citrus-growing regions of the world, including the United States, with the exception of California. At present, application of insecticides is the most widely followed option for reducing ACP populations, while application of antibiotics for suppressing HLB disease/symptoms is being practiced in some citrus-growing regions. Application of insecticides during the dormant winter season, along with cultivation of HLB-free seedlings and early detection and removal of symptomatic and asymptomatic trees, has been very effective in managing ACP. Area-wide management of ACP by application of insecticides at low volume in large areas of citrus cultivation has been shown to be effective in managing HLB and reducing management costs. As insecticide resistance is a major problem in sustainable management of ACP, rotation/alternation of insecticides with different chemistries and modes of action needs to be followed. Besides control of the insect vector, use of antibiotics has temporarily suppressed the symptoms of HLB in diseased trees. Recent efforts to discover and screen existing as well as new compounds for their antibiotic and antimicrobial activities have identified some promising molecules for HLB control. There is an urgent need to find a sustainable solution to the HLB menace through chemical control of ACP populations and within HLB-infected trees through the judicious use of labeled insecticides (existing and novel chemistries) and antibiotics in area-wide management programs with due consideration to the insecticide resistance problem. PMID:25491482

  20. Chemical control of the Asian citrus psyllid and of huanglongbing disease in citrus.

    PubMed

    Boina, Dhana Raj; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R

    2015-06-01

    By 2014, huanglongbing (HLB), the most destructive disease of citrus, and its insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama), became established in all major citrus-growing regions of the world, including the United States, with the exception of California. At present, application of insecticides is the most widely followed option for reducing ACP populations, while application of antibiotics for suppressing HLB disease/symptoms is being practiced in some citrus-growing regions. Application of insecticides during the dormant winter season, along with cultivation of HLB-free seedlings and early detection and removal of symptomatic and asymptomatic trees, has been very effective in managing ACP. Area-wide management of ACP by application of insecticides at low volume in large areas of citrus cultivation has been shown to be effective in managing HLB and reducing management costs. As insecticide resistance is a major problem in sustainable management of ACP, rotation/alternation of insecticides with different chemistries and modes of action needs to be followed. Besides control of the insect vector, use of antibiotics has temporarily suppressed the symptoms of HLB in diseased trees. Recent efforts to discover and screen existing as well as new compounds for their antibiotic and antimicrobial activities have identified some promising molecules for HLB control. There is an urgent need to find a sustainable solution to the HLB menace through chemical control of ACP populations and within HLB-infected trees through the judicious use of labeled insecticides (existing and novel chemistries) and antibiotics in area-wide management programs with due consideration to the insecticide resistance problem.

  1. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus titers in citrus cultivars in the field and in Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) inoculated greenhouse trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey of seven citrus cultivars (C. sinensis, C. paradisi, ‘Temple’ tangor, ‘Minneola’ and ‘Orlando’ tangelos and, ‘Fallglo’ and ‘Sunburst’ mandarin hybrids) growing in commercial orchards in Florida revealed a correlation between visual ratings of HLB incidence and severity and CLas titer (Stove...

  2. First report of citrus exocortis viroid and two citrus variants of the hop stunt viroid on lemon in Azerbaijan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Budwood received from a lemon tree growing at the Bioresources Institute Nakhichivan, Azerbaijan, produced symptoms corresponding with citrus viroids and cachexia on biological indicators ‘S-1’ citron and ‘Parson’s Special’ (PSM) mandarin, respectively. Sequential poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis...

  3. Citrus tissue culture employing vegetative explants.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, H C; Singh, S K; Sharma, A K; Agnihotri, S

    2001-11-01

    culture of shoots of C grandis without loss of regeneration capacity during 31 years, observed so far, are some other significant results. Plants of C. aurantifolia and C. sinensis raised from shoot meristem and micrografting were grown in a nethouse and those from nodal stem segments in the field along with the in vitro-raised plants of rootstocks, namely, C. jambhiri, C. karna and C. limonia. All the plants showed normal healthy growth. Significantly enough, the meristem regenerated plants of C. aurantifolia attained the reproductive phase just in 1 year of transplantation to soil similar to those raised from nodal stem segments of mature trees, which also produced normal fruits in the subsequent year while growing under field conditions. Thus, a significant fundamental concept of a maturity factor, carried over through as small a shoot meristem as 200 microm in length to cloned plants has been demonstrated. The concept is of far-reaching significance in citrus industry besides production of pathogen-free orchards. PMID:11906099

  4. [Phosphorus translocation and distribution in intercropping systems of soybean (Glycine max) and citrus (Citrus poonensis)].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weijun; Wang, Kairong; Li, Hesong

    2004-02-01

    A field mini-plot experiment was conducted on clay loamy oxisol using 32P trace technique when P fertilizer was applied in three depth soil (15, 35 and 55 cm soil layer) to compare P absorption, distribution and translocation in plant organ and soil profile under soybean and citrus monoculture and intercropping at Taoyuan Experimental Station of Agroecosystem Research of Chinese Academy of Science. Total P uptake (PT) and P accumulation in different parts (PA) of soybean were remarkably decreased under intercropping. When 32P was applied in topsoil (15 cm soil layer), 32P uptake (32PT) by soybean was significantly lower in intercropping than in monoculture. Whereas 32PT uptake by soybean was significantly greater in intercropping than in monoculture when 32P was applied in deep soil layer (35 cm or 55 cm soil layer). However, considerable difference was not observed for 32P translocation and distribution among soybean organs. 32PT uptake by citrus was much lower under intercropping than under monoculture. The P uptake by citrus newly could be transferred rapidly to aboveground and prior to active growing organ. Intercropping did not affect 32P distribution in citrus organ, but when P was applied in deep soil layer, the speed of 32P transferred to aboveground and active organ was slowed down. P mobility was strengthened in soil profile, and P of deep soil layer was promoted to move to topsoil in intercropping. The experimental results showed the optimal depth of applied P should be within 20 cm soil layer in soybean-citrus intercropping system.

  5. Transmission Rates of ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ by Asian Citrus Psyllid Are Enhanced by the Presence and Developmental Stage of Citrus Flush.

    PubMed

    Hall, David G; Albrecht, Ute; Bowman, Kim D

    2016-04-01

    Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) transmits a bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas) putatively responsible for a devastating citrus disease known as Asiatic huanglongbing (HLB) (citrus greening disease). The psyllid and disease have invaded many citrus-growing regions including the United States, where the disease is seriously jeopardizing the Florida citrus industry. We recently concluded research that showed CLas transmission rates are increased when citrus flush is present. Flush is any new leaf growth ranging in development from first emergence up until the leaves are fully expanded yet still tender. In an experiment with seedlings of a rootstock cultivar ‘US-942’, a 1-wk infestation of 20 Asian citrus psyllids from an infected colony resulted in 53–60% of seedlings becoming infected when flush was present compared with only 7% when no flush was present. In a second experiment with ‘US-942’, 77–97% of seedlings became infected when flush was present compared with 40% when no flush was present. A similar experiment with ‘Valencia’ sweet orange resulted in 23, 80, and 3% seedlings becoming infected when young, older, or no flush was present, respectively. Young plants are therefore more likely to contract HLB if flush is present, with older flush promoting higher infection rates under the conditions of this study. Based on this finding, healthy citrus should be protected from Asian citrus psyllid infestations throughout a flush. To evaluate germplasm for CLas resistance, inoculations using infected Asian citrus psyllid would best be achieved if flush is present. PMID:26884596

  6. Transmission Rates of ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ by Asian Citrus Psyllid Are Enhanced by the Presence and Developmental Stage of Citrus Flush.

    PubMed

    Hall, David G; Albrecht, Ute; Bowman, Kim D

    2016-04-01

    Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) transmits a bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas) putatively responsible for a devastating citrus disease known as Asiatic huanglongbing (HLB) (citrus greening disease). The psyllid and disease have invaded many citrus-growing regions including the United States, where the disease is seriously jeopardizing the Florida citrus industry. We recently concluded research that showed CLas transmission rates are increased when citrus flush is present. Flush is any new leaf growth ranging in development from first emergence up until the leaves are fully expanded yet still tender. In an experiment with seedlings of a rootstock cultivar ‘US-942’, a 1-wk infestation of 20 Asian citrus psyllids from an infected colony resulted in 53–60% of seedlings becoming infected when flush was present compared with only 7% when no flush was present. In a second experiment with ‘US-942’, 77–97% of seedlings became infected when flush was present compared with 40% when no flush was present. A similar experiment with ‘Valencia’ sweet orange resulted in 23, 80, and 3% seedlings becoming infected when young, older, or no flush was present, respectively. Young plants are therefore more likely to contract HLB if flush is present, with older flush promoting higher infection rates under the conditions of this study. Based on this finding, healthy citrus should be protected from Asian citrus psyllid infestations throughout a flush. To evaluate germplasm for CLas resistance, inoculations using infected Asian citrus psyllid would best be achieved if flush is present.

  7. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Citrus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Favela-Hernández, Juan Manuel J; González-Santiago, Omar; Ramírez-Cabrera, Mónica A; Esquivel-Ferriño, Patricia C; Camacho-Corona, María del Rayo

    2016-01-01

    Presently the search for new drugs from natural resources is of growing interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Natural products have been the source of new drugs since ancient times. Plants are a good source of secondary metabolites which have been found to have beneficial properties. The present study is a review of the chemistry and pharmacology of Citrus sinensis. This review reveals the therapeutic potential of C. sinensis as a source of natural compounds with important activities that are beneficial for human health that could be used to develop new drugs.

  8. Expressed Genes in Asian Citrus Psyllid adults feeding on citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We created and described the first genetic data set from the Asian citrus psyllid, AsCP, Diaphorina citri, Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The AsCP spread the plant-infecting bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which is associated with the citrus disease Huanglongbing, HLB, known as Citru...

  9. Citrus Huanglongbing tolerance in Australian Citrus Relatives, Microcitrus and Eremocirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tolerance, or resistance to citrus huanglongbing will be important as a long term solution for this disease. In a field trial conducted with over 1000 plants belonging to different genera in the sub-family Aurantioideae, we observed field tolerance in many Australian citrus relatives. To confirm the...

  10. Agreement: Citrus College Faculty Association and Citrus Community College District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citrus Community Coll. District, Glendora, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Citrus Community College District Board of Trustees and the Citrus College Faculty/California Teachers Association/National Education Association is presented. This contract, covering the period from July 1988 through June 1990, deals with the following topics: bargaining agent recognition and…

  11. 7 CFR 301.76-2 - Regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and citrus greening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and citrus...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-2 Regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and...

  12. 7 CFR 301.76-2 - Regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and citrus greening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and citrus...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-2 Regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and...

  13. 7 CFR 301.76-2 - Regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and citrus greening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and citrus...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-2 Regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and...

  14. 7 CFR 301.76-2 - Regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and citrus greening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and citrus...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-2 Regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and...

  15. Rapid assessment of methanotrophic capacity of compost-based materials considering the effects of air-filled porosity, water content and dissolved organic carbon.

    PubMed

    Mancebo, Uriel; Hettiaratchi, J Patrick A

    2015-02-01

    Since the global warming potential of CH4 is 25 times that of CO2 on a 100-year time horizon, the development of methanotrophic applications for the conversion of CH4 to CO2 is emerging as an area of interest for researchers and practicing engineers. Compost exhibits most of the characteristics required for methanotroph growth media and has been used in several projects. This paper presents results from a study that was undertaken to assess the influence of physical and chemical characteristics of compost-based materials on the biological oxidation of CH4 when used in methane biofilters. The results showed that easily-measurable parameters, such as air filled porosity, water content and dissolved organic carbon, are correlated with maximum CH4 removal rates. The results obtained were used to develop an empirical relationship that could be regarded as a rapid assessment tool for the estimation of the performance of compost-based materials in engineered methanotrophic applications. PMID:25484123

  16. Integrated Management of Citrus Canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit losses due to citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), vary each crop season depending on citrus variety, tree age, flushing condition, leafminer control, and coincidence of weather events with occurrence of susceptible fruit and foliage. In 2012, crop losses in Hamlin f...

  17. Widespread applications of citrus cryopreservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus genetic resources can now be successfully cryopreserved, which means that they can be placed into long-term storage at liquid nitrogen temperatures. This cryopreservation technology was specifically developed to address the immediate need to have secure long-term back-up storage for citrus co...

  18. 75 FR 17289 - Citrus Seed Imports; Citrus Greening and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... countries considered free of these diseases to be accompanied at the time of arrival at the first port of...) genera from certain countries where citrus greening or citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) is present. We are also requiring propagative seed of these genera imported from all other countries to...

  19. 78 FR 63369 - Citrus Canker, Citrus Greening, and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Interstate Movement of Regulated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... published an interim rule \\1\\ in the Federal Register (76 FR 23449-23459, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0048) that... 7 CFR part 301 that was published at 76 FR 23449-23459 on April 27, 2011, is adopted as a final rule... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 RIN 0579-AD29 Citrus Canker, Citrus...

  20. Exploring the potential of biobeds for the depuration of pesticide-contaminated wastewaters from the citrus production chain: laboratory, column and field studies.

    PubMed

    Omirou, M; Dalias, P; Costa, C; Papastefanou, C; Dados, A; Ehaliotis, C; Karpouzas, D G

    2012-07-01

    The high wastewater volumes produced during citrus production at pre- and post-harvest level presents serious pesticide point-source pollution for groundwater bodies. Biobeds are used for preventing such point-source pollution occurring at farm level. We explored the potential of biobeds for the depuration of wastewaters produced through the citrus production chain following a lab-to-field experimentation. The dissipation of pesticides used pre- or post-harvest was studied in compost-based biomixtures, soil, and a straw-soil mixture. A biomixture of composted grape seeds and skins (GSS-1) showed the highest dissipation capacity. In subsequent column studies, GSS-1 restricted pesticides leaching even at the highest water load (462 Lm(-3)). Ortho-phenylphenol was the most mobile compound. Studies in an on-farm biobed filled with GSS-1 showed that pesticides were fully retained and partially or fully dissipated. Overall biobeds could be a valuable solution for the depuration of wastewaters produced at pre- and post-harvest level by citrus fruit industries. PMID:22465978

  1. Past and future of a century old Citrus Tristeza virus collection: A California citrus germplasm tale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The California Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP) provides a mechanism for introduction and distribution of pathogen-free citrus varieties to California for use in research, variety improvement, or commercial production. Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a serious citrus pathogen worldwide. The pr...

  2. Host susceptibility of citrus cultivars to Queensland fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Lloyd, A C; Hamacek, E L; Smith, D; Kopittke, R A; Gu, H

    2013-04-01

    Citrus crops are considered to be relatively poor hosts for Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), as for other tephritid species. Australian citrus growers and crop consultants have reported observable differences in susceptibility of different citrus cultivars under commercial growing conditions. In this study we conducted laboratory tests and field surveys to determine susceptibility to B. tryoni of six citrus cultivars [(Eureka lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck); Navel and Valencia oranges (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck); and Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco). The host susceptibility of these citrus cultivars was quantified by a Host Susceptibility Index, which is defined as the number of adult flies produced per gram of fruit infested at a calculated rate of one egg per gram of fruit. The HSI was ranked as Murcott (0.083) > Imperial (0.052) > Navel (0.026) - Ellendale (0.020) > Valencia (0.008) > Eureka (yellow) (0.002) > Eureka (green) (0). Results of the laboratory study were in agreement with the level of field infestation in the four citrus cultivars (Eureka lemon, Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins) that were surveyed from commercial orchards under baiting treatments against fruit flies in the Central Burnett district of Queensland. Field surveys of citrus hosts from the habitats not subject to fruit fly management showed that the numbers of fruit flies produced per gram of fruit were much lower, compared with the more susceptible noncitrus hosts, such as guava (Psidium guajava L.), cherry guava (P. littorale Raddi), mulberry (Morus nigra L.), loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.), and pear (Pyrus communis L.). Therefore, the major citrus crops commercially cultivated in Australia have a relatively low susceptibility to B. tryoni, with Eureka lemons being a particularly poor host for this tephritid fruit fly. PMID:23786078

  3. Host susceptibility of citrus cultivars to Queensland fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Lloyd, A C; Hamacek, E L; Smith, D; Kopittke, R A; Gu, H

    2013-04-01

    Citrus crops are considered to be relatively poor hosts for Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), as for other tephritid species. Australian citrus growers and crop consultants have reported observable differences in susceptibility of different citrus cultivars under commercial growing conditions. In this study we conducted laboratory tests and field surveys to determine susceptibility to B. tryoni of six citrus cultivars [(Eureka lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck); Navel and Valencia oranges (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck); and Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco). The host susceptibility of these citrus cultivars was quantified by a Host Susceptibility Index, which is defined as the number of adult flies produced per gram of fruit infested at a calculated rate of one egg per gram of fruit. The HSI was ranked as Murcott (0.083) > Imperial (0.052) > Navel (0.026) - Ellendale (0.020) > Valencia (0.008) > Eureka (yellow) (0.002) > Eureka (green) (0). Results of the laboratory study were in agreement with the level of field infestation in the four citrus cultivars (Eureka lemon, Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins) that were surveyed from commercial orchards under baiting treatments against fruit flies in the Central Burnett district of Queensland. Field surveys of citrus hosts from the habitats not subject to fruit fly management showed that the numbers of fruit flies produced per gram of fruit were much lower, compared with the more susceptible noncitrus hosts, such as guava (Psidium guajava L.), cherry guava (P. littorale Raddi), mulberry (Morus nigra L.), loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.), and pear (Pyrus communis L.). Therefore, the major citrus crops commercially cultivated in Australia have a relatively low susceptibility to B. tryoni, with Eureka lemons being a particularly poor host for this tephritid fruit fly.

  4. New mite invasions in citrus in the early years of the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Ferragut, Francisco; Navia, Denise; Ochoa, Ronald

    2013-02-01

    Several mite species commonly attack cultivated citrus around the world. Up to 104 phytophagous species have been reported causing damage to leaves, buds and fruits, but only a dozen can be considered major pests requiring control measures. In recent years, several species have expanded their geographical range primarily due to the great increase in trade and travel worldwide, representing a threat to agriculture in many countries. Three spider mite species (Acari: Tetranychidae) have recently invaded the citrus-growing areas in the Mediterranean region and Latin America. The Oriental red mite, Eutetranychus orientalis (Klein), presumably from the Near East, was detected in southern Spain in 2001. The Texas citrus mite, Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor), is widely distributed in North, Central and South America. It was first reported in Europe in 1999 on citrus in Portugal; afterwards the mite invaded the citrus orchards in southern Spain. In Latin America, the Hindustan citrus mite, Schizotetranychus hindustanicus (Hirst), previously known only from citrus and other host plants in India, was reported causing significant damage to citrus leaves and fruits in Zulia, northwest Venezuela, in the late 1990s. Later, this mite species spread to the southeast being detected on lemon trees in the state of Roraima in northern Brazil in 2008. Whereas damage levels, population dynamics and control measures are relatively well know in the case of Oriental red mite and Texas citrus mite, our knowledge of S. hindustanicus is noticeably scant. In the present paper, information on pest status, seasonal trends and natural enemies in invaded areas is provided for these species, together with morphological data useful for identification. Because invasive species may evolve during the invasion process, comparison of behavior, damage and management options between native and invaded areas for these species will be useful for understanding the invader's success and their ability to

  5. Citrus Grove Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Citrus growers have long used aerial photography to inventory the number of groves in production. A new development at Kennedy Space Center, aerial mapping of groves with color infrared (CIR) film, affords an important advance in grove management by detecting and locating unhealthy trees long before they could be detected by ground survey methods. Aerial CIR photography picks up light reflected from foliage-- light not visible to the human eye--and enables differentiation between healthy and "stressed" (diseased) trees of a Florida orange/grapefruit grove. Computer aided photo interpretation techniques permit grading diseased trees lightly, moderately or severely stressed or dead. Method of grove mapping has offered advantage to growers in early disease warning, possible savings through water regulation and provision of a permanent record of grove growth patterns.

  6. Crystal growing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neville, J. P.

    1990-01-01

    One objective is to demonstrate the way crystals grow and how they affect the behavior of material. Another objective is to compare the growth of crystals in metals and nonmetals. The procedures, which involve a supersaturated solution of a salt that will separate into crystals on cooling and the pouring off of an eutectic solution to expose the crystals formed by a solid solution when an alloy of two metals forms a solid and eutectic solution on cooling, are described.

  7. Control of virus diseases of citrus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    Citrus is thought to have originated in Southeast Asia and horticulturally desirable clonal selections have been clonally cultivated for hundreds of years. While some citrus species have nucellar embryony, most cultivation of citrus has been by clonal propagation to ensure that propagated plants have the same traits as the parent selection. Clonal propagation also avoids juvenility, and the propagated plants produce fruit sooner. Because of the clonal propagation of citrus, citrus has accumulated a large number of viruses; many of these viruses are asymptomatic until a susceptible rootstock and/or scion is encountered. The viruses reported to occur in citrus will be summarized in this review. Methods of therapy to clean selected clones from viruses will be reviewed; the use of quarantine, clean stock, and certification programs for control of citrus viruses and other strategies to control insect spread citrus viruses, such as mild strain cross-protection and the use of pest management areas will be discussed.

  8. Huanglongbing: a devastating disease of citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) disease is devastating the citrus industry worldwide, from Asia to the Americas. The only major citrus regions free of this disease are the Mediterranean and Australia/New Zealand. To date there is no cure, no resistance and no therapy for HLB and production ra...

  9. Rapid screening for citrus canker resistance employing pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity responses

    PubMed Central

    Pitino, Marco; Armstrong, Cheryl M; Duan, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    Citrus canker, caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (Xcc), has been attributed to millions of dollars in loss or damage to commercial citrus crops in subtropical production areas of the world. Since identification of resistant plants is one of the most effective methods of disease management, the ability to screen for resistant seedlings plays a key role in the production of a long-term solution to canker. Here, an inverse correlation between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by the plant and the ability of Xcc to grow and form lesions on infected plants is reported. Based on this information, a novel screening method that can rapidly identify citrus seedlings that are less susceptible to early infection by Xcc was devised by measuring ROS accumulation triggered by a 22-amino acid sequence of the conserved N-terminal part of flagellin (flg22) from X. citri ssp. citri (Xcc-flg22). In addition to limiting disease symptoms, ROS production was also correlated with the expression of basal defense-related genes such as the pattern recognition receptors LRR8 and FLS2, the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein RLP12, and the defense-related gene PR1, indicating an important role for pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) in determining resistance to citrus canker. Moreover, the differential expression patterns observed amongst the citrus seedlings demonstrated the existence of genetic variations in the PTI response among citrus species/varieties. PMID:26504581

  10. Botanicals, selective insecticides, and predators to control Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in citrus orchards.

    PubMed

    Khan, Azhar A; Afzal, Muhammad; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Khan, Arif M; Raza, Abubakar M

    2014-12-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri Kuwayama vectors pathogens that cause huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening devastating and economically important disease present in most citrus growing regions. Young citrus shoots are required for psyllid reproduction and development. During winter citrus trees produce little or no new growth. Overwintering adults reproduce in spring on newly emerging shoots also attractive to other pests and beneficial insects. Botanicals and relatively selective insecticides could help to conserve beneficial insects and reduce pest resistance to insecticides. Sprays of Azadirachtin (Neem), Tropane (Datura), Spirotetramat, Spinetoram, and broad-spectrum Imidacloprid were evaluated to control ACP in spring and summer on 10-year-old "Kinow" Citrus reticulata Blanco trees producing new growth. Psyllid populations were high averaging 5-9 nymphs or adults per sample before treatment application. Nymphs or adults were significantly reduced to 0.5-1.5 per sample in all treatments for 3 weeks, average 61%-83% reduction. No significant reduction in ladybeetles Adalia bipunctata, Aneglei scardoni, Cheilomenes sexmaculata, and Coccinella septempunctata was observed. Syrphids, spiders and green lacewings were reduced in treated trees except with Tropane. Studies are warranted to assess impact of these predators on ACP and interaction with insecticides. Observed reduction in ACP populations may not be enough considering its reproductive potential and role in the spread of HLB. Follow-up sprays may be required to achieve additional suppression using rotations of different insecticides. PMID:25205398

  11. Botanicals, selective insecticides, and predators to control Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in citrus orchards.

    PubMed

    Khan, Azhar A; Afzal, Muhammad; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Khan, Arif M; Raza, Abubakar M

    2014-12-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri Kuwayama vectors pathogens that cause huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening devastating and economically important disease present in most citrus growing regions. Young citrus shoots are required for psyllid reproduction and development. During winter citrus trees produce little or no new growth. Overwintering adults reproduce in spring on newly emerging shoots also attractive to other pests and beneficial insects. Botanicals and relatively selective insecticides could help to conserve beneficial insects and reduce pest resistance to insecticides. Sprays of Azadirachtin (Neem), Tropane (Datura), Spirotetramat, Spinetoram, and broad-spectrum Imidacloprid were evaluated to control ACP in spring and summer on 10-year-old "Kinow" Citrus reticulata Blanco trees producing new growth. Psyllid populations were high averaging 5-9 nymphs or adults per sample before treatment application. Nymphs or adults were significantly reduced to 0.5-1.5 per sample in all treatments for 3 weeks, average 61%-83% reduction. No significant reduction in ladybeetles Adalia bipunctata, Aneglei scardoni, Cheilomenes sexmaculata, and Coccinella septempunctata was observed. Syrphids, spiders and green lacewings were reduced in treated trees except with Tropane. Studies are warranted to assess impact of these predators on ACP and interaction with insecticides. Observed reduction in ACP populations may not be enough considering its reproductive potential and role in the spread of HLB. Follow-up sprays may be required to achieve additional suppression using rotations of different insecticides.

  12. Citrus Functional Genomics and Molecular Modeling in Relation to Citrus sinensis (Sweet Orange) Infection with Xylella fastidiosa (Citrus Variegated Chlorosis).

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Upendra N; Tiwari, Sameeksha; Prasanna, Pragya; Awasthi, Manika; Singh, Swati; Pandey, Veda P

    2016-08-01

    Citrus are among the economically most important fruit tree crops in the world. Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), caused by Xylella fastidiosa infection, is a serious disease limiting citrus production at a global scale. With availability of citrus genomic resources, it is now possible to compare citrus expressed sequence tag (EST) data sets and identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within and among different citrus cultivars that can be exploited for citrus resistance to infections, citrus breeding, among others. We report here, for the first time, SNPs in the EST data sets of X. fastidiosa-infected Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) and their functional annotation that revealed the involvement of eight C. sinensis candidate genes in CVC pathogenesis. Among these genes were xyloglucan endotransglycosylase, myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase, and peroxidase were found to be involved in plant cell wall metabolism. These have been further investigated by molecular modeling for their role in CVC infection and defense. Molecular docking analyses of the wild and the mutant (SNP containing) types of the selected three enzymes with their respective substrates revealed a significant decrease in the binding affinity of substrates for the mutant enzymes, thus suggesting a decrease in the catalytic efficiency of these enzymes during infection, thereby facilitating a favorable condition for infection by the pathogen. These findings offer novel agrigenomics insights in developing future molecular targets and strategies for citrus fruit cultivation in ways that are resistant to X. fastidiosa infection, and by extension, with greater harvesting efficiency and economic value. PMID:27447755

  13. Citrus Functional Genomics and Molecular Modeling in Relation to Citrus sinensis (Sweet Orange) Infection with Xylella fastidiosa (Citrus Variegated Chlorosis).

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Upendra N; Tiwari, Sameeksha; Prasanna, Pragya; Awasthi, Manika; Singh, Swati; Pandey, Veda P

    2016-08-01

    Citrus are among the economically most important fruit tree crops in the world. Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), caused by Xylella fastidiosa infection, is a serious disease limiting citrus production at a global scale. With availability of citrus genomic resources, it is now possible to compare citrus expressed sequence tag (EST) data sets and identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within and among different citrus cultivars that can be exploited for citrus resistance to infections, citrus breeding, among others. We report here, for the first time, SNPs in the EST data sets of X. fastidiosa-infected Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) and their functional annotation that revealed the involvement of eight C. sinensis candidate genes in CVC pathogenesis. Among these genes were xyloglucan endotransglycosylase, myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase, and peroxidase were found to be involved in plant cell wall metabolism. These have been further investigated by molecular modeling for their role in CVC infection and defense. Molecular docking analyses of the wild and the mutant (SNP containing) types of the selected three enzymes with their respective substrates revealed a significant decrease in the binding affinity of substrates for the mutant enzymes, thus suggesting a decrease in the catalytic efficiency of these enzymes during infection, thereby facilitating a favorable condition for infection by the pathogen. These findings offer novel agrigenomics insights in developing future molecular targets and strategies for citrus fruit cultivation in ways that are resistant to X. fastidiosa infection, and by extension, with greater harvesting efficiency and economic value.

  14. Effect of copper hydroxide sprays for citrus canker control on wild type Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were performed in vitro with bacteria grown in broth and then subjected to the same copper hydroxide concentrations as are sprayed on citrus trees in Florida throughout the growing season. Studies were also undertaken with grapefruit leaves and the survival of Escherichia coli (E. coli) on t...

  15. Antimycotic Activity and Genotoxic Evaluation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus latifolia Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Pérez, Nancy J; González-Ávila, Marisela; Sánchez-Navarrete, Jaime; Toscano-Garibay, Julia D; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A; Sandoval-Hernández, Teresa; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils (EOs) of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) and Citrus latifolia (C. latifolia) against five Candida species: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida lusitaniae and Candida guilliermondii; and perform its genotoxic evaluation. The EOs of C. sinensis and C. latifolia were obtained from the peel by hydro-distillation. The major components determined by GC-MS were in C. sinensis, d-limonene (96%) and α-myrcene (2.79%); and in C. latifolia, d-limonene (51.64%), β-thujene (14.85%), β-pinene (12.79%) and γ-terpinene (12.8%). Antifungal properties were studied by agar diffusion method, where C. sinensis presented low activity and C. latifolia essential oil was effective to inhibit growing of C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii with IC50 of 6.90 and 2.92 μg respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for C. sinensis were in a range of 0.42-3.71 μg and for C. latifolia of 0.22-1.30 μg. Genotoxic evaluation was done by Ames test where none of the oils induced point mutations. Flow cytometry was used to measure toxicity in human oral epithelial cells, C. sinensis was not cytotoxic and C. latifolia was toxic at 21.8 μg. These properties might bestow different odontological applications to each essential oil.

  16. Antimycotic Activity and Genotoxic Evaluation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus latifolia Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Pérez, Nancy J; González-Ávila, Marisela; Sánchez-Navarrete, Jaime; Toscano-Garibay, Julia D; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A; Sandoval-Hernández, Teresa; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils (EOs) of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) and Citrus latifolia (C. latifolia) against five Candida species: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida lusitaniae and Candida guilliermondii; and perform its genotoxic evaluation. The EOs of C. sinensis and C. latifolia were obtained from the peel by hydro-distillation. The major components determined by GC-MS were in C. sinensis, d-limonene (96%) and α-myrcene (2.79%); and in C. latifolia, d-limonene (51.64%), β-thujene (14.85%), β-pinene (12.79%) and γ-terpinene (12.8%). Antifungal properties were studied by agar diffusion method, where C. sinensis presented low activity and C. latifolia essential oil was effective to inhibit growing of C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii with IC50 of 6.90 and 2.92 μg respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for C. sinensis were in a range of 0.42-3.71 μg and for C. latifolia of 0.22-1.30 μg. Genotoxic evaluation was done by Ames test where none of the oils induced point mutations. Flow cytometry was used to measure toxicity in human oral epithelial cells, C. sinensis was not cytotoxic and C. latifolia was toxic at 21.8 μg. These properties might bestow different odontological applications to each essential oil. PMID:27137128

  17. Site Plan & Site Section of Citrus Landscape (Showing Relationship ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Site Plan & Site Section of Citrus Landscape (Showing Relationship of Victoria Avenue to Citrus Groves) - Arlington Heights Citrus Landscape, Southwestern portion of city of Riverside, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  18. Asian citrus psyllid viral pathogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A newly discovered viral pathogen of Asian citrus psyllid, AsCP, Diaphorina citri, Kuwayama (Psyllidae: Hemiptera) was classified as a Reoviridae. This virus may serve as a biological control agent for AsCP. The AsCP is an efficient vector of the plant-infecting bacterium (Candidatus Liberibacter as...

  19. Chipping citrus wood for gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, D.B.; Hedden, S.L.; Whitney, J.D.; Shaw, L.N.

    1985-01-01

    Non-productive citrus trees were chipped with a portable fly-wheel-type chipper powered by a 45 kW engine. Chips were air dried under an open shed to 14% (w.b.) moisture content. By weight, approximately 50% of the total tree could be made into usable chips. The root system averaged 36% of the total tree weight.

  20. Production of transgenic citrus resistant to citrus canker and Huanglongbing diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening disease) caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is a great threat to the U.S. citrus industry. There are no proven strategies to eliminate HLB disease and no cultivars identified with strong HLB resistance. Citrus canker is also an economically import...

  1. Citrus Research Board-sponsored review of the University of California Riverside citrus breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In October 2015 the Citrus Research Board (CRB) assembled a panel of experts to review the Citrus Research Board-sponsored Citrus Research and Genetics Programs at University of California Riverside (UCR). The panel consisted of: Gennaro Fazio, USDA/ARS, Geneva, NY; Maria Angeles Forner-Giner, Insti...

  2. 78 FR 8435 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus Hybrids and Fortunella

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... of citrus canker). In a previous revision of the PRA, citrus black spot (Guignardia citricarpa Kiely... of citrus black spot because the combination of conditions required for disease transmission from... compounds. However, if the rind is thin or damaged, or existing oviposition puncture holes are...

  3. Application of natural colorants on citrus fruit as alternatives to Citrus Red II

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Warm field temperatures can often result in poor peel color of some citrus varieties, especially early in the harvest season. Under these conditions, Florida oranges, temples, tangelos, and K-Early citrus fruit are allowed to be treated with Citrus Red No.2 (CR2) to help produce a more acceptable pe...

  4. Field ID guide to citrus relative hosts of Asian citrus psyllid & Huanglongbing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Rutaceae family of plants includes not only species within the genus Citrus, but also several other genera and species that may not be easily recognized as having any relationship to citrus at all. However, many of these citrus relatives are used for ornamental, culinary, or religious purposes. ...

  5. Evaluation of resistance to asiatic citrus canker among selections of pera sweet orange (Citrus sinensis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asiatic citrus canker (ACC, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri) is a destructive disease of citrus in Brazil and in several other citrus-producing countries. ACC management is problematic, and bactericides such as copper can be reasonably efficacious but do not completely control...

  6. Photographic Remote Sensing of Sick Citrus Trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.

    1971-01-01

    Remote sensing with infrared color aerial photography (Kodak Ektachrome Infrared Aero 8443 film) for detecting citrus tree anomalies is described. Illustrations and discussions are given for detecting nutrient toxicity symptoms, for detecting foot rot and sooty mold fungal diseases, and for distinguishing among citrus species. Also, the influence of internal leaf structure on light reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance are considered; and physiological and environmental factors that affect citrus leaf light reflectance are reviewed briefly and illustrated.

  7. Citrus allergy from pollen to clinical symptoms.

    PubMed

    Iorio, Rosa Anna; Del Duca, Stefano; Calamelli, Elisabetta; Pula, Chiara; Lodolini, Magda; Scamardella, Fortuna; Pession, Andrea; Ricci, Giampaolo

    2013-01-01

    Allergy to citrus fruits is often associated with pollinosis and sensitization to other plants due to a phenomenon of cross-reactivity. The aims of the present study were to highlight the cross-reactivity among citrus and the major allergenic pollens/fruits, throughout clinical and molecular investigations, and to evaluate the sensitization frequency to citrus fruits in a population of children and adults with pollinosis. We found a relevant percentage of sensitisation (39%) to citrus fruits in the patients recruited and in all of them the IgE-mediated mechanism has been confirmed by the positive response to the prick-to-prick test. RT-PCR experiments showed the expression of Cit s 1, Cit s 3 and a profilin isoform, already described in apple, also in Citrus clementine pollen. Data of multiple sequence alignments demonstrated that Citrus allergens shared high percentage identity values with other clinically relevant species (i.e. Triticum aestivum, Malus domestica), confirming the possible cross-allergenicity citrus/grasses and citrus/apple. Finally, a novelty of the present work has been the expression of two phospholipaseA2 isoforms (PLA2 α and β) in Citrus as well as in Triticum pollens; being PLA2 able to generate pro-inflammatory factors, this enzyme could participate in the activation of the allergenic inflammatory cascade.

  8. Digital Gene Expression Analysis of Ponkan Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in Response to Asia Citrus Psyllid-Vectored Huanglongbing Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yun; Cheng, Chunzhen; Jiang, Bo; Jiang, Nonghui; Zhang, Yongyan; Hu, Minlun; Zhong, Guangyan

    2016-01-01

    Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), the most destructive citrus disease, can be transmitted by psyllids and diseased budwoods. Although the final symptoms of the two main HLB transmission ways were similar and hard to distinguish, the host responses might be different. In this study, the global gene changes in leaves of ponkan (Citrus reticulata) mandarin trees following psyllid-transmission of HLB were analyzed at the early symptomatic stage (13 weeks post inoculation, wpi) and late symptomatic stage (26 wpi) using digital gene expression (DGE) profiling. At 13 wpi, 2452 genes were downregulated while only 604 genes were upregulated in HLB infected ponkan leaves but no pathway enrichment was identified. Gene function analysis showed impairment in defense at the early stage of infection. At late stage of 26 wpi, however, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in carbohydrate metabolism, plant defense, hormone signaling, secondary metabolism, transcription regulation were overwhelmingly upregulated, indicating that the defense reactions were eventually activated. The results indicated that HLB bacterial infection significantly influenced ponkan gene expression, and a delayed response of the host to the fast growing bacteria might be responsible for its failure in fighting against the bacteria. PMID:27384559

  9. Digital Gene Expression Analysis of Ponkan Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in Response to Asia Citrus Psyllid-Vectored Huanglongbing Infection.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yun; Cheng, Chunzhen; Jiang, Bo; Jiang, Nonghui; Zhang, Yongyan; Hu, Minlun; Zhong, Guangyan

    2016-01-01

    Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), the most destructive citrus disease, can be transmitted by psyllids and diseased budwoods. Although the final symptoms of the two main HLB transmission ways were similar and hard to distinguish, the host responses might be different. In this study, the global gene changes in leaves of ponkan (Citrus reticulata) mandarin trees following psyllid-transmission of HLB were analyzed at the early symptomatic stage (13 weeks post inoculation, wpi) and late symptomatic stage (26 wpi) using digital gene expression (DGE) profiling. At 13 wpi, 2452 genes were downregulated while only 604 genes were upregulated in HLB infected ponkan leaves but no pathway enrichment was identified. Gene function analysis showed impairment in defense at the early stage of infection. At late stage of 26 wpi, however, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in carbohydrate metabolism, plant defense, hormone signaling, secondary metabolism, transcription regulation were overwhelmingly upregulated, indicating that the defense reactions were eventually activated. The results indicated that HLB bacterial infection significantly influenced ponkan gene expression, and a delayed response of the host to the fast growing bacteria might be responsible for its failure in fighting against the bacteria. PMID:27384559

  10. Regulation of gibberellin 20-oxidase gene expression and gibberellin content in citrus by temperature and citrus exocortis viroid.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Ana M; Ben-Cheikh, Waddi; Talón, Manuel; García-Martínez, José L

    2003-07-01

    A cDNA clone coding for a gibberellin (GA) 20-oxidase ( CcGA20ox1), an enzyme of GA biosynthesis, which when expressed in vitro catalyzed the conversion of GA(12) to GA(9) and of GA(53) to GA(20), was isolated from the citrus hybrid Carrizo citrange (C itrus sinensis x Poncirus trifoliata). Transcripts of CcGA20ox1 were abundant in the apex and leaves and much less abundant in internodes, nodes and roots. Seedlings of Carrizo citrange cultured under a 32 degrees C/27 degrees C (day/night) regime elongated more than seedlings growing under 17 degrees C/12 degrees C conditions. The effect of higher temperature was associated with more CcGA20ox1 transcripts and with higher content of GA(1), the main active GA in citrus, in the shoot. The infection of Etrog citron ( Citrus medica) plants with citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), which produces a stunted phenotype, reduced the levels of transcripts in the apical shoot hybridizing to the gene CcGA20ox1 of Carrizo citrange and the content of GA(1). Thus GA(1) content correlated with CcGA20ox1 transcript levels. In contrast, results for gibberellic acid (GA(3)) and paclobutrazol applications to Carrizo citrange showed that CcGA20ox1 expression was subject to feed-back regulation. These observations indicate that the feed-back regulation of GA20ox operates mostly when the levels of active GAs have been dramatically altered. The results also show that the growth reduction induced by environmental (temperature) and biotic (CEVd) factors may be partially due to the modulation of the expression of GA20ox genes.

  11. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujitha, Mohanan V.; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2013-02-01

    This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl4 by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0 mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (1 1 1, 2 0 0, 2 2 0 and 2 2 2 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

  12. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization.

    PubMed

    Sujitha, Mohanan V; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2013-02-01

    This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl(4) by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (111, 200, 220 and 222 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp(3) of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp(3) of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

  13. Comparison of FTIR spectra between Huanglongbing (citrus greening) and other citrus maladies.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Samantha A; Park, Bosoon; Poole, Gavin H; Gottwald, Tim R; Windham, William R; Albano, Joseph; Lawrence, Kurt C

    2010-05-26

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has the ability to quickly identify the presence of specific carbohydrates in plant materials. The presence of the disease huanglongbing (HLB) in the leaves of infected citrus plants has a distinctive spectrum that can be used to distinguish an infected plant from a healthy plant. However, many citrus diseases display similar visible symptoms and are of concern to citrus growers. In this study several citrus diseases (citrus leaf rugose virus, citrus tristeza virus, citrus psorosis virus, and Xanthomonas axonopodis ) and nutrient deficiencies (iron, copper, zinc, manganese, and magnesium) were compared with HLB using FTIR spectroscopy to determine if the spectra alone can be used to identify plants that are infected with HLB instead of another disease. The results indicate that the spectra of some diseases and deficiencies more closely resemble those of apparently healthy plants and some share the carbohydrate transformation that has been seen in the spectra of HLB-infected plants.

  14. [Climatic suitability of citrus in subtropical China].

    PubMed

    Duan, Hai-Lai; Qian, Huai-Sui; Li, Ming-Xia; Du, Yao-Dong

    2010-08-01

    By applying the theories of ecological suitability and the methods of fuzzy mathematics, this paper established a climatic suitability model for citrus, calculated and evaluated the climatic suitability and its spatiotemporal differences for citrus production in subtropical China, and analyzed the climatic suitability of citrus at its different growth stages and the mean climatic suitability of citrus in different regions of subtropical China. The results showed that the citrus in subtropical China had a lower climatic suitability and a higher risk at its flower bud differentiation stage, budding stage, and fruit maturity stage, but a higher climatic suitability and a lower risk at other growth stages. Cold damage and summer drought were the key issues affecting the citrus production in subtropical China. The citrus temperature suitability represented a latitudinal zonal pattern, i. e., decreased with increasing latitude; its precipitation suitability was high in the line of "Sheyang-Napo", medium in the southeast of the line, low in the northwest of the line, and non in high mountainous area; while the sunlight suitability was in line with the actual duration of sunshine, namely, higher in high-latitude areas than in low-latitude areas, and higher in high-altitude areas than in plain areas. Limited by temperature factor, the climatic suitability was in accordance with temperature suitability, i. e., south parts had a higher suitability than north parts, basically representing latitudinal zonal pattern. From the analysis of the inter-annual changes of citrus climatic suitability, it could be seen that the citrus climatic suitability in subtropical China was decreasing, and had obvious regional differences, suggesting that climate change could bring about the changes in the regions suitable for citrus production and in the key stages of citrus growth.

  15. Fatty acid metabolism in lambs fed citrus pulp.

    PubMed

    Lanza, M; Scerra, M; Bognanno, M; Buccioni, A; Cilione, C; Biondi, L; Priolo, A; Luciano, G

    2015-06-01

    (P = 0.09) with increasing level of citrus pulp in the diets. Furthermore, the SA/(SA + VA) ratio tended to be lower (P = 0.10) in the ruminal fluid from lambs fed the CIT35 diet compared with that of the CON group. In conclusion, our results support the hypothesis that replacing barley with citrus pulp in the diet of growing lambs improves intramuscular fatty acid composition and underline the need for specific studies to clarify the mechanisms by which feeding citrus pulp affects the fatty acid metabolism in ruminants.

  16. Plant resistance within the Rutaceae to Asian citrus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA-ARS recently initiated research on host plant resistance to the Asian citrus psyllid. The psyllid is an important invasive pest of citrus in the United States because it transmits a serious disease of citrus known as huanglongbing (citrus greening). There is no cure for this bacterial disease. ...

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-38 Citrus from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata...

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-38 Citrus from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata...

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-38 Citrus from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata...

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-38 Citrus from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata...

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-38 Citrus from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata...

  2. A comparison of plant species for rearing Asian citrus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five plant genotypes were compared with respect to Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) reproduction potential: Bergera koenigii, Citrus aurantiifolia, C. macrophylla, C. taiwanica and Murraya paniculata. Asian citrus psyllid reproduction is dependent on young flush and thus Asian citrus psyllid production po...

  3. Resistance and tolerance to Huanglongbing in citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Stover-led research team focuses on developing improved citrus scion varieties, through both conventional breeding and transgenics, with special attention to confronting the threat of citrus huanglongbing (HLB). Collaborations are underway with more than 20 research groups around the world to ha...

  4. Cryopreservation and Cryotherapy of Citrus Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term conservation of Citrus clones can be accomplished by cryopreservation. Shoot tips will survive liquid nitrogen exposure and storage when appropriately desiccated and treated with cryoprotectant solutions. In our research, vegetative Citrus budwood is shipped from Riverside to Fort Collin...

  5. Conservation of citrus germplasm - an international survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus is an economically important tree fruit crop in many subtropical and tropical areas. Most cultivated species likely originated in Southern China, Northeast India and Southeast Asia. Many species are inter-fertile and some cultivated citrus types including sweet orange, lemon and grapefruit, ...

  6. Citrus Community College District Mentor Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinds, Diane; Sprague, Caroline

    The Citrus College faculty and staff addressed the problem of lower career aspirations among women by establishing a support group, Citrus Women in Higher Education (CWHE). In addition to group meetings and special programs of interest, the CWHE has developed a mentor program to address the problem of blocked careers faced by women. The goals of…

  7. Rapid cyling plant breeding in citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance or tolerance to huanglongbing (HLB) and other important traits have been identified in several citrus types and relatives and associated markers should be identified soon. What is urgently needed in addition is an accelerated strategy for citrus variety breeding. Identification and use of...

  8. Antennal and behavioral response of the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) to degradation products of citrus volatiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) vectors the bacterial causal pathogen of the deadly citrus disease, Huanglongbing (citrus greening) which is a major threat to citrus industry worldwide. We studied antennal and behavioral responses to principal components of head...

  9. Tolerance of the trifoliate citrus hybrid US-897 (Citrus reticulata Blanco x Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.) to Huanglongbing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a destructive disease of citrus in most citrus-producing countries worldwide. The disease, presumably caused by phloem-limited bacteria of the genus Candidatus Liberibacter, affects all known citrus species and citrus relatives with little known resistance. Typical disease s...

  10. Citrus quarantine, sanitary and certification programs in the USA. Prevention of introduction and distribution of citrus diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus germplasm originated in Australasia, the Far East, and Africa, thus all citrus grown in the New World was imported. This importation of citrus also resulted in importation of graft transmissible pathogens of citrus, many of which are latent in their original host but can cause epidemics of t...

  11. Limited and time-delayed internal resource allocation generates oscillations and chaos in the dynamics of citrus crops

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Xujun; Sakai, Kenshi

    2013-12-15

    Alternate bearing or masting is a yield variability phenomenon in perennial crops. The complex dynamics in this phenomenon have stimulated much ecological research. Motivated by data from an eight-year experiment with forty-eight individual trees, we explored the mechanism inherent to these dynamics in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.). By integrating high-resolution imaging technology, we found that the canopy structure and reproduction output of individual citrus crops are mutually dependent on each other. Furthermore, it was revealed that the mature leaves in early season contribute their energy to the fruiting of the current growing season, whereas the younger leaves show a delayed contribution to the next growing season. We thus hypothesized that the annual yield variability might be caused by the limited and time-delayed resource allocation in individual plants. A novel lattice model based on this hypothesis demonstrates that this pattern of resource allocation will generate oscillations and chaos in citrus yield.

  12. Antimycotic Activity and Genotoxic Evaluation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus latifolia Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Pérez, Nancy J.; González-Ávila, Marisela; Sánchez-Navarrete, Jaime; Toscano-Garibay, Julia D.; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A.; Sandoval-Hernández, Teresa; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils (EOs) of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) and Citrus latifolia (C. latifolia) against five Candida species: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida lusitaniae and Candida guilliermondii; and perform its genotoxic evaluation. The EOs of C. sinensis and C. latifolia were obtained from the peel by hydro-distillation. The major components determined by GC-MS were in C. sinensis, d-limonene (96%) and α-myrcene (2.79%); and in C. latifolia, d-limonene (51.64%), β-thujene (14.85%), β-pinene (12.79%) and γ-terpinene (12.8%). Antifungal properties were studied by agar diffusion method, where C. sinensis presented low activity and C. latifolia essential oil was effective to inhibit growing of C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii with IC50 of 6.90 and 2.92 μg respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for C. sinensis were in a range of 0.42–3.71 μg and for C. latifolia of 0.22–1.30 μg. Genotoxic evaluation was done by Ames test where none of the oils induced point mutations. Flow cytometry was used to measure toxicity in human oral epithelial cells, C. sinensis was not cytotoxic and C. latifolia was toxic at 21.8 μg. These properties might bestow different odontological applications to each essential oil. PMID:27137128

  13. Accumulation of the sesquiterpenes nootkatone and valencene by callus cultures of Citrus paradisi, Citrus limonia and Citrus aurantium.

    PubMed

    Del Río, J A; Ortuño, A; Puig, D G; Iborra, J L; Sabater, F

    1991-10-01

    The production of the sesquiterpenes nootkatone and valencene by callus cultures of Citrus species is described. The levels of these compounds were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their yields were compared with the amounts found in mature fruits. A simultaneous increase and decrease in the levels of nootkatone and valencene, respectively, were observed with the aging of callus cultures of Citrus paradisi. These results suggest that valencene might be a possible precursor of nootkatone in this species. The high level of nootkatone detected in 9-month-old callus cultures of Citrus paradisi might be associated with the corresponding cell morphological changes observed. PMID:24221735

  14. Chipping citrus wood for gasifiction

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, D.B.; Hedden, S.L.; Whitney, J.D.; Shaw, L.N.

    1984-01-01

    Both green and dead citrus trees were used for chipping. Chip moisture content, fuel analysis, drying time, and data on fuel/tonne of chips were obtained. The average moisture contents of green and dead trees when chipped were 25% and 16% (wet basis) respectively. Chips were sized to a minimum of 0.32 squared cm x 0.32 cm thick to a maximum of 5.0 cm squared x 0.32 cm thick and normally required 4 weeks to air dry to 14% (wet basis) moisture content before use. Approximately 50% of the total tree by weight could be made into usable chips. 9 references.

  15. Citrus leprosis virus vectored by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on citrus in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, J C V; Kitajima, E W; Childers, C C; Chagas, C M

    2003-01-01

    Citrus leprosis is caused by Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV) that is transmitted by mites in the genus Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). This disease directly reduces production and the life span of the citrus plant. The main symptoms of the disease include lesions on fruits, leaves, and twigs or small branches, causing premature fruit drop, defoliation, and death of the twigs or branches leading to serious tree decline. Leprosis is a highly destructive disease of citrus, wherever it occurs. The Brazilian citrus industry spends over 100 million US dollars annually on acaricides to control the vector, Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes). This review contains information about the history of the etiology of citrus leprosis, its geographical distribution, host range, the role of the mite vectors, viral morphology and relationships with the infected cell, and transmissibility of the virus by the mite. In addition, data on the mite-virus-plant relationship, disease damage, and strategies for controlling disease spread are presented.

  16. Citrus leprosis virus vectored by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on citrus in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, J C V; Kitajima, E W; Childers, C C; Chagas, C M

    2003-01-01

    Citrus leprosis is caused by Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV) that is transmitted by mites in the genus Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). This disease directly reduces production and the life span of the citrus plant. The main symptoms of the disease include lesions on fruits, leaves, and twigs or small branches, causing premature fruit drop, defoliation, and death of the twigs or branches leading to serious tree decline. Leprosis is a highly destructive disease of citrus, wherever it occurs. The Brazilian citrus industry spends over 100 million US dollars annually on acaricides to control the vector, Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes). This review contains information about the history of the etiology of citrus leprosis, its geographical distribution, host range, the role of the mite vectors, viral morphology and relationships with the infected cell, and transmissibility of the virus by the mite. In addition, data on the mite-virus-plant relationship, disease damage, and strategies for controlling disease spread are presented. PMID:14756415

  17. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan.

    PubMed

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering.

  18. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering. PMID:27069387

  19. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan.

    PubMed

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering. PMID:27069387

  20. Growing and Growing: Promoting Functional Thinking with Geometric Growing Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markworth, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Design research methodology is used in this study to develop an empirically-substantiated instruction theory about students' development of functional thinking in the context of geometric growing patterns. The two research questions are: (1) How does students' functional thinking develop in the context of geometric growing patterns? (2) What are…

  1. Characterization of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Reese, Justin; Christenson, Matthew K; Leng, Nan; Saha, Surya; Cantarel, Brandi; Lindeberg, Magdalen; Tamborindeguy, Cecilia; Maccarthy, Justin; Weaver, Daniel; Trease, Andrew J; Steven V, Ready; Davis, Vincent M; McCormick, Courtney; Haudenschild, Christian; Han, Shunsheng; Johnson, Shannon L; Shelby, Kent S; Huang, Hong; Bextine, Blake R; Shatters, Robert G; Hall, David G; Davis, Paul H; Hunter, Wayne B

    2014-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a vector for the causative agents of Huanglongbing, which threatens citrus production worldwide. This study reports and discusses the first D. citri transcriptomes, encompassing the three main life stages of D. citri, egg, nymph and adult. The transcriptomes were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO) and insecticide-related genes within each life stage were identified to aid the development of future D. citri insecticides. Transcriptome assemblies and other sequence data are available for download at the International Asian Citrus Psyllid Genome Consortium website [http://psyllid.org/download] and at NCBI [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/29447].

  2. Characterization of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Reese, Justin; Christenson, Matthew K; Leng, Nan; Saha, Surya; Cantarel, Brandi; Lindeberg, Magdalen; Tamborindeguy, Cecilia; Maccarthy, Justin; Weaver, Daniel; Trease, Andrew J; Steven V, Ready; Davis, Vincent M; McCormick, Courtney; Haudenschild, Christian; Han, Shunsheng; Johnson, Shannon L; Shelby, Kent S; Huang, Hong; Bextine, Blake R; Shatters, Robert G; Hall, David G; Davis, Paul H; Hunter, Wayne B

    2014-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a vector for the causative agents of Huanglongbing, which threatens citrus production worldwide. This study reports and discusses the first D. citri transcriptomes, encompassing the three main life stages of D. citri, egg, nymph and adult. The transcriptomes were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO) and insecticide-related genes within each life stage were identified to aid the development of future D. citri insecticides. Transcriptome assemblies and other sequence data are available for download at the International Asian Citrus Psyllid Genome Consortium website [http://psyllid.org/download] and at NCBI [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/29447]. PMID:24511328

  3. Characterization of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Justin; Christenson, Matthew K.; Leng, Nan; Saha, Surya; Cantarel, Brandi; Lindeberg, Magdalen; Tamborindeguy, Cecilia; MacCarthy, Justin; Weaver, Daniel; Trease, Andrew J.; Ready, Steven V.; Davis, Vincent M.; McCormick, Courtney; Haudenschild, Christian; Han, Shunsheng; Johnson, Shannon L.; Shelby, Kent S.; Huang, Hong; Bextine, Blake R.; Shatters, Robert G.; Hall, David G.; Davis, Paul H.; Hunter, Wayne B.

    2014-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a vector for the causative agents of Huanglongbing, which threatens citrus production worldwide. This study reports and discusses the first D. citri transcriptomes, encompassing the three main life stages of D. citri, egg, nymph and adult. The transcriptomes were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO) and insecticide-related genes within each life stage were identified to aid the development of future D. citri insecticides. Transcriptome assemblies and other sequence data are available for download at the International Asian Citrus Psyllid Genome Consortium website [http://psyllid.org/download] and at NCBI [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/29447]. PMID:24511328

  4. Comparison of antifungal activities of Vietnamese citrus essential oils.

    PubMed

    Van Hung, Pham; Chi, Pham Thi Lan; Phi, Nguyen Thi Lan

    2013-03-01

    Citrus essential oils (EOs) are volatile compounds from citrus peels and widely used in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps and aromatherapy. In this study, inhibition of citrus EOs extracted from Vietnamese orange (Citrus sinensis), mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), pomelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) on the growth of plant pathogenic fungi, Mucor hiemalis, Penicillium expansum and Fusarium proliferatum was investigated. The EOs of the citrus peels were obtained by cold-pressing method and the antifungal activity of EOs was evaluated using the agar dilution method. The results show that the EOs had significant antifungal activity. Lime EO was the best inhibitor of M. hiemalis and F. proliferatum while pomelo EO was the most effective against P. expansum. These results indicate that citrus EOs can be used as antifungal natural products in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.

  5. Recovery and characterization of a Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan. 'Clemenules' haploid plant selected to establish the reference whole Citrus genome sequence

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In recent years, the development of structural genomics has generated a growing interest in obtaining haploid plants. The use of homozygous lines presents a significant advantage for the accomplishment of sequencing projects. Commercial citrus species are characterized by high heterozygosity, making it difficult to assemble large genome sequences. Thus, the International Citrus Genomic Consortium (ICGC) decided to establish a reference whole citrus genome sequence from a homozygous plant. Due to the existence of important molecular resources and previous success in obtaining haploid clementine plants, haploid clementine was selected as the target for the implementation of the reference whole genome citrus sequence. Results To obtain haploid clementine lines we used the technique of in situ gynogenesis induced by irradiated pollen. Flow cytometry, chromosome counts and SSR marker (Simple Sequence Repeats) analysis facilitated the identification of six different haploid lines (2n = x = 9), one aneuploid line (2n = 2x+4 = 22) and one doubled haploid plant (2n = 2x = 18) of 'Clemenules' clementine. One of the haploids, obtained directly from an original haploid embryo, grew vigorously and produced flowers after four years. This is the first haploid plant of clementine that has bloomed and we have, for the first time, characterized the histology of haploid and diploid flowers of clementine. Additionally a double haploid plant was obtained spontaneously from this haploid line. Conclusion The first haploid plant of 'Clemenules' clementine produced directly by germination of a haploid embryo, which grew vigorously and produced flowers, has been obtained in this work. This haploid line has been selected and it is being used by the ICGC to establish the reference sequence of the nuclear genome of citrus. PMID:19698121

  6. The aconitate hydratase family from Citrus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Research on citrus fruit ripening has received considerable attention because of the importance of citrus fruits for the human diet. Organic acids are among the main determinants of taste and organoleptic quality of fruits and hence the control of fruit acidity loss has a strong economical relevance. In citrus, organic acids accumulate in the juice sac cells of developing fruits and are catabolized thereafter during ripening. Aconitase, that transforms citrate to isocitrate, is the first step of citric acid catabolism and a major component of the citrate utilization machinery. In this work, the citrus aconitase gene family was first characterized and a phylogenetic analysis was then carried out in order to understand the evolutionary history of this family in plants. Gene expression analyses of the citrus aconitase family were subsequently performed in several acidic and acidless genotypes to elucidate their involvement in acid homeostasis. Results Analysis of 460,000 citrus ESTs, followed by sequencing of complete cDNA clones, identified in citrus 3 transcription units coding for putatively active aconitate hydratase proteins, named as CcAco1, CcAco2 and CcAco3. A phylogenetic study carried on the Aco family in 14 plant species, shows the presence of 5 Aco subfamilies, and that the ancestor of monocot and dicot species shared at least one Aco gene. Real-time RT-PCR expression analyses of the three aconitase citrus genes were performed in pulp tissues along fruit development in acidic and acidless citrus varieties such as mandarins, oranges and lemons. While CcAco3 expression was always low, CcAco1 and CcAco2 genes were generally induced during the rapid phase of fruit growth along with the maximum in acidity and the beginning of the acid reduction. Two exceptions to this general pattern were found: 1) Clemenules mandarin failed inducing CcAco2 although acid levels were rapidly reduced; and 2) the acidless "Sucreña" orange showed unusually high levels

  7. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Citrus sinensis, Citrus paradisi, and their combinations

    PubMed Central

    Mallick, Neelam; Khan, Rafeeq Alam

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Hyperlipidemia, extensively contributes in the progression of coronary heart diseases and atherosclerosis, but may be managed through alterations in the nutritional pattern. Several studies show that diet rich in polyphenols and antioxidants have antiatherogenic effects. Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi are widely known for health benefits and have found to produce antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic effects, hence current research was planned to determine the hypolipidemic effects of C. sinensis and C. paradisi in rats receiving diet rich in cholesterol. Materials and Methods: All rats were divided into 11 groups each comprising 10 animals: Normal control group and hyperlipidemic control. C. sinensis treated three groups, C. paradisi treated three groups, C. sinensis and C. paradisi combination treated two groups, and group treated atorvastatin. All rats in the respective groups were treated orally with sterile water, juices, and standard drug for 8 weeks and lipid profile was estimated at the end of dosing. Results: Cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were decreased at all the three doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi but rise in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was only significant at 8 ml/kg, and 0.3 ml/kg, respectively. Animals received the combination doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi also showed a highly significant fall in cholesterol, LDL, and TGs, however HDL level was significantly elevated by SPJ-2 combination. Conclusion: Results suggest that C. sinensis and C. paradisi possess antihyperlipidemic activity due to phytochemicals and other essential nutrients, hence may serve as cardioprotective by preventing thrombosis. PMID:27134462

  8. Citrus viroid V: occurrence, host range, diagnosis, and identification of new variants.

    PubMed

    Serra, P; Eiras, M; Bani-Hashemian, S M; Murcia, N; Kitajima, E W; Daròs, J A; Flores, R; Duran-Vila, N

    2008-11-01

    The recently described Citrus viroid V (CVd-V) has been proposed as a new species of the genus Apscaviroid within the family Pospiviroidae. Analysis of 64 samples from different citrus-growing areas has shown that CVd-V is present in the United States, Spain, Nepal, and the Sultanate of Oman. CVd-V found in six sweet orange sources from the Sultanate of Oman was identical to the reference CVd-V variant, whereas three new variants with sequence identities of 98.6% (CVd-VCA), 97.3% (CVd-VST), and 94.9% (CVd-VNE) were identified in sources from California, Spain, and Nepal, respectively. These results suggest that this viroid has not emerged recently and that it is relatively widespread. Transmission assays to sweet orange, mandarin, and mandarin hybrids, clementine, satsuma, lemon, sour orange, Tahiti lime, Palestine sweet lime, calamondin, bergamot, and kumquat have shown that all these citrus species and citrus relatives are hosts for CVd-V. Several indexing approaches, including slot blot, northern blot hybridization, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, have been evaluated for detecting CVd-V, either using Etrog citron as an amplification host or directly from commercial species and cultivars.

  9. Characterization of a new citrus viroid species tentatively termed Citrus viroid OS.

    PubMed

    Ito, T; Ieki, H; Ozaki, K; Ito, T

    2001-01-01

    A new viroid was obtained from a viroid sample, named 'OS', collected from a citrus plant. The viroid consists of 330-331 nucleotides, contains the central conserved region (CCR) characteristic of the genus Apscaviroid, and has the highest sequence similarity (only 68%) with Citrus III viroid (CVd-III) among known viroids. This viroid, by itself, caused only mild petiole necrosis and characteristically very mild leaf bending in Arizona 861-S1 Etrog citrons (Citrus medica L.), the degree of which differed from that induced by other citrus viroids. This viroid could be a new citrus viroid species belonging to the genus Apscaviroid; for convenience, it was tentatively named Citrus viroid OS (CVd-OS) after the original sample. CVd-OS has chimeric features related to other viroids. In particular, CVd-OS has high sequence similarity with CVd-III and Apple dimple fruit viroid in the putative central and terminal left domains, including a duplicative sequence from the lower CCR of the genus Pospiviroid in the left terminus. Further, CVd-OS shares high sequence similarity with Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd) in the lower strand of the putative variable and terminal right domains, including the sequence identical to that of the right termini of CEVd and of Citrus IV viroid.

  10. Ecoport Slide Shows on the Internet Related to Citrus and Citrus Diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The EcoPort website was launched in 2000 to provide a knowledge database of biodiversity. As of September 2005, the EcoPort website contained over one half million references, over 42,000 pictures and over 200 slide shows, of which 59 pertain to citrus and citrus virus and virus-like diseases. As ...

  11. Evaluation of natural colorants and their application on citrus fruit as alternatives to citrus red II

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The poor peel color of some varieties of oranges and the hybrids, especially for early season fruits, is caused by the subtropical climate of Florida, and has resulted in the use of a red dye on the peel to improve fruit appearance and marketability. Citrus Red II (CR2), the commercial citrus color ...

  12. Update on USDA advanced citrus scion selections for Indian River Citrus League

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an effort to help maintain the Florida citrus industry, the USDA US Horticultural Research Laboratory (USHRL) citrus breeding team is working to make advanced selections available for limited testing earlier and more broadly than in the past to quickly identify material with commercial potential....

  13. Citrus County Schools Copyright Guidelines Recommended by the Citrus County Association of School Media Specialists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citrus County School District, Inverness, FL.

    This document contains copyright guidelines determined appropriate for the Citrus County School System (Florida) by the Citrus County Association of School Media Specialists in May, 1992. These guidelines are based on interpretation and understanding of current copyright law as applied to education and implemented in school districts in the United…

  14. A novel hybridization approach for detection of citrus viroids.

    PubMed

    Murcia, N; Serra, P; Olmos, A; Duran-Vila, N

    2009-04-01

    Citrus plants are natural hosts of several viroid species all belonging to the family Pospiviroidae. Previous attempts to detect viroids from field-grown species and cultivars yielded erratic results unless analyses were performed using Etrog citron a secondary bio-amplification host. To overcome the use of Etrog citron a number of RT-PCR approaches have been proposed with different degrees of success. Here we report the suitability of an easy to handle northern hybridization protocol for viroid detection of samples collected from field-grown citrus species and cultivars. The protocol involves: (i) Nucleic acid preparations from bark tissue samples collected from field-grown trees regardless of the growing season and storage conditions; (ii) Separation in 5% PAGE or 1% agarose, blotting to membrane and fixing; (iii) Hybridization with viroid-specific DIG-labelled probes and detection with anti-DIG-alkaline phosphatase conjugate and autoradiography with the CSPD substrate. The method has been tested with viroid-infected trees of sweet orange, lemon, mandarin, grapefruit, sour orange, Swingle citrumello, Tahiti lime and Mexican lime. This novel hybridization approach is extremely sensitive, easy to handle and shortens the time needed for reliable viroid indexing tests. The suitability of PCR generated DIG-labelled probes and the sensitivity achieved when the samples are separated and blotted from non-denaturing gels are discussed.

  15. Effective antibiotics against 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in HLB-affected citrus plants identified via the graft-based evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Muqing; Guo, Ying; Powell, Charles A; Doud, Melissa S; Yang, Chuanyu; Duan, Yongping

    2014-01-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), caused by three species of fastidious, phloem-limited 'Candidatus Liberibacter', is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. To date, there is no established cure for this century-old and yet, newly emerging disease. As a potential control strategy for citrus HLB, 31 antibiotics were screened for effectiveness and phytotoxicity using the optimized graft-based screening system with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las)-infected citrus scions. Actidione and Oxytetracycline were the most phytotoxic to citrus with less than 10% of scions surviving and growing; therefore, this data was not used in additional analyses. Results of principal component (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analyses (HCA) demonstrated that 29 antibiotics were clustered into 3 groups: highly effective, partly effective, and not effective. In spite of different modes of actions, a number of antibiotics such as, Ampicillin, Carbenicillin, Penicillin, Cefalexin, Rifampicin and Sulfadimethoxine were all highly effective in eliminating or suppressing Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus indicated by both the lowest Las infection rate and titers of the treated scions and inoculated rootstock. The non-effective group, including 11 antibiotics alone with three controls, such as Amikacin, Cinoxacin, Gentamicin, Kasugamycin, Lincomycin, Neomycin, Polymixin B and Tobramycin, did not eliminate or suppress Las in the tested concentrations, resulting in plants with increased titers of Las. The other 12 antibiotics partly eliminated or suppressed Las in the treated and graft-inoculated plants. The effective and non-phytotoxic antibiotics could be potential candidates for control of citrus HLB, either for the rescue of infected citrus germplasm or for restricted field application.

  16. Site Plan & Site Section of Citrus Landscape (Showing Relationship ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Site Plan & Site Section of Citrus Landscape (Showing Relationship of Groves & Irrigation System to Grove Canal) - Arlington Heights Citrus Landscape, Southwestern portion of city of Riverside, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  17. Screening antimicrobial peptides in-vitro for use in developing transgenic citrus resistant to huanglongbing and citrus canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB, associated with Candidatus Liberibacter sp.) and Asiatic citrus canker (ACC, causal organism Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (XCC)) are bacterial diseases that seriously threaten sustainability of the Florida citrus industry. Sweet orange and grapefruit are highly susceptible to A...

  18. Huanglongbing increases Diplodia Stem End Rot in Citrus sinensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB), one of the most devastating diseases of citrus is caused by the a-Proteobacteria Candidatus Liberibacter. Diplodia natalensis Pole-Evans is a fungal pathogen which has been known to cause a postharvest stem-end rot of citrus, the pathogen infects citrus fruit under the calyx, an...

  19. Molecular analysis of citrus rust (Phyllocoptruta oleivora) populations in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phyllocoptruta olevoria (Acari: Eriophyidae) or the citrus rust mite (CRM) is one of the most economically important mite pests of citrus worldwide. CRM originated from Asia, however it is found in most citrus producing areas, such as, Brazil, Morocco and the United States. Though CRM is a major pes...

  20. Evaluation of natural colorants and their application on citrus fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Warm temperatures can often result in poor peel color of some citrus varieties, especially early in the harvest season. Under these conditions, Florida oranges, temples, tangelos, and K-Early citrus fruit are allowed to be treated with Citrus Red No.2 (CR2) to help produce a more acceptable peel col...

  1. Endosymbiotic microbiota of Asian Citrus Psyllid (Diaphorina citri)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The causes of huanglongbing may be induced by more than one microbial agent. Thus, we examined the microbial community in the Asian citrus psyllid (AsCP) (Diaphorina citri, Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Citrus greening is one of the most severe diseases of citrus in Asia and Africa and is caused by an uncu...

  2. Intercropping of citrus and guava trees for management of Huanglongbing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies conducted in Viet Nam by Vietnamese, Japanese and Australian scientists indicate that interplanting citrus with guava negated infestations of Asian citrus psyllid and consequently huanglongbing, a serious disease caused by a bacterium vectored by the psyllid. Young citrus interplanted...

  3. First report of citrus leprosis virus nuclear type in Colombia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus leprosis is a difficult viral disease causing significant damage to citrus fruit in South America and Central America. The disease is marked by dramatic lesions on fruit, leaves and stems resulting in unmarketable product. Citrus leprosis virus cytoplasmic types (CiLV-C and CiLV-C2) wer edete...

  4. Long term field evaluation reveals HLB resistance in Citrus relatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is a destructive disease with no known cure. To identify sources of HLB resistance in the subfamily Aurantioideae to which citrus belongs, we conducted a six-year field trial under natural disease challenge conditions in an HLB endemic region. The study included 65 Citrus ...

  5. Susceptibility of sixteen citrus genotypes to Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) disease is the most serious threat to citrus production worldwide and in the last decade has devastated the Florida citrus industry. HLB is associated with a phloem-limited a-proteobacter Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and its insect vector the Asian citrus psyllid (Dia...

  6. Trailers transporting oranges to processing plants move Asian citrus psyllids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (citrus greening) is one of the most serious of citrus diseases. Movement of the disease occurs as a result of natural vector-borne infection and by movement of plant material. We demonstrate here that Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (vector of citrus greening pathogens) can be transported i...

  7. Pest management practices aimed at curtailing citrus huanglongbing disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a devastating, insect-vectored disease of citrus sometimes referred to as citrus greening disease and putatively caused by phloem-limited bacteria within the genus Candidatus Liberibacter. Citrus trees infected by this disease decline in productivity; produce misshapen, inedib...

  8. Thirty years of citrus tristeza virus observations in Peru

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Peruvian citrus industry was devastated by epidemics of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) decline (CTV-D) on sour orange rootstock between 1950 and 1965 and CTV stem pitting (SP) between 1965 and 1985. CTV-SP debilitates citrus and fruit production regardless of rootstock. Control of CTV-SP by mild st...

  9. Converting citrus waste to ethanol and other co-products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conversion of citrus processing waste (CPW) generated during juice production into value added co-products is an important aspect of the juice industry as it offers a solution to waste disposal issues. Currently the practice of drying citrus waste to produce citrus pulp pellets (CPP) for use as catt...

  10. 7 CFR 905.31 - Duties of Citrus Administrative Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duties of Citrus Administrative Committee. 905.31 Section 905.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING....31 Duties of Citrus Administrative Committee. It shall be the duty of the Citrus...

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-41 - Citrus from Peru.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Citrus from Peru. 319.56-41 Section 319.56-41... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-41 Citrus from Peru. Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), limes (C. aurantiifolia), mandarins or tangerines...

  12. 7 CFR 905.31 - Duties of Citrus Administrative Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duties of Citrus Administrative Committee. 905.31 Section 905.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING....31 Duties of Citrus Administrative Committee. It shall be the duty of the Citrus...

  13. 21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Citrus Red No. 2. 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Citrus Red No. 2 is principally 1-(2,5-dimethoxyphenylazo)-2-naphthol. (2) The following diluents may...

  14. 21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Citrus Red No. 2. 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Citrus Red No. 2 is principally 1-(2,5-dimethoxyphenylazo)-2-naphthol. (2) The following diluents may...

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-41 - Citrus from Peru.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Citrus from Peru. 319.56-41 Section 319.56-41... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-41 Citrus from Peru. Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), limes (C. aurantiifolia), mandarins or tangerines...

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-41 - Citrus from Peru.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Citrus from Peru. 319.56-41 Section 319.56-41... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-41 Citrus from Peru. Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), limes (C. aurantiifolia), mandarins or tangerines...

  17. 7 CFR 905.31 - Duties of Citrus Administrative Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duties of Citrus Administrative Committee. 905.31 Section 905.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING....31 Duties of Citrus Administrative Committee. It shall be the duty of the Citrus...

  18. 7 CFR 905.31 - Duties of Citrus Administrative Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duties of Citrus Administrative Committee. 905.31 Section 905.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING....31 Duties of Citrus Administrative Committee. It shall be the duty of the Citrus...

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-41 - Citrus from Peru.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Peru. 319.56-41 Section 319.56-41... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-41 Citrus from Peru. Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), limes (C. aurantiifolia), mandarins or tangerines...

  20. 21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Citrus Red No. 2. 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Citrus Red No. 2 is principally 1-(2,5-dimethoxyphenylazo)-2-naphthol. (2) The following diluents may...

  1. 7 CFR 905.31 - Duties of Citrus Administrative Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duties of Citrus Administrative Committee. 905.31 Section 905.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING....31 Duties of Citrus Administrative Committee. It shall be the duty of the Citrus...

  2. 21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Citrus Red No. 2. 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Citrus Red No. 2 is principally 1-(2,5-dimethoxyphenylazo)-2-naphthol. (2) The following diluents may...

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-41 - Citrus from Peru.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Citrus from Peru. 319.56-41 Section 319.56-41... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-41 Citrus from Peru. Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), limes (C. aurantiifolia), mandarins or tangerines...

  4. 21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Citrus Red No. 2. 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Citrus Red No. 2 is principally 1-(2,5-dimethoxyphenylazo)-2-naphthol. (2) The following diluents may...

  5. Does citrus leaf miner impair hydraulics and fitness of citrus host plants?

    PubMed

    Raimondo, Fabio; Trifilò, Patrizia; Gullo, Maria A Lo

    2013-12-01

    Gas exchange and hydraulic features were measured in leaves of three different Citrus species (Citrus aurantium L., Citrus limon L., Citrus  ×  paradisii Macfad) infested by Phyllocnistis citrella Staiton, with the aim to quantify the impact of this pest on leaf hydraulics and, ultimately, on plant fitness. Infested leaves were characterized by the presence on the leaf blade of typical snake-shaped mines and, in some cases, of a crumpled leaf blade. Light microscopy showed that leaf crumpling was induced by damage to the cuticular layer. In all three Citrus species examined: (a) the degree of infestation did not exceed 10% of the total surface area of infested plants; (b) control and infested leaves showed similar values of minimum diurnal leaf water potential, leaf hydraulic conductance and functional vein density; and (c) maximum diurnal values of stomatal conductance to water vapour, transpiration rate and photosynthetic rate (An) were similar in both control leaves and the green areas of infested leaves. A strong reduction of An was recorded only in mined leaf areas. Our data suggest that infestation with P. citrella does not cause conspicuous plant productivity reductions in young Citrus plants, at least not in the three Citrus species studied here.

  6. Multiple citrus viroids in citrus from Japan and their ability to produce exocortis-like symptoms in citron.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takao; Ieki, Hiroyuki; Ozaki, Katsumi; Iwanami, Toru; Nakahara, Kenji; Hataya, Tatsuji; Ito, Tsutae; Isaka, Masahiro; Kano, Takeshi

    2002-05-01

    ABSTRACT Sequential polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses showed many viroid-like RNAs in samples collected from citrus trees in Japan. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and sequencing analyses of the amplified fragments verified that they were derived from variants of six citrus viroids, Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), Citrus bent leaf viroid (CBLVd) including CVd-I-LSS (a distinct variant of CBLVd), Hop stunt viroid, Citrus viroid III, Citrus viroid IV, and Citrus viroid OS. The samples induced symptoms with variable severity in Arizona 861-S1 'Etrog' citrons (Citrus medica L.) likely due to the varying accumulation patterns produced by the different viroids. Some of the symptoms caused by the samples harboring the citrus viroids other than CEVd were as severe as those caused by CEVd. Some source citrus trees showing the severe bark scaling characteristic of exocortis disease in trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.) rootstocks contained only citrus viroids other than CEVd in complex. This indicates that certain exocortis-like diseases in Japan were caused by some combination of citrus viroids not including CEVd.

  7. Evaluation of natural colorants and their application on citrus fruit as alternatives to Citrus Red No. 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Warm field temperatures can often result in poor peel color of some citrus varieties, especially early in the harvest season. Under these conditions, Florida oranges, temples, tangelos, and K-Early citrus fruit are allowed to be treated with Citrus Red No.2 (CR2) to help produce a more acceptable pe...

  8. Overexpression of a modified plant thionin enhances disease resistance to citrus canker and huanglongbing (HLB, citrus greening)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening disease) caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is a great threat to the United States citrus industry. Citrus canker is also an economically important disease associated with a bacterial pathogen (Xanthomonas citri). In this study, we characterized e...

  9. Antimicrobial nanoemulsion formulation with improved penetration of foliar spray through citrus leaf cuticles to control citrus Huanglongbing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most serious citrus diseases that threaten citrus industry worldwide. Because Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) resides in citrus phloem, it is difficult to deliver an effective chemical compound into the phloem for control of HLB. In this study, a transcuticu...

  10. Degradation products of citrus volatile organic compounds (VOCs) acting as phagostimulants that increase probing behavior of Asian citrus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile phytochemicals play a role in orientation by phytophagous insects. We studied antennal and behavioral responses of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, vector of the citrus greening disease pathogen. Little or no response to citrus leaf volatiles was detected by electroanten...

  11. Soil organic matter on citrus plantation in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Prosdocimi, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    , Y., Boardman, J. 2009a. Soil erosion and agriculture Soil and Tillage Research 106, 107-108. DOI: 10.1016/j.still.2009.1 Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F. 2008. The influence of ants on soil and water losses from an orange orchard in eastern Spain. Journal of Applied Entomology 132, 306-314. Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F. 2011. Ant mounds as a source of sediment on citrus orchard plantations in eastern Spain. A three-scale rainfall simulation approach. Catena 85, 231-236. Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F., Bodi, M.B. 2009. Effects of ants on water and soil losses from organically-managed citrus orchards in eastern Spain. Biologia 64, 527-531. Cerdà, A., Morera, A.G., Bodí, M.B. 2009b. Soil and water losses from new citrus orchards growing on sloped soils in the western Mediterranean basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 34, 1822-1830. García-Orenes, F., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Guerrero, C., Bodí, M.B., Arcenegui, V., Zornoza, R. & Sempere, J.G. 2009. Effects of agricultural management on surface soil properties and soil-water losses in eastern Spain. Soil and Tillage Research 106, 117-123. 10.1016/j.still.2009.06.002 García-Orenes, F., Guerrero, C., Roldán, A.,Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A., Campoy, M., Zornoza, R., Bárcenas, G., Caravaca. F. 2010. Soil microbial biomass and activity under different agricultural management systems in a semiarid Mediterranean agroecosystem. Soil and Tillage Research 109, 110-115. 10.1016/j.still.2010.05.005. García-Orenes, F., Roldán, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A., Campoy, M., Arcenegui, V., Caravaca, F. 2012. Soil structural stability and erosion rates influenced by agricultural management practices in a semi-arid Mediterranean agro-ecosystem. Soil Use and Management 28, 571-579. DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-2743.2012.00451.x Haregeweyn, N., Poesen, J., Verstraeten, G., Govers, G., de Vente, J., Nyssen, J., Deckers, J., Moeyersons, J. 2013. Assessing the performance of a Spatially distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery

  12. Noninvasive maturity detection of citrus with machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Yibin; Xu, Zhenggang; Fu, Xiaping; Liu, Yande

    2004-03-01

    A computer vision system was established to explore a method for citrus maturity detection. The surface color information and the ratio of total soluble solid to titratable acid (TSS/TA) were used as maturity indexes of citrus. The spectral reflectance properties with different color were measured by UV-240 ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer. The biggest discrepancy of gray levels between citrus pixels and background pixels was in blue component image by image background segmentation. Dynamic threshold method for background segmentation had best result in blue component image. Methods for citrus image color description were studied. The citrus spectral reflectance experiments showed that green surface and saffron surface of citrus were of highest spectral reflectance at the wavelength of 700nm, the difference between them reached to maximum, about 53%, and the image acquired at this wavelength was of more color information for maturity detection. A triple-layer feed forward network was established to map citrus maturity from the hue frequency sequence by the mean of artificial neural network. After training, the network mapper was used to detect the maturity of the test sample set, which was composed of 252 Weizhang citrus with different maturity. The identification accuracy of mature citrus reached 79.1%, that of immature citrus was 63.6%, and the mean identification accuracy was 77.8%. This study suggested that it is feasible to detect citrus maturity non-invasively by using the computer vision system and hue frequency sequence method.

  13. Management of the Citrus Nematode, Tylenchulus semipenetrans

    PubMed Central

    Verdejo-Lucas, S.; McKenry, M. V.

    2004-01-01

    Of the many nematode species that parasitize citrus, Tylenchulus semipenetrans is the most important on a worldwide basis. Management of the citrus nematode remains problematic as no one tactic gives adequate control of the nematode. An overall management strategy must include such components as site selection, use of non-infected nursery stock, use of at lease one post-plant nematode control tactic, and careful management of other elements of the environment that may stress the trees. Nematicides continue to play a key role in management of this pest. Optimum results require careful attention to application techniques. PMID:19262822

  14. Biogenic emissions from Citrus species in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fares, Silvano; Gentner, Drew R.; Park, Jeong-Hoo; Ormeno, Elena; Karlik, John; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2011-09-01

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) emitted from plants are the dominant source of reduced carbon chemicals to the atmosphere and are important precursors to the photochemical production of ozone and secondary organic aerosols. Considering the extensive land used for agriculture, cultivated Citrus plantations may play an important role in the chemistry of the atmosphere especially in regions such as the Central Valley of California. Moreover, the BVOC emissions from Citrus species have not been characterized in detail and more species-specific inputs for regional models of BVOC emissions are needed. In this study, we measured the physiological parameters and emissions of the most relevant BVOC (oxygenated compounds, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes) for four predominant Citrus species planted in California ( Citrus sinensis var. 'Parent Navel', Citrus limon var. 'Meyer', Citrus reticulata var. 'W. Murcott' and 'Clementine'). We used two analytical techniques to measure a full range of BVOC emitted: Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Methanol, followed by acetone and acetaldehyde, were the dominant BVOC emitted from lemon and mandarin trees (basal emission rates up to 300 ng(C) g(DW) -1 h -1), while oxygenated monoterpenes, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes were the main BVOC emitted from orange trees (basal emission rates up to = 2500 ng(C) g(DW) -1 h -1). Light and temperature-dependent algorithms were better predictors of methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, isoprene and monoterpenes for all the Citrus species. Whereas, temperature-dependent algorithms were better predictors of oxygenated monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes. We observed that flowering increased emissions from orange trees by an order of magnitude with the bulk of BVOC emissions being comprised of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and oxygenated monoterpenes. Chemical speciation of BVOC emissions show that the various classes of terpene

  15. Integrating ecosystem services into risk management decisions: case study with Spanish citrus and the insecticide chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed

    Deacon, Samantha; Norman, Steve; Nicolette, Joseph; Reub, Gregory; Greene, Gretchen; Osborn, Rachel; Andrews, Paul

    2015-02-01

    The European regulatory system for the approval of pesticides includes a thorough evaluation of risks to the environment and is designed to be protective of ecosystems. However, a decision to ban an agrochemical could also potentially have a negative impact on the value of ecosystem services, if resulting changes in crop management are damaging to ecosystems or result in negative socio-economic impacts. To support regulatory decision-making, consideration of ecosystem services to identify best environmental management options could be a way forward. There is generally a growing trend for the consideration of ecosystem services in decision making. Ecosystems provide the conditions for growing food, regulate water and provide wildlife habitats; these, amongst others, are known as ecosystem services. The objectives of this case study were to bring a holistic approach to decision making by valuing the environmental, social and economic benefits derived from the use of chlorpyrifos in Valencian citrus production. Spanish growers harvest between 5 and 6 milliont of citrus annually, worth an estimated €5 to 7 billion in food markets throughout Europe. The approach highlighted the potential for unintended negative consequences of regulatory decisions if the full context is not considered. In this study, rather than a regulatory restriction, the best option was the continued use of chlorpyrifos together with vegetated conservation patches as refuges for non-target insects. The conservation patches offset potential insecticidal impacts to insects whilst maintaining citrus production, farm income and the amenity value of the citrus landscape of Valencia. This was an initial proof-of-concept study and illustrates the importance of a wider perspective; other cases may have different outcomes depending on policies, the pesticide, crop scenarios, farm economics and the region.

  16. Volatile constituents of wild citrus Mangshanyegan (Citrus nobilis Lauriro) peel oil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cuihua; Cheng, Yunjiang; Zhang, Hongyan; Deng, Xiuxin; Chen, Feng; Xu, Juan

    2012-03-14

    Volatiles of a wild mandarin, Mangshanyegan (Citrus nobilis Lauriro), were characterized by GC-MS, and their aroma active compounds were identified by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). The volatile profile of Mangshanyegan was compared with those of other four citrus species, Kaopan pummelo (Citrus grandis), Eureka lemon (Citrus limon), Huangyanbendizao tangerine (Citrus reticulata), and Seike navel orange (Citrus sinensis). Monoterpene hydrocarbons predominated in Mangshanyegan, in particular d-limonene and β-myrcene, which accounted for 85.75 and 10.89% of total volatiles, respectively. Among the 12 compounds with flavor dilution factors (FD) = 27, 8 oxygenated compounds, including (Z)- and (E)-linalool oxides, were present only in Mangshanyegan. The combined results of GC-O, quantitative analysis, odor activity values (OAVs), and omission tests revealed that β-myrcene and (Z)- and (E)-linalool oxides were the characteristic aroma compounds of Mangshanyegan, contributing to the balsamic and floral notes of its aroma. PMID:22352344

  17. Soil organic matter on citrus plantation in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Prosdocimi, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    , Y., Boardman, J. 2009a. Soil erosion and agriculture Soil and Tillage Research 106, 107-108. DOI: 10.1016/j.still.2009.1 Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F. 2008. The influence of ants on soil and water losses from an orange orchard in eastern Spain. Journal of Applied Entomology 132, 306-314. Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F. 2011. Ant mounds as a source of sediment on citrus orchard plantations in eastern Spain. A three-scale rainfall simulation approach. Catena 85, 231-236. Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F., Bodi, M.B. 2009. Effects of ants on water and soil losses from organically-managed citrus orchards in eastern Spain. Biologia 64, 527-531. Cerdà, A., Morera, A.G., Bodí, M.B. 2009b. Soil and water losses from new citrus orchards growing on sloped soils in the western Mediterranean basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 34, 1822-1830. García-Orenes, F., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Guerrero, C., Bodí, M.B., Arcenegui, V., Zornoza, R. & Sempere, J.G. 2009. Effects of agricultural management on surface soil properties and soil-water losses in eastern Spain. Soil and Tillage Research 106, 117-123. 10.1016/j.still.2009.06.002 García-Orenes, F., Guerrero, C., Roldán, A.,Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A., Campoy, M., Zornoza, R., Bárcenas, G., Caravaca. F. 2010. Soil microbial biomass and activity under different agricultural management systems in a semiarid Mediterranean agroecosystem. Soil and Tillage Research 109, 110-115. 10.1016/j.still.2010.05.005. García-Orenes, F., Roldán, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A., Campoy, M., Arcenegui, V., Caravaca, F. 2012. Soil structural stability and erosion rates influenced by agricultural management practices in a semi-arid Mediterranean agro-ecosystem. Soil Use and Management 28, 571-579. DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-2743.2012.00451.x Haregeweyn, N., Poesen, J., Verstraeten, G., Govers, G., de Vente, J., Nyssen, J., Deckers, J., Moeyersons, J. 2013. Assessing the performance of a Spatially distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery

  18. Extreme soil erosion rates in citrus slope plantations and control strategies. A literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Ángel González Peñaloza, Félix; Pereira, Paulo; Reyes Ruiz Gallardo, José; García Orenes, Fuensanta; Burguet, María

    2013-04-01

    approach. Catena, 85 (3), 231-236. Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F., Bodi, M.B. 2009. Effects of ants on water and soil losses from organically-managed citrus orchards in eastern Spain. Biologia, 64 (3), 527-531. Cerdà, A., Morera, A.G., Bodí, M.B. 2009. Soil and water losses from new citrus orchards growing on sloped soils in the western Mediterranean basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 34 (13), 1822-1830. Lavigne, C., Achard, R., Tixier, P., Lesueur Jannoyer, M. 2012. How to integrate cover crops to enhance sustainability in banana and citrus cropping systems. Acta Horticulturae, 928, 351-358. Le Bellec, F., Damas, O., Boullenger, G., Vannière, H., Lesueur Jannoyer, M., Tournebize, R., Ozier Lafontaine, H. 2012. Weed control with a cover crop (Neonotonia wightii) in mandarin orchards in Guadeloupe (FWI). Acta Horticulturae, 928, 359-366. Liu, Y., Tao, Y., Wan, K.Y., Zhang, G.S., Liu, D.B., Xiong, G.Y., Chen, F. 2012. Runoff and nutrient losses in citrus orchards on sloping land subjected to different surface mulching practices in the Danjiangkou Reservoir area of China. Agricultural Water Management, 110, 34-40. Lu, J., Wilson, M.J., Yu, J. 1997. Effects of trench planting and soil chiselling on soil properties and citrus production in hilly ultisols of China Soil and Tillage Research, 43 (3-4), 309-318. Lü, W., Zhang, H., Wu, Y., Cheng, J., Li, J., Wang, X. 2012. The impact of plant hedgerow in Three Gorges on the soil chemicophysical properties and soil erosion. Key Engineering Materials, 500, 142-148. Wang, L., Tang, L., Wang, X., Chen, F. 2010. Effects of alley crop planting on soil and nutrient losses in the citrus orchards of the Three Gorges Region. Soil and Tillage Research, 110 (2), 243-250. Wu J., Li Q., Yan L. 1997. Effect of intercropping on soil erosion in young citrus plantation - a simulation study. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 8 (2), 143-146. Wu, D.-M., Yu, Y.-C., Xia, L.-Z., Yin, S.-X., Yang, L.-Z. 2011. Soil fertility indices of citrus

  19. Water resources under threat in citrus farms in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, A.; Doerr, S. H.; Burguet, M.

    2012-04-01

    Most of the soil definitions mention the soil as the "the top layer of the earth's surface, consisting of rock and mineral particles mixed with organic matter". Few definitions make references to the soil services and the soil processes. However, soils allow the plant to grow via the nutrient transfer, they hold water, and they are the substrate for the roots. Within the main services of the soil system, they control the hydrological cycle. When the soil is human managed changes in soil structure, soil biology and soil composition take place. And those changes result in a reduction of the ability of the soil to hold water. A research has been conducted in intense chemically farmed citrus production in Eastern Spain to measure the impact of farming on soil water properties. Three study areas where selected where farming with citrus are 1, 5, 10, 20 and 40 years old, with no ploughing and herbicide application. No weeds or catch crops were allowed to grow and the pruned branches were removed from the field and burned. Infiltration envelopes were measured by means of Ring Infiltrometers (20 cm width, n= 10 per zone) and by means of simulated rainfall experiments at 55 mm h-1 during 1 hour in a 0,25 m2 plot with 5 measurements per study zone (Cerdà, 1996). All the experiments were carried out under dry conditions in summer (August) and winter (December-January). Soil Moisture was measured at 0-2, 5-7, 10-12, 20-22 and 30-35 cm depth in winter and summer from 2009 to 2011 in the non irrigated patch (drip irrigation is applied in the studied sites) as this is not affected by the irrigation and the fertilization. The results show that the steady-state infiltration rates measured with ring infiltrometers were 345 mm h-1, 299 mm h-1, 233 mm h-1, 156 mm h-1 and 98 mm h-1 respectively for the 40, 20,10, 5 and 1 year for summer dry conditions. The measurements show a lower infiltration rate in winter: 146 mm h-1, 95 mm h-1, 63 mm h-1, 46 mm h-1 and 25 mm h-1 for the 40, 20

  20. Characterization of the Asian citrus psyllid transcriptome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) and other psyllids are important agricultural pests that cause extensive economic damage by feeding and as vectors of plant pathogens. No psyllid genomes have been characterized, and little is known about the composition of psyllid genomes or the ...

  1. New Pseudomonas spp. Are Pathogenic to Citrus.

    PubMed

    Beiki, Farid; Busquets, Antonio; Gomila, Margarita; Rahimian, Heshmat; Lalucat, Jorge; García-Valdés, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Five putative novel Pseudomonas species shown to be pathogenic to citrus have been characterized in a screening of 126 Pseudomonas strains isolated from diseased citrus leaves and stems in northern Iran. The 126 strains were studied using a polyphasic approach that included phenotypic characterizations and phylogenetic multilocus sequence analysis. The pathogenicity of these strains against 3 cultivars of citrus is demonstrated in greenhouse and field studies. The strains were initially grouped phenotypically and by their partial rpoD gene sequences into 11 coherent groups in the Pseudomonas fluorescens phylogenetic lineage. Fifty-three strains that are representatives of the 11 groups were selected and analyzed by partial sequencing of their 16S rRNA and gyrB genes. The individual and concatenated partial sequences of the three genes were used to construct the corresponding phylogenetic trees. The majority of the strains were identified at the species level: P. lurida (5 strains), P. monteilii (2 strains), P. moraviensis (1 strain), P. orientalis (16 strains), P. simiae (7 strains), P. syringae (46 strains, distributed phylogenetically in at least 5 pathovars), and P. viridiflava (2 strains). This is the first report of pathogenicity on citrus of P. orientalis, P. simiae, P. lurida, P. moraviensis and P. monteilii strains. The remaining 47 strains that could not be identified at the species level are considered representatives of at least 5 putative novel Pseudomonas species that are not yet described.

  2. Asian Citrus Psyllid, Genetic Basis of Immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used a genomics approach to identify some of the genetic bases of D. citri immunity, identifying in particular genes associated with environmental and biological stresses. Only a few insecticides are being used to manage the Asian citrus psyllid (AsCP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), to...

  3. Reasons for inconsistent citrus canker control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop losses from citrus canker in 2014 for Hamlin due to premature fruit drop, or for grapefruit from unacceptable severity of fruit lesions, were highly variable due to periodic rains that in certain locations were coincident with grapefruit flushes in February-March or with early Hamlin fruit deve...

  4. Founder lines for improved citrus biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article discusses the research needed to develop the RMCE strategy and molecular assays for site-specific recombinases as tools for genome manipulation. Explanation of genetic engineering used to generate transgenic citrus plants to exhibit a novel phenotype, but not to contain the recombinase...

  5. Asian citrus psyllid genome (Diaphorina citri, Hemiptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Psyllid genome is a scientific breakthrough in that it opens the psyllid genetic blueprint to investigations of all questions ranging from taxonomic origins to the understanding of developmental biology, to the acquisition and transmission of pathogens. The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri...

  6. New Pseudomonas spp. Are Pathogenic to Citrus.

    PubMed

    Beiki, Farid; Busquets, Antonio; Gomila, Margarita; Rahimian, Heshmat; Lalucat, Jorge; García-Valdés, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Five putative novel Pseudomonas species shown to be pathogenic to citrus have been characterized in a screening of 126 Pseudomonas strains isolated from diseased citrus leaves and stems in northern Iran. The 126 strains were studied using a polyphasic approach that included phenotypic characterizations and phylogenetic multilocus sequence analysis. The pathogenicity of these strains against 3 cultivars of citrus is demonstrated in greenhouse and field studies. The strains were initially grouped phenotypically and by their partial rpoD gene sequences into 11 coherent groups in the Pseudomonas fluorescens phylogenetic lineage. Fifty-three strains that are representatives of the 11 groups were selected and analyzed by partial sequencing of their 16S rRNA and gyrB genes. The individual and concatenated partial sequences of the three genes were used to construct the corresponding phylogenetic trees. The majority of the strains were identified at the species level: P. lurida (5 strains), P. monteilii (2 strains), P. moraviensis (1 strain), P. orientalis (16 strains), P. simiae (7 strains), P. syringae (46 strains, distributed phylogenetically in at least 5 pathovars), and P. viridiflava (2 strains). This is the first report of pathogenicity on citrus of P. orientalis, P. simiae, P. lurida, P. moraviensis and P. monteilii strains. The remaining 47 strains that could not be identified at the species level are considered representatives of at least 5 putative novel Pseudomonas species that are not yet described. PMID:26919540

  7. New Pseudomonas spp. Are Pathogenic to Citrus

    PubMed Central

    Beiki, Farid; Busquets, Antonio; Gomila, Margarita; Rahimian, Heshmat; Lalucat, Jorge; García-Valdés, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Five putative novel Pseudomonas species shown to be pathogenic to citrus have been characterized in a screening of 126 Pseudomonas strains isolated from diseased citrus leaves and stems in northern Iran. The 126 strains were studied using a polyphasic approach that included phenotypic characterizations and phylogenetic multilocus sequence analysis. The pathogenicity of these strains against 3 cultivars of citrus is demonstrated in greenhouse and field studies. The strains were initially grouped phenotypically and by their partial rpoD gene sequences into 11 coherent groups in the Pseudomonas fluorescens phylogenetic lineage. Fifty-three strains that are representatives of the 11 groups were selected and analyzed by partial sequencing of their 16S rRNA and gyrB genes. The individual and concatenated partial sequences of the three genes were used to construct the corresponding phylogenetic trees. The majority of the strains were identified at the species level: P. lurida (5 strains), P. monteilii (2 strains), P. moraviensis (1 strain), P. orientalis (16 strains), P. simiae (7 strains), P. syringae (46 strains, distributed phylogenetically in at least 5 pathovars), and P. viridiflava (2 strains). This is the first report of pathogenicity on citrus of P. orientalis, P. simiae, P. lurida, P. moraviensis and P. monteilii strains. The remaining 47 strains that could not be identified at the species level are considered representatives of at least 5 putative novel Pseudomonas species that are not yet described. PMID:26919540

  8. Ecology of the Asian citrus pysllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host selection by psyllids in general appears to involve taste rather than olfaction. Adults are often less discriminating than nymphs. A priori, there is good reason to doubt that Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) uses a long-distance sex pheromone or that ACP orients to host plant volatiles over large (m...

  9. Digital PCR for detection of citrus pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus trees are often infected with multiple pathogens of economic importance, especially those with insect or mite vectors. Real-time/quantitative PCR (qPCR) has been used for high-throughput detection and relative quantification of pathogens; however, target reference or standards are required. I...

  10. Acquisition, replication and inoculation of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus following various acquisition periods on Huanglongbing-infected citrus by nymphs and adults of the Asian citrus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is the primary vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) implicated as causative agent of citrus huanglongbing (citrus greening), currently the most serious citrus disease worldwide. Las is transmitted by D. citri in a persist...

  11. Slight Fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium Improves the Taste (Sugar:Acid Ratio) of Citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. chachiensis) Juice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Fu, Manqin; Wen, Jing

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium, which can metabolize citric acid, could be applied in improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice. During fermentation, the strain of L. fermentium can preferentially utilize citric acid of citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. Chachiensis) juice to support the growth without the consumption of sugar. After 6 h of fermentation with L. fermentium at 30 °C, the sugar:acid ratio of citrus juice increased to 22:1 from 12:1, which resulted in that the hedonic scores of sweetness, acidity and overall acceptability of fermented-pasteurized citrus juice were higher than the unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice, the ORAC value and total amino acid showed a reduction, and no significant change (P > 0.05) in the L*, a*, b*, total soluble phenolics and ascorbic acid (Vc) content in the fermented-pasteurized citrus juice was observed as compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Hence, slight fermentation with L. fermentium can be used for improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice with the well retaining of quality.

  12. Slight Fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium Improves the Taste (Sugar:Acid Ratio) of Citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. chachiensis) Juice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Fu, Manqin; Wen, Jing

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium, which can metabolize citric acid, could be applied in improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice. During fermentation, the strain of L. fermentium can preferentially utilize citric acid of citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. Chachiensis) juice to support the growth without the consumption of sugar. After 6 h of fermentation with L. fermentium at 30 °C, the sugar:acid ratio of citrus juice increased to 22:1 from 12:1, which resulted in that the hedonic scores of sweetness, acidity and overall acceptability of fermented-pasteurized citrus juice were higher than the unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice, the ORAC value and total amino acid showed a reduction, and no significant change (P > 0.05) in the L*, a*, b*, total soluble phenolics and ascorbic acid (Vc) content in the fermented-pasteurized citrus juice was observed as compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Hence, slight fermentation with L. fermentium can be used for improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice with the well retaining of quality. PMID:26447635

  13. Selection of reference genes for expression analyses of red-fleshed sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, T T; Nishimura, D S; De Nadai, F B; Figueira, A; Latado, R R

    2015-01-01

    Red-fleshed oranges (Citrus sinensis) contain high levels of carotenoids and lycopene. The growing consumer demand for products with health benefits has increased interest in these types of Citrus cultivars as a potential source of nutraceuticals. However, little is known about the physiology of these cultivars under Brazilian conditions. Transcriptome and gene expression analyses are important tools in the breeding and management of red-fleshed sweet orange cultivars. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction is a method of quantifying gene expression, but various standardizations are required to obtain precise, accurate, and specific results. Among the standardizations required, the choice of suitable stable reference genes is fundamental. The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of 11 candidate genes using various tissue and organ samples from healthy plants or leaves from citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing)-symptomatic plants of a Brazilian red-fleshed cultivar ('Sanguínea de Mombuca'), in order to select the most suitable reference gene for investigating gene expression under these conditions. geNorm and NormFinder identified genes that encoded translation initiation factor 3, ribosomal protein L35, and translation initiation factor 5A as the most stable genes under the biological conditions tested, and genes coding actin (ACT) and the subunit of the PSI reaction center subunit III were the least stable. Phosphatase, malate dehydrogenase, and ACT were the most stable genes in the leaf samples of infected plants. PMID:26782492

  14. Selection of reference genes for expression analyses of red-fleshed sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, T T; Nishimura, D S; De Nadai, F B; Figueira, A; Latado, R R

    2015-12-28

    Red-fleshed oranges (Citrus sinensis) contain high levels of carotenoids and lycopene. The growing consumer demand for products with health benefits has increased interest in these types of Citrus cultivars as a potential source of nutraceuticals. However, little is known about the physiology of these cultivars under Brazilian conditions. Transcriptome and gene expression analyses are important tools in the breeding and management of red-fleshed sweet orange cultivars. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction is a method of quantifying gene expression, but various standardizations are required to obtain precise, accurate, and specific results. Among the standardizations required, the choice of suitable stable reference genes is fundamental. The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of 11 candidate genes using various tissue and organ samples from healthy plants or leaves from citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing)-symptomatic plants of a Brazilian red-fleshed cultivar ('Sanguínea de Mombuca'), in order to select the most suitable reference gene for investigating gene expression under these conditions. geNorm and NormFinder identified genes that encoded translation initiation factor 3, ribosomal protein L35, and translation initiation factor 5A as the most stable genes under the biological conditions tested, and genes coding actin (ACT) and the subunit of the PSI reaction center subunit III were the least stable. Phosphatase, malate dehydrogenase, and ACT were the most stable genes in the leaf samples of infected plants.

  15. Citrus alongside the sinking wreckage of MV Pacific Star in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Citrus alongside the sinking wreckage of MV Pacific Star in the Pacific Ocean. Pacific Star's captain used his vessel to ram the cutter after he was ordered to stop and submit to inspection by a boarding team. Citrus was not seriously damaged in the collision. U.S. Coast Guard personnel recovered a large amount of marijuana from the wreckage - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter CITRUS, Coos Bay, Coos County, OR

  16. Apparatus for growing crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasinski, Thomas J. (Inventor); Witt, August F. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    An improved apparatus and method for growing crystals from a melt employing a heat pipe, consisting of one or more sections, each section serving to control temperature and thermal gradients in the crystal as it forms inside the pipe.

  17. How Your Baby Grows

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain, the heart and lungs, are forming. The placenta grows in your uterus and supplies the baby ... like alcohol, cigarette smoke and drugs through the placenta, too. So don’t drink alcohol , smoke , use ...

  18. Discrimination of Citrus reticulata Blanco and Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach.

    PubMed

    Duan, Li; Guo, Long; Dou, Li-Li; Zhou, Chang-Lin; Xu, Feng-Guo; Zheng, Guo-Dong; Li, Ping; Liu, E-Hu

    2016-12-01

    Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium, mainly including the pericarp of Citrus reticulata Blanco and the pericarp of Citrus reticulata 'Chachi', has been consumed daily as food and dietary supplement for centuries. In this study, GC-MS based metabolomics was employed to compare comprehensively the volatile constituents in Citrus reticulata Blanco and Citrus reticulata 'Chachi'. Principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis indicated that samples could be distinguished effectively from one another. Fifteen metabolites were finally identified for use as chemical markers in discrimination of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium samples. The antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria of the volatile oil from Citrus reticulata Blanco and Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' was investigated preliminarily. PMID:27374515

  19. Enumerative and binomial sampling plans for citrus mealybug (Homoptera: pseudococcidae) in citrus groves.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ferrer, María Teresa; Ripollés, José Luís; Garcia-Marí, Ferran

    2006-06-01

    The spatial distribution of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), was studied in citrus groves in northeastern Spain. Constant precision sampling plans were designed for all developmental stages of citrus mealybug under the fruit calyx, for late stages on fruit, and for females on trunks and main branches; more than 66, 286, and 101 data sets, respectively, were collected from nine commercial fields during 1992-1998. Dispersion parameters were determined using Taylor's power law, giving aggregated spatial patterns for citrus mealybug populations in three locations of the tree sampled. A significant relationship between the number of insects per organ and the percentage of occupied organs was established using either Wilson and Room's binomial model or Kono and Sugino's empirical formula. Constant precision (E = 0.25) sampling plans (i.e., enumerative plans) for estimating mean densities were developed using Green's equation and the two binomial models. For making management decisions, enumerative counts may be less labor-intensive than binomial sampling. Therefore, we recommend enumerative sampling plans for the use in an integrated pest management program in citrus. Required sample sizes for the range of population densities near current management thresholds, in the three plant locations calyx, fruit, and trunk were 50, 110-330, and 30, respectively. Binomial sampling, especially the empirical model, required a higher sample size to achieve equivalent levels of precision.

  20. Citrus Flavonoids as Regulators of Lipoprotein Metabolism and Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mulvihill, Erin E; Burke, Amy C; Huff, Murray W

    2016-07-17

    Citrus flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds with significant biological properties. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding the ability of citrus flavonoids to modulate lipid metabolism, other metabolic parameters related to the metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis. Citrus flavonoids, including naringenin, hesperitin, nobiletin, and tangeretin, have emerged as potential therapeutics for the treatment of metabolic dysregulation. Epidemiological studies reveal an association between the intake of citrus flavonoid-containing foods and a decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease. Studies in cell culture and animal models, as well as a limited number of clinical studies, reveal the lipid-lowering, insulin-sensitizing, antihypertensive, and anti-inflammatory properties of citrus flavonoids. In animal models, supplementation of rodent diets with citrus flavonoids prevents hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance primarily through inhibition of hepatic fatty acid synthesis and increased fatty acid oxidation. Citrus flavonoids blunt the inflammatory response in metabolically important tissues including liver, adipose, kidney, and the aorta. The mechanisms underlying flavonoid-induced metabolic regulation have not been completely established, although several potential targets have been identified. In mouse models, citrus flavonoids show marked suppression of atherogenesis through improved metabolic parameters as well as through direct impact on the vessel wall. Recent studies support a role for citrus flavonoids in the treatment of dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, obesity, and atherosclerosis. Larger human studies examining dose, bioavailability, efficacy, and safety are required to promote the development of these promising therapeutic agents. PMID:27146015

  1. Contextual view showing northeastern eucalyptus windbreak and portion of citrus ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view showing northeastern eucalyptus windbreak and portion of citrus orchard. Camera facing 118" east-southeast. - Goerlitz House, 9893 Highland Avenue, Rancho Cucamonga, San Bernardino County, CA

  2. Effective Antibiotics against ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ in HLB-Affected Citrus Plants Identified via the Graft-Based Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Charles A.; Doud, Melissa S.; Yang, Chuanyu; Duan, Yongping

    2014-01-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), caused by three species of fastidious, phloem-limited ‘Candidatus Liberibacter’, is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. To date, there is no established cure for this century-old and yet, newly emerging disease. As a potential control strategy for citrus HLB, 31 antibiotics were screened for effectiveness and phytotoxicity using the optimized graft-based screening system with ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las)-infected citrus scions. Actidione and Oxytetracycline were the most phytotoxic to citrus with less than 10% of scions surviving and growing; therefore, this data was not used in additional analyses. Results of principal component (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analyses (HCA) demonstrated that 29 antibiotics were clustered into 3 groups: highly effective, partly effective, and not effective. In spite of different modes of actions, a number of antibiotics such as, Ampicillin, Carbenicillin, Penicillin, Cefalexin, Rifampicin and Sulfadimethoxine were all highly effective in eliminating or suppressing Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus indicated by both the lowest Las infection rate and titers of the treated scions and inoculated rootstock. The non-effective group, including 11 antibiotics alone with three controls, such as Amikacin, Cinoxacin, Gentamicin, Kasugamycin, Lincomycin, Neomycin, Polymixin B and Tobramycin, did not eliminate or suppress Las in the tested concentrations, resulting in plants with increased titers of Las. The other 12 antibiotics partly eliminated or suppressed Las in the treated and graft-inoculated plants. The effective and non-phytotoxic antibiotics could be potential candidates for control of citrus HLB, either for the rescue of infected citrus germplasm or for restricted field application. PMID:25372135

  3. Growing Oranges. People on the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet, one in a series about life on modern farms, describes the daily lives of three orange growers in Florida and one in California. Two of the Florida orange growers also have other jobs, one as manager of a citrus cooperative and the other as a citrus insurance salesman. The operations of orange groves, the care and picking of oranges,…

  4. Citrus transformation using juvenile tissue explants.

    PubMed

    Orbović, Vladimir; Grosser, Jude W

    2015-01-01

    The most frequently used method for production of citrus transgenic plants is via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tissues found on explants obtained from juvenile seedlings. Within the last decade and especially within the last 5-6 years, this robust method was employed to produce thousands of transgenic plants. With the newly applied screening methods that allow easier and faster detection of transgenic shoots, estimates of transformation rate for some cultivars have gone up making this approach even more attractive. Although adjustments have to be made regarding the (varietal) source of the starting material and Agrobacterium strain used in each experiment preformed, the major steps of this procedure have not changed significantly if at all. Transgenic citrus plants produced this way belong to cultivars of rootstocks, sweet oranges, grapefruits, mandarins, limes, and lemons.

  5. Subacute toxicity assessment of carotenoids extracted from citrus peel (Nanfengmiju, Citrus reticulata Blanco) in rats.

    PubMed

    Xue, Feng; Li, Chen; Pan, Siyi

    2012-02-01

    The mixture of carotenoids extracted from citrus peel (Nanfengmiju, Citrus reticulata Blanco) was tested for subacute oral toxicity. In this study, dose levels of 0, 200, 500 and 2000 mg/kg body weight/day were administered by gavage to 10 Wistar rats/sex/group for 28 days. No statistically significant, dose-related effect on food consumption, food efficiency, body weight gain, clinical signs or ophthalmoscopic parameters was observed in any treatment group. Urinalysis, hematological, blood coagulation and serum biochemical examination as well as necropsy or histopathology showed that no observed adverse effect was found. These findings suggested that the No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level for the mixture of carotenoids extracted from citrus peel was at least 2000 mg/kg body weight/day. PMID:22197624

  6. Chemical and biological comparison of the fruit extracts of Citrus wilsonii Tanaka and Citrus medica L.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pan; Duan, Li; Guo, Long; Dou, Li-Li; Dong, Xin; Zhou, Ping; Li, Ping; Liu, E-Hu

    2015-04-15

    Citri Fructus (CF), the mature fruit of Citrus wilsonii Tanaka (CWT) or Citrus medica L. (CML), is an important citrus by-product with health promoting and nutritive properties. The present study compares the chemical and biological differences of CWT and CML. Thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry techniques, were employed to compare the chemical profiles of CWT and CML. A total of 25 compounds were identified and the results indicated that there were significant differences in chemical composition between the two CF species. The quantitative results obtained by HPLC coupled with diode array detector method demonstrated that naringin was present in the highest amounts in CWT, whilst nomilin was the most dominant constituent in CML. It was also found that CWT had significantly higher free radical-scavenging activity than CML.

  7. New depside from Citrus reticulata Blanco.

    PubMed

    Phetkul, Uraiwan; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Watanapokasin, Ramida; Mahabusarakam, Wilawan

    2014-01-01

    A new depside, named depcitrus A (1), and 31 known compounds were isolated from the peels, leaves and branch barks of Citrus reticulata Blanco. Methylation of the high polarity fractions from the branch barks and peels gave one new methylated compound named depcitrus B (14) and five known compounds. Their structures were established based on spectroscopic evidence. The antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of some pure compounds were evaluated. PMID:24635118

  8. Cellular automata model for citrus variegated chlorosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, M. L.; Ceotto, G.; Alves, S. G.; Bufon, C. C. B.; Silva, J. M.; Laranjeira, F. F.

    2000-11-01

    A cellular automata model is proposed to analyze the progress of citrus variegated chlorosis epidemics in São Paulo orange plantations. In this model epidemiological and environmental features, such as motility of sharpshooter vectors that perform Lévy flights, level of plant hydric and nutritional stress, and seasonal climatic effects, are included. The observed epidemic data were quantitatively reproduced by the proposed model on varying the parameters controlling vector motility, plant stress, and initial population of diseased plants.

  9. Cellular automata model for citrus variegated chlorosis.

    PubMed

    Martins, M L; Ceotto, G; Alves, S G; Bufon, C C; Silva, J M; Laranjeira, F F

    2000-11-01

    A cellular automata model is proposed to analyze the progress of citrus variegated chlorosis epidemics in São Paulo orange plantations. In this model epidemiological and environmental features, such as motility of sharpshooter vectors that perform Lévy flights, level of plant hydric and nutritional stress, and seasonal climatic effects, are included. The observed epidemic data were quantitatively reproduced by the proposed model on varying the parameters controlling vector motility, plant stress, and initial population of diseased plants. PMID:11102058

  10. Comparison of evapotranspiration rates for flatwoods and ridge citrus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jia, X.; Swancar, A.; Jacobs, J.M.; Dukes, M.D.; Morgan, K.

    2007-01-01

    Florida citrus groves are typically grown in two regions of the state: flatwoods and ridge. The southern flatwoods citrus area has poorly drained fine textured sands with low organic matter in the shallow root zone. Ridge citrus is located in the northern ridge citrus zone and has fine to coarse textured sands with low water-holding capacity. Two commercial citrus groves, selected from each region, were studied from 15 July 2004 to 14 July 2005. The flatwoods citrus (FC) grove had a grass cover and used drainage ditches to remove excess water from the root zone. The ridge citrus (RC) grove had a bare soil surface with weeds periodically eliminated by tillage. Citrus crop evapotranspiration (ETc) rates at the two citrus groves were measured by the eddy correlation method, and components in the energy balance were also examined and compared. The study period had higher than average rainfall, and as a result, the two locations had similar annual ETc rates (1069 and 1044 mm for RC and FC, respectively). The ETc rates were 59% (RC) and 47% (FC) of the rainfall amounts during the study period. The annual reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) rates were 1180 mm for RC and 1419 mm for FC, estimated using the standardized reference evapotranspiration equation. The citrus crop coefficients (Kc, ratio of ETc to ET o) were different between the two locations because of differences in latitude, ground cover, and rainfall amounts. The Kc values ranged from 0.70 between December and March to 1.05 between July and November for RC, and from 0.65 between November and May to 0.85 between June and October for FC. The results are consistent with other Kc values reported from field studies on citrus in both Florida and elsewhere using these and alternate methods.

  11. Polyembryony in non-apomictic citrus genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Aleza, Pablo; Juárez, José; Ollitrault, Patrick; Navarro, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Adventitious embryony from nucellar cells is the mechanism leading to apomixis in Citrus sp. However, singular cases of polyembryony have been reported in non-apomictic genotypes as a consequence of 2x × 4x hybridizations and in vitro culture of isolated nucelli. The origin of the plants arising from the aforementioned processes remains unclear. Methods The genetic structure (ploidy and allelic constitution with microsatellite markers) of plants obtained from polyembryonic seeds arising from 2x × 4x sexual hybridizations and those regenerated from nucellus culture in vitro was systematically analysed in different non-apomictic citrus genotypes. Histological studies were also conducted to try to identify the initiation process underlying polyembryony. Key Results All plants obtained from the same undeveloped seed in 2x × 4x hybridizations resulted from cleavage of the original zygotic embryo. Also, the plants obtained from in vitro nucellus culture were recovered by somatic embryogenesis from cells that shared the same genotype as the zygotic embryos of the same seed. Conclusions It appears that in non-apomictic citrus genotypes, proembryos or embryogenic cells are formed by cleavage of the zygotic embryos and that the development of these adventitious embryos, normally hampered, can take place in vivo or in vitro as a result of two different mechanisms that prevent the dominance of the initial zygotic embryo. PMID:20675656

  12. Pesticide residues survey in citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Ortelli, Didier; Edder, Patrick; Corvi, Claude

    2005-05-01

    The use of pesticides is widespread in citrus fruits production for pre- and post-harvest protection and many chemical substances may be applied in order to control undesirable moulds or insects. A survey was carried out to evaluate levels of pesticide residues in citrus fruits. Two multiresidue analytical methods were used to screen samples for more than 200 different fungicides, insecticides and acaricides. A total of 240 samples of citrus fruits including lemon, orange, mandarin, grapefruit, lime, pomelo and kumquat were taken in various markets in the Geneva area during the year 2003. Ninety-five percent of the 164 samples issued from classical agriculture contained pesticides and 38 different compounds have been identified. This high percentage of positive samples was mainly due to the presence of two post-harvest fungicides, imazalil and thiabendazole, detected in 70% and 36% of samples respectively. Only three samples exceeded the Swiss maximum residue limits (MRLs). Fifty-three samples sold with the written indication "without post-harvest treatment" were also controlled. Among theses samples, three exceeded the Swiss MRLs for penconazole or chlorpyrifos and 18 (34%) did not respect the written indication since we found large amounts of post-harvest fungicides. Finally, 23 samples coming from certified organic production were analysed. Among theses samples, three contained small amounts of pesticides and the others were pesticides free.

  13. Growing Plants in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salt, Bernard

    1990-01-01

    Background information on the methods and varieties used to demonstrate the cultivation of plants without the use of chemical pesticides is provided. Discussed are species and variety selection, growing plants from seed and from seedlings, soil preparation, using cuttings, useful crops, and pest control. (CW)

  14. GROWING SEEDS, TEACHER'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elementary Science Study, Newton, MA.

    THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE IS DESIGNED FOR USE WITH AN ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT, "GROWING SEEDS," IN WHICH SUCH BASIC SCIENCE SKILLS AND PROCESSES AS MEASUREMENT, OBSERVATION, AND HYPOTHESIS FORMATION ARE INTRODUCED THROUGH STUDENT ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SEEDS, GERMINATION, AND SEEDLING GROWTH. THE MATERIALS WERE DEVELOPED FOR USE IN ELEMENTARY…

  15. Growing Up with "1984."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franza, August

    1983-01-01

    Relates changing student reaction to George Orwell's "1984" over 20 years of teaching. Finds present high school students' acceptance of Orwell's bleak world vision both a sign of student honesty and a frightening indication of the growing reality of the book. (MM)

  16. Growing Backyard Textiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Eleanor Hall

    1975-01-01

    For those involved in creative work with textiles, the degree of control possible in texture, finish, and color of fiber by growing and processing one's own (perhaps with students' help) can make the experience rewarding. The author describes the processes for flax and nettles and gives tips on necessary equipment. (Author/AJ)

  17. Growing through Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Barbara J.

    "Growing through Literature" is a curriculum using Joan M. and Erik H. Erikson's theory of the Life Cycle as a structure for selecting and teaching literature to inner-city high school students at Brighton High School in Massachusetts. The program consists of four component parts: Journals, Selected Stories, Discussion, and Autobiography. By…

  18. And Away We Grow!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeece, Pauline Davey

    1994-01-01

    Notes the difficulty of developing and managing a child care business well. Describes Sharlit and McConnell's (1989) five-phase model of business growth as it might apply to a growing child care program. The phases of development described are creativity; direction; delegation; coordination; and collaboration. (TJQ)

  19. A Growing Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwynn, Mary Loleta

    1988-01-01

    Describes the "Grow Lab" program which is sponsored by the National Gardening Association. Discusses how eight square feet of classroom space are converted into a mini-ecosystem. Mentions the development of a curriculum guide to accompany the indoor garden. (TW)

  20. Continuous process for enhanced release and recovery of pectic hydrocolloids and phenolics from citrus biomass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the 2012/2013 harvesting season the Florida citrus processing industry produced 0.55 × 106 metric tons (MT) of dried citrus pellets from citrus processing waste (CPW). The citrus pellets were marketed as a low value animal feed which may sell for $0.22 per kg or less. This biomass also contai...

  1. Evaluating citrus germplasm for huanglongbing (HLB) resistance: USDA-ARS Inoculation Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, is an important pest because it vectors bacteria responsible for a serious disease of citrus known as huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). USDA-ARS researchers recently established a program for screening citrus germplasm for resistance to the di...

  2. Comparison of different detection methods for citrus greening disease based on airborne multispectral and hyperspectral imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) is a devastating disease spread in many citrus groves since first found in 2005 in Florida. Multispectral (MS) and hyperspectral (HS) airborne images of citrus groves in Florida were taken to detect citrus greening infected trees in 2007 and 2010. Ground truthi...

  3. 7 CFR 93.5 - Fees for citrus product analyses set by cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees for citrus product analyses set by cooperative... (CONTINUED) COMMODITY LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Citrus Juices and Certain Citrus Products § 93.5 Fees for citrus product analyses set by cooperative agreement. The fees for...

  4. 7 CFR 93.5 - Fees for citrus product analyses set by cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fees for citrus product analyses set by cooperative... (CONTINUED) COMMODITY LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Citrus Juices and Certain Citrus Products § 93.5 Fees for citrus product analyses set by cooperative agreement. The fees for...

  5. 7 CFR 93.5 - Fees for citrus product analyses set by cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fees for citrus product analyses set by cooperative... (CONTINUED) COMMODITY LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Citrus Juices and Certain Citrus Products § 93.5 Fees for citrus product analyses set by cooperative agreement. The fees for...

  6. 7 CFR 93.5 - Fees for citrus product analyses set by cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fees for citrus product analyses set by cooperative... (CONTINUED) COMMODITY LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Citrus Juices and Certain Citrus Products § 93.5 Fees for citrus product analyses set by cooperative agreement. The fees for...

  7. 7 CFR 93.5 - Fees for citrus product analyses set by cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fees for citrus product analyses set by cooperative... (CONTINUED) COMMODITY LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Citrus Juices and Certain Citrus Products § 93.5 Fees for citrus product analyses set by cooperative agreement. The fees for...

  8. 7 CFR 905.149 - Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... citrus fruit. 905.149 Section 905.149 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Fruit § 905.149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as referenced in this section is defined in the Florida Department...

  9. An evaluation of candidate repellents against Asian citrus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) is an important pest because it transmits a bacterium putatively responsible for huanglongbing, a devastating citrus disease. Research on ACP chemical ecology is of interest with respect to identifying attractants and repellents for managing the psyllid. With respect t...

  10. Characterizing the citrus cultivar Carrizo genome through 454 shotgun sequencing.

    PubMed

    Belknap, William R; Wang, Yi; Huo, Naxin; Wu, Jiajie; Rockhold, David R; Gu, Yong Q; Stover, Ed

    2011-12-01

    The citrus cultivar Carrizo is the single most important rootstock to the US citrus industry and has resistance or tolerance to a number of major citrus diseases, including citrus tristeza virus, foot rot, and Huanglongbing (HLB, citrus greening). A Carrizo genomic sequence database providing approximately 3.5×genome coverage (haploid genome size approximately 367 Mb) was populated through 454 GS FLX shotgun sequencing. Analysis of the repetitive DNA fraction indicated a total interspersed repeat fraction of 36.5%. Assembly and characterization of abundant citrus Ty3/gypsy elements revealed a novel type of element containing open reading frames encoding a viral RNA-silencing suppressor protein (RNA binding protein, rbp) and a plant cytokinin riboside 5′-monophosphate phosphoribohydrolase-related protein (LONELY GUY, log). Similar gypsy elements were identified in the Populus trichocarpa genome. Gene-coding region analysis indicated that 24.4% of the nonrepetitive reads contained genic regions. The depth of genome coverage was sufficient to allow accurate assembly of constituent genes, including a putative phloem-expressed gene. The development of the Carrizo database (http://citrus.pw.usda.gov/) will contribute to characterization of agronomically significant loci and provide a publicly available genomic resource to the citrus research community.

  11. A novel method for citrus propagation: Seed Grafting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have developed a technique for grafting citrus seeds to a citrus stock plant that allows the apparent development of a successful vascular connection between seed and stock plant and germination and development of a seedling which appears indistinguishable from seedlings germinated from seeds pla...

  12. Establishment of Asian citrus psllid (Diaphorina citri) primary cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new cell line was developed from the Asian citrus psyllid (AsCP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), as a novel approach to culture the bacteria associated with huanglongbing disease (HLB), also known as citrus greening disease. Methods to culture the phloem-inhabiting bacterium Candidatus L...

  13. A phagostimulant blend for the Asian citrus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical cues that condition orientation by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), are of great interest because it is the primary vector of the causal pathogen of citrus greening disease. Previous work in our lab identified a blend of formic and acetic acids as s...

  14. Development of a global conservation strategy for citrus genetic resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus is an economically important world tree fruit crop with production in more than 146 countries. The center of origin for citrus is considered to be Southeastern Asia including southern China, northeastern India, and Malaysia, with secondary centers in surrounding areas. Novel and commercially ...

  15. Synephrine Content of Juice from Satsuma Mandarins (Citrus unshiu Marcovitch)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synephrine, the main protoalkaloid in Citrus species, is commonly analyzed as the active component in citrus peel-containing herbal supplements, but the edible parts of mandarins have been largely ignored. We determined the synephrine concentration in the juices of C. unshiu mandarins harvested fro...

  16. What's the latest on USDA citrus scion breeding?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In its 120 year history, the USDA citrus scion breeding program has provided the mainstays of the Florida specialty citrus industry. In the last few years, the USDA has released US Early Pride mandarin, US Seedless Pineapple sweet orange and most recently, US Furr/US Furr-ST mandarin. Clearly huangl...

  17. Non-transgenic RNAi technology to control insects on citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research demonstrated a non-transgenic delivery method for ribonucleic acid interference, RNAi, that reduced fitness as measured in increased mortality over time, of two insect pests of citrus, ie. psyllids and leafhoppers. The Asian citrus psyllid transmits a deadly plant-infecting bacterium o...

  18. Developing cryotherapy to eliminate graft-transmissible pathogens in citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article summarizes research being conducted as part of a project funded by the California Citrus Research Board to develop cryotherapy (freezing buds in liquid nitrogen, and then recovering them) as a viable method for elimination of graft transmissible pathogens from Citrus. There are current...

  19. Consideration for alternative outlet for new citrus hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus sinensis (sweet orange, ex. Hamlin, Midsweet, Valencia) is the source of “orange juice” and juice must contain no less than 90% C. sinensis to be marketed as such. Juice produced from Citrus reticulata (mandarins) and C. reticulata hybrids (Orlando, Murcott, Fallglo, Sunburst, Minneola) can b...

  20. Sensory and quality evaluation of selected citrus hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasingly consumers are becoming more sophisticated in their demand for diversity of products, greater health potential and good eating quality. The evaluation of a population of mandarin citrus (Citrus reticulata) and mandarin hybrids, was initiated in 2006-2007 with the goal of establishing bas...

  1. Associated bacteria of Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae: Diaphorina citri)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a genetics approach two new bacterial species were identified from the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Psyllids are economically important in the U.S. as vectors of the pathogen associated with citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing). Huanglongbing is on...

  2. Quantitative PCR Method for Diagnosis of Citrus Bacterial Canker†

    PubMed Central

    Cubero, J.; Graham, J. H.; Gottwald, T. R.

    2001-01-01

    For diagnosis of citrus bacterial canker by PCR, an internal standard is employed to ensure the quality of the DNA extraction and that proper requisites exist for the amplification reaction. The ratio of PCR products from the internal standard and bacterial target is used to estimate the initial bacterial concentration in citrus tissues with lesions. PMID:11375206

  3. Utilization of founder lines for improved Citrus biotechnology via RMCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On October 1st 2011 the CRB chose to fund a unique research project, the development of citrus cultivars specifically for genetic engineering (GE). The objective of this research was to develop GE citrus ‘Founder Lines’ containing DNA sequences that will allow the precise insertion of genes for de...

  4. Characterizing the citrus cultivar Carrizo genome through 454 shotgun sequencing.

    PubMed

    Belknap, William R; Wang, Yi; Huo, Naxin; Wu, Jiajie; Rockhold, David R; Gu, Yong Q; Stover, Ed

    2011-12-01

    The citrus cultivar Carrizo is the single most important rootstock to the US citrus industry and has resistance or tolerance to a number of major citrus diseases, including citrus tristeza virus, foot rot, and Huanglongbing (HLB, citrus greening). A Carrizo genomic sequence database providing approximately 3.5×genome coverage (haploid genome size approximately 367 Mb) was populated through 454 GS FLX shotgun sequencing. Analysis of the repetitive DNA fraction indicated a total interspersed repeat fraction of 36.5%. Assembly and characterization of abundant citrus Ty3/gypsy elements revealed a novel type of element containing open reading frames encoding a viral RNA-silencing suppressor protein (RNA binding protein, rbp) and a plant cytokinin riboside 5′-monophosphate phosphoribohydrolase-related protein (LONELY GUY, log). Similar gypsy elements were identified in the Populus trichocarpa genome. Gene-coding region analysis indicated that 24.4% of the nonrepetitive reads contained genic regions. The depth of genome coverage was sufficient to allow accurate assembly of constituent genes, including a putative phloem-expressed gene. The development of the Carrizo database (http://citrus.pw.usda.gov/) will contribute to characterization of agronomically significant loci and provide a publicly available genomic resource to the citrus research community. PMID:22133378

  5. Behavioral assay on Asian citrus psyllid attraction to orange jasmine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) is an important pest because it transmits a bacterium putatively responsible for huanglongbing, a devastating citrus disease. Research on ACP chemical ecology is of interest with respect to identifying attractants and repellents for managing the psyllid. We report on a...

  6. New enzymes for hydrolysis and fermentation of citrus waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The expense involved to dry citrus processing waste into citrus pulp pellets (CPP) for use as a cattle feed continues to increase with rising fuel costs. While there have also been recent increases in the value of CPP, this value fluctuates considerably and does not always cover processing costs. Th...

  7. Molecular diversity of Citrus tristeza virus in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a serious citrus pathogen worldwide. Recent genetic studies have identified five standard CTV genotypic groups: T30, VT, T36, T3, and B165/T68. Field surveys performed in California in 2008-2010 identified primarily MCA13-negative CTV isolates with T30-like genotype. C...

  8. Dissipation and residue of forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weijun; Jiao, Bining; Su, Xuesu; Zhao, Qiyang; Qin, Dongmei; Wang, Chengqiu

    2013-06-01

    Field trials were carried out in three provinces of China to study the dissipation and residue of forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits. The results had shown that the degradation rate of forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits followed the first-order kinetics equation C = A∙eBt. The half-lives of forchlorfenuron were 15.8-23.0 days, the final residues of forchlorfenuron in pulp were all ≤0.002 mg/kg, and most of the residues were concentrated in the peel. The risk assessment revealed that no significant potential health risk would be induced by forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits. Therefore, it could be safe to apply forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits, and the results of this study could also be regarded as a reference to the setting of maximum residue limit for forchlorfenuron in citrus fruits in China.

  9. Somatic Embryogenesis: Still a Relevant Technique in Citrus Improvement.

    PubMed

    Omar, Ahmad A; Dutt, Manjul; Gmitter, Frederick G; Grosser, Jude W

    2016-01-01

    The genus Citrus contains numerous fresh and processed fruit cultivars that are economically important worldwide. New cultivars are needed to battle industry threatening diseases and to create new marketing opportunities. Citrus improvement by conventional methods alone has many limitations that can be overcome by applications of emerging biotechnologies, generally requiring cell to plant regeneration. Many citrus genotypes are amenable to somatic embryogenesis, which became a key regeneration pathway in many experimental approaches to cultivar improvement. This chapter provides a brief history of plant somatic embryogenesis with focus on citrus, followed by a discussion of proven applications in biotechnology-facilitated citrus improvement techniques, such as somatic hybridization, somatic cybridization, genetic transformation, and the exploitation of somaclonal variation. Finally, two important new protocols that feature plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis are provided: protoplast transformation and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic cell suspension cultures.

  10. Identification and characterization of Citrus yellow vein clearing virus, a putative new member of the genus Mandarivirus infecting Citrus spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow vein clearing virus, an uncharacterized filamentous virus, was first observed in Pakistan in 1988 and later in India in 1997 in Etrog citron (Citrus medica). Based on electron microscopic evidence of filamentous particles, the virus, provisionally named Citrus yellow vein clearing virus (CYVC...

  11. Investigation of heat treating conditions for enhancing the anti-inflammatory activity of citrus fruit (Citrus reticulata) peels.

    PubMed

    Ho, Su-Chen; Lin, Chih-Cheng

    2008-09-10

    In traditional Chinese medicine, dried citrus fruit peels are widely used as remedies to alleviate coughs and reduce phlegm in the respiratory tract. Induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in inflammatory cells and increased airway production of nitric oxide (NO) are well recognized as key events in inflammation-related respiratory tract diseases. Despite the fact that the enhancing effect of heat treatment on the antioxidant activity of citrus fruit peels has been well documented, the impact of heat treatment on citrus peel beneficial activities regarding anti-inflammation is unclear. To address this issue, we determined the anti-inflammatory activities of heat-treated citrus peel extracts by measuring their inhibitory effect upon NO production by lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Results showed that the anti-inflammatory activity of citrus peel was significantly elevated after 100 degrees C heat treatment in a time-dependent fashion during a period from 0 to 120 min. Inhibition of iNOS gene expression was the major NO-suppressing mechanism of the citrus peel extract. Additionally, the anti-inflammatory activity of citrus peel extract highly correlated with the content of nobiletin and tangeretin. Conclusively, proper and reasonable heat treatment helped to release nobiletin and tangeretin, which were responsible for the increased anti-inflammatory activity of heat-treated citrus peels. PMID:18683945

  12. Metabolic Interplay between the Asian citrus psyllid and its Profftella symbiont: An Achilles’ heel of the citrus greening insect vector

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas), the bacterial pathogen associated with citrus greening disease, is transmitted by Diaphorina citri, the Asian citrus psyllid. Interactions among D. citri and its microbial endosymbionts, including ‘Candidatus Profftella armatura’, are likely to impact tra...

  13. Transmission of Citrus leprosis virus C by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) to Alternative Host Plants Found in Citrus Orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The equivalent of US$ 75 million is spent each year in Brazil to control Brevipalpus phoenicis, a mite vector of Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C). In this study we investigated the possibility that hedgerows, windbreaks, and weeds normally found in citrus orchards could host CiLV-C. Mites reared on ...

  14. Antennal response of the Asian citrus psyllid to citrus volatiles and their degradation product

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian citrus psyllid antennae reacted strongly when stimulated with citral and ocimene stimulus tubes that had been aged for 3-5 days. When 20 µl of neat ocimene or citral were aged on filter paper strips in sealed Pasteur pipette stimulus tubes for 6 days on the laboratory bench, voltage changes we...

  15. Resistance evaluation of Pera (Citrus sinensis) genotypes to citrus canker in greenhouse conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri results in serious yield losses and phytoregulation penalties. The use of resistant genotypes is recognized as an important tool to facilitate control of the pathogen. Studies have show that artificial inoculation results in typic...

  16. Seasonal Movement Patterns and Long-Range Dispersal of Asian Citrus Psyllid in Florida Citrus.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Rosenblum, Hannah; Martini, Xavier; Tiwari, Siddharth; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2015-02-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the vector of the bacterial pathogen, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which is the causal agent of huanglongbing (HLB) in the United States. Both short-range and long-range dispersal of D. citri adults affect the spread of HLB; however, little is known about the long-range dispersal capabilities of D. citri in the field or the seasonality of flight behavior. In the present study, an in situ protein marking technique was used to determine the dispersal of D. citri by trapping marked adults under natural field conditions. D. citri movement from abandoned citrus groves to adjacent managed citrus groves was greatest during the spring and summer months and decreased significantly during the colder months (September-March). D. citri were able to traverse potential geographic barriers such as roads and fallow fields. In an experiment conducted to determine long-range dispersal capacity in the absence of severe weather events, D. citri were able to disperse at least 2 km within 12 d. Wind direction was not correlated with the number of marked psyllids captured, indicating substantial flight capability by D. citri. Finally, the number of marked psyllids captured increased with the density of emerging young leaves on surrounding trees. The results confirm that abandoned citrus groves in Florida serve as reservoirs for D. citri, which can disperse across long distances despite geographical barriers. PMID:26470097

  17. Seasonal Movement Patterns and Long-Range Dispersal of Asian Citrus Psyllid in Florida Citrus.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Rosenblum, Hannah; Martini, Xavier; Tiwari, Siddharth; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2015-02-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the vector of the bacterial pathogen, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which is the causal agent of huanglongbing (HLB) in the United States. Both short-range and long-range dispersal of D. citri adults affect the spread of HLB; however, little is known about the long-range dispersal capabilities of D. citri in the field or the seasonality of flight behavior. In the present study, an in situ protein marking technique was used to determine the dispersal of D. citri by trapping marked adults under natural field conditions. D. citri movement from abandoned citrus groves to adjacent managed citrus groves was greatest during the spring and summer months and decreased significantly during the colder months (September-March). D. citri were able to traverse potential geographic barriers such as roads and fallow fields. In an experiment conducted to determine long-range dispersal capacity in the absence of severe weather events, D. citri were able to disperse at least 2 km within 12 d. Wind direction was not correlated with the number of marked psyllids captured, indicating substantial flight capability by D. citri. Finally, the number of marked psyllids captured increased with the density of emerging young leaves on surrounding trees. The results confirm that abandoned citrus groves in Florida serve as reservoirs for D. citri, which can disperse across long distances despite geographical barriers.

  18. 75 FR 34322 - Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Quarantine and Interstate Movement Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ...\\ published on the same day in the Federal Register (72 FR 62204-62205, Docket No. APHIS- 2007-0135) in which... Zanthoxylum fagara. In a November 19, 2007, final rule (72 FR 65172-65204, Docket No. APHIS-2007-0022... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Parts 301 and 305 RIN 0579-AC85 Citrus Greening...

  19. Comparison of FTIR spectra between huanglongbing (citrus greening) and other citrus maladies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy has the ability to quickly identify the presence of specific carbohydrates in plant materials. The presence of the disease Huanglongbing(HLB) in the leaves of infected citrus plants has a distinctive spectrum that can be used to distinguish an infected plant ...

  20. Antioxidant activity of oils extracted from orange (Citrus sinensis) seeds.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Neuza; Silva, Ana Carolina da; Aranha, Caroline P M

    2016-05-31

    Due to the increasing production of food in the world with consequent increase of the production of waste, the importance of developing researches for its use is noticed. Thus, the interest in vegetable oils with bioactive compounds, such as the ones extracted from fruit seeds, is growing. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize the oils extracted from seeds of Hamlin, Natal, Pera-rio and Valencia orange varieties (Citrus sinensis), as to the levels of total carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, tocopherols and phytosterols, as well as to determine their antioxidant activity. The orange seed oils presented important content of total carotenoids (19.01 mg/kg), total phenolic compounds (4.43 g/kg), α-tocopherol (135.65 mg/kg) and phytosterols (1304.2 mg/kg). The antioxidant activity ranged from 56.0% (Natal) to 70.2% (Pera-rio). According to the results it is possible to conclude that the orange seed oils can be used as specialty oils in diet, since they contain considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidants. PMID:27254458

  1. Antioxidant activity of oils extracted from orange (Citrus sinensis) seeds.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Neuza; Silva, Ana Carolina da; Aranha, Caroline P M

    2016-05-31

    Due to the increasing production of food in the world with consequent increase of the production of waste, the importance of developing researches for its use is noticed. Thus, the interest in vegetable oils with bioactive compounds, such as the ones extracted from fruit seeds, is growing. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize the oils extracted from seeds of Hamlin, Natal, Pera-rio and Valencia orange varieties (Citrus sinensis), as to the levels of total carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, tocopherols and phytosterols, as well as to determine their antioxidant activity. The orange seed oils presented important content of total carotenoids (19.01 mg/kg), total phenolic compounds (4.43 g/kg), α-tocopherol (135.65 mg/kg) and phytosterols (1304.2 mg/kg). The antioxidant activity ranged from 56.0% (Natal) to 70.2% (Pera-rio). According to the results it is possible to conclude that the orange seed oils can be used as specialty oils in diet, since they contain considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidants.

  2. Macromolecular crystal growing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Robert S. (Inventor); Herren, Blair J. (Inventor); Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor); Yost, Vaughn H. (Inventor); Bugg, Charles E. (Inventor); Delucas, Lawrence J. (Inventor); Suddath, Fred L. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A macromolecular crystal growing system especially designed for growing crystals in the low gravity of space as well as the gravity of earth includes at least one tray assembly, a carrier assembly which receives the tray, and a refrigeration-incubation module in which the carrier assembly is received. The tray assembly includes a plurality of sealed chambers with a plastic syringe and a plug means for the double tip of the syringe provided therein. Ganging mechanisms operate the syringes and plugs simultaneously in a precise and smooth operation. Preferably, the tray assemblies are mounted on ball bearing slides for smooth operation in inserting and removing the tray assemblies into the carrier assembly. The plugging mechanism also includes a loading control mechanism. A mechanism for leaving a syringe unplugged is also provided.

  3. Growing up with Retinoblastoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maley, Tom

    2005-01-01

    An account is given of growing up as a child blinded as a result of a cancer of the eye known as retinoblastoma. The role of his mother is brought out, variously as a source of objective knowledge, of one's personal worth, and of the worth of other people in one's community. The strengths and weaknesses of his first school in his home area and…

  4. How to grow tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Seisuke; Sinha, Neelima

    2008-11-01

    INTRODUCTIONTomatoes can be easily grown in a field, in a greenhouse, or in a growth cabinet. They need acidic soil (pH 6.0-6.8), a lot of light, and water. The optimum temperature for growing tomato plants and fruit is 18°C-24°C. This protocol describes how to germinate tomato seeds, cultivate adult plants, and harvest seeds from fruit.

  5. Evaluation of the reasons why freshly appearing citrus peel fluorescence during automatic inspection by fluorescent imaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momin, Md. Abdul; Kondo, Naoshi; Kuramoto, Makoto; Ogawa, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Kazuya; Shiigi, Tomoo; Ninomiya, Kazunori

    2011-07-01

    Defective unshu oranges (Citrus reticulate Blanco var. unshu) were sorted based on fluorescent imaging technique in a commercial packinghouse but fresh appearing unshu were rejected due to fluorescence appearing on their peel. We studied the various visible patterns based on colour, fluorescence and microscopic images, where even areas of the peel that are not obviously damaged can have fluorescence, to provide a categorization of fluorescence reasons. The categorization corresponded to: 1) hole and flow; 2) influenced by damaged or rotten fruits that have released peel oil onto it; 3) immature or poor peel quality; 4) whitish fluorescence due to agro-chemicals and 5) variation of the growing season. The identification of such patterns of fluorescence might be useful for citrus grading industry to take some initiatives to make the entire automated system more efficient.

  6. Characterization of a virus infecting Citrus volkameriana with citrus leprosis-like symptoms.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Michael J; Sether, Diane M; Borth, Wayne B; Hu, John S

    2012-01-01

    A Citrus volkameriana tree displaying symptoms similar to citrus leprosis on its leaves and bark was found in Hawaii. Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C)-specific detection assays, however, were negative for all tissues tested. Short, bacilliform virus-like particles were observed by transmission electron microscopy in the cytoplasm of symptomatic leaves but not in healthy controls. Double-stranded (ds) RNAs ≈8 and 3 kbp in size were present in symptomatic leaf tissue but not in healthy controls. Excluding poly(A) tails, the largest molecule, RNA1, was 8,354 bp in length. The ≈3 kbp dsRNA band was found to be composed of two distinct molecules, RNA2 and RNA3, which were 3,169 and 3,113 bp, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain located in RNA1 was most closely related to the RdRp domain of CiLV-C. A reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay developed for the detection of this virus was used to screen nearby citrus trees as well as Hibiscus arnottianus plants with symptoms of hibiscus green spot, a disease associated with infection by Hibiscus green spot virus (HGSV). All nearby citrus trees tested negative with the assay; however, symptomatic H. arnottianus plants were positive. All three RNAs were present in symptomatic H. arnottianus and were >98% identical to the RNAs isolated from C. volkameriana. We contend that the virus described in this study is HGSV, and propose that it be the type member of a new virus genus, Higrevirus.

  7. Antibacterial activity of Citrus reticulata peel extracts.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Negi, P S; Sikder, S; Rao, L J; Sakariah, K K

    2000-01-01

    Citrus peels were successively extracted with hexane, chloroform and acetone using a soxhlet extractor. The hexane and chloroform extracts were fractionated into alcohol-soluble and alcohol-insoluble fractions. These fractions were tested against different gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The EtOH-soluble fraction was found to be most effective. Fractionation of EtOH-soluble fraction on silica gel column yielded three polymethoxylated flavones, namely desmethylnobiletin, nobiletin and tangeretin. Their structures were confirmed by UV, 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectral studies. The findings indicated a potential of these natural compounds as biopreservatives in food applications. PMID:11204182

  8. Multispectral sensing of citrus young tree decline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, G. J.; Ducharme, E. P.; Schehl, T.

    1975-01-01

    Computer processing of MSS data to identify and map citrus trees affected by young tree decline is analyzed. The data were obtained at 1500-feet altitude in six discrete spectral bands covering regions from 0.53 to 1.3 millimicrons as well as from instrumental ground truths of tree crowns. Measurable spectral reflectance intensity differences are observed in the leaves of healthy and diseased trees, especially at wavelengths of 500 to 600 nm and 700 to 800 nm. The overall accuracy of the method is found to be 89%.

  9. Citrus Fruit Intake Substantially Reduces the Risk of Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Anqiang; Zhu, Chengpei; Fu, Lilan; Wan, Xueshuai; Yang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Haohai; Miao, Ruoyu; He, Lian; Sang, Xinting; Zhao, Haitao

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many epidemiologic studies indicate a potential association between fruit and vegetable intake and various cancers. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to investigate the association between citrus fruit intake and esophageal cancer risk. The authors conducted a comprehensive search on PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from inception until July 2014. Studies presenting information about citrus intake and esophageal cancer were analyzed. The authors extracted the categories of citrus intake, study-specific odds ratio or relative risk, and the P value and associated 95% confidence intervals for the highest versus lowest dietary intake of citrus fruit level. The association was quantified using meta-analysis of standard errors with a random-effects model. Thirteen case–control studies and 6 cohort studies were eligible for inclusion. Citrus intake may significantly reduce risk of esophageal cancer (summary odds ratio = 0.63; 95% confidence interval = 0.52–0.75; P = 0), without notable publication bias (intercept = −0.79, P = 0.288) and with significant heterogeneity across studies (I2 = 52%). The results from epidemiologic studies suggest an inverse association between citrus fruit intake and esophageal cancer risk. The significant effect is consistent between case–control and cohort studies. Larger prospective studies with rigorous methodology should be considered to validate the association between citrus fruits and esophageal cancer. PMID:26426606

  10. Citrus huanglongbing: a newly relevant disease presents unprecedented challenges.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nian; Trivedi, Pankaj

    2013-07-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the oldest citrus diseases and has been known for over a century. HLB is caused by 'Candidatus Liberibacter' spp. that are phloem-limited, fastidious α-proteobacteria and infect hosts in different Kingdoms (i.e., Animalia and Plantae). When compared with well-characterized, cultivatable plant-pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, the interactions of uncultured insect-vectored plant-pathogenic bacteria, including 'Ca. Liberibacter' spp., with their hosts remain poorly understood. 'Ca. Liberibacter' spp. have been known to cause HLB, which has been rapidly spreading worldwide, resulting in dramatic economic losses. HLB presents an unprecedented challenge to citrus production. In this review, we focus on the most recent research on citrus, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', and psyllid interactions, specifically considering the following topics: evolutionary relationships among 'Ca. Liberibacter' spp., genetic diversity, host range, genome analysis, transmission, virulence mechanisms, and the ecological importance of HLB. Currently, no efficient management strategy is available to control HLB, although some promising progress has been made. Further studies are needed to understand citrus, 'Ca. L. asiaticus', and psyllid interactions to design innovative management strategies. Although HLB has been problematic for over a century, we can only win the battle against HLB with a coordinated and deliberate effort by the citrus industry, citrus growers, researchers, legislatures, and governments.

  11. [Investigation of light penetration depth and distribution inside citrus tissue].

    PubMed

    Wu, Chen-Kai; Zhang, Liang; Shen, Huang-Tong; Fu, Xia-Ping

    2014-03-01

    Experiment was carried out to explore the light intensity change inside citrus samples in the present study. An experimental platform was set up, including a light box, a spectrometer, a sample stage, an optic fiber probe, light sources, etc. The sample stage is adjustable in three dimensions. The optic fiber probe was used to measure the light changes by observing the light attenuation and intensity variation within the citrus tissues. A 632 nm laser source and a 50 W tungsten halogen lamp light source were used. Light intensity and transmittance were investigated at different positions within the citrus fruit. The band with most significant intensity difference was selected to analyze the light intensity and transmittance trends in different positions inside the citrus fruit In order to examine the influence significance of the sample factor on test results, SPSS software was used to do the analysis of variation (ANOVA) of different samples. The results showed that light intensity and transmittance have a positive correlation with puncture depth, while citrus peel and stone have a more obvious attenuation effect than citrus flesh, and the influence of the sample factor on the test results is not significant. Further research can be carried out by improving the experimental device. The method used and results obtained in this study are valuable for studies on light transmission properties inside fruit tissue, not only for citrus but also for other kinds of fruits.

  12. Detection of Citrus leprosis virus C using specific primers and TaqMan probe in one-step real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assays.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Nandlal; Wei, G; Govindarajulu, A; Roy, Avijit; Li, Wenbin; Picton, Deric D; Nakhla, M K; Levy, L; Brlansky, R H

    2015-11-01

    Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C), a causal agent of the leprosis disease in citrus, is mostly present in the South and Central America and spreading toward the North America. To enable better diagnosis and inhibit the further spread of this re-emerging virus a quantitative (q) real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay is needed for early detection of CiLV-C when the virus is present in low titer in citrus leprosis samples. Using the genomic sequence of CiLV-C, specific primers and probe were designed and synthesized to amplify a 73 nt amplicon from the movement protein (MP) gene. A standard curve of the 73 nt amplicon MP gene was developed using known 10(10)-10(1) copies of in vitro synthesized RNA transcript to estimate the copy number of RNA transcript in the citrus leprosis samples. The one-step qRT-PCR detection assays for CiLV-C were determined to be 1000 times more sensitive when compared to the one-step conventional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) CiLV-C detection method. To evaluate the quality of the total RNA extracts, NADH dehydrogenase gene specific primers (nad5) and probe were included in reactions as an internal control. The one-step qRT-PCR specificity was successfully validated by testing for the presence of CiLV-C in the total RNA extracts of the citrus leprosis samples collected from Belize, Costa Rica, Mexico and Panama. Implementation of the one-step qRT-PCR assays for CiLV-C diagnosis should assist regulatory agencies in surveillance activities to monitor the distribution pattern of CiLV-C in countries where it is present and to prevent further dissemination into citrus growing countries where there is no report of CiLV-C presence. PMID:26341059

  13. Detection of Citrus leprosis virus C using specific primers and TaqMan probe in one-step real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assays.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Nandlal; Wei, G; Govindarajulu, A; Roy, Avijit; Li, Wenbin; Picton, Deric D; Nakhla, M K; Levy, L; Brlansky, R H

    2015-11-01

    Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C), a causal agent of the leprosis disease in citrus, is mostly present in the South and Central America and spreading toward the North America. To enable better diagnosis and inhibit the further spread of this re-emerging virus a quantitative (q) real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay is needed for early detection of CiLV-C when the virus is present in low titer in citrus leprosis samples. Using the genomic sequence of CiLV-C, specific primers and probe were designed and synthesized to amplify a 73 nt amplicon from the movement protein (MP) gene. A standard curve of the 73 nt amplicon MP gene was developed using known 10(10)-10(1) copies of in vitro synthesized RNA transcript to estimate the copy number of RNA transcript in the citrus leprosis samples. The one-step qRT-PCR detection assays for CiLV-C were determined to be 1000 times more sensitive when compared to the one-step conventional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) CiLV-C detection method. To evaluate the quality of the total RNA extracts, NADH dehydrogenase gene specific primers (nad5) and probe were included in reactions as an internal control. The one-step qRT-PCR specificity was successfully validated by testing for the presence of CiLV-C in the total RNA extracts of the citrus leprosis samples collected from Belize, Costa Rica, Mexico and Panama. Implementation of the one-step qRT-PCR assays for CiLV-C diagnosis should assist regulatory agencies in surveillance activities to monitor the distribution pattern of CiLV-C in countries where it is present and to prevent further dissemination into citrus growing countries where there is no report of CiLV-C presence.

  14. Growing Unculturable Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The bacteria that can be grown in the laboratory are only a small fraction of the total diversity that exists in nature. At all levels of bacterial phylogeny, uncultured clades that do not grow on standard media are playing critical roles in cycling carbon, nitrogen, and other elements, synthesizing novel natural products, and impacting the surrounding organisms and environment. While molecular techniques, such as metagenomic sequencing, can provide some information independent of our ability to culture these organisms, it is essentially impossible to learn new gene and pathway functions from pure sequence data. A true understanding of the physiology of these bacteria and their roles in ecology, host health, and natural product production requires their cultivation in the laboratory. Recent advances in growing these species include coculture with other bacteria, recreating the environment in the laboratory, and combining these approaches with microcultivation technology to increase throughput and access rare species. These studies are unraveling the molecular mechanisms of unculturability and are identifying growth factors that promote the growth of previously unculturable organisms. This minireview summarizes the recent discoveries in this area and discusses the potential future of the field. PMID:22661685

  15. Nonlinear growing neutrino cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayaita, Youness; Baldi, Marco; Führer, Florian; Puchwein, Ewald; Wetterich, Christof

    2016-03-01

    The energy scale of dark energy, ˜2 ×10-3 eV , is a long way off compared to all known fundamental scales—except for the neutrino masses. If dark energy is dynamical and couples to neutrinos, this is no longer a coincidence. The time at which dark energy starts to behave as an effective cosmological constant can be linked to the time at which the cosmic neutrinos become nonrelativistic. This naturally places the onset of the Universe's accelerated expansion in recent cosmic history, addressing the why-now problem of dark energy. We show that these mechanisms indeed work in the growing neutrino quintessence model—even if the fully nonlinear structure formation and backreaction are taken into account, which were previously suspected of spoiling the cosmological evolution. The attractive force between neutrinos arising from their coupling to dark energy grows as large as 106 times the gravitational strength. This induces very rapid dynamics of neutrino fluctuations which are nonlinear at redshift z ≈2 . Nevertheless, a nonlinear stabilization phenomenon ensures only mildly nonlinear oscillating neutrino overdensities with a large-scale gravitational potential substantially smaller than that of cold dark matter perturbations. Depending on model parameters, the signals of large-scale neutrino lumps may render the cosmic neutrino background observable.

  16. The impact of agriculture management on soil quality in citrus orchards in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hondebrink, Merel; Cerdà, Artemi; Cammeraat, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Bodí, M.B. 2009. Soil and water losses from new citrus orchards growing on sloped soils in the western Mediterranean basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 34, 1822-1830. DOI: 10.1002/esp.1889 Hazarika, S., Thakuria, D., Ganeshamurthy, A. N., & Sakthivel, T. (2014). Soil quality as influenced by land use history of orchards in humid subtropics. Catena, 123, 37-44. Wang, L., Tang, L., Wang, X., & Chen, F. (2010). Effects of alley crop planting on soil and nutrient losses in the citrus orchards of the Three Gorges Region. Soil and Tillage Research, 110(2), 243-250. Wanshnong, R. K., Thakuria, D., Sangma, C. B., Ram, V., & Bora, P. K. (2013). Influence of hill slope on biological pools of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in acidic alfisols of citrus orchard. Catena, 111, 1-8. X. H. Li, J. Yang, C. Y Zhao and B. Wang
 (2014) Runoff and sediment from orchard terraces in Southeastern China. Land Degradation and Development, 25, 184-192. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.1160 Xu, Q. X., Wang, T. W., CAI, C. F., Li, Z.X., SHI, Z. H. 2012. Effects of soil conservation on soil properties of citrus orchards in the Three-Gorges Area, China. Land Degradation & Development, 23: 34 -42. DOI 10.1002/ldr.1045

  17. Citrus tristeza virus: a pathogen that changed the course of the citrus industry.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Pedro; Ambrós, Silvia; Albiach-Martí, Maria R; Guerri, José; Peña, Leandro

    2008-03-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) (genus Closterovirus, family Closteroviridae) is the causal agent of devastating epidemics that changed the course of the citrus industry. Adapted to replicate in phloem cells of a few species within the family Rutaceae and to transmission by a few aphid species, CTV and citrus probably coevolved for centuries at the site of origin of citrus plants. CTV dispersal to other regions and its interaction with new scion varieties and rootstock combinations resulted in three distinct syndromes named tristeza, stem pitting and seedling yellows. The first, inciting decline of varieties propagated on sour orange, has forced the rebuilding of many citrus industries using tristeza-tolerant rootstocks. The second, inducing stunting, stem pitting and low bearing of some varieties, causes economic losses in an increasing number of countries. The third is usually observed by biological indexing, but rarely in the field. CTV polar virions are composed of two capsid proteins and a single-stranded, positive-sense genomic RNA (gRNA) of approximately 20 kb, containing 12 open reading frames (ORFs) and two untranslated regions (UTRs). ORFs 1a and 1b, encoding proteins of the replicase complex, are directly translated from the gRNA, and together with the 5' and 3'UTRs are the only regions required for RNA replication. The remaining ORFs, expressed via 3'-coterminal subgenomic RNAs, encode proteins required for virion assembly and movement (p6, p65, p61, p27 and p25), asymmetrical accumulation of positive and negative strands during RNA replication (p23), or suppression of post-transcriptional gene silencing (p25, p20 and p23), with the role of proteins p33, p18 and p13 as yet unknown. Analysis of genetic variation in CTV isolates revealed (1) conservation of genomes in distant geographical regions, with a limited repertoire of genotypes, (2) uneven distribution of variation along the gRNA, (3) frequent recombination events and (4) different selection pressures

  18. Somatic hybridization for citrus rootstock breeding: an effective tool to solve some important issues of the Mediterranean citrus industry.

    PubMed

    Dambier, Dominique; Benyahia, Hamid; Pensabene-Bellavia, Giovanni; Aka Kaçar, Yildiz; Froelicher, Yann; Belfalah, Zina; Lhou, Beniken; Handaji, Najat; Printz, Bruno; Morillon, Raphael; Yesiloglu, Turgut; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2011-05-01

    The prevalence of sour orange rootstock in the southern and eastern part of the Mediterranean Basin is presently threatened by the spread of Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV) and its main vector Toxoptera citricida, combined with abiotic constraints such as drought, salinity and alkalinity. The search for alternative CTV-resistant rootstocks that also withstand the other constraints is now considered an urgent priority for a sustainable citrus industry in the area. Complementary progenitors can be found in citrus germplasm to combine the desired traits, particularly between Poncirus and Citrus genera. The production of somatic hybrids allows cumulating all dominant traits irrespective of their heterozygosity level, and would appear to be an effective way to solve the rootstock challenge facing the Mediterranean citrus industry. This paper presents the results obtained during a regional collaborative effort between five countries, to develop new rootstocks by somatic hybridization. New embryogenic callus lines to be used for somatic hybridization have been created. Protoplast fusions have been performed at CIRAD and IVIA laboratories, focusing on intergeneric combinations. Analysis of ploidy level by flow cytometry and molecular markers confirmed the acquisition of new interesting tetraploid somatic hybrids for six combinations. Diploid cybrids with intergeneric (Citrus × Poncirus) nucleus and C. reticulata or C. aurantifolia mitochondria were also identified for four combinations. The agronomical performance of a pre-existing somatic hybrid between Poncirus trifoliata and Citrus reticulata was validated in calcareous soils in Morocco. Somatic hybridization is now integrated into the breeding programs of the five Mediterranean countries. PMID:21225429

  19. Genome-wide comparative analysis reveals possible common ancestors of nucleotide-binding sites domain containing genes in hybrid Citrus sinensis genome and original Citrus clementina genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We identified and re-annotated candidate disease resistance (R) genes with nucleotide-binding sites (NBS) domain from a Citrus clementina genome and two complete Citrus sinensis genome sequences (one from the USA and one from China). We found similar numbers of NBS genes from three citrus genomes, r...

  20. Identification and molecular characterization of nuclear Citrus leprosis virus, an unassigned Dichorhavirus genus member associated with citrus leprosis disease in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus leprosis is a difficult viral disease causing significant damage to citrus fruit in South America and Central America. The disease is marked by dramatic lesions on fruit, leaves and stems resulting in unmarketable product. Citrus leprosis virus cytoplasmic type (CiLV-C) was detected in states...

  1. Phenology of Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae) and associated parasitoids on two species of Citrus, kinnow mandarin and sweet orange, in Punjab Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shouket Zaman; Arif, Muhammad Jalal; Hoddle, Christina D; Hoddle, Mark S

    2014-10-01

    The population phenology of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, was monitored weekly for 110 wk on two species of Citrus, kinnow mandarin and sweet orange, at two different research sites in Faisalabad, Punjab Pakistan. Citrus flush growth patterns were monitored and natural enemy surveys were conducted weekly. Flush patterns were similar for kinnow and sweet orange. However, flush on sweet orange was consistently more heavily infested with Asian citrus psyllid than kinnow flush; densities of Asian citrus psyllid eggs, nymphs, and adults were higher on sweet orange when compared with kinnow. When measured in terms of mean cumulative insect or Asian citrus psyllid days, eggs, nymphs, and adults were significantly higher on sweet orange than kinnow. Two parasitoids were recorded attacking Asian citrus psyllid nymphs, Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) and Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Shafee, Alam and Agarwal). The dominant parasitoid species attacking Asian citrus psyllid nymphs on kinnow and sweet orange was T. radiata, with parasitism averaging 26%. D. aligarhensis parasitism averaged 17%. Generalist predators such as coccinellids and chrysopids were collected infrequently and were likely not important natural enemies at these study sites. Immature spiders, in particular, salticids and yellow sac spiders, were common and may be important predators of all Asian citrus psyllid life stages. Low year round Asian citrus psyllid densities on kinnow and possibly high summer temperatures, may, in part, contribute to the success of this cultivar in Punjab where Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the putative causative agent of huanglongbing, a debilitating citrus disease, is widespread and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid. PMID:25198345

  2. Phenology of Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae) and associated parasitoids on two species of Citrus, kinnow mandarin and sweet orange, in Punjab Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shouket Zaman; Arif, Muhammad Jalal; Hoddle, Christina D; Hoddle, Mark S

    2014-10-01

    The population phenology of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, was monitored weekly for 110 wk on two species of Citrus, kinnow mandarin and sweet orange, at two different research sites in Faisalabad, Punjab Pakistan. Citrus flush growth patterns were monitored and natural enemy surveys were conducted weekly. Flush patterns were similar for kinnow and sweet orange. However, flush on sweet orange was consistently more heavily infested with Asian citrus psyllid than kinnow flush; densities of Asian citrus psyllid eggs, nymphs, and adults were higher on sweet orange when compared with kinnow. When measured in terms of mean cumulative insect or Asian citrus psyllid days, eggs, nymphs, and adults were significantly higher on sweet orange than kinnow. Two parasitoids were recorded attacking Asian citrus psyllid nymphs, Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) and Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Shafee, Alam and Agarwal). The dominant parasitoid species attacking Asian citrus psyllid nymphs on kinnow and sweet orange was T. radiata, with parasitism averaging 26%. D. aligarhensis parasitism averaged 17%. Generalist predators such as coccinellids and chrysopids were collected infrequently and were likely not important natural enemies at these study sites. Immature spiders, in particular, salticids and yellow sac spiders, were common and may be important predators of all Asian citrus psyllid life stages. Low year round Asian citrus psyllid densities on kinnow and possibly high summer temperatures, may, in part, contribute to the success of this cultivar in Punjab where Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the putative causative agent of huanglongbing, a debilitating citrus disease, is widespread and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid.

  3. Sleep to grow smart?

    PubMed

    Volk, Carina; Huber, Reto

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is undisputable an essential part of our life, if we do not sleep enough we feel the consequences the next day. The importance of sleep for healthy brain functioning has been well studied in adults, but less is known for the role of sleep in the paediatric age. Childhood and adolescence is a critical phase for brain development. The increased need for sleep during this developmental phase fosters the growing recognition for a central role of sleep during development. In this review we summarize the findings that demonstrate a close relationship between sleep and brain maturation, discuss the consequences of insufficient sleep during childhood and adolescence and outline initial attempts that have been made in order to improve sleep in this age range. PMID:26742664

  4. Growing a market economy

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents a microsimulation model of a transition economy. Transition is defined as the process of moving from a state-enterprise economy to a market economy. The emphasis is on growing a market economy starting from basic microprinciples. The model described in this report extends and modifies the capabilities of Aspen, a new agent-based model that is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories on a massively parallel Paragon computer. Aspen is significantly different from traditional models of the economy. Aspen`s emphasis on disequilibrium growth paths, its analysis based on evolution and emergent behavior rather than on a mechanistic view of society, and its use of learning algorithms to simulate the behavior of some agents rather than an assumption of perfect rationality make this model well-suited for analyzing economic variables of interest from transition economies. Preliminary results from several runs of the model are included.

  5. Effect of Nigerian citrus (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) honey on ethanol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Onyesom, I

    2004-12-01

    The effect of Nigerian citrus (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) honey on ethanol metabolism was tested using 45 consenting individuals in apparent good health and between the ages of 25 and 35 years. The subjects were moderate social drinkers matched in terms of body weight and build. The results obtained showed that on average, honey significantly (p < 0.05) increased the blood ethanol clearance rate by 68% and decreased the intoxication period by 43%, but insignificantly (p > 0.05) reduced the degree of intoxication by 9%. Honey could be a promising anti-intoxicating agent, but its long-term biochemical evaluation, possibly as a complement in the management of alcohol intoxication, deserves further study.

  6. Early events of citrus greening (Huanglongbing) disease development at the ultrastructural level.

    PubMed

    Folimonova, Svetlana Y; Achor, Diann S

    2010-09-01

    Citrus greening (Huanglongbing [HLB]) is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. The causal agent of HLB in Florida is thought to be 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'. Understanding of the early events in HLB infection is critical for the development of effective measures to control the disease. In this work, we conducted cytopathological studies by following the development of the disease in citrus trees graft inoculated with 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-containing material under greenhouse conditions to examine the correlation between ultrastructural changes and symptom production, with the main objective of characterizing the early events of infection. Based on our observations, one of the first degenerative changes induced upon invasion of the pathogen appears to be swelling of middle lamella between cell walls surrounding sieve elements. This anatomical aberration was often observed in samples from newly growing flushes in inoculated sweet orange and grapefruit trees at the early "presymptomatic" stage of HLB infection. Development of symptoms and their progression correlated with an increasing degree of microscopic aberrations. Remarkably, the ability to observe the bacterium in the infected tissue also correlated with the degree of the disease progression. Large numbers of bacterial cells were found in phloem sieve tubes in tissue samples from presymptomatic young flushes. In contrast, we did not observe the bacteria in highly symptomatic leaf samples, suggesting a possibility that, at more advanced stages of the disease, a major proportion of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is present in a nonviable state. We trust that observations reported here advance our understanding of how 'Ca. L. asiaticus' causes disease. Furthermore, they may be an important aid in answering a question: when and where within an infected tree the tissue serves as a better inoculum source for acquisition and transmission of the bacterium by its psyllid vector.

  7. Field Evaluation of Plant Defense Inducers for the Control of Citrus Huanglongbing.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinyun; Trivedi, Pankaj; Wang, Nian

    2016-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is currently the most economically devastating disease of citrus worldwide and no established cure is available. Defense inducing compounds are able to induce plant resistance effective against various pathogens. In this study the effects of various chemical inducers on HLB diseased citrus were evaluated in four groves (three with sweet orange and one with mandarin) in Florida (United States) for two to four consecutive growing seasons. Results have demonstrated that plant defense inducers including β-aminobutyric acid (BABA), 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (BTH), and 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA), individually or in combination, were effective in suppressing progress of HLB disease. Ascorbic acid (AA) and the nonmetabolizable glucose analog 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DDG) also exhibited positive control effects on HLB. After three or four applications for each season, the treatments AA (60 to 600 µM), BABA (0.2 to 1.0 mM), BTH (1.0 mM), INA (0.1 mM), 2-DDG (100 µM), BABA (1.0 mM) plus BTH (1.0 mM), BTH (1.0 mM) plus AA (600 µM), and BTH (1.0 mM) plus 2-DDG (100 µM) slowed down the population growth in planta of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', the putative pathogen of HLB and reduced HLB disease severity by approximately 15 to 30% compared with the nontreated control, depending on the age and initial HLB severity of infected trees. These treatments also conferred positive effect on fruit yield and quality. Altogether, these findings indicate that plant defense inducers may be a useful strategy for the management of citrus HLB.

  8. Anti-inflammatory effects of Citrus sinensis L., Citrus paradisi L. and their combinations.

    PubMed

    Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Mallick, Neelam; Feroz, Zeeshan

    2016-05-01

    Citrus bioflavonoids embrace a wide group of phenolic compounds effecting the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species and the processes relating free radical-mediated injury. Keeping in view of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi, present study was undertaken to explore the effects of C. sinensis (orange juice) and C. paradisi (grapefruit juice) at three different doses alone and their two combinations with the objective to examine the effects of these compounds in an experimental model of rat colitis induced by trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS). Hence biochemical parameters e.g. myeloperoxidase, alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein (CRP) and glutathione were assessed. Data entry and analysis was accomplished by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17 and was presented as mean ± S.E.M with 95% confidence interval. Present result shows that these juices, mainly C. paradisi, may be efficacious for the management of inflammatory bowel disease. In acute colitis model, C. paradise encouraged a decrease in the extension of the lesion escorted by a decrease in the occurrence of diarrhea and reinstatement of the glutathione content. Related effects were produced by the administration of C. sinensis, which also prevented the myeloperoxidase and alkaline phosphatase actions in acute intestinal inflammatory process. The effect of the citrus juices on the inflammatory process may be associated to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as revealed in present investigation. The favorable effects exerted were demonstrated both by histological and biochemical changes and were related with a progress in the colonic oxidative status. PMID:27166529

  9. The antimicrobial effects of Citrus limonum and Citrus aurantium essential oils on multi-species biofilms.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Sarah Almeida Coelho; Zambrana, Jéssica Rabelo Mina; Iorio, Fernanda Bispo Reis Di; Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Citrus limonum and Citrus aurantium essential oils (EOs) compared to 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX) and 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on multispecies biofilms formed by Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. The biofilms were grown in acrylic disks immersed in broth, inoculated with microbial suspension (106 cells/mL) and incubated at 37°C / 48 h. After the biofilms were formed, they were exposed for 5 minutes to the solutions (n = 10): C. aurantium EO, C. limonum EO, 0.2% CHX, 1% NaOCl or sterile saline solution [0.9% sodium chloride NaCl)]. Next, the discs were placed in sterile 0.9% NaCl and sonicated to disperse the biofilms. Tenfold serial dilutions were performed and the aliquots were seeded onto selective agar and incubated at 37°C / 48 h. , the number of colony-forming units per milliliter was counted and analyzed statistically (Tukey test, p ≤ 0.05). C. aurantium EO and NaOCl inhibited the growth of all microorganisms in multi-species biofilms. C. limonum EO promoted a 100% reduction of C. albicans and E. coli, 49.3% of E. faecalis. CHX was less effective against C. albicans and E. coli, yielding a reduction of 68.8% and 86.7%, respectively. However, the reduction of E. faecalis using CHX (81.7%) was greater than that obtained using C. limonum EO. Both Citrus limonum and Citrus aurantium EOs are effective in controlling multi-species biofilms; the microbial reductions achieved by EOs were not only similar to those of NaOCl, but even higher than those achieved by CHX, in some cases.

  10. Anti-inflammatory effects of Citrus sinensis L., Citrus paradisi L. and their combinations.

    PubMed

    Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Mallick, Neelam; Feroz, Zeeshan

    2016-05-01

    Citrus bioflavonoids embrace a wide group of phenolic compounds effecting the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species and the processes relating free radical-mediated injury. Keeping in view of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi, present study was undertaken to explore the effects of C. sinensis (orange juice) and C. paradisi (grapefruit juice) at three different doses alone and their two combinations with the objective to examine the effects of these compounds in an experimental model of rat colitis induced by trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS). Hence biochemical parameters e.g. myeloperoxidase, alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein (CRP) and glutathione were assessed. Data entry and analysis was accomplished by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17 and was presented as mean ± S.E.M with 95% confidence interval. Present result shows that these juices, mainly C. paradisi, may be efficacious for the management of inflammatory bowel disease. In acute colitis model, C. paradise encouraged a decrease in the extension of the lesion escorted by a decrease in the occurrence of diarrhea and reinstatement of the glutathione content. Related effects were produced by the administration of C. sinensis, which also prevented the myeloperoxidase and alkaline phosphatase actions in acute intestinal inflammatory process. The effect of the citrus juices on the inflammatory process may be associated to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as revealed in present investigation. The favorable effects exerted were demonstrated both by histological and biochemical changes and were related with a progress in the colonic oxidative status.

  11. The draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiang; Chen, Ling-Ling; Ruan, Xiaoan; Chen, Dijun; Zhu, Andan; Chen, Chunli; Bertrand, Denis; Jiao, Wen-Biao; Hao, Bao-Hai; Lyon, Matthew P; Chen, Jiongjiong; Gao, Song; Xing, Feng; Lan, Hong; Chang, Ji-Wei; Ge, Xianhong; Lei, Yang; Hu, Qun; Miao, Yin; Wang, Lun; Xiao, Shixin; Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Zeng, Wenfang; Guo, Fei; Cao, Hongbo; Yang, Xiaoming; Xu, Xi-Wen; Cheng, Yun-Jiang; Xu, Juan; Liu, Ji-Hong; Luo, Oscar Junhong; Tang, Zhonghui; Guo, Wen-Wu; Kuang, Hanhui; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Roose, Mikeal L; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Ruan, Yijun

    2013-01-01

    Oranges are an important nutritional source for human health and have immense economic value. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). The assembled sequence covers 87.3% of the estimated orange genome, which is relatively compact, as 20% is composed of repetitive elements. We predicted 29,445 protein-coding genes, half of which are in the heterozygous state. With additional sequencing of two more citrus species and comparative analyses of seven citrus genomes, we present evidence to suggest that sweet orange originated from a backcross hybrid between pummelo and mandarin. Focused analysis on genes involved in vitamin C metabolism showed that GalUR, encoding the rate-limiting enzyme of the galacturonate pathway, is significantly upregulated in orange fruit, and the recent expansion of this gene family may provide a genomic basis. This draft genome represents a valuable resource for understanding and improving many important citrus traits in the future.

  12. 9. VIEW SHOWING ARIZONA CANAL WITH CITRUS ORCHARDS, FACING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW SHOWING ARIZONA CANAL WITH CITRUS ORCHARDS, FACING NORTH. CAMELBACK MOUNTAIN IS IN THE BACKGROUND Photographer: unknown. No date - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  13. Biotransformation effects on anti lipogenic activity of citrus extracts.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Vânia Mayumi; Madeira, José Valdo; Macedo, Gabriela Alves; Macedo, Juliana Alves

    2016-04-15

    Citrus peel is a good source of flavonoids, with higher content in relation to pulp. This study proposed to investigate the anti-lipogenic potential of a newly developed citrus flavonoids extract, obtained from citrus industrial residue, bioprocessed in order to generate a commercial source of some flavonoids naturally found in low quantity. The results showed that the citrus peel extract obtained after biotransformation was a good source of hesperitin and naringenin, flavonoids that has no source for production on a large scale, as in supplements or medicines. Still, the results showed that all extracts could be used in obesity treatment. The original extract, "In Natura", would be useful to reduce new adipocytes synthesis and lipid accumulation, and the extract bioprocessed, "Biotransformed" extract could be used to induce lipolysis on fat tissue.

  14. 21 CFR 172.210 - Coatings on fresh citrus fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.210 Coatings on fresh citrus fruit. Coatings may be... a 2:1 ratio. Sodium lauryl sulfate Complying with § 172.822. As a film former. Wood rosin Color of...

  15. Phenols in citrus peel byproducts. Concentrations of hydroxycinnamates and polymethoxylated flavones in citrus peel molasses.

    PubMed

    Manthey, J A; Grohmann, K

    2001-07-01

    In addition to the main flavanone glycosides (i.e., hesperidin and naringin) in citrus peel, polymethoxylated flavones and numerous hydroxycinnamates also occur and are major phenolic constituents of the molasses byproduct generated from fruit processing. Although a small number of the hydroxycinnamates in citrus occur as amides, most occur as esters and are susceptible to alkaline hydrolysis. This susceptibility to alkaline hydrolysis was used in measuring the concentrations of hydroxycinnamates in citrus peel molasses. The highest concentrations of hydroxycinnamates occurred in molasses of orange [C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and tangerine (C. reticulata Blanco.) compared to grapefruit (C. paradisi Macf.) and lemon [C. limon (L.) Burm.]. Concentrations of two phenolic glucosides, phlorin (phloroglucinol-beta-O-glucoside) and coniferin (coniferyl alcohol-4-beta-O-glucoside), were also measured. Measurements of the polymethoxylated flavones in molasses from several tangerine and orange varieties showed that these compounds occurred in the highest amounts in Dancy tangerine, whereas samples from two other tangerine molasses contained significantly lower levels, similar to those in the molasses samples from late- and early/mid-season oranges. PMID:11453761

  16. Fungus-growing ants.

    PubMed

    Weber, N A

    1966-08-01

    Fungus-growing ants (Attini) are in reality unique fungus-culturing insects.There are several hundred species in some dozen genera, of which Acromyrmex and Atta are the conspicuous leaf-cutters. The center of their activities is the fungus garden, which is also the site of the queen and brood. The garden, in most species, is made from fresh green leaves or other vegetal material. The ants forage for this, forming distinct trails to the vegetation that is being harvested. The cut leaves or other substrate are brought into the nest and prepared for the fungus. Fresh leaves and flowers are cut into pieces a millimeter or two in diameter; the ants form them into a pulpy mass by pinching them with the mandibles and adding saliva. Anal droplets are deposited on the pieces, which are then forced into place in the garden. Planting of the fungus is accomplished by an ant's picking up tufts of the adjacent mycelium and dotting the surface of the new substrate with it. The combination of salivary and anal secretions, together with the constant care given by the ants, facilitates the growth of the ant fungus only, despite constant possibilities for contamination. When the ants are removed, alien fungi and other organisms flourish. A mature nest of Atta Sexdens may consist of 2000 chambers, some temporarily empty, some with refuse, and the remainder with fungus gardens. Thousands of kilograms of fresh leaves will have been used. A young laboratory colony of Atta cephalotes will use 1 kilogram of fresh leaves for one garden. The attines are the chief agents for introducing organic matter into the soil in tropical rain forests; this matter becomes the nucleus for a host of other organisms, including nematodes and arthropods, after it is discarded by the ants. One ant species cultures a yeast; all others grow a mycelium. In the higher species the mycelium forms clusters of inflated hyphae. Mycologists accept as valid two names for confirmed fruiting stages: Leucocoprinus ( or

  17. Citrus tristeza virus-based RNAi in citrus plants induces gene silencing in Diaphorina citri, a phloem-sap sucking insect vector of citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing).

    PubMed

    Hajeri, Subhas; Killiny, Nabil; El-Mohtar, Choaa; Dawson, William O; Gowda, Siddarame

    2014-04-20

    A transient expression vector based on Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is unusually stable. Because of its stability it is being considered for use in the field to control Huanglongbing (HLB), which is caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. In the absence of effective control strategies for CLas, emphasis has been on control of D. citri. Coincident cohabitation in phloem tissue by CLas, D. citri and CTV was exploited to develop a novel method to mitigate HLB through RNA interference (RNAi). Since CTV has three RNA silencing suppressors, it was not known if CTV-based vector could induce RNAi in citrus. Yet, expression of sequences targeting citrus phytoene desaturase gene by CTV-RNAi resulted in photo-bleaching phenotype. CTV-RNAi vector, engineered with truncated abnormal wing disc (Awd) gene of D. citri, induced altered Awd expression when silencing triggers ingested by feeding D. citri nymphs. Decreased Awd in nymphs resulted in malformed-wing phenotype in adults and increased adult mortality. This impaired ability of D. citri to fly would potentially limit the successful vectoring of CLas bacteria between citrus trees in the grove. CTV-RNAi vector would be relevant for fast-track screening of candidate sequences for RNAi-mediated pest control.

  18. Citrus tristeza virus-based RNAi in citrus plants induces gene silencing in Diaphorina citri, a phloem-sap sucking insect vector of citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing).

    PubMed

    Hajeri, Subhas; Killiny, Nabil; El-Mohtar, Choaa; Dawson, William O; Gowda, Siddarame

    2014-04-20

    A transient expression vector based on Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is unusually stable. Because of its stability it is being considered for use in the field to control Huanglongbing (HLB), which is caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. In the absence of effective control strategies for CLas, emphasis has been on control of D. citri. Coincident cohabitation in phloem tissue by CLas, D. citri and CTV was exploited to develop a novel method to mitigate HLB through RNA interference (RNAi). Since CTV has three RNA silencing suppressors, it was not known if CTV-based vector could induce RNAi in citrus. Yet, expression of sequences targeting citrus phytoene desaturase gene by CTV-RNAi resulted in photo-bleaching phenotype. CTV-RNAi vector, engineered with truncated abnormal wing disc (Awd) gene of D. citri, induced altered Awd expression when silencing triggers ingested by feeding D. citri nymphs. Decreased Awd in nymphs resulted in malformed-wing phenotype in adults and increased adult mortality. This impaired ability of D. citri to fly would potentially limit the successful vectoring of CLas bacteria between citrus trees in the grove. CTV-RNAi vector would be relevant for fast-track screening of candidate sequences for RNAi-mediated pest control. PMID:24572372

  19. Growing for different ends.

    PubMed

    Catts, Oron; Zurr, Ionat

    2014-11-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative biology are usually discussed in relation to biomedical research and applications. However, hand in hand with developments of this field in the biomedical context, other approaches and uses for non-medical ends have been explored. There is a growing interest in exploring spin off tissue engineering and regenerative biology technologies in areas such as consumer products, art and design. This paper outlines developments regarding in vitro meat and leather, actuators and bio-mechanic interfaces, speculative design and contemporary artistic practices. The authors draw on their extensive experience of using tissue engineering for non-medical ends to speculate about what lead to these applications and their possible future development and uses. Avoiding utopian and dystopian postures and using the notion of the contestable, this paper also mentions some philosophical and ethical consideration stemming from the use of non-medical approaches to tissue constructs. This article is part of a directed issue entitled: Regenerative Medicine: the challenge of translation.

  20. Growing for different ends.

    PubMed

    Catts, Oron; Zurr, Ionat

    2014-11-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative biology are usually discussed in relation to biomedical research and applications. However, hand in hand with developments of this field in the biomedical context, other approaches and uses for non-medical ends have been explored. There is a growing interest in exploring spin off tissue engineering and regenerative biology technologies in areas such as consumer products, art and design. This paper outlines developments regarding in vitro meat and leather, actuators and bio-mechanic interfaces, speculative design and contemporary artistic practices. The authors draw on their extensive experience of using tissue engineering for non-medical ends to speculate about what lead to these applications and their possible future development and uses. Avoiding utopian and dystopian postures and using the notion of the contestable, this paper also mentions some philosophical and ethical consideration stemming from the use of non-medical approaches to tissue constructs. This article is part of a directed issue entitled: Regenerative Medicine: the challenge of translation. PMID:25286303

  1. An RNA-Seq-based reference transcriptome for Citrus.

    PubMed

    Terol, Javier; Tadeo, Francisco; Ventimilla, Daniel; Talon, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Previous RNA-Seq studies in citrus have been focused on physiological processes relevant to fruit quality and productivity of the major species, especially sweet orange. Less attention has been paid to vegetative or reproductive tissues, while most Citrus species have never been analysed. In this work, we characterized the transcriptome of vegetative and reproductive tissues from 12 Citrus species from all main phylogenetic groups. Our aims were to acquire a complete view of the citrus transcriptome landscape, to improve previous functional annotations and to obtain genetic markers associated with genes of agronomic interest. 28 samples were used for RNA-Seq analysis, obtained from 12 Citrus species: C. medica, C. aurantifolia, C. limon, C. bergamia, C. clementina, C. deliciosa, C. reshni, C. maxima, C. paradisi, C. aurantium, C. sinensis and Poncirus trifoliata. Four different organs were analysed: root, phloem, leaf and flower. A total of 3421 million Illumina reads were produced and mapped against the reference C. clementina genome sequence. Transcript discovery pipeline revealed 3326 new genes, the number of genes with alternative splicing was increased to 19,739, and a total of 73,797 transcripts were identified. Differential expression studies between the four tissues showed that gene expression is overall related to the physiological function of the specific organs above any other variable. Variants discovery analysis revealed the presence of indels and SNPs in genes associated with fruit quality and productivity. Pivotal pathways in citrus such as those of flavonoids, flavonols, ethylene and auxin were also analysed in detail.

  2. Physicochemical characteristics of citrus seed oils from kerman, iran.

    PubMed

    Reazai, Mohammad; Mohammadpourfard, Issa; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Jahanbakhsh, Mahdi; Shiri, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there has been a great deal of attention on usage, byproducts, and wastes of the food industry. There have been many studies on the properties of citrus seeds and extracted oil from citrus grown in Kerman, Iran. The rate of oil content of citrus seeds varies between 33.4% and 41.9%. Linoleic acid (33.2% to 36.3%) is the key fatty acid found in citrus seeds oil and oleic (24.8% to 29.3%) and palmitic acids (23.5% to 29.4%) are the next main fatty acids, respectively. There are also other acids found at trivial rates such as stearic, palmitoleic, and linolenic. With variation between 0.54 meg/kg and 0.77 mgq/kg in peroxide values of citrus seed oils, acidity value of the oil varies between 0.44% and 0.72%. The results of the study showed that citrus seeds under study (orange and sour lemon grown in Kerman province) and the extracted oil have the potential of being used as the source of edible oil. PMID:25136460

  3. Digestion kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products

    PubMed Central

    Lashkari, Saman; Taghizadeh, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment was carried out to determine the digestion kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products. Grapefruit pulp (GP), lemon pulp (LE), lime pulp (LI) and orange pulp (OP) were the test feed. Digestion kinetic of whole citrus by-products and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) fraction and acid detergent fiber (ADF) fractions of citrus by-products were measured using the in vitro gas production technique. Fermentation kinetics of the neutral detergent soluble carbohydrates (NDSC) fraction and hemicelluloses were calculated using a curve subtraction. The fermentation rate of whole was the highest for the LE (p < 0.05). For all citrus by-products lag time was longer for hemicellulose than other carbohydrate fractions. There was no significant difference among potential gas production (A) volumes of whole test feeds (p < 0.16). Dry matter (DM) digestibility contents of LE and LI were the highest (p < 0.02). The NDF digestibility was the highest (p < 0.05) in LI and GP, while the lowest (p < 0.03) values of ADF digestibility were observed in LI and LE. According to the results of the present study, carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products have high potential for degradability. It could also be concluded that carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products have remarkable difference in digestion kinetics and digestive behavior. PMID:25992250

  4. An RNA-Seq-based reference transcriptome for Citrus.

    PubMed

    Terol, Javier; Tadeo, Francisco; Ventimilla, Daniel; Talon, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Previous RNA-Seq studies in citrus have been focused on physiological processes relevant to fruit quality and productivity of the major species, especially sweet orange. Less attention has been paid to vegetative or reproductive tissues, while most Citrus species have never been analysed. In this work, we characterized the transcriptome of vegetative and reproductive tissues from 12 Citrus species from all main phylogenetic groups. Our aims were to acquire a complete view of the citrus transcriptome landscape, to improve previous functional annotations and to obtain genetic markers associated with genes of agronomic interest. 28 samples were used for RNA-Seq analysis, obtained from 12 Citrus species: C. medica, C. aurantifolia, C. limon, C. bergamia, C. clementina, C. deliciosa, C. reshni, C. maxima, C. paradisi, C. aurantium, C. sinensis and Poncirus trifoliata. Four different organs were analysed: root, phloem, leaf and flower. A total of 3421 million Illumina reads were produced and mapped against the reference C. clementina genome sequence. Transcript discovery pipeline revealed 3326 new genes, the number of genes with alternative splicing was increased to 19,739, and a total of 73,797 transcripts were identified. Differential expression studies between the four tissues showed that gene expression is overall related to the physiological function of the specific organs above any other variable. Variants discovery analysis revealed the presence of indels and SNPs in genes associated with fruit quality and productivity. Pivotal pathways in citrus such as those of flavonoids, flavonols, ethylene and auxin were also analysed in detail. PMID:26261026

  5. Dietary citrus pulp reduces lipid oxidation in lamb meat.

    PubMed

    Inserra, L; Priolo, A; Biondi, L; Lanza, M; Bognanno, M; Gravador, R; Luciano, G

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of replacing cereal concentrates with high levels of dried citrus pulp in the diet on lamb meat oxidative stability. Over 56 days, lambs were fed a barley-based concentrate (Control) or concentrates in which 24% and 35% dried citrus pulp were included to partially replace barley (Citrus 24% and Citrus 35%, respectively). Meat was aged under vacuum for 4 days and subsequently stored aerobically at 4 °C. The Control diet increased the redness, yellowness and saturation of meat after blooming (P<0.01). Regardless of the level of supplementation, dietary dried citrus pulp strongly reduced meat lipid oxidation over 6 days of aerobic storage (P<0.001), while colour parameters did not change noticeably over storage and their variation rate was not affected by the diet. In conclusion, replacing cereals with dried citrus pulp in concentrate-based diets might represent a feasible strategy to naturally improve meat oxidative stability and to promote the exploitation of this by-product.

  6. Citrus mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) movement and population dynamics in an arbor-trained vineyard.

    PubMed

    Cid, M; Pereiro, S; Cabaleiro, C; Segura, A

    2010-06-01

    The citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is the main grapevine pest in vineyards in some countries, such as Spain and Brazil. In Galician vineyards (northwestern Spain), mealybug population levels are low because the accumulated degree-days are lower than in other grapevine-growing areas. The main problem caused by mealybugs is the transmission of viruses, even at low infestation levels. The active period of citrus mealybug in the study vineyard lasted from July until December, with an important movement peak at the end of July and August and a lower peak in November. The mealybug mainly moved upward along arbor-trained plants, and there were no important downward movements at the end of the season as has been described for other grapevine mealybugs. The mealybugs were normally restricted to the woody organs and were only present on leaves, branches, and green canes (always close to woody parts) in plants with high infestations. The movement of mealybugs between plants does not seem to take place by contact between green organs. Passive aerial transport and movement of pruning remains may play an important role in mealybug movement and thus in spread of the virus. The number of mealybugs carrying Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) was found to represent approximately 75% of mealybugs caught in a GLRaV-3 infected vineyard.

  7. A modeling approach for agricultural water management in citrus orchards: cost-effective irrigation scheduling and agrochemical transport simulation.

    PubMed

    Kourgialas, Nektarios N; Karatzas, George P

    2015-07-01

    The water flow and the mass transport of agrochemicals in the unsaturated and saturated zone were simulated in the extended alluvial basin of Keritis river in Crete, Greece (a predominantly flat and most productive citrus growing area) using the hydrological model MIKE SHE. This model was set up based on information on land use, geology, soil structure, meteorological data, as well as groundwater level data from pumping wells. Additionally, field measurements of the soil moisture at six different locations from three soil depths (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 m) were used as targets to calibrate and validate the unsaturated flow model while for saturated condition, groundwater level data from three well locations were used. Following the modeling approach, the agrochemical mass transport simulation was performed as well, based on different application doses. After the successful calibration processes, the obtained 1D modeling results of soil moisture-pressure related to soil depth at different locations were used to design a proper and cost-effective irrigation programme (irrigation timing, frequency, application rates, etc.) for citrus orchards. The results of the present simulation showed a very good correlation with the field measurements. Based on these results, a proper irrigation plan can be designed at every site of the model domain reducing the water consumption up to 38% with respect to the common irrigation practices and ensuring the citrus water productivity. In addition, the effect of the proposed irrigation scheduling on citrus yield was investigated. Regarding the agrochemical concentration in the groundwater for all dose cases was below the maximum permissible limit. The only exception was for the highest dose in areas where the water table is high. Thus, this modeling approach could be used as a tool for appropriate water management in an agricultural area estimating at each time and location the availability of soil water, contributing to a cost

  8. Tetraploidization events by chromosome doubling of nucellar cells are frequent in apomictic citrus and are dependent on genotype and environment

    PubMed Central

    Aleza, Pablo; Froelicher, Yann; Schwarz, Sergio; Agustí, Manuel; Hernández, María; Juárez, José; Luro, François; Morillon, Raphael; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Polyploidy is a major component of plant evolution. The citrus gene pool is essentially diploid but tetraploid plants are frequently encountered in seedlings of diploid apomictic genotypes. The main objectives of the present study were to establish the origin of these tetraploid plants and to ascertain the importance of genotypic and environmental factors on tetraploid formation. Methods Tetraploid seedlings from 30 diploid apomictic genotypes were selected by flow cytometry and genotyped with 24 single sequence repeat (SSR) markers to analyse their genetic origin. Embryo rescue was used to grow all embryos contained in polyembryonic seeds of ‘Tardivo di Ciaculli’ mandarin, followed by characterization of the plantlets obtained by flow cytometry and SSR markers to accurately establish the rate of tetraploidization events and their potential tissue location. Inter-annual variations in tetraploid seedling rates were analysed for seven genotypes. Variation in tetraploid plantlet rates was analysed between different seedlings of the same genotype (‘Carrizo’ citrange; Citrus sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata) from seeds collected in different tropical, subtropical and Mediterranean countries. Key Results Tetraploid plants were obtained for all the studied diploid genotypes, except for four mandarins. All tetraploid plants were identical to their diploid maternal line for SSR markers and were not cytochimeric. Significant genotypic and environmental effects were observed, as well as negative correlation between mean temperature during the flowering period and tetraploidy seedling rates. The higher frequencies (20 %) of tetraploids were observed for citranges cultivated in the Mediterranean area. Conclusions Tetraploidization by chromosome doubling of nucellar cells are frequent events in apomictic citrus, and are affected by both genotypic and environmental factors. Colder conditions in marginal climatic areas appear to favour the expression of

  9. How Do Galaxies Grow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-08-01

    Astronomers have caught multiple massive galaxies in the act of merging about 4 billion years ago. This discovery, made possible by combining the power of the best ground- and space-based telescopes, uniquely supports the favoured theory of how galaxies form. ESO PR Photo 24/08 ESO PR Photo 24/08 Merging Galaxies in Groups How do galaxies form? The most widely accepted answer to this fundamental question is the model of 'hierarchical formation', a step-wise process in which small galaxies merge to build larger ones. One can think of the galaxies forming in a similar way to how streams merge to form rivers, and how these rivers, in turn, merge to form an even larger river. This theoretical model predicts that massive galaxies grow through many merging events in their lifetime. But when did their cosmological growth spurts finish? When did the most massive galaxies get most of their mass? To answer these questions, astronomers study massive galaxies in clusters, the cosmological equivalent of cities filled with galaxies. "Whether the brightest galaxies in clusters grew substantially in the last few billion years is intensely debated. Our observations show that in this time, these galaxies have increased their mass by 50%," says Kim-Vy Tran from the University of Zürich, Switzerland, who led the research. The astronomers made use of a large ensemble of telescopes and instruments, including ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) and the Hubble Space Telescope, to study in great detail galaxies located 4 billion light-years away. These galaxies lie in an extraordinary system made of four galaxy groups that will assemble into a cluster. In particular, the team took images with VIMOS and spectra with FORS2, both instruments on the VLT. From these and other observations, the astronomers could identify a total of 198 galaxies belonging to these four groups. The brightest galaxies in each group contain between 100 and 1000 billion of stars, a property that makes them comparable

  10. Antimicrobial Nanoemulsion Formulation with Improved Penetration of Foliar Spray through Citrus Leaf Cuticles to Control Citrus Huanglongbing

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chuanyu; Powell, Charles A.; Duan, Yongping; Shatters, Robert; Zhang, Muqing

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most serious disease affecting the citrus industry worldwide to date. The causal agent, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), resides in citrus phloem, which makes it difficult to effectively treat with chemical compounds. In this study, a transcuticular nanoemulsion formulation was developed to enhance the permeation of an effective antimicrobial compound (ampicillin; Amp) against HLB disease through the citrus cuticle into the phloem via a foliar spray. The results demonstrated that efficiency of cuticle isolation using an enzymatic method (pectinase and cellulase) was dependent on the citrus cultivar and Las-infection, and it was more difficult to isolate cuticles from valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) and HLB-symptomatic leaves. Of eight adjuvants tested, Brij 35 provided the greatest increase in permeability of the HLB-affected cuticle with a 3.33-fold enhancement of cuticular permeability over water control. An in vitro assay using Bacillus subtilis showed that nanoemulsion formulations containing Amp (droplets size = 5.26 ± 0.04 nm and 94 ± 1.48 nm) coupled with Brij 35 resulted in greater inhibitory zone diameters (5.75 mm and 6.66 mm) compared to those of Brij 35 (4.34 mm) and Amp solution (2.83 mm) alone. Furthermore, the nanoemulsion formulations eliminated Las bacteria in HLB-affected citrus in planta more efficiently than controls. Our study shows that a water in oil (W/O) nanoemulsion formulation may provide a useful model for the effective delivery of chemical compounds into citrus phloem via a foliar spray for controlling citrus HLB. PMID:26207823

  11. The Distribution of Coumarins and Furanocoumarins in Citrus Species Closely Matches Citrus Phylogeny and Reflects the Organization of Biosynthetic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Dugrand-Judek, Audray; Olry, Alexandre; Hehn, Alain; Costantino, Gilles; Ollitrault, Patrick; Froelicher, Yann; Bourgaud, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Citrus plants are able to produce defense compounds such as coumarins and furanocoumarins to cope with herbivorous insects and pathogens. In humans, these chemical compounds are strong photosensitizers and can interact with medications, leading to the “grapefruit juice effect”. Removing coumarins and furanocoumarins from food and cosmetics imply additional costs and might alter product quality. Thus, the selection of Citrus cultivars displaying low coumarin and furanocoumarin contents constitutes a valuable alternative. In this study, we performed ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry analyses to determine the contents of these compounds within the peel and the pulp of 61 Citrus species representative of the genetic diversity all Citrus. Generally, Citrus peel contains larger diversity and higher concentrations of coumarin/furanocoumarin than the pulp of the same fruits. According to the chemotypes found in the peel, Citrus species can be separated into 4 groups that correspond to the 4 ancestral taxa (pummelos, mandarins, citrons and papedas) and extended with their respective secondary species descendants. Three of the 4 ancestral taxa (pummelos, citrons and papedas) synthesize high amounts of these compounds, whereas mandarins appear practically devoid of them. Additionally, all ancestral taxa and their hybrids are logically organized according to the coumarin and furanocoumarin pathways described in the literature. This organization allows hypotheses to be drawn regarding the biosynthetic origin of compounds for which the biogenesis remains unresolved. Determining coumarin and furanocoumarin contents is also helpful for hypothesizing the origin of Citrus species for which the phylogeny is presently not firmly established. Finally, this work also notes favorable hybridization schemes that will lead to low coumarin and furanocoumarin contents, and we propose to select mandarins and Ichang papeda as Citrus varieties for use in

  12. Morphological, molecular and virulence characterization of three Lencanicillium species infecting Asian citrus psyllids in Huangyan citrus groves.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lianming; Cheng, Baoping; Du, Danchao; Hu, Xiurong; Peng, Aitian; Pu, Zhanxu; Zhang, Xiaoya; Huang, Zhendong; Chen, Guoqing

    2015-02-01

    Citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) is caused by the infection of Candidatus Liberibacter spp. in citrus plants. Since Asian citrus psyllid is the primary vector of this bacterial pathogen, the spread of HLB can be mitigated by suppressing Asian citrus psyllid populations in citrus groves using entomopathogens. To expand the current data on entomopathogens infecting Asian citrus psyllids, we isolated and characterized three different entomopathogens. Strains ZJLSP07, ZJLA08, and ZJLP09 infected the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, in Huangyan citrus groves. Based on molecular and morphological analyses, two were identified as Lecanicillium attenuatum and Lecanicillium psalliotae, and the third was recognized as an unidentified species of the genus, Lecanicillium. The corrected mortalities caused by strains ZJLSP07, ZJLA08 were 100% at 7days post-inoculation, while by ZJLP09 complete mortality occurred at 6days after inoculation, with 1.0×10(8)conidia/ml at 25°C and a relative humidity of 90% in the laboratory. Under the same condition, the corrected mortalities caused by strains ZJLSP07, ZJLA08 and ZJLP09 were 100%, 92.55% and 100%, respectively at 9days post-inoculation in the greenhouse. Our findings also revealed that these fungal strains infected D. citri using hyphae that penetrated deep into the insect tissues. Further, all three strains secreted the enzymes proteinases, chitinases and lipases with a potential to destroy insect tissues. Interestingly, strain ZJLP09 had an earlier invasion time and the highest levels of enzyme activities when compared to the other two strains. These findings have expanded the existing pool of entomopathogenic fungi that infect D. citri and can be potentially used for the management of D. citri populations. PMID:25593036

  13. Antimicrobial Nanoemulsion Formulation with Improved Penetration of Foliar Spray through Citrus Leaf Cuticles to Control Citrus Huanglongbing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chuanyu; Powell, Charles A; Duan, Yongping; Shatters, Robert; Zhang, Muqing

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most serious disease affecting the citrus industry worldwide to date. The causal agent, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), resides in citrus phloem, which makes it difficult to effectively treat with chemical compounds. In this study, a transcuticular nanoemulsion formulation was developed to enhance the permeation of an effective antimicrobial compound (ampicillin; Amp) against HLB disease through the citrus cuticle into the phloem via a foliar spray. The results demonstrated that efficiency of cuticle isolation using an enzymatic method (pectinase and cellulase) was dependent on the citrus cultivar and Las-infection, and it was more difficult to isolate cuticles from valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) and HLB-symptomatic leaves. Of eight adjuvants tested, Brij 35 provided the greatest increase in permeability of the HLB-affected cuticle with a 3.33-fold enhancement of cuticular permeability over water control. An in vitro assay using Bacillus subtilis showed that nanoemulsion formulations containing Amp (droplets size = 5.26 ± 0.04 nm and 94 ± 1.48 nm) coupled with Brij 35 resulted in greater inhibitory zone diameters (5.75 mm and 6.66 mm) compared to those of Brij 35 (4.34 mm) and Amp solution (2.83 mm) alone. Furthermore, the nanoemulsion formulations eliminated Las bacteria in HLB-affected citrus in planta more efficiently than controls. Our study shows that a water in oil (W/O) nanoemulsion formulation may provide a useful model for the effective delivery of chemical compounds into citrus phloem via a foliar spray for controlling citrus HLB. PMID:26207823

  14. Morphological, molecular and virulence characterization of three Lencanicillium species infecting Asian citrus psyllids in Huangyan citrus groves.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lianming; Cheng, Baoping; Du, Danchao; Hu, Xiurong; Peng, Aitian; Pu, Zhanxu; Zhang, Xiaoya; Huang, Zhendong; Chen, Guoqing

    2015-02-01

    Citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) is caused by the infection of Candidatus Liberibacter spp. in citrus plants. Since Asian citrus psyllid is the primary vector of this bacterial pathogen, the spread of HLB can be mitigated by suppressing Asian citrus psyllid populations in citrus groves using entomopathogens. To expand the current data on entomopathogens infecting Asian citrus psyllids, we isolated and characterized three different entomopathogens. Strains ZJLSP07, ZJLA08, and ZJLP09 infected the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, in Huangyan citrus groves. Based on molecular and morphological analyses, two were identified as Lecanicillium attenuatum and Lecanicillium psalliotae, and the third was recognized as an unidentified species of the genus, Lecanicillium. The corrected mortalities caused by strains ZJLSP07, ZJLA08 were 100% at 7days post-inoculation, while by ZJLP09 complete mortality occurred at 6days after inoculation, with 1.0×10(8)conidia/ml at 25°C and a relative humidity of 90% in the laboratory. Under the same condition, the corrected mortalities caused by strains ZJLSP07, ZJLA08 and ZJLP09 were 100%, 92.55% and 100%, respectively at 9days post-inoculation in the greenhouse. Our findings also revealed that these fungal strains infected D. citri using hyphae that penetrated deep into the insect tissues. Further, all three strains secreted the enzymes proteinases, chitinases and lipases with a potential to destroy insect tissues. Interestingly, strain ZJLP09 had an earlier invasion time and the highest levels of enzyme activities when compared to the other two strains. These findings have expanded the existing pool of entomopathogenic fungi that infect D. citri and can be potentially used for the management of D. citri populations.

  15. Antimicrobial Nanoemulsion Formulation with Improved Penetration of Foliar Spray through Citrus Leaf Cuticles to Control Citrus Huanglongbing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chuanyu; Powell, Charles A; Duan, Yongping; Shatters, Robert; Zhang, Muqing

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most serious disease affecting the citrus industry worldwide to date. The causal agent, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), resides in citrus phloem, which makes it difficult to effectively treat with chemical compounds. In this study, a transcuticular nanoemulsion formulation was developed to enhance the permeation of an effective antimicrobial compound (ampicillin; Amp) against HLB disease through the citrus cuticle into the phloem via a foliar spray. The results demonstrated that efficiency of cuticle isolation using an enzymatic method (pectinase and cellulase) was dependent on the citrus cultivar and Las-infection, and it was more difficult to isolate cuticles from valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) and HLB-symptomatic leaves. Of eight adjuvants tested, Brij 35 provided the greatest increase in permeability of the HLB-affected cuticle with a 3.33-fold enhancement of cuticular permeability over water control. An in vitro assay using Bacillus subtilis showed that nanoemulsion formulations containing Amp (droplets size = 5.26 ± 0.04 nm and 94 ± 1.48 nm) coupled with Brij 35 resulted in greater inhibitory zone diameters (5.75 mm and 6.66 mm) compared to those of Brij 35 (4.34 mm) and Amp solution (2.83 mm) alone. Furthermore, the nanoemulsion formulations eliminated Las bacteria in HLB-affected citrus in planta more efficiently than controls. Our study shows that a water in oil (W/O) nanoemulsion formulation may provide a useful model for the effective delivery of chemical compounds into citrus phloem via a foliar spray for controlling citrus HLB.

  16. The Distribution of Coumarins and Furanocoumarins in Citrus Species Closely Matches Citrus Phylogeny and Reflects the Organization of Biosynthetic Pathways.

    PubMed

    Dugrand-Judek, Audray; Olry, Alexandre; Hehn, Alain; Costantino, Gilles; Ollitrault, Patrick; Froelicher, Yann; Bourgaud, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Citrus plants are able to produce defense compounds such as coumarins and furanocoumarins to cope with herbivorous insects and pathogens. In humans, these chemical compounds are strong photosensitizers and can interact with medications, leading to the "grapefruit juice effect". Removing coumarins and furanocoumarins from food and cosmetics imply additional costs and might alter product quality. Thus, the selection of Citrus cultivars displaying low coumarin and furanocoumarin contents constitutes a valuable alternative. In this study, we performed ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry analyses to determine the contents of these compounds within the peel and the pulp of 61 Citrus species representative of the genetic diversity all Citrus. Generally, Citrus peel contains larger diversity and higher concentrations of coumarin/furanocoumarin than the pulp of the same fruits. According to the chemotypes found in the peel, Citrus species can be separated into 4 groups that correspond to the 4 ancestral taxa (pummelos, mandarins, citrons and papedas) and extended with their respective secondary species descendants. Three of the 4 ancestral taxa (pummelos, citrons and papedas) synthesize high amounts of these compounds, whereas mandarins appear practically devoid of them. Additionally, all ancestral taxa and their hybrids are logically organized according to the coumarin and furanocoumarin pathways described in the literature. This organization allows hypotheses to be drawn regarding the biosynthetic origin of compounds for which the biogenesis remains unresolved. Determining coumarin and furanocoumarin contents is also helpful for hypothesizing the origin of Citrus species for which the phylogeny is presently not firmly established. Finally, this work also notes favorable hybridization schemes that will lead to low coumarin and furanocoumarin contents, and we propose to select mandarins and Ichang papeda as Citrus varieties for use in

  17. Growing Galaxies Gently

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-10-01

    New observations from ESO's Very Large Telescope have, for the first time, provided direct evidence that young galaxies can grow by sucking in the cool gas around them and using it as fuel for the formation of many new stars. In the first few billion years after the Big Bang the mass of a typical galaxy increased dramatically and understanding why this happened is one of the hottest problems in modern astrophysics. The results appear in the 14 October issue of the journal Nature. The first galaxies formed well before the Universe was one billion years old and were much smaller than the giant systems - including the Milky Way - that we see today. So somehow the average galaxy size has increased as the Universe has evolved. Galaxies often collide and then merge to form larger systems and this process is certainly an important growth mechanism. However, an additional, gentler way has been proposed. A European team of astronomers has used ESO's Very Large Telescope to test this very different idea - that young galaxies can also grow by sucking in cool streams of the hydrogen and helium gas that filled the early Universe and forming new stars from this primitive material. Just as a commercial company can expand either by merging with other companies, or by hiring more staff, young galaxies could perhaps also grow in two different ways - by merging with other galaxies or by accreting material. The team leader, Giovanni Cresci (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri) says: "The new results from the VLT are the first direct evidence that the accretion of pristine gas really happened and was enough to fuel vigorous star formation and the growth of massive galaxies in the young Universe." The discovery will have a major impact on our understanding of the evolution of the Universe from the Big Bang to the present day. Theories of galaxy formation and evolution may have to be re-written. The group began by selecting three very distant galaxies to see if they could find evidence

  18. Rock fragment cover controls the sediment detachment in citrus plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia; Hamidreza Sadeghi, Seyed; Brevik, Eric; Giménez Morera, Antonio; Novara, Agata; Masto, Reginald E.; Jordán, Antonio; Wang, Juan

    2016-04-01

    conditions. The objective of this research is to determine the impact of the rock fragment cover on soil and water losses in citrus plantations. Within the Corral Roig Soil Erosion Research Station, located in the Municipality of Montesa, 82 plots were selected with different rock fragment cover. In each circular plot of 0.25 m2, a rainfall simulation experiments was carried out at 55 mm h-1 of rainfall intensity during 1 hour under dry conditions in the Summer of 2013 under very dry conditions. It was found that the soil erosion rates are related to percentage of bare soil, and negatively correlated to the rock fragment covers. A cover of 30 % of rock fragments reduces the loss of soil with 81%. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 603498 (RECARE project). References Cerdà, A. 1999. Parent material and vegetation affect soil erosion in eastern Spain. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 63 (2), 362-368. Cerdà, A., Giménez-Morera, A. and Bodí, M.B. Soil and water losses from new citrus orchards growing on sloped soils in the western Mediterranean basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 34, 1822-1830. 2009. DOI: 10.1002/esp.1889 Cerdà, A., González-Pelayo, O., Giménez-Morera, A., Jordán, A., Pereira, P., Novara, A., Brevik, E.C., Prosdocimi, M., Mahmoodabadi, M., Keesstra, S., García Orenes, F., Ritsema, C., 2015. The use of barley straw residues to avoid high erosion and runoff rates on persimmon plantations in Eastern Spain under low frequency - high magnitude simulated rainfall events. Soil Res. (In press) Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F. 2011. Ant mounds as a source of sediment on citrus orchard plantations in eastern Spain. A three-scale rainfall simulation approachCatena, 85 (3), 231-236. DOI: 10.1016/j.catena.2011.01.008 Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F. 2008.The influence of ants on soil and water losses from an orange orchard in

  19. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication.

    PubMed

    Wu, G Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Aurélio; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel; Cattonaro, Federica; Del Fabbro, Cristian; Pinosio, Sara; Zuccolo, Andrea; Chapman, Jarrod; Grimwood, Jane; Tadeo, Francisco R; Estornell, Leandro H; Muñoz-Sanz, Juan V; Ibanez, Victoria; Herrero-Ortega, Amparo; Aleza, Pablo; Pérez-Pérez, Julián; Ramón, Daniel; Brunel, Dominique; Luro, François; Chen, Chunxian; Farmerie, William G; Desany, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Harkins, Tim; Fredrikson, Karin; Burns, Paul; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Reforgiato, Giuseppe; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Quetier, Francis; Navarro, Luis; Roose, Mikeal; Wincker, Patrick; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Talon, Manuel; Jaillon, Olivier; Ollitrault, Patrick; Gmitter, Frederick; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Cultivated citrus are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species whose identities and contributions to citrus domestication remain controversial. Here we sequence and compare citrus genomes--a high-quality reference haploid clementine genome and mandarin, pummelo, sweet-orange and sour-orange genomes--and show that cultivated types derive from two progenitor species. Although cultivated pummelos represent selections from one progenitor species, Citrus maxima, cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into the ancestral mandarin species Citrus reticulata. The most widely cultivated citrus, sweet orange, is the offspring of previously admixed individuals, but sour orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, thus implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. A Chinese wild 'mandarin' diverges substantially from C. reticulata, thus suggesting the possibility of other unrecognized wild citrus species. Understanding citrus phylogeny through genome analysis clarifies taxonomic relationships and facilitates sequence-directed genetic improvement.

  20. A six nuclear gene phylogeny of Citrus (Rutaceae) taking into account hybridization and lineage sorting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Citrus (Rutaceae) comprises of many important cultivated species which generally hybridize easily. Phylogenetic study of a group showing extensive hybridization is challenging. Since the genus Citrus has diverged recently (4-12 Ma), incomplete lineage sorting of ancestral polymorphisms...

  1. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication.

    PubMed

    Wu, G Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Aurélio; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel; Cattonaro, Federica; Del Fabbro, Cristian; Pinosio, Sara; Zuccolo, Andrea; Chapman, Jarrod; Grimwood, Jane; Tadeo, Francisco R; Estornell, Leandro H; Muñoz-Sanz, Juan V; Ibanez, Victoria; Herrero-Ortega, Amparo; Aleza, Pablo; Pérez-Pérez, Julián; Ramón, Daniel; Brunel, Dominique; Luro, François; Chen, Chunxian; Farmerie, William G; Desany, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Harkins, Tim; Fredrikson, Karin; Burns, Paul; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Reforgiato, Giuseppe; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Quetier, Francis; Navarro, Luis; Roose, Mikeal; Wincker, Patrick; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Talon, Manuel; Jaillon, Olivier; Ollitrault, Patrick; Gmitter, Frederick; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Cultivated citrus are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species whose identities and contributions to citrus domestication remain controversial. Here we sequence and compare citrus genomes--a high-quality reference haploid clementine genome and mandarin, pummelo, sweet-orange and sour-orange genomes--and show that cultivated types derive from two progenitor species. Although cultivated pummelos represent selections from one progenitor species, Citrus maxima, cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into the ancestral mandarin species Citrus reticulata. The most widely cultivated citrus, sweet orange, is the offspring of previously admixed individuals, but sour orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, thus implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. A Chinese wild 'mandarin' diverges substantially from C. reticulata, thus suggesting the possibility of other unrecognized wild citrus species. Understanding citrus phylogeny through genome analysis clarifies taxonomic relationships and facilitates sequence-directed genetic improvement. PMID:24908277

  2. Development of a qPCR technique to screen for resistance to Asiatic citrus canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asiatic citrus canker (Acc) (causal organism Xanthomonas citri subspc. citri (Xcc) is threatening sustainability of the Florida citrus industry. Resistant cultivars, whether developed through conventional breeding or genetic transformation, will be he best solution for dealint with Acc. In Florida...

  3. First report of the citrus Hindu mite, Schizotetranychus hindustanicus (Hirst) (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae), in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Navia, Denise; Marsaro, Alberto L

    2010-01-01

    The citrus Hindu mite, Schizotetranychus hindustanicus (Hirst), is reported for the first time in Brazil and for the second time in South America. Mite specimens were collected from citrus in the municipality of Boa Vista, State of Roraima, northern Brazil. Symptoms associated with S.hindustanicus infestations on citrus are described. The importance of avoiding dissemination of this mite to the main citrus production areas in Brazil is discussed.

  4. Winter-injury following horticultural treatments to overcome juvenility in citrus seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus seedling juvenility delays new hybrid evaluation, slows cultivar release, and slows introgression of new traits. A horticultural program reported to overcome citrus juvenility was tested at the Whitmore Citrus Research Foundation farm (Lake County), using replicated Hirado Buntan x Clementine...

  5. Dramatic Change in Citrus tristeza virus populations in the Dominican Republic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is the most destructive viral pathogen of citrus and has been an important concern for the citrus industry in the Dominican Republic. Earlier studies documented widespread distribution of mild isolates of the T30 genotype, which caused no disease in the infected trees, an...

  6. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated citrus are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species whose identities and contributions to citrus domestication remain controversial. Here we sequence and compare citrus genomes—a high-quality reference haploid clementine genome and mandarin, pummelo, sweet-orange and sour-o...

  7. Lack of Evidence of Transmission of 'Candidatus' Liberibacter Asiaticus Through Citrus Seed Taken From Affected Fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus huanglongbing disease, putatively caused by the associated bacterium Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus is the greatest threat to the world citrus industry today. The bacterium is spread locally and regionally by the citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, and can also be disseminated by grafting...

  8. Investigations of the feasibility for managing the Asian citrus pysllid using Isaria fumosorosea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (AsCP), Diaphorina citri, transmits one of the most devastating diseases of citrus, the plant pathogenic bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which is strongly associated with the occurrence of huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening disease. In Florida, g...

  9. Bacterial brown leaf spot of citrus, a new disease caused by Burkholderia andropogonis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new bacterial disease of citrus was recently identified in Florida and named as bacterial brown leaf spot (BBLS) of citrus. BBLS-infected citrus displayed flat, circular and brownish lesions with water-soaked margins surrounded by a chlorotic halo on leaves. Based on Biolog carbon source metabolic...

  10. Chemical compounds effective against the citrus huanglongbing bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in planta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide, and is threatening the survival of the Floridian citrus industry. Currently, there is no established cure for this century-old and emerging disease. The new antibiotic combination of penicillin and streptomycin (...

  11. Factors affecting transmission rates of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' by Asian citrus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, is an important pest because it transmits a bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas) responsible for a serious disease of citrus known as Asiatic huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). USDA-ARS researchers recently established a program...

  12. Molecular characterization of Peruvian Citrus tristeza virus isolates based on 3’UTR sequences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus in Peru was decimated by quick decline and stem pitting strains of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV). Commercial citrus production in Peru is being restored by use of CTV cross-protection. To characterize the predominant CTV strains involved, Peruvian CTV isolates from “protected” and “non-protecti...

  13. Repellency of Selected Psidium guajava cultivars to the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asiatic huanglongbing (HLB)(also known as citrus greening disease) is the most devastating disease of citrus worldwide. It is caused by a bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ and transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri. Considerable research has been conducted toward...

  14. Overexpression of a citrus NDR1 ortholog increases disease resistance in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerging devastating diseases, such as Huanglongbing (HLB) and citrus canker, have caused tremendous losses to the citrus industry worldwide. Genetic engineering is a powerful approach that could allow us to increase citrus resistance against these diseases. The key to the success of this approach r...

  15. An evaluation of plant genotypes for rearing Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) is the vector of bacteria responsible for a serious citrus disease known as huanglongbing (also known as citrus greening disease). Many research endeavors on ACP are dependent on a steady supply of ACP, which can be facilitated using a laboratory or greenhouse colony m...

  16. Mitigating citrus huanglongbing via effective application of antimicrobial compounds and thermotherapy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a serious citrus disease that threatens the citrus industry worldwide. HLB is a systemic, infectious disease and the putative causal bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) resides in citrus phloem. In this study, the effects of heat treatment, chemical formulations,...

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-59 - Fresh citrus fruit from Uruguay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... concern and has been produced in accordance with the requirements of the systems approach in 7 CFR 319.56... Fresh citrus fruit from Uruguay. Sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), lemons (C. limon (L.) Burm... in accordance with labeled instructions, and waxed. (g) Treatment. (1) Citrus fruit other than...

  18. 7 CFR 301.75-5 - Commercial citrus-producing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commercial citrus-producing areas. 301.75-5 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-5 Commercial citrus-producing areas. (a) The following are designated...

  19. 40 CFR 407.30 - Applicability; description of the citrus products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... citrus products subcategory. 407.30 Section 407.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Citrus Products Subcategory § 407.30 Applicability; description of the citrus products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting...

  20. 40 CFR 407.30 - Applicability; description of the citrus products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... citrus products subcategory. 407.30 Section 407.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Citrus Products Subcategory § 407.30 Applicability; description of the citrus products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting...

  1. 7 CFR 905.114 - Redistricting of citrus districts and reapportionment of grower members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Redistricting of citrus districts and reapportionment... Regulations § 905.114 Redistricting of citrus districts and reapportionment of grower members. Pursuant to § 905.14, the citrus districts and membership allotted each district shall be as follows: (a)...

  2. 7 CFR 301.75-5 - Commercial citrus-producing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial citrus-producing areas. 301.75-5 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-5 Commercial citrus-producing areas. (a) The following are designated...

  3. 40 CFR 407.30 - Applicability; description of the citrus products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... citrus products subcategory. 407.30 Section 407.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Citrus Products Subcategory § 407.30 Applicability; description of the citrus products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting...

  4. 7 CFR 905.114 - Redistricting of citrus districts and reapportionment of grower members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Redistricting of citrus districts and reapportionment... Regulations § 905.114 Redistricting of citrus districts and reapportionment of grower members. Pursuant to § 905.14, the citrus districts and membership allotted each district shall be as follows: (a)...

  5. 7 CFR 905.114 - Redistricting of citrus districts and reapportionment of grower members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Redistricting of citrus districts and reapportionment... Regulations § 905.114 Redistricting of citrus districts and reapportionment of grower members. Pursuant to § 905.14, the citrus districts and membership allotted each district shall be as follows: (a)...

  6. 40 CFR 407.30 - Applicability; description of the citrus products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... citrus products subcategory. 407.30 Section 407.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Citrus Products Subcategory § 407.30 Applicability; description of the citrus products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting...

  7. 7 CFR 301.75-5 - Commercial citrus-producing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commercial citrus-producing areas. 301.75-5 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-5 Commercial citrus-producing areas. (a) The following are designated...

  8. 7 CFR 905.114 - Redistricting of citrus districts and reapportionment of grower members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Redistricting of citrus districts and reapportionment... Regulations § 905.114 Redistricting of citrus districts and reapportionment of grower members. Pursuant to § 905.14, the citrus districts and membership allotted each district shall be as follows: (a)...

  9. 78 FR 58992 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Citrus Canker...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... Collection; Citrus Canker; Interstate Movement of Regulated Nursery Stock and Fruit From Quarantined Areas... nursery stock and fruit from quarantined areas to prevent the spread of citrus canker. DATES: We will... from citrus canker quarantined areas, contact Ms. Lynn Evans-Goldner, National Policy Manager, PHP,...

  10. 7 CFR 905.114 - Redistricting of citrus districts and reapportionment of grower members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Redistricting of citrus districts and reapportionment... Regulations § 905.114 Redistricting of citrus districts and reapportionment of grower members. Pursuant to § 905.14, the citrus districts and membership allotted each district shall be as follows: (a)...

  11. 7 CFR 301.75-5 - Commercial citrus-producing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial citrus-producing areas. 301.75-5 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-5 Commercial citrus-producing areas. (a) The following are designated...

  12. 40 CFR 407.30 - Applicability; description of the citrus products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... citrus products subcategory. 407.30 Section 407.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Citrus Products Subcategory § 407.30 Applicability; description of the citrus products subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting...

  13. 7 CFR 301.75-5 - Commercial citrus-producing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial citrus-producing areas. 301.75-5 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-5 Commercial citrus-producing areas. (a) The following are designated...

  14. 78 FR 22411 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions that published on Friday, December 21, 2012, (74 FR 75509... Corporation 7 CFR Part 457 RIN 0563-AC39 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop... Friday, December 21, 2012. The regulation pertains to the insurance of Florida Citrus Fruit....

  15. Consumer preferences for fresh citrus: Impacts of demographic and behavioral characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From 2000 to 2006, per capita consumption of fresh citrus fruit increased by 11.0%, but the relative shares of types of citrus consumed changed. Per capita consumption of the historically dominant citrus fruit, fresh oranges, experienced a continuous decline from 12.4 pounds to 7.4 pounds from 1990 ...

  16. Past and future of a century old Citrus tristeza virus collection: a California citrus germplasm tale

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinbo; Bozan, Orhan; Kwon, Sun-Jung; Dang, Tyler; Rucker, Tavia; Yokomi, Raymond K.; Lee, Richard F.; Folimonova, Svetlana Y.; Krueger, Robert R.; Bash, John; Greer, Greg; Diaz, James; Serna, Ramon; Vidalakis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates collected from citrus germplasm, dooryard and field trees in California from 1914 have been maintained in planta under quarantine in the Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP), Riverside, California. This collection, therefore, represents populations of CTV isolates obtained over time and space in California. To determine CTV genetic diversity in this context, genotypes of CTV isolates from the CCPP collection were characterized using multiple molecular markers (MMM). Genotypes T30, VT, and T36 were found at high frequencies with T30 and T30+VT genotypes being the most abundant. The MMM analysis did not identify T3 and B165/T68 genotypes; however, biological and phylogenetic analysis suggested some relationships of CCPP CTV isolates with these two genotypes. Phylogenetic analysis of the CTV coat protein (CP) gene sequences classified the tested isolates into seven distinct clades. Five clades were in association with the standard CTV genotypes T30, T36, T3, VT, and B165/T68. The remaining two identified clades were not related to any standard CTV genotypes. Spatiotemporal analysis indicated a trend of reduced genotype and phylogenetic diversity as well as virulence from southern California (SC) at early (1907–1957) in comparison to that of central California (CC) isolates collected from later (1957–2009) time periods. CTV biological characterization also indicated a reduced number and less virulent stem pitting (SP) CTV isolates compared to seedling yellows isolates introduced to California. This data provides a historical insight of the introduction, movement, and genetic diversity of CTV in California and provides genetic and biological information useful for CTV quarantine, eradication, and disease management strategies such as CTV-SP cross protection. PMID:24339822

  17. Citrus essential oil of Nigeria. Part V: Volatile constituents of sweet orange leaf oil (Citrus sinensis).

    PubMed

    Kasali, Adeleke A; Lawal, Oladipupo A; Eshilokun, Adeolu O; Olaniyan, Abayomi A; Opoku, Andy R; Setzer, William N

    2011-06-01

    The volatile oils extracted from leaves of eight cultivars of Citrus sinensis (L) Osbeck were comprehensively analysed by a combination of GC and GC-MS. Fifty four constituents accounting for 82.3-98.2% were identified. Sabinene (20.9-49.1%), delta-3-carene (0.3-14.3%), (E)-beta-ocimene (4.4-12.6%), linalool (3.7-11.1%) and terpinen-4-ol (1.7-12.5%) were the major constituents that are common to all the volatile oils. In addition, a cluster analysis was carried out and indicated at least four different chemotypes for the C. sinensis cultivars.

  18. Gamma-butyrolactone as a lure for traps targeting the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Homoptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is an invasive pest of citrus and vector of citrus greening disease. Gamma-butyrolactone failed to lure adult psyllids to sticky traps deployed in infested citrus groves in numbers greater than those captured on non-baited traps....

  19. Efficacy of an autodisseminator of an entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea, to suppress Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, under greenhouse conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), transmits the causative agents of citrus greening disease or huanglongbing (HLB), the most devastating disease of citrus trees in the world today. ACP dwelling in noncommercial citrus (neighborhoods, commercial landscapes, etc.) can stymie area-wide management program...

  20. 7 CFR 301.76-4 - Labeling requirements for regulated nursery stock produced within an area quarantined for citrus...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... produced within an area quarantined for citrus greening. 301.76-4 Section 301.76-4 Agriculture Regulations... OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-4 Labeling requirements for regulated nursery stock produced within an area quarantined for citrus...

  1. 7 CFR 301.76-4 - Labeling requirements for regulated nursery stock produced within an area quarantined for citrus...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... produced within an area quarantined for citrus greening. 301.76-4 Section 301.76-4 Agriculture Regulations... OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-4 Labeling requirements for regulated nursery stock produced within an area quarantined for citrus...

  2. 76 FR 78228 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Citrus Greening and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Collection; Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid; Quarantine and Interstate Movement Regulations AGENCY... an information collection associated with regulations to prevent the spread of citrus greening and its vector, Asian citrus psyllid, to noninfested areas of the United States. DATES: We will...

  3. 7 CFR 301.76-4 - Labeling requirements for regulated nursery stock produced within an area quarantined for citrus...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... produced within an area quarantined for citrus greening. 301.76-4 Section 301.76-4 Agriculture Regulations... OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-4 Labeling requirements for regulated nursery stock produced within an area quarantined for citrus...

  4. 7 CFR 301.76-4 - Labeling requirements for regulated nursery stock produced within an area quarantined for citrus...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... produced within an area quarantined for citrus greening. 301.76-4 Section 301.76-4 Agriculture Regulations... OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-4 Labeling requirements for regulated nursery stock produced within an area quarantined for citrus...

  5. Ecology and behavior of Pezothrips kellyanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on citrus.

    PubMed

    Vassiliou, V A

    2010-02-01

    The most common thrips species found in Cyprus citrus orchards between 2003 and 2008 were Pezothrips kellyanus (Bagnall) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Only Pezothrips kellyanus, Kelly's citrus thrips (KCT) causes feeding damage on citrus fruits in Cyprus. KCT adults prefer to concentrate mostly in the northern and eastern sides of both lemon and grapefruit canopies. The attractiveness of white, sky blue, marine blue, and yellow color to KCT was evaluated. White was found to be the most attractive color to adults of KCT, F. occidentalis, and T. tabaci. A range of incidental and breeding host plants grown within and outside citrus orchards in Cyprus were identified. KCT adults were found on flowers of all citrus varieties, and various other flowering plants including Malva nicaeensis, Malva silvestris, Sinapis alba, Oxalis pes-caprae, Calendula arvensis, Urospermum picroides, Jasminum officinale, Gardenia jasminoides, Jasminum sambac, Prunus dulcis, Mangifera indica, Persea americana, and Eriobotrya japonica. KCT larvae were found only on lemon, grapefruit, Jasmine spp., and Gardenia flowers. PMID:20214367

  6. Inhibition of spoiling yeasts of fruit juices through citrus extracts.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Speranza, Barbara; Campaniello, Daniela; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2013-10-01

    This article reports on the bioactivities of citrus extracts (citrus extract, lemon extract, and neroli) toward Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Pichia membranifaciens, and Rhodotorula bacarum. The bioactivities of the extracts (from 10 to 100 ppm) were evaluated through a microdilution method; thereafter, citrus extracts (0 to 80 ppm) were tested in combination with either pH (3.0 to 5.0) or temperature (5 to 25°C). Finally, a confirmatory experiment was run in a commercial drink (referred to as red fruit juice) containing citrus extract (40 ppm) that was inoculated with either S. cerevisiae or Z. bailii (5 log CFU/ml) and stored at 4 and 25°C. Yeasts increased to 7 log CFU/ml (Z. bailii) or 8 log CFU/ml (S. cerevisiae) in the control at 25°C, but the citrus extract addition controlled yeast growth for at least 3 days; under refrigeration, the effect was significant for 10 days.

  7. [Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of flour of orange (Citrus sinensis), tangerine (Citrus reticulata) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) peels cultivated in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Rincón, Alicia M; Vásquez, A Marina; Padilla, Fanny C

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the chemical composition and some bioactive compounds in the peel's flour of some of the most consumed citrus fruits cultivated in Venezuela. Chemical composition as well as some trace elements, ascorbic acid, carotenoids dietary fiber, total polyphenols and their antiradical efficiency, using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidracyl (DPPH) were assessed in the dried peels of orange (Citrus sinensis), tangerine (Citrus reticulata) and white grapefruit (Citrus paradisi). Moisture, fat, protein and ash content for all samples showed statistical differences (p < 0.05). Tangerine's peel showed the highest magnesium and carotenoid content, while highest ascorbic acid and carotenoid content was found in the grapefruit's peel. Dietary fiber content presented significant high value in the tangerine peel. All samples presented high content of extractable polyphenols (4.33; 7.6 and 5.1 g/100g). The highest antiradical efficiency was shown by the tangerine's peel, value which correlates with the polyphenol content. These results suggest that tangerine peel should be the most suitable, to reduce risk of some diseases such as cardiovascular and some associated to lipid oxidation. Studied samples are good sources of dietary fiber and phenolic compounds, whose use could be useful in the formulation of functional foods, taking advantage of the presence of dietary fiber and antioxidant compounds in only one ingredient. PMID:16454058

  8. Development and systematic validation of qPCR assays for rapid and reliable differentiation of Xylella fastidiosa strains causing citrus variegated chlorosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenbin; Teixeira, Diva C; Hartung, John S; Huang, Qi; Duan, Yongping; Zhou, Lijuan; Chen, Jianchi; Lin, Hong; Lopes, Silvio; Ayres, A Juliano; Levy, Laurene

    2013-01-01

    The xylem-limited, Gram-negative, fastidious plant bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is the causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), a destructive disease affecting approximately half of the citrus plantations in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The disease was recently found in Central America and is threatening the multi-billion U.S. citrus industry. Many strains of X. fastidiosa are pathogens or endophytes in various plants growing in the U.S., and some strains cross infect several host plants. In this study, a TaqMan-based assay targeting the 16S rDNA signature region was developed for the identification of X. fastidiosa at the species level. Another TaqMan-based assay was developed for the specific identification of the CVC strains. Both new assays have been systematically validated in comparison with the primer/probe sets from four previously published assays on one platform and under similar PCR conditions, and shown to be superior. The species specific assay detected all X. fastidiosa strains and did not amplify any other citrus pathogen or endophyte tested. The CVC-specific assay detected all CVC strains but did not amplify any non-CVC X. fastidiosa nor any other citrus pathogen or endophyte evaluated. Both sets were multiplexed with a reliable internal control assay targeting host plant DNA, and their diagnostic specificity and sensitivity remained unchanged. This internal control provides quality assurance for DNA extraction, performance of PCR reagents, platforms and operators. The limit of detection for both assays was equivalent to 2 to 10 cells of X. fastidiosa per reaction for field citrus samples. Petioles and midribs of symptomatic leaves of sweet orange harbored the highest populations of X. fastidiosa, providing the best materials for detection of the pathogen. These new species specific assay will be invaluable for molecular identification of X. fastidiosa at the species level, and the CVC specific assay will be very powerful for the

  9. Induced resistance against the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, by β-aminobutyric acid in citrus.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Siddharth; Meyer, Wendy L; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2013-10-01

    β-Aminobutyric acid (BABA) is known to induce resistance to microbial pathogens, nematodes and insects in several host plant/pest systems. The present study was undertaken to determine whether a similar effect of BABA occurred against the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, in citrus. A 25 mM drench application of BABA significantly reduced the number of eggs/plant as compared with a water control, whereas 200 and 100 mM applications of BABA reduced the numbers of nymphs/plant and adults/plants, respectively. A 5 mM foliar application of BABA significantly reduced the number of adults but not eggs or nymphs when compared with a water control treatment. In addition, leaf-dip bioassays using various concentrations (25–500 mM) of BABA indicated no direct toxic effect on 2nd and 5th instar nymphs or adult D. citri. BABA-treated plants were characterized by significantly lower levels of iron, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, sulfur and zinc as compared with control plants. The expression level of the PR-2 gene (β-1,3-glucanase) in BABA-treated plants that were also damaged by D. citri adult feeding was significantly higher than in plants exposed to BABA, D. citri feeding alone or control plants. Our results indicate the potential for using BABA as a systemic acquired resistance management tool for D. citri.

  10. Antioxidant activity of citrus cultivars and chemical composition of Citrus karna essential oil.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Swadesh; Suri, Samiksha; Tuli, Rakesh

    2009-01-01

    The genus Citrus has a number of species and hybrids that are well established for their pharmaceutical and economic importance. The essential oil from Citrus karna Raf (Rutaceae) was analyzed for D-limonene (92.31%), the major chemical constituent, along with other minor constituents such as alpha-pinene (1.23%) and beta-pinene (1.80%). It showed significant inhibition for the oxidation of linoleic acid in the beta-carotene-linoleic acid system. Essential oils A and B obtained from C. sinensis, with 35.08% and 76.68% d-limonene, respectively, were used to evaluate the effect of the d-limonene concentration on antioxidant potential. Studies showed that d-limonene and C. karna essential oil have a similar antioxidant potential (39.6 and 38.3%, respectively). C. sinensis oils A and B showed only 10.5% and 30% antioxidant potential, respectively, indicating the possible role of d-limonene in antioxidant activity. PMID:19031367

  11. Volatile constituents of redblush grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) and pummelo (Citrus grandis) peel essential oils from Kenya.

    PubMed

    Njoroge, Simon Muhoho; Koaze, Hiroshi; Karanja, Paul Nyota; Sawamura, Masayoshi

    2005-12-14

    The volatile constituents of cold-pressed peel essential oils of redblush grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen forma Redblush) and pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) from the same locality in Kenya were determined by GC and GC-MS. A total of 67 and 52 compounds, amounting to 97.9 and 98.8% of the two oils, respectively, were identified. Monoterpene hydrocarbons constituted 93.3 and 97.5% in the oils, respectively, with limonene (91.1 and 94.8%), alpha-terpinene (1.3 and 1.8%), and alpha-pinene (0.5%) as the main compounds. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons constituted 0.4% in each oil. The notable compounds were beta-caryophyllene, alpha-cubebene, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene. Oxygenated compounds constituted 4.2 and 2.0% of the redblush grapefruit and pummelo oils, respectively, out of which carbonyl compounds (2.0 and 1.3%), alcohols (1.4 and 0.3%), and esters (0.7 and 0.4%) were the major groups. Heptyl acetate, octanal, decanal, citronellal, and (Z)-carvone were the main constituents (0.1-0.5%). Perillene, (E)-carveol, and perillyl acetate occurred in the redblush grapefruit but were absent from the pummelo oil. Nootkatone, alpha- and beta-sinensal, methyl-N-methylanthranilate, and (Z,E)-farnesol were prominent in both oils. PMID:16332132

  12. Growing Your Own versus Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Greg K.

    2005-01-01

    With the current scarcity of qualified administrative candidates, the author hears many districts talking of "growing their own" administrators. The current practice of "growing your own" appears to be largely driven by specific district needs and finding someone who can best fill those needs in a timely fashion. Minor grooming and limited…

  13. Natural bioactive compounds of Citrus limon for food and health.

    PubMed

    González-Molina, E; Domínguez-Perles, R; Moreno, D A; García-Viguera, C

    2010-01-20

    Citrus genus is the most important fruit tree crop in the world and lemon is the third most important Citrus species. Several studies highlighted lemon as an important health-promoting fruit rich in phenolic compounds as well as vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, essential oils and carotenoids. Lemon fruit has a strong commercial value for the fresh products market and food industry. Moreover, lemon productive networks generate high amounts of wastes and by-products that constitute an important source of bioactive compounds with potential for animal feed, manufactured foods, and health care. This review focuses on the phytochemistry and the analytical aspects of lemon compounds as well as on the importance for food industry and the relevance of Citrus limon for nutrition and health, bringing an overview of what is published on the bioactive compounds of this fruit. PMID:19748198

  14. Natural bioactive compounds of Citrus limon for food and health.

    PubMed

    González-Molina, E; Domínguez-Perles, R; Moreno, D A; García-Viguera, C

    2010-01-20

    Citrus genus is the most important fruit tree crop in the world and lemon is the third most important Citrus species. Several studies highlighted lemon as an important health-promoting fruit rich in phenolic compounds as well as vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, essential oils and carotenoids. Lemon fruit has a strong commercial value for the fresh products market and food industry. Moreover, lemon productive networks generate high amounts of wastes and by-products that constitute an important source of bioactive compounds with potential for animal feed, manufactured foods, and health care. This review focuses on the phytochemistry and the analytical aspects of lemon compounds as well as on the importance for food industry and the relevance of Citrus limon for nutrition and health, bringing an overview of what is published on the bioactive compounds of this fruit.

  15. The push-pull strategy for citrus psyllid control.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huaxue; Zeng, Jiwu; Zhong, Guangyan

    2015-07-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the only natural vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus that causes citrus huanglongbing (HLB), a most destructive disease of citrus. Currently, no remedial therapy exists for the disease, and so effective control of ACP is very important in curbing the transmission of the disease. The push-pull strategy should be thoroughly explored as an approach to ACP management. This mini-review summarises the current progress towards more effective repellent and attractant chemicals through investigating known repellent and attractive plants. Interactions between ACP and its host plants are also addressed, with emphasis on the possible involvement of the host biochemicals in attracting the insect. Potential ways to increase the effectiveness of the pull-push strategy are briefly discussed. It is expected that the pull-push strategy will be gradually developed following more extensive research. PMID:25256398

  16. The push-pull strategy for citrus psyllid control.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huaxue; Zeng, Jiwu; Zhong, Guangyan

    2015-07-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the only natural vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus that causes citrus huanglongbing (HLB), a most destructive disease of citrus. Currently, no remedial therapy exists for the disease, and so effective control of ACP is very important in curbing the transmission of the disease. The push-pull strategy should be thoroughly explored as an approach to ACP management. This mini-review summarises the current progress towards more effective repellent and attractant chemicals through investigating known repellent and attractive plants. Interactions between ACP and its host plants are also addressed, with emphasis on the possible involvement of the host biochemicals in attracting the insect. Potential ways to increase the effectiveness of the pull-push strategy are briefly discussed. It is expected that the pull-push strategy will be gradually developed following more extensive research.

  17. [Rapid Determination of Seven Fungicides in Citrus Fruits].

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Naoki; Hayashi, Sachiko; Inada, Tadaaki

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and simple determination method of seven fungicides, thiabendazole (TBZ), pyrimethanil (PYR), o-phenylphenol (OPP), fludioxonil (FLD), azoxystrobin (AZX), imazalil (IMZ) and diphenyl (DP) in citrus fruits by LC-MS and HPLC-FL was developed. The seven fungicides were extracted with acetonitrile from citrus fruits and cleaned up with Z-Sep/C18 cartridges. The LC separation was performed on a phenyl-hexyl column with methanol-acetonitrile-10 mmol/L ammonium formate (10 : 35 : 55) as a mobile phase. The recoveries from citrus fruits fortified with the compounds at the MRLs and at 0.1 μg/g ranged from 85.4 to 106.3% and from 75.8 to 99.7%, respectively. The quantitation limits (S/N=10) were 0.03-0.07 μg/g.

  18. Antagonists of Plant-parasitic Nematodes in Florida Citrus

    PubMed Central

    Walter, David Evans; Kaplan, David T.

    1990-01-01

    In a survey of antagonists of nematodes in 27 citrus groves, each with a history of Tylenchulus semipenetrans infestation, and 17 noncitrus habitats in Florida, approximately 24 species of microbial antagonists capable of attacking vermiform stages of Radopholus citrophilus were recovered. Eleven of these microbes and a species of Pasteuria also were observed attacking vermiform stages of T. semipenetrans. Verticillium chlamydosporium, Paecilomyces lilacinus, P. marquandii, Streptomyces sp., Arthrobotrys oligospora, and Dactylella ellipsospora were found infecting T. semipenetrans egg masses. Two species of nematophagous amoebae, five species of predatory nematodes, and 29 species of nematophagous arthropods also were detected. Nematode-trapping fungi and nematophagous arthropods were common inhabitants of citrus groves with a history of citrus nematode infestation; however, obligate parasites of nematodes were rare. PMID:19287759

  19. Content evaluation of 4 furanocoumarin monomers in various citrus germplasms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Juan; Ma, Lili; Jiang, Dong; Zhu, Shiping; Yan, Fuhua; Xie, Yunxia; Xie, Zongzhou; Guo, Wenwu; Deng, Xiuxin

    2015-11-15

    Due to the furanocoumarin compounds in the fruit, the production and consumption of grapefruit have been affected in the past decades since the 'grapefruit juice effect' was declared. To provide elite germplasm and obtain knowledge for future citrus breeding programs, the contents of 4 furanocoumarin monomers (FCMs) in the juice sacs from 73 citrus germplasms were evaluated using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. 6',7'-Dihydroxybergamottin and bergamottin were dominant in all the tested grapefruits, while there were some pomelos with dominant epoxybergamottin, and some with dominant 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin and bergamottin. The contents of FCMs were low or below detection in sweet oranges, mandarins, lemons and trifoliate oranges. The results also show that the dominant patterns of FCMs are genotype-related, and crossing and selection are effective approaches to alter FCM profiles in citrus breeding. Furthermore, the contribution of pomelo as a parent to grapefruit regarding their FCM profiles was discussed.

  20. Hydrolysates of citrus plants stimulate melanogenesis protecting against UV-induced dermal damage.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Lin, Jen-Wen; Hsiao, Pei-Ling; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Wen, Kuo-Ching

    2011-04-01

    The sun-tanning process occurs as a spontaneous response to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. UV will induce tanning and DNA damage, processes that can lead to photoaging and skin disorders such as hyperpigmentation and cancer. The pigment melanin protects skin from UV damage; therefore, an efficient melanin-promoting suntan lotion could be highly beneficial. In this study, a process was developed to increase the content of naringenin in citrus extracts and to determine whether a higher naringenin content of citrus would induce melanogenesis. Melanin content and tyrosinase expression in mouse B16 melanoma cells were assayed after treatment with citrus plant extracts and their hydrolysates. The results indicate that hydrolysis increased the naringenin content in citrus extracts and that citrus preparations stimulated cellular melanogenesis and tyrosinase expression. It is suggested that this method is applicable to the industrial production of melanin-promoting suntan lotions with antiphotocarcinogenic properties derived from citrus rind and citrus products.

  1. Dissipation and residue of 2,4-D in citrus under field condition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weijun; Jiao, Bining; Su, Xuesu; Zhao, Qiyang; Sun, Dali

    2015-05-01

    The dissipation, residues, and risks of 2,4-dicholrophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in citrus under field condition were investigated based on a simple ultra-performance LC (UPLC)-MS/MS method. The results indicated that the residue level of 2,4-D in citrus did not degrade gradually with sampling time under field condition. At pre-harvest intervals (PHI) of 20-40 days, 2,4-D residues were 0.021-0.269 mg/kg in citrus flesh, 0.028-0.337 mg/kg in whole citrus, and 0.028-0.376 mg/kg in citrus peel, all bellow the China maximum residue limit in citrus (1 mg/kg). Risks of 2,4-D were assessed by calculation of risk quotient, and the results revealed no significant health risks after consumption of citrus.

  2. Efficient Procedure for Extracting Tylenchulus semipenetrans from Citrus Roots

    PubMed Central

    Greco, N.; D'Addabbo, T.

    1990-01-01

    Investigations were undertaken to determine the suitability of sucrose and magnesium sulphate solutions and a silica colloidal suspension with centrifugation for extracting Tylenchulus semipenetrans from citrus roots. The efficiency of incubation, sodium hypochlorite, centrifugation, and maceration methods was also compared. Numbers of females recovered by centrifugation with colloidal silica were greater than those from sucrose or magnesium sulphate. Incubation, sodium hypochlorite, and centrifugation methods were satisfactory for extracting eggs, second-stage juveniles, and males, whereas the maceration-sieving method was less efficient. Combining the sodium hypochlorite method with a 15-second maceration followed by centrifugation in colloidal silica reduced the recovery of T. semipenetrans females from citrus roots. PMID:19287763

  3. Producer gas from citrus wood fuels irrigation power unit

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, D.B.; Hedden, S.L.; Whitney, J.D.; Shaw, L.N.

    1985-01-01

    A 90-hp diesel engine operating a citrus irrigation system was converted to run on a dual-fuel mixture utilizing producer gas from citrus wood chips as the main fuel source. A chip feeder mechanism, gasifier, filter system and control unit were designed to meet typical irrigation power requirements. Blighted, unproductive and dead trees removed near the irrigation site were used for chipping. Data on chip moisture content, fuel analysis, drying rate and fuel/tree weight are presented but labour and equipment costs were not determined. 14 references.

  4. Energy conservation in citrus processing. Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    Leo, M.A.; Lari, R.I.; Moore, N.R.; Broussard, M.R.; Gyamfi, M.

    1981-11-01

    Alternative energy conserving systems for use in citrus processing plants were synthesized and evaluated in terms of energy savings and economic return. The energy intensive operations that are carried out in citrus processing plants include conveying and extraction, concentration, peel drying, refrigeration, and pasteurization. The alternative energy conserving systems are synthesized from components and subsystems that are arranged to make use of energy cascading and thermodynamic regeneration to reduce the overall energy usage. System requirements such as air pollution rules and plant processing load cycles, a characterization of major operations, description of alternative system concepts, and the evaluation of alternative systems in terms of economic parameters and energy usage are identified.

  5. Essential oil composition of Citrus meyerii Y. Tan. and Citrus medica L. cv. Diamante and their lemon hybrids.

    PubMed

    Verzera, Antonella; Trozzi, Alessandra; Zappalá, Mario; Condurso, Cettina; Cotroneo, Antonella

    2005-06-15

    In this paper we report the volatile fraction composition of Citrus meyerii Y. Tan. and Citrus medica L. cv. Diamante and two new lemon hybrids obtained by cross-breeding them with the tetraploid Citrus limon Burm. cv. Cavone. Both parent and hybrid oils were laboratory-extracted from the peel fruits and analyzed by HRGC-MS and HRGC-FID. Sixty-three components were fully characterized by mass spectra, linear retention indices, and injection of standards. The average composition as single components for all the oils analyzed is reported. Moreover, the data obtained were statistically analyzed. Since limonene is by far the main component of all the essential oils examined, analysis of variance and multivariate analysis gave interesting information on the similarities and differences between the oils analyzed. The new hybrid oils analyzed have potential commercial value because they could be an acceptable alternative to the valuable lemon oil.

  6. Citrus peel extract incorporated ice cubes to protect the quality of common pandora: Fish storage in ice with citrus.

    PubMed

    Yerlikaya, Pinar; Ucak, Ilknur; Gumus, Bahar; Gokoglu, Nalan

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ice with albedo and flavedo fragments of Citrus (Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) and Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.)) extracts on the quality of common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus). Concentrated citrus extracts were diluted with distilled water (1/100 w/v) before making of ice. The ice cubes were spread on each layer of fishes and stored at 0 °C for 15 days. The pH value showed a regular increase in all samples. TVB-N levels of bitter orange treatment groups were recorded lower than the other groups reaching to 25.11 ± 0.02 mg/100 g at the end of the storage. The TMA-N values of bitter orange treatment groups were lower than that of control and grapefruit treatment groups. In terms of TBARS value, alteration was observed in the control samples and this value significantly (p < 0.01) increased from 0.101 ± 0.011 mg MA/kg to 0.495 ± 0.083 mg MA/kg, while remained lower in the citrus extracts treatment groups at the end of storage since their antioxidant capacity. The oxidation was suppressed in citrus extracts treatment groups, especially in bitter orange flavedo treatment. The results showed the bitter orange albedo and bitter orange flavedo extracts in combination with ice storage have more effectiveness in controlling the biochemical indices in common pandora. PMID:26604414

  7. In vivo Induction of Tetraploid in Tangerine Citrus Plants (Citrus reticulata Blanco) with the Use of Colchicine.

    PubMed

    Surson, Suntaree; Sitthaphanit, Suphasit; Wongma, Nattapong

    2015-01-01

    This in vivo experiment was carried out at Sakhon Nakhon Rajabhat University, Sakhon Nakhon Province, Thailand during March-October 2013. The study aims to search for some possibilities in inducing a large number of tetraploid sets of chromosomes in tangerine citrus seedlings with the use of colchicine chemical. A Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications was used. Seeds of tangerine citrus were treated with colchicine solutions. The experiment consisted of seven treatments, i.e., T1 with 0.0% colchicine (control), T2 with 0.2% colchicine solution and submerged for 12 h, T3 with 0.2% colchicine solution and submerged for 24 h, T4 with 0.4% colchicine solution and submerged for 12 h, T5 with 0.4% colchicine solution and submerged for 24 h, T6 with 0.8% colchicine solution and submerged for 12 h, T7 with 0.8% colchicine solution and submerged for 24 h. The experiment was conducted for 91 days. The results showed that colchicine compound severely and significantly affected germination of tangerine citrus seeds. Colchicine of 0.2% in the solution with seeds submerged for 24 h gave the highest percentages of tetraploid chromosomes in seedlings of tangerine citrus (63.64%). Colchicine significantly affected seed germination, plant height, stomata density and leaf index of the tangerine citrus seeds and seedlings. Colchicine had no significant effect on poly-embryos, mono-embryos, leaf number, leaf area, leaf weight, leaf length and stomata length of the tangerine citrus seedlings. PMID:26353415

  8. In vivo Induction of Tetraploid in Tangerine Citrus Plants (Citrus reticulata Blanco) with the Use of Colchicine.

    PubMed

    Surson, Suntaree; Sitthaphanit, Suphasit; Wongma, Nattapong

    2015-01-01

    This in vivo experiment was carried out at Sakhon Nakhon Rajabhat University, Sakhon Nakhon Province, Thailand during March-October 2013. The study aims to search for some possibilities in inducing a large number of tetraploid sets of chromosomes in tangerine citrus seedlings with the use of colchicine chemical. A Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications was used. Seeds of tangerine citrus were treated with colchicine solutions. The experiment consisted of seven treatments, i.e., T1 with 0.0% colchicine (control), T2 with 0.2% colchicine solution and submerged for 12 h, T3 with 0.2% colchicine solution and submerged for 24 h, T4 with 0.4% colchicine solution and submerged for 12 h, T5 with 0.4% colchicine solution and submerged for 24 h, T6 with 0.8% colchicine solution and submerged for 12 h, T7 with 0.8% colchicine solution and submerged for 24 h. The experiment was conducted for 91 days. The results showed that colchicine compound severely and significantly affected germination of tangerine citrus seeds. Colchicine of 0.2% in the solution with seeds submerged for 24 h gave the highest percentages of tetraploid chromosomes in seedlings of tangerine citrus (63.64%). Colchicine significantly affected seed germination, plant height, stomata density and leaf index of the tangerine citrus seeds and seedlings. Colchicine had no significant effect on poly-embryos, mono-embryos, leaf number, leaf area, leaf weight, leaf length and stomata length of the tangerine citrus seedlings.

  9. Birth of space plant growing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mashinskiy, A.; Nechitaylo, G.

    1983-01-01

    The attempts, and successes, to grow plants in space, and get them to fully develop, bloom and produce seeds using orchids are presented. The psychological advantages of the presence of plants onboard space vehicles and space stations is indicated.

  10. Langmuir circulations beneath growing waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, W. R. C.

    2000-11-01

    The instability of a weakly sheared density stratified two dimensional wavy flow to longitudinal vortices is considered. The instability mechanism is Craik-Leibovich type 2, or CL2, and the problem is posited in the context of Langmuir circulations beneath irrotational wind driven surface waves. Of interest is the influence to the instability of growing or decaying waves according to linear theory. The basis for the study is an initial value problem posed by Leibovich & Paolucci (1981) in which the liquid substrate is of semi-infinite extent and the wind driven current is permitted to grow. At zero Richardson number, relative to the solution for neutral waves, it is found that growing waves act to stabilize the instability while decaying waves are destablizing. Furthemore while growing waves act to increase the spanwise wavenumber at onset, decaying waves act to decrease it. The influence of Prandtl and Richardson numbers is also discussed.

  11. Sociology: The growing climate divide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Andrew J.

    2011-07-01

    Climate change has reached the level of a 'scientific consensus', but is not yet a 'social consensus'. New analysis highlights that a growing divide between liberals and conservatives in the American public is a major obstacle to achieving this end.

  12. Method for growing plants aeroponically.

    PubMed

    Zobel, R W; Del Tredici, P; Torrey, J G

    1976-03-01

    A simple, inexpensive system for growing plants with their roots bathed in nutrient mist is described. The aeroponics system uses a spinner from a home humidifier to propel nutrient solution into a polyethylene-lined plywood box atop which plants are supported on plastic light-fixture "egg crating." Success in growing a number of herbaceous and woody species, including nodulated legumes and nonlegumes, is reported. PMID:16659479

  13. Soil and water losses on citrus orchards under Mediterranean Type Ecosystems. Organic against chemical farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, A.; Bodí, M. B.; García-Orenes, F.

    2012-04-01

    Soil erosion in Mediterranean Type Ecosystems is highly dependent on the land use and land management (Cerdà et al., 2010). This is due mainly to the impact of agriculture (Cerdà et al., 2009) as a consequence of tillage and the use of herbicides. Both strategies contribute to a reduction in the vegetation cover and the soil biological activities (García-Orenes et al., 2009). The impact of soil erosion on agronomic productivity and environmental quality is widely known (Lal, 1998), although little has been researched in the Mediterranean. The impact of agriculture on soil erosion and water losses in the Mediterranean basin has been studied in olive orchards (Gómez, 2004); vineyards (Ramos and Martínez Casasnovas, 2004), citrus (Cerdà et al., 2009), cereals (De Santisteban et al., (2005), and the high erosion rates were found to be related to the land management and land use (García Ruiz, 2010). The current Mediterranean agriculture is based on tillage and herbicides, which contribute to high soil and water losses. The development of sustainable agriculture practices is a challenge for farmers, technicians and politicians. Organic farming use strategies to reduce the soil losses and develop new strategies of soil conservation. Moreover organic farming recover the soil fertility and biodiversity (Maeder et al., 2002). Organic farming is growing in the Mediterranean but little is know about his effect on soil conservation. There is a lack in the knowledge of how organic farming affect the soil properties and, there is no information on his effect on soil and water losses. This paper aims to measure the impact of organic farming on soil and water losses. 10 plots of 1 x 0,5 m were selected in a chemically managed farm in Montesa (Eastern Spain) and 10 plots in a nearby organic farming managed farm. Both of them were cultivated with citrus. The ten paired plots were monitored. After earch rainfall event the sediment and water collected were measured and analized

  14. Estimation of the number of aphids carrying Citrus tristeza virus that visit adult citrus trees.

    PubMed

    Marroquín, Carlos; Olmos, Antonio; Teresa Gorris, María; Bertolini, Edson; Carmen Martínez, M; Carbonell, Emilio A; Hermoso de Mendoza, Alfonso; Cambra, Mariano

    2004-03-01

    Aphid species were counted on citrus trees in orchards in Valencia, Spain, in the spring and autumn of 1997, 1998 and 1999. Moericke yellow water traps, the 'sticky shoot' method and counts of established colonies were used in extensive surveys in which 29,502 aphids were recorded and identified. Aphis spiraecola and Aphis gossypii were the most abundant aphid species. The numbers of aphid species landing on mature trees of grapefruit, sweet orange, lemon and clementine and satsuma mandarins, were estimated by counting the numbers of young shoots/tree and aphids trapped on sticky shoots. The proportions of the different aphid species captured were: A. gossypii (53%), A. spiraecola (32%), Toxoptera aurantii (11%), Myzus persicae (1%), Aphis craccivora (1%) and other species (2%). Clementine was the most visited species with 266,700 aphids landing/tree in spring 2000, followed by lemon (147,000), sweet orange (129,150), grapefruit (103,200), and satsuma (92,400). The numbers and relative percentages of aphids carrying Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) were assessed by nested RT-PCR in single closed tubes and analysed by extraction of RNA-CTV targets from trapped aphids. An average of 37,190 CTV-carrying aphids visited each tree in spring 2000 (29 per shoot). The percentage detection of viral RNA in the aphid species that landed were 27% for A. gossypii, 23% for A. spiraecola and 19% for T. aurantii. This high incidence of aphids carrying CTV is consistent with the high prevalence and rapid spread of CTV in sweet orange, clementine, and satsuma mandarins in recent years in the region. The infection rate was proportional to the number of aphids landing/tree.

  15. Research toward an artifical diet for adult Asian Citrus Psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research progress is reported on an artificial diet for adult Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The primary objective was to develop a system for screening antimicrobial peptides and other potential toxic proteins for activity against adults. The base diet was a...

  16. Thrombocytopenic Purpura Associated with Dietary Supplements Containing Citrus Flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Ghali, Alaa; Bourneau-Martin, Delphine; Dopter, Aymeric; Lainé-Cessac, Pascale; Belizna, Cristina; Urbanski, Geoffrey; Lavigne, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of thrombocytopenic purpura associated with the intake of two dietary supplements containing mainly citrus flavonoids. This is the first case to be notified to the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health Safety (ANSES). It addresses the importance of an accurate medication history interview for each patient. PMID:26242500

  17. Genetic transformation in citrus: Thinking outside the box

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional breeding methods to incorporate resistance in citrus are very slow, due to extended juvenility from seedling trees and multiple generations needed to incorporate resistance from distant relatives. Use of transgenic methods may provide disease resistance in less time. Published protocols...

  18. Appliation of rad-sequencing to linkage mapping in citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High density linkage maps can be developed for modest cost using high-throughput DNA sequencing to genotype a defined fraction (representation) of the genome. We developed linkage maps in two citrus populations using the RAD (Restriction site Associated DNA) genotyping method which involves restrict...

  19. Thrombocytopenic Purpura Associated with Dietary Supplements Containing Citrus Flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Ghali, Alaa; Bourneau-Martin, Delphine; Dopter, Aymeric; Lainé-Cessac, Pascale; Belizna, Cristina; Urbanski, Geoffrey; Lavigne, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of thrombocytopenic purpura associated with the intake of two dietary supplements containing mainly citrus flavonoids. This is the first case to be notified to the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health Safety (ANSES). It addresses the importance of an accurate medication history interview for each patient.

  20. Cytological and molecular characterization of three gametoclones of citrus clementina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three gametoclonal plants of Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan., cv. Nules, designated ESP, FRA, and ITA (derived from three labs in Spain, France, and Italy, respectively), were selected for cytological and molecular characterization in order to elucidate genomic rearrangements provoked by haploidizat...

  1. A stable RNA virus-based vector for citrus trees

    SciTech Connect

    Folimonov, Alexey S.; Folimonova, Svetlana Y.; Bar-Joseph, Moshe; Dawson, William O.

    2007-11-10

    Virus-based vectors are important tools in plant molecular biology and plant genomics. A number of vectors based on viruses that infect herbaceous plants are in use for expression or silencing of genes in plants as well as screening unknown sequences for function. Yet there is a need for useful virus-based vectors for woody plants, which demand much greater stability because of the longer time required for systemic infection and analysis. We examined several strategies to develop a Citrus tristeza virus (CTV)-based vector for transient expression of foreign genes in citrus trees using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter. These strategies included substitution of the p13 open reading frame (ORF) by the ORF of GFP, construction of a self-processing fusion of GFP in-frame with the major coat protein (CP), or expression of the GFP ORF as an extra gene from a subgenomic (sg) mRNA controlled either by a duplicated CTV CP sgRNA controller element (CE) or an introduced heterologous CE of Beet yellows virus. Engineered vector constructs were examined for replication, encapsidation, GFP expression during multiple passages in protoplasts, and for their ability to infect, move, express GFP, and be maintained in citrus plants. The most successful vectors based on the 'add-a-gene' strategy have been unusually stable, continuing to produce GFP fluorescence after more than 4 years in citrus trees.

  2. Efficiency of chemotherapy coupled with thermotherapy against citrus HLB

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six independent experiments were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the chemotherapy coupled with the thermotherapy on pot-contained HLB-affected plants based on our previous results from graft-based methods. Three-year old potted HLB-affected citrus plants were exposed to 4 thermotherapy ...

  3. Five new citrus rootstocks with improved tolerance to huanglongbing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five new citrus rootstocks, US-1279, US-1281, US-1282, US-1283, and US-1284 were released by the Agricultural Research Service in September 2014 for commercial use in areas threatened by huanglongbing disease. These rootstock selections originated from 1995 crosses of mandarins × Trifoliate Orange. ...

  4. Larvicidal Activity of Citrus Limonoids against Aedes albopictus Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Bilal, Hazrat; Akram, Waseem; Ali-Hassan, Soaib

    2012-01-01

    Background: Development of insecticide resistance occurred due to the continuous and misuse of synthetic insecticides therefore, the recent study was conducted to explore eco-friendly plant extracts that have some potential to suppress mosquito larval population. Methods: WHO recommended mosquito larval bioassay method for insecticide was used while for the analysis of citrus oils for limonin and nomilin content HPLC was used. Results: Among the two citrus cultivars tested as larvicide against Aedes albopictus, valencia late (Citrus sinensis) was the best in terms of LC50 (297 ppm), % mortality (97%) and LT50 (18.49 hours) then freutrall early (Citrus reticulate) with LC50 (377.4 ppm), % mortality (88%) and LT50 (31 hours), While nomilin gave lowest LC50 (121.04 ppm) than limonin (382.22 ppm) after 72 hours of exposure. Valencia late also had more limonin and nomilin (377 μg/ml and 21.19 μg/ml) than freutrall early (5.29 μg/ml and 3.89 μg/ml) respectively. Conclusion: Valencia late showed best results in term of LC50, LT50 and percentage mortality against Aedes albopictus as it has more amount of nomilin then freutrall early, however further evaluation in the field conditions is required. PMID:23378967

  5. Secondary metabolite composition in Citrus x Poncirus trifoliata hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poncirus trifoliata L.Raf is used as a parent in citrus rootstock breeding because it confers desirable characteristics, such as disease resistance and cold hardiness. However, fruit of P. trifoliata hybrids typically have unpleasant flavor. The objective of this study was to determine the chemical ...

  6. Limettin and furocoumarins in beverages containing citrus juices or extracts.

    PubMed

    Gorgus, E; Lohr, C; Raquet, N; Guth, S; Schrenk, D

    2010-01-01

    Phototoxic and photo-genotoxic furocoumarins occur, e.g., in citrus species, parsnip, parsley, celery, and figs. They exhibit phototoxic and photo-genotoxic properties in combination with UV radiation, while less is known about the phototoxicity of the coumarin derivative limettin mainly found in limes and lemons. Risk assessment of dietary furocoumarins is based on a threshold approach and on estimates of 1.2-1.45 mg for the average daily exposure for adults via the diet in several countries. In these estimates, the major contribution to overall daily exposure has been attributed to citrus-flavored non-alcoholic beverages, in spite of a lack of analytical data for those products. Therefore, we analyzed a number of furocoumarins in a variety of citrus-containing beverages and included limettin in the pattern of analyzed constituents. Our findings provide strong evidence that grapefruit juice and not citrus-flavored non-alcoholic beverages is the major source of furocoumarin exposure in a Western diet. Based on these findings it can be assumed that the average dietary exposure to furocoumarins is about 3-fold lower than previously estimated, i.e. in the range of 548 and 2237 microg/day for the average and high consumer, respectively. The coumarin derivative limettin was mainly found in lime products.

  7. Evaluation of citrus fibers as a tablet excipient.

    PubMed

    Cespi, Marco; Bonacucina, Giulia; Roberts, Matthew; Hanson, Samuel; Jones, Stephen; Makevica, Elina; Casettari, Luca; Palmieri, Giovanni Filippo

    2014-04-01

    The consumption of fibers is associated with many health benefits, such as a reduction of cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases, control of body weight, and prevention of diabetes. Despite the widespread use of fiber supplements such as capsules or tablets, there is an almost complete lack of information concerning the technological properties of functional fibers used in nutraceutical formulations. The aim of this work was to characterize the technological properties of citrus fibers necessary for their use as a processing aid in tableting. The results obtained showed that citrus fibers share many properties of other polysaccharides used as tableting excipients, such as thermal behavior and compaction mechanism, together with an appreciable tabletability. However, the most interesting properties resulted from their disintegration power. Citrus fibers behaved in a similar manner to the well-known super disintegrant croscarmellose sodium and resulted to be little susceptible to their concentration, to lubricant type, and lubricant concentration. Thus, this work supports the idea of a potential use of citrus fibers as "active" substances and processing aid in the tableting of nutraceutical products and also as functional excipient in pharmaceutical tablets formulation.

  8. Asian citrus psyllid genome (Diaphorina citri, Hemiptera)-Update 2013

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The psyllid genome is a scientific breakthrough that opens the psyllid genetic blueprint to investigations of all questions ranging from taxonomic origins to the understanding of developmental biology, to the acquisition and transmission of pathogens. The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemi...

  9. New acridone from the wood of Citrus reticulata Blanco.

    PubMed

    Phetkul, Uraiwan; Wanlaso, Nutthakran; Mahabusarakam, Wilawan; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Carroll, Anthony R

    2013-10-01

    A new acridone, named citruscridone (1) together with five known compounds were isolated from the wood of Citrus reticulata Blanco. Their structures were established based on spectroscopic evidence. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the wood extracts and pure compounds were evaluated. PMID:23697332

  10. Alternative methods for the control of postharvest citrus diseases.

    PubMed

    Talibi, I; Boubaker, H; Boudyach, E H; Ait Ben Aoumar, A

    2014-07-01

    The postharvest diseases of citrus fruit cause considerable losses during storage and transportation. These diseases are managed principally by the application of synthetic fungicides. However, the increasing concern for health hazards and environmental pollution due to chemical use has required the development of alternative strategies for the control of postharvest citrus diseases. Management of postharvest diseases using microbial antagonists, natural plant-derived products and Generally Recognized As Safe compounds has been demonstrated to be most suitable to replace the synthetic fungicides, which are either being banned or recommended for limited use. However, application of these alternatives by themselves may not always provide a commercially acceptable level of control of postharvest citrus diseases comparable to that obtained with synthetic fungicides. To provide more effective disease control, a multifaceted approach based on the combination of different postharvest treatments has been adopted. Actually, despite the distinctive features of these alternative methods, several reasons hinder the commercial use of such treatments. Consequently, research should emphasize the development of appropriate tools to effectively implement these alternative methods to commercial citrus production.

  11. Longevity of radiofrequency identification device microchips in citrus trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term identification of individual plants in the field is an important part of many types of botanical and horticultural research. In a previous report, we described methods for using implanted radiofrequency (RFID) microchips to tag citrus trees for field research. This report provides an upd...

  12. Evaluation of citrus fibers as a tablet excipient.

    PubMed

    Cespi, Marco; Bonacucina, Giulia; Roberts, Matthew; Hanson, Samuel; Jones, Stephen; Makevica, Elina; Casettari, Luca; Palmieri, Giovanni Filippo

    2014-04-01

    The consumption of fibers is associated with many health benefits, such as a reduction of cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases, control of body weight, and prevention of diabetes. Despite the widespread use of fiber supplements such as capsules or tablets, there is an almost complete lack of information concerning the technological properties of functional fibers used in nutraceutical formulations. The aim of this work was to characterize the technological properties of citrus fibers necessary for their use as a processing aid in tableting. The results obtained showed that citrus fibers share many properties of other polysaccharides used as tableting excipients, such as thermal behavior and compaction mechanism, together with an appreciable tabletability. However, the most interesting properties resulted from their disintegration power. Citrus fibers behaved in a similar manner to the well-known super disintegrant croscarmellose sodium and resulted to be little susceptible to their concentration, to lubricant type, and lubricant concentration. Thus, this work supports the idea of a potential use of citrus fibers as "active" substances and processing aid in the tableting of nutraceutical products and also as functional excipient in pharmaceutical tablets formulation. PMID:24306677

  13. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity by essential oil from Citrus paradisi.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, M; Tougo, H; Ishihara, M

    2001-01-01

    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity by essential oils of Citrus paradisi (grapefruit pink in USA) was studied. Inhibition of AChE was measured by the colorimetric method. Nootkatone and auraptene were isolated from C. paradisi oil and showed 17-24% inhibition of AChE activity at the concentration of 1.62 microg/mL. PMID:11858553

  14. Citrus County Professional Orientation Program, 1992-93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citrus County Board of Public Instruction, Inverness, FL.

    The Citrus County (Florida) Professional Orientation Program is designed to increase student learning by providing a set of supervised support services for teachers in the first year(s) of teaching that will assist them in their continuing professional development. The program provides for the development, demonstration, and documentation of…

  15. Energizing an irrigation pump engine with citrus wood

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, L.N.; Churchill, D.B.; Hedden, S.L.; Post, D.M.; Whitney, J.D.

    1983-06-01

    A compression ignition engine has been converted to dual-fuel operation on producer gas and pilot fuel oil. Producer gas made from air-dried citrus wood made up at least 75% of the engine fuel. The dualfueled naturally aspirated engine produced 73% of full power on fuel oil.

  16. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction in Citrus Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Jeanne A.; Becker, William J.

    This unit of instruction on citrus production was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their students and clients…

  17. Citrus cyopreservation: viability of diverse taxa and histological observations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diverse citrus cultivars maintained clonally within gene banks serve as valuable resources for research and breeding programs worldwide. These critical collections are kept as trees within field, screenhouse, or greenhouse collections. These ex situ collections are at risk of being lost due to unfor...

  18. Stylet morphometrics and citrus leaf vein structure in relation to feeding behavior of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri, vector of citrus huanglongbing bacterium.

    PubMed

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Hall, David G; Shatters, Robert G

    2013-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the primary vector of the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (LAS) associated with huanglongbing (HLB, citrus greening), considered the world's most serious disease of citrus. Stylet morphometrics of ACP nymphs and adults were studied in relation to citrus vein structure and to their putative (histologically verified) feeding sites on Valencia orange leaves. ACP nymphs preferred to settle and feed on the lower (abaxial) side of young leaves either on secondary veins or on the sides of the midrib, whereas adults preferred to settle and feed on the upper (adaxial) or lower secondary veins of young or old leaves. Early instar nymphs can reach and probe the phloem probably because the distance to the phloem is considerably shorter in younger than in mature leaves, and is shorter from the sides of the midrib compared to that from the center. Additionally, the thick-walled 'fibrous ring' (sclerenchyma) around the phloem, which may act as a barrier to ACP stylet penetration into the phloem, is more prominent in older than in younger leaves and in the center than on the sides of the midrib. The majority (80-90%) of the salivary sheath termini produced by ACP nymphs and adults that reached a vascular bundle were associated with the phloem, whereas only 10-20% were associated with xylem vessels. Ultrastructural studies on ACP stylets and LAS-infected leaves suggested that the width of the maxillary food canal in first instar nymphs is wide enough for LAS bacteria to traverse during food ingestion (and LAS acquisition). However, the width of the maxillary salivary canal in these nymphs may not be wide enough to accommodate LAS bacteria during salivation (and LAS inoculation) into host plants. This may explain the inability of early instar nymphs to transmit LAS/HLB in earlier reports.

  19. Ecology and management of the woolly whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), a new invasive citrus pest in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Belay, Difabachew K; Zewdu, Abebe; Foster, John E

    2011-08-01

    Distribution and importance of woolly whitefly (Aleurothrixus floccosus) (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), was studied in Ethiopia with an evaluation of treatments against it. Results showed that the pest is distributed in most citrus-growing parts of the country equally infesting all types of citrus crops. Only one pupal parasitoid, Amitus sp., was recorded at Melkaoba. During 2006-2007, eight treatments gave better control of woolly whitefly compared with the control: endod (Phytolacca dodecandra L'Herit) berry extract, white oil 80%, neem oil, omo detergent soap, band application of gasoline, cyhalothrin (karate) 5% EC, selecron (profenofos) 500 EC, and rimon (novaluron) 10 EC. Treatments were applied on 6-8 yr-old orange trees at Melkaoba and Nazareth. At Melkaoba, application of cyhalothrin, selecron, white oil, and Neem gave better control of woolly whitefly compared with the control. All the treatments resulted in a lower number of ants than the control. Ants disrupt biocontrol agents of honeydew-secreting pests, including woolly whiteflies. Mean infestation score was higher in the control than the rest of the treatments. Similarly, at Nazareth, woolly whitefly numbers were lower recorded on cyhalothrin-treated plants. However, the numbers of eggs were significantly higher in endod extract-sprayed plants than the control. All treatments controlled ants better than the control except endod. Infestation scores were lower on endod- and cyhalothrin-treated plants than the control. Mean number of adult woolly whiteflies and eggs were significantly higher on newly grown leaves than older leaves. In general, the number of live adult woolly whiteflies showed a decreasing trend at both sites after treatment applications compared with the control. PMID:21882700

  20. Citrus Consumption and Risk of Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shaowei; Han, Jiali; Feskanich, Diane; Cho, Eunyoung; Stampfer, Meir J.; Willett, Walter C.; Qureshi, Abrar A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Citrus products are widely consumed foods that are rich in psoralens and furocoumarins, a group of naturally occurring chemicals with potential photocarcinogenic properties. We prospectively evaluated the risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma associated with citrus consumption. Methods A total of 63,810 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1984 to 2010) and 41,622 men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986 to 2010) were included. Dietary information was repeatedly assessed every 2 to 4 years during follow-up. Incident melanoma cases were identified through self-report and confirmed by pathologic records. Results Over 24 to 26 years of follow-up, we documented 1,840 incident melanomas. After adjustment for other risk factors, the pooled multivariable hazard ratios for melanoma were 1.00 for overall citrus consumption < twice per week (reference), 1.10 (95% CI, 0.94 to 1.30) for two to four times per week, 1.26 (95% CI, 1.08 to 1.47) for five to six times per week, 1.27 (95% CI, 1.09 to 1.49) for once to 1.5 times per day, and 1.36 (95% CI, 1.14 to 1.63) for ≥ 1.6 times per day (Ptrend < .001). Among individual citrus products, grapefruit showed the most apparent association with risk of melanoma, which was independent of other lifestyle and dietary factors. The pooled multivariable hazard ratio for melanoma comparing the extreme consumption categories of grapefruit (≥ three times per week v never) was 1.41 (95% CI, 1.10 to 1.82; Ptrend < .001). Conclusion Citrus consumption was associated with an increased risk of malignant melanoma in two cohorts of women and men. Nevertheless, further investigation is needed to confirm our findings and explore related health implications. PMID:26124488

  1. Phytochemical, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities of different citrus juice concentrates.

    PubMed

    Oikeh, Ehigbai I; Omoregie, Ehimwenma S; Oviasogie, Faith E; Oriakhi, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    The search for new antimicrobial compounds is ongoing. Its importance cannot be overemphasized in an era of emerging resistant pathogenic organisms. This study therefore investigated the phytochemical composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of different citrus juice concentrates. Fruit juices of Citrus tangerine (tangerine), Citrus paradisi (grape), Citrus limon (lemon), and Citrus aurantifolia (lime) were evaluated. Antimicrobial activities against five bacterial and three fungal strains were evaluated. The results revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and reducing sugars in all the juice concentrates. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging capacities varied with tangerine and grape juices having better scavenging capacities than lemon and lime juices. Grape juice was observed to have a significantly higher (P < 0.05) ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) value (364.2 ± 10.25 μmol/L Fe(II)/g of the extract) than the reference antioxidant, ascorbic acid (312.88 ± 5.61 μmol/L). Antimicrobial studies revealed differential antimicrobial activities against different microbial strains. Zones of inhibition ranging from 4 to 26 mm were observed for the antibacterial tests with 0-24 mm for antifungal test. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bacteriostatic concentrations (MBC) for concentrates against bacterial strains ranged from 12.5 to 200 μg/mL. Lemon and lime juice concentrates had lower MIC and MBC values with orange and tangerine having the highest values. Minimum fungicidal concentrations ranged from 50 to 200 μg/mL. The results of this study suggest that these juice concentrates may have beneficial antimicrobial roles that can be exploited in controlling unwanted microbial growth.

  2. Asymmetric somatic hybridization between UV-irradiated Citrus unshiu and C. sinensis: regeneration and characterization of hybrid shoots.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Yong; Hu, Zhi-Yong; Li, Jun-Feng; Liu, Ji-Hong; Deng, Xiu-Xin

    2007-08-01

    In the present paper, attempts were made to explore the possibility of employing ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in citrus asymmetric fusion for transfer of limited amount of favorable traits from a desirable cultivar to a target one. Exposure of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) embryogenic protoplasts to UV at an intensity of 300 muW cm(-2) led to reduced viability, especially under long irradiation duration. The protoplasts could not grow during culture when they were irradiated for over 30 s. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay revealed extensive DNA fragmentation in the UV-irradiated protoplasts compared with those without UV treatment. Electrofusion between UV-irradiated protoplasts of Satsuma mandarin (donor) with those of Jincheng (C. sinensis Osbeck, recipient), a local cultivar of superior quality, gave rise to regeneration of several lines of shoots, which failed to root despite enormous endeavors. Ploidy analysis via flow cytometry and chromosome counting showed that four selected shoots were either diploid, triploid or tetraploid. Random amplified polymorphism DNA (RAPD) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) confirmed the shoots, irrespective of their ploidy level, as putative somatic hybrids. Cleaved amplified polymorphism sequences (CAPS) demonstrated that the shoots predominantly got their cytoplasmic components, in terms of chloroplast (cp) and mitochondrion DNA, from Jincheng, along with possible recombination of cpDNA in some shoot lines. The current data indicated that UV-based asymmetric fusion could also be employed in citrus somatic hybridization with the intention of creating novel germplasms, which may provide an alternative approach for cultivar improvement.

  3. [Pharmacognostic studies on the peel of Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. zhangshuensis and Citrus reticulata Blanco Var. kinokuni (Tanaka) H. H. Hu produced in Jiangxi].

    PubMed

    Fang, C S; Wang, A S

    1989-10-01

    Pharmacognostical studies on the peel of Citrus reticulata cv. zhangshuensis and Citrus reticulata var. kinokuni have been carried out in comparison with four crude drugs of Chenpi. Information on the research of resources of these two drugs is provided. PMID:2597317

  4. Processes involved in the dispersal of Xanthomonas citri pv. citri from canker-infectd citrus canopies, and in the infection of citrus foliage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is now considered endemic in Florida, and epidemics result in yield loss and market penalties both in Florida, and elsewhere where the pathogen occurs, and susceptible citrus is cultivated. The bacterium is dispersed in rain splash, and storms wit...

  5. Processess involved in the dispersal of Xanthomonas citri pv. citri from canker-infected citrus canopies, and in the infection of citrus foliage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is now considered endemic in Florida, and epidemics result in yield loss and market penalties both in Florida and elsewhere, where the pathogen occurs and susceptible citrus is cultivated. The bacterium is dispersed in rain splash, and storms with...

  6. Development of consumer-friendly transgenic citrus plants with potential broad spectrum resistance to HLB, Citrus canker, Phytopthora and other exotic diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The second year of this CRB funded project has started, which is focused on the development of citrus cultivars that exhibit disease resistance to multiple pathogens such as HLB, Phytophthora and citrus canker diseases. We are using precise genetic engineering to introduce into disease susceptible ...

  7. Genetic diversity of citrus tristeza virus from cross-protected and unprotected citrus trees after 20 years of natural challenge in Peru

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quick decline, caused by Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), devastated Peruvian citrus on sour orange rootstock between 1950 and 1965. A second epidemic occurred between 1965 to 1985 due to spread of CTV strains causing severe stem pitting (SP) on branches and trunks, regardless of rootstock. SP weakens t...

  8. Comparative analysis of three Australian finger lime (Citrus australasica) cultivars: identification of unique citrus chemotypes and new volatile molecules.

    PubMed

    Delort, Estelle; Jaquier, Alain; Decorzant, Erik; Chapuis, Christian; Casilli, Alessandro; Frérot, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The volatile constituents of the peel of three cultivars of Australian finger lime (Citrus australasica) were investigated: Alstonville, Judy's Everbearing and Durham's Emerald. Both qualitative and quantitative GC-MS analyses were performed on their peel solvent extract. The results showed that the unique phenotypes of finger lime are also correlated to unique molecular compositions. Each cultivar revealed a different chemotype: limonene/sabinene for cv. Alstonville, limonene/citronellal/isomenthone for cv. Judy's Everbearing, and limonene/citronellal/ citronellol for cv. Durham's Emerald. To the best of our knowledge, these chemotypes have never been reported in any other citrus species. Furthermore, the amounts of some volatile constituents (γ-terpinene, α-pinene, β-pinene, citral), which are generally the major constituents besides limonene in lime species, were surprisingly low in the three cultivars. Comparative GC-MS analysis also showed that some volatile molecules tended to be specific to one cultivar and could therefore be considered as markers. Moreover six molecules were reported for the first time in a citrus extract and confirmed by synthesis. Heart-cutting enantioselective two-dimensional GC-MS was performed to determine the enantiomeric distribution of the major chiral constituents. The combined data on three finger lime cultivars gives evidence of their divergence from other citrus species. PMID:25468539

  9. Gene expression in Asian citrus psyllid adults feeding from Florida citrus: Application to biology and vector control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used a genomics approach to identify some of the genetic basis of D. citri biology, identifying in particular genes associated with feeding, reproduction, pathology, and insecticide resistance. The Asian citrus psyllid (AsCP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a highly competent vector ...

  10. Living on the Edges: Spatial Niche Occupation of Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), in Citrus Groves

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The spatial niche occupation of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, 1908, was evaluated to determine its field colonization and food resource exploitation strategies in citrus groves. Mature grapefruit and sweet orange groves were surveyed as part of an area-wide program in 2009–2010 to determine D. citri population densities and between-tree distribution. In both cultivars, significantly more psyllids were found on perimeter trees throughout the study period suggesting a strong edge effect in D. citri distribution in the groves. D. citri densities and infestation levels gradually declined from the edge to the center of grove. Higher numbers of D. citri were recorded on trees located on the east and south sides of the groves than those on the west and north sides. Citrus groves located at the outer edge of the study with at least one side non-surrounded to other citrus groves harbored significantly more D. citri than groves located within the block cluster and entirely surrounded by other groves. In detailed field studies during 2012, infestation of D. citri started from border trees in the grove where possibly one generation is completed before inner trees become infested. In addition, psyllid densities decreased significantly with increasing distance from the grove edge. Using the selection index, D citri exhibited a strong niche occupation preference for border trees. PMID:26193111

  11. Genetic Transformation of Citrus Paradisi with Antisense and untranslatable RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase Genes of Citrus Tristeza Closterovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Expression of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) was studied in vivo and in vitro using a polyclonal antiserum raised against the recombinant CTV-RdRp protein. Although 56 kDa CTV-RdRp is thought to be expressed by a +1 translational frameshift at the carboxyl te...

  12. Metabolic Interplay between the Asian Citrus Psyllid and Its Profftella Symbiont: An Achilles’ Heel of the Citrus Greening Insect Vector

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, John S.; Johnson, Richard S.; Hoki, Jason S.; Kruse, Angela; Mahoney, Jaclyn; Hilf, Mark E.; Hunter, Wayne B.; Hall, David G.; Schroeder, Frank C.; MacCoss, Michael J.; Cilia, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas), the bacterial pathogen associated with citrus greening disease, is transmitted by Diaphorina citri, the Asian citrus psyllid. Interactions among D. citri and its microbial endosymbionts, including ‘Candidatus Profftella armatura’, are likely to impact transmission of CLas. We used quantitative mass spectrometry to compare the proteomes of CLas(+) and CLas(-) populations of D. citri, and found that proteins involved in polyketide biosynthesis by the endosymbiont Profftella were up-regulated in CLas(+) insects. Mass spectrometry analysis of the Profftella polyketide diaphorin in D. citri metabolite extracts revealed the presence of a novel diaphorin-related polyketide and the ratio of these two polyketides was changed in CLas(+) insects. Insect proteins differentially expressed between CLas(+) and CLas(-) D. citri included defense and immunity proteins, proteins involved in energy storage and utilization, and proteins involved in endocytosis, cellular adhesion, and cytoskeletal remodeling which are associated with microbial invasion of host cells. Insight into the metabolic interdependence between the insect vector, its endosymbionts, and the citrus greening pathogen reveals novel opportunities for control of this disease, which is currently having a devastating impact on citrus production worldwide. PMID:26580079

  13. Metabolic Interplay between the Asian Citrus Psyllid and Its Profftella Symbiont: An Achilles' Heel of the Citrus Greening Insect Vector.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, John S; Johnson, Richard S; Hoki, Jason S; Kruse, Angela; Mahoney, Jaclyn; Hilf, Mark E; Hunter, Wayne B; Hall, David G; Schroeder, Frank C; MacCoss, Michael J; Cilia, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas), the bacterial pathogen associated with citrus greening disease, is transmitted by Diaphorina citri, the Asian citrus psyllid. Interactions among D. citri and its microbial endosymbionts, including 'Candidatus Profftella armatura', are likely to impact transmission of CLas. We used quantitative mass spectrometry to compare the proteomes of CLas(+) and CLas(-) populations of D. citri, and found that proteins involved in polyketide biosynthesis by the endosymbiont Profftella were up-regulated in CLas(+) insects. Mass spectrometry analysis of the Profftella polyketide diaphorin in D. citri metabolite extracts revealed the presence of a novel diaphorin-related polyketide and the ratio of these two polyketides was changed in CLas(+) insects. Insect proteins differentially expressed between CLas(+) and CLas(-) D. citri included defense and immunity proteins, proteins involved in energy storage and utilization, and proteins involved in endocytosis, cellular adhesion, and cytoskeletal remodeling which are associated with microbial invasion of host cells. Insight into the metabolic interdependence between the insect vector, its endosymbionts, and the citrus greening pathogen reveals novel opportunities for control of this disease, which is currently having a devastating impact on citrus production worldwide. PMID:26580079

  14. Living on the Edges: Spatial Niche Occupation of Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), in Citrus Groves.

    PubMed

    Sétamou, Mamoudou; Bartels, David W

    2015-01-01

    The spatial niche occupation of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, 1908, was evaluated to determine its field colonization and food resource exploitation strategies in citrus groves. Mature grapefruit and sweet orange groves were surveyed as part of an area-wide program in 2009-2010 to determine D. citri population densities and between-tree distribution. In both cultivars, significantly more psyllids were found on perimeter trees throughout the study period suggesting a strong edge effect in D. citri distribution in the groves. D. citri densities and infestation levels gradually declined from the edge to the center of grove. Higher numbers of D. citri were recorded on trees located on the east and south sides of the groves than those on the west and north sides. Citrus groves located at the outer edge of the study with at least one side non-surrounded to other citrus groves harbored significantly more D. citri than groves located within the block cluster and entirely surrounded by other groves. In detailed field studies during 2012, infestation of D. citri started from border trees in the grove where possibly one generation is completed before inner trees become infested. In addition, psyllid densities decreased significantly with increasing distance from the grove edge. Using the selection index, D citri exhibited a strong niche occupation preference for border trees. PMID:26193111

  15. Living on the Edges: Spatial Niche Occupation of Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), in Citrus Groves.

    PubMed

    Sétamou, Mamoudou; Bartels, David W

    2015-01-01

    The spatial niche occupation of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, 1908, was evaluated to determine its field colonization and food resource exploitation strategies in citrus groves. Mature grapefruit and sweet orange groves were surveyed as part of an area-wide program in 2009-2010 to determine D. citri population densities and between-tree distribution. In both cultivars, significantly more psyllids were found on perimeter trees throughout the study period suggesting a strong edge effect in D. citri distribution in the groves. D. citri densities and infestation levels gradually declined from the edge to the center of grove. Higher numbers of D. citri were recorded on trees located on the east and south sides of the groves than those on the west and north sides. Citrus groves located at the outer edge of the study with at least one side non-surrounded to other citrus groves harbored significantly more D. citri than groves located within the block cluster and entirely surrounded by other groves. In detailed field studies during 2012, infestation of D. citri started from border trees in the grove where possibly one generation is completed before inner trees become infested. In addition, psyllid densities decreased significantly with increasing distance from the grove edge. Using the selection index, D citri exhibited a strong niche occupation preference for border trees.

  16. Metabolic Interplay between the Asian Citrus Psyllid and Its Profftella Symbiont: An Achilles' Heel of the Citrus Greening Insect Vector.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, John S; Johnson, Richard S; Hoki, Jason S; Kruse, Angela; Mahoney, Jaclyn; Hilf, Mark E; Hunter, Wayne B; Hall, David G; Schroeder, Frank C; MacCoss, Michael J; Cilia, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas), the bacterial pathogen associated with citrus greening disease, is transmitted by Diaphorina citri, the Asian citrus psyllid. Interactions among D. citri and its microbial endosymbionts, including 'Candidatus Profftella armatura', are likely to impact transmission of CLas. We used quantitative mass spectrometry to compare the proteomes of CLas(+) and CLas(-) populations of D. citri, and found that proteins involved in polyketide biosynthesis by the endosymbiont Profftella were up-regulated in CLas(+) insects. Mass spectrometry analysis of the Profftella polyketide diaphorin in D. citri metabolite extracts revealed the presence of a novel diaphorin-related polyketide and the ratio of these two polyketides was changed in CLas(+) insects. Insect proteins differentially expressed between CLas(+) and CLas(-) D. citri included defense and immunity proteins, proteins involved in energy storage and utilization, and proteins involved in endocytosis, cellular adhesion, and cytoskeletal remodeling which are associated with microbial invasion of host cells. Insight into the metabolic interdependence between the insect vector, its endosymbionts, and the citrus greening pathogen reveals novel opportunities for control of this disease, which is currently having a devastating impact on citrus production worldwide.

  17. Developing and implementing mating disruption for area-wide control of citrus leafminer and citrus canker disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful development and commercial launch of the first semiochemical-based control method for a major exotic insect pest and associated disease of citrus in Florida have resulted from vigorous collaboration between university and government researchers with support from private industry and innov...

  18. Comparative analysis of three Australian finger lime (Citrus australasica) cultivars: identification of unique citrus chemotypes and new volatile molecules.

    PubMed

    Delort, Estelle; Jaquier, Alain; Decorzant, Erik; Chapuis, Christian; Casilli, Alessandro; Frérot, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The volatile constituents of the peel of three cultivars of Australian finger lime (Citrus australasica) were investigated: Alstonville, Judy's Everbearing and Durham's Emerald. Both qualitative and quantitative GC-MS analyses were performed on their peel solvent extract. The results showed that the unique phenotypes of finger lime are also correlated to unique molecular compositions. Each cultivar revealed a different chemotype: limonene/sabinene for cv. Alstonville, limonene/citronellal/isomenthone for cv. Judy's Everbearing, and limonene/citronellal/ citronellol for cv. Durham's Emerald. To the best of our knowledge, these chemotypes have never been reported in any other citrus species. Furthermore, the amounts of some volatile constituents (γ-terpinene, α-pinene, β-pinene, citral), which are generally the major constituents besides limonene in lime species, were surprisingly low in the three cultivars. Comparative GC-MS analysis also showed that some volatile molecules tended to be specific to one cultivar and could therefore be considered as markers. Moreover six molecules were reported for the first time in a citrus extract and confirmed by synthesis. Heart-cutting enantioselective two-dimensional GC-MS was performed to determine the enantiomeric distribution of the major chiral constituents. The combined data on three finger lime cultivars gives evidence of their divergence from other citrus species.

  19. Production, soil erosion and economic failure in new citrus plantations in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giménez Morera, Antonio; Carles membrado, Joan; Cerdà, Artemi; Ángel González Peñaloza, Félix

    2013-04-01

    investment to develop the new plantations, an income lower than the expenses, the removal of terraces, drainage and irrigation ditches and the high erosion rates show a Desertification process triggered by the commercial agriculture of citrus. Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE and LEDDRA 243857 supported this research. References Bono, E. 2010. Naranja y desarrollo. La base agrícola exportadora de la economía del País Valenciano y el modelo de crecimiento hacea afuera. PUV, Valencia, 203 pp. Cerdà, A. 2001. Erosión hídrica del suelo en el Territorio Valenciano. El estado de la cuestión a través de la revisión bibliográfica. Geoforma Ediciones, Logroño, 79 pp. Cerdá, A. 2007. Soil water erosion on road embankments in Eastern Spain. Science of the Total Environments 378, 151-155. Cerdà, A., Morera, A.G., Bodí, M.B. 2009. Soil and water losses from new citrus orchards growing on sloped soils in the western Mediterranean basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 34 (13), 1822-1830. García-Orenes, F., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Guerrero, C., Bodí, M.B., Arcenegui, V., Zornoza, R. & Sempere, J.G. 2009. Effects of agricultural management on surface soil properties and soil-water losses in eastern Spain. Soil and Tillage Research, doi:10.1016/j.still.2009.06.002 González-Peñaloza, F.A., Cerdà, Zavala, L.M., Jordán, A. 2012. Do conservative agriculture practices increase soil water repellency? A case study in citrus-cropped soils. Soil & Tillage Research 124, 233 - 239. Liu, Y., Tao, Y., Wan, K.Y., Zhang, G.S., Liu, D.B., Xiong, G.Y., Chen, F. 2012. Runoff and nutrient losses in citrus orchards on sloping land subjected to different surface mulching practices in the Danjiangkou Reservoir area of China. Agricultural Water Management, 110, 34-40. Piqueras, J. 1999. El espacio Geográfico valenciano. Una síntesis geográfica. Valencia, 356 pp. Piqueras, J. 2012. Geografía del Territorio Valenciano. Departament de Geografia, Universitat

  20. Growing self-reconstruction maps.

    PubMed

    do Rêgo, Renata Lúcia Mendonça Ernesto; Araújo, Aluizio Fausto Ribeiro; de Lima Neto, Fernando Buarque

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for surface reconstruction based on growing self-organizing maps (SOMs), called growing self-reconstruction maps (GSRMs). GSRM is an extension of growing neural gas (GNG) that includes the concept of triangular faces in the learning algorithm and additional conditions in order to include and remove connections, so that it can produce a triangular two-manifold mesh representation of a target object given an unstructured point cloud of its surface. The main modifications concern competitive Hebbian learning (CHL), the vertex insertion operation, and the edge removal mechanism. The method proposed is able to learn the geometry and topology of the surface represented in the point cloud and to generate meshes with different resolutions. Experimental results show that the proposed method can produce models that approximate the shape of an object, including its concave regions, boundaries, and holes, if any. PMID:20007030

  1. Management of growing vestibular schwannomas.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Gian Gaetano; Pirodda, Antonio; Ceroni, Alberto Rinaldi; Fioravanti, Antonio; Calbucci, Fabio; Modugno, Giovanni Carlo

    2013-07-01

    Conservative management of small vestibular schwannomas is frequently proposed as most tumours do not grow. Anyway, tumour growth is reported in 30-40 % of the cases, so that surgery is consequently generally proposed. We primarily observed 161 patients affected by unilateral vestibular schwannomas. All patients were examined by means of gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging scans. Tumour growth was recorded in 58 cases (35.8 %) and these subjects set up the group of study. Twenty-two (37.9 %) patients were surgically treated; tumour was always completely removed, all patients had normal facial function after surgery and only one patient suffered from a major complication (cerebellar haematoma). Fourteen patients (24.1 %) were submitted to radiotherapy, while one patient was lost at follow-up and another one died because of other medical reasons. Finally, 20 (34.5 %) subjects continued to be observed for different reasons. The mean follow-up period after identification of growth was 6.1 years. Nine tumours continued to grow, nine tumours stopped growing, one tumour grew and then regressed in size and one tumour decreased. Sixty percent of patients with useful hearing at diagnosis preserved it during the entire observation period. In conclusion, most of VS do not grow; in case of tumour growth, a surgical procedure may be suggested and the outcomes are not negatively influenced by the delay of the procedure. But in some cases, patients can still follow the "wait and scan" policy. In fact, only less than half of the growing tumours continued to grow. Moreover, most of the patients continued to retain a useful hearing. PMID:23135237

  2. Citrus essential oils and their influence on the anaerobic digestion process: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, B; Flotats, X

    2014-11-01

    Citrus waste accounts for more than half of the whole fruit when processed for juice extraction. Among valorisation possibilities, anaerobic digestion for methane generation appears to be the most technically feasible and environmentally friendly alternative. However, citrus essential oils can inhibit this biological process. In this paper, the characteristics of citrus essential oils, as well as the mechanisms of their antimicrobial effects and potential adaptation mechanisms are reviewed. Previous studies of anaerobic digestion of citrus waste under different conditions are presented; however, some controversy exists regarding the limiting dosage of limonene for a stable process (24-192 mg of citrus essential oil per liter of digester and day). Successful strategies to avoid process inhibition by citrus essential oils are based either on recovery or removal of the limonene, by extraction or fungal pre-treatment respectively. PMID:25081855

  3. Dietary citrus pulp improves protein stability in lamb meat stored under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Gravador, Rufielyn S; Jongberg, Sisse; Andersen, Mogens L; Luciano, Giuseppe; Priolo, Alessandro; Lund, Marianne N

    2014-06-01

    The antioxidant effects of dried citrus pulp on proteins in lamb meat, when used as a replacement of concentrate in the feed, was studied using meat from 26 male Comisana lambs. The lambs of age 90 days had been grouped randomly to receive one of the three dietary treatments: (1) commercial concentrate with 60% barley (Control, n=8), (2) concentrate with 35% barley and 24% citrus pulp (Cp24, n=9), or (3) concentrate with 23% barley and 35% citrus pulp (Cp35, n=9). Slices from the longissimus thoracis et lomborum muscle were packed aerobically and stored for up to 6days at 4°C in the dark. The citrus pulp groups, Cp24 and Cp35, significantly decreased protein radicals and carbonyls, and preserved more thiols within six days of storage compared to the Control group. The citrus pulp groups significantly slowed down the rate of protein oxidation, indicating that dietary citrus pulp reduced oxidative changes in meat proteins.

  4. Citrus essential oils and their influence on the anaerobic digestion process: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, B; Flotats, X

    2014-11-01

    Citrus waste accounts for more than half of the whole fruit when processed for juice extraction. Among valorisation possibilities, anaerobic digestion for methane generation appears to be the most technically feasible and environmentally friendly alternative. However, citrus essential oils can inhibit this biological process. In this paper, the characteristics of citrus essential oils, as well as the mechanisms of their antimicrobial effects and potential adaptation mechanisms are reviewed. Previous studies of anaerobic digestion of citrus waste under different conditions are presented; however, some controversy exists regarding the limiting dosage of limonene for a stable process (24-192 mg of citrus essential oil per liter of digester and day). Successful strategies to avoid process inhibition by citrus essential oils are based either on recovery or removal of the limonene, by extraction or fungal pre-treatment respectively.

  5. Energy conservation in citrus processing. Technical progress report, October 1, 1979-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-15

    The Sunkist Citrus Plant in Ontario, California, processes about 6 million pounds of citrus fruit per day to make products which include frozen concentrated juice; chilled, pasteurized, natural strength juice; molasses from peel; dried meal from peel; pectin; citrus oil; and bioflavonoids. The energy intensive operations at the plant include concentration, drying, and refrigeration. The objective of the two-year two-phase project is to identify an economically viable alternative to the existing method of meeting energy requirements. Progress on the technical work of Phase I is reported. The following are summarized: requirements (energy price projection, atmospheric emission requirements, citrus juice quality constraints, economic evaluations); characterization (basic citrus processing operations, energy consumption and fruit processed vs time, identification and measurement of energy uses, energy balance for a typical citrus juice evaporator); and thermodynamic analysis (heat pump model, thermal evaporator, and co-generation model).

  6. Sulfur volatiles from Allium spp. affect Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), response to citrus volatiles.

    PubMed

    Mann, R S; Rouseff, R L; Smoot, J M; Castle, W S; Stelinski, L L

    2011-02-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, vectors Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) and Candidatus Liberibacter americanus (Lam), the presumed causal agents of huanglongbing. D. citri generally rely on olfaction and vision for detection of host cues. Plant volatiles from Allium spp. (Alliaceae) are known to repel several arthropod species. We examined the effect of garlic chive (A. tuberosum Rottl.) and wild onion (A. canadense L.) volatiles on D. citri behaviour in a two-port divided T-olfactometer. Citrus leaf volatiles attracted significantly more D. citri adults than clean air. Volatiles from crushed garlic chive leaves, garlic chive essential oil, garlic chive plants, wild onion plants and crushed wild onion leaves all repelled D. citri adults when compared with clean air, with the first two being significantly more repellent than the others. However, when tested with citrus volatiles, only crushed garlic chive leaves and garlic chive essential oil were repellent, and crushed wild onions leaves were not. Analysis of the headspace components of crushed garlic chive leaves and garlic chive essential oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that monosulfides, disulfides and trisulfides were the primary sulfur volatiles present. In general, trisulfides (dimethyl trisulfide) inhibited the response of D. citri to citrus volatiles more than disulfides (dimethyl disulfide, allyl methyl disulfide, allyl disulfide). Monosulfides did not affect the behaviour of D. citri adults. A blend of dimethyl trisulfide and dimethyl disulfide in 1:1 ratio showed an additive effect on inhibition of D. citri response to citrus volatiles. The plant volatiles from Allium spp. did not affect the behaviour of the D. citri ecto-parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston). Thus, Allium spp. or the tri- and di-sulphides could be integrated into management programmes for D. citri without affecting natural enemies.

  7. Identification and characterization of 27 conserved microRNAs in citrus.

    PubMed

    Song, Changnian; Fang, Jinggui; Li, Xiaoying; Liu, Hong; Thomas Chao, C

    2009-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-protein-coding small RNAs. Considering the conservation of many miRNA genes in different plant genomes, the identification of miRNAs from non-model organisms is both practicable and instrumental in addressing miRNA-guided gene regulation. Citrus is an important staple fruit tree, and publicly available expressed sequence tag (EST) database for citrus are increasing. However, until now, little has been known about miRNA in citrus. In this study, 27 known miRNAs from Arabidopsis were searched against citrus EST databases for miRNA precursors, of which 13 searched precursor sequences could form fold-back structures similar with those of Arabidopsis. The ubiquitous expression of those 13 citrus microRNAs and other 13 potential citrus miRNAs could be detected in citrus leaf, young shoot, flower, fruit and root by northern blotting, and some of them showed differential expression in different tissues. Based on the fact that miRNAs exhibit perfect or nearly perfect complementarity with their target sequences, a total of 41 potential targets were identified for 15 citrus miRNAs. The majority of the targets are transcription factors that play important roles in citrus development, including leaf, shoot, and root development. Additionally, some other target genes appear to play roles in diverse physiological processes. Four target genes have been experimentally verified by detection of the miRNA-mediated mRNA cleavage in Poncirus trifoliate. Overall, this study in the identification and characterization of miRNAs in citrus can initiate further study on citrus miRNA regulation mechanisms, and it can help us to know more about the important roles of miRNAs in citrus.

  8. How Does Your Garlic Grow?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimabukuro, Mary A.; Fearing, Vickie

    1993-01-01

    Garlic is an ideal plant for the elementary classroom. It grows rapidly in water without aeration for several weeks and remains relatively free of microbial contamination. Simple experiments with garlic purchased at grocery stores can illustrate various aspects of plant growth. (PR)

  9. Extreme Mechanics of Growing Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhl, Ellen

    2013-03-01

    Growth is a distinguishing feature of all living things. Unlike standard materials, living matter can autonomously respond to alterations in its environment. As a result of a continuous ultrastructural turnover and renewal of cells and extracellular matrix, living matter can undergo extreme changes in composition, size, and shape within the order of months, weeks, or days. While hard matter typically adapts by increasing its density to grow strong, soft matter adapts by increasing its volume to grow large. Here we provide a state-of-the-art review of growing matter, and compare existing mathematical models for growth and remodeling of living systems. Applications are plentiful ranging from plant growth to tumor growth, from asthma in the lungs to restenosis in the vasculature, from plastic to reconstructive surgery, and from skeletal muscle adaptation to heart failure. Using these examples, we discuss current challenges and potential future directions. We hope to initiate critical discussions around the biophysical modeling of growing matter as a powerful tool to better understand biological systems in health and disease. This research has been supported by the NSF CAREER award CMMI 0952021.

  10. How the pilidium larva grows

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background For animal cells, ciliation and mitosis appear to be mutually exclusive. While uniciliated cells can resorb their cilium to undergo mitosis, multiciliated cells apparently can never divide again. Nevertheless, many multiciliated epithelia in animals must grow or undergo renewal. The larval epidermis in a number of marine invertebrate larvae, such as those of annelids, mollusks and nemerteans, consists wholly or in part of multiciliated epithelial cells, generally organized into a swimming and feeding apparatus. Many of these larvae must grow substantially to reach metamorphosis. Do individual epithelial cells simply expand to accommodate an increase in body size, or are there dividing cells amongst them? If some cells divide, where are they located? Results We show that the nemertean pilidium larva, which is almost entirely composed of multiciliated cells, retains pockets of proliferative cells in certain regions of the body. Most of these are found near the larval ciliated band in the recesses between the larval lobes and lappets, which we refer to as axils. Cells in the axils contribute both to the growing larval body and to the imaginal discs that form the juvenile worm inside the pilidium. Conclusions Our findings not only explain how the almost-entirely multiciliated pilidium can grow, but also demonstrate direct coupling of larval and juvenile growth in a maximally-indirect life history. PMID:24690541

  11. Growing an Emerging Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birx, Donald L.; Anderson-Fletcher, Elizabeth; Whitney, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The emerging research college or university is one of the most formidable resources a region has to reinvent and grow its economy. This paper is the first of two that outlines a process of building research universities that enhance regional technology development and facilitate flexible networks of collaboration and resource sharing. Although the…

  12. Exploring Classroom Hydroponics. Growing Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Gardening Association, Burlington, VT.

    Growing Ideas, the National Gardening Association's series for elementary, middle, and junior high school educators, helps teachers engage students in using plants and gardens as contexts for developing a deeper, richer understanding of the world around them. This volume's focus is on hydroponics. It presents basic hydroponics information along…

  13. Colleges' Earmarks Grow, Amid Criticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Jeffrey; Hermes, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    A record-breaking number of Congressional pork-barrel projects this year has loaded college and university plates with more earmarks than ever before, despite growing worries that the noncompetitive grants undermine the American scientific enterprise, and in spite of promises by some lawmakers to cut back. An analysis by "The Chronicle" shows that…

  14. Growing Crystals on the Ceiling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christman, Robert A.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a method of studying growing crystals in a classroom utilizing a carrousel projector standing vertically. A saturated salt solution is placed on a slide on the lens of the projector and the heat from the projector causes the water to evaporate and salt to crystalize. (Author/DS)

  15. Growing Crystals for Infrared Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehoczky, S. L.; Szofran, F. R.

    1984-01-01

    Unidirectional solidification yields bulk crystals with compositional homogeneity. Unidirectionaly crystal-growth furnace assembly travels vertically so crystal grows upward from bottom tapered end of ampoule. Separately controlled furnaces used for hot (upper) and cold (lower) zones. New process produces ingots with radial compositional homogeneity suitable for fabricating infrared detectors.

  16. Consequences of Growing Up Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Ed.

    The consequences and correlates of growing up poor as well as the mechanisms through which poverty influences children are explored. This book is organized with a primary focus on research findings and a secondary concern with policy implications. The chapters are: (1) "Poor Families, Poor Outcomes: The Well-Being of Children and Youth" (Jeanne…

  17. Growing Patterns: Seeing beyond Counting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markworth, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, mathematical patterns have been acknowledged as important early components of children's development of algebraic reasoning (NCTM 2000). In particular, growing patterns have attracted significant attention as a context that helps students develop an understanding of functional relationships (Lee and Freiman 2006; Moss et…

  18. Growing Ideas, 1990-1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pranis, Eve, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This series of journals includes volumes 1-4 of "Growing Ideas," a journal of garden-based learning. Each issue provides instructional ideas, horticultural information and a forum for exchange among teachers using classroom gardening to stimulate learning. Ideas in each issue are separated into three sections. The "Green Tips" section presents…

  19. Organization of growing random networks

    SciTech Connect

    Krapivsky, P. L.; Redner, S.

    2001-06-01

    The organizational development of growing random networks is investigated. These growing networks are built by adding nodes successively, and linking each to an earlier node of degree k with an attachment probability A{sub k}. When A{sub k} grows more slowly than linearly with k, the number of nodes with k links, N{sub k}(t), decays faster than a power law in k, while for A{sub k} growing faster than linearly in k, a single node emerges which connects to nearly all other nodes. When A{sub k} is asymptotically linear, N{sub k}(t){similar_to}tk{sup {minus}{nu}}, with {nu} dependent on details of the attachment probability, but in the range 2{lt}{nu}{lt}{infinity}. The combined age and degree distribution of nodes shows that old nodes typically have a large degree. There is also a significant correlation in the degrees of neighboring nodes, so that nodes of similar degree are more likely to be connected. The size distributions of the in and out components of the network with respect to a given node{emdash}namely, its {open_quotes}descendants{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}ancestors{close_quotes}{emdash}are also determined. The in component exhibits a robust s{sup {minus}2} power-law tail, where s is the component size. The out component has a typical size of order lnt, and it provides basic insights into the genealogy of the network.

  20. Morphological and molecular characterization of a Hirsutella species infecting the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), in Florida.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jason M; Hoy, Marjorie A; Boucias, Drion G

    2007-06-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is an invasive pest that vectors citrus greening disease, which recently was detected in Florida. Mycosed adult D. citri were collected at four sites in central Florida between September 2005 and February 2006. Observation of the cadavers using scanning electron microscopy revealed that the pathogen had branched synnemata supporting monophiladic conidiogenous cells. A high-fidelity polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used to amplify the 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA and beta-tubulin genes of the pathogen for phylogenetic analysis. The morphological and genetic data indicated that the pathogen was a novel isolate related to Hirsutella citriformis Speare. PCR assays using isolate-specific primers designed from the unique putative intron region of the beta-tubulin sequence distinguished the psyllid pathogen from five related Hirsutella species. The pathogen was maintained in vivo by exposing healthy D. citri to the synnemata borne on field-collected cadavers. Infected psyllids had an abundance of septate hyphal bodies in their hemolymph and exhibited behavioral symptoms of disease. In vitro cultures of the pathogen were slow-growing and produced synnemata similar to those found on mycosed D. citri. In laboratory bioassays, high levels of mortality were observed in D. citri that were exposed to the conidia-bearing synnemata produced in vivo and in vitro.

  1. Network analysis of postharvest senescence process in citrus fruits revealed by transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuduan; Chang, Jiwei; Ma, Qiaoli; Chen, Lingling; Liu, Shuzhen; Jin, Shuai; Han, Jingwen; Xu, Rangwei; Zhu, Andan; Guo, Jing; Luo, Yi; Xu, Juan; Xu, Qiang; Zeng, YunLiu; Deng, Xiuxin; Cheng, Yunjiang

    2015-05-01

    Citrus (Citrus spp.), a nonclimacteric fruit, is one of the most important fruit crops in global fruit industry. However, the biological behavior of citrus fruit ripening and postharvest senescence remains unclear. To better understand the senescence process of citrus fruit, we analyzed data sets from commercial microarrays, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and validated physiological quality detection of four main varieties in the genus Citrus. Network-based approaches of data mining and modeling were used to investigate complex molecular processes in citrus. The Citrus Metabolic Pathway Network and correlation networks were constructed to explore the modules and relationships of the functional genes/metabolites. We found that the different flesh-rind transport of nutrients and water due to the anatomic structural differences among citrus varieties might be an important factor that influences fruit senescence behavior. We then modeled and verified the citrus senescence process. As fruit rind is exposed directly to the environment, which results in energy expenditure in response to biotic and abiotic stresses, nutrients are exported from flesh to rind to maintain the activity of the whole fruit. The depletion of internal substances causes abiotic stresses, which further induces phytohormone reactions, transcription factor regulation, and a series of physiological and biochemical reactions.

  2. First record of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Ecuador infesting urban citrus and orange jasmine trees.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, J F; Chica, E J

    2014-01-01

    Adults and nymphs of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), were collected in the Guayaquil, Samborondón, and Durán cantons in coastal Ecuador. Psyllids were found in high numbers in citrus (Citrus spp., Sapindales: Rutaceae) and orange jasmine (Murraya exotica [L.] Jack, Sapindales: Rutaceae) trees within the Guayaquil-Samborondon-Duran conurbation; however, none was found during scoutings in the main citrus producing areas in coastal Ecuador. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of D. citri in Ecuador and the Pacific coastal plain of South America.

  3. First record of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Ecuador infesting urban citrus and orange jasmine trees.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, J F; Chica, E J

    2014-01-01

    Adults and nymphs of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), were collected in the Guayaquil, Samborondón, and Durán cantons in coastal Ecuador. Psyllids were found in high numbers in citrus (Citrus spp., Sapindales: Rutaceae) and orange jasmine (Murraya exotica [L.] Jack, Sapindales: Rutaceae) trees within the Guayaquil-Samborondon-Duran conurbation; however, none was found during scoutings in the main citrus producing areas in coastal Ecuador. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of D. citri in Ecuador and the Pacific coastal plain of South America. PMID:25527601

  4. Land cover classification and economic assessment of citrus groves using remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Rahul J.; Gebelein, Jennifer L.

    The citrus industry has the second largest impact on Florida's economy, following tourism. Estimation of citrus area coverage and annual forecasts of Florida's citrus production are currently dependent on labor-intensive interpretation of aerial photographs. Remotely sensed data from satellites has been widely applied in agricultural yield estimation and cropland management. Satellite data can potentially be obtained throughout the year, making it especially suitable for the detection of land cover change in agriculture and horticulture, plant health status, soil and moisture conditions, and effects of crop management practices. In this study, we analyzed land cover of citrus crops in Florida using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) imagery from the University of Maryland Global Land Cover Facility (GLCF). We hypothesized that an interdisciplinary approach combining citrus production (economic) data with citrus land cover area per county would yield a correlation between observable spectral reflectance throughout the year, and the fiscal impact of citrus on local economies. While the data from official sources based on aerial photography were positively correlated, there were serious discrepancies between agriculture census data and satellite-derived cropland area using medium-resolution satellite imagery. If these discrepancies can be resolved by using imagery of higher spatial resolution, a stronger correlation would be observed for citrus production based on satellite data. This would allow us to predict the economic impact of citrus from satellite-derived spectral data analysis to determine final crop harvests.

  5. Network analysis of postharvest senescence process in citrus fruits revealed by transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuduan; Chang, Jiwei; Ma, Qiaoli; Chen, Lingling; Liu, Shuzhen; Jin, Shuai; Han, Jingwen; Xu, Rangwei; Zhu, Andan; Guo, Jing; Luo, Yi; Xu, Juan; Xu, Qiang; Zeng, YunLiu; Deng, Xiuxin; Cheng, Yunjiang

    2015-05-01

    Citrus (Citrus spp.), a nonclimacteric fruit, is one of the most important fruit crops in global fruit industry. However, the biological behavior of citrus fruit ripening and postharvest senescence remains unclear. To better understand the senescence process of citrus fruit, we analyzed data sets from commercial microarrays, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and validated physiological quality detection of four main varieties in the genus Citrus. Network-based approaches of data mining and modeling were used to investigate complex molecular processes in citrus. The Citrus Metabolic Pathway Network and correlation networks were constructed to explore the modules and relationships of the functional genes/metabolites. We found that the different flesh-rind transport of nutrients and water due to the anatomic structural differences among citrus varieties might be an important factor that influences fruit senescence behavior. We then modeled and verified the citrus senescence process. As fruit rind is exposed directly to the environment, which results in energy expenditure in response to biotic and abiotic stresses, nutrients are exported from flesh to rind to maintain the activity of the whole fruit. The depletion of internal substances causes abiotic stresses, which further induces phytohormone reactions, transcription factor regulation, and a series of physiological and biochemical reactions. PMID:25802366

  6. Rock fragment cover controls the sediment detachment in citrus plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia; Hamidreza Sadeghi, Seyed; Brevik, Eric; Giménez Morera, Antonio; Novara, Agata; Masto, Reginald E.; Jordán, Antonio; Wang, Juan

    2016-04-01

    conditions. The objective of this research is to determine the impact of the rock fragment cover on soil and water losses in citrus plantations. Within the Corral Roig Soil Erosion Research Station, located in the Municipality of Montesa, 82 plots were selected with different rock fragment cover. In each circular plot of 0.25 m2, a rainfall simulation experiments was carried out at 55 mm h-1 of rainfall intensity during 1 hour under dry conditions in the Summer of 2013 under very dry conditions. It was found that the soil erosion rates are related to percentage of bare soil, and negatively correlated to the rock fragment covers. A cover of 30 % of rock fragments reduces the loss of soil with 81%. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 603498 (RECARE project). References Cerdà, A. 1999. Parent material and vegetation affect soil erosion in eastern Spain. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 63 (2), 362-368. Cerdà, A., Giménez-Morera, A. and Bodí, M.B. Soil and water losses from new citrus orchards growing on sloped soils in the western Mediterranean basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 34, 1822-1830. 2009. DOI: 10.1002/esp.1889 Cerdà, A., González-Pelayo, O., Giménez-Morera, A., Jordán, A., Pereira, P., Novara, A., Brevik, E.C., Prosdocimi, M., Mahmoodabadi, M., Keesstra, S., García Orenes, F., Ritsema, C., 2015. The use of barley straw residues to avoid high erosion and runoff rates on persimmon plantations in Eastern Spain under low frequency - high magnitude simulated rainfall events. Soil Res. (In press) Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F. 2011. Ant mounds as a source of sediment on citrus orchard plantations in eastern Spain. A three-scale rainfall simulation approachCatena, 85 (3), 231-236. DOI: 10.1016/j.catena.2011.01.008 Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F. 2008.The influence of ants on soil and water losses from an orange orchard in

  7. Antibacterial activity of Citrus limonum fruit juice extract.

    PubMed

    Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; Okoli, Arinze Stanley; Eze, Edith Nneka; Ekwume, Grace Chinwe; Okosa, Evangelin Uchena; Iroegbu, Christian Ukwuoma

    2015-09-01

    The fruit juice extract of Citrus limonum was investigated for antibacterial activity. The antibacterial activity of the extract on ten strains of bacteria was determined by both agar well diffusion and macro-broth dilution methods. The extract was variously bacteriostatic and bactericidal against Bacillussubtilis ATCC 6051, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12600, Escherichia coli ATCC 11775, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 as well as locally isolated clinical strains of the above bacteria and Salmonella kintambo (Human: 13, 23: mt:-), Salmonella typhi and Proteus sp. The MICs ranged from 0.78 mg/ml to 50mg/ml; MBCs, 25.0mg/ml to >100mg/ml and MBC/MIC ratios 2.0 to >16.0. These results provide scientific justification for the medicinal use of Citrus limonum fruit juice by Nigerian herbalists in the treatment of diseases in which strains of the test organisms have been implicated as etiologic agents. PMID:26408878

  8. Micropropagation of Citrus spp. by organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chiancone, Benedetta; Germanà, Maria Antonietta

    2013-01-01

    Citrus spp., the largest fruit crops produced worldwide, are usually asexually propagated by cuttings or grafting onto seedling rootstocks. Most of Citrus genotypes are characterized by polyembryony due to the occurrence of adventive nucellar embryos, which lead to the production of true-to-type plants by seed germination. Tissue culture and micropropagation, in particular, are valuable alternatives to traditional propagation to obtain a high number of uniform and healthy plants in a short time and in a small space. Moreover, in vitro propagation provides a rapid system to multiply the progeny obtained by breeding programs, allows the use of monoembryonic and seedless genotypes as rootstocks, and it is very useful also for breeding and germplasm preservation.In this chapter, two protocols regarding organogenesis of a rootstock and somatic embryogenesis of a cultivar have been described.

  9. Micropropagation of Citrus spp. by organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chiancone, Benedetta; Germanà, Maria Antonietta

    2013-01-01

    Citrus spp., the largest fruit crops produced worldwide, are usually asexually propagated by cuttings or grafting onto seedling rootstocks. Most of Citrus genotypes are characterized by polyembryony due to the occurrence of adventive nucellar embryos, which lead to the production of true-to-type plants by seed germination. Tissue culture and micropropagation, in particular, are valuable alternatives to traditional propagation to obtain a high number of uniform and healthy plants in a short time and in a small space. Moreover, in vitro propagation provides a rapid system to multiply the progeny obtained by breeding programs, allows the use of monoembryonic and seedless genotypes as rootstocks, and it is very useful also for breeding and germplasm preservation.In this chapter, two protocols regarding organogenesis of a rootstock and somatic embryogenesis of a cultivar have been described. PMID:23179693

  10. Citrus tristeza virus: making an ally from an enemy.

    PubMed

    Dawson, William O; Bar-Joseph, Moshe; Garnsey, Stephen M; Moreno, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Virus diseases of perennial trees and vines have characteristics not amenable to study using small model annual plants. Unique disease symptoms such as graft incompatibilities and stem pitting cause considerable crop losses. Also, viruses in these long-living plants tend to accumulate complex populations of viruses and strains. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the biology and genetics of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) and in developing it into a tool for crop protection and improvement. The diseases in tree and vine crops have commonalities for which CTV can be used to develop a baseline. The purpose of this review is to provide a necessary background of systems and reagents developed for CTV that can be used for continued progress in this area and to point out the value of the CTV-citrus system in answering important questions on plant-virus interactions and developing new methods for controlling plant diseases.

  11. Citrus tristeza virus: making an ally from an enemy.

    PubMed

    Dawson, William O; Bar-Joseph, Moshe; Garnsey, Stephen M; Moreno, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Virus diseases of perennial trees and vines have characteristics not amenable to study using small model annual plants. Unique disease symptoms such as graft incompatibilities and stem pitting cause considerable crop losses. Also, viruses in these long-living plants tend to accumulate complex populations of viruses and strains. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the biology and genetics of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) and in developing it into a tool for crop protection and improvement. The diseases in tree and vine crops have commonalities for which CTV can be used to develop a baseline. The purpose of this review is to provide a necessary background of systems and reagents developed for CTV that can be used for continued progress in this area and to point out the value of the CTV-citrus system in answering important questions on plant-virus interactions and developing new methods for controlling plant diseases. PMID:25973695

  12. First derivative versus absolute spectral reflectance of citrus varieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazquez, Carlos H.; Nigg, H. N.; Hedley, Lou E.; Ramos, L. E.; Sorrell, R. W.; Simpson, S. E.

    1996-06-01

    Spectral reflectance measurements from 400 to 800 nm were taken from immature and mature leaves of grapefruit ('McCarty' and 'Rio Red'), 'Minneola' tangelo, 'Satsuma' mandarin, 'Dancy' tangerine, 'Nagami' oval kumquat, and 'Valencia' sweet orange, at the Florida Citrus Arboretum, Division of Plant Industry, Winter Haven, Florida. Immature and mature leaves of 'Minneola' tangelo had greater percent reflectance in the 400 to 800 nm range than the other varieties and leaf ages measured. The slope of the citrus spectral curves in the 800 nm range was not as sharp as conventional spectrometers, but had a much higher reflectance value than those obtained with a DK-2 spectrometer. Statistical analyses of absolute spectral data yielded significant differences between mature and immature leaves and between varieties. First derivative data analyses did not yield significant differences between varieties.

  13. Antibacterial activity of Citrus limonum fruit juice extract.

    PubMed

    Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; Okoli, Arinze Stanley; Eze, Edith Nneka; Ekwume, Grace Chinwe; Okosa, Evangelin Uchena; Iroegbu, Christian Ukwuoma

    2015-09-01

    The fruit juice extract of Citrus limonum was investigated for antibacterial activity. The antibacterial activity of the extract on ten strains of bacteria was determined by both agar well diffusion and macro-broth dilution methods. The extract was variously bacteriostatic and bactericidal against Bacillussubtilis ATCC 6051, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12600, Escherichia coli ATCC 11775, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 as well as locally isolated clinical strains of the above bacteria and Salmonella kintambo (Human: 13, 23: mt:-), Salmonella typhi and Proteus sp. The MICs ranged from 0.78 mg/ml to 50mg/ml; MBCs, 25.0mg/ml to >100mg/ml and MBC/MIC ratios 2.0 to >16.0. These results provide scientific justification for the medicinal use of Citrus limonum fruit juice by Nigerian herbalists in the treatment of diseases in which strains of the test organisms have been implicated as etiologic agents.

  14. Silicone Granulomas, a Growing Problem?

    PubMed Central

    Curreri, Alexis T.; Taylor, Gina A.; Burris, Katy

    2016-01-01

    The formation of granulomas is known to be a possible adverse effect of liquid silicone administration, used for soft tissue augmentation. Its plumping effects provide enhancement of certain body parts, such as the lips, hips, and buttocks. The desire for enhancement, perhaps influenced by popular culture and an unrealistic standard of beauty, leads individuals to seek silicone injections. There is a growing population of women and men receiving injections by unlicensed, unskilled “practitioners” not related to the healthcare profession. Complications under such circumstances are not uncommon, particularly the emergence of silicone granulomas, and the authors’ medical center has seen an increase in such cases. In this case report, the authors illustrate a young patient with significant complications from her silicone injections, review current therapies for silicone granulomas, and discuss this growing medical problem. PMID:27386046

  15. Silicone Granulomas, a Growing Problem?

    PubMed

    Park, Michelle E; Curreri, Alexis T; Taylor, Gina A; Burris, Katy

    2016-05-01

    The formation of granulomas is known to be a possible adverse effect of liquid silicone administration, used for soft tissue augmentation. Its plumping effects provide enhancement of certain body parts, such as the lips, hips, and buttocks. The desire for enhancement, perhaps influenced by popular culture and an unrealistic standard of beauty, leads individuals to seek silicone injections. There is a growing population of women and men receiving injections by unlicensed, unskilled "practitioners" not related to the healthcare profession. Complications under such circumstances are not uncommon, particularly the emergence of silicone granulomas, and the authors' medical center has seen an increase in such cases. In this case report, the authors illustrate a young patient with significant complications from her silicone injections, review current therapies for silicone granulomas, and discuss this growing medical problem. PMID:27386046

  16. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) profiling of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) infection in sweet orange citrus varietals using thermal desorption gas chromatography time of flight mass spectrometry (TD-GC/TOF-MS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a plant pathogen which predominately infects economically important citrus crops such as sweet orange, clementine, lime and grapefruit varietals. Within the last 70 years, an estimated 100 million citrus trees on sour orange rootstock have been destroyed due to CTV inf...

  17. Growing a miracle in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Farruggia, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    A Kenyan woman, a retired nurse, and a nurse executive in America are miraculously led together to start a library in Kima, Kenya. Small beginnings grow into the Heather May-MashoodAbiola Children's Resource Centre (HEMAMA). Named after two infant children lost by the Kenyan woman and the nurse executive, HEMAMA is making a difference in the lives of children in the Kima, Kenya community.

  18. Growing yeast into cylindrical colonies.

    PubMed

    Vulin, Clément; Di Meglio, Jean-Marc; Lindner, Ariel B; Daerr, Adrian; Murray, Andrew; Hersen, Pascal

    2014-05-20

    Microorganisms often form complex multicellular assemblies such as biofilms and colonies. Understanding the interplay between assembly expansion, metabolic yield, and nutrient diffusion within a freely growing colony remains a challenge. Most available data on microorganisms are from planktonic cultures, due to the lack of experimental tools to control the growth of multicellular assemblies. Here, we propose a method to constrain the growth of yeast colonies into simple geometric shapes such as cylinders. To this end, we designed a simple, versatile culture system to control the location of nutrient delivery below a growing colony. Under such culture conditions, yeast colonies grow vertically and only at the locations where nutrients are delivered. Colonies increase in height at a steady growth rate that is inversely proportional to the cylinder radius. We show that the vertical growth rate of cylindrical colonies is not defined by the single-cell division rate, but rather by the colony metabolic yield. This contrasts with cells in liquid culture, in which the single-cell division rate is the only parameter that defines the population growth rate. This method also provides a direct, simple method to estimate the metabolic yield of a colony. Our study further demonstrates the importance of the shape of colonies on setting their expansion. We anticipate that our approach will be a starting point for elaborate studies of the population dynamics, evolution, and ecology of microbial colonies in complex landscapes. PMID:24853750

  19. Carbonaceous Matter in Growing Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, M. V.; Stangl, C. M.; Horan, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric nanoparticles constitute the greatest portion of ambient aerosol loading by number. A major source of atmospheric nanoparticles is new particle formation (NPF), a gas to particle conversion process whereby clusters nucleate from gas phase precursors to form clusters on the order of one or a few nanometers and then grow rapidly to climatically relevant sizes. A substantial fraction of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are thought to arise from NPF. In order to better predict the frequency, growth rates, and climatic impacts of NPF, knowledge of the chemical mechanisms by which nucleated nanoparticles grow is needed. The two main contributors to particle growth are (neutralized) sulfate and carbonaceous matter. Particle growth by sulfuric acid condensation is generally well understood, though uncertainty remains about the extent of base neutralization and the relative roles of ammonia and amines. Much less is known about carbonaceous matter, and field measurements suggest that nitrogen-containing species are important. In this presentation, recent work by our group will be described that uses a combination of ambient measurements, laboratory experiments and computational work to study carbonaceous matter in growing nanoparticles. These studies span a range of particle sizes from the initial adsorption of molecules onto a nanometer-size ammonium bisulfate seed cluster to reactions in particles that are large enough to support condensed-phase chemistry.

  20. A cellular automata model for citrus variegated chlorosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, M. L.; Ceotto, G.; Alves, S. G.; Bufon, C. C. B.; Silva, J. M.; Laranjeira, F. F.

    2001-06-01

    A review of the main results obtained by a cellular automata model recently proposed to analyze the progress of citrus variegated chlorosis epidemics is done. In this model epidemiological and environmental features, such as motility of sharpshooter vectors which perform Lévy flights, hydric and nutritional level of plant stress and seasonal climatic effects, are included. The observed epidemics data were quantitatively reproduced by the proposed model varying the parameters controlling vectors motility, plant stress and initial population of diseased plants.

  1. New excised-leaf assay method to test inoculativity of Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus associated with citrus huanglongbing disease.

    PubMed

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Walter, Abigail J; Hall, David G

    2013-02-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the primary vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) associated with huanglongbing, or citrus greening, the most devastating citrus (Citrus spp.) disease worldwide. Here, we developed a new "excised-leaf assay" that can speed up Las-inoculativity tests on Asian citrus psyllid from the current 3-12 mo (when using whole citrus seedlings for inoculation) to only 2-3 wk. Young adults of Asian citrus psyllid that had been reared on Las-infected plants were caged on excised healthy sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] leaves for a 1-2-wk inoculation access periods (IAP), and then both psyllids and leaves were tested later by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). When single adults were tested per leaf, percentages of Las-positive leaves averaged 2-6% by using HLBaspr primers and 10-20% by using the more sensitive LJ900 primers. Higher proportions of Las-positive leaves were obtained with 1) higher densities of inoculating psyllids (5-10 adults per leaf), 2) longer IAPs, and 3) incubation of leaves for 1 wk postinoculation before PCR. Logistic regression analysis indicated a positive correlation between Las titer in Asian citrus psyllid adults tested singly and the probability of detecting Las in the inoculated leaves, correlations that can be very useful in epidemiological studies. Comparison between excised leaves and whole seedlings, inoculated consecutively for 1 wk each by one or a group of psyllids, indicated no significant difference between Las detection in excised leaves or whole plants. This new excised-leaf assay method saves considerable time, materials, and greenhouse space, and it may enhance vector relation and epidemiological studies on Las and potentially other Liberibacter spp. associated with huanglongbing disease.

  2. Overexpression of a Modified Plant Thionin Enhances Disease Resistance to Citrus Canker and Huanglongbing (HLB)

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Guixia; Stover, Ed; Gupta, Goutam

    2016-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening disease) caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is a great threat to the US citrus industry. There are no proven strategies to eliminate HLB disease and no cultivar has been identified with strong HLB resistance. Citrus canker is also an economically important disease associated with a bacterial pathogen (Xanthomonas citri). In this study, we characterized endogenous citrus thionins and investigated their expression in different citrus tissues. Since no HLB-resistant citrus cultivars have been identified, we attempted to develop citrus resistant to both HLB and citrus canker through overexpression of a modified plant thionin. To improve effectiveness for disease resistance, we modified and synthesized the sequence encoding a plant thionin and cloned into the binary vector pBinPlus/ARS. The construct was then introduced into Agrobacterium strain EHA105 for citrus transformation. Transgenic Carrizo plants expressing the modified plant thionin were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Successful transformation and transgene gene expression was confirmed by molecular analysis. Transgenic Carrizo plants expressing the modified thionin gene were challenged with X. citri 3213 at a range of concentrations, and a significant reduction in canker symptoms and a decrease in bacterial growth were demonstrated compared to nontransgenic plants. Furthermore, the transgenic citrus plants were challenged with HLB via graft inoculation. Our results showed significant Las titer reduction in roots of transgenic Carrizo compared with control plants and reduced scion Las titer 12 months after graft inoculation. These data provide promise for engineering citrus disease resistance against HLB and canker. PMID:27499757

  3. Overexpression of a Modified Plant Thionin Enhances Disease Resistance to Citrus Canker and Huanglongbing (HLB).

    PubMed

    Hao, Guixia; Stover, Ed; Gupta, Goutam

    2016-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening disease) caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is a great threat to the US citrus industry. There are no proven strategies to eliminate HLB disease and no cultivar has been identified with strong HLB resistance. Citrus canker is also an economically important disease associated with a bacterial pathogen (Xanthomonas citri). In this study, we characterized endogenous citrus thionins and investigated their expression in different citrus tissues. Since no HLB-resistant citrus cultivars have been identified, we attempted to develop citrus resistant to both HLB and citrus canker through overexpression of a modified plant thionin. To improve effectiveness for disease resistance, we modified and synthesized the sequence encoding a plant thionin and cloned into the binary vector pBinPlus/ARS. The construct was then introduced into Agrobacterium strain EHA105 for citrus transformation. Transgenic Carrizo plants expressing the modified plant thionin were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Successful transformation and transgene gene expression was confirmed by molecular analysis. Transgenic Carrizo plants expressing the modified thionin gene were challenged with X. citri 3213 at a range of concentrations, and a significant reduction in canker symptoms and a decrease in bacterial growth were demonstrated compared to nontransgenic plants. Furthermore, the transgenic citrus plants were challenged with HLB via graft inoculation. Our results showed significant Las titer reduction in roots of transgenic Carrizo compared with control plants and reduced scion Las titer 12 months after graft inoculation. These data provide promise for engineering citrus disease resistance against HLB and canker. PMID:27499757

  4. Inheritance and heritability of resistance to citrus leprosis.

    PubMed

    Bastianel, Marinês; de Oliveira, Antonio Carlos; Cristofani, Mariângela; Filho, Oliveiro Guerreiro; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Rodrigues, Vandeclei; Astúa-Monge, Gustavo; Machado, Marcos Antônio

    2006-10-01

    ABSTRACT The genetic inheritance of resistance to leprosis, the most important viral disease of citrus in Brazil, was characterized through the phenotypic assessment of 143 hybrids resulting from crosses between tangor 'Murcott' (Citrus sinensis x C. reticulata) and sweet orange 'Pêra' (C. sinensis), considered to be resistant and susceptible to the disease, respectively. All plants were grafted onto Rangpur lime (C. limonia) and inoculated with Citrus leprosis virus, cytoplasmic type through the infestation with viruliferous mites, Brevipalpus phoenicis. The experiments were arranged in a completely randomized block design with 10 replicates. Incidence and severity of the disease in leaves and stems as well as plant growth parameters (plant height and stem diameter) were recorded for 3 years after the infestation with the viruliferous mites. The average values of all variables were analyzed using principal component analysis, discriminant factorial analysis, estimation of the clonal repeatability coefficients, and frequency of the distributions of the average values for each measured variable. The principal component analysis resulted in the identification of at least two groups with resistance and susceptibility to leprosis, respectively. About 99% of all hybrids were correctly classified according to the discriminant factorial analysis. The broad-sense heritability coefficients for characteristics associated with incidence and severity of leprosis ranged from 0.88 to 0.96. The data suggest that the inheritance of resistance to leprosis may be controlled by only a few genes. PMID:18943497

  5. Synergy and Other Interactions between Polymethoxyflavones from Citrus Byproducts.

    PubMed

    García, Benito F; Torres, Ascensión; Macías, Francisco A

    2015-11-06

    The citrus by-products released from citrus processing plants may contain high levels of potentially bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, which are a widely distributed group of polyphenolic compounds with health-related properties based on their antioxidant activity. In the study reported here, the potential bioactivities and antioxidant activities of extracts, fractions and compounds from citrus by-products were evaluated along with the chemical interactions of binary mixtures of compounds and complex mixtures. The bioactivities and interactions were evaluated in wheat coleoptile bioassays and the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the al DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhdrazyl radical) radical scavenging assay. The extracts, fractions and most of the isolated compounds (mainly polymethoxyflavones) showed high activity in the wheat coleoptile bioassay. However, the antioxidant activity was not consistently high, except in the acetone extract fractions. Moreover, a study of the interactions with binary mixtures of polymethoxyflavones showed the occurrence of synergistic effects. The complex mixtures of fractions composed mainly of polymethoxyflavones caused a synergistic effect when it was added to a bioactive compound such as anethole. The results reported here highlight a new application for the wheat coleoptile bioassay as a quick tool to detect potential synergistic effects in compounds or mixtures.

  6. [Biological characteristics of the egg phase of citrus root weevils].

    PubMed

    Guedes, Jerson V C; Parra, José R P

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this work was to study some characteristics of the egg phase of three species of citrus root weevils. The insects were collected from citrus plants in Itapetininga, SP, and brought to the Laboratório de Biologia de Insetos of ESALQ/USP, in Piracicaba, SP, where the species Naupactus cervinus (Boheman), Naupactus versatilis (Hustache) and Parapantomorus fluctuosus (Boheman) were kept. Duration and viability of the egg phase were evaluated, and the lower temperature threshold and thermal constant (K) were calculated for these species. The species of citrus root weevils showed different duration of egg phases. The egg phase ranged from 40.4 to 13.8 N. cervinus, from 38.7 to 20.0 days for N. versatilis, and from 35.0 to 13.8 days for P. fluctuosus, depending upon temperature. The temperature thresholds of this stage were 8.1, 8.3, and 9.9 masculineC at thermal constant was 385.7, 397.7 and 294.1 degree-days, for N. cervinus, N. versatilis and P. fluctuosus respectively. The duration of the egg phases of N. cervinus and N. versatilis were similar at the same temperatures and P. fluctuosus had a faster development than Naupactus spp. in all temperatures tested.

  7. Influence of mitochondria on gene expression in a citrus cybrid.

    PubMed

    Bassene, Jean-Baptiste; Froelicher, Yann; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick; Ancillo, Gema

    2011-06-01

    The production of cybrids, combining nucleus of a species with alien cytoplasmic organelles, is a valuable method used for improvement of various crops. Several citrus cybrids have been created by somatic hybridization. These genotypes are interesting models to analyze the impact of cytoplasmic genome change on nuclear genome expression. Herein, we report genome-wide gene expression analysis in leaves of a citrus cybrid between C. reticulata cv 'Willowleaf mandarin' and C. limon cv 'Eureka lemon' compared with its lemon parent, using a Citrus 20K cDNA microarray. Molecular analysis showed that this cybrid possesses nuclear and chloroplast genomes of Eureka lemon plus mitochondria from Willowleaf mandarin and, therefore, can be considered as a lemon bearing foreign mitochondria. Mandarin mitochondria influenced the expression of a large set of lemon nuclear genes causing an over-expression of 480 of them and repression of 39 genes. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR further confirmed the credibility of microarray data. Genes over-expressed in cybrid leaves are predominantly attributed to the functional category "cellular protein metabolism" whereas in the down-regulated none functional category was enriched. Overall, mitochondria replacement affected different nuclear genes including particularly genes predicted to be involved in mitochondrial retrograde signaling. Mitochondria regulate all cell structures even chloroplast status. These results suggest that nuclear gene expression is modulated with respect to new information received from the foreign organelle, with the final objective to suit specific needs to ensure better cell physiological balance.

  8. Analysis of full-length sequences of two Citrus yellow mosaic badnavirus isolates infecting Citrus jambhiri (Rough Lemon) and Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck (Sweet Orange) from a nursery in India.

    PubMed

    Anthony Johnson, A M; Borah, B K; Sai Gopal, D V R; Dasgupta, I

    2012-12-01

    Citrus yellow mosaic badna virus (CMBV), a member of the Family Caulimoviridae, Genus Badnavirus is the causative agent of mosaic disease among Citrus species in southern India. Despite its reported prevalence in several citrus species, complete information on clear functional genomics or functional information of full-length genomes from all the CMBV isolates infecting citrus species are not available in publicly accessible databases. CMBV isolates from Rough Lemon and Sweet Orange collected from a nursery were cloned and sequenced. The analysis revealed high sequence homology of the two CMBV isolates with previously reported CMBV sequences implying that they represent new variants. Based on computational analysis of the predicted secondary structures, the possible functions of some CMBV proteins have been analyzed.

  9. Expression of Bacillus thuringiensis Cytolytic Toxin (Cyt2Ca1) in citrus roots to control Diaprepes abbreviatus larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) is an important pest of citrus in the USA. Currently, no effective management strategies of Diaprepes abbreviatus exist in citriculture. To protect citrus against Diaprepes abbreviatus a transgenic citrus rootstock expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Cyt2Ca1, an insect toxin...

  10. Multiple leafminer species attracted to the major pheromone components of the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, is a major pest of citrus throughout the world due to leafmining damage that reduces photosynthetic capacity of leaves and increases the incidence and severity of citrus canker disease. A lure comprised of two aldehyde compounds isolated from ph...

  11. Effect of X-irradiation on Citrus Canker Pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri of Satsuma Mandarin Fruits.

    PubMed

    Song, Min-A; Park, Jae Sin; Kim, Ki Deok; Jeun, Yong Chull

    2015-12-01

    Citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) is one of the most important bacterial diseases of citrus. Because citrus canker is not found in many countries including European Union and Australia, Xcc is strictly regulated in order to prevent its spread. In this study, the effects of X-irradiation on Xcc growth either in the suspension or on the surface of citrus fruits were investigated. The suspension containing 1×10(7) cfu/ml of Xcc was irradiated with different absorbed doses of X-irradiation ranging from 50 to 400 Gy. The results showed that Xcc was fully dead at 400 Gy of X-irradiation. To determine the effect of X-irradiation on quarantine, the Xcc-inoculated citrus fruits were irradiated with different X-ray doses at which Xcc was completely inhibited by an irradiation dose of 250 Gy. The D10 value for Xcc on citrus fruits was found to be 97 Gy, indicating the possibility of direct application on citrus quarantine without any side sterilizer. Beside, presence of Xcc on the surface of asymptomatic citrus fruits obtained from citrus canker-infected orchards was noted. It indicated that the exporting citrus fruits need any treatment so that Xcc on the citrus fruits should be completely eliminated. Based on these results, ionizing radiation can be considered as an alternative method of eradicating Xcc for export of citrus fruits. PMID:26672670

  12. Effect of X-irradiation on Citrus Canker Pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri of Satsuma Mandarin Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Song, Min-A; Park, Jae Sin; Kim, Ki Deok; Jeun, Yong Chull

    2015-01-01

    Citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) is one of the most important bacterial diseases of citrus. Because citrus canker is not found in many countries including European Union and Australia, Xcc is strictly regulated in order to prevent its spread. In this study, the effects of X-irradiation on Xcc growth either in the suspension or on the surface of citrus fruits were investigated. The suspension containing 1×107 cfu/ml of Xcc was irradiated with different absorbed doses of X-irradiation ranging from 50 to 400 Gy. The results showed that Xcc was fully dead at 400 Gy of X-irradiation. To determine the effect of X-irradiation on quarantine, the Xcc-inoculated citrus fruits were irradiated with different X-ray doses at which Xcc was completely inhibited by an irradiation dose of 250 Gy. The D10 value for Xcc on citrus fruits was found to be 97 Gy, indicating the possibility of direct application on citrus quarantine without any side sterilizer. Beside, presence of Xcc on the surface of asymptomatic citrus fruits obtained from citrus canker-infected orchards was noted. It indicated that the exporting citrus fruits need any treatment so that Xcc on the citrus fruits should be completely eliminated. Based on these results, ionizing radiation can be considered as an alternative method of eradicating Xcc for export of citrus fruits. PMID:26672670

  13. 76 FR 78225 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Citrus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Collection; Importation of Citrus From Peru AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... the importation of citrus from Peru. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on or before... the importation of citrus from Peru, contact Mr. Tony Rom n, Import Specialist,...

  14. 26 CFR 1.278-1 - Capital expenditures incurred in planting and developing citrus and almond groves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... developing citrus and almond groves. 1.278-1 Section 1.278-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.278-1 Capital expenditures incurred in planting and developing citrus and almond groves. (a..., or development of any citrus or almond grove (or part thereof), and which is incurred before...

  15. 75 FR 34419 - Notice of Revision and Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Citrus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... Information Collection; Citrus Canker; Interstate Movement of Regulated Nursery Stock and Fruit from... nursery stock and fruit from quarantined areas to prevent the spread of citrus canker and to request an... regulated nursery stock and fruit from quarantined areas to prevent the spread of citrus canker, contact...

  16. 26 CFR 1.278-1 - Capital expenditures incurred in planting and developing citrus and almond groves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... developing citrus and almond groves. 1.278-1 Section 1.278-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.278-1 Capital expenditures incurred in planting and developing citrus and almond groves. (a..., or development of any citrus or almond grove (or part thereof), and which is incurred before...

  17. 75 FR 28233 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Asian Citrus Psyllid

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... Control Agent for Asian Citrus Psyllid AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama). The environmental assessment considers the effects of... for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of Asian citrus psyllid infestations....

  18. 26 CFR 1.278-1 - Capital expenditures incurred in planting and developing citrus and almond groves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... developing citrus and almond groves. 1.278-1 Section 1.278-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.278-1 Capital expenditures incurred in planting and developing citrus and almond groves. (a..., or development of any citrus or almond grove (or part thereof), and which is incurred before...

  19. 26 CFR 1.278-1 - Capital expenditures incurred in planting and developing citrus and almond groves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... developing citrus and almond groves. 1.278-1 Section 1.278-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Capital expenditures incurred in planting and developing citrus and almond groves. (a) General rule. (1)(i... any citrus or almond grove (or part thereof), and which is incurred before the close of the...

  20. 26 CFR 1.278-1 - Capital expenditures incurred in planting and developing citrus and almond groves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... developing citrus and almond groves. 1.278-1 Section 1.278-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.278-1 Capital expenditures incurred in planting and developing citrus and almond groves. (a..., or development of any citrus or almond grove (or part thereof), and which is incurred before...