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Sample records for city central vietnam

  1. The feasibility of a school-based VI polysaccharide vaccine mass immunization campaign in Hue City, central Vietnam: streamlining a typhoid fever preventive strategy.

    PubMed

    Thiem, Vu Dinh; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina; Canh, Do Gia; Son, Nguyen Dinh; Hoa, Nyugen Thai; Thuy, Dang Thi Dieu; Ochiai, R Leon; Lan, Nguyen Thi; Hop, Tran Quang; Ali, Mohammad; Park, Jin Kyung; Abu-Elyazeed, Remon; Holliday, Kris; Ivanoff, Bernard; Anh, Dang Duc; Pang, Tikki; Donner, Allan; Galindo, Claudia M; Trach, Dang Duc; Clemens, John D; Acosta, Camilo J

    2006-05-01

    We report the coverage, safety, and logistics of a school-based typhoid fever immunization campaign that took place in Hue City, central Vietnam; a typhoid fever endemic area. A cluster-randomized evaluation-blinded controlled trial was designed where 68 schools (cluster) were randomly allocated the single dose Vi polysaccharide vaccine (Typherix) or the active control hepatitis A vaccine (Havrix). A safety surveillance system was implemented. A total of 32,267 children were immunized with a coverage of 57.5%. Strong predictors for vaccination were attending primary schools, peri-urban location of the school, and low family income. Human resources were mainly schoolteachers and the campaign was completed in about 1 month. Most adverse events reported were mild. Safe injection and safe sharp-waste disposal practices were followed. A typhoid fever school-based immunization campaign was safe and logistically possible. Coverage was moderate and can be interpreted as the minimum that could have been achievable because individual written informed consent procedures were sought for the first time in Hue City and the trial nature of the campaign. The lessons learned, together with cost-effectiveness results to be obtained by the end of follow-up period, will hopefully accelerate the introduction of Vi typhoid fever vaccine in Vietnam.

  2. Flood loss assessment in Can Tho City, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, T. C.; Kreibich, H.

    2012-04-01

    Floods are recurring events in the Lower Mekong Basin resulting in loss of life and property, causing damage to agriculture and rural infrastructure, and disrupting social and economic activities. Flood management and mitigation has become a priority issue at the national and regional levels. Besides, it is expected that large areas of the Mekong delta, the Red River delta and the central coast will be flooded by sea-level rise due to climate change. Can Tho City is ranked under the five most flood-tide-influenced cities of Vietnam. It is the biggest city in the Mekong delta and it is located near the Hau river. Like other region of the Mekong delta, Can Tho suffers due to floods from upstream and flood tides from the sea. In the flood season large rural areas of the city are flooded, particularly during tidal days. Flood risk management policy includes preparative measures for living with floods and to minimise the damage caused by floods as well as to take advantage of floods for sustainable development. An intensive literature review, including administrative reports as well as expert interviews have been undertaken to gain more insight into flood characteristics, their consequences and risk mitigation. Therefore, flood damaging processes and trends have been reviewed for Can Tho City and the Mekong Basin in Vietnam. Additionally, suitable flood damage estimation methodologies have been collected as important input for flood risk analyses. On this basis it has been investigated which flood risk mitigation and management strategies promise to be effective in Can Tho City, Vietnam.

  3. Vietnam and Central America: Reflections on Power and Morality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresler, Robert J.

    1983-01-01

    Would the spread of Marxist revolution in Central America threaten America's vital interests? Would the people of that region be better off if we intervened? We cannot live forever under the shadow of Vietnam. It is not beyond our power to prevent a communist victory in Central America. (SR)

  4. Aristolochia quangbinhensis (Aristolochiaceae), a new species from Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Do, Truong Van; Nghiem, Trong Duc; Wanke, Stefan; Neinhuis, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aristolochia quangbinhensis T.V. Do, a new species from Central Vietnam, is described and illustrated. According to morphology, the species belongs to Aristolochia subgenus Isotrema. A detailed description, along with line drawings, photographs, ecology, distribution, conservation status as well as a comparison to morphologically similar species is provided. PMID:24526848

  5. Serological evidence of human infection with Pteropine orthoreovirus in Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harpal; Shimojima, Masayuki; Ngoc, Thanh Cao; Quoc Huy, Nguyen Vu; Chuong, Tran Xuan; Le Van, An; Saijo, Masayuki; Yang, Ming; Sugamata, Masami

    2015-12-01

    Pteropine orthoreovirus, potentially of bat origin, has been reported to cause respiratory tract infections among human beings in Southeast Asia. Twelve IgG ELISA-positive cases with antibodies against Pteropine orthoreovirus were detected among 272 human serum samples collected between March and June 2014 from in and around Hue City, Central Vietnam. These 12 cases were IgM ELISA negative. Neutralizing antibodies were also detected among six of these cases with the highest titer of 1:1,280 in 2 cases (both female, 32 and 68 years old, respectively). This is the first report of human infection with Pteropine orthoreovirus in Central Vietnam. These findings indicate the need for surveillance on Pteropine orthoreovirus infections in Southeast Asia to enable prevention and control strategies to be developed should a change in virulence occur.

  6. Serological evidence of human infection with Pteropine orthoreovirus in Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harpal; Shimojima, Masayuki; Ngoc, Thanh Cao; Quoc Huy, Nguyen Vu; Chuong, Tran Xuan; Le Van, An; Saijo, Masayuki; Yang, Ming; Sugamata, Masami

    2015-12-01

    Pteropine orthoreovirus, potentially of bat origin, has been reported to cause respiratory tract infections among human beings in Southeast Asia. Twelve IgG ELISA-positive cases with antibodies against Pteropine orthoreovirus were detected among 272 human serum samples collected between March and June 2014 from in and around Hue City, Central Vietnam. These 12 cases were IgM ELISA negative. Neutralizing antibodies were also detected among six of these cases with the highest titer of 1:1,280 in 2 cases (both female, 32 and 68 years old, respectively). This is the first report of human infection with Pteropine orthoreovirus in Central Vietnam. These findings indicate the need for surveillance on Pteropine orthoreovirus infections in Southeast Asia to enable prevention and control strategies to be developed should a change in virulence occur. PMID:26010233

  7. Cost of treatment for breast cancer in central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Hoang Lan, Nguyen; Laohasiriwong, Wongsa; Stewart, John Frederick; Tung, Nguyen Dinh; Coyte, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years, cases of breast cancer have been on the rise in Vietnam. To date, there has been no study on the financial burden of the disease. This study estimates the direct medical cost of a 5-year treatment course for women with primary breast cancer in central Vietnam. Methods Retrospective patient-level data from medical records at the Hue Central Hospital between 2001 and 2006 were analyzed. Cost analysis was conducted from the health care payers’ perspective. Various direct medical cost categories were computed for a 5-year treatment course for patients with breast cancer. Costs, in US dollars, discounted at a 3% rate, were converted to 2010 after adjusting for inflation. For each cost category, the mean, standard deviation, median, and cost range were estimated. Median regression was used to investigate the relationship between costs and the stage, age at diagnosis, and the health insurance coverage of the patients. Results The total direct medical cost for a 5-year treatment course for breast cancer in central Vietnam was estimated at $975 per patient (range: $11.7–$3,955). The initial treatment cost, particularly the cost of chemotherapy, was found to account for the greatest proportion of total costs (64.9%). Among the patient characteristics studied, stage at diagnosis was significantly associated with total treatment costs. Patients at later stages of breast cancer did not differ significantly in their total costs from those at earlier stages however, but their survival time was much shorter. The absence of health insurance was the main factor limiting service uptake. Conclusion From the health care payers’ perspective, the Government subsidization of public hospital charges lowered the direct medical costs of a 5-year treatment course for primary breast cancer in central Vietnam. However, the long treatment course was significantly influenced by out-of-pocket payments for patients without health insurance. PMID:23394855

  8. Confirmed Plasmodium vivax Resistance to Chloroquine in Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Nguyen Van; Van, Nguyen Van; Louisa, Melva; Baird, Kevin; Xa, Nguyen Xuan; Peeters Grietens, Koen; Hung, Le Xuan; Duong, Tran Thanh; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna; Speybroeck, Niko; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Erhart, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax resistance to chloroquine (CQ) is currently reported in almost all countries where P. vivax is endemic. In Vietnam, despite a first report on P. vivax resistance to chloroquine published in the early 2000s, P. vivax was still considered sensitive to CQ. Between May 2009 and December 2011, a 2-year cohort study was conducted in central Vietnam to assess the recommended radical cure regimen based on a 10-day course of primaquine (0.5 mg/kg/day) together with 3 days of CQ (25 mg/kg). Here we report the results of the first 28-day follow-up estimating the cumulative risk of P. vivax recurrences together with the corresponding CQ blood concentrations, among other endpoints. Out of 260 recruited P. vivax patients, 240 completed treatment and were followed up to day 28 according to the WHO guidelines. Eight patients (3.45%) had a recurrent P. vivax infection, at day 14 (n = 2), day 21 (n = 1), and day 28 (n = 5). Chloroquine blood concentrations, available for 3/8 recurrent infections (days 14, 21, and 28), were above the MIC (>100 ng/ml whole blood) in all of these cases. Fever and parasitemia (both sexual and asexual stages) were cleared by day 3. Anemia was common at day 0 (35.8%), especially in children under 10 years (50%), and hemoglobin (Hb) recovery at day 28 was substantial among anemic patients (median change from day 0 to 28, +1.7 g/dl; interquartile range [IQR], +0.7 to +3.2). This report, based on CQ blood levels measured at the time of recurrences, confirms for the first time P. vivax CQ resistance in central Vietnam and calls for further studies using standardized protocols for accurately monitoring the extent and evolution of P. vivax resistance to chloroquine in Vietnam. These results, together with the mounting evidence of artemisinin resistance in central Vietnam, further highlight the increasing threat of antimalarial drug resistance to malaria elimination in Vietnam. PMID:26392501

  9. Confirmed Plasmodium vivax Resistance to Chloroquine in Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Pham Vinh; Hong, Nguyen Van; Van, Nguyen Van; Louisa, Melva; Baird, Kevin; Xa, Nguyen Xuan; Peeters Grietens, Koen; Hung, Le Xuan; Duong, Tran Thanh; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna; Speybroeck, Niko; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Erhart, Annette

    2015-12-01

    Plasmodium vivax resistance to chloroquine (CQ) is currently reported in almost all countries where P. vivax is endemic. In Vietnam, despite a first report on P. vivax resistance to chloroquine published in the early 2000s, P. vivax was still considered sensitive to CQ. Between May 2009 and December 2011, a 2-year cohort study was conducted in central Vietnam to assess the recommended radical cure regimen based on a 10-day course of primaquine (0.5 mg/kg/day) together with 3 days of CQ (25 mg/kg). Here we report the results of the first 28-day follow-up estimating the cumulative risk of P. vivax recurrences together with the corresponding CQ blood concentrations, among other endpoints. Out of 260 recruited P. vivax patients, 240 completed treatment and were followed up to day 28 according to the WHO guidelines. Eight patients (3.45%) had a recurrent P. vivax infection, at day 14 (n = 2), day 21 (n = 1), and day 28 (n = 5). Chloroquine blood concentrations, available for 3/8 recurrent infections (days 14, 21, and 28), were above the MIC (>100 ng/ml whole blood) in all of these cases. Fever and parasitemia (both sexual and asexual stages) were cleared by day 3. Anemia was common at day 0 (35.8%), especially in children under 10 years (50%), and hemoglobin (Hb) recovery at day 28 was substantial among anemic patients (median change from day 0 to 28, +1.7 g/dl; interquartile range [IQR], +0.7 to +3.2). This report, based on CQ blood levels measured at the time of recurrences, confirms for the first time P. vivax CQ resistance in central Vietnam and calls for further studies using standardized protocols for accurately monitoring the extent and evolution of P. vivax resistance to chloroquine in Vietnam. These results, together with the mounting evidence of artemisinin resistance in central Vietnam, further highlight the increasing threat of antimalarial drug resistance to malaria elimination in Vietnam.

  10. Studies on hantavirus infection in small mammals captured in southern and central highland area of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Luan, Vu Dinh; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Endo, Rika; Taruishi, Midori; Huong, Vo Thi; Dat, Dang Tuan; Tien, Pham Cong; Shimizu, Kenta; Koma, Takaaki; Yasuda, Shumpei P; Nhi, Le; Huong, Vu Thi Que; Arikawa, Jiro

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the distribution of hantaviruses among animals in Southern and Central Highland area of Vietnam, a total of 1311 serum samples were obtained from rats and Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus) captured at 11 locations between 2006 and 2009. A total of 1066 serum samples from rats were examined for IgG antibodies against Hantaan virus, and there were 30 antibody-positive serum samples from rats that had been captured mainly in a port area and urban area in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) (2.8%). All of the antibody-positive rats were Rattus norvegicus, and they had Seoul virus (SEOV) genome in their lungs. SEOV sequences detected from rats captured in Southern Vietnam belonged to the same lineage as those from rats captured at Haiphong Port and a market area in Hanoi City. SEOV strain CSG5 was isolated from a rat captured at Saigon Harbor. Strain CSG5 showed a cross-neutralization pattern almost the same as that of a representative strain of SEOV. A total of 245 Asian house shrews were captured in the Central Highland area and near HCMC. Sera were examined for IgG antibodies against Thottapalayam virus (TPMV), and 32 (13.1%) of the antibody-positive shrews were mainly from the Central Highland area and showed a neutralizing antibody against TPMV. These results indicated that SEOV is distributed among R. norvegicus inhabiting harbor and urban areas of Southern Vietnam and that TPMV or an antigenically related virus is distributed among Asian house shrews in Central Highland area.

  11. Advantages and disadvantages of a municipal solid waste collection service for citizens of Hanoi City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Kosuke; Osako, Masahiro

    2013-03-01

    Governments of municipalities in Vietnam experiencing dynamic economic growth and dramatic population increases have been struggling to manage increased amounts of municipal solid waste (MSW). This study aimed to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of the current MSW collection service for citizens of the four central districts of Hanoi city, Vietnam, by conducting interviews with 200 households and 200 business entities regarding their satisfaction with the service. The survey results showed that Hanoi city provides an economical collection service with sufficient frequency and at appropriate times for citizens. However, a number of citizens complained about unsanitary conditions in the area surrounding their residence. Business entities had sufficient motivation to sell recyclable waste (RW) to the informal sector, not only to derive revenue from selling RW, but also to reduce the amount of MSW generated, thus reducing the MSW collection fee. Households were not motivated to reduce MSW by selling RW to the informal sector because they paid a fixed collection fee. As a result, an improvement in living standards in the near future is expected to contribute to increasing the amount of MSW generated from households.

  12. Linkages between precipitation and discharge trends in Central Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souvignet, Maxime; Freer, Jim; Cloke, Hannah; Laux, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    Trend detection in precipitation and river discharge datasets can provide important insights into the impacts of climatic variability and change. Regions with poor observed hydrometeorological data coverage, often coincident with developing countries, are particularly prone to affects of changes in rainfall and temperature. In such regions, e.g. Central Vietnam, which are frequently affected by floods and droughts, knowledge about climate trends and their evolution over time is essential to project potential impacts on local water availability, agricultural productivity and risk analysis. Consequently, the quantification of the impact of global climate change in poorly gauged regions is of crucial importance for stakeholders and policy makers. In this study, we analyse change in rainfall, temperature and river discharge over the last three decades in Central Vietnam. To overcome the limited data availability, the high resolution APHRODITE gridded dataset is used in addition to the existing rain gauges network. Finally, linkages between discharge changes and trends in rainfall and temperature are explored. Results are indicative of an intensification of rainfall (+15%/decade), with more extreme and longer events. A significant increase in winter rainfall and a decrease in consecutive dry days provides strong evidence for a lengthening wet season in Central Vietnam. In addition, trends based on APHRODITE suggest a strong orographic signal in winter and annual trends. These results underline the local variability in the impacts of climatic change at the global scale. Consequently, it is important that change detection investigations are conducted at the local scale. A very weak signal is detected in the trend of minimum temperature (+0.2°C/decade). River discharge trends show an increase in mean discharge (31% to 35%/decade) over the last decades. Between 54 and 74% of this increase is explained by the increase in precipitation. The maximum discharge also responds

  13. Genetic differentiation of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam) using microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Huber, K; Le Loan, L; Hoang, T H; Ravel, S; Rodhain, F; Failloux, A-B

    2002-09-01

    Dengue haemorrhagic fever emerged in the 1950s and has become a major public health concern in most Asian countries. In Vietnam, little is known about the intraspecific variation of the vector and its consequences on vectorial capacity. Here we report the use of microsatellite markers to differentiate Aedes aegypti populations in Ho Chi Minh City, a typical, overcrowded Asian city. Six microsatellite loci, with 5-14 alleles per locus, were scored in 20 mosquito samples collected in 1998 in Ho Chi Minh City. We found substantial differentiation among Ae. aegypti populations from the outskirts, whereas populations from the centre of the city showed less differentiation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that populations of Ae. aegypti in central Ho Chi Minh City are panmictic because there are abundant larval breeding sites and an abundance of humans for adults to feed upon. In contrast, populations on the outskirts become differentiated largely through the processes of genetic drift because larval breeding sites are not as abundant. These findings implicate human activities associated with urbanization, as factors shaping the genetic structure of Ae. aegypti populations.

  14. Competing for Coffee Space: Development-Induced Displacement in the Central Highlands of Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doutriaux, Sylvie; Geisler, Charles; Shively, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    Vietnam has emerged as the world's second largest producer of coffee. The benefits of this expanding coffee economy are substantial but not universal; their distribution follows ethnic lines despite government commitment to equalize welfare. Focusing on Dak Lak Province in Vietnam's Central Highlands, we investigate this commercial transformation…

  15. 78 FR 17745 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Vietnam Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Vietnam, and I hereby waive this restriction....

  16. Vietnam.

    PubMed

    1984-05-01

    Attention in this discussion of Vietnam is directed to the following: people; geography; history; government; the economy (agriculture and industry, trade and balance of payments); foreign relations; and relations between the US and Vietnam. In mid-1983 the population was estimated at 57,610,000 with an annual growth rate of 2.4%. Ethnic Vietnamese constitute almost 90% of the population. Various ethnic groups make up the remaining 10% of the population, with approximately 1.2 million Chinese being the most numerous and concentrated in southern Vietnam. The 2nd largest minority, the Montagnards (mountain tribesmen) comprise 2 main ethnolinguistic groups--Malayo Polynesia and Mon-Khmer. The most important political institution in Vietnam is the Vietnamese Communisty Party. All but 4 party Politburo members concurrently hold high positions in the government. The most important powers within the Vietnamese government, as opposed to the Communisty Party, are the executive agencies. Under the overly ambitious initial 5 year plan and the more conservative 1981-85 plan, the Vietnamese have made little progress in raising output and living standards beyond the levels of the 1960s. Guidelines of the 1981-85 plan call for attaining food self sufficiency, strengthening export and consumer industries, as well as the heavy industries that support them, and improving transport and energy production. The US does not have diplomatic relations with Vietnam.

  17. Thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hoa Van; Sanchaisuriya, Kanokwan; Nguyen, Dung; Phan, Hoa Thi Thuy; Siridamrongvattana, Sirivara; Sanchaisuriya, Pattara; Fucharoen, Supan; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Schelp, Frank P

    2013-01-01

    A community-based assessment of thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies was conducted at the Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam. By cluster sampling, a total of 410 pregnant women attending the antenatal care service at 30 commune health centers were recruited consecutively from September 2011 to June 2012. Hemoglobin (Hb) analysis was performed using an automated Hb analyzer. α-Thalassemia (α-thal) genes were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. Out of the 410 pregnant women, 2.7% carried α(0)-thal and 1.2% were β-thal carriers. One woman with the - -(THAI) deletion was also found. Among the females under survey, structural Hb variants with 3.2% Hb E [β26(B8)Glu→Lys, GAG>AAG; HBB: c.78G>C] and 3.7% Hb Constant Spring [Hb CS; α142, Term→Gln, TAA>CAA (α2); HBA2: c.427T>C] were found. Assessing the frequency of thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies by ethnicity, Kinh (Vietnamese) and ethnic minority groups, Hb CS with a high frequency of 24.0% was observed in the ethnic minority groups. These results provide basic population-based information, are useful not only for implementing measures for prevention and control of thalassemias in the region but also for studying the importance of thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies in ethnic minorities within Southeast Asia.

  18. The Policy Cycle and Vernacular Globalization: A Case Study of the Creation of Vietnam National University--Hochiminh City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minh Ngo, Thanh; Lingard, Bob; Mitchell, Jane

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the policy cycle and vernacular globalization in the context of higher education reform in Vietnam. Through an analysis of the development of the Vietnam National University--Hochiminh City as part of the post-1986 reconstruction of Vietnamese higher education, the article considers the complex interrelationship between…

  19. A fluvial and pluvial probabilistic flood hazard analysis for Can Tho city, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, Heiko; Martinez, Oriol; Thi Chinh, Do; Viet Dung, Nguyen

    2014-05-01

    Can Tho city is the largest city and the economic heart of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Due to its economic importance and envisaged development goals the city grew rapidly in population size and extend over the last two decades. Large parts of the city are located in flood prone areas, and also the central parts of the city recently experienced an increasing number of flood events, both of fluvial and pluvial nature. As the economic power and asset values are constantly increasing, this poses a considerable risk for the city. The the aim of this study is to perform a flood hazard analysis considering both fluvial and pluvial floods and to derive probabilistic flood hazard maps. This requires in a first step an understanding of the typical flood mechanisms. Fluvial floods are triggered by a coincidence of high water levels during the annual flood period in the Mekong Delta with high tidal levels, which cause in combination short term inundations in Can Tho. Pluvial floods are triggered by typical tropical convective rain storms during the monsoon season. These two flood pathways are essentially independent in its sources and can thus be treated in the hazard analysis accordingly. For the fluvial hazard analysis we propose a bivariate frequency analysis of the Mekong flood characteristics, the annual maximum flood discharge Q and the annual flood volume V at the upper boundary of the Mekong Delta, the gauging station Kratie. This defines probabilities of exceedance of different Q-V pairs, which are transferred into synthetic flood hydrographs. The synthetic hydrographs are routed through a quasi-2D hydrodynamic model of the entire Mekong Delta in order to provide boundary conditions for a detailed hazard mapping of Can Tho. This downscaling step is necessary, because the huge complexity of the river and channel network does not allow for a proper definition of boundary conditions for Can Tho city by gauge data alone. In addition the available gauge data around Can Tho

  20. Environmental Health Risk Assessment of Dioxin Exposure through Foods in a Dioxin Hot Spot—Bien Hoa City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Vu-Anh, Le; Ngoc-Bich, Nguyen; Tenkate, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This study used the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework to assess the human health risk of dioxin exposure through foods for local residents in two wards of Bien Hoa City, Vietnam. These wards are known hot-spots for dioxin and a range of stakeholders from central government to local levels were involved in this process. Publications on dioxin characteristics and toxicity were reviewed and dioxin concentrations in local soil, mud, foods, milk and blood samples were used as data for this risk assessment. A food frequency survey of 400 randomly selected households in these wards was conducted to provide data for exposure assessment. Results showed that local residents who had consumed locally cultivated foods, especially fresh water fish and bottom-feeding fish, free-ranging chicken, duck, and beef were at a very high risk, with their daily dioxin intake far exceeding the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO. Based on the results of this assessment, a multifaceted risk management program was developed and has been recognized as the first public health program ever to have been implemented in Vietnam to reduce the risks of dioxin exposure at dioxin hot-spots. PMID:20623031

  1. The legacy of Agent Orange: empirical evidence from central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Michael G

    2005-03-01

    This paper seeks to provide a socio-economic impact assessment for Vietnamese victims of the principal US military herbicide, Agent Orange, used during the Vietnam War in the period 1961-71. The study is based on a field survey of 30 affected and 30 unaffected households in Quang Tri province. With this assessment, the paper attempts to address the broader issues of compensation currently available to victims. The coverage and composition of current benefits are deemed inadequate as an effective redress. In view of this, revision of current compensation, the mobilization of an international donor fund and spurred non-governmental support is strongly recommended. PMID:15589674

  2. Psammon rotifers in Central Vietnam, with the descriptions of three new species (Rotifera: Monogononta).

    PubMed

    Dang, Mau Trinh; Segers, Hendrik; Sanoamuang, La-Orsri

    2015-09-15

    In order to address the dearth of information on Rotifera in Vietnam, and especially on rotifers inhabiting freshwater psammon in Southeast Asia, we collected and examined twenty-five hygropsammon samples from Bau Thiem Lake, Thua Thien Hue Province, central Vietnam. A total of eighty-nine species-level rotifer taxa were identified, belonging to 21 genera and 13 families. Of these, 48 taxa (54%) are new to Vietnam, including three species, Lecane climacois Harring & Myers, 1926, Notommata cerberus (Gosse, 1886) and Trichocerca intermedia (Stenroos, 1898) that are new to the Oriental region, and three species, Lecane phapi n. sp., Lecane dorysimilis n. sp. and Trichocerca bauthiemensis n. sp. that are new to science. These, and some additional rare species are commented upon and illustrated. We estimated that the α-diversity of psammon rotifers in Bau Thiem Lake may be as high as 99 (SD=8.4; Chao2) or 115 (Jacknife2) taxa. These results indicate a high potential of rotifer diversity in the hygropsammon at Bau Thiem Lake, central Vietnam.

  3. Impact of climate change and sea level rise on a coastal aquifer, Central Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyen, Ine; Batelaan, Okke; Thanh Tam, Vu

    2014-05-01

    The Gio Linh district in the Quang Tri province, Central Vietnam has, like many other coastal areas in the world, to deal with negative impacts of Global Climate Change (GCC) and sea level rise (SLR). This research aims at investigating the impact of GCC/SLR and designing an adaptive water use plan till the year 2030 for the 150,000 local residents of the Gio Linh district and the city of Dong Ha. The coastal plain covers an area of about 450 km2 between the rivers Ben Hai in the North and Thach Han in the South. The area has a tropical monsoon climate which is characterized by an average precipitation of 1500 to 2700 mm in nearly 180 days from August to April. GCC/SLR scenarios are built and assessed for estimating the changes in hydrometeorological conditions of the study area. Depending on the level of gas emission the sea level is expected to rise 7-9 cm by 2020 and around 11-14 cm by 2030 for low to high gas emission respectively. The salt-freshwater interface is expected to experience an inland shift due to SLR, affecting the amount of exploitable groundwater for drinking and irrigation water production. Water production mainly comes from shallow aquifers in unconsolidated Quarternary coastal formations. These geological formations have a highly heterogeneous lithology. A 3D groundwater model is built to study possible seawater intrusion under the changing conditions. Data from meteorological stations over a period of about 30 years and some data from 63 boreholes in and around the Gio Linh district are available. Geophysical measurements have been carried out recently and in the past and are used to support the model.

  4. Popowia bachmaensis (Annonaceae), a new species from Bach Ma National Park, Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ngoc, Nguyen Van; Tagane, Shuichiro; Binh, Hoang Thi; Toyama, Hironori; Okabe, Norikazu; Duy, Chinh Nguyen; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Popowia bachmaensis Ngoc, Tagane & Yahara, sp. nov. is described from Bach Ma National Park in Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam. This species is morphologically similar to Popowia pisocarpa (Blume) Endl. ex Walp., but can be readily distinguished from it by its lower stems, smaller leaves, shorter flowering pedicels, shorter carpels, longer sepals and inner petals. A detailed description, comprising illustrations, and supplemented with DNA barcodes of the two regions of rbcL and matK, are provided.

  5. Characterization of mangrove species using ALOS-2 PALSAR in Hai Phong city, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dat Pham, Tien; Yoshino, Kunihiko

    2016-06-01

    Hai Phong city is located in the Northern coast of Vietnam where the mangroves are distributed between zone I and zone II among the four mangrove zones in Vietnam. This city is vulnerable to rising sea levels associated with climate change and tropical cyclones, which are forecasted to become more severe due to the impact of climate change. In the past, mangrove forests in this city have decreased markedly because of over expansion of shrimp farming. Thus, identification of mangrove forests is important to monitor and support mangrove conservation and management in the coastal zone. The objectives of this research were to identify the locations of mangrove and characterize mangrove species in Hai Phong using HH and HV backscatters of the Advanced Land Observing Satellite 2 (ALOS-2) with enhanced Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR). Image segmentation was used to identify the locations of mangrove forests. Moreover, Geographic Information System (GIS) was applied to update current status of mangrove species in 2015. The results showed that the means of HH and HV backscatter coefficients of K. obovata are lower than S. caseolaris. K. obovata has HH value around -13.9 dB until -10.3 dB and HV value around -20.6 dB until -16.2 dB. Higher HH values between about -14.9 dB and -6.8 dB and HV values between roughly -20.6 dB and -14.3 dB have observed by S. caseolaris. The total area of mangrove forest in Hai Phong in the year 2015 was around 4084 hectares, of which S. caseolaris occupied over 68% and mixed mangrove species was approximately 25.6%. This research indicates the potential for the use of L-band ALOS-2 PALSAR in characterizing mangrove forest species in the coastal zone.

  6. Epidemiological urinalysis of children from kindergartens of Can Gio, Ho Chi Minh City - Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies on Vietnamese children have shown that kidney diseases are not detected early enough to prevent chronic renal failure. The dipstick test is a simple and useful tool for detecting urinary abnormalities, especially in isolated or remote areas of Vietnam, where children have limited access to health care. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 at seven kindergartens in Can Gio district, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Two thousand and twelve children, aged 3 to 5, were enrolled. Morning mid-stream urine samples were examined by dipstick. Children with abnormal findings were re-examined with a second dipstick and underwent further investigations. Results Urinalysis was available for 1,032 boys and 980 girls. Mean age was 4.4 ± 0.8 years. Urinary abnormalities were detected in 108 (5.5%) of the subjects. Among them, nitrituria and leucocyturia accounted for more than 50%. Positive fractions of proteinuria, hematuria, nitrituria, leucocyturia, and combined nitrituria and leucocyturia after two dipsticks were 0.1%, 0.1%, 2%, 1% and 0.3%, respectively. Abnormal findings were more common in girls than boys (p < 0.001), and higher in communes with very low (< 50 persons/km2) population density (14.3% vs 4.1%, p < 0.001). A renal ultrasound detected four cases of hydronephrosis and one case of duplication of ureter. Conclusions The prevalence of urinary abnormalities in asymptomatic children in South Vietnam demonstrates the need for hygiene education among parents. Training for dipstick usage for all medical staff at health stations, especially in remote areas and in places with very low population density, is also clearly necessary. Routine urinalysis can be set up if a close control is conducted at locations. PMID:24206763

  7. Central Vietnam climate over the past five centuries from cypress tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Brendan M.; Stahle, Daniel K.; Luu, Hong Truong; Wang, S.-Y. Simon; Nguyen, Tran Quoc Trung; Thomas, Philip; Le, Canh Nam; Ton, That Minh; Bui, The Hoang; Nguyen, Van Thiet

    2016-08-01

    We present the first crossdated tree ring record from central Vietnam, derived from the growth rings of the rare cypress Fokienia hodginsii from the mountains of Quang Nam Province near the Laos border. The Quang Nam Fokienia hodginsii time series (QNFH), based on the crossdated sequences of 71 increment core samples from 37 mature trees, is the third published dendrochronological record from this species. The record extends 667 years from AD 1347 to 2013 and exhibits a mean series intercorrelation of 0.526, similarly significant with the first two published Fokienia hodginsii records: 0.474 for Mu Cang Chai (MCFH) and 0.578 for Bidoup-Nui Ba National Park (BDFH) in the north and south of Vietnam, respectively. The Expressed Population Signal (EPS) for the QNFH record exceeds the generally accepted threshold of 0.85 back to AD 1567, but remains above 0.8 back to 1550. Similar to the MCFH and BDFH records, QNFH expresses statistically significant linkages to regional hydroclimate metrics and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Here we present a reconstruction of the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index for the month of April, averaged over a large region of Southeast Asia. As with prior studies we demonstrate that cool phase (La Niña) and warm phase (El Niño) events are linked to regional wet and dry conditions, respectively, with linkages to modulation of the surface water temperature over the adjacent sea to the east of Vietnam as well as the Indian Ocean. A late eighteenth century megadrought that is expressed widely across South and Southeast Asia, and notably from the MCFH and BDFH records described above, is not as pronounced in Central Vietnam and we explore the reasons why.

  8. Food as a source of dioxin exposure in the residents of Bien Hoa City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Schecter, Arnold; Quynh, Hoang Trong; Pavuk, Marian; Päpke, Olaf; Malisch, Rainer; Constable, John D

    2003-08-01

    Recently, elevated dioxin levels, over 5 parts per trillion (ppt) 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), from Agent Orange was reported in 95% of 43 selected residents of Bien Hoa City, a city in southern Vietnam near a former air base used for Agent Orange-spraying missions. Agent Orange herbicide, contaminated with TCDD, was sprayed in Vietnam between 1962 and 1971 primarily for use as a defoliant. Typical blood TCCD levels are 2 ppt in Vietnamese, but levels are as high as 413 ppt in Bien Hoa City. Elevated TCDD was found in children born many years after Agent Orange spraying ended and in immigrants from non-Agent Orange-sprayed parts of Vietnam, which documented new exposures. Extremely elevated soil TCDD samples, over 1 million ppt, and elevated TCDD in sediment were found in some nearby areas such as Bien Hung Lake. The primary route of intake of almost all dioxins in humans is food. However, in our prior studies in Bien Hoa, food was unavailable for dioxin analysis so the route of intake was not confirmed. In the 1970s, while Agent Orange was still being sprayed, elevated human milk TCDD levels as high as 1850 were detected in milk from Vietnamese people living in Agent Orange-sprayed areas where consumption of fish was high. Furthermore, also in the 1970s, elevated TCDD levels (up to 810 ppt) were found in fish and shrimp from the same area as the milk donors. In the 1980s, we found elevated TCDD and also other organohalogen levels in human tissue, pork, fish, a turtle, and a snake in Southern Vietnam. For these reasons, we recently collected food from Bien Hoa and analyzed it for dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites, and other organochlorines. We found marked elevation of TCDD, the dioxin characteristic of Agent Orange, in some of the food products, including ducks with 276 ppt and 331 ppt wet weight, chickens from 0.031-15 ppt wet weight, fish from 0.063-65 ppt wet weight, and a toad with 56 ppt wet weight. Usual TCDD

  9. Food as a source of dioxin exposure in the residents of Bien Hoa City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Schecter, Arnold; Quynh, Hoang Trong; Pavuk, Marian; Päpke, Olaf; Malisch, Rainer; Constable, John D

    2003-08-01

    Recently, elevated dioxin levels, over 5 parts per trillion (ppt) 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), from Agent Orange was reported in 95% of 43 selected residents of Bien Hoa City, a city in southern Vietnam near a former air base used for Agent Orange-spraying missions. Agent Orange herbicide, contaminated with TCDD, was sprayed in Vietnam between 1962 and 1971 primarily for use as a defoliant. Typical blood TCCD levels are 2 ppt in Vietnamese, but levels are as high as 413 ppt in Bien Hoa City. Elevated TCDD was found in children born many years after Agent Orange spraying ended and in immigrants from non-Agent Orange-sprayed parts of Vietnam, which documented new exposures. Extremely elevated soil TCDD samples, over 1 million ppt, and elevated TCDD in sediment were found in some nearby areas such as Bien Hung Lake. The primary route of intake of almost all dioxins in humans is food. However, in our prior studies in Bien Hoa, food was unavailable for dioxin analysis so the route of intake was not confirmed. In the 1970s, while Agent Orange was still being sprayed, elevated human milk TCDD levels as high as 1850 were detected in milk from Vietnamese people living in Agent Orange-sprayed areas where consumption of fish was high. Furthermore, also in the 1970s, elevated TCDD levels (up to 810 ppt) were found in fish and shrimp from the same area as the milk donors. In the 1980s, we found elevated TCDD and also other organohalogen levels in human tissue, pork, fish, a turtle, and a snake in Southern Vietnam. For these reasons, we recently collected food from Bien Hoa and analyzed it for dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites, and other organochlorines. We found marked elevation of TCDD, the dioxin characteristic of Agent Orange, in some of the food products, including ducks with 276 ppt and 331 ppt wet weight, chickens from 0.031-15 ppt wet weight, fish from 0.063-65 ppt wet weight, and a toad with 56 ppt wet weight. Usual TCDD

  10. The syndemic condition of psychosocial problems and HIV risk among male sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Biello, Katie B; Colby, Donn; Closson, Elizabeth; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2014-07-01

    In Vietnam, the co-occurrence (i.e., "syndemic") of psychosocial factors (e.g., depression and substance use) may disproportionately burden male sex workers and increase their HIV risk. A comprehensive survey was conducted among 300 male sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam in 2010. We performed logistic regression to examine the association between the syndemic variable-a count score of the number of five psychosocial conditions endorsed-and unprotected anal sex (UAS) in the past. One-third of participants reported any UAS, and 42 % reported ≥2 psychosocial health problems. In multivariable models, experiencing ≥4 psychosocial health problems was significantly associated with UAS. Every unit increase in number of psychosocial health problems was associated with a 25-30 % increase in odds of UAS. Understanding the syndemic condition and its association with HIV risk among male sex workers in Vietnam may lead to the development of more effective, comprehensive interventions.

  11. A qualitative study of stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thi, Mai Doan Anh; Brickley, Deborah Bain; Vinh, Dang Thi Nhat; Colby, Donn J; Sohn, Annette H; Trung, Nguyen Quang; Giang, Le Truong; Mandel, Jeffrey S

    2008-07-01

    Stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) are a pressing problem in Vietnam, in particular because of propaganda associating HIV with the "social evils" of sex work and drug use. There is little understanding of the causes and sequelae of stigma and discrimination against PLHIV in Vietnam. Fifty-three PLHIV participated in focus group discussions in Ho Chi Minh City. Nearly all participants experienced some form of stigma and discrimination. Causes included exaggerated fears of HIV infection, misperceptions about HIV transmission, and negative representations of PLHIV in the media. Participants faced problems getting a job, perceived unfair treatment in the workplace and experienced discrimination in the healthcare setting. Both discrimination and support were reported in the family environment. There is a need to enforce laws against discrimination and provide education to decrease stigma against PLHIV in Vietnam. Recent public campaigns encouraging compassion toward PLHIV and less discrimination from healthcare providers who work with PLHIV have been encouraging.

  12. Application of the Water Needs Index: Can Tho City, Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moglia, Magnus; Neumann, Luis E.; Alexander, Kim S.; Nguyen, Minh N.; Sharma, Ashok K.; Cook, Stephen; Trung, Nguyen H.; Tuan, Dinh D. A.

    2012-10-01

    SummaryProvision of urban water supplies to rapidly growing cities of South East Asia is difficult because of increasing demand for limited water supplies, periodic droughts, and depletion and contamination of surface and groundwater. In such adverse environments, effective policy and planning processes are required to secure adequate water supplies. Developing a Water Needs Index reveals key elements of the complex urban water supply by means of a participatory approach for rapid and interdisciplinary assessment. The index uses deliberative interactions with stakeholders to create opportunities for mutual understanding, confirmation of constructs and capacity building of all involved. In Can Tho City, located at the heart of the Mekong delta in Vietnam, a Water Needs Index has been developed with local stakeholders. The functional attributes of the Water Needs Index at this urban scale have been critically appraised. Systemic water issues, supply problems, health issues and inadequate, poorly functioning infrastructure requiring attention from local authorities have been identified. Entrenched social and economic inequities in access to water and sanitation, as well as polluting environmental management practices has caused widespread problems for urban populations. The framework provides a common language based on systems thinking, increased cross-sectoral communication, as well as increased recognition of problem issues; this ought to lead to improved urban water management. Importantly, the case study shows that the approach can help to overcome biases of local planners based on their limited experience (information black spots), to allow them to address problems experienced in all areas of the city.

  13. Population Genetics of Plasmodium vivax in Four Rural Communities in Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Nguyen Van; Delgado-Ratto, Christopher; Thanh, Pham Vinh; Van den Eede, Peter; Guetens, Pieter; Binh, Nguyen Thi Huong; Phuc, Bui Quang; Duong, Tran Thanh; Van Geertruyden, Jean Pierre; D’Alessandro, Umberto; Erhart, Annette; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background The burden of malaria in Vietnam has drastically reduced, prompting the National Malaria Control Program to officially engage in elimination efforts. Plasmodium vivax is becoming increasingly prevalent, remaining a major problem in the country's central and southern provinces. A better understanding of P. vivax genetic diversity and structure of local parasite populations will provide baseline data for the evaluation and improvement of current efforts for control and elimination. The aim of this study was to examine the population genetics and structure of P. vivax isolates from four communities in Tra Leng commune, Nam Tra My district in Quang Nam, Central Vietnam. Methodology/Principal Findings P. vivax mono infections collected from 234 individuals between April 2009 and December 2010 were successfully analyzed using a panel of 14 microsatellite markers. Isolates displayed moderate genetic diversity (He = 0.68), with no significant differences between study communities. Polyclonal infections were frequent (71.4%) with a mean multiplicity of infection of 1.91 isolates/person. Low but significant genetic differentiation (FST value from -0.05 to 0.18) was observed between the community across the river and the other communities. Strong linkage disequilibrium (IAS = 0.113, p < 0.001) was detected across all communities, suggesting gene flow within and among them. Using multiple approaches, 101 haplotypes were grouped into two genetic clusters, while 60.4% of haplotypes were admixed. Conclusions/Significance In this area of Central Vietnam, where malaria transmission has decreased significantly over the past decade, there was moderate genetic diversity and high occurrence of polyclonal infections. Local human populations have frequent social and economic interactions that facilitate gene flow and inbreeding among parasite populations, while decreasing population structure. Findings provide important information on parasites populations circulating in the

  14. Popowia bachmaensis (Annonaceae), a new species from Bach Ma National Park, Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Ngoc, Nguyen Van; Tagane, Shuichiro; Binh, Hoang Thi; Toyama, Hironori; Okabe, Norikazu; Duy, Chinh Nguyen; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species, Popowia bachmaensis Ngoc, Tagane & Yahara, sp. nov. is described from Bach Ma National Park in Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam. This species is morphologically similar to Popowia pisocarpa (Blume) Endl. ex Walp., but can be readily distinguished from it by its lower stems, smaller leaves, shorter flowering pedicels, shorter carpels, longer sepals and inner petals. A detailed description, comprising illustrations, and supplemented with DNA barcodes of the two regions of rbcL and matK, are provided. PMID:27489493

  15. The economic burden of malaria on the household in south-central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Morel, Chantal M; Thang, Ngo Duc; Xa, Nguyen Xuan; Hung, Le Xuan; Thuan, Le Khan; Van Ky, Pham; Erhart, Annette; Mills, Anne J; D'Alessandro, Umberto

    2008-01-01

    Background Each year, several thousand cases of malaria occur in south-central Vietnam. Evidence from elsewhere suggests that malaria can have an economic impact on the household as the illness prevents households from completing their normal, physically demanding, productive duties such as tending crops and animals. The economic impact of malaria on households was explored within the Raglay ethnic minority living in the montainous and forested area of south-central Vietnam (Ninh Thuan Province). Methods Two-hundred fifty-one malaria patients were identified and interviewed in an exit survey at Community Health Centres. The same patient sample was then re-interviewed in a household survey two to four weeks later. Survey data were complemented by approximately 40 informal discussions with health workers, vendors, patients, and community leaders. Results Each episode of malaria was estimated to cost the patient's household an average of 11.79 USD (2005 prices), direct costs for travel and treatment representing 6% of the total while the remainder was loss in annual income. Conclusion Whilst government provision of malaria treatment keeps the direct costs relatively low, the overall loss in income due to illness can still be significant given the poverty amongst this population, especially when multiple cases of malaria occur annually within the same household. PMID:18752675

  16. Urbanization and climate change impacts on future urban flood risk in Can Tho city, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huong, H. T. L.; Pathirana, A.

    2011-12-01

    Urban development increases flood risk in cities due to local changes in hydrological and hydrometeorological conditions that increase flood hazard, and also to urban concentrations that increase the vulnerability. The relationship between the increasing urban runoff and flooding due to increased imperviousness better perceived than that between the cyclic impact of urban growth and the urban rainfall via microclimatic changes. The large-scale, global impacts due to climate variability and change could compound these risks. We present the case of a typical third world city - Can Tho (the biggest city in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam) - faced with multiple future challenges, namely: (i) climate change-driven sea-level rise and tidal effect, (ii) increase river runoff due to climate change, (iii) increased urban runoff driven by imperviousness, and (iv) enhancement of extreme rainfall due to urban growth-driven micro-climatic change (urban heat islands). A set of model simulations were used to assess the future impact of the combination of these influences. Urban growth of the city was projected up to year 2100 based on historical growth patterns, using a land-use simulation model (Dinamica-EGO). A dynamic limited-area atmospheric model (WRF), coupled with a detailed land-surface model with vegetation parameterization (Noah LSM), was employed in controlled numerical experiments to estimate the anticipated changes in extreme rainfall patterns due to urban heat island effect. Finally, a 1-D/2-D coupled urban-drainage/flooding model (SWMM-Brezo) was used to simulate storm-sewer surcharge and surface inundation to establish the increase in the flood risk resulting from the changes. The results show that, if the city develops as predicted, the maximum of inundation depth and area in Can Tho will increase by about 20%. The impact of climate change on inundation is more serious than that of urbanization. The worse case may occur if the sea level rises 100 cm and the flow from

  17. Markers of hepatitis C and B virus infections among blood donors in Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Song, P; Duc, D D; Hien, B; Nakata, S; Chosa, T; Watanabe, J; Tsuda, F; Murata, K; Okamoto, H

    1994-07-01

    Blood donors in two cities in Vietnam were tested for markers of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus infections. Antibody to HCV was detected by passive hemagglutination with antigens of the second generation in 101 (20.6%) of 491 donors in Ho Chi Minh City; it was detected less frequently (P < 0.001) in donors in hanoi (4 [0.8%] of 499). HCV RNA was tested for in donors with antibody by PCR with nested primers from the 5'-noncoding region and detected in 79 donors in Ho Chi Minh City and 4 donors in Hanoi. HCV RNA was genotyped by PCR with type-specific primers from the core gene. Of 83 HCV carriers from Vietnam, 24 (29%) were infected with HCV of genotype I/1a 19 (23%) were infected with II/1b, 4 (5%) were infected with III/2a, and 2 (2%) were infected with mixed genotypes (I/1a and II/1b); HCV genotypes in the remaining 34 (41%) donors, including all 4 donors in Hanoi, were not classifiable into I/1a, II/2a, IV/2b, or V/3a. Of the 10 isolates with unclassifiable genotypes, 2 showed substantial sequence divergence within the 5'-noncoding region from reported isolates with known genotypes (I/1a to 6a). An analysis of part of the core gene sequence indicated that six of the remaining isolates most likely represented new HCV genotypes. Hepatitis B surface antigen and the corresponding antibody, respectively, were detected in 15 (3.1%) and 234 (47.7%) donors in Ho Chi Minh City as well as 15 (3.0%) and 248 (49.7%) donors in Hanoi. These results indicate an extensive spread of HCV among Ho Chi Minh City donors and HCV of novel genotypes in vietnam.

  18. HIV-related risk behaviors among female sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Colby, Donn; Witt, Samantha; Pishori, Alefiyah; Le, Mai Nhung; Vinh, Dang Thi Nhat; Giang, Le Truong

    2008-10-01

    This study quantitatively and qualitatively described HIV risk behaviors among Vietnamese female sex workers (FSWs) who work at three distinct venues in Ho Chi Minh City: street, massage parlors, and bars/clubs. Although 35% of the participants had never been tested for HIV, 18% of street and 7% of bar/club FSWs reported being positive. Almost all massage parlor FSWs had never used a condom for oral sex. Inconsistent condom use for vaginal sex with customers was more prevalent among bar/club FSWs (85%) than massage parlor (72%) and street FSWs (68%). Many participants reported difficulties in negotiating condom use with customers because of economic pressure, maintaining relationships, and lack of bargaining power. Bar/club FSWs revealed a difficult situation where drinking is part of their work. Thirty percent of street FSWs had injected drugs and reported addiction to heroin in relation to their helpless condition as FSWs. Street FSWs had the lowest levels of self-esteem and norms toward practicing safe sex and the highest levels of economic pressure. This study recommends future HIV prevention programs for FSWs in Vietnam that target their specific risk behaviors and work environments.

  19. The effects of high temperature on cardiovascular admissions in the most populous tropical city in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Phung, Dung; Guo, Yuming; Thai, Phong; Rutherford, Shannon; Wang, Xiaoming; Nguyen, Minh; Do, Cuong Manh; Nguyen, Nga Huy; Alam, Noore; Chu, Cordia

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the short-term effects of temperature on cardiovascular hospital admissions (CHA) in the largest tropical city in Southern Vietnam. We applied Poisson time-series regression models with Distributed Lag Non-Linear Model (DLNM) to examine the temperature-CHA association while adjusting for seasonal and long-term trends, day of the week, holidays, and humidity. The threshold temperature and added effects of heat waves were also evaluated. The exposure-response curve of temperature-CHA reveals a J-shape relationship with a threshold temperature of 29.6 °C. The delayed effects temperature-CHA lasted for a week (0-5 days). The overall risk of CHA increased 12.9% (RR, 1.129; 95%CI, 0.972-1.311) during heatwave events, which were defined as temperature ≥ the 99th percentile for ≥2 consecutive days. The modification roles of gender and age were inconsistent and non-significant in this study. An additional prevention program that reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease in relation to high temperatures should be developed.

  20. Sequence stratigraphy and hydrocarbon potential of the Phu Khanh Basin offshore central Vietnam, South China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.H.; Watkins, J.S.

    1996-12-31

    The Phu Khanh Basin offshore central Vietnam is one of the few untested basins on the Vietnam margin of the South China Sea. Analysis of over 1,600 km of multi-channel seismic reflection data indicates that the Phu Khanh Basin follows a typical rift-margin order: faulted basement, synrift sedimentation, a breakup unconformity, and postrift sedimentation. Postrift sedimentation consists of a transgressive phase characterized by ramp-like depositional geometries followed by a regressive phase characterized by prograding sequences. An early middle Miocene unconformity separates these two phases. During the transgressive phase rising sea level provided favorable conditions for carbonate buildup development. The regressive interval contains a number of third-order depositional sequences composed of seismically resolvable lowstand, highstand, and rarely, transgressive systems tracts. Lacustrine sediments deposited in graben and half-graben lakes during the rifting stage are probably the principal source rocks. Fractured and/or weathered basement, carbonate complexes, basinfloor fans, and shallows water sands may have good reservoir quality. Potential traps include basement hills, carbonate complexes, fault taps, and stratigraphic traps within lowstand systems tracts. Hydrocarbon indicators such as flat spots, bright spots, gas chimneys with gas mounds on the seafloor occur at a number of locations.

  1. Sequence stratigraphy and hydrocarbon potential of the Phu Khanh Basin offshore central Vietnam, South China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.H. ); Watkins, J.S. )

    1996-01-01

    The Phu Khanh Basin offshore central Vietnam is one of the few untested basins on the Vietnam margin of the South China Sea. Analysis of over 1,600 km of multi-channel seismic reflection data indicates that the Phu Khanh Basin follows a typical rift-margin order: faulted basement, synrift sedimentation, a breakup unconformity, and postrift sedimentation. Postrift sedimentation consists of a transgressive phase characterized by ramp-like depositional geometries followed by a regressive phase characterized by prograding sequences. An early middle Miocene unconformity separates these two phases. During the transgressive phase rising sea level provided favorable conditions for carbonate buildup development. The regressive interval contains a number of third-order depositional sequences composed of seismically resolvable lowstand, highstand, and rarely, transgressive systems tracts. Lacustrine sediments deposited in graben and half-graben lakes during the rifting stage are probably the principal source rocks. Fractured and/or weathered basement, carbonate complexes, basinfloor fans, and shallows water sands may have good reservoir quality. Potential traps include basement hills, carbonate complexes, fault taps, and stratigraphic traps within lowstand systems tracts. Hydrocarbon indicators such as flat spots, bright spots, gas chimneys with gas mounds on the seafloor occur at a number of locations.

  2. Callicarpa bachmaensis Soejima & Tagane (Lamiaceae), a new species from Bach Ma National Park in Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Soejima, Akiko; Tagane, Shuichiro; Van, Ngoc Nguyen; Duy, Chinh Nguyen; Huong, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species, Callicarpa bachmaensis Soejima & Tagane, sp. nov., is described and illustrated from Bach Ma National Park in Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam. This species has a characteristic liana habit, white corolla, and narrowly elliptic to narrowly lanceolate, entire, occasionally subequal leaves, by which it is clearly distinguished from the other previously known species of this genus. PMID:27212880

  3. Callicarpa bachmaensis Soejima & Tagane (Lamiaceae), a new species from Bach Ma National Park in Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Soejima, Akiko; Tagane, Shuichiro; Van, Ngoc Nguyen; Duy, Chinh Nguyen; Huong, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Callicarpa bachmaensis Soejima & Tagane, sp. nov., is described and illustrated from Bach Ma National Park in Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam. This species has a characteristic liana habit, white corolla, and narrowly elliptic to narrowly lanceolate, entire, occasionally subequal leaves, by which it is clearly distinguished from the other previously known species of this genus. PMID:27212880

  4. Callicarpa bachmaensis Soejima & Tagane (Lamiaceae), a new species from Bach Ma National Park in Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Soejima, Akiko; Tagane, Shuichiro; Van, Ngoc Nguyen; Duy, Chinh Nguyen; Huong, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Callicarpa bachmaensis Soejima & Tagane, sp. nov., is described and illustrated from Bach Ma National Park in Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam. This species has a characteristic liana habit, white corolla, and narrowly elliptic to narrowly lanceolate, entire, occasionally subequal leaves, by which it is clearly distinguished from the other previously known species of this genus.

  5. Urbanization and climate change impacts on future urban flooding in Can Tho city, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huong, H. T. L.; Pathirana, A.

    2013-01-01

    Urban development increases flood risk in cities due to local changes in hydrological and hydrometeorological conditions that increase flood hazard, as well as to urban concentrations that increase the vulnerability. The relationship between the increasing urban runoff and flooding due to increased imperviousness is better perceived than that between the cyclic impact of urban growth and the urban rainfall via microclimatic changes. The large-scale, global impacts due to climate variability and change could compound these risks. We present the case of a typical third world city - Can Tho (the biggest city in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam) - faced with multiple future challenges, namely: (i) the likely effect of climate change-driven sea level rise, (ii) an expected increase of river runoff due to climate change as estimated by the Vietnamese government, (iii) increased urban runoff driven by imperviousness, and (iv) enhancement of extreme rainfall due to urban growth-driven, microclimatic change (urban heat islands). A set of model simulations were used to construct future scenarios, combining these influences. Urban growth of the city was projected up to year 2100 based on historical growth patterns, using a land use simulation model (Dinamica EGO). A dynamic limited-area atmospheric model (WRF), coupled with a detailed land surface model with vegetation parameterization (Noah LSM), was employed in controlled numerical experiments to estimate the anticipated changes in extreme rainfall patterns due to urban heat island effect. Finally, a 1-D/2-D coupled urban-drainage/flooding model (SWMM-Brezo) was used to simulate storm-sewer surcharge and surface inundation to establish the increase in the flood hazard resulting from the changes. The results show that under the combined scenario of significant change in river level (due to climate-driven sea level rise and increase of flow in the Mekong) and "business as usual" urbanization, the flooding of Can Tho could increase

  6. Vectors and malaria transmission in deforested, rural communities in north-central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria is still prevalent in rural communities of central Vietnam even though, due to deforestation, the primary vector Anopheles dirus is uncommon. In these situations little is known about the secondary vectors which are responsible for maintaining transmission. Basic information on the identification of the species in these rural communities is required so that transmission parameters, such as ecology, behaviour and vectorial status can be assigned to the appropriate species. Methods In two rural villages - Khe Ngang and Hang Chuon - in Truong Xuan Commune, Quang Binh Province, north central Vietnam, a series of longitudinal entomological surveys were conducted during the wet and dry seasons from 2003 - 2007. In these surveys anopheline mosquitoes were collected in human landing catches, paired human and animal bait collections, and from larval surveys. Specimens belonging to species complexes were identified by PCR and sequence analysis, incrimination of vectors was by detection of circumsporozoite protein using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Over 80% of the anopheline fauna was made up of Anopheles sinensis, Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles harrisoni, Anopheles maculatus, Anopheles sawadwongporni, and Anopheles philippinensis. PCR and sequence analysis resolved identification issues in the Funestus Group, Maculatus Group, Hyrcanus Group and Dirus Complex. Most species were zoophilic and while all species could be collected biting humans significantly higher densities were attracted to cattle and buffalo. Anopheles dirus was the most anthropophilic species but was uncommon making up only 1.24% of all anophelines collected. Anopheles sinensis, An. aconitus, An. harrisoni, An. maculatus, An. sawadwongporni, Anopheles peditaeniatus and An. philippinensis were all found positive for circumsporozoite protein. Heterogeneity in oviposition site preference between species enabled vector densities to be high in both the wet and dry seasons

  7. Mantle xenoliths from Central Vietnam: evidence for at least Meso-Proterozoic formation of the lithospheric mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proßegger, Peter; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Ackerman, Lukáš; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Tran, Tuan Anh

    2016-04-01

    Intraplate Cenozoic basalts that are widely dispersed along the continental margin of East Asia belong to the Western Pacific "diffuse" igneous province. They consist mainly of alkali basalts, basanites,rarely nephelinites, which are mantle xenolith-bearing, potassic rocks and quartz tholeiites. The volcanism in this area has been attributed to the continental extension caused by the collision of India with Asia and by the subduction of the Pacific Ocean below Asia. We studied a suite of 24 mantle xenoliths from La Bang Lake, Dak Doa district and Bien Ho, Pleiku city in the Gia Province, Central Vietnam. They are predominantly spinel lherzolites (19) but spinel harburgites (3) and two garnet pyroxenites are present as well. The sizes of the xenoliths range from 5 to 40 cm in diameter with medium to coarse-grained protogranular textures. Whole rock major and trace element analyses display a wide range of compositions. The MgO concentration varies from 36.0 to 45.8 wt% whereas Al2O3 and CaO range from 0.63 to 4.36 wt% and from 0.52 to 4.21 wt% (with one sample having CaO of 6.63 wt%) respectively. Both CaO and Al2O3 positively correlate with MgO most likely indicating that the sampled rocks were derived from a common mantle source experienced variable degrees of partial melting. Mineral analyses show that the rock forming minerals are chemically homogeneous. The Fo contents of olivine vary between 89.2 and 91.2 and the Mg# of orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene range from 89 to 92 and 89 to 94 respectively. The range of Cr# for spinel is 0.06-0.26. Model calculations in both whole rock and clinopyroxenes show that lithospheric mantle underneath Central Vietnam experienced melt extractions that vary between 2-7, 12-15 and 20-30%. The majority of the primitive mantle-normalized whole rock and clinopyroxene REE patterns are parallel to each other indicating that clinopyroxene is the main repository of the trace elements. Clinopyroxenes are divided into two groups: group A

  8. Village-based primary health care in the Central Highlands of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Barrett, B; Ladinsky, J; Volk, N

    2001-02-01

    This paper describes the first year of an ongoing village health care and economic development project in the Krong Buk district of Dak Lak province in Vietnam's Central Highlands. The project serves 21 villages with a total population of just over 15,000. Most belong to ethnic minority groups. Physicians from the province capital of Boun Me Thuot were trained by a multi-disciplinary team of American health care workers to be trainers and supervisors of 21 village health care workers (VHWs). Two months later, a VHW from each village was trained in primary and preventive health care by the physician-supervisors. Since this initial training, each VHW has been provided with materials, medicines and monthly supervision by the physician-supervisors. The health care component has been complemented by an economic development project based on a system of small loans. Data from the first year of monthly reports and from a baseline survey are presented in this paper.

  9. Prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini-Like Fluke Infection in Ducks in Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Dao, Thanh Thi Ha; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Nguyen, Thanh Thi Giang; Tran, Ha Thi Lam; Gabriël, Sarah; Smit, Suzanne; Le, Phap Ngoc; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Following the first report of Opisthorchis viverrini infection in a domestic duck in Phu My District of Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam, many other cases were observed in the province. We determined the infection rate and intensity of O. viverrini infection in ducks in 4 districts of the province. A total of 178 ducks were randomly selected from 34 farms for examination of flukes in the liver and gall bladder. An infection rate of 34.3% (range 20.7-40.4% among districts) was found; the intensity of infection was 13.8 worms per infected duck (range 1-100). These findings show the role of ducks as a host for O. viverrini, duck genotype, which is sympatric with the human O. viverrini genotype in this province. It also stresses the need for investigations on the zoonotic potential and the life cycle of this parasite. PMID:27417094

  10. A striking new species of phytotelm-breeding tree frog (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Jodi J L; Le, Duong Thi Thuy; Dau, Vinh Quang; Hoang, Huy Duc; Cao, Trung Tien

    2014-04-02

    We describe a distinctive new species of phytotelm-breeding rhacophorid frog from central Vietnam. Gracixalus lumarius sp. nov. is distinguished from all other rhacophorids in Indochina by a combination of (1) medium body size (adult males 38.9-41.6 mm; adult female 36.3 mm), (2) dorsum brown diurnally and yellow nocturnally, (3) venter pink, (4) tympanum and supratympanic fold indistinct (5) iris dark gold with a dense, relatively uniformly distributed network of black reticulations, (6) dorsum with distinctive white conical tubercles in males, and (7) eggs deposited on wall of a phyptotelm. The new species is known from montane bamboo and montane evergreen forest in Ngoc Linh Nature Reserve in Kon Tum Province, between ~1845-2160 m elevation.

  11. Prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini-Like Fluke Infection in Ducks in Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Dao, Thanh Thi Ha; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Nguyen, Thanh Thi Giang; Tran, Ha Thi Lam; Gabriël, Sarah; Smit, Suzanne; Le, Phap Ngoc; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Following the first report of Opisthorchis viverrini infection in a domestic duck in Phu My District of Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam, many other cases were observed in the province. We determined the infection rate and intensity of O. viverrini infection in ducks in 4 districts of the province. A total of 178 ducks were randomly selected from 34 farms for examination of flukes in the liver and gall bladder. An infection rate of 34.3% (range 20.7-40.4% among districts) was found; the intensity of infection was 13.8 worms per infected duck (range 1-100). These findings show the role of ducks as a host for O. viverrini, duck genotype, which is sympatric with the human O. viverrini genotype in this province. It also stresses the need for investigations on the zoonotic potential and the life cycle of this parasite. PMID:27417094

  12. PCBs in Central Vietnam coastal lagoons: levels and trends in dynamic environments.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Silvia; Piazza, Rossano; Bellucci, Luca Giorgio; Cu, Nguyen Huu; Vecchiato, Marco; Romano, Stefania; Mugnai, Cristian; Nhon, Dang Hoai; Frignani, Mauro

    2011-05-01

    PCBs were analysed in surficial sediments and selected sediment cores collected between 2002 and 2008 in Central Vietnam coastal lagoons. The aim was to determine contamination levels and trends, and to evaluate the effects of anthropogenic pressures and natural events. Samples were mostly fine-grained with low total PCB concentrations (0.367-44.7 μg kg(-1)). Atmospheric transport and post depositional processes modify to some degree the fingerprint of PCB inputs to the environment favouring the predominance of 3, 4 and 5 chlorinated congeners. The similarity of congener distributions in contemporary surficial samples also suggests the presence of a unique source over the entire study area, probably connected to mobilisation and long range transports from land-based stocks. The removal of consistent sediment layers is hypothesised based on repeated samplings of the same area. Natural meteorological events (such as typhoons) are suspected to be responsible for these sediment losses.

  13. Characterization of smallholder pig breeding practices within a rural commune of North Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ieda, Nahoko; Van Bui, Quang; Nguyen, Nga Thi Duong; Lapar, Lucy; Marshall, Karen

    2015-08-01

    This case study focused on a pig production system in a rural area of North Central Vietnam, with a focus on describing household pig breeding practices and estimating herd demographic parameters, particularly on reproduction. One hundred five households undertaking small-scale piglet production were surveyed, with information gathered on 3268 individual pigs. Pig keeping contributed variably to the overall household livelihood portfolio, with female household members as the main decision makers, contributors to labor, and beneficiaries of income from the pig enterprise. All households kept between one and four young or adult sows, with 69% of these sows of a local breed type (predominantly Mong Cai), 28% a cross between a local sow and an exotic sow (predominantly Large White), and the remainder (3%) as exotic sows. Eighty-eight percent of the piglets produced were cross-bred, while 12% were local breed. No adult males were kept by the surveyed households, reflecting the common use of artificial insemination for mating purposes. The most common breeding system practiced-the keeping of Mong Cai females and production of cross-bred piglets-capitalizes on the small body size and high fecundity of the sows and the fast growth rate and leanness of the cross-bred piglets. The survey tool used, which was based on farmer recall of events over the preceding 12-month period, appeared to give reasonable results although some recall bias could be detected. This case study will serve as an entry point to planned broader scale characterization and development of pig breeding systems in North Central Vietnam.

  14. Epidemiology of forest malaria in central Vietnam: a large scale cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Erhart, Annette; Thang, Ngo Duc; Van Ky, Phan; Tinh, Ta Thi; Van Overmeir, Chantal; Speybroeck, Niko; Obsomer, Valerie; Hung, Le Xuan; Thuan, Le Khanh; Coosemans, Marc; D'alessandro, Umberto

    2005-01-01

    In Vietnam, a large proportion of all malaria cases and deaths occurs in the central mountainous and forested part of the country. Indeed, forest malaria, despite intensive control activities, is still a major problem which raises several questions about its dynamics. A large-scale malaria morbidity survey to measure malaria endemicity and identify important risk factors was carried out in 43 villages situated in a forested area of Ninh Thuan province, south central Vietnam. Four thousand three hundred and six randomly selected individuals, aged 10–60 years, participated in the survey. Rag Lays (86%), traditionally living in the forest and practising "slash and burn" cultivation represented the most common ethnic group. The overall parasite rate was 13.3% (range [0–42.3] while Plasmodium falciparum seroprevalence was 25.5% (range [2.1–75.6]). Mapping of these two variables showed a patchy distribution, suggesting that risk factors other than remoteness and forest proximity modulated the human-vector interactions. This was confirmed by the results of the multivariate-adjusted analysis, showing that forest work was a significant risk factor for malaria infection, further increased by staying in the forest overnight (OR= 2.86; 95%CI [1.62; 5.07]). Rag Lays had a higher risk of malaria infection, which inversely related to education level and socio-economic status. Women were less at risk than men (OR = 0.71; 95%CI [0.59; 0.86]), a possible consequence of different behaviour. This study confirms that malaria endemicity is still relatively high in this area and that the dynamics of transmission is constantly modulated by the behaviour of both humans and vectors. A well-targeted intervention reducing the "vector/forest worker" interaction, based on long-lasting insecticidal material, could be appropriate in this environment. PMID:16336671

  15. Epidemiology of forest malaria in central Vietnam: a large scale cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Erhart, Annette; Ngo, Duc Thang; Phan, Van Ky; Ta, Thi Tinh; Van Overmeir, Chantal; Speybroeck, Niko; Obsomer, Valerie; Le, Xuan Hung; Le, Khanh Thuan; Coosemans, Marc; D'alessandro, Umberto

    2005-01-01

    In Vietnam, a large proportion of all malaria cases and deaths occurs in the central mountainous and forested part of the country. Indeed, forest malaria, despite intensive control activities, is still a major problem which raises several questions about its dynamics.A large-scale malaria morbidity survey to measure malaria endemicity and identify important risk factors was carried out in 43 villages situated in a forested area of Ninh Thuan province, south central Vietnam. Four thousand three hundred and six randomly selected individuals, aged 10-60 years, participated in the survey. Rag Lays (86%), traditionally living in the forest and practising "slash and burn" cultivation represented the most common ethnic group. The overall parasite rate was 13.3% (range [0-42.3] while Plasmodium falciparum seroprevalence was 25.5% (range [2.1-75.6]). Mapping of these two variables showed a patchy distribution, suggesting that risk factors other than remoteness and forest proximity modulated the human-vector interactions. This was confirmed by the results of the multivariate-adjusted analysis, showing that forest work was a significant risk factor for malaria infection, further increased by staying in the forest overnight (OR= 2.86; 95%CI [1.62; 5.07]). Rag Lays had a higher risk of malaria infection, which inversely related to education level and socio-economic status. Women were less at risk than men (OR = 0.71; 95%CI [0.59; 0.86]), a possible consequence of different behaviour. This study confirms that malaria endemicity is still relatively high in this area and that the dynamics of transmission is constantly modulated by the behaviour of both humans and vectors. A well-targeted intervention reducing the "vector/forest worker" interaction, based on long-lasting insecticidal material, could be appropriate in this environment.

  16. Groundwater screening for 940 organic micro-pollutants in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Duong, Hanh Thi; Kadokami, Kiwao; Chau, Hong Thi Cam; Nguyen, Trung Quang; Nguyen, Thao Thanh; Kong, Lingxiao

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater is the main source of drinking water for more than half of the residents of Hanoi (HN). It also provides about one third of the total water demand for residents of Ho Chi Minh City (HCM). However, due to rapid urbanization and frequent discharges of untreated urban wastewater to surface water, freshwater is widely contaminated by man-made chemicals, which may result in groundwater pollution. As part of an ongoing campaign to collect baseline information on the occurrence of organic micro-pollutants (OMPs) in the aquatic environment in Vietnam, 43 water samples were collected from 26 groundwater wells in HN (22) and HCM (4) in September 2013 and August 2014. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the resulting chromatograms were screened for 940 OMPs by an automated identification and quantification system (AIQS) within a GC-MS database. A total of 74 compounds were detected, with between 4 and 43 (median 18) compounds found at each site. Overall, contamination levels were low, with over 89 % of the detected concentrations that were less than 0.5 μg L(-1). Results suggest that most of the sampled aquifers have been impacted by non-point source pollution. Most of the contaminants detected are either currently not regulated in drinking water or are present at low levels. A health risk assessment for detected contaminants implied that there were no risks to humans. Since this study was based on a limited number of samples, especially in HCM, further, more detailed studies on the occurrence of OMPs in groundwater in HCM and a full risk assessment of detected contaminants should be prioritized.

  17. Adult survivorship of the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti varies seasonally in central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Leon E; Jeffery, Jason A L; Trewin, Brendan J; Wockner, Leesa F; Nguyen, Thi Yen; Nguyen, Hoang Le; Nghia, Le Trung; Hine, Emma; Ryan, Peter A; Kay, Brian H

    2014-02-01

    The survival characteristics of the mosquito Aedes aegypti affect transmission rates of dengue because transmission requires infected mosquitoes to survive long enough for the virus to infect the salivary glands. Mosquito survival is assumed to be high in tropical, dengue endemic, countries like Vietnam. However, the survival rates of wild populations of mosquitoes are seldom measured due the difficulty of predicting mosquito age. Hon Mieu Island in central Vietnam is the site of a pilot release of Ae. aegypti infected with a strain of Wolbachia pipientis bacteria (wMelPop) that induces virus interference and mosquito life-shortening. We used the most accurate mosquito age grading approach, transcriptional profiling, to establish the survival patterns of the mosquito population from the population age structure. Furthermore, estimations were validated on mosquitoes released into a large semi-field environment consisting of an enclosed house, garden and yard to incorporate natural environmental variability. Mosquito survival was highest during the dry/cool (January-April) and dry/hot (May-August) seasons, when 92 and 64% of Hon Mieu mosquitoes had survived to an age that they were able to transmit dengue (12 d), respectively. This was reduced to 29% during the wet/cool season from September to December. The presence of Ae. aegypti older than 12 d during each season is likely to facilitate the observed continuity of dengue transmission in the region. We provide season specific Ae. aegypti survival models for improved dengue epidemiology and evaluation of mosquito control strategies that aim to reduce mosquito survival to break the dengue transmission cycle.

  18. Adult Survivorship of the Dengue Mosquito Aedes aegypti Varies Seasonally in Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Hugo, Leon E.; Jeffery, Jason A. L.; Trewin, Brendan J.; Wockner, Leesa F.; Thi Yen, Nguyen; Le, Nguyen Hoang; Nghia, Le Trung; Hine, Emma; Ryan, Peter A.; Kay, Brian H.

    2014-01-01

    The survival characteristics of the mosquito Aedes aegypti affect transmission rates of dengue because transmission requires infected mosquitoes to survive long enough for the virus to infect the salivary glands. Mosquito survival is assumed to be high in tropical, dengue endemic, countries like Vietnam. However, the survival rates of wild populations of mosquitoes are seldom measured due the difficulty of predicting mosquito age. Hon Mieu Island in central Vietnam is the site of a pilot release of Ae. aegypti infected with a strain of Wolbachia pipientis bacteria (wMelPop) that induces virus interference and mosquito life-shortening. We used the most accurate mosquito age grading approach, transcriptional profiling, to establish the survival patterns of the mosquito population from the population age structure. Furthermore, estimations were validated on mosquitoes released into a large semi-field environment consisting of an enclosed house, garden and yard to incorporate natural environmental variability. Mosquito survival was highest during the dry/cool (January-April) and dry/hot (May-August) seasons, when 92 and 64% of Hon Mieu mosquitoes had survived to an age that they were able to transmit dengue (12 d), respectively. This was reduced to 29% during the wet/cool season from September to December. The presence of Ae. aegypti older than 12 d during each season is likely to facilitate the observed continuity of dengue transmission in the region. We provide season specific Ae. aegypti survival models for improved dengue epidemiology and evaluation of mosquito control strategies that aim to reduce mosquito survival to break the dengue transmission cycle. PMID:24551251

  19. 41 CFR 102-83.115 - What is a central city?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.115 What is a central city? Central cities are those central cities...

  20. 41 CFR 102-83.115 - What is a central city?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.115 What is a central city? Central cities are those central cities...

  1. Central City White Flight: Racial and Nonracial Causes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, William H.

    The cumulative adverse impact of residential white flight from large central cities on the residual population has led policy makers to be wary of instituting programs which will further exacerbate the process. Recent policy debates have evolved over the question of whether white city-to-suburb movement is affected more significantly by…

  2. Opisthorchis viverrini infections and associated risk factors in a lowland area of Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Dao, Thanh Thi Ha; Bui, Tuan Van; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Gabriël, Sarah; Nguyen, Thanh Thi Giang; Huynh, Quang Hong; Nguyen, Chuong Van; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    Opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini is a major public health problem in the Mekong Basin in South East Asia. It is associated with cholangiocarcinoma, a fatal cancer of the bile duct, which is very common in some areas of Thailand and Lao PDR. Although there is evidence of opisthorchiasis in the central and Southern provinces of Vietnam, data are scarce and Vietnam is often not considered an opisthorchiasis endemic area in the international literature. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in June 2015 in a lowland rural area of Binh Dinh Province in Central Vietnam to investigate the apparent prevalence of O. viverrini infection in the population and the associated risk factors. A total of 254 stool samples were collected and examined by the Kato Katz method. Consenting people shedding Opisthorchis-like eggs with their stools were treated with praziquantel and MgSO4 and adult worms were collected from stools for morphological and molecular identifications. Risk factors were studied with a structured questionnaire and the association with infection was evaluated by univariate and multivariate Firth's logistic regression analysis. The apparent prevalence in the investigated population determined by stool examination was 11.4% (CI: 8-16%). Infection with O. viverrini was confirmed in all 11 individuals consenting to receive praziquantel treatment and subsequent worm recovery from stools. The mean number of worms recovered after treatment/purgation was 14.5 (range 2-44). Male gender and the consumption of dishes prepared from raw small wild-caught freshwater fish (Carassius auratus) were found to be significant risk factors associated with opisthorchiasis in the area. These findings confirm the presence of O. viverrini infection in Central Vietnam related to the consumption of raw fish dishes. Awareness campaigns and control programs should be implemented in the region to combat this potentially fatal fluke infection. PMID:26872984

  3. Flood risk assessment and coping capacity with floods in central Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Thanh Tu; Ranzi, Roberto

    2013-04-01

    Some elements of the integrated risk assessment framework developed within the European KULTURISK project (www.kulturisk.eu), named KIRAF (Kulturisk Integrated Risk Assessment Framework-KIRAF is applied for flood risk assessment in a flood prone area of Quang Ngai province, central Vietnam. Since the socio-economic condition is developing and living standards are increasing, to help decision-makers in examining the possible risks and damages associated with uncertain future flood hazards and identifying the most appropriate structural and non-structural risk prevention measures, it is necessary to apply appropriate risk assessment methodologies. Starting from flood hazard maps estimated for different return periods in terms of depth, duration or velocity using a 2D hydrodynamic model, for vulnerability assessment and exposure estimation, direct tangible and intangible, indirect tangible and intangible costs are estimated, based on over 380 responses of local people to 39 questions in a questionnaire directly related to flood risk and preparedness. In this way cost functions for some, at least, of these four damage classes can be fitted to local conditions. Field surveys and technical reports were used for a better understanding of the questionnaire responses. In this way social and behavioral aspects influencing adaptive capacity, coping capacity and susceptibility to the physical hazard can be made more explicit for the successive Socio-Economic Regional Risk Assessment (SERRA) methodology proposed in KULTURISK.

  4. PCDD/Fs in sediments of Central Vietnam coastal lagoons: in search of TCDD.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Rossano; Giuliani, Silvia; Bellucci, Luca Giorgio; Mugnai, Cristian; Cu, Nguyen Huu; Nhon, Dang Hoai; Vecchiato, Marco; Romano, Stefania; Frignani, Mauro

    2010-12-01

    Samples from nine Central Vietnam coastal lagoons, together with three soils and sediments collected in two freshwater reservoirs of the Thua Thien-Hué province, were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Total concentrations are low, from 192 to 2912 pg g(-1) and depth profiles in Tam Giang-Cau Hai (TG-CH) sediment cores show only minor changes over time in PCDD/F input and composition. Octachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) is the prevailing congener (approximately 90%), indicating combustion as the main PCDD/F source to these coastal systems, whereas natural formation might be partly responsible for the presence at depth. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), largely sprayed together with Agent Orange over the study areas during the war (1961-1971), is absent or very low. This result supports the hypothesis of strong degradation soon after spraying. Multivariate statistical analyses account for the presence of local, short-range sources as observed in the northern part of the TG-CH lagoon. PMID:20952038

  5. Investigating drought over the Central Highland, Vietnam, using regional climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Minh Tue; Raghavan, Srivatsan V.; Pham, Duc Minh; Liong, Shie-Yui

    2015-07-01

    The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) has been computed based on the monthly precipitation for different observed and modelled datasets over the Central Highland, Vietnam during the period 1990-2005. Station data from a total of 13 stations were collected from the study region and used for benchmarking to compare gridded observation data and two regional climate models (RCMs). Various characteristics of drought across the study region were analyzed using spatial and temporal distributions, number of drought events, their frequency and their deficit. The RCMs were able to capture the SPI temporal distributions of station data fairly well. The analysis from RCMs showed close estimation for the number of drought events to station data and gridded observations. In terms of Drought Deficit and frequency, the RCMs matched the station data better than gridded observations. The drought trend was carried out using a Modified Mann-Kendall trend test which yielded no clear trends that suggested the need for longer records of data. The results also highlight uncertainties in gridded data and the need for robust station data quality and record lengths. The regional climate models proved to be appropriate tools in assessing drought over the study area as they can serve as good proxies over data sparse regions, especially in developing countries, for studying detailed climate features at sub regional and local scales.

  6. Elimination of dengue by community programs using Mesocyclops(Copepoda) against Aedes aegypti in central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Vu, Sinh Nam; Nguyen, Thi Yen; Tran, Vu Phong; Truong, Uyen Ninh; Le, Quyen Mai; Le, Viet Lo; Le, Trung Nghia; Bektas, Ahmet; Briscombe, Alistair; Aaskov, John G; Ryan, Peter A; Kay, Brian H

    2005-01-01

    From September 2000 to June 2003, a community-based program for dengue control using local predacious copepods of the genus Mesocyclops was conducted in three rural communes in the central Vietnam provinces of Quang Nam, Quang Ngai, and Khanh Hoa. Post-project, three subsequent entomologic surveys were conducted until March 2004. The number of households and residents in the communes were 5,913 and 27,167, respectively, and dengue notification rates for these communes from 1996 were as high as 2,418.5 per 100,000 persons. Following knowledge, attitude, and practice evaluations, surveys of water storage containers indicated that Mesocyclops spp. already occurred in 3-17% and that large tanks up to 2,000 liters, 130-300-liter jars, wells, and some 220-liter metal drums were the most productive habitats for Aedes aegypti. With technical support, the programs were driven by communal management committees, health collaborators, schoolteachers, and pupils. From quantitative estimates of the standing crop of third and fourth instars from 100 households, Ae. aegypti were reduced by approximately 90% by year 1, 92.3-98.6% by year 2, and Ae. aegypti immature forms had been eliminated from two of three communes by June 2003. Similarly, from resting adult collections from 100 households, densities were reduced to 0-1 per commune. By March 2004, two communes with no larvae had small numbers but the third was negative; one adult was collected in each of two communes while one became negative. Absolute estimates of third and fourth instars at the three intervention communes and one left untreated had significant correlations (P = 0.009-< 0.001) with numbers of adults aspirated from inside houses on each of 15 survey periods. By year 1, the incidence of dengue disease in the treated communes was reduced by 76.7% compared with non-intervention communes within the same districts, and no dengue was evident in 2002 and 2003, compared with 112.8 and 14.4 cases per 100,000 at district

  7. Elimination of dengue by community programs using Mesocyclops(Copepoda) against Aedes aegypti in central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Vu, Sinh Nam; Nguyen, Thi Yen; Tran, Vu Phong; Truong, Uyen Ninh; Le, Quyen Mai; Le, Viet Lo; Le, Trung Nghia; Bektas, Ahmet; Briscombe, Alistair; Aaskov, John G; Ryan, Peter A; Kay, Brian H

    2005-01-01

    From September 2000 to June 2003, a community-based program for dengue control using local predacious copepods of the genus Mesocyclops was conducted in three rural communes in the central Vietnam provinces of Quang Nam, Quang Ngai, and Khanh Hoa. Post-project, three subsequent entomologic surveys were conducted until March 2004. The number of households and residents in the communes were 5,913 and 27,167, respectively, and dengue notification rates for these communes from 1996 were as high as 2,418.5 per 100,000 persons. Following knowledge, attitude, and practice evaluations, surveys of water storage containers indicated that Mesocyclops spp. already occurred in 3-17% and that large tanks up to 2,000 liters, 130-300-liter jars, wells, and some 220-liter metal drums were the most productive habitats for Aedes aegypti. With technical support, the programs were driven by communal management committees, health collaborators, schoolteachers, and pupils. From quantitative estimates of the standing crop of third and fourth instars from 100 households, Ae. aegypti were reduced by approximately 90% by year 1, 92.3-98.6% by year 2, and Ae. aegypti immature forms had been eliminated from two of three communes by June 2003. Similarly, from resting adult collections from 100 households, densities were reduced to 0-1 per commune. By March 2004, two communes with no larvae had small numbers but the third was negative; one adult was collected in each of two communes while one became negative. Absolute estimates of third and fourth instars at the three intervention communes and one left untreated had significant correlations (P = 0.009-< 0.001) with numbers of adults aspirated from inside houses on each of 15 survey periods. By year 1, the incidence of dengue disease in the treated communes was reduced by 76.7% compared with non-intervention communes within the same districts, and no dengue was evident in 2002 and 2003, compared with 112.8 and 14.4 cases per 100,000 at district

  8. Coastal evolution between two giant rivers: The Chan May embayment in central Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouramanis, C.; Switzer, A.; Bristow, C.; Pham, D. T.; Mauz, B.; Pile, J.; Doan, L. D.; Hoang, Q. D.; Ngo, C. K.; Dao, N.; Polivka, P.; Soria, L.; Lee, Y.; Sloss, C.; Hoang, L. V.

    2015-12-01

    The coastal landscapes of Vietnam are dominated in the north and south by the very large Red and Mekong rivers. Central Vietnam, in contrast, has few large rivers that flow to the coastal zone. This coupled with the high relief (>1500 m) of the granitic Truong Son Range and shallow gradient continental shelf, has produced two different coastal geomorphologies. The first is a shallow basin infilled with a sequence of parallel, arcuate beach ridges, and the second includes the development of shore-parallel spits and coastal lagoons. All systems are Holocene in age and we present evidence of the Holocene evolution of the northward-facing, beach ridge strandplain located in the Chan May embayment, approximately 35 km north of Danang. This embayment is relatively small (5 km long at the beach and with a beach ridge sequence that spans 11 km from the modern beach to the base of the Truong Son Range) compared to other beach ridge strandplains to the north and south and serves as an analogue for the evolution of these larger systems. The Holocene evolution of the embayment was resolved using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), high-resolution sedimentological analysis and quartz Optically Stimulated Luminescence were used to investigate the internal stratigraphy and chronological development of the beach ridges at Chan May. The strandplain contains uniform, clean quartz-rich sediment interspersed by thin heavy mineral rich bands forming shallow-gradient beach ridges that have steadily prograded seaward during the regression after the mid-Holocene sea level highstand. As the beach ridges prograded seaward, a small river feeding directly from the Truong Son Range meandered across the strandplain and significantly modified the embayment. Recently, the river has become much reduced due to anthropogenic modification of the river and landscape. Prior to the Holocene marine highstand, the area was similarly characterized by a surface of prograding beach ridges that were eroded by

  9. Mobile devices for community-based REDD+ monitoring: a case study for Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Herold, Martin; Avitabile, Valerio; de Bruin, Sytze; Bartholomeus, Harm; Souza, Carlos M; Ribbe, Lars

    2012-12-20

    Monitoring tropical deforestation and forest degradation is one of the central elements for the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD+) scheme. Current arrangements for monitoring are based on remote sensing and field measurements. Since monitoring is the periodic process of assessing forest stands properties with respect to reference data, adopting the current REDD+ requirements for implementing monitoring at national levels is a challenging task. Recently, the advancement in Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) and mobile devices has enabled local communities to monitor their forest in a basic resource setting such as no or slow internet connection link, limited power supply, etc. Despite the potential, the use of mobile device system for community based monitoring (CBM) is still exceptional and faces implementation challenges. This paper presents an integrated data collection system based on mobile devices that streamlines the community-based forest monitoring data collection, transmission and visualization process. This paper also assesses the accuracy and reliability of CBM data and proposes a way to fit them into national REDD+ Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) scheme. The system performance is evaluated at Tra Bui commune, Quang Nam province, Central Vietnam, where forest carbon and change activities were tracked. The results show that the local community is able to provide data with accuracy comparable to expert measurements (index of agreement greater than 0.88), but against lower costs. Furthermore, the results confirm that communities are more effective to monitor small scale forest degradation due to subsistence fuel wood collection and selective logging, than high resolution remote sensing SPOT imagery.

  10. Mobile Devices for Community-Based REDD+ Monitoring: A Case Study for Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Herold, Martin; Avitabile, Valerio; de Bruin, Sytze; Bartholomeus, Harm; Souza, Carlos M.; Ribbe, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring tropical deforestation and forest degradation is one of the central elements for the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD+) scheme. Current arrangements for monitoring are based on remote sensing and field measurements. Since monitoring is the periodic process of assessing forest stands properties with respect to reference data, adopting the current REDD+ requirements for implementing monitoring at national levels is a challenging task. Recently, the advancement in Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) and mobile devices has enabled local communities to monitor their forest in a basic resource setting such as no or slow internet connection link, limited power supply, etc. Despite the potential, the use of mobile device system for community based monitoring (CBM) is still exceptional and faces implementation challenges. This paper presents an integrated data collection system based on mobile devices that streamlines the community-based forest monitoring data collection, transmission and visualization process. This paper also assesses the accuracy and reliability of CBM data and proposes a way to fit them into national REDD+ Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) scheme. The system performance is evaluated at Tra Bui commune, Quang Nam province, Central Vietnam, where forest carbon and change activities were tracked. The results show that the local community is able to provide data with accuracy comparable to expert measurements (index of agreement greater than 0.88), but against lower costs. Furthermore, the results confirm that communities are more effective to monitor small scale forest degradation due to subsistence fuel wood collection and selective logging, than high resolution remote sensing SPOT imagery. PMID:23344371

  11. 4-H for Central City Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paige, Joseph C.

    1970-01-01

    Joseph C. Paige is the Dean of Community Education and Director of Cooperative Extension Service of the only urban Land-Grant College, Federal City College, in Washington, D.C. Here he is interviewed about 4-H with children of poor ethnic groups in the District of Columbia. (NL)

  12. Homalium glandulosum (Salicaceae), a new species from Vu Quang National Park, North Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Tagane, Shuichiro; Nguyen, Viet Hung; Ngoc, Nguyen Van; Son, Hoang Thanh; Toyama, Hironori; Yang, Chen-Jui; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Homalium glandulosum Tagane & V. H. Nguyen, from Vu Quang National Park in northern Vietnam, is newly described. This species is characterized by distinct glands, often stalked, at the base of the lamina and along the margin of the stipules and bracteoles. Illustrations, DNA barcodes of the two regions of rbcL and matK, and a key to the species of Homalium in Vietnam are also provided. PMID:26884709

  13. Homalium glandulosum (Salicaceae), a new species from Vu Quang National Park, North Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tagane, Shuichiro; Nguyen, Viet Hung; Ngoc, Nguyen Van; Son, Hoang Thanh; Toyama, Hironori; Yang, Chen-Jui; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2016-01-01

    Homalium glandulosum Tagane & V. H. Nguyen, from Vu Quang National Park in northern Vietnam, is newly described. This species is characterized by distinct glands, often stalked, at the base of the lamina and along the margin of the stipules and bracteoles. Illustrations, DNA barcodes of the two regions of rbcL and matK, and a key to the species of Homalium in Vietnam are also provided.

  14. Separation of land-use change induced signals from noise by means of evaluating perturbed RCM ensembles: Assessing the potential impacts of urbanization and deforestation in Central Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laux, Patrick; Nguyen, Phuong N. B.; Cullmann, Johannes; Kunstmann, Harald

    2016-04-01

    Regional climate models (RCMs) comprise both terrestrial and atmospheric compartments and thereby allowing to study land atmosphere feedbacks, and in particular the land-use and climate change impacts. In this study, a methodological framework is developed to separate the land use change induced signals in RCM simulations from noise caused by perturbed initial boundary conditions. The framework is applied for two different case studies in SE Asia, i.e. an urbanization and a deforestation scenario, which are implemented into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The urbanization scenario is produced for Da Nang, one of the fastest growing cities in Central Vietnam, by converting the land-use in a 20 km, 14 km, and 9 km radius around the Da Nang meteorological station systematically from cropland to urban. Likewise, three deforestation scenarios are derived for Nong Son (Central Vietnam). Based on WRF ensemble simulations with perturbed initial conditions for 2010, the signal to-noise ratio (SNR) is calculated to identify areas with pronounced signals induced by LULCC. While clear and significant signals are found for air temperature, latent and sensible heat flux in the urbanization scenario (SNR values up to 24), the signals are not pronounced for deforestation (SNR values < 1). Albeit statistically significant signals are found for precipitation, low SNR values hinder scientifically sound inferences for climate change adaptation options. It is demonstrated that ensemble simulations with more than at least 5 ensemble members are required to derive robust LULCC adaptation strategies, particularly if precipitation is considered. This is rarely done in practice, thus potentially leading to erroneous estimates of the LULCC induced signals of water and energy fluxes, which are propagated through the regional climate - hydrological model modeling chains, and finally leading to unfavorable decision support.

  15. HIV, Hepatitis C, and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Male Sex Workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Colby, Donn J; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Nguyen, Thi; Closson, Elizabeth F; Biello, Katie B; Mayer, Kenneth H; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2016-04-01

    There is little data on the burden of HIV and other infections that affect male sex workers (MSW) in Vietnam. We conducted behavioral and biological sexual health surveys with 300 MSW in Ho Chi Minh City. Generalized estimating equation models were built to assess factors associated with HIV, hepatitis C, and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Of 300 MSW, 19 (6.3 %) were diagnosed seropositive for HIV, 11 (3.7 %) had hepatitis C, and 26 (8.7 %) had at least one prevalent STI. In a multivariable model, opiate use was significantly associated with HIV infection (aOR 6.46, 95 % CI 1.28-32.7) and hepatitis C (aOR = 19.6, 95 % CI 2.35-163.6). Alcohol dependency was associated with increased odds of hepatitis C (aOR = 4.79, 95 % CI 1.02-22.5) and decreased odds of other STI (aOR = 0.30, 95 % CI 0.10-0.97). These findings suggest that MSW in Vietnam would benefit from regular HIV and STI testing, as well as linkage to care and substance use rehabilitation services.

  16. Identification of the prediction model for dengue incidence in Can Tho city, a Mekong Delta area in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Phung, Dung; Huang, Cunrui; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia; Wang, Xiaoming; Nguyen, Minh; Nguyen, Nga Huy; Manh, Cuong Do

    2015-01-01

    The Mekong Delta is highly vulnerable to climate change and a dengue endemic area in Vietnam. This study aims to examine the association between climate factors and dengue incidence and to identify the best climate prediction model for dengue incidence in Can Tho city, the Mekong Delta area in Vietnam. We used three different regression models comprising: standard multiple regression model (SMR), seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model (SARIMA), and Poisson distributed lag model (PDLM) to examine the association between climate factors and dengue incidence over the period 2003-2010. We validated the models by forecasting dengue cases for the period of January-December, 2011 using the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). Receiver operating characteristics curves were used to analyze the sensitivity of the forecast of a dengue outbreak. The results indicate that temperature and relative humidity are significantly associated with changes in dengue incidence consistently across the model methods used, but not cumulative rainfall. The Poisson distributed lag model (PDLM) performs the best prediction of dengue incidence for a 6, 9, and 12-month period and diagnosis of an outbreak however the SARIMA model performs a better prediction of dengue incidence for a 3-month period. The simple or standard multiple regression performed highly imprecise prediction of dengue incidence. We recommend a follow-up study to validate the model on a larger scale in the Mekong Delta region and to analyze the possibility of incorporating a climate-based dengue early warning method into the national dengue surveillance system. PMID:25447266

  17. A prospective multi-center observational study of children hospitalized with diarrhea in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Corinne N; Phan, My V T; Hoang, Nguyen Van Minh; Minh, Pham Van; Vinh, Nguyen Thanh; Thuy, Cao Thu; Nga, Tran Thi Thu; Rabaa, Maia A; Duy, Pham Thanh; Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Phat, Voong Vinh; Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Tu, Le Thi Phuong; Tuyen, Ha Thanh; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Jenkins, Claire; Duong, Vu Thuy; Phuc, Hoang Le; Tuyet, Pham Thi Ngoc; Ngoc, Nguyen Minh; Vinh, Ha; Chinh, Nguyen Tran; Thuong, Tang Chi; Tuan, Ha Manh; Hien, Tran Tinh; Campbell, James I; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Thwaites, Guy; Baker, Stephen

    2015-05-01

    We performed a prospective multicenter study to address the lack of data on the etiology, clinical and demographic features of hospitalized pediatric diarrhea in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Over 2,000 (1,419 symptomatic and 609 non-diarrheal control) children were enrolled in three hospitals over a 1-year period in 2009-2010. Aiming to detect a panel of pathogens, we identified a known diarrheal pathogen in stool samples from 1,067/1,419 (75.2%) children with diarrhea and from 81/609 (13.3%) children without diarrhea. Rotavirus predominated in the symptomatic children (664/1,419; 46.8%), followed by norovirus (293/1,419; 20.6%). The bacterial pathogens Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Shigella were cumulatively isolated from 204/1,419 (14.4%) diarrheal children and exhibited extensive antimicrobial resistance, most notably to fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins. We suggest renewed efforts in generation and implementation of policies to control the sale and prescription of antimicrobials to curb bacterial resistance and advise consideration of a subsidized rotavirus vaccination policy to limit the morbidity due to diarrheal disease in Vietnam. PMID:25802437

  18. 41 CFR 102-83.115 - What is a central city?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What is a central city? 102-83.115 Section 102-83.115 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... Space Urban Areas § 102-83.115 What is a central city? Central cities are those central cities...

  19. Prevalence and risk factors associated with HIV infection among men having sex with men in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Nguyen, Hien Tran; Le, Giang Truong; Detels, Roger

    2008-05-01

    To learn more about risk behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam and their prevalence of HIV, we conducted a study among MSM in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) to determine HIV-1 prevalence and behaviors associated with infection. This consisted of formative (35 MSM) and cross-sectional (600 MSM) studies at 72 sites, including 75 transvestites, 55 bisexuals, 10 sex workers, and 460 other MSM. Only 5.3% cohabited with a wife/girlfriend, but 30% reported ever having sex with a female. Prevalence of HIV was 8%, ranging from 33% in sex workers to 7% among transvestites and other MSM. Injecting drugs, selling sex, being 20-40 years old, having less than 6 years of education, and having more than five male anal sex partners in the past month were associated with being HIV-infected. MSM are an HIV bridge group, and should be included in sentinel surveillance. Targeted interventions should be implemented.

  20. Seasonal change in the atmospheric concentration of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Masao; Mio, Chihiro; Fujimori, Keiichi; Imamura, Kiyoshi; Takenaka, Norimichi; Maeda, Yasuaki; Lan, Tran Thi Ngoc; Shibutani, Yasuhiko; Bandow, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    We analyzed atmospheric particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, for 19 months. The average concentrations of total PAHs at dry and rainy seasons were 4.28 +/- 2.83 and 15.71 +/- 8.21 ng m(-3), respectively. The use of motorcycles without catalytic converters, estimated to be main emission sources of PAHs, would be higher during the dry season. PAH concentrations show a negative correlation with sunshine duration (r = -0.51). Furthermore, the ratio of average PAH concentration in the dry season to that in the rainy season shows a positive correlation with photolytic half-life (r = 0.94). Thus, seasonal changes in PAH concentrations are attributable to their photolytic degradation. PMID:19471847

  1. [Predictive factors of dengue shock syndrome at the children Hospital No. 1, Ho-chi-Minh City, Vietnam].

    PubMed

    Pham, T B; Nguyen, T H; Vu, T Q H; Nguyen, T L; Malvy, D

    2007-02-01

    The dengue shock syndrome (DSS) is primarily a complication of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) among children in South East Asia. A case-control study was carried out at the children hospital no 1 (Ho-Chi-Minh City, Vietnam) in May-July 2005, to identify the predictive factors of the DSS among 1-15 year patients with DHE Forty consecutive admitted cases and forty controls were studied. The associated features of DSS were the 7-12 year age group and the re-infection by the dengue virus. The vaccination against the Japanese encephalitis B was not associated statistically significantly with the shock syndrome. The clinical predictors of DSS gathered an abdominal tenderness, an hepatomegaly, a lethargy, a cold extremity presentation. DSS associated laboratory features were a value of hematocrit a 50 % and a platelet cell count < or = 75,000/mm3.

  2. Undiagnosed Cryptic Diversity in Small, Microendemic Frogs (Leptolalax) from the Central Highlands of Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Rowley, Jodi J. L.; Tran, Dao T. A.; Frankham, Greta J.; Dekker, Anthony H.; Le, Duong T. T.; Nguyen, Truong Q.; Dau, Vinh Q.; Hoang, Huy D.

    2015-01-01

    A major obstacle in prioritizing species or habitats for conservation is the degree of unrecognized diversity hidden within complexes of morphologically similar, “cryptic” species. Given that amphibians are one of the most threatened groups of organisms on the planet, our inability to diagnose their true diversity is likely to have significant conservation consequences. This is particularly true in areas undergoing rapid deforestation, such as Southeast Asia. The Southeast Asian genus Leptolalax is a group of small-bodied, morphologically conserved frogs that inhabit the forest-floor. We examined a particularly small-bodied and morphologically conserved subset, the Leptolalax applebyi group, using a combination of molecular, morphometric, and acoustic data to identify previously unknown diversity within. In order to predict the geographic distribution of the group, estimate the effects of habitat loss and assess the degree of habitat protection, we used our locality data to perform ecological niche modelling using MaxEnt. Molecular (mtDNA and nuDNA), acoustic and subtle morphometric differences revealed a significant underestimation of diversity in the L. applebyi group; at least two-thirds of the diversity may be unrecognised. Patterns of diversification and microendemism in the group appear driven by limited dispersal, likely due to their small body size, with several lineages restricted to watershed basins. The L. applebyi group is predicted to have historically occurred over a large area of the Central Highlands of Vietnam, a considerable portion of which has already been deforested. Less than a quarter of the remaining forest predicted to be suitable for the group falls within current protected areas. The predicted distribution of the L. applebyi group extends into unsurveyed watershed basins, each potentially containing unsampled diversity, some of which may have already been lost due to deforestation. Current estimates of amphibian diversity based on

  3. The Spectrum of Central Nervous System Infections in an Adult Referral Hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Walter R.; Nguyen, Kinh; Nguyen, Duc; Nguyen, Huyen; Horby, Peter; Nguyen, Ha L.; Lien, Trinh; Tran, Giang; Tran, Ninh; Nguyen, Ha M.; Nguyen, Thai; Nguyen, Ha H.; Nguyen, Thanh; Tran, Giap; Farrar, Jeremy; de Jong, Menno; Schultsz, Constance; Tran, Huong; Nguyen, Diep; Vu, Bich; Le, Hoa; Dao, Trinh; Nguyen, Trung; Wertheim, Heiman

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine prospectively the causative pathogens of central nervous system (CNS) infections in patients admitted to a tertiary referral hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam. Methods From May 2007 to December 2008, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 352 adults with suspected meningitis or encephalitis underwent routine testing, staining (Gram, Ziehl-Nielsen, India ink), bacterial culture and polymerase chain reaction targeting Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. suis, Haemophilus influenzae type b, Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Varicella Zoster virus (VZV), enterovirus, and 16S ribosomal RNA. Blood cultures and clinically indicated radiology were also performed. Patients were classified as having confirmed or suspected bacterial (BM), tuberculous (TBM), cryptococcal (CRM), eosinophilic (EOM) meningitis, aseptic encephalitis/meningitis (AEM), neurocysticercosis and others. Results 352 (male: 66%) patients were recruited: median age 34 years (range 13–85). 95/352 (27.3%) diagnoses were laboratory confirmed and one by cranial radiology: BM (n = 62), TBM (n = 9), AEM (n = 19), CRM (n = 5), and neurocysticercosis (n = 1, cranial radiology). S. suis predominated as the cause of BM [48/62 (77.4%)]; Listeria monocytogenese (n = 1), S. pasteurianus (n = 1) and N. meningitidis (n = 2) were infrequent. AEM viruses were: HSV (n = 12), VZV (n = 5) and enterovirus (n = 2). 5 patients had EOM. Of 262/352 (74.4%) patients with full clinical data, 209 (79.8%) were hospital referrals and 186 (71%) had been on antimicrobials. 21 (8%) patients died: TBM (15.2%), AEM (10%), and BM (2.8%). Conclusions Most infections lacked microbiological confirmation. S. suis was the most common cause of BM in this setting. Improved diagnostics are needed for meningoencephalitic syndromes to inform treatment and prevention strategies. PMID:22952590

  4. Undiagnosed cryptic diversity in small, microendemic frogs (Leptolalax) from the Central Highlands of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Jodi J L; Tran, Dao T A; Frankham, Greta J; Dekker, Anthony H; Le, Duong T T; Nguyen, Truong Q; Dau, Vinh Q; Hoang, Huy D

    2015-01-01

    A major obstacle in prioritizing species or habitats for conservation is the degree of unrecognized diversity hidden within complexes of morphologically similar, "cryptic" species. Given that amphibians are one of the most threatened groups of organisms on the planet, our inability to diagnose their true diversity is likely to have significant conservation consequences. This is particularly true in areas undergoing rapid deforestation, such as Southeast Asia. The Southeast Asian genus Leptolalax is a group of small-bodied, morphologically conserved frogs that inhabit the forest-floor. We examined a particularly small-bodied and morphologically conserved subset, the Leptolalax applebyi group, using a combination of molecular, morphometric, and acoustic data to identify previously unknown diversity within. In order to predict the geographic distribution of the group, estimate the effects of habitat loss and assess the degree of habitat protection, we used our locality data to perform ecological niche modelling using MaxEnt. Molecular (mtDNA and nuDNA), acoustic and subtle morphometric differences revealed a significant underestimation of diversity in the L. applebyi group; at least two-thirds of the diversity may be unrecognised. Patterns of diversification and microendemism in the group appear driven by limited dispersal, likely due to their small body size, with several lineages restricted to watershed basins. The L. applebyi group is predicted to have historically occurred over a large area of the Central Highlands of Vietnam, a considerable portion of which has already been deforested. Less than a quarter of the remaining forest predicted to be suitable for the group falls within current protected areas. The predicted distribution of the L. applebyi group extends into unsurveyed watershed basins, each potentially containing unsampled diversity, some of which may have already been lost due to deforestation. Current estimates of amphibian diversity based on

  5. Undiagnosed cryptic diversity in small, microendemic frogs (Leptolalax) from the Central Highlands of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Jodi J L; Tran, Dao T A; Frankham, Greta J; Dekker, Anthony H; Le, Duong T T; Nguyen, Truong Q; Dau, Vinh Q; Hoang, Huy D

    2015-01-01

    A major obstacle in prioritizing species or habitats for conservation is the degree of unrecognized diversity hidden within complexes of morphologically similar, "cryptic" species. Given that amphibians are one of the most threatened groups of organisms on the planet, our inability to diagnose their true diversity is likely to have significant conservation consequences. This is particularly true in areas undergoing rapid deforestation, such as Southeast Asia. The Southeast Asian genus Leptolalax is a group of small-bodied, morphologically conserved frogs that inhabit the forest-floor. We examined a particularly small-bodied and morphologically conserved subset, the Leptolalax applebyi group, using a combination of molecular, morphometric, and acoustic data to identify previously unknown diversity within. In order to predict the geographic distribution of the group, estimate the effects of habitat loss and assess the degree of habitat protection, we used our locality data to perform ecological niche modelling using MaxEnt. Molecular (mtDNA and nuDNA), acoustic and subtle morphometric differences revealed a significant underestimation of diversity in the L. applebyi group; at least two-thirds of the diversity may be unrecognised. Patterns of diversification and microendemism in the group appear driven by limited dispersal, likely due to their small body size, with several lineages restricted to watershed basins. The L. applebyi group is predicted to have historically occurred over a large area of the Central Highlands of Vietnam, a considerable portion of which has already been deforested. Less than a quarter of the remaining forest predicted to be suitable for the group falls within current protected areas. The predicted distribution of the L. applebyi group extends into unsurveyed watershed basins, each potentially containing unsampled diversity, some of which may have already been lost due to deforestation. Current estimates of amphibian diversity based on

  6. Metamorphic evolution of pelitic-semipelitic granulites in the Kon Tum massif (south-central Vietnam)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tích, Vu Van; Leyreloup, Andrey; Maluski, Henry; Lepvrier, Claude; Lo, Chinh-hua; Vượng, Nguyễn V.

    2013-09-01

    Pelitic and semipelitic anatectic granulites form one of the major lithological units in Kan Nack complex of the Kon Tum massif (in south-central Vietnam), which comprises HT metamorphic and magmatic rocks including granulites and charnockites is classically regarded as the older part of the Gondwana-derived Indosinia terrain. Metamorphic evolution study of pelitic granulite, the most abundant among granulites exposed in this massif, facilitates to understand that tectonic setting take place during the Indosinian time. The paragenetic assemblages, mineral chemistry, thermobarometry and P-T evolution path of pelitic-semipelitic granulites from Kon Tum massif has been studied in detail. Petrographic feature demonstrates that the pelitic granulite experienced prograde history, from pregranulitic conditions in the amphibolite facies up to the peak granulitic assemblages. Successive prograde reactions led to the temperature-climax giving rise to assemblages with cordierite-hercynite and cordierite-hercynite-K-feldspar. Then, as attested by the mineralogic association occurring in cordieritic coronas, these rocks have been affected by retrograde conditions coeval with a decrease of the pressure. Thermobarometic results show that the highest temperature obtained by ksp/pl thermometry is 850 °C and the highest pressure obtained by GASP (Garnet Alumino-Silicate Plagioclase) is 7.8 kbar. The obtained clockwise P-T evolution path involving heating decompression, then nearly isothermal decompression and nearly isobar cooling conditions shows that high temperature-low pressure metamorphism of the studied pelitic anatectic granulites of Kan Nack complex occurred possibly in extensional setting during the Indosinian orogeny of 260-240 Ma in age.

  7. Impact of climate change and sea level rise on a coastal aquifer, Central Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyen, Ine; Batelaan, Okke; Thanh Tam, Vu

    2013-04-01

    The Gio Linh district in the Quang Tri province, Central Vietnam has, like many other coastal areas in the world, to deal with negative impacts of Global Climate Change (GCC) and sea level rise (SLR). This research aims at investigating the impact of GCC/SLR and designing an adaptive water use plan till the year 2030 for the local residents of the Gio Linh district. This coastal plain covers an area of about 450 km2 and is situated between the rivers Ben Hai in the North and Thach Han in the South. The elevation varies from 0.5 m at the seaside in the East to 19.5 m further inland. During the rainy season from August to April the precipitation is on average 2000 to 2700 mm. GCC/SLR scenarios are built and assessed for estimating the changes in hydrometeorological conditions of the study area. Depending on the level of gas emission the sea level is expected to rise 7-9 cm by 2020 and around 11-14 cm by 2030 for low to high gas emission respectively. The salt-freshwater interface is expected to experience an inland shift due to SLR, affecting the amount of exploitable groundwater for drinking and irrigation water production. Drinking water production mainly comes from shallow aquifers in unconsolidated Quarternary coastal formations. A SEAWAT groundwater model will be built to study the effects on the groundwater system. Data from meteorological stations over a period of about 30 years and data from 63 boreholes in and around the Gio Linh district are available. Historical production records of an operational groundwater production well-field are available to be used for validation of the model. Finally, to achieve a sustainable integrated water resources management in the Gio Linh district different adaptive scenarios will be developed.

  8. Intake of essential fatty acids by growing-finishing pigs kept on smallholdings in central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, L Q; Everts, H; Beynen, A C

    2005-01-01

    The intake of linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) in relation to average daily weight gain (ADG) was studied in growing-finishing pigs kept on smallholdings in Central Vietnam. Groups of three piglets each were assigned randomly to 12 farms, where they were fed on local feedstuffs according to the farmer's choice but were given a restricted amount of dry matter according to a preset feeding regimen. On arrival at the farms, the pigs weighed 10.4 +/- 0.9 kg (mean +/- SD, n = 36) and at 130 days of age they weighed 45.4 +/- 9.6 kg. Dietary LA concentration ranged from 1.34 to 2.41 g/MJ metabolizable energy (ME) and ALA from 0.06 to 0.33 g/MJ ME. On a farm level, dietary LA and ALA concentrations were significantly correlated with their concentrations in adipose tissue, both correlation coefficients being 0.63. Dietary protein concentration and protein:energy ratio were significantly correlated with ADG, the correlation coefficients being 0.68 and 0.64. For individual piglets there were significant correlations between either LA or ALA in adipose tissue and ADG, the correlation coefficients being 0.37 and 0.45. Dietary protein concentration or protein:energy ratio was correlated with the dietary contents of LA and ALA. It is uncertain whether LA and ALA intake had a causal relationship with ADG. Since dietary LA levels were above the LA requirement, LA intake may not have limited growth. It is suggested tentatively that, through enhanced disease resistance, supplementation with ALA of the diets on the farms studied might have a positive influence on ADG.

  9. Bringing Peace to the Central City: Forgiveness Education in Milwaukee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassin, Elizabeth A.; Enright, Robert D.; Knutson, Jeanette A.

    2005-01-01

    The last 2 decades have seen a flowering of scholarly and applied work in the area of forgiveness, a skill important to the development of peaceful people and communities. We describe a forgiveness intervention designed to help children in a central-city environment. Such environments put children at risk for various psychological and social…

  10. Assessment of plastic waste generation and its potential recycling of household solid waste in Can Tho City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Nguyen Phuc; Matsui, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Takeshi

    2011-04-01

    Plastic solid waste has become a serious problem when considering the disposal alternatives following the sequential hierarchy of sound solid waste management. This study was undertaken to assess the quantity and composition of household solid waste, especially plastic waste to identify opportunities for waste recycling. A 1-month survey of 130 households was carried out in Can Tho City, the capital city of the Mekong Delta region in southern Vietnam. Household solid waste was collected from each household and classified into ten physical categories; especially plastic waste was sorted into 22 subcategories. The average household solid waste generation rate was 281.27 g/cap/day. The compostable and recyclable shares respectively accounted for high percentage as 80.74% and 11%. Regarding plastic waste, the average plastic waste generation rate was 17.24 g/cap/day; plastic packaging and plastic containers dominated with the high percentage, 95.64% of plastic waste. Plastic shopping bags were especially identified as the major component, accounting for 45.72% of total plastic waste. Relevant factors such as household income and household size were found to have an existing correlation to plastic waste generation in detailed composition. The household habits and behaviors of plastic waste discharge and the aspects of environmental impacts and resource consumption for plastic waste disposal alternatives were also evaluated.

  11. Promoting self-help activities for people living with HIV / AIDS in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le Truong Giang; Nguyen Huu Luyen; Le Thuy Lan Thao; Narimani, P

    1999-01-01

    The rising epidemic of HIV/AIDS in Ho Chi Minh City presents new challenges for sexually transmitted disease/HIV prevention in Vietnam. Most HIV/AIDS cases are found south of the country and this puts a burden on the Ho Chi Minh City AIDS Committee. Building on experiences from other countries, the AIDS Committee successfully implemented measures such as needle-exchange programs, condom distribution, peer education, and outreach activities. It also established a meeting place, the Cafe Hy Vong, for female sex workers and intravenous drug users. From the beginning, the Committee regarded meeting the special needs of people living with HIV/AIDS (PHA) as important prevention activities, and encouraged PHA to discuss their concerns with the committee. The PHA formed the Friend-to-Friend group in October 1995, where the Ho Chi Minh AIDS Committee gave its full support. The group organizes meetings and social gatherings where they can share their feelings and experiences, as well as get information and counseling.

  12. Monitoring land subsidence process in the urban area of Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam using multi-temporal SAR Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Xuan; Chang, Chung-Pai; Le, Tuan

    2016-04-01

    Land subsidence has become the most common hazard in urban area that could led to cracking buildings and infrastructures, extending the flooding area or even change the river path. Despite deriving precise information, conventional subsidence monitoring techniques are considered as costly, man-power consuming and lack of comprehensive information. Recently, SAR Interferometry (InSAR) has become a widely used geodetic technique for monitoring the deformation of the Earth's surface, especially methods based on the use of a multi-temporal dataset. In this study, we use a stack of 18 SAR images acquired from L-band PALSAR sensor onboard the ALOS satellite to derive the subsidence information of Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam over the period of December 2006 to December 2010. The Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS) Multi-Temporal Interferometry (MTI) approach is chosen to take advantages of both the persistent scatterers and the distributed scatterers, which could be used as monitoring points to measure the subsidence process. Assume the subsidence in this area mostly corresponds to vertical components, we found subsidence patterns along Saigon river and in the South of the city. Maximum subsidence rate reaches up to -66 mm/year in vertical direction. Finally, InSAR derived result and previous levelling data are taken into comparison to find the correlation between the two results.

  13. Sustainability and cost of a community-based strategy against Aedes aegypti in northern and central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kay, Brian H; Tuyet Hanh, Tran T; Le, Nguyen Hoang; Quy, Tran Minh; Nam, Vu Sinh; Hang, Phan V D; Yen, Nguyen Thi; Hill, Peter S; Vos, Theo; Ryan, Peter A

    2010-05-01

    We previously reported a new community-based mosquito control that resulted in the elimination of Aedes aegypti in 40 of 46 communes in northern and central Vietnam. During 2007 and 2008, we revisited Nam Dinh and Khanh Hoa provinces in northern and central Vietnam, respectively, to evaluate whether or not these programs were still being maintained 7 years and 4.5 years after formal project activities had ceased, respectively. Using a previously published sustainability framework, we compared 13 criteria from Tho Nghiep commune in Nam Dinh where the local community had adopted our community-based project model using Mesocyclops from 2001. These data were compared against a formal project commune, Xuan Phong, where our successful intervention activities had ceased in 2000 and four communes operating under the National Dengue Control Program with data available. In Khanh Hoa province, we compared 2008 data at Ninh Xuan commune with data at project completion in 2003 and benchmarked these, where possible, against an untreated control commune, Ninh Binh, where few control activities had been undertaken. The three communes where the above community-based strategy had been adopted were rated as well-sustained with annual recurrent total costs (direct and indirect) of $0.28-0.89 international dollars per person.

  14. Agent Orange footprint still visible in rural areas of central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Banout, Jan; Urban, Ondrej; Musil, Vojtech; Szakova, Jirina; Balik, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Levels of polychlorinated dioxins/furans (PCDD/PCDF) in selected environmental samples (soils, sediments, fish, and farm animals) were analyzed from the area of Phong My commune (Thua Thien-Hue province, Vietnam). This area was affected by Agent Orange spraying during the Vietnam war (1968-1971). Whereas PCDD/PCDF content in soil and sediment samples is relatively low and ranges between 0.05 and 5.1 pg WHO-TEQ/g for soils and between 0.7 and 6.4 pg WHO-TEQ/g for sediments, the PCDD/PCDF content in poultry muscle and liver in most cases exceeded the maximum permissible limit of dioxin content per unit fat mass. In some cases of soil and sediments samples, 2,3,7,8-TCDD represented more than 90% of the total PCDD/PCDF, which indicates Agent Orange as the main source.

  15. Agent Orange footprint still visible in rural areas of central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Banout, Jan; Urban, Ondrej; Musil, Vojtech; Szakova, Jirina; Balik, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Levels of polychlorinated dioxins/furans (PCDD/PCDF) in selected environmental samples (soils, sediments, fish, and farm animals) were analyzed from the area of Phong My commune (Thua Thien-Hue province, Vietnam). This area was affected by Agent Orange spraying during the Vietnam war (1968-1971). Whereas PCDD/PCDF content in soil and sediment samples is relatively low and ranges between 0.05 and 5.1 pg WHO-TEQ/g for soils and between 0.7 and 6.4 pg WHO-TEQ/g for sediments, the PCDD/PCDF content in poultry muscle and liver in most cases exceeded the maximum permissible limit of dioxin content per unit fat mass. In some cases of soil and sediments samples, 2,3,7,8-TCDD represented more than 90% of the total PCDD/PCDF, which indicates Agent Orange as the main source. PMID:24639878

  16. Agent Orange Footprint Still Visible in Rural Areas of Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Szakova, Jirina; Balik, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Levels of polychlorinated dioxins/furans (PCDD/PCDF) in selected environmental samples (soils, sediments, fish, and farm animals) were analyzed from the area of Phong My commune (Thua Thien-Hue province, Vietnam). This area was affected by Agent Orange spraying during the Vietnam war (1968–1971). Whereas PCDD/PCDF content in soil and sediment samples is relatively low and ranges between 0.05 and 5.1 pg WHO-TEQ/g for soils and between 0.7 and 6.4 pg WHO-TEQ/g for sediments, the PCDD/PCDF content in poultry muscle and liver in most cases exceeded the maximum permissible limit of dioxin content per unit fat mass. In some cases of soil and sediments samples, 2,3,7,8-TCDD represented more than 90% of the total PCDD/PCDF, which indicates Agent Orange as the main source. PMID:24639878

  17. The balancing act: exploring stigma, economic need and disclosure among male sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Closson, Elizabeth F; Colby, Donn J; Nguyen, Thi; Cohen, Samuel S; Biello, Katie; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    In Vietnam, there is an emerging HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM). Male sex workers engage in high-risk sexual behaviours that make them particularly vulnerable to HIV infection. In 2010, 23 MSM in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) who recently received payment for sex with another man completed in-depth qualitative interviews exploring motivations for sex work, patterns of sex work disclosure and experiences of social stigma. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and translated into English and analysed using a qualitative descriptive approach. Low wages, unstable employment and family remittances were motivating factors for MSM in HCMC to sell sex. Participants described experiences of enacted and felt social stigma related to their involvement in sex work. In response, they utilised stigma management techniques aimed at concealment of involvement in sex work. Such strategies restricted sexual communication with non-paying sex partners and potentially limited their ability to seek social support from family and friends. Departing from decontextualized depictions of sex work disclosure, our findings describe how decisions to reveal involvement in sex work are shaped by social and structural factors such as social stigma, techniques to minimise exposure to stigma, economic imperatives and familial responsibilities.

  18. Effect of housing factors on infestation by Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse in urban Hanoi City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, Ataru; Sunahara, Toshihiko; Duoc, Vu Trong; Le Nguyen, Hoang; Higa, Yukiko; Phong, Tran Vu; Minakawa, Noboru

    2013-11-01

    To determine the effect of housing factors on infestation with Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse we conducted an entomological survey and inspection of 267 urban houses in Hanoi City, Vietnam. Two hundred ten pupae and 194 adult Ae. aegypti were collected from 19 and 88 houses, respectively. One hundred eighty-one pupae and 24 adult Ae. albopictus were collected from 21 and 14 houses, respectively. The presence of a private well was associated with increasing infestation with Ae. aegypti adults (p = 0.01) and increased the risk of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus pupal presence (p = 0.04 for Ae. aegypti, p = 0.03 for Ae. albopictus). The presence of an outdoor space in the household premises was associated with a higher risk of Ae. albopictus pupal presence (p = 0.004) and a higher risk of high levels of Ae. albopictus adults (p = 0.01); however, it had no association with infestation with Ae. aegypti. The presence of an air-conditioning unit (p = 0.03) and four or more rooms in the residence (p = 0.02) were negatively and positively associated with the risk for Ae. albopictus presence, respectively. PMID:24450235

  19. Radon and radium concentrations in drinkable water supplies of the Thu Duc region in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le, Cong Hao; Huynh, Nguyen Phong Thu; Nguyen, Van Thang; Le, Quoc Bao

    2015-11-01

    The results of (222)Rn and (226)Ra activity measurements in drinkable water supplies of the Thu Duc region in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, are presented in this paper. The measurements were performed using a RAD 7 radon detector manufactured by Durridge Company, Inc. Mean concentrations of (222)Rn and (226)Ra were found to be 0.11±0.01Bql(-1) and 0.11±0.02Bql(-1) in 14 drinking water samples. They are 0.12±0.01Bql(-1) and 0.10±0.02Bql(-1) in 15 tap water samples, respectively. The mean (222)Rn concentration of 1.40±0.03Bql(-1) in the 20 groundwater samples of this study is also lower than the WHO advised level of 100Bql(-1). Fifty percent of groundwater samples analysed have (226)Ra levels in excess of the USEPA recommended maximum contaminant level of 0.185Bql(-1). The occurrence of elevated concentrations of (226)Ra in groundwater samples was explained by pH and alkaline conditions.

  20. Radon and radium concentrations in drinkable water supplies of the Thu Duc region in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le, Cong Hao; Huynh, Nguyen Phong Thu; Nguyen, Van Thang; Le, Quoc Bao

    2015-11-01

    The results of (222)Rn and (226)Ra activity measurements in drinkable water supplies of the Thu Duc region in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, are presented in this paper. The measurements were performed using a RAD 7 radon detector manufactured by Durridge Company, Inc. Mean concentrations of (222)Rn and (226)Ra were found to be 0.11±0.01Bql(-1) and 0.11±0.02Bql(-1) in 14 drinking water samples. They are 0.12±0.01Bql(-1) and 0.10±0.02Bql(-1) in 15 tap water samples, respectively. The mean (222)Rn concentration of 1.40±0.03Bql(-1) in the 20 groundwater samples of this study is also lower than the WHO advised level of 100Bql(-1). Fifty percent of groundwater samples analysed have (226)Ra levels in excess of the USEPA recommended maximum contaminant level of 0.185Bql(-1). The occurrence of elevated concentrations of (226)Ra in groundwater samples was explained by pH and alkaline conditions. PMID:26334782

  1. Sexual practices, partner concurrency and high rates of sexually transmissible infections among male sex workers in three cities in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Clatts, Michael C.; Goldsamt, Lloyd A.; Giang, Le Minh; Yu, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Background This paper examines sexual practices, partner concurrency and sexually transmissible infections (STI)/HIV infection among male sex workers (MSWs) in Vietnam. Methods Six hundred and fifty-four MSWs, aged 16–35 years, were recruited in Hanoi, Nha Trang and Ho Chi Minh City between 2009 and 2011. Survey measures included demographic characteristics, drug use, types of sexual partners and sexual practices. Subjects were screened for STIs, including HIV. Results MSWs in Ho Chi Minh City (33%) were more likely than those from the other two sites to be current users of one or more types of illegal drugs (P < 0.001). MSWs with both male and female elective partners (compared with other partnership types) were more likely to have anal sex with male client partners (P < 0.001), elective male partners (P = 0.045) and elective female partners (P = 0.025). At last sex with a male client partner, only 30% used a condom during anal intercourse. At last sex with an elective female partner, only 31% used a condom during vaginal sex and only 3% during anal sex. Although rates of HIV are low (4%), other STIs are high, including chlamydia (17%), gonorrhoea (29%) and human papillomavirus (33%). Most (57.3%) have never been tested for HIV and only 17% have ever disclosed to a healthcare provider that they have sex with men. Conclusions Complex patterns of sexual concurrency, coupled with high rates of STIs, signal the urgent need for health services interventions among MSWs, both to improve individual health outcomes and to reduce secondary STI/HIV transmission among sexual partner networks. PMID:25622225

  2. Population-Based Incidence Rates of First-Ever Stroke in Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Yamanashi, Hirotomo; Ngoc, Mai Quang; Huy, Tran Van; Suzuki, Motoi; Tsujino, Akira; Toizumi, Michiko; Takahashi, Kensuke; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Anh, Dang Duc; Anh, Nguyen Thi Hien; Tho, Le Huu; Maeda, Takahiro; Cox, Sharon E.; Yoshida, Lay-Myint; Ariyoshi, Koya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Stroke incidence data with methodologically acceptable design in Southeast Asia countries is limited. This study aimed to determine incidence of age-, sex- and subtype-specific first-ever stroke (FES) in Vietnam. Methods We conducted a hospital-based retrospective study, targeting all stroke cases hospitalized at a solo-provider hospital in our study site of Nha Trang from January 2009 to December 2011 with International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) codes I60-69. We calculated positive predictive values (PPVs) of each ICD-10-coded stroke by conducting a detailed case review of 190 randomly selected admissions with ICD-10 codes of I60-I69. These PPVs were then used to estimate annual incident stroke cases from the computerized database. National census data in 2009 was used as a denominator. Results 2,693 eligible admissions were recorded during the study period. The crude annual incidence rate of total FES was 90.2 per 100,000 population (95% CI 81.1–100.2). The age-adjusted incidence of FES was 115.7 (95% CI 95.9–139.1) when adjusted to the WHO world populations. Importantly, age-adjusted intracerebral hemorrhage was as much as one third of total FES: 36.9 (95% CI 26.1–51.0). Conclusions We found a considerable proportion of FES in Vietnam to be attributable to intracerebral hemorrhage, which is as high or exceeding levels seen in high-income countries. A high prevalence of improperly treated hypertension in Vietnam may underlie the high prevalence of intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke in this population. PMID:27513471

  3. Are women as likely to take risks and compete? Behavioural findings from central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Fletschner, Diana; Anderson, C Leigh; Cullen, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Using controlled experiments to compare the risk attitude and willingness to compete of husbands and wives in 500 couples in rural Vietnam, we find that women are more risk averse than men and that, compared to men, women are less likely to choose to compete, irrespective of how likely they are to succeed. Relevant to development programmes concerned with lifting women out of poverty, our findings suggest that women may be more reluctant to adopt new technologies, take out loans, or engage in economic activities that offer higher expected returns, in order to avoid setups that require them to be more competitive or that have less predictable outcomes. PMID:21125722

  4. Rising HIV infection rates in Ho Chi Minh City herald emerging AIDS epidemic in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Lindan, C P; Lieu, T X; Giang, L T; Lap, V D; Thuc, N V; Thinh, T; Lurie, P; Mandel, J S

    1997-09-01

    An analysis of annual sentinel surveillance data from Viet Nam indicates that Ho Chi Minh City is at the forefront of a new HIV epidemic. Since 1990, data on HIV cases have been collected from prenatal clinics, blood banks, centers for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and tuberculosis, and rehabilitation centers for injecting drug users and commercial sex workers. The first HIV case in Viet Nam was reported in 1990 in Ho Chi Minh City. By the end of 1996, a cumulative total of 4961 HIV cases had been documented in Viet Nam, 2774 of which were in Ho Chi Minh City. In Ho Chi Minh City, 86.5% of cumulative HIV infections involved men. The distribution of total HIV cases by group has been: injecting drug users, 86.0%; tuberculosis patients, 3.3%; sex workers, 2.5%; STD patients, 2.5%; and pregnant women, 0.6%. By 1996, 42 of Viet Nam's 53 provinces had reported HIV cases and infection rates are rising dramatically in border areas near China and Cambodia. The pattern documented in this analysis resembles that observed in Thailand a decade ago: rapidly rising HIV rates among injecting drug users and infection already established among sex workers, without dissemination to the general population. The necessary infrastructure and resources for control of the epidemic are far more limited in Viet Nam than Thailand, however. Recommended, to prevent the further spread of HIV in Viet Nam, are educational activities targeted at injecting drug users and sex workers outside of rehabilitation centers, the availability of condoms and sterile needles, establishment of anonymous testing sites, control of STDs, and the coordination of programs within southeast Asia.

  5. Rising HIV infection rates in Ho Chi Minh City herald emerging AIDS epidemic in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Lindan, C P; Lieu, T X; Giang, L T; Lap, V D; Thuc, N V; Thinh, T; Lurie, P; Mandel, J S

    1997-09-01

    An analysis of annual sentinel surveillance data from Viet Nam indicates that Ho Chi Minh City is at the forefront of a new HIV epidemic. Since 1990, data on HIV cases have been collected from prenatal clinics, blood banks, centers for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and tuberculosis, and rehabilitation centers for injecting drug users and commercial sex workers. The first HIV case in Viet Nam was reported in 1990 in Ho Chi Minh City. By the end of 1996, a cumulative total of 4961 HIV cases had been documented in Viet Nam, 2774 of which were in Ho Chi Minh City. In Ho Chi Minh City, 86.5% of cumulative HIV infections involved men. The distribution of total HIV cases by group has been: injecting drug users, 86.0%; tuberculosis patients, 3.3%; sex workers, 2.5%; STD patients, 2.5%; and pregnant women, 0.6%. By 1996, 42 of Viet Nam's 53 provinces had reported HIV cases and infection rates are rising dramatically in border areas near China and Cambodia. The pattern documented in this analysis resembles that observed in Thailand a decade ago: rapidly rising HIV rates among injecting drug users and infection already established among sex workers, without dissemination to the general population. The necessary infrastructure and resources for control of the epidemic are far more limited in Viet Nam than Thailand, however. Recommended, to prevent the further spread of HIV in Viet Nam, are educational activities targeted at injecting drug users and sex workers outside of rehabilitation centers, the availability of condoms and sterile needles, establishment of anonymous testing sites, control of STDs, and the coordination of programs within southeast Asia. PMID:9376101

  6. Designing a Community Engagement Framework for a New Dengue Control Method: A Case Study from Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    McNaughton, Darlene; Duong, Thi Thu Huong

    2014-01-01

    Background The Wolbachia strategy aims to manipulate mosquito populations to make them incapable of transmitting dengue viruses between people. To test its efficacy, this strategy requires field trials. Public consultation and engagement are recognized as critical to the future success of these programs, but questions remain regarding how to proceed. This paper reports on a case study where social research was used to design a community engagement framework for a new dengue control method, at a potential release site in central Vietnam. Methodology/Principal Findings The approach described here, draws on an anthropological methodology and uses both qualitative and quantitative methods to design an engagement framework tailored to the concerns, expectations, and socio-political setting of a potential trial release site for Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The process, research activities, key findings and how these were responded to are described. Safety of the method to humans and the environment was the most common and significant concern, followed by efficacy and impact on local lives. Residents expected to be fully informed and engaged about the science, the project, its safety, the release and who would be responsible should something go wrong. They desired a level of engagement that included regular updates and authorization from government and at least one member of every household at the release site. Conclusions/Significance Results demonstrate that social research can provide important and reliable insights into public concerns and expectations at a potential release site, as well as guidance on how these might be addressed. Findings support the argument that using research to develop more targeted, engagement frameworks can lead to more sensitive, thorough, culturally comprehensible and therefore ethical consultation processes. This approach has now been used successfully to seek public input and eventually support for releases Wolbachia

  7. Cost-Effectiveness of Long-Lasting Insecticide-Treated Hammocks in Preventing Malaria in South-Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Morel, Chantal M.; Thang, Ngo Duc; Erhart, Annette; Xa, Nguyen Xuan; Peeters Grietens, Koen; Xuan Hung, Le; Thuan, Le Khan; Van Ky, Pham; Hung, Nguyen Manh; Coosemans, Marc; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Mills, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite much success in reducing the burden of malaria in Vietnam, pockets of malaria persist and eliminating them remains an important development goal. In central Vietnam, insecticide-treated hammocks have recently been introduced to help counter the disease in the highly forested, mountainous areas, where other measures have so far been unsuccessful. This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of using long-lasting insecticide-treated hammocks in this area. Methods and Findings This cost-effectiveness study was run alongside a randomized control trial testing the efficacy of the long-lasting insecticide-treated hammocks. Data were collected through an exit survey, a household survey, expenditure records and key informant interviews. The study estimates that under normal (non-trial) conditions the total net societal cost per malaria episode averted in using long-lasting insecticide-treated hammocks in this area was 126 USD. Cost per hammock, including insecticidal netting, sewing, transport, and distribution was found to be approximately 11.76 USD per hammock. Average savings per episode averted were estimated to be $14.60 USD for the health system and 14.37 USD for households (including both direct and indirect cost savings). The study estimates that the annual financial outlay required of government to implement this type of programme to be 3.40 USD per person covered per year. Conclusion The study finds that the use of a hammock intervention could represent good value for money to help prevent malaria in more remote areas, where traditional control measures such as insecticide-treated bednets and indoor residual spraying are insufficient or inappropriate to control malaria. However, the life span of the hammock–the number of years over which it effectively deters mosquitoes–has a significant impact on the cost-effectiveness of the intervention and study results should be interpreted in light of the evidence on effectiveness gathered in the years

  8. [Penicillium marneffei infection and AIDS. A review of 12 cases reported in the Tropical Diseases Centre, Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam)].

    PubMed

    Huynh, Thi Xuan Tuyet; Nguyen, Huu Chi; Dinh Nguyen, Huy Man; Do, Minh Trung; Odermatt-Biays, Sophie; Degrémont, Antoine; Malvy, Denis

    2003-01-01

    Penicillium marneffei is a thermal dimorphic fungus which is endemic in an ecologic niche restricted to the Far East and which may cause deep-seated infection in humans and rodents. Discovered in the late 1950s from the bamboo rat Rhizomys sinensis, in Vietnam, P. marneffei was initially identified in HIV-infected individuals. A disseminated and progressive infection, it is the third most common opportunistic morbidity in the late course of HIV infection. We report the clinical and therapeutic features of a series of 12 HIV-infected adults with disseminated P. marneffei infection in Vietnam. From May to September, 2001, 12 patients with P. marneffei infection confirmed by culture were identified among 273 HIV-infected patients studied at the Tropical Diseases Centre, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The clinical signs were related to the reticuloendothelial system involvement. Common clinical features included fever, cutaneous manifestations, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, and marked anemia. The organism was identified from skin specimens or blood culture. Cases were consistently found with low CD4 (+) cell count. Treatment with parenteral amphotericin B and itraconazole was relatively effective, although treatment with a delaying diagnosis remained associated with pejorative prognosis.

  9. Chemical composition of runoff water in Raipur city, central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambade, Balram

    2015-03-01

    Runoff water is an important transporting medium for various pollutants from land to surface water. Several mobiles and stationary sources such as vehicles, steel cement and thermal power plants, cooking, street, construction debris, etc. are emitting effluents in the environment of the central India. The rain runoff water washes out the air as well as land pollutants and flushes out into water bodies. Therefore, rain runoff water pollution in most urbanized and industrialized city of central India, i.e., Raipur during rainy season (May-September 2012) is analyzed statistically using cluster and principal component analysis to assess sources. The cluster analysis grouped runoff water samples into two clusters based on the similarity of runoff water quality characteristics of the total variance. The factor analysis differentiated the diffused sources of runoff water contaminants. The enrichment factors and runoff fluxes of the contaminants are discussed.

  10. High prevalence of overweight among adolescents in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Two previous surveys conducted in Ho Chi Minh City revealed an increasing prevalence of overweight and obese adolescents, from 5.9% in 2002 to 11.7% in 2004. From 2004 to 2010, the government set up and implemented health promotion programs to promote physical activity and good nutritional habits in order to prevent overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Our study aimed to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in urban areas of Ho Chi Minh City in 2010. Methods A representative sample of 1,989 students aged 11–14 years was selected using a multistage cluster sampling method. 23 schools were randomly selected from the full list of all public junior high schools. In each selected school, 2 classes were chosen at random and all students from the class were examined. Age- and sex-adjusted overweight and obesity were defined using International Obesity Taskforce cut-offs. Results The prevalences of overweight and obesity were 17.8% and 3.2%, respectively. Prevalences of overweight and obesity were significantly higher in boys (22%, 5.4% ) than in girls (13.3%, 1.3%, p<0.001) and higher in children from districts with a high economic level (20.5% , 3.8% ) than in those from districts with a low economic level (12.1%, 3.8%, p<0.001). Additionally, children living in wealthier families were more overweight and obese than those living in less wealthy families. When using WHO cutoffs, the overall prevalences of overweight and obesity reached 19.6% and 7.9%, respectively. Conclusion Our study’s findings suggest that the prevalence of overweight and obesity among secondary school students remains high, especially among boys living in wealthier families. Public health programs should therefore be developed or improved in order to promote good eating habits and physical activity among youth in HCMC. PMID:23414441

  11. Thermal footprints in groundwater of central European cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, P.; Menberg, K.; Blum, P.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric thermal pollution in densely populated areas is recognized as a severe problem with consequences for human health, and considerable efforts are being taken to mitigate heat stress in cities. However, anthropogenic activities also influence the thermal environment beneath the ground level, with commonly growing temperatures that affect groundwater ecology and geothermal use efficiency. In our work, we identify the controlling mechanisms for the long-term evolution of such urban heat islands. The shallow groundwater temperatures in several central European cities such as Cologne, Karlsruhe, Munich, Berlin and Zurich were mapped at high spatial and temporal resolution. Thermal anomalies were found to be highly heterogeneous with local hot spots showing temperatures of more than 20°C. Accordingly, these urban regions show a considerable groundwater warming in comparison to undisturbed temperatures of 8-11°C. Examination of potential heat sources by analytical modelling reveals that increased ground surface temperatures and basements of buildings act as dominant drivers for the anthropogenic heat input into the groundwater. The factors are revealed to be case-specific and they may have pronounced local or regional effects. Typical local factors are for example buried district heating networks. In selected cities we find that the average urban heat flux is around one order of magnitude higher than the elevated ground heat flux due to recent climate change. Additionally, such as observed in Zurich, naturally controlled temperature variations can be substantial and they are shown to wash out anthropogenic thermal footprints.

  12. Determinants of marginalization and inequitable maternal health care in North–Central Vietnam: a framework analysis

    PubMed Central

    Binder-Finnema, Pauline; Lien, Pham T. L.; Hoa, Dinh T. P.; Målqvist, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Background Vietnam has achieved great improvements in maternal healthcare outcomes, but there is evidence of increasing inequity. Disadvantaged groups, predominantly ethnic minorities and people living in remote mountainous areas, do not gain access to maternal health improvements despite targeted efforts from policymakers. Objective This study identifies underlying structural barriers to equitable maternal health care in Nghe An province, Vietnam. Experiences of social inequity and limited access among child-bearing ethnic and minority women are explored in relation to barriers of care provision experienced by maternal health professionals to gain deeper understanding on health outcomes. Design In 2012, 11 focus group discussions with women and medical care professionals at local community health centers and district hospitals were conducted using a hermeneutic–dialectic method and analyzed for interpretation using framework analysis. Results The social determinants ‘limited negotiation power’ and ‘limited autonomy’ orchestrate cyclical effects of shared marginalization for both women and care professionals within the provincial health system’s infrastructure. Under-staffed and poorly equipped community health facilities refer women and create overload at receiving health centers. Limited resources appear diverted away from local community centers as compensation to the district for overloaded facilities. Poor reputation for low care quality exists, and professionals are held in low repute for causing overload and resulting adverse outcomes. Country-wide reforms force women to bear responsibility for limited treatment adherence and health insight, but overlook providers’ limited professional development. Ethnic minority women are hindered by relatives from accessing care choices and costs, despite having advanced insight about government reforms to alleviate poverty. Communication challenges are worsened by non-existent interpretation systems

  13. Factors related with induced abortion among primigravid women in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Diem Van; Nguyen, Quang Vinh; Trinh, Huu Phuc; Huynh, Nguyen Khanh Trang; Tran, Mong Thuy; Nguyen, Thi Tu Van; Nguyen, Duy Phong; Tran, Thi Loi; Goto, Aya

    2002-09-01

    A case-control study was conducted between July and August 2001 in Ho Chi Minh City to investigate factors associated with having induced abortions among primigravid women aged 16 to 38 years. Interviews were conducted with 87 women undergoing abortion (cases) and 81 pregnant women coming for antenatal care (controls). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that older age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.84) and being married (OR = 0.05) decreased the risk of getting unintended pregnancy leading to abortion. Risk factors of obtaining an abortion were not being exposed to family planning promotion on television (OR = 2.28) and not knowing the adverse effects of abortion (OR = 10.26). Descriptive analysis of contraceptive behavior showed that 41% of cases had never used contraceptives and the reason for non-usage was lack of knowledge of any type of contraceptives in 43% of the cases. Additionally, only 24% of cases had discussed about family planning with their partners. Effective contraceptive methods should be promoted among young population, both females and males, and they need to be informed of the consequences of abortion. Television programs might be an effective mode of providing the information.

  14. Delayed parasite clearance after treatment with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in Plasmodium falciparum malaria patients in central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thriemer, Kamala; Hong, Nguyen Van; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna; Phuc, Bui Quang; Ha, Do Manh; Pockele, Evi; Guetens, Pieter; Van, Nguyen Van; Duong, Tran Thanh; Amambua-Ngwa, Alfred; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Erhart, Annette

    2014-12-01

    Reduced susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum toward artemisinin derivatives has been reported from the Thai-Cambodian and Thai-Myanmar borders. Following increasing reports from central Vietnam of delayed parasite clearance after treatment with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ), the current first-line treatment, we carried out a study on the efficacy of this treatment. Between September 2012 and February 2013, we conducted a 42-day in vivo and in vitro efficacy study in Quang Nam Province. Treatment was directly observed, and blood samples were collected twice daily until parasite clearance. In addition, genotyping, quantitative PCR (qPCR), and in vitro sensitivity testing of isolates was performed. The primary endpoints were parasite clearance rate and time. The secondary endpoints included PCR-corrected and uncorrected cure rates, qPCR clearance profiles, in vitro sensitivity results (for chloroquine, dihydroartemisinin, and piperaquine), and genotyping for mutations in the Kelch 13 propeller domain. Out of 672 screened patients, 95 were recruited and 89 available for primary endpoint analyses. The median parasite clearance time (PCT) was 61.7 h (interquartile range [IQR], 47.6 to 83.2 h), and the median parasite clearance rate had a slope half-life of 6.2 h (IQR, 4.4 to 7.5 h). The PCR-corrected efficacy rates were estimated at 100% at day 28 and 97.7% (95% confidence interval, 91.2% to 99.4%) at day 42. At day 3, the P. falciparum prevalence by qPCR was 2.5 times higher than that by microscopy. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of isolates with delayed clearance times (≥ 72 h) were significantly higher than those with normal clearance times for all three drugs. Delayed parasite clearance (PCT, ≥ 72 h) was significantly higher among day 0 samples carrying the 543 mutant allele (47.8%) than those carrying the wild-type allele (1.8%; P = 0.048). In central Vietnam, the efficacy of DHA-PPQ is still satisfactory, but the parasite clearance time

  15. Binhthuanomon vinhtan, a new genus and new species of semi-terrestrial freshwater crab (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamidae) from south central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Do, Van Tu; Le, Van Tho; Phan, Doan Dang

    2015-12-01

    A new genus and new species of semi-terrestrial crab of the family Potamidae, Binhthuanomon vinhtan n. sp., is described from south central Vietnam. The new genus is morphologically closest to Villopotamon Dang & Ho, 2003, and Balssipotamon Dang & Ho, 2008, in the shapes of the carapace and first gonopod but is easily distinguished by distinct carapace characteristics and gonopod 1 structures, and the habitat occupied.

  16. The evolutionary dynamics of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 in south-central Vietnam reveals multiple clades evolving from Chinese and Cambodian viruses.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tinh Huu; Than, Van Thai; Thanh, Hien Dang; Nguyen, Van Quang; Nguyen, Kim Hue; Nguyen, Duc Tan; Park, Jong-Hwa; Chung, In Sik; Jeong, Dae Gwin; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Oh, Tae Kwang; Kim, Wonyong

    2015-10-01

    In Vietnam, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), such as that caused by H5N1 viruses, is the most highly contagious infectious disease that has been affecting domestic poultry in recent years. Vietnam might be an evolutionary hotspot and a potential source of globally pandemic strains. However, few studies have reported viruses circulating in the south-central region of Vietnam. In the present study, 47 H5N1-positive samples were collected from both vaccinated and unvaccinated poultry farms in the South Central Coast region of Vietnam during 2013-2014, and their genetic diversity was analyzed. A common sequence motif for HPAI virus was identified at HA-cleavage sites in all samples: either RERRRKR/G (clades 2.3.2.1c and 2.3.2.1a) or REGRRKKR/G (clade 1.1.2). Phylogenetic analysis of HA genes identified three clades of HPAI H5N1: 1.1.2 (n=1), 2.3.2.1a (n=1), and 2.3.2.1c (n=45). The phylogenetic analysis indicated that these Vietnamese clades may have evolved from Chinese and Cambodian virus clades isolated in 2012-2013 but are less closely related to the clades detected from the Tyva Republic, Bulgaria, Mongolia, Japan, and Korea in 2009-2011. Detection of the coexistence of virus clades 2.3.2.1 and the very virulent 1.1.2 in the south-central regions suggests their local importance and highlights concerns regarding their spread, both northwards and southwards, as well as the potential for reassortment. The obtained data highlight the importance of regular identification of viral evolution and the development and use of region-specific vaccines.

  17. The evolutionary dynamics of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 in south-central Vietnam reveals multiple clades evolving from Chinese and Cambodian viruses.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tinh Huu; Than, Van Thai; Thanh, Hien Dang; Nguyen, Van Quang; Nguyen, Kim Hue; Nguyen, Duc Tan; Park, Jong-Hwa; Chung, In Sik; Jeong, Dae Gwin; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Oh, Tae Kwang; Kim, Wonyong

    2015-10-01

    In Vietnam, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), such as that caused by H5N1 viruses, is the most highly contagious infectious disease that has been affecting domestic poultry in recent years. Vietnam might be an evolutionary hotspot and a potential source of globally pandemic strains. However, few studies have reported viruses circulating in the south-central region of Vietnam. In the present study, 47 H5N1-positive samples were collected from both vaccinated and unvaccinated poultry farms in the South Central Coast region of Vietnam during 2013-2014, and their genetic diversity was analyzed. A common sequence motif for HPAI virus was identified at HA-cleavage sites in all samples: either RERRRKR/G (clades 2.3.2.1c and 2.3.2.1a) or REGRRKKR/G (clade 1.1.2). Phylogenetic analysis of HA genes identified three clades of HPAI H5N1: 1.1.2 (n=1), 2.3.2.1a (n=1), and 2.3.2.1c (n=45). The phylogenetic analysis indicated that these Vietnamese clades may have evolved from Chinese and Cambodian virus clades isolated in 2012-2013 but are less closely related to the clades detected from the Tyva Republic, Bulgaria, Mongolia, Japan, and Korea in 2009-2011. Detection of the coexistence of virus clades 2.3.2.1 and the very virulent 1.1.2 in the south-central regions suggests their local importance and highlights concerns regarding their spread, both northwards and southwards, as well as the potential for reassortment. The obtained data highlight the importance of regular identification of viral evolution and the development and use of region-specific vaccines. PMID:26577194

  18. Vietnam Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esper, George

    1990-01-01

    Reflections of an Associated Press special correspondent on a return visit to Vietnam 15 years after the war. Discusses the social and economic impact of the war on Vietnam. Examines the plight of the Vietnamese who served in the U.S. military, discussing the problems of Amerasians. Recounts the efforts of U.S. veterans to rebuild Vietnam. (RW)

  19. Self-perceived HIV risk and the use of risk reduction strategies among men who engage in transactional sex with other men in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Reisner, Sari L; Closson, Elizabeth F; Perry, Nicholas; Perkovich, Brandon; Nguyen, Thi; Trang, Nguyen N N; Lan, Hang X; Thien, Dinh Duc; Mayer, Kenneth H; Colby, Donn

    2013-08-01

    An emerging HIV epidemic can be seen among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam, with prevalence as high as 18%. Transactional sex represents a risk factor for HIV transmission/acquisition among MSM globally, particularly in urban contexts, but remains largely underinvestigated in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. In 2010, 23 MSM who reported exchanging sex for money in the last month completed a brief survey and semistructured qualitative interview at The Life Centre, a non-governmental organization in HCMC, to assess sociodemographics, individual- and structural-level HIV risk factors and explore acceptable future prevention interventions. Participants' mean age was 24 years. Equal proportions of respondents self-identified as heterosexual/straight, homosexual/gay, and bisexual. Participants had a mean of 158 male clients in the past year, with a median of 60 male clients in the past year (interquartile range [IQR]=70) and reported inconsistent condom use and inaccurate perceptions of HIV risk. Nearly half of the sample reported engaging in unprotected anal sex with a male partner in the past 12 months and one-third with a male client. Major themes that emerged for HIV prevention interventions with male sex workers were those that: (1) focused on individual factors (drug and alcohol use, barriers to condom use, knowledge of asymptomatic STIs, enhancement of behavioral risk-reduction skills, and addressing concomitant mental health issues); (2) incorporated interpersonal and relational contexts (led by peer educators, built interpersonal skills, attended to partner type and intimacy dynamics); and (3) considered the exogenous environments in which individual choices/relationships operate (stigma of being MSM in Vietnam, availability of alternative economic opportunities, and varied sexual venues). HIV prevention efforts are needed that address the specific needs of MSM who engage in transactional sex in HCMC. Universally, MSM endorsed HIV prevention

  20. Characterization of hospital and community-acquired respiratory syncytial virus in children with severe lower respiratory tract infections in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Tuan, Tran Anh; Thanh, Tran Tan; Hai, Nguyen thi Thanh; Tinh, Le Binh Bao; Kim, Le thi Ngoc; Do, Lien Anh Ha; Chinh B'Krong, Nguyen thi Thuy; Tham, Nguyen thi; Hang, Vu thi Ty; Merson, Laura; Farrar, Jeremy; Thuong, Tang Chi; de Jong, Menno D; Schultsz, Constance; van Doorn, H Rogier

    2015-01-01

    Background Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important community and nosocomial pathogen in developed countries but data regarding the importance of RSV in developing countries are relatively scarce. Methods During a 1-year surveillance study in 2010, we took serial samples from children admitted to the Emergency Unit of the Respiratory Ward of Children's Hospital 1 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. RSV was detected within 72 hours of admission to the ward in 26% (376/1439; RSV A: n = 320; RSV B: n = 54; and RSV A and B: n = 2). Among those negative in the first 72 hours after admission, 6·6% (25/377) acquired nosocomial RSV infection during hospitalization (RSV A: n = 22; and RSV B: n = 3). Results Children with nosocomial RSV infection were younger (P = 0·001) and had a longer duration of hospitalization (P < 0·001). The rate of incomplete recovery among children with nosocomial RSV infection was significantly higher than among those without (P < 0·001). Phylogenetic analysis of partial G gene sequences obtained from 79% (316/401) of positive specimens revealed the co-circulation of multiple genotypes with RSV A NA1 being predominant (A NA1: n = 275; A GA5: n = 5; B BA3: n = 3; B BA9: n = 26; and B BA10: n = 7). The RSV A GA5 and RSV B BA3 genotypes have not been reported from Vietnam, previously. Conclusion Besides emphasizing the importance of RSV as a cause of respiratory infection leading to hospitalization in young children and as a nosocomial pathogen, data from this study extend our knowledge on the genetic diversity of RSV circulating in Vietnam. PMID:25702707

  1. Expenditure and Revenue Problems in Central-City School Districts: Problems for the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph F.; Hack, Walter G.

    1983-01-01

    Investigates the combination of expenditure and revenue problems facing central-city school districts. Examines educational overburden, related overburden, and cost differentials between central city and other types of districts. Also looks at tax capacity and efforts, and analyzes the effects of Federal and State activity on the problems of city…

  2. HIV-related risk behaviors among the general population: a survey using Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview in 3 cities in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Vu, Lan T H; Nadol, Patrick; Le, Linh Cu

    2015-03-01

    This study used a confidential survey method-namely, Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI)-to gather data about HIV-related risk knowledge/behaviors among the general population in Vietnam. The study sample included 1371 people aged 15 to 49 years in 3 cities-Hanoi, Da nang, and Can Tho. Results indicated that 7% of participants had ever had nonconsensual sex, and 3.6% of them had ever had a one-night stand. The percentage of male participants reported to ever have sex with sex workers was 9.6% and to ever inject drugs was 4.3%. The proportion of respondents who had ever tested for HIV was 17.6%. The risk factors and attitudes reported in the survey indicate the importance of analyzing risk behaviors related to HIV infection among the general population. Young people, especially men in more urbanized settings, are engaging in risky behaviors and may act as a "bridge" for the transmission of HIV from high-risk groups to the general population in Vietnam.

  3. [Tetanus in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: epidemiological, clinical and outcome features of 389 cases at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases].

    PubMed

    An, V T; Khue, P M; Yen, L M; Phong, N D; Strobel, M

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the different aspects of tetanus during the past recent years in southern Vietnam: epidemiology, clinical picture, management, and death risk factors. It is a retrospective study concerning 389 cases admitted in 2007 and 2008 at the reference Hospital for Tropical Diseases in Ho Chi Minh City. 93% of all cases were generalized tetanus, and 50% were severe cases. A majority of patients were adult males (medium age 43, M/ F sex-ratio 2.9). Half of them underwent tracheotomy and 39% assisted ventilation. Case fatality rate was 6.4%, the lowest reported rate worldwide in the last ten years. Fatalities resulted mainly from neuro-vegetative disorders, essentially cardiogenic shock (28% of all deaths) [OR = 16.95; p < 0.001], sepsis (24%) [OR = 3.25; (p < 0,114], and acute renal failure (16%) [OR = 7,22; p < 0.004]. Age over 60-year [OR = 4.53; p < 0.0001] and a leukocyte count>12.000/mm(3) [OR = 2.32; p < 0.020] were significantly associated with fatal outcome, contrarily to incubation and extension phase durations, or delayed serum administration. Systematic extension of vaccination to all adult males, and improved access to post exposure sero-immunization at all levels of health centres throughout the country may further reduce tetanus burden in Vietnam.

  4. A Group-Based Sexual Risk Reduction Intervention for Men Who Have Sex With Men in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: Feasibility, Acceptability, and Preliminary Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Closson, Elizabeth F; Biello, Katie B; Nguyen, Huyen; Nguyen, Quan Hoang; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Lan, Hang Thi Xuan; Safren, Steven A; Mayer, Kenneth H; Colby, Donn J

    2016-08-01

    An emerging HIV epidemic can be seen among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam. There are currently no evidence-based behavioral sexual risk reduction interventions for MSM in this setting. Between October 2012 and June 2013, 100 high-risk MSM from Ho Chi Minh City were enrolled in an open pilot trial to assess feasibility and acceptability of a group-based, manualized sexual risk reduction intervention, and to preliminarily examine changes in primary and secondary outcomes. Participants completed a behavioral assessment battery and HIV testing at baseline, 3, and 6 months post-baseline. Over 80.0 % of the sample was <25 years old and 77.0 % identified as Bong kin ("hidden," masculine-appearing). Feasibility and acceptability of the program was evidenced by 87.0 % retention for the intervention sessions, 78.0 % completion of the 6 month assessment, and positive responses on evaluation forms and qualitative exit interviews. There was a decline in the number of condomless anal sex acts from baseline (6.32) to 3 month (2.06) and 6 month (2.49) follow-up (p < .0001). These data support the need for further testing of this group-based, behavioral HIV prevention intervention to reduce sexual risk behavior among MSM in Vietnam in a randomized controlled efficacy trial.

  5. High HIV Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors Among Female Sexual Partners of Male Injection Drug Users (MWID) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nadol, Patrick; Tran, Hoang; Hammett, Theodore; Phan, Son; Nguyen, Duong; Kaldor, John; Law, Matthew

    2016-02-01

    Injection drug use is a major factor in acquiring and transmitting HIV in Vietnam. This analysis aims to present estimates of HIV infection and factors associated with HIV infection among female sex partners (FSP) of MWID in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2011 and 2013 among males who inject drugs (MWID) who then referred their FSP for a behavioral and biologic survey. In total, 445 MWID and FSPs were enrolled. HIV prevalence among MWID was 50 and 35 % among FSPs. Among FSPs, 60.3 % reported ever using illegal drugs and among those, 72.7 % reported ever injecting illicit drugs. Among FSP, injection drug for >1 year [adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR), 95 % CI 2.94, 1.19-7.26), p value = <0.001] and having a male partner infected with HIV [(aOR 3.35: 1.97-5.69), p value = <0.001] were associated with HIV infection. The prevalence of HIV infection is high among FSP of MWID in HCMC and is highly associated with the injection drug use behavior of the FSP. Harm-reduction intervention programs that focus on the MWID-FSP couple or directly on the FSPs are required.

  6. [Tetanus in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: epidemiological, clinical and outcome features of 389 cases at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases].

    PubMed

    An, V T; Khue, P M; Yen, L M; Phong, N D; Strobel, M

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the different aspects of tetanus during the past recent years in southern Vietnam: epidemiology, clinical picture, management, and death risk factors. It is a retrospective study concerning 389 cases admitted in 2007 and 2008 at the reference Hospital for Tropical Diseases in Ho Chi Minh City. 93% of all cases were generalized tetanus, and 50% were severe cases. A majority of patients were adult males (medium age 43, M/ F sex-ratio 2.9). Half of them underwent tracheotomy and 39% assisted ventilation. Case fatality rate was 6.4%, the lowest reported rate worldwide in the last ten years. Fatalities resulted mainly from neuro-vegetative disorders, essentially cardiogenic shock (28% of all deaths) [OR = 16.95; p < 0.001], sepsis (24%) [OR = 3.25; (p < 0,114], and acute renal failure (16%) [OR = 7,22; p < 0.004]. Age over 60-year [OR = 4.53; p < 0.0001] and a leukocyte count>12.000/mm(3) [OR = 2.32; p < 0.020] were significantly associated with fatal outcome, contrarily to incubation and extension phase durations, or delayed serum administration. Systematic extension of vaccination to all adult males, and improved access to post exposure sero-immunization at all levels of health centres throughout the country may further reduce tetanus burden in Vietnam. PMID:26608271

  7. Molecular and seroepidemiological survey of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina infections in cattle and water buffaloes in the central region of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Luo, Yuzi; Cao, Shinuo; Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; Lan, Dinh Thi Bich; Long, Phung Thang; Yu, Longzheng; Zhou, Mo; Gong, Haiyan; Zhang, Houshuang; Zhou, Jinlin; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Xuan, Xuenan

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, a total of 137 blood samples were collected from cattle and water buffaloes in central region of Vietnam and tested using nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) to determine the molecular and serological prevalence of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina. In cattle, the prevalence of B. bovis and B. bigemina was 21.3% and 16.0% by nPCR, 73.4% and 42.6% by ELISA and 60.6% and 59.6% by IFAT, respectively, whereas those of water buffalos were 23.3% and 0% by nPCR, 37.2% and 9.3% by ELISA and 27.9% and 18.6% by IFAT, respectively. IFAT and ELISA detected a higher number of infected cattle and water buffaloes than nPCR totally. Statistically significant differences in the prevalence of the two infections were observed on the basis of age. Overall, the current data suggest high incidence of B. bovis and B. bigemina infections in the central region of Vietnam, which is needed to develop comprehensive approach to the modern surveillance, diagnosis and control of bovine babesiosis.

  8. The impact of environmental and climatic variation on the spatiotemporal trends of hospitalized pediatric diarrhea in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Corinne N; Zelner, Jonathan L; Nhu, Tran Do Hoang; Phan, My Vt; Hoang Le, Phuc; Nguyen Thanh, Hung; Vu Thuy, Duong; Minh Nguyen, Ngoc; Ha Manh, Tuan; Van Hoang Minh, Tu; Lu Lan, Vi; Nguyen Van Vinh, Chau; Tran Tinh, Hien; von Clemm, Emmiliese; Storch, Harry; Thwaites, Guy; Grenfell, Bryan T; Baker, Stephen

    2015-09-01

    It is predicted that the integration of climate-based early warning systems into existing action plans will facilitate the timely provision of interventions to diarrheal disease epidemics in resource-poor settings. Diarrhea remains a considerable public health problem in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam and we aimed to quantify variation in the impact of environmental conditions on diarrheal disease risk across the city. Using all inpatient diarrheal admissions data from three large hospitals within HCMC, we developed a mixed effects regression model to differentiate district-level variation in risk due to environmental conditions from the overarching seasonality of diarrheal disease hospitalization in HCMC. We identified considerable spatial heterogeneity in the risk of all-cause diarrhea across districts of HCMC with low elevation and differential responses to flooding, air temperature, and humidity driving further spatial heterogeneity in diarrheal disease risk. The incorporation of these results into predictive forecasting algorithms will provide a powerful resource to aid diarrheal disease prevention and control practices in HCMC and other similar settings. PMID:26402922

  9. The impact of environmental and climatic variation on the spatiotemporal trends of hospitalized pediatric diarrhea in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Corinne N.; Zelner, Jonathan L.; Nhu, Tran Do Hoang; Phan, My VT; Hoang Le, Phuc; Nguyen Thanh, Hung; Vu Thuy, Duong; Minh Nguyen, Ngoc; Ha Manh, Tuan; Van Hoang Minh, Tu; Lu Lan, Vi; Nguyen Van Vinh, Chau; Tran Tinh, Hien; von Clemm, Emmiliese; Storch, Harry; Thwaites, Guy; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Baker, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    It is predicted that the integration of climate-based early warning systems into existing action plans will facilitate the timely provision of interventions to diarrheal disease epidemics in resource-poor settings. Diarrhea remains a considerable public health problem in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam and we aimed to quantify variation in the impact of environmental conditions on diarrheal disease risk across the city. Using all inpatient diarrheal admissions data from three large hospitals within HCMC, we developed a mixed effects regression model to differentiate district-level variation in risk due to environmental conditions from the overarching seasonality of diarrheal disease hospitalization in HCMC. We identified considerable spatial heterogeneity in the risk of all-cause diarrhea across districts of HCMC with low elevation and differential responses to flooding, air temperature, and humidity driving further spatial heterogeneity in diarrheal disease risk. The incorporation of these results into predictive forecasting algorithms will provide a powerful resource to aid diarrheal disease prevention and control practices in HCMC and other similar settings. PMID:26402922

  10. Genetic characterization of three qnrS1-harbouring multidrug-resistance plasmids and qnrS1-containing transposons circulating in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Le, Vien; Nhu, Nguyen Thi Khanh; Cerdeno-Tarraga, Ana; Campbell, James I.; Tuyen, Ha Thanh; Nhu, Tran Do Hoang; Tam, Pham Thi Thanh; Schultsz, Constance; Thwaites, Guy; Thomson, Nicholas R.

    2015-01-01

    Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) refers to a family of closely related genes that confer decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. PMQR genes are generally associated with integrons and/or plasmids that carry additional antimicrobial resistance genes active against a range of antimicrobials. In Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, we have previously shown a high frequency of PMQR genes within commensal Enterobacteriaceae. However, there are limited available sequence data detailing the genetic context in which the PMQR genes reside, and a lack of understanding of how these genes spread across the Enterobacteriaceae. Here, we aimed to determine the genetic background facilitating the spread and maintenance of qnrS1, the dominant PMQR gene circulating in HCMC. We sequenced three qnrS1-carrying plasmids in their entirety to understand the genetic context of these qnrS1-embedded plasmids and also the association of qnrS1-mediated quinolone resistance with other antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Annotation of the three qnrS1-containing plasmids revealed a qnrS1-containing transposon with a closely related structure. We screened 112 qnrS1-positive commensal Enterobacteriaceae isolated in the community and in a hospital in HCMC to detect the common transposon structure. We found the same transposon structure to be present in 71.4 % (45/63) of qnrS1-positive hospital isolates and in 36.7 % (18/49) of qnrS1-positive isolates from the community. The resulting sequence analysis of the qnrS1 environment suggested that qnrS1 genes are widely distributed and are mobilized on elements with a common genetic background. Our data add additional insight into mechanisms that facilitate resistance to multiple antimicrobials in Gram-negative bacteria in Vietnam. PMID:26272054

  11. Genetic characterization of three qnrS1-harbouring multidrug-resistance plasmids and qnrS1-containing transposons circulating in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le, Vien; Nhu, Nguyen Thi Khanh; Cerdeno-Tarraga, Ana; Campbell, James I; Tuyen, Ha Thanh; Nhu, Tran Do Hoang; Tam, Pham Thi Thanh; Schultsz, Constance; Thwaites, Guy; Thomson, Nicholas R; Baker, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) refers to a family of closely related genes that confer decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. PMQR genes are generally associated with integrons and/or plasmids that carry additional antimicrobial resistance genes active against a range of antimicrobials. In Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, we have previously shown a high frequency of PMQR genes within commensal Enterobacteriaceae. However, there are limited available sequence data detailing the genetic context in which the PMQR genes reside, and a lack of understanding of how these genes spread across the Enterobacteriaceae. Here, we aimed to determine the genetic background facilitating the spread and maintenance of qnrS1, the dominant PMQR gene circulating in HCMC. We sequenced three qnrS1-carrying plasmids in their entirety to understand the genetic context of these qnrS1-embedded plasmids and also the association of qnrS1-mediated quinolone resistance with other antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Annotation of the three qnrS1-containing plasmids revealed a qnrS1-containing transposon with a closely related structure. We screened 112 qnrS1-positive commensal Enterobacteriaceae isolated in the community and in a hospital in HCMC to detect the common transposon structure. We found the same transposon structure to be present in 71.4 % (45/63) of qnrS1-positive hospital isolates and in 36.7 % (18/49) of qnrS1-positive isolates from the community. The resulting sequence analysis of the qnrS1 environment suggested that qnrS1 genes are widely distributed and are mobilized on elements with a common genetic background. Our data add additional insight into mechanisms that facilitate resistance to multiple antimicrobials in Gram-negative bacteria in Vietnam.

  12. [Health system of Vietnam].

    PubMed

    Matsuda, S

    1994-01-01

    Vietnam's health system consists of four levels: national, provincial/special city, prefecture/ward, and basic unit of town or village. Health care is managed by the Health Department at the national level and by the health and welfare section of the People's Committee at all other levels. Actual medical services are provided by the National Central Hospital at the national level, by general hospitals at the provincial/special city level, by general hospitals and multi-purpose health clinics at the prefecture/ward level, and by health stations at the basic unit level. Health services provide not only doctors, nurses, and pharmacists, but also paramedical staff, especially at the basic unit level. Just as with other developing countries, infectious diseases are the most important priorities in health/medical care policies; especially malaria, which is the number one priority followed by diarrhea. Because of well-established health stations at the basic unit level throughout the country and a relatively sufficient supply of medication, the mortality rate due to the above is low. The maternal/infant health care index of 1988 shows the following: low birth weight (14%); maternal mortality (1.4/1000); neonatal mortality (33.5/1000); and perinatal mortality (22.5/1000). Malnutrition of children under 3 years of age in farming areas, insufficient supply of drinking water, and lack of industrial health insurance are some of the problems yet to be solved. It is hoped that medical services can be a significant part of the comprehensive economic development program within the framework of Japan's international cooperation/assistance.

  13. Gradients in precipitation and seasonality between Central and Eastern Asia (Mongolia, Northern Vietnam) during the Oligocene with implication for earlier monsoonal circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehme, Madelaine; Krings, Michael; Prieto, Jérome; Schneider, Simon

    2010-05-01

    Today Central and Eastern Asia are characterized by strong contrast in the amount and the annual distribution of rainfall as well as the seasonality in temperature, which is attributed to the uplifted Tibetian Plateau generating monsoonal circulation. Whereas Central Asia is characterized by strong continentality with cold winters and little rainfall concentrated in a short rainy season, the southern part of East Asia exhibit a paratropical climate with high amounts in precipitation distributed relatively even through the year. Palaeontological data (vertebrates and plant remains) from the Eocene and Oligocene of Mongolia and Northern Vietnam indicate that a strong gradient in precipitation and seasonality between Central Asia and East Asia was already established during the Oligocene, which emphasise the establishment of substantial monsoonal circulation at that time. Fossil amphibians and reptiles from Mongolia (45° N, 101° E; Böhme 2007) indicate a strong and abrupt drying and winter cooling at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary consistent with previous results (Dupont-Nivet et al. 2007). Late Eocene assemblages are characterized by crocodiles, salamanders and diverse aquatic turtles, whereas Early Oligocene faunas constitutes of pelobatid frogs, agamid and anguid squamates, diverse species of lizards, and an erycine boide snake. The environmental preferences of both contrasting assemblages point to a severe climate event around 34 myr ago, resulting in the lost of permanent freshwater bodies under humid and winter mild climate and the spread of open landscapes without permanent freshwater bodies under a dry arid to semi-arid climate with only a short rainy season. Oligocene reptiles, macro- and micro-botanical remains, as well as palaeosols from Northern Vietnam (22° N, 107° E; Böhme et al. subm.) suggest warm-humid, (para-) tropical climates with low seasonality in temperature and precipitation. Besides a high diversity in semi-aquatic turtles and the

  14. Primary healthcare system capacities for responding to storm and flood-related health problems: a case study from a rural district in central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Van Minh, Hoang; Tuan Anh, Tran; Rocklöv, Joacim; Bao Giang, Kim; Trang, Le Quynh; Sahlen, Klas-Göran; Nilsson, Maria; Weinehall, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Background As a tropical depression in the East Sea, Vietnam is greatly affected by climate change and natural disasters. Knowledge of the current capacity of the primary healthcare system in Vietnam to respond to health issues associated with storms and floods is very important for policy making in the country. However, there has been little scientific research in this area. Objective This research was to assess primary healthcare system capacities in a rural district in central Vietnam to respond to such health issues. Design This was a cross-sectional descriptive study using quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative methods used self-administered questionnaires. Qualitative methods (in-depth interviews and focus groups discussions) were used to broaden understanding of the quantitative material and to get additional information on actions taken. Results 1) Service delivery: Medical emergency services, especially surgical operations and referral systems, were not always available during the storm and flood seasons. 2) Governance: District emergency plans focus largely on disaster response rather than prevention. The plans did not clearly define the role of primary healthcare and had no clear information on the coordination mechanism among different sectors and organizations. 3) Financing: The budget for prevention and control of flood and storm activities was limited and had no specific items for healthcare activities. Only a little additional funding was available, but the procedures to get this funding were usually time-consuming. 4) Human resources: Medical rescue teams were established, but there were no epidemiologists or environmental health specialists to take care of epidemiological issues. Training on prevention and control of climate change and disaster-related health issues did not meet actual needs. 5) Information and research: Data that can be used for planning and management (including population and epidemiological data) were largely

  15. Sustainable urbanization in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Drakakis-smith, D; Dixon, C

    1997-01-01

    "This paper examines the nature of [urban-based economic growth in Vietnam] and contends that the present size of Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi are much greater than official figures suggest. It then goes on to review the situation with regard to urban poverty, basic needs and the environment to illustrate the extent to which this unacknowledged growth is not only threatening the sustained expansion of those cities, but also the sustainability of the economic growth on which the country is so reliant."

  16. Central electrical utility power for a satellite ring city in low earth orbit space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Ira T.; Faymon, Karl A.; Patton, A. D.

    1989-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on central electrical power for a satellite ring city, defined as a group of large free flyers of 10 to 20 units with perhaps 100 people in each unit, and organized in a circle so that power can be fed from a central location. The free flyers would be located at 300 to 700 miles in altitude, and spaced about a kilometer apart. Potential activities of a ring city are listed as well as the electrical power needs. Information is given on costs and individual and centralized solar arrays and nuclear reactor systems.

  17. Female sex workers who use amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) in three cities of Vietnam: use and sexual risks related to HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Ho, Hien Thi; Le, Giang Minh; Dinh, Thuy Thanh

    2013-01-01

    Early evidence shows that amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) use has been rapidly increasing in Vietnam. Female sex workers (FSWs) who use ATSs have increased sexual risks for HIV infection. This paper presents qualitative data from a mixed-method study conducted from 2010 to 2011 that aimed to explore the use of ATS among FSWs in three major cities and to identify HIV-related sexual risks among this group. A total of 37 in-depth interviews were conducted, and thematic analysis was performed using NVIVO 8.0 software. Study participants reported that they perceive ATS to be more 'stylish', 'higher class' and much less 'addictive' than heroin. The study highlights multiple sexual risks among this group, including having prolonged sex; sex with multiple simultaneous partners or clients; lack of negotiation for safe sex; increased likelihood of group sex in the context of drug pooling and extended drug and sexual network; as well as unprotected sex. There is an urgent need to promote contextually appropriate interventions to reduce the HIV-related sexual risks among this group.

  18. Sex, love and gender norms: sexual life and experience of a group of young people in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hoa Ngan; Liamputtong, Pranee

    2007-03-01

    This paper discusses the impacts of gender norms on the sexual life and experience of a group of young Vietnamese people. It is based on a qualitative study on sexuality and abortion among young people in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. There were two general attitudes towards premarital sex. One view supported young people in a serious, loving relationship engaging in sex before marriage; the other opposed premarital sex because it affected the reputation of girls and their families. These general attitudes were similar to the views on virginity: one group believed strongly in girls maintaining their virginity and the other group emphasised love, emotion and trust, not virginity, as the most important criteria for marriage. Among women there were more supporters than opponents of the traditional view of premarital sex and virginity. Premarital sex was more acceptable for young people in a serious, loving relationship with certain commitment to marriage. Young men considered sex a way to express their love and to become more intimate. Women's view was that premarital sex only occurred within a serious, loving relationship or when there was a serious commitment to marriage. It is clear that young people's sexual life is shaped and constrained by gender norms through political interventions, sexual education and moral judgements. Under the pressure of these norms, young people face many difficulties in order to fulfill a safe and satisfying sexual life.

  19. Self-reported Oral Health, Oral Hygiene, and Oral HPV Infection in At-Risk Women in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Tran, Ly Thi-Hai; Markham, Christine M.; Huynh, Thuy Thi-Thu; Tran, Loi Thi; Pham, Vy Thi-Tuong; Tran, Quan Minh; Hoang, Ngoc Hieu; Hwang, Lu-Yu; Sturgis, Erich Madison

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to examine the relationship between self-reported oral health, oral hygiene practices, and oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among women at risk for sexually transmitted infections in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Study design Convenience and referral sampling methods were used in a clinic-based setting to recruit 126 women aged 18–45 years between August–October 2013. Behavioral factors were self-reported. Oral-rinse samples were tested for HPV DNA of two low-risk and 13 high-risk genotypes. Results A higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with poorer self-rated overall oral health (p=.001), reporting oral lesions/problems in the past year (p=.001), and reporting a tooth loss not because of injury (p=.001). Higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was also associated with two measures of oral hygiene: lower frequencies of toothbrush per day (p=.047) and gargling without toothbrush (p=.037). After adjusting for other factors in multivariable logistic regression models, poorer self-rated overall oral health remained statistically associated with oral HPV infection (p=.042); yet, the frequency of toothbrush per day did not (p=.704). Conclusion Results corroborate the association between self-reported poor oral health and oral HPV infection. The effect of oral hygiene on oral HPV infection remains inconclusive. PMID:26093681

  20. Novel porcine-like human G26P[19] rotavirus identified in hospitalized paediatric diarrhoea patients in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    My, Phan Vu Tra; Rabaa, Maia A; Donato, Celeste; Cowley, Daniel; Phat, Voong Vinh; Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Anh, Pham Hong; Vinh, Ha; Bryant, Juliet E; Kellam, Paul; Thwaites, Guy; Woolhouse, Mark E J; Kirkwood, Carl D; Baker, Stephen

    2014-12-01

    During a hospital-based diarrhoeal disease study conducted in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam from 2009 to 2010, we identified four symptomatic children infected with G26P[19] rotavirus (RV)--an atypical variant that has not previously been reported in human gastroenteritis. To determine the genetic structure and investigate the origin of this G26P[19] strain, the whole genome of a representative example was characterized, revealing a novel genome constellation: G26-P[19]-I5-R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T1-E1-H1. The genome segments were most closely related to porcine (VP7, VP4, VP6 and NSP1) and Wa-like porcine RVs (VP1-3 and NSP2-5). We proposed that this G26P[19] strain was the product of zoonotic transmission coupled with one or more reassortment events occurring in human and/or animal reservoirs. The identification of such strains has potential implications for vaccine efficacy in south-east Asia, and outlines the utility of whole-genome sequencing for studying RV diversity and zoonotic potential during disease surveillance. PMID:25121549

  1. Distribution characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with particle size in urban aerosols at the roadside in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hien, To Thi; Thanh, Le Tu; Kameda, Takayuki; Takenaka, Norimichi; Bandow, Hiroshi

    The purpose of this study was to characterize size distributions of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with 4-6 rings at the roadside in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Ten PAHs (fluoranthene, pyrene, triphenylene, benzo[ a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[ b]fluoranthene, benzo[ k]fluoranthene, benzo[ a]pyrene, benzo[ ghi]perylene and indeno[1,2,3- cd]pyrene) in atmospheric particulate matters (PM) at the roadside were measured in the dry and rainy seasons in 2005 at Ho Chi Minh City, using a low-pressure cascade impactor. The PM were separated into nine fractions by their aerodynamic diameter, i.e. >9.0, 9.0-5.8, 5.8-4.7, 4.7-3.3, 3.3-2.1, 2.1-1.1, 1.1-0.7, 0.7-0.4 and <0.4 μm (a final filter). PAHs were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Total PAHs measured were higher in the rainy season than in the dry season. The mass of coarse particles occupied a higher fraction than that of fine particles in both seasons. Total PAHs were mainly concentrated in particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 0.4 μm. The particle size distributions of PAHs investigated were bi-modal with a peak in fine particle mode (<2.1 μm) and another peak in coarse particle mode (>2.1 μm). Generally, 5,6-ring PAHs associated mainly with fine particles and 4-ring PAHs spread out in both fine and coarse particles.

  2. Willingness to Use the Internet to Seek Information on HIV Prevention and Care among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Justumus, Pauline; Colby, Donn; Mai Doan Anh, Thi; Balestre, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Background In Vietnam, men who have sex with men (MSM) are highly affected by HIV and need new targeted HIV prevention strategies. Objectives To assess the willingness to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care and associated factors among MSM in Ho Chi Minh City. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012. Participants were recruited using a convenience sampling method in venues most frequented by MSM and completed a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression models were performed to estimate factors associated with the willingness to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care. Results A total of 358 MSM were approached for the survey and 222 questionnaires (62.0%) were eligible for analyses. Overall, 76.1% of the respondents reported that they were willing to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care. A number of male partners in last year less than or equal to 3 (Adjusted Odds Ratio: 3.07, 95% Confidence interval: 1.40–6.73), a history of STI screening (4.10, 1.02–16.48) and HIV testing (3.23, 1.20–8.64) and having ever sought a male sexual partner through the Internet (3.56, 1.55–8.18) were significantly positively associated with the willingness to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care. Conclusion The MSM interviewed in Ho Chi Minh City reported a high willingness to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care. In a context where new media are increasingly considered as promising options for reaching this HIV risk group, further research should be conducted on developing and testing tailored online tools adapted to the needs of Vietnamese MSM. PMID:23977048

  3. Influence of evapotranspiration on thermal comfort in central European cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldbach, A.; Kuttler, W.

    2012-04-01

    In future, more and more people will be exposed to the negative thermal effects of urban climate, which will be exacerbated by predicted climate change. In regard to urban climate studies, it is necessary to develop adaptation and mitigation strategies tailored to the problem area and to include them in the local planning process. Urban green spaces or water bodies could help to mitigate the radiation and air temperature. For this purpose eddy-covariance technique has been carried out in Oberhausen (Germany; 51° N, 6° E) between 15 August 2010 and 14 August 2011 to quantify turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes in areas with various types of urban land use. The results show that sensible heat flux (QH) is 20 % higher, latent heat flux (QE) 90 % lower at the urban (URB) site compared to the suburban one (SUB). Furthermore, partition of the turbulent heat fluxes (QH/Q* resp. QE/Q*) clearly depends on plan area density (λP). The human-biometeorological thermal index, the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET), demonstrates that green spaces counteract growing thermal stress on city-dwellers due to improving thermal comfort. Aside from the positive effect of shading, inner-city green spaces can only be effective if an adequate water supply is ensured. Otherwise, the positive thermal effects of green spaces resulting from transpiration will be reduced to a minimum or eliminated entirely, which is confirmed by the measured values. Additional planning recommendations for urban planners within cities located at mid-latitudes derived from measuring results are given.

  4. Scenario-based tsunami hazard assessment for the coast of Vietnam from the Manila Trench source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong Nguyen, Phuong; Cong Bui, Que; Ha Vu, Phuong; The Pham, Truyen

    2014-11-01

    This paper assesses the impact of tsunamis in the East Vietnam Sea potentially originated from a giant rupture along the Manila Trench to the Vietnamese coast. Tsunami heights and arrival times to the major forecast points along the Vietnamese coast are computed using COMCOT model. The results of the worst case scenario (Mw = 9.3) and two extreme scenarios were used to assess the tsunami hazards. The simulation results show that Vietnamese coast can be divided into three parts with different levels of tsunami hazard. The highest threat exists along the coasts of Central and North-Central Vietnam, from Quang Binh to Ba Ria - Vung Tau provinces, with maximum wave height of 18 m observed near Quang Ngai coast, and a tsunami would reach this coastline in two hours at the earliest. The northern coastal zone of Vietnam has lower tsunami hazard. In the worst case scenario, maximum amplitudes of tsunami waves at Hai Phong sea port and Nam Dinh city, North Vietnam, are 3.5 m and 3.7 m, respectively, while the travel times to these sites are much longer, over 8 h. The southern coastal zone of Vietnam has very low tsunami hazard. In the worst case scenario, the maximum amplitude at Ca Mau is 0.12 m, while the travel time is over 10 h.

  5. Changing families and changing mobility: their impact on the central city.

    PubMed

    Frey, W H; Kobrin, F E

    1982-08-01

    Urban scholars and planners look to evidence of recent gains in the number of nontraditional households as a potential source of increase to the population sizes and tax bases of declining central cities. While it is now well established that substantial gains in the numbers of small, nontraditional households have occurred since the 1950s, it has not been demonstrated that: (a) these households are more likely to relocate in the city than traditional family households (husband-wife with children under 18); or (b) their cityward relocation patterns will significantly alter trends toward smaller city household populations. This paper addresses these questions by examining changes in city-suburb migration stream rates by household type over periods 1955-60, 1965-70 and 1970-75 for large metropolitan areas, and assesses their implications for potential changes in the aggregate sizes of city household populations. PMID:7117626

  6. Metropolitan deconcentration: subareal in-migration and central city to ring mobility patterns among southern SMSAs.

    PubMed

    Biggar, J C; Biasiolli, F C

    1978-11-01

    The analysis of in-migration streams and subareal residential mobility patterns for moves made between 1965 and 1970 in SMSAs in the East South Central and South Atlantic census divisions indicates that, despite their historical contexts, these metropolitan areas now show spatial differentiation patterns similar to those of the great cities of the Northeast. The white population has increased in ring areas primarily because of in-migration rates; the black population in the central cities has increased primarily because of in-migration rates to those subareas. Little variation in these patterns across SMSA size categories was apparent.

  7. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in Isfahan city, central Iran, 2014.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Rasool; Sharifi, Forough; Bagherpour, Bahram; Safari, Marzieh

    2016-09-01

    Intestinal parasites are important enteric pathogens. Poverty, low quality of food and water supply and poor sanitation systems are the important factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections. These kinds of infections can be a good index for hygienic and sanitation status of the society. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among humans referred to Dr. Sharifi Clinical Laboratory, Isfahan, Iran, 2014. In this cross sectional study, 652 fecal samples (286 males and 366 females) from humans who had stool examination test from January to August 2014 were chosen. Microscopic examination for parasitic infections has been carried out using wet mount method. Indistinguishable samples underwent trichrome staining method for accurate identification of protozoa. Intestinal parasitic infections were observed in 68 (10.42 %) out of 652 studied humans. Forty eight Blastocystis hominis (7.36 %), thirteen Endolimax nana (1.99 %), nine Giardia lamblia (1.38 %), five Entamoeba coli (0.76 %), four Chilomastix mesnili (0.61 %) and two Iodamoeba butschlii (0.15 %) were the observed protozoa in the studied population. B. hominis, E. nana and C. mesnili were found to be significantly more prevalent in people with loose stool specimen. Considering the helminthic infections, only one case (0.15 %) that was excreted Taenia saginata proglottids has been documented among 652 studied humans. Based on the findings of the present study intestinal parasitic infections in Isfahan city has been dramatically decreased over the past years and shows a good hygienic and sanitation status of the city. PMID:27605766

  8. Combined fluvial and pluvial urban flood hazard analysis: method development and application to Can Tho City, Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, H.; Trepat, O. M.; Hung, N. N.; Chinh, D. T.; Merz, B.; Dung, N. V.

    2015-08-01

    Many urban areas experience both fluvial and pluvial floods, because locations next to rivers are preferred settlement areas, and the predominantly sealed urban surface prevents infiltration and facilitates surface inundation. The latter problem is enhanced in cities with insufficient or non-existent sewer systems. While there are a number of approaches to analyse either fluvial or pluvial flood hazard, studies of combined fluvial and pluvial flood hazard are hardly available. Thus this study aims at the analysis of fluvial and pluvial flood hazard individually, but also at developing a method for the analysis of combined pluvial and fluvial flood hazard. This combined fluvial-pluvial flood hazard analysis is performed taking Can Tho city, the largest city in the Vietnamese part of the Mekong Delta, as example. In this tropical environment the annual monsoon triggered floods of the Mekong River can coincide with heavy local convective precipitation events causing both fluvial and pluvial flooding at the same time. Fluvial flood hazard was estimated with a copula based bivariate extreme value statistic for the gauge Kratie at the upper boundary of the Mekong Delta and a large-scale hydrodynamic model of the Mekong Delta. This provided the boundaries for 2-dimensional hydrodynamic inundation simulation for Can Tho city. Pluvial hazard was estimated by a peak-over-threshold frequency estimation based on local rain gauge data, and a stochastic rain storm generator. Inundation was simulated by a 2-dimensional hydrodynamic model implemented on a Graphical Processor Unit (GPU) for time-efficient flood propagation modelling. All hazards - fluvial, pluvial and combined - were accompanied by an uncertainty estimation considering the natural variability of the flood events. This resulted in probabilistic flood hazard maps showing the maximum inundation depths for a selected set of probabilities of occurrence, with maps showing the expectation (median) and the uncertainty by

  9. Surface Ozone Enrichment Downwind of Manaus City, in Central Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, S.; Rizzo, L. V.; Rodrigues, N. P.; Brito, J.; Cirino, G. G.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Barbosa, H. M.; Artaxo, P.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Amazonia is a unique place to study the impact of anthropogenic emissions on atmospheric photochemistry, fueled by large inputs of solar radiation, humidity, biogenic emissions and turbulent mixing. In the wet season, thousands of km2 of Amazonian forest areas can be considered pristine, whereas in the dry season biomass burning emissions in regional scale add to picture. The Amazon region is also going through localized urban development, in particular, the Manaus city, with 2 million inhabitants. The GoAmazon2014/5 experiment seeks to understand the interactions between urban and biogenic emissions in Amazonia. The combination of biogenic volatile organic compounds and urban NOx emissions is expected to increase tropospheric O3 production, with impacts to the ecosystem and human health. To investigate this issue, surface O3 measurements were taken between Feb and Dec 2014 at two sites in Amazonia: T2, located in the outflow of the Manaus urban plume, and T3, sitting 60 km downwind of the city. The influence of the urban plume at T3 site was detected by a combination of typical ΔCN/ΔCO ratios, Hysplit backtrajectories and threshold concentrations of tracers such as particle number and black carbon. The transport from T2 to T3 typically lasted 7 hours. At T2, the O3 diurnal cycle showed a diurnal peak of 20 ppb in the wet season and of 35 ppb in the dry season, suggesting the contribution of regional biomass burning to O3 photochemical production. In the absence of urban or biomass burning emissions, O3 diurnal cycle at T3 showed a peak of 15 ppb, similar to observations taken in pristine forest areas in Amazonia. When the Manaus plume reached the T3 site in the afternoon, the diurnal O3 peak increased to 40 ppb, indicating a net O3 production rate of 3.6 ppb h-1 along this diurnal transport. When the Manaus plume reached the T3 site before sunrise, i.e., a transport during the night, the diurnal peak was anticipated and reached 25 ppb.

  10. Landslide susceptibility analysis in central Vietnam based on an incomplete landslide inventory: Comparison of a new method to calculate weighting factors by means of bivariate statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinhardt, Markus; Fink, Manfred; Tünschel, Hannes

    2015-04-01

    Vietnam is regarded as a country strongly impacted by climate change. Population and economic growth result in additional pressures on the ecosystems in the region. In particular, changes in landuse and precipitation extremes lead to a higher landslide susceptibility in the study area (approx. 12,400 km2), located in central Vietnam and impacted by a tropical monsoon climate. Hence, this natural hazard is a serious problem in the study area. A probability assessment of landslides is therefore undertaken through the use of bivariate statistics. However, the landslide inventory based only on field campaigns does not cover the whole area. To avoid a systematic bias due to the limited mapping area, the investigated regions are depicted as the viewshed in the calculations. On this basis, the distribution of the landslides is evaluated in relation to the maps of 13 parameters, showing the strongest correlation to distance to roads and precipitation increase. An additional weighting of the input parameters leads to better results, since some parameters contribute more to landslides than others. The method developed in this work is based on the validation of different parameter sets used within the statistical index method. It is called "omit error" because always omitting another parameter leads to the weightings, which describe how strong every single parameter improves or reduces the objective function. Furthermore, this approach is used to find a better input parameter set by excluding some parameters. After this optimization, nine input parameters are left, and they are weighted by the omit error method, providing the best susceptibility map with a success rate of 92.9% and a prediction rate of 92.3%. This is an improvement of 4.4% and 4.2%, respectively, compared to the basic statistical index method with the 13 input parameters.

  11. Combined fluvial and pluvial urban flood hazard analysis: concept development and application to Can Tho city, Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, Heiko; Martínez Trepat, Oriol; Nghia Hung, Nguyen; Thi Chinh, Do; Merz, Bruno; Viet Dung, Nguyen

    2016-04-01

    Many urban areas experience both fluvial and pluvial floods, because locations next to rivers are preferred settlement areas and the predominantly sealed urban surface prevents infiltration and facilitates surface inundation. The latter problem is enhanced in cities with insufficient or non-existent sewer systems. While there are a number of approaches to analyse either a fluvial or pluvial flood hazard, studies of a combined fluvial and pluvial flood hazard are hardly available. Thus this study aims to analyse a fluvial and a pluvial flood hazard individually, but also to develop a method for the analysis of a combined pluvial and fluvial flood hazard. This combined fluvial-pluvial flood hazard analysis is performed taking Can Tho city, the largest city in the Vietnamese part of the Mekong Delta, as an example. In this tropical environment the annual monsoon triggered floods of the Mekong River, which can coincide with heavy local convective precipitation events, causing both fluvial and pluvial flooding at the same time. The fluvial flood hazard was estimated with a copula-based bivariate extreme value statistic for the gauge Kratie at the upper boundary of the Mekong Delta and a large-scale hydrodynamic model of the Mekong Delta. This provided the boundaries for 2-dimensional hydrodynamic inundation simulation for Can Tho city. The pluvial hazard was estimated by a peak-over-threshold frequency estimation based on local rain gauge data and a stochastic rainstorm generator. Inundation for all flood scenarios was simulated by a 2-dimensional hydrodynamic model implemented on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) for time-efficient flood propagation modelling. The combined fluvial-pluvial flood scenarios were derived by adding rainstorms to the fluvial flood events during the highest fluvial water levels. The probabilities of occurrence of the combined events were determined assuming independence of the two flood types and taking the seasonality and probability of

  12. Temporal and spatial assessment of river surface water quality using multivariate statistical techniques: a study in Can Tho City, a Mekong Delta area, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Phung, Dung; Huang, Cunrui; Rutherford, Shannon; Dwirahmadi, Febi; Chu, Cordia; Wang, Xiaoming; Nguyen, Minh; Nguyen, Nga Huy; Do, Cuong Manh; Nguyen, Trung Hieu; Dinh, Tuan Anh Diep

    2015-05-01

    The present study is an evaluation of temporal/spatial variations of surface water quality using multivariate statistical techniques, comprising cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), factor analysis (FA) and discriminant analysis (DA). Eleven water quality parameters were monitored at 38 different sites in Can Tho City, a Mekong Delta area of Vietnam from 2008 to 2012. Hierarchical cluster analysis grouped the 38 sampling sites into three clusters, representing mixed urban-rural areas, agricultural areas and industrial zone. FA/PCA resulted in three latent factors for the entire research location, three for cluster 1, four for cluster 2, and four for cluster 3 explaining 60, 60.2, 80.9, and 70% of the total variance in the respective water quality. The varifactors from FA indicated that the parameters responsible for water quality variations are related to erosion from disturbed land or inflow of effluent from sewage plants and industry, discharges from wastewater treatment plants and domestic wastewater, agricultural activities and industrial effluents, and contamination by sewage waste with faecal coliform bacteria through sewer and septic systems. Discriminant analysis (DA) revealed that nephelometric turbidity units (NTU), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH₃ are the discriminating parameters in space, affording 67% correct assignation in spatial analysis; pH and NO₂ are the discriminating parameters according to season, assigning approximately 60% of cases correctly. The findings suggest a possible revised sampling strategy that can reduce the number of sampling sites and the indicator parameters responsible for large variations in water quality. This study demonstrates the usefulness of multivariate statistical techniques for evaluation of temporal/spatial variations in water quality assessment and management. PMID:25847419

  13. Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden City Central Office

    SciTech Connect

    2010-12-01

    This case study describes how Verizon's Central Office in Garden City, NY, installed a 1.4-MW phosphoric acid fuel cell system as an alternative solution to bolster electric reliability, optimize the company's energy use, and reduce costs in an environmentally responsible manner.

  14. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal. 81.13 Section 81.13 Housing and Urban Development Office of the...) Housing Goals § 81.13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal. (a) Purpose of the goal. This annual goal for the purchase by each GSE of mortgages on housing located in...

  15. 12 CFR 1282.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Underserved Areas Housing Goal. 1282.13 Section 1282.13 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal. (a) Purpose of the goal. This annual goal for...

  16. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal. 81.13 Section 81.13 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development THE SECRETARY OF HUD'S REGULATION OF THE FEDERAL NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION (FANNIE MAE)...

  17. Integral Turbulence Statistics Over a Central European City Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortuniak, Krzysztof; Pawlak, Włodzimierz; Siedlecki, Mariusz

    2013-02-01

    Atmospheric measurements over 5 years (2005-2010) at two sites in Łódź, central Poland have been analyzed to develop a better understanding of turbulence in urban areas. Fast response wind velocity, temperature, humidity and CO2 concentration were measured using sonic anemometers and gas analyzers, placed on narrow masts at 37 and 42 m above the ground. The measurements were used to calculate standard deviations of each parameter, and were then normalized according to local Monin-Obukhov similarity theory and plotted as a function of stability parameter ζ = z'/ L. Results for the wind components show typical scaling with a power law with exponent ±1/3 in the free convection limit, and that approaches a constant value close to neutral stratification. For stable conditions, the constant value in the neutral limit remains the same for stability parameters lower than 0.1-0.2, then increases. The normalized standard deviation of temperature fits the -1/3 law in the free convection limit, approaching a constant value within a stable limit. However, it exhibits hyperbolic characteristics for close to neutral stratification. The normalized standard deviations for humidity and CO2 concentration exhibit scaling similar to the wind components in the unstable regime and remain constant in the stable domain. The results for the wind components and for temperature are in the range of various functions found in other studies. The absolute values for humidity and CO2 concentration seem to be slightly higher, but only single examples of such investigations can be found in the literature.

  18. Assessing the impact of urbanization on urban climate by remote satellite perspective: a case study in Danang city, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang Khanh Linh, N.; Van Chuong, H.

    2015-04-01

    Urban climate, one of the challenges of human being in 21 century, is known as the results of land use/cover transformation. Its characteristics are distinguished by different varieties of climatic conditions in comparison with those of less built-up areas. The alterations lead to "Urban Heat Island", in which temperature in urban places is higher than surrounding environment. This happens not only in mega cities but also in less urbanized sites. The results determine the change of land use/cover and land surface temperature in Danang city by using multi-temporal Landsat and ASTER data for the period of 1990-2009. Based on the supervised classification method of maximum likelihood algorithm, satellite images in 1990, 2003, 2009 were classified into five classes: water, forest, shrub, agriculture, barren land and built-up area. For accuracy assessment, the error metric tabulations of mapped classes and reference classes were made. The Kappa statistics, derived from error matrices, were over 80% for all of land use maps. An comparison change detection algorithm was made in three intervals, 1990-2003, 2003-2009 and 1990-2009. The results showed that built-up area increased from 8.95% to 17.87% between 1990 and 2009, while agriculture, shrub and barren decreased from 12.98% to 7.53%, 15.72% to 9.89% and 3.88% to 1.77% due to urbanization that resulted from increasing of urban population and economic development, respectively. Land surface temperature (LST) maps were retrieved from thermal infrared bands of Landsat and ASTER data. The result indicated that the temperature in study area increased from 39oC to 41oC for the period of 1990-2009. Our analysis showed that built-up area had the highest LST values, whereas water bodies had the least LST. This study is expected to be useful for decision makers to make an appropriate land use planning which can mitigate the effect to urban climate.

  19. Low perception of malaria risk among the Ra-glai ethnic minority in south-central Vietnam: implications for forest malaria control

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite Vietnam's success in reducing malaria mortality and morbidity over the last decade, malaria persists in the forested and mountainous areas of the central and southern provinces, where more than 50% of the clinical cases and 90% of severe cases and malaria deaths occur. Methods Between July 2005 and September 2006, a multi-method study, triangulating a malariometric cross-sectional survey and qualitative data from focused ethnography, was carried out among the Ra-glai ethnic minority in the hilly forested areas of south-central Vietnam. Results Despite the relatively high malaria burden among the Ra-glai and their general awareness that mosquitoes can transmit an unspecific kind of fever (84.2%), the use of bed nets, distributed free of charge by the national malaria control programme, remains low at the farmers' forest fields where the malaria risk is the highest. However, to meet work requirements during the labour intensive malaria transmission and rainy season, Ra-glai farmers combine living in government supported villages along the road with a second home or shelter at their slash and burn fields located in the forest. Bed net use was 84.6% in the villages but only 52.9% at the forest fields; 20.6% of the respondents slept unprotected in both places. Such low use may be explained by the low perception of the risk for malaria, decreasing the perceived need to sleep protected. Several reasons may account for this: (1) only 15.6% acknowledged the higher risk of contracting malaria in the forest than in the village; (2) perceived mosquito biting times only partially coincided with Anopheles dirus ss and Anopheles minimus A true biting times; (3) the disease locally identified as 'malaria' was hardly perceived as having an impact on forest farmers' daily lives as they were unaware of the specific kind of fevers from which they had suffered even after being diagnosed with malaria at the health centre (20.9%). Conclusions The progressive

  20. Characterization of water pollution in drainage networks using continuous monitoring data in the Citadel area of Hue City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Y; Teraguchi, T; Lieu, P K; Furumai, H

    2014-01-01

    In the Citadel area of Hue City, drainage systems that include canals and ponds are considerable sources of fecal contaminants to inundated water during the rainy season because canals and ponds receive untreated wastewater. It is important to investigate the characteristics of hydraulics and water pollution in canals and ponds. At the canals and ponds, water sampling was conducted during dry and wet weather periods in order to evaluate fecal contamination and to investigate changes in water pollution caused by runoff inflow. Inundated water was also collected from streets during heavy rainfall. At the canals and ponds, concentrations of Escherichia coli and total coliform exceeded the Vietnamese regulation values for surface water in 23 and 24 out of 27 samples (85 and 89%), respectively. The water samples were categorized based on the characteristics of water pollution using cluster analysis. In the rainy season, continuous monitoring was conducted at the canals and ponds using water depth and electrical conductivity (EC) sensors to investigate the dynamic relationship between water level and water pollution. It is suggested that in the canals, high EC meant water stagnation and low EC signified river water inflow. Therefore, EC might be a good indicator of water flow change in canals. PMID:25116489

  1. Potential flood hazard assessment by integration of ALOS PALSAR and ASTER GDEM: a case study for the Hoa Chau commune, Hoa Vang district, in central Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huong, Do Thi Viet; Nagasawa, Ryota

    2014-01-01

    The potential flood hazard was assessed for the Hoa Chau commune in central Vietnam in order to identify the high flood hazard zones for the decision makers who will execute future rural planning. A new approach for deriving the potential flood hazard based on integration of inundation and flow direction maps is described. Areas inundated in the historical flood event of 2007 were extracted from Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) phased array L-band synthetic aperture data radar (PALSAR) images, while flow direction characteristics were derived from the ASTER GDEM to extract the depressed surfaces. Past flood experience and the flow direction were then integrated to analyze and rank the potential flood hazard zones. The land use/cover map extracted from LANDSAT TM and flood depth point records from field surveys were utilized to check the possibility of susceptible inundated areas, extracting data from ALOS PALSAR and ranking the potential flood hazard. The estimation of potential flood hazard areas revealed that 17.43% and 17.36% of Hoa Chau had high and medium potential flood hazards, respectively. The flow direction and ALOS PALSAR data were effectively integrated for determining the potential flood hazard when hydrological and meteorological data were inadequate and remote sensing images taken during flood times were not available or were insufficient.

  2. Coral Geochemical Proxy Records Of The East Asian Winter Monsoon And Hydrological Conditions In The Central Vietnam From 1978-2004 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C.; Shen, C.; Chen, Y.; Chiang, H.; Lam, D. D.; Ngai, N.

    2007-12-01

    Monthly-resolution geochemical proxies, including δ18O, δ13C, Sr/Ca, and Ba/Ca, in a living Porites coral head, collected from Son Tra Island, a near-shore island located at the north tip of Vung Da Nang Bay, central Vietnam (16°12'59.4", 108°1'57.1"), was used to quantitatively reconstruct records of sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface salinity (SSS), seasonality of rainfall, and regional terrestrial input during a period of 1978-2004 AD. By comparing the 1/4-century geochemical data, five features are exhibited. (1) The coral Sr/Ca-inferred summer SSTs correspond well with the 1°x1° instrumental data to suggest that the regional SST record can be retrieved from this local coral head. (2) Interannual variation of coral winter SST data does not follow regional instrumental values. The harmonic phenomenon between coral inferred winter SST dynamic and the surface pressure difference, between the southern South China Sea (SCS) (0-10°N, 105-115°E) and the northern SCS (22.5-32.5°N, 112-122°E), indicating that the cold local SST induced by East Asian winter monsoon was addressed in the Son Tra coral. (3) 1‰ seasonal anomaly of δ18O residual (Δδ18O) suggests a 2-4-psu seasonal salinity change between dry and wet seasons. (4) The synchronous intra-annual changes of δ18O and Ba/Ca data suggest that the rainy season is from late summer to winter, which is consistent with the meteorological record. (5) The high Ba/Ca background level of 10 μmol/mol in 1992-2004, 2-3 times larger than the averaged value of 4 μmol/mol in 1978-1992, indicates an enhanced terrestrial sediment discharge into the bay over the past 10 years. Ba records probably reflect an impact of human activity on hydrological change since the Vietnam War.

  3. The worldwide air transportation network: Anomalous centrality, community structure, and cities' global roles.

    PubMed

    Guimerà, R; Mossa, S; Turtschi, A; Amaral, L A N

    2005-05-31

    We analyze the global structure of the worldwide air transportation network, a critical infrastructure with an enormous impact on local, national, and international economies. We find that the worldwide air transportation network is a scale-free small-world network. In contrast to the prediction of scale-free network models, however, we find that the most connected cities are not necessarily the most central, resulting in anomalous values of the centrality. We demonstrate that these anomalies arise because of the multicommunity structure of the network. We identify the communities in the air transportation network and show that the community structure cannot be explained solely based on geographical constraints and that geopolitical considerations have to be taken into account. We identify each city's global role based on its pattern of intercommunity and intracommunity connections, which enables us to obtain scale-specific representations of the network.

  4. Mosquito Faunal Survey In a Central Park of the City of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ceretti-Júnior, Walter; Medeiros-Sousa, Antônio Ralph; Bruno Wilke, André Barretto; Strobel, Regina Claudia; Dias Orico, Lilian; Souza Teixeira, Renildo; Marques, Sandro; Toledo Marrelli, Mauro

    2015-06-01

    A total of 2,582 specimens of mosquitoes of 16 taxonomic categories grouped into 5 genera (Aedes, Culex, Mansonia, Toxorhynchites, and Wyeomyia) were collected in a central park of São Paulo City, Brazil. It is crucial to include such an area in official entomological surveillance programs since this park has all the epidemiological characteristics needed to maintain an enzootic cycle of arboviruses.

  5. Impact of urbanization on the groundwater regime in a fast growing city in central India.

    PubMed

    Naik, Pradeep K; Tambe, Jivesh A; Dehury, Biranchi N; Tiwari, Arun N

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes the impact of urbanization on the groundwater regime in a fast growing city, Solapur, in central India, giving special emphasis on the management of the present and ultimate demand of water in 2,020 AD. The objective is to apprise the city planners and administrators of the effects of urbanization on the groundwater regime in a fast growing medium-sized city in a developing country where the infrastructure developments are not in conformity with the rapid growth in population. Solapur city with an area of 178.57 km2 receives a recharge of about 24 million m3 of groundwater from various sources annually. Reduction in recharge, as conventionally assumed due to the impact of urbanization, could not, however, be well established. Instead, there was a rise in recharge as water use in the city grew from time to time and more and more water was supplied to satisfy the human needs. Compared to mid-1970s, groundwater levels have increased within the main city area due to increased recharge and decreased groundwater abstraction. However, outside the main city area, there is a general decline in groundwater levels due to increased groundwater utilization for irrigation purposes. Groundwater quality deterioration has been highly localized. Water quality has deteriorated during the last 10 years, especially in dugwells, mainly due to misuse and disuse of these structures and poor circulation of groundwater. However, in case of borewells, comparison of the present water quality with that in mid-1970s and early 1980s does not show any perceptible change. Deeper groundwater tapped by borewells can still be used for drinking purposes with caution.

  6. The genus Anarsia in Cambodia and the Northern Vietnam (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae), with descriptions of ten new species and a catalogue of the genus in the Central-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Bae, Yang-Seop; Shin, Young-Min; Na, Sol-Moon; Park, Kyu-Tek

    2016-01-01

    The genus Anarsia Zeller in Vietnam and Cambodia is reviewed, with 19 species including 10 new species: A. deuterodes Park, sp. nov., Anarsia diversiola Park, sp. nov., A. porthmista Park, sp. nov., A. melanodes Park, sp. nov., A. gryphodes Park, sp. nov., A. campestra Park, sp. nov., A. similicampa Park, sp. nov., A. kepensis Park, sp. nov., A. pusillidia Park, sp. nov., and A. houhunlii Park, sp. nov. Nine previously described species, namely A. tricornis Meyrick, A. choana Park, A. isogona Meyrick, A. paraisogona Meyrick, A. incerta Ueda, A. acerata Meyrick, A. didymopa Meyrick, A. phortica Meyrick, and A. patulella (Walker), are reported for the first time from Vietnam or Cambodia. Anarsia magnibimaculata Li & Zheng, 1998 is newly synonymized with A. bimaculata Ponomarenko, 1989. A tentative check list of the genus in the Central and East Asia (including Indochina, China, Russian Far East, Korea, and Japan) is given.

  7. Subsidence Induced Faulting Hazard risk maps in Mexico City and Morelia, central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral-Cano, E.; Solano-Rojas, D.; Hernández-Espriu, J.; Cigna, F.; Wdowinski, S.; Osmanoglu, B.; Falorni, G.; Bohane, A.; Colombo, D.

    2012-12-01

    Subsidence and surface faulting have affected urban areas in Central Mexico for decades and the process has intensified as a consequence of urban sprawl and economic growth. This process causes substantial damages to the urban infrastructure and housing structures and in several cities it is becoming a major factor to be considered when planning urban development, land use zoning and hazard mitigation strategies in the next decades. Subsidence is usually associated with aggressive groundwater extraction rates and a general decrease of aquifer static level that promotes soil consolidation, deformation and ultimately, surface faulting. However, local stratigraphic and structural conditions also play an important role in the development and extension of faults. Despite its potential for damaging housing, and other urban infrastructure, the economic impact of this phenomena is poorly known, in part because detailed, city-wide subsidence induced faulting risk maps have not been published before. Nevertheless, modern remote sensing techniques are most suitable for this task. We present the results of a risk analysis for subsidence induced surface faulting in two cities in central Mexico: Morelia and Mexico City. Our analysis in Mexico City and Morelia is based on a risk matrix using the horizontal subsidence gradient from a Persistent Scatterer InSAR (Morelia) and SqueeSAR (Mexico City) analysis and 2010 census population distribution data from Mexico's National Institute of Statistics and Geography. Defining subsidence induced surface faulting vulnerability within these urbanized areas is best determined using both magnitude and horizontal subsidence gradient. Our Morelia analysis (597,000 inhabitants with localized subsidence rates up to 80 mm/yr) shows that 7% of the urbanized area is under a high to very high risk level, and 14% of its population (11.7% and 2.3% respectively) lives within these areas. In the case of the Mexico City (15'490,000 inhabitants for the

  8. Healthcare in the New Vietnam: comparing patients' satisfaction with outpatient care in a traditional neighborhood clinic and a new, western-style clinic in Ho Chi Minh City.

    PubMed

    Tat, Sonny; Barr, Donald

    2006-03-01

    As Vietnam opens its economy to privatization, its system of healthcare will face a series of crucial tests. Vietnam's system of private healthcare--once comprised only of individual physicians holding clinic hours in their homes--has come to also include larger customer-oriented clinics based on an American business model. As the two models compete in the expanding private market, it becomes increasingly important to understand patients' perceptions of the alternative models of care. This study reports on interviews with 194 patients in two different types of private-sector clinics in Vietnam: a western-style clinic and a traditional style, after-hours clinic. In bivariate and multivariate analyses, we found that patients at the western style clinic reported both higher expectations of the facility and higher satisfaction with many aspects of care than patients at the after-hours clinic. These different perceptions appear to be based on the interpersonal manner of the physician seen and the clinic's delivery methods rather than perceptions of the physician's technical skill and method of treatment. These findings were unaffected by the ethnicity of physician seen. These findings suggest that patients in Vietnam recognize and prefer more customer-oriented care and amenities, regardless of physician ethnicity and perceive no significant differences in technical skill between the private delivery models. PMID:16162387

  9. Healthcare in the New Vietnam: comparing patients' satisfaction with outpatient care in a traditional neighborhood clinic and a new, western-style clinic in Ho Chi Minh City.

    PubMed

    Tat, Sonny; Barr, Donald

    2006-03-01

    As Vietnam opens its economy to privatization, its system of healthcare will face a series of crucial tests. Vietnam's system of private healthcare--once comprised only of individual physicians holding clinic hours in their homes--has come to also include larger customer-oriented clinics based on an American business model. As the two models compete in the expanding private market, it becomes increasingly important to understand patients' perceptions of the alternative models of care. This study reports on interviews with 194 patients in two different types of private-sector clinics in Vietnam: a western-style clinic and a traditional style, after-hours clinic. In bivariate and multivariate analyses, we found that patients at the western style clinic reported both higher expectations of the facility and higher satisfaction with many aspects of care than patients at the after-hours clinic. These different perceptions appear to be based on the interpersonal manner of the physician seen and the clinic's delivery methods rather than perceptions of the physician's technical skill and method of treatment. These findings were unaffected by the ethnicity of physician seen. These findings suggest that patients in Vietnam recognize and prefer more customer-oriented care and amenities, regardless of physician ethnicity and perceive no significant differences in technical skill between the private delivery models.

  10. Modelling urban climate under global climate change in Central European cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuvela-Aloise, Maja; Bokwa, Anita; Dobrovolny, Petr; Gal, Tamas; Geletic, Jan; Gulyas, Agnes; Hajto, Monika; Hollosi, Brigitta; Kielar, Rafal; Lehnert, Michal; Skarbit, Nora; Stastny, Pavel; Svec, Marek; Unger, Janos; Vysoudil, Miroslav; Walawender, Jakub P.

    2015-04-01

    The global and regional climate warming is expected to increase the heat load in urban areas. In order to develop adaptation and mitigation strategies in particular cities, it is necessary to evaluate possible range of heat load increase, in terms of both its magnitude and spatial extent. The present study shows preliminary results of an international project aimed to evaluate the expected heat load increase in four Central European cities (Krakow, Poland; Bratislava, Slovakia; Brno, Czech Republic and Szeged, Hungary) using the non-hydrostatic MUKLIMO 3 model developed by DWD (Deutscher Wetterdienst) for micro-scale urban climate and planning applications. The investigation is focused on the spatial gradients of temperature during potential summer day conditions and possible change in heat load signal under future climate conditions. In order to identify thermally sensitive areas within the city, idealized simulations of temperature, wind and relative humidity in the urban area are performed based on the orography and land use data with 100 m resolution. The model setup uses standardize classification of land use properties based on local climate zones (LCZ) classification system (Stewart and Oke, 2012) which allows inter-comparison of the modelling results. The Landsat satellite images are used to identify typical land use classes in all the cities. The climatological changes in urban heat load are evaluated in terms of expected increase in the mean annual number of summer days (Tmax ≥ 25°C). The 30-year climatological indices are calculated based on the cuboid method. Timeseries of mean daily temperature, wind and relative humidity from a local meteorological station are used to evaluate the climatic indices for the recent climatic period, while the future climate signal is based on the data from regional climate projections of the EURO-CORDEX project. The project "Urban climate in Central European cities and global climate change" is funded within the

  11. Spotlight: Vietnam.

    PubMed

    1984-02-01

    Vietnam, with 57 million people, ranks as the world's 13th most populous country with much of the population concentrated in the rice producing areas of the coastal lowlands and the Mekong and Red River valleys. Since reunification, economic recovery has been difficult. Following the failure of the 1976-80 5-Year Plan, the 1981-85 Plan calls for increased food production and the attainment of self sufficiency. Part of this policy is the reduction of the population growth rate. Vietnam's labor force is about 70% agricultural, with women making up about 2/3 of the farm work force. Most heavy industry is in the North and, although badly damaged in the war, has regained much of its capacity. Coal continues to be Vietnam's leading export. The country's extensive forests also provide great potential for the lumber industry and Vietnam has recently begun offshore oil production. Yet, recovery has been elusive. Foreign aid now comes from the Soviet Union, China, Eastern Europe, and France. In recent years the foreign trade balance has improved, but there have been some setbacks in food production. Efforts to raise food production by encouraging private development of unused land have not been very successful, partly because of the continuing shortage of fertilizers, farm machinery, and insecticides. It is also likely that economic progress has been retarded by large military expenditures necessitated by the wars with Cambodia and China. 1 of the government's major efforts has been a large scale population redistribution from urban areas to the less densely inhabited provinces. New Economic Zones have been established in these areas in the hope that new residents will become self sufficient as soon as possible. As part of its national policy, the government has set a goal to reduce the rate of population growth to 1.5% by 1981 through the National Family Planning Program. Officially reported crude birthrates reflect a decline in fertility from about 40/1000 population in

  12. On the long term impact of emissions from central European cities on regional air-quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huszar, P.; Belda, M.; Halenka, T.

    2015-11-01

    For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the impact of urban emission from Central European cities on the present-day regional air-quality, the regional climate model RegCM4.2 was coupled with the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions. A series of simulations was carried out for the 2001-2010 period either with all urban emissions included (base case) or without considering urban emissions. Further, the sensitivity of ozone production to urban emissions was examined by performing reduction experiments with -20 % emission perturbation of NOx and/or NMVOC. The validation of the modeling system's air-quality related outputs using AirBase and EMEP surface measurements showed satisfactory reproduction of the monthly variation for ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). In terms of hourly correlations, reasonable values are achieved for ozone (r around 0.5-0.8) and for NO2 (0.4-0.6), but SO2 is poorly or not correlated at all with measurements (r around 0.2-0.5). The modeled fine particulates (PM2.5) are usually underestimated, especially in winter, mainly due to underestimation of nitrates and carbonaceous aerosols. EC air-quality measures were chosen as metrics describing the cities emission impact on regional air pollution. Due to urban emissions, significant ozone titration occurs over cities while over rural areas remote from cities, ozone production is modeled, mainly in terms of number of exceedances and accumulated exceedances over the threshold of 40 ppbv. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions also significantly contribute to concentrations in the cities themselves (up to 50-70 % for NOx and SO2, and up to 60 % for PM2.5), but the contribution is large over rural areas as well (10-20 %). Although air pollution over cities is largely determined by the local urban emissions, considerable (often a few tens of %) fraction of the concentration is attributable to other sources from rural areas and minor cities. Further

  13. On the long-term impact of emissions from central European cities on regional air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huszar, P.; Belda, M.; Halenka, T.

    2016-02-01

    For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the impact of urban emission from Central European cities on the present-day regional air quality, the regional climate model RegCM4.2 was coupled with the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions. A series of simulations was carried out for the 2001-2010 period either with all urban emissions included (base case) or without considering urban emissions. Further, the sensitivity of ozone production to urban emissions was examined by performing reduction experiments with -20 % emission perturbation of NOx and/or non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC). The modeling system's air quality related outputs were evaluated using AirBase, and EMEP surface measurements showed reasonable reproduction of the monthly variation for ozone (O3), but the annual cycle of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) is more biased. In terms of hourly correlations, values achieved for ozone and NO2 are 0.5-0.8 and 0.4-0.6, but SO2 is poorly or not correlated at all with measurements (r around 0.2-0.5). The modeled fine particulates (PM2.5) are usually underestimated, especially in winter, mainly due to underestimation of nitrates and carbonaceous aerosols. European air quality measures were chosen as metrics describing the cities emission impact on regional air pollution. Due to urban emissions, significant ozone titration occurs over cities while over rural areas remote from cities, ozone production is modeled, mainly in terms of number of exceedances and accumulated exceedances over the threshold of 40 ppbv. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions also significantly contribute to concentrations in the cities themselves (up to 50-70 % for NOx and SO2, and up to 60 % for PM2.5), but the contribution is large over rural areas as well (10-20 %). Although air pollution over cities is largely determined by the local urban emissions, considerable (often a few tens of %) fraction of the concentration is attributable to

  14. Records of Wenchengia (Lamiaceae) from Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Phillipson, Peter B; Suddee, Somran

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The monotypic genus Wenchengia (Lamiaceae) has been thought to be endemic to Hainan, China. This paper reports on historic records of Wenchengia alternifolia collected from Vietnam. The recent recuration and modernisation of the Paris herbarium greatly facilitated this discovery. New information During preparatory work supporting the account for the Lamiaceae of the Flora of Thailand, three specimens of Wenchengia from central Vietnam were found in the Herbarium of the Musuem National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris (P), and subsequently two duplicates were found in the Herbarium at Kew (K, abbreviations following Thiers 2016). The specimens were collected in and before 1927 and it is not known if the species is still extant in Vietnam. Searches for extant populations should focus in the Ba Na Hills or Bach Ma National Park, central Vietnam. PMID:27660535

  15. Records of Wenchengia (Lamiaceae) from Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Phillipson, Peter B; Suddee, Somran

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The monotypic genus Wenchengia (Lamiaceae) has been thought to be endemic to Hainan, China. This paper reports on historic records of Wenchengia alternifolia collected from Vietnam. The recent recuration and modernisation of the Paris herbarium greatly facilitated this discovery. New information During preparatory work supporting the account for the Lamiaceae of the Flora of Thailand, three specimens of Wenchengia from central Vietnam were found in the Herbarium of the Musuem National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris (P), and subsequently two duplicates were found in the Herbarium at Kew (K, abbreviations following Thiers 2016). The specimens were collected in and before 1927 and it is not known if the species is still extant in Vietnam. Searches for extant populations should focus in the Ba Na Hills or Bach Ma National Park, central Vietnam.

  16. Sampling and Analysis of Atmospheric Pcdd/fs in South China Sea and Background Area in Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, K.; Thuan, N. T.; Anh, N. X.; Lin, N.

    2011-12-01

    During the Vietnam conflict, United States (US) forces sprayed a greater volume of defoliant (Agent Orange) with higher PCDD/F content in central Vietnam. The Vietnamese have been exposed to these levels during spraying primarily through contact with former US military infrastructure. In this study, the concentrations of atmospheric PCDD/Fs observed at three background stations (Fig. 1) at Dongsha Island (Sites A) in South China Sea, Da Nang (Site B) city and Son La (Site C) in central and northern Vietnam, respectively, to further understand the PCDD/F contamination in Vietnam. The Measurements indicated that the atmospheric PCDD/F concentrations at Sites A, B and C were 1.66~10.8, 23.4~146 and 11.1~59.5 fg I-TEQ/m3, respectively, during the spring season in 2010 and 2011. The significantly lower PCDD/F concentrations and contents in suspended particles (23.7~33.9 pg I-TEQ/g-TSP) measured at Site A in the South China Sea can be attributed to the lack of any combustion sources within almost 300 km of this island. However, the significantly higher PCDD/F contents in suspended particles (270~300 pg I-TEQ/g-TSP) were measured at Site B in central Vietnam. In addition, Fig. 2 shows that the distribution of PCDD/F congeners measured at Da Nang station was quite different from those measured at other station with high PCDD distribution (>85%) especially in OCDD (>70%). We consider that the high fraction of PCDDs observed at Da Nang probably originated as anthropogenic emission from specific source in Vietnam.

  17. Early identification and intervention services for children with autism in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Van Cong, Tran; Weiss, Bahr; Toan, Khuc Nang; Le Thu, Tran Thi; Trang, Nguyen Thi Nha; Hoa, Nguyen Thi Kim; Thuy, Dao Thi Thu

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND In high income countries in Europe and North America, early identification and intervention for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been linked to improved long-term outcomes. However, in most low and middle income countries (LMIC) little is known about use or availability of such services, which limits the ability of policy and development planning. The purpose of the present study was assess the use of ASD services in Vietnam, an Asian LMIC, in order to identify areas within the field that should be specifically targeted to improve ASD services in Vietnam. METHODS Surveys were conducted in six different cities across Vietnam with 90 parents/caregivers of children with ASD, 115 professionals working with children with ASD, and 10 directors of agencies providing ASD services. Parents/caregivers’ survey assessed demographics and information regarding their child’s symptoms and services the child received. Professionals’ survey assessed their demographic and professional background, the ASD services they provide, and their perspective on the quality of ASD services at their agency. Directors’ survey included these same questions as well as additional questions regarding the operation of the agency. RESULTS Early identification and intervention ASD services are available in Vietnam, at least in major cities. However, there is a lack of well-trained professionals, the tools used for evaluation and diagnosis are limited, outdated and unstandardized, and the quality of services is questionable. Most importantly, a scientific evidence base for services is absent, and the country lacks an official governmental policy for supporting children with ASD. CONCLUSIONS Research directly assessing the quality of ASD services in Vietnam is needed. Most centrally, efforts at facilitating governmental policy and support advocacy are needed to increase the likelihood that families and children with ASD will receive appropriate and effective services. PMID:27088123

  18. Proposed Training Plan to Improve Building Energy Efficiency in Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam has experienced fast growth in energy consumption in the past decade, with annual growth rate of over 12 percent. This is accompanied by the fast increase in commercial energy use, driven by rapid industrialization, expansion of motorized transport, and increasing energy use in residential and commercial buildings. Meanwhile, Vietnam is experiencing rapid urbanization at a rate of 3.4 percent per year; and the majority of the growth centered in and near major cities such as Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. This has resulted in a construction boom in Vietnam.

  19. Effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on hospital admissions of young children for acute lower respiratory infections in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le, Truong Giang; Ngo, Long; Mehta, Sumi; Do, Van Dzung; Thach, T Q; Vu, Xuan Dan; Nguyen, Dinh Tuan; Cohen, Aaron

    2012-06-01

    There is emerging evidence, largely from studies in Europe and North America, that economic deprivation increases the magnitude of morbidity and mortality related to air pollution. Two major reasons why this may be true are that the poor experience higher levels of exposure to air pollution, and they are more vulnerable to its effects--in other words, due to poorer nutrition, less access to medical care, and other factors, they experience more health impact per unit of exposure. The relations among health, air pollution, and poverty are likely to have important implications for public health and social policy, especially in areas such as the developing countries of Asia where air pollution levels are high and many live in poverty. The aims of this study were to estimate the effect of exposure to air pollution on hospital admissions of young children for acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI*) and to explore whether such effects differed between poor children and other children. ALRI, which comprises pneumonia and bronchiolitis, is the largest single cause of mortality among young children worldwide and is responsible for a substantial burden of disease among young children in developing countries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the health effects of air pollution in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. For these reasons, the results of this study have the potential to make an important contribution to the growing literature on the health effects of air pollution in Asia. The study focused on the short-term effects of daily average exposure to air pollutants on hospital admissions of children less than 5 years of age for ALRI, defined as pneumonia or bronchiolitis, in HCMC during 2003, 2004, and 2005. Admissions data were obtained from computerized records of Children's Hospital 1 and Children's Hospital 2 (CH1 and CH2) in HCMC. Nearly all children hospitalized for respiratory illnesses in the city are admitted to one of these two pediatric

  20. Effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on hospital admissions of young children for acute lower respiratory infections in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le, Truong Giang; Ngo, Long; Mehta, Sumi; Do, Van Dzung; Thach, T Q; Vu, Xuan Dan; Nguyen, Dinh Tuan; Cohen, Aaron

    2012-06-01

    There is emerging evidence, largely from studies in Europe and North America, that economic deprivation increases the magnitude of morbidity and mortality related to air pollution. Two major reasons why this may be true are that the poor experience higher levels of exposure to air pollution, and they are more vulnerable to its effects--in other words, due to poorer nutrition, less access to medical care, and other factors, they experience more health impact per unit of exposure. The relations among health, air pollution, and poverty are likely to have important implications for public health and social policy, especially in areas such as the developing countries of Asia where air pollution levels are high and many live in poverty. The aims of this study were to estimate the effect of exposure to air pollution on hospital admissions of young children for acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI*) and to explore whether such effects differed between poor children and other children. ALRI, which comprises pneumonia and bronchiolitis, is the largest single cause of mortality among young children worldwide and is responsible for a substantial burden of disease among young children in developing countries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the health effects of air pollution in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. For these reasons, the results of this study have the potential to make an important contribution to the growing literature on the health effects of air pollution in Asia. The study focused on the short-term effects of daily average exposure to air pollutants on hospital admissions of children less than 5 years of age for ALRI, defined as pneumonia or bronchiolitis, in HCMC during 2003, 2004, and 2005. Admissions data were obtained from computerized records of Children's Hospital 1 and Children's Hospital 2 (CH1 and CH2) in HCMC. Nearly all children hospitalized for respiratory illnesses in the city are admitted to one of these two pediatric

  1. Vietnam: Historians at War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should not have fought,…

  2. Establishment of primary health care in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Birt, C A

    1990-08-01

    Basic demographic and epidemiological data relevant to health problems in Vietnam are described in this paper. Existing health service arrangements are referred to, with particular emphasis on the strategy for development of primary health care. The establishment of the paediatric centre in Ho Chi Minh City is reported, and examples of its valuable work in primary health care development are described.

  3. Dissemination of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase- and AmpC β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli within the Food Distribution System of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Do Phuc; Nguyen, Thi Anh Dao; Le, Thi Hien; Tran, Nguyen Minh Doan; Ngo, Thanh Phong; Dang, Van Chinh; Kawai, Takao; Kanki, Masashi; Kawahara, Ryuji; Jinnai, Michio; Yonogi, Shinya; Hirai, Yuji; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa; Kumeda, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the dissemination of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli within the food distribution system of Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, the prevalence of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli strains in chicken meat, pork, beef, and fish/shrimp samples obtained from slaughterhouses, a wholesale market, and supermarkets was examined. Among the total of 330 collected food samples, ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli was detected in 150 samples (45.5%). The highest prevalence of these isolates was in chicken meat (76/82, 92.7%), followed by pork (32/92, 34.8%), beef (18/74, 34.3%), and fish/shrimp (24/82, 29.3%). A total of 342 strains of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli were isolated from 150 positive food samples. The most prevalent genes responsible for ESBL or pAmpC activity belonged to the CTX-M-9 (110/342, 31.2%), CTX-M-1 (102/342, 29.8%), and CIT (118/342, 34.5%) groups. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the high occurrence of pAmpC (37.1%) in animal-based food in Vietnam. Among the 342 total ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli isolates, 276 (80.7%) were resistant to at least 6 antibiotic agents. Notably, high percentages of resistance to ciprofloxacin and fosfomycin were found in isolates from chicken (80.5% and 50.8%, resp.). These findings demonstrate that animal-based food products in HCMC represent a major reservoir of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli. PMID:26989692

  4. Dissemination of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase- and AmpC β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli within the Food Distribution System of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Do Phuc; Nguyen, Thi Anh Dao; Le, Thi Hien; Tran, Nguyen Minh Doan; Ngo, Thanh Phong; Dang, Van Chinh; Kawai, Takao; Kanki, Masashi; Kawahara, Ryuji; Jinnai, Michio; Yonogi, Shinya; Hirai, Yuji; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa; Kumeda, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the dissemination of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli within the food distribution system of Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, the prevalence of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli strains in chicken meat, pork, beef, and fish/shrimp samples obtained from slaughterhouses, a wholesale market, and supermarkets was examined. Among the total of 330 collected food samples, ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli was detected in 150 samples (45.5%). The highest prevalence of these isolates was in chicken meat (76/82, 92.7%), followed by pork (32/92, 34.8%), beef (18/74, 34.3%), and fish/shrimp (24/82, 29.3%). A total of 342 strains of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli were isolated from 150 positive food samples. The most prevalent genes responsible for ESBL or pAmpC activity belonged to the CTX-M-9 (110/342, 31.2%), CTX-M-1 (102/342, 29.8%), and CIT (118/342, 34.5%) groups. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the high occurrence of pAmpC (37.1%) in animal-based food in Vietnam. Among the 342 total ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli isolates, 276 (80.7%) were resistant to at least 6 antibiotic agents. Notably, high percentages of resistance to ciprofloxacin and fosfomycin were found in isolates from chicken (80.5% and 50.8%, resp.). These findings demonstrate that animal-based food products in HCMC represent a major reservoir of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli. PMID:26989692

  5. Robustness and closeness centrality for self-organized and planned cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masucci, A. Paolo; Molinero, Carlos

    2016-02-01

    Street networks are important infrastructural transportation systems that cover a great part of the planet. It is now widely accepted that transportation properties of street networks are better understood in the interplay between the street network itself and the so-called information or dual network, which embeds the topology of the street network's navigation system. In this work, we present a novel robustness analysis, based on the interaction between the primal and the dual transportation layer for two large metropolises, London and Chicago, thus considering the structural differences to intentional attacks for self-organized and planned cities. We elaborate the results through an accurate closeness centrality analysis in the Euclidean space and in the relationship between primal and dual space. Interestingly enough, we find that even if the considered planar graphs display very distinct properties, the information space induce them to converge toward systems which are similar in terms of transportation properties.

  6. Twentieth Century Atmospheric Metal Fluxes into Central Park Lake, New York City

    PubMed Central

    CHILLRUD, STEVEN N.; BOPP, RICHARD F.; SIMPSON, H. JAMES; ROSS, JAMES M.; SHUSTER, EDWARD L.; CHAKY, DAMON A.; WALSH, DAN C.; CHOY, CRISTINE CHIN; TOLLEY, LAEL-RUTH; YARME, ALLISON

    2011-01-01

    It is generally assumed that declining atmospheric lead concentrations in urban centers during the 1970s and 1980s were due almost entirely to the progressive introduction of unleaded gasoline. However, most environmental data are from monitoring programs that began only two to three decades ago, which limits their usefulness. Here, trace metal and radionuclide data from sediment cores in Central Park Lake provide a record of atmospheric pollutant deposition in New York City through the 20th century, which suggests that leaded gasoline combustion was not the dominant source of atmospheric lead for NYC. Lead deposition rates, normalized to known Pb-210 atmospheric influxes, were extremely high, reaching maximum values (>70 μg cm−2 yr−1) from the late 1930s to early 1960s, decades before maximum emissions from combustion of leaded gasoline. Temporal trends of lead, zinc, and tin deposition derived from the lake sediments closely resemble the history of solid waste incineration in New York City. Furthermore, widespread use of solid waste incinerators in the United States and Europe over the last century suggests that solid waste incineration may have provided the dominant source of atmospheric lead and several other metals to many urban centers. PMID:21850150

  7. Isotopic characterization of the Precambrian carbonate aquifers under the city of Bangui (Central African Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huneau, Frederic; Djebebe-Ndjiguim, Chantal-Laure; Foto, Eric; Ito, Mari; Celle-Jeanton, Helene; Garel, Emilie; Mabingui, Joseph

    2013-04-01

    The city of Bangui, the capital of the Central African Republic, is located on the right bank of the Ubangi River which is the northernmost tributary of the Congo River. From its foundation in 1889 this city has always suffered from serious problems of water management. This is related to the specificity of the site configuration (steep hills surrounding a large swampy flat valley poorly drained) and to the urbanisation process responsible for the waterproofing of soils and the associated increased runoff processes under tropical humid condition.This paper presents the results of a geochemical and isotopic survey carried out in 2011 aiming at evaluating the type and chemical quality of the groundwater resources of the Bangui region. By combining geological, hydrogeochemical and isotopic data it appears that the underground of Bangui seems favourable to the development of a secured and sustainable water supply from groundwater provided that the conditions of exploitation would be constrained by the local authorities. The deep fractured (and locally kastified) Precambrian carbonate aquifers known as Bimbo and Fatima formations are identified as target resources considering the relatively good quality of the resource from the chemical point of view, and the semi-confined structure of the aquifer preventing the mixing with shallow aquifers already strongly impacted by domestic and industrial pollutions.

  8. Landscape change and ecosystem classification in a municipal district of a small city (Isernia, Central Italy).

    PubMed

    Acosta, Alicia; Carranza, M Laura; Giancola, Michela

    2005-09-01

    Landscape changes taking place from 1954 to 1992 in the muncipal district of Isernia city (Central Italy) were described in relation to a system of ecosystem classification. Isernia municipal district was selected for study because recent historic changes in this area represent a typical example of landscape transformation similar to many small cities of Italy and other Mediterranean countries. To assess overall changes, three land cover maps (scale 1:25,000) were derived from panchromatic aerial photographs and field surveys. These were then digitalised in a Geographic Information System. A Land Facet (LF) map was derived by combining a phytoclimatic, a lithostatigrafic and a topographic map, and then digitalised as data layers in the same GIS. Results demonstrated two main landscape transformation trends: forest and semi-natural areas increased (8%), whereas agricultural areas decreased (12%). The urban area was relatively small during the entire analysed period, growing from 1% in 1954, to just 5% in 1992. Forest coverage was significant on reliefs, on hillside ecosystems such as limestone and on clay and marl hills LF. Arable land was particularly significant in flat ecosystems with deeper soils, such as on recent alluvial plain LF. These temporal changes were interpreted as being related to the replacement of traditional farming methods (grazing pastures) with more intensive methods (crop fields), especially on alluvial plains.

  9. Twentieth century atmospheric metal fluxes into Central Park Lake, New York City

    SciTech Connect

    Chillrud, S.N.; Simpson, H.J.; Bopp, R.F.

    1999-03-01

    It is generally assumed that declining atmospheric lead concentrations in urban centers during the 1970s and 1980s were due almost entirely to the progressive introduction of unleaded gasoline. However, most environmental data are from monitoring programs that began only two to three decades ago, which limits their usefulness. Here, trace metal and radionuclide data from sediment cores in Central Park Lake provide a record of atmospheric pollutant deposition in New York City through the 20th century, which suggests that leaded gasoline combustion was not the dominant source of atmospheric lead for NYC. Lead deposition rates, normalized to known Pb-210 atmospheric influxes, were extremely high, reaching maximum values from the late 1930s to early 1960s, decades before maximum emissions from combustion of leaded gasoline. Temporal trends of lead, zinc, and tin deposition derived from the lake sediments closely resemble the history of solid waste incineration in New York City. Furthermore, widespread use of solid waste incinerators in the United States and Europe over the last century suggests that solid waste incineration may have provided the dominant source of atmospheric lead and several other metals to many urban centers.

  10. Molecular Tracers of Saturated and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Inputs into Central Park Lake, New York City

    PubMed Central

    YAN, BEIZHAN; ABRAJANO, TEOFILO A.; BOPP, RICHARD F.; CHAKY, DAMON A.; BENEDICT, LUCILLE A.; CHILLRUD, STEVEN N.

    2011-01-01

    Saturated hydrocarbons (SH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been quantified in a sediment core obtained from Central Park Lake, New York City. Radionuclides 210Pb and 137Cs were used to assign approximate dates to each individual section in the core. The dating profile based on 210Pb matches very well with the time constraints provided by 137Cs. Radionuclide-derived depositional dates are consistent with temporal information from the petroleum-indicator ratio U/R [the ratio of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) to saturated hydrocarbons in the aliphatic fraction] and the history of fuel use in the NYC area. Ratios of 1,7-dimethylphenanthrane (DMP) to 1,7-DMP plus 2,6-DMP [1,7/(1,7 + 2,6)-DMP], retene to retene plus chrysene [Ret/(Ret + Chy)], and fluoranthene to fluoranthene plus pyrene [Fl/(Fl + Py)] provide additional source discrimination throughout the core. Results show that the ratio U/R is sensitive to petroleum inputs and Ret/(Ret + Chy) is responsive to contributions from softwood combustion, whereas both Fl/(Fl + Py) and 1,7/(1,7 + 2,6)-DMP can be used to discriminate among wood, coal, and petroleum combustion sources. Combined use of these ratios suggests that in New York City, wood combustion dominated 100 years ago, with a shift to coal combustion occurring from the 1900s to the 1950s. Petroleum use began around the 1920s and has dominated since the 1940s. PMID:16201624

  11. Major ion chemistry of shallow groundwater of a fast growing city of central India.

    PubMed

    Marghade, Deepali; Malpe, D B; Zade, A B

    2012-04-01

    Nagpur City located in semiarid area of central India is a fast-growing industrial centre. In recent years, rapid development has created an increased demand for drinking water, which is increasingly being fulfilled by groundwater abstraction. The present study was undertaken to assess major ion chemistry of shallow groundwater to understand geochemical evolution of groundwater and water quality for promoting sustainable development and effective management of groundwater resources. A total of 47 water samples were collected from shallow aquifer of selected parts of the city and the water chemistry of various ions viz. Ca(2 +), Mg(2 +), Na(+), K(+), CO(3)(2-), HCO(3)(-), Cl(-), SO(4)(2-) and NO(3)(-) are carried out. The chemical relationships in Piper diagram identify Ca-HCO(3)-Cl and mixed Ca-Na-HCO(3)-Cl as most prevalent water types. Alkaline earth exceeds alkalis and weak acids exceed strong acids. Ionic ratios and Gibb's diagram suggest that silicate rock weathering and anthropogenic activities are the main processes that determine the ionic composition in the study area. The nitrate appeared as a major problem of safe drinking water in this region. We recorded highest nitrate concentration, i.e., 411 mg/l in one of the dug well. A comparison of groundwater quality in relation to drinking water quality standards revealed that about half of the shallow aquifer samples are not suitable for drinking.

  12. Geology of the Wood and East Calhoun mines, Central City District, Gilpin County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake, Avery Ala

    1955-01-01

    The Wood-East Calhoun mine area is underlain by complexly folded Precambrian gneiss and pegmatite. The major fold in the area is an anticline that trends about N. 60° E. The Precambrian rocks are intruded by bostonite porphyry dikes of Tertiary age. All the rocks are cut by east- to northeast - trending faults that have been filled by precious metal-sulfide veins which have been worked chiefly for gold. The Wood vein occurs in an east-trending fault; the Calhoun vein occurs in a northeast-trending fault. Much of the uranium production of the Central City district has come from the Wood vein on Quartz Hill. The veins consist chiefly of quartz; pyrite is the chief metallic mineral and chalcopyrite is next in abundance. Sphalerite, galena, tetrahedrite-tennantite, and pitchblende are locally present. Deposition began with alteration-stage quartz and pyrite followed in order by pitchblend, light-yellow pyrite, massive quartz, yellow pyrite, shalerite, comb quartz, chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite-tennantite, galena, chalcopyrite, pyrite, and gray to light-brown fine-grained quartz. The veins of the Central City district are zoned, with quartz-pyrite veins near the center and galena-sphalerite veins on the periphery. The known pitchblende bodies are in the transition between these, but paragenetically, the pitchblende is earlier than all other metallic minerals. A trace element study of the ore indicates an association of zirconium and molybdenum with uranium, of bismuth, antimony, and arsenic with copper, and of cadmium with zinc. The pitchblende and other ore minerals are concentrated in ore shoots. The shoots are in open spaces controlled by the competency of the wall rocks, the presence of a prevailing direction of weakness in the rocks, and changes in strike and dip of the vein. The pitchblende is thought to be a local constituent of the quartz-pyrite ores and to owe its origin to residual solutions from the quartz bostonite magma.

  13. Soil Communities of Central Park, New York City: A Biodiversity Melting Pot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, K. S.; Leff, J. W.; Wall, D. H.; Fierer, N.

    2013-12-01

    The majority of earth's biodiversity lives in and makes up the soil, but the majority of soil biodiversity has yet to be characterized or even quantified. This may be especially true of urban soil systems. The last decade of advances in molecular, technical and bioinformatic techniques have contributed greatly to our understanding of belowground biodiversity, from global distribution to species counts. Yet, much of this work has been done in ';natural' systems and it is not known if established patterns of distribution, especially in relation to soil factors hold up in urban soils. Urban soils are intensively managed and disturbed, often by effects unique to urban settings. It remains unclear how urban pressures influence soil biodiversity, or if there is a defined or typical ';urban soil community'. Here we describe a study to examine the total soil biodiversity - Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya- of Central Park, New York City and test for patterns of distribution and relationships to soil characteristics. We then compare the biodiversity of Central Park to 57 global soils, spanning a number of biomes from Alaska to Antarctica. In this way we can identify similarities and differences in soil communities of Central Park to soils from ';natural' systems. To generate a broad-scale survey of total soil biodiversity, 596 soil samples were collected from across Central Park (3.41 km2). Soils varied greatly in vegetation cover and soil characteristics (pH, moisture, soil C and soil N). Using high-throughput Illumina sequencing technology we characterized the complete soil community from 16S rRNA (Bacteria and Archaea) and 18S rRNA gene sequences (Eukarya). Samples were rarified to 40,000 sequences per sample. To compare Central Park to the 57 global soils the complete soil community of the global soils was also characterized using Illumina sequencing technology. All samples were rarified to 40,000 sequences per sample. The total measured biodiversity in Central Park was

  14. Human health risk assessment of mercury vapor around artisanal small-scale gold mining area, Palu city, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Koyomi; Nagafuchi, Osamu; Kawakami, Tomonori; Inoue, Takanobu; Yokota, Kuriko; Serikawa, Yuka; Cyio, Basir; Elvince, Rosana

    2016-02-01

    Emissions of elemental mercury, Hg(0), from artisanal small-scale gold mining activities accounted for 37% of total global Hg(0) emissions in 2010. People who live near gold-mining areas may be exposed to high concentrations of Hg(0). Here, we assessed the human health risk due to Hg(0) exposure among residents of Palu city (Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia). The area around the city has more than 60t of gold reserves, and the nearby Poboya area is the most active gold-mining site in Indonesia. Owing to its geography, the city experiences alternating land and sea breezes. Sampling was done over a period of 3 years (from 2010 Aug. to 2012 Dec.) intermittently with a passive sampler for Hg(0), a portable handheld mercury analyzer, and a mercury analyzer in four areas of the city and in the Poboya gold-processing area, as well as wind speeds and directions in one area of the city. The 24-h average concentration, wind speed, and wind direction data show that the ambient air in both the gold-processing area and the city was always covered by high concentration of mercury vapor. The Hg(0) concentration in the city was higher at night than in the daytime, owing to the effect of land breezes. These results indicate that the inhabitants of the city were always exposed to high concentrations of Hg(0). The average daytime point-sample Hg(0) concentrations in the city, as measured with a handheld mercury analyzer over 3 days in July 2011, ranged from 2096 to 3299ngm(-3). In comparison, the average daytime Hg(0) concentration in the Poboya gold-processing area was 12,782ngm(-3). All of these concentrations are substantially higher than the World Health Organization air-quality guideline for annual average Hg exposure (1000ngm(-3)). We used the point-sample concentrations to calculate hazard quotient ratios by means of a probabilistic risk assessment method. The results indicated that 93% of the sample population overall was at risk (hazard quotient ratio ≥1 and cut off at

  15. Human health risk assessment of mercury vapor around artisanal small-scale gold mining area, Palu city, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Koyomi; Nagafuchi, Osamu; Kawakami, Tomonori; Inoue, Takanobu; Yokota, Kuriko; Serikawa, Yuka; Cyio, Basir; Elvince, Rosana

    2016-02-01

    Emissions of elemental mercury, Hg(0), from artisanal small-scale gold mining activities accounted for 37% of total global Hg(0) emissions in 2010. People who live near gold-mining areas may be exposed to high concentrations of Hg(0). Here, we assessed the human health risk due to Hg(0) exposure among residents of Palu city (Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia). The area around the city has more than 60t of gold reserves, and the nearby Poboya area is the most active gold-mining site in Indonesia. Owing to its geography, the city experiences alternating land and sea breezes. Sampling was done over a period of 3 years (from 2010 Aug. to 2012 Dec.) intermittently with a passive sampler for Hg(0), a portable handheld mercury analyzer, and a mercury analyzer in four areas of the city and in the Poboya gold-processing area, as well as wind speeds and directions in one area of the city. The 24-h average concentration, wind speed, and wind direction data show that the ambient air in both the gold-processing area and the city was always covered by high concentration of mercury vapor. The Hg(0) concentration in the city was higher at night than in the daytime, owing to the effect of land breezes. These results indicate that the inhabitants of the city were always exposed to high concentrations of Hg(0). The average daytime point-sample Hg(0) concentrations in the city, as measured with a handheld mercury analyzer over 3 days in July 2011, ranged from 2096 to 3299ngm(-3). In comparison, the average daytime Hg(0) concentration in the Poboya gold-processing area was 12,782ngm(-3). All of these concentrations are substantially higher than the World Health Organization air-quality guideline for annual average Hg exposure (1000ngm(-3)). We used the point-sample concentrations to calculate hazard quotient ratios by means of a probabilistic risk assessment method. The results indicated that 93% of the sample population overall was at risk (hazard quotient ratio ≥1 and cut off at

  16. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Post-Top Lighting at Central Park in New York City

    SciTech Connect

    Myer, Michael; Goettel, Russell T.; Kinzey, Bruce R.

    2012-09-30

    A review of five post-top light-emitting diode (LED) pedestrian luminaires installed in New York City's Central Park for possible replacement to the existing metal halide post-top luminaire. This report reviews the energy savings potential and lighting delivered by the LED post-top luminaires.

  17. Vietnam plunges ahead

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, M.T.

    1995-07-01

    Vietnam is moving fast. Facing the need to double its installed power generation capacity by the year 2000, Vietnam is pursuing a range of development alternatives to add an estimated 3,000 MW of new power plants. As part of the country`s progress toward a market economy, Vietnam has relaxed its rules regarding investment in power plants. The country enacted a new electricity law early in 1995, paving the way for private participation in the power sector.

  18. Molecular tracers of saturated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon inputs into Central Park Lake, New York City

    SciTech Connect

    Beizhan Yan; Teofilo A. Abrajano; Richard F. Bopp; Damon A. Chaky; Lucille A. Benedict; Steven N. Chillrud

    2005-09-15

    Saturated hydrocarbons (SH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been quantified in a sediment core obtained from Central Park Lake, New York City. Radionuclides {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs were used to assign approximate dates to each individual section in the core. The dating profile based on {sup 210}Pb matches very well with the time constraints provided by {sup 137}Cs. Radionuclide-derived depositional dates are consistent with temporal information from the petroleum-indicator ratio U/R (the ratio of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) to saturated hydrocarbons in the aliphatic fraction) and the history of fuel use in the NYC area. Ratios of 1,7-dimethylphenanthrane (DMP) to 1,7-DMP plus 2,6-DMP (1,7/(1,7 + 2,6)-DMP), retene to retene plus chrysene (Ret/(Ret + Chy)), and fluoranthene to fluoranthene plus pyrene (Fl/(Fl + Py))) provide additional source discrimination throughout the core. Results show that the ratio U/R is sensitive to petroleum inputs and Ret/(Ret + Chy) is responsive to contributions from softwood combustion, whereas both Fl/(Fl + Py) and 1,7/(1,7 + 2,6)-DMP can be used to discriminate among wood, coal, and petroleum combustion sources. Combined use of these ratios suggests that in New York City, wood combustion dominated 100 years ago, with a shift to coal combustion occurring from the 1900s to the 1950s. Petroleum use began around the 1920s and has dominated since the 1940s. 33 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Estimation of preferential recharge and saltwater intrusion to a coastal groundwater system in central Vietnam by means of 3D stratigraphic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanh Tam, Vu; Batelaan, Okke; Thanh Le, Tran

    2013-04-01

    Saltwater intrusion is worldwide regarded as a major threat to groundwater resources. Mostly, saltwater intrusion problems are related to sea water level rise or induced intrusion due to excessive groundwater extraction in coastal aquifers. However, the hydrogeological heterogeneity of the subsurface might play an important role in (non-)intrusion as well. We study local (hydro)geological conditions for preferential recharge as well as saltwater intrusion to a coastal groundwater system in Vietnam where geological formations exhibit highly heterogeneous lithologies. A cluster analysis technique combined with a chronographic marker is used to distinguish and map well-log intervals of similar lithological properties in different geological formations. The cluster analysis is carried out on lithological composition, distribution depth and thickness of each lithological distinctive drilling interval of well-logs of 43 groundwater investigation boreholes carried out within the study area. The chronographic marker is a layer of clay originated from weathered basalt rocks, whose color and lithological properties can be distinguished from the other formations. Detailed to coarse 3D stratigraphic models, based on the above analysis, are constructed and used as a tool to estimate preferential recharge paths and saltwater intrusion to the groundwater system under study. Chemical analysis of groundwater water samples is also used to support the estimation. Result of this research work contributes to the interpretation of why the aquifer system of the study area is almost uninfluenced by saltwater intrusion which is relatively common in coastal aquifers of Vietnam.

  20. Pitchblende deposits at the Wood and Calhoun mines, Central City mining district, Gilpin County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Frank R.; Butler, C.R.

    1952-01-01

    Pitchblende has been mined in commercial quantities from four gold- and silver-bearing pyrite-sphalerite-galena veins that occur in an area about one-half mile square on the south side of Quartz Hill, Central City district, Gilpin County, Colo. These veins are the Kirk, the German-Belcher, the Wood, and the Calhoun. Two of these veins, the Wood and the Calhoun, were studied in an attempt to determine the geologic factors favorable for pitchblende deposition. All accessible workings at the Wood and East Calhoun mines were mapped by tape and compass, and the distribution of radioactivity was studied in the field. Channel and chip samples were taken for chemical assay to compare radioactivity with uranium content. The pitchblende-bearing veins cat both pre-Cambrian granite gneiss and quartz-biotite schist; however, the gneiss was the more favorable host rock. Two bostonite porphyry dikes of Tertiary(?) age were crosscut by the Wood and Calhoun veins. The pitchblende occurs in lenses erratically distributed along the veins and in stringers extending outward from the veins. In the lenses it forms hard'. masses, but elsewhere it is Soft and powdery. The pitchblende is contemporaneous with the pyrite bat earlier than the sphalerite and galena in the same vein. All the observed pitchblende was at depths of less than 400 ft. The veins probably cannot be mined profitably for the pitchblende alone under present conditions.

  1. Data for ground-water test hole near Butte City, Central Valley aquifer project, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, James J.; Page, R.W.; Bertoldi, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    This report provides preliminary data for the third of seven test holes drilled as part of the Central Valley Aquifer Project which is part of the National Regional Aquifer Systems Analysis Program. The test hole was drilled in the SW 1/4 NE 1/4 sec. 32, T. 19 N., R. 1 W., Glenn County, California, about one-half mile south of the town of Butte City. Drilled to a depth of 1,432 feet below land surface, the hole is cased to a depth of 82 feet and equipped with three piezometer tubes to depths of 592 feet, 968 feet, and 1,330 feet. A 5-foot well screen is at the bottom of each piezometer. Each screened interval has a cement plug above and below it to isolate it from other parts of the aquifer , and the well bore is filled between the plugs with sediment. Nine cores and 49 sidewall cores were recovered. Laboratory tests were made for mineralogy, hydraulic conductivity, porosity , consolidation, grain-size distribution, Atterberg limits, X-ray diffraction, and chemical quality of water. Geophysical and thermal gradient logs were made. The hole is sampled periodically for chemical analysis and measured for water level in the three tapped zones. This report presents methods used to obtain field samples, laboratory procedures, and the data obtained. (USGS)

  2. Emergency medicine in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Richards, J R

    1997-04-01

    The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is one of the poorest countries in the world. Recent economic developments, as the country attempts to start a market economy, have had a profound impact on its health care system. This report describes the state of prehospital and emergency medical care in Vietnam and possibilities for the future.

  3. In Vietnam, Manufacturing Masterworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overland, Martha Ann

    2006-01-01

    Vietnam, with its cheap labor and lax copyright laws, is a counterfeiter's dream. Books are sold hot off the photocopier and Hollywood's latest blockbusters can be had on DVD's for about a dollar. But it is in art forgery that Vietnam excels. With a stable of neoclassically trained art students, who spend years learning to copy the masters, art…

  4. Can I afford free treatment?: Perceived consequences of health care provider choices among people with tuberculosis in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Lönnroth, K; Tran, T U; Thuong, L M; Quy, H T; Diwan, V

    2001-03-01

    Vietnam has a well-organised National TB Control Programme (NTP) with outstanding treatment results. Excellent prospect of cure is provided free of charge. Still, some people prefer to pay for their TB treatment themselves in private clinics. This is a potential threat to TB control since no notification of cases treated in the private sector occurs, and there is no control of the effectiveness of treatment provided in private clinics. Using a qualitative approach within a grounded theory framework, this study explores health-seeking behaviour among people with TB, applying a specific focus on reasons for choices of private versus pubic health care providers. The study identifies a number of characteristics of private TB care, which both seem attractive to patients and at the same time contrast sharply with the structure of the NTP strategy. These include flexible diagnostic procedures, no administrative procedures to establish eligibility for treatment, flexible choices of drug regimens, non-supervised treatment (no DOT), no tracing of defaulters in the household, no official registration of TB cases and thus less threat to personal integrity. A possibility to demand individualised service through the use of fee-for-service payments directly to physicians also seems attractive to many patients. A number of the components of the NTP strategy that have been put in place in order to secure optimal public health outcomes are lacking in the private sector. A dilemma for TB control is that this seems to be an important reason for why many people with TB opt for private providers where quality of care is virtually uncontrolled. The global threat of TB has led to calls for forceful measures to control TB. However, based on the findings in this study it is argued that the use of rigid approaches to TB control that do not encompass a strong component of responsiveness towards the needs of individuals may be counterproductive for public health. PMID:11234866

  5. Uranium deposits in the Eureka Gulch area, Central City district, Gilpin County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sims, P.K.; Osterwald, F.W.; Tooker, E.W.

    1954-01-01

    The Eureka Gulch area of the Central City district, Gilpin County, Colo., was mined for ores of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc; but there has been little mining activity in the area since World War I. Between 1951 and 1953 nine radioactive mine dumps were discovered in the area by the U.S. Geological Survey and by prospectors. the importance of the discoveries has not been determined as all but one of the mines are inaccessible, but the distribution, quantity, and grade of the radioactive materials found on the mine dumps indicate that the area is worth of additional exploration as a possible source of uranium ore. The uranium ans other metals are in and near steeply dipping mesothermal veins of Laramide age intrusive rocks. Pitchblende is present in at least four veins, and metatorbernite, associated at places with kosolite, is found along two veins for a linear distance of about 700 feet. The pitchblends and metatorbernite appear to be mutually exclusive and seem to occur in different veins. Colloform grains of pitchblende were deposited in the vein essentially contemporaneously with pyrite. The pitchblende is earlier in the sequence of deposition than galena and sphalerite. The metatorbernite replaces altered biotite-quartz-plagioclase gneiss and altered amphibolite, and to a lesser extent forms coatings on fractures in these rocks adjacent to the veins; the kasolite fills vugs in highly altered material and in altered wall rocks. Much of the pitchblende found on the dumps has been partly leached subsequent to mining and is out of equilibrium. Selected samples of metatorbernite-bearing rock from one mine dump contain as much as 6.11 percent uranium. The pitchblende is a primary vein mineral deposited from uranium-bearing hydrothermal solutions. The metatorbernite probably formed by oxidation, solution, and transportation of uranium from primary pitchblende, but it may be a primary mineral deposited directly from fluids of different composition from these

  6. Education Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaked, Haim

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several cities in Israel have labeled themselves "Education Cities," concentrating on education as their central theme. Employing qualitative techniques, this article aims to describe, define, and conceptualize this phenomenon as it is being realized in three such cities. Findings show that Education Cities differ from…

  7. Polyfluorinated and perfluorinated chemicals in precipitation and runoff from cities across eastern and central China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lijie; Zhou, Meng; Zhang, Tao; Sun, Hongwen

    2013-02-01

    Twenty-three polychlorinated and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were investigated in water phase and particulate matters of 19 precipitation samples (18 snow samples and 1 rain sample) from different cities across eastern and central China collected in February 2010. The PFCs in samples of 9e precipitation events during more than half a year at 1 site in Tianjin and 6 successive samples during 1 precipitation event were measured to elucidate the change of PFC in precipitation. In addition, PFCs in 3 runoffs at different kinds of sites in Tianjin were compared with those in the corresponding precipitation. The results showed that the particulate matters separated from the precipitation contained undetectable PFCs. The total PFC concentration ranged between 4.7 and 152 ng L(-1) in water phase of the precipitation samples, with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) being detected at all of the sampling sites and the dominant PFC at most of the sampling sites. Some potential precursors of environmentally concerned PFCs and their degradation intermediates were measured simultaneously, among which 6:2 fluorotelomer unsaturated carboxylic acid (6:2 FTUCA), 8:2 FTUCA, and  × (3, 4, 5, 7):3 acid [F(CF(2))xCH(2)CH(2)COOH] were measured for the first time in Chinese precipitations; however, their concentrations were all lower than the limits of detection except that 6:2 FTUCA and 8:2 FTUCA could be detected in 3 and 8 precipitation samples, respectively. No clear seasonal variation in PFC concentrations in precipitation was observed during half a year; however, a relatively greater average concentration of total PFCs was observed during winter and summer compared with spring. The concentration of individual PFCs showed an obvious descending trend in the successive samples of the precipitation event. PFOA and perfluorononanoic acid in runoffs collected from different sites showed the following similar pattern-gas station > highway > university campus-whereas the other

  8. Polyfluorinated and perfluorinated chemicals in precipitation and runoff from cities across eastern and central China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lijie; Zhou, Meng; Zhang, Tao; Sun, Hongwen

    2013-02-01

    Twenty-three polychlorinated and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were investigated in water phase and particulate matters of 19 precipitation samples (18 snow samples and 1 rain sample) from different cities across eastern and central China collected in February 2010. The PFCs in samples of 9e precipitation events during more than half a year at 1 site in Tianjin and 6 successive samples during 1 precipitation event were measured to elucidate the change of PFC in precipitation. In addition, PFCs in 3 runoffs at different kinds of sites in Tianjin were compared with those in the corresponding precipitation. The results showed that the particulate matters separated from the precipitation contained undetectable PFCs. The total PFC concentration ranged between 4.7 and 152 ng L(-1) in water phase of the precipitation samples, with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) being detected at all of the sampling sites and the dominant PFC at most of the sampling sites. Some potential precursors of environmentally concerned PFCs and their degradation intermediates were measured simultaneously, among which 6:2 fluorotelomer unsaturated carboxylic acid (6:2 FTUCA), 8:2 FTUCA, and  × (3, 4, 5, 7):3 acid [F(CF(2))xCH(2)CH(2)COOH] were measured for the first time in Chinese precipitations; however, their concentrations were all lower than the limits of detection except that 6:2 FTUCA and 8:2 FTUCA could be detected in 3 and 8 precipitation samples, respectively. No clear seasonal variation in PFC concentrations in precipitation was observed during half a year; however, a relatively greater average concentration of total PFCs was observed during winter and summer compared with spring. The concentration of individual PFCs showed an obvious descending trend in the successive samples of the precipitation event. PFOA and perfluorononanoic acid in runoffs collected from different sites showed the following similar pattern-gas station > highway > university campus-whereas the other

  9. Ethanol-Fed Or Solid-Phase Organic Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors For The National Tunnel Drainage, Clear Creek/Central City Superfund Site (Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is planning to treat mining influenced water (MIW) from the National Tunnel Adit that discharges to North Clear Creek near the City of Blackhawk, Colorado. North Clear Creek is part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund Site, an...

  10. Ethanol-Fed Or Solid-Phase Organic Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors For The National Tunnel Drainage, Clear Creek/Central City Superfund Site

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is planning to treat mining influenced water (MIW) from the National Tunnel Adit that discharges to North Clear Creek near the City of Blackhawk, Colorado. North Clear Creek is part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund Site, an...

  11. Holocene vegetation, fire and erosional history of City of Rocks National Reserve, South-Central Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weppner, K.; Pierce, J. L.; Betancourt, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Climate exerts a primary control over vegetation, fire occurrence and fire-related erosion; however, vegetation is responsible for fire pattern, frequency and intensity (i.e. fire regime), as well as the nature of the fire-related erosional response (e.g. debris flows, sheet floods). Over short timescales (months to years), climate controls the availability and moisture content of vegetation as fuel. Over longer timescales (100 to 1,000 years), climate modulates the composition and structure of plant populations, which alters the associated fire regime. To explore these relationships, we compare an alluvial charcoal stratigraphy with a woodrat midden reconstruction of vegetation at City of Rocks National Reserve (CIRO), south-central Idaho. CIRO is relatively shallow-sloped terrain (mean slope ~15.6°), but bedrock knobs of erodible granite make basins responsive recorders of erosion. CIRO is dominated today by pinyon-juniper woodland, with the main species, Pinus monophylla (single-needle pinyon) and Juniperus osteosperma (Utah Juniper), occurring at their northern limits and presumed to have arrived in the late Holocene. Radiocarbon dating of 37 alluvial charcoal samples from 16 field sites in arroyos, stream terraces and alluvial fans show five episodes of enhanced fire activity. Early Holocene fires (11.7-9.5 ka) burned during shifting climate after the LGM. Mid-Holocene fires (7.2-6.7 ka) burned during a prolonged period of low lake levels (reconstructed from regional lakes and the nearby Lake Bonneville record) preceded by an extended wet period. Moderate fire activity (2.5-2 ka) corresponds to the arrival of pinyon, and follows a 2 ka period of relatively wetter conditions (~4-2 ka), indicated by regional midden records. Late Holocene fires (850-700 cal yr BP) occurred during the MCA, when regional lake levels were low and pinyon density increased. The greatest peak in fire occurred at ~550 cal yr BP during the LIA, after the establishment of pinyon as the

  12. 41 CFR 102-83.120 - What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan area? 102... Space Urban Areas § 102-83.120 What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan area? If an agency has a need to be in a specific urban...

  13. 41 CFR 102-83.120 - What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan area? 102... Space Urban Areas § 102-83.120 What happens if an agency has a need to be in a specific urban area that is not a central city in a metropolitan area? If an agency has a need to be in a specific urban...

  14. RMIT Vietnam and Vietnam's Development: Risk and Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilmoth, David

    2004-01-01

    To help bridge the gap between demand and supply for tertiary education, Vietnam has opened to direct, foreign providers, and the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) International University Vietnam is the first of this category. By sponsoring a large project in a country that some see as risky, RMIT Vietnam needs to be triply viable.…

  15. Sequential palynostratigraphy of the Queen City and Weches formations (Middle Eocene Claiborne Group), southeast central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Elsik, W.C. )

    1993-02-01

    Palynomorph sequences of several orders of magnitude were found in the Queen City and Weches formations respectively at Six Mile and Burleson bluffs on the Brazos River, Milam and Burleson counties, Texas. The long term development of the subtropical to tropical Claibornian palynoflora included Engelhardtia spp., Friedrichipollis claibornensis, Nudopollis terminalis, Pollenites laesius and Symplocoipollenites spp. Shorter term fluctuations in sea level were reflected by common herbaceous pollen in the Queen City, and common mangrove pollen in the Weches. Paleoenvironments were marginally to fully marine; dinocysts occurred throughout. The Wetzeliella group of dinocysts were present only in the Queen City at Six Mile Bluff. Late Paleocene to Early Eocene pollen, and Early Middle Eocene pollen with last effective occurrences near the Queen City and Weches boundary included Aesculiidites circumstriatus, Annona foveoreticulata and a new species of Platycarya. Five short term warmer-cooler couplet events were represented by successive abundance peaks of Juglandaceae followed by Ulmus; Alnus supports the three upper Ulmus peaks. One deep water event was recorded by an abundance of fresh water Pediastrum at the Queen City and Weches boundary. That boundary event was bracketed by two of the Alnus and Ulmus peaks.

  16. Land subsidence in major cities of Central Mexico: Interpreting InSAR-derived land subsidence mapping with hydrogeological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellazzi, Pascal; Arroyo-Domínguez, Norma; Martel, Richard; Calderhead, Angus I.; Normand, Jonathan C. L.; Gárfias, Jaime; Rivera, Alfonso

    2016-05-01

    Significant structural damages to urban infrastructures caused by compaction of over-exploited aquifers are an important problem in Central Mexico. While the case of Mexico City has been well-documented, insight into land subsidence problems in other cities of Central Mexico is still limited. Among the cities concerned, we present and discuss the cases of five of them, located within the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB): Toluca, Celaya, Aguascalientes, Morelia, and Queretaro. Applying the SBAS-InSAR method to C-Band RADARSAT-2 data, five high resolution ground motion time-series were produced to monitor the spatio-temporal variations of displacements and fracturing from 2012 to 2014. The study presents recent changes of land subsidence rates along with concordant geological and water data. It aims to provide suggestions to mitigate future damages to infrastructure and to assist in groundwater resources management. Aguascalientes, Celaya, Morelia and Queretaro (respectively in order of decreasing subsidence rates) are typical cases of fault-limited land subsidence of Central Mexico. It occurs as a result of groundwater over-exploitation in lacustrine and alluvial deposits covering highly variable bedrock topography, typical of horst-graben geological settings. Aguascalientes and Toluca show high rates of land subsidence (up to 10 cm/yr), while Celaya and Morelia show lower rates (from 2 to 5 cm/yr). Comparing these results with previous studies, it is inferred that the spatial patterns of land subsidence have changed in the city of Toluca. This change appears to be mainly controlled by the spatial heterogeneity of compressible sediments since no noticeable change occurred in groundwater extraction and related drawdown rates. While land subsidence of up to 8 cm/yr has been reported in the Queretaro Valley before 2011, rates inferior to 1 cm/yr are measured in 2013-2014. The subsidence has been almost entirely mitigated by major changes in the water management

  17. [Multi-gradients of land surface temperature in mountainous cities with rapid urbanization: a case study in central area of Chongqing City].

    PubMed

    Han, Gui-Feng; Zhao, Ke; Yan, Wen-Tao; Ye, Lin

    2012-06-01

    By using TM/ETM+ and MODIS images, the land surface temperature (LST) and relative heat island intensity (RHII) of the central area of Chongqing City were extracted to analyze the distribution patterns of the LST and RHII along the multi-gradients of topography, population, and gross domestic product (GDP) as well as the potential quantitative relationships. The LST and RHII manifested a non-monotonically decreasing trend along the gradients of elevation and relief degree, respectively, both with a significant quadratic polynomial relationship. The maximum RHII appeared at 200-350 m elevation section due to the massive urban construction activities, and had significant linear relationships with the population density and the GDP per square kilometer. The RHII rose about 0.10 degrees C when the population density increased 1000 people per square kilometer, and rose about 0.08 degrees C when the GDP per square kilometer increased 10 million RMB Yuan. PMID:22937657

  18. English Takes Root in Vietnam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yablonka, Marc Phillip

    1999-01-01

    English has emerged as an important language in Vietnam, and English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) education exists at all levels of schooling and in business. This paper explains Vietnam's post-embargo quest for English, the effect of economic hardships on education in Vietnam, incoming ESL instructors, and the past, present, and future of languages…

  19. Vietnam and American Government Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Paul C.; Eksterowicz, Anthony J.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the importance of studying the Vietnam War. Attempts to illustrate the amount and quality of coverage of the Vietnam War in U.S. government textbooks. Explains that the amount of space devoted to the war in most of these texts remains inadequate for student understanding of the Vietnam War. (CMK)

  20. The Geographies of Difference: The Production of the East Side, West Side, and Central City School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buendia, Edward; Ares, Nancy; Juarez, Brenda G.; Peercy, Megan

    2004-01-01

    Citywide constructs such as "West Side" or "South Side" are spatial codes that result from more than the informal conversations of city residents. This article shows how elementary school educators in one U.S. metropolitan school district participated in the production of a local knowledge of the East Side and West Side space and individual. It…

  1. Black In-Migration, White Flight, and the Changing Economic Base of the Central City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, William H.

    1980-01-01

    Evaluates potential race-migration consequences of proposed urban programs on the basis of various types of census data. Issues include decreases in city revenue-producing capacity, changes in residential socio-economic characteristics, and continued inability of resident minority populations to upgrade their standards of living or relocate to the…

  2. Biogeographic patterns in below-ground diversity in New York City's Central Park are similar to those observed globally.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Kelly S; Leff, Jonathan W; Barberán, Albert; Bates, Scott Thomas; Betley, Jason; Crowther, Thomas W; Kelly, Eugene F; Oldfield, Emily E; Shaw, E Ashley; Steenbock, Christopher; Bradford, Mark A; Wall, Diana H; Fierer, Noah

    2014-11-22

    Soil biota play key roles in the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, however, compared to our knowledge of above-ground plant and animal diversity, the biodiversity found in soils remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we present an assessment of soil biodiversity and biogeographic patterns across Central Park in New York City that spanned all three domains of life, demonstrating that even an urban, managed system harbours large amounts of undescribed soil biodiversity. Despite high variability across the Park, below-ground diversity patterns were predictable based on soil characteristics, with prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities exhibiting overlapping biogeographic patterns. Further, Central Park soils harboured nearly as many distinct soil microbial phylotypes and types of soil communities as we found in biomes across the globe (including arctic, tropical and desert soils). This integrated cross-domain investigation highlights that the amount and patterning of novel and uncharacterized diversity at a single urban location matches that observed across natural ecosystems spanning multiple biomes and continents.

  3. Estimating the extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Minh, Hoang Van; Giang, Kim Bao; Liem, Nguyen Thanh; Palmer, Michael; Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Duong, Le Bach

    2015-01-01

    Disability is shown to be both a cause and a consequence of poverty. However, relatively little research has investigated the economic cost of living with a disability. This study reports the results of a study on the extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam in 2011. The study was carried out in eight cities/provinces in Vietnam, including Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh cities (two major metropolitan in Vietnam) and six provinces from each of the six socio-economic regions in Vietnam. Costs are estimated using the standard of living approach whereby the difference in incomes between people with disability and those without disability for a given standard of living serves as a proxy for the cost of living with disability. The extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam accounted for about 8.8-9.5% of annual household income, or valued about US$200-218. Communication difficulty was shown to result in highest additional cost of living with disability and self-care difficulty was shown to lead to the lowest levels of extra of living cost. The extra cost of living with disability increased as people had more severe impairment. Interventions to promote the economic security of livelihood for people with disabilities are needed.

  4. Tree Canopy Cover Mapping Using LiDAR in Urban Barangays of Cebu City, Central Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejares, J. A.; Violanda, R. R.; Diola, A. G.; Dy, D. T.; Otadoy, J. B.; Otadoy, R. E. S.

    2016-06-01

    This paper investigates tree canopy cover mapping of urban barangays (smallest administrative division in the Philippines) in Cebu City using LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging). Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) was used to extract tree canopy cover. Multi-resolution segmentation and a series of assign-class algorithm in eCognition software was also performed to extract different land features. Contextual features of tree canopies such as height, area, roundness, slope, length-width and elliptic fit were also evaluated. The results showed that at the time the LiDAR data was collected (June 24, 2014), the tree cover was around 25.11 % (or 15,674,341.8 m2) of the city's urban barangays (or 62,426,064.6 m2). Among all urban barangays in Cebu City, Barangay Busay had the highest cover (55.79 %) while barangay Suba had the lowest (0.8 %). The 16 barangays with less than 10 % tree cover were generally located in the coastal area, presumably due to accelerated urbanization. Thirty-one barangays have tree cover ranging from 10.59--27.3 %. Only 3 barangays (i.e., Lahug, Talamban, and Busay) have tree cover greater than 30 %. The overall accuracy of the analysis was 96.6 % with the Kappa Index of Agreement or KIA of 0.9. From the study, a grouping can be made of the city's urban barangays with regards to tree cover. The grouping will be useful to urban planners not only in allocating budget to the tree planting program of the city but also in planning and creation of urban parks and playgrounds.

  5. Source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into Central Park Lake, New York City, over a century of deposition.

    PubMed

    Yan, Beizhan; Bopp, Richard F; Abrajano, Teofilo A; Chaky, Damon; Chillrud, Steven N

    2014-05-01

    Relative contributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from combustion sources of wood, petroleum, and coal were computed in sediments from Central Park Lake in New York City (NY, USA) by chemical mass balance based on several reliable source indicators. These indicators are the ratio of retene to the sum of retene and chrysene, the ratio of 1,7-dimethylphenanthrene (DMP) to 1,7-DMP and 2,6-DMP, and the ratio of fluroanthene to fluroanthene and pyrene. The authors found that petroleum combustion-derived PAH fluxes generally followed the historical consumption data of New York State. Coal combustion-derived PAH flux peaked approximately in the late 1910s, remained at a relatively high level over the next 3 decades, then rapidly declined from the 1950s to the 1960s; according to historical New York State coal consumption data, however, there was a 2-peak trend, with peaks around the early 1920s and the mid-1940s. The 1940s peak was not observed in Central Park Lake, most likely because of the well-documented shift from coal to oil as the major residential heating fuel in New York City during the late 1930s. It was widely believed that the decreased PAH concentrations and fluxes in global sediments during the last century resulted from a major energy shift from coal to petroleum. The data, however, show that this shift occurred from 1945 through the 1960s and did not result in an obvious decline. The sharpest decrease, which occurred in the 1970s was not predominantly related to coal usage but rather was the result of multiple factors, including a decline in petroleum usage largely, the introduction of low sulfur-content fuel in New York City, and the introduction of emission-control technologies.

  6. SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHs) INTO CENTRAL PARK LAKE, NEW YORK CITY, OVER A CENTURY OF DEPOSITION

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Beizhan; Bopp, Richard F.; Abrajano, Teofilo A.; Chaky, Damon; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Relative contributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from combustion sources of wood, petroleum, and coal were computed in sediments from Central Park Lake in New York City (NY, USA) by chemical mass balance based on several reliable source indicators. These indicators are the ratio of retene to the sum of retene and chrysene, the ratio of 1,7-dimethylphenanthrene (DMP) to 1,7-DMP and 2,6-DMP, and the ratio of fluroanthene to fluroanthene and pyrene. The authors found that petroleum combustion–derived PAH fluxes generally followed the historical consumption data of New York State. Coal combustion-derived PAH flux peaked approximately in the late 1910s, remained at a relatively high level over the next 3 decades, then rapidly declined from the 1950s to the 1960s; according to historical New York State coal consumption data, however, there was a 2-peak trend, with peaks around the early 1920s and the mid-1940s. The 1940s peak was not observed in Central Park Lake, most likely because of the well-documented shift from coal to oil as the major residential heating fuel in New York City during the late 1930s. It was widely believed that the decreased PAH concentrations and fluxes in global sediments during the last century resulted from a major energy shift from coal to petroleum. The data, however, show that this shift occurred from 1945 through the 1960s and did not result in an obvious decline. The sharpest decrease, which occurred in the 1970s was not predominantly related to coal usage but rather was the result of multiple factors, including a decline in petroleum usage largely, the introduction of low sulfur–content fuel in New York City, and the introduction of emission-control technologies. PMID:24375577

  7. Son preference in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Haughton, J; Haughton, D

    1995-01-01

    This article assesses the strength of son preference in Vietnam, as reflected in fertility behavior. It formulates and estimates a proportional hazards model applied to birth intervals, and a contraceptive prevalence model, using household survey data from 2,636 ever-married women aged 15-49 with at least one living child who were interviewed for the Vietnam Living Standards Survey 1992-1993. Son preference is found to be strong by world standards, but nevertheless, it has a minor effect on fertility; in its absence, the total fertility rate would fall by roughly 10 percent from the current level of about 3.2 children per woman of reproductive age.

  8. Comparison of particulate number concentrations in three Central European capital cities.

    PubMed

    Borsós, T; Řimnáčová, D; Ždímal, V; Smolík, J; Wagner, Z; Weidinger, T; Burkart, J; Steiner, G; Reischl, G; Hitzenberger, R; Schwarz, J; Salma, I

    2012-09-01

    Number size distributions of atmospheric aerosol particles in the mobility diameter range from 10 to 1000 nm were determined in Budapest, Prague and Vienna for a one-year-long period. Particle number concentrations in various size fractions, their diurnal and seasonal variations, mean size distributions and some properties of new particle formation events were derived and compared. Yearly median particle number concentrations for Budapest, Prague and Vienna were 10.6×10(3), 7.3×10(3) and 8.0×10(3) cm(-3). Differences were linked to the different pollution levels of the cities, and to diverse measurement environments and local conditions. Mean contributions of ultrafine particles (particles with a mobility diameter <100 nm) to the total number concentration were 80%, 84% and 74% for Budapest, Prague and Vienna, thus these particles represent an overwhelming share of all particles in each city. Seasonal variation of particle number concentrations was not obvious. Diurnal variations of particles with a diameter between 100 and 1000 nm (N(100-1000)) exhibited similar shape for the cities, which was related to the time-activity pattern of inhabitants and regional influences. The structure of the diurnal variation for ultrafine particles was also similar. It contained a huge morning peak in each city which was explained by emissions from vehicular traffic. The second peak was shifted from afternoon rush hours to late evenings as a result of the daily cycling in meteorological parameters. The character of the measurement site also influenced the diurnal variation. Diurnal variation of the mean ratio of ultrafine particles to N(100-1000) clearly revealed the presence and importance of new particle formation and subsequent growth in urban environments. Nucleation frequencies in Budapest and Prague were 27% and 23%, respectively on a yearly time scale. They showed a minimum in winter for both places, while the largest nucleation activity was observed in spring for

  9. The light of emergency medicine: Vietnam-the next chapter in the global history of emergency medicine?

    PubMed

    Suter, Robert E

    2011-04-01

    The following is the keynote address to the First Emergency Medicine Conference in Vietnam, held in the historic city of Hue, March 22-26, 2010. This presentation reviewed the global history of emergency medicine (EM) and presented the need for the establishment of EM residency programs in Vietnam in a culturally sensitive manner. Immediately following this presentation, the Deputy Minister of Health for Vietnam announced recognition of EM as a specialty in Vietnam, and the establishment of EM residency programs, with the first starting October 1, 2010, in association with the Hue College of Medicine.

  10. The Impact of Vietnam's Globalization on National Education Policies and Teacher Training Programs for Teachers of English as an International Language: A Case Study of the University of Pedagogy in Ho Chi Minh City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Tri Ly

    2011-01-01

    The Problem: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of Vietnam's globalization on national language education policies and teacher training programs for teachers of English to speakers of other languages. Specifically, this research explored the extent to which the new policies for English language training programs adopted by the…

  11. Vietnam in Childrens' Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY. United States Committee.

    Twenty-five nonfiction and 18 fiction and folklore listings are included in this bulletin on Vietnam in childrens' books. Slides, filmstrips, and film listings are also included. Each listing is accompanied by a brief annotation. Subjects include customs and culture, the country and the people, Ho Chi Min, the Vietnamese revolution, Vietnamese…

  12. Education Renovation in Vietnam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Allan; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discusses Vietnam's educational reform efforts from 1945 to the present, focusing on current goals to restructure the national system, develop semiprivate and private schools, create closer linkages between secondary and vocational education, increase minorities' education opportunities, and improve educational quality. Reforms are comprehensive…

  13. Education in Vietnam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieu, Tran; Chau, Nguyen Huu

    2000-01-01

    Describes and analyzes the development of education in Vietnam under reforms initiated in 1950, 1956, and 1981. Considers the implications of the country's focus on industrialization and modernization. Identifies current challenges to educational development, including the challenges of expanding the scale of education while improving the quality…

  14. Vietnam and the sustainable development of the Mekong river basis.

    PubMed

    Quang, Nguyen Nhan

    2002-01-01

    Vietnam is a riparian country located in most downstream area of the Mekong river basin which is also shared by other states namely China, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand and Cambodia. While the Central Highlands of Vietnam has a great potential for hydropower development in tributaries of Mekong river, the Mekong delta in Vietnam territory is rich in natural resources which are favorable for agricultural development. However, besides local constraints which being gradually remedied by Vietnam, the development of the Mekong delta is subject to, in both terms of quantity and quality, availability of water resources which relates to the water use of or discharge into the river of upper riparians. With a view to co-developing these resources in a sustainable and mutually beneficial manner, Vietnam has cooperated with other states through framework of the Mekong River Commission set up by the 1995 Mekong Agreement. This paper describes the strategy and action plan applied by Viet Nam National Mekong Committee to reach the sustainable development of the Mekong river basin in general and of Vietnam parts located in the Mekong basin in particular.

  15. Vegetation fires and air pollution in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le, Thanh Ha; Thanh Nguyen, Thi Nhat; Lasko, Kristofer; Ilavajhala, Shriram; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Justice, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Forest fires are a significant source of air pollution in Asia. In this study, we integrate satellite remote sensing data and ground-based measurements to infer fire-air pollution relationships in selected regions of Vietnam. We first characterized the active fires and burnt areas at a regional scale from MODIS satellite data. We then used satellite-derived active fire data to correlate the resulting atmospheric pollution. Further, we analyzed the relationship between satellite atmospheric variables and ground-based air pollutant parameters. Our results show peak fire activity during March in Vietnam, with hotspots in the Northwest and Central Highlands. Active fires were significantly correlated with UV Aerosol Index (UVAI), aerosol extinction absorption optical depth (AAOD), and Carbon Monoxide. The use of satellite aerosol optical thickness improved the prediction of Particulate Matter (PM) concentration significantly.

  16. Taxonomical notes on selected freshwater fish species described from northern and central Vietnam (Cypriniformes: Balitoridae, Cobitidae, Cyprinidae, Nemacheilidae; Perciformes: Channidae, Osphronemidae; Synbranchiformes: Mastacembelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Endruweit, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Selected, little known taxa of northern and central Vietnamese freshwater fish species are reviewed. Nomenclatural acts are taken: Hemibarbus lehoai is placed in synonymy of H. maculatus, Paracobitis hagiangensis in synonymy of Schistura caudofurca. A neotype of Micronemacheilusbacmeensis is assigned. The name Channa hanamensis is treated as a nomen nudum. Two labeonine species described from China are nomenclaturally affected: Garra findolabium is transferred to Vinagarra and its specific epithet is treated as a noun in apposition; the specific epithet of Sinigarra napoense is corrected to napoensis. PMID:24668657

  17. Coral microbial community dynamics in response to anthropogenic impacts near a major city in the central Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Maren; Roik, Anna; Porter, Adam; Zubier, Khalid; Mudarris, Mohammed S; Ormond, Rupert; Voolstra, Christian R

    2016-04-30

    Coral-associated bacteria play an increasingly recognized part in coral health. We investigated the effect of local anthropogenic impacts on coral microbial communities on reefs near Jeddah, the largest city on the Saudi Arabian coast of the central Red Sea. We analyzed the bacterial community structure of water and corals (Pocillopora verrucosa and Acropora hemprichii) at sites that were relatively unimpacted, exposed to sedimentation & local sewage, or in the discharge area of municipal wastewaters. Coral microbial communities were significantly different at impacted sites: in both corals the main symbiotic taxon decreased in abundance. In contrast, opportunistic bacterial families, such as e.g. Vibrionaceae and Rhodobacteraceae, were more abundant in corals at impacted sites. In conclusion, microbial community response revealed a measurable footprint of anthropogenic impacts to coral ecosystems close to Jeddah, even though the corals appeared visually healthy. PMID:26763316

  18. Coral microbial community dynamics in response to anthropogenic impacts near a major city in the central Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Maren; Roik, Anna; Porter, Adam; Zubier, Khalid; Mudarris, Mohammed S; Ormond, Rupert; Voolstra, Christian R

    2016-04-30

    Coral-associated bacteria play an increasingly recognized part in coral health. We investigated the effect of local anthropogenic impacts on coral microbial communities on reefs near Jeddah, the largest city on the Saudi Arabian coast of the central Red Sea. We analyzed the bacterial community structure of water and corals (Pocillopora verrucosa and Acropora hemprichii) at sites that were relatively unimpacted, exposed to sedimentation & local sewage, or in the discharge area of municipal wastewaters. Coral microbial communities were significantly different at impacted sites: in both corals the main symbiotic taxon decreased in abundance. In contrast, opportunistic bacterial families, such as e.g. Vibrionaceae and Rhodobacteraceae, were more abundant in corals at impacted sites. In conclusion, microbial community response revealed a measurable footprint of anthropogenic impacts to coral ecosystems close to Jeddah, even though the corals appeared visually healthy.

  19. Concentrations of Metals in Feathers of Magpie (Pica pica) from Aran-O-Bidgol City in Central Iran.

    PubMed

    Zarrintab, Mohammad; Mirzaei, Rouhollah; Mostafaei, Gholamreza; Dehghani, Rouhollah; Akbari, Hossein

    2016-04-01

    The present study aims to measure Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd concentrations in feathers of Magpies in urban areas to investigate the possibility of using Magpies to monitor metal contamination in urban areas. A total of 15 bird samples were collected in October 2013 from Aran-O-Bidgol City, in Central Iran and the concentration of metals were measured using a PerkinElmer ICP-OES. The average concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd in the feathers were 167.16, 26.74, 9.29 and 1.583 µg/g dw, respectively. There were no significant differences in metal concentrations between various genders, ages and sites. However, the highest and lowest concentrations of non-essential elements were observed in the adult males and adult females, respectively. Significant correlations were observed between the concentrations of Cu and Zn as well as Pb and Cd. Moreover, wing length had the highest correlation with metals concentrations. PMID:26781634

  20. Hydrogeology and water-quality conditions at the City of Olathe Landfill, east-central Kansas, 1990-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, P.P.; Shockley, J.C.; Hargadine, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Water quality at the City of Olathe Landfill in east-central Kansas was examined in relation to hydrogeologic conditions to help determine the effects of the landfill on shallow ground water. This study focused on the Wyandotte and Plattsburg Limestones underlying the landfill. The Wyandotte Limestone underlies the entire landfill, whereas the overlying Plattsburg Limestone crops out within the landffll boundaries. Little Cedar Creek, an unnamed tributary, and a pond are located in the landfill. Water samples from seven monitoring wells and five surface-water sites in the vicinity of the City of Olathe Landfill were collected for analysis of inorganic and organic constituents. The inorganic constituents in the ground water that are most affected in the vicinity of the landfill are calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, ammonia, barium, iron, and manganese. The dissolved- organic-carbon concentration at a seep flowing from the Plattsburg Limestone was 1,400 milligrams per liter, indicating that the landfill is affecting the water quality near the seep. Benzene was detected in all of the water samples, and the largest concentration was in a sample collected upgradient of the landfill. The benzene concentration exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Contaminant Level (0.005 milligram per liter) for drinking-water supplies. Six of the eight specific organic compounds detected were found in a water sample collected from the Plattsburg Limestone immediately downgradient of the landfill. No organic compoands, except benzene, were detected in samples collected from the Wyandotte Limestone downgradient of the landfill.

  1. Community response to noise in Vietnam: exposure-response relationships based on the community tolerance level.

    PubMed

    Gjestland, Truls; Nguyen, Thu Lan; Yano, Takashi

    2015-05-01

    Social surveys on noise annoyance have been conducted in five different cities in Vietnam. The surveys included both aircraft noise (three airports) and road traffic noise (five cities). The main objective for these studies was to establish dose-response functions that were representative for Vietnam. The results have been compared with results from similar surveys from other regions. Dose-response functions for aircraft noise in Vietnam showing the percentage of highly annoyed people versus the noise level are nearly identical to those presented in the European Noise Directive [European Commission (2002). http://ec.europa.eu/environment/noise/directive.htm]. For road traffic noise, however, the results indicate that people in Vietnam are more tolerant. The noise levels can be increased by 5-10 dB in order to have a response similar to the curve recommended by the European Commission.

  2. Community response to noise in Vietnam: exposure-response relationships based on the community tolerance level.

    PubMed

    Gjestland, Truls; Nguyen, Thu Lan; Yano, Takashi

    2015-05-01

    Social surveys on noise annoyance have been conducted in five different cities in Vietnam. The surveys included both aircraft noise (three airports) and road traffic noise (five cities). The main objective for these studies was to establish dose-response functions that were representative for Vietnam. The results have been compared with results from similar surveys from other regions. Dose-response functions for aircraft noise in Vietnam showing the percentage of highly annoyed people versus the noise level are nearly identical to those presented in the European Noise Directive [European Commission (2002). http://ec.europa.eu/environment/noise/directive.htm]. For road traffic noise, however, the results indicate that people in Vietnam are more tolerant. The noise levels can be increased by 5-10 dB in order to have a response similar to the curve recommended by the European Commission. PMID:25994692

  3. City School District Reorganization: An Annotated Bibliography. Centralization and Decentralization in the Government of Metropolitan Areas with Special Emphasis on the Organization, Administration, and Financing of Large-City School Systems. Educational Research Series No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rideout, E. Brock; Najat, Sandra

    As a guide to educational administrators working in large cities, abstracts of 161 books, pamphlets, papers, and journal articles published between 1924 and 1966 are classified into five categories: (1) Centralization versus decentralization, (2) local government, (3) metropolitan organization, (4) the financing of education, and (5) the…

  4. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Rajesh Kunjithaya; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Niall Avison; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave VanderGriend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2003-03-31

    Progress is reported for the period from January 1, 2003 to March 31, 2003. A water supply well was permitted, drilled, and completed in the shallow, fresh-water, Dakota Sandstone. The pumphouse has been put in place and the long-term injection equipment is being set-up. Although the short-term injectivity test was cut short by power failure following an ice storm, results indicate the well exhibits sufficient injectivity to proceed with the long-term injectivity test, which will start in the beginning of the second quarter. The CO2 Project No.10 and No.12 wells were reworked and the Lansing-Kansas City (LKC) ''C'' interval in both wells isolated. The CO2 Project No.16 well was drilled deeper, cored in the LKC ''C'' and ''G'' zones, and cased to the ''C'' zone and will be perforated and stimulated in the beginning of second quarter. Initial wireline log analysis and examination of the core indicate that the porosity of the ''C'' zone in this location may be lower than in other parts of the pattern by 3-5 porosity units. Log analysis indicates water saturations are near 60% consistent with predicted residual oil saturation to waterflood modeling. Lower porosities may indicate lower permeability may also be present. Core analysis is being conducted and results will be available in the first week of the second quarter. A draft letter agreement has been presented to FLOCO2 Company for supply of CO2 storage and injection pump equipment.

  5. Opportunities in Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, F.; Donoghue, N.

    1994-11-01

    Vietnam`s energy needs are clear and acute. Economic reforms have triggered a dynamic development process with a large and growing appetite for power. In view of the Vietnamese government`s own shortages of capital, private international power companies have been identified as key problem-solvers in the country`s efforts to meet a skyrocketing demand for energy resources. There are no restrictions on the nature of projects in which non-Vietnamese investors may participate. A number of legal issues need resolution before independent power producers can take advantage of the Republic`s recently created Builder-Operator-Transfer Contracts (the BOT Regulations). This paper discusses these regulations and how they affect independent power producers

  6. Pathogens in septage in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Yen-Phi, Vo Thi; Rechenburg, Andrea; Vinneras, Björn; Clemens, Joachim; Kistemann, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    Septage is widely acknowledged as a major source of infectious pathogens while disposal of septage, and the operation and maintenance of septic tanks, is not regulated in many developing countries. Twenty untreated septage and septage sludge samples were taken from Can Tho City, Vietnam to examine their pathogen content, and indicator micro-organisms. Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. were detected in all samples, regardless of sludge storage time. Phages were detected in 80% of samples. Salmonella spp. were detected in 70% of the untreated septage and 60% of septage sludge samples. Concentrations of phages and bacteria tested in septage sludge after many years of tank storage were much higher than the expected levels. Helminth ova were present in 95% of untreated septage samples with an average of 450 oval(-1), and were detected in all septage sludge samples with an average of 16,000 oval(-1). Twelve varieties of helminth ova were identified. More helminth ova varieties in higher concentrations were found in septage than those reported from stool samples. The varieties' frequency ranged from 10% to 50% and Ascaris lumbricoides predominated. Results show that pathogens and indicator micro-organisms, especially helminth ova, accumulate in sludge. Thus helminth ova should be considered when septage sludge is treated and used for agriculture. Proper health protection measures must be applied for people handling septage.

  7. Field Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Miscible Flooding in the Lansing-Kansas City Formation, Central Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Richard Pancake; JyunSyung Tsau; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2010-03-07

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and three production wells. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide was injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide was injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. By March 7,2010, 8,736 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Production from wells to the northwest of the pilot region indicates that oil displaced from carbon dioxide injection was produced from Colliver A7, Colliver A3, Colliver A14 and Graham A4 located on adjacent leases. About 19,166 bbl of incremental oil were estimated to have been produced from these wells as of March 7, 2010. There is evidence of a directional permeability trend toward the NW through the pilot region. The majority of the injected carbon dioxide remains in the pilot region, which has been maintained at a pressure at or above the minimum miscibility pressure. Estimated oil recovery attributed to the CO2 flood is 27,902 bbl which is equivalent to a gross CO2 utilization of 4.8 MCF/bbl. The pilot project is not economic.

  8. An Urban High School in the "Kindergarten Tradition": Alternative Concept Schooling at Central Park East Secondary School in New York City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinchy, Evans

    1992-01-01

    Central Park East Secondary School in New York City is a secondary school run in the kindergarten tradition of personalized learning and catering to the student's growing independence. The description of the school's operation is accompanied by an interview with its codirector, D. Meier. (SLD)

  9. Distributions, sources and pollution status of 17 trace metal/metalloids in the street dust of a heavily industrialized city of central China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhonggen; Feng, Xinbin; Li, Guanghui; Bi, Xiangyang; Zhu, Jianming; Qin, Haibo; Dai, Zhihui; Liu, Jinling; Li, Qiuhua; Sun, Guangyi

    2013-11-01

    A series of representative street dust samples were collected from a heavily industrialized city, Zhuzhou, in central China, with the aim to investigate the spatial distribution and pollution status of 17 trace metal/metalloid elements. Concentrations of twelve elements (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Hg, As, Sb, In, Bi, Tl, Ag and Ga) were distinctly amplified by atmospheric deposition resulting from a large scale Pb/Zn smelter located in the northwest fringe of the city, and followed a declining trend towards the city center. Three metals (W, Mo and Co) were enriched in samples very close to a hard alloy manufacturing plant, while Ni and Cr appeared to derive predominantly from natural sources. Other industries and traffic had neglectable effects on the accumulation of observed elements. Cd, In, Zn, Ag and Pb were the five metal/metalloids with highest pollution levels and the northwestern part of city is especially affected by heavy metal pollution.

  10. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2005-12-31

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and two production wells on about 10 acre spacing. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide were injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide has been injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. Wells in the pilot area produced 100% water at the beginning of the flood. Oil production began in February 2004, increasing to an average of about 3.78 B/D for the six month period between January 1 and June 30, 2005 before declining. By the end of December 2005, 14,115 bbls of water were injected into CO2I-1 and 2,091 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Injection rates into CO2I-1 declined with time, dropping to an unacceptable level for the project. The injection pressure was increased to reach a stable water injection rate of 100 B/D. However, the injection rate continued to decline with time, suggesting that water was being injected into a region with limited leakoff and production. Oil production rates remained in the range of 3-3.5 B/D following conversion to water injection. There is no evidence that the oil bank generated by injection of carbon dioxide has reached either production well. Continued injection of water is planned to displace oil mobilized by carbon dioxide to the production wells and to maintain the pressure in the PPV region at a level that supports continued miscible displacement as the carbon dioxide is displaced by the injected water.

  11. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2006-06-30

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and two production wells on about 10 acre spacing. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide were injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide has been injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. Wells in the pilot area produced 100% water at the beginning of the flood. Oil production began in February 2004, increasing to an average of about 3.78 B/D for the six month period between January 1 and June 30, 2005 before declining. By June 30, 2006, 41,566 bbls of water were injected into CO2I-1 and 2,726 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Injection rates into CO2I-1 declined with time, dropping to an unacceptable level for the project. The injection pressure was increased to reach a stable water injection rate of 100 B/D. However, the injection rate continued to decline with time, suggesting that water was being injected into a region with limited leakoff and production. Oil production rates remained in the range of 3-3.5 B/D following conversion to water injection. Oil rates increased from about 3.3 B/D for the period from January through March to about 4.7 B/D for the period from April through June. If the oil rate is sustained, this may be the first indication of the arrival of the oil bank mobilized by carbon dioxide injection. A sustained fluid withdrawal rate of about 200 B/D from CO2 No.12 and CO2 No.13 appears to be necessary to obtain higher oil rates. There is no evidence that the oil bank generated by injection of carbon dioxide has

  12. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Rajesh Kunjithaya; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Niall Avison; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2001-12-31

    Progress is reported for the period from October 1, 2001 to December 31, 2001. Technical design and budget for a larger (60-acre) CO{sub 2} demonstration project are being reviewed by the US DOE for approval. While this review process is being conducted, work is proceeding on well testing to obtain reservoir properties and on the VIP reservoir simulation model to improve model prediction and better understand the controls that certain parameters exert on predicted performance. Testing of present Colliver lease injection water on Lansing-Kansas City (L-KC) oomoldic rock indicates that injection brine must be filtered to < {approx}3-5 um and <15 um to prevent plugging of rocks with permeability as low as 1 md (millidarcy; 0.001 um2) and 10 md (0.01 um2), respectively. Pressure build-up testing on the Carter-Colliver No.7 well is interpreted to indicate the L-KC reservoir surrounding this well is {approx}9 ft (2.7 m) thick having an average effective water permeability of 25-35 md (0.025-0.035 um2) that is connected to the wellbore by either a high permeability fracture, bed, or region with low skin. Reservoir simulation evaluation of gridcell size effect on model oil recovery prediction indicates that, based on the model prediction of distribution of produced oil and CO{sub 2} volumes, oil recovery is strongly influenced by gravity segregation of CO{sub 2} into the upper higher permeability layers and indicates the strong control that vertical permeability and permeability barriers between depositional flood cycles exert on the CO{sub 2} flooding process. Simulations were performed on modifications of the 60-acre, two-injector pattern to evaluate oil recovery using other large-scale patterns. Simulations indicated that several 73-acre patterns with a single injector located near the Colliver No.7 could provide improved economics without increasing the amount of CO{sub 2} injected. The US Energy Partners ethanol plant in Russell, KS began operations in October ahead

  13. Field Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Miscible Flooding in the Lansing-Kansas City Formation, Central Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2007-03-07

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and three production wells. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide were injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide has been injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. By December 31, 2006, 79,072 bbls of water were injected into CO2 I-1 and 3,923 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Water injection rates into CO2 I-1, CO2 No.10 and CO2 No.18 were stabilized during this period. Oil production rates increased from 4.7 B/D to 5.5 to 6 B/D confirming the arrival of an oil bank at CO2 No.12. Production from wells to the northwest of the pilot region indicates that oil displaced from carbon dioxide injection was produced from Colliver No.7, Colliver No.3 and possibly Graham A4 located on an adjacent property. There is evidence of a directional permeability trend toward the NW through the pilot region. The majority of the injected carbon dioxide remains in the pilot region, which has been maintained at a pressure at or above the minimum miscibility pressure. Our management plan is to continue water injection maintaining oil displacement by displacing the carbon dioxide remaining in the C zone,. If the decline rate of production from the Colliver Lease remains as estimated and the oil rate from the pilot region remains constant, we estimate that the oil production attributed to carbon dioxide injection will be about 12,000 bbl by December 31, 2007. Oil recovery would be equivalent to 12 MCF/bbl, which is consistent with field experience in

  14. The relationship between weathering and welding degree of pyroclastic rocks in the Kilistra ancient city, Konya (Central Anatolia, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozdaǧ, Ali; Bayram, A. Ferat; İnce, İsmail; Asan, Kürşad

    2016-11-01

    Pyroclastic rocks used in both historical and modern structures are inevitably exposed to various weathering processes, leading to damage and destruction of them. To reduce the effects of weathering caused by various atmospheric effects, geologists need to know what processes are more effective and how they affect rock bodies. In this study, our aim is to show the relationship between the weathering and welding degree of pyroclastic rocks, sampled around the Ancient City of Kilistra in Konya (Central Anatolia, Turkey). For this purpose, we conducted field trips, and used petrographic and laboratory techniques such as, physico-mechanical tests and accelerated weathering tests (i.e., Freeze-Thaw, F-T; Wetting-Drying, W-D and Salt Crystallization, SC). Pyroclastic rocks around Kilistra ancient city comprise two different sub-units: the unwelded, lower pyroclastic unit (LPU) and the welded, upper pyroclastic unit (UPU). Following cycles of F-T and SC tests, we observed an increase in porosity values, but a decrease in uniaxial compressive strength values, which was more evident in unwelded-LPU samples. Also, the significant macroscopic textural changes occurred in LPU samples, linked to their unwelded nature. However, physico-mechanical features of both LPU and UPU samples were not significantly changed after W-D tests. Altogether, our findings show that welding degree is one of the main factors controlling weathering and physico-mechanical properties of pyroclastic rocks, and also F-T and SC are more effective processes than W-D on weathering. Accordingly, our approach here could be used to protect the endangered historical structures carved into pyroclastic rocks around the world.

  15. Teaching Vietnam through Vietnamese Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, David M.

    1985-01-01

    An approach that teaches secondary students about Vietnam within the framework of the world history/world culture course is described. By reading and studying Vietnamese fiction and poetry, students learn about Vietnam from a Vietnamese perspective instead of the usual exclusive Western viewpoint. (RM)

  16. Developing School Psychology in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Phuong; Hagans, Kristi; Powers, Kristin; Hass, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Like China, Vietnam is a communist country with increasingly capitalist economic policies. A fundamental change occurred in these policies with the enactment of Vietnam's "doi moi" (renovation) policy in 1986 that called for a "free market with socialist orientations." However, this economic modernization has inadvertently changed the social…

  17. The Lessons of the Vietnam War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Jerold M., Ed.

    This text book on the Vietnam War is to be used in teaching high students. Each of the volume's 12 chapters is a self-contained unit on an aspect of the War. The chapters are: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history, and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and consequences; (3) Was the Vietnam War legal? (4) who fought for the…

  18. 7-year of surface ozone in a coastal city of central Italy: Observations and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biancofiore, Fabio; Verdecchia, Marco; Di Carlo, Piero; Tomassetti, Barbara; Aruffo, Eleonora; Busilacchio, Marcella; Bianco, Sebastiano; Di Tommaso, Sinibaldo; Colangeli, Carlo

    2014-05-01

    Hourly concentrations of ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) have been measured for seven years, from 1998 to 2005, in a seaside town in the central Italy. Seasonal trends of O3 and NO2 recorded in the considered years are studied. Furthermore, we have focused our attention on data collected during the 2005, analyzing them using two different methods: a regression model and a neural network model. Both models are used to simulate the hourly ozone concentration, using several sets of input. In order to evaluate the performance of the model four statistical criteria are used: correlation coefficient (R), fractional bias (FB), normalized mean squared error (NMSE) e factor of two (FA2). All the criteria show that the neural network has better results compared to the regression model in all the simulations. In addiction we have tested some improvements of the neural network model, results of these tests are discussed. Finally, we have used the neural network to forecast the ozone hourly concentrations a day ahead and 1, 3, 6, 12 hour ahead. Performances of the model in predicting ozone levels are discussed.

  19. Multiple oxygen and sulfur isotope compositions of secondary atmospheric sulfate in a mega-city in central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoqian; Bao, Huiming; Gan, Yiqun; Zhou, Aiguo; Liu, Yunde

    2013-12-01

    Sulfate aerosol is an important atmosphere constituent that can be formed secondarily through the oxidation of sulfur gases. Atmospheric sulfur oxidation can take different pathways depending on meteorological conditions, which affects sulfate aerosol size and composition and therefore local or global climate. The magnitude of 17O enrichment (Δ17O) in secondary atmospheric sulfate (SAS) is a tracer for the apportionment of different sulfur oxidation pathways. Atmospheric chemistry-transport models predict a low 17O enrichment (Δ17O < 1‰) for SAS in mid-latitude continental sites. However, there are few long-term site observations to test the prediction, and data from interior metropolitan sites are entirely absent. We report here multiple oxygen and sulfur isotope compositions (Δ17O, δ18O, and δ34S) of SAS collected over a 950-day period in the city of Wuhan, central China, and to compare to data from a similar sampling campaign in the city of Baton Rouge, LA, U.S.A. The isotope compositions of bulk atmospheric sulfate closely reflect those of SAS in Wuhan, with the Δ17O ranging from 0.14‰ to 1.02‰, the δ18O from 8.0‰ to 16.1‰, and the δ34S from 2.1‰ to 7.3‰. The average Δ17O value at 0.53‰-0.59‰ is consistent with model prediction for continental interior, mid-latitude sites. The Asian monsoon-influenced meteorological condition in Wuhan appears to produce a weak but discernible seasonal pattern for Δ17O and δ18O of the SAS. The average rainwater pH value is higher in Wuhan than in Baton Rouge (5.47 versus 4.78) while the two cities have a statistically identical average SAS Δ17O value. We suggest that the higher pH does result in a higher fraction of SAS generated by aqueous O3 oxidation, but the resulted higher Δ17O value for SAS is diluted by the 17O-normal SAS generated from an enhanced transition-metal-catalyzed O2 oxidation pathway. The enhancement is corroborated with the much higher content of atmospheric particulate matter

  20. Stable sulfur isotope ratios and water-soluble inorganic compositions of PM10 in Yichang City, central China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhou; Li, Xiao-Dong; Deng, Jie; Wang, Hai-Yun

    2015-09-01

    Chemical and sulfate-sulfur isotopic compositions of water-soluble inorganic ions were analyzed for aerosol sample particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10) collected during 17-28 December 2012 at Yichang City, Hubei Province, central China. Most water-soluble inorganic ions, except for NO3 (-) and NH4 (+), showed slightly higher concentration in daytime than in nighttime, and the major detected ions followed the order of SO4 (2-) > NO3 (-) > Ca(2+) > Na(+) > NH4 (+) > Cl(-) in daytime and nighttime, of which SO4 (2-) is the most abundant ionic component that accounted for about 49.1 and 49.3 % of the total mass of analyzed ions in daytime and nighttime, respectively. According to the correlation coefficients among the mass concentrations of water-soluble inorganic ions, there may mainly exist in forms of (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3 in daytime and NH4NO3 in nighttime. The δ(34)S values of sulfate ranged from +2.82 to +4.63 ‰ (average +3.97 ‰) in daytime and from +2.90 to +5.39 ‰ (average +4.08 ‰) in nighttime, indicating that the source of sulfate in PM10 was mainly derived from coal burning (δ(34)S, +3.68 ‰) in Yichang City. The [NO3 (-)]/[SO4 (2-)] mass ratio varied between 0.2 and 0.6 with an average of 0.4 in daytime and 0.1 to 0.8 with an average of 0.4 in nighttime, which implying that the stationary source emissions would be more important than the vehicle emissions in the studied area. As a whole, the mixture of coal burning, vehicle exhaust, and resuspended road dust would be responsible for the sources of PM10 in Yichang City during wintertime. PMID:25960017

  1. Operation homecoming: psychological observations of repatriated Vietnam prisoners of war.

    PubMed

    Andersen, R S

    1975-02-01

    While in military service as a psychiatrist stationed at Scott Air Force Base, I had the opportunity to do the psychiatric evaluations on a number of the prisoners of war returning from North Vietnam. Scott Air Force Base is an area medical center (North Central United States), and was responsible for administering the medical and psychiatric examinations on all the men whose homes were in this area. Our hospital processed 29 returning POWS, of whom I saw 14. This group of POWS was probably unique in military history in that it was comprised almost entirely of officers. Their period of confinement was considerably longer than that of the prisoners of World War II and the Korean War, with the typical Vietnam POW being in captivity about six or seven years. This paper is an attempt to share my observations and thoughts on the experience of being a Vietnam Prisoner of War. PMID:1114192

  2. Operation homecoming: psychological observations of repatriated Vietnam prisoners of war.

    PubMed

    Andersen, R S

    1975-02-01

    While in military service as a psychiatrist stationed at Scott Air Force Base, I had the opportunity to do the psychiatric evaluations on a number of the prisoners of war returning from North Vietnam. Scott Air Force Base is an area medical center (North Central United States), and was responsible for administering the medical and psychiatric examinations on all the men whose homes were in this area. Our hospital processed 29 returning POWS, of whom I saw 14. This group of POWS was probably unique in military history in that it was comprised almost entirely of officers. Their period of confinement was considerably longer than that of the prisoners of World War II and the Korean War, with the typical Vietnam POW being in captivity about six or seven years. This paper is an attempt to share my observations and thoughts on the experience of being a Vietnam Prisoner of War.

  3. Bacterial-resistance among outpatients of county hospitals in China: significant geographic distinctions and minor differences between central cities.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yonghong; Wei, Zeqing; Shen, Ping; Ji, Jinru; Sun, Ziyong; Yu, Hua; Zhang, Tiantuo; Ji, Ping; Ni, Yuxing; Hu, Zhidong; Chu, Yunzhuo; Li, Lanjuan

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey antibacterial resistance in outpatients of Chinese county hospitals. A total of 31 county hospitals were selected and samples continuously collected from August 2010 to August 2011. Drug sensitivity testing was conducted in a central laboratory. A total of 2946 unique isolates were collected, including 634 strains of Escherichia coli, 606 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 476 Staphylococcus aureus, 308 Streptococcus pneumoniae, and 160 Haemophilus influenzae. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases were detected in E. coli (42.3% strains), K. pneumoniae (31.7%), and Proteus mirabilis (39.0%). Ciprofloxacin-resistance was detected in 51.0% of E. coli strains. Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were sensitive to most antibacterial agents. Less than 8.0% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were resistant to carbapenem. For S. aureus strains, 15.3% were resistant to methicillin, and some strains of S. pneumoniae showed resistance to penicillin (1.6%), ceftriaxone (13.0%), and erythromycin (96.4%). β-lactamase was produced by 96.5% of Moraxella catarrhalis strains, and 36.2% of H. influenzae isolates were resistant to ampicillin. Azithromycin-resistant H. influenzae, imipenem-resistant but meropenem-sensitive Proteus, and ceftriaxone- and carbapenem non-sensitive M. catarrhalis were recorded. In conclusion, cephalosporin- and quinolone-resistant strains of E. coli and Klebsiella pneumonia and macrolide-resistant Gram-positive cocci were relatively prominent in county hospitals. The antibacterial resistance profiles of isolates from different geographical locations varied significantly, with proportions in county hospitals lower than those in their tertiary counterparts in the central cities, although the difference is diminishing.

  4. [Vietnam and its population].

    PubMed

    Veron, J

    1993-01-01

    80% rural. The population is concentrated in the Red River delta, the Mekong delta, and the southeastern region including Ho Chi Minh City. The 4 main cities are Ho Chi Minh City with 3.2 million inhabitants,. Hanoi with 1.1 million, Hai Phong with 456,000, and Da Nang with 371,000. Although internal migration has not yet assumed great weight, there has been some rural exodus and movement from poor to richer regions. The policy of population redistribution to reduce density in the Red River delta and central coastal plain and to control city growth has led to some movement. 88% of the population over 10 was literate in 1989. Almost 75% of the population over age 13 is economically active. 71% of the economically active population is employed in agriculture, 12% in industry, and 7% in commerce. If current growth trends continue, Viet Nam is projected to have a population of 80 million in 2000 and 96 million in 2014.

  5. Passive monitoring of atmospheric heavy metals in a historical city of central India by Lepraria lobificans Nyl.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Rajesh; Upreti, D K; Dwivedi, S K

    2010-07-01

    Using an organism living in situ for monitoring is referred as passive monitoring. Lepraria lobificans Nyl., a leprose lichen growing naturally on monuments and buildings in the city Mandav in central India is used for passive monitoring of atmospheric metals. Seven metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Al, Fe, Cu, and Zn) were analyzed. Samples collected from road site exhibit the maximum concentration of Fe, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Zn. Iron exhibit maximum accumulation both in lichen thallus and the substratum with mean values of 2,195.63 microg g(-1) dry weight. As compared with other growth form of lichens, L. lobificans exhibits the higher accumulation of Fe than foliose and fruticose lichens. On the basis of these results, it can be hypothesized that L. lobificans is an excellent accumulator of different metals. The statistical analysis applied to the element concentration between the metals as well as between the sites by analysis of variance found the difference to be significant at 1% and 5%, respectively. Student-Newman-Keuls test also shows significant difference for iron between the different metals. PMID:19496009

  6. [Relationship between urban green-land landscape patterns and air pollution in the central district of Yichang city].

    PubMed

    Shao, Tianyi; Zhou, Zhixiang; Wang, Pengcheng; Tang, Wanpeng; Liu, Xuequan; Hu, Xingyi

    2004-04-01

    In this paper, four types of landscape structures and their green-land landscape patterns, including the landscapes of dominant green-land patch pattern, even green-land patch pattern, dominant wooded corridor pattern and building or concrete covering pattern (control) in the central district of Yichang city in Hubei Province, were analyzed respectively on the basis of landscape ecological theory. The atmospheric noise and the contents of SO2, NOx and total suspension particle (TSP) of the landscapes were monitored respectively by comparative method. The results showed that the landscape of building or concrete covering pattern (control) was mostly composed of woodless corridors and building or concrete covering patches with the tiptop green-land fragmentation index (18.125 3 ind x hm(-2)) and only had 1.00% green-land coverage, which had a relatively higher atmospheric noise and the highest TSP content in the landscape. The landscape of dominant green-land patch pattern had the highest green-land coverage (up to 43.59%) dominated by great green-land patches and the least fragmentation index (0.453 9 ind x hm(-2)), in which, the atmospheric noise weakened by 28.12% and the TSP content reduced significantly by 86.42%, comparing to the control. The landscape of even green-land patch pattern had the relatively lower green-land coverage (11.34%) and fragmentation index (2.751 1 ind x hm(-2)), which was mainly composed of the middle or small green-land patches and wooded corridors with a regular distribution. In the landscape, the TSP content reduced obviously by 46.62% of the control, while the effect of dust retention was only 53.95% of that in the landscape of dominant green-land patch pattern. In the landscape of dominant wooded corridor pattern, which was a traffic center and turned into a main pollution resource in the city, there were a relatively higher green-land fragmentation index (6.870 0 ind x hm(-2)) and the highest wooded corridor density (0.844 3 hm x hm

  7. Trichinellosis in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van De, Nguyen; Thi Nga, Vu; Dorny, Pierre; Vu Trung, Nguyen; Ngoc Minh, Pham; Trung Dung, Do; Pozio, Edoardo

    2015-06-01

    Trichinellosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease with a worldwide distribution. The aim of this work was to describe the epidemiological and clinical data of five outbreaks of trichinellosis, which affected ethnic minorities living in remote mountainous areas of northwestern Vietnam from 1970 to 2012. Trichinellosis was diagnosed in 126 patients, of which 11 (8.7%) were hospitalized and 8 (6.3%) died. All infected people had consumed raw pork from backyard and roaming pigs or wild boar at wedding, funeral, or New Year parties. The short incubation period (average of 9.5 days), the severity of the symptoms, which were characterized by diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, myalgia, edema, weight loss, itch, and lisping, and the high mortality, suggest that patients had ingested a high number of larvae. The larval burden in pigs examined in one of the outbreaks ranged from 70 to 879 larvae/g. These larvae and those collected from a muscle biopsy taken from a patient from the 2012 outbreak were identified as Trichinella spiralis. Data presented in this work show that the northern regions of Vietnam are endemic areas for Trichinella infections in domestic pigs and humans.

  8. Trichinellosis in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    De, Nguyen Van; Nga, Vu Thi; Dorny, Pierre; Trung, Nguyen Vu; Minh, Pham Ngoc; Dung, Do Trung; Pozio, Edoardo

    2015-01-01

    Trichinellosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease with a worldwide distribution. The aim of this work was to describe the epidemiological and clinical data of five outbreaks of trichinellosis, which affected ethnic minorities living in remote mountainous areas of northwestern Vietnam from 1970 to 2012. Trichinellosis was diagnosed in 126 patients, of which 11 (8.7%) were hospitalized and 8 (6.3%) died. All infected people had consumed raw pork from backyard and roaming pigs or wild boar at wedding, funeral, or New Year parties. The short incubation period (average of 9.5 days), the severity of the symptoms, which were characterized by diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, myalgia, edema, weight loss, itch, and lisping, and the high mortality, suggest that patients had ingested a high number of larvae. The larval burden in pigs examined in one of the outbreaks ranged from 70 to 879 larvae/g. These larvae and those collected from a muscle biopsy taken from a patient from the 2012 outbreak were identified as Trichinella spiralis. Data presented in this work show that the northern regions of Vietnam are endemic areas for Trichinella infections in domestic pigs and humans. PMID:25846295

  9. Modeling the impact of rubella vaccination in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Vynnycky, Emilia; Yoshida, Lay Myint; Huyen, Dang Thi Thanh; Trung, Nguyen Dac; Toda, Kohei; Cuong, Nguyen Van; Thi Hong, Duong; Ariyoshi, Koya; Miyakawa, Masami; Moriuchi, Hiroyuki; Tho, Le Huu; Nguyen, Hien Anh; Duc Anh, Dang; Jit, Mark; Hien, Nguyen Tran

    2016-01-01

    Supported by GAVI Alliance, measles-rubella vaccination was introduced in Vietnam in 2014, involving a mass campaign among 1-14 year olds and routine immunization of children aged 9 months. We explore the impact on the incidence of Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) during 2013-2050 of this strategy and variants involving women aged 15-35 years. We use an age and sex-structured dynamic transmission model, set up using recently-collected seroprevalence data from Central Vietnam, and also consider different levels of transmission and contact patterns. If the serological profile resembles that in Central Vietnam, the planned vaccination strategy could potentially prevent 125,000 CRS cases by 2050 in Vietnam, despite outbreaks predicted in the meantime. Targeting the initial campaign at 15-35 year old women with or without children aged 9 months-14 years led to sustained reductions in incidence, unless levels of ongoing transmission were medium-high before vaccination started. Assumptions about contact greatly influenced predictions if the initial campaign just targeted 15-35 year old women and/or levels of ongoing transmission were medium-high. Given increased interest in rubella vaccination, resulting from GAVI Alliance funding, the findings are relevant for many countries.

  10. Impact of recent coastal development and human activities on Nha Trang Bay, Vietnam: evidence from a Porites lutea geochemical record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, A. D.; Zhao, J.-x.; Feng, Y.-x.; Hu, W.-p.; Yu, K.-f.; Gasparon, M.; Pham, T. B.; Clark, T. R.

    2013-03-01

    Nha Trang Bay (NTB) is located on the Central Vietnam coast, western South China Sea. Recent coastal development of Nha Trang City has raised public concern over an increasing level of pollution within the bay and degradation of nearby coral reefs. In this study, multiple proxies (e.g., trace metals, rare earth elements (REEs), and Y/Ho) recorded in a massive Porites lutea coral colony were used to reconstruct changes in seawater conditions in the NTB from 1995 to 2009. A 14-year record of REEs and other trace metals revealed that the concentrations of terrestrial trace metals have increased dramatically in response to an increase in coastal development projects such as road, port, and resort constructions, port and river dredging, and dumping activities since 2000. The effects of such developmental processes are also evident in changes in REE patterns and Y/Ho ratios through time, suggesting that both parameters are critical proxies for marine pollution.

  11. On the correlation of atmospheric aerosol components of mass size distributions in the larger region of a central European city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berner, A.; Galambos, Z.; Ctyroky, P.; Frühauf, P.; Hitzenberger, R.; Gomišček, B.; Hauck, H.; Preining, O.; Puxbaum, H.

    Mass size distributions of atmospheric aerosols have been sampled in the region of Vienna, a typical city in central Europe, at an urban and a rural site. The aerosol was collected simultaneously by cascade impactors. Two experiments which had a duration of 4 weeks each, were performed in August 1999 and in January/February 2000. Daily sampling periods were from 8:00 to 20:00, and from 20:00 to 8:00. An evaluation of the mass size distributions is represented in this paper. Emphasis is on the relationships of different aerosol components in a local and a regional context. The main results are as follows. The main components of the atmospheric aerosol are a fine aerosol, the accumulation aerosol, and a coarse aerosol. Specific coarse modes with modal diameters of 4.7 μm average and geometric standard deviations of about 3 occur at the urban and at the rural site, some times surprisingly strong. The fine and the coarse modes are very likely related to motor-car traffic. Usually the PM 2.5 and PM 10 aerosols are regionally strongly correlated. Occasionally, this correlation is effectively disturbed by local and/or regional emissions. Time series of correlation coefficients reveal an episodic character of the atmospheric aerosol. Periods of strong inter-site correlations of PM 2.5 and PM 10 indicate the dominance and the co-variation of the accumulation aerosols or the dominance and the co-variation of the coarse modes.

  12. Megacities air pollution problems: Mexico City Metropolitan Area critical issues on the central nervous system pediatric impact.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Kulesza, Randy J; Doty, Richard L; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo

    2015-02-01

    The chronic health effects associated with sustained exposures to high concentrations of air pollutants are an important issue for millions of megacity residents and millions more living in smaller urban and rural areas. Particulate matter (PM) and ozone (O3) concentrations close or above their respective air quality standards during the last 20 years affect 24 million people living in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Herein we discuss PM and O3 trends in MCMA and their possible association with the observed central nervous system (CNS) effects in clinically healthy children. We argue that prenatal and postnatal sustained exposures to a natural environmental exposure chamber contribute to detrimental neural responses. The emerging picture for MCMA children shows systemic inflammation, immunodysregulation at both systemic and brain levels, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, small blood vessel pathology, and an intrathecal inflammatory process, along with the early neuropathological hallmarks for Alzheimer and Parkinson's diseases. Exposed brains are briskly responding to their harmful environment and setting the bases for structural and volumetric changes, cognitive, olfactory, auditory and vestibular deficits and long term neurodegenerative consequences. We need to improve our understanding of the PM pediatric short and long term CNS impact through multidisciplinary research. Public health benefit can be achieved by integrating interventions that reduce fine PM levels and pediatric exposures and establishing preventative screening programs targeting pediatric populations that are most at risk. We fully expect that the health of 24 million residents is important and blocking pediatric air pollution research and hiding critical information that ought to be available to our population, health, education and social workers is not in the best interest of our children. PMID:25543546

  13. Megacities air pollution problems: Mexico City Metropolitan Area critical issues on the central nervous system pediatric impact.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Kulesza, Randy J; Doty, Richard L; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo

    2015-02-01

    The chronic health effects associated with sustained exposures to high concentrations of air pollutants are an important issue for millions of megacity residents and millions more living in smaller urban and rural areas. Particulate matter (PM) and ozone (O3) concentrations close or above their respective air quality standards during the last 20 years affect 24 million people living in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Herein we discuss PM and O3 trends in MCMA and their possible association with the observed central nervous system (CNS) effects in clinically healthy children. We argue that prenatal and postnatal sustained exposures to a natural environmental exposure chamber contribute to detrimental neural responses. The emerging picture for MCMA children shows systemic inflammation, immunodysregulation at both systemic and brain levels, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, small blood vessel pathology, and an intrathecal inflammatory process, along with the early neuropathological hallmarks for Alzheimer and Parkinson's diseases. Exposed brains are briskly responding to their harmful environment and setting the bases for structural and volumetric changes, cognitive, olfactory, auditory and vestibular deficits and long term neurodegenerative consequences. We need to improve our understanding of the PM pediatric short and long term CNS impact through multidisciplinary research. Public health benefit can be achieved by integrating interventions that reduce fine PM levels and pediatric exposures and establishing preventative screening programs targeting pediatric populations that are most at risk. We fully expect that the health of 24 million residents is important and blocking pediatric air pollution research and hiding critical information that ought to be available to our population, health, education and social workers is not in the best interest of our children.

  14. Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Land-use and Land-cover Change: A Multi-agent Simulation Model and Its Application to an Upland Watershed in Central Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Q.; Vlek, P. L.; Park, S.

    2005-12-01

    flexible interactions among human and landscape agents, and monitors consequent land-use changes and associated socio-economic dynamics. The model was applied in a watershed of about 100 km2 in A-Luoi district, Central Vietnam. Spatially explicit data were obtained from Landsat ETM images, thematic maps, an extensive forest inventory, and an intensive household survey. Field data were used for calibrating agent's parameters and develop an initial database for simulation runs. Scenarios of land-use changes under different policy options on forest protection zoning, agrochemical subsidies and agricultural extension were generated to evaluate the consequences of such policy interventions. Preliminary simulation runs for 10 different policy options suggest that reducing the current proportion of protected area from 90% to 50% and increasing the enforcement of protection, together with the provision of extension services for a third of the total population, and subsidizing 5% of the population with agrochemicals ($US 16 household-1 year-1) would, on average, increase per capita gross income by 15% and significantly reduce forest degradation compared to the scenario based on the status quo (i.e., the policy settings of 2002).

  15. Unraveling an antique subduction process from metamorphic basement around Medellín city, Central Cordillera of Colombian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamante, Andres; Juliani, Caetano

    2011-10-01

    In the surroundings of Caldas and El Retiro cities (Colombia) metamorphic rocks derived from basic and pelitic protoliths comprise the Caldas amphibole schist and the Ancón schist respectively. Subordinated metamorphosed granite bodies (La Miel gneiss) are associated to these units, and The El Retiro amphibolites, migmatites and granulites crops out eastwards of these units, separated by shear zones. The Caldas amphibole schist and the Ancón schist protoliths could have been formed in a distal marine reduced environment and amalgamated to the South American continent in an apparent Triassic subduction event. The El Retiro rocks are akin to a continental basement and possible include impure metasediments of continental margin, whose metamorphism originated granulite facies rocks and migmatites as a result of the anatexis of quartz-feldspathic rocks. The metamorphism was accompanied by intense deformation, which has juxtaposed both migmatites and granulite blocks. Afterward, heat and fluid circulation associated with the emplacement of minor igneous intrusions resulted in intense fluid-rock interaction, variations in the grain size of the minerals and, especially, intense retrograde metamorphic re-equilibrium. Thermobarometric estimations for the Caldas amphibole schist indicate metamorphism in the Barrovian amphibolite facies. The metamorphic path is counter-clockwise, but retrograde evolution could not be precisely defined. The pressures of the metamorphism in these rocks range from 6.3 to 13.5 kbar, with narrow temperature ranging from 550 to 630 °C. For the Ancón schist metapelites the P- T path is also counter-clockwise, with a temperature increase evidenced by the occurrence of sillimanite and the cooling by later kyanite. The progressive metamorphism event occurred at pressures of 7.6-7.2 kbar and temperatures of 645-635 °C for one sample and temperature between 500 and 600 °C under constant pressure of 6 kbar. The temperature estimated for these rocks

  16. Higher Education in Vietnam: Change and Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloper, David, Ed.; Le, Thac Can, Ed.

    This collection of 12 essays examines the development of higher education in Vietnam, focusing on current issues related to educational reform, expansion, and funding. They are: (1) "Higher Education in Vietnam: The Door Opens--From Inside" (Le Thac Can and David Sloper); (2) "Socio-Economic Background of Vietnam Since 1986: Impact on Education…

  17. Psychosocial Readjustment of Canadian Vietnam Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stretch, Robert H.

    1991-01-01

    Examined the psychosocial readjustment of 164 Canadian Vietnam veterans. Found significantly greater rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared with U.S. Vietnam veterans and evidence of other psychosocial adjustment problems. Suggests that problems are a result, in part, of prolonged isolation from other Vietnam veterans, lack of…

  18. Firm-Specific Marketing Capital and Job Satisfaction of Marketers: Evidence from Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Tho D.; Nguyen, Trang T. M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Based on the resource-based view of the firm, this study aims to examine antecedents and outcomes of firm-specific marketing capital pool invested by marketers in a transition market, Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: A sample of 528 marketers in Ho Chi Minh City was surveyed to test the theoretical model. Structural equation…

  19. Constructions of gender in Vietnam: in pursuit of the 'Three Criteria'.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Hoang, Tu Anh; Vu, Song Ha; Tan, Hung Minh; Bui, Thi Thanh Mai; Pham, Vu Thien

    2006-01-01

    Vietnam has advanced far beyond most other developing countries and, indeed, surpasses many developed countries in adopting a legal framework based on gender equality, and in creating institutions and programmes to support women's advancement. Inegalitarian gender norms have also persisted, however. The Vietnam Women's Union promotes women's educational, political and economic advancement but simultaneously exhorts women to pay attention to their Confucian role of maintaining family hierarchy and harmony. This paper presents findings from qualitative research examining gender relations at the grassroots level in central Vietnam. It argues that the Vietnam Women's Union could support women more effectively by promoting greater diversity in gender norms and by initiating a public discussion to address the pressures women face in trying to achieve ideals that are often experienced as contradictory and unattainable. PMID:16923643

  20. MALE HOMOSEXUAL IDENTITIES, RELATIONSHIPS, AND PRACTICES AMONG YOUNG MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN IN VIETNAM: IMPLICATIONS FOR HIV PREVENTION

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Duc Anh; Ross, Michael W.; Phan, Ha; Ratliff, Eric A.; Trinh, Thang; Sherburne, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Rapid socioeconomic transformation in Vietnam in last 15 years has been followed by more liberation of sexual expression and representation of sexual identity among young people. There has been an increase in the visibility of homosexual men in major cities of Vietnam who were largely an unknown population until the emergence of the HIV epidemic. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are now considered as one of the target groups in many HIV prevention programs. This qualitative study examines local identities, relationships, and sexual practices among young MSM aged 15–24 in the cities of Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. Our analyses were based on 26 in-depth interviews and 10 focus group discussions with young MSM recruited through public place intercepts and cruising areas. Data document the linguistic classification, sexual relationships and behaviors, identity and process of homosexual identification, and the potential linkage between sexual identity and sexual behaviors of MSM in Vietnam. Data also highlight the stages of homosexual community development in urban Vietnam and important differences between Vietnam and the West in the representation of homosexual identity, relationships, and practices. In light of the findings, we suggest that the continuing development and elaboration of a homosexual community in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City offers significant opportunities for targeted HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the Vietnamese MSM population. PMID:19519239

  1. Male homosexual identities, relationships, and practices among young men who have sex with men in Vietnam: implications for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Duc Anh; Ross, Michael W; Phan, Ha; Ratliff, Eric A; Trinh, Thang; Sherburne, Lisa

    2009-06-01

    Rapid socioeconomic transformation in Vietnam in last 15 years has been followed by more liberation of sexual expression and representation of sexual identity among young people. There has been an increase in the visibility of homosexual men in major cities of Vietnam who were largely an unknown population until the emergence of the HIV epidemic. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are now considered as one of the target groups in many HIV prevention programs. This qualitative study examines local identities, relationships, and sexual practices among young MSM aged 15-24 in the cities of Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. Our analyses were based on 26 in-depth interviews and 10 focus group discussions with young MSM recruited through public place intercepts and cruising areas. Data document the linguistic classification, sexual relationships and behaviors, identity and process of homosexual identification, and the potential linkage between sexual identity and sexual behaviors of MSM in Vietnam. Data also highlight the stages of homosexual community development in urban Vietnam and important differences between Vietnam and the West in the representation of homosexual identity, relationships, and practices. In light of the findings, we suggest that the continuing development and elaboration of a homosexual community in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City offers significant opportunities for targeted HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the Vietnamese MSM population.

  2. Calculation of Quad-Cities Central Bundle Documented by the U.S. in FY98 Using Russian Computer Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovichev, A.M.

    2001-06-19

    The report presents calculation results of isotopic composition of irradiated fuel performed for the Quad Cities-1 reactor bundle with UO{sub 2} and MOX fuel. The MCU-REA code was used for calculations. The code is developed in Kurchatov Institute, Russia. The MCU-REA results are compared with the experimental data and HELIOS code results.

  3. Epidemiology of venomous and semi-venomous snakebites (Ophidia: Viperidae, Colubridae) in the Kashan city of the Isfahan province in Central Iran

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Rouhullah; Mehrpour, Omid; Shahi, Morteza Panjeh; Jazayeri, Mehrdad; Karrari, Parissa; Keyler, Dan; Zamani, Nasim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Information on the epidemiology of venomous snake species responsible for envenomation to humans in Iran has not been well documented. In the Kashan city, venomous snakebite remains a recurring medical problem. Information providing the correct identification of snake species responsible for envenomation in this geographic region would be useful to regional medical clinics and personnel for the effective and optimal management of the patients. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, all patient data was collected from Kashan city and its suburbs. The specific data relating to the taxonomic identification of snakes responsible for envenomation were evaluated. A general approach to the diagnosis and management of patients was also provided. Snakes responsible for bites were transported to a laboratory, where their taxonomic classification was confirmed based on key anatomical features and morphological characteristics. Results: A total of 46 snakes were examined. Of these, 37 (80%) were non-venomous species, and 9 (20%) were identified as venomous. Seven of the nine venomous snake species (78%) were of the family Viperidae, and two specimens (22%) were in the family Colubridae. Specifically, the viperid species were Macrovipera lebetina obtusa, Pseudocerastes persicus, Pseudocerastes fieldi, and Echis carinatus. The two colubrid species were Malpolon monspessulanus insignitus and Psammophis schkari. Conclusion: Five different species of venomous snakes responsible for envenomation in the Kashan city region were confirmed. The viper, P. fieldi, was reported for the first time in the central part of Iran. PMID:24672563

  4. Epidemiology of central nervous system tumors at the Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Velásquez-Pérez, L; Jiménez-Marcial, M E; Martínez-Martínez, J E

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of different Central Nervous System Tumors (CNST) diagnosed at the Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery) from Mexico City over a 10-year period (1990 to 1999) by means of a hospital survey. This institute is a reference hospital that provides medical attention to a very high number of adult neurological patients every year (approximately 6,000 new patients per year besides emergency cases). From a total number of 2,041 CNST cases, we found that the most frequent tumors were those affecting the neuroepithelial tissue (32.8 %), followed by tumors of the anterior pituitary gland (26.2 %) and tumors of the meninges and similar tissues (24.1 %). In both, male and female patients the higher frequency of CNST was found in patients whose age ranged from 25 to 44 years, and CNST were slightly more frequent in women than in men. Most of the CNST patients lived in the southern districts of Mexico City, it could be because of the great number of people living in the southern districts of the city, or perhaps due to the presence of certain yet unidentified environmental carcinogenic substance in this area. Since CNST are among the more frequent malignant neoplasms, it is necessary to improve the registration system to include frequency, prevalence, incidence and mortality of these diseases in Mexico, in order to plan health policies like in developed countries.

  5. Data on Vietnam Era Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veterans Administration, Washington, DC. Office of the Controller.

    Statistical data are presented on Vietnam era veterans for the following topics: employment status, medical status, compensation and pension, education, housing assistance, expenditures, and demographic information. The estimated number and age of veterans in civil life, categorized by sex and state, and the educational attainment of veterans at…

  6. The Vietnam Experience in Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurse, Ronald J.; Fleming, Dan B.

    1982-01-01

    Ten recent editions of secondary school-level United States history textbooks were analyzed to determine coverage and balance of the Vietnam War. Treatment of topics such as Vietnamese culture, the roles of wartime leaders, the aims of the United States government, the antiwar movement, and costs of the war are discussed. (PP)

  7. Informal caregiving to persons with AIDS in the United States: caregiver burden among central cities residents eighteen to forty-nine years old.

    PubMed

    Turner, H A; Catania, J A

    1997-02-01

    Characteristics and caregiving experiences of friends and family members caring for people with AIDS (PWAs) were examined. Based on a probability sample of informal AIDS caregivers ages 18-49 living in central cities of the United States (n = 260), analyses were conducted to (a) identify the sociodemographic characteristics of young central city caregivers; and (b) examine the effects of caregiver characteristics (relationship to PWA, gender, race/ethnicity, income, sexual orientation, HIV status, perceived susceptibility), and level of objective caregiving demands, on subjective caregiver burden. Results indicate that the largest group of caregivers in this age category are male friends of the PWA--a group not typically found among caregivers to persons with other types of illnesses. In general, gay or bisexual caregivers, caregivers who have traditional family ties to the PWA, men relative to women, and lower income caregivers, report the greatest burden. While level of caregiving demands represents the most influential predictor of caregiver burden, white and male caregivers experience greater burden, independent of level of involvement and other caregiver characteristics. Receiving instrumental support with caregiving buffers the impact of high objective demands on subjective burden.

  8. From Combat to Legacies: Novels of the Vietnam War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses novels of the Vietnam War, their usefulness, and the interest they hold for students. Considers four categories of Vietnam novels: the Vietnam experience, the war at home, the refugee experience, and the war's effect on the next generation. (SR)

  9. Diversity and biotic homogenization of urban land-snail faunas in relation to habitat types and macroclimate in 32 central European cities.

    PubMed

    Horsák, Michal; Lososová, Zdeňka; Čejka, Tomáš; Juřičková, Lucie; Chytrý, Milan

    2013-01-01

    The effects of non-native species invasions on community diversity and biotic homogenization have been described for various taxa in urban environments, but not for land snails. Here we relate the diversity of native and non-native land-snail urban faunas to urban habitat types and macroclimate, and analyse homogenization effects of non-native species across cities and within the main urban habitat types. Land-snail species were recorded in seven 1-ha plots in 32 cities of ten countries of Central Europe and Benelux (224 plots in total). Each plot represented one urban habitat type characterized by different management and a specific disturbance regime. For each plot, we obtained January, July and mean annual temperature and annual precipitation. Snail species were classified into either native or non-native. The effects of habitat type and macroclimate on the number of native and non-native species were analysed using generalized estimating equations; the homogenization effect of non-native species based on the Jaccard similarity index and homogenization index. We recorded 67 native and 20 non-native species. Besides being more numerous, native species also had much higher beta diversity than non-natives. There were significant differences between the studied habitat types in the numbers of native and non-native species, both of which decreased from less to heavily urbanized habitats. Macroclimate was more important for the number of non-native than native species; however in both cases the effect of climate on diversity was overridden by the effect of urban habitat type. This is the first study on urban land snails documenting that non-native land-snail species significantly contribute to homogenization among whole cities, but both the homogenization and diversification effects occur when individual habitat types are compared among cities. This indicates that the spread of non-native snail species may cause biotic homogenization, but it depends on scale and

  10. Prevalence of Salmonella on chicken carcasses from retail markets in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ta, Yen T; Nguyen, Trung Thanh; To, Phuong Bich; Pham, Da Xuan; Le, Hao Thi Hong; Alali, Walid Q; Walls, Isabel; Lo Fo Wong, Danilo M A; Doyle, Michael P

    2012-10-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on chicken carcasses collected from six regions in Vietnam. A total of 1,000 whole, dressed chicken carcasses were collected from five cities and seven provinces across the six regions in Vietnam. Of these, 900 samples were collected from wet markets and 100 from supermarkets. All samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella according to a method recommended by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service. The overall Salmonella prevalence was 45.9%. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in Salmonella prevalence by (i) location (Ha Noi city, 51.1%; Hai Phong city, 45.6%; Da Nang and Can Tho cities, 45.5%; Bac Ninh province and Ho Chi Minh city, 44.7%; Dong Nai province, 44.6%; Ha Tinh province, 44.4%; Phu Tho province, 43.8%; Lao Cai province, 43.5%; Kien Giang province, 41.9%; and Lam Dong province, 40.9%), (ii) market type (wet market, 46.2%; supermarket samples, 43.0%), and (iii) storage temperature at retail (ambient storage, 46.4%; chilled storage, 45.1%). Hence, Salmonella presence on poultry meat in Vietnam was not associated with a specific city or province, market type, or storage temperature at retail. Strategies to reduce Salmonella levels on raw poultry in Vietnam should be undertaken to improve the safety of poultry products and reduce the incidence of human salmonellosis from poultry consumption. PMID:23043836

  11. The changing donor landscape of health sector aid to Vietnam: a qualitative case study.

    PubMed

    Pallas, Sarah Wood; Khuat, Thi Hai Oanh; Le, Quang Duong; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2015-05-01

    The study objective was to identify how donors and government agencies in Vietnam responded to donor proliferation in health sector aid between 1995 and 2012. Interviews were conducted with key informants from donor agencies, central government, and civil society in Hanoi in 2012 (n = 34 interviews), identified through OECD Creditor Reporting System data, internet research, and snowball sampling. Interview transcripts were coded for key themes using the constant comparative method. Documentary materials were used in triangulation and validation of key informant accounts. The study identified a timeline of key events and key themes. The number of donors providing health sector aid to Vietnam increased sharply during the late 1990s and early 2000s, then leveled off and declined between 2008 and 2012. Reasons for donor entry included Vietnam's health needs, perceptions of health as less politically sensitive, and donor interests in facilitating market access. Reasons for donor withdrawal included Vietnam's achievement of middle-income status, the global financial crisis, and donors' shifting global priorities. Key themes included high competition among donors, strategic actions by government to increase its control over aid, and the multiplicity of government units involved with health sector aid. The study concludes that central government and donor agencies in Vietnam responded to donor proliferation in health sector aid by endorsing aid effectiveness policies but implementing these policies inconsistently in practice. Whereas previous literature has emphasized donor proliferation's transaction costs, this study finds that the benefits of a large number of less coordinated donors may outweigh the increased administrative costs under certain conditions. In Vietnam, these conditions included relatively high capacity within government, low government dependence on aid, and government interest in receiving diverse donor recommendations. Vietnam's experience of donor

  12. The changing donor landscape of health sector aid to Vietnam: a qualitative case study.

    PubMed

    Pallas, Sarah Wood; Khuat, Thi Hai Oanh; Le, Quang Duong; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2015-05-01

    The study objective was to identify how donors and government agencies in Vietnam responded to donor proliferation in health sector aid between 1995 and 2012. Interviews were conducted with key informants from donor agencies, central government, and civil society in Hanoi in 2012 (n = 34 interviews), identified through OECD Creditor Reporting System data, internet research, and snowball sampling. Interview transcripts were coded for key themes using the constant comparative method. Documentary materials were used in triangulation and validation of key informant accounts. The study identified a timeline of key events and key themes. The number of donors providing health sector aid to Vietnam increased sharply during the late 1990s and early 2000s, then leveled off and declined between 2008 and 2012. Reasons for donor entry included Vietnam's health needs, perceptions of health as less politically sensitive, and donor interests in facilitating market access. Reasons for donor withdrawal included Vietnam's achievement of middle-income status, the global financial crisis, and donors' shifting global priorities. Key themes included high competition among donors, strategic actions by government to increase its control over aid, and the multiplicity of government units involved with health sector aid. The study concludes that central government and donor agencies in Vietnam responded to donor proliferation in health sector aid by endorsing aid effectiveness policies but implementing these policies inconsistently in practice. Whereas previous literature has emphasized donor proliferation's transaction costs, this study finds that the benefits of a large number of less coordinated donors may outweigh the increased administrative costs under certain conditions. In Vietnam, these conditions included relatively high capacity within government, low government dependence on aid, and government interest in receiving diverse donor recommendations. Vietnam's experience of donor

  13. Vietnam project tailored to community needs.

    PubMed

    1995-11-01

    A workshop, which was held August 21-22, launched the second year phase (1995-1996) of a Sustainable Community-based Reproductive Health Project (VIE/95/P03), which was supported by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), in Vietnam. According to Dr. Tran Thi Trun Chien, vice minister of health of Vietnam, the key to the sustainability of the project was community participation. When the community was committed and mobilized, services were more relevant and appropriate to local needs. Chien also appraised the project's focus on women in development and promotion of maternal and child health (MCH). She said the project would aid the government in establishing an integrated approach to health services, and streamline the work of grassroots health providers. Project managers and personnel from the four provinces and seven districts promoting the project, deputy chairpersons of the people's committees, directors and deputy directors of health at the provincial and district levels, directors of maternal and child health/family planning (MCH/FP) centers of each province, central level officials of the MCH/FP Department of the Ministry of Health (MOH), and a UNFPA representative attended the workshop. Project managers and personnel of each province and district were expected to develop their own implementation plans, which were tailored to reflect needs at the local level, for the next cycle of the project. Participants were provided with a basic project document covering the budget and implementation aims. The focus of the document was on training and upgrading of the commune health centers. In the first phase of the project, details of the implementation plan had been developed by JOICFP and MOH; now MOH only approved the plans developed at the local level.

  14. Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis among preschool children in 2003 and 2013 in Xinxiang city, Henan province, Central China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuai; Yao, Zhijun; Hou, Yichen; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Haizhu; Ma, Jingbo; Zhang, Luwen; Liu, Shiguo

    2016-01-01

    The present study was performed to assess the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis infection among preschool children in Xinxiang city, Henan province, China and the changes in the egg positive rate for E. vermicularis over a 10 year period. A total of 510 preschool children in 17 kindergartens were examined using the cellophane-tape perianal swab method in 2003, while 1734 preschool children in 10 kindergartens were examined in 2013 using the same method. The overall egg positive rate for E. vermicularis was 12.75% (65 out of 510) in 2003 and 5.13% (89 out of 1734) in 2013; the former was significantly higher than the latter (p < 0.05). In both 2003 and 2013, the egg positive rate for 5 to 6-year-old children was significantly higher than that of 2 to 4-year-old children (p < 0.05). However, positive rates were not significantly dependent on gender or area. Among selected personal hygiene factors, no hand washing before eating, sucking fingers or toys, and scratching around the anus were all associated with enterobiasis. The present study confirmed that the prevalence of E. vermicularis infection among preschool children decreased significantly over the 10 year period in Xinxiang city, but infection was still prevalent. Improving sanitation and personal hygiene practices, especially hand washing, could help prevent the transmission of E. vermicularis. PMID:27460881

  15. Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis among preschool children in 2003 and 2013 in Xinxiang city, Henan province, Central China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Yao, Zhijun; Hou, Yichen; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Haizhu; Ma, Jingbo; Zhang, Luwen; Liu, Shiguo

    2016-01-01

    The present study was performed to assess the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis infection among preschool children in Xinxiang city, Henan province, China and the changes in the egg positive rate for E. vermicularis over a 10 year period. A total of 510 preschool children in 17 kindergartens were examined using the cellophane-tape perianal swab method in 2003, while 1734 preschool children in 10 kindergartens were examined in 2013 using the same method. The overall egg positive rate for E. vermicularis was 12.75% (65 out of 510) in 2003 and 5.13% (89 out of 1734) in 2013; the former was significantly higher than the latter (p < 0.05). In both 2003 and 2013, the egg positive rate for 5 to 6-year-old children was significantly higher than that of 2 to 4-year-old children (p < 0.05). However, positive rates were not significantly dependent on gender or area. Among selected personal hygiene factors, no hand washing before eating, sucking fingers or toys, and scratching around the anus were all associated with enterobiasis. The present study confirmed that the prevalence of E. vermicularis infection among preschool children decreased significantly over the 10 year period in Xinxiang city, but infection was still prevalent. Improving sanitation and personal hygiene practices, especially hand washing, could help prevent the transmission of E. vermicularis. PMID:27460881

  16. Air quality forecasting for winter-time PM2.5 episodes occurring in multiple cities in central and southern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saide, Pablo E.; Mena-Carrasco, Marcelo; Tolvett, Sebastian; Hernandez, Pablo; Carmichael, Gregory R.

    2016-01-01

    Episodic air quality degradation due to particles occurs in multiple cities in central and southern Chile during the austral winter reaching levels up to 300-800 µg/m3 hourly PM2.5, which can be associated with severe effects on human health. An air quality prediction system is developed to predict such events in near real time up to 3 days in advance for nine cities with regular air quality monitoring: Santiago, Rancagua, Curicó, Talca, Chillan, Los Ángeles, Temuco, Valdivia, and Osorno. The system uses the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model configured with a nested 2 km grid-spacing domain to predict weather and inert tracers. The tracers are converted to hourly PM2.5 concentrations using an observationally based calibration which is substantially less computationally intensive than a full chemistry model. The conversion takes into account processes occurring in these cities, including higher likelihood of episode occurrence during weekends and during colder days, the latter related to increased wood-burning-stove activity for heating. The system is calibrated and evaluated for April-August 2014 where it has an overall skill of 53-72% of episodes accurately forecasted (61-76% for the best initialization) which is better than persistence for most stations. Forecasts one, two, and three days in advance all have skill in forecasting events but often present large variability within them due to different meteorological initializations. The system is being implemented in Chile to assist authority decisions not only to warn the population but also to take contingency-based emission restrictions to try to avoid severe pollution events.

  17. Neurology in the Vietnam War.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Carl H; Daroff, Robert B

    2016-01-01

    Between December 1965 and December 1971, the United States maintained armed forces in Vietnam never less than 180,000 men and women in support of the war. At one time, this commitment exceeded half a million soldiers, sailors, and airmen from both the United States and its allies. Such forces required an extensive medical presence, including 19 neurologists. All but two of the neurologists had been drafted for a 2-year tour of duty after deferment for residency training. They were assigned to Vietnam for one of those 2 years in two Army Medical Units and one Air Force facility providing neurological care for American and allied forces, as well as many civilians. Their practice included exposure to unfamiliar disorders including cerebral malaria, Japanese B encephalitis, sleep deprivation seizures, and toxic encephalitis caused by injection or inhalation of C-4 explosive. They and neurologists at facilities in the United States published studies on all of these entities both during and after the war. These publications spawned the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Study, which was conceived during the Korean War and continues today as the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Center. It initially focused on post-traumatic epilepsy and later on all effects of brain injury. The Agent Orange controversy arose after the war; during the war, it was not perceived as a threat by medical personnel. Although soldiers in previous wars had developed serious psychological impairments, post-traumatic stress disorder was formally recognized in the servicemen returning from Vietnam.

  18. Neurology in the Vietnam War.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Carl H; Daroff, Robert B

    2016-01-01

    Between December 1965 and December 1971, the United States maintained armed forces in Vietnam never less than 180,000 men and women in support of the war. At one time, this commitment exceeded half a million soldiers, sailors, and airmen from both the United States and its allies. Such forces required an extensive medical presence, including 19 neurologists. All but two of the neurologists had been drafted for a 2-year tour of duty after deferment for residency training. They were assigned to Vietnam for one of those 2 years in two Army Medical Units and one Air Force facility providing neurological care for American and allied forces, as well as many civilians. Their practice included exposure to unfamiliar disorders including cerebral malaria, Japanese B encephalitis, sleep deprivation seizures, and toxic encephalitis caused by injection or inhalation of C-4 explosive. They and neurologists at facilities in the United States published studies on all of these entities both during and after the war. These publications spawned the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Study, which was conceived during the Korean War and continues today as the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Center. It initially focused on post-traumatic epilepsy and later on all effects of brain injury. The Agent Orange controversy arose after the war; during the war, it was not perceived as a threat by medical personnel. Although soldiers in previous wars had developed serious psychological impairments, post-traumatic stress disorder was formally recognized in the servicemen returning from Vietnam. PMID:27035455

  19. Burden of care for persons with disabilities in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Van Minh, Hoang; Huong, Nguyen Thuy; Dung, Pham; Wright, E Pamela

    2014-11-01

    Vietnam has more than 6 million persons with disabilities (PWD), or 7.8% of the population. To provide better services for them, it is important to investigate the care they currently receive, and to obtain evidence on the health outcomes from that care. This study aimed to estimate the quality of life and functional status of a group of PWD in Vietnam and the cost of care they receive. This was an analytical study exploring the time and cost of informal care, the cost of illness (prevalence-based, patient perspective), quality of life using EuroQoL and functional status using the Barthel Index. The sample was selected from urban and rural areas of Quang Tri province in Central Vietnam, using systematic random sampling. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews, and in a 1-month diary recorded during July-August 2010 for summer and in December 2010 for winter. The costs are presented in 2010 USD values. The data were analysed by descriptive, univariate and multivariate statistics to summarise and explore the relationships among dependent and independent variables. The study sample included 210 PWD, with an average age of 38 years and duration of disability on average 26 years. The health-related quality of life measured in terms of the health utility score (0 = death, 1 = full health) was on average 0.44 and 0.39 in summer and winter respectively. The total cost of illness per year per case was USD 971 (83% of gross domestic product per capita); explanatory variables were the age of the PWD, receiving community-based rehabilitation, receiving government support and the severity of the disability. This illustrates the importance of services and support for reduction of the economic burden on the family. In conclusion, the results of this study provide information on the burden caused by disabilities in rural and urban households in Vietnam.

  20. Patterns of Drug Usage Among Vietnam Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Allan H., Jr.; And Others

    A factor analysis was performed on an intercorrelation matrix of reported drug usage frequencies for seven drug categories at two consecutive periods of time. Subjects were 1,010 Army Vietnam veterans in pay grade E6 or below, aged 26 years or less. Retrospective reporting identified drug usage prior to a tour of Vietnam and during the tour. Four…

  1. Economic aspects of chronic diseases in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Van Minh, Hoang; Lan Huong, Dao; Bao Giang, Kim; Byass, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Introduction There remains a lack of information on economic aspects of chronic diseases. This paper, by gathering available and relevant research findings, aims to report and discuss current evidence on economic aspects of chronic diseases in Vietnam. Methods Data used in this paper were obtained from various information sources: international and national journal articles and studies, government documents and publications, web-based statistics and fact sheets. Results In Vietnam, chronic diseases were shown to be leading causes of deaths, accounting for 66% of all deaths in 2002. The burdens caused by chronic disease morbidity and risk factors are also substantial. Poorer people in Vietnam are more vulnerable to chronic diseases and their risk factors, other than being overweight. The estimated economic loss caused by chronic diseases for Vietnam in 2005 was about US$20 million (0.033% of annual national GDP). Chronic diseases were also shown to cause economic losses for families and individuals in Vietnam. Both population-wide and high-risk individual interventions against chronic disease were shown to be cost-effective in Vietnam. Conclusion Given the evidence from this study, actions to prevent chronic diseases in Vietnam are clearly urgent. Further research findings are required to give greater insights into economic aspects of chronic diseases in Vietnam. PMID:20057939

  2. 77 FR 20273 - Vietnam Veterans Day

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-8162 Filed 4-2-12; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... April 3, 2012 Part IV The President Proclamation 8789--Vietnam Veterans Day Memorandum of March 30, 2012... ] Proclamation 8789 of March 29, 2012 Vietnam Veterans Day By the President of the United States of America...

  3. Vietnam to launch Earth-watch satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh Chadha, Kulvinder

    2010-09-01

    Aerospace firm Astrium will build a €55m Earth-observation satellite for the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) that will be used to monitor the changing shape of Vietnam's coastline, the erosion of its river channels and also the country's crops and forests.

  4. Educational Reform and Teacher Education in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamano, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the current state and a challenge faced by teachers and teacher education in Vietnam, and analyzes international aid projects providing support to teacher education there. It is necessary to grasp changes in teacher education in Vietnam in the context of the current comprehensive reform of education, which has been greatly…

  5. Tobacco Control Policies in Vietnam: Review on MPOWER Implementation Progress and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Minh, Hoang Van; Ngan, Tran Thu; Mai, Vu Quynh; My, Nguyen Thi Tuyet; Chung, Le Hong; Kien, Vu Duy; Anh, Tran Tuan; Ngoc, Nguyen Bao; Giap, Vu Van; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Manh, Pham Duc; Giang, Kim Bao

    2016-01-01

    In Vietnam, the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) took effect in March 2005 while MPOWER has been implemented since 2008. This paper describes the progress and challenges of implementation of the MPOWER package in Vietnam. We can report that, in term of monitoring, Vietnam is very active in the Global Tobacco Surveillance System, completing two rounds of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) and three rounds of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). To protect people from tobacco smoke, Vietnam has issued and enforced a law requiring comprehensive smoking bans at workplaces and public places since 2013. Tobacco advertising and promotion are also prohibited with the exception of points of sale displays of tobacco products. Violations come in the form of promotion girls, corporate social responsibility activities from tobacco manufacturers and packages displayed by retail vendors. Vietnam is one of the 77 countries that require pictorial health warnings to be printed on cigarette packages to warn about the danger of tobacco and the warnings have been implemented effectively. Cigarette tax is 70% of factory price which is equal to less than 45% of retail price and much lower than the recommendation of WHO. However, Vietnam is one of the very few countries that require manufacturers and importers to make "compulsory contributions" at 1-2% of the factory price of cigarettes sold in Vietnam for the establishment of a Tobacco Control Fund (TCF). The TCF is being operated well. In 2015, 67 units of 63 provinces/cities, 22 ministries and political-social organizations and 6 hospitals received funding from TCF to implement a wide range of tobacco control activities. Cessation services have been starting with a a toll-free quit-line but need to be further strengthened. In conclusion, Vietnam has constantly put efforts into the tobacco control field with high commitment from the government, scientists and activists. Though several remarkable achievements

  6. Vietnam: The Political Economy of Education in a "Socialist" Periphery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Jonathan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article I examine historic changes in the goals, conduct and outcomes of education policies in Vietnam from the 1940s to the present, under the Communist Party of Vietnam. Recent studies of Vietnam's education system centre on econometric and demographic analysis of education data dating back to the early 1990s, when Vietnam began an…

  7. The centralized prenatal genetics screening program of New York City III: The first 7,000 cases.

    PubMed

    Benn, P A; Hsu, L Y; Carlson, A; Tannenbaum, H L

    1985-02-01

    The Prenatal Diagnosis Laboratory of New York City (PDL) is a regional program for the prevention of genetic diseases. The administrative aspects of the establishment of the laboratory were described in papers I [Hsu, 1981] and II [Hsu and Benn, 1981] in this series. We now report our experience of the first 7,000 referrals to the laboratory. The laboratory achieved a success rate of 99.5% in obtaining a diagnosis. The frequency with which a repeat amniocentesis was required was 1.9%, usually attributable to inadequate initial amniotic fluid volume or condition. Cases were completed in an average time of 20.82 days. A total of 149 (2.13%) cytogenetic abnormalities were detected. There were 59 nonmosaic autosomal trisomies and 29 sex chromosome abnormalities. The incidence of unbalanced structural abnormalities (0.186%) was much higher than that reported in surveys of newborn infants largely because of the prenatal detection of cases with supernumerary chromosomes. The incidence of balanced structural abnormalities was also considerably higher than that found in surveys of the newborn population, in part because of the detection of subtle familial pericentric inversions of common chromosome regions (inv(Y)(p11q11), inv(2) (p11q13), and inv(1)(p11q13)). The incidence of cases with multiple independent chromosome abnormalities was no higher than expected by chance. A high incidence of mosaicism, pseudomosaicism, and maternal cell contamination was found. Screening for neural tube defects accounted for the detection of a further 16 abnormalities. Nearly all women with severely abnormal fetuses (trisomy 13, 18, 21) elected to terminate their pregnancy whereas only 62% of patients with a prenatally diagnosed sex chromosome abnormality elected to terminate their pregnancies. Full details of follow-up and confirmatory studies for unusual diagnoses are reported. Utilization of prenatal diagnosis in the New York City area has increased sharply since PDL became operational

  8. Statistical analysis of stream water-quality data and sampling network design near Oklahoma City, central Oklahoma, 1977-1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brigham, Mark E.; Payne, Gregory A.; Andrews, William J.; Abbott, Marvin M.

    2002-01-01

    The sampling network was evaluated with respect to areal coverage, sampling frequency, and analytical schedules. Areal coverage could be expanded to include one additional watershed that is not part of the current network. A new sampling site on the North Canadian River might be useful because of expanding urbanization west of the city, but sampling at some other sites could be discontinued or reduced based on comparisons of data between the sites. Additional real-time or periodic monitoring for dissolved oxygen may be useful to prevent anoxic conditions in pools behind new low-water dams. The sampling schedules, both monthly and quarterly, are adequate to evaluate trends, but additional sampling during flow extremes may be needed to quantify loads and evaluate water-quality during flow extremes. Emerging water-quality issues may require sampling for volatile organic compounds, sulfide, total phosphorus, chlorophyll-a, Esherichia coli, and enterococci, as well as use of more sensitive laboratory analytical methods for determination of cadmium, mercury, lead, and silver.

  9. Coastal vulnerability and the implications of sea level rise between the cities of Pescara and Ortona (Adriatic Sea - Central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarragoni, C.; Bellotti, P.; Caputo, C.; Davoli, L.; Evangelista, S.; Pugliese, F.; Raffi, R.; Lupia Palmieri, E.

    2012-04-01

    Geomorphic processes induce rapid environmental changes especially along the coast that is highly susceptible to them. In addiction, the effects of storm or wave may be amplified by the expected relative sea level rise. In a context, like Italian coast, where the almost part of coast is densely populated and many infrastructures are presents, it is very important to have adequate tools to urban planning like the coastal vulnerability map. In this study the preliminary results of the ongoing SECOA project (Solution for Environmental contrasts in COastal Areas; 7th Framework Program) are presented, with reference to the Adriatic coast between Pescara and Ortona cities, in the Abruzzo region. In this work the same analytical model applied in the Venice Lagoon has been employed (Fontolan, 2001; 2005) involving the evaluation of the effective vulnerability (Ve). Ve is calculated as the difference between the potential vulnerability (Vp) and the defence elements present along the coast (D). (Ve = Vp - D) The data used to measure quantitative features are: high-resolution DEM (LiDAR), satellite images, aero photos, bathymetric profiles and topographic maps. The variables that contribute to the evaluation are: beach amplitude, berm height, seafloor gradient, seafloor evolution, recent and historical shorelines evolution for Vp; height, slope, vegetation cover, presence of passages, incipient dunes and windbreak barriers for the dune and anthropic barriers height. In this context, the potential vulnerability results from the sum of each variable (Vn) per the relative efficacy coefficient (Kn): Vp = V1K1+V2K2+ …VnKn In the same way the defences result from the sum of each kind of defence per the relative efficacy coefficient: D = D1K1+ …. DnKn The coastal area between Pescara and Ortona cities has been segmented in different sectors characterized by homogeneous values of the considered variables and for each of these the Ve values have been calculated and referred to one

  10. Community participation in a multisectoral intervention to address health determinants in an inner-city community in central Havana.

    PubMed

    Yassi, Annalee; Fernandez, Niurys; Fernandez, Ariadna; Bonet, Mariano; Tate, Robert B; Spiegel, Jerry

    2003-03-01

    It is increasingly acknowledged that the process of community involvement is critical to the successful implementation of community-based health interventions. Between 1995 and 1999, a multisectoral intervention called Plan Cayo Hueso was launched in the inner-city community of Cayo Hueso in Havana, Cuba, to address a variety of health determinants. To provide a better understanding of the political structures and processes involved, the Cuban context is described briefly. The interventions included improvements in housing, municipal infrastructure, and social and cultural activities. A qualitative study, consisting of interviews of key informants as well as community members, was conducted to evaluate the community participatory process. Questions from an extensive household survey pre- and postintervention that had been conducted in Cayo Hueso and a comparison community to assess the effectiveness of the intervention also informed the analysis of community participation, as did three community workshops held to choose indicators for evaluating effectiveness and to discuss findings. It was found that formal leaders led the interventions, providing the institutional driving force behind the plan. However, extensive community involvement occurred as the project took advantage of the existing community-based organizations, which played an active role in mobilizing community members and enhanced linkage systems critical to the project's success. Women played fairly traditional roles in interventions outside their households, but had equivalent roles to men in interventions within their household units. Most impressive about this project was the extent of mobilization to participate and the multidimensional ecosystem approach adopted. Indeed, Plan Cayo Hueso involved a massive mobilization of international, national, and community resources to address the needs of this community. This, as well as the involvement of community residents in the evaluation process, was

  11. Temporal and spatial variation of groundwater in quantity and quality in sand dune at coastal region, Kamisu city, central Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umei, Yohei; Tsujimura, Maki; Sakakibara, Koichi; Watanabe, Yasuto; Minema, Motomitsu

    2016-04-01

    The role of groundwater in integrated water management has become important in recent 10 years, though the surface water is the major source of drinking water in Japan. Especially, it is remarked that groundwater recharge changed due to land cover change under the anthropogenic and climatic condition factors. Therefore, we need to investigate temporal and spatial variation of groundwater in quantity and quality focusing on the change during recent 10-20 years in specific region. We performed research on groundwater level and quality in sand dune at coastal region facing Pacific Ocean, Kamisu city, Ibaraki Prefecture, which have been facing environmental issues, such as land cover change due to soil mining for construction and urbanization. We compared the present situation of groundwater with that in 2000 using existed data to clarify the change of groundwater from 2000 to 2015. The quality of water is dominantly characterized by Ca2+-HCO3- in both 2000 and 2015, and nitrate was not observed in 2015, though it was detected in some locations in 2000. This may be caused by improvement of the domestic wastewater treatment. The topography of groundwater table was in parallel with that of ground surface in 2015, same as that in 2000. However, a depletion of groundwater table was observed in higher elevation area in 2015 as compared with that in 2000, and this area corresponds to the locations where the land cover has changed due to soil mining and urbanization between 2015 and 2000. In the region of soil mining, the original soil is generally replaced by impermeable soil after mining, and this may cause a decrease of percolation and net groundwater recharge, thus the depletion of groundwater table occurred after the soil mining.

  12. Temporal and spatial variation of groundwater in quantity and quality in sand dune at coastal region, Kamisu city, central Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umei, Yohei; Tsujimura, Maki; Sakakibara, Koichi; Watanabe, Yasuto; Minema, Motomitsu

    2016-04-01

    The role of groundwater in integrated water management has become important in recent 10 years, though the surface water is the major source of drinking water in Japan. Especially, it is remarked that groundwater recharge changed due to land cover change under the anthropogenic and climatic condition factors. Therefore, we need to investigate temporal and spatial variation of groundwater in quantity and quality focusing on the change during recent 10-20 years in specific region. We performed research on groundwater level and quality in sand dune at coastal region facing Pacific Ocean, Kamisu city, Ibaraki Prefecture, which have been facing environmental issues, such as land cover change due to soil mining for construction and urbanization. We compared the present situation of groundwater with that in 2000 using existed data to clarify the change of groundwater from 2000 to 2015. The quality of water is dominantly characterized by Ca2+-HCO3‑ in both 2000 and 2015, and nitrate was not observed in 2015, though it was detected in some locations in 2000. This may be caused by improvement of the domestic wastewater treatment. The topography of groundwater table was in parallel with that of ground surface in 2015, same as that in 2000. However, a depletion of groundwater table was observed in higher elevation area in 2015 as compared with that in 2000, and this area corresponds to the locations where the land cover has changed due to soil mining and urbanization between 2015 and 2000. In the region of soil mining, the original soil is generally replaced by impermeable soil after mining, and this may cause a decrease of percolation and net groundwater recharge, thus the depletion of groundwater table occurred after the soil mining.

  13. Sectoral CO 2, CH 4, N 2O and SO 2 emissions from fossil fuel consumption in Nagpur City of Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Deepanjan; Gajghate, D. G.

    2011-08-01

    Emission inventory of CO 2, CH 4, N 2O and SO 2 has been prepared for Nagpur city in Central India for the year 2004. Data on fossil fuel (coal, light diesel oil, high speed diesel, petrol/gasoline, low sulphur heavy stock, furnace oil and kerosene) consumption in thermal power, industrial, transport and domestic sectors were collected. Thermal power sector had the maximum coal consumption followed by the industrial and domestic sectors, whereas kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), diesel and gasoline were used only in any single sector. Total annual CO 2, CH 4, N 2O and SO 2 emissions from these fuels in Nagpur city for the year 2004 was found to be 14792418 MT (14.8 Tg), 4649 (4.6 Tg), 1529 (1.5 Tg) and 69093 (6.9 Tg), respectively, in which thermal power and domestic sector had the maximum share. Coal was found to be the major contributor to Green House Gas (GHG) and SO 2 emissions in all the sectors barring transport and domestic sectors. Carbon dioxide was the predominant GHG emitted by the selected sectors in terms of absolute emissions and also global warming contribution (GWC), though the share in the latter was lesser in magnitude due to higher global warming potential (GWP) of CH 4 and N 2O than CO 2. Thermal power sector had a share of 51% in total CO 2 emissions from all the sectors, followed by domestic, industrial and transport sectors having 27, 12 and 10% contributions, respectively. Share of thermal power sector in total SO 2 emissions was 61%, followed by 24% from industrial, 10% from domestic and 5% from transport sector.

  14. Geophysical Exploration of Fractured-Media Aquifers at the Mexican Mesa Central: Satellite City, San Luis Potosí, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Loera, Héctor; Ramos Leal, José Alfredo; Dávila Harris, Pablo; Torres Gaytan, David Ernesto; Martinez Ruiz, Victor Julian; Gogichaishvili, Avto

    2014-09-01

    Groundwater is scarce in arid and semi-arid zones in the Mexican Mesa Central. It is found at depths over 200 m, and its movement is primarily through fractures. This work aims to present a geophysical methodology, which shows the potential of combining natural and induced methods to locate confined aquifers in fault zones. The studies begin by interpreting the aeromagnetic survey, mainly by seeking lineaments associated with low magnetic anomalies, which are correlated with fault zones, and/or fractures and/or geological contacts where ferromagnetic minerals have undergone oxidation due to their association with recharge zones. These aeromagnetic lineaments are confirmed on land by a ground magnetic survey. After locating these areas, interpreted as permeability zones, their possible association with moist zones is confirmed by applying the vertical electrical sounding (VES) technique. H-type curve is associated with the presence of saturated zones. This study used the proposed methodology to interpret four main aeromagnetic lineaments and 12 main ground magnetic lineaments in a 36 km2 (6 km × 6 km) area. Twenty-six SEV were performed over these magnetic lineaments, of which about 50 % were associated with H-type resistivity curves, interpreted as being associated with moisture. Of the 12 VES with inferred groundwater potential, two wells have been drilled to date, one having an extraction flow of 70 lps.

  15. Geophysical Exploration of Fractured-Media Aquifers at the Mexican Mesa Central: Satellite City, San Luis Potosí, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Loera, Héctor; Ramos Leal, José Alfredo; Dávila Harris, Pablo; Torres Gaytan, David Ernesto; Martinez Ruiz, Victor Julian; Gogichaishvili, Avto

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater is scarce in arid and semi-arid zones in the Mexican Mesa Central. It is found at depths over 200 m, and its movement is primarily through fractures. This work aims to present a geophysical methodology, which shows the potential of combining natural and induced methods to locate confined aquifers in fault zones. The studies begin by interpreting the aeromagnetic survey, mainly by seeking lineaments associated with low magnetic anomalies, which are correlated with fault zones, and/or fractures and/or geological contacts where ferromagnetic minerals have undergone oxidation due to their association with recharge zones. These aeromagnetic lineaments are confirmed on land by a ground magnetic survey. After locating these areas, interpreted as permeability zones, their possible association with moist zones is confirmed by applying the vertical electrical sounding (VES) technique. H-type curve is associated with the presence of saturated zones. This study used the proposed methodology to interpret four main aeromagnetic lineaments and 12 main ground magnetic lineaments in a 36 km2 (6 km × 6 km) area. Twenty-six SEV were performed over these magnetic lineaments, of which about 50 % were associated with H-type resistivity curves, interpreted as being associated with moisture. Of the 12 VES with inferred groundwater potential, two wells have been drilled to date, one having an extraction flow of 70 lps.

  16. Multiple oxygen and sulfur isotope compositions of secondary atmospheric sulfate in the city of Wuhan, central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Bao, H.; Zhou, A.; Wang, D.

    2012-12-01

    Secondary atmospheric sulfate (SAS) is the oxidation product and sink for sulfur gases of biological, volcanic, and anthropogenic origins on Earth. SAS can be produced from gas-phase OH-radical oxidation and five aqueous-phase chemical reactions including aqueous-phase S (IV) oxidation reactions by H2O2, O3, oxygen catalyzed by Fe3+ and Mn2+, and methyle hydrogen peroxide and peroxyacetic acid. The tropospheric sulfur oxidation pathway is therefore determined by cloud-water pH, dissolved [Fe2+] or [Mn2+] content, S emission rate, meteorological condition, and other factors. The S isotope composition is a good tracer for the source while the O isotopes, especially the triple O isotope compositions are a good tracer for S oxidation pathway. Jerkins and Bao (2006) provided the first set of multiple stable isotope compositions (δ34S, δ18O and Δ17O) for SAS collected from bulk atmosphere in Baton Rouge in the relatively rural southern USA. Their study revealed a long-tern average Δ17O value of ~+0.7‰ for SAS, and speculated that much of the Earth mid-latitudes may have a similar average SAS Δ17O value. Additional sampling campaign at different sites is necessarily for constructing and testing models on sulfur oxidation and transport in the troposphere. A total of 33 sulfate samples were collected from bulk atmospheric deposition over a 950-day period from May 2009 to December 2011 in the city of Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Differing from Baton Rouge, Wuhan is an industrial metropolis with a population of 9.8 million and a high particulate matter content (115 μg/m3). It also has a subtropical monsoon climate, with rainwater pH at ~5.3 year-around. The rainwater ion concentrations have seasonal variations, typically low in summer and high in winter. The anions are dominated by SO42-, at an average concentration of 8.5 mg/L. There is little sulfate contribution from sea-salt (SS) sulfate or dusts in Wuhan. The isotopic compositions for bulk atmospheric sulfate

  17. Geology and Magmatism of Gülşehir Area, City of Nevşehir, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayhan, Uǧur Can; Miyak, İlayda; Keskin, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    character from calc-alkaline to alkaline. Pyroclastic flow deposits (i.e. ignimbrites with rhyolitic to dacitic compositions) and low-viscosity sub-alkaline/alkaline basaltic lava fields are widely exposed in the study area. Geomorphology of the region is controlled by strike-slip faults related to the neotectonics of Central Anatolia and the erosion/deposition of the Kızılırmak River. Quaternary terraces which are composed of coarse-grained thick sedimentary beds are the products of the Kızılırmak River. In this study, we will present the preliminary results of our new studies in the northwest of the Gülşehir area, specifically aiming to reveal the geology, petrology and tectonic evolution of this part of Central Anatolia.

  18. Geohydrology of the alluvial and terrace deposits of the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake, central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to describe the geohydrology of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River between Lake Overholser and Eufaula Lake, an area of about 1,835 square miles, and to determine the maximum annual yield of ground water. A 1982 water-level map of the alluvial and terrace aquifer was prepared using field data and published records. Data from test holes and other data from the files of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Oklahoma Water Resources Board were used to establish the approximate thickness of the alluvial and terrace deposits. The North Canadian River from Lake Overholser, near Oklahoma City, to Eufaula Lake is paralleled by a 2- to 3-mile wide band of alluvium. Scattered terrace deposits on either side of the alluvium reach an extreme width of 8 miles. Rocks of Permian age bound the alluvial and terrace deposits from the west to the midpoint of the study area; Pennsylvanian rocks bound the alluvial and terrace deposits from that point eastward. Three major aquifers are present in the study area: the alluvial and terrace aquifer, consisting of alluvium and terrace deposits of Quaternary age in a narrow band on either side of the North Canadian River; the Garber-Wellington aquifer of Permian age, consisting of an upper unconfined zone and a lower confined zone separated by relatively impermeable shales; and the Ada-Vamoosa aquifer of Pennsylvanian age. At locations were the alluvial and terrace aquifer overlies either of the other aquifers, there is hydraulic continuity between the alluvial and terrace aquifer and the other aquifers, and water levels are the same. Most large-scale municipal and industrial pumping from the Garber-Wellington aquifer is from the lower zone and has little discernible effect upon the alluvial and terrace aquifer. The total estimated base flow of the North Canadian River for the studied reach is 264 cubic feet per second. Evapotranspiration from the basin in August is about 60 cubic

  19. Understanding Urban Demand for Wild Meat in Vietnam: Implications for Conservation Actions.

    PubMed

    Shairp, Rachel; Veríssimo, Diogo; Fraser, Iain; Challender, Daniel; MacMillan, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Vietnam is a significant consumer of wildlife, particularly wild meat, in urban restaurant settings. To meet this demand, poaching of wildlife is widespread, threatening regional and international biodiversity. Previous interventions to tackle illegal and potentially unsustainable consumption of wild meat in Vietnam have generally focused on limiting supply. While critical, they have been impeded by a lack of resources, the presence of increasingly organised criminal networks and corruption. Attention is, therefore, turning to the consumer, but a paucity of research investigating consumer demand for wild meat will impede the creation of effective consumer-centred interventions. Here we used a mixed-methods research approach comprising a hypothetical choice modelling survey and qualitative interviews to explore the drivers of wild meat consumption and consumer preferences among residents of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Our findings indicate that demand for wild meat is heterogeneous and highly context specific. Wild-sourced, rare, and expensive wild meat-types are eaten by those situated towards the top of the societal hierarchy to convey wealth and status and are commonly consumed in lucrative business contexts. Cheaper, legal and farmed substitutes for wild-sourced meats are also consumed, but typically in more casual consumption or social drinking settings. We explore the implications of our results for current conservation interventions in Vietnam that attempt to tackle illegal and potentially unsustainable trade in and consumption of wild meat and detail how our research informs future consumer-centric conservation actions. PMID:26752642

  20. Understanding Urban Demand for Wild Meat in Vietnam: Implications for Conservation Actions.

    PubMed

    Shairp, Rachel; Veríssimo, Diogo; Fraser, Iain; Challender, Daniel; MacMillan, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Vietnam is a significant consumer of wildlife, particularly wild meat, in urban restaurant settings. To meet this demand, poaching of wildlife is widespread, threatening regional and international biodiversity. Previous interventions to tackle illegal and potentially unsustainable consumption of wild meat in Vietnam have generally focused on limiting supply. While critical, they have been impeded by a lack of resources, the presence of increasingly organised criminal networks and corruption. Attention is, therefore, turning to the consumer, but a paucity of research investigating consumer demand for wild meat will impede the creation of effective consumer-centred interventions. Here we used a mixed-methods research approach comprising a hypothetical choice modelling survey and qualitative interviews to explore the drivers of wild meat consumption and consumer preferences among residents of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Our findings indicate that demand for wild meat is heterogeneous and highly context specific. Wild-sourced, rare, and expensive wild meat-types are eaten by those situated towards the top of the societal hierarchy to convey wealth and status and are commonly consumed in lucrative business contexts. Cheaper, legal and farmed substitutes for wild-sourced meats are also consumed, but typically in more casual consumption or social drinking settings. We explore the implications of our results for current conservation interventions in Vietnam that attempt to tackle illegal and potentially unsustainable trade in and consumption of wild meat and detail how our research informs future consumer-centric conservation actions.

  1. Understanding Urban Demand for Wild Meat in Vietnam: Implications for Conservation Actions

    PubMed Central

    Shairp, Rachel; Veríssimo, Diogo; Fraser, Iain; Challender, Daniel; MacMillan, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Vietnam is a significant consumer of wildlife, particularly wild meat, in urban restaurant settings. To meet this demand, poaching of wildlife is widespread, threatening regional and international biodiversity. Previous interventions to tackle illegal and potentially unsustainable consumption of wild meat in Vietnam have generally focused on limiting supply. While critical, they have been impeded by a lack of resources, the presence of increasingly organised criminal networks and corruption. Attention is, therefore, turning to the consumer, but a paucity of research investigating consumer demand for wild meat will impede the creation of effective consumer-centred interventions. Here we used a mixed-methods research approach comprising a hypothetical choice modelling survey and qualitative interviews to explore the drivers of wild meat consumption and consumer preferences among residents of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Our findings indicate that demand for wild meat is heterogeneous and highly context specific. Wild-sourced, rare, and expensive wild meat-types are eaten by those situated towards the top of the societal hierarchy to convey wealth and status and are commonly consumed in lucrative business contexts. Cheaper, legal and farmed substitutes for wild-sourced meats are also consumed, but typically in more casual consumption or social drinking settings. We explore the implications of our results for current conservation interventions in Vietnam that attempt to tackle illegal and potentially unsustainable trade in and consumption of wild meat and detail how our research informs future consumer-centric conservation actions. PMID:26752642

  2. Building an Extension Network in Vietnam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poussard, H.

    1999-01-01

    Agricultural extension in Vietnam is in transition as the economy moves to a market orientation. The national extension service created in 1993 is constrained by lack of funding, staff, and access to current extension knowledge. (SK)

  3. Ambiguity as Persuasion: The Vietnam Veterans Memorial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foss, Sonja K.

    1986-01-01

    Identifies five features of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial that may account for its deep universal appeal. Suggests the memorial's effectiveness may recommend it as a model for contemporary anti-war rhetoric. (MS)

  4. Love as harm reduction: fighting AIDS and stigma in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    In the summer of 2009, I visited a humble orphanage for children with HIV/AIDS in Vietnam. Here, like many parts in the world, the very existence of marginalized people with stigmatized illness is hidden away. Relegated to the shadows of society, these children lacked something more fundamental than housing, shelter, nutrition and medications. They lacked families to love and care for them unconditionally. One might think it self-evident that a visit to an orphanage for children with HIV would be profound, but the profundity wasn't where I expected to find it. It was in how the children had created their own family, loving each other like brothers and sisters, and the way the priest who operated the shelters was more than a Father, he was a dad to dozens of children. This is an account of love as harm reduction in the Mai Tam orphanage in Ho Chi Minh City. PMID:19958526

  5. Prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. in water buffaloes in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Huong, L T

    1999-09-15

    Muscles from heart, tongue, oesophagus, neck and abdomen from 502 adult water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) slaughtered in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, between 1996 and 1997 were examined for Sarcocystis cysts by a combination of ocular and histological examination. Sarcocysts were present in 396 (79%) of the animals and the prevalence increased with age from a 57% infection rate among 2-3 year old animals to 93% among 6-7 year olds. The prevalence was higher in animals originating from the northern part (89%) than in those from the southern part (69%) of the country. Four species of Sarcocystis were identified. S. levinei (74%) was the most common species found, followed by S. fusiformis (41%), S. buffalonis (33%) and S. dubeyi (12%). All four species were present in 8% of the infected animals. The most common site for sarcocyst location was oesophagus, followed by cervical muscles, tongue and heart.

  6. Is violence associated with increased risk behavior among MSM? Evidence from a population-based survey conducted across nine cities in Central America

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Jennifer; Anfinson, Katherine; Valvert, Dennis; Lungo, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objective There is a dearth of research examining the linkages between violence and HIV risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM), including those who identify as transgender women (TW), particularly in Central America where violence is widespread. In this paper, we use population-based survey results to independently examine the correlations between physical, emotional and sexual violence and HIV risk behavior among MSM populations in five countries in Central America. Design As part of USAID's Combination Prevention for HIV program in Central America, PASMO conducted population based surveys using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in nine cities in Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. Initial seeds were recruited using the following criteria: individuals who represented subgroups of MSM by self-identification (homosexual vs. heterosexual or bisexual vs. transgender), social economic strata, and by sex work practices. This study examines the association between violence and 1) HIV risk behaviors relevant to the study populations; 2) protective behaviors; and 3) reported STIs. Individualized RDS estimator weights for each outcome variable were calculated using RDSAT software, and logistic regression analysis was used to determine associations between different forms of violence and the outcome variables. Results MSM who experienced physical violence were more likely to be engaged in transactional sex (OR: 1.76 [1.42–2.18]), have multiple partners in the past 30 days (OR: 1.37 [1.09–1.71]), and have engaged in sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs (OR: 1.51 [1.24–1.83]). Both physical violence and psychological/verbal violence were also associated with reporting STI symptoms or diagnosis within the past 12 months (OR: 1.72 [1.34–2.21] and 1.80 [1.45–2.23]). The effects of violence on the outcomes were observed after controlling for other risk factors. Transgender women were 3.9 times more likely to report

  7. Evaluation of possible health risks of heavy metals by consumption of foodstuffs available in the central market of Rajshahi City, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Saha, Narottam; Zaman, M R

    2013-05-01

    Considering the human health risk due to the consumption of foodstuffs, the concentrations of heavy metals (lead, manganese, chromium, cadmium, and arsenic) are investigated in vegetables, fruits, and fish species collected from the central market (called Shaheb Bazar) of Rajshahi City, Bangladesh. The foodstuffs examined for metal constituents are the basis of human nutrition in the study area. The highest concentrations of Mn and As in vegetables (onion and pointed gourd, respectively), Cr and Cd in fruits (black berry and mango, respectively), and Pb in fish (catla) are recorded. Health risks associated with these heavy metals are evaluated due to dietary intake. Target hazard quotient (THQ) and hazard index (HI) are calculated to evaluate the non-carcinogenic health risk from individual and combined heavy metals. The THQ values for individual heavy metals are below 1, suggesting that people would not experience significant health risks if they ingest a single heavy metal from one kind of foodstuff (e.g., vegetables). However, consumption of several of the foodstuffs could lead a potential health risk to human population since HI value is higher than 1. The relative contributions of vegetables, fishes, and fruits to HI are 49.44, 39.07, and 11.53 %, respectively. Also, the relative contributions of Pb, Cd, As, Mn, and Cr to HI are 51.81, 35.55, 11.73, 0.85, and 0.02 %, respectively. The estimation shows that the carcinogenic risk of arsenic exceeds the accepted risk level of 1 × 10(-6). Thus, the carcinogenic risk of arsenic for consumers is a matter of concern. PMID:22933105

  8. Evaluation of possible health risks of heavy metals by consumption of foodstuffs available in the central market of Rajshahi City, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Saha, Narottam; Zaman, M R

    2013-05-01

    Considering the human health risk due to the consumption of foodstuffs, the concentrations of heavy metals (lead, manganese, chromium, cadmium, and arsenic) are investigated in vegetables, fruits, and fish species collected from the central market (called Shaheb Bazar) of Rajshahi City, Bangladesh. The foodstuffs examined for metal constituents are the basis of human nutrition in the study area. The highest concentrations of Mn and As in vegetables (onion and pointed gourd, respectively), Cr and Cd in fruits (black berry and mango, respectively), and Pb in fish (catla) are recorded. Health risks associated with these heavy metals are evaluated due to dietary intake. Target hazard quotient (THQ) and hazard index (HI) are calculated to evaluate the non-carcinogenic health risk from individual and combined heavy metals. The THQ values for individual heavy metals are below 1, suggesting that people would not experience significant health risks if they ingest a single heavy metal from one kind of foodstuff (e.g., vegetables). However, consumption of several of the foodstuffs could lead a potential health risk to human population since HI value is higher than 1. The relative contributions of vegetables, fishes, and fruits to HI are 49.44, 39.07, and 11.53 %, respectively. Also, the relative contributions of Pb, Cd, As, Mn, and Cr to HI are 51.81, 35.55, 11.73, 0.85, and 0.02 %, respectively. The estimation shows that the carcinogenic risk of arsenic exceeds the accepted risk level of 1 × 10(-6). Thus, the carcinogenic risk of arsenic for consumers is a matter of concern.

  9. Levels and sources of volatile organic compounds including carbonyls in indoor air of homes of Puertollano, the most industrialized city in central Iberian Peninsula. Estimation of health risk.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Florentina; Tapia, Araceli; Amo-Salas, Mariano; Notario, Alberto; Cabañas, Beatriz; Martínez, Ernesto

    2015-08-01

    Twenty nine organic air pollutants including carbonyl compounds, alkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons and terpenes were measured in the indoor environment of different houses together with the corresponding outdoor measurements in Puertollano, the most industrialized city in central Iberian Peninsula. VOCs were sampled during 8 weeks using Radiello(®) passive samplers, and a questionnaire on potential VOCs sources was filled out by the occupants. The results show that formaldehyde and hexanal was the most abundant VOCs measured in indoor air, with a median concentration of 55.5 and 46.4μgm(-3), respectively followed by butanal (29.1μgm(-3)), acetone (28.4μgm(-3)) and acetaldehyde (21.4μgm(-3)). After carbonyls, n-dodecane (13.1μgm(-3)) and terpenes (α-pinene, 13.4μgm(-3) and limonene, 13.4μgm(-3)) were the compounds with higher median concentrations. The indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios demonstrated that sources in the indoor environment are prevailing for most of the investigated VOCs especially for limonene, α-pinene, hexanal, formaldehyde, pentanal, acetaldehyde, o-xylene, n-dodecane and acetone with I/O ratio >6. Multiple linear regressions were applied to investigate the indoor VOC determinants and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to establish common sources between VOCs. Finally, the lifetime cancer risk associated to formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and benzene exposure was estimated and they varied from 7.8×10(-5) to 4.1×10(-4) for formaldehyde, from 8.6×10(-6) to 3.5×10(-5) for acetaldehyde and from 2.0×10(-6) to 1.5×10(-5) for benzene. For formaldehyde, the attributed risk in most sampled homes was two orders of magnitude higher than the one (10(-6)) proposed as acceptable by risk management bodies.

  10. Assessment of potential impacts of municipal solid waste treatment alternatives by using life cycle approach: a case study in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Nguyen Phuc; Matsui, Yasuhiro

    2013-10-01

    In Vietnam, most of municipal solid waste (MSW) is disposed of at open dumping and landfill sites, and the methane gas from waste is the un-ignorable source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. It is indispensable to explore the possibility for GHG mitigation in MSW management. The objective of this study was to estimate alternative waste treatment practices towards the GHG emission mitigation, energy consumption and generation, reduction of landfill volume, and various benefits for proposing the appropriate selection by scenario analyses for representative Vietnam's cities. Impacts were calculated by utilizing life cycle assessment (LCA) method. A literature review survey on the current applicability of LCA database for assessing impacts from waste sector in developing countries, especially for Vietnam, was carried out. This study assessed the contribution of alternative solid waste treatment practices. The result showed that, except investment and operation costs, incineration with energy recovery seems the suitable alternative for treating waste from representative cities of Vietnam according to reduction of GHG emission and waste burden to landfill sites and energy recovery and generation. Besides, MSW composition was identified as an important factor directly influencing to impacts as well as other products and benefits of waste treatment alternatives. Reliable data on waste composition are indispensable for assessing to choose, improve, or plan the waste treatment practices towards sustainable development. PMID:23475528

  11. Assessment of the geothermal resources of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, T.; Tien, Phan Cu; Schochert, D.; Quy, Hoang Huu

    1997-12-31

    More than 125 thermal springs, with temperatures greater than 30{degrees}C have been identified and catalogued by the General Department of Geology of Vietnam. Subsurface data are limited and fewer than 10 areas have been identified, on the basis of chemical geothermometers, as capable of supporting electric power production. Six sites in south-central Vietnam have recently been selected for exploration to determine their development potential for electrical power generation. Selected criteria included surface features, chemical geothermometers, proximity to regional faults trends, and regional requirements for electric power. Site visits were conducted to a total of eight areas in south central Vietnam where collateral economic developments suggest the need for a local, reliable source of electricity. Physical and visual information on geothermal springs and wells in Vietnam was compared to Nevada`s geothermal resources. Surface geothermal manifestations in Vietnam appear remarkably similar to those in Nevada. Outcrops adjacent to the geothermal areas indicate that Mesozoic-age granites are the most likely basement rocks. Quaternary basalts mapped throughout the study area may be responsible for the thermal anomaly. Initial exploration efforts will focus on three of the six sites, which together may be able to produce 40 to 60 MWe. A cooperative research program with selected Vietnamese governmental agencies includes geologic mapping, surface geophysical and geochemical surveys, and a graduated schedule of drilling programs, ranging in depth from 100 to 1,000 m. Results will be used to define a detailed, deep drilling and testing program at the three prime sites. Development of geothermal power in this region will boost local economic recovery and add stability to the national electric grid.

  12. 'I thought I was the only one': the misrecognition of LGBT youth in contemporary Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Horton, Paul

    2014-01-01

    While recent LGBT rights demonstrations and discussions about same-sex marriage have thrust the issue of homosexuality into the spotlight, it was not long ago that the issue of homosexuality was notable by its absence in Vietnam. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with young gay, lesbian and bisexual people in Vietnam's capital city Hanoi, this paper considers the increasing visibility of homosexuality through the theoretical lens of recognition, and illustrates the heterosexist misrecognition that LGBT young people have been subjected to in legislation, the media, their families, and through the education system. Drawing on the narratives of LGBT young people, the paper highlights the potentially negative impact such misrecognition may have on psychological and social wellbeing.

  13. Low-Carbon Watershed Management: Potential of Greenhouse Gas Reductions from Wastewater Treatment in Rural Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Geetha; Jian, Pu; Takemoto, Kazuhiko; Fukushi, Kensuke

    2016-01-01

    Currently in many cities and rural areas of Vietnam, wastewater is discharged to the environment without any treatment, which emits considerable amount of greenhouse gas (GHG), particularly methane. In this study, four GHG emission scenarios were examined, as well as the baseline scenario, in order to verify the potential of GHG reduction from domestic wastewater with adequate treatment facilities. The ArcGIS and ArcHydro tools were employed to visualize and analyze GHG emissions resulting from discharge of untreated wastewater, in rural areas of Vu Gia Thu Bon river basin, Vietnam. By applying the current IPCC guidelines for GHG emissions, we found that a reduction of GHG emissions can be achieved through treatment of domestic wastewater in the studied area. Compared with baseline scenario, a maximum 16% of total GHG emissions can be reduced, in which 30% of households existing latrines are substituted by Japanese Johkasou technology and other 20% of domestic wastewater is treated by conventional activated sludge.

  14. Low-Carbon Watershed Management: Potential of Greenhouse Gas Reductions from Wastewater Treatment in Rural Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Geetha; Jian, Pu; Takemoto, Kazuhiko; Fukushi, Kensuke

    2016-01-01

    Currently in many cities and rural areas of Vietnam, wastewater is discharged to the environment without any treatment, which emits considerable amount of greenhouse gas (GHG), particularly methane. In this study, four GHG emission scenarios were examined, as well as the baseline scenario, in order to verify the potential of GHG reduction from domestic wastewater with adequate treatment facilities. The ArcGIS and ArcHydro tools were employed to visualize and analyze GHG emissions resulting from discharge of untreated wastewater, in rural areas of Vu Gia Thu Bon river basin, Vietnam. By applying the current IPCC guidelines for GHG emissions, we found that a reduction of GHG emissions can be achieved through treatment of domestic wastewater in the studied area. Compared with baseline scenario, a maximum 16% of total GHG emissions can be reduced, in which 30% of households existing latrines are substituted by Japanese Johkasou technology and other 20% of domestic wastewater is treated by conventional activated sludge. PMID:27699202

  15. 'I thought I was the only one': the misrecognition of LGBT youth in contemporary Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Horton, Paul

    2014-01-01

    While recent LGBT rights demonstrations and discussions about same-sex marriage have thrust the issue of homosexuality into the spotlight, it was not long ago that the issue of homosexuality was notable by its absence in Vietnam. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with young gay, lesbian and bisexual people in Vietnam's capital city Hanoi, this paper considers the increasing visibility of homosexuality through the theoretical lens of recognition, and illustrates the heterosexist misrecognition that LGBT young people have been subjected to in legislation, the media, their families, and through the education system. Drawing on the narratives of LGBT young people, the paper highlights the potentially negative impact such misrecognition may have on psychological and social wellbeing. PMID:24992507

  16. Isolation and genetic characterization of Nocardia seriolae from snubnose pompano Trachinotus blochii in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Vu-Khac, Hung; Duong, Van Quy; Chen, Shih-Chu; Pham, Trung Hieu; Nguyen, Thi Thu; Trinh, Thi Thu

    2016-07-01

    A total of 480 cage-cultured fish were collected from 4 coastal provinces in central Vietnam to investigate the causative agent of nocardiosis. Fish displayed unique characteristics such as paleness and lethargy and exhibited haemorrhages and ulcers on the skin. Prominent white nodules varying in size were observed in the spleen, kidney, and liver. Furthermore, histopathological sections showed typical granulomatous lesions in these organs. Using the Ziehl-Neelsen staining method, isolated bacteria exhibited acid-fast, bead-like filament morphology when cultured in brain-heart infusion medium or Ogawa medium. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA confirmed that the isolated bacterium was Nocardia seriolae. This study demonstrates for the first time an outbreak of N. seriolae in snubnose pompano in central Vietnam.

  17. 45 CFR 506.10 - “Vietnam conflict” defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false âVietnam conflictâ defined. 506.10 Section 506.10... OF THE WAR CLAIMS ACT OF 1948, AS AMENDED ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR COMPENSATION Prisoners of War § 506.10 “Vietnam conflict” defined. Vietnam conflict refers to the period beginning February 28,...

  18. 45 CFR 506.10 - “Vietnam conflict” defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false âVietnam conflictâ defined. 506.10 Section 506.10... OF THE WAR CLAIMS ACT OF 1948, AS AMENDED ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR COMPENSATION Prisoners of War § 506.10 “Vietnam conflict” defined. Vietnam conflict refers to the period beginning February 28,...

  19. 45 CFR 506.10 - “Vietnam conflict” defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false âVietnam conflictâ defined. 506.10 Section 506.10... OF THE WAR CLAIMS ACT OF 1948, AS AMENDED ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR COMPENSATION Prisoners of War § 506.10 “Vietnam conflict” defined. Vietnam conflict refers to the period beginning February 28,...

  20. 45 CFR 506.10 - “Vietnam conflict” defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false âVietnam conflictâ defined. 506.10 Section 506.10... OF THE WAR CLAIMS ACT OF 1948, AS AMENDED ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR COMPENSATION Prisoners of War § 506.10 “Vietnam conflict” defined. Vietnam conflict refers to the period beginning February 28,...

  1. Drawing on Experience: A Study of Vietnam Veteran Artists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, Karl F.

    2004-01-01

    This study is an exploration of the art produced by American veterans of the Vietnam War. In the areas of artistic history, military service, and the creative process, Vietnam veteran artists are a diverse group, and there are many different ways of explaining the connection between Vietnam experience and their art. Some individuals made limited…

  2. 45 CFR 506.10 - “Vietnam conflict” defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... § 506.10 “Vietnam conflict” defined. Vietnam conflict refers to the period beginning February 28, 1961, and ending on a date to be determined by Presidential proclamation or concurrent resolution of the... “Vietnam conflict” for purposes of payment of interest on missing military service members' deposits in...

  3. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Army Nurse Corps Vietnam Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stretch, Robert H.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Investigated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Army nurse veterans. Analysis of questionnaire data (N=712) revealed a current PTSD rate for Vietnam veteran nurses of 3.3 percent. This rate is comparable to that found among nonnurse active duty Army Vietnam veterans and is much lower than estimates for civilian Vietnam veterans.…

  4. Voices from Vietnam: Veterans' Oral Histories in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagopian, Patrick

    2000-01-01

    Discusses accounts given by Vietnam War veterans addressing issues such as the wannabe phenomenon, where not all people claiming to be veterans actually served in Vietnam, and the cultural script of the veteran. Highlights how oral histories are used by teachers and students. Describes a project where students interviewed Vietnam veterans. (CMK)

  5. The Determinants and Impact of Private Tutoring Classes in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dang, Hai-Anh

    2007-01-01

    Private tutoring is a widespread phenomenon in many developing countries, including Vietnam. Using the Vietnam Living Standards Surveys 1997-1998 and 1992-1993 for analysis, this paper finds evidence that private tutoring in Vietnam is a necessity in the household budget for both primary students and lower secondary students, and the trend to…

  6. Programme Note: Realities and Opportunities in Ho Chi Minh City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franchet, Chi Nguyen

    1996-01-01

    The current status of street children in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, is characterized by marginalization from society through street vending, begging, theft, and prostitution. Evaluation of a drop-in center serving children without family linkages indicates need for needs assessments, follow-up activities, measurement of individual child progress,…

  7. Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis spp. in Vietnam: current status and prospects.

    PubMed

    Doanh, Pham N; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2016-01-01

    Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini are clinically important small liver flukes because of their known association with development of cholangiocarcinoma. In Vietnam, high prevalence of C. sinensis infection in humans was previously reported in northern provinces, and O. viverrini infection has been detected in several central provinces. However, diagnosis of C. sinensis and O. viverrini infections in the past was merely based on faecal egg examination. This method alone can lead to misidentification at the species level because of morphological similarity between the eggs of these liver flukes and minute intestinal trematodes of the family Heterophyidae. In fact, recent surveys in Vietnam revealed that infection with several minute intestinal flukes, such as Haplorchis pumilio and H. taichui, are much more common than infection with C. sinensis or O. viverrini, and they often co-infect humans. Thus, previously reported prevalence of small liver fluke infection in Vietnam was likely over-estimated due to mis identification of parasites in copro-parasitological examinations. In addition, there is some confusion about identification of cercariae, metacercariae and also adults of C. sinensis and O. viverrini in intermediate and definitive hosts. The aim of this review is, therefore, to draw realistic pictures of the past and present scientific reports on the epidemiology and biology of C. sinensis and Opisthorchis spp. infection in Vietnam.

  8. Evaluation of the Progress and Challenges facing the Ponseti Method Program in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Vincent; Nguyen, Michelle; Nhi, Huynh Manh; Thanh, Do Van; Oprescu, Florin; Cook, Thomas; Morcuende, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In 2003, an ICRC-SFD Ponseti program was introduced in southern Vietnam. Additional programs were introduced by the Prosthetics Outreach Foundation and independently by physicians trained at our center. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact, progress and challenges facing Ponseti practitioners and patients' family members in Vietnam. In addition, web-conferencing (Ponseti Virtual Forum) for continued medical education in the method was also assessed. Methods Multiple questionnaires were developed to conduct face-to-face practitioner interviews, focus group interviews, and parental interviews. Observation was done at multiple site clinics to determine or confirm additional challenges faced by practitioners. Web conferencing was introduced to sites in Ho Chi Minh City and Da Nang City. Results The number of clubfoot patients treated with the Ponseti method has increased over time with approximately 1,252 infants treated between 2003 and 2010. Specific challenges were identified relating to communication, networking, distance and transportation, and finances for both practitioners and parents. The PVF was not only found to facilitate rapid, relevant dissemination of medical knowledge – thus increasing physician and patient satisfaction – but it may also be found to act as an interface in which medical culture, insight, and compassion are shared benefiting all virtual forum participants. Conclusion The identified progress and challenges mirrored that of similar studies done in other countries with several factors affecting progress. Focusing on improving communication channels and networking while working with the ministry of health may improve the facilitation of the Ponseti method in Vietnam. Further implementation and evaluation of the PVF may act as a guide for current and future programs in Vietnam or other countries. PMID:23576933

  9. Vietnam's campaign to reduce population growth.

    PubMed

    Haub, C

    1999-10-01

    This paper reports campaigns to reduce the population growth in Vietnam. In July, red banners flew above the broad boulevard in Hanoi proclaiming World Population Day. This widespread public attention to population issues is not surprising, given the country's sharp reduction in fertility and widespread citizen support for smaller families. Since 1961, Vietnam has been trying to formulate a policy to reduce the population rate growth. The policy was a reaction to the results of the 1960 Census of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and reflected long-standing concerns over food shortages, as well as a desire to improve women's health and welfare. After the reunification in 1975, the policy was extended to the entire country. Since then, Vietnam's growth rate has been declining, suggesting that the national campaign for smaller families is succeeding in changing deeply held attitudes and perceptions, in addition to current practices. While the fertility decline in Vietnam may not be the world's fastest, the success of the national population policy has forever altered the country's prospect for population growth.

  10. New records of marine algae in Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Hau, Nhu; Ly, Bui Minh; Van Huynh, Tran; Trung, Vo Thanh

    2015-06-01

    In May, 2013, a scientific expedition was organized by the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) and the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (FEBRAS) through the frame of the VAST-FEBRAS International Collaboration Program. The expedition went along the coast of Vietnam from Quang Ninh to Kien Giang. The objective was to collect natural resources to investigate the biological and biochemical diversity of the territorial waters of Vietnam. Among the collected algae, six taxa are new records for the Vietnam algal flora. They are the red algae Titanophora pikeana (Dickie) Feldmann from Cu Lao Xanh Island, Laurencia natalensis Kylin from Tho Chu Island, Coelothrix irregularis (Harvey) Børgesen from Con Dao Island, the green algae Caulerpa oligophylla Montagne, Caulerpa andamanensis (W.R. Taylor) Draisma, Prudhomme et Sauvage from Phu Quy Island, and Caulerpa falcifolia Harvey & Bailey from Ly Son Island. The seaweed flora of Vietnam now counts 833 marine algal taxa, including 415 Rhodophyta, 147 Phaeophyceae, 183 Chlorophyta, and 88 Cyanobacteria.

  11. The Lessons of the Vietnam War: Unit 13. Teacher's Manual: Strategies and Resources for Teaching the Vietnam War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Social Studies Education, Pittsburgh, PA.

    This teacher's manual is designed to accompany the curriculum "The Lessons of the Vietnam War." For each of 12 units of the curriculum, this manual suggests projects for student research and classroom activities. The 12 units are entitled: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and…

  12. [An analysis of the pharmaceuticals market in Vietnam].

    PubMed

    Simonet, D

    2001-01-01

    pharmaceutical researchers. A strong decentralisation process characterises the pharmaceutical sector, with pharmacies in the provinces and districts while wholesalers remain located in Hanoi and Saigon. The presence of many middlemen has contributed to an increase in prices. Today, a concentration of pharmacies is still noted in inner cities while the suburbs and the villages still have difficulties supplying drugs for inhabitants. Solutions have been implemented such as the opening of new pharmacies and additional professional training for pharmacists. Prices were lowered while the quality of the supply chain was improved. Local production is encouraged as hospitals are prompted to prescribe Vietnamese products. The modernisation of the Vietnamese pharmaceutical industry is also visible through the importation of medical materials and an increase in the number of private hospitals financed with both the help of local and foreign investors, mainly through joint-ventures, most often in Saigon and Hanoi. The renovation of local hospitals was also possible with the help of France and Japan. Columbia Gia Dinh International, located in Saigon, is one of the very few US/Vietnamese medical institutions created with a local partner, the Gia Dinh hospital. The recovery of the economy will accelerate the creation of new projects designed to improve local medical infrastructures. Other private companies, some of which are based in Singapore, have been specifically designed to deliver care to expatriates working in Vietnam. Insurance coverage has been provided in Vietnam since in 1992. Other improvements concern the implementation of "Good Manufacturing Practices" (GMP) and "Good Laboratory Practices" and "Good Storage Practices". Most norms were implemented at the end of the 90s in joint companies linking foreign investors and local partners or in independent foreign drug manufacturers based in Vietnam. Special areas were created to receive high tech investments in the medical and

  13. [An analysis of the pharmaceuticals market in Vietnam].

    PubMed

    Simonet, D

    2001-01-01

    pharmaceutical researchers. A strong decentralisation process characterises the pharmaceutical sector, with pharmacies in the provinces and districts while wholesalers remain located in Hanoi and Saigon. The presence of many middlemen has contributed to an increase in prices. Today, a concentration of pharmacies is still noted in inner cities while the suburbs and the villages still have difficulties supplying drugs for inhabitants. Solutions have been implemented such as the opening of new pharmacies and additional professional training for pharmacists. Prices were lowered while the quality of the supply chain was improved. Local production is encouraged as hospitals are prompted to prescribe Vietnamese products. The modernisation of the Vietnamese pharmaceutical industry is also visible through the importation of medical materials and an increase in the number of private hospitals financed with both the help of local and foreign investors, mainly through joint-ventures, most often in Saigon and Hanoi. The renovation of local hospitals was also possible with the help of France and Japan. Columbia Gia Dinh International, located in Saigon, is one of the very few US/Vietnamese medical institutions created with a local partner, the Gia Dinh hospital. The recovery of the economy will accelerate the creation of new projects designed to improve local medical infrastructures. Other private companies, some of which are based in Singapore, have been specifically designed to deliver care to expatriates working in Vietnam. Insurance coverage has been provided in Vietnam since in 1992. Other improvements concern the implementation of "Good Manufacturing Practices" (GMP) and "Good Laboratory Practices" and "Good Storage Practices". Most norms were implemented at the end of the 90s in joint companies linking foreign investors and local partners or in independent foreign drug manufacturers based in Vietnam. Special areas were created to receive high tech investments in the medical and

  14. War time experiences of triage and resuscitation: Australian Army nurses in the Vietnam War, 1967-1971.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, N E; Harvey, N R

    2001-07-01

    The experiences of nurses in war is prolifically described in the North American scholarly literature, and in the Australian nursing literature to a lesser extent. The literature describes the plights and achievements of nurses caring for soldiers and civilians often under the most undesirable of circumstances. A central focus of war time nursing is the resuscitation of critically wounded soldiers. This paper addresses the experiences of the Australian Army nurses who were involved in the triage and resuscitation of critically wounded allied and enemy soldiers in the Vietnam War between 1967 and 1971. As part of a research study to explore and analyse the nature of nursing work in the Vietnam War, seventeen Vietnam veteran nurses were interviewed about their experiences. This paper explores the progression of the triage department in the Australian military hospital in Vung Tau, and it highlights that the majority of the nurses who took part in this study were clinically unprepared, particularly as emergency nurses.

  15. A method to manage and share anti-retroviral (ARV) therapy information of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phung Anh; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Minamareddy, Priti; Lee, Peisan; Ngo, Thuy Dieu; Iqbal, Usman; Nguyen, Phuong Hoang; Jian, Wen-Shan; Li, Yu-Chuan Jack

    2013-08-01

    Management of antiretroviral (ARV) drug and HIV patients data is an important component of Vietnam Administration of HIV/AIDS Control (VAAC) Department and hospitals/health care units when people often travel in other places of Vietnam; therefore, it would lead to a number of medical errors in treatment as well as patients do not adhere to ARV therapy. In this paper, we describe a system that manages and shares antiretroviral therapy information of 4438 HIV patients in three healthcare centers in Hanoi capital of Vietnam. The overall design considerations, architecture and the integration of centralized database and decentralized management for the system are also presented. The findings from this study can serve as a guide to consider in the implementation model of health care to manage and share information of patients not only in HIV infection, but also in the other chronic and non-communicable diseases.

  16. Fertility and family planning in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Allman, J; Vu, Q N; Nguyen, M T; Pham, B S; Vu, D M

    1991-01-01

    This report provides the first reliable statistical data on fertility patterns and the family planning program in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Findings are from the 1988 Demographic and Health Survey of Vietnam and the 1989 census survey. The data show that the total fertility rate has declined from over 6 children per woman in the early 1970s to under 4 in the later 1980s. Contraceptive prevalence for modern methods is estimated at 37 percent among married women of reproductive age in 1988. The average duration of breastfeeding is over 14 months; marriage is relatively late. The IUD is the most common contraceptive method and abortion is widespread. The major factors likely to influence fertility and family planning in the future are the government's population policy, improved access to modern methods of contraception, and the institution of new economic policies that are currently under way in Vietnam.

  17. Fertility and family planning in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Allman, J; Vu, Q N; Nguyen, M T; Pham, B S; Vu, D M

    1991-01-01

    This report provides the first reliable statistical data on fertility patterns and the family planning program in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Findings are from the 1988 Demographic and Health Survey of Vietnam and the 1989 census survey. The data show that the total fertility rate has declined from over 6 children per woman in the early 1970s to under 4 in the later 1980s. Contraceptive prevalence for modern methods is estimated at 37 percent among married women of reproductive age in 1988. The average duration of breastfeeding is over 14 months; marriage is relatively late. The IUD is the most common contraceptive method and abortion is widespread. The major factors likely to influence fertility and family planning in the future are the government's population policy, improved access to modern methods of contraception, and the institution of new economic policies that are currently under way in Vietnam. PMID:1759276

  18. Human papillomavirus infection among women in South and North Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Pham, Thi Hoang Anh; Nguyen, Trong Hieu; Herrero, Rolando; Vaccarella, Salvatore; Smith, Jennifer S; Nguyen Thuy, Thi Thuy; Nguyen, Hoai Nga; Nguyen, Ba Duc; Ashley, Rhoda; Snijders, Peter J F; Meijer, Chris J L M; Muñoz, Nubia; Parkin, D Max; Franceschi, Silvia

    2003-03-20

    The incidence rate of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) is 4-fold higher in Ho Chi Minh City, in the South of Vietnam, than in Hanoi, in the North. Thus, we explored the prevalence of and the risk factors for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in these 2 areas. A population-based random sample of married women aged 15-69 years were interviewed and had a gynaecological examination in the urban district of Ho Chi Minh City and in a peri-urban district in Hanoi. HPV DNA detection was performed using a GP5+/6+ primer-mediated PCR enzyme immunoassay. A total of 922 women from Ho Chi Minh and 994 from Hanoi, for whom a Pap smear and HPV-status were available, were evaluated. HPV DNA was detected among 10.9% of women in Ho Chi Minh City and 2.0% in Hanoi (age standardized prevalence, world standard population: 10.6% and 2.3%, respectively). In the 2 areas combined, 30 different HPV types were found, the most common being HPV 16 (in 14 single and 18 multiple infections), followed by HPV 58, 18 and 56. A peak of HPV DNA detection in women younger than age 25 was found in Ho Chi Minh City (22.3%) but not in Hanoi. Major risk factors for HPV DNA detection were indicators of sexual habits, most notably the presence of HSV-2 antibodies, nulliparity and the current use of oral contraceptives. Women in Hanoi showed the lowest HPV prevalence ever reported so far, suggesting that HPV has not spread widely in this population. As expected, HPV prevalence in a population seemed to be closely correlated with ICC incidence rates. PMID:12569577

  19. Levels and sources of volatile organic compounds including carbonyls in indoor air of homes of Puertollano, the most industrialized city in central Iberian Peninsula. Estimation of health risk.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Florentina; Tapia, Araceli; Amo-Salas, Mariano; Notario, Alberto; Cabañas, Beatriz; Martínez, Ernesto

    2015-08-01

    Twenty nine organic air pollutants including carbonyl compounds, alkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons and terpenes were measured in the indoor environment of different houses together with the corresponding outdoor measurements in Puertollano, the most industrialized city in central Iberian Peninsula. VOCs were sampled during 8 weeks using Radiello(®) passive samplers, and a questionnaire on potential VOCs sources was filled out by the occupants. The results show that formaldehyde and hexanal was the most abundant VOCs measured in indoor air, with a median concentration of 55.5 and 46.4μgm(-3), respectively followed by butanal (29.1μgm(-3)), acetone (28.4μgm(-3)) and acetaldehyde (21.4μgm(-3)). After carbonyls, n-dodecane (13.1μgm(-3)) and terpenes (α-pinene, 13.4μgm(-3) and limonene, 13.4μgm(-3)) were the compounds with higher median concentrations. The indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios demonstrated that sources in the indoor environment are prevailing for most of the investigated VOCs especially for limonene, α-pinene, hexanal, formaldehyde, pentanal, acetaldehyde, o-xylene, n-dodecane and acetone with I/O ratio >6. Multiple linear regressions were applied to investigate the indoor VOC determinants and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to establish common sources between VOCs. Finally, the lifetime cancer risk associated to formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and benzene exposure was estimated and they varied from 7.8×10(-5) to 4.1×10(-4) for formaldehyde, from 8.6×10(-6) to 3.5×10(-5) for acetaldehyde and from 2.0×10(-6) to 1.5×10(-5) for benzene. For formaldehyde, the attributed risk in most sampled homes was two orders of magnitude higher than the one (10(-6)) proposed as acceptable by risk management bodies. PMID:26025206

  20. [Carbon emissions and low-carbon regulation countermeasures of land use change in the city and town concentrated area of central Liaoning Province, China].

    PubMed

    Xi, Feng-ming; Liang, Wen-juan; Niu, Ming-fen; Wang, Jiao-yue

    2016-02-01

    Carbon emissions due to land use change have an important impact on global climate change. Adjustment of regional land use patterns has a great scientific significance to adaptation to a changing climate. Based on carbon emission/absorption parameters suitable for Liaoning Province, this paper estimated the carbon emission of land use change in the city and town concentrated area of central Liaoning Province. The results showed that the carbon emission and absorption were separately 308.51 Tg C and 11.64 Tg C from 1997 to 2010. It meant 3.8% of carbon emission. was offset by carbon absorption. Among the 296.87 Tg C net carbon emission of land use change, carbon emission of remaining land use type was 182.24 Tg C, accounting for 61.4% of the net carbon emission, while the carbon emission of land use transformation was 114.63 Tg C, occupying the rest 38.6% of net carbon emission. Through quantifying the mapping relationship between land use change and carbon emission, it was shown that during 1997-2004 the contributions of remaining construction land (40.9%) and cropland transform ation to construction land (40.6%) to carbon emission were larger, but the greater contributions to carbon absorption came from cropland transformation to forest land (38.6%) and remaining forest land (37.5%). During 2004-2010, the land use types for carbon emission and absorption were the same to the period of 1997-2004, but the contribution of remaining construction land to carbon emission increased to 80.6%, and the contribution of remaining forest land to carbon absorption increased to 71.7%. Based on the carbon emission intensity in different land use types, we put forward the low-carbon regulation countermeasures of land use in two aspects. In carbon emission reduction, we should strict control land transformation to construction land, increase the energy efficiency of construction land, and avoid excessive development of forest land and water. In carbon sink increase, we should

  1. [Carbon emissions and low-carbon regulation countermeasures of land use change in the city and town concentrated area of central Liaoning Province, China].

    PubMed

    Xi, Feng-ming; Liang, Wen-juan; Niu, Ming-fen; Wang, Jiao-yue

    2016-02-01

    Carbon emissions due to land use change have an important impact on global climate change. Adjustment of regional land use patterns has a great scientific significance to adaptation to a changing climate. Based on carbon emission/absorption parameters suitable for Liaoning Province, this paper estimated the carbon emission of land use change in the city and town concentrated area of central Liaoning Province. The results showed that the carbon emission and absorption were separately 308.51 Tg C and 11.64 Tg C from 1997 to 2010. It meant 3.8% of carbon emission. was offset by carbon absorption. Among the 296.87 Tg C net carbon emission of land use change, carbon emission of remaining land use type was 182.24 Tg C, accounting for 61.4% of the net carbon emission, while the carbon emission of land use transformation was 114.63 Tg C, occupying the rest 38.6% of net carbon emission. Through quantifying the mapping relationship between land use change and carbon emission, it was shown that during 1997-2004 the contributions of remaining construction land (40.9%) and cropland transform ation to construction land (40.6%) to carbon emission were larger, but the greater contributions to carbon absorption came from cropland transformation to forest land (38.6%) and remaining forest land (37.5%). During 2004-2010, the land use types for carbon emission and absorption were the same to the period of 1997-2004, but the contribution of remaining construction land to carbon emission increased to 80.6%, and the contribution of remaining forest land to carbon absorption increased to 71.7%. Based on the carbon emission intensity in different land use types, we put forward the low-carbon regulation countermeasures of land use in two aspects. In carbon emission reduction, we should strict control land transformation to construction land, increase the energy efficiency of construction land, and avoid excessive development of forest land and water. In carbon sink increase, we should

  2. The Economic Lives of People with Disabilities in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Michael; Groce, Nora; Mont, Daniel; Nguyen, Oanh Hong; Mitra, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Through a series of focus group discussions conducted in northern and central Vietnam, this study gives voice to the lived economic experience of families with disabilities and how they manage the economic challenges associated with disability. The dynamic of low and unstable income combined with on-going health care and other disability-related costs gives rise to a range of coping mechanisms (borrowing, reducing and foregoing expenditures, drawing upon savings and substituting labour) that helps to maintain living standards in the short-run yet threatens the longer-term welfare of both the individual with disability and their household. Current social protection programs were reported as not accessible to all and while addressing some immediate economic costs of disability, do not successfully meet current needs nor accommodate wider barriers to availing benefits.

  3. The Economic Lives of People with Disabilities in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Michael; Groce, Nora; Mont, Daniel; Nguyen, Oanh Hong; Mitra, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Through a series of focus group discussions conducted in northern and central Vietnam, this study gives voice to the lived economic experience of families with disabilities and how they manage the economic challenges associated with disability. The dynamic of low and unstable income combined with on-going health care and other disability-related costs gives rise to a range of coping mechanisms (borrowing, reducing and foregoing expenditures, drawing upon savings and substituting labour) that helps to maintain living standards in the short-run yet threatens the longer-term welfare of both the individual with disability and their household. Current social protection programs were reported as not accessible to all and while addressing some immediate economic costs of disability, do not successfully meet current needs nor accommodate wider barriers to availing benefits. PMID:26197034

  4. Urbanisation and sexual health: understanding bisexually active men in Hanoi, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Higgs, Peter; Reddel, Siobhan; Pham, Hanh Van; Dang, Khoat Van; Hellard, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam are receiving increased attention in recognition of their high-risk behaviours and potential for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and transmission. Due to societal pressures, many MSM in Vietnam are also bisexually active, which ultimately increases the transmission risks beyond the MSM population. Evidence is emerging that indicates a greater proportion of women in Asia with low-risk sexual activities are contracting HIV from their male partners who have become HIV infected through male–male sex. Methodology: Fourteen focus group discussions exploring sexual and social networks were conducted in Hanoi between July 2010 and September 2010. A total of 96 individuals participated in these sessions. Findings: A risk environment approach was used to analyse the focus group themes of social stigma and marriage, sex with other men in closed settings and transactional sex in Hanoi, an increasingly urbanising and westernising city. Implications: Despite limited evidence globally that bisexual men act as a bridge for sexually transmitted diseases, there is particular concern in Vietnam about this potential risk. HIV rates amongst MSM are rapidly rising and there are reports of women contracting HIV from their male partners who are bisexually active. PMID:25750805

  5. Household, hotel and market waste audits for composting in Vietnam and Laos.

    PubMed

    Byer, Philip H; Hoang, Chi Phuong; Nguyen, Thi Thuc Thuy; Chopra, Sangeeta; Maclaren, Virginia; Haight, Murray

    2006-10-01

    In Da Nang and Ha Long, Vietnam and in Vientiane, Laos, there was interest by local authorities in separating and composting waste in order to reduce environmental and health problems at the local landfills and to produce a soil conditioner for local agricultural use. To assist in the planning of composting projects, three studies were carried out to estimate waste quantities and composition. 1. A 9-day audit of waste from 45 vendors in a market in Vientiane, the capital of Laos. The total quantity of waste and the quantity in each of nine categories were estimated for each of six different types of vendors. 2. A 7-day audit of waste disposed by three hotels in the tourist area of Ha Long, Vietnam. Waste quantities were estimated in total, on a per guest basis, and in three main categories: compostables, recyclables and miscellaneous. 3. A 7-day audit of waste collected from 74 households in Da Nang, the fourth largest city in Vietnam. Waste from each household was separated into compostable and non-compostable waste. Over 60% of each waste source comprised compostable waste and this was considered significant enough to warrant further planning of composting operations.

  6. HIV type 1 Thai subtype E is predominant in South Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Menu, E; Truong, T X; Lafon, M E; Nguyen, T H; Müller-Trutwin, M C; Nguyen, T T; Deslandres, A; Chaouat, G; Duong, Q T; Ha, B K; Fleury, H J; Barré-Sinoussi, F

    1996-05-01

    Samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 50 HIV-1-infected individuals in South Vietnam were analyzed to determine with which HIV-1 subtype the subjects were infected. Participants were from Ho Chi Minh city and five surrounding provinces; 16 samples from female prostitutes, 32 from IV drug users, and one each from a man and woman not in any HIV risk group. 32 individuals were therefore most likely infected by IV drug use and the rest through sexual contacts. PCR amplification and heteroduplex mobility assay found all but one case to be infected with HIV-1 subtype E. The only nonsubtype E infection was HIV-1 subtype B in a woman sexually infected by her seropositive partner who was most likely exposed to the virus in Europe. HIV-1 subtype E strongly predominates in South Vietnam. The homogeneous geographic distribution of subtype E suggests the recent introduction of the virus into the country. A Thai origin can be considered given the genetic relationship between the Thai and Vietnamese subtypes E. It may be assumed that subtype E infections of Vietnamese prostitutes are related to the progressive entry and spread of HIV-1 subtype E from Thailand to Cambodia and then to southern Vietnam.

  7. The economic impact of dengue hemorrhagic fever on family level in Southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Harving, Mette Lønstrup; Rönsholt, Frederikke Falkencrone

    2007-05-01

    Dengue fever is a viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes (Aedes Aegypti). WHO estimates that 40% of the world's population live in areas endemic for dengue fever, and that there are approximately 50 million cases of dengue infection worldwide every year. This study aims to measure the economic consequences of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Southern Vietnam on family level. Estimating the economic impact of dengue fever/dengue hemorrhagic fever is important in order to prioritize resources for research, prevention, and control. So far no studies from Vietnam concerning this subject have been published. The study is based on standardized interviews. The study includes 175 children at the age 0-15 years, hospitalized in Children's Hospital No 1 in Ho Chi Minh City during a 10-week period in the fall of 2005. The children's parents/caretakers were interviewed on expenses related to the child's disease. The study shows that the average family cost of treating one child is approximately 61 USD including direct and indirect costs. On average, the largest expenses were those related to the initial visit at a local general practitioner, the hospital bill from Children's Hospital No1 and lost income for the parents. Dengue hemorrhagic fever is a large expense for a family and can rightly be considered as a substantial socio-economic burden in Southern Vietnam. Larger studies are needed for a more accurate estimate of the extent of the expenses related to both dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever.

  8. Learning Vocabulary in Group Work in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huong, Le Pham Hoai

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated learning vocabulary in group work at university in Vietnam. The students were studied in two kinds of group settings, "unassisted" and "assisted", the first consisting of five students from the same class level and the second of four from the same class and a student from a higher class. Differences were observed in both…

  9. Dutch Universities' Joint Aid to Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education and Research in the Netherlands, 1975

    1975-01-01

    A survey is presented of the joint aid in the reconstruction of North and South Vietnam provided by Dutch universities. The hospital project, solid matter physics project, micro-electronics project, agricultural project and dentistry project are defined. (Author/PG)

  10. Abortion in Vietnam: measurements, puzzles, and concerns.

    PubMed

    Goodkind, D

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes current knowledge about abortion in Vietnam, drawing upon government statistics, survey data, and fieldwork undertaken by the author in Vietnam throughout 1993 and part of 1994. The official total abortion rate in Vietnam in 1992 was about 2.5 per woman, the highest in Asia and worrisome for a country with a still-high total fertility rate of 3.7 children per woman. Vietnamese provinces exhibited substantial variation in both the rate of abortion and the type of procedures performed. Among the hypotheses explored to explain Vietnam's high rate of abortion are the borrowing of family planning strategies from other poor socialist states where abortion is common; current antinatal population policies that interact with a lack of contraceptive alternatives; and a rise in pregnancies among young and unmarried women in the wake of recent free-market reforms. Because family-size preferences are still declining, abortion rates may continue to increase unless the incidence of unwanted pregnancy can be reduced, a goal that Vietnamese population specialists are seeking to achieve.

  11. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Vietnam Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helwig, Andrew A.; Assa, Roberta

    1991-01-01

    Notes that many unemployed Vietnam veterans may be suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Symptoms and behaviors of PTSD are reviewed to assist employment counselors in identifying clients with PTSD. Counseling and referral actions are suggested. Outlines four-phase approach used by many Veterans Centers in counseling veterans with…

  12. Teaching the Children of the Vietnam War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filene, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Reminisces about how students reacted to learning about the Vietnam War within a U.S. history course where the students read the book "Dispatches" by Michael Herr which encouraged the students to empathize with their fathers who lived in that era. Discusses the implications this reaction has for teaching history. (CMK)

  13. The Vietnam War: History, Learning, and Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Tricia

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the curriculum entitled "Echoes from the Wall: History, Learning and Leadership through the Lens of the Vietnam War Era." Discusses the purpose of the materials. States that the curriculum incorporates primary resources into the classroom while making history more immediate to students. (CMK)

  14. Exploration and development offshore southern Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, A.M. )

    1996-01-01

    In Vietnam, the major focus of the oil and gas industry is on the Nam Con Son and Cuu Long Basins in the southern offshore area. Major licensing first occurred here in the early 1970s. Some exploration was also undertaken by foreign companies in the early 1980s. In 1981, the Soviet Union undertook to assist Vietnam with the development of oil and gas. Vietsovpetro, a joint venture between the then Soviet Oil and Gas Ministry and the Vietnam Oil and Gas Corporation was formed. Most of Vietsovpetro's efforts have been to develop the Bach Ho field in the Cuu Long Basin. This now produces [approximately]130000 bopd. The most recent large scale licensing round occurred in 1992, and, at present, there are over thirty foreign companies active in these Basins' blocks . The first phase of exploration is ending and successes in the Nam Con Son Basin include the BP-led Lan Tay/Lan Do gas discoveries and Pedco's gas discoveries. Mitsubishi's and Petronas' oil discoveries in the Cuu Long Basin have attracted much attention also. The Dai Hung oil field (BHP-operated) has been producing since late 1994. Certain blocks are being appraised, and exploration work is also continuing. Areas of the Cuu Long Basin that were part of Vietsovpetro's acreage, but which may soon be re-licensed, have generated keen interest. The presence of an active upstream industry - exploring, appraising, developing and producing - indicates the emergence of Vietnam as an important East Asian oil and gas player.

  15. Teaching the Vietnam War: A Conference Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterstein, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    On May 6-7, 2000, the Foreign Policy Research Institute's (FPRI's) sixth History Institute convened with more than 40 high school and college history teachers to seek answers to the question: "How should we teach the history of the Vietnam War to our children today?" Not surprisingly, no simple answers were forthcoming. This conference report…

  16. Ecological Effects of the War in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orians, Gordon H.; Pfeiffer, E. W.

    1970-01-01

    Research report on the severe ecological consequences of the defoliation program by American military forces in Vietnam. A significant fraction of mature trees in most forests are killed by single application of herbicides and almost completely killed by repeated sprayings. AAAS is urged to set up an international research program on the…

  17. Abortion in Vietnam: measurements, puzzles, and concerns.

    PubMed

    Goodkind, D

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes current knowledge about abortion in Vietnam, drawing upon government statistics, survey data, and fieldwork undertaken by the author in Vietnam throughout 1993 and part of 1994. The official total abortion rate in Vietnam in 1992 was about 2.5 per woman, the highest in Asia and worrisome for a country with a still-high total fertility rate of 3.7 children per woman. Vietnamese provinces exhibited substantial variation in both the rate of abortion and the type of procedures performed. Among the hypotheses explored to explain Vietnam's high rate of abortion are the borrowing of family planning strategies from other poor socialist states where abortion is common; current antinatal population policies that interact with a lack of contraceptive alternatives; and a rise in pregnancies among young and unmarried women in the wake of recent free-market reforms. Because family-size preferences are still declining, abortion rates may continue to increase unless the incidence of unwanted pregnancy can be reduced, a goal that Vietnamese population specialists are seeking to achieve. PMID:7716799

  18. Magnitude of arsenic pollution in the Mekong and Red River Deltas--Cambodia and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Berg, Michael; Stengel, Caroline; Pham, Thi Kim Trang; Pham, Hung Viet; Sampson, Mickey L; Leng, Moniphea; Samreth, Sopheap; Fredericks, David

    2007-01-01

    Large alluvial deltas of the Mekong River in southern Vietnam and Cambodia and the Red River in northern Vietnam have groundwaters that are exploited for drinking water by private tube-wells, which are of increasing demand since the mid-1990s. This paper presents an overview of groundwater arsenic pollution in the Mekong delta: arsenic concentrations ranged from 1-1610 microg/L in Cambodia (average 217 microg/L) and 1-845 microg/L in southern Vietnam (average 39 microg/L), respectively. It also evaluates the situation in Red River delta where groundwater arsenic concentrations vary from 1-3050 microg/L (average 159 microg/L). In addition to rural areas, the drinking water supply of the city of Hanoi has elevated arsenic concentrations. The sediments of 12-40 m deep cores from the Red River delta contain arsenic levels of 2-33 microg/g (average 7 microg/g, dry weight) and show a remarkable correlation with sediment-bound iron. In all three areas, the groundwater arsenic pollution seem to be of natural origin and caused by reductive dissolution of arsenic-bearing iron phases buried in aquifers. The population at risk of chronic arsenic poisoning is estimated to be 10 million in the Red River delta and 0.5-1 million in the Mekong delta. A subset of hair samples collected in Vietnam and Cambodia from residents drinking groundwater with arsenic levels >50 microg/L have a significantly higher arsenic content than control groups (<50 microg/L). Few cases of arsenic related health problems are recognized in the study areas compared to Bangladesh and West Bengal. This difference probably relates to arsenic contaminated tube-well water only being used substantially over the past 7 to 10 years in Vietnam and Cambodia. Because symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning usually take more than 10 years to develop, the number of future arsenic related ailments in Cambodia and Vietnam is likely to increase. Early mitigation measures should be a high priority.

  19. Human diffusion and city influence

    PubMed Central

    Lenormand, Maxime; Gonçalves, Bruno; Tugores, Antònia; Ramasco, José J.

    2015-01-01

    Cities are characterized by concentrating population, economic activity and services. However, not all cities are equal and a natural hierarchy at local, regional or global scales spontaneously emerges. In this work, we introduce a method to quantify city influence using geolocated tweets to characterize human mobility. Rome and Paris appear consistently as the cities attracting most diverse visitors. The ratio between locals and non-local visitors turns out to be fundamental for a city to truly be global. Focusing only on urban residents' mobility flows, a city-to-city network can be constructed. This network allows us to analyse centrality measures at different scales. New York and London play a central role on the global scale, while urban rankings suffer substantial changes if the focus is set at a regional level. PMID:26179991

  20. Human diffusion and city influence.

    PubMed

    Lenormand, Maxime; Gonçalves, Bruno; Tugores, Antònia; Ramasco, José J

    2015-08-01

    Cities are characterized by concentrating population, economic activity and services. However, not all cities are equal and a natural hierarchy at local, regional or global scales spontaneously emerges. In this work, we introduce a method to quantify city influence using geolocated tweets to characterize human mobility. Rome and Paris appear consistently as the cities attracting most diverse visitors. The ratio between locals and non-local visitors turns out to be fundamental for a city to truly be global. Focusing only on urban residents' mobility flows, a city-to-city network can be constructed. This network allows us to analyse centrality measures at different scales. New York and London play a central role on the global scale, while urban rankings suffer substantial changes if the focus is set at a regional level.

  1. Human diffusion and city influence.

    PubMed

    Lenormand, Maxime; Gonçalves, Bruno; Tugores, Antònia; Ramasco, José J

    2015-08-01

    Cities are characterized by concentrating population, economic activity and services. However, not all cities are equal and a natural hierarchy at local, regional or global scales spontaneously emerges. In this work, we introduce a method to quantify city influence using geolocated tweets to characterize human mobility. Rome and Paris appear consistently as the cities attracting most diverse visitors. The ratio between locals and non-local visitors turns out to be fundamental for a city to truly be global. Focusing only on urban residents' mobility flows, a city-to-city network can be constructed. This network allows us to analyse centrality measures at different scales. New York and London play a central role on the global scale, while urban rankings suffer substantial changes if the focus is set at a regional level. PMID:26179991

  2. Regional soil geochemistry in the Ojailen Valley: a realm dominated by the industrial and mining city of Puertollano (South Central Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Berdonces, Miguel; Fernandez-Calderón, Sergio; Higueras, Pablo; María Esbrí, Jose; Gonzalez-Corrochano, Beatríz; García-Noguero, Eva Mª; Martínez-Coronado, Alba; García-Noguero, Carolina

    2013-04-01

    Regional soil geochemistry in the Ojailén Valley: a realm dominated by the industrial and mining city of Puertollano (South Central Spain). Authors: Miguel A. López-Berdonces¹; Sergio Fernández Calderón¹; Pablo Higueras¹; José María Esbrí¹; Beatriz González-Corrochano¹; Eva Mª García-Noguero¹; Alba Martínez-Coronado¹; Carolina García Noguero¹ ¹Instituto de Geología Aplicada, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, Almadén 13400 (Spain). Ojailén Valley is situated in South Central of Spain, an area where livestock, agriculture, mining and industry coexist. This work tries to assess the relationships between these activities and local environmental compartments: water, soils and heavy metal contents, and establish the most appropriate methodology of sample treatment and analytical techniques that can be employed on this kind of studies. For soil geochemistry, 152 samples were taken at two different depths, one at surface layer and another at 20 cm depth, and establish relationships between them and the possible sources. For this purpose, we determine soil parameters (pH, conductivity and organic matter) and total metal contents by Energy Dispersion of X Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF). Samples with higher nickel contents were analyzed with Inductive Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) after acid digestion. The study of surface waters includes 18 samples along the river and tributaries near mining and industrial areas. Water analysis was performed by ICP-OES. Soil samples shows pH between 6 and 8.5, highest located near on the east part of the valley, in the vicinity of petrochemical complex. Conductivity values show higher levels (1600 µS cm¯¹) in the vicinity of Puertollano and the industrial sites. Local reference value (LRV) for contaminated soils were determined according to the methodology proposed by Jimenez-Ballesta et al. (2010), using the equation: LRV=GM + 2SD, where LRV: Local Reference Value, GM: Geometric Mean, SD: Standard Deviation

  3. Trace element concentrations in barramundi (Lates calcarifer) collected along the coast of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tu, Nguyen Phuc Cam; Ha, Nguyen Ngoc; Haruta, Shinsuke; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2014-08-30

    We determined concentrations of 23 trace elements (TEs), and stable carbon and nitrogen isotope (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) signatures in barramundi (Lates calcarifer) specimens collected along the coast of Vietnam in the Northern (NCZ), Central (CCZ) and Southern (SCZ) zones in the period 2007-2010. A combination of δ(13)C and δ(15)N signatures provided insight into ontogenetic shifts in barramundi foraging choices. There were clear zone-dependent differences in Mn, As, Sr and Tl concentrations; levels of Tl were highest in the NCZ, As in the CCZ, and Mn and Sr in the SCZ. Lowest concentrations of Rb occurred in the NCZ, Bi was lowest in the CCZ, and Cd and Cs were lowest in the SCZ. δ(15)N values significantly increased with increasing Zn, Se, Sn and Cs. Concentrations of TEs in barramundi from Vietnam were below worldwide guidelines for human consumption. PMID:24878305

  4. Social sustainability of Mesocyclops biological control for dengue in South Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thanh Tam; Olsen, Anna; Viennet, Elvina; Sleigh, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Copepod Mesocyclops as biological control agents for dengue was previously proven to be effective and sustainable in the Northern and Central provinces of Vietnam. We aim to study social sustainability of Mesocyclops intervention in south Vietnam. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used. An entomological survey was carried out in 100 random households of Chanh An commune, Vinh Long Province. Aedes larval indices and Mesocyclops prevalence were compared with historical pre- and post-intervention values. In the same commune, using purposeful sampling, sixteen semi-structured interviews (1 villager leader, 1 local doctor, 10 villagers, 2 teachers, 2 entomology officials), and a focus group discussion (6 Mesocyclops program collaborators) explored water storage habits, beliefs about dengue prevention and behaviour related to Mesocyclops. Thematic analysis was conducted to interpret the qualitative findings. Aedes abundance increased after responsibility for Mesocyclops intervention moved from government to community in 2010, with post-transfer surges in Breteau Index, Container Index, and Larval Density Index. Larval increments coincided with decrease in Mesocyclops prevalence. Villagers had some knowledge of dengue but it was conflated with other mosquito borne diseases and understanding of Mesocyclops was incomplete. Program adoption among the villagers was limited. With reduced government support program collaborators reported limited capacity to conduct population monitoring, and instead targeted 'problem' households. Although the Mesocyclops program was highly sustainable in northern and central provinces of Vietnam, the intervention has not been consistently adopted by southern households in Chanh An commune. Limited education, household monitoring and government support are affecting sustainability. Findings were based on a small household sample visited over a short time period, so other evaluations are needed. However, our results suggest that

  5. Central portion of north side (front), showing central entry stair ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Central portion of north side (front), showing central entry stair and "Puller Hall" sign - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Enlisted Men's Barracks & Mess Hall, Marine Barracks, Neville Way, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. Continued urbanization of the United States is causing the deterioration of the central city; costly suburban developments; and increases in congestion, pollution, crime, violence and alienation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that urban sprawl and the abuses of technological industries result in substantial environmental and economic costs at the expense of center city locations and populations. Socioeconomic deterioration and modification of the biosphere triggers climatic and environmental changes leading to ecosystem damage and destruction, health consequences and international conflict.

  7. Optimisation of city size.

    PubMed

    Laurila, Hannu

    2011-01-01

    Club theoretical analysis of migration between asymmetrical cities shows that centralised policy intervention is necessary to ensure the efficient allocation of people between cities. Administrative and economic measures are compared as policy instruments of central government. These instruments are found to differ in their effects on residential allocation and welfare. In particular, a lump-sum tax-transfer programme pools the welfare-creating potentials of cities, thus affecting the efficiency condition. Therefore, lump-sum tax-transfers are superior to both quantity rationing and Pigouvian taxes, and they also activate, rather than stabilise, migration. PMID:21584984

  8. Teaching the Vietnam War in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, H. Bruce

    For an instructor who has been teaching the Vietnam War for over 30 years, the War has been teaching him for even longer. One of the objectives in teaching the Vietnam War in the 1990s is what it meant to teach the Vietnam War in the 1960s. It is easy to forget that the antiwar movement began as an attempt to educate the government and the nation,…

  9. The lived experience of women military nurses in Vietnam during the Vietnam War.

    PubMed

    Scannell-Desch, E A

    1996-01-01

    The lived experience of 24 military nurses during the Vietnam war is described in addition to common elements of their lives after returning from Vietnam. In-depth interviews generated data about personal and professional aspects of the lives of women nurses in the war zone. Data analysis incorporated the qualitative methods of Colaizzi, Lincoln and Guba, and Van Manen. Findings revealed that the nurses struggled with moral and ethical dilemmas of wartime nursing, felt out-of-place, and lacked privacy. The nurses described a deep and special bonding, and many found serving in Vietnam to be the most rewarding experience in their careers. The Vietnam War continues to have an effect on the lives of the nurses who served there. They balance their personal and professional growth gleaned from this experience with the physical and emotional stresses experienced during the war and since the war. The findings of this study have implications for further research about nurses in Vietnam and nurses who have served in other wars.

  10. Serum dioxin in Vietnam-era veterans - preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-14

    Agent orange, a defoliant used in Vietnam, was a mixture of 2,4-DD and 2,4,5-TS. During manufacture 2,4,5-T was contaminated with TCDD, a compound with marked toxicity in some species of experimental animals. In 1979, the US Congress responded to concerns of Vietnam veterans by passing Public Law 96-151 mandating epidemiologic studies of the possible health effects on Vietnam veterans of exposure to herbicides and their associated dioxin contaminants. In 1983, CDC developed a protocol for a historical cohort study of US Army veterans who had served in heavily sprayed areas of Vietnam. A report on that study is presented.

  11. Impact of Agent Orange exposure among Korean Vietnam veterans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joung-Soon; Lim, Hyun-Sul; Cho, Sung-Il; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Lim, Min-Kyung

    2003-07-01

    In order to determine whether Agent Orange exposure was associated with increased frequency of medical problems, we conducted a cross-sectional epidemiologic study of Korean veterans during 1995-1996. 1,224 Vietnam and 154 non-Vietnam veterans were included in the study. Exposure to Agent Orange was assessed by structured in-depth interview on the participants' history of service in Vietnam. Health outcomes were assessed by a standardized comprehensive clinical investigation by a group of clinical specialists. The differences in the prevalence of various medical diagnoses were assessed by Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel chi-square tests comparing the exposure levels of Vietnam veterans, adjusting for age. Multiple logistic regression was performed to estimate the effect of "service in Vietnam" adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol, body mass index, education, and marital status. Vietnam veterans had an increased frequency of eczema (odds ratio [OR] = 6.54), radiculopathy (OR = 3.98), diabetes (OR = 2.69), peripheral neuropathy (OR = 2.39), and hypertension (OR = 2.29), compared to non-Vietnam veterans, adjusting for potential confounders. In addition, higher levels of exposure among Vietnam veterans were associated with increased frequency of ischemic heart disease (p < 0.01), valvular heart disease (p < 0.01), and retinopathy (p < 0.01). We conclude that exposure to Agent Orange is associated with various health impacts in Korean Vietnam veterans. PMID:12916744

  12. Growth of Cities and Loss of Streams: Land Cover Change Impacts on Stream Channel Loss in Central Oklahoma from 1874 to 2010

    EPA Science Inventory

    Central Oklahoma has undergone substantial land cover changes since the 1800’s. Accordingly, regional watersheds have been covered by impervious surfaces, peripheral agricultural areas have been subdivided or intensified, and large reservoirs have been constructed. Here, we...

  13. Posttraumatic stress disorder among black Vietnam veterans.

    PubMed

    Allen, I M

    1986-01-01

    Because of racism in the military and racial and social upheaval in the United States during the Vietnam War years, as well as limited opportunities for blacks in the postwar period, black veterans of the Vietnam War often harbor conflicting feelings about their wartime experiences and have difficulty rationalizing brutality against the Vietnamese. As a result, black veterans suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at a higher rate than white veterans. Diagnosis and treatment of PTSD in black veterans is complicated by the tendency to misdiagnose black patients, by the varied manifestations of PTSD, and by patients' frequent alcohol and drug abuse and medical, legal, personality, and vocational problems. The author presents his and others' recommendations about ways to treat black veterans with PTSD.

  14. [The state of environmental problems in Vietnam].

    PubMed

    Matsuda, S

    1995-06-01

    Following the introduction of a market economy, Vietnam has been faced with a variety of environmental problems. The following eight problems deserve special attention; 1) deforestation, 2) decrease of agricultural land resources, 3) irrational use of water resources, 4) over exploitation of fishery resources, 5) irrational use of mineral resources, 6) loss of genetic resources, 7) environmental pollution, 8) environmental damage due to war. In order to solve these problems, the Vietnamese government established an integrated strategy, the "National Environmental Protection Research Program: NEPRP". However, because of shortages in human resources, adequate technology, and financial resources, it is very difficult for the Vietnamese government to fully implement this program. As the realization of a sound economic development in the Indochina area is very important from the international political point of view, strong expectations exist that developed countries, including Japan, will actively contribute to the solution of these environmental problems in Vietnam.

  15. Clinical microbiology during the Vietnam War.

    PubMed

    Washington, Michael; Brown, Matthew; Palys, Thomas; Tyner, Stuart; Bowden, Robert

    2009-11-01

    During the period of 1965-1968, over two dozen Army microbiologists were deployed to various locations in Southeast Asia in support of the Vietnam War. Their role was to serve both a clinical laboratory mission/function at the mobile Army surgical hospital and mobile laboratory level as well as to perform research roles in all of the facilities. They were essential to the formulation of medical intelligence as well as to the practice of operational medicine in the deployed environment. The results of their laboratory investigations provided commanders and military physicians with critical medical information for patient care, outbreak investigation, and forensic analysis. As with many soldiers in support of the infantry and armor combat forces, most of the work occurs behind the scenes and their contributions are often left out of the historical literature. This article presents a brief overview of microbiology performed by Army microbiologists during the Vietnam War.

  16. Slaughterhouse pigs are a major reservoir of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 capable of causing human infection in southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Thi Hoa; Tran, Thi Bich Chieu; Tran, Thi Thu Nga; Nguyen, Van Dung; Campbell, James; Pham, Hong Anh; Huynh, Huu Tho; Nguyen, Van Vinh Chau; Bryant, Juliet E; Tran, Tinh Hien; Farrar, Jeremy; Schultsz, Constance

    2011-03-28

    Streptococcus suis is a pathogen of major economic significance to the swine industry and is increasingly recognized as an emerging zoonotic agent in Asia. In Vietnam, S. suis is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in adult humans. Zoonotic transmission is most frequently associated with serotype 2 strains and occupational exposure to pigs or consumption of infected pork. To gain insight into the role of pigs for human consumption as a reservoir for zoonotic infection in southern Vietnam, we determined the prevalence and diversity of S. suis carriage in healthy slaughterhouse pigs. Nasopharyngeal tonsils were sampled from pigs at slaughterhouses serving six provinces in southern Vietnam and Ho Chi Minh City area from September 2006 to November 2007. Samples were screened by bacterial culture. Isolates of S. suis were serotyped and characterized by multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Antibiotic susceptibility profiles and associated genetic resistance determinants, and the presence of putative virulence factors were determined. 41% (222/542) of pigs carried S. suis of one or multiple serotypes. 8% (45/542) carried S. suis serotype 2 which was the most common serotype found (45/317 strains, 14%). 80% of serotype 2 strains belonged to the MLST clonal complex 1,which was previously associated with meningitis cases in Vietnam and outbreaks of severe disease in China in 1998 and 2005. These strains clustered with representative strains isolated from patients with meningitis in PFGE analysis, and showed similar antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor profiles. Slaughterhouse pigs are a major reservoir of S. suis serotype 2 capable of causing human infection in southern Vietnam. Strict hygiene at processing facilities, and health education programs addressing food safety and proper handling of pork should be encouraged.

  17. Guiding change: provider voices in youth pre-abortion counselling in urban Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Helen Kim Hong; Martin, Philip; Chinh, Nguyen Quoc; Cong, Duong Dinh

    2010-08-01

    Pre-abortion counselling has a role in promoting safe sex practices and in preventing repeated unplanned pregnancies and repeated abortions among abortion-seeking women. Such counselling is essential in Vietnam, especially given the common use of abortion. Arguably, in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, the delivery of pre-abortion counselling is more urgent for young women, who have historically been ignored by State reproductive health initiatives and are increasingly exposed to transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), unplanned pregnancies and abortion. This paper charts urban Vietnamese service providers' discourses in pre-abortion counselling specific for reducing risks of additional unwanted pregnancies, repeat abortion and STI/HIV transmission among young Vietnamese women. Thirteen providers working in counselling delivery, management and programme-planning at the Reproductive Health Care Centre of Ho Chi Minh City participated in this study. Through qualitative interviews, this paper elicits a range of provider attitudes, considerations and approaches in pre-abortion counselling and presents these discourses using participant anecdotes. Demonstrated among participant responses were five key pre-abortion counselling phases for promoting effective family planning among young women. Topics covered in these counselling phases included abortion complications, post-abortion fertility return, contraception, behaviour change and STI/HIV prevention and sexual and reproductive health basics (SRH). The service provider discourses gleaned from this study are foundational for further research and development of best practice guidelines in pre-abortion counselling.

  18. Regional water quality management for the Dong Nai River Basin, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Grayman, W M; Day, H J; Luken, R

    2003-01-01

    A three-year study that started solely as an industrial pollution reduction effort in Dong Nai Province of Vietnam expanded into an ongoing regional river basin water quality management effort. The project was a cooperative effort between the United Nations (UNDP and UNIDO) and the Federal and Provincial governments in Vietnam. A comprehensive approach was used to assess the impacts and strategies for reducing industrial, municipal and agricultural pollution to the water, air and land. The strategy was based upon use of knowledge in four subject areas, economics, ecology, technology and institutions, integrated within a framework for regional environmental quality management, sometimes called Areawide Environmental Quality Management (AEQM). Dong Nal Province encompasses a major developing area immediately north of Ho Chi Minh City. The land area chosen for the AEQM study is the 1,400 square kilometre region in and around Bien Hoa that drains into the Dong Nai River. The Dong Nai River serves many purposes including navigation, fisheries and a water supply for both the Province and Ho Chi Minh City. Extensive industrial and residential development was underway and was projected to increase in the coming decade. A strategy for the control of pollution from liquid, gaseous and solid wastes for the period 1998 to 2010 in Dong Nai Province was developed.

  19. Exploration and development offshore southern Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, A.M.

    1996-12-31

    In Vietnam, the major focus of the oil and gas industry is on the Nam Con Son and Cuu Long Basins in the southern offshore area. Major licensing first occurred here in the early 1970s. Some exploration was also undertaken by foreign companies in the early 1980s. In 1981, the Soviet Union undertook to assist Vietnam with the development of oil and gas. Vietsovpetro, a joint venture between the then Soviet Oil and Gas Ministry and the Vietnam Oil and Gas Corporation was formed. Most of Vietsovpetro`s efforts have been to develop the Bach Ho field in the Cuu Long Basin. This now produces {approximately}130000 bopd. The most recent large scale licensing round occurred in 1992, and, at present, there are over thirty foreign companies active in these Basins` blocks . The first phase of exploration is ending and successes in the Nam Con Son Basin include the BP-led Lan Tay/Lan Do gas discoveries and Pedco`s gas discoveries. Mitsubishi`s and Petronas` oil discoveries in the Cuu Long Basin have attracted much attention also. The Dai Hung oil field (BHP-operated) has been producing since late 1994. Certain blocks are being appraised, and exploration work is also continuing. Areas of the Cuu Long Basin that were part of Vietsovpetro`s acreage, but which may soon be re-licensed, have generated keen interest. The presence of an active upstream industry - exploring, appraising, developing and producing - indicates the emergence of Vietnam as an important East Asian oil and gas player.

  20. Dengue epidemic in southern Vietnam, 1998.

    PubMed

    Ha, D Q; Tien, N T; Huong, V T; Loan, H T; Thang, C M

    2000-01-01

    A widespread epidemic of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) occurred in southern Vietnam in 1998, with 438.98 cases/100,000 population and 342 deaths. The number of DHF cases and deaths per 100,000 population increased 152.4% and 151.8%, respectively, over a 1997 epidemic. Dengue viruses were isolated from 143 patient blood samples; DEN-3 virus was identified as the predominant serotype, although a resurgence of DEN-4 was noted.

  1. Genetic evolution of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in domestic poultry in Vietnam between 2011 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Kim, Kwang-Il; Choi, Jun-Gu; To, Thanh Long; Nguyen, Tho Dang; Song, Byung-Min; Jeong, Jipseol; Choi, Kang-Seuk; Kim, Ji-Ye; Lee, Hee-Soo; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2015-04-01

    In spite of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 vaccination campaigns for domestic poultry, H5N1 viruses continue to circulate in Vietnam. To estimate the prevalence of avian influenza virus in Vietnam, surveillance was conducted between November 2011 and February 2013. Genetic analysis of 312 highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 viruses isolated from poultry in Vietnam was conducted and possible genetic relationships with strains from neighboring countries were investigated. As previously reported, phylogenetic analysis of the avian influenza virus revealed two H5N1 HPAI clades that were circulating in Vietnam. Clade 1.1, related to Cambodian strains, was predominant in the southern provinces, while clade 2.3.2.1 viruses were predominant in the northern and central provinces. Sequence analysis revealed evidence of active genetic evolution. In the gene constellation of clade 2.3.2.1, genotypes A, B, and B(II) existed during the 2011/2012 winter season. In June 2012, new genotype C emerged by reassortment between genotype A and genotype B(II), and this genotype was predominant in 2013 in the northern and central provinces. Interestingly, enzootic Vietnamese clade 2.3.2.1C H5 virus subsequently reassorted with N2, which originated from wild birds, to generate H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza, which was isolated from duck in the northeast region. This investigation indicated that H5N1 outbreaks persist in Vietnam and cause genetic reassortment with circulating viruses. It is necessary to strengthen active influenza surveillance to eradicate highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses and sever the link between highly pathogenic avian influenza and other circulating influenza viruses.

  2. Tobacco and poverty: evidence from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Efroymson, Debra; Pham, Hoang Anh; Jones, Lori; FitzGerald, Sian; Thu, Le Thi; Hien, Le Thi Thu

    2011-07-01

    This review examined existing evidence to investigate the link between tobacco and poverty in Vietnam, to assess the impact of tobacco control policies on employment related to tobacco consumption and to identify information gaps that require further research for the purposes of advocating stronger tobacco control policies. A Medline, PubMed and Google Scholar search identified studies addressing the tobacco and poverty association in Vietnam using extensive criteria. In all, 22 articles related either to tobacco and health or economics, or to the potential impact of tobacco control policies, were identified from titles, abstracts or the full text. 28 additional publications were identified by other means. PHA, LTT and LTTH reviewed the publications and prepared the initial literature review. There is extensive evidence that tobacco use contributes to poverty and inequality in Vietnam and that tobacco control policies would not have a negative impact on overall employment. Tobacco use wastes household and national financial resources and widens social inequality. The implementation and enforcement of a range of tobacco control measures could prove beneficial not only to improve public health but also to alleviate poverty.

  3. Reproductive tract infections in northern Vietnam: health providers' diagnostic dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, My Hu'o'ng; Gammeltoft, Tine; Christoffersen, Sarah Vigh; Tran, Thu Thuy; Rasch, Vibeke

    2009-01-01

    Research was conducted on reproductive tract infections among women obtaining induced abortions at Ph[image omitted]-[image omitted] hospital in Haiphong City, a major maternity hospital in northern Vietnam. The research aimed to explore how clinicians and lab-technicians diagnose reproductive tract infections and the difficulties they experience in establishing exact diagnoses. A combination of both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies was employed. The quantitative research involved 748 abortion-seeking women; the qualitative research was conducted with 10 doctors and 10 lab-technicians providing reproductive health services. A marked tendency was observed among both clinicians and lab-technicians to overdiagnose reproductive tract infections and to prescribe antibiotics routinely. Social, cultural, and clinical factors associated with the tendency to overdiagnose reproductive tract infections included: inadequate training of health staff, lack of equipment, and cultural assumptions regarding the overwhelming prevalence of reproductive tract infections in Vietnamese women, especially among those who receive abortion services. Misconceptions of reproductive tract infections led to substantial over-diagnosis and unnecessary treatment of reproductive tract infections in this hospital. To enhance reproductive tract infection care, providers need to be sensitized to the social and medical consequences of their own cultural perceptions and to increase their awareness of the risks associated with overuse of antibiotics. PMID:19533512

  4. Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl acids in environmental waters in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Duong, Hanh Thi; Kadokami, Kiwao; Shirasaka, Hanako; Hidaka, Rento; Chau, Hong Thi Cam; Kong, Lingxiao; Nguyen, Trung Quang; Nguyen, Thao Thanh

    2015-03-01

    This is the first nationwide study of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in environmental waters in Vietnam. Twenty-eight river water and 22 groundwater samples collected in four major cities and 14 river water samples from the Red River were screened to investigate the occurrence and sources of 16 PFAAs. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were the most prevalent of 11 detected PFAAs with maximum concentrations in urban river water of 5.3, 18 and 0.93ngL(-1), respectively, and in groundwater of 8.2, 4.5 and 0.45ngL(-1), respectively. PFAAs in the Red River water were detected at low levels. PFAA concentrations in river water were higher in the rainy season than in the dry season, possibly due to storm water runoff, a common phenomenon in Southeast Asian countries. The highest concentrations of PFAAs in river water were observed in samples from highly populated and industrialized areas, perhaps sourced from sewage. The PFAA concentrations observed were similar to those in other Southeast Asian countries, but lower than in developed nations. From the composition profiles of PFAAs, industrial products containing PFAAs imported from China and Japan might be one of the major sources of PFAAs in the Vietnamese aquatic environment. According to the health-based values and advisory issued by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the concentrations of detected PFAAs in this study do not pose an immediate health risk to humans and aquatic organisms.

  5. Impacts of flood on health: epidemiologic evidence from Hanoi, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Bich, Tran Huu; Quang, La Ngoc; Thanh Ha, Le Thi; Duc Hanh, Tran Thi; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2011-01-01

    Background Vietnam is one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world. The country suffers from many kinds of natural disasters, of which the most common and serious one is flooding. Long and heavy rainfall during the last days of October and the first week of November 2008 resulted in a devastating flood unseen for over three decades in the capital city of Hanoi. It caused a substantial health impact on residents in and around the city and compromised the capacity of local health services. Objective The aim of this study is to ascertain the vulnerability and health impacts of the devastating flood in Hanoi by identifying the differences in mortality, injuries, and morbidity patterns (dengue, pink eye, dermatitis, psychological problems, and hypertension) between flood affected and non-affected households. Design A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 871 households in four selected communes (two heavily flood affected and two comparatively less affected) from two severely flooded districts of Hanoi. Participants were interviewed and information collected on the social, economic, and health impacts of the devastation within 1 month after the flood. Results The self-reported number of deaths and injuries reported in this study within 1 month after the heavy rainfall were a bit higher in severely affected communes as compared to that of the less affected communes of our study. The findings showed higher incidences of dengue fever, pink eye, dermatitis, and psychological problems in communes severely affected by flood as compared to that of the controlled communes. Conclusions For people in flood prone areas (at risk for flooding), flood prevention and mitigation strategies need to be seriously thought through and acted upon, as these people are exposed to greater health problems such as psychological issues and communicable diseases such as pink eye or dermatitis. PMID:21866222

  6. The Making of "The Lessons of the Vietnam War."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Jerold M.

    1988-01-01

    Traces the development of "The Lessons of the Vietnam War," a set of units which cover legal, cultural, and historical questions of the war in greater depth than do survey textbooks. Examples of the 12 topics are "Introduction to Vietnam: Land, Culture, and History" and "Taking Sides: The War at Home." (GEA)

  7. What Should We Tell Our Children about Vietnam?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloud, Bill

    1988-01-01

    Describes McCloud's efforts to improve coverage of the Vietnam War in the junior high school curriculum. Presents answers to the question "What do you think are the most important things for today's junior high students to understand about the Vietnam War?" from people such as Ronald Reagan, Jimmy Carter, Tom Hayden, and Robert S. McNamara. (GEA)

  8. Touching the Hearts and Souls of the Vietnam Warrior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, Michael

    Research shows that the benefit structure of the GI Bill has discouraged veterans from using the education entitlement. Over 1,000 Florida Vietnam veterans completed a survey on education and the GI Bill. The collective experience provides insight to post-wartime readjustment efforts. Case studies and stories of Vietnam War veterans' educational…

  9. A list of oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) of Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Ermilov, Sergey G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A species list of identified oribatid mite taxa (Acari, Oribatida) in the fauna of Vietnam is provided. During 1967–2015, a total of 535 species/subspecies from 222 genera and 81 families was registered. Of these, 194 species/subspecies were described as new for science from Vietnam. PMID:26798306

  10. Education and Economic, Political, and Social Change in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huong, Pham Lan; Fry, Gerald W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the complex relations among history, education, political economy, and social change in Vietnam. Vietnam has a long history of education and a literate culture. The evolution of Vietnamese culture and society is characterized by both persistence and change. Social and political persistence and change have been…

  11. Teaching the New Vietnam: It's a Country, Not a War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCornac, Dennis C.

    2008-01-01

    Vietnam has made remarkable progress over the past two decades in its transition to a market economy resulting in numerous changes to both its social and economic institutions. It is a nation at peace focusing on economic development and integrating into the world economy. Although the tragic events in Vietnam's history cannot be forgotten, the…

  12. Vietnam: Education Financing. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This study examines the system of education and training in Vietnam and poses the question: what changes in educational policies will ensure that students who pass through the system today will acquire the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed for Vietnam to successfully complete the transition from a planned to a market economy? The report…

  13. Education and Inequalities in Rural Vietnam in the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Daniele; Liu, Jianye

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the determinants of children's schooling during the 1990s in rural areas of Vietnam. It focuses on the impact of family attributes on the likelihood of children remaining in school or leaving during the primary and secondary school years. Using data from the Vietnam Living Standard Survey (VLSS) of 1992-93 and 1997-98, the…

  14. Effective Primary Schools in Geographically Isolated Areas of Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikeda, Miyako

    2010-01-01

    This study identifies the major characteristics of "effective" primary schools in isolated areas in Vietnam. It suggests areas in which the implementation of beneficial changes can occur. Pupils in isolated areas of Vietnam are, in many respects, educationally disadvantaged. Usually, these pupils are in schools that have fewer educational…

  15. Higher Education in Vietnam: Key Areas Need Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thu, Nguyen Xuan

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the history of higher education in Vietnam since 1975, identifies key historical and current issues that prevent Vietnamese higher education from serving the country's need for social and economic development, and provides suggestions to help other countries' institutions develop links with Vietnam. (MSE)

  16. Latent Classes of PTSD Symptoms in Vietnam Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steenkamp, Maria M.; Nickerson, Angela; Maguen, Shira; Dickstein, Benjamin D.; Nash, William P.; Litz, Brett T.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined heterogeneity in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom presentation among veterans (n = 335) participating in the clinical interview subsample of the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study. Latent class analysis was used to identify clinically homogeneous subgroups of Vietnam War combat veterans. Consistent with…

  17. Community Colleges: Key to Vietnam Era GI Bill Shortfall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, J. Michael

    The Vietnam Era GI Bill was clearly influenced by the social and educational success of World War II veterans, but also reflected the policy objectives of equity and access of the 1960's. A 1987 monograph by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs reported that 60% of all Vietnam Era veterans received some training benefit from the GI Bill, but…

  18. The History and Future of Community Colleges in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Anh T.

    2013-01-01

    Since 1986, with the creation of the Renovation ("Doi moi") policy, Vietnam has demonstrated a strong commitment to the improvement of its higher education system. After 25 years of opening its doors to the global educational environment, Vietnam has achieved some notable accomplishments. The country's higher educational system has become more…

  19. Teaching English in Primary Schools in Vietnam: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoa, Nguyen Thi Mai; Tuan, Nguyen Quoc

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the English language situation at primary school level in Vietnam from a language planning perspective. It examines language policy for foreign language teaching in Vietnam to provide a picture of the role of English in foreign language education. It analyses language-in-education policy, curriculum and teaching materials, and…

  20. Primary English Language Education Policy in Vietnam: Insights from Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Hoa Thi Mai

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of English in primary education curricula is a phenomenon occurring in many non-English-speaking countries in Asia, including Vietnam. Recently, the Ministry of Education and Training (MOET) in Vietnam issued guidelines for the piloting of an English as a foreign language (EFL) primary curriculum in which English is taught as a…

  1. Transforming Vietnam's Medical Education through E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churton, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    The costs for providing medical school education and services in Vietnam's universities continue to increase. Through a collaborative project between the Government of the Netherlands and Vietnam's Ministry of Health, a five year experimental program to develop in-country capacity and reduce the dependence upon a foreign medical service delivery…

  2. 78 FR 7452 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... Register on August 20, 2012 (77 FR 50160) and on August 22, 2012 (77 FR 50713, corrected). The hearing was... COMMISSION Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... imports of steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam, provided for in subheading 7326.20.00 of...

  3. Using First-Person Sources To Teach the Vietnam War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Joe P.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the use of first-person accounts in teaching history. Focuses on a course on Vietnam history called, "The Vietnam Experience." Explores different reading materials that are used in the course, as well as the author's own personal account. Includes a bibliography. (CMK)

  4. Commemorating the Unwon War: On "Not" Remembering Vietnam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenhaus, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Discusses commemoration as a means of closure. Examines the suppression of that impulse through two related events: the establishment of a Tomb of the Unknown for the Vietnam War, and Gerald Ford's abrupt shift of policy concerns as South Vietnam fell. (MS)

  5. The Future of Patriotism: The War Film, The Cinema Industry, and the Vietnam Veteran Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Examines the media's effect on attitudes about Vietnam veterans. Discusses the relationship between media and culture. Analyzes the film industry's ideological battle over Vietnam. Critiques the media's treatment of the Vietnam experience, and considers the impact of media portrayals of the war on the Vietnam Veteran's movement. (RW)

  6. 75 FR 55740 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... Vietnam and the People's Republic of China, 75 FR 18154 (April 9, 2010). The preliminary results of the... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The review covers...

  7. 78 FR 59650 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1, 2005) (``Order''). \\2\\ See, generally, Goldenquality... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') meets the statutory and...

  8. 78 FR 18957 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The Department has determined that the request meets the... INFORMATION: Background The AD order on fish fillets from Vietnam was published on August 12, 2003.\\1\\...

  9. 76 FR 17837 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... Republic of Vietnam, 68 FR 47909 (August 12, 2003). On February 28, 2011, pursuant to section 751(a)(2)(B... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... Vietnam (``Vietnam''), received on February 28, 2011, meets the statutory and regulatory requirements...

  10. 76 FR 41760 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review, 76 FR 20627... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The review covers the period...

  11. 38 CFR 3.313 - Claims based on service in Vietnam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in Vietnam. 3.313 Section 3.313 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Evaluations; Service Connection § 3.313 Claims based on service in Vietnam. (a) Service in Vietnam. Service in Vietnam includes service in the waters offshore, or service in other locations if the conditions...

  12. 38 CFR 3.313 - Claims based on service in Vietnam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in Vietnam. 3.313 Section 3.313 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Evaluations; Service Connection § 3.313 Claims based on service in Vietnam. (a) Service in Vietnam. Service in Vietnam includes service in the waters offshore, or service in other locations if the conditions...

  13. 38 CFR 3.313 - Claims based on service in Vietnam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... in Vietnam. 3.313 Section 3.313 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Evaluations; Service Connection § 3.313 Claims based on service in Vietnam. (a) Service in Vietnam. Service in Vietnam includes service in the waters offshore, or service in other locations if the conditions...

  14. 31 CFR 500.565 - Family remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Vietnam and Cambodia. 500.565 Section 500.565 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia. (a) The remittances specified in this section are authorized... relative is a national of Vietnam or Cambodia, is a resident of Vietnam, Cambodia, or a country to...

  15. 38 CFR 3.313 - Claims based on service in Vietnam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in Vietnam. 3.313 Section 3.313 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Evaluations; Service Connection § 3.313 Claims based on service in Vietnam. (a) Service in Vietnam. Service in Vietnam includes service in the waters offshore, or service in other locations if the conditions...

  16. 38 CFR 3.313 - Claims based on service in Vietnam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in Vietnam. 3.313 Section 3.313 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Evaluations; Service Connection § 3.313 Claims based on service in Vietnam. (a) Service in Vietnam. Service in Vietnam includes service in the waters offshore, or service in other locations if the conditions...

  17. Estimation of Vietnam national burden of disease 2008.

    PubMed

    Nhung, Nguyen Thi Trang; Long, Tran Khanh; Linh, Bui Ngoc; Vos, Theo; Huong, Nguyen Thanh; Anh, Ngo Duc

    2014-09-01

    Burden of disease has been used to assess population health status. This article presents the first estimations of burden of disease in Vietnam in 2008 using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). DALYs were calculated using the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) methods. Incidence, prevalence of diseases, and causes of death was extracted from Vietnam data. Disability weights were borrowed from GBD and Dutch research. In 2008, the total burden of disease in Vietnam was 12.3 million DALYs. Noncommunicable diseases dominated the total burden of diseases in Vietnam, accounting for 71% of the total burden, and cardiovascular disease was the leading cause group of premature death. While pneumonia was an important cause of burden in Vietnamese children, stroke and depression were the main causes of disease burden among adults. The study provides a snapshot of Vietnamese health status and offers guidance for health policymaking in Vietnam.

  18. Authoritative Voices and the Vietnam Experience: Teaching about Vietnam during the Gulf War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Laurie J.

    1991-01-01

    Experiences of a college teacher teaching a course on the Vietnam War during the Persian Gulf Crisis illustrate the impact that teaching history can have on the consciousness of students. Respect for other cultures and other races are essential before students can stop glorifying war. (SLD)

  19. Case study of ISWI in Vietnam: A comparison of ionospheric parameters observed over Ho Chi Minh with IRI predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Hoang Thai; Tam, Dao Ngoc Hanh

    2014-01-01

    For the contribution of Vietnam to ISWI activities, there are 3 GPS receivers, 3 Ionosondes, 1 AWESOME and 1 MAGDAS operating in Vietnam. With a special geographical position stretching from the north tropic to the magnetic equator, Vietnam is an interesting area to supplement the data for the Global Space Weather Model. The Ionosphere is an important indicator of Space Weather and the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model has become widely accepted. The first task of ionospheric science in a new location is often comparing the observed data with IRI. This paper presents the results of comparisons of the foF2 and TEC observed over Ho Chi Minh City (10.51 N, 106.33 E) with the values calculated according to the IRI-2007 in order to evaluate the applicability of the model in forecasting for the equatorial region of Vietnam. We compare the critical frequency of layer F (foF2) and Total Electron Content (TEC) values for two phases of solar activity. The results show very good diurnal correlations between the observed foF2 and TEC with IRI values in the decreasing solar activity period 2003 ± 2006 (the deviation < 15%). In the increasing period 2009 ± 2012, good correlation was in the morning time before the foF2 peak at about 10 LT, with a deviation about 10% (except 2012). However, after 10 LT, the IRI-foF2 values rose up and the deviations were about 25% to 30%, especially during evening. In the years with low solar activity (SSN < 40), the IRI-foF2 are almost always higher than the observed foF2 data and vice versa for the years with SSN > 40. This is a note for correction IRI model applying for Vietnam. The comparison of the TEC shows that the correlation between GPS-TEC and IRI-TEC generally was good with coefficients k > 0.8 and R > 0.9 for the period 2006 - 2010. The worst relationship were March, April, September, October, November and December 2011, corresponding to periods when the TEC gradients are highest. The phenomenon of decline in the TEC at

  20. Work and Family Roles of Women in Ho Chi Minh City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phuong, Tran Phi

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to point out the differences between the North and the South of Vietnam, more particularly, Saigon and Hanoi, in terms of family and work roles of women. It helps to explain the ways women in Ho Chi Minh City reconstruct their reproduction role, the attitudes of Southern husbands towards household tasks and the husband-wife…

  1. Diabetes Control among Vietnamese Patients in Ho Chi Minh City: An Observational Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yokokawa, Hirohide; Khue, Nguyen Thy; Goto, Aya; Nam, Tran Quang; Trung, Tran The; Khoa, Vo Tuan; Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Boi; Minh, Pham Nghiem; Vinh, Nguyen Quang; Okayama, Akira; Yasumura, Seiji

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the extent of diabetic control and its associated factors among Vietnamese patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The study was conducted among 652 outpatients who were recruited at a public general hospital (People Hospital 115) and a private clinic (Medic Center) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Median age…

  2. 29. INTERIOR VIEW OF FERRY MOUSE, SOUTH CENTRAL BUILDING, FIRST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. INTERIOR VIEW OF FERRY MOUSE, SOUTH CENTRAL BUILDING, FIRST LEVEL, LOOKING WEST, FERRYMEN'S QUARTERS - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Jersey City Ferry Terminal, Johnson Avenue at Hudson River, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  3. Prevalence of Gnathostoma spinigerum infection in wild and cultured swamp eels in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Sieu, Tran Phu Manh; Dung, Tran Thi Kim; Nga, Nguyen Thi Quynh; Hien, Tran Vinh; Dalsgaard, Anders; Waikagul, Jitra; Murrell, K Darwin

    2009-02-01

    Human infections with Gnathostoma spinigerum frequently occur in southern Vietnam. Previous investigations have implicated infected swamp eels (Monopterus albus) as an important source of infection to humans. Because aquaculture of M. alba is an important farming activity in Vietnam, a 2-yr study was carried out to assess the relative importance of farmed and wild eels as potential sources of gnathostome infections in humans. Eels sold for public consumption in markets in southern provinces were examined between November 2005 and August 2007. Although no infections were detected in 1,020 cultured eels and 1,021 wild-caught eels collected from November 2005 to September 2006, larval G. spinigerum (AL3) infections were first detected in September 2006 in 28 of 230 wild-caught eels (12.2%) obtained from markets in Long An province and the Hoc Mon district of Ho Chi Minh City. Subsequently, monthly surveillance of wild-caught eels from these markets was carried out through August 2007. Prevalence of AL3 varied monthly, ranging from 0.8 to 19.6%. Both prevalence and infection intensity were higher during the latter part of the rainy season (August- October). These results demonstrate that potentially zoonotic G. spinigerum larvae are common in wild eels in southern Vietnam and present a risk to consumers of raw fish dishes, especially during the annual rainy season. This information could help target public health education efforts in the region. The basis for the seasonal variation on eel infections is not known, but may be related to climate effects (flooding, higher temperatures) on intermediate host species ecology. PMID:19245276

  4. Forest transition in Vietnam and displacement of deforestation abroad

    PubMed Central

    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Lambin, Eric F.

    2009-01-01

    In some countries across the globe, tropical forest cover is increasing. The national-scale reforestation of Vietnam since 1992 is assumed to contribute to this recovery. It is achieved, however, by the displacement of forest extraction to other countries on the order of 49 (34–70) M m3, or ≈39% of the regrowth of Vietnam's forests from 1987 to 2006. Approximately half of wood imports to Vietnam during this period were illegal. Leakage due to policies restricting forest exploitation and displacement due to growing domestic consumption and exports contributed respectively to an estimated 58% and 42% of total displacement. Exports of wood products from Vietnam also grew rapidly, amounting to 84% of the displacement, which is a remarkable feature of the forest transition in Vietnam. Attribution of the displacement and corresponding forest extraction to Vietnam, the source countries or the final consumers is thus debatable. Sixty-one percent of the regrowth in Vietnam was, thus, not associated with displacement abroad. Policies allocating credits to countries for reducing deforestation and forest degradation should monitor illegal timber trade and take into account the policy-induced leakage of wood extraction to other countries. PMID:19805270

  5. Forest transition in Vietnam and displacement of deforestation abroad.

    PubMed

    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Lambin, Eric F

    2009-09-22

    In some countries across the globe, tropical forest cover is increasing. The national-scale reforestation of Vietnam since 1992 is assumed to contribute to this recovery. It is achieved, however, by the displacement of forest extraction to other countries on the order of 49 (34-70) M m(3), or approximately 39% of the regrowth of Vietnam's forests from 1987 to 2006. Approximately half of wood imports to Vietnam during this period were illegal. Leakage due to policies restricting forest exploitation and displacement due to growing domestic consumption and exports contributed respectively to an estimated 58% and 42% of total displacement. Exports of wood products from Vietnam also grew rapidly, amounting to 84% of the displacement, which is a remarkable feature of the forest transition in Vietnam. Attribution of the displacement and corresponding forest extraction to Vietnam, the source countries or the final consumers is thus debatable. Sixty-one percent of the regrowth in Vietnam was, thus, not associated with displacement abroad. Policies allocating credits to countries for reducing deforestation and forest degradation should monitor illegal timber trade and take into account the policy-induced leakage of wood extraction to other countries.

  6. Confirmation of Anopheles varuna in vietnam, previously misidentified and mistargeted as the malaria vector Anopheles minimus.

    PubMed

    Van Bortel, W; Harbach, R E; Trung, H D; Roelants, P; Backeljau, T; Coosemans, M

    2001-12-01

    Malaria control programs in Southeast Asia are faced with several questions concerning vector behavior and species identification, which need to be answered to consolidate and further improve the results of control practices. The vector system in Southeast Asia is complex because of the number of species potentially involved in malaria transmission. Additionally, the follow-up and evaluation of preventive control measures are hampered by the misidentification of vectors due to overlapping morphological characters of the female mosquitoes. In central Vietnam, control practices are aimed at 2 main species, Anopheles dirus s.l. and Anopheles minimus s.l. These reputed vectors were studied in an area of Binh Thuan Province of south-central Vietnam. Different collection methods were used to capture mosquitoes quarterly during a 1-year period. Mosquitoes were identified in the field and later subjected to detailed morphological examination and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. What was thought to be an unusual morphotype of An. minimus was shown to be Anopheles varuna, and most specimens identified as the former species in the field proved to be the latter species. Very few An. minimus individuals were found during the study period. The population of An. varuna was found to be highly zoophilic, and based on this behavior, it cannot be considered a vector in Vietnam. Because this species was previously being misidentified as An. minimus, a nonvector was mistargeted as a malaria vector in Binh Thuan Province. Anopheles dirus, which was found positive for Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, is clearly the main vector in this area. Despite the fact that several potential secondary vectors were found during the study, the primary target for vector control in the region should be An. dirus.

  7. High Resistant Sand Injected Marl and Low Resistant Damaged Marl to Locate and Characterize the Thénia Fault Zone in Boumerdes City (North-Central Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulouel, Hakim; Bensalem, Rabah; Machane, Djamel; Bendaoud, Abderrahmane; Gharbi, Sofiane; Oubaiche, El-Hadi; Ousalem, Hassane; Skendri, Walid

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to locate and characterize the Thénia Fault Zone (TFZ) in the urban area of Boumerdes city; geological and electrical resistivity tomography surveys have targeted the Plaisancian marl and its Quaternary cover. As a whole, data indicate a complex near-vertical fault zone with an asymmetric and zoned internal structure of at least 150 m wide and with a straight N120° overall trending. The fault zone is traversed with two elongated parallel fault branches (FB1 and FB2), generally, 70 m distant from each other. These fault branches locate two intense damage zones (IDZs) of 10-15 m thick each, situated at the margin of two damage zones each having a thickness of several tens of meters. Downward sand injections into IDZs during Pleistocene epoch, possible pulverization of Plaisancian marl rocks, systematic deflection of actual stream channels, and vertical displacement of at least 30 m affecting Quaternary alluvial deposits show that the area would have undergone active tectonic driven by the TFZ.

  8. Viral Etiology of Encephalitis in Children in Southern Vietnam: Results of a One-Year Prospective Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Le Van; Qui, Phan Tu; Ha, Do Quang; Hue, Nguyen Bach; Bao, Lam Quoi; Cam, Bach Van; Khanh, Truong Huu; Hien, Tran Tinh; Vinh Chau, Nguyen Van; Tram, Tran Tan; Hien, Vo Minh; Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Schultsz, Constance; Farrar, Jeremy; van Doorn, H. Rogier; de Jong, Menno D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Acute encephalitis is an important and severe disease in children in Vietnam. However, little is known about the etiology while such knowledge is essential for optimal prevention and treatment. To identify viral causes of encephalitis, in 2004 we conducted a one-year descriptive study at Children's Hospital Number One, a referral hospital for children in southern Vietnam including Ho Chi Minh City. Methodology/Principal Findings Children less than 16 years of age presenting with acute encephalitis of presumed viral etiology were enrolled. Diagnostic efforts included viral culture, serology and real time (RT)-PCRs. A confirmed or probable viral causative agent was established in 41% of 194 enrolled patients. The most commonly diagnosed causative agent was Japanese encephalitis virus (n = 50, 26%), followed by enteroviruses (n = 18, 9.3%), dengue virus (n = 9, 4.6%), herpes simplex virus (n = 1), cytomegalovirus (n = 1) and influenza A virus (n = 1). Fifty-seven (29%) children died acutely. Fatal outcome was independently associated with patient age and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) on admission. Conclusions/Significance Acute encephalitis in children in southern Vietnam is associated with high mortality. Although the etiology remains unknown in a majority of the patients, the result from the present study may be useful for future design of treatment and prevention strategies of the disease. The recognition of GCS and age as predictive factors may be helpful for clinicians in managing the patient. PMID:21049060

  9. Reaction of Vietnam veterans to the Persian Gulf War.

    PubMed

    Kobrick, F R

    1993-08-01

    The notion that veterans' war experiences can be reawakened on exposure to subsequent wars has not received the attention it merits by mental health professionals. A current or recent war can significantly affect veterans; in particular, some Vietnam veterans have had intense reactions to the Persian Gulf War. This article reviews the evolution of the concept of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder and analyzes reports of Vietnam veterans' reactions to the Persian Gulf War. A case study of a Vietnam veteran whose traumatic memories were reawakened with the onset of the Persian Gulf War is presented, and implications for social work practice are discussed.

  10. Secondary Traumatization in Vietnam Veterans' Families.

    PubMed

    Yager, Thomas J; Gerszberg, Nicole; Dohrenwend, Bruce P

    2016-08-01

    This research focused on secondary traumatization of wives and offspring of 115 male Vietnam veterans, a subsample from the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study who had one or more children aged 6 to 16 years and had had a clinical interview. Traumatization was defined as meeting criteria for lifetime war-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Secondary traumatization was operationalized by elevated scores on children's internalizing or externalizing behavior problems and on wives' demoralization. There was evidence of secondary traumatization in the veterans' sons (odds ratio [OR] = 20.31 for internalizing behavior problems). Current PTSD in the veterans was associated with demoralization in their wives or partners (β = 0.24), which in turn was associated with behavior problems in their daughters (ORs = 2.67 and 4.61 for internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, respectively; these were adjusted for veteran's PTSD). Demoralization of the wife or partner was also associated with current alcoholism in the veterans (β = 0.30, adjusting for veteran's PTSD). These associations were also adjusted for other veteran risk factors, including severity of combat exposure, involvement in harming civilians or prisoners, and prewar vulnerability. Even with the degree of secondary traumatization present, the veterans' children appeared at least as healthy as counterparts in the general population. PMID:27529559

  11. Thermometric well testing on the Vietnam offshore

    SciTech Connect

    San, T.N.; Shtyrlin, V.F.; Vakhitov, G.G.; Loi, L.M.; Listengarten, L.; Hien, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    It is impossible to control and adjust an oil and gas field development without determining the flow intervals of production wells. For that it is preferable to get production profiles by using the downhole flowmeter. There are, however, some main restrictions for wide-spread application of them on the offshore of Vietnam as follows: the flowmeter spinner velocity cannot indicate correctly in the open hole wells having a nonuniform diameter; it is unable to carry out in the case when the tubing shoe is lower than top formation on 300--500m. In this paper, the authors present a summary of temperature profile method to determine the flowing and intaking intervals of wells drilled in basement of the White Tiger Field on Vietnam offshore. For the last 2 years more than 30 wells were surveyed by this method in the above mentioned conditions. This paper presents the theory and practice of well temperature profile surveys, the concrete examples of data interpretation using the software Oiltest.

  12. The Waves to Weather Challenge: Do Large-Scale Equatorial Waves Modulate Regional Rainfall in Southern Vietnam?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, A. H.; van der Linden, R.; Phan-Van, T.; Pinto, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    About 85% of the annual precipitation in southern Vietnam (ca. 8-12°N, 104-110°E) occurs during the southwest monsoon season (June to October). Large-scale equatorial waves like the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and Convectively Coupled Equatorial Waves (CCEWs) are known to modulate the large-scale convective activity, often indicated by variations in (filtered) satellite-observed outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) anomalies. The present contribution analyses and quantifies the role of the MJO and CCEWs for rainfall not only in southern and central Vietnam as a whole, but also for smaller climatological sub-regions. Using circum-equatorial NOAA OLR (15°S-15°N), prominent spectral peaks are identified in wavenumber-frequency diagrams along the dispersion curves for the solutions of the shallow water equations. They are interpreted as CCEWs. Meridionally averaged wave-filtered OLR and its time derivatives are used to define phases and amplitudes of CCEWs. This will allow determining active and inactive phases of CCEWs in the vicinity of Vietnam. Eastward propagating deep convection is also related to the 30-90-day MJO. The OLR MJO Index (OMI) is used for the definition of convectively active and inactive phases of the MJO. TRMM 3B42 V7, APHRODITE MA V1101 data, and rain gauge measurements are used to investigate the relation between tropical wave phases and amplitudes and precipitation in southern and central Vietnam and adjacent regions. Results using the OMI are compared with those using the Real-time Multivariate MJO (RMM) Index. The major findings are: (a) Precipitation amounts in southern Vietnam are higher during convectively active phases of the MJO and CCEWs. The waves differ in terms of their relative importance for rainfall enhancement. (b) For increasing CCEW amplitudes, the difference between area-averaged precipitation during inactive and active phases increases. We provide evidence that precipitation amounts are higher when multiple wave types are

  13. 78 FR 8107 - Certain Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Countervailing Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... Countervailing Duty Determination and Final Affirmative Critical Circumstances Determination, 77 FR 75973... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... order on certain steel wire garment hangers from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam)....

  14. 78 FR 48415 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Amended Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Amended..., International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce (``the... frozen fish fillets (``fish fillets'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') to correct...

  15. Foodborne Trematode Metacercariae in Fish from Northern Vietnam and Their Adults Recovered from Experimental Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jong-Yil; De, Nguyen Van

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of foodborne trematode (FBT) metacercariae was investigated in fish from 2 localities of northern Vietnam in 2004-2005. Freshwater fish (9 species) were collected from local markets in Hanoi City (n=76) and Nam Dinh Province (n=79), and were examined for FBT metacercariae using the artificial digestion technique. Adult flukes were obtained from hamsters experimentally infected with the metacercariae at day 8 post-infection. Three (Haplorchis pumilio, Centrocestus formosanus, and Procerovum varium) and 6 (Haplorchis taichui, H. pumilio, C. formosanus, P. varium, Stellantchasmus falcatus, and Heterophyopsis continua) species of FBT metacercariae were detected in the 2 regions, respectively. Overall, among the positive fish species, H. pumilio metacercariae were detected in 104 (80.0%) of 130 fish examined (metacercarial density per infected fish; 64.2). C. formosanus metacercariae were found in 37 (40.2%) of 92 fish (metacercarial density; 14.7). P. varium metacercariae were detected in 19 (63.3%) of 30 fish (Anabas testudineus and Mugil cephalus) (metacercarial density; 247.7). S. falcatus metacercariae were found in all 10 M. cephalus examined (metacercarial density; 84.4). H. continua metacercariae (2 in number) were detected in 1 fish of Coilia lindmani. Morphologic characteristics of the FBT metacercariae and their experimentally obtained adults were described. The results have demonstrated that various FBT species are prevalent in northen parts of Vietnam. PMID:23230329

  16. Blood levels of DDT and breast cancer risk among women living in the north of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Schecter, A; Toniolo, P; Dai, L C; Thuy, L T; Wolff, M S

    1997-11-01

    A positive association has been reported between elevated tissue organochlorines (p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE, PCBs, dioxins) and breast cancer in some case-control studies and occupational cohort studies. We previously reported high serum levels of p,p'-DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE in women living throughout Vietnam. We report here the results of a small hospital-based case-control study examining the association between blood levels of p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE and the risk of invasive breast cancer among residents of the north of Vietnam-an area where insecticides such as p,p'-DDT have been heavily used in the recent past. The study was conducted among patients admitted to a single hospital in the capital city of Hanoi in 1994. Study subjects were 21 women newly diagnosed with invasive adenocarcinoma of the breast, who served as cases, and 21 women of similar age with fibrocystic breast disease, who served as controls. No increase was evident in the relative risk of breast cancer with increasing tertiles of serum concentration of the compounds of interest, even after adjustment for major potential confounders, such as age at menarche, parity, history of lactation, and body weight. These results suggest that recent and past exposure to p,p'-DDT does not play an important role in the etiology of breast cancer among women living in a country with a tropical climate where insecticide use for mosquito control is common.

  17. Atmospheric radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor accident observed in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Long, N Q; Truong, Y; Hien, P D; Binh, N T; Sieu, L N; Giap, T V; Phan, N T

    2012-09-01

    Radionuclides from the reactor accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant were observed in the surface air at stations in Hanoi, Dalat, and Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) in Vietnam, about 4500 km southwest of Japan, during the period from March 27 to April 22, 2011. The maximum activity concentrations in the air measured at those three sites were 193, 33, and 37 μBq m(-3) for (131)I, (13)(4)Cs, and (13)(7)Cs, respectively. Peaks of radionuclide concentrations in the air corresponded to arrival of the air mass from Fukushima to Vietnam after traveling for 8 d over the Pacific Ocean. Cesium-134 was detected with the (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio of about 0.85 in line with observations made elsewhere. The (131)I/(137)Cs activity ratio was observed to decrease exponentially with time as expected from radioactive decay. The ratio at Dalat, where is 1500 m high, was higher than those at Hanoi and HCMC in low lands, indicating the relative enrichment of the iodine in comparison to cesium at high altitudes. The time-integrated surface air concentrations of the Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the Southeast Asia showed exponential decrease with distance from Fukushima.

  18. Blood levels of DDT and breast cancer risk among women living in the north of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Schecter, A; Toniolo, P; Dai, L C; Thuy, L T; Wolff, M S

    1997-11-01

    A positive association has been reported between elevated tissue organochlorines (p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE, PCBs, dioxins) and breast cancer in some case-control studies and occupational cohort studies. We previously reported high serum levels of p,p'-DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE in women living throughout Vietnam. We report here the results of a small hospital-based case-control study examining the association between blood levels of p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE and the risk of invasive breast cancer among residents of the north of Vietnam-an area where insecticides such as p,p'-DDT have been heavily used in the recent past. The study was conducted among patients admitted to a single hospital in the capital city of Hanoi in 1994. Study subjects were 21 women newly diagnosed with invasive adenocarcinoma of the breast, who served as cases, and 21 women of similar age with fibrocystic breast disease, who served as controls. No increase was evident in the relative risk of breast cancer with increasing tertiles of serum concentration of the compounds of interest, even after adjustment for major potential confounders, such as age at menarche, parity, history of lactation, and body weight. These results suggest that recent and past exposure to p,p'-DDT does not play an important role in the etiology of breast cancer among women living in a country with a tropical climate where insecticide use for mosquito control is common. PMID:9419265

  19. Households as Foci for Dengue Transmission in Highly Urban Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Anders, Katherine L.; Nga, Le Hong; Thuy, Nguyen Thi Van; Ngoc, Tran Van; Tam, Cao Thi; Tai, Luong Thi Hue; Truong, Nguyen Thanh; Duyen, Huynh Thi Le; Trung, Vu Tuan; Kien, Duong Thi Hue; Wolbers, Marcel; Wills, Bridget; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Tho, Nguyen Dac; Simmons, Cameron P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue control programs commonly employ reactive insecticide spraying around houses of reported cases, with the assumption that most dengue virus (DENV) transmission occurs in the home. Focal household transmission has been demonstrated in rural settings, but it is unclear whether this holds true in dense and mobile urban populations. We conducted a prospective study of dengue clustering around households in highly urban Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Methods We enrolled 71 index cases with suspected dengue (subsequently classified as 52 dengue cases and 19 non-dengue controls); each initiated the enrollment of a cluster of 25–35 household members and neighbors who were followed up over 14 days. Incident DENV infections in cluster participants were identified by RT-PCR, NS1-ELISA, and/or DENV-IgM/-IgG seroconversion, and recent infections by DENV-IgM positivity at baseline. Principal Findings/Conclusions There was no excess risk of DENV infection within dengue case clusters during the two-week follow-up, compared to control clusters, but the prevalence of recent DENV infection at baseline was two-fold higher in case clusters than controls (OR 2.3, 95%CI 1.0–5.1, p = 0.05). Prevalence of DENV infection in Aedes aegypti was similar in case and control houses, and low overall (1%). Our findings are broadly consistent with household clustering of dengue risk, but indicate that any clustering is at a short temporal scale rather than sustained chains of localized transmission. This suggests that reactive perifocal insecticide spraying may have a limited impact in this setting. PMID:25680106

  20. Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl acids in environmental waters in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Duong, Hanh Thi; Kadokami, Kiwao; Shirasaka, Hanako; Hidaka, Rento; Chau, Hong Thi Cam; Kong, Lingxiao; Nguyen, Trung Quang; Nguyen, Thao Thanh

    2015-03-01

    This is the first nationwide study of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in environmental waters in Vietnam. Twenty-eight river water and 22 groundwater samples collected in four major cities and 14 river water samples from the Red River were screened to investigate the occurrence and sources of 16 PFAAs. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were the most prevalent of 11 detected PFAAs with maximum concentrations in urban river water of 5.3, 18 and 0.93ngL(-1), respectively, and in groundwater of 8.2, 4.5 and 0.45ngL(-1), respectively. PFAAs in the Red River water were detected at low levels. PFAA concentrations in river water were higher in the rainy season than in the dry season, possibly due to storm water runoff, a common phenomenon in Southeast Asian countries. The highest concentrations of PFAAs in river water were observed in samples from highly populated and industrialized areas, perhaps sourced from sewage. The PFAA concentrations observed were similar to those in other Southeast Asian countries, but lower than in developed nations. From the composition profiles of PFAAs, industrial products containing PFAAs imported from China and Japan might be one of the major sources of PFAAs in the Vietnamese aquatic environment. According to the health-based values and advisory issued by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the concentrations of detected PFAAs in this study do not pose an immediate health risk to humans and aquatic organisms. PMID:25496738

  1. Molecular and morphological variation of Paragonimus westermani in Vietnam with records of new second intermediate crab hosts and a new locality in a northern province.

    PubMed

    Doanh, N Pham; Tu, A Luu; Bui, T Dung; Loan, T Ho; Nonaka, Nariaki; Horii, Yoichiro; Blair, David; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2016-10-01

    Paragonimus westermani is one of the most medically important lung flukes and is widely distributed in Asia. It exhibits considerable variation in morphological, genetic and biological features. In central provinces of Vietnam, a high prevalence of metacercariae of this species has been reported from the crab intermediate host, Vietopotamon aluoiense. In this study, we detected P. westermani metacercariae in two additional crab hosts, Donopotamon haii in Quang Tri Province, central Vietnam and Indochinamon tannanti in Yen Bai Province in the north. The latter is a new locality for P. westermani in a northern region of Vietnam where P. heterotremus is the only species currently known to cause human paragonimiasis. Paragonimus westermani metacercariae found in Vietnam showed considerable morphological variation but slight genetic variation based on DNA sequences from the nuclear ribosomal ITS2 region and the mitochondrial 16S gene. Co-infection of the same individual crabs with P. westermani and P. heterotremus and/or some other Paragonimus species was found frequently, suggesting potential for co-infection in humans. The findings of the present study emphasize the need for highly specific molecular and immunodiagnostic methods to differentially diagnose between P. westermani and P. heterotremus infections.

  2. Bacterial Diversity Associated with Wild Caught Anopheles Mosquitoes from Dak Nong Province, Vietnam Using Culture and DNA Fingerprint

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Chung Thuy; Aujoulat, Fabien; Veas, Francisco; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Manguin, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Background Microbiota of Anopheles midgut can modulate vector immunity and block Plasmodium development. Investigation on the bacterial biodiversity in Anopheles, and specifically on the identification of bacteria that might be used in malaria transmission blocking approaches, has been mainly conducted on malaria vectors of Africa. Vietnam is an endemic country for both malaria and Bancroftian filariasis whose parasitic agents can be transmitted by the same Anopheles species. No information on the microbiota of Anopheles mosquitoes in Vietnam was available previous to this study. Method The culture dependent approach, using different mediums, and culture independent (16S rRNA PCR – TTGE) method were used to investigate the bacterial biodiversity in the abdomen of 5 Anopheles species collected from Dak Nong Province, central-south Vietnam. Molecular methods, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were used to characterize the microbiota. Results and Discussion The microbiota in wild-caught Anopheles was diverse with the presence of 47 bacterial OTUs belonging to 30 genera, including bacterial genera impacting Plasmodium development. The bacteria were affiliated with 4 phyla, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, the latter being the dominant phylum. Four bacterial genera are newly described in Anopheles mosquitoes including Coxiella, Yersinia, Xanthomonas, and Knoellia. The bacterial diversity per specimen was low ranging from 1 to 4. The results show the importance of pairing culture and fingerprint methods to better screen the bacterial community in Anopheles mosquitoes. Conclusion Sampled Anopheles species from central-south Vietnam contained a diverse bacterial microbiota that needs to be investigated further in order to develop new malaria control approaches. The combination of both culture and DNA fingerprint methods allowed a thorough and complementary screening of the bacterial community in Anopheles mosquitoes. PMID:25747513

  3. Downscaling over Vietnam using the stretched-grid CCAM: verification of the mean and interannual variability of rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Kim C.; Katzfey, Jack J.; McGregor, John L.

    2014-08-01

    Rainfall over Vietnam is highly variable from north to south, due to the interaction of the monsoonal winds with the terrain. There is high rainfall from April to September, and little rainfall from October to March (except along the central Vietnam coast). In order to study the ability of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation stretched-grid Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM) to capture the climatic and interannual variability of rainfall, downscaled simulations at approximately 20 km horizontal resolution over the region were produced for the period 1979-2001. A scale-selective digital filter was used to force the winds, temperature and sea-level pressure from the ERA-Interim reanalysis for length scales greater than about 700 km. For wind and temperature, the forcing is applied for pressure-sigma levels above about 0.9. ERA-Interim sea surface temperatures were used over the oceans. The simulations were primarily validated against the gridded Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Toward Evaluation of the Water Resources rainfall dataset and station observations using standard statistical methods. It was found that CCAM reproduces well the amount and spatial variability of rainfall, with an area-averaged bias for the entire study domain of less than 1 mm day-1; CCAM is also able to capture the rainfall pattern under different El Niño Southern Oscillation phases reasonably well for the dry season. For interannual variability, the simulation generally performed better for North and Central Vietnam than for South Vietnam, where rainfall variability was overestimated.

  4. 75 FR 54087 - Education Trade Mission to Indonesia and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... colleges. English as a Second Language and English immersion programs and majors such as business management, engineering, information technologies, and sciences are popular among Vietnamese students... potential for business in Vietnam and Indonesia, including likelihood of exports resulting from the...

  5. Antifungal susceptibility of clinical and environmental Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii isolates in Jabalpur, a city of Madhya Pradesh in Central India

    PubMed Central

    Gutch, Ruchi Sethi; Nawange, Shesh Rao; Singh, Shankar Mohan; Yadu, Ruchika; Tiwari, Aditi; Gumasta, Richa; Kavishwar, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we present antifungal susceptibility data of clinical and environmental isolates of Central Indian Cryptococcus neoformans (Serotype A, n = 8 and n = 50 respectively) and Cryptococcus gattii (Serotype B, n = 01 and n = 04 respectively). Susceptibilities to fluconazole, itraconazole and ketoconazole were determined by using NCCLS broth micro-dilution methodology. The total number of resistant strains for fluconazole in case of C. neoformans and C. gattii showed a significant difference by using chi-square test (p < 0.05*), while considering fisher's exact p value was nonsignificant (p > 0.05). However, the total number of resistant strains for itraconazole and ketoconazole was not found statistically significant. A comparison of geometric means of clinical and environmental strains of C. gattii and C. neoformans was not found statistically significant using student ‘t’ test (p value > 0.05 NS). Though less, the antifungal data obtained in this study suggests that primary resistance among environmental and clinical isolates of C. neoformans and C. gattii against tested antifungal was present and C. gattii comparatively was less susceptible than C. neoformans var. grubii isolates to fluconazole than to itraconazole and ketoconazole. A continuous surveillance of antifungal susceptibility of clinical and environmental isolates of C. neoformans and C. gattii is desirable to monitor the emergence of any resistant strains for better management of cryptococcosis patients. PMID:26691471

  6. Dioxin in Vietnam: fighting a legacy of war.

    PubMed

    Booker, S M

    2001-03-01

    Singapore was the site of an East-West convergence over the week of 27 November-1 December 2000. At the behest of their respective governments, scientists from the United States and Vietnam came together for what promises to be the first of many meetings. Their mission: to explore the possibility of launching a joint research program to study the human and environmental health effects resulting from spraying Agent Orange and other herbicides during the Vietnam War.

  7. Mexico City

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... Two small brighter patches within the hazy area indicate low fog. In the left-hand panel, the city basin appears significantly clearer, but ... very high altitudes, in contrast to the low-lying haze and fog near Mexico City. When the stereo retrieval determines that a location is ...

  8. Atypical Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this creative challenge, Surrealism and one-point perspective combine to produce images that not only go "beyond the real" but also beyond the ubiquitous "imaginary city" assignment often used to teach one-point perspective. Perhaps the difference is that in the "atypical cities challenge," an understanding of one-point perspective is a means…

  9. City Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dargan, Amanda; Zeitlin, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Today, fewer city blocks preserve the confidence of lifestyle and urban geography that sustain traditional games and outdoor play. Large groups of children choosing sides and organizing Red Rover games are no longer commonplace. Teachers must encourage free play; urban planners must build cities that are safe play havens. (MLH)

  10. Trading legitimacy: everyday corruption and its consequences for medical regulation in southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Lê, Gillian

    2013-09-01

    Government regulation of health professionals is believed to ensure the efficacy and expertise of practitioners for and on behalf of patients. Certification and licensing are two common means to do so, legalizing a physician to practice medicine. However, ethnography from Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) suggests that in corrupt socioeconomic environments, certification and licensing can alternatively produce a trade in legitimacy. Drawing on participant observations during 15 months of fieldwork with 25 medical acupuncturists in private practice in HCMC, southern Vietnam, and their patients, I argue that everyday practices of corruption and the importance of personal networks meant that legality, efficacy, and expertise separated. Certificates and licenses did not unproblematically validate expertise and efficacy. Consequently, compliance and enforcement of regulations as solutions to inadequate medical care may not achieve the effects intended. PMID:24248995

  11. HIV risk behaviors among three classes of female sex workers in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le, Mai-Nhung; D'Onofrio, Carol N; Rogers, John D

    2010-01-01

    Increases in the rate of HIV infection in Vietnam among female sex workers and their clients require more effective preventive interventions based on a better understanding of this population and important subgroups within it. Because little was known about women in the hospitality sex industry, this study compared demographic and work characteristics, history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and condom use among a sample of 310 female sex workers in low-, middle-, and high-class hospitality businesses in Ho Chi Minh City (mean age = 26.77 years, SD = 6.17). Data were collected through individual, face-to-face, semistructured interviews. Logistic regression models were used to identify demographic predictors of the incidence of STIs and reported condom use. Low occupational status was most strongly associated with a history of STIs, and use of condoms with new and regular clients also differed by occupational class. Implications are discussed.

  12. Trading legitimacy: everyday corruption and its consequences for medical regulation in southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Lê, Gillian

    2013-09-01

    Government regulation of health professionals is believed to ensure the efficacy and expertise of practitioners for and on behalf of patients. Certification and licensing are two common means to do so, legalizing a physician to practice medicine. However, ethnography from Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) suggests that in corrupt socioeconomic environments, certification and licensing can alternatively produce a trade in legitimacy. Drawing on participant observations during 15 months of fieldwork with 25 medical acupuncturists in private practice in HCMC, southern Vietnam, and their patients, I argue that everyday practices of corruption and the importance of personal networks meant that legality, efficacy, and expertise separated. Certificates and licenses did not unproblematically validate expertise and efficacy. Consequently, compliance and enforcement of regulations as solutions to inadequate medical care may not achieve the effects intended.

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in the aquatic environment of the Mekong River, South of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fernando P; Villeneuve, J-P; Cattini, C; Thuan, Dao Dinh; Nhan, Dang Duc

    2009-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCBs) were analyzed in sediments and clams' soft tissues from sampling sites in the Mekong River delta from the border with Cambodia to the coast of South China Sea. Concentrations of 13 individual PCB congeners are reported. Median concentration of SigmaPCB congeners was 0.279 ng g(-1) dry weight (range 0.106-2.016 ng g(-1) dry weight) in sediments, and 5.20 ng g(-1) dry weight (range 1.89-19.37 ng g(-1)) in clams. Distribution and bioaccumulation of PCBs in the delta are discussed. It is concluded that in the Mekong River delta PCB concentrations were generally lower than in other regions of Vietnam and their likely sources have been waste discharges from repair workshops and other facilities in the delta cities.

  14. Design and methods of the national Vietnam veterans longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Schlenger, William E; Corry, Nida H; Kulka, Richard A; Williams, Christianna S; Henn-Haase, Clare; Marmar, Charles R

    2015-09-01

    The National Vietnam Veterans Longitudinal Study (NVVLS) is the second assessment of a representative cohort of US veterans who served during the Vietnam War era, either in Vietnam or elsewhere. The cohort was initially surveyed in the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS) from 1984 to 1988 to assess the prevalence, incidence, and effects of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other post-war problems. The NVVLS sought to re-interview the cohort to assess the long-term course of PTSD. NVVLS data collection began July 3, 2012 and ended May 17, 2013, comprising three components: a mailed health questionnaire, a telephone health survey interview, and, for a probability sample of theater Veterans, a clinical diagnostic telephone interview administered by licensed psychologists. Excluding decedents, 78.8% completed the questionnaire and/or telephone survey, and 55.0% of selected living veterans participated in the clinical interview. This report provides a description of the NVVLS design and methods. Together, the NVVRS and NVVLS constitute a nationally representative longitudinal study of Vietnam veterans, and extend the NVVRS as a critical resource for scientific and policy analyses for Vietnam veterans, with policy relevance for Iraq and Afghanistan veterans.

  15. United States national security policy making and Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    The United States failed to achieve its goals in waging a war in Vietnam. This thesis endeavors to show that this failure was due to errors in the formulation of American national security policy regarding Vietnam. The policy making process went astray, at least in part, due to a narrowing of the role of senior military officers as national security policy makers. The restricted role of senior officers as national security policy makers adversely affected American policy formulation regarding Vietnam. The United States response to the coup against Diem in 1963 and the deployment of conventional American forces to ground combat in Vietnam, in 1965 were undertaken without a clear recognition of the considerable costs of the commitments being assumed. Senior military officers had prompted such a recognition in similar previous crises but were not in a policy making position to do so concerning Vietnam. The policymaking input that was absent was ethical counsel of a fundamental nature. Clausewitz viewed the mortality of a war as being embodied in the national will to fight that war. The absence of an accurate appreciation of the costs of a military solution in Vietnam denied civilian officials a critical policy making factor and contributed significantly to the defeat of the American purpose there.

  16. Evolution and phylogeographic dissemination of endemic porcine picornaviruses in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lu; Van Dung, Nguyen; Bryant, Juliet E.; Carrique-Mas, Juan; Van Cuong, Nguyen; Anh, Pham Honh; Rabaa, Maia A.; Baker, Stephen; Simmonds, Peter; Woolhouse, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Picornaviridae are important and often zoonotic viruses responsible for a variety of human and animal diseases. However, the evolution and spatial dissemination of different picornaviruses circulating in domestic animals are not well studied. We examined the rate of evolution and time of origin of porcine enterovirus G (EV-G) and porcine kobuvirus species C lineages (PKV-C) circulating in pig farms in Vietnam and from other countries. We further explored the spatiotemporal spread of EV-G and PKV-C in Southwest Vietnam using phylogeographic models. Multiple types of EV-G are co-circulating in Vietnam. The two dominant EV-G types among isolates from Vietnam (G1 and G6) showed strong phylogenetic clustering. Three clades of PKV-C (PKV-C1-3) represent more recent introductions into Vietnam; PKV-C2 is closely related to PKV-C from Southwest China, indicating possible cross-border dissemination. In addition, high virus lineage migration rates were estimated within four districts in Dong Thap province in Vietnam for both EV-G types (G1, G6) and all PKV-C (C1-3) clades. We found that Chau Thanh district is a primary source of both EV-G and PKV-C clades, consistent with extensive pig trading in and out of the district. Understanding the evolution and spatial dissemination of endemic picornaviruses in pigs may inform future strategies for the surveillance and control of picornaviruses. PMID:27774295

  17. Design and methods of the national Vietnam veterans longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Schlenger, William E; Corry, Nida H; Kulka, Richard A; Williams, Christianna S; Henn-Haase, Clare; Marmar, Charles R

    2015-09-01

    The National Vietnam Veterans Longitudinal Study (NVVLS) is the second assessment of a representative cohort of US veterans who served during the Vietnam War era, either in Vietnam or elsewhere. The cohort was initially surveyed in the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS) from 1984 to 1988 to assess the prevalence, incidence, and effects of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other post-war problems. The NVVLS sought to re-interview the cohort to assess the long-term course of PTSD. NVVLS data collection began July 3, 2012 and ended May 17, 2013, comprising three components: a mailed health questionnaire, a telephone health survey interview, and, for a probability sample of theater Veterans, a clinical diagnostic telephone interview administered by licensed psychologists. Excluding decedents, 78.8% completed the questionnaire and/or telephone survey, and 55.0% of selected living veterans participated in the clinical interview. This report provides a description of the NVVLS design and methods. Together, the NVVRS and NVVLS constitute a nationally representative longitudinal study of Vietnam veterans, and extend the NVVRS as a critical resource for scientific and policy analyses for Vietnam veterans, with policy relevance for Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. PMID:26096554

  18. The first M L scale for North of Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Le Minh; Lin, Ting-Li; Wu, Yih-Min; Huang, Bor-Shouh; Chang, Chien-Hsin; Huang, Win-Gee; Le, Tu Son; Dinh, Van Toan

    2011-01-01

    The first local magnitude scale ( M L) for Northern Vietnam has been derived using a portable broadband seismic network in Northern Vietnam as part of the cooperation between the Vietnam Institute of Geophysics and the Institute of Earth Sciences at Academia Sinica, Taiwan. The composite horizontal peak amplitude data used in this study is comprised a total of 202 amplitude records from 14 broadband stations, which measure 36 shallow earthquakes with focal depths less than 36 km, occurred in and around north-western Vietnam during 01/2006-10/2007. The new distance-correction function obtained in this study is -logA0=1.74log(r)+0.00048r-0.522, where A0 and r are the empirically determined distance correction and hypocentral distance, respectively. This distance-correction relation for Northern Vietnam is quite similar to one for southern California, implying relative efficient attenuation with distances. The correlation between the new M L and duration magnitudes ( M d), which is still being used for making the official earthquake bulletin in Vietnam, is expressed as ML=0.955Md+0.17.

  19. Eco-hydrological modeling in a tropical area of Vietnam using SWAT model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiei Emam, Ammar; Kappas, Martin; Nguyen Hoang Khanh, Linh; Renchin, Tsolmon

    2016-04-01

    The tropical area of Vietnam is suffering from mismanagement of water and land resources which leads to rising floods, surface runoff and soil erosion. We used an eco-hydrological model based on SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) in Aluoi district as a representative case study of Central Vietnam. In addition to water balance calculation we simulated the flooding behavior on a single severe event (16th October 2007) by SWAT model. The model was calibrated based on multi-objective functions for stream flow and actual evapotranspiration (ETa). Nevertheless, observed stream flow was predicted by a regionalization approach and Eta-data were derived from MODIS time-series. The results of calibration and validation of model were pretty good with a high Nash-Sutcliff coefficient of 0.72 and 0.82 for river discharge and 0.77 and 0.79 for ETa, respectively. The monthly average of eight-year simulation (2006-2013) showed that the highest surface runoff occurred in October while the ratio of ETa /rainfall is the lowest, and the lowest surface runoff happened in February when the ratio of Eta /rainfall is the highest. The flooding behavior revealed that the peak flow was under predicted about 10 percent, roughly 1331 m3/s. However, the water depth was estimated approximately 7.5 m in the Main River. This water-level generated overflow of the river banks and led to inundation of land and endangered infrastructure and human life in downstream areas. Hence, best management practices (e.g. Terracing) are recommended to reduce surface runoff and flooding forces in Aluoi district of Vietnam.

  20. Modelling and evaluating municipal solid waste management strategies in a mega-city: the case of Ho Chi Minh City.

    PubMed

    ThiKimOanh, Le; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline M; van Buuren, Joost Cl; van der Vorst, Jack Gaj; Rulkens, Wim H

    2015-04-01

    Ho Chi Minh City is a large city that will become a mega-city in the near future. The city struggles with a rapidly increasing flow of municipal solid waste and a foreseeable scarcity of land to continue landfilling, the main treatment of municipal solid waste up to now. Therefore, additional municipal solid waste treatment technologies are needed. The objective of this article is to support decision-making towards more sustainable and cost-effective municipal solid waste strategies in developing countries, in particular Vietnam. A quantitative decision support model is developed to optimise the distribution of municipal solid waste from population areas to treatment plants, the treatment technologies and their capacities for the near future given available infrastructure and cost factors.

  1. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in east-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, G.P.; Runkle, Donna; Rea, Alan; Becker, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in east-central Oklahoma. Ground water in 710 square miles of Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River is an important source of water for irrigation, industrial, municipal, stock, and domestic supplies. The aquifer, composed of alluvial and terrace deposits, consists of sand, silt, clay, and gravel. The aquifer is underlain and in hydraulic connection with the upper zone of the Permian-age Garber-Wellington aquifer and the Pennsylvanian-age Ada-Vamoosa aquifer. Most of the lines in the four digital data sets were digitized from a published ground-water modeling report but portions of the aquifer boundary data set was extracted from published digital geologic data sets. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

  2. The backbone of a city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scellato, S.; Cardillo, A.; Latora, V.; Porta, S.

    2006-03-01

    Recent studies have revealed the importance of centrality measures to analyze various spatial factors affecting human life in cities. Here we show how it is possible to extract the backbone of a city by deriving spanning trees based on edge betweenness and edge information. By using as sample cases the cities of Bologna and San Francisco, we show how the obtained trees are radically different from those based on edge lengths, and allow an extended comprehension of the “skeleton” of most important routes that so much affects pedestrian/vehicular flows, retail commerce vitality, land-use separation, urban crime and collective dynamical behaviours.

  3. Elemental composition of tropospheric aerosols in Hanoi, Vietnam and Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Gatari, Michael; Wagner, Annemarie; Boman, Johan

    2005-04-01

    Air pollution problems in major cities within the developing countries need to be studied. There are scanty measurements from the developing countries on airborne particles despite their adverse implications to human health, visibility and climate. One of the major sources of anthropogenic air pollution is energy production. Energy demand is bound to increase as population increases, especially in major cities of the world. Fine particles, particles with aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm, are mainly anthropogenic and these particles were collected in the capital cities of Vietnam and Kenya. A cyclone airborne particle collector was used to sample in Hanoi during the months of May to October 2000 and a dichotomous virtual impactor in Nairobi in February 2000. The samples were analysed for elemental content by an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer. S, Cl, K and Fe exceeded atmospheric concentrations of 100 ng m(-3) at both cities. Atmospheric elemental concentrations in both Hanoi and Nairobi were orders of magnitude higher than their respective rural towns. Traffic, biomass and waste burning emissions were implicated as the main sources of air pollution in Nairobi, while coal combustion and road transport were the major sources in Hanoi. Regional air pollution had a major impact over Hanoi, whereas an influence of that kind was not identified in Nairobi. Pb and other toxic elements had concentration levels below WHO guideline, however, the two cities are threatened by future high levels of air pollution due to the high rate of population growth. Long-term measurements are required in both areas to evaluate if the alarming situation is deteriorating.

  4. Hepatitis C and B virus infections in populations at low or high risk in Ho Chi Minh and Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nakata, S; Song, P; Duc, D D; Nguyen, X Q; Murata, K; Tsuda, F; Okamoto, H

    1994-01-01

    Inhabitants and patients of two cities in Vietnam were tested for antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs). Anti-HCV was detected in 43 (9%) of 491 individuals without liver disease in Ho Chi Minh, more frequently (P < 0.001) than in 18 (4%) of 511 in Hanoi. There was no apparent age-specific distribution of anti-HCV. Among inhabitants of both cities, HBsAg and anti-HBs were frequent, detected in 10-14% and 35-37%, respectively; the prevalence of anti-HBs increased in parallel with age. Among individuals at high risk, the prevalence of anti-HCV was particularly high in drug users (58/67 or 87%) and patients on maintenance haemodialysis (15/28 or 54%) or with haemophilia (7/24 or 29%) in Ho Chi Minh, and in drug users in Hanoi (61/200 or 31%). Prevalence of HBsAg and anti-HBs in high-risk groups was not different from those in the general population. Screening of anti-HCV in blood donors in Vietnam is of urgent necessity because blood supply is dependent on commercial blood donors, many of whom are drug users at high risk.

  5. Fluxes of energy, H2O, and CO2 between the atmosphere and the monsoon tropical forest in Southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kurbatova, Yu A; Kuricheva, O A; Avilov, V K; Dinh, Ba Duy; Kuznetsov, A N

    2015-01-01

    The 2.5-year dynamics of heat, water and carbon dioxide fluxes in the tropical monsoon semi-evergreen forest in Southern Vietnam obtained by means of continuous eddy covariance observations using standard procedures of FLUXNET global network are analyzed. The features of wet seasons during the measurement period were close to long-term average ones, but dry seasons had a great heterogeneity. The maximal duration of the period with little precipitation was 4 months. The annual radiation balance in the south of Vietnam exceeded the balance at all stations of FLUXNET in tropical forests, except one. Annual evapotranspiration in monsoon forest of south of Vietnam is approximately equal to the evaporation of the rain forests of Central Amazonia. During the wet season evapotranspiration spent 80% of the radiation balance, and in the driest months this value decreased to 50%. In the dry season reduction of evapotranspiration and gross primary production was relatively small due to photosynthesizing trees of 2-4 canopy sub-layers. For the first time a large net sink of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere in the monsoon forest ecosystem was identified. PMID:26530065

  6. Detection of HPAI H5N1 viruses in ducks sampled from live bird markets in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Phan, M Q; Henry, W; Bui, C B; DO, D H; Hoang, N V; Thu, N T; Nguyen, T T; LE, T D; Diep, T Q; Inui, K; Weaver, J; Carrique-Mas, J

    2013-03-01

    In Vietnam, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 infections in poultry often occur without concomitant clinical signs and outbreaks are not consistently reported. Live bird markets represent a convenient site for surveillance that does not rely on farmers' notifications. Two H5N1 surveys were conducted at live bird markets/slaughter points in 39 districts (five provinces) in the Red River, Mekong delta, and central Vietnam during January and May 2011. Oropharyngeal and rectal swab samples from 12 480 ducks were tested for H5N1 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in pools of five. Traders and stallholders were interviewed using standardized questionnaires; 3·3% of pools tested positive. The highest prevalence (6·6%) corresponded to the Mekong delta, and no H5N1 was detected in the two Red River provinces. The surveys identified key risk behaviours of traders and stallholders. It is recommended that market surveys are implemented over time as a tool to evaluate progress in HPAI control in Vietnam. PMID:22651930

  7. Fluxes of energy, H2O, and CO2 between the atmosphere and the monsoon tropical forest in Southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kurbatova, Yu A; Kuricheva, O A; Avilov, V K; Dinh, Ba Duy; Kuznetsov, A N

    2015-01-01

    The 2.5-year dynamics of heat, water and carbon dioxide fluxes in the tropical monsoon semi-evergreen forest in Southern Vietnam obtained by means of continuous eddy covariance observations using standard procedures of FLUXNET global network are analyzed. The features of wet seasons during the measurement period were close to long-term average ones, but dry seasons had a great heterogeneity. The maximal duration of the period with little precipitation was 4 months. The annual radiation balance in the south of Vietnam exceeded the balance at all stations of FLUXNET in tropical forests, except one. Annual evapotranspiration in monsoon forest of south of Vietnam is approximately equal to the evaporation of the rain forests of Central Amazonia. During the wet season evapotranspiration spent 80% of the radiation balance, and in the driest months this value decreased to 50%. In the dry season reduction of evapotranspiration and gross primary production was relatively small due to photosynthesizing trees of 2-4 canopy sub-layers. For the first time a large net sink of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere in the monsoon forest ecosystem was identified.

  8. 77 FR 32930 - Certain Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... of the AD or CVD investigations. \\11\\ See Initiation, 77 FR at 3737. Injury Test Because Vietnam is a... Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination, 75 FR 16428 (April 1, 2010) (Carrier Bags from Vietnam Final... Department's practice.\\24\\ \\24\\ See Carrier Bags from Vietnam Preliminary Determination, 74 FR...

  9. Stratification and the Emergence of the Postsecondary Private Education Sector in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyette, Kimberly Ann

    2012-01-01

    Vietnam has a strong public postsecondary education sector that has only recently begun to experience growth in nonpublic institutions. I investigate how the growth of nonpublic institutions may be related to stratification in Vietnam. I find that these institutions are more likely to serve more advantaged students from South Vietnam. Students pay…

  10. The Assessment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Minority Vietnam Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaDue, Robin A.

    Vietnam veterans from racial or ethnic minority groups have a "double minority" status; clinicians treating these veterans should distinguish between behaviors resulting from experiences in Vietnam and those due to experiences as members of minority groups. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) affects an estimated 20% of all Vietnam veterans and…

  11. Making History Come Alive with the Nonfiction Literature of the Vietnam War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    2003-01-01

    Considers student response to nonfiction Vietnam War literature and discusses why students should study Vietnam War nonfiction. Presents strategies for teaching nonfiction Vietnam War literature. Presents follow-up research and writing activities that are designed to enable students to connect reading, writing, and thinking. Concludes that the…

  12. 78 FR 33342 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... warmwater shrimp (frozen shrimp) from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam). The period of... Investigation The products covered by this investigation are certain frozen warmwater shrimp and prawns,...

  13. 76 FR 65178 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... Administrative Review, 76 FR 17825 (March 31, 2011) (``Initiation Notice''). The preliminary results are... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') to January 30, 2012....

  14. 75 FR 16434 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... Combination Rates in Antidumping Investigations involving Non-Market Economy Countries, 70 FR 17233 (April 5... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') are being, or are likely to be, sold in the United States...

  15. "Never Forget the Sacrifice:" A Visit to Chu Van An High School in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, David M.

    1995-01-01

    Reports on a 1993 study tour of Vietnam by educators. Discusses the role of a secondary school during the struggle against French colonialism and the U.S.-Vietnam War. Argues that educators must acknowledge the humanity of the Vietnamese as the first step in designing Vietnam-related social studies curriculum. (CFR)

  16. 38 CFR 21.5020 - Post-Vietnam era veterans' educational assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Post-Vietnam era veterans... AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 General § 21.5020 Post-Vietnam era veterans' educational...

  17. 38 CFR 21.5020 - Post-Vietnam era veterans' educational assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Post-Vietnam era veterans... AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 General § 21.5020 Post-Vietnam era veterans' educational...

  18. 38 CFR 21.5020 - Post-Vietnam era veterans' educational assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Post-Vietnam era veterans... AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 General § 21.5020 Post-Vietnam era veterans' educational...

  19. 38 CFR 21.5020 - Post-Vietnam era veterans' educational assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Post-Vietnam era veterans... AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 General § 21.5020 Post-Vietnam era veterans' educational...

  20. 76 FR 16384 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Shipper Review, 75 FR 60730 (October 1, 2010). The preliminary results of this review are currently due no... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The period of review...