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  1. Child sexual abuse in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria: a sociological analysis.

    PubMed

    Omorodion, F I

    1994-01-01

    A study is presented of the reported cases of child rape in Benin City, the capital of Edo State in Nigeria. The conditions that make children, particularly females, more vulnerable to sexual abuse are explored. The organization of family life places children in a dependency cycle that makes rape both inevitable and invisible. Change that is responsive to family needs is more likely to have a positive effect in preventing child rape.

  2. Knowledge and practice of food hygiene and safety among food handlers in fast food restaurants in Benin City, Edo State.

    PubMed

    Isara, A R; Isah, E C

    2009-09-01

    To assess the knowledge and practice of food hygiene and safety among food handlers in fast food restaurants in Benin City, Edo State. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 350 respondents who were selected by means of a systematic sampling method and interviewed using a semi-structured researcher-administered questionnaire. An observational checklist was thereafter used to inspect their personal hygiene status. The mean age of the food handlers was 26.4 +/- 6.1 years. Two hundred and twenty eight (65.1%) were females while 34.9% were males. A majority (98%) of the respondents had formal education. There was good knowledge and practice of food hygiene and safety among the respondents. Knowledge was significantly influenced by previous training in food hygiene and safety (p = 0.002). Food handlers who had worked for longer years in the fast food restaurants had better practice of food hygiene and safety (p = 0.036). The level of education of respondents did not significantly influenced their practice of food hygiene and safety (p = 0.084). Although, 299 (85.4%) food handlers were generally clean, skin lesions was seen in 4 (7.3%) of them. This study showed good knowledge and practice of food hygiene and safety by food handlers in the fast food restaurants in Benin City, but there is need for improvement through training and retraining of food handlers by the management of the restaurants and the local government authorities.

  3. Food contamination in fast food restaurants in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria: Implications for food hygiene and safety.

    PubMed

    Isara, A R; Isah, E C; Lofor, P V O; Ojide, C K

    2010-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of food contamination in the fast food restaurants operating in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. Three hundred and fifty food handlers were selected by means of a systematic sampling method and interviewed using a semi-structured researcher-administered questionnaire. One hundred and sixty-eight samples of ready-to-eat food and 45 stool samples were collected and analysed in the laboratory for the presence of bacteria (excluding anaerobic bacteria). More than half of the respondents (n=184, 52.6%) had no training in food hygiene and safety. Only 149 (42.6%) respondents knew that micro-organisms can contaminate food. The prevalence of food contamination in the fast food restaurants was found to be 37.5%. Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus were the most commonly isolated bacteria, while salad, meat pie and fried rice were the most commonly contaminated foods. There is need for the relevant local authorities to ensure that the food sold to consumers in fast food restaurants is safe, wholesome and fit for human consumption in order to prevent outbreaks of food-borne illnesses. Also, there should be regular training/retraining and health education of these food handlers in all aspects of food hygiene and safety. Copyright 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sexual networking of market women in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omorodion, F I

    1993-01-01

    The manifestation of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) all over the world has increased the need for information on the nature and pattern of sexual networking in Africa, where there is a dearth of such information. In the present study, information on the sexual networking of market women in Benin City, Nigeria, was obtained using a questionnaire instrument. The questionnaire covered the sexual, reproductive, and health behaviors of these women. The data revealed that the levels of both premarital and extramarital sexual networking are high. Such a high degree of sexual networking has exposed a number of these women to sexually transmitted diseases. The manifestation of AIDS in this society will be widespread and devastating to the people and the society because these women are in a polygamous relationship in a society that frowns on the use of contraceptives by couples. In addition, controversies surround the correlation between socioeconomic status (SES) and AIDS, geographical areas of prevalence, and the role of prostitutes in the spread of the disease. For example, studies in Africa show that whereas there is no correlation between SES and AIDS in Kinshasa, the attack rate was higher in educated people in Rwanda and Zambia. Moreover, there are predominantly urban outbreaks in other countries, such as Uganda (Piot & Carael, 1988).

  5. Pattern of skin diseases at university of Benin teaching hospital, Benin city, Edo State, South-South Nigeria: a 12 month prospective study.

    PubMed

    Ukonu, Agwu Bob; Eze, E U

    2012-04-28

    This study aims to look at the pattern and incidence of skin diseases seen in Dermatology/Venereology clinic at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, South-South Zone, Nigeria and compare it with other zones of Nigeria. This was a prospective study on pattern and incidence of skin diseases in new patients presenting at the Dermatology/ Venereology outpatient clinic of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, South-South, Nigeria, from September 2006 to August 2007. All patients were seen by the researchers. Diagnosis were made clinically and sometimes with the support of histopathology. A total number of 4786 patients were seen during the study period and these comprised 2647 HIV/AIDS patients and 2112 pure Dermatological patients. Out of 4786 patients, 755 (15.8%) were new patients. The new patients comprised 96 (12.7%) children patients (< 15 years) and 659 (83.7%) adult patients (>15years). The ages of the patients ranged from 2 weeks to 80 years and more than two-third were < 40 years. There were 354 males (46.9%) and 401 females (53.1%). This represents female: male ratio of 1.1: 1. Eczematous dermatitis accounted for 20.9% of the skin diseases and was the most common of the skin diseases observed. This is consistent with observation from other zones in Nigeria. Other skin diseases observed in order of frequencies include: Papulosqamous disorder (9.0%), Infectious skin diseases like fungal, viral, bacterial and parasitic infestation, at 7.9%, 7.7%, 2.3% and 2.1% respectively. Pigmentary disorders (5.0%), hair disorders (4.2%) and Benign neoplastic skin disease (6.5%). All the patients that had neurofibromatosis were females (1.9%). HIV-related skin diseases were observed to have increased remarkably (7.9%) with Kaposi's sarcoma, papular pruritic eruptions and drug eruptions being the commonest mode of presentation. The current pattern of skin diseases in Benin City, South-South Nigeria seems to

  6. Pattern of Skin Diseases at University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, South-South Nigeria: A 12 Month Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Ukonu, B. A.; Eze, E. U

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective: This study aims to look at the pattern and incidence of skin diseases seen in Dermatology/Venereology clinic at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, South-South Zone, Nigeria and compare it with other zones of Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study on pattern and incidence of skin diseases in new patients presenting at the Dermatology/Venereology outpatient clinic of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, South-South, Nigeria, from September 2006 to August 2007. All patients were seen by the researchers. Diagnosis were made clinically and sometimes with the support of histopathology. Results: A total number of 4786 patients were seen during the study period and these comprised 2647 HIV/AIDS patients and 2112 pure Dermatological patients. Out of 4786 patients, 755 (15.8%) were new patients. The new patients comprised 96 (12.7%) children patients (< 15 years) and 659 (83.7%) adult patients (>15years). The ages of the patients ranged from 2 weeks to 80 years and more than two-third were < 40 years. There were 354 males (46.9%) and 401 females (53.1%). This represents female: male ratio of 1.1: 1. Eczematous dermatitis accounted for 20.9% of the skin diseases and was the most common of the skin diseases observed. This is consistent with observation from other zones in Nigeria. Other skin diseases observed in order of frequencies include: Papulosqamous disorder (9.0%), Infectious skin diseases like fungal, viral, bacterial and parasitic infestation, at 7.9%, 7.7%, 2.3% and 2.1% respectively. Pigmentary disorders (5.0%), hair disorders (4.2%) and Benign neoplastic skin disease (6.5%). All the patients that had neurofibromatosis were females (1.9%). HIV-related skin diseases were observed to have increased remarkably (7.9%) with Kaposi’s sarcoma, papular pruritic eruptions and drug eruptions being the commonest mode of presentation. Conclusion: The current pattern of

  7. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositivity and hepatitis B surface antigenemia (HBSAG) among blood donors in Benin city, Edo state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Umolu, Patience Idia; Okoror, Lawrence Ehis; Orhue, Philip

    2005-03-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B virus are blood borne pathogens that can be transmitted through blood transfusion and could pose a huge problem in areas where mechanisms of ensuring blood safety are suspect. This study became necessary in a population where most of the blood for transfusion is from commercial blood donors. A total of 130 donors comprising 120 commercial donors and 10 voluntary donors were tested for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B surface antigen in Benin city using Immunocomb HIV - 1 and 2 Biospot kit and Quimica Clinica Aplicada direct latex agglutination method respectively. Thirteen (10%) samples were HIV seropositive and 7(5.8%) were HBsAg positive. The age bracket 18 - 25years had the highest numbers of donors and also had the highest number of HBsAg positive cases (7.8%) while the age group 29 - 38years had highest number of HIV seropositive cases. High prevalence of HIV antibodies and Hepatitis B surface antigen was found among commercial blood donors. Appropriate and compulsory screening of blood donors using sensitive methods, must be ensured to prevent post transfusion hepatitis and HIV.

  8. Factors Affecting Gender Equity in the Choice of Science and Technology Careers among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osagie, Roseline O.; Alutu, Azuka N.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the factors affecting gender equity in science and technology among senior secondary school students. The study was carried out at the University of Benin Demonstration Secondary School in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. One hundred and fifty students of average age 15 years in their penultimate year were administered the…

  9. Characteristics of snail farming in Edo South Agricultural Zone of Edo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chah, Jane Mbolle; Inegbedion, Grace

    2013-02-01

    The study was carried out to determine the characteristics of snail farming in Edo South Agricultural Zone of Edo State Nigeria. The interview schedule was used to collect data from 60 snail farmers randomly selected from six cells in the study area. Information on the socioeconomic status of the farmers, production system, management practices and production constraints in the snail farms were elicited. The constraints were determined using a four-point Likert-type scale; a mean score of ≥ 2.5 was considered as a production constraint. Majority (85.0 %) of the respondents were part-time snail farmers. The major species of snails reared were Achatina achatina and Archachatina marginata, reared by 43.3 and 26.7 % of the farmers, respectively. Semi-intensive system of production was practised by 40.0 % of the farmers. Majority (78.0 %) of the respondents used car tyres to house their snails. About 56 % of the respondents kept their snails for 1-2 years before sale. Up to 51.7 % of the respondents separated their snails into different pens according to their size/age. The most commonly used feeds were vegetables (71.2 %), plant leaves (67.8 %) and kitchen waste (59.3 %). Records of snail production activities were kept by 75.0 % of respondents. The major constraints identified were lack of capital (3.31), inability to get good laying stock (3.00), lack of formulated feed to buy (2.98) and slow growth rate of snails (2.52). The potentials of snail farming in the study area have not been fully exploited as farmers produced at subsistence level.

  10. Status of Health Appraisal Services for Primary School Children in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojugo, Augustine I.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the status of the health appraisal services provided for primary school children in Edo State, Nigeria. Using the cross-sectional survey design a total of 1506 primary school children were selected from across the state as the study participants. The analysis of data collected through a 14-item…

  11. Mathematics Teachers' Use of Ethnomathematics Approach in Mathematics Teaching in Edo State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikpitanyi, Lucky Aiwuyor; Eraikhuemen, Lucy

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated mathematics teachers' use of ethnomathematics approach to teaching. Descriptive survey research was used with a target population of all mathematics teacher in all public secondary schools in Oredo, Egor and Ikpoba-Okha local government areas of Edo State out of which 121 mathematics teachers in 42 randomly selected public…

  12. Assessing Students' Metacognitive Awareness of Learning Strategies among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoza, Jolly; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Owens-Sogolo, Osasere

    2013-01-01

    This study examined metacognitive awareness of learning strategies among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria. The study was an exploratory one, which utilized descriptive statistics. A total number of 1200 students drawn through multistage proportionate random sampling technique participated in the study. The study found that secondary…

  13. Political Empowerment of Women through Literacy Education Programmes in EDO and Delta States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olomukoro, Caroline O.; Adelore, Omobola O.

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the political empowerment of women through literacy education programmes in Edo and Delta States in the South-South Geopolitical zone of Nigeria. A sample of 1022 women was randomly drawn from the different levels of literacy classes organised by the Agency of Adult and Nonformal Education and non-governmental and private…

  14. Emotional Abuse of Secondary School Students by Teachers in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aluede, Oyaziwo; Ojugo, A. I.; Okoza, Jolly

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the forms of emotional abuse experienced by students and the percentage of victims that experience the various forms of emotional abuse. The survey design was adopted for this study. A total of 1,559 students drawn from public secondary schools in Edo State, Nigeria, who were randomly selected through the multi-stage…

  15. Political Empowerment of Women through Literacy Education Programmes in EDO and Delta States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olomukoro, Caroline O.; Adelore, Omobola O.

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the political empowerment of women through literacy education programmes in Edo and Delta States in the South-South Geopolitical zone of Nigeria. A sample of 1022 women was randomly drawn from the different levels of literacy classes organised by the Agency of Adult and Nonformal Education and non-governmental and private…

  16. An Assessment on Awareness and Acceptability of Child Adoption in Edo State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aluyor, P.; Salami, L. I.

    2017-01-01

    The study examines the awareness and acceptability of child adoption in Edo State. The design used for the study was survey design. The population for the study is made up of adults male and female in Esan West Local Government Area. One hundred respondents were randomly selected using random sampling techniques. The validity was ascertained by…

  17. Parental Involvement as a Correlate of Academic Achievement of Primary School Pupils in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fajoju, Samuel A.; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Ojugo, Augustine I.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parental involvement in children's education and the academic achievement of primary six pupils in Edo State, Nigeria. The ex-post facto research design was employed in this study. The sample consisted of 1,895 primary six pupils (1,024 males and 863 females drawn from 37,908 primary six pupils in…

  18. Parental Involvement as a Correlate of Academic Achievement of Primary School Pupils in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fajoju, Samuel A.; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Ojugo, Augustine I.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parental involvement in children's education and the academic achievement of primary six pupils in Edo State, Nigeria. The ex-post facto research design was employed in this study. The sample consisted of 1,895 primary six pupils (1,024 males and 863 females drawn from 37,908 primary six pupils in…

  19. Assessing Students' Metacognitive Awareness of Learning Strategies among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoza, Jolly; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Owens-Sogolo, Osasere

    2013-01-01

    This study examined metacognitive awareness of learning strategies among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria. The study was an exploratory one, which utilized descriptive statistics. A total number of 1200 students drawn through multistage proportionate random sampling technique participated in the study. The study found that secondary…

  20. Sustainability of Farm Credit Delivery by Cooperatives and NGOs in Edo and Delta States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alufohai, G. O.

    2006-01-01

    The paper examined the sustainability rates of co-operatives and NGOs in farm credit delivery in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria. The Subsidy Dependence Indices (SDI) and the capital formation rates were determined using both primary and secondary data obtained from 80 and 20 purposively selected cooperatives and NGOs respectively, based on their…

  1. Business Education Students' Evaluation of the Benefits and Challenges Confronting Student Industrial Works Experience Scheme in Edo and Delta States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olumese, H. A.; Ediagbonya, Kennedy

    2016-01-01

    This research paper specifically investigated Business Education students' evaluation of the benefits and challenges confronting Student Industrial Works Experience Scheme (SIWES) in Edo and Delta States. Two research questions were raised to guide the study and were answered descriptively. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for…

  2. Assessing Strategies for Reducing HIV/AIDS Scourge among Fitness and Recreation Student Clientele of EDO State Tertiary Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okunbor, A. O.; Agwubike, E. O.

    2007-01-01

    The study assessed strategies for reducing the HIV/AIDS scourge among fitness and recreation student clientele in Edo State tertiary institutions. A total of 192 males and 88 females participated in the study. The participants were drawn from five tertiary institutions and a self-structured questionnaire was used in collecting data for the study.…

  3. Predictive Factors in Undergraduates' Involvement in Campus Secret Cults in Public Universities in Edo State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azetta Arhedo, Philip; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Adomeh, Ilu O. C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the predictive factors in undergraduates' involvement in campus secret cults in public universities in Edo State of Nigeria. The study employed the descriptive method, specifically the survey format. A random sample of three hundred and eighty (380) undergraduates was drawn from the two public universities. Data were elicited…

  4. Predictive Factors in Undergraduates' Involvement in Campus Secret Cults in Public Universities in Edo State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azetta Arhedo, Philip; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Adomeh, Ilu O. C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the predictive factors in undergraduates' involvement in campus secret cults in public universities in Edo State of Nigeria. The study employed the descriptive method, specifically the survey format. A random sample of three hundred and eighty (380) undergraduates was drawn from the two public universities. Data were elicited…

  5. Female genital mutilation among Edo people: the complications and pattern of presentation at a pediatric surgery unit, Benin City.

    PubMed

    Osifo, David Osarumwese; Evbuomwan, Iyekoretin

    2009-03-01

    This prospective study on female genital mutilation among Edo people was based on female children and parents who presented on account of it at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria, between January 2002 and December 2007. During the period, 51 female children aged 10 days and 18 years presented with complications following genital mutilation. Twenty-nine were brought by their parents for mutilation while 67 parents interviewed believed strongly on female genital mutilation with 47 mothers mutilated. Religio-cultural and superstitious beliefs were the main indications and the type of mutilation ranged from excision of clitoridal tip in 10 (19.6%) children to complete excision of the clitoris, labia minora and inner layer of majora in 7 (13.7%). Complications ranged from clitoridal cyst formation in 21 (41.2%) to life threatening infections with one mortality due to tetanus infection.

  6. Comparative analysis of pathogenic organisms in cockroaches from different community settings in Edo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Clement; Orue, Philip Ogbeide; Iyamu, Mercy Itohan; Ehiaghe, Joy Imuetiyan; Isaac, Osesojie

    2014-04-01

    Cockroaches are abundant in Nigeria and are seen to harbour an array of pathogens. Environmental and sanitary conditions associated with demographic/socio-economic settings of an area could contribute to the prevalence of disease pathogens in cockroaches. A total of 246 cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in urban (Benin, n=91), semi-urban (Ekpoma, n=75) and rural (Emuhi, n=70) settings in Edo State, Nigeria were collected within and around households. The external body surfaces and alimentary canal of these cockroaches were screened for bacterial, fungal, and parasitological infections. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli were the most common bacteria in cockroaches. However, Enterococcus faecalis could not be isolated in cockroaches trapped from Ekpoma and Emuhi. Aspergillus niger was the most prevalent fungus in Benin and Ekpoma, while Mucor sp. was predominant in Emuhi. Parasitological investigations revealed the preponderance of Ascaris lumbricoides in Benin and Emuhi, while Trichuris trichura was the most predominant in Ekpoma. The prevalence and burden of infection in cockroaches is likely to be a reflection of the sanitary conditions of these areas. Also, cockroaches in these areas making incursions in homes may increase the risk of human infections with these disease agents.

  7. Assessing the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in health care delivery in Edo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Imogie, A O; Agwubike, E O; Aluko, K

    2002-08-01

    This study was conducted to assess the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in modern health care delivery in Edo State, Nigeria. A total of 391 respondents comprising 48 TBAs, 309 childbearing mothers and 34 medical and para-medical professionals constituted the study sample. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions as well as validated questionnaires were the tools used for data collection. The results reveal that respondents believe that TBAs can play meaningful roles in family planning, screening of high-risk pregnant mothers, fertility/infertility treatment and maternal and child care services. Rural dwellers prefer to use the services of TBAs, as compared to their urban counterparts. Reasons for the preference included TBAs, availability, accessibility, cheap services and rural dwellers' faith in the efficacy of their services. There is, therefore, the need to restructure the training of TBAs as well as to fully integrate their services into the Nigerian orthodox healthcare delivery system especially as they affect rural settings.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Pathogenic Organisms in Cockroaches from Different Community Settings in Edo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Orue, Philip Ogbeide; Iyamu, Mercy Itohan; Ehiaghe, Joy Imuetiyan; Isaac, Osesojie

    2014-01-01

    Cockroaches are abundant in Nigeria and are seen to harbour an array of pathogens. Environmental and sanitary conditions associated with demographic/socio-economic settings of an area could contribute to the prevalence of disease pathogens in cockroaches. A total of 246 cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in urban (Benin, n=91), semi-urban (Ekpoma, n=75) and rural (Emuhi, n=70) settings in Edo State, Nigeria were collected within and around households. The external body surfaces and alimentary canal of these cockroaches were screened for bacterial, fungal, and parasitological infections. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli were the most common bacteria in cockroaches. However, Enterococcus faecalis could not be isolated in cockroaches trapped from Ekpoma and Emuhi. Aspergillus niger was the most prevalent fungus in Benin and Ekpoma, while Mucor sp. was predominant in Emuhi. Parasitological investigations revealed the preponderance of Ascaris lumbricoides in Benin and Emuhi, while Trichuris trichura was the most predominant in Ekpoma. The prevalence and burden of infection in cockroaches is likely to be a reflection of the sanitary conditions of these areas. Also, cockroaches in these areas making incursions in homes may increase the risk of human infections with these disease agents. PMID:24850961

  9. Psychological morbidity, job satisfaction and intentions to quit among teachers in private secondary schools in Edo-State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ofili, A N; Usiholo, E A; Oronsaye, M O

    2009-01-01

    Teachers are an inseparable corner stone of the society and their satisfaction will affect the quality of service they render. Poor job satisfaction could result in job stress and this could affect their psychological health. This study aims to ascertain the level, causes of job dissatisfaction, intentions to quit and psychological morbidity among teachers in private secondary schools in a developing country. A cross-sectional study was conducted among teachers (392) in private secondary schools in Benin-City, Edo-State Nigeria, between June 2003 to November 2003. A total population of 400 teachers who had spent at least one year in the service were included in the study. The respondents completed a self-administered designed questionnaire and a standard instrument--The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 28) The response rate was 98%. Fifty-eight (14.8%) of the respondents had psychological morbidity (GHQ score of 4 and above). One hundred and seventy-eight (45.4%) teachers were very satisfied or satisfied with their jobs. A significant number (45.9%) of teachers would want to quit their jobs. The proportion of teachers with GHQ score 4 and above increased with the level of dissatisfaction but this was not found to be statistically significant. Poor salary was found to be the main cause of job dissatisfaction and major reason for wanting to quit the job. This study shows a low level of job satisfaction among Nigerian teachers. Poor salary was the major cause of job dissatisfaction and intention to quit. Further work need to be done to ascertain the association of psychological morbidity and job dissatisfaction.

  10. Quality assessment and public health status of harvested rainwater in a peri-urban community in Edo State of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Igbinosa, Isoken H; Aighewi, Isoken T

    2017-08-01

    The harvested rainwater is an alternative water source in communities where there is limited or scarcity of water distribution system. However, contamination of roof-harvested rainwater is of immense concern to the general public health. Therefore, this study was initiated to assess the levels of physicochemical quality and heavy metal concentrations in the harvested rainwater from Oluku communities in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. The roof-harvested rainwater samples were collected from 20 independent different residential households in Oluku communities, between April 2015 and September 2015. Physicochemical analyses were carried out using standard analytical methods, and heavy metal concentrations were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The evaluation of the rainwater harvesting shows that 60% (12/20) of the roofs were made of corrugated iron sheets; aluminum sheets, 20% (4/20); asbestos, 10% (2/20); and open space was 10% (2/20). Also, the storage systems used for the storage of harvested rainwater were as follows: PVC tanks, 20% (4/20); drums, 30% (6/20); buckets, 25% (5/20); and wells, 25% (5/20). The physicochemical indicators investigated (temperature, nitrate, chlorine content, electrical conductivity, phosphate, total dissolved solids, and sulfate) were within World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. However, some pH levels of the roof-harvested rainwater were acidic and below the WHO standard. Furthermore, a high value of turbidity was observed in some locations and exceeded the WHO guidelines. Though some heavy metal indicators (Zn, Na, K, and Ca) in this study were within the WHO guidelines, some locations revealed heavy metal (Cu, Fe, and Cd) concentrations slightly above the WHO guidelines. There is need for proper rainwater harvesting system and continuous monitoring of harvested rainwater for potable uses.

  11. Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory functions among quarry workers in Edo state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Isara, Alphonsus Rukevwe; Adam, Vincent Yakubu; Aigbokhaode, Adesuwa Queen; Alenoghena, Innocent Osi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Workers in the quarry industries are exposed to hazards resulting from the inhalation of air borne particulates. The study determined the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and assessed ventilatory functions among quarry workers in Edo state, Nigeria. Methods Quarry workers (site workers and office workers) were interviewed using structured questionnaire. FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC and PEFR were measured using a KoKo Legend spirometer. Results A total of 113 quarry workers (76 exposure and 37 controls) were studied. The exposure group had significantly higher occurrence of chest tightness (35.5%) compared with 16.2% of the controls (p < 0.05). The occurrence of cough (23.7% versus 13.5%), sputum (21.1% versus 16.2%), and dyspnoea (7.9% versus 5.4%), were higher in exposure groups while wheeze (10.8% versus 10.5%) and nasal congestion (27.0% and 25.0%) were higher in the control groups. The mean (SD) FEV1, and FVC were significantly lower among the exposure compared with the control group; 2.77L (0.73) versus 3.14L (0.78), p < 0.05, and 3.48L (0.84) versus 3.89L (0.92), p < 0.05. In both groups, smokers had significantly lower mean (SD) FEV1, FVC and PEFR compared with non-smokers; 2.91L (0.77) versus 3.39L (0.69), p = 0.01, 3.61L (0.91) versus 4.26L (0.74), p < 0.05 and 6.56L (2.43) versus 7.98L (1.67), p < 0.05. Conclusion Chronic exposure to quarry dust is associated with respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function indices among quarry workers. The enforcement of the use of PPEs and periodic evaluation the lung function status of quarry workers is advocated. PMID:27347301

  12. Analysis of Parents/Teachers Perception of the Use of Corporal Punishment in Primary Schools in Delta and Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbe, Joseph O.

    2015-01-01

    The study was meant to analyze Parents and Teachers perception of the use of corporal punishment in primary schools in Edo/Delta state. The purpose was to find time out parents and teachers opinion on the need for continuity or to discontinue the use of corporal punishment among primary school pupils. The method was a descriptive study with the…

  13. Chronic Kidney Disease in Nigeria: An Evaluation of the Spatial Accessibility to Healthcare for Diagnosed Cases in Edo State

    PubMed Central

    Oviasu, Osaretin; Rigby, Janette E.; Ballas, Dimitris

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing problem in Nigeria, presenting challenges to the nation’s health and economy. This study evaluates the accessibility to healthcare in Edo State of CKD patients diagnosed between 2006 and 2009. Using cost analysis techniques within a geographical information system, an estimated travel time to the hospital was used to examine the spatial accessibility of diagnosed patients to available CKD healthcare in the state. The results from the study indicated that although there was an annual rise in the number of diagnosed cases, there were no significant changes in the proportion of patients that were diagnosed at the last stage of CKD. However, there were indications that the travel time to the hospital for CKD treatment might be a contributing factor to the number of diagnosed CKD cases. This implies that the current structure for CKD management within the state might not be adequate. PMID:28299133

  14. Empowering teachers to change youth practices: evaluating teacher delivery and responses to the FLHE programme in Edo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Dlamini, Nombuso; Okoro, Felicia; Ekhosuehi, Uyi Oni; Esiet, Adenike; Lowik, A J; Metcalfe, Karen

    2012-06-01

    School-based programming is one of the most common approaches to HIV/AIDS prevention among youth. This paper presents the history and development of the Family Life and HIV Education (FLHE) programme in Edo State, Nigeria and results of evaluation of teacher actions and responses to training in its delivery. Results indicate that teachers benefited from the training, were aware of new and/or existing teaching resources and began to teach about HIV/AIDS. Teachers expressed that the programme facilitated open dialogue about HIV/AIDS. However, given limited human resources, FLHE was viewed as additional work to already overloaded teaching schedules. It is recommended that the Ministry of Education channel resources to enhance teachers' efforts towards combating HIV/AIDS. To facilitate learning about sexual health and family life, it is recommended that FLHE-based training be viewed as the first rather than the only step towards teacher professional development in this area.

  15. The association between female genital cutting and correlates of sexual and gynaecological morbidity in Edo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okonofu, F E; Larsen, U; Oronsaye, F; Snow, R C; Slanger, T E

    2002-10-01

    To examine the association between female genital cutting and frequency of sexual and gynaecological symptoms among a cohort of cut versus uncut women in Edo State of Nigeria. Cross sectional study. Women attending family planning and antenatal clinics at three hospitals in Edo State, South-south Nigeria. 1836 healthy premenopausal women. The sample included 1836 women. Information about type of female genital cutting was based on medical exams while a structured questionnaire was used to elicit information on the women's sociodemographic characteristics, their ages of first menstruation (menarche), first intercourse, marriage and pregnancy, sexual history and experiences of symptoms of reproductive tract infections. Associations between female genital cutting and these correlates of sexual and gynaecologic morbidity were analysed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression and Cox models. Frequency of self-reported orgasm achieved during sexual intercourse and symptoms of reproductive tract infections. Forty-five percent were circumcised and 71% had type 1, while 24% had type 2 female genital cutting. No significant differences between cut and uncut women were observed in the frequency of reports of sexual intercourse in the preceding week or month, the frequency of reports of early arousal during intercourse and the proportions reporting experience of orgasm during intercourse. There was also no difference between cut and uncut women in their reported ages of menarche, first intercourse or first marriage in the multivariate models controlling for the effects of socio-economic factors. In contrast, cut women were 1.25 times more likely to get pregnant at a given age than uncut women. Uncut women were significantly more likely to report that the clitoris is the most sexually sensitive part of their body (OR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.26-0.47), while cut women were more likely to report that their breasts are their most sexually sensitive body parts (OR = 1.91; 95

  16. Teachers' Attitude towards Special Need Students in Secondary Schools in North Senatorial District of Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offor, Dianarose Iyeoma; Akinlosotu, Nathaniel Toyosi

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated attitude towards special need students (SNS) among teachers in public secondary schools in Edo Central Senatorial District. The study was undertaken to determine the teachers' attitude and the influence of gender, educational specialisation and experience on their attitude towards SNS. A total of 369 (50%) of the 739…

  17. Knowledge and Attitude of Secondary School Teachers towards Continuous Assessment Practices in Esan Central Senatorial District of Edo State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alufohai, P. J.; Akinlosotu, T. N.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated knowledge and attitude of secondary school teachers towards continuous assessment (CA) practices in Edo Central Senatorial District, Nigeria. The study was undertaken to determine the influence of gender, age, years of experience and area of educational specialization on teachers' attitude towards CA practices in secondary…

  18. Information and Communication Technologies in Enhancing Learning Ability in Secondary Schools in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osagie, Roseline O.

    2012-01-01

    The dismal results of 2011, 2010, 2009, and previous years WAEC and NECO Senior School Certificate Examinations (SSCE) show the pitiable state of education in secondary schools in Nigeria. The youths of today live in a digital age. Web technologies and sites have become an integral part of the youth culture. Today's youths use the web tools to…

  19. Information and Communication Technologies in Enhancing Learning Ability in Secondary Schools in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osagie, Roseline O.

    2012-01-01

    The dismal results of 2011, 2010, 2009, and previous years WAEC and NECO Senior School Certificate Examinations (SSCE) show the pitiable state of education in secondary schools in Nigeria. The youths of today live in a digital age. Web technologies and sites have become an integral part of the youth culture. Today's youths use the web tools to…

  20. Clay Bells: Edo Inspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The ceremonial copper and iron bells at the Smithsonian's National Museum of African Art were the author's inspiration for an interdisciplinary unit with a focus on the contributions various cultures make toward the richness of a community. The author of this article describes an Edo bell-inspired ceramic project incorporating slab-building…

  1. Clay Bells: Edo Inspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The ceremonial copper and iron bells at the Smithsonian's National Museum of African Art were the author's inspiration for an interdisciplinary unit with a focus on the contributions various cultures make toward the richness of a community. The author of this article describes an Edo bell-inspired ceramic project incorporating slab-building…

  2. Evaluating modeling tools for the EDOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoble, Gordon; Mccaleb, Frederick; Aslam, Tanweer; Nester, Paul

    1994-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Operations System (EDOS) Project is developing a functional, system performance model to support the system implementation phase of the EDOS which is being designed and built by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The EDOS Project will use modeling to meet two key objectives: (1) manage system design impacts introduced by unplanned changed in mission requirements; and (2) evaluate evolutionary technology insertions throughout the development of the EDOS. To select a suitable modeling tool, the EDOS modeling team developed an approach for evaluating modeling tools and languages by deriving evaluation criteria from both the EDOS modeling requirements and the development plan. Essential and optional features for an appropriate modeling tool were identified and compared with known capabilities of several modeling tools. Vendors were also provided the opportunity to model a representative EDOS processing function to demonstrate the applicability of their modeling tool to the EDOS modeling requirements. This paper emphasizes the importance of using a well defined approach for evaluating tools to model complex systems like the EDOS. The results of this evaluation study do not in any way signify the superiority of any one modeling tool since the results will vary with the specific modeling requirements of each project.

  3. [Okuda wooden human skeleton made in Edo era, Japan].

    PubMed

    Baba, Hisao

    2006-03-01

    Probably in 1820 (late Edo era), a human skeleton for medical education was carved from cypress wood, based on a criminal's skeleton under the supervision of a medical doctor, Banri Okuda in Osaka City. The skeleton is called "Okuda wooden skeleton" and is now housed in the National Science Museum, Tokyo. The bones can be assembled into a skeleton by metal pivots or bamboo sticks. The thorax and pelvis were made of several pieces of wood and combined together, respectively. By and large, the wooden skeleton shows morphological characteristics usually seen in early middle-aged females of the Edo era. But the claviculae, distal ends of the femora, and the patellae are exceptionally larger than those of a female, implying that these bones of the original skeleton had already been lost or were deformed before the wooden skeleton was made. Actually the wooden skeleton might not have been used for medical education but rather for the promotion of European medicine, which was gradually developing in the Edo era.

  4. EDOS Data Capture for ALOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLemore, Bruce; Cordier, Guy R.; Wood, Terri; Gamst, Harek

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, NASA's Earth Sciences Missions Operations (ESMO) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) directed the Earth Observing System Data Operations System (EDOS) project to provide a prototype system to assess the feasibility of high rate data capture for the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) spacecraft via NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The key objective of this collaborative effort between NASA and JAXA was to share science data collected over North and South America previously unavailable due to limitations in ALOS downlink capacity. EDOS provided a single system proof-of-concept in 4 months at White Sands TDRS Ground Terminal The system captured 6 ALOS events error-free at 277 Mbps and delivered the data to the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) within 3 hours (May/June '08). This paper describes the successful rapid prototyping approach which led to a successful demonstration and agreement between NASA and JAXA for operational support. The design of the operational system will be discussed with emphasis on concurrent high-rate data capture, Level-O processing, real-time display and high-rate delivery with stringent latency requirements. A similar solution was successfully deployed at Svalbard, Norway to support the Suomi NPP launch (October 2011) and capture all X-band data and provide a 30-day backup archive.

  5. USE of seismic refraction method for the determination of the depth of water table at ozalla, owan west l.g.a edo state. Nigeria USE of seismic refraction method for the determination of the depth of water table at ozalla, owan west l.g.a edo state. Nigeria USE of seismic refraction method for the determination of the depth of water table at ozalla, owan west l.g.a edo state. Nigeria USE of seismic refraction method for the determination of the depth of water table at ozalla, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikpitanyi, C. U.

    2012-12-01

    This Project research was carried out using seismic refraction method at st Patrick catholic church( site) ozalla owan west l.g.a Edo state. Nigeria A MCSEIS- 160M Seismograph was used as the recording instrument with 12 geophones as wave detectors in series with one another, each of 1.5m Perpendicular to a firing line of of36m long. but the geophones are spread at a predetermined distance. the impact of heavy metal(about 5kg) on a flat metal plate served as the source of artificial wave generation. The wave front method of interpretation was used in interpreting the field results at fine distance . Plot reveals that the subsurface under Investigation is three layers of velocities, 208ms-1 750ms-1 and 1250ms-1 for the first, second and third layers respectively. And the depth of the first and second layer is 12 .7m and 14.0m respectively. This investigation has further revealed that at approximately 27m from the surface a possible aquifer could be encountered, this result agreed with electrical resistivity Studies carried out in the past within the studied area.

  6. Elizabeth City State University: Elizabeth City, North Carolina (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.

    1985-09-25

    The Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Solar Radiation Monitoring Network operated from July 1985 through December 1996. Funded by DOE, the six-station network provided 5-minute averaged measurements of direct normal, global, and diffuse horizontal solar irradiance. The data were processed at NREL to improve the assessment of the solar radiation resources in the southeastern United States. Historical HBCU data available online include quality assessed 5-min data, monthly reports, and plots. In January 1997 the HBCU sites became part of the CONFRRM solar monitoring network and data from the two remaining active stations, Bluefield State College and Elizabeth City State University, are collected by the NREL Measurement & Instrumentation Data Center (MIDC).

  7. Valley City State College Planning Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valley City State Coll., ND.

    The Valley City State College, North Dakota, planning manual, which was based on the Futures Creating Paradigm methodology, is presented. The paradigm is a methodology for interdisciplinary policy planning and establishment of objectives and goals. The first planning stage involved preparing comprehensive narratives in the following areas likely…

  8. Valley City State College Planning Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valley City State Coll., ND.

    The Valley City State College, North Dakota, planning manual, which was based on the Futures Creating Paradigm methodology, is presented. The paradigm is a methodology for interdisciplinary policy planning and establishment of objectives and goals. The first planning stage involved preparing comprehensive narratives in the following areas likely…

  9. Syntheses, structure and properties of vinylogous EDO-TTFs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirahata, T.; Morikawa, T.; Miyamoto, H.; Nakano, Y.; Yamochi, H.; Misaki, Y.

    2010-06-01

    We synthesized vinylogous 4,5-ethylenedioxy-tetrathiafulvalenes (EDO-TTFs), 4,5-ethylenedioxy-2,2‧-ethanediylidenebis(1,3-dithiole) (EDO-EBDT), 4,5-dimethyl-4‧,5‧-ethylenedioxy-2,2‧-ethanediylidenebis(1,3-dithiole) (DMEDO-EBDT), 4,5-bis(thiomethyl)-4‧,5‧-ethylenedioxy-2,2‧-ethanediylidenebis(1,3-dithiole) (BTMEDO-EBDT), and 4,5-bis(methoxycarbonyl)-4‧,5‧-ethylenedioxy-2,2‧-ethanediylidenebis(1,3-dithiole) (BMCEDO-EBDT). The cyclic voltammograms of the vinylogous EDO-TTFs show two pairs of single-electron redox waves. The first oxidation potentials (E1) of vinylogous EDO-TTFs are lower than those of the related TTFs, indicating that the electron donating abilities of new donors are stronger than those of the corresponding TTFs. The smaller E2-E1 values of new donors compared with those of the related TTFs suggest a decrease in the on-site Coulombic repulsion in the dication state. X-ray crystal structure analysis of BMCEDO-EBDT reveals that the inter-molecular C-H⋯O type hydrogen bond is constructed between the hydrogen atom and the oxygen atom of the ethylenedioxy group. Single crystalline TCNQ complexes of DMEDO-EBDT and BTMEDO-EBDT have been prepared and their conducting properties and crystal structure have been investigated. The TCNQ complexes of DMEDO-EBDT and BTMEDO-EBDT show low electrical conductivities (σrt<10-6 S cm-1 for (DMEDO-EBDT)(TCNQ)(chlorobenzene) and σrt=2.2×10-3 S cm-1 for (BTMEDO-EBDT)(TCNQ)) due to DDAA-type alternate stacking.

  10. MSUIC-MP [Michigan State University Inner City Mathematics Project].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vance, Irvin E.

    This report describes the Michigan State Inner City Mathematics Project which is designed to deal with the problems in the inner-city schools. The project's objectives are to provide inservice training for teachers in inner-city schools; to train critic teachers, supervisors, and other personnel for inner-city schools in mathematics; to prepare…

  11. Estimating how and why Dr Okuda made a complete wooden human skeleton in the Edo era, Japan.

    PubMed

    Baba, Hisao

    2007-03-01

    Probably in 1820 (late Edo era), a human skeleton for medical education was precisely carved from cypress wood, based on a criminal's skeleton, by a craftsman under the supervision of the medical doctor Banri Okuda in Osaka City. By and large, the wooden skeleton shows morphological characteristics usually seen in early middle-aged females of the Edo era. However, the claviculae, distal ends of the femora and the patellae are exceptionally larger than those of a female, implying that the bones of the original model skeleton had already been lost or were deformed before the wooden skeleton was made. Furthermore, the skeleton may not have been used for medical education, but rather for the promotion of European medicine, which was gradually developing in the Edo era.

  12. EDOS operations concept and development approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoble, G.; Garman, C.; Alcott, G.; Ramchandani, C.; Silvers, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Operations System (EDOS) is being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for the capture, level zero processing, distribution, and backup archiving of high speed telemetry data received from EOS spacecraft. All data received will conform to the Consultative Committee for Space Data Standards (CCSDS) recommendations. The major EDOS goals are to: (1) minimize EOS program costs to implement and operate EDOS; (2) respond effectively to EOS growth requirements; and (3) maintain compatibility with existing and enhanced versions of NASA institutional systems required to support EOS spacecraft. In order to meet these goals, the following objectives have been defined for EDOS: (1) standardize EDOS interfaces to maximize utility for future requirements; (2) emphasize life-cycle cost (LCC) considerations (rather than procurement costs) in making design decisions and meeting reliability, maintainability, availability (RMA) and upgradability requirements; (3) implement data-driven operations to the maximum extent possible to minimize staffing requirements and to maximize system responsiveness; (4) provide a system capable of simultaneously supporting multiple spacecraft, each in different phases of their life-cycles; (5) provide for technology insertion features to accommodate growth and future LCC reductions during the operations phase; and (6) provide a system that is sufficiently robust to accommodate incremental performance upgrades while supporting operations. Operations concept working group meetings were facilitated to help develop the EDOS operations concept. This provided a cohesive concept that met with approval of responsible personnel from the start. This approach not only speeded up the development process by reducing review cycles, it also provided a medium for generating good ideas that were immediately molded into feasible concepts. The operations concept

  13. [Development of modern medical doctors in Japan from late Edo to early Meiji].

    PubMed

    Kim, OckJoo; Takuya, Miyagawa

    2011-12-31

    Western medicine began to be introduced to Japan since late 16th century. Japanese encounter with Western medicine centered on Dejima in Nagasaki in the seventeenth and eighteenth century and the initial process of introduction was gradual and slow. In the mid-nineteenth century, facing threats from Western countries, Tokugawa bakufu asked Dutch naval surgeon, J. L. C. Pompe van Meerdervoort to teach western medicine at the Kaigun Denshujo naval academy in Nagasaki. The government also supported the western medical school in Edo. This paper deals with how modern western medical doctors were developed in Japan from late Edo to early Meiji. The publication of the New Text on Anatomy in 1774 translated by Sugita Genpaku and his colleagues stimulated Japanese doctors and scholars to study western medicine, called Rangaku. During the Edo period, western medicine spread into major cities and countryside in Japan through Rangaku doctors. In 1838, for example, Dr. Ogata Koan established the Rangaku school named Tekijuku and educated many people with western medicine. When smallpox vaccination was introduced in Japan in 1849, Rangaku doctors played an important role in practiving the vaccination in cities and in countryside. After the Edo bakufu and the feudal lords of han(han) actively pursued to introduce western medicine to their hans by sending their Samurai to Edo or Nagasaki or abroad and by establishing medical schools and hospitals until their abolition in 1871. In late Edo and early Meiii military doctors were the main focus of training to meet the urgent need of military doctors in the battle fields of civil wars. The new Meiji government initiated a series of top-down reformations concerning army recruitment, national school system, public health and medical system. In 1874, the government introduced a law on medicine to adopt western medicine only and to launch a national licence system for medical doctors. Issuing supplementary regulations in the following

  14. City Lights of the United States 2012

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    NASA image acquired April 18 - October 23, 2012 This image of the United States of America at night is a composite assembled from data acquired by the Suomi NPP satellite in April and October 2012. The image was made possible by the new satellite’s “day-night band” of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), which detects light in a range of wavelengths from green to near-infrared and uses filtering techniques to observe dim signals such as city lights, gas flares, auroras, wildfires, and reflected moonlight. “Nighttime light is the most interesting data that I’ve had a chance to work with,” says Chris Elvidge, who leads the Earth Observation Group at NOAA’s National Geophysical Data Center. “I’m always amazed at what city light images show us about human activity.” His research group has been approached by scientists seeking to model the distribution of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels and to monitor the activity of commercial fishing fleets. Biologists have examined how urban growth has fragmented animal habitat. Elvidge even learned once of a study of dictatorships in various parts of the world and how nighttime lights had a tendency to expand in the dictator’s hometown or province. Named for satellite meteorology pioneer Verner Suomi, NPP flies over any given point on Earth's surface twice each day at roughly 1:30 a.m. and p.m. The polar-orbiting satellite flies 824 kilometers (512 miles) above the surface, sending its data once per orbit to a ground station in Svalbard, Norway, and continuously to local direct broadcast users distributed around the world. Suomi NPP is managed by NASA with operational support from NOAA and its Joint Polar Satellite System, which manages the satellite's ground system. NASA Earth Observatory image by Robert Simmon, using Suomi NPP VIIRS data provided courtesy of Chris Elvidge (NOAA National Geophysical Data Center). Suomi NPP is the result of a partnership between NASA, NOAA, and the

  15. State of the Child: New York City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lash, Trude W.; Sigal, Heidi

    Based primarily on publicly available statistics, this report puts together information relating to the condition of New York City children. After compiling lists of the major concerns for children, and testing them against the reactions of experts and relevant research literature, the availability of usable statistical indicators is explored. In…

  16. The European Drought Observatory (EDO) - A European Contribution to a Global Drought Information System (GDIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, J.; Sepulcre, G.; De Jager, A.; Magni, D.; Valentini, L.; Russo, S.; Micale, F.; Barbosa, P.

    2013-12-01

    System (GDIS) is considered an important strategic activity. With its multi-level setup EDO could serve as a model on how to build a global drought information system from drought observatories on different continents and at different spatial scales. In this context similar set-ups for drought observatories for Africa and South and Central America have been tested in the frame of research and collaboration projects. The presentation will provide an overview on the development and state of EDO, the different products, and options to include EDO as a cornerstone of a Global Drought Information System.

  17. EDOS Evolution to Support NASA Future Earth Sciences Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordier, Guy R.; McLemore, Bruce; Wood, Terri; Wilkinson, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a ground system architecture to service future NASA decadal missions and in particular, the high rate science data downlinks, by evolving EDOS current infrastructure and upgrading high rate network lines. The paper will also cover EDOS participation to date in formulation and operations concepts for the respective missions to understand the particular mission needs and derived requirements such as data volumes, downlink rates, data encoding, and data latencies. Future decadal requirements such as onboard data recorder management and file protocols drive the need to emulate these requirements within the ground system. The EDOS open system modular architecture is scalable to accommodate additional missions using the current sites antennas and future sites as well and meet the data security requirements and fulfill mission's objectives

  18. EOS Operations Systems: EDOS Implemented Changes to Reduce Operations Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordier, Guy R.; Gomez-Rosa, Carlos; McLemore, Bruce D.

    2007-01-01

    The authors describe in this paper the progress achieved to-date with the reengineering of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Operations System (EDOS), the experience gained in the process and the ensuing reduction of ground systems operations costs. The reengineering effort included a major methodology change, applying to an existing schedule driven system, a data-driven system approach.

  19. Edo: Art in Japan 1615-1868. Teaching Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guth, Christine; Henderson, Anne; Hinish, Heidi; Moore, Barbara

    The Edo period in Japan (1615-1868) saw the flowering of many forms of cultural expression, colorful and boisterous, muted and restrained, that today is thought of as typically Japanese. These include kabuki and no drama, the tea ceremony, martial arts, woodblock prints, and porcelain. This culturally diverse and vibrant period gets its name from…

  20. Satellite Sees Holiday Lights Brighten Cities - United States

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    City lights shine brighter during the holidays in the United States when compared with the rest of the year, as shown using a new analysis of daily data from the NASA-NOAA Suomi NPP satellite. Dark green pixels are areas where lights are 50 percent brighter, or more, during December. Because snow reflects so much light, the researchers could only analyze snow-free cities. They focused on the U.S. West Coast from San Francisco and Los Angeles, and cities south of a rough imaginary line from St. Louis to Washington, D.C. Credit: Jesse Allen, NASA’s Earth Observatory Read more: www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/satellite-sees-holiday-light... NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  1. An Extraordinary Partnership between Arizona State University and the City of Phoenix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Debra

    2009-01-01

    The Arizona State University Downtown Phoenix campus is a grand-scale exemplar of a city-university partnership. Its demonstrated impacts are economic, social, and educational, transforming both the city and the university. The magnitude of the investment of $223 million by the citizens of a city in a state university is unparalleled in higher…

  2. 32 CFR 1605.14 - State Director of Selective Service for New York City.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Selective Service for New York City. The Governor of the State of New York is authorized to recommend a person to be appointed by the President as State Director of Selective Service for New York City, who shall represent the Governor in all Selective Service matters within the City of New York. Subject to...

  3. The State of the Cities, 1999. Third Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, DC. Office of Policy Development and Research.

    This third annual report discusses recent progress and challenges that lie ahead for U.S. cities and metropolitan regions. Part 1 examines social and economic trends affecting U.S. cities and the potential for a city/suburb alliance to promote a common agenda that would address the challenges and seize the opportunities reflected in the trends.…

  4. Network Resources and Training Site at Elizabeth City State University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, Linda Bailey

    1996-01-01

    The format of the annual report follows the same format as the quarterly report. In the annual report Elizabeth City State University (ECSU) has included responses to the items listed in the 'Critique of Quarterly Report Summary, and the 'Technical Recommendations for Consideration to NRTS/ECSU'. A budget for FY96-97 is included requesting $500,000.00 to cover the operating expenses of the Network Resources Training Site (NRTS) and its current partners as outlined in the original grant. The final attachment is a proposal to expand the partnerships and services of the NRTS at ECSU. This proposal would increase the number of predominantly minority attended secondary schools that this NRTS services and to support participation of these secondary schools in the GLOBE, ATLAS and Skymath projects. The proposal would also make Bennett College a full partner in the NRTS and it would increase the networking funds available to Virginia State University (HBCU/MI partner). Funds to increase the NRTS staff size to support the new partners and extended services is included in the extension budget. The NRTS Office Staff provides training and technical expertise to all its partners. In the appendix of the report, you will find technical soundness questionnaires and campus LAN Diagrams for the HBCU/MI Partners.

  5. Leadership: Subject to the State Personnel Act (SPA) Employee's Perceptions of Job Satisfaction at Elizabeth City State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leary, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This evaluation was conducted at Elizabeth City State University (ECSU) in Elizabeth City, North Carolina, located approximately 40 miles south of the Virginia state line. ECSU, a historically Black institution of higher learning, was founded in 1891 and is one of 17 constituent universities in The University of North Carolina system. The…

  6. 77 FR 23282 - All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers; United States City Average

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... of the Secretary All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers; United States City Average... All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (1967 = 100) increased 356.2 percent from its... = 100), I certify that the United States City Average All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban...

  7. 76 FR 31991 - All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers; United States City Average

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... of the Secretary All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers; United States City Average... Commission and publishes this notice in the Federal Register that the United States City Average All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (1967=100) increased 342.21 percent from its 1974 annual...

  8. 75 FR 22164 - All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers; United States City Average

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... of the Secretary All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers; United States City Average... this notice in the Federal Register that the United States City Average All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (1967=100) increased 106.6 percent from its 1984 annual average of 311.1 to...

  9. 77 FR 23283 - All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers; United States City Average

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... of the Secretary All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers; United States City Average... this notice in the Federal Register that the United States City Average All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (1967 = 100) increased 116.6 percent from its 1984 annual average of 311.1 to...

  10. 78 FR 35054 - All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers; United States City Average

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers; United States City Average... in the Federal Register that the United States City Average All Items Consumer Price Index for All...

  11. 76 FR 31991 - All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers; United States City Average

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... of the Secretary All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers; United States City Average... this notice in the Federal Register that the United States City Average All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (1967 = 100) increased 110.0 percent from its 1984 annual average of 311.1 to...

  12. 75 FR 22164 - All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers United States City Average

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... of the Secretary All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers United States City Average... Commission and publishes this notice in the Federal Register that the United States City Average All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (1967=100) increased 335.1 percent from its 1974 annual...

  13. 78 FR 35054 - All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers United States City Average

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... of the Secretary All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers United States City Average... Commission and publishes this notice in the Federal Register that the United States City Average All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (1967=100) increased 365.6 percent from its 1974 annual...

  14. Youth Voting: State and City Approaches to Early Civic Engagement. Education Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aragon, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Opportunities for youth participation in city and state elections, such as those occurring in Maryland and Illinois, are becoming a part of the policymaker's toolkit to create engaged citizens and lifelong voters. This report reviews new efforts by state and city leaders to encourage youth voting within their boundaries. Key takeaways in this…

  15. Rose State College in Oklahoma City Receives EPA Job-Training Grant

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (May 27, 2015) - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced that Rose State College in Oklahoma City, Okla., received one of 19 grants for Environmental Workforce Development and Job Training (EWDJT) grants. Rose State College

  16. State of the Child: New York City II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lash, Trude W.; And Others

    Part I of this report is organized around six dimensions of the quality of life of children in New York City: the demography of the City, the characteristics of families with children, children's health, children's ability to learn, the situation of children living away from home, and crimes committed against and by children. Public expenditures…

  17. The State of City Leadership for Children and Families: Innovations and Trends in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National League of Cities Institute for Youth, Education and Families (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Institute for Youth, Education, and Families (YEF Institute) is a special entity within the National League of Cities (NLC). The YEF Institute helps municipal leaders take action on behalf of the children, youth, and families in their communities. The YEF Institute's first-ever report on The State of City Leadership for Children and Families…

  18. The State of City Leadership for Children and Families: Youth in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National League of Cities Institute for Youth, Education and Families (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Institute for Youth, Education, and Families (YEF Institute) is a special entity within the National League of Cities (NLC). The YEF Institute helps municipal leaders take action on behalf of the children, youth, and families in their communities. The YEF Institute's first-ever report on The State of City Leadership for Children and Families…

  19. 32 CFR 1605.14 - State Director of Selective Service for New York City.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Selective Service matters within the City of New York. The State headquarters of Selective Service for New... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State Director of Selective Service for New York... SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION State Administration § 1605.14 State Director of...

  20. The State of City Leadership for Children and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National League of Cities Institute for Youth, Education and Families (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Institute for Youth, Education, and Families (YEF Institute) is a special entity within the National League of Cities (NLC). The YEF Institute helps municipal leaders take action on behalf of the children, youth, and families in their communities. NLC launched the YEF Institute in January 2000 in recognition of the unique and influential…

  1. Residential electricity rates for the United States for Solcost Data Bank cities

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L. E.

    1981-05-01

    Electricity rates are given for selected cities in each state, first of the Southern Solar Energy Center region and then of the rest of the US, for an average residence that uses 1000 kWh a month. (LEW)

  2. Beating the Odds II: A City-By-City Analysis of Student Performance and Achievement Gaps on State Assessments, Spring 2001 Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casserly, Michael

    This report presents district-by-district achievement data on 57 major city school systems in reading and mathematics. State assessment results were collected from state Web sites, reports, and databases. Data were analyzed by race/ethnicity when reported. Overall, the Great City Schools have made meaningful gains in math scores on state…

  3. Obesity Prevention in a City State: Lessons from New York City during the Bloomberg Administration.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Paul M; Davies, Anna; Greig, Alexandra J M; Lee, Karen K

    2016-01-01

    To illuminate the key components of multi-sector reform to address the obesogenic environment in New York City during the administration of Mayor Michael Bloomberg from 2002 to 2013, we conducted a case study consisting of interviews with and a critical analysis of the experiences of leading decision makers and implementers. Key informant interviews (N = 41) conducted in 2014 were recorded, transcribed, coded, and thematically analyzed. Participants included officials from the Health Department and other New York City Government agencies, academics, civil society members, and private sector executives. Participants described Mayor Bloomberg as a data-driven politician who wanted to improve the lives of New Yorkers. He appointed talented Commissioners and encouraged them and their staff to be bold, innovative, and collaborative. Multiple programs spanning multiple sectors, with varied approaches and targets, were supported. This study found that much of the work relied on loose coalitions across City Government, with single agencies responsible for their own agendas, some with health co-benefits. Many policies were implemented through non-legislative mechanisms such as executive orders and the Health Code. Despite support from academic and some civil society groups, strong lobbying from industry and an unfavorable media led to some reforms being modified, legally challenged or blocked completely, particularly food environment modifiers. In contrast, reforms of the physical environment were described as highly consultative across and outside government and resulted in slower but more sustained reform. The Bloomberg administration was a "window of opportunity" with the imprimatur of the executive to progress a long-term, multi-faceted obesity prevention strategy, which has successfully reversed childhood trends. Through the involvement of external researchers and the extensive use of empirical data from a wide range of participants, this study offers a unique

  4. Object's optical geometry measurements based on Extended Depth of Field (EDoF) approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szydłowski, Michał; Powałka, Bartosz; Chady, Tomasz; Waszczuk, Paweł

    2017-02-01

    The authors propose a method of using EDoF in macro inspections using bi-telecentric lenses and a specially designed experimental machine setup, allowing accurate focal distance changing. Also a software method is presented allowing EDoF image reconstruction using the continuous wavelet transform (CWT). Exploited method results are additionally compared with measurements performed with Keyence's LJ-V Series in-line Profilometer for reference matters.

  5. 78 FR 6832 - Notice of Mailing Address Change for the Utah State Office, Salt Lake City, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Mailing Address Change for the Utah State Office, Salt Lake City, UT... of Land Management (BLM), Utah State Office, in Salt Lake City, Utah, will be changing from P.O. Box 45155-0155 to 440 West 200 South, Suite 500, Salt Lake City, Utah 84101-1345. The proposed date will...

  6. Internal migration effectiveness and income effectiveness in the most populous cities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ambinakudige, Shrinidhi; Parisi, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    In this study, migration data compiled by the Internal Revenue Serve (IRS) and the US Census Bureau for 2006-07 were used to analyse internal migration patterns using migration and income effectiveness for the counties containing the 25 most populous cities in the United States. The results indicated that both large metropolitan and rural counties have lost population and income due to migration. Small metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties closer to cities gained population and income. Counties in South Florida attracted a large number of higher-income migrants from the largest cities in the US. In the last 13 years, New York, Los Angeles and Chicago, the three most populous cities in the US, had negative migration effectiveness. Suburban areas and second-tier cities continued to attract people from large metropolitan areas.

  7. Open space loss and land inequality in United States' cities, 1990-2000.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Robert I; Forman, Richard T T; Kareiva, Peter

    2010-03-03

    Urban growth reduces open space in and around cities, impacting biodiversity and ecosystem services. Using land-cover and population data, we examined land consumption and open space loss between 1990 and 2000 for all 274 metropolitan areas in the contiguous United States. Nationally, 1.4 million ha of open space was lost, and the amount lost in a given city was correlated with population growth (r(272) = 0.85, P<0.001). In 2000, cities varied in per capita land consumption by an order of magnitude, from 459 m(2)/person in New York to 5393 m(2)/person in Grand Forks, ND. The per capita land consumption (m(2)/person) of most cities decreased on average over the decade from 1,564 to 1,454 m(2)/person, but there was substantial regional variation and some cities even increased. Cities with greater conservation funding or more reform-minded zoning tended to decrease in per capita land consumption more than other cities. The majority of developed area in cities is in low-density neighborhoods housing a small proportion of urban residents, with Gini coefficients that quantify this developed land inequality averaging 0.63. Our results suggest conservation funding and reform-minded zoning decrease per capita open space loss.

  8. Open Space Loss and Land Inequality in United States' Cities, 1990–2000

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Robert I.; Forman, Richard T. T.; Kareiva, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Urban growth reduces open space in and around cities, impacting biodiversity and ecosystem services. Using land-cover and population data, we examined land consumption and open space loss between 1990 and 2000 for all 274 metropolitan areas in the contiguous United States. Nationally, 1.4 million ha of open space was lost, and the amount lost in a given city was correlated with population growth (r(272) = 0.85, P<0.001). In 2000, cities varied in per capita land consumption by an order of magnitude, from 459 m2/person in New York to 5393 m2/person in Grand Forks, ND. The per capita land consumption (m2/person) of most cities decreased on average over the decade from 1,564 to 1,454 m 2/person, but there was substantial regional variation and some cities even increased. Cities with greater conservation funding or more reform-minded zoning tended to decrease in per capita land consumption more than other cities. The majority of developed area in cities is in low-density neighborhoods housing a small proportion of urban residents, with Gini coefficients that quantify this developed land inequality averaging 0.63. Our results suggest conservation funding and reform-minded zoning decrease per capita open space loss. PMID:20209082

  9. Cancer incidence in eighteen cities of the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Andreoni, G I; Veneziano, D B; Giannotti Filho, O; Marigo, C; Mirra, A P; Fonseca, L A

    2001-08-01

    As in Brazil cancer registries are mostly based on large cities, there are no estimates per state or per region and information on the disease incidence in the vast in-land areas is very scarce. An incidence survey was conducted in 18 major cities of the state of São Paulo, excluding the capital, aiming to collect information about cancer incidence in the state of São Paulo. Of the 18 cities in state of São Paulo included in the survey, all had available resources for cancer management. Data from the year of 1991 were collected by the personnel of the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Statistics), who were especially trained by the study coordinators at the Fundação Oncocentro de São Paulo (Cancer Center of São Paulo). The collected data were processed and analyzed at the Oncocentro. Data collection, processing, and analyses were performed according to the recommendations of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Although some discrepancies were observed in cancer incidence rates between the cities, results obtained for all 18 cities combined were remarkably close to those recently found for the city of São Paulo in the year 1993. One remarkable finding was the relatively high cancer incidence rates in both sexes in the city of Santos. The very similar all-sites cancer incidence rates found in the year 1991, when compared to those for the city of São Paulo in the year 1993, are suggestive that all regions have common cancer-related factors. Nevertheless, other explanations, such as the inclusion in the study of prevalent cases, as well as of non-residents, may have occurred in both studies, biasing the results. There is a need of further studies to confirm the high cancer incidence in Santos.

  10. The United States Army and Large Cities Prior to the Global War on Terror

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    environment and populations of different cities.8 All cities are unique and while one may perceive commonality and pattern, these perception -dependent...rapid construction and recovery from destruction.88 Korea, 1950 The Korean War, which started in June of 1950, was a major ground war fought while...the only challenges facing the United States in the Korean War. In terms of geography, Korea was at a shipping crossroads in the East China Sea; its

  11. Influence of Miles City Line 1 on the United States Hereford Population

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The goal of this research was to document the influence of Line 1 (L1) Hereford cattle developed by the United States Department of Agriculture at its research facility in Miles City, Montana, on the United States Hereford population. The L1 Hereford population originated in 1934 and has been therea...

  12. Beating the Odds: A City-by-City Analysis of Student Performance and Achievement Gaps on State Assessments. Results from the 2003-2004 School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casserly, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The Council of the Great City Schools has prepared this fifth edition of "Beating the Odds" ("Beating the Odds V)" to give the nation another look at how inner-city schools are performing on the academic goals and standards set by the states for our children. This analysis examines student achievement in math and reading through spring 2004. It…

  13. Early doors (Edo) mutant mouse reveals the importance of period 2 (PER2) PAS domain structure for circadian pacemaking

    PubMed Central

    Militi, Stefania; Maywood, Elizabeth S.; Sandate, Colby R.; Chesham, Johanna E.; Parsons, Michael J.; Vibert, Jennifer L.; Joynson, Greg M.; Partch, Carrie L.; Hastings, Michael H.; Nolan, Patrick M.

    2016-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) defines 24 h of time via a transcriptional/posttranslational feedback loop in which transactivation of Per (period) and Cry (cryptochrome) genes by BMAL1–CLOCK complexes is suppressed by PER–CRY complexes. The molecular/structural basis of how circadian protein complexes function is poorly understood. We describe a novel N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced mutation, early doors (Edo), in the PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS) domain dimerization region of period 2 (PER2) (I324N) that accelerates the circadian clock of Per2Edo/Edo mice by 1.5 h. Structural and biophysical analyses revealed that Edo alters the packing of the highly conserved interdomain linker of the PER2 PAS core such that, although PER2Edo complexes with clock proteins, its vulnerability to degradation mediated by casein kinase 1ε (CSNK1E) is increased. The functional relevance of this mutation is revealed by the ultrashort (<19 h) but robust circadian rhythms in Per2Edo/Edo; Csnk1eTau/Tau mice and the SCN. These periods are unprecedented in mice. Thus, Per2Edo reveals a direct causal link between the molecular structure of the PER2 PAS core and the pace of SCN circadian timekeeping. PMID:26903623

  14. [Monitoring water fluoridation in three cities in Piauí State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Josiene Saibrosa; do Val, Cinthya Melo; Costa, Juliana Nolêto; de Moura, Marcoeli Silva; Silva, Thais Alves Elias; Sampaio, Fábio Correia

    2007-05-01

    This study aimed to monitor the fluoride concentration in the public water supply in Teresina, Floriano, and Parnaíba, Piauí State, Brazil. Samples were collected monthly for one year between 2004 and 2005. Six sites in each city were randomly selected for water sampling (total n = 576), 192 in each city. Fluoride assays were performed in duplicate, using a specific electrode. Most samples were below the optimum fluoride concentration, and only 4.3% (n = 25) presented acceptable values (0.60-0.80 ppm). Acceptable samples totaled 7.8% (n = 15), 4.7% (n = 9), and 0.5% (n = 1) in Teresina, Floriano, and Parnaíba, respectively. By conclusion, fluoride levels in the public water supply in the three cities were below the optimum concentration, and a permanent surveillance system is thus needed to guarantee effective water fluoridation in the State of Piauí.

  15. City of Belo Horizante, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The city of Belo Horizante, State of Minas Gerais, (20.0S, 44.0W) is a relatively new community in southeastern Brazil. It lies about 225 miles north of Rio de Janeiro and occupies an area of rolling and hilly terrain. The economy is based on a mixture of agriculture, cattle grazing, mining and manufacturing.

  16. Bailout Deal Reached for Baltimore Schools: State, City, and Foundation Offer Loans to Ease Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    Top state and local leaders in Maryland announced a plan last February to lend Baltimore $42 million to help the city's financially troubled school system. The money was used by Baltimore school leaders to address what they called a cash-flow emergency for that school year. Money helped pay employees' salaries for the rest of that year, and helped…

  17. DETERMINANTS OF EDUCATIONAL EXPENDITURES IN LARGE CITIES OF THE UNITED STATES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JAMES, H. THOMAS; AND OTHERS

    THIS REPORT IS A STUDY OF THE PROCESSES BY WHICH MONEY IS ALLOCATED TO THE SUPPORT OF EDUCATIONAL SERVICES IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN LARGE CITIES OF THE UNITED STATES. IMPLICIT IN THE RATIONALE ARE THE ASSUMPTIONS THAT RESOURCES AVAILABLE FOR THE SUPPORT OF PUBLIC EDUCATION ARE RARELY SUFFICIENT TO SATISFY ALL THE DEMANDS MADE UPON THEM, AND THAT…

  18. Bailout Deal Reached for Baltimore Schools: State, City, and Foundation Offer Loans to Ease Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    Top state and local leaders in Maryland announced a plan last February to lend Baltimore $42 million to help the city's financially troubled school system. The money was used by Baltimore school leaders to address what they called a cash-flow emergency for that school year. Money helped pay employees' salaries for the rest of that year, and helped…

  19. City of Belo Horizante, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The city of Belo Horizante, State of Minas Gerais, (20.0S, 44.0W) is a relatively new community in southeastern Brazil. It lies about 225 miles north of Rio de Janeiro and occupies an area of rolling and hilly terrain. The economy is based on a mixture of agriculture, cattle grazing, mining and manufacturing.

  20. Labor Trends: Overview of the United States, New York City, and Long Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jagoda, Anna May; Goldstein, Cheryl

    This overview of labor trends in the United States, New York City, and Long Island is a compilation of information and statistics derived from seven major sources: Bureau of Labor Statistics; Lebenthal & Co., Inc.; Queens County Overall Economic Development Corporation; Suffolk County Department of Labor; The New York Times; U.S. Department of…

  1. Sacramento City Unified School District Chapter 1/State Compensatory Education Handbook Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacramento City Unified School District, CA.

    Four handbooks developed by the Consolidated Programs Department of the Sacramento City Unified School District (California) provide a means by which the multitude of federal, state, and district rules and regulations pertaining to compensatory education can be understood. The "Consolidated Programs Office Management Procedures" handbook…

  2. The State of the Cities, 2000: Megaforces Shaping the Future of the Nation's Cities. Fourth Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, DC.

    This report, fourth in a series, recounts the most recent data on indicators of the social and economic vitality of U.S. cities and positions the Administration's urban policy agenda to address challenges confronting cities. This year the report identifies four megaforces that are shaping the future of U.S. cities and presents findings showing…

  3. Testimony on the Economic and Social Impact of Immigrants in New York City by Elizabeth Bogen, New York City Department of City Planning, Office of Immigrant Affairs, before the Joint Economic Committee. Congress of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogen, Elizabeth

    New York City (New York) has the longest continuous immigration history of any American city, and the largest and most varied foreign-born population, according to testimony presented in 1986 to the Joint Economic Committee of the United States Congress. Using data from the 1980 census, information in the following areas is provided: (1)…

  4. Ultrafast electron diffraction study of single-crystal (EDO-TTF)2SbF6: Counterion effect and dimensionality reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lai Chung; Jiang, Yifeng; Mueller-Werkmeister, Henrike M.; Lu, Cheng; Moriena, Gustavo; Ishikawa, Manabu; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Yamochi, Hideki; Miller, R. J. Dwayne

    2017-09-01

    Ultrafast electron diffraction is a sensitive tool to directly study molecular dynamics in structural detail. Here, we report the influence of counterion size on the photoinduced insulator-to-metal phase transition in two derivatives of the organic salt (EDO-TTF)2XF6. For X = P, three dominant motions are present and the molecules undergo the transition, whereas in the case of X = Sb, only two dominant motions are found and the molecules do not evolve into the metallic state. This reduction in dimensionality is supported by a novel data analysis method involving singular value decomposition of time-resolved electron diffraction data in reciprocal space.

  5. Assessment of traffic-related noise in three cities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunice Y; Jerrett, Michael; Ross, Zev; Coogan, Patricia F; Seto, Edmund Y W

    2014-07-01

    Traffic-related noise is a growing public health concern in developing and developed countries due to increasing vehicle traffic. Epidemiological studies have reported associations between noise exposure and high blood pressure, increased risk of hypertension and heart disease, and stress induced by sleep disturbance and annoyance. These findings motivate the need for regular noise assessments within urban areas. This paper assesses the relationships between traffic and noise in three US cities. Noise measurements were conducted in downtown areas in three cities in the United States: Atlanta, Los Angeles, and New York City. For each city, we measured ambient noise levels, and assessed their correlation with simultaneously measured vehicle counts, and with traffic data provided by local Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPO). Additionally, measured noise levels were compared to noise levels predicted by the Federal Highway Administration's Traffic Noise Model using (1) simultaneously measured traffic counts or (2) MPO traffic data sources as model input. We found substantial variations in traffic and noise within and between cities. Total number of vehicle counts explained a substantial amount of variation in measured ambient noise in Atlanta (78%), Los Angeles (58%), and New York City (62%). Modeled noise levels were moderately correlated with measured noise levels when observed traffic counts were used as model input. Weaker correlations were found when MPO traffic data was used as model input. Ambient noise levels measured in all three cities were correlated with traffic data, highlighting the importance of traffic planning in mitigating noise-related health effects. Model performance was sensitive to the traffic data used as input. Future noise studies that use modeled noise estimates should evaluate traffic data quality and should ideally include other factors, such as local roadway, building, and meteorological characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  6. Assessment of Traffic-Related Noise in Three Cities in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunice Y.; Jerrett, Michael; Ross, Zev; Coogan, Patricia F.; Seto, Edmund Y. W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Traffic-related noise is a growing public health concern in developing and developed countries due to increasing vehicle traffic. Epidemiological studies have reported associations between noise exposure and high blood pressure, increased risk of hypertension and heart disease, and stress induced by sleep disturbance and annoyance. These findings motivate the need for regular noise assessments within urban areas. This paper assesses the relationships between traffic and noise in three US cities. Methods Noise measurements were conducted in downtown areas in three cities in the United States: Atlanta, Los Angeles, and New York City. For each city, we measured ambient noise levels, and assessed their correlation with simultaneously measured vehicle counts, and with traffic data provided by local Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPO). Additionally, measured noise levels were compared to noise levels predicted by the Federal Highway Administration’s Traffic Noise Model using (1) simultaneously measured traffic counts or (2) MPO traffic data sources as model input. Results We found substantial variations in traffic and noise within and between cities. Total number of vehicle counts explained a substantial amount of variation in measured ambient noise in Atlanta (78%), Los Angeles (58%), and New York City (62%). Modeled noise levels were moderately correlated with measured noise levels when observed traffic counts were used as model input. Weaker correlations were found when MPO traffic data was used as model input. Conclusions Ambient noise levels measured in all three cities were correlated with traffic data, highlighting the importance of traffic planning in mitigating noise-related health effects. Model performance was sensitive to the traffic data used as input. Future noise studies that use modeled noise estimates should evaluate traffic data quality and should ideally include other factors, such as local roadway, building, and meteorological

  7. Perception of toothache in adults from state capitals and interior cities within the Brazilian geographic regions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies emphasizing toothache in adulthood are scarce in Brazil. A greater understanding of both the prevalence and the self-perception of pain among individuals in this age group (35 to 44 years old) is important, especially considering that this is an economically active population. To describe reports of oral pain and oral pain-related aspects in from Brazilian state capitals and interior cities. Methods The sample comprised 9779 adults residing in the state capitals and interior cities from each Brazilian region in the SB Brazil 2010 report, regarding reports of oral pain and their intensity in the last 6 months. The descriptive analysis comparing pain reports between and within the regions and regression analysis of pain related to socioeconomic aspects per region were performed considering α=0.05 difference. Results The highest prevalence of pain was found in the Southeast region (p<0.01), and there was also difference between the state capitals and interior cities in the South (p<0.01), where the prevalence was higher in the capitals, and in the Southeast, where the higher prevalence was in the interior cities (p=0.03). The Northern region had lower pain intensity than the Southeast and Midwest. Comparing pain intensity, only the Northeast region showed statistical difference between state capitals and the interior cities for pain intensity, where the interior cities had higher pain intensity than the three state capitals. Regarding dental office visitations, the Southeast capitals have the highest prevalence (100%) compared to the North and South. The toothache impact on daily activities was as follows: eating difficulty (29.8% to 72.7%), uncomfortable teeth brushing (over 50%), and sleep disturbance (above 13%). Between the Brazilian regions the socioeconomic aspects differ in relation to the pain; the exception being the association between pain, dental care and income, which occurred in the 5 regions. Users of public dental care services were

  8. Assessing the state of environmental quality in cities - A multi-component urban performance (EMCUP) index.

    PubMed

    Stossel, Zeev; Kissinger, Meidad; Meir, Avinoam

    2015-11-01

    Urban environmental quality indices can provide policy makers and the public with valuable information. However, common assessment tools have several shortcomings: most indices do leave out some important components of the state of urban environmental quality; they use a relative assessment in which urban environmental performance is evaluated relative to other cities, not against established environmental benchmarks; and only a few assessment tools compare urban performance to environmental quality standards. This paper presents a new multi component urban performance (EMCUP) index aiming to tackle those shortcomings. It analyses the overall state of urban environmental quality by using a list of indicators to evaluate key urban environmental quality topics such as air, water, open space, sanitation and solid waste. It presents an absolute score calculated in relation to both the standard and desired optimum levels. The use of the index is demonstrated by three Israeli cities.

  9. The influence of phase mask position upon EDoF system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Hsun; Lian, Zih-Hao; Chang, Chong-Min; Tien, Chung-Hao

    2013-09-01

    Special types of pupil mask with the appropriate phase and transmission distribution can be used to modify the 3D pointspread function (PSF) in the desired way. Recently, many studies were addressed to extend the depth-of-field (EDoF) of an imaging system via cubic phase pupil engineering. The intermediate image is detected with a digital sensor and the final image formation is restored by post-process algorithms with the help of knowledge of the pupil mask. The EDoF system is operated based on an assumption that the phase mask should be positioned exactly in the pupil of the optical system. Unfortunately, in most practical cases, the exit pupil is not always available due to the complex layout of a compound lens set and results in a limited practical benefit of this type of arrangement. In this paper, we present the influence of the phase mask position upon PSF of an extended depth-of-field system. The characterizations of EDoF in different viewing angles are dissimilar if the phase mask is not placed in the perfect pupil plane. Such properties should be taken into consideration while designing an EDoF system. Finally, we will propose some potential candidate lenses made to alleviate such difficulty.

  10. Identifying United States substance abuse treatment programs: a test in one mid-sized city.

    PubMed

    Carise, Deni; McLellan, A Thomas; Festinger, David S; Kleber, Herbert D

    2004-06-01

    An accurate national listing of substance abuse treatment programs is essential for reporting data about the nation's treatment system and the clients entering that system. The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (NSSATS) is thought to provide the most comprehensive list of treatment providers. Therefore, we report a partial test of the concurrent validity of the NSSATS in a single mid-sized city. Using operational definitions of "substance abuse treatment" and "substance abuse treatment programs" derived from prior work by the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment; and working within the defined geographic boundaries of a single, mid-sized city, we compared the NSSATS list with an independently developed compilation of programs from 5 sources: (1) the Yellow Pages; (2) the Internet Infospace Directory; (3) a State directory of licensed substance abuse treatment services; (4) the Office of Applied Studies Directory; (5) the National Master Facility Inventory. With all sources, including NSSATS, we identified 96 separate listings that met the operational definition of adult treatment within the geographic bounds of the city. The NSSATS identified 70 of those 96 programs (73%), the 5-source compilation identified a sample of 83 (86%). While these findings from a single city cannot be considered a full test of the validity of the NSSATS, the data presented offer at least one partial but promising indication that the NSSATS may be a valid national listing and may serve as satisfactory national frame.

  11. Distribution of dermatophytes from soils of urban and rural areas of cities of Paraiba State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Zélia Braz Vieira da Silva; Oliveira, Aurylene Carlos de; Guerra, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento; Pontes, Luiz Renato de Araújo; Santos, Jozemar Pereira dos

    2013-01-01

    The dermatophytes, keratinophilic fungi, represent important microorganisms of the soil microbiota, where there are cosmopolitan species and others with restricted geographic distribution. The aim of this study was to broaden the knowledge about the presence of dermatophytes in soils of urban (empty lots, schools, slums, squares, beaches and homes) and rural areas and about the evolution of their prevalence in soils of varying pH in cities of the four mesoregions of Paraiba State, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from 31 cities of Paraiba State. Of 212 samples, 62% showed fungal growth, particularly those from the Mata Paraibana mesoregion (43.5%), which has a tropical climate, hot and humid. Soil pH varied from 4.65 to 9.06, with 71% of the growth of dermatophytes occurring at alkaline pH (7.02 - 9.06) (ρ = 0.000). Of 131 strains isolated, 57.3% were geophilic species, particularly Trichophyton terrestre (31.3%) and Mycrosporum gypseum (21.4%). M. nanum and T. ajelloi were isolated for the first time in Paraiba State. The zoophilic species identified were T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (31.3 %) and T. verrucosum (7.6 %), and T. tonsurans was isolated as an anthropophilic species. The soils of urban areas including empty lots, schools, slums and squares of cities in the mesoregions of Paraiba State were found to be the most suitable reservoirs for almost all dermatophytes; their growth may have been influenced by environmental factors, soils with residues of human and/or animal keratin and alkaline pH.

  12. DISTRIBUTION OF DERMATOPHYTES FROM SOILS OF URBAN AND RURAL AREAS OF CITIES OF PARAIBA STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Pontes, Zélia Braz Vieira da Silva; de Oliveira, Aurylene Carlos; Guerra, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento; Pontes, Luiz Renato de Araújo; dos Santos, Jozemar Pereira

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The dermatophytes, keratinophilic fungi, represent important microorganisms of the soil microbiota, where there are cosmopolitan species and others with restricted geographic distribution. The aim of this study was to broaden the knowledge about the presence of dermatophytes in soils of urban (empty lots, schools, slums, squares, beaches and homes) and rural areas and about the evolution of their prevalence in soils of varying pH in cities of the four mesoregions of Paraiba State, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from 31 cities of Paraiba State. Of 212 samples, 62% showed fungal growth, particularly those from the Mata Paraibana mesoregion (43.5%), which has a tropical climate, hot and humid. Soil pH varied from 4.65 to 9.06, with 71% of the growth of dermatophytes occurring at alkaline pH (7.02 - 9.06) (ρ = 0.000). Of 131 strains isolated, 57.3% were geophilic species, particularly Trichophyton terrestre (31.3%) and Mycrosporum gypseum (21.4%). M. nanum and T. ajelloi were isolated for the first time in Paraiba State. The zoophilic species identified were T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (31.3 %) and T. verrucosum (7.6 %), and T. tonsurans was isolated as an anthropophilic species. The soils of urban areas including empty lots, schools, slums and squares of cities in the mesoregions of Paraiba State were found to be the most suitable reservoirs for almost all dermatophytes; their growth may have been influenced by environmental factors, soils with residues of human and/or animal keratin and alkaline pH. PMID:24213189

  13. Financing Public Education in New York City and the Rest of the State. IESP Policy Brief No. 01-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debraggio, Elizabeth; Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Stiefel, Leanna

    2011-01-01

    New York City (NYC) is home to the largest school district in the U.S., with over one million students and more than 1,600 schools. While it is only one of approximately seven hundred school districts in New York State (NYS), the city educates about one-third of the state's students. In recent work examining school finance during Mayor Bloomberg's…

  14. Qualitative evidence on abortion stigma from Mexico City and five states in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sorhaindo, Annik M; Juárez-Ramírez, Clara; Díaz Olavarrieta, Claudia; Aldaz, Evelyn; Mejía Piñeros, María Consuelo; Garcia, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Social manifestations of abortion stigma depend upon cultural, legal, and religious context. Abortion stigma in Mexico is under-researched. This study explored the sources, experiences, and consequences of stigma from the perspectives of women who had had an abortion, male partners, and members of the general population in different regional and legal contexts. We explored abortion stigma in Mexico City where abortion is legal in the first trimester and five states-Chihuahua, Chiapas, Jalisco, Oaxaca, and Yucatán-where abortion remains restricted. In each state, we conducted three focus groups-men ages 24-40 years (n = 36), women 25-40 years (n = 37), and young women ages 18-24 years (n = 27)-and four in-depth face-to-face interviews in total; two with women (n = 12) and two with the male partners of women who had had an abortion (n = 12). For 4 of the 12 women, this was their second abortion. This exploratory study suggests that abortion stigma was influenced by norms that placed a high value on motherhood and a conservative Catholic discourse. Some participants in this study described abortion as an "indelible mark" on a woman's identity and "divine punishment" as a consequence. Perspectives encountered in Mexico City often differed from the conservative postures in the states.

  15. Mathematical modeling of acute and chronic cardiovascular changes during Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Ronald J.; Leonard, Joel I.; Srinivasan, R. Srini; Charles, John B.

    The Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) program aims to extend the capability of the Shuttle orbiter beyond its current 7-10 day limit on mission duration. This goal is to be accomplished in steps, partly due to our limited knowledge of the physiological changes resulting from long-term exposure to weightlessness and their likely influence on critical mission operations involved in EDO flights. Answers to questions related to physiologic adaptation to weightlessness are being actively sought at the present time to help implement the EDO program. In the cardiovascular area, the loss of orthostatic tolerance is a medical concern because of its potential adverse effects on crew performance and safety during reentry and following return to earth. Flight and ground-based physiologic studies are being planned to understand the mechanism and time course of spaceflight-induced orthostatic intolerance and to develop effective countermeasures for improving post-flight cardiovascular performance. Where feasible, these studies are aided by theoretical analyses using mathematical modeling and computer simulation of physiological systems. This paper is concerned with the application of proven models of circulatory and cardiovascular systems in the analysis of chronic cardiovascular changes under weightless conditions.

  16. Report to the Utah State Board of Education on the Teacher Education Programs at Westminster College of Salt Lake City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The state approval on-site visitation team report to the Utah State Office of Education on the current status of teacher education programs leading to certification at Westminster College of Salt Lake City is presented. The team evaluated the organization and administration of teacher education and curriculum principles and patterns. In each area,…

  17. [Outbreak of diarrhea by rotavirus in Bom Jesus city, Piauí State].

    PubMed

    Araújo, Telma Maria Evangelista de; Dantas, Jordânia Miranda; Carvalho, Carlos Eduardo Feitosa; Costa, Maria Amélia de Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    This study focused a diarrhea outbreak caused by rotavirus in a city of Piauí State aiming to identify the etiology, protocol of assistance to cases. A case series was carried out with 22 children assisted for acute diarrhea in 2006 in Health Units of Bom Jesus city. The data were collected by means of interviews utilizing forms that were with the help of the children's parents and analysis of the appointment files was performed. Most of the families (59.1%) had a monthly income inferior to the minimum wage, 59.1% utilized septic cesspool, 77.3% consumed water from the public supply system and 54.5% did not drink filtered water. As to age, 54.5% ranged from one to four years, the majority of them featuring an adequate nutritional condition. Among the 22 samples rectal swab collected for coproculture, the following were isolated: E. coli (69.6%), Klebsiella sp (95.6%), Proteus Mirabilis (47.8%). Regarding the 16 samples of feces in natura for the assessment of rotavirus, 100% were positive for G2 genotype; 93.3% for P4 serotype and 7.2% were not typified. We concluded that a continuous monitoring of circulating genotypes is essential, which implies the need of training health professionals to tackle diarrhea down.

  18. [Urban Health (StadtGesundheit): The Wider Perspective Exemplified by the City State of Hamburg].

    PubMed

    Fehr, R; Fertmann, R; Stender, K-P; Lettau, N; Trojan, A

    2016-09-01

    Public health and city planning have common roots, and in many places they are now reuniting under the heading of urban health. To organize this field adequately requires a broad, integrative view of medical care, health promotion, and health in all urban policies. Given current crises and developments including climate change and globalization, such a wider perspective should also be useful for Germany. Using the City State of Hamburg as an example and combining historic and systematic approaches, we explore the preconditions for in-depth analyses. Our results show that health is a significant topic of Hamburg urban policy, featuring a broad range of structures, processes and actors, both within the health sector and far beyond. Health promotion over the last 30 years evolved notably from a niche topic into an established field with remarkable cooperative structures. The tradition of comprehensive reporting on urban health in Hamburg that was initiated more than 200 years ago is no longer alive today. However, local health reporting keeps integrating a wide range of diverse topics. Communication among the Hamburg health actors - beyond straightforward medical quality assurance - does not seem to focus on critical evaluations, e. g. concerning social and ecologic sustainability. A prerequisite for in-depth analyses including external comparisons is to secure permanent access to relevant sources. Robust approaches to this end, however, seem to be lacking.

  19. Views of City, County, and State Policy Makers About Childhood Obesity in New York State, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Rebecca; Lundell, Helen; Meyerson, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Introduction No single solution exists to reduce rates of childhood obesity in the United States, but public policy action is essential. A greater understanding of policy maker views on childhood obesity would provide insight into ways that public health advocates can overcome barriers to propose, enact, and implement obesity prevention policies. Methods We conducted 48 in-depth, qualitative interviews with town/city, county, and state policy makers in the state of New York from December 14, 2010, through June 10, 2011. We used a semistructured interview protocol to solicit policy maker views on the causes of, solutions to, and responsibility for addressing the issue of childhood obesity. Results Most policy makers considered the issue of childhood obesity to be of high importance. Respondents cited changes to family structures as a major cause of childhood obesity, followed by changes in the external environment and among children themselves. Respondents offered varied solutions for childhood obesity, with the most common type of solution being outside of the respondent’s sphere of policy influence. Policy makers cited the need for joint responsibility among parents, government, schools, and the food industry to address childhood obesity. Conclusion Beliefs of many policy makers about childhood obesity are similar to those of the general public. Findings highlight the need for future research to inform the development of communication strategies to promote policy action among those with authority to pass and implement it. PMID:24262027

  20. Views of city, county, and state policy makers about childhood obesity in New York State, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Rebecca; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Lundell, Helen; Meyerson, Jamie

    2013-11-21

    No single solution exists to reduce rates of childhood obesity in the United States, but public policy action is essential. A greater understanding of policy maker views on childhood obesity would provide insight into ways that public health advocates can overcome barriers to propose, enact, and implement obesity prevention policies. We conducted 48 in-depth, qualitative interviews with town/city, county, and state policy makers in the state of New York from December 14, 2010, through June 10, 2011. We used a semistructured interview protocol to solicit policy maker views on the causes of, solutions to, and responsibility for addressing the issue of childhood obesity. Most policy makers considered the issue of childhood obesity to be of high importance. Respondents cited changes to family structures as a major cause of childhood obesity, followed by changes in the external environment and among children themselves. Respondents offered varied solutions for childhood obesity, with the most common type of solution being outside of the respondent's sphere of policy influence. Policy makers cited the need for joint responsibility among parents, government, schools, and the food industry to address childhood obesity. Beliefs of many policy makers about childhood obesity are similar to those of the general public. Findings highlight the need for future research to inform the development of communication strategies to promote policy action among those with authority to pass and implement it.

  1. Etiology of the 1965 epidemic of febrile illness in Nagpur City, Maharashtra State, India

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, F. M.; Patankar, M. R.; Banerjee, K.; Bhatt, P. N.; Goverdhan, M. K.; Pavri, K. M.; Vittal, M.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation of an extensive outbreak of febrile illness during the months of April, May, and June 1965, in the city of Nagpur, Maharashtra State, showed that the main etiological agent was chikungunya virus. Dengue type 4 and Chandipura viruses were also active during this period. In all, 26 strains of virus were isolated from 60 acute phase human sera, and of these strains, 23 were identified as chikungunya virus, 2 as Chandipura, and 1 as dengue type 4. Five strains of chikungunya virus and 9 strains of dengue type 4 virus were isolated from 34 pools of Aedes aegypti collected from the affected areas. Results of complement fixation tests with acute—convalescent paired serum samples and single convalescent sera confirmed that chikungunya virus was the main etiological agent. The significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:4537481

  2. Study of the regional air quality south of Mexico City (Morelos state).

    PubMed

    Salcedo, D; Castro, T; Ruiz-Suárez, L G; García-Reynoso, A; Torres-Jardón, R; Torres-Jaramillo, A; Mar-Morales, B E; Salcido, A; Celada, A T; Carreón-Sierra, S; Martínez, A P; Fentanes-Arriaga, O A; Deustúa, E; Ramos-Villegas, R; Retama-Hernández, A; Saavedra, M I; Suárez-Lastra, M

    2012-01-01

    Results from the first study of the regional air quality in Morelos state (located south of Mexico City) are presented. Criteria pollutants concentrations were measured at several sites within Morelos in February and March of 2007 and 2009; meteorological data was also collected along the state for the same time periods; additionally, a coupled meteorology-chemistry model (Mesoscale Climate Chemistry Model, MCCM) was used to gain understanding on the atmospheric processes occurring in the region. In general, concentrations of almost all the monitored pollutants (O(3), NO(x), CO, SO(2), PM) remained below the Mexican air quality standards during the campaign; however, relatively high concentrations of ozone (8-hour average concentrations above the 60 ppb level several times during the campaigns, i.e. exceeding the World Health Organization and the European Union maximum levels) were observed even at sites with very low reported local emissions. In fact, there is evidence that a large percentage of Morelos vegetation was probably exposed to unhealthy ozone levels (estimated AOT40 levels above the 3 ppm h critical limit). The MCCM qualitatively reproduced ozone daily variations in the sites with an urban component; though it consistently overestimated the ozone concentration in all the sites in Morelos. This is probably because the lack of an updated and detailed emission inventory for the state. The main wind patterns in the region corresponded to the mountain-valley system (downslope flows at night and during the first hours of the day, and upslope flows in the afternoon). At times, Morelos was affected by emissions from surrounding states (Distrito Federal or Puebla). The results are indicative of an efficient transport of ozone and its precursors at a regional level. They also suggest that the state is divided in two atmospheric basins by the Sierras de Tepoztlán, Texcal and Monte Negro.

  3. Water availability and vulnerability of 225 large cities in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padowski, Julie C.; Jawitz, James W.

    2012-12-01

    This study presents a quantitative national assessment of urban water availability and vulnerability for 225 U.S. cities with population greater than 100,000. Here, the urban assessments account for not only renewable water flows, but also the extracted, imported, and stored water that urban systems access through constructed infrastructure. These sources represent important hydraulic components of the urban water supply, yet are typically excluded from water scarcity assessments. Results from this hydraulic-based assessment were compared to those obtained using a more conventional method that estimates scarcity solely based on local renewable flows. The inclusion of hydraulic components increased the mean availability to cities, leading to a significantly lower portion of the total U.S. population considered "at risk" for water scarcity (17%) than that obtained from the runoff method (47%). Water vulnerability was determined based on low-flow conditions, and smaller differences were found for this metric between at-risk populations using the runoff (66%) and hydraulic-based (54%) methods. The large increase in the susceptible population between the scarcity measures evaluated using the hydraulic method may better reconcile the seeming contradiction in the United States between perceptions of natural water abundance and widespread water scarcity. Additionally, urban vulnerability measures developed here were validated using a media text analysis. Vulnerability assessments that included hydraulic components were found to correlate with the frequency of urban water scarcity reports in the popular press while runoff-based measures showed no significant correlation, suggesting that hydraulic-based assessments provide better context for understanding the nature and severity of urban water scarcity issues.

  4. Influenza vaccination coverage among pregnant women - 29 States and New York City, 2009-10 season.

    PubMed

    2012-02-24

    Because influenza can be especially severe during pregnancy, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommend influenza vaccination for women who will be pregnant during the influenza season, regardless of trimester. During the 2009-10 influenza season, pregnant women were at increased risk for severe disease and mortality from influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 (pH1N1) pandemic virus infection. Anticipating this risk, both the inactivated trivalent seasonal and monovalent pH1N1 vaccinations were recommended for pregnant women. To estimate state-specific seasonal and pH1N1 influenza vaccination coverage among pregnant women, CDC analyzed data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS). This report provides estimates from 29 states and New York City (NYC) for women who had live births during September 2009-May 2010. Median state coverage was 47.1% for seasonal and 40.4% for pH1N1 influenza vaccination. Overall, women who reported that a health-care provider offered them influenza vaccination or told them to get it during their pregnancy were more likely to be vaccinated than those without an offer or recommendation (prevalence ratio [PR] = 5.2 for seasonal, and PR = 14.4 for pH1N1). Substantial variation across areas was observed for prevalence of a provider offer or recommendation during pregnancy and for influenza vaccination. These findings highlight the need for state-specific strategies that optimize provider involvement to increase influenza vaccination of pregnant women.

  5. Analysis of Academic Achievement of Pasadena City College Transfers in the California State College-University System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasadena City Coll., CA.

    This report analyzes 4,664 grade reports received from the California State College-University System for students who had transferred from Pasadena City College. The analysis covers all reports that were available as of June 20, 1973, for the period fall 1966 through winter quarter 1973. The grade reports data are tabulated. The tables provide…

  6. Overview of Federal, New York State, and New York City Law Regarding Environmental Health and Safety in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advocates for Children of New York, Inc., Long Island City.

    This document presents many of the federal, state, and New York City laws that apply to the health, safety, and environmental conditions of schools. The relevant portions of the law have been selected along with the mechanisms of legal enforcement that may exist and contact information where applicable. Legislative categories covered include air…

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF A SPATIAL GRADIENT OF NITROGEN DIOXIDE ACROSS A UNITED STATES-MEXICO BORDER CITY DURING WINTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A gradient of ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentration is demonstrated across metropolitan El Paso, Texas (USA), a city located on the international border between the United States and Mexico. Integrated measurements of NO2 were collected over seven days at 20 elementary sc...

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF A SPATIAL GRADIENT OF NITROGEN DIOXIDE ACROSS A UNITED STATES-MEXICO BORDER CITY DURING WINTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A gradient of ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentration is demonstrated across metropolitan El Paso, Texas (USA), a city located on the international border between the United States and Mexico. Integrated measurements of NO2 were collected over seven days at 20 elementary sc...

  9. Rural and Small-City Elderly. An Information Paper. United States Senate, 98th Congress, 2d Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressler, Larry; Swenson, Diane

    Responses from 27 State offices on aging revealed 8 recurring problems of rural and small-town elderly: a need for a uniform legislative definition of rural; the need for a complete rural strategy to reverse discrimination against rural and small-city elderly; a need to streamline Federal regulations; the need for changes in the Older Americans…

  10. Poor Infants, Poor Chances: A Longitudinal Study of Progress toward Reducing Low Birth Weight and Infant Mortality in the United States and Its Largest Cities, 1979-1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducey, Sara Bachman; And Others

    This study examined low birth weight and infant mortality in the 50 states and the 54 largest American cities between 1979 and 1984. Its findings confirm that progress in reducing low birth weight and infant mortality has slowed, and in some cases the progress has actually reversed. Some states and many cities had higher rates of low birth weight…

  11. Convergence of microclimate in residential landscapes across diverse cities in the United States

    Treesearch

    Sharon J. Hall; J. Learned; B. Ruddell; K.L. Larson; J. Cavender-Bares; N. Bettez; P.M. Groffman; Morgan Grove; J.B. Heffernan; S.E. Hobbie; J.L. Morse; C. Neill; K.C. Nelson; Jarlath O' Neil-Dunne; L. Ogden; D.E. Pataki; W.D. Pearse; C. Polsky; R. Roy Chowdhury; M.K. Steele; T.L.E. Trammell

    2016-01-01

    The urban heat island (UHI) is a well-documented pattern of warming in cities relative to rural areas. Most UHI research utilizes remote sensing methods at large scales, or climate sensors in single cities surrounded by standardized land cover. Relatively few studies have explored continental-scale climatic patterns within common urban microenvironments such as...

  12. The Dependent City: The Changing Political Economy of Urban Economic Development in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantor, Paul

    1987-01-01

    Cities are susceptible to slowly changing forces which shape and limit community choices. This article reviews those forces and choices from 1789 through the present. It explores the dependency relationships cities have with the larger politico-economic order and evaluates the impact of these relationships on the politics of urban economic…

  13. Knowledge of Abortion Laws and Services Among Low-Income Women in Three United States Cities.

    PubMed

    Lara, Diana; Holt, Kelsey; Peña, Melanie; Grossman, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Low-income women and women of color are disproportionately affected by unintended pregnancy. Lack of knowledge of abortion laws and services is one of several factors likely to hinder access to services, though little research has documented knowledge in this population. Survey with convenience sample of 1,262 women attending primary care or full-scope Ob/Gyn clinics serving low-income populations in three large cities and multivariable analyses with four knowledge outcomes. Among all participants, 53% were first-generation immigrants, 25% identified the correct gestational age limit, 41% identified state parental consent laws, 67% knew partner consent is not required, and 55% knew where to obtain abortion services. In multivariable analysis, first-generation immigrants and primarily Spanish speakers were significantly less likely than higher-generation or primarily English speakers to display correct knowledge. Design and evaluation of strategies to improve knowledge about abortion, particularly among migrant women and non-primary English speakers, is needed.

  14. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnancy: An epidemiological study from 11 cities in 9 states of India

    PubMed Central

    Dhanwal, Dinesh Kumar; Bajaj, Sarita; Rajput, Rajesh; Subramaniam, K. A. V.; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Bhandari, Rajendra; Dharmalingam, Mala; Sahay, Rakesh; Ganie, Ashraf; Kotwal, Narendra; Shriram, Usha

    2016-01-01

    Background: A previous hospital based study from Delhi revealed a high prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women. Several other studies with small sample size also indicate a rising trend of prevalence of hypothyroidism during pregnancy in India. Objective: To assess prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women from various states/cities across India. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional multicenter study conducted at Allahabad (Uttar Pradesh), Bengaluru (Karnataka), Chennai (Tamil Nadu), Kolkata (West Bengal), Hyderabad (Telangana), Nasik (Maharashtra), Rohtak (Haryana), Pune (Maharashtra), New Delhi (Delhi), Srinagar (Kashmir), and Vizag (Andhra Pradesh) enrolling 2599 pregnant women. Estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free T4, and antithyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies was carried out using Roche modular kit using ECLIA technology in a central laboratory. Results: We found in our study population that 13.13% of pregnant women have hypothyroidism (n = 388), using a cutoff TSH level of 4.5 μIU/ml. This prevalence was much higher using the American Thyroid Association criteria. Anti-TPO antibodies were positive in 20.74% of all pregnant women (n = 613), whereas 40% (n = 155) of hypothyroid pregnant women were positive for anti-TPO antibodies. Conclusion: This study concludes that there is a high prevalence of hypothyroidism (13.13%), majority being subclinical in pregnant women during the first trimester from India and universal screening of hypothyroidism may be desirable in our country. PMID:27186559

  15. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnancy: An epidemiological study from 11 cities in 9 states of India.

    PubMed

    Dhanwal, Dinesh Kumar; Bajaj, Sarita; Rajput, Rajesh; Subramaniam, K A V; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Bhandari, Rajendra; Dharmalingam, Mala; Sahay, Rakesh; Ganie, Ashraf; Kotwal, Narendra; Shriram, Usha

    2016-01-01

    A previous hospital based study from Delhi revealed a high prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women. Several other studies with small sample size also indicate a rising trend of prevalence of hypothyroidism during pregnancy in India. To assess prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women from various states/cities across India. This was a cross-sectional multicenter study conducted at Allahabad (Uttar Pradesh), Bengaluru (Karnataka), Chennai (Tamil Nadu), Kolkata (West Bengal), Hyderabad (Telangana), Nasik (Maharashtra), Rohtak (Haryana), Pune (Maharashtra), New Delhi (Delhi), Srinagar (Kashmir), and Vizag (Andhra Pradesh) enrolling 2599 pregnant women. Estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free T4, and antithyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies was carried out using Roche modular kit using ECLIA technology in a central laboratory. We found in our study population that 13.13% of pregnant women have hypothyroidism (n = 388), using a cutoff TSH level of 4.5 μIU/ml. This prevalence was much higher using the American Thyroid Association criteria. Anti-TPO antibodies were positive in 20.74% of all pregnant women (n = 613), whereas 40% (n = 155) of hypothyroid pregnant women were positive for anti-TPO antibodies. This study concludes that there is a high prevalence of hypothyroidism (13.13%), majority being subclinical in pregnant women during the first trimester from India and universal screening of hypothyroidism may be desirable in our country.

  16. Correlates of HIV Infection Among African American Women from 20 Cities in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Isa; Le, Binh; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Little research has been conducted to investigate multiple levels of HIV risk—individual risk factors, sex partner characteristics, and socioeconomic factors—among African American women, who, in 2010, comprised 64 % of the estimated 9,500 new infections in women. Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit and interview women in 20 cities with high AIDS prevalence in the United States through the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System. We assessed individual risk factors, sex partner characteristics, and socioeconomic characteristics associated with being HIV-positive but unaware of the infection among African American women. Among 3,868 women with no previous diagnosis of HIV, 68 % had high school education or more and 84 % lived at or below the poverty line. In multivariable analysis, women who were 35 years or older, homeless, received Medicaid, whose last sex partner ever used crack cocaine or was an exchange sex partner were more likely to be HIV-positive-unaware. Developing and implementing strategies that address socioeconomic factors, such as homelessness and living in poverty, as well as individual risk factors, can help to maximize the effectiveness of the public health response to the HIV epidemic. PMID:24077972

  17. Sources of bacteria in outdoor air across cities in the midwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Robert M; Sullivan, Amy P; Costello, Elizabeth K; Collett, Jeff L; Knight, Rob; Fierer, Noah

    2011-09-01

    Bacteria are abundant in the atmosphere, where they often represent a major portion of the organic aerosols. Potential pathogens of plants and livestock are commonly dispersed through the atmosphere, and airborne bacteria can have important effects on human health as pathogens or triggers of allergic asthma and seasonal allergies. Despite their importance, the diversity and biogeography of airborne microorganisms remain poorly understood. We used high-throughput pyrosequencing to analyze bacterial communities present in the aerosol fraction containing fine particulate matter of ≤2.5 μm from 96 near-surface atmospheric samples collected from cities throughout the midwestern United States and found that the communities are surprisingly diverse and strongly affected by the season. We also directly compared the airborne communities to those found in hundreds of samples representing potential source environments. We show that, in addition to the more predictable sources (soils and leaf surfaces), fecal material, most likely dog feces, often represents an unexpected source of bacteria in the atmosphere at more urbanized locations during the winter. Airborne bacteria are clearly an important, but understudied, component of air quality that needs to be better integrated into efforts to measure and model pollutants in the atmosphere.

  18. Ultrafast gigantic photo-response in (EDO-TTF)2PF6 initiated by 10-fs laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenlein, Robert William; Itatani, Jiro; Rini, Matteo; Cavalleri, Andrea; Onda, Ken; Ishikawa, Tadahiko; Koshihara, Shin-ya; Shao, Xiangfeng; Yamochi, Hideki; Saito, Gunzi; Schoenlein, Robert W.

    2006-08-07

    We photo-exited a charge-ordered organic salt (EDO-TTF)2PF6 with sub-10-fs optical pulses. The photo-induced metallic phase appeared within 80-fs after pumping, characterized by large changes in reflectivity (DELTA R/R~0.8) followed by strong coherent phonon modulation

  19. Public water supplies of the 100 largest cities of the United States, 1962

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durfor, Charles N.; Becker, Edith

    1964-01-01

    The report is divided into two sections. The first describes the uses of water in large cities, the raw-water supplies available for public supplies, tl-<; major and minor constituents and the properties of water, the methods of analyses, the treatment of water, the effects of chemical treatment on constituents and properties of water, and the costs of water treatment. The second is a city-by-city inventory that gives (a) the population of the city, (b) the adjacent communities supplied by the city water system, (c) the total population served, (d) the sources of water supply (including auxiliary and emergency supplies), (e) the average amount of water used daily, (f) the lowest 30-day mean discharge of streams used for public supply during recent years, (g) the treatment of water, (h) the rated capacity of each water-treatment plant, and (i) the storage capacity for raw and finished water. For 58 of the cities, the sources of water, the location of water-treatment plants, and the areas served by the city system are shown on maps. Chemical, spectrographic, and radiochemical analyses of treated water and chemical and spectrographic analyses for many of the raw-water supplies are presented in tabular form.

  20. Virtual Modeling for Cities of the Future. State-Of Art and Virtual Modeling for Cities of the Future. State-Of Art AN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, J.; Muñoz-Nieto, A.; Rodriguez-Gonzalvez, P.

    2015-02-01

    3D virtual modeling, visualization, dissemination and management of urban areas is one of the most exciting challenges that must face geomatics in the coming years. This paper aims to review, compare and analyze the new technologies, policies and software tools that are in progress to manage urban 3D information. It is assumed that the third dimension increases the quality of the model provided, allowing new approaches to urban planning, conservation and management of architectural and archaeological areas. Despite the fact that displaying 3D urban environments is an issue nowadays solved, there are some challenges to be faced by geomatics in the coming future. Displaying georeferenced linked information would be considered the first challenge. Another challenge to face is to improve the technical requirements if this georeferenced information must be shown in real time. Are there available software tools ready for this challenge? Are they useful to provide services required in smart cities? Throughout this paper, many practical examples that require 3D georeferenced information and linked data will be shown. Computer advances related to 3D spatial databases and software that are being developed to convert rendering virtual environment to a new enriched environment with linked information will be also analyzed. Finally, different standards that Open Geospatial Consortium has assumed and developed regarding the three-dimensional geographic information will be reviewed. Particular emphasis will be devoted on KML, LandXML, CityGML and the new IndoorGML.

  1. Survey of city ordinances and local enforcement regarding commercial availability of tobacco to minors in Minnesota, United States.

    PubMed

    Forster, J L; Komro, K A; Wolfson, M

    1996-01-01

    To determine the extent and nature of local ordinances to regulate tobacco sales to minors, the level of enforcement of local and state laws concerning tobacco availability to minors, and sanctions applied as a result of enforcement. Tobacco control ordinances were collected in 1993 from 222 of the 229 cities greater than or equal to 2000 population in Minnesota, United States. In addition a telephone survey with the head of the agency responsible for enforcement of the tobacco ordinances was conducted. Presence or absence of legislative provisions dealing with youth and tobacco, including licensure of tobacco retailers, sanctions for selling tobacco products to minors, and restrictions on cigarette vending machines, self-service merchandising, and point-of-purchase advertising; and enforcement of these laws (use of inspections and "sting" operations, and sanctions imposed on businesses and minors). Almost 94% of cities required tobacco licences for retailers. However, 57% of the cities specified licences for cigarettes only. Annual licence fees ranged from $10 to $250, with the higher fees adopted in the previous four years. More than 25% of the cities had adopted some kind of restriction on cigarette vending machines, but only six communities had banned self-service cigarette displays. Three cities specified a minimum age for tobacco sales staff. Fewer than 25% of police officials reported having conducted compliance checks with minors or in-store observations of tobacco sales to determine if minors were being sold tobacco during the current year. Police carrying out compliance checks with youth were almost four times as likely to issue citations as those doing in-store observations. More than 90% of police reported enforcement of the law against tobacco purchase or possession by minors, and nearly 40% reported application of penalties against minors. Almost 75% of the cities have done nothing to change policies or enforcement practices to encourage compliance

  2. Survey of city ordinances and local enforcement regarding commercial availability of tobacco to minors in Minnesota, United States

    PubMed Central

    Forster, J. L.; Komro, K. A.; Wolfson, M.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent and nature of local ordinances to regulate tobacco sales to minors, the level of enforcement of local and state laws concerning tobacco availability to minors, and sanctions applied as a result of enforcement. DESIGN: Tobacco control ordinances were collected in 1993 from 222 of the 229 cities greater than or equal to 2000 population in Minnesota, United States. In addition a telephone survey with the head of the agency responsible for enforcement of the tobacco ordinances was conducted. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Presence or absence of legislative provisions dealing with youth and tobacco, including licensure of tobacco retailers, sanctions for selling tobacco products to minors, and restrictions on cigarette vending machines, self-service merchandising, and point-of-purchase advertising; and enforcement of these laws (use of inspections and "sting" operations, and sanctions imposed on businesses and minors). RESULTS: Almost 94% of cities required tobacco licences for retailers. However, 57% of the cities specified licences for cigarettes only. Annual licence fees ranged from $10 to $250, with the higher fees adopted in the previous four years. More than 25% of the cities had adopted some kind of restriction on cigarette vending machines, but only six communities had banned self-service cigarette displays. Three cities specified a minimum age for tobacco sales staff. Fewer than 25% of police officials reported having conducted compliance checks with minors or in-store observations of tobacco sales to determine if minors were being sold tobacco during the current year. Police carrying out compliance checks with youth were almost four times as likely to issue citations as those doing in-store observations. More than 90% of police reported enforcement of the law against tobacco purchase or possession by minors, and nearly 40% reported application of penalties against minors. CONCLUSIONS: Almost 75% of the cities have done nothing to

  3. Influence of Miles City Line 1 on the United States Hereford population.

    PubMed

    Leesburg, V L R; MacNeil, M D; Neser, F W C

    2014-06-01

    The goal of this research was to document the influence of Line 1 (L1) Hereford cattle, developed by the USDA at its research facility in Miles City, MT, on the U.S. Hereford population. The L1 Hereford population originated in 1934 and has been thereafter maintained as a closed herd at that location. Dissemination of germplasm began in 1948. Pedigree data for approximately 14 million cattle recorded by the American Hereford Association (AHA) were used. A preliminary experiment was conducted to establish sample size necessary to estimate the pedigree relationship between L1 and the recorded Hereford population. Five random samples of 100, 400, 500, and 3,000 calves were drawn from the sets of calves born in 1980, 1990, and 2000. Sampled calves were pseudo mated to L1 sires from the decades 1968 to 1978, 1978 to 1988, and 1988 to 1998, respectively. Inbreeding coefficients were calculated for the resulting "offspring" and the relationship of each sampled animal to L1 was taken to be twice the maximum inbreeding coefficient for the set of L1 sires used in the pseudo matings. Based on the results of this experiment, it was decided that a sample size of 400 animals per replicate was sufficient to estimate the relationship between L1 and the general Hereford population recorded by the AHA. In a second experiment, 5 sets of 400 animals were drawn from the AHA herdbook representing each year from 1980 to 2008 and pseudo mated to L1 sires and their relationship to L1 calculated as described above. Over the period, the number of animals recorded by the AHA that were related to L1 increased by 1.69 ± 0.07% per year. The L1 Hereford population was ancestral to 79% of Hereford cattle recorded in 2006 through 2008. The greatest concentration of animals related to L1 was in the Great Plains and eastern Corn Belt of the United States, but animals related to L1 were found in 48 states. In a third experiment, 240 L1 Hereford cattle and 311 sires representative of the Hereford

  4. Violence-related firearm deaths among residents of metropolitan areas and cities---United States, 2006--2007.

    PubMed

    2011-05-13

    Violence-related firearm deaths remain an important public health concern in the United States. During 2006--2007, a total of 25,423 firearm homicides and 34,235 firearm suicides occurred among U.S. residents. These national totals include 4,166 firearm homicides and 1,446 firearm suicides among youths aged 10--19 years; the rate of firearm homicides among youths slightly exceeded the rate among persons of all ages. This report presents statistics on firearm homicides and firearm suicides for major metropolitan areas and cities, with an emphasis on youths aged 10--19 years in recognition of the importance of early prevention efforts. It integrates analyses conducted by CDC in response to requests for detailed information, arising from a heightened focus on urban violence by the media, the public, and policymakers over the past year. Firearm homicides and suicides and annual rates were tabulated for the 50 largest U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) and their central cities for 2006--2007, using data from the National Vital Statistics System and the U.S. Census Bureau. Firearm homicide rates in approximately two thirds of the MSAs exceeded the national rate, and 86% of cities had rates higher than those of their MSAs. The youth firearm homicide rate exceeded the all-ages rate in 80% of the MSAs and in 88% of the cities. Firearm suicide rates in just over half of the MSAs were below the national rate, and 55% of cities had rates below those of their MSAs. Youth firearm suicide rates in the MSAs and cities were collectively low compared with all-ages rates. Such variations in firearm homicide and firearm suicide rates, with respect to both urbanization and age, should be considered in the continuing development of prevention programs directed at reducing firearm violence.

  5. Influenza and Pneumonia Mortality in 66 Large Cities in the United States in Years Surrounding the 1918 Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Acuna-Soto, Rodolfo; Viboud, Cécile; Chowell, Gerardo

    2011-01-01

    The 1918 influenza pandemic was a major epidemiological event of the twentieth century resulting in at least twenty million deaths worldwide; however, despite its historical, epidemiological, and biological relevance, it remains poorly understood. Here we examine the relationship between annual pneumonia and influenza death rates in the pre-pandemic (1910–17) and pandemic (1918–20) periods and the scaling of mortality with latitude, longitude and population size, using data from 66 large cities of the United States. The mean pre-pandemic pneumonia death rates were highly associated with pneumonia death rates during the pandemic period (Spearman ρ = 0.64–0.72; P<0.001). By contrast, there was a weak correlation between pre-pandemic and pandemic influenza mortality rates. Pneumonia mortality rates partially explained influenza mortality rates in 1918 (ρ = 0.34, P = 0.005) but not during any other year. Pneumonia death counts followed a linear relationship with population size in all study years, suggesting that pneumonia death rates were homogeneous across the range of population sizes studied. By contrast, influenza death counts followed a power law relationship with a scaling exponent of ∼0.81 (95%CI: 0.71, 0.91) in 1918, suggesting that smaller cities experienced worst outcomes during the pandemic. A linear relationship was observed for all other years. Our study suggests that mortality associated with the 1918–20 influenza pandemic was in part predetermined by pre-pandemic pneumonia death rates in 66 large US cities, perhaps through the impact of the physical and social structure of each city. Smaller cities suffered a disproportionately high per capita influenza mortality burden than larger ones in 1918, while city size did not affect pneumonia mortality rates in the pre-pandemic and pandemic periods. PMID:21886792

  6. [Current state of smoking and alcohol drinking among pregnant women in Kyoto City].

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Takayo; Taniguchi, Chiho; Hamagashira, Naoko

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the current state of smoking and alcohol drinking among pregnant women, and assess the factors related to smoking behavior during pregnancy. Subjects were mothers whose children had undergone 4-month checkups publicly provided by Kyoto City in February 2007. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire survey about their smoking and alcohol drinking behavior was conducted. Chi-square tests and a logistic regression analysis were carried out to assess the factors related to smoking behavior during pregnancy. Out of a total of 999, 722 questionnaires were returned (response rate, 72.3%). Usable questionnaires were 689 (available response rate, 69.0%). The prevalence levels of alcohol drinking during prenatal, pregnant and postnatal periods were 55.9%, 9.1%, 22.1%, respectively. In 586 breast feeding mothers, the prevalence of alcohol drinking was 19.5%. The percentages of women smoking during prenatal, pregnant and postnatal periods were 23.4%, 7.5%, 9.0%, respectively. Out of prenatal smokers, the rate of quit smoking taking advantage of pregnancy was 67.7%. The prevalence of their husbands' smoking was 43.1%. Logistic regression analysis showed that "young age (<25 years)", "drinking alcohol during pregnancy" and "passive smoking due to their husbands" were significantly related to smoking during pregnancy. Maternal smoking and alcohol drinking are important public health problems. The prevalence of smoking during pregnancy was found to be especially high in young women, and some pregnant women could not quit smoking. Approximately half of pregnant women were exposed to passive smoking. The prevalence of alcohol drinking during pregnancy was high in women aged more than 40 years. It is necessary to give knowledge about obstetric and perinatal complications of smoking and alcohol drinking for childbearing-age women, and provide support help quit smoking and alcohol drinking giving due consideration to age.

  7. Tank Investigation of the EDO Model 142 Hydro-Ski Research Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsen, John A.; Wadlin, Kenneth L.; Gray, George R.

    1951-01-01

    A tank investigation has been conducted of a 1/10-size powered-dynamic model of the Edo model 142 hydra-ski research airplane. The results of tests of two configurations are presented: One included a large ski and a ski well; the other, a small ski without a well. Water take-offs would be possible with the available thrust for either configuration: however, the configuration with the large ski emerged sooner and had less resistance from ski emergence until take-off. Longitudinal stability and landing behavior in smooth water were satisfactory for both configurations. Some alteration to the design of the tail would be desirable in order to reduce the spray loads.

  8. Ciprofloxacin resistance and gonorrhea incidence rates in 17 cities, United States, 1991-2006.

    PubMed

    Chesson, Harrell W; Kirkcaldy, Robert D; Gift, Thomas L; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Weinstock, Hillard S

    2014-04-01

    Antimicrobial drug resistance can hinder gonorrhea prevention and control efforts. In this study, we analyzed historical ciprofloxacin resistance data and gonorrhea incidence data to examine the possible effect of antimicrobial drug resistance on gonorrhea incidence at the population level. We analyzed data from the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project and city-level gonorrhea incidence rates from surveillance data for 17 cities during 1991-2006. We found a strong positive association between ciprofloxacin resistance and gonorrhea incidence rates at the city level during this period. Their association was consistent with predictions of mathematical models in which resistance to treatment can increase gonorrhea incidence rates through factors such as increased duration of infection. These findings highlight the possibility of future increases in gonorrhea incidence caused by emerging cephalosporin resistance.

  9. Ciprofloxacin Resistance and Gonorrhea Incidence Rates in 17 Cities, United States, 1991–2006

    PubMed Central

    Kirkcaldy, Robert D.; Gift, Thomas L.; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Weinstock, Hillard S.

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial drug resistance can hinder gonorrhea prevention and control efforts. In this study, we analyzed historical ciprofloxacin resistance data and gonorrhea incidence data to examine the possible effect of antimicrobial drug resistance on gonorrhea incidence at the population level. We analyzed data from the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project and city-level gonorrhea incidence rates from surveillance data for 17 cities during 1991–2006. We found a strong positive association between ciprofloxacin resistance and gonorrhea incidence rates at the city level during this period. Their association was consistent with predictions of mathematical models in which resistance to treatment can increase gonorrhea incidence rates through factors such as increased duration of infection. These findings highlight the possibility of future increases in gonorrhea incidence caused by emerging cephalosporin resistance. PMID:24655615

  10. Beyond Texas City: the state of process safety in the unionized U.S. oil refining industry.

    PubMed

    McQuiston, Thomas H; Lippin, Tobi Mae; Bradley-Bull, Kristin; Anderson, Joseph; Beach, Josie; Beevers, Gary; Frederick, Randy J; Frederick, James; Greene, Tammy; Hoffman, Thomas; Lefton, James; Nibarger, Kim; Renner, Paul; Ricks, Brian; Seymour, Thomas; Taylor, Ren; Wright, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The March 2005 British Petroleum (BP) Texas City Refinery disaster provided a stimulus to examine the state of process safety in the U.S. refining industry. Participatory action researchers conducted a nation-wide mail-back survey of United Steelworkers local unions and collected data from 51 unionized refineries. The study examined the prevalence of highly hazardous conditions key to the Texas City disaster, refinery actions to address those conditions, emergency preparedness and response, process safety systems, and worker training. Findings indicate that the key highly hazardous conditions were pervasive and often resulted in incidents or near-misses. Respondents reported worker training was insufficient and less than a third characterized their refineries as very prepared to respond safely to a hazardous materials emergency. The authors conclude that the potential for future disasters plagues the refining industry. In response, they call for effective proactive OSHA regulation and outline ten urgent and critical actions to improve refinery process safety.

  11. Water conservation and hydrological transitions in cities in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornberger, George M.; Hess, David J.; Gilligan, Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    Cities across the world have had to diversify and expand their water supply systems in response to demand growth, groundwater depletion and pollution, and instability and inadequacy of regional surface freshwater sources. In the U.S., these problems plague not only the arid Western cities but increasingly also cities in the Eastern portions of the country. Although cities continue to seek out new sources of water via Promethean projects of long-distance supply systems, desalinization plants, and the recharge of aquifers with surface water, they also pursue water conservation because of its low cost and other benefits. We examine water conservation as a complex sociotechnical system comprising interactions of political, sociodemographic, economic, and hydroclimatological factors. We provide quantitative data on the factors that affect more and less advanced transitions in water conservation regimes, and we show that water stress and other hydrological data can only partially predict the transition. We also provide qualitative case studies to identify institutional and political barriers to more advanced water conservation regimes. This interdisciplinary, mixed methods approach typifies the need for knowledge that informs hydrologists about how their research may or may not be adopted by decision-makers.

  12. Blurring the Line between Mosque and State: Public Education in the Twin Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersten, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Educational institutions across America face growing pressure to accommodate the religious practices of Muslim students. One of the biggest hot spots in this respect may seem unlikely--the Twin Cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul in America's heartland. In Minnesota, controversies about religious accommodations have arisen at a number of public…

  13. The Fragility of Turf: The Neighborhoods of New York City. New York State History Themes #1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkleman, Michael

    People continue to define themselves, their lifestyles, and their beliefs through their neighborhoods--their turf. In studying the history of New York City neighborhoods, it is important to consider the developmental trends and constraints (geography, economic structure, transportation, and technological advances) that contributed to the growth of…

  14. Blurring the Line between Mosque and State: Public Education in the Twin Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersten, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Educational institutions across America face growing pressure to accommodate the religious practices of Muslim students. One of the biggest hot spots in this respect may seem unlikely--the Twin Cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul in America's heartland. In Minnesota, controversies about religious accommodations have arisen at a number of public…

  15. Report: American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Site Inspection of the Clean Water State Revolving Fund Projects at the City of Long Beach, California

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #11-R-0082, February 1, 2011. Our site inspections identified a wage compliance issue that merits attention from and action by the city, the California State Water Resources Control Board, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

  16. Assessment of collection schemes for packaging and other recyclable waste in European Union-28 Member States and capital cities.

    PubMed

    Seyring, Nicole; Dollhofer, Marie; Weißenbacher, Jakob; Bakas, Ioannis; McKinnon, David

    2016-09-01

    The Waste Framework Directive obliged European Union Member States to set up separate collection systems to promote high quality recycling for at least paper, metal, plastic and glass by 2015. As implementation of the requirement varies across European Union Member States, the European Commission contracted BiPRO GmbH/Copenhagen Resource Institute to assess the separate collection schemes in the 28 European Union Member States, focusing on capital cities and on metal, plastic, glass (with packaging as the main source), paper/cardboard and bio-waste. The study includes an assessment of the legal framework for, and the practical implementation of, collection systems in the European Union-28 Member States and an in depth-analysis of systems applied in all capital cities. It covers collection systems that collect one or more of the five waste streams separately from residual waste/mixed municipal waste at source (including strict separation, co-mingled systems, door-to-door, bring-point collection and civic amenity sites). A scoreboard including 13 indicators is elaborated in order to measure the performance of the systems with the capture rates as key indicators to identify best performers. Best performance are by the cities of Ljubljana, Helsinki and Tallinn, leading to the key conclusion that door-to-door collection, at least for paper and bio-waste, and the implementation of pay-as-you-throw schemes results in high capture and thus high recycling rates of packaging and other municipal waste. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Cherry blossom phenological data since the seventeenth century for Edo (Tokyo), Japan, and their application to estimation of March temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aono, Yasuyuki

    2015-04-01

    The changes in March mean temperatures in Edo (Tokyo), Japan, since the seventeenth century, were reconstructed using phenological data for the cherry blossoms of Prunus jamasakura deduced from old diaries and chronicles. The observations of the time of full blossoming and of cherry blossom viewing parties were acquired and used to construct a full-blossoming phenological data series for P. jamasakura. Phenological data from 207 of the years from 1601 to 1905 were used for this study. The reconstructed temperatures suggested the existence of two cold periods (the second half of the seventeenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth century), during which times the estimated March mean temperatures were about 4 °C and 5 °C, respectively. These two cold periods at Edo coincided with those reconstructed at Kyoto in previous studies. These cold periods coincided with two less extreme periods, the Maunder and Dalton minima, in the long-term solar variation cycle.

  18. Smoke in the City: How Often and Where Does Smoke Impact Summertime Ozone in the United States?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brey, S. J.; Fischer, E. V.

    2015-12-01

    The mechanisms and magnitude of the contribution of fires to ozone (O3) production is poorly understood. In this work we investigate the influence of fire on O3 abundances over the contiguous United States. Using co-located observations of particulate matter (PM2.5) and the National Weather Service Hazard Mapping System smoke data, we identify summertime days between 2005 and 2014 that Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Air Quality System (AQS) O3 monitors are influenced by smoke. We then compare O3 mixing ratio distributions for smoke-free and smoke-impacted days for each O3 monitor. We observe that the mean O3 abundance measured on smoke-impacted days is higher than on smoke-free days. The magnitude of the effect varies by location with a range of 0 to 37 parts per billion by volume (ppbv). We find that smoke is present on a non-negligible proportion of days when the 8-hour average O3 mixing ratio exceeds the EPA limit of 75 ppbv in regions and locations with significant O3 issues, including the Northeast urban corridor, Dallas, Houston, Atlanta, Birmingham, and Kansas City. Most U.S. cities maintain a similar proportion of smoke-impacted exceedence days when they are held against a more stringent limit of 65 ppbv for an 8-hour average. We show that smoke-impacted O3 mixing ratios are most elevated in U.S. cities with the highest emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOX).

  19. Tuberculosis recurrence in a priority city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Amadeu Antonio; Leite, Danila Torres; Adreoni, Solange

    2017-01-01

    To describe cases of tuberculosis recurrence (TBR), stratified by temporal classification (early or late TBR), and to identify possible predictors of such recurrence. This was an analytical retrospective observational epidemiological study involving a cohort of 963 new cases of pulmonary tuberculosis, reported and treated via the Tuberculosis Control Program in the city of Carapicuíba, Brazil. The study period was from 2000 to 2010. All of the pulmonary tuberculosis patients who successfully completed the treatment (with or without confirmation of cure) were selected and followed until December 31, 2012. Of the 963 cases, TBR occurred in 47 (4.88%). The mean time between the first and second tuberculosis episodes was 36.12 months. Of the 47 TBR cases, 16 (34.04%) occurred within the first 18 months after the completion of the initial treatment (early TBR) and 31 (65.96%) occurred thereafter (late TBR). There were statistically significant differences between the early and late TBR groups only regarding level of education (≤ 3 vs. > 3 years of schooling; p < 0.004) and weight gain at completion of the initial treatment (1.78 kg vs. 5.31 kg; p < 0.045)-not regarding any of the other variables studied. A low level of education might translate to poor treatment adherence, which impedes the killing of bacilli and facilitates their survival in a latent state, making it appear as if the treatment was effective. Minimal or no weight gain at completion of the initial treatment might be a reliable biomarker to be used by health care facilities that provide tuberculosis treatment. Descrever os casos de recorrência de tuberculose (RTB) e identificar possíveis preditores segundo a classificação RTB recente ou tardia. Estudo epidemiológico observacional analítico retrospectivo a partir de uma coorte de 963 casos novos de tuberculose pulmonar notificados e tratados no Programa de Controle de Tuberculose de Carapicuíba (SP). O período de estudo foi de 2000 a 2010. Todos

  20. Test of the Practicality and Feasibility of EDoF-Empowered Image Sensors for Long-Range Biometrics

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Sheng-Hsun; Li, Yung-Hui; Tien, Chung-Hao

    2016-01-01

    For many practical applications of image sensors, how to extend the depth-of-field (DoF) is an important research topic; if successfully implemented, it could be beneficial in various applications, from photography to biometrics. In this work, we want to examine the feasibility and practicability of a well-known “extended DoF” (EDoF) technique, or “wavefront coding,” by building real-time long-range iris recognition and performing large-scale iris recognition. The key to the success of long-range iris recognition includes long DoF and image quality invariance toward various object distance, which is strict and harsh enough to test the practicality and feasibility of EDoF-empowered image sensors. Besides image sensor modification, we also explored the possibility of varying enrollment/testing pairs. With 512 iris images from 32 Asian people as the database, 400-mm focal length and F/6.3 optics over 3 m working distance, our results prove that a sophisticated coding design scheme plus homogeneous enrollment/testing setups can effectively overcome the blurring caused by phase modulation and omit Wiener-based restoration. In our experiments, which are based on 3328 iris images in total, the EDoF factor can achieve a result 3.71 times better than the original system without a loss of recognition accuracy. PMID:27897976

  1. Test of the Practicality and Feasibility of EDoF-Empowered Image Sensors for Long-Range Biometrics.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Sheng-Hsun; Li, Yung-Hui; Tien, Chung-Hao

    2016-11-25

    For many practical applications of image sensors, how to extend the depth-of-field (DoF) is an important research topic; if successfully implemented, it could be beneficial in various applications, from photography to biometrics. In this work, we want to examine the feasibility and practicability of a well-known "extended DoF" (EDoF) technique, or "wavefront coding," by building real-time long-range iris recognition and performing large-scale iris recognition. The key to the success of long-range iris recognition includes long DoF and image quality invariance toward various object distance, which is strict and harsh enough to test the practicality and feasibility of EDoF-empowered image sensors. Besides image sensor modification, we also explored the possibility of varying enrollment/testing pairs. With 512 iris images from 32 Asian people as the database, 400-mm focal length and F/6.3 optics over 3 m working distance, our results prove that a sophisticated coding design scheme plus homogeneous enrollment/testing setups can effectively overcome the blurring caused by phase modulation and omit Wiener-based restoration. In our experiments, which are based on 3328 iris images in total, the EDoF factor can achieve a result 3.71 times better than the original system without a loss of recognition accuracy.

  2. Helicopter Noise Survey for Selected Cities in the Contiguous United States,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-20

    40 at Night Soft Whisper (5’) 32 Studio (Speech) 30 - Studio for Sound Pictures 20 Threshold of Hearing (Youths, lk~z-4kHz) .0 Sourcez Arnold P.G...and 6.4) are located on the outer fringes of the city at the Providence 6 Medical Center, the Flamingo Motel, Hessell Tractor Inc., Portland...density residential housing with some commercial - .and retail businesses located along the road leading to the airport. Hessell Tractor, Inc. has a

  3. Negative Ion Photoelectron Spectroscopy Reveals Remarkable Noninnocence of Ligands in Nickel Bis(dithiolene) Complexes [Ni(dddt)2](-) and [Ni(edo)2](.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing; Hou, Gao-Lei; Wang, Xuefeng; Wang, Xue-Bin

    2016-05-12

    [Ni(dddt)2](-) (dddt = 5,6-dihydro-1,4-dithiine-2,3-dithiolate) and [Ni(edo)2](-) (edo = 5,6-dihydro-1,4-dioxine-2,3-dithiolate) are two donor-type nickel bis(dithiolene) complexes, with the tendency of donating low binding energy electrons. These two structurally similar complexes differ only with respect to the outer atoms in the ligand framework where the former has four S atoms while the latter has four O atoms. Herein, we report a negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy (NIPES) study on these two complexes to probe the electronic structures of the anions and their corresponding neutrals. The NIPE spectra exhibit the adiabatic electron detachment energy (ADE) or, equivalently, the electron affinity (EA) of the neutral [Ni(L)2](0) to be relatively low for this type of complexes, 2.780 and 2.375 eV for L = dddt and edo, respectively. The 0.4 eV difference in ADEs shows a significant substitution effect for sulfur in dddt by oxygen in edo, i.e., noninnocence of the ligands, which has decreased the electronic stability of [Ni(edo)2](-) by lowering its electron binding energy by ∼0.4 eV. The observed substitution effect on gas-phase EA values correlates well with the measured redox potentials for [Ni(dddt)2](-/0) and [Ni(edo)2](-/0) in solutions. The singlet-triplet splitting (ΔEST) of [Ni(dddt)2](0) and [Ni(edo)2](0) is also determined from the spectra to be 0.57 and 0.53 eV, respectively. Accompanying DFT calculations and molecular orbital (MO) composition analyses show significant ligand contributions to the redox MOs and allow the components of the orbitals involved in each electronic transition and spectral assignments to be identified.

  4. Leave No City Behind: England/United States Dialogue on Urban Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannaway, Jane; Murphy, Marilyn; Reed, Jodie

    2004-01-01

    Both the United States and England initiated ambitious standards-based education reform to eliminate large gaps between their highest and lowest achievers. England appears to be ahead, having started in 1988 with a national curriculum, tests, and performance tables. The United States' No Child Left Behind Act began rewriting state rules in 2002…

  5. Envisioning the inner body during the Edo period in Japan: Inshoku yojo kagami (Rules of Dietary Life) and Boji yojo kagami (Rules of Sexual Life).

    PubMed

    Shirasugi, Etsuo

    2007-03-01

    There are two ukiyoe, Japanese woodblock prints, that were produced around 1850 and give a good picture of the images of the insides of the human body that were widely accepted among the common people in the Edo period. The Inshoku yojo kagami (Rules of Dietary Life) shows a man drinking sake. The Boji yojo kagami (Rules of Sexual Life) shows a woman, apparently a courtesan. The purpose of the two ukiyoe was to educate viewers about the functions of the principal inner organs in the traditional East Asian concept of the body and to admonish them against excessive eating, drinking and sexual intercourse. The contrivance of the two ukiyoe lies in their fusion of two formats. One is the format of a see-through body displaying the internal organs. The other is that of explaining the functions of the various internal organs in the form of familiar scenes from the living space of cities and households. Miniature sketches can be seen in the prints of people at work, performing the tasks believed to be that of each organ. However, the scheme of the two ukiyoe was not an innovation of the author of the ukioye. Already in the kibyoshi (Yellow Cover booklets), the scheme of likening the interior of the body to a living space had been adopted. After entering the 18th century, Chinese medical knowledge and anatomical drawings became available. As sex manuals, Yellow Cover booklets, and ukiyoe publications, incorporated and disseminated the newly acquired medical knowledge and the medical concept of the body gradually became the common sense view among people in the street.

  6. The socio-cultural context of health behaviour among Esan communities, Edo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omorodion, F I

    1993-10-01

    This paper reports on health beliefs and their influence on treatment decisions and behaviour among the Esan people of mid-west Nigeria. The sources for the study are my own experience of growing up in Esan society, anthropological field work, and focus groups. The research revealed a transitional society where both traditional and modern medicine are employed and where the choice between them is determined by belief systems which are themselves in the process of change, as well as by distance and costs. The traditional health-belief system was one which placed most responsibility and blame upon women, and a system of social control over the adult female population. Changing health beliefs are less the result of the introduction of a new health philosophy than of the retreat, under the impact of Christianity, of traditional religion which embodied the older health philosophy.

  7. Senior Secondary School Science Teachers in Delta and Edo States Conceptualization about the Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajaja, Patrick Osawaru

    2012-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to find out the conceptions of science teachers about the nature of science. To guide this study, four research questions were asked and four hypotheses tested. The design of the study was descriptive survey and instrument used for data collection was a 22 item questionnaire. The sample of the study consisted of…

  8. Budgeting and Funding of the Library at the University of Benin, Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osagie, Roseline O.; Orheruata, Matilda U.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study on funding of the library at the University of Benin in relation to the recurrent budget implementation during the 1992/93 to 1996/97 academic sessions. The findings indicated that the library depended on the central administrations's allocation for its funding. It also showed that the University of…

  9. Adult lymphomas in Edo state, Niger Delta region of Nigeria--clinicopathological profile of 205 cases.

    PubMed

    Omoti, C E; Halim, N K D

    2005-10-01

    The clinicopathologic features of malignant lymphomas had not been documented in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, which is known for its petrochemical industries and gas flare sites. Cases of lymphomas that presented to the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), a major referral centre in the region, from January 1990 to December 2003 were reviewed. Demographic and clinical information were obtained from the case files. Diagnosis was established based on the histological examination of an accessible biopsy lymph node and classified according to the Working Formulation (WF). Haematological parameters were done using an automated Coulter counter. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) occurred predominantly in young adults (20-39 years). A majority of the patients presented in the advanced stage of the disease (Stages III-IV) according to the Ann Arbor system and a performance status (PS) scale of 2-4. The intermediate grade NHL (41.2%) formed the largest group of which diffuse large cell lymphoma (DLCL) was the most commonly observed histopathologic type followed by the large cell immunoblastic type.

  10. Budgeting and Funding of the Library at the University of Benin, Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osagie, Roseline O.; Orheruata, Matilda U.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study on funding of the library at the University of Benin in relation to the recurrent budget implementation during the 1992/93 to 1996/97 academic sessions. The findings indicated that the library depended on the central administrations's allocation for its funding. It also showed that the University of…

  11. Risk assessment of agricultural pesticides in water, sediment, and fish from Owan River, Edo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogbeide, Ozekeke; Tongo, Isioma; Ezemonye, Lawrence

    2015-10-01

    The distribution of pesticides in water, sediments, Clarias gariepinus, and Tilapia zilli from the Owan River was investigated to evaluate the pollution status and potential hazard in the river system. A total of 16 pesticides were analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) equipped with electron capture detector (ECD). The concentration of pesticide residues ranged from ND to 0.43 μg/l for water samples, 0.82 to 2.14 μg/kg/dw for sediment, 0.04 to 2.34 μg/kg/ww for C. gariepinus, and 0.02 to 1.73 μg/kg/ww for T. zilli. High concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, specifically benzenehexachloride (α-BHC, γ-BHC, and β-BHC) observed in all environmental media, are an indication of the current illegal use of banned pesticides for agricultural activities in the region. Analysis of data showed a strong correlation (r (2) = 0.7) between total organic carbon (TOC) and total pesticide residues in sediment samples. Meanwhile, risk quotient estimates for heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, endrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (4,4'-DDT), endosulfan I, endosulfan II, endosulfan aldehyde, and phosphomethylglycine showed potential risk to aquatic organism under observed mean concentrations (risk quotient (RQ) ≥ 1). Estimated average daily intake (EADI) for organochlorine pesticides (γ-BHC, heptachlor epoxide, aldrin, dieldrin, and endrin) was above their respective acceptable average daily intake (ADI), while hazard quotient for each of these pesticides was above the unity value (1). This indicates that there is a potential cancer risk for the local residents with life time consumption of pesticide-contaminated fish.

  12. The "housing question" and the state-socialist answer: city, class and state remaking in 1950s Bucharest.

    PubMed

    Chelcea, Liviu

    2012-01-01

    Housing nationalization as a solution to urban inequalities has a long history in European social thought. This article describes housing nationalization in a state-socialist context. Using a political economy perspective and relying on recently released archival material about housing in 1950s Romania, I argue that nationalization may be regarded as a special type of urban process. Nationalization raised the occupancy rate and intensified the usage of existing housing, desegregated centrally located neighborhoods, turned some residential space into office space for state institutions, facilitated the degradation of the existing housing stock and gradually produced a socialist gentry. Aside from similarities with other state-socialist nationalizations from the same period, Romanian nationalization resembled the housing policies of other statist regimes. The data also suggest that, even in the context of revolutionary change, the state is a sum of multiple, often diverging projects, rather than a coherent actor.

  13. Clinical manifestations and endoscopic findings of amebic colitis in a United States-Mexico border city: a case series.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Rhonda; Cooper, Chad J; Ramirez-Vega, Ruben; Huerta-Alardin, Ana; Boman, Darius; Zuckerman, Marc J

    2015-12-14

    Invasive amebiasis is not frequently seen in the United States. It is associated with considerable morbidity in patients residing in or traveling to endemic areas. We report a case series of patients with amebic colitis in a United States-Mexico border city to alert physicians to the varied clinical manifestations. Nine patients were diagnosed with amebic colitis. Mean age was 56 (38-83), 6 were males, and all were Hispanic. Common symptoms were diarrhea (56 %), hematochezia (33 %) and abdominal bloating (11 %). The diagnosis of amebic colitis was established in the following ways: 8 patients by colonoscopy with biopsy, 1 by surgery for colonic obstruction. The diagnosis of amebic colitis was confirmed in 8 patients (89 %) by amebic trophozoites present in histopathologic sections. One patient was diagnosed with amebic colitis based upon clinical symptoms, colitis on colonoscopy and visualization of amebic trophozoites on stool examination. In the 8 patients in whom colonoscopy was done, 6 (75 %) had inflammation with rectosigmoid involvement and 5 (62.5 %) had ulcerations. Infection resolved after treatment with metronidazole in most patients; however, one patient developed a liver abscess and another had a colonic perforation and later developed a liver abscess. The occurrence of amebic colitis in this United States-Mexico border city hospital population was low, but in some cases potentially life-threatening. Physicians should be alert to the less common presentations of amebic colitis, such as overt gastrointestinal bleeding, exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease, and the incidental finding of association with colon cancer, or a surgical abdomen. Rectosigmoid involvement was typically found on colonoscopy.

  14. Integrating Health into Local Climate Response: Lessons from the U.S. CDC Climate-Ready States and Cities Initiative.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Mary C; Fox, Mary A; Kaye, Charlotte; Resnick, Beth

    2017-09-20

    Public health has potential to serve as a frame to convey the urgency of behavior change needed to adapt to a changing climate and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Local governments form the backbone of climate-related public health preparedness. Yet local health agencies are often inadequately prepared and poorly integrated into climate change assessments and plans. We reviewed the climate health profiles of 16 states and two cities participating in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s Climate-Ready States and Cities Initiative (CRSCI) that aims to build local capacity to assess and respond to the health impacts of climate change. Following recommendations from a recent expert panel strategic review, we present illustrations of emerging promising practice and future directions. We found that CRSCI has strengthened climate preparedness and response in local public health agencies by identifying critical climate-health impacts and vulnerable populations, and has helped integrate health more fully into broader climate planning. Promising practice was found in all three recommendation areas identified by the expert panel (leveraging partnerships, refining assessment methodologies and enhancing communications), particularly with regard to health impacts of extreme heat. Vast needs remain, however, suggesting the need to disseminate CRSCI experience to non-grantees. In conclusion, the CRSCI program approach and selected activities illustrate a way forward toward robust, targeted local preparedness and response that may serve as a useful example for public health departments in the United States and internationally, particularly at a time of uncertain commitment to climate change agreements at the national level. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1838.

  15. 77 FR 24767 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; City of Albuquerque-Bernalillo County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... Agency. iii. The initials SIP mean or refer to State Implementation Plan. iv. The initials RH and RHR... PM 2.5 and CAA 110(a)(2)(D)(i) III. What are the requirements for RH SIPs submitted under 40 CFR 51...(a)(2)(D) of the CAA are satisfied for the entire State of New Mexico. The AQCB submitted its RH...

  16. Genetic structure of the invasive tree Ailanthus altissima in eastern United States cities

    Treesearch

    Preston R. Aldrich; Joseph S. Briguglio; Shyam N. Kapadia; Minesh U. Morker; Ankit Rawal; Preeti Kalra; Cynthia D. Huebner; Gary K. Greer

    2010-01-01

    Ailanthus altissima is an invasive tree from Asia. It now occurs in most US states, and although primarily an urban weed, it has become a problem in forested areas especially in the eastern states. Little is known about its genetic structure. We explore its naturalized gene pool from 28 populations, mostly of the eastern US where infestations are...

  17. Assessment of the status of municipal solid waste management in metro cities, state capitals, class I cities, and class II towns in India: an insight.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Bhattacharyya, J K; Vaidya, A N; Chakrabarti, Tapan; Devotta, Sukumar; Akolkar, A B

    2009-02-01

    Solid waste management is one of the most challenging issues in urban cities, which are facing a serious pollution problem due to the generation of huge quantities of solid waste. This paper presents an assessment of the existing situation of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in major cities in India. The quantity and composition of MSW vary from place to place, and bear a rather consistent correlation with the average standard of living. Extensive field investigations were carried out for quantification, analysis of physical composition, and characterization of MSW in each of the identified cities. The MSW management status (per the MSW Rules, 2000) has also been assessed, and an action plan for better management has been formulated; both are presented in this paper. Studies carried out in 59 selected cities in India have revealed that there are many shortcomings in the existing practices used in managing the MSW. These shortcomings pertain mainly to inadequate manpower, financial resources, implements, and machinery required for effectively carrying out various activities for MSWM. To overcome the deficiencies in the existing MSWM systems, an indicative action plan has been presented incorporating strategies and guidelines. Based on this plan, municipal agencies can prepare specific action plans for their respective cities.

  18. [Screening methodology application to evaluate cancer mortality in selected cities in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Otero, Ubirani B; Antoniazzi, Berenice N; Veiga, Lene H S; Turci, Silvana R; Azevedo, Gulnar; Mendonça, Silva

    2007-01-01

    An epidemiological investigation was launched in several cities in southern Minas Gerais State, Brazil, considering the possibility of increased cancer incidence due to high exposure to natural radiation. First, the cancer mortality patterns were assessed to determine whether there was an increase in cancer deaths and to discuss the possible risk factors related to such an increase. The study proposed the use of a screening methodology based on standardized mortality ratio (SMR) in order to classify priority areas for future studies. Cities considered high priority for further investigation were: Andradas, for lung cancer in men (SMR = 208 (106-310)) and liver cancer in women (SMR = 403 (104-701)); Poços de Caldas, leukemia in men and women (SMR = 284 (156-412)) and SMR = 211 (111-312), respectively); Pouso Alegre, leukemia in men (SMR = 333 (127-540)) and hematological cancers in women (SMR = 257 (188-396)). Epidemiological studies are necessary to evaluate the role of radiation and other risk factors in these cancers and thus to support future preventive and control measures.

  19. Smoke in the City: How Often and Where Does Smoke Impact Summertime Ozone in the United States?

    PubMed

    Brey, Steven J; Fischer, Emily V

    2016-02-02

    We investigate the influence of smoke on ozone (O3) abundances over the contiguous United States. Using colocated observations of particulate matter and the National Weather Service Hazard Mapping System smoke data, we identify summertime days between 2005 and 2014 that Environmental Protection Agency Air Quality System O3 monitors are influenced by smoke. We compare O3 mixing ratio distributions for smoke-free and smoke-impacted days for each monitor, while controlling for temperature. This analysis shows that (i) the mean O3 abundance measured on smoke-impacted days is higher than on smoke-free days, and (ii) the magnitude of the effect varies by location with a range of 3 to 36 ppbv. For each site, we present the percentage of days when the 8-h average O3 mixing ratio (MDA8) exceeds 75 ppbv and smoke is present. Smoke-impacted O3 mixing ratios are most elevated in locations with the highest emissions of nitrogen oxides. The Northeast corridor, Dallas, Houston, Atlanta, Birmingham, and Kansas City stand out as having smoke present 10-20% of the days when 8-h average O3 mixing ratios exceed 75 ppbv. Most U.S. cities maintain a similar proportion of smoke-impacted exceedance days when they are held against the new MDA8 limit of 70 ppbv.

  20. Size distribution and mixing state of refractory black carbon aerosol from a coastal city in South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiyuan; Huang, Ru-Jin; Zhao, Zhuzi; Zhang, Ningning; Wang, Yichen; Ni, Haiyan; Tie, Xuexi; Han, Yongming; Zhuang, Mazhan; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Jieru; Zhang, Xuemin; Dusek, Uli; Cao, Junji

    2016-11-01

    An intensive measurement campaign was conducted in the coastal city of Xiamen, China to investigate the size distribution and mixing state of the refractory black carbon (rBC) aerosol. The average rBC concentration for the campaign, measured with a ground-based single particle soot photometer (SP2), was 2.3 ± 1.7 μg m- 3, which accounted for ~ 4.3% of the PM2.5 mass. A potential source contribution function model indicated that emissions from coastal cities to the southwest were the most important source for the rBC and that shipping traffic was another likely source. The mass size distribution of the rBC particles was mono-modal and approximately lognormal, with a mass median diameter (MMD) of ~ 185 nm. Larger MMDs (~ 195 nm) occurred during polluted conditions compared with non-polluted times (~ 175 nm) due to stronger biomass burning activities during pollution episodes. Uncoated or thinly-coated particles composed the bulk of the rBC aerosol, and on average ~ 31% of the rBC was internally-mixed or thickly-coated. A positive matrix factorization model showed that organic materials were the predominant component of the rBC coatings and that mixing with nitrate increased during pollution conditions. These findings should lead to improvements in the parameterizations used to model the radiative effects of rBC.

  1. Characterization of a spatial gradient of nitrogen dioxide across a United States-Mexico border city during winter.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Melissa; Qualls, Clifford; Hudgens, Edward; Neas, Lucas

    2005-01-20

    A gradient of ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) concentration is demonstrated across metropolitan El Paso, Texas (USA), a city located on the international border between the United States and Mexico. Integrated measurements of NO(2) were collected over 7 days at 20 elementary schools and 4 air quality monitoring stations located throughout the city during typical winter atmospheric conditions. Replicate passive monitors were co-located with chemiluminescence analyzers at the monitoring stations for two consecutive 7-day periods. The passive measurements correlated with the analyzer measurements (R(2)=0.74) with precision of 2.5+/-2.2 ppb. Nitrogen dioxide concentrations ranged from 11.0 to 37.5 ppb (mean 20.6+/-7.1 ppb). In a multivariate regression model, the site elevation and distances to a main highway and to an international port of entry from Mexico explained 81% of the variance in the passive measurements. The results of this pilot study indicate that proximity to vehicle-related sources of NO(2) and site elevation are key predictors for future, more detailed assessments of vehicle-related air pollution exposure in the El Paso region.

  2. Michigan State U. Joins Forces with Blighted Benton Harbor in Effort to Revitalize City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillen, Liz

    1986-01-01

    Michigan State University's Center for Urban Affairs is contributing their expertise, research skills, and volunteer time to help Benton Harbor revitalize. Faculty members and students have already completed studies on street repairs, the homeless, and hotel development. (MLW)

  3. [Evaluation of municipal management of the Brazilian National School Nutrition Program in the largest cities of Santa Catarina State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Cristine Garcia; Calvo, Maria Cristina Marino; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes de; Lacerda, Josimari Telino de; Freitas, Sérgio Fernando Torres de; Schmitz, Bethsáida de Abreu Soares

    2014-09-01

    This article reports on an evaluative study of municipal management of the Brazilian National School Nutrition Program in the largest cities in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The matrix of indicators included two dimensions: political-organizational, with the sub-dimensions resources, inter-sector action, and social control, and operational-technical, organized in nutritional and feeding efficacy, nutritional monitoring, and educational activities for a healthy diet. A total of 22 indicators were determined, and data were collected through interviews with nutritionists. The political-organizational dimension showed 60% of fair cases and 40% of poor cases, while the operational-technical dimension showed 90% of poor cases, resulting from low performance in monitoring and educational activities. Although the cases showed unsatisfactory results, the evaluation provides important data on the management of the Brazilian National School Nutrition Program. The study emphasizes the importance of evaluation for alerting managers to the relevance of reviewing and upgrading activities.

  4. [Positive breathalyzer test: factors associated with drinking and driving in the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Campos, Valdir Ribeiro; Salgado, Rogério de Souza; Rocha, Mariela Campos

    2013-01-01

    Few researches in Brazil have focused on factors associated with drinking and driving. The current study presents data on the prevalence and characteristics of individuals that drive under the influence of alcohol (DUI) in nine regions of the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A total of 1,656 drivers were interviewed, of whom 1,254 (76%) agreed to answer a structured questionnaire and submit to the breathalyzer test. The breathalyzer test was positive in 15% of these drivers. The logistic regression model predicted 1.5 times higher odds of a positive breathalyzer test in drivers over 31 years of age and 4.5 times higher in individuals that reported at least weekly alcohol consumption. In addition, drivers in the Barreiro region showed two-fold odds of a positive breathalyzer test. Focused studies with sobriety checkpoints can monitor DUI behavior, drivers' characteristics, and traffic risks, meanwhile orienting public policies to prevent drinking and driving.

  5. Title: The Impact of 2006-2012 CReSIS Summer Research Programs that Influence Student's Choice of a STEM Related Major in College Authors: Dr. Darnell Johnson Djohnson@mail.ecsu.edu Elizabeth City State University, Elizabeth City, North Carolina 27909 Dr. Linda Hayden Haydenl@mindspring.com Elizabeth City State University, Elizabeth City, North Carolina, 27909

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract: Researchers, policymakers, business, and industry have indicated that the United States will experience a future shortage of professionals in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields. Several strategies have been suggested to address this impending shortage, one of which includes increasing the representation of females and minorities in the STEM fields. In order to increase the representation of underrepresented students in the STEM fields, it is important to understand the motivational factors that impact underrepresented students' interest in STEM academics and extracurricular programs. Research indicates that greater confidence leads to greater interest and vice versa (Denissen et al., 2007). In this paper, the mathematics research team examined the role of practical research experience during the summer for talented minority secondary students studying in STEM fields. An undergraduate research mathematics team focused on the link between summer research and the choice of an undergraduate discipline. A Chi Square Statistical Test was used to examine Likert Scale results on the attitude of students participating in the 2006-2012 Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) Summer Research Programs for secondary students. This research was performed at Elizabeth City State University located in northeastern North Carolina about the factors that impact underrepresented students' choices of STEM related majors in college. Results can be used to inform and guide educators, administrators, and policy makers in developing programs and policy that support and encourage the STEM development of underrepresented students. Index Terms: Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM), Underrepresented students

  6. Improving Coastal Flood Risk Assessments for the Northeastern United States: New York City to Boston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodruff, J. D.; Stromer, Z.; Talke, S. A.; Orton, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    Interest in extreme flood vulnerability in the Northeastern U.S. has increased significantly since Hurricane Sandy caused more than $50 billion dollars in damages. Despite increased focus there is still no overall consensus regarding the true return period in the region for flood events of Sandy's magnitude. The application of Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) theory to water level data is one of the most common techniques for estimating the return period for these rare events. Here we assess the skill of this popular technique by combining modeled, instrumental and sedimentologically derived records of flooding for the region. We show that GEV derived return periods greatly and consistently underappreciate risk for sites from New York City east to southern Cape Cod. This is in part because at these locations maximum annual flood data represents a mixture of two very different populations of storms, i.e. tropically derived disturbances and extratropical Nor'easters. Nor'easters comprise a majority of floods with 10-yr return periods and shorter, hurricanes for 100-yr floods or longer, and a combination in between. In contrast, the GEV technique functions better in estimating the 100-yr flood for points north of Cape Cod including Boston. At these locations flooding occurs more often from just one type of disturbance, i.e. Nor'easters. However, modeled and sedimentary reconstructions of storms indicate hurricanes likely still dominate flood distribution at northern location like Boston for 500 yr or greater events. Results stress the need for separating storm populations before applying the GEV technique, especially where flood behavior can vary depending on the type of disturbance.

  7. Cases distribution of leptospirosis in City of Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Jesus, Michele Silva de; Silva, Luciete Almeida; Lima, Kátia Maria da Silva; Fernandes, Ormezinda Celeste Cristo

    2012-12-01

    Leptospirosis is an infectious disease caused by microorganisms of the genus Leptospira that affects several species of animals, including the human beings. The study described the confirmed cases of leptospirosis in Manaus, from 2000 to 2010. A descriptive study based on secondary data analysis of Secretaria Municipal de Saúde (SEMSA), Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação SINAN and Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade (SIM) analyzing the variables: age group, gender, clinical aspects and geographic area and lethality. Were reported 665 cases of leptospirosis, 339 were confirmed and 35 (10.3%) died. The largest number of cases occurred in May (16.8%), March (13.3%) and April (11.4%), a period of intense rainfall. The city areas with the greatest occurrence of the disease were South (26.6%), West (23.5%) and East (19.7%), areas of the greatest precariousness socio-environment. The largest number of cases, including deaths, occurred in the age group from 14 to 44.9 years (74%), being that 291 (85.8%) were male and 48 (14.1%) females. The most frequent symptoms were fever, myalgia, headache and jaundice. In relation to the social conditions were identified low education, poor housing, absence of sanitation and low income. In Manaus, despite the implementation of the Social and Environmental Program of Igarapés of Manaus (PROSAMIM), there are still areas that need a proper urbanization and improvements in socio-environmental conditions, reducing the level of exposure of the human beings that living in these locations.

  8. Magnitude and location of historical earthquakes in Japan and implications for the 1855 Ansei Edo earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakun, W.H.

    2005-01-01

    Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) intensity assignments IJMA are used to derive intensity attenuation models suitable for estimating the location and an intensity magnitude Mjma for historical earthquakes in Japan. The intensity for shallow crustal earthquakes on Honshu is equal to -1.89 + 1.42MJMA - 0.00887?? h - 1.66log??h, where MJMA is the JMA magnitude, ??h = (??2 + h2)1/2, and ?? and h are epicentral distance and focal depth (km), respectively. Four earthquakes located near the Japan Trench were used to develop a subducting plate intensity attenuation model where intensity is equal to -8.33 + 2.19MJMA -0.00550??h - 1.14 log ?? h. The IJMA assignments for the MJMA7.9 great 1923 Kanto earthquake on the Philippine Sea-Eurasian plate interface are consistent with the subducting plate model; Using the subducting plate model and 226 IJMA IV-VI assignments, the location of the intensity center is 25 km north of the epicenter, Mjma is 7.7, and MJMA is 7.3-8.0 at the 1?? confidence level. Intensity assignments and reported aftershock activity for the enigmatic 11 November 1855 Ansei Edo earthquake are consistent with an MJMA 7.2 Philippine Sea-Eurasian interplate source or Philippine Sea intraslab source at about 30 km depth. If the 1855 earthquake was a Philippine Sea-Eurasian interplate event, the intensity center was adjacent to and downdip of the rupture area of the great 1923 Kanto earthquake, suggesting that the 1855 and 1923 events ruptured adjoining sections of the Philippine Sea-Eurasian plate interface.

  9. Labor Trends: Overview of the United States, New York City, and Long Island. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Cheryl

    This document summarizes employment statistics and trends, with a geographic emphasis on areas where Queensborough Community College (New York) students and graduates seek employment. Data are presented on the following: (1) current and projected United States labor force; (2) occupational outlook; (3) employment status of civilian labor force 25…

  10. Clean Energy in City Codes: A Baseline Analysis of Municipal Codification across the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Jeffrey J.; Aznar, Alexandra; Dane, Alexander; Day, Megan; Mathur, Sivani; Doris, Elizabeth

    2016-12-01

    Municipal governments in the United States are well positioned to influence clean energy (energy efficiency and alternative energy) and transportation technology and strategy implementation within their jurisdictions through planning, programs, and codification. Municipal governments are leveraging planning processes and programs to shape their energy futures. There is limited understanding in the literature related to codification, the primary way that municipal governments enact enforceable policies. The authors fill the gap in the literature by documenting the status of municipal codification of clean energy and transportation across the United States. More directly, we leverage online databases of municipal codes to develop national and state-specific representative samples of municipal governments by population size. Our analysis finds that municipal governments with the authority to set residential building energy codes within their jurisdictions frequently do so. In some cases, communities set codes higher than their respective state governments. Examination of codes across the nation indicates that municipal governments are employing their code as a policy mechanism to address clean energy and transportation.

  11. 77 FR 71119 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; City of Albuquerque-Bernalillo County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ... Agency. iii. The initials SIP mean or refer to State Implementation Plan. iv. The initials RH and RHR... Mexico Air Quality Control Act (section 74-2-4). The BC RH SIP is a necessary component of the regional... December 17, 2007. 40 CFR 51.308(b). The AQCB submitted the BC RH SIP to EPA on July 28, 2011, and it...

  12. Report: City of Elizabeth, New Jersey -Excess Clean Water State Revolving Funds Claimed

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #08-2-0062, January 23, 2008. The grantee claimed and was reimbursed under its Clean Water State Revolving Fund loan in excess of actual costs incurred, contrary to the requirements of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Section 35.3155 (d)(2).

  13. Knowledge, attitudes and experiences of sex trafficking by young women in Benin City, South-South Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okonofua, F E; Ogbomwan, S M; Alutu, A N; Kufre, Okop; Eghosa, Aghahowa

    2004-09-01

    Benin City, the headquarters of Edo State, is known to have one of the highest rates of international sex trafficking of young women in Nigeria. This study was designed to determine the knowledge, attitudes and experiences of young women in Benin City, towards international sex trafficking. A random household sample of 1456 women aged 15-25 years was interviewed with a structured questionnaire that elicited information on women's experiences of, and attitudes towards international sex trafficking. The results indicate that 97.4% of the women have heard of international sex trafficking; 70% had female relatives who lived in the receiving countries of Italy, Spain, and the Netherlands; while 44.0% knew of someone who was currently engaged in sex work abroad. Up to 32% of the women reported that they had been approached by someone offering to assist them to travel abroad. Women of poorer socio-economic status (being out-of-school, unemployed, parents uneducated and unemployed) were more likely to report having been offered assistance to travel abroad. Up to 81.5% of the women supported the notion that sex trafficking should be stopped, while 18.5% felt it should be allowed to continue. The perception that sex trafficking leads to wealth creation and economic gains for women was the most common reason proffered by those wanting the practice to continue. By contrast, the fear of adverse health consequences and the need to maintain social and religious morals were the reasons given by those wanting the practice to discontinue. These results suggest that programs that promote the economic well being of women, and social advocacy focusing on harm reduction will be most helpful in reducing the rate of sex trafficking in Benin City.

  14. Local knowledge of traditional fishermen on economically important crabs (Decapoda: Brachyura) in the city of Conde, Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Magalhães, Henrique Fernandes; Costa Neto, Eraldo Medeiros; Schiavetti, Alexandre

    2012-07-02

    This article records the traditional knowledge of crab gatherers in the city of Conde, in the North Coast Region of Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil. Data on biological and ecological aspects of economically important brachyuran crustaceans have been obtained from semi-structured interviews and in loco observations conducted from September 2007 to December 2009. A total of 57 fishermen of both genders, aged between 10 and 78 years have been interviewed (individually or collectively) in different contexts; interviewees were asked about aspects such as external morphology, life cycle, trophic ecology, and spatial and temporal distribution of the major economically important brachyuran crustaceans in the region. Seven fishing communities were visited: Siribinha, Sítio do Conde, Poças, Ilha das Ostras, Cobó, Buri and Sempre Viva. Data were analyzed by comparing the information provided by participants with those from the specialized academic literature. The results show that artisanal fishermen have a wide ranging and well-grounded knowledge on the ecological and biological aspects of crustaceans. Crab gatherers of Conde know about growth and reproductive behavior of the animals they interact with, especially with regard to the three major biological aspects: "molt", "walking dance" and "spawning". This knowledge constitutes an important source of information that should be considered in studies of management and sustainable use of fishery resources in the North Coast Region of Bahia State.

  15. Local knowledge of traditional fishermen on economically important crabs (Decapoda: Brachyura) in the city of Conde, Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This article records the traditional knowledge of crab gatherers in the city of Conde, in the North Coast Region of Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil. Methods Data on biological and ecological aspects of economically important brachyuran crustaceans have been obtained from semi-structured interviews and in loco observations conducted from September 2007 to December 2009. A total of 57 fishermen of both genders, aged between 10 and 78 years have been interviewed (individually or collectively) in different contexts; interviewees were asked about aspects such as external morphology, life cycle, trophic ecology, and spatial and temporal distribution of the major economically important brachyuran crustaceans in the region. Seven fishing communities were visited: Siribinha, Sítio do Conde, Poças, Ilha das Ostras, Cobó, Buri and Sempre Viva. Data were analyzed by comparing the information provided by participants with those from the specialized academic literature. Results The results show that artisanal fishermen have a wide ranging and well-grounded knowledge on the ecological and biological aspects of crustaceans. Crab gatherers of Conde know about growth and reproductive behavior of the animals they interact with, especially with regard to the three major biological aspects: “molt”, “walking dance” and “spawning”. Conclusion This knowledge constitutes an important source of information that should be considered in studies of management and sustainable use of fishery resources in the North Coast Region of Bahia State. PMID:22449069

  16. Kid-Friendly Cities Report Card, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polansky, Lee S., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This report examines the health and wellbeing of children in the United States' largest cities, covering every city with a population of 100,000 or more, as well as the largest cities in states without any cities of this size. Research shows that many cities are becoming more child-friendly, with better access to good education, jobs, and health…

  17. Evaluation of the New York City State Program to Implement Career Education. January, 1972-June, 1973. Research Report No. 73-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Theodore; And Others

    Activities of and outcomes resulting from the State Project to Implement Career Education (SPICE) in New York City schools for the first year and a half are reported in this summative evaluation. Findings (much of which are statistical data) discussed deal almost exclusively with the elementary-junior high program, one of two autonomous programs…

  18. The Right Start for America's Newborns: A Decade of City and State Trends (1990-1999). Child Trends/KIDS COUNT Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertheimer, Richard; O'Hare, William; Croan, Tara; Jager, Justin; Long, Melissa; Reynolds, Megan

    This paper traces the history of "The Right Start," discussing differences between the 50 largest cities and the nation overall and differences among states. It highlights eight measures reflecting a healthy start: teen births, repeat teen births, births to unmarried women, births to mothers with low educational attainment, late or no pregnancy…

  19. Implementing the Common Core State Standards: Year Three Progress Report from the Great City Schools. Results from 2013-14 School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacios, Moses; Casserly, Michael; Corcoran, Amanda; Hart, Ray; Simon, Candace; Uzzell, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Three years ago, the "Council of the Great City Schools" embarked on a multi-year initiative to help its member school districts implement the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Part of this initiative involves annual surveys of progress urban public school districts were making in implementing the CCSS. With the support of the Bill…

  20. City 2020+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  1. Conceptual and Adoption of Technology Acceptance Model in Digital Information Resources Usage by Undergraduates: Implication to Higher Institutions Education in Delta and Edo of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urhiewhu, Lucky Oghenetega; Emojorho, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The article paper was on conceptual and theoretical framework of digital information resources usage by undergraduates: Implication to higher institutions education in Delta and Edo of Nigeria. It revealed the concept of digital information resources [DIRs] and model theory that related to the study. Finding shows that DIRs are use to low extent…

  2. Seroprevalence of and risk factors for leptospirosis in the City of Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luciete Almeida; Lima, Kátia Maria da Silva; Fernandes, Ormezinda Celeste Cristo; Balassiano, Ilana Teruszkin; Avelar, Kátia Eliane Santos; Jesus, Michele Silva de

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is caused by a bacterium of the genus Leptospira. This study aimed at investigating the seroprevalence of and risk factors for leptospirosis in humans in Manaus, State of Amazonas. Interviews were performed, and 1,000 blood serum samples were examined using a microscopic agglutination test. Forty-three cases were positive; there were 10 serotypes, with coagglutination in 8 cases. The most frequently occurring serotypes were Icterohaemorrhagiae (20.7%), Cynopteri (20.7%), Australis (18.8%), and Copenhageni (16.9%), and the Midwest (54.7%) and South (23.8%) had the most cases; these areas lack basic sanitation. Disease occurrence might be reduced through improved basic infrastructural conditions.

  3. [Critical issues for implementing oral health policy in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Soares, Catharina Leite Matos; Paim, Jairnilson Silva

    2011-05-01

    This study focuses on policy implementation by public organizations. This was a qualitative, exploratory case study focusing on Brazil's National Oral Health Policy, known as "Smiling Brazil", implemented in Salvador, the State capital of Bahia. The study aimed to identify factors that facilitated or hindered the policy's implementation, based on the public policy cycle and Carlos Matus' government triangle concept, for the period from 2004 to 2007. Data collection strategies included analysis of municipal documents, interviews with key informants, and direct observation of top management meetings at the Municipal Health Secretariat. The main factors that hindered implementation of the municipal oral health policy were the project's lack of specificity; lack of human resources; and lack of financial autonomy in the Municipal Health Secretariat. The study showed that the lack of connection between the variables comprising the government triangle raised obstacles to the implementation of oral health policy in Salvador.

  4. [Hygiene practices in a street market in the city of Salvador, Bahia State].

    PubMed

    Minnaert, Ana Cláudia de Sá Teles; Freitas, Maria do Carmo Soares

    2010-06-01

    The main objective of this research is to understand the meaning of the practices concerning food hygiene in a street market in Salvador, the capital of Bahia State in Brazil. The ethnographic study presents two main categories for symbolic production related to hygiene practices: cleanliness as order and dirtiness as disorder. These cultural codes make correspondence with the studies of Mary Douglas and Nobert Elias. The codes present particularities to decode everyday life, in which concept and hygiene practices are aspects normalized, in daily activity, for persons who share the space of street market: vendors, consumers, street cleaners and official inspectors. The techno-scientific knowledge and sanitary legislation are strange to the symbolic system of street market vendors. The laws are ineffective and their influence is of little importance in the creation of hygiene practices. Official inspectors' attitudes are coercive and punitive and do not take into account any cultural values when enforcing new hygiene practices.

  5. Mixing state of ambient aerosols in Nanjing city by single particle mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Honglei; An, Junlin; Shen, Lijuan; Zhu, Bin; Xia, Li; Duan, Qing; Zou, Jianan

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the mixing state and size-resolved aerosol in Nanjing, measurements were carried out for the period 14th January-1st February 2013 by using a Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SPAMS). A total of 10,864,766 particles were sized with vacuum aerodynamic diameter (dva) in the range of 0.2-2.0 μm. Of which, 1,989,725 particles were successfully ionized. Aerosol particles employed for analyzing SPAMS data utilized 96% of the hit particles to identify 5 main particle groups. The particle classes include: K-rich particles (K-CN, K-Nitrate, K-Sulfate and K-Secondary), sodium particles, ammonium particles, carbon-rich particles (OC, EC and OCEC) and heavy-metal particles (Fe-Secondary, Pb-Nitrate, Cu-Mn-Secondary and V-Secondary). EC was the largest contributor with a fraction of 21.78%, followed by K-Secondary (17.87%), K-Nitrate (12.68%) and K-CN (11.25%). High particle level and high RH (relative humidity) are two important factors decreasing visibility in Nanjing. Different particle classes have distinct extinction effects. It anti-correlated well with visibility for the K-secondary, sodium, ammonium, EC, Fe-Secondary and K-Nitrate particles. The proportion of EC particles at 0.65-1.4 μm was up to 25% on haze days and was below 10% on clean days.

  6. Femicides: a study in Brazilian state capital cities and large municipalities.

    PubMed

    Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Rosa, Bruna Alexandra Rocha da; Ceccon, Roger Flores; Hirakata, Vania Naomi; Danilevicz, Ian Meneghel

    2017-09-01

    This study analyses the relationship between femicides and indicators of socio-economic condition, demography, access to communications, and health situation, in Brazilian state capitals and large-population municipalities. It is an ecological study using the standardized mean coefficient of female mortality due to aggression as a marker for femicide in the years 2007-09 and 2011-13. The Pearson Correlation test was used for the statistical analysis between the outcome and 17 independent variables, and those that were statistically significant (p < 0.05) were introduced into a multivariate linear regression model, using backward elimination. In the first three-year period the average rate of femicide was 4.5 deaths per 100,000 women, and in the second period it was 4.9/100,000. Poverty (β = -0.330; p = 0.006), Pentecostalism (β = 0.237; p = 0.002) and male mortality by aggression (β = 0.841; p = 0.000) were associated with femicides. The negative association between poverty and feminine deaths indicates a paradoxical relationship, in that women who die in the richer regions are mostly poor. A relationship was also found between gender violence, fundamentalist religious beliefs, and urban violence.

  7. State and the Low Cost Housing for the Poor: Fall of Bashentek Rehabilitation Project (BRP) in Dhaka City--Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Rasel; Saha, Amit Kumar; Rabbani, Golam; Pervin, Irin; Shamma, Wasifa Tasnim; Khan, Sazzad Hossain

    2015-01-01

    In the era of neoliberalism now the people especially the lower income group of people is suffering a lot for the scarcity of housing. After migrating from the rural areas for a better life they discovered themselves in the slum like areas of the city as they are not capable to afford housing in the influential areas of the city due to higher…

  8. The Relationship between Natural Park Usage and Happiness Does Not Hold in a Tropical City-State

    PubMed Central

    Saw, Le E.; Lim, Felix K. S.; Carrasco, Luis R.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that contact with urban green spaces can produce positive effects on people's stress, health and well-being levels. However, much of this research has been conducted in the temperate regions of Europe or North America. Additionally, most studies have only compared the effects of urban and natural areas on health and well-being, but not made a finer distinction between different types of urban green spaces. We tested the relationship between well-being and the access or use of different types of green spaces among young adults in Singapore, a tropical city-state. The results showed that extraversion and emotional stability increased subjective well-being, positive affect and life satisfaction and decreased stress and negative affect. In addition, we found that level of physical activity increased positive affect and health problems increased negative affect. Neither access to green spaces nor the use of green spaces in Singapore significantly affected the well-being metrics considered, contradicting findings in the temperate regions of the world. We hypothesize that the differences in temperature and humidity and the higher greenery and biodiversity levels outside parks in Singapore could explain this phenomenon. Our results thus question the universality of the relationship between well-being and park usage and highlight the need for more research into the multifaceted effects of green spaces on well-being in the tropics. PMID:26222280

  9. Microbiological quality of salmon (Salmo salar) sold in cities of the state of SãO Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nespolo, Natália Maramarque; Martineli, Thaís Mioto; Rossi Jr., Oswaldo Durival

    2012-01-01

    The present paper evaluated the microbiology of salmon by quantifying mesophilic heterotrophic microorganisms, total and thermotolerant coliforms, and the presence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp., Escherichia coli and Aeromonas sp. in the meat. This study can provide technical support for the suggestion of a new regulation of a Brazilian legislation through specific microbiological standards concerning the consumption of raw fish. A number of 31 (16 cooled and 15 frozen) samples of salmon were collected in the retail market network of a few cities in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Results presented populations of mesophilic heterotrophic microorganisms ranging from 1.0 × 10 and 3.9 × 106 CFU/g, total and thermotolerant coliforms in 32.25% and 19.35% of the samples, respectively, and Aeromonas sp. in 41.95% of the samples with a populational variation ranging from 2.0 × 102 to 8.0 × 103 CFU/g. Staphylococcus aureus was found in one sample whereas Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli were not found. These results demonstrated the presence of potencially pathogenic microorganisms in fresh fish consumed in Brazil, highlighting the necessity of control measures to avoid public health problems related to the consumption of raw fish. PMID:24031968

  10. Newspaper framing of fatal motor vehicle crashes in four Midwestern cities in the United States, 1999–2000

    PubMed Central

    Connor, S; Wesolowski, K

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the public health messages conveyed by newspaper coverage of fatal motor vehicle crashes and determine the extent to which press coverage accurately reflects real risks and crash trends. Methods: Crash details were extracted from two years of newspaper coverage of fatal crashes in four Midwestern cities in the United States. Details and causal factors identified by reporters were compared to data from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) using odds ratios and two tailed z tests. Results: Papers covered 278 fatal crashes over the two year period, in contrast to 846 fatal crashes documented in FARS. Papers assigned blame in 90% of crashes covered, under-reported restraint use and driver's risk of death, failed to reflect the protective value of restraints, and misrepresented the roles played by alcohol and teen drivers. Conclusion: Newspaper coverage did not accurately reflect real risk. Papers presented fatal crashes as dramas with a victim/villain storyline; in keeping with this narrative strategy, papers were most likely to cover stories where a driver survived to take the blame. By highlighting crashes that diverge from the norm, focusing on the assignment of blame to a single party, and failing to convey the message that preventive practices like seatbelt use increase odds for survival, newspapers removed crashes from a public health context and positioned them as individual issues. Public health practitioners can work with media outlets in their areas to draw attention to misrepresentations and change the way these stories are framed. PMID:15178670

  11. Adolescent pregnancy and completion of basic education: a study of young people in three state capital cities in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Maria da Conceição Chagas de; Aquino, Estela M L

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated the association between adolescent pregnancy and the completion of basic education, mediated by macrosocial indicators. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted with individuals between the ages of 18 and 24 in three Brazilian cities. For the purposes of this study, individuals between the ages of 20 and 24 were selected from this sample survey that included 4,634 people. A total of 29.6% of the girls declared that they had become pregnant prior to reaching the age of 20, while 21.4% of the boys stated that they had made a girl pregnant in adolescence. Girls from households with a per capita family income of US$70 or less and who became pregnant at least once during adolescence were more likely to have not completed basic education; whereas from households with a per capita family income of US$70 or less, with parents who separated before the adolescent reached the age of 20 and that had made a partner pregnant prior reaching the age of 20 were more likely to have not completed basic education. It is vital that the school system provides girls and boys with guidance on sexuality and contraception and encourages them to remain in education.

  12. [Nutritional deficit in children in a major city of the interior of the state of Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Gilmar Mercês; Castelão, Elizia Simões; Vieira, Tatiana de Oliveira; Gomes, Daiene Rosa; Vieira, Graciete Oliveira

    2014-05-01

    The study sought to analyze the nutritional deficit of children and associated environmental factors and maternal and infant characteristics in a major city in the interior of the state of Bahia. Information from mother/child-under-four duos of a birth cohort was assessed. Malnutrition was defined by the height-for-age (H/A) anthropometric index, at a cutoff of -1 z-score relative to the benchmark of the 2006 Multicentre Growth Reference Study. The variables studied were: the characteristics of children (birth weight and multiple births) and mothers (age at the time of birth, education level, parity and performing prenatal exams) and environmental factors (floor and roof material of residence, source of water consumed, indoor plumbing, water used for consumption and ownership of a refrigerator). Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with nutritional deficit. Nutritional deficit occurred in 24.6% of children. Underweight at birth, inadequate prenatal care, precarious nature of the floor of the home and no indoor plumbing were predictors of malnutrition among children in the study. Factors associated with malnutrition confirm the contribution of social issues in the genesis of malnutrition.

  13. Tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis vaccination coverage before, during, and after pregnancy - 16 States and New York City, 2011.

    PubMed

    Ahluwalia, Indu B; Ding, Helen; D'Angelo, Denise; Shealy, Kristen H; Singleton, James A; Liang, Jennifer; Rosenberg, Kenneth D

    2015-05-22

    In June 2011, the Advisory Committee on Immunizations Practices (ACIP) recommended 1 dose of a tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine during pregnancy for women who had not received Tdap previously. Before 2011, Tdap was recommended for unvaccinated women either before pregnancy or postpartum. In October 2012, ACIP expanded the 2011 recommendation, advising pregnant women to be vaccinated with Tdap during each pregnancy to provide maternal antibodies for each infant. The optimal time for vaccination is at 27-36 weeks' gestation as recommended by ACIP. In response to ACIP's Tdap recommendation for pregnant women in 2011, CDC added a supplemental question to the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) survey to determine women's Tdap vaccination status before, during, or after their most recent delivery. This report describes overall and state-specific Tdap vaccination coverage around the time of pregnancy using data from 6,852 sampled women who delivered a live-born infant during September-December 2011 in one of 16 states or New York City (NYC). Among the 17 jurisdictions, the median percentage of women with live births who reported any Tdap vaccination was 55.7%, ranging from 38.2% in NYC to 76.6% in Nebraska. The median percentage who received Tdap before pregnancy was 13.9% (range = 7.7%-20.1%), during pregnancy was 9.8% (range = 3.8%-14.2%), and after delivery was 30.9% (range = 13.6%-46.5%). The PRAMS data indicate a wide variation in Tdap vaccination coverage among demographic groups, with generally higher postpartum coverage for non-Hispanic white women, those who started prenatal care in the first trimester, and those who had private health insurance coverage. This information can be used for promoting evidence-based strategies to communicate the importance of ACIP guidelines related to Tdap vaccination coverage to women and their prenatal care providers.

  14. A Dislodged Tectonic Block Wedged Beneath Tokyo, and Implications for the Enigmatic 1855 Ansei-Edo Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, S.; Stein, R. S.; Bozkurt, S. B.; Nakamura, R.

    2005-12-01

    On the basis of microearthquake distributions, seismic tomography, and seismic stress inversion, we argue that a dislodged block of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific (PAC), Philippine Sea (PHS) and Eurasian (EUR) plates beneath Tokyo at a depth of at depths of 40-100 km. We argue that the block controls much of Tokyos seismic behavior, including recent M~6 class earthquakes, and the 1855 M~7.2 Ansei-Edo shock as well. To illuminate the plate configuration and possible large earthquake sources, we examined 320,000 earthquakes recorded by NIED during 1979-2004 in a 3D GIS, from which we identify several new features of the Kanto triple junction. First, a 25-km-thick, 90 x 120-km-wide enclosed volume of seismicity with high seismic velocity lies between the PAC and the EUR beneath the Kanto Plain, which we interpret to be a lithospheric block dislodged from the descending PAC. Second, we find that the leading edge of the PHS lies at 35 km depth and abuts the southern margin of the block. Third, there is a pronounced bend to the double seismic zone defining the descending PAC slab, which closely parallels the sharp curvature of the volcanic front. Because of the bend, the PAC/EUR contact at shallow depth is nearly flat-lying, and undergoes episodic aseismic slip unaccompanied by large subduction earthquakes. We associate the corridor of active seismicity extending from upper Tokyo Bay for 100 km northward with the eastern edge of the dislodged block. Within this Kanto seismic corridor, eight M≥5.7 shocks have been recorded since 1985, and four M≥7 shocks have struck since 1603. We speculate the Ansei-Edo earthquake was an intermediate-depth (30-60 km) or deep (70-100 km) thrust interplate event on the upper or lower surface of the dislodged block, rather than being an intraplate or shallow crustal shock. The 1855 event, which devastated Edo (now Tokyo) and killed more than seven thousand people, is the only well-documented inland historical earthquake

  15. Investigating ambient ozone formation regimes in neighboring cities of shale plays in the Northeast United States using photochemical modeling and satellite retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chih-Yuan; Faust, Eric; Hou, Xiangting; Lee, Pius; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Hedquist, Brent C.; Liao, Kuo-Jen

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates long-term (i.e., 2007-2014) fluctuations in ambient ozone formation regimes for cities adjacent to shale plays in the Northeast United States (U.S.). Ozone air quality in many cities of the Northeast U.S. does not meet the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), and understanding ambient ozone formation regimes is essential to develop effective air pollution mitigation strategies for cities violating the air quality standards. Since 2013, the U.S. has become the world's largest producer of tight oil and natural gas from shale rock, and previous studies show that emissions of air pollutant precursors from shale oil and gas-related activities would have the potential to affect ambient ozone air quality in adjacent cities of shale plays. This work leveraged (1) satellite-retrieved column densities of formaldehyde (HCHO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from multiple instruments (i.e., Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2)); (2) photochemical air quality modeling and sensitivity analysis; and (3) ratios of satellite-retrieved air pollutant column densities to investigate ambient ozone formation regimes in neighboring cities of shale plays (i.e., Marcellus Shale) in the Northeast U.S. from 2007 to 2014. Our results show that ambient ozone formation in Boston, Pittsburgh, Philadelphia and Washington, D.C. (which are close to Marcellus Shale) was in the NOx -limited or transition regime during the period of study. Ambient ozone formation in New York City was in the transition regime during 2010-2013 and VOC -limited regime during 2007-2009 and in 2014. Based on the result of this study, we conclude that controls NOx emissions would mitigate ozone air pollution from 2007 to 2014 in most of the cities examined in this study. Controls of local VOC emissions would ease ozone air pollution in New York City during the study period. With projected increases in oil and gas production from shale plays in

  16. Anomalous band-filling dependence of the quasiparticle density of states and the gap ratio 2 Δ0/ kBTc in strong-coupling superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasushi, Yokoya; Yoshiko, Oi Nakamura

    1996-02-01

    Within the framework of the Eliashberg theory including the energy-dependent Lorentzian electronic density of states (EDOS), the behavior of the quasiparticle density of states (QDOS) is studied for strong-coupling superconductors. Our numerical calculation shows that when the EDOS has structure it can give an additional structure to the QDOS besides the usual fine structures due to the strong electron-phonon coupling when the carrier concentration has appropriate values. It is also found that the inclusion of the energy-varying EDOS leads to unusual band-filling dependence of the gap ratio 2 Δ0/ kBTc: The calculation with the band-filling n being varied, reveals that the gap ratio does not necessarily take its maximum value of half-filling, but at a value of n far away from half-filling. This may occur as the electron-phonon coupling becomes very strong.

  17. Plans of Implementation and Methods for Increasing Student Enrollment in the Earth Systems Science Course at Elizabeth City State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, W.

    2001-12-01

    This presentation reviews the experience of Elizabeth City State University (ECSU) in offering the Earth Systems Science (ESS) online course sponsored the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) and how it relates to our plans to offer the course in the Spring Semester of 2002. The course was offered for the first time at ECSU during the Fall semester 2000. Eight students were enrolled in the course, which may not be considered a large number; however, we felt the administration of the course was successful because of the staff's learning experience. The small number is also a reflection of the nature of ECSU's primary recruitment region of northeastern North Carolina; this area is extremely rural with a smaller population, lower economic development, and fewer cultural amenities than most regions of the state. Our approach to this project is for a long-term effective offering of a course that is much needed, especially in this area of the state. The ultimate goal is to develop ESS as our online offering of courses in the Geoscience Department curriculum as to recruit students who might not have the opportunity to take college-level courses because of daytime work commitments and/or inaccessibility to a local college or university. A major component of ESS is its focus on problem-based learning built upon the life experiences of participating students. Having learned from the previous offering of the course, the following are objectives related to the Spring Semester 2002: 1. To get ESS to become a part of the Geoscience curriculum so that it will be listed on the schedule of classes for the Spring Semester 2002 and each succeeding semester; 2. To aggressively reach out to the public school teachers, especially in the recruitment region of ECSU in northeastern North Carolina, by using effective recruitment strategies; 3. To have an active and continuous communication with prospective students prior to and immediately after the enrollment, as well as being

  18. [Self-cultivation and cultural activities of a rural doctor of the late Edo era: the example of Tsuji Genjun].

    PubMed

    Takizawa, Toshiyuki

    2005-03-01

    This monograph aims to clarify the relation of the self-cultivation of a traditional doctor to his cultural activities in rural society in the late EDO era. The author considered the life history of TSUJI Genjun (a court surgeon of the TSUCHIURA Han- one of the feudal clans under the TOKUGAWA shogunate), especially in regard to his rural cultural activities. While pursuing his sincere medical work, Genjun intently practiced various forms of traditional culture work, for example, tanka poetry, Chinese poetry, southern school Chinese painting, Japanese calligraphy, and tea ceremony. A characteristic of his cultural practices is the fact that he was not only a dilettante but was also self-cultured. Genjun's cultural life and his activities show a typical pattern of rural intellectuals.

  19. Eye care infrastructure and human resources for managing diabetic retinopathy in India: The India 11-city 9-state study

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Clare E.; Babu, R. Giridhara; Gudlavalleti, Aashrai Sai Venkat; Anchala, Raghupathy; Shukla, Rajan; Ballabh, Pant Hira; Vashist, Praveen; Ramachandra, Srikrishna S.; Allagh, Komal; Sagar, Jayanti; Bandyopadhyay, Souvik; Murthy, G. V. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of information on the availability of services for diagnosis and management of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in India. Objectives: The study was undertaken to document existing healthcare infrastructure and practice patterns for managing DR. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 11 cities and included public and private eye care providers. Both multispecialty and stand-alone eye care facilities were included. Information was collected on the processes used in all steps of the program, from how diabetics were identified for screening through to policies about follow-up after treatment by administering a semistructured questionnaire and by using observational checklists. Results: A total of 86 eye units were included (31.4% multispecialty hospitals; 68.6% stand-alone clinics). The availability of a dedicated retina unit was reported by 68.6% (59) facilities. The mean number of outpatient consultations per year was 45,909 per responding facility, with nearly half being new registrations. A mean of 631 persons with sight-threatening-DR (ST-DR) were registered per year per facility. The commonest treatment for ST-DR was laser photocoagulation. Only 58% of the facilities reported having a full-time retina specialist on their rolls. More than half the eye care facilities (47; 54.6%) reported that their ophthalmologists would like further training in retina. Half (51.6%) of the facilities stated that they needed laser or surgical equipment. About 46.5% of the hospitals had a system to track patients needing treatment or for follow-up. Conclusions: The study highlighted existing gaps in service provision at eye care facilities in India. PMID:27144134

  20. Comparative toxicity of size-fractionated airborne particulate matter obtained from different cities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, M Ian; McGee, John; Duvall, Rachelle M; Dailey, Lisa; Daniels, Mary; Boykin, Elizabeth; Cho, Seung-Hyun; Doerfler, Donald; Gordon, Terry; Devlin, Robert B

    2007-01-01

    Hundreds of epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with dose-dependent increases in morbidity and mortality. While early reports focused on PM less than 10 microm (PM10), numerous studies have since shown that the effects can occur with PM stratified into ultrafine (UF), fine (FI), and coarse (CO) size modes despite the fact that these materials differ significantly in both evolution and chemistry. Furthermore the chemical makeup of these different size fractions can vary tremendously depending on location, meteorology, and source profile. For this reason, high-volume three-stage particle impactors with the capacity to collect UF, FI, and CO particles were deployed to four different locations in the United States (Seattle, WA; Salt Lake City, UT; Sterling Forest and South Bronx, NY), and weekly samples were collected for 1 mo in each place. The particles were extracted, assayed for a standardized battery of chemical components, and instilled into mouse lungs (female BALB/c) at doses of 25 and 100 microg. Eighteen hours later animals were euthanized and parameters of injury and inflammation were monitored in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and plasma. Of the four locations, the South Bronx coarse fraction was the most potent sample in both pulmonary and systemic biomarkers, with a strong increase in lung inflammatory cells as well as elevated levels of creatine kinase in the plasma. These effects did not correlate with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or total zinc or sulfate content, but were associated with total iron. Receptor source modeling on the PM2.5 samples showed that the South Bronx sample was heavily influenced by emissions from coal fired power plants (31%) and mobile sources (22%). Further studies will assess how source profiles correlate with the observed effects for all locations and size fractions.

  1. HIV infection and awareness among men who have sex with men-20 cities, United States, 2008 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Wejnert, Cyprian; Le, Binh; Rose, Charles E; Oster, Alexandra M; Smith, Amanda J; Zhu, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Over half of HIV infections in the United States occur among men who have sex with men (MSM). Awareness of infection is a necessary precursor to antiretroviral treatment and risk reduction among HIV-infected persons. We report data on prevalence and awareness of HIV infection among MSM in 2008 and 2011, using data from 20 cities participating in the 2008 and 2011 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System (NHBS) among MSM. Venue-based, time-space sampling was used to recruit men for interview and HIV testing. We analyzed data for men who reported ≥ 1 male sex partner in the past 12 months. Participants who tested positive were considered to be aware of their infection if they reported a prior positive HIV test. We used multivariable analysis to examine differences between results from 2011 vs. 2008. HIV prevalence was 19% in 2008 and 18% in 2011 (p = 0.14). In both years, HIV prevalence was highest among older age groups, blacks, and men with lower education and income. In multivariable analysis, HIV prevalence did not change significantly from 2008 to 2011 overall (p = 0.51) or in any age or racial/ethnic category (p>0.15 in each category). Among those testing positive, a greater proportion was aware of their infection in 2011 (66%) than in 2008 (56%) (p<0.001). In both years, HIV awareness was higher for older age groups, whites, and men with higher education and income. In multivariable analysis, HIV awareness increased from 2008 to 2011 overall (p<0.001) and for all age and racial/ethnic categories (p<0.01 in each category). In both years, black MSM had the highest HIV prevalence and the lowest awareness among racial/ethnic groups. These findings suggest that HIV-positive MSM are increasingly aware of their infections.

  2. Comparative toxicity of size-fractionated airborne particulate matter obtained from different cities in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, M.I.; McGee, J.; Duvall, R.M.; Dailey, L.; Daniels, M.; Boykin, E.; Cho, S.H.; Doerfler, D.; Gordon, T.; Devlin, R.B.

    2007-07-01

    Hundreds of epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with dose-dependent increases in morbidity and mortality. While early reports focused on PM less than 10 {mu}m (PM10), numerous studies have since shown that the effects can occur with PM stratified into ultrafine (UF), fine (FI), and coarse (CO) size modes despite the fact that these materials differ significantly in both evolution and chemistry. Furthermore the chemical makeup of these different size fractions can vary tremendously depending on location, meteorology, and source profile. For this reason, high-volume three-stage particle impactors with the capacity to collect UF, FI, and CO particles were deployed to four different locations in the United States (Seattle, WA; Salt Lake City, UT; Sterling Forest and South Bronx, NY), and weekly samples were collected for 1 mo in each place. The particles were extracted, assayed for a standardized battery of chemical components, and instilled into mouse lungs (female BALB/c) at doses of 25 and 100 {mu}g. Eighteen hours later animals were euthanized and parameters of injury and inflammation were monitored in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and plasma. Of the four locations, the South Bronx coarse fraction was the most potent sample in both pulmonary and systemic biomarkers. Receptor source modeling on the PM2.5 samples showed that the South Bronx sample was heavily influenced by emissions from coal fired power plants (31%) and mobile sources (22%). Further studies will assess how source profiles correlate with the observed effects for all locations and size fractions.

  3. Preliminary United States-Mexico border watershed analysis, twin cities area of Nogales, Arizona and Nogales, Sonora

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, Laura Margaret; Gray, Floyd; Castaneda, Mario; Bultman, Mark; Bolm, Karen Sue

    2002-01-01

    The United States - Mexico border area faces the challenge of integrating aspects of its binational physical boundaries to form a unified or, at least, compatible natural resource management plan. Specified geospatial components such as stream drainages, mineral occurrences, vegetation, wildlife, and land-use can be analyzed in terms of their overlapping impacts upon one another. Watersheds have been utilized as a basic unit in resource analysis because they contain components that are interrelated and can be viewed as a single interactive ecological system. In developing and analyzing critical regional natural resource databases, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other federal and non-governmental agencies have adopted a ?watershed by watershed? approach to dealing with such complicated issues as ecosystem health, natural resource use, urban growth, and pollutant transport within hydrologic systems. These watersheds can facilitate the delineation of both large scale and locally important hydrologic systems and urban management parameters necessary for sustainable, diversified land-use. The twin border cities area of Nogales, Sonora and Nogales, Arizona, provide the ideal setting to demonstrate the utility and application of a complete, cross-border, geographic information systems (GIS) based, watershed analysis in the characterization of a wide range of natural resource as well as urban features and their interactions. In addition to the delineation of a unified, cross-border watershed, the database contains sewer/water line locations and status, well locations, geology, hydrology, topography, soils, geomorphology, and vegetation data, as well as remotely sensed imagery. This report is preliminary and part of an ongoing project to develop a GIS database that will be widely accessible to the general public, researchers, and the local land management community with a broad range of application and utility.

  4. HIV Infection and Awareness among Men Who Have Sex with Men–20 Cities, United States, 2008 and 2011

    PubMed Central

    Wejnert, Cyprian; Le, Binh; Rose, Charles E.; Oster, Alexandra M.; Smith, Amanda J.; Zhu, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Over half of HIV infections in the United States occur among men who have sex with men (MSM). Awareness of infection is a necessary precursor to antiretroviral treatment and risk reduction among HIV-infected persons. We report data on prevalence and awareness of HIV infection among MSM in 2008 and 2011, using data from 20 cities participating in the 2008 and 2011 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System (NHBS) among MSM. Venue-based, time-space sampling was used to recruit men for interview and HIV testing. We analyzed data for men who reported ≥1 male sex partner in the past 12 months. Participants who tested positive were considered to be aware of their infection if they reported a prior positive HIV test. We used multivariable analysis to examine differences between results from 2011 vs. 2008. HIV prevalence was 19% in 2008 and 18% in 2011 (p = 0.14). In both years, HIV prevalence was highest among older age groups, blacks, and men with lower education and income. In multivariable analysis, HIV prevalence did not change significantly from 2008 to 2011 overall (p = 0.51) or in any age or racial/ethnic category (p>0.15 in each category). Among those testing positive, a greater proportion was aware of their infection in 2011 (66%) than in 2008 (56%) (p<0.001). In both years, HIV awareness was higher for older age groups, whites, and men with higher education and income. In multivariable analysis, HIV awareness increased from 2008 to 2011 overall (p<0.001) and for all age and racial/ethnic categories (p<0.01 in each category). In both years, black MSM had the highest HIV prevalence and the lowest awareness among racial/ethnic groups. These findings suggest that HIV-positive MSM are increasingly aware of their infections. PMID:24194848

  5. Sensitivity of air quality to potential future climate change and emissions in the United States and major cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trail, M.; Tsimpidi, A. P.; Liu, P.; Tsigaridis, K.; Rudokas, J.; Miller, P.; Nenes, A.; Hu, Y.; Russell, A. G.

    2014-09-01

    Simulated present and future air quality is compared for the years 2006-2010 and 2048-2052 over the contiguous United States (CONUS) using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Regionally downscaled present and future climate results are developed using GISS and the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model. Present and future emissions are estimated using MARKAL 9R model. O3 and PM2.5 sensitivities to precursor emissions for the years 2010 and 2050 are calculated using CMAQ-DDM (Direct Decoupled Method). We find major improvements in future U.S. air quality including generally decreased MDA8 (maximum daily 8-hr average O3) mixing ratios and PM2.5 concentrations and reduced frequency of NAAQS O3 standard exceedances in most major U.S. cities. The Eastern and Pacific U.S. experience the largest reductions in summertime seasonal average MDA8 (up to 12 ppb) with localized decreases in the 4th highest MDA8 of the year, decreasing by up to 25 ppb. Results from a Climate Penalty (CP) scenario isolate the impact of climate change on air quality and show that future climate change tends to increase O3 mixing ratios in some regions of the U.S., with climate change causing increases of over 10 ppb in the annual 4th highest MDA8 in Los Angeles. Seasonal average PM2.5 decreases (2-4 μg m-3) over the Eastern U.S. are accounted for by decreases in sulfate and nitrate concentrations resulting from reduced mobile and point source emissions of NOx and SOx.

  6. Heat and Humidity in the City: Neighborhood Heat Index Variability in a Mid-Sized City in the Southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Hass, Alisa L; Ellis, Kelsey N; Reyes Mason, Lisa; Hathaway, Jon M; Howe, David A

    2016-01-11

    Daily weather conditions for an entire city are usually represented by a single weather station, often located at a nearby airport. This resolution of atmospheric data fails to recognize the microscale climatic variability associated with land use decisions across and within urban neighborhoods. This study uses heat index, a measure of the combined effects of temperature and humidity, to assess the variability of heat exposure from ten weather stations across four urban neighborhoods and two control locations (downtown and in a nearby nature center) in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. Results suggest that trees may negate a portion of excess urban heat, but are also associated with greater humidity. As a result, the heat index of locations with more trees is significantly higher than downtown and areas with fewer trees. Trees may also reduce heat stress by shading individuals from incoming radiation, though this is not considered in this study. Greater amounts of impervious surfaces correspond with reduced evapotranspiration and greater runoff, in terms of overall mass balance, leading to a higher temperature, but lower relative humidity. Heat index and relative humidity were found to significantly vary between locations with different tree cover and neighborhood characteristics for the full study time period as well as for the top 10% of heat index days. This work demonstrates the need for high-resolution climate data and the use of additional measures beyond temperature to understand urban neighborhood exposure to extreme heat, and expresses the importance of considering vulnerability differences among residents when analyzing neighborhood-scale impacts.

  7. Heat and Humidity in the City: Neighborhood Heat Index Variability in a Mid-Sized City in the Southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Hass, Alisa L.; Ellis, Kelsey N.; Reyes Mason, Lisa; Hathaway, Jon M.; Howe, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Daily weather conditions for an entire city are usually represented by a single weather station, often located at a nearby airport. This resolution of atmospheric data fails to recognize the microscale climatic variability associated with land use decisions across and within urban neighborhoods. This study uses heat index, a measure of the combined effects of temperature and humidity, to assess the variability of heat exposure from ten weather stations across four urban neighborhoods and two control locations (downtown and in a nearby nature center) in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. Results suggest that trees may negate a portion of excess urban heat, but are also associated with greater humidity. As a result, the heat index of locations with more trees is significantly higher than downtown and areas with fewer trees. Trees may also reduce heat stress by shading individuals from incoming radiation, though this is not considered in this study. Greater amounts of impervious surfaces correspond with reduced evapotranspiration and greater runoff, in terms of overall mass balance, leading to a higher temperature, but lower relative humidity. Heat index and relative humidity were found to significantly vary between locations with different tree cover and neighborhood characteristics for the full study time period as well as for the top 10% of heat index days. This work demonstrates the need for high-resolution climate data and the use of additional measures beyond temperature to understand urban neighborhood exposure to extreme heat, and expresses the importance of considering vulnerability differences among residents when analyzing neighborhood-scale impacts. PMID:26761021

  8. Education Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaked, Haim

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several cities in Israel have labeled themselves "Education Cities," concentrating on education as their central theme. Employing qualitative techniques, this article aims to describe, define, and conceptualize this phenomenon as it is being realized in three such cities. Findings show that Education Cities differ from…

  9. Education Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaked, Haim

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several cities in Israel have labeled themselves "Education Cities," concentrating on education as their central theme. Employing qualitative techniques, this article aims to describe, define, and conceptualize this phenomenon as it is being realized in three such cities. Findings show that Education Cities differ from…

  10. Ultrafast gigantic photo-response in charge-ordered organic salt (EDO-TTF)2PF6 on 10-fs time scales

    SciTech Connect

    Itatani, J.; Rini, M.; Cavalleri, A.; Onda, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Ogihara, S.; Koshihara, S.; Shao, X.; Nakano, Y.; Yamochi, H.; Saito, G.; Schoenlein, R.W.

    2008-08-01

    The initial dynamics of photo-induced phase transition in charge-ordered organic salt (EDO-TTF){sub 2}PF{sub 6} was investigated using 10-fs near-infrared laser pulses. We observed sub-20-fs gigantic photo-responses (|{Delta}R/R|>100%) due to intra-molecular vibration and a clear signature of a structural bottleneck ({approx}50 fs) for the first time.

  11. Optimization of multipollutant air quality management strategies: A case study for five cities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Liao, Kuo-Jen; Hou, Xiangting

    2015-06-01

    Developing regional air quality management strategies is a difficult task because formation of air pollutants is interdependent and air quality at different locations may have different responses to emissions from common sources. We developed an optimization-based model, OPtimal integrated Emission Reduction Alternatives (OPERA), which allows for identifications of least-cost control strategies for attaining multipollutant air quality targets at multiple locations simultaneously. To implement OPERA, first, sensitivities of air quality to precursor emission changes are quantified. Second, cost functions of emission reductions are estimated using a cost analysis tool that includes a pool of available control measures. The third step is to determine desired reductions in concentrations of air pollutants. The last step is to identify the optimal control strategies by minimizing costs of emission controls using the sensitivities of air pollutants to emission changes, cost functions, and constraints for feasible emission reduction ratios. A case study that investigates ozone and PM2.5 air quality in the summer of 2007 for five major cities in the eastern United States is presented in this paper. The results of the OPERA calculations show that reductions in regional NOx and VOC as well as local primary PM2.5 emissions were more cost-effective than SO2 controls for decreasing ozone and total PM2.5 concentrations in the summer of 2007. This was because reductions in SO2 emissions would only decrease PM2.5 concentrations, and reductions in primary PM2.5 emissions were more cost-effective than SO2 emission controls. We developed an optimization-based model, OPtimal integrated Emission Reduction Alternatives (OPERA), which allows for identification of least-cost emission control strategies for attaining multipollutant air quality targets at multiple locations simultaneously. A major strength of OPERA is its flexibility, which allows for changes in air quality regulations

  12. Association of TCF7L2 polymorphisms with type 2 diabetes in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Parra, E J; Cameron, E; Simmonds, L; Valladares, A; McKeigue, P; Shriver, M; Wacher, N; Kumate, J; Kittles, R; Cruz, M

    2007-04-01

    Polymorphisms within the transcription factor 7-like 2 gene (TCF7L2) have been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in several recent studies. We characterized three of these polymorphisms (rs12255372, rs7903146 and the microsatellite DG10S478) in an admixed sample of 286 patients with T2D and 275 controls from Mexico City. We also analyzed three samples representative of the relevant parental populations: Native Americans from the state of Guerrero (Mexico), Spanish from Valencia and Nigerians (Bini from the Edo region). In order to minimize potential confounding because of the presence of population stratification in the sample, we evaluated the association of the three TCF7L2 polymorphisms with T2D by using the program admixmap to fit a logistic regression model incorporating individual ancestry, sex, age, body mass index and education. The markers rs12255372, rs7903146 and DG10S478 are in tight disequilibrium in the Mexican sample. We observed a significant association between the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs12255372 and the microsatellite DG10S478 with T2D in the Mexican sample [rs12255372, odds ratio (OR) = 1.78, p = 0.017; DG10S478, OR = 1.62, p = 0.041]. The SNP rs7903146 shows similar trends, but its association with T2D is not as strong (OR = 1.39, p = 0.152). Analysis of the parental samples, as well as other available data, indicates that there are substantial population frequency differences for these polymorphisms: The frequencies of the T2D risk factors are more than 20% higher in European and West African populations than in East Asian and Native American populations.

  13. Statement of Facts for 1988 City-Wide Mock Trial Competitions. United States v. Martha Monroe. MT-88.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Citizen Education in the Law, Washington, DC.

    Prepared by the District of Columbia Street Law Project for its 17th annual city-wide mock trial competition, this instructional handout provides the material for a mock criminal trial. The federal government charges Martha Monroe with first degree murder for shooting her husband, George Monroe, while he slept. Martha Monroe asserts that she acted…

  14. Community School Board Elections in New York City. A Report to the New York State Commissioner of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Max J.

    Following reports of irregularities in the May 1973 school board elections of New York City, the New York Commissioner of Education asked the author to identify the difficulties encountered by the voters and candidates, on both election day and in the period for registration and nomination which preceded it, and to recommend such changes in the…

  15. Statement of Facts for 1992 City-Wide Mock Trial Competitions. United States v. David Jones. MT-92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Citizen Education in the Law, Washington, DC.

    Prepared by the District of Columbia Street Law Project for its 21 annual city-wide mock trial competition, this instructional handout provides material for a mock rape trial. David Jones and Susan Williams, both students at Capital University, had dated on and off during the previous years and on the night of the incident had attended a party…

  16. An Evaluation of the State Urban Education Program "Living Science Center" District 10, New York City Board of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinci, Thomas G.; DeVita, Christina

    A program of stimulation, motivation, and cultural enrichment for children in New York City's School District 10 is evaluated in this report. The Bronx Zoological Gardens were used for living laboratory experiences, coordinated with classroom activities in different curriculum areas. Employing zoo visits, lectures, films, and classroom…

  17. Perception of care and barriers to treatment in individuals with diabetic retinopathy in India: 11-city 9-state study.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Rajan; Gudlavalleti, Murthy V S; Bandyopadhyay, Souvik; Anchala, Raghupathy; Gudlavalleti, Aashrai Sai Venkat; Jotheeswaran, A T; Ramachandra, Srikrishna S; Singh, Vivek; Vashist, Praveen; Allagh, Komal; Ballabh, Hira Pant; Gilbert, Clare E

    2016-04-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of visual impairment. Low awareness about the disease and inequitable distribution of care are major challenges in India. Assess perception of care and challenges faced in availing care among diabetics. The cross-sectional, hospital based survey was conducted in eleven cities. In each city, public and private providers of eye-care were identified. Both multispecialty and standalone facilities were included. Specially designed semi-open ended questionnaires were administered to the clients. 376 diabetics were interviewed in the eye clinics, of whom 62.8% (236) were selected from facilities in cities with a population of 7 million or more. The mean duration of known diabetes was 11.1 (±7.7) years. Half the respondents understood the meaning of adequate glycemic control and 45% reported that they had visual loss when they first presented to an eye facility. Facilities in smaller cities and those with higher educational status were found to be statistically significant predictors of self-reported good/adequate control of diabetes. The correct awareness of glycemic control was significantly high among attending privately-funded facilities and higher educational status. Self-monitoring of glycemic status at home was significantly associated with respondents from larger cities, privately-funded facilities, those who were better educated and reported longer duration of diabetes. Duration of diabetes (41%), poor glycemic control (39.4%) and age (20.7%) were identified as the leading causes of DR. The commonest challenges faced were lifestyle/behavior related. The findings have significant implications for the organization of diabetes services in India.

  18. Perception of care and barriers to treatment in individuals with diabetic retinopathy in India: 11-city 9-state study

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Rajan; Gudlavalleti, Murthy V. S.; Bandyopadhyay, Souvik; Anchala, Raghupathy; Gudlavalleti, Aashrai Sai Venkat; Jotheeswaran, A. T.; Ramachandra, Srikrishna S.; Singh, Vivek; Vashist, Praveen; Allagh, Komal; Ballabh, Hira Pant; Gilbert, Clare E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of visual impairment. Low awareness about the disease and inequitable distribution of care are major challenges in India. Objectives: Assess perception of care and challenges faced in availing care among diabetics. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional, hospital based survey was conducted in eleven cities. In each city, public and private providers of eye-care were identified. Both multispecialty and standalone facilities were included. Specially designed semi-open ended questionnaires were administered to the clients. Results: 376 diabetics were interviewed in the eye clinics, of whom 62.8% (236) were selected from facilities in cities with a population of 7 million or more. The mean duration of known diabetes was 11.1 (±7.7) years. Half the respondents understood the meaning of adequate glycemic control and 45% reported that they had visual loss when they first presented to an eye facility. Facilities in smaller cities and those with higher educational status were found to be statistically significant predictors of self-reported good/adequate control of diabetes. The correct awareness of glycemic control was significantly high among attending privately-funded facilities and higher educational status. Self-monitoring of glycemic status at home was significantly associated with respondents from larger cities, privately-funded facilities, those who were better educated and reported longer duration of diabetes. Duration of diabetes (41%), poor glycemic control (39.4%) and age (20.7%) were identified as the leading causes of DR. The commonest challenges faced were lifestyle/behavior related. Conclusions: The findings have significant implications for the organization of diabetes services in India. PMID:27144135

  19. An identikit of patients seeking treatment for erectile dysfunction in Italy: results from the EDOS Italian database.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Ferdinando; Sicuteri, Riccardo; Valle, Domenico; Rossi, Andrea; Kontodimas, S; Mirone, Vincenzo

    2007-03-01

    Erectile Dysfunction Observational Study (EDOS) is a 6 months observational, prospective, multicentre trial, which enrolled more than 8,000 patients referring to physicians to seek treatment for ED or to modify their current therapy; it was conducted in 9 European countries. Objective of this trial was to outline general characteristics of these populations and related treatment patterns, to assess their efficacy, motivation for treatment extension or discontinuation and patients' overall satisfaction in clinical practice. Baseline characteristics of Italian enrolled population provide the Italian patient profile seeking ED treatment. The Italian centres involved in this study enrolled, from April 2003 to April 2004, 1,419 men, aged over 18. All of them had already requested to their general practitioner or specialist to start a treatment for ED or to modify a previously initiated therapy. Baseline assessment together with all demographic data, included collecting information about: education, socioeconomic position, clinical history, co-morbidities, ED current therapies, concomitant pharmacological therapies (antidepressants, antihypertensive and other cardiovascular drugs, hypolipidemic drugs, antipsychotics, and anti-cancer agents). All patients filled in IIEF-EF e SF-PAIRS questionnaires, and responded to single item question I (SIQ1: During last 6 months, did not your erection last long enough for you to start and have a successful sexual intercourse?). Of the 1,419 men enrolled, 1,357 were eligible for the study. Mean age was 55 years and BMI=26.8 kg/mn. 83% of patients' education was above primary school; 52% had a full time job, while 37% was retired. 88.5% reported a steady relationship, and 71.5% reported that this relationship had been longer than 10 years. 70.4% of patients were smokers or ex-smokers, while potus history was infrequent. ED was mild or moderate in 61.6% cases and had a psychogenic, organic or mixed origin respectively in 24%, 33% and 43

  20. Some Essential Viewpoints in Supervision of Rural Schools: Abstracts of Addresses Delivered at the First Conference of Supervisors of the Northeastern States Held in New York City April 23 and 24, 1928. Bulletin, 1929, No. 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior, 1929

    1929-01-01

    This bulletin contains abstracts of addresses delivered at a 2-day conference of State and county rural-school supervisors of the Northeastern States, called by the United States Commissioner of Education in New York City, New York, April 23 and 24, 1928. Abstracts were prepared from manuscripts submitted by the authors. The conference was the…

  1. Resource allocation for mitigating regional air pollution-related mortality: A summertime case study for five cities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Liao, Kuo-Jen; Hou, Xiangting; Strickland, Matthew J

    2016-08-01

    An important issue of regional air quality management is to allocate air quality management funds to maximize environmental and human health benefits. In this study, we use an innovative approach to tackle this air quality management issue. We develop an innovative resource allocation model that allows identification of air pollutant emission control strategies that maximize mortality avoidances subject to a resource constraint. We first present the development of the resource allocation model and then a case study to show how the model can be used to identify resource allocation strategies that maximize mortality avoidances for top five Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) (i.e., New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Dallas-Fort Worth, and Philadelphia) in the continental United States collectively. Given budget constraints in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Clean Air Act assessment, the results of the case study suggest that controls of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and primary carbon (PC) emissions from EPA Regions 2, 3, 5, 6, and 9 would have significant health benefits for the five selected cities collectively. Around 30,800 air pollution-related mortalities could be avoided during the selected 2-week summertime episode for the five cities collectively if the budget could be allocated based on the results of the resource allocation model. Although only five U.S. cities during a 2-week episode are considered in the case study, the resource allocation model can be used by decision-makers to plan air pollution mitigation strategies to achieve the most significant health benefits for other seasons and more cities over a region or the continental U.S. Effective allocations of air quality management resources are challenging and complicated, and it is desired to have a tool that can help decision-makers better allocate the funds to maximize health benefits of air pollution mitigation. An innovative resource allocation model developed in this study can help

  2. Resource allocation for mitigating regional air pollution–related mortality: A summertime case study for five cities in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Kuo-Jen; Hou, Xiangting; Strickland, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT An important issue of regional air quality management is to allocate air quality management funds to maximize environmental and human health benefits. In this study, we use an innovative approach to tackle this air quality management issue. We develop an innovative resource allocation model that allows identification of air pollutant emission control strategies that maximize mortality avoidances subject to a resource constraint. We first present the development of the resource allocation model and then a case study to show how the model can be used to identify resource allocation strategies that maximize mortality avoidances for top five Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) (i.e., New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Dallas-Fort Worth, and Philadelphia) in the continental United States collectively. Given budget constraints in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Clean Air Act assessment, the results of the case study suggest that controls of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and primary carbon (PC) emissions from EPA Regions 2, 3, 5, 6, and 9 would have significant health benefits for the five selected cities collectively. Around 30,800 air pollution–related mortalities could be avoided during the selected 2-week summertime episode for the five cities collectively if the budget could be allocated based on the results of the resource allocation model. Although only five U.S. cities during a 2-week episode are considered in the case study, the resource allocation model can be used by decision-makers to plan air pollution mitigation strategies to achieve the most significant health benefits for other seasons and more cities over a region or the continental U.S.Implications: Effective allocations of air quality management resources are challenging and complicated, and it is desired to have a tool that can help decision-makers better allocate the funds to maximize health benefits of air pollution mitigation. An innovative resource allocation model developed in

  3. Spatial distribution of trachoma cases in the City of Bauru, State of São Paulo, Brazil, detected in 2006: defining key areas for improvement of health resources.

    PubMed

    Macharelli, Carlos Alberto; Schellini, Silvana Artioli; Opromolla, Paula Araujo; Dalben, Ivete

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial behavior of the occurrence of trachoma cases detected in the City of Bauru, State of São Paulo, Brazil, in 2006 in order to use the information collected to set priority areas for optimization of health resources. the trachoma cases identified in 2006 were georeferenced. The data evaluated were: schools where the trachoma cases studied, data from the 2000 Census, census tract, type of housing, water supply conditions, distribution of income and levels of education of household heads. In the Google Earth® software and TerraView® were made descriptive spatial analysis and estimates of the Kernel. Each area was studied by interpolation of the density surfaces exposing events to facilitate to recognize the clusters. Of the 66 cases detected, only one (1.5%) was not a resident of the city's outskirts. A positive association was detected of trachoma cases and the percentage of heads of household with income below three minimum wages and schooling under eight years of education. The recognition of the spatial distribution of trachoma cases coincided with the areas of greatest social inequality in Bauru city. The micro-areas identified are those that should be prioritized in the rationalization of health resources. There is the possibility of using the trachoma cases detected as an indicator of performance of micro priority health programs.

  4. Tick-borne agents in domesticated and stray cats from the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, midwestern Brazil.

    PubMed

    André, Marcos Rogério; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Fernandes, Simone de Jesus; de Sousa, Keyla Cartens Marques; Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; Domingos, Iara Helena; de Macedo, Gabriel Carvalho; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2015-09-01

    Anaplasmataceae agents, piroplasmids and Hepatozoon spp. have emerged as important pathogens among domestic and wild felines. The present work aimed to detect the presence of species belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family, piroplasmas and Hepatozoon spp. DNA in blood samples of domesticated and stray cats in the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, midwestern Brazil. Between January and April 2013, whole blood samples were collected from 151 cats (54 males, 95 females and two without gender registration) in the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. DNA extracted from cat blood samples was submitted to conventional PCR assays for Theileria/Babesia/Cytauxzoon spp. (18S rRNA, ITS-1), Ehrlichia spp. (16S rRNA, dsb, groESL), Anaplasma spp. (16S rRNA, groESL) and Hepatozoon spp. (18S rRNA) followed by phylogenetic reconstructions. Out of 151 sampled cats, 13 (8.5%) were positive for Ehrlichia spp. closely related to Ehrlichia canis, 1 (0.66%) for Hepatozoon spp. closely related to Hepatozoon americanum and Hepatozoon spp. isolate from a wild felid, 1 (0.66%) for Cytauxzoon sp. closely related do Cytauxzoon felis, and 18 (11.9%) for Babesia/Theileria (one sequence was closely related to Babesia bigemina, eight for Babesia vogeli, five to Theileria spp. from ruminants [Theileria ovis, Theileria lestoquardi] and four to Theileria sp. recently detected in a cat). The present study showed that Ehrlichia spp., piroplasmids (B. vogeli, Theileria spp. and Cytauxzoon spp.) and, more rarely, Hepatozoon spp. circulate among stray and domesticated cats in the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, midwestern Brazil.

  5. Share of mass transit miles traveled and reduced motor vehicle fatalities in major cities of the United States.

    PubMed

    Stimpson, Jim P; Wilson, Fernando A; Araz, Ozgur M; Pagan, Jose A

    2014-12-01

    The USA leads the developed world in motor vehicle fatalities, presenting a critical public health threat. We examined whether an increasing share of mass transit use, relative to vehicle miles traveled on public roads, was associated with reduced motor vehicle fatalities. We used annual city-level data for the USA from 1982-2010 provided by the Fatality Accident Reporting System, the Texas A&M Transportation Institute, the Census Bureau, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to estimate a structural equation model of the factors associated with mass transit miles and motor vehicle fatalities. The final analytic data included 2,900 observations from 100 cities over 29 years. After accounting for climate, year, and the economic costs of driving, an increasing share of mass transit miles traveled per capita was associated with reduced motor vehicle fatalities. The costs of congestion to the average commuter and gas prices were positively associated with increasing the share of mass transit miles traveled. The economic costs of driving increased over time, while both the fatality rate and the share of mass transit miles traveled decreased over time. Increasing the share of mass transit miles traveled may be associated with fewer motor vehicle miles traveled. Increasing mass transit uptake may be an effective public health intervention to reduce motor vehicle fatalities in cities.

  6. [Quality of potable water and incidence of gastroenteritis in 2 cities in the state of Sonora, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Avila, H; Becerra Winkler, S; Brust Carmona, H

    1989-01-01

    Based on the fact that drinking-water is of great significance in the transmission of infectious diseases, the incidence of diarrheal disorders was examined in two cities similar in their demographic composition and in their use of health services, but not in the quality of the drinking-water supply. In Navojoa, a city with high incidence of diarrheal diseases (116/1000 pop. in 1985), high rates of drinking-water contamination with fecal coliforms were found (43% of water samples); on the contrary, in Ciudad Obregón, a city with lower rates of diarrheal diseases (49/1000 pop. in 1985), drinking-water contamination with fecal coliforms was also comparatively lower (only 6% of water samples). These data illustrate the need to promote the implementation of drinking-water treatment in those places with signs of fecal contamination and high incidence of diarrheal diseases. To this regard, the General Direction for Research and Technological Development of the Ministry of Health has promoted the development of a chlorination equipment, useful mainly in rural areas, where biological contamination is usually high. These and similar procedures for water treatment should be considered as effective means to decrease the incidence of diarrheal diseases.

  7. Analysis of potential for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in municipal solid waste in Brazil, in the state and city of Rio de Janeiro

    SciTech Connect

    Loureiro, S.M.; Rovere, E.L.L.; Mahler, C.F.

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► We constructed future scenarios of emissions of greenhouse gases in waste. ► Was used the IPCC methodology for calculating emission inventories. ► We calculated the costs of abatement for emissions reduction in landfill waste. ► The results were compared to Brazil, state and city of Rio de Janeiro. ► The higher the environmental passive, the greater the possibility of use of biogas. - Abstract: This paper examines potential changes in solid waste policies for the reduction in GHG for the country of Brazil and one of its major states and cities, Rio de Janeiro, from 2005 to 2030. To examine these policy options, trends in solid waste quantities and associated GHG emissions are derived. Three alternative policy scenarios are evaluated in terms of effectiveness, technology, and economics and conclusions posited regarding optimal strategies for Brazil to implement. These scenarios are been building on the guidelines for national inventories of GHG emissions (IPCC, 2006) and adapted to Brazilian states and municipalities’ boundaries. Based on the results, it is possible to say that the potential revenue from products of solid waste management is more than sufficient to transform the current scenario in this country into one of financial and environmental gains, where the negative impacts of climate change have created a huge opportunity to expand infrastructure for waste management.

  8. The Hoshino wooden skeleton, the first wooden model of a human skeleton, made during the Edo era in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Katsuko; Suzaki, Etsuko; Ajima, Noriaki

    2007-03-01

    The wooden model of the human skeleton, called the wooden skeleton, is a distinguished original craft object from the Edo era, in Japan, when medical doctors were unable to keep a human skeleton for study and teaching purposes. There are three types of wooden skeletons: (i) Hoshino made in 1792; (ii) Kagami made by 1810; and (iii) Okuda made around 1820. The former two are of adult males and the latter is of a female. The wooden skeletons were made with surprising accuracy compared with figures that appeared in the medical books available in Japan at that time, which suggests a scientific readiness of the doctors and the skill of the craftsmen. In the cases of the Hoshino and Kagami wooden skeletons, it is hard to consider that all wooden bones were assembled to show the entire body. Conversely, the Okuda wooden skeletons were made for showing in the sitting position. The skull of the Hoshino wooden skeleton is of special interest: the skull cap was not cut, yet the internal structures of the skull, such as the sella turcica, foramina for nerves and vessels, and the sulci for venous sinuses, were made with considerable accuracy. The skull caps of the Kagami and Okuda wooden skeletons were cut, as those used in modern medical education.

  9. The risk of pedestrian injury and fatality in collisions with motor vehicles, a social ecological study of state routes and city streets in King County, Washington.

    PubMed

    Moudon, Anne Vernez; Lin, Lin; Jiao, Junfeng; Hurvitz, Philip; Reeves, Paula

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the correlates of injury severity using police records of pedestrian-motor-vehicle collisions on state routes and city streets in King County, Washington. Levels of influence on collision outcome considered (1) the characteristics of individual pedestrians and drivers and their actions; (2) the road environment; and (3) the neighborhood environment. Binary logistic regressions served to estimate the risk of a pedestrian being severely injured or dying versus suffering minor or no injury. Significant individual-level influences on injury severity were confirmed for both types of roads: pedestrians being older or younger; the vehicle moving straight on the roadway. New variables associated with increased risk of severe injury or death included: having more than two pedestrians involved in a collision; and on city streets, the driver being inebriated. Road intersection design was significant only in the state route models, with pedestrians crossing at intersections without signals increasing the risk of being injured or dying. Adjusting for pedestrians' and drivers' characteristics and actions, neighborhood medium home values and higher residential densities increased the risk of injury or death. No other road or neighborhood environment variable remained significant, suggesting that pedestrians were not safer in areas with high pedestrian activity.

  10. Dental prosthetic status, prosthetic needs in relation to socioeconomic status of the state government employees in Shimla city (Himachal Pradesh) - A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, V. K.; Veeresha, K. L.; Sharma, K. R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To know the dental prosthetic status, prosthetic needs in relation to socioeconomic status (SES) of the state government employees in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh. Materials and Methods: The study was carried on 1008 (705 males and 303 females) state government employees in Shimla city between February 25, 2009 and April 10, 2009. Type III examination was conducted and the prosthetic status and prosthetic needs were recorded on W.H.O. format 1997. Modified Kuppuswamy scale, with readjustment of the per capita income to suit the present levels, was used for SES classification. Results: 10.3% of the subjects in the study had prosthesis of some kind. The prosthetic status was better in the upper middle and upper SES category as compared with the other categories and the findings were statistically significant. Prosthetic need in the study population was 33.2%, which was maximum for the subjects in the lower SES category and minimum for the higher SES category. Awareness on the provision of reimbursement for dental care was highest among the upper class and negligible in the lower SES category. Conclusions: Present study shows a direct relationship between SES and percentage of the subjects having prosthesis of some kind. SES shows an inverse relationship with prosthetic need and awareness on the provision of reimbursement of dental care. PMID:24478954

  11. Waist circumference, BMI and the prevalence of self-reported diabetes among the elderly of the United States and six cities of Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Barceló, A; Gregg, E W; Pastor-Valero, M; Robles, S C

    2007-12-01

    Using data from the Salud Bienestar y Envejecimiento (SABE) project and the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2004), we examined the prevalence of obesity and diagnosed diabetes among older adults in the Americas; we also examined the association of age, sex, level of education, weight status, waist circumference, smoking, and race/ethnicity with diabetes among older adults. The prevalence of diagnosed diabetes was highest in the US Blacks and Mexican Americans, followed by Bridgetown and Mexico City (22% for each) and lowest in Santiago, Montevideo, Havana, and US Whites (13-15%). Diagnosed diabetes was significantly associated with BMI among participants from Bridgetown, Sao Paulo, and the three US ethnic groups, while it was associated with waist circumference in all sites except Mexico City. Our findings suggest major geographical and ethnic variation in the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes among older adults. Waist circumference was more consistently associated with the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes than BMI. Higher prevalences of diabetes are found among the elderly of African or Mexican descent in the United States and in other countries of the Americas when compared to the prevalence among whites in the United States and in other Latin American countries with populations of predominant Western European descent.

  12. Chicago, Illinois: The Windy City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2008-01-01

    Once famous mainly for stockyards and steel mills, Chicago now boasts more top-rated five-star restaurants than any other city in the United States and has been voted by various publications as one of the "Top 10 U.S. Destinations," one of the "Best Walking Cities" in the United States, and one of the "Ten Best Places to…

  13. Analysis of potential for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in municipal solid waste in Brazil, in the state and city of Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, S M; Rovere, E L L; Mahler, C F

    2013-05-01

    This paper examines potential changes in solid waste policies for the reduction in GHG for the country of Brazil and one of its major states and cities, Rio de Janeiro, from 2005 to 2030. To examine these policy options, trends in solid waste quantities and associated GHG emissions are derived. Three alternative policy scenarios are evaluated in terms of effectiveness, technology, and economics and conclusions posited regarding optimal strategies for Brazil to implement. These scenarios are been building on the guidelines for national inventories of GHG emissions (IPCC, 2006) and adapted to Brazilian states and municipalities' boundaries. Based on the results, it is possible to say that the potential revenue from products of solid waste management is more than sufficient to transform the current scenario in this country into one of financial and environmental gains, where the negative impacts of climate change have created a huge opportunity to expand infrastructure for waste management.

  14. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 7): Northwestern States Portland Cement Company site, Mason City, IA. (First remedial action), June 1990. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-26

    The Northwestern States Portland Cement site, a cement manufacturing facility, is in Mason City, Cerro Gordo County, Iowa. Calmus Creek flows between the Northwestern States Portland Cement Company (NWSPCC) facility and another cement manufacturing plant facility located just north of the site. The site includes a 150-acre area named the West Quarry where NWSPCC disposed of 2 million tons of waste cement kiln dust from 1969 to 1985. Local ground water and surface water have been impacted by elevated pH levels as a result of waste cement kiln dust disposal in the West Quarry. The Record of Decision addresses the contamination source, the cement kiln dust disposed of in the West Quarry, and the resulting ground water and surface water contamination. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the ground water and surface water are organics including phenols; metals including chromium and lead; and other inorganics including waste cement kiln dust.

  15. [Evaluation of oral health service in Grão Mogol city, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil: the users voice].

    PubMed

    dos Reis, Claudiojanes; Martelli-Júnior, Hercílio; Franco, Bárbara Melo; Santos, Almira Alves; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the oral health services in the city of Grão Mogol, Brazil by analyzing the users perceptions. It was chosen the qualitative methodology using a semi-structured interview. The aspects investigated included the perception of the process of oral health/illness; knowledge, practices and value attributed to oral health; access to services; professional/patient relationship and assistance received. The interviews were analyzed and the central ideas extracted, which were considered in a final analysis of the study. It was observed that the oral health service in this city is going through a period of changes, but it still exist an iatrogenic-mutilator practice. However, health prevention and promotion gains space within health actions, acting as important factors to enhance oral health assistance and resulting improvement of the population quality of life. Users can feel the evolution of the service, but admit the necessity of more organization and definition on the access to services as well as an improvement on the communication professional/patient. The population starts to value the oral health as something important within the life conditions of each individual.

  16. [Congenital defects in the cities with high use of pesticides in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Noemi Pereira; Moi, Gisele Pedroso; Atanaka-Santos, Marina; Silva, Ageo Mário Candido; Pignati, Wanderlei Antônio

    2014-10-01

    Mato Grosso is the largest agricultural producer and the largest national consumer of pesticides in Brazil. Maternal exposure to pesticides in the periconceptional period has been associated with increased risk of congenital malformations. This article aims to analyze the association between the use of pesticides and congenital malformations in cities with highest exposure to pesticides in Mato Grosso. It was a case-control study conducted with 219 live births with congenital malformations and 862 live births. The average use of pesticides was estimated in the prior and subsequent trimester to the date of fertilization and throughout the periconceptional period per city, month and year of use. Subsequently, these measures were quartilized and transformed into indicator-type (dummy) variables, attributing an exposure level for each interquartile interval. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted. Significant associations were observed (p < 0.05) in the third (OR = 1.66, 95% CI 0.98 to 2.79) and fourth quartile (OR = 1.88, 95% CI 1.09 to 3.24) of the post-fertilization period and the fourth quartile (OR = 2.04, 95% CI 1.17 to 3.56) throughout the periconceptional period. Maternal exposure to pesticides was associated with higher incidence of congenital malformations.

  17. Trends in HIV prevalence and HIV testing among young MSM: five United States cities, 1994-2011.

    PubMed

    Oster, Alexandra M; Johnson, Christopher H; Le, Binh C; Balaji, Alexandra B; Finlayson, Teresa J; Lansky, Amy; Mermin, Jonathan; Valleroy, Linda; Mackellar, Duncan; Behel, Stephanie; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2014-04-01

    We examined trends in cross-sectional HIV prevalence (a surrogate for incidence) and past 12 month testing behavior among young men who have sex with men (MSM). The Young Men's Survey and the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System conducted interviews and HIV testing among MSM recruited by venue-based sampling during 1994-2011. Using data from five cities, we determined whether interview year was associated with HIV prevalence and recent testing for MSM ages 18-22 and 23-29 years, after adjusting for city, race/ethnicity, and education. Multivariable analysis demonstrated an overall increase in prevalence among MSM ages 23-29 years, driven by an increase in Baltimore. There was no change in HIV prevalence among MSM ages 18-22 years overall, although prevalence increased in Baltimore. HIV testing increased significantly for both age groups. Gains in HIV testing are encouraging, but increasing prevalence among young MSM in Baltimore suggests increasing incidence and the need for additional efforts for this population.

  18. The State of Ambient Air Quality in Two Ugandan Cities: A Pilot Cross-Sectional Spatial Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Kirenga, Bruce J.; Meng, Qingyu; van Gemert, Frederik; Aanyu-Tukamuhebwa, Hellen; Chavannes, Niels; Katamba, Achilles; Obai, Gerald; van der Molen, Thys; Schwander, Stephan; Mohsenin, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is one of the leading global public health risks but its magnitude in many developing countries’ cities is not known. We aimed to measure the concentration of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3) pollutants in two Ugandan cities (Kampala and Jinja). PM2.5, O3, temperature and humidity were measured with real-time monitors, while NO2 and SO2 were measured with diffusion tubes. We found that the mean concentrations of the air pollutants PM2.5, NO2, SO2 and O3 were 132.1 μg/m3, 24.9 µg/m3, 3.7 µg/m3 and 11.4 μg/m3, respectively. The mean PM2.5 concentration is 5.3 times the World Health Organization (WHO) cut-off limits while the NO2, SO2 and O3 concentrations are below WHO cut-off limits. PM2.5 levels were higher in Kampala than in Jinja (138.6 μg/m3 vs. 99.3 μg/m3) and at industrial than residential sites (152.6 μg/m3 vs. 120.5 μg/m3) but residential sites with unpaved roads also had high PM2.5 concentrations (152.6 μg/m3). In conclusion, air pollutant concentrations in Kampala and Jinja in Uganda are dangerously high. Long-term studies are needed to characterize air pollution levels during all seasons, to assess related public health impacts, and explore mitigation approaches. PMID:26184273

  19. Mouse and cockroach allergens in the dust and air in northeastern United States inner-city public high schools.

    PubMed

    Chew, G L; Correa, J C; Perzanowski, M S

    2005-08-01

    Considering that high school students spend a large proportion of their waking hours in the school environment, this could be an important location for exposure to indoor allergens. We have investigated the levels of mouse and cockroach allergens in the settled dust and air from 11 schools in a major northeastern US city. Settled dust samples were vacuumed from 87 classrooms, three times throughout the school year. Two separate air samples (flow = 2.5 lpm) were collected by 53 students over a 5-day period from both their school and their home. Mouse allergen (MUP) in the dust varied greatly between schools with geometric means ranging from 0.21 to 133 microg/g. Mouse allergen was detectable in 81% of the samples collected. Cockroach allergen (Bla g 2) ranged from below limit of detection (<0.003 microg/g) to 1.1 microg/g. Cockroach allergen was detected (>0.003 microg/g) in 71% of the dust samples. Bla g 2 was detected in 22% of airborne samples from the schools. By comparison, mouse allergen was only detected in 5%. These results indicate that the school may be an important location for exposure to allergens from mice and cockroaches and is an indoor environment that should be considered in an overall allergen intervention strategy. To date, cockroach and mouse allergen intervention strategies have been mainly focused on the home environment. Considering that children spend a significant amount of time in schools, some studies have assessed cockroach allergen levels in schools. This study provides a clearer picture of the distribution and variability of not only cockroach allergen, but also mouse allergen in the school environment. In addition, this study describes limitations of personal air sampling in a student population. Our results suggest that although cockroach and mouse allergens are commonly recovered in classroom dust samples of inner city schools, cockroach allergens are recovered in the personal air samples with a greater frequency relative to mouse

  20. The State of Ambient Air Quality in Two Ugandan Cities: A Pilot Cross-Sectional Spatial Assessment.

    PubMed

    Kirenga, Bruce J; Meng, Qingyu; van Gemert, Frederik; Aanyu-Tukamuhebwa, Hellen; Chavannes, Niels; Katamba, Achilles; Obai, Gerald; van der Molen, Thys; Schwander, Stephan; Mohsenin, Vahid

    2015-07-15

    Air pollution is one of the leading global public health risks but its magnitude in many developing countries' cities is not known. We aimed to measure the concentration of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3) pollutants in two Ugandan cities (Kampala and Jinja). PM2.5, O3, temperature and humidity were measured with real-time monitors, while NO2 and SO2 were measured with diffusion tubes. We found that the mean concentrations of the air pollutants PM2.5, NO2, SO2 and O3 were 132.1 μg/m3, 24.9 µg/m3, 3.7 µg/m3 and 11.4 μg/m3, respectively. The mean PM2.5 concentration is 5.3 times the World Health Organization (WHO) cut-off limits while the NO2, SO2 and O3 concentrations are below WHO cut-off limits. PM2.5 levels were higher in Kampala than in Jinja (138.6 μg/m3 vs. 99.3 μg/m3) and at industrial than residential sites (152.6 μg/m3 vs. 120.5 μg/m3) but residential sites with unpaved roads also had high PM2.5 concentrations (152.6 μg/m3). In conclusion, air pollutant concentrations in Kampala and Jinja in Uganda are dangerously high. Long-term studies are needed to characterize air pollution levels during all seasons, to assess related public health impacts, and explore mitigation approaches.

  1. The use of National Youth Service Corp members to build AIDS competent communities in rural Edo State Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omorodion, Francisca; Akpede, Ese; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor; Agbontean-Eghafona, Kokunre; Onokerhoraye, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    This paper focuses on the community component of a larger action research project on HIV Prevention for Rural Youth (HP4RY), funded by the Global Health Research Initiative (Canada). It began with ethnographic research in 10 communities selected using geographic representative sampling and random assignment to one of three research arms. Using the AIDS Competent Community (ACC) model developed by Catherine Campbell, the ethnographic research identified factors in six domains that contributed to youth vulnerability to HIV infection. This was followed by recruitment, training and deployment of three overlapping cohorts of young adults (n = 40) serving in Nigeria's National Youth Service Corp (NYSC), to mobilize youth and adults in the communities to increase communities' AIDS competence over a nearly 2 year period. Monthly reports of these Corpers, observations of a Field Coordinator, and community feedback supported the conclusion that communities moved towards greater AIDS competence and reduction in youth vulnerability to HIV infection.

  2. Dimensions of Cognitive Dissonance and the Level of Job Satisfaction among Counsellors in Delta and Edo States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oduh, William Akporobaroh

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the dimensions of cognitive dissonance and the extent to which cognitive dissonance could influence the level of job satisfaction of guidance counsellors. The study was guided by three research questions and one null hypothesis. The design of the study was correlational survey. The population of the study was 158 practising…

  3. Relationship between Broken Homes and Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alika, Henrietta Ijeoma; Edosa, Ogboro Samson

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between broken homes and academic achievement of students. Three research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The study was correlational because the study sought to establish the extent of relationship between broken homes and academic achievement. The statistical method used in analyzing the…

  4. Inequality and City Size*

    PubMed Central

    Baum-Snow, Nathaniel; Pavan, Ronni

    2013-01-01

    Between 1979 and 2007 a strong positive monotonic relationship between wage inequality and city size has developed. This paper investigates the links between this emergent city size inequality premium and the contemporaneous nationwide increase in wage inequality. After controlling for the skill composition of the workforce across cities of different sizes, we show that at least 23 percent of the overall increase in the variance of log hourly wages in the United States from 1979 to 2007 is explained by the more rapid growth in the variance of log wages in larger locations relative to smaller locations. This influence occurred throughout the wage distribution and was most prevalent during the 1990s. More rapid growth in within skill group inequality in larger cities has been by far the most important force driving these city size specific patterns in the data. Differences in the industrial composition of cities of different sizes explain up to one-third of this city size effect. These results suggest an important role for agglomeration economies in generating changes in the wage structure during the study period. PMID:24954958

  5. [Assessment of the diets of elderly people in a city in São Paulo state: application of the Healthy Eating Index].

    PubMed

    Malta, Maíra Barreto; Papini, Silvia Justina; Corrente, José Eduardo

    2013-02-01

    The scope of this paper was to evaluate the quality of the diet of the elderly in the city of Avaré, São Paulo state, using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI). A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted by home interviews. The sample consisted of 73 individuals, randomly selected among elderly people from the public health system in the city. Food consumption was measured by 3 24-hour recalls. The HEI adapted to the Brazilian population was applied for evaluation purposes. It is believed that this study is the first in Brazil to apply the HEI using 3 surveys of the 24-hour recall type among the elderly population. This methodology was chosen because, as described in the literature, a single day does not accurately reflect the usual intake of an individual due to the high interpersonal variance in consumption. It was found that 32.9% of elderly people were on a poor quality diet, 60.3% needed adjustments and 6.8% had a good quality diet. The conclusion that can be drawn is that the elderly population studied need to improve their diet, which emphasizes the importance of policies geared to encouraging healthy eating in old age.

  6. [MODERN TRENDS IN THE PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT AND THE STATE OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM IN YOUNG MEN OF THE CITY OF MAGADAN].

    PubMed

    Sukhanova, I V; Maksimov, A L

    2015-01-01

    In the conditions of the northern region there was performed the comparative study of indices of the physical development and state of the cardiovascular system in young male European subjects, born in the city of Magadan in the 1-2 generation over a period from 2004 to 2013. The main tendencies of physical development ofyoung male subjects in the city of Magadan were established to be the ongoing acceleration of growth process, asthenization and dysharmonization of the somatotype. It was determined increase of systolic and diastolic pressure during the last decade. Confirmed changes of cardiohemodynamics data on the back of aggravation of physical development and ongoing somatotype asthenization were shown by young male subjects, born in 90-ies of the last century. It was revealed that over the past 10 years there has been an increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure indices. Established by us the changes in the indices of cardiac hemodynamics on the background of deteriorating physical development and ongoing asthenization of the somatotype appeared to be more pronounced in young men born in the 90-ies of the last century.

  7. [Wooden models of human skeleton made in Edo era, Japan, with special reference to Hoshino wooden skeleton].

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Katsuko; Suzaki, Etsuko; Ajima, Noriaki

    2006-03-01

    The wooden model of the human skeleton, called wooden skeleton, is a distinguished original craft object in Edo era (1600-1867), Japan, when medical doctors were unable to keep the human skeleton for their study and teaching purpose. There are three kinds of wooden skeletons, i. e. Hoshino, Kagami and Okuda wooden skeletons made in 1792, 1810 and 1820, respectively. The former two are of adult male and the latter of female. They were made in surprising accuracy as compared with figures appeared in medical books available in Japan at that time, which suggests scientific readiness of the doctors and skills of the craftsmen. A complete set of the skeleton, except for the hyoid bone, has been preserved for Hoshino and Okuda wooden skeletons, while several bones have been missing in Kagami wooden skeleton. Each bone of Hoshino and Kagami wooden skeletons was made separately and connected by a tenon and a corresponding mortise at the articular surface. So it is hardly considered that all wooden bones were assembled into the whole body skeleton on use. Okuda wooden skeleton, on the other hand, was made for being shown in sitting position. The skull of Hoshino wooden skeleton is of special interest: the skull cap is not open, yet the internal structures of the skull, such as the sella turcica, foramina for nerves and vessels, and sulci for venous sinuses were made in considerable accuracy. Moreover, the proper connection of most foramina was proved between the inside and outside of the skull. The skull caps of Kagami and Okuda wooden skeletons are open as those used in the modern medical education.

  8. Early Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (EDoGDM) study: a protocol for a prospective, longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Xu, Yun; Zhang, Ying; Cai, Jian; Deng, Langhui; Yang, Jianbo; Zhou, Yi; Long, Yuhang; Zhang, Jinxin; Wang, Zilian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in low-risk pregnant women is based on an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) between 24 and 28 gestational weeks. However, there is insufficient evidence for why the test is performed in this time period. Moreover, the fetus may be exposed to hyperglycaemia prior to the current testing time frame, making earlier administration potentially advantageous. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the GDM diagnostic value of an OGTT performed at 18–20 gestational weeks. The results of the study may provide scientific insight into the most beneficial time of OGTT for pregnant women. Methods and analysis As a prospective, longitudinal cohort study, the Early Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (EDoGDM) study will recruit 570 pregnant women who meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria outlined below. OGTTs will be performed between 18 and 20 gestational weeks (early OGTT) and 24–28 gestational weeks (regular OGTT). Clinical and laboratory information of the mother and their offspring will be collected for analysis. The prevalence of GDM at 18–20 gestational weeks will be described, and the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of early OGTT on diagnosis of GDM will be studied. Clinical outcomes associated with hyperglycaemia will be compared between groups diagnosed by early or regular OGTT. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by The Ethical Committees of The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University (number 2016-042). Signed informed consent will be obtained from all participants. The results of this study will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number NCT02740283. PMID:27872115

  9. What's Next for Early Childhood Education in New York City? State, City Policy Makers Consider Agenda to Move toward More Integrated System of Early Care and Education. Forum Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care, Inc., 2007

    2007-01-01

    With a new governor in Albany and a brand-new interagency group working on early childhood policy in the Mayor's office, early childhood advocates across the city were already pondering what changes might be afoot--and whether the time had come for the city to move toward a more integrated, high-quality system of early care and education. Given…

  10. City Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dargan, Amanda; Zeitlin, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Today, fewer city blocks preserve the confidence of lifestyle and urban geography that sustain traditional games and outdoor play. Large groups of children choosing sides and organizing Red Rover games are no longer commonplace. Teachers must encourage free play; urban planners must build cities that are safe play havens. (MLH)

  11. Atypical Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this creative challenge, Surrealism and one-point perspective combine to produce images that not only go "beyond the real" but also beyond the ubiquitous "imaginary city" assignment often used to teach one-point perspective. Perhaps the difference is that in the "atypical cities challenge," an understanding of one-point perspective is a means…

  12. Atypical Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this creative challenge, Surrealism and one-point perspective combine to produce images that not only go "beyond the real" but also beyond the ubiquitous "imaginary city" assignment often used to teach one-point perspective. Perhaps the difference is that in the "atypical cities challenge," an understanding of one-point perspective is a means…

  13. City Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dargan, Amanda; Zeitlin, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Today, fewer city blocks preserve the confidence of lifestyle and urban geography that sustain traditional games and outdoor play. Large groups of children choosing sides and organizing Red Rover games are no longer commonplace. Teachers must encourage free play; urban planners must build cities that are safe play havens. (MLH)

  14. Human resources, patient load, and infrastructure at institutions providing diabetic care in India: The India 11-city 9-state study

    PubMed Central

    Anchala, Raghupathy; Gudlavalleti, Aashrai Sai Venkat; Gudlavalleti, Murthy V. S.; Singh, Vivek; Shukla, Rajan; Jotheeswaran, A. T.; Babu, R. Giridhara; Ramachandra, Srikrishna S.; Sagar, Jayanti; Bandyopadhyay, Souvik; Ballabh, Hira Pant; Gilbert, Clare E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of information on the practice patterns and available human resources and services for screening for eye complications among persons with diabetes in India. Objectives: The study was undertaken to document existing health care infrastructure and practice patterns for managing diabetes and screening for eye complications. Methods: This cross-sectional, hospital-based survey was conducted in 11 cities where public and private diabetic care providers were identified. Both multispecialty and standalone diabetic care facilities were included. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to senior representative(s) of each institution to evaluate parameters using the World Health Organization health systems framework. Results: We interviewed physicians in 73 hospitals (61.6% multispecialty hospitals; 38.4% standalone clinics). Less than a third reported having skilled personnel for direct ophthalmoscopy. About 74% had provision for glycated hemoglobin testing. Only a third had adequate vision charts. Printed protocols on management of diabetes were available only in 31.5% of the facilities. Only one in four facilities had a system for tracking diabetics. Half the facilities reported having access to records from the treating ophthalmologists. Direct observation of the services provided showed that reported figures in relation to availability of patient support services were overestimated by around 10%. Three fourths of the information sheets and half the glycemia monitoring cards contained information on the eye complications and the need for a regular eye examination. Conclusions: The study highlighted existing gaps in service provision at diabetic care centers in India. PMID:27144131

  15. Drosophilid assemblages at different urbanization levels in the city of Porto Alegre, state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Garcia, C F; Hochmüller, C J C; Valente, V L S; Schmitz, H J

    2012-02-01

    The present study analyzed the drosophilid assemblages in different levels of urbanization in the city of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Collections were carried out in 2008 in three different environments: a highly urbanized area-"Jardim Botânico," a forested area with intermediary urbanization-"Parque Gabriel Knijnik," and in a relatively well-preserved forested area, although threatened by the urban growth-"Morro Santana." In Jardim Botânico, 36 species belonging to four genera were found, with high abundance of exotic species as Drosophila simulans Sturtevant and Zaprionus indianus (Gupta). In Parque Gabriel Knijnik, 33 species that belonged to four genera were found, with higher abundances of native species belonging to the Drosophila tripunctata species group and Drosophila willistoni species subgroup, and lower abundance of exotic species. As for Morro Santana, 32 species and three genera were found, with higher abundances of native groups, low representativeness of exotic species, and absence of Zaprionus indianus. The analysis of the Jaccard index showed higher similarity in the species composition between samples collected in summer and autumn, and between samples collected in winter and spring. On the other hand, the Morisita index differentiated Jardim Botânico from the other two studied sites. Our results show that Morro Santana is an important area of native biodiversity, reinforcing, therefore, the inclusion of this area in the project for the creation of an ecological corridor as proposed by the Ministry of the Environment of Brazil.

  16. Diagnosis on the state of healthiness, quality of the coast and biological resources 'case of the Moroccan Atlantic coast' (City of El Jadida).

    PubMed

    Kaimoussi, Aziz; Chafik, Abdelghani; Mouzdahir, Abdelkrim; Bakkas, Salem

    2002-03-01

    In this study, we present a diagnosis concerning the state of healthiness of the coast of the city of El Jadida by: characterisation of the various collectors rejected in sea without any preliminary treatment, measure of the physicochemical parameters of seawater from sampling stations, evaluation of the concentration of certain heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn) in four species of algae, which shows that metal contents vary according to the species and the sampling stations, measure of the metal content in mussels, which varies according to the site. A comparative study with the data of the literature shows that algae and mussels generally present values that are weaker than those coming from other geographical areas.

  17. No evidence of suicide increase following terrorist attacks in the United States: an interrupted time-series analysis of September 11 and Oklahoma City.

    PubMed

    Pridemore, William Alex; Trahan, Adam; Chamlin, Mitchell B

    2009-12-01

    There is substantial evidence of detrimental psychological sequelae following disasters, including terrorist attacks. The effect of these events on extreme responses such as suicide, however, is unclear. We tested competing hypotheses about such effects by employing autoregressive integrated moving average techniques to model the impact of September 11 and the Oklahoma City bombing on monthly suicide counts at the local, state, and national level. Unlike prior studies that provided conflicting evidence, rigorous time series techniques revealed no support for an increase or decrease in suicides following these events. We conclude that while terrorist attacks produce subsequent psychological morbidity and may affect self and collective efficacy well beyond their immediate impact, these effects are not strong enough to influence levels of suicide mortality.

  18. 200 MAIN STREET, SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    200 MAIN STREET, SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING EAST OF "MAIN' STREET. REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 18273, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  19. INTERSECTION OF 445 NORTH & 1040 EAST, SALT LAKE CITY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERSECTION OF 445 NORTH & 1040 EAST, SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 18272, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  20. 18. SECOND FLOOR, CITY COMMISSION CHAMBERS, DETAIL OF ARCH WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. SECOND FLOOR, CITY COMMISSION CHAMBERS, DETAIL OF ARCH WITH MURAL ON LEFT OF BENCH, SHOWING SEAMEN,SCIENTIST,SPORTSMEN AND STATE SEAL - City Hall, Atlantic & Tennessee Avenues, Atlantic City, Atlantic County, NJ

  1. Barriers to use of modern contraceptives among women in an inner city area of Osogbo metropolis, Osun state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Asekun-Olarinmoye, Eo; Adebimpe, Wo; Bamidele, Jo; Odu, Oo; Asekun-Olarinmoye, Io; Ojofeitimi, Eo

    2013-01-01

    To determine the knowledge and attitudes on modern contraceptive use of women living in an inner city area of Osogbo. Three hundred and fifty nine women of childbearing age were studied utilizing a community-based, descriptive, cross-sectional study design. A multistage random sampling technique was used in recruiting respondents to the study. A four-part questionnaire was applied dually, by interviewers and by respondents' self administration, and the data was analyzed using the SPSS software version 17.0. The mean age of respondents was 28.6 ± 6.65 years. The majority (90.3%) of respondents were aware of modern methods of family planning (FP), 76.0% claimed awareness of where to obtain FP services, and 74.9% knew of at least five methods. However, only 30.6% had ever used contraceptives, while only 13.1% were current users. The most frequently used method was the male condom. The commonly perceived barriers accounting for low use of FP methods were fear of perceived side effects (44.0%), ignorance (32.6%), misinformation (25.1%), superstition (22.0%), and culture (20.3%). Some reasons were proffered for respondents' nonuse of modern contraception. Predictors of use of modern contraceptives include the awareness of a place of FP service provision, respondents' approval of the use of contraceptives, higher education status, and being married. Most of the barriers reported appeared preventable and removable and may be responsible for the reported low point prevalence of use of contraceptives. It is recommended that community-based behavioral-change communication programs be instituted, aimed at improving the perceptions of women with respect to bridging knowledge gaps about contraceptive methods and to changing deep-seated negative beliefs related to contraceptive use in Nigeria.

  2. Proceedings of the Workshop on Directional Acoustic Sensors Held in Newport, Rhode Island on 17-18 April 2001

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-18

    Corporation EDO Directional Acoustic Sensor Technology Dr. Bruce Abraham, Anteon Corporation Directional Hydrophones in Towed System 01... EDO Directional Acoustic Sensor Technology P. David Baird Systems Engineering Department EDO Electro-Ceramics Products...Salt Lake City, Utah 84115 1 EDO Directional Acoustic Sensor Technology P. David Baird Systems Engineering Department EDO Electro

  3. Urbanization and Access Inequality to Collective Consumption Goods & Services related to Sanitation & Solid Waste in the cities of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig, C. D. A.; Feitosa, F. D. F.; Monteiro, A. M. V.

    2016-12-01

    Cities are mainly a product of collective consumption and there is a pressing need to expand and deepen the discussion about the quality of access to collective goods and services in the urban world: the availability of electricity and potable water and its interrelation with the lack of solid waste management and wastewater treatment leading to pollution of water sources.This study attempts to measure urban stratification through access conditions to collective goods in the metropolitan regions of Sao Paulo State (SPS) by contributing with a research method that incorporates collective consumption as a core component of the population-environment relationship. The use of spatial analysis allows the examination of the structure and distribution of accessibility to sanitation services and basic urban infrastructure.The water stress situation in SPS is dramatic. The average water loss within these distribution systems is 34,3% and a 39% average sewage treatment rate of all wastewater generated. The SPS also imports 60,6% of electricity from other states that use mostly hydroelectric power which imposes greater pressure on the country's water resources. The energy and water crisis has harmed a number of essential rights related mostly to resource access and service continuity as suburban residents of poor municipalities are the ones most affected by disruptions.SPS is the most populous state of Brazil and this region of study is responsible for 75% of total State population with 83% of State GDP. There has been a major increase in water use conflicts such as power generation, urban water supply (including the Rio de Janeiro water demand) and the dilution of urban sewage and solid waste disposal. These collective consumption access problems demonstrate the urgent need for better integrated metropolitan management of natural resources and the urban commons.

  4. Evaluation of State Urban Education Programs District 10, New York City Board of Education, 1970-1971 School Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweitzer, Paul; And Others

    The administrative component provides personnel and services for the planning, implementing and supervising of all State Urban Education Programs and for the coordination of activities of all participating groups. The Strengthening Basic Skills in the Junior High School program has been recycled from the 1969-70 school year. The Multi-Sensory…

  5. An Evaluation of the State Urban Education Programs, Community School District 27, New York City Board of Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Alan J.; And Others

    This evaluation deals with three programs funded under the 1969 New York State Urban Education Program. The three objectives of the Diagnostic Reading Program were as follows: (1) to raise the reading level by one grade of 80 percent of those children in the second grade who were below reading level; (2) to raise the reading level of one-half…

  6. Dynamic Site Characterization and Correlation of Shear Wave Velocity with Standard Penetration Test ` N' Values for the City of Agartala, Tripura State, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sil, Arjun; Sitharam, T. G.

    2014-08-01

    Seismic site characterization is the basic requirement for seismic microzonation and site response studies of an area. Site characterization helps to gauge the average dynamic properties of soil deposits and thus helps to evaluate the surface level response. This paper presents a seismic site characterization of Agartala city, the capital of Tripura state, in the northeast of India. Seismically, Agartala city is situated in the Bengal Basin zone which is classified as a highly active seismic zone, assigned by Indian seismic code BIS-1893, Indian Standard Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures, Part-1 General Provisions and Buildings. According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi (2002), it is the highest seismic level (zone-V) in the country. The city is very close to the Sylhet fault (Bangladesh) where two major earthquakes ( M w > 7) have occurred in the past and affected severely this city and the whole of northeast India. In order to perform site response evaluation, a series of geophysical tests at 27 locations were conducted using the multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) technique, which is an advanced method for obtaining shear wave velocity ( V s) profiles from in situ measurements. Similarly, standard penetration test (SPT-N) bore log data sets have been obtained from the Urban Development Department, Govt. of Tripura. In the collected data sets, out of 50 bore logs, 27 were selected which are close to the MASW test locations and used for further study. Both the data sets ( V s profiles with depth and SPT-N bore log profiles) have been used to calculate the average shear wave velocity ( V s30) and average SPT-N values for the upper 30 m depth of the subsurface soil profiles. These were used for site classification of the study area recommended by the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) manual. The average V s30 and SPT-N classified the study area as seismic site class D and E categories, indicating that

  7. Negative Ion Photoelectron Spectroscopy Reveals Remarkable Noninnocence of Ligands in Nickel Bis(dithiolene) Complexes [Ni(dddt) 2 ] - and [Ni(edo) 2 ] -

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xing; Hou, Gao-Lei; Wang, Xuefeng; Wang, Xue-Bin

    2016-04-21

    [Ni(dddt)2] (dddt = 5,6-dihydro-1,4-dithiine-2,3-dithiolate) and [Ni(edo)2] (edo = 5,6-dihydro-1,4-dioxine-2,3-dithiolate) are two donor-type nickel bis(dithiolene) complexes, with the tendency of donating low binding energy electrons. These two structurally similar complexes differ only with respect to the outer atoms in the ligand framework where the former has four S atoms while the latter has four O atoms. Herein, we report a negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy (NIPES) study on these two complexes to probe electronic structures of the anions and their corresponding neutrals. The NIPE spectra exhibit the adiabatic electron detachment energy (ADE) or, equivalently, the electron affinity (EA) of the neutral [Ni(L)2]0 to be relatively low for this type complexes, 2.780 and 2.375 eV for L = dddt and edo, respectively. The 0.4 eV difference in ADEs shows significant substitution effect for sulfur in dddt by oxygen in edo, i.e., noninnocence of the ligands, which has decreased the electronic stability of [Ni(edo)2] by lowering its electron binding energy by ~0.4 eV. The observed substitution effect on gas-phase EA values correlates well with the measured redox potentials for [Ni(dddt)2]–/0 and [Ni(edo)2]–/0 in solutions. The singlet-triplet splitting (ΔEST) of [Ni(dddt)2]0 and [Ni(edo)2]0 is also determined from the spectra to be 0.57 and 0.53 eV, respectively. Accompanying DFT calculations and molecular orbital (MO) composition analyses show significant ligand contributions to the redox MOs and allow the components of the orbitals involved in each electronic transition and spectral assignments to be identified.

  8. New York City's Education Battles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Peter

    2008-01-01

    When Bloomberg gave his first State of the City address, in January, 2002, he announced his intention to seek mayoral control of the schools and abolish the infamous New York City Board of Education, which he called "a rinky-dink candy store." He joined a long list of New York mayors, educators, and business leaders who believed that the…

  9. City of Freeport, Florida, State Road 20 Water Main Installation, Final Environmental Assessment, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Sylvilagus floridanus Sand Blackberry Rubus cuneifolius Pocket Gopher Geomys pinetus Pine-woods Bluestem Andropogon arctatus White-tailed Deer Castor...05 AUG 2010 2. REPORT TYPE Environmental Assessment 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2007 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE State Road 20 Water Main...Protection Act BMP Best Management Practice BOMARC Boeing/ Michigan Aeronautical Research Center CAA Clean Air Act CEQ Council on Environmental Quality CFR

  10. Working Group on Ice Forces (4th) State-of-the-Art Report Held in Iowa City, Iowa in 1986.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    OTTAWA OF CANADA CANADA HYDRAULICS LABORATORY Preface The following papers comprise the contributions to the 4 th State-of-the-Art Report on Ice Forces...in developing an understanding of ice interacting with offshore structures. : Odes iili/or AjA Jordaan and McKenna follow with a description of the...and Moore follow with a more detailed look at ice impact loads on ship hulls. This review is based on full scale trials of several icebreaking vessels

  11. Reabilitation of degraded area by erosion, using soil bioengineering techniques in Bacanga river basin, Sao Luis City - Maranhao State, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira Guerra, A. J.; Rodrigues Bezerra, J. F.; da Mota Lima, L. D.; Silva Mendonça, J. K.; Vieira Souza, U. D.; Teixeira Guerra, T.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the stages of rehabilitation of a degraded site by erosion, in Salina/Sacavém district, São Luís City, considering geomorphologic characteristics and soil bioengineering techniques. This technique has been applied in different situations to rehabilitate degraded areas, with positive results from the use of biodegradable materials (e.g. vegetal fibres, wooden stakes and re-vegetation). These techniques stabilize the soil at low cost and improve the environment. Bioengineering involves the planned and strategic application of selected materials, involving biodegradable materials, often in combination with 'hard engineering' structures constructed from stone, concrete and steel. The settlement of São Luís was established in 1612 and has evolved in distinct phases. Rapid urban growth was associated with industrialization in the second half of the 18th Century. Rapid population and urban growth has intensified problems, compounded by poor planning and improper soil use. São Luís, like many other Brazilian cities, has experienced rapid population growth in recent decades, which has created a series of socio-economic and environmental problems, including accelerated soil erosion. Sacavém is one of these communities where natural and human factors contribute to the severe gully erosion. The local lithology is mainly Tertiary sandstones and, to a lesser extent, shales, argillites and siltstones, all of which belong to the Barreiras Formation. Weathering on these rocks produces erodible soils, including lithosols, latosols, concretionary red/yellow clay soils and concretionary plinthosols. Thus, erodible soils and regolith are subject to high erosion rates, especially on steeper slopes subject to additional human interventions. Furthermore, although regional slopes are quite gentle, there is localized high relative relief. Sacavém vegetation, in the gullied area, consists of brushwood. Secondary mixed forest and brushwood are the

  12. Downscaling U.S. public opinion about climate change and the 'Six Americas' to states, cities, and counties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marlon, J. R.; Howe, P. D.; Leiserowitz, A.

    2013-12-01

    For climate change communication to be most effective, messages should be targeted to the characteristics of local audiences. In the U.S., 'Six Americas' have been identified among the public based on their response to the climate change issue. The distribution of these different 'publics' varies between states and communities, yet data about public opinion at the sub-national scale remains scarce. In this presentation, we describe a methodology to statistically downscale results from national-level surveys about the Six Americas, climate literacy, and other aspects of public opinion to smaller areas, including states, metropolitan areas, and counties. The method utilizes multilevel regression with poststratification (MRP) to model public opinion at various scales using a large national-level survey dataset. We present state and county-level estimates of two key beliefs about climate change: belief that climate change is happening, and belief in the scientific consensus about climate change. We further present estimates of how the Six Americas vary across the U.S.

  13. Accepted into Education City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asquith, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Qatar's Education City, perhaps the world's most diverse campus, is almost entirely unknown in the United States, but represents the next step in the globalization of American higher education--international franchising. Aided by technology such as online libraries, distance learning and streaming video, U.S. universities offer--and charge tuition…

  14. Accepted into Education City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asquith, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Qatar's Education City, perhaps the world's most diverse campus, is almost entirely unknown in the United States, but represents the next step in the globalization of American higher education--international franchising. Aided by technology such as online libraries, distance learning and streaming video, U.S. universities offer--and charge tuition…

  15. Earth's City Lights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Earth's city lights was created with data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Originally designed to view clouds by moonlight, the OLS is also used to map the locations of permanent lights on the Earth's surface. The brightest areas of the Earth are the most urbanized, but not necessarily the most populated. (Compare western Europe with China and India.) Cities tend to grow along coastlines and transportation networks. Even without the underlying map, the outlines of many continents would still be visible. The United States interstate highway system appears as a lattice connecting the brighter dots of city centers. In Russia, the Trans-Siberian railroad is a thin line stretching from Moscow through the center of Asia to Vladivostok. The Nile River, from the Aswan Dam to the Mediterranean Sea, is another bright thread through an otherwise dark region. Even more than 100 years after the invention of the electric light, some regions remain thinly populated and unlit. Antarctica is entirely dark. The interior jungles of Africa and South America are mostly dark, but lights are beginning to appear there. Deserts in Africa, Arabia, Australia, Mongolia, and the United States are poorly lit as well (except along the coast), along with the boreal forests of Canada and Russia, and the great mountains of the Himalaya. The Earth Observatory article Bright Lights, Big City describes how NASA scientists use city light data to map urbanization. Image by Craig Mayhew and Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC, based on DMSP data

  16. Preparedness for the evaluation and management of mass casualty incidents involving anticholinesterase compounds: a survey of emergency department directors in the 12 largest cities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Madsen, James M; Greenberg, Michael I

    2010-01-01

    Anticholinesterases include carbamate and organophosphorus (OP) insecticides and nerve agents. Release of these compounds can flood emergency departments (EDs) with large numbers of poisoned victims and worried individuals. It was hypothesized that despite the focus of disaster preparedness on large metropolitan areas, EDs in these cities would still report self-perceptions of deficiencies in preparedness for mass casualty incidents (MCIs) involving these chemicals. A secure and anonymous online survey was prepared and piloted, and E-mail invitations were sent to the physician directors of the 220 continuously staffed EDs in the 12 most populous incorporated cities in the United States. Forty-six ED directors could not be contacted despite repeated attempts. Of the remaining 174 directors, eight declined and 89 took the survey, for a response rate of 51.1 percent. Fewer than 20 percent were very confident in the effectiveness of their training, and only 4.9 percent were very confident that drills had given them the preparation that they needed. Only 45. 7 percent of reporting hospitals had a board-certified medical toxicologist to help in such an emergency. Almost two-thirds (73.6 percent) of those familiar with the online Radiation Event Medical Management (REMM) module from the National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health thought that a chemical counterpart to REMM would be either moderately or very helpful for MCIs involving anticholinesterases. This study demonstrates that physician ED directors perceived marked deficiencies in their abilities to respond to this kind of toxicological emergency and suggests critical directions for remediation of these deficiencies.

  17. Constructing cities, deconstructing scaling laws.

    PubMed

    Arcaute, Elsa; Hatna, Erez; Ferguson, Peter; Youn, Hyejin; Johansson, Anders; Batty, Michael

    2015-01-06

    Cities can be characterized and modelled through different urban measures. Consistency within these observables is crucial in order to advance towards a science of cities. Bettencourt et al. have proposed that many of these urban measures can be predicted through universal scaling laws. We develop a framework to consistently define cities, using commuting to work and population density thresholds, and construct thousands of realizations of systems of cities with different boundaries for England and Wales. These serve as a laboratory for the scaling analysis of a large set of urban indicators. The analysis shows that population size alone does not provide us enough information to describe or predict the state of a city as previously proposed, indicating that the expected scaling laws are not corroborated. We found that most urban indicators scale linearly with city size, regardless of the definition of the urban boundaries. However, when nonlinear correlations are present, the exponent fluctuates considerably.

  18. Spatial Variability in Black Carbon Mixing State Observed During The Multi-City NASA DISCOVER-AQ Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R.; Ziemba, L. D.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Chen, G.; Corr, C.; Hudgins, C.; Martin, R.; Shook, M.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Winstead, E.; Anderson, B. E.

    2014-12-01

    Light absorbing carbonaceous aerosols are known to be an important climatic driver with a global radiative forcing of about half (IPCC, 2013) to two-thirds (Bond et al., 2013) that of the dominant greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide. While the mass absorption coefficient of pure black carbon (BC) is fairly well known, observational evidence suggests that BC rapidly mixes with other aerosol chemical components within hours of emission (Moffet and Prather, 2009; Moteki et al., 2007). These other components may include predominantly scattering organic, sulfate, and nitrate species, as well as light-absorbing, so-called "brown carbon" (BrC). It has been suggested that the presence of these BC-mixed components may induce mixing-state-dependent lensing effects that could potentially double the BC direct radiative forcing (Jacobson, 2001). The key to better understanding how BC-rich aerosols are distributed in the atmosphere is to examine an unbiased set of measurements covering broad spatial and temporal coverage; however, many past airborne field campaigns have specifically targeted source plumes or other scientifically-relevant emissions sources. The recent NASA DISCOVER-AQ campaign is unique in that approximately the same flight pattern was performed over a month-long period in each of four different U.S. metropolitan areas, ensuring an unbiased, or at least less biased, data set with both wide horizontal and vertical (surface to 5 km altitude) coverage. We present a statistical analysis of BC-rich particle mixing state measured during DISCOVER-AQ by a DMT Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). The SP2 measures the BC mass distribution via laser incandescence, and the non-BC coating thickness is inferred from the light scattering signal of particles greater than 200 nm in diameter (Gao et al., 2007; Moteki and Kondo, 2008). The SP2-derived size distributions are compared to optical scattering size distributions measured by an UHSAS in order determine 1) the externally

  19. American Podiatric Medical Association Best Walking City Competition, 2004.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Allan H; Tzamaras, George P; Scherer, Julia E; Haer, Amie

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, the American Podiatric Medical Association conducted its third annual "Best Walking City Competition." This study improved on the 2002 and 2003 studies by increasing the number of cities competing for the title of "Best Walking City" and by including a variety of new measures of walking activities to provide a more comprehensive and equitable basis for comparing cities. The top 20 best walking cities in 2004 were identified from among the 200 largest cities across the United States. Lists of top cities were also developed by city population size and geographic region and by three different types of walking activities prevalent in each city.

  20. City of Paris, France

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-09-20

    STS047-94-010 (12 - 20 Sept 1992) --- This 250mm Hasselblad color photo of Paris, France recorded during this mission, shows urban land uses in great detail. Several airports are clear, including the two major international airports of Orly and Le Bourget. Paris was founded in pre-Roman times on an island in the Seine River and continued as a Roman outpost. The easily defensible location was one of the keys to the growth of this island city. The city expanded from its island state to become a major urban center in Europe because of its location, its easy access by river traffic, and its productive hinterland.

  1. New Federalism, Taxes, and Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Marshall

    1982-01-01

    Discusses how recent changes in federal policies have adversely affected cities. Modifications of the state block grant system, tax laws, reductions in federal support for welfare programs, and a massive federal debt have all hurt urban economies. (AM)

  2. Utilizing Undergraduate Research Projects to Assist in the Development of Interpretive Resources at City of Rocks National Reserve and Castle Rocks State Park, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogue, K. R.

    2003-12-01

    In the Albion Mountains of southern Idaho, granitic rock of the 28 Ma Almo pluton and 2.5 Ga Green Creek Complex of southern Idaho has weathered and eroded into a spectacular landscape of towers and spires. These unusual landforms impressed travelers on the California Trail who compared their shapes to cathedrals, castles, pyramids, and other man-made structures. The region eventually became know as the City of Rocks and was a local scenic attraction until City of Rocks National Reserve (CRNR) was established in 1989 to provide more effective management for the main group of spires which were drawing an increasing number of tourists. In 2003, Castle Rocks State Park (CRSP) was created to provide both access and protection to a less extensive group of spires located a few kilometers north of the City of Rocks. Interpretive resources at CRNR have generally focused on the human history of the region, particularly its importance to the California Trail, and have largely neglected the fascinating geologic story. Although the general framework of the geology of the Albion Mountains is reasonably well known, this "big-picture" geology does little to answer many of the questions posed by the average visitor. During the summer of 2001, a Keck Geology Consortium undergraduate research project was conducted in CRNR to seek answers to these types of questions. CRNR staff could then utilize the students' research to develop interpretive resources. Six students and two professors spent 4 weeks in the field investigating the structures and processes that have contributed to the architecture of the City of Rocks. The general geomorphology of the Albion Mountains was the focus of a Keck Geology Consortium undergraduate research project conducted during the summer of 2002. Nine students and three professors studied the glacial and landslide history of the highest peaks and the geomorphic evolution of the proposed CRSP. Students working in the Castle Rocks had 2 main goals: 1

  3. Perceptions and practices related to diabetes reported by persons with diabetes attending diabetic care clinics: The India 11-city 9-state study

    PubMed Central

    Gudlavalleti, Murthy V. S.; Anchala, Raghupathy; Gudlavalleti, Aashrai Sai Venkat; Ramachandra, Srikrishna S.; Shukla, Rajan; Jotheeswaran, A. T.; Babu, R. Giridhara; Singh, Vivek; Allagh, Komal; Sagar, Jayanti; Bandyopadhyay, Souvik; Gilbert, Clare E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: India has the second largest population of persons with diabetes and a significant proportion has poor glycemic control and inadequate awareness of management of diabetes. Objectives: Determine the level of awareness regarding management of diabetes and its complications and diabetic care practices in India. Methods: The cross-sectional, hospital-based survey was conducted in 11 cities where public and private providers of diabetic care were identified. At each diabetic care facility, 4–6 persons with diabetes were administered a structured questionnaire in the local language. Results: Two hundred and eighty-five persons with diabetes were interviewed. The mean duration since diagnosis of diabetes was 8.1 years (standard deviation ± 7.3). Half of the participants reported a family history of diabetes and 41.7% were hypertensive. Almost 62.1% stated that they received information on diabetes and its management through interpersonal channels. Family history (36.1%), increasing age (25.3%), and stress (22.8%) were the commonest causes of diabetes reported. Only 29.1% stated that they monitored their blood sugar levels at home using a glucometer. The commonest challenges reported in managing diabetes were dietary modifications (67.4%), compliance with medicines (20.5%), and cost of medicines (17.9%). Around 76.5% were aware of complications of diabetes. Kidney failure (79.8%), blindness/vision loss (79.3%), and heart attack (56.4%) were the commonest complications mentioned. Almost 67.7% of the respondents stated that they had had an eye examination earlier. Conclusions: The findings have significant implications for the organization of diabetes services in India for early detection and management of complications, including eye complications. PMID:27144133

  4. Catholic Schools in New York City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domanico, Raymond

    This report examines the academic performance of New York City's Catholic elementary schools compared with the city's public schools. Catholic elementary schools enroll 98,000 children in New York City, approximately 14 percent of public school enrollment. The report uses data from the State of New York's fourth and eighth grade tests in English…

  5. Unhappy Cities

    PubMed Central

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Gottlieb, Joshua D.; Ziv, Oren

    2016-01-01

    There are persistent differences in self-reported subjective well-being across US metropolitan areas, and residents of declining cities appear less happy than others. Yet some people continue to move to these areas, and newer residents appear to be as unhappy as longer-term residents. While historical data on happiness are limited, the available facts suggest that cities that are now declining were also unhappy in their more prosperous past. These facts support the view that individuals do not maximize happiness alone but include it in the utility function along with other arguments. People may trade off happiness against other competing objectives. PMID:27546979

  6. [Social and biological determinants of infant mortality in population cohort in the city of Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul State].

    PubMed

    Geib, Lorena Teresinha Consalter; Fréu, Cheila Mara; Brandão, Marlise; Nunes, Magda Lahorgue

    2010-03-01

    One investigated the social and biological determinants of infant mortality of a population cohort of 2,331 live births in the period February 2003 to January 2004, in the city of Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul State, including 56 infant deaths. The databank of deaths had been increased to the databank of the birth cohort, which contained the social and biological variables obtained from live birth certificates and with home interviews. The coefficient of infant mortality of this cohort was 22.8%. Multivariate analyses with logistic regression and hierarchic model had shown that the following aspects were significantly associated with infant death: maternal educational level lower than eight years (RR= 5.7; IC 95%: 1.92-16.75), antecedent of dead children (RR= 3.7 (IC 95%: 1.07-12.10); low birth weight, with RR= 6.7 (IC 95%: 2.07-21.65) to 79.7 (IC 95%:14.36-441.92) for infants of low birth weight and weighing less than 1500g, respectively; Apgar scores < or =7 (RR=8.7; IC 95%: 2.85-26.32) and absence of breastfeeding (RR=15.75; IC 95%: 6.7663.68). As infant mortality in Passo Fundo is socially determined by the low maternal educational level and biologically determined by birth conditions, low birth weight and interruption of breastfeeding, one recommend the inclusion of these factors in the classification of risk for follow up of infant mortality in Passo Fundo.

  7. Temperature, Not Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5), is Causally Associated with Short-Term Acute Daily Mortality Rates: Results from One Hundred United States Cities.

    PubMed

    Cox, Tony; Popken, Douglas; Ricci, Paolo F

    2012-01-01

    Exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in air (C) have been suspected of contributing causally to increased acute (e.g., same-day or next-day) human mortality rates (R). We tested this causal hypothesis in 100 United States cities using the publicly available NMMAPS database. Although a significant, approximately linear, statistical C-R association exists in simple statistical models, closer analysis suggests that it is not causal. Surprisingly, conditioning on other variables that have been extensively considered in previous analyses (usually using splines or other smoothers to approximate their effects), such as month of the year and mean daily temperature, suggests that they create strong, nonlinear confounding that explains the statistical association between PM2.5 and mortality rates in this data set. As this finding disagrees with conventional wisdom, we apply several different techniques to examine it. Conditional independence tests for potential causation, non-parametric classification tree analysis, Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA), and Granger-Sims causality testing, show no evidence that PM2.5 concentrations have any causal impact on increasing mortality rates. This apparent absence of a causal C-R relation, despite their statistical association, has potentially important implications for managing and communicating the uncertain health risks associated with, but not necessarily caused by, PM2.5 exposures.

  8. Prescription opioid related deaths in New York City: a 2 year retrospective analysis prior to the introduction of the New York State I-STOP law.

    PubMed

    Sgarlato, Anthony; deRoux, Stephen J

    2015-09-01

    The United States is in the midst of an unprecedented drug epidemic. Illicit use of prescription medicine, predominantly opioids, has become one of the nation's fastest-growing drug problems. We have conducted a retrospective review of prescription opioid fatalities in New York City (NYC) prior to the introduction of a 2013 law intended to curtail prescription drug abuse. Over the 2 years of our study, there were 1286 chemical intoxication fatalities in NYC. Of these, 547 (42.5%) were associated with prescription opioids (6.5/100,000 population). Methadone was most frequently encountered followed by oxycodone. Only 36.7% of decedents had a valid opioid prescription. Of non-opioid medications associated with the prescription opiate deaths, benzodiazepines were the most frequently encountered (68.4%), and alprazolam (35.1%) was most common. Though prescribers have no control over drug diversion they should be cognizant of the urgent public health concern regarding prescription opioid abuse and associated fatalities and attempt to identify doctor shoppers and limit prescription of these potent drugs to those with a legitimate need for pain control. They also need to be aware of the high incidence of fatalities due to combined opioid and benzodiazepine use/abuse and refrain from prescribing them in tandem.

  9. Effect of Weather Patterns in Cities Across the United States on Surface Runoff, Deep Drainage, and Evapotranspiration from a Residential Parcel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voter, C. B.; Steven, L. I.

    2016-12-01

    In order to compensate for the effects of impervious surfaces, a common hydrologic goal in urban areas is to reduce surface runoff and enhance infiltration. Characteristics of urban development such as impervious connectivity and soil condition are important controls over these hydrologic processes; decreasing impervious connectivity and increasing soil permeability and microtopography can reduce runoff and locally enhance infiltration. By extension, these changes in development characteristics must also increase one or more subsurface fluxes, but the relationship among subsurface processes is complicated by the degree to which evapotranspiration is water-limited or energy-limited; increases in infiltration more directly translate to increases in recharge during wetter conditions than in drier times when plant water stress is high. Exploring how these tradeoffs change under different climate and weather scenarios is relevant for understanding the hydroecologic implications of development decisions in a range of locations. We use ParFlow.CLM, a watershed model with variably-saturated subsurface flow and fully integrated overland flow and land-surface processes, to examine the extent to which weather patterns in different cities across the United States affect subsurface partitioning in alternate residential parcel development scenarios. We show that evapotranspiration is more sensitive to parcel-scale development characteristics in drier climates and deep drainage is more sensitive to these characteristics in wetter climates, as measured by parameters such as storm intensity, storm duration, between-storm duration, and potential evapotranspiration.

  10. Lifestyle-determined gender and hierarchical differences in the lead contamination of bones from a feudal town of the Edo period.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Tamiji; Matsuno, Kohji; Matsushita, Takayuki

    2007-03-01

    We analyzed lead concentrations in bones from both genders of Japanese merchants (including rohnin; masterless samurai) and farmer classes, and compared the findings with those of the samurai class in the Edo period (1603-1867) to clarify gender and hierarchical (or occupational) differences in lead exposure during the Japanese feudal age. Merchant class females had significantly higher lead exposure (90.8 microg Pb/g dry bone; n=20) than males of the same class (39.9 microg Pb/g dry bone; n=31) (p<0.01), indicating a remarkable gender difference in the urban population. In contrast to these high concentrations, males and females of the farmer class living in agricultural (or semi-rural) areas had significantly lower exposure (total mean value; 9.2 mug Pb/g dry bone; n=4) than both genders of the merchant class (p<0.001), and the gender difference was not significant in this class.

  11. Stable metallic behavior and antiferromagnetic ordering of Fe(III) d spins in (EDO-TTFVO)2.FeCl4.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Hideki; Wada, Kenji; Hiraoka, Takashi; Hayashi, Toshiki; Sugimoto, Toyonari; Nakazumi, Hiroyuki; Yokogawa, Keiichi; Teramura, Masayasu; Yasuzuka, Syuma; Murata, Keizo; Mori, Takehiko

    2005-10-19

    We report the crystal structure and physical properties of the 2:1 FeCl4- salt of a new donor molecule, EDO-TTFVO. Crystal structure analysis of this salt revealed that the donor molecules formed a beta' '-type two-dimensional conducting layer, and there is a short S...Cl contact between the donor molecules and the FeCl4- ions, which is expected to mediate a strong pi-d interaction. This salt showed a stable metallic conducting behavior down to 0.3 K and an antiferromagnetic ordering at TN approximately 3.0 K, indicating that this salt becomes a new antiferromagnetic molecular metal at ambient pressure. The appearance of the magnetic ordering is considered to originate from the strong pi-d interactions between the donor molecules and the FeCl4- ions because the field dependence of magnetoresistances was remarkably affected below the antiferromagnetic transition temperature.

  12. B & P Tunnel west portal. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    B & P Tunnel west portal. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 97.43. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  13. Loudon Park Substation. Violetville, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Loudon Park Substation. Violetville, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 100.50. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  14. Gwynns Falls Bridge. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Gwynns Falls Bridge. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 99.20. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  15. Pennsylvania Railroad: Pennsylvania Station. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pennsylvania Railroad: Pennsylvania Station. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 95.50. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  16. North Avenue Bridge. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North Avenue Bridge. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 96.00. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  17. B & O Railroad: Bayview Bridge. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    B & O Railroad: Bayview Bridge. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 92.02. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  18. Edison Highway Bridge. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Edison Highway Bridge. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 92.02. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  19. Union Junction Interlocking Tower. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Union Junction Interlocking Tower. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 95.49. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  20. Prospective, randomized, controlled comparison of SYSTANE UD eye drops versus VISINE INTENSIV 1% EDO eye drops for the treatment of moderate dry eye.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Christina; Kruse, Friedrich E; Cursiefen, Claus

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this prospective, randomized, clinical, single-center study was to compare the safety and efficacy of 2 ocular surface lubricant eye drops: preservative-free hydroxypropyl (HP)-Guar (SYSTANE UD(®)) eye drops versus preservative-free Tamarindus indica seed polysaccharide (TSP) 1% (VISINE INTENSIV 1% EDO(®)) eye drops. Fifty-six eyes of 28 patients with moderate keratoconjunctivitis sicca (DEWS severity level 2) were enrolled in the trial. Patients were randomized for 2 treatment groups (SYSTANE UD eye drops vs. VISINE INTENSIV 1% EDO eye drops). The eye drops in both groups were applied 5 times per day for 3 months. Statistical analyses were performed using Statistica™ software (Mann-Whitney U-test and Wilcoxon test). P-Values<0.05 were considered significant. After 3 months of treatment the patients of both groups had subjective benefit in the relief of symptoms of dry eye disease evaluated by the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire score. Patients treated with HP-Guar and TSP showed improvements in tear film stability measured by tear break-up time (TBUT), which are statistically significant in the HP-Guar group (P=0.02). The results of this clinical trial show improvements of symptoms and signs in patients with moderate dry eye after the consistent use of preservative-free HP-Guar and TSP lubricant eye drops. Both artificial tear formulations produce amelioration in tear film stability improving eye conditions and patient quality of life. HP-Guar seems to be slightly more effective in improving ocular surface protection by decreasing tear film evaporation.

  1. Mexico City

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... sides by mountains and snow-capped volcanoes. Since incident solar radiation does not vary significantly with season at tropical latitudes, ... respectively. Mexico City can be identified in the center panel by the large area of haze accumulation above image center. Two small ...

  2. The Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Richard P.; Dommel, Paul R.

    Over the past two decades, direct payments from the Federal Government to local governments has increased more than sixfold as a percentage of the revenues local governments raise on their own. Both the Ford budget and the Carter budget revisions for 1977 and 1978 contain policy changes with important implications for cities. In this document…

  3. City Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    This article provides information on the evolution of the building material, concrete, and suggests hands-on activities that allow students to experience concrete's qualities, test the heat absorbency of various ground surface materials, discover how an area's geology changes, and search for city fossils. A reproducible activity sheet is included.…

  4. Influence of exposure differences on city-to-city heterogeneity ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Multi-city population-based epidemiological studies have observed heterogeneity between city-specific fine particulate matter (PM2.5)-mortality effect estimates. These studies typically use ambient monitoring data as a surrogate for exposure leading to potential exposure misclassification. The level of exposure misclassification can differ by city affecting the observed health effect estimate. The objective of this analysis is to evaluate whether previously developed residential infiltration-based city clusters can explain city-to-city heterogeneity in PM2.5 mortality risk estimates. In a prior paper 94 cities were clustered based on residential infiltration factors (e.g. home age/size, prevalence of air conditioning (AC)), resulting in 5 clusters. For this analysis, the association between PM2.5 and all-cause mortality was first determined in 77 cities across the United States for 2001–2005. Next, a second stage analysis was conducted evaluating the influence of cluster assignment on heterogeneity in the risk estimates. Associations between a 2-day (lag 0–1 days) moving average of PM2.5 concentrations and non-accidental mortality were determined for each city. Estimated effects ranged from −3.2 to 5.1% with a pooled estimate of 0.33% (95% CI: 0.13, 0.53) increase in mortality per 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5. The second stage analysis determined that cluster assignment was marginally significant in explaining the city-to-city heterogeneity. The health effe

  5. Influence of exposure differences on city-to-city heterogeneity ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Multi-city population-based epidemiological studies have observed heterogeneity between city-specific fine particulate matter (PM2.5)-mortality effect estimates. These studies typically use ambient monitoring data as a surrogate for exposure leading to potential exposure misclassification. The level of exposure misclassification can differ by city affecting the observed health effect estimate. The objective of this analysis is to evaluate whether previously developed residential infiltration-based city clusters can explain city-to-city heterogeneity in PM2.5 mortality risk estimates. In a prior paper 94 cities were clustered based on residential infiltration factors (e.g. home age/size, prevalence of air conditioning (AC)), resulting in 5 clusters. For this analysis, the association between PM2.5 and all-cause mortality was first determined in 77 cities across the United States for 2001–2005. Next, a second stage analysis was conducted evaluating the influence of cluster assignment on heterogeneity in the risk estimates. Associations between a 2-day (lag 0–1 days) moving average of PM2.5 concentrations and non-accidental mortality were determined for each city. Estimated effects ranged from −3.2 to 5.1% with a pooled estimate of 0.33% (95% CI: 0.13, 0.53) increase in mortality per 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5. The second stage analysis determined that cluster assignment was marginally significant in explaining the city-to-city heterogeneity. The health effe

  6. Determination of environmental radioactivity (238U, 232Th and 40K) and indoor natural background radiation level in Chennai city (Tamilnadu State), India.

    PubMed

    Babai, K S; Poongothai, S; Punniyakotti, J

    2013-01-01

    An extensive study on the determination of the natural radioactivity ((238)U, (232)Th and (40)K) levels in soil samples of Chennai city, India has been undertaken and the results of the same are compared with the levels reported in other Indian cities as well as other parts of the world. The radioactivity content in the soil samples, the absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent, radium equivalent activity, internal and external hazard indices were calculated and compared with UNSCEAR 2000 recommended values. In addition to the above, mapping of indoor natural background gamma radiation levels has been made using thermo luminescent dosemeters throughout Chennai city and the same are reported.

  7. The Relationship of the State Coordinating Agency with the Executive and Legislative Divisions of State Government in Meeting Budget Needs of Higher Education Systems. Proceedings of Ten-State Regional Conference (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, December 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Higher Education Executive Officers Association.

    Proceedings of a 10-state 1976 regional conference on the relationship of the state coordinating agency with the executive and legislative divisions of state government in meeting budget needs for higher education systems are presented as part of an inservice education program. The participating states were Arkansas, Colorado, Iowa, Kansas,…

  8. United States Air Force 611th air support group, 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Tin City, Long Range Radar Station, Alaska. Final management action plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-20

    The Tin City Long Range Radar Station (LRRS) Management Action Plan (MAP) presents a status summary of environmental restoration and compliance programs, and comprehensive strategies for implementing environmental response actions necessary to protect human health and the environment.

  9. Estimation of the daily intake of nitrates and nitrites which children one to six years old, who attend State Nurseries in the City of Havanna, may consume.

    PubMed

    García Roché, M O; Bécquer, A; Arcia, J

    1983-01-01

    The knowledge of the amounts of nitrates and nitrites consumed by the child population is of great importance due to three fundamental aspects: Reduction of nitrates to nitrites. Relation of these to methemoglobinemia. Carcinogenicity of the N-nitroso compounds, of which nitrites are the precursors. In the present article information is given as to the estimated amounts of nitrates and nitrites, which about 10 000 children between one and six years of age, who attend State Nurseries in the City of Havanna, may consume through the daily intake of food, milk and water offered by the Centralized Kitchen "Cuba-Finland Friendship". The method of analysis used to determine nitrates and nitrites is that reported by the Mixed Committee FAO/OMS in 1976, using a reducing column containing cadmium described by FOLLET et al. in 1963. The statistical method employed is the t-Test of the comparison of media. Estimated quantities of nitrates and nitrites, which these children may consume according to the offer of food, milk and water they receive, are: 25.6 mg of NaNO3 and 1.04 mg of NaNO2 for children one to three years of age, and 36.1 mg of NaNO3 and 1.48 mg of NaNO2 for children four to six. These values lie under those recommended as admissible daily intake reported by the Mixed Committee FAO/OMS. Therefore, there does not seem to exist a risk to health through consumption of nitrates and nitrites by the population under investigation.

  10. Geographic analysis on the occurrence of human and canine leptospirosis in the city of Maringá, state of Paraná, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fonzar, Udelysses Janete Veltrini; Langoni, Hélio

    2012-02-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease, the primary hosts of which are wild, synanthropic, and household animals. Humans behave as terminal and accidental hosts. The prevalence of leptospirosis depends on carrier animals that disseminate the agent, on the environmental survival of this agent, and on the contact of susceptible individuals. Each serovar has one or more hosts with different adaptation levels. The focuses of leptospirosis are infected, sick, and asymptomatic animals, which are considered to be sources of environmental infection. This study aimed to determine the risk areas for leptospiral infection in stray dogs and patients diagnosed with leptospirosis from 2006 to 2008 in Maringá, State of Paraná, Brazil. Three hundred and thirty-five stray dogs and 25 patients were studied. Serum from both animals and patients was examined by the microscopic serum agglutination test to study anti-leptospiral antibodies. To determine the risk areas and the spatial distribution of the disease, thematic maps were designed. Forty-one (12.2%) dogs positive for one or more leptospire serovars were observed, the most frequent serovars being Pyrogenes (43.9%), Canícola (21.9%), and Copennhageni (19.5%). Among the humans, 2 (8%) were positive for serovars Pyrogenes and Hardjo Prajitno and for Pyrogenes and Cynopteri. Spatial analysis showed that the risk for dogs and humans in the City of Maringá to become infected with leptospires exists in both the central and the peripheral areas, a fact that reinforces the relevance of this study and of continuous epidemiological and environmental surveillance actions to control the disease in animals and in humans.

  11. Analysis of marine bivalve shellfish from the fish market in Santos city, São Paulo state, Brazil, for Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Esmerini, Patrícia O; Gennari, Solange M; Pena, Hilda F J

    2010-05-28

    The aim of this study was to determine if Toxoplasma gondii are present in oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) and mussels (Mytella guyanensis) under natural conditions using a bioassay in mice and molecular detection methods. We first compared two standard protocols for DNA extraction, phenol-chloroform (PC) and guanidine-thiocyanate (GT), for both molluscs. A total of 300 oysters and 300 mussels were then acquired from the fish market in Santos city, São Paulo state, Brazil, between March and August of 2008 and divided into 60 groups of 5 oysters and 20 groups of 15 mussels. To isolate the parasite, five mice were orally inoculated with sieved tissue homogenates from each group of oysters or mussels. For molecular detection of T. gondii, DNA from mussels was extracted using the PC method and DNA from oysters was extracted using the GT method. A nested-PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) based on the amplification of a 155 bp fragment from the B1 gene of T. gondii was then performed. Eleven PCR-RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) markers, SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, CS3 and Apico, were used to genotype positive samples. There was no isolation of the parasite by bioassay in mice. T. gondii was not detected in any of the groups of mussels by nested-PCR. DNA of T. gondii was apparently detected by nested-PCR in 2 groups of oysters (3.3%). Genotyping of these two positive samples was not successful. The results suggest that oysters of the species C. rhizophorae, the most common species from the coast of São Paulo, can filter and retain T. gondii oocysts from the marine environment. Ingestion of raw oysters as a potential transmission source of T. gondii to humans and marine mammals should be further investigated. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Early Linkage to HIV Care and Antiretroviral Treatment among Men Who Have Sex with Men — 20 Cities, United States, 2008 and 2011

    PubMed Central

    Hoots, Brooke E.; Finlayson, Teresa J.; Wejnert, Cyprian; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Early linkage to care and antiretroviral (ARV) treatment are associated with reduced HIV transmission. Male-to-male sexual contact represents the largest HIV transmission category in the United States; men who have sex with men (MSM) are an important focus of care and treatment efforts. With the release of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and expanded HIV treatment guidelines, increases in early linkage to care and ARV treatment are expected. We examined differences in prevalence of early linkage to care and ARV treatment among HIV-positive MSM between 2008 and 2011. Data are from the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System, which monitors behaviors among populations at high risk of HIV infection in 20 U.S. cities with high AIDS burden. MSM were recruited through venue-based, time-space sampling. Prevalence ratios comparing 2011 to 2008 were estimated using linear mixed models. Early linkage was defined as an HIV clinic visit within 3 months of diagnosis. ARV treatment was defined as use at interview. Prevalence of early linkage to care was 79% (187/236) in 2008 and 83% (241/291) in 2011. In multivariable analysis, prevalence of early linkage did not differ significantly between years overall (P = 0.44). Prevalence of ARV treatment was 69% (790/1,142) in 2008 and 79% (1,049/1,336) in 2001. In multivariable analysis, ARV treatment increased overall (P = 0.0003) and among most sub-groups. Black MSM were less likely than white MSM to report ARV treatment (P = 0.01). While early linkage to care did not increase significantly between 2008 and 2011, ARV treatment increased among most sub-groups. Progress is being made in getting MSM on HIV treatment, but more efforts are needed to decrease disparities in ARV coverage. PMID:26176856

  13. A Research of Construction Mechanism of Vassal State's City Group during Spring and Autumn Period Based on the Analyzation of Geographic Image - Take south region of Shandong as example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, X.; Li, B.; Zhou, X.

    2015-08-01

    Spring and Autumn period, the vassal states began to carry out country defense construction actively, brought changes to building the ideological. At that time, the south region of Shandong, as an independent unit of geography, seldom affected by external factors, and had striking cultural characteristics. Vassal states there constructed their capital mainly to defense the neighboring countries and cope with small scale mergers war, not involving the nationwide military deployment. Therefore, the region reflect the construction thought changes during the Spring and Autumn Period, and consistent with the research purpose. Based on this judgment, the author analyzed each capital's location and terrain feature by topographic map. In brief, the Spring and Autumn Period, feudal states acted of one's own free will, the relationship between cities contained the one within and between vassal states. Within vassal state relationships included economic support, entrenching each other and protecting the country together. Meanwhile, strategic defensing, scrambling for resources and geographical location comprised of the competition between vassal states. In the agrarian age, the political centers and agricultural areas were interdependent, giving priority to the development of political cities. Transformation of capitals' space layout was actually the process of carving up farming plains, the powerful states occupy favorable geographical position, and the small countries would be encroached and annexed gradually.

  14. 250 NORTH & MAIN STREET (PARK 83, SALT LAKE CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    250 NORTH & MAIN STREET (PARK 8-3, SALT LAKE CITY CEMETERY LOCATER), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING NORTH - REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 18271, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  15. Smart cities of the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batty, M.; Axhausen, K. W.; Giannotti, F.; Pozdnoukhov, A.; Bazzani, A.; Wachowicz, M.; Ouzounis, G.; Portugali, Y.

    2012-11-01

    Here we sketch the rudiments of what constitutes a smart city which we define as a city in which ICT is merged with traditional infrastructures, coordinated and integrated using new digital technologies. We first sketch our vision defining seven goals which concern: developing a new understanding of urban problems; effective and feasible ways to coordinate urban technologies; models and methods for using urban data across spatial and temporal scales; developing new technologies for communication and dissemination; developing new forms of urban governance and organisation; defining critical problems relating to cities, transport, and energy; and identifying risk, uncertainty, and hazards in the smart city. To this, we add six research challenges: to relate the infrastructure of smart cities to their operational functioning and planning through management, control and optimisation; to explore the notion of the city as a laboratory for innovation; to provide portfolios of urban simulation which inform future designs; to develop technologies that ensure equity, fairness and realise a better quality of city life; to develop technologies that ensure informed participation and create shared knowledge for democratic city governance; and to ensure greater and more effective mobility and access to opportunities for urban populations. We begin by defining the state of the art, explaining the science of smart cities. We define six scenarios based on new cities badging themselves as smart, older cities regenerating themselves as smart, the development of science parks, tech cities, and technopoles focused on high technologies, the development of urban services using contemporary ICT, the use of ICT to develop new urban intelligence functions, and the development of online and mobile forms of participation. Seven project areas are then proposed: Integrated Databases for the Smart City, Sensing, Networking and the Impact of New Social Media, Modelling Network Performance

  16. State of the Art, Trends and Future of Bluetooth Low Energy, Near Field Communication and Visible Light Communication in the Development of Smart Cities

    PubMed Central

    Cerruela García, Gonzalo; Luque Ruiz, Irene; Gómez-Nieto, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    The current social impact of new technologies has produced major changes in all areas of society, creating the concept of a smart city supported by an electronic infrastructure, telecommunications and information technology. This paper presents a review of Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), Near Field Communication (NFC) and Visible Light Communication (VLC) and their use and influence within different areas of the development of the smart city. The document also presents a review of Big Data Solutions for the management of information and the extraction of knowledge in an environment where things are connected by an “Internet of Things” (IoT) network. Lastly, we present how these technologies can be combined together to benefit the development of the smart city. PMID:27886087

  17. State of the Art, Trends and Future of Bluetooth Low Energy, Near Field Communication and Visible Light Communication in the Development of Smart Cities.

    PubMed

    Cerruela García, Gonzalo; Luque Ruiz, Irene; Gómez-Nieto, Miguel Ángel

    2016-11-23

    The current social impact of new technologies has produced major changes in all areas of society, creating the concept of a smart city supported by an electronic infrastructure, telecommunications and information technology. This paper presents a review of Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), Near Field Communication (NFC) and Visible Light Communication (VLC) and their use and influence within different areas of the development of the smart city. The document also presents a review of Big Data Solutions for the management of information and the extraction of knowledge in an environment where things are connected by an "Internet of Things" (IoT) network. Lastly, we present how these technologies can be combined together to benefit the development of the smart city.

  18. Partnership Opportunities In Earth System Science Education Between Historically Black and Historically White Universities: Elizabeth City State University and the University of New Hampshire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J. E.; Hayden, L. B.; Wake, C. P.; Varner, R. K.; Graham, K.; Rock, B. N.; Hale, S.; Hurtt, G. C.; Porter, W.; Blackmon, R.; Bryce, J. G.; Branch, B. D.; Johnson, J. E.

    2009-12-01

    Federal efforts to promote the participation of underrepresented students in the science, technology, engineering and mathematics disciplines (STEM) in higher education have been in effect over several decades. The Science and Engineering Equal Opportunities Act of 1980 aimed to create equal opportunity in the STEM disciplines by promoting and broadening the participation of underrepresented talent in science and engineering. Since that time, federal agencies such as the National Science Foundation, NOAA and NASA, scientific organizations such as the American Geophysical Union, and other organizations such as the Educational Testing Service have created programs, diversity plans and cutting edge reports designed to further explicate the need to broaden the participation of underrepresented student talent in these disciplines. Despite increases in the degrees awarded to underrepresented students in the STEM disciplines, enhancing diversity in these disciplines continues to remain a significant challenge. This paper describes a strategic approach to this challenge via the development of a collaborative partnership model between two universities: the historically black Elizabeth City State University (ESCU) and the historically white University of New Hampshire (UNH). The alliance, built on a mutually-agreed upon set of partnership principles, strives to enhance opportunities for underrepresented students to pursue careers in STEM disciplines, specifically those in Earth system science and remote sensing. In examining the partnership, six promising practices that help advance its success come to the forefront. These practices include institutional commitment and faculty engagement, mutual respect and shared time commitment, identifying engaged leadership, engaging critical change agents, initiating difficult dialogues, and preparing for growth and evolution. Outcomes of the partnership to date include the successful submission and funding of four collaborative

  19. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  20. New York City, New York Municipal Forest Resource Analysis

    Treesearch

    P.J. Peper; E.G. McPherson; J.R. Simpson; S.L. Gardner; K.E. Vargas; Q. Xiao

    2007-01-01

    New York City, the largest city in the United States and one of the world’s major global cities, main-tains trees as an integral component of the urban infrastructure (Figure 1). Since 1995, over 120,000 trees have been planted along the streets of the city’s five boroughs. Over 592,000 street trees are managed by the New York City Department of Parks & Recreation...

  1. DNA-based identification of Armillaria isolates from peach [Prunus persica (l.) batsch] orchards in méxico state, Mexico

    Treesearch

    Ruben D. Elias-Roman; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Mee-Sook Kim; Dionicio Alvarado-Rosales; John W. Hanna; Amy L. Ross-Davis; Remigio Anastacio Guzman-Plazola; Guillermo Calderon-Zavala; Antonio Mora-Aguilera

    2013-01-01

    A collaborative project between the Programa de Fitopatología, Colegio de Postgraduados, Texcoco, Edo. de México and the USDA Forest Service-RMRS, Moscow Forest Pathology Laboratory began in 2011 to identify which species of Armillaria are causing widespread and severe damage to the peach orchards from México State, México. We are employing a DNA-based approach in...

  2. Challenges of Cultural and Racial Diversity to Counseling: Volume 2. Latin America and the United States. Mexico City Conference Proceedings (June 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gerardo M., Ed.; and Others

    Papers from the second international conference of the American Counseling Association held in Mexico City in June 1990 are included in this book. The book is divided into four parts: community, diversity, communication, and spirituality. The following papers are included: (1) Myths, Realities, and Implications of the English Only Movement in the…

  3. [Diagnosis of the final disposal of urban solid wastes in the region of the Association of the Cities at Alto Irani (AMAI), Santa Catarina State].

    PubMed

    França, Rosiléa Garcia; Ruaro, Edina Cristina Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out diagnosis about the destination given to the urban solid wastes in AMAI-SC region, which has fourteen cities. It was applied questionnaires to the city halls, and visits to map active and inactive dumps, controlled and sanitary landfill. It was investigated: the existence of fences, monitoring and collecting of gas and leachate, if they were next to the superficial waters, the presence of animals or collectors. It was considered, also, the distance of houses and/or urban mass and information about selective collection. It was found twenty and seven inactive dumps, where eighteen had received treatment. It was detected precariousness in remediation of all inactive dumps, because a single covering with land is not enough, therefore the material put there, keeps polluting through the production of lard and methane gas. Nowadays, all AMAI cities put their urban solid wastes in sanitary landfill found in Xanxerê and Xaxim. Among the fourteen cities, only one has selective collection, and in a precarious way, what reduces the useful life time of landfill, beyond being harmful to the environment. It is collected 54.15 tons/day of wastes, which sums 0.610 g/hab.day of waste, costing R$ 1.78 to the public coffers monthly.

  4. Challenges of Cultural and Racial Diversity to Counseling: Volume 2. Latin America and the United States. Mexico City Conference Proceedings (June 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gerardo M., Ed.; and Others

    Papers from the second international conference of the American Counseling Association held in Mexico City in June 1990 are included in this book. The book is divided into four parts: community, diversity, communication, and spirituality. The following papers are included: (1) Myths, Realities, and Implications of the English Only Movement in the…

  5. Statement of Mark R. Disler, Deputy Assistant Attorney General, Civil Rights Division, before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate, Concerning Grove City Legislation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Disler, Mark R.

    Testimony concerning the Supreme Court decisions in the case of Grove City College v. Bell (1984) is presented in this document. The Courts ruling that Federal aid to a student constitutes funding only of the college's student air program, nor the entire institution, reflected the more persuasive reading of the Title IX Education Amendments,…

  6. Continued urbanization of the United States is causing the deterioration of the central city; costly suburban developments; and increases in congestion, pollution, crime, violence and alienation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that urban sprawl and the abuses of technological industries result in substantial environmental and economic costs at the expense of center city locations and populations. Socioeconomic deterioration and modification of the biosphere triggers climatic and environmental changes leading to ecosystem damage and destruction, health consequences and international conflict.

  7. Continued urbanization of the United States is causing the deterioration of the central city; costly suburban developments; and increases in congestion, pollution, crime, violence and alienation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that urban sprawl and the abuses of technological industries result in substantial environmental and economic costs at the expense of center city locations and populations. Socioeconomic deterioration and modification of the biosphere triggers climatic and environmental changes leading to ecosystem damage and destruction, health consequences and international conflict.

  8. Opiates or cocaine: mortality from acute reactions in six major Spanish cities. State Information System on Drug Abuse (SEIT) Working Group.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, J; Rodríguez, B; de la Fuente, L; Barrio, G; Vicente, J; Roca, J; Royuela, L

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To describe temporal and geographical variations in mortality from acute reactions to opiates or cocaine and the demographic and toxicological characteristics of persons who died from these in major Spanish cities between 1983 and 1991. DESIGN--Descriptive study. Data were obtained retrospectively from pathologists' reports. SETTING--Cities of Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Zaragoza, and Bilbao. SUBJECTS--Deaths from acute reactions to opiates or cocaine were defined as those in which pathologists' reports did not indicate any other cause of death and in which evidence was found of recent consumption of these drugs. MAIN RESULTS--The mortality rate from acute reactions to opiate/cocaine per 100,000 population in the six cities as a whole rose from 1.2 in 1983 to 8.2 in 1991. Average annual rates for the whole period ranged from 1.7 in Seville to 4.9 in Barcelona. The male/female rates ratio was 5.9:1. The mean age of persons who died rose from 25.1 years in 1983 to 28 years in 1991. In more than 90% of the cases in whom toxicological tests were undertaken opiates were detected, and the proportion in which benzodiazepines or cocaine were detected increased during the period studied. CONCLUSIONS--Between 1983 and 1991 mortality from acute reactions to opiates/cocaine rose dramatically in major Spanish cities and significant differences in mortality between cities were found. Deaths were concentrated among men and young people. Acute drug reactions became one of the leading causes of death in persons 15-39 years of age, representing 11.1% of mortality from all causes in 1988 for this age group. Future studies should examine the relationship between the temporal and geographical variations in this type of mortality and various personal, environmental and social factors. PMID:7707007

  9. Opiates or cocaine: mortality from acute reactions in six major Spanish cities. State Information System on Drug Abuse (SEIT) Working Group.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, J; Rodríguez, B; de la Fuente, L; Barrio, G; Vicente, J; Roca, J; Royuela, L

    1995-02-01

    To describe temporal and geographical variations in mortality from acute reactions to opiates or cocaine and the demographic and toxicological characteristics of persons who died from these in major Spanish cities between 1983 and 1991. Descriptive study. Data were obtained retrospectively from pathologists' reports. Cities of Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Zaragoza, and Bilbao. Deaths from acute reactions to opiates or cocaine were defined as those in which pathologists' reports did not indicate any other cause of death and in which evidence was found of recent consumption of these drugs. The mortality rate from acute reactions to opiate/cocaine per 100,000 population in the six cities as a whole rose from 1.2 in 1983 to 8.2 in 1991. Average annual rates for the whole period ranged from 1.7 in Seville to 4.9 in Barcelona. The male/female rates ratio was 5.9:1. The mean age of persons who died rose from 25.1 years in 1983 to 28 years in 1991. In more than 90% of the cases in whom toxicological tests were undertaken opiates were detected, and the proportion in which benzodiazepines or cocaine were detected increased during the period studied. Between 1983 and 1991 mortality from acute reactions to opiates/cocaine rose dramatically in major Spanish cities and significant differences in mortality between cities were found. Deaths were concentrated among men and young people. Acute drug reactions became one of the leading causes of death in persons 15-39 years of age, representing 11.1% of mortality from all causes in 1988 for this age group. Future studies should examine the relationship between the temporal and geographical variations in this type of mortality and various personal, environmental and social factors.

  10. Women in Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Liz

    1982-01-01

    Suggesting that women are at a disadvantage in cities and towns, discusses experiences of women at home, working women, women traveling, shopping, and growing old in cities. Includes suggestions for studying women in cities. (JN)

  11. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  12. Tectonic fabric revealed by AARM of the proterozoic mafic dike swarm in the Salvador city (Bahia State): São Francisco Craton, NE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raposo, M. Irene B.; Berquó, Thelma S.

    2008-04-01

    Magnetic fabric and rock magnetism studies were performed on 25 unmetamorphosed mafic dikes of the Meso-Late Proterozoic (˜1.02 Ga) dike swarm from Salvador (Bahia State, NE Brazil). This area lies in the north-eastern part of the São Francisco Craton, which was dominantly formed/reworked during the Transamazonian orogeny (2.14-1.94 Ga). The dikes crop out along the beaches and in quarries around Salvador city, and cut across both amphibolite dikes and granulites. Their widths range from a few centimeters up to 30 m with an average of ˜4 m, and show two main trends N140-190 and N100-120 with vertical dips. Magnetic fabrics were determined using both anisotropy of low-field magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and anisotropy of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (AARM). The magnetic mineralogy was investigated by many experiments including remanent magnetization measurements at variable low temperatures (10-300 K), Mössbauer spectroscopy, high temperature magnetization curves (25-700 °C) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The rock magnetism study suggests pseudo-single-domain magnetite grains carrying the bulk magnetic susceptibility and AARM fabrics. The magnetite grains found in these dikes are large and we discard the presence of single-domain grains. Its composition is close to stoichiometric with low Ti substitution, and its Verwey transition occurs around 120 K. The main AMS fabric recognized in the swarm is so-called normal, in which the Kmax- Kint plane is parallel to the dike plane and the magnetic foliation pole ( Kmin) is perpendicular to it. This fabric is interpreted as due to magma flow, and analysis of the Kmax inclination permitted to infer that approximately 80% of the dikes were fed by horizontal or sub-horizontal flows ( Kmax < 30°). This interpretation is supported by structural field evidence found in five dikes. In addition, based on the plunge of Kmax, two mantle sources could be inferred; one of them which fed about 80% of the swarm

  13. Network Structure and City Size

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, David

    2012-01-01

    Network structure varies across cities. This variation may yield important knowledge about how the internal structure of the city affects its performance. This paper systematically compares a set of surface transportation network structure variables (connectivity, hierarchy, circuity, treeness, entropy, accessibility) across the 50 largest metropolitan areas in the United States. A set of scaling parameters are discovered to show how network size and structure vary with city size. These results suggest that larger cities are physically more inter-connected. Hypotheses are presented as to why this might obtain. This paper then consistently measures and ranks access to jobs across 50 US metropolitan areas. It uses that accessibility measure, along with network structure variables and city size to help explain journey-to-work time and auto mode share in those cities. A 1 percent increase in accessibility reduces average metropolitan commute times by about 90 seconds each way. A 1 percent increase in network connectivity reduces commute time by 0.1 percent. A 1 percent increase in accessibility results in a 0.0575 percent drop in auto mode share, while a 1 percent increase in treeness reduces auto mode share by 0.061 percent. Use of accessibility and network structure measures is important for planning and evaluating the performance of network investments and land use changes. PMID:22253764

  14. A School Voucher Program for Baltimore City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lips, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Baltimore City's public school system is in crisis. Academically, the school system fails on any number of measures. The city's graduation rate is barely above 50 percent and students continually lag well behind state averages on standardized tests. Adding to these problems is the school system's current fiscal crisis, created by years of fiscal…

  15. Transforming New York City's Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholomew, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    In 2002, Michael Bloomberg, New York City's newly elected mayor, hoped to fix his city's public schools, which were widely perceived as plagued by a gamut of problems that ranged from low test scores to patronage-riddled schools and districts. A special bill approved by the New York State Legislature made Bloomberg solely accountable to the New…

  16. Transforming New York City's Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholomew, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    In 2002, Michael Bloomberg, New York City's newly elected mayor, hoped to fix his city's public schools, which were widely perceived as plagued by a gamut of problems that ranged from low test scores to patronage-riddled schools and districts. A special bill approved by the New York State Legislature made Bloomberg solely accountable to the New…

  17. Financing Equity Among Schools in Large Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Ben C.

    Nineteen states now have some form of compensatory education grants apart from support for exceptional children. Compensatory education is a large part of the urban problem. The suburbs have replaced the cities as educational leaders, not because the cities have stopped trying to educate students, but because of many sociological and economic…

  18. Prague: The City Is the Museum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meilach, Dona Z.

    2001-01-01

    States that Prague, the capital of the Czech-Republic, is a virtual art museum because of the number of architectural styles and other artworks throughout the city. Explores the various architectural styles that are present in the city from the Gothic monasteries and churches to examples of contemporary styles. (CMK)

  19. Miami, Florida: The Magic City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2008-01-01

    With its subtropical climate and intimate ties to Latin America, Miami is like no other city in the United States. More than 65 percent of its population is Hispanic, and Spanish is the most commonly heard language. Situated at the southern tip of the 500-mile-long Florida peninsula, Miami is the largest urban area in the southeastern United…

  20. The City as Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Stephen K.

    The author gives a rationale for utilizing the city as a place to learn. The city has many problems and although logistics require that we conduct most education in the school building, the author argues for putting out best brains to the task of bringing the city to the classroom and to exploiting the city as a classroom when appropriate.…

  1. Geology of the Göçükdibi Cu-Pb-Zn Mineralization, Gökçedoǧan, Çorum (Turkey): Preliminary Findings on Its Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalçin, Cihan; Hanilçi, Nurullah; Kumral, Mustafa; Abdelnasser, Amr

    2016-04-01

    Göçükdibi Cu-Pb-Zn mineralization is located 3 km north west of Gökçedoǧan village where is 30 km east of the Kargı, Çorum. The geology of the mineralization area is represented by Mesozoic and Upper Pliocene lithostratigraphic units in different origin. These units with respect to their structural locations have identified as autochthonous and allachtonous. The autochthonous units which are the basement of the region are represented by Bekirli Metamorphites (Triassic-Liassic) and Beşpınar formation (Upper Cretaceous-Lower Eocene) which overlies the Bekirli Metamorphites as angular discordance. The allachtonous units are represented by Saraycık formation belongs to Kargı Ophioltic Melange, and located on the autochthonous units as tectonically. These allocthonous units are the product of the Neotethyan Ocean. The autochthonous and allachtonous units are overlaid by Upper Pliocene Ilgaz Formation and Plio-Quaternary stream sediments. The Cu-Pb-Zn mineralization is located in northwest of the Gökçedoǧan village within the Bekirli Metamorphites. The ore zone has N80E direction, 5 m wide and 120 m in length. The mineralizations which follow NE-SW trending structural line occurred as alternation with quartz-chlorite schists of the Bekirli Metamorphites. The mineralization is generally concordant to the foliation of schist's and also occurred as disseminated in the wall rocks. The ore paragenesis comprises with pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galenit as the main sulphide minerals, and the malachite, azurite and limonite as the production of the oxidation. Preliminary data such as relationship between the ore and host rock, inner-structure of the ore and indicate that the Gökçedoǧan Cu-Pb-Zn mineralization was likely to have originated syngenetic. In addition, the geochemical behaviour of rare earth elements (REE) of the altered and mineralized samples collected from the alteration zone show that light REE enrichment with fair depletion of heavy REE

  2. 19. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Nevada State Archives ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Nevada State Archives ARCHITECT'S DRAWINGS, 1869. FIRST FLOOR PLAN - Nevada State Capitol, Plaza at Carson Street, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  3. 18. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Nevada State Archives ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Nevada State Archives ARCHITECT'S DRAWINGS, 1869. FACADE, ELEVATION - Nevada State Capitol, Plaza at Carson Street, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  4. 20. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Nevada State Archives ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Nevada State Archives ARCHITECT'S DRAWINGS, 1869. SECOND FLOOR PLAN - Nevada State Capitol, Plaza at Carson Street, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  5. Streamlining Site Cleanup in New York City

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This joint effort, supported by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYS DEC), advances the environmental cleanup goals of PlaNYC 2030, the city's comprehensive sustainability plan.

  6. Rochester City School District Peer Assistance Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chierichella, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the author evaluates the Peer Assistance and Review (PAR) program in the Rochester City School District, Rochester, NY. The author evaluates the system's strengths and weaknesses and discusses the program's alignment with New York State requirements.

  7. Regional, State, and Local Initiatives in Nanotechnology: Report of the National Nanotechnology Initiative Workshop, April 1-3, 2009, Oklahoma City, OK

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Advancement of Science and Technology (OCAST) operates the ONI under a public/private partnership with The State Chamber of Oklahoma. ONI has four...paid staff, government buy-in, and support with dollars tied to state agencies (public) and private partnerships (e.g., state chambers of commerce...South Dakota universities. Run from the Governor’s Department of Tourism and State Development, this program can tailor industry attraction grants

  8. Health risk assessment of hazardous metals for population via consumption of seafood from Ogoniland, Rivers State, Nigeria; a case study of Kaa, B-Dere, and Bodo City.

    PubMed

    Nkpaa, K W; Patrick-Iwuanyanwu, K C; Wegwu, M O; Essien, E B

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the human health risk through consumption of seafood from contaminated sites in Kaa, B-Dere, and Bodo City all in Ogoniland. The potential non-carcinogenic health risk for consumers were investigated by assessing the estimated daily intake and target hazard quotients for Cr, Cd, Zn, Pb, Mn, and Fe while carcinogenic health effect from Cr, Cd, and Pb was also estimated. The estimated daily intake from seafood consumption was below the threshold values for Cr, Mn, and Zn while they exceeded the threshold for Cd, Pb, and Fe. The target hazard quotients for Zn and Cr were below 1. Target hazard quotients values for Cd, Pb, Mn, and Fe were greater than 1 except for Fe level in Liza falcipinis from Kaa. Furthermore, estimation of carcinogenic risk for Cr in all samples under study exceeded the accepted risk level of 10E-4. Also, Cd carcinogenic risk level for L. falcipinis and Callinectes pallidus collected from B-Dere and C. pallidus collected from Bodo City was 1.1E-3 which also exceeded the accepted risk level of 10E-4 for Cd. Estimation of carcinogenic risk for Pb was within the acceptable range of 10E-4. Consumers of seafood from these sites in Ogoniland may be exposed to metal pollution.

  9. Do Global Cities Enable Global Views? Using Twitter to Quantify the Level of Geographical Awareness of U.S. Cities.

    PubMed

    Han, Su Yeon; Tsou, Ming-Hsiang; Clarke, Keith C

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic social media content, such as Twitter messages, can be used to examine individuals' beliefs and perceptions. By analyzing Twitter messages, this study examines how Twitter users exchanged and recognized toponyms (city names) for different cities in the United States. The frequency and variety of city names found in their online conversations were used to identify the unique spatiotemporal patterns of "geographical awareness" for Twitter users. A new analytic method, Knowledge Discovery in Cyberspace for Geographical Awareness (KDCGA), is introduced to help identify the dynamic spatiotemporal patterns of geographic awareness among social media conversations. Twitter data were collected across 50 U.S. cities. Thousands of city names around the world were extracted from a large volume of Twitter messages (over 5 million tweets) by using the Twitter Application Programming Interface (APIs) and Python language computer programs. The percentages of distant city names (cities located in distant states or other countries far away from the locations of Twitter users) were used to estimate the level of global geographical awareness for Twitter users in each U.S. city. A Global awareness index (GAI) was developed to quantify the level of geographical awareness of Twitter users from within the same city. Our findings are that: (1) the level of geographical awareness varies depending on when and where Twitter messages are posted, yet Twitter users from big cities are more aware of the names of international cities or distant US cities than users from mid-size cities; (2) Twitter users have an increased awareness of other city names far away from their home city during holiday seasons; and (3) Twitter users are more aware of nearby city names than distant city names, and more aware of big city names rather than small city names.

  10. Do Global Cities Enable Global Views? Using Twitter to Quantify the Level of Geographical Awareness of U.S. Cities

    PubMed Central

    Han, Su Yeon; Tsou, Ming-Hsiang; Clarke, Keith C.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic social media content, such as Twitter messages, can be used to examine individuals’ beliefs and perceptions. By analyzing Twitter messages, this study examines how Twitter users exchanged and recognized toponyms (city names) for different cities in the United States. The frequency and variety of city names found in their online conversations were used to identify the unique spatiotemporal patterns of “geographical awareness” for Twitter users. A new analytic method, Knowledge Discovery in Cyberspace for Geographical Awareness (KDCGA), is introduced to help identify the dynamic spatiotemporal patterns of geographic awareness among social media conversations. Twitter data were collected across 50 U.S. cities. Thousands of city names around the world were extracted from a large volume of Twitter messages (over 5 million tweets) by using the Twitter Application Programming Interface (APIs) and Python language computer programs. The percentages of distant city names (cities located in distant states or other countries far away from the locations of Twitter users) were used to estimate the level of global geographical awareness for Twitter users in each U.S. city. A Global awareness index (GAI) was developed to quantify the level of geographical awareness of Twitter users from within the same city. Our findings are that: (1) the level of geographical awareness varies depending on when and where Twitter messages are posted, yet Twitter users from big cities are more aware of the names of international cities or distant US cities than users from mid-size cities; (2) Twitter users have an increased awareness of other city names far away from their home city during holiday seasons; and (3) Twitter users are more aware of nearby city names than distant city names, and more aware of big city names rather than small city names. PMID:26167942

  11. Measuring Up: Educational Improvement & Opportunity in 50 Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeArmond, Michael; Denice, Patrick; Gross, Betheny; Hernandez, Jose; Jochim, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    This report provides a new resource for understanding the state of urban public schools in the U.S. Geared specifically toward city leaders who want to evaluate how well traditional district and charter schools are serving all their city's children and how their schools compare to those in other cities, the report measures outcomes for all public…

  12. Did Divorces Decline after the Oklahoma City Bombing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakonezny, Paul A.; Reddick, Rebecca; Rodgers, Joseph Lee

    2004-01-01

    The Oklahoma City bombing in April 1995 was an act of terrorism that had many potential influences on the city and state, including influences on families. We analyzed divorce data from 1985 to 2000 for all 77 counties in Oklahoma to assess the divorce response to the Oklahoma City bombing. Our prediction was that divorce rates in Oklahoma would…

  13. The Rating Guide to Life in America's Small Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, G. Scott

    This book lists and rates 219 U.S. "micropolitan" areas, defined as small cities and their surrounding territories, or combinations of neighboring small cities. The book consists of tables rating these cities, listed by state, in each of the following 10 categories: (1) climate and environment; (2) diversions; (3) economics; (4)…

  14. Minimum Competency Testing in the Great City Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connelly, Maureen, Comp.; Casserly, Michael, Comp.

    This report represents the first attempt by the Council of the Great City Schools to assess the states of minimal competency testing in its twenty-eight member cities. This report does not focus on the results of the tests, but on the general characteristics of each competency testing program. Few cities use the same tests or collaborate in…

  15. Did Divorces Decline after the Oklahoma City Bombing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakonezny, Paul A.; Reddick, Rebecca; Rodgers, Joseph Lee

    2004-01-01

    The Oklahoma City bombing in April 1995 was an act of terrorism that had many potential influences on the city and state, including influences on families. We analyzed divorce data from 1985 to 2000 for all 77 counties in Oklahoma to assess the divorce response to the Oklahoma City bombing. Our prediction was that divorce rates in Oklahoma would…

  16. [The geographic scope of migration in Mexico City].

    PubMed

    Graizbord, B; Mina, A

    1994-01-01

    "This paper reports some results of analyzing migratory dynamics in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City, which ever since the 1970-1980 decade have affected other regions of the country, mainly the State of Mexico. The analysis describes different types and modes of migratory movement: metropolitan (from Mexico City), inter-county (within each state), and interstate (between Mexico City and other states). Data was provided by the XI Population and Household Census of 1990." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  17. The Copper Balance of Cities

    PubMed Central

    Kral, Ulrich; Lin, Chih-Yi; Kellner, Katharina; Ma, Hwong-wen; Brunner, Paul H

    2014-01-01

    Material management faces a dual challenge: on the one hand satisfying large and increasing demands for goods and on the other hand accommodating wastes and emissions in sinks. Hence, the characterization of material flows and stocks is relevant for both improving resource efficiency and environmental protection. This article focuses on the urban scale, a dimension rarely investigated in past metal flow studies. We compare the copper (Cu) metabolism of two cities in different economic states, namely, Vienna (Europe) and Taipei (Asia). Substance flow analysis is used to calculate urban Cu balances in a comprehensive and transparent form. The main difference between Cu in the two cities appears to be the stock: Vienna seems close to saturation with 180 kilograms per capita (kg/cap) and a growth rate of 2% per year. In contrast, the Taipei stock of 30 kg/cap grows rapidly by 26% per year. Even though most Cu is recycled in both cities, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration represents an unused Cu potential accounting for 1% to 5% of annual demand. Nonpoint emissions are predominant; up to 50% of the loadings into the sewer system are from nonpoint sources. The results of this research are instrumental for the design of the Cu metabolism in each city. The outcomes serve as a base for identification and recovery of recyclables as well as for directing nonrecyclables to appropriate sinks, avoiding sensitive environmental pathways. The methodology applied is well suited for city benchmarking if sufficient data are available. PMID:25866460

  18. Enhanced thermoelectric performance of β-Zn4Sb3 based nanocomposites through combined effects of density of states resonance and carrier energy filtering

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Tianhua; Qin, Xiaoying; Zhang, Yongsheng; Li, Xiaoguang; Zeng, Zhi; Li, Di; Zhang, Jian; Xin, Hongxing; Xie, Wenjie; Weidenkaff, Anke

    2015-01-01

    It is a major challenge to elevate the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT of materials through enhancing their power factor (PF) and reducing the thermal conductivity at the same time. Experience has shown that engineering of the electronic density of states (eDOS) and the energy filtering mechanism (EFM) are two different effective approaches to improve the PF. However, the successful combination of these two methods is elusive. Here we show that the PF of β-Zn4Sb3 can greatly benefit from both effects. Simultaneous resonant distortion in eDOS via Pb-doping and energy filtering via introduction of interface potentials result in a ~40% increase of PF and an approximately twofold reduction of the lattice thermal conductivity due to interface scattering. Accordingly, the ZT of β-Pb0.02Zn3.98Sb3 with 3 vol.% of Cu3SbSe4 nanoinclusions reaches a value of 1.4 at 648 K. The combination of eDOS engineering and EFM would potentially facilitate the development of high-performance thermoelectric materials. PMID:26666813

  19. Power laws, discontinuities and regional city size distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garmestani, A.S.; Allen, C.R.; Gallagher, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    Urban systems are manifestations of human adaptation to the natural environment. City size distributions are the expression of hierarchical processes acting upon urban systems. In this paper, we test the entire city size distributions for the southeastern and southwestern United States (1990), as well as the size classes in these regions for power law behavior. We interpret the differences in the size of the regional city size distributions as the manifestation of variable growth dynamics dependent upon city size. Size classes in the city size distributions are snapshots of stable states within urban systems in flux. ?? 2008.

  20. Long-term NOx trends over large cities in the United States during the great recession: Comparison of satellite retrievals, ground observations, and emission inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Daniel Q.; Lamsal, Lok; Pan, Li; Ding, Charles; Kim, Hyuncheol; Lee, Pius; Chai, Tianfeng; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Stajner, Ivanka

    2015-04-01

    National emission inventories (NEIs) take years to assemble, but they can become outdated quickly, especially for time-sensitive applications such as air quality forecasting. This study compares multi-year NOx trends derived from satellite and ground observations and uses these data to evaluate the updates of NOx emission data by the US National Air Quality Forecast Capability (NAQFC) for next-day ozone prediction during the 2008 Global Economic Recession. Over the eight large US cities examined here, both the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and the Air Quality System (AQS) detect substantial downward trends from 2005 to 2012, with a seven-year total of -35% according to OMI and -38% according to AQS. The NOx emission projection adopted by NAQFC tends to be in the right direction, but at a slower reduction rate (-25% from 2005 to 2012), due likely to the unaccounted effects of the 2008 economic recession. Both OMI and AQS datasets display distinct emission reduction rates before, during, and after the 2008 global recession in some cities, but the detailed changing rates are not consistent across the OMI and AQS data. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of using space and ground observations to evaluate major updates of emission inventories objectively. The combination of satellite, ground observations, and in-situ measurements (such as emission monitoring in power plants) is likely to provide more reliable estimates of NOx emission and its trend, which is an issue of increasing importance as many urban areas in the US are transitioning to NOx-sensitive chemical regimes by continuous emission reductions.

  1. Collection and analysis of samples for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in dust and other solids related to sealed and unsealed pavement from 10 cities across the United States, 2005-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Burbank, Teresa L.

    2008-01-01

    Parking lots and driveways are dominant features of the modern urban landscape, and in the United States, sealcoat is widely used on these surfaces. One of the most widely used types of sealcoat contains refined coal tar; coal-tar-based sealcoat products have a mean polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentration of about 5 percent. A previous study reported that parking lots in Austin, Texas, treated with coal-tar sealcoat were a major source of PAH compounds in streams. This report presents methods for and data from the analysis of concentrations of PAH compounds in dust from sealed and unsealed pavement from nine U.S. cities, and concentrations of PAH compounds in other related solid materials (sealcoat surface scrapings, nearby street dust, and nearby soil) from three of those same cities and a 10th city. Dust samples were collected by sweeping dust from areas of several square meters with a soft nylon brush into a dustpan. Some samples were from individual lots or driveways, and some samples consisted of approximately equal amounts of material from three lots. Samples were sieved to remove coarse sand and gravel and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Concentrations of PAHs vary greatly among samples with total PAH (sigmaPAH), the sum of 12 unsubstituted parent PAHs, ranging from nondetection for all 12 PAHs (several samples from Portland, Oregon, and Seattle, Washington; sigmaPAH of less than 36,000 micrograms per kilogram) to 19,000,000 micrograms per kilogram for a sealcoat scraping sample (Milwaukee, Wisconsin). The largest PAH concentrations in dust are from a driveway sample from suburban Chicago, Illinois (sigmaPAH of 9,600,000 micrograms per kilogram).

  2. Urban water management in cities: historical, current and future regimes.

    PubMed

    Brown, R R; Keath, N; Wong, T H F

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from three phases of a social research programme between 2002 and 2008, this paper proposes a framework for underpinning the development of urban water transitions policy and city-scale benchmarking at the macro scale. Through detailed historical, contemporary and futures research involving Australian cities, a transitions framework is proposed, presenting a typology of six city states, namely the 'Water Supply City', the 'Sewered City', the 'Drained City', the 'Waterways City', the 'Water Cycle City', and the 'Water Sensitive City'. This framework recognises the temporal, ideological and technological contexts that cities transition through when moving towards sustainable urban water conditions. The aim of this research is to assist urban water managers with understanding the scope of the hydro-social contracts currently operating across cities in order to determine the capacity development and cultural reform initiatives needed to effectively expedite the transition to more sustainable water management and ultimately to Water Sensitive Cities. One of the values of this framework is that it can be used by strategists and policy makers as a heuristic device and/or the basis for a future city state benchmarking tool. From a research perspective it can be an underpinning framework for future work on transitions policy research.

  3. Fulton Avenue Bridge/Tunnel. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Fulton Avenue Bridge/Tunnel. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 97.56. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  4. Orangeville Yards. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 91.00. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Orangeville Yards. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 91.00. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  5. Jerusalem: City of Dreams, City of Sorrows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricks, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Jerusalem is more than an intriguing global historical city; it is a classroom for liberal learning and international understanding. It had never been a city of one language, one religion and one culture. Looking at the origins of Jerusalem's name indicates its international and multicultural nature. While Israelis designate Jerusalem as their…

  6. Proceedings for the Annual Conference on the Management of Federal/State Data Systems (5th, Crystal City, Virginia, March 25-27, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Special Education Programs (ED/OSERS), Washington, DC.

    This conference was held to enhance communication between the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) and State education agency staffs, and to furnish information and technical assistance to State agencies in the areas of data management and improvement of data reliability, validity, and comparability. Abstracts of presentations include the…

  7. Seasonal and nocturnal domiciliary human landing/biting behaviour of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) evansi and Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) panamensis (Diptera; Psychodidae) in a periurban area of a city on the Caribbean coast of eastern Venezuela (Barcelona; Anzoátegui State).

    PubMed

    González, R; De Sousa, L; Devera, R; Jorquera, A; Ledezma, E

    1999-01-01

    In recent years, in addition to American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL), a significant number of cases of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) have been reported in periurban areas of Barcelona city (Anzoátegui State, Venezuela). We studied the bionomics of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) evansi and Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) panamensis, possible vectors of AVL and ACL, respectively, in El Rincón, a periurban village of that city. To evaluate the seasonal domiciliary landing/biting activity of sandflies on human bait, a house was chosen in El Rincón. Landing catches were carried out between 18:00 and 06:00, once a month for a year. The results show the presence of 2 species, Lu. (Lu.) evansi (89.9%) and Lu. (Psy.) panamensis (10.1%). Lu. evansi was most abundant in the months of October and July, associated with the bimodal cycle of annual rainfall in the area. Maximum landing/biting activity of Lu. evansi was observed at 24:00 and 03:00. These findings suggest that at this time of the year and at these hours there is heightened risk of the transmission of AVL. Lu. panamensis monthly abundance also shows a direct association with rainfall and maximum landing/biting activity was observed between 02:00 and 03:00. The lower domiciliary abundance of Lu. panamensis suggests its greater importance in the extradomiciliary transmission of ACL.

  8. Situational analysis of services for diabetes and diabetic retinopathy and evaluation of programs for the detection and treatment of diabetic retinopathy in India: Methods for the India 11-city 9-state study.

    PubMed

    Murthy, G V S; Gilbert, Clare E; Shukla, Rajan; Vashist, Praveen; Shamanna, B R

    2016-04-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of visual impairment in India. Available evidence shows that there are more than 60 million persons with diabetes in India and that the number will increase to more than a 100 million by 2030. There is a paucity of data on the perceptions and practices of persons with diabetes and the available infrastructure and uptake of services for DR in India. Assess perception of care and challenges faced in availing eye care services among persons with diabetics and generate evidence on available human resources, infrastructure, and service utilization for DR in India. The cross-sectional, hospital-based survey was conducted in eleven cities across 9 States in India. In each city, public and private providers of eye-care were identified. Both multispecialty and standalone facilities were included. Specially designed semi-open ended questionnaires were administered to the clients. Semi-structured interviews were administered to the service providers (both diabetic care physicians and eye care teams) and observational checklists were used to record findings of the assessment of facilities conducted by a dedicated team of research staff. A total of 859 units were included in this study. This included 86 eye care and 73 diabetic care facilities, 376 persons with diabetes interviewed in the eye clinics and 288 persons with diabetes interviewed in the diabetic care facilities. The findings will have significant implications for the organization of services for persons with diabetes in India.

  9. Situational analysis of services for diabetes and diabetic retinopathy and evaluation of programs for the detection and treatment of diabetic retinopathy in India: Methods for the India 11-city 9-state study

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, G. V. S.; Gilbert, Clare E.; Shukla, Rajan; Vashist, Praveen; Shamanna, B. R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of visual impairment in India. Available evidence shows that there are more than 60 million persons with diabetes in India and that the number will increase to more than a 100 million by 2030. There is a paucity of data on the perceptions and practices of persons with diabetes and the available infrastructure and uptake of services for DR in India. Objectives: Assess perception of care and challenges faced in availing eye care services among persons with diabetics and generate evidence on available human resources, infrastructure, and service utilization for DR in India. Methods: The cross-sectional, hospital-based survey was conducted in eleven cities across 9 States in India. In each city, public and private providers of eye-care were identified. Both multispecialty and standalone facilities were included. Specially designed semi-open ended questionnaires were administered to the clients. Semi-structured interviews were administered to the service providers (both diabetic care physicians and eye care teams) and observational checklists were used to record findings of the assessment of facilities conducted by a dedicated team of research staff. Results: A total of 859 units were included in this study. This included 86 eye care and 73 diabetic care facilities, 376 persons with diabetes interviewed in the eye clinics and 288 persons with diabetes interviewed in the diabetic care facilities. Conclusions: The findings will have significant implications for the organization of services for persons with diabetes in India. PMID:27144132

  10. Oklahoma City Revitalization

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Since the beginning of their Brownfields Program in 2003, Oklahoma City has been the recipient of nine EPA Brownfields Grants, creating a new city from the inside out. So far, 45 properties have been assessed and/or remediated.

  11. Cities spearhead climate action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Following President Trump's withdrawal from the Paris Agreement, cities worldwide have pledged support to combat climate change. Along with a growing coalition of businesses and institutions, cities represent a beacon of hope for carbon reduction in politically tumultuous times.

  12. What Is Clean Cities?

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-08-01

    This Clean Cities Program fact sheet describes the purpose and scope of this DOE program. Clean Cities facilitates the use of alternative and advanced fuels and vehicles to displace petroleum in the transportation sector.

  13. Intragroup Stigma Among Men Who Have Sex with Men: Data Extraction from Craigslist Ads in 11 Cities in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Vansia, Dhrutika; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Background Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) regularly experience homophobic discrimination and stigma. While previous research has examined homophobic and HIV-related intergroup stigma originating from non-MSM directed at MSM, less is known about intragroup stigma originating from within MSM communities. While some research has examined intragroup stigma, this research has focused mostly on HIV-related stigma. Intragroup stigma may have a unique influence on sexual risk-taking behaviors as it occurs between sexual partners. Online sexual networking venues provide a unique opportunity to examine this type of stigma. Objective The purpose of this study is to examine the presence and patterns of various types of intragroup stigma represented in Men Seeking Men Craigslist sex ads. Methods Data were collected from ads on Craigslist sites from 11 of the 12 US metropolitan statistical areas with the highest HIV/AIDS prevalence. Two categories of data were collected: self-reported characteristics of the authors and reported biases in the ads. Chi-square tests were used to examine patterns of biases across cities and author characteristics. Results Biases were rarely reported in the ads. The most commonly reported biases were against men who were not “disease and drug free (DDF),” representing stigma against men living with HIV or a sexually transmitted infection. Patterns in bias reporting occurred across cities and author characteristics. There were no variations based on race, but ageism (mostly against older men) varied based on the ad author’s age and self-reported DDF status; bias against feminine gender expression varied based on self-reported sexual orientation; bias against “fat” men varied by self-reported DDF status; bias against “ugly” men varied by a self-report of being good-looking; and bias against people who do not have a DDF status varied based on self-reported HIV status and self-reported DDF status. Conclusions

  14. Intragroup Stigma Among Men Who Have Sex with Men: Data Extraction from Craigslist Ads in 11 Cities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Tamar; Vansia, Dhrutika; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) regularly experience homophobic discrimination and stigma. While previous research has examined homophobic and HIV-related intergroup stigma originating from non-MSM directed at MSM, less is known about intragroup stigma originating from within MSM communities. While some research has examined intragroup stigma, this research has focused mostly on HIV-related stigma. Intragroup stigma may have a unique influence on sexual risk-taking behaviors as it occurs between sexual partners. Online sexual networking venues provide a unique opportunity to examine this type of stigma. The purpose of this study is to examine the presence and patterns of various types of intragroup stigma represented in Men Seeking Men Craigslist sex ads. Data were collected from ads on Craigslist sites from 11 of the 12 US metropolitan statistical areas with the highest HIV/AIDS prevalence. Two categories of data were collected: self-reported characteristics of the authors and reported biases in the ads. Chi-square tests were used to examine patterns of biases across cities and author characteristics. Biases were rarely reported in the ads. The most commonly reported biases were against men who were not "disease and drug free (DDF)," representing stigma against men living with HIV or a sexually transmitted infection. Patterns in bias reporting occurred across cities and author characteristics. There were no variations based on race, but ageism (mostly against older men) varied based on the ad author's age and self-reported DDF status; bias against feminine gender expression varied based on self-reported sexual orientation; bias against "fat" men varied by self-reported DDF status; bias against "ugly" men varied by a self-report of being good-looking; and bias against people who do not have a DDF status varied based on self-reported HIV status and self-reported DDF status. Despite an overall low reporting of biases in ads, these findings

  15. Relationships between landscape pattern and land surface temperature and their applications to the study of West Nile Virus: As case studies in cities of Indianapolis and Chicago, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hua

    A new synthesis of remote sensing and landscape ecology approaches was developed to establish relationships between the landscape patterns and land surface temperatures (LST) in the city of Indianapolis, Indiana, United States. Land use and land cover (LULC) and LST images were derived from Terra Satellite's Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) imagery. An analytical procedure using landscape metrics was developed, applying configuration analysis of landscape patterns and land surface temperature zones. Detailed landscape pattern analyses at the landscape and class scales were conducted using landscape metrics in the City of Indianapolis. The effects of spatial resolution on the identification of the relationship were examined in the same city. The best level of equalization between the LULC and LST maps was determined based on minimum distance analysis in landscape metrics space. The analyses of relationships between the landscape patterns and land surface temperatures, and scaling effects were applied to the spread of West Nile Virus (WNV) in the City of Chicago, Illinois. Results show that urban, forest, and grassland were the main landscape components in Indianapolis. They possessed relatively higher fractal dimensions but lower spatial aggregation levels in April 5, 2004, June 16, 2001, and October 3, 2000, but not in February 6, 2006. Obvious seasonal differences existed with the most distinct landscape pattern detected on February 6, 2006. Urban was the dominant LULC type in high-temperature zones, while water and vegetation mainly fell in low-temperature zones. For each individual date, the metrics of LST zones apparently corresponded to the metrics of LULC types. In the study of scaling-up effect analysis, Patch Percentage, Patch Density, and Landscape Shape index were found to be able to effectively quantify the spatial changes of LULC types and temperature zones at different scales without contradiction. Urban, forest

  16. CITY III Director's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Envirometrics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    CITY III is a computer-assisted simulation game which allows the participants to make decisions affecting various aspects of the economic, governmental, and social sectors of a simulated urban area. The game director selects one of five possible starting city configurations, may set a number of conditions in the city before the start of play, and…

  17. Metabolic syndrome in overweight children from the city of Botucatu - São Paulo State - Brazil: agreement among six diagnostic criteria

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The metabolic syndrome has been described in children; however, a standard criterion has not been established for its diagnosis. Also, few studies have been conducted to specifically observe the possible existence of agreement among the existing diagnostic criteria. The purpose of the study is to evaluate agreement concerning prevalence rates of the metabolic syndrome diagnosed by six different criteria in overweight schoolchildren in the city of Botucatu - SP -Brazil. Methods This is a cross-sectional study on 128 overweight schoolchildren. Clinical examination included anthropometry, pubertal staging evaluation, and blood pressure. Triacylglycerol, glycemia, HDL-cholesterol, insulin levels, and HOMA-IR were determined. The Kappa index, the Mann-Whitney test and the chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome varied from 10 to 16.5% according to different diagnostic criteria. Results were similar for boys and girls and pubertal stage. Great agreement was observed among the six different diagnostic criteria for the metabolic syndrome. Conclusions Different diagnostic criteria, when adopted for subjects with similar demographic characteristics, generate similar and compatible prevalence. Results suggest that it is possible to adopt any of the analyzed criteria, and the choice should be according to the components available for each situation. PMID:20529375

  18. Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus to temephos in four study sites in Kuala Lumpur City Center and Selangor State, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chen, C D; Nazni, W A; Lee, H L; Sofian-Azirun, M

    2005-12-01

    Larvae obtained from Taman Samudera (Gombak, Selangor), Kampung Banjar (Gombak, Selangor), Taman Lembah Maju (Cheras, Kuala Lumpur) and Kampung Baru (City centre, Kuala Lumpur) were bioassayed with diagnostic dosage (0.012 mg/L) and operational dosage (1 mg/L) of temephos. All strains of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus showed percentage mortality in the range of 16.00 to 59.05 and 6.4 to 59.50 respectively, after 24 hours. LT50 values for the 6 strains of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were between 41.25 to 54.42 minutes and 52.67 to 141.76 minutes respectively, and the resistance ratio for both Aedes species were in the range of 0.68 to 1.82 when tested with operational dosage, 1 mg/L temephos. These results indicate that Aedes mosquitoes have developed some degree of resistance. However, complete mortality for all strains were achieved after 24 hours when tested against 1 mg/L temephos.

  19. [Oral health on the public agenda: an analysis of Municipal Health Council records in cities from the 17th Regional Health Division in the State of Paraná, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Alves-Souza, Rosani Aparecida; Saliba, Orlando

    2003-01-01

    The present study analyzes interventions pertaining to oral health recorded in the minutes of meetings held by 15 Municipal Health Councils in cities from the 17th Regional Health Division of the State of Paraná, Brazil. Document analysis was performed by identifying health themes, emphasizing categorization of issues related to interventions in oral health. The most frequently analyzed themes were records concerning the programming and organization of oral health services, followed by health budget issues. In 90 of the 591 minutes studied, 134 records pertaining to oral health interventions were identified. An analysis of the latter showed that oral health interventions involve reports of actions already implemented and lack the characteristics of proposals when analyzed from the health planning perspective. This study highlights the need for dentists to expand their representation in such forums in order to play a broader role in the planning process and support oral health as a basic citizen's right.

  20. The Impact of Technological Language Anxiety on Adults Learning to Use Computers, in Esan West L.G.A. of Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olusi, F. I.; Asokhia, M. O.; Longe, B. O.

    2009-01-01

    The importance of studying what affects adult learners and the use computer is motivated by the fact that technological innovations are being churned out in geometrical progression in the 21st century. Not to be computer literate is to be in the realm of darkness. Despite the popularity of computer training some problems still inhibit adults in…

  1. High incidence of co-infection with Malaria and Typhoid in febrile HIV infected and AIDS patients in Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Agwu, E.; Ihongbe, J.C.; Okogun, G.R.A.; Inyang, N.J.

    2009-01-01

    This survey was designed to determine the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum and Salmonella Typhi among febrile HIV/AIDS patients in Ekpoma. Malaria and typhoid risk factors in Ekpoma included occupation, poor health facilities and poor sanitation. Malaria and typhoid are highly prevalent among Ekpoma HIV/AIDS patients. PMID:24031367

  2. Mexico City, Mexico as seen from STS-62

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-03-05

    STS062-84-028 (4-18 March 1994) --- According to NASA scientists this image is the clearest photo of Mexico City taken from United States manned spacecraft. North is to the upper right. Mexico City sits in a basin surrounded by large volcanoes. The restricted atmospheric circulation in the basin, coupled with the inevitable air emissions produced by a city of 20 million people has created a critical air pollution problem for the city. In most photographs of the region, Mexico City is obscured by haze. Scientists feel the clear atmosphere in this photograph may be due, in part, to the stringent air emission restrictions now in place. The clarity of the photograph allows many key cultural features to be identified, including all of the major boulevards, the horse track (western part of the city), the university (south of the city), and the museum areas. Large, man-made ponds east of the city also stand out.

  3. Low-carbon infrastructure strategies for cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, C. A.; Ibrahim, N.; Hoornweg, D.

    2014-05-01

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions to avert potentially disastrous global climate change requires substantial redevelopment of infrastructure systems. Cities are recognized as key actors for leading such climate change mitigation efforts. We have studied the greenhouse gas inventories and underlying characteristics of 22 global cities. These cities differ in terms of their climates, income, levels of industrial activity, urban form and existing carbon intensity of electricity supply. Here we show how these differences in city characteristics lead to wide variations in the type of strategies that can be used for reducing emissions. Cities experiencing greater than ~1,500 heating degree days (below an 18 °C base), for example, will review building construction and retrofitting for cold climates. Electrification of infrastructure technologies is effective for cities where the carbon intensity of the grid is lower than ~600 tCO2e GWh-1 whereas transportation strategies will differ between low urban density (<~6,000 persons km-2) and high urban density (>~6,000 persons km-2) cities. As nation states negotiate targets and develop policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, attention to the specific characteristics of their cities will broaden and improve their suite of options. Beyond carbon pricing, markets and taxation, governments may develop policies and target spending towards low-carbon urban infrastructure.

  4. PLAT X41601 EAST (SALT LAKE CITY CEMETERY LOCATER), SALT LAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLAT X-4-160-1 EAST (SALT LAKE CITY CEMETERY LOCATER), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH AT CEMETERY BETWEEN OLIVE STREET (1020 EAST) AND 1000 EAST STREET, REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 12049, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  5. Statistics of City School Systems, 1927-28. Bulletin, 1929, No. 34

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education, United States Department of the Interior, 1929

    1929-01-01

    This report contains statistics of city public-school systems for the school year ending in June 1928. Certain data are given in detail for all cities having a population of 10,000 and more and summary tables are included for all cities having a population of 2,500 and more. The United States Census Bureau classification of cities is used…

  6. Teenage Pregnancy and Too-Early Childbearing: Public Costs, Personal Consequences. Costs to the Federal Government and Selected States and Cities. 5th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Elizabeth; Waszak, Cynthia

    Since 1986, this annual cost study has provided a measure of what it costs the taxpayer each year to support families that began when the mother was a teenager. Three sets of public costs are estimated; these reflect: (1) how much the United States spends as a result of teenage childbearing in a given year; (2) the public cost over a projected…

  7. Accountability Policy Outcomes Related to No Child Left Behind and Educational Equity for Big5 City Schools in New York State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Hyejin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the association of NCLB/accountability with educational output and input for New York State, collectively. Focusing on ELA and Math achievement in 4th and 8th grades, this study demonstrated the association of accountability outcomes in three ways: "accountability design, school proficiency level, and…

  8. Accountability Policy Outcomes Related to No Child Left Behind and Educational Equity for Big5 City Schools in New York State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Hyejin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the association of NCLB/accountability with educational output and input for New York State, collectively. Focusing on ELA and Math achievement in 4th and 8th grades, this study demonstrated the association of accountability outcomes in three ways: "accountability design, school proficiency level, and…

  9. Simulating City Councils: Increasing Student Awareness and Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinfret, Sara R.

    2012-01-01

    As state capitals and city halls influence our daily lives, how can students become active participants in the affairs of their communities (Saffell and Basehart 2009)? For students to explore this question and local policy making in general, I developed a city council simulation for a state and local government course. This article describes the…

  10. Simulating City Councils: Increasing Student Awareness and Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinfret, Sara R.

    2012-01-01

    As state capitals and city halls influence our daily lives, how can students become active participants in the affairs of their communities (Saffell and Basehart 2009)? For students to explore this question and local policy making in general, I developed a city council simulation for a state and local government course. This article describes the…

  11. Diurnal variations of (218)Po, (214)Pb, and (214)Po and their effect on atmospheric electrical conductivity in the lower atmosphere at Mysore city, Karnataka State, India.

    PubMed

    Pruthvi Rani, K S; Paramesh, L; Chandrashekara, M S

    2014-12-01

    The short-lived radon daughters ((218)Po, (214)Pb, (214)Bi and (214)Po) are natural tracers in the troposphere, in particular near the ground surface. They are electrically charged particles and are chemically reactive. As soon as they are formed they get attached to the aerosol particles of the atmosphere. The behavior of radon daughters is similar to that of aerosols with respect to their growth, transport and removal processes in the atmosphere. The electrical conductivity of the atmosphere is mainly due to the presence of highly mobile ions. Galactic cosmic rays are the main source of ionization in the planetary boundary layer; however, near the surface of the earth, ions are produced mainly by decays of natural radioactive gases emanating from the soil surface and by radiations emitted directly from the surface. Hence the electrical conductivity of air near the surface of the earth is mainly due to radiations emitted by (222)Rn, (218)Po, (214)Pb, (214)Bi and (214)Po, and depends on aerosol concentrations and meteorological parameters. In the present work the diurnal and seasonal variations of radon and its progeny concentrations are studied using Low Level Radon Detection System and Airflow Meter respectively. Atmospheric electrical conductivity of both positive and negative polarities is measured using a Gerdien Condenser. All the measurements were carried out simultaneously at one location in Mysore city (12°N, 76°E), India. The diurnal variation of atmospheric electrical conductivity was found to be similar to that of ion pair production rate estimated from radon and its progeny concentrations with a maximum in the early morning hours and minimum during day time. The annual average concentrations of (222)Rn, (218)Po, (214)Pb, and (214)Po at the study location were found to be 21.46, 10.88, 1.78 and 1.80 Bq m(-3) respectively. The annual average values of positive and negative atmospheric electrical conductivity were found to be 18.1 and 16.6 f S m(-1

  12. Turkey: distribution of cities and change over time.

    PubMed

    Dokmeci, V F

    1986-01-01

    Patterns of urbanization in Turkey from 1945 to 1975 are examined, with emphasis on the analysis of rank-size patterns. Attention is given to changes over time in the national rank-size distribution of cities, the growth rates of new cities, and the rank-size distribution of cities in various regions. "In general, the patterns of distribution of cities in Turkey are quite regular when compared with other developing countries. Since 1945 the city system has moved to a state more adjusted to the rank-size rule, paralleling the economic development of the country." excerpt

  13. Health assessment for Garden State Cleaners Company, Buena Borough, Atlantic City, New Jersey, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NJD053280160. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    The Garden State Cleaners Company is a dry cleaning establishment located in Buena Borough, New Jersey. Contaminated wastewater from on-site operations was routinely discharged to on-site soils. Analytical data has described significant soil and ground-water contamination from tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and other volatile organic compounds. Ground-water contamination downgradient (to the south) of the site has required the recommended closing of private wells and the installation of a municipal water supply system. An Administrative Order and Notice of Civil Administrative Penalty Assessment (AO and PSO) were issued to Garden State Cleaners in December 1985, requiring GSC to perform a full RI/FS. Municipal water supplies have been made available to affected residens, but utilization is elective. The site was included on the NPL list in March 1989 and is currently ranked 105 of 108 sites in New Jersey. ATSDR and NJDOH consider the Garden State Cleaners site to be of public health concern. The site is being considered for follow-up health study or evaluation.

  14. City-Level Energy Decision Making: Data Use in Energy Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation in U.S. Cities

    SciTech Connect

    Aznar, Alexandra; Day, Megan; Doris, Elizabeth; Mathur, Shivani; Donohoo-Vallett, Paul

    2015-07-01

    The report analyzes and presents information learned from a sample of 20 cities across the United States, from New York City to Park City, Utah, including a diverse sample of population size, utility type, region, annual greenhouse gas reduction targets, vehicle use, and median household income. The report compares climate, sustainability, and energy plans to better understand where cities are taking energy-related actions and how they are measuring impacts. Some common energy-related goals focus on reducing city-wide carbon emissions, improving energy efficiency across sectors, increasing renewable energy, and increasing biking and walking.

  15. [Healthy Cities projects].

    PubMed

    Takano, Takehito

    2002-05-01

    This is a review article on "Healthy Cities". The Healthy Cities programme has been developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) to tackle urban health and environmental issues in a broad way. It is a kind of comprehensive policy package to carry out individual projects and activities effectively and efficiently. Its key aspects include healthy public policy, vision sharing, high political commitment, establishment of structural organization, strategic health planning, intersectoral collaboration, community participation, setting approach, development of supportive environment for health, formation of city health profile, national and international networking, participatory research, periodic monitoring and evaluation, and mechanisms for sustainability of projects. The present paper covered the Healthy Cities concept and approaches, rapid urbanization in the world, developments of WHO Healthy Cities, Healthy Cities developments in the Western Pacific Region, the health promotion viewpoint, and roles of research.

  16. 300 Cities Virtual Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    across line items. These differences will provide local, regional, and national comparison data for the next iteration of the Smart Card , an interface...updated weekly)  Tax actions by line item (annual) 15 Incorporated into the Smart Card will be demographic data for each city, simulated...In addition to descriptive city data as above, the Smart Card will contain informative output from our virtual city simulations, and include possibly

  17. Mexico City, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    In this rare clear view of Mexico City, Mexico (19.5N, 99.0W), the network of broad avenues and plazas of the capital city are very evident. The city, built on the remnants of a lake in the caldera of a tremendous extinct volcano, is home to over twenty million people and is slowly sinking as subsidence takes it's toll on the lakebed.

  18. Epidemiological study of paracoccidioidomycosis and histoplasmosis in a suburb of San Félix city, Bolívar state, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Cermeño, Julman; Cermeño, Julmery; Godoy, Gerardo; Hernández, Isabel; Orellán, Yida; Blanco, Ytalia; Penna, Salvador; García, Luily; Mender, Thamara; Gonsálvez, Marisa; López, César; Hernández, Neudys; Longa, Isabel; Gottberg, Esther; Basanta, Amarilys; Castro, Milagros; Millán, Iraida; León, Walesca; Plaz, Flor; Jahouhari, Caroline; Cabello, Ismery

    2009-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies of deep mycosis have been scarce in Bolivar state, where paracoccidioidomycosis and histoplasmosis are considered as endemic diseases. The aim of this study was to determine paracoccidioidomycosis and histoplasmosis prevalences in people from a suburb of San Féix, Bolívar state, Venezuela. Three-hundred volunteers agreed to participate in this study and they were inoculated with paracoccidioidine and histoplasmine. Identification and epidemiologic data were registered. Reading of skin tests after 24 hours was performed in 275 persons. Paracoccidioidine test was positive in 10.2% (n=28). A higher percentage of positive reactions in the age group of 40-50 years old (n=10; 35.7%) was observed. Bricklayers, farmers and miners were positive in 27.3% (3 out of 11), a higher percentage than in people with other occupations. Histoplasmine test was positive in 7.6% of cases (n=21). The higher percentage of reactivity was observed in the age group of 40-50 years old (n=9; 42.9%). There was a direct proportional relationship between staying time in the locality and H. capsulatum infection mainly in persons staying in the area for more than 30 years (p < 0.05). These results showed low prevalences of P. brasiliensis and H. capsulatum infection in this area.

  19. Splenic enlargement and abdominal scarification in childhood malaria. Beliefs, practices and their possible roles in management in Benin City, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ibadin, O M; Ofili, A N; Airauhi, L U; Ozolua, E I; Umoru, A B

    2008-12-01

    To achieve sustainable reduction in malaria burden in Africa, cultural practices that foster increased malaria burden must be addressed. In Edo state Nigeria, scarification/tattooing on the left hypochondrium presumably over an enlarged spleen arising mainly from malaria is widely practiced. This practice is deleterious, diversionary and causes complications. This was a cross-sectional and descriptive study to evaluate the beliefs and practice, regarding abdominal wall scarification in children and within the context of malaria control; It was carried out among experienced women in child care selected from Egor Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria. Information relating to beliefs, knowledge and their practices including possible socio-cultural/economic determinants were obtained with use of questionnaire. Of the 400 questionnaires administered 394 were responded to. The modal age bracket was 26 - 30 years (Range, 18 - 56 years) Respondents were mainly Binis Esan and Ibos amongst others. About 27.0% of respondents considered the spleen a "bag of worms". Other views included "collection of bad blood" 27.2% and as a sickness of its own, 14.7%. Named causes of splenomegaly were fever, 59.6% and evil spirit, 15.5%. Over 45.0% of respondents would consult the herbalists for splenomegaly. Less educated (X2 = 40.0, p<0.005), women over 40 years of age (X2 = 13.5, p< 0.05) and Esan/Bini ethnic groups (X2 = 15.6, p <0.05) are more prone to the practice. Reasons for widespread use included perceived effectiveness, low cost and accessibility. Information on scarification was obtained mainly from family members, 49.5%, neighbours, 25.1%; and friends/colleagues, 16.7% Practice of scarification is deep rooted and widespread in the study location. It has potentials to negate efforts involved in malaria control. Education including public enlightenment campaign should effectively check the practice.

  20. [The Current State of Intercultural Opening in Psychosocial Services--The Results of an Assessment in an Inner-City District of Berlin].

    PubMed

    Penka, Simone; Faißt, Hanna; Vardar, Azra; Borde, Theda; Mösko, Mike Oliver; Dingoyan, Demet; Schulz, Holger; Koch, Uwe; Kluge, Ulrike; Heinz, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    The need for intercultural opening of supply facilities for improving access and treatment of people with migration background is acknowledged in Germany. The purpose of the survey was to determine the current state of intercultural opening of psychosocial services in one Berlin district. 127 representatives of institutions were interviewed using a semi-structured assessment tool. The response rate was very high. The cross-cultural opening was implemented on a small scale. Staff as well as users with migration background were underrepresented. Varying and missing standardized documentation as well as problems in assessing users with migration background might be responsible for their low utilization rates. The use of professional interpreters was often not implemented. To judge the low level of implementation of cross-cultural opening in the psychosocial supply system in general, a review of responsible causes is required. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. [About experience of producing city health profile as a part of the international who healthy cities project].

    PubMed

    Zhilenko, E L; Gomerova, N I; Zakharova, M A; L'vov, A A; Shalygina, L S

    2012-01-01

    The article presents information about the international project "Healthy cities", knowledge about principles and axioms of the project. The authors have analyzed the experience of producing the "City Health Profile" under the project WHO "Healthy cities". The authors believe that the "Health Profile" of each individual city varies depending on specific conditions, both physical (the size of the territory, the state of the environment, its location) and political, and socio-economic. However, the formation of the "City Health Profile" is universally, regardless of geographical location or structure. It was noted that the "City Health Profile" has reflected all aspects of the life of the city, facilitates or barriers the promotion of inhabitants' health and their well-being. For producing of "City Health Profile" additional data are needed: survey, sociological polls of the city population (self-assessment of their health status, lifestyle and quality of life). The advantage of these researches, carried out in the framework of the project "Healthy Cities", is implementation of complex sociological survey with a focused multi-purpose monitoring, covering all spheres of life in the city, to present a versatile, complete and objective evidences to illustrate the city as a territory of health and make up the holistic picture and the centre of which is the citizen and his/her health according to the WHO recommendations.

  2. What is Clean Cities? October 2011 (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Brochure describes the Clean Cities program and includes the contact information for its 85 coalitions. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP), Clean Cities is a government-industry partnership that reduces petroleum consumption in the transportation sector. Clean Cities contributes to the energy, environmental, and economic security of the United States by supporting local decisions to reduce our dependence on imported petroleum. Established in 1993 in response to the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992, the partnership provides tools and resources for voluntary, community-centered programs to reduce consumption of petroleum-based fuels. In nearly 100 coalitions, government agencies and private companies voluntarily come together under the umbrella of Clean Cities. The partnership helps all parties identify mutual interests and meet the objectives of reducing the use of petroleum, developing regional economic opportunities, and improving air quality. Clean Cities deploys technologies and practices developed by VTP. These include idle-reduction equipment, electric-drive vehicles, fuel economy measures, and renewable and alternative fuels, such as natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (propane), electricity, hydrogen, biofuels, and biogas. Idle-reduction equipment is targeted primarily to buses and heavy-duty trucks, which use more than 2 billion gallons of fuel every year in the United States while idling. Clean Cities fuel economy measures include public education on vehicle choice and fuel-efficient driving practices.

  3. 26. 'CITY HOSPITAL, BLACKWELL'S ISLAND.' (Source: New York City Department ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. 'CITY HOSPITAL, BLACKWELL'S ISLAND.' (Source: New York City Department of Public Finance, Real Estate Owned by the City of New York under Jurisdiction of the Department of Public Charities, 1909.) - Island Hospital, Roosevelt Island, New York County, NY

  4. Eligibility and enrollment in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)--27 states and New York City, 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    2013-03-15

    The national Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) provides nutrition education, growth monitoring, breastfeeding promotion and support, and food to low-income pregnant or postpartum women, infants, and children aged <5 years. Several studies have linked WIC services with improved maternal and infant health outcomes. Most population-based studies have lacked information needed to identify eligible women who are not receiving WIC services and might be at risk for poor health outcomes. This report uses multistate, population-based 2007-2008 survey data from CDC's Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) and California's Maternal and Infant Health Assessment (MIHA) to estimate how many women were eligible but not enrolled in WIC during pregnancy and to describe their characteristics and their prevalence of markers of risk for poor maternal or infant health outcomes. Approximately 17% of all women surveyed were eligible but not enrolled in WIC during pregnancy. The proportion of women eligible for WIC and WIC participation rates varied by state. WIC participants had higher prevalences of markers of risk for poor maternal or infant health outcomes than eligible nonparticipants, but both groups had higher prevalences of risk markers than ineligible women, suggesting that many eligible women and their children might benefit from WIC services. The results of this analysis can help identify the scope of WIC outreach needed to include more eligible nonparticipants in WIC and whom to target.

  5. Manpower and the City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolino, August C.

    Stressing the problems of American inner cities, this volume reviews major manpower problems in their urban setting, various Federal training and educational approaches to maximizing the use of manpower, and the directions that these programs may take during the 1970s. Chapter 1 reviews the general economic conditions of American cities.…

  6. Cities, Universities and Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Murray

    To fully understand and appreciate urban colleges and universities, it is essential to be aware of and sensitive to the urban environment. The urban university shares both the advantages and the problems of its surrounding city. The cultural institutions and the diverse population of the city are invaluable resources which, inevitably, embody…

  7. Innovation and the City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleiman, Neil; Forman, Adam; Ko, Jae; Giles, David; Bowles, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    With Washington trapped in budget battles and partisan gridlock, cities have emerged as the best source of government innovation. Nowhere is this more visible than in New York City. Since taking office in 2002, Mayor Bloomberg has introduced a steady stream of innovative policies, from a competition to recruit a new applied sciences campus and a…

  8. Sustainability for Shrinking Cities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Shrinking cities are widespread throughout the world despite the rapidly increasing global urban population. These cities are attempting to transition to sustainable trajectories to improve the health and well-being of urban residents, to build their capacity to adapt to changing...

  9. Build a City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Jean A.

    1985-01-01

    A week-long build-a-city project is described which lets students become familiar with the history of the five Platonic solids (tetrahedron, octahedron, hexahedron, isosahedron, dodecahedron) and then use these solids to create a city using posterboard and construction paper. (MNS)

  10. Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Salt Lake City, Utah, will host the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. The city is located on the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake and sits to the west of the Wasatch Mountains, which rise more than 3,500 meters (10,000 feet) above sea level. The city was first settled in 1847 by pioneers seeking relief from religious persecution. Today Salt Lake City, the capital of Utah, is home to more than 170,000 residents. This true-color image of Salt Lake City was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), flying aboard Landsat 7, on May 26, 2000. The southeastern tip of the Great Salt Lake is visible in the upper left of the image. The furrowed green and brown landscape running north-south is a portion of the Wasatch Mountains, some of which are snow-capped (white pixels). The greyish pixels in the center of the image show the developed areas of the city. A number of water reservoirs can be seen east of the mountain range. Salt Lake City International Airport is visible on the northwestern edge of the city. About 20 miles south of the airport is the Bingham Canyon Copper Mine (tan pixels), the world's largest open pit excavation. See also this MODIS image of Utah. Image courtesy NASA Landsat7 Science Team and USGS Eros Data Center

  11. Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Salt Lake City, Utah, will host the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. The city is located on the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake and sits to the west of the Wasatch Mountains, which rise more than 3,500 meters (10,000 feet) above sea level. The city was first settled in 1847 by pioneers seeking relief from religious persecution. Today Salt Lake City, the capital of Utah, is home to more than 170,000 residents. This true-color image of Salt Lake City was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), flying aboard Landsat 7, on May 26, 2000. The southeastern tip of the Great Salt Lake is visible in the upper left of the image. The furrowed green and brown landscape running north-south is a portion of the Wasatch Mountains, some of which are snow-capped (white pixels). The greyish pixels in the center of the image show the developed areas of the city. A number of water reservoirs can be seen east of the mountain range. Salt Lake City International Airport is visible on the northwestern edge of the city. About 20 miles south of the airport is the Bingham Canyon Copper Mine (tan pixels), the world's largest open pit excavation. See also this MODIS image of Utah. Image courtesy NASA Landsat7 Science Team and USGS Eros Data Center

  12. Walkout in Crystal City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrios, Greg

    2009-01-01

    When students take action, they create change that extends far beyond the classroom. In this article, the author, who was a former teacher from Crystal City, Texas, remembers the student walkout that helped launch the Latino civil rights movement 40 years ago. The Crystal City student walkout remains a high point in the history of student activism…

  13. The Industrial City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohl, Raymond

    1976-01-01

    This article, the sixth installment in Environment's "Looking Back" series, traces the woes of America's industrialized cities to the movement that developed cities primarily as centers for industrial enterprise rather than as places for people to live. Today's social ills, from pollution to poverty, developed from that movement. (BT)

  14. Walkout in Crystal City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrios, Greg

    2009-01-01

    When students take action, they create change that extends far beyond the classroom. In this article, the author, who was a former teacher from Crystal City, Texas, remembers the student walkout that helped launch the Latino civil rights movement 40 years ago. The Crystal City student walkout remains a high point in the history of student activism…

  15. Sustainability for Shrinking Cities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Shrinking cities are widespread throughout the world despite the rapidly increasing global urban population. These cities are attempting to transition to sustainable trajectories to improve the health and well-being of urban residents, to build their capacity to adapt to changing...

  16. Comparation of Organic and Elemental carbon concentrations in PM2.5 in five Mexican cities: Potencial Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera Murillo, J.; Cardenas, B.; Campos-Ramos, A.; Blanco-Jimenez, S.; Angeles-Garcia, F.

    2011-12-01

    During 2006-2010 the National Center for Environmental Research and Training of the National Institute of Ecology of Mexico, carried out several short field studies in the cities of Salamanca, Gto, Tula, Hgo; Guadalajara, Jal; Toluca, Edo Mex; and Tijuana, BC to determine concentration and chemical compositions of PM2.5. These cities, although different in size population have all important industrial and area sources that contribute to high PM2.5 concentrations and therefore potential health impacts. Chemical analyses included organic and elemental carbon for which DRI Model 2001 Thermal/Optical Carbon Analyzer (Atmoslytic Inc, Calabasas, CA, USA) was used. Highest PM2.5 mass mean concentrations were obtained in Salamanca (46 μg/m3), followed by Toluca (43 μg/m3), Guadalajara (37 μg/m3), Tula (20 μg/m3) and Tijuana (18 μg/m3). For Salamanca and Tula, annual levels exceeded the Mexican PM2.5 annual standard of 15 μg/m3. Total carbonaceous aerosol accounted for 41.4%, 41.1%, 32.3%, 29.5% and 29.1% of PM2.5 mass in Tula, Toluca, Guadalajara, Salamanca and Tijuana, respectively. Higher OC2, OC3 and OC4 carbon fractions were observed in Guadalajara, Tijuana and Toluca, indicating an important contribution of gasoline and diesel vehicles emissions in these cities. As for Tula and Salamanca, cities in which refineries and power plants are present, OC3, OC4, EC1 and EC2 represent the higher fractions which could be attributed to stationary sources that use heavy fuels for their combustion process. UNMIX and PMF analyses were used in order to identify the most important sources that contributes to OC and EC concentrations.

  17. Daily Water Use in Nine Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidment, David R.; Miaou, Shaw-Pin

    1986-06-01

    Transfer functions are used to model the short-term response of daily municipal water use to rainfall and air temperature variations. Daily water use data from nine cities are studied, three cities each from Florida, Pennsylvania, and Texas. The dynamic response of water use to rainfall and air temperature is similar across the cities within each State; in addition the responses of the Texas and Florida cities are very similar to one another while the response of the Pennsylvania cities is more sensitive to air temperature and less to rainfall. There is little impact of city size on the response functions. The response of water use to rainfall depends first on the occurrence of rainfall and second on its magnitude. The occurrence of a rainfall more than 0.05 in./day (0.13 cm/day) causes a drop in the seasonal component of water use one day later that averages 38% for the Texas cities, 42% for the Florida cities, and 7% for the Pennsylvania cities. In Austin, Texas, a spatially averaged rainfall series shows a clearer relationship with water use than does rainfall data from a single gage. There is a nonlinear response of water use to air temperature changes with no response for daily maximum air temperatures between 40° and 70°F (4-21°C) an increase in water use with air temperature beyond 70°F; above 85°-90°F (29°-32°C) water use increases 3-5 times more per degree than below that limit in Texas and Florida. The model resulting from these studies can be used for daily water use forecasting and water conservation analysis.

  18. First Job Search of Residents in the United States: A Survey of Anesthesiology Trainees' Interest in Academic Positions in Cities Distant from Previous Residences.

    PubMed

    Dexter, Franklin; De Oliveira, Gildasio S; McCarthy, Robert J

    2016-01-15

    We surveyed anesthesiology residents to evaluate the predictive effect of prior residence on desired location for future practice opportunities. One thousand five hundred United States anesthesiology residents were invited to participate. One question asked whether they intend to enter academic practice when they graduate from their residency/fellowship training. The analysis categorized the responses into "surely yes" and "probably" versus "even," "probably not," and "surely no." "After finishing your residency/fellowship training, are you planning to look seriously (e.g., interview) at jobs located more than a 2-hour drive from a location where you or your family (e.g., spouse or partner/significant other) have lived previously?" Responses were categorized into "very probably" and "somewhat probably" versus "somewhat improbably" and "not probable." Other questions explored predictors of the relationships quantified using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (area under the curve) ± its standard error. Among the 696 respondents, 36.9% (N = 256) would "probably" consider an academic practice. Fewer than half of those (P < 0.0001) would "very probably" consider a distant location (31.6%, 99% CI 24.4%-39.6%). Respondents with prior formal research training (e.g., PhD or Master's) had greater interest in academic practice at a distant location (AUC 0.63 ± 0.03, P = 0.0002). Except among respondents with formal research training, a good question to ask a job applicant is whether the applicant or the applicant's family has previously lived in the area.

  19. The city of Ottawa.

    PubMed

    1986-06-01

    As Canada's capital, Ottawa's main business is government. The City of Ottawa is a low-density residential community with an abundance of open space. The unprecedented development boom in the City of Ottawa's industrial, commercial, and residential sectors since 1981 reversed the city's declining population trend and slowed the continuous loss of inner-city residents to suburban neighborhoods and new communities outside the city. Ottawa's population is skewed toward an older population because professionals migrate to the city for work and do not leave as they age. In 1981, 8% of Ottawa's population was over 65 years old; by 2001 this percentage is expected to jump to 20%. Although Ottawa's population declined from 1961 to 1981, the total number of households grew at about 4% annually. The trend toward small household formation is expected to continue with the traditional family taking more and more of a minority position. Average household size declined from 3.2 in 1971 to an estimated 2.2 in 1984. There are approximately 147,100 dwelling units in the City of Ottawa of which 12,000 are nonconventional. A realistic density, excluding government-owned public and open space lands, is 15.6 housing units per acre. About half of all dwelling units are low density. By 1984, the city counted 69 shopping centers with over 4 million square feet of floor space. Ottawa's major employer is the federal government, with about 40% of all jobs within the city being civil service. Employment participation rates have increased signficiantly at just over 70% in 1983, up from 62% in 1971, due largely to increased participation by women. The City of Ottawa leads surrounding areas in per capita income due primarily to the increase in the number of young professionals who make up 1 and 2-person households.

  20. [Efficacy, safety and acceptability of precipitated sulphur petrolatum for topical treatment of scabies at the city of Coro, Falcon State, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Díaz, Mayela; Cazorla, Dalmiro; Acosta, María

    2004-01-01

    In spite of sulphur ointment has been applied during centuries in the treatment of human scabies, nevertheless, its clinical efficacy, as well as safety and acceptability has not been clearly demonstrated. During September 2001-March 2002, attempts have been made to assess the efficacy, safety and acceptability of a mixture of precipitated sulphur 2-8% petrolatum for the treatment of 40 ambulatory consultant patients, of all age groups, including children under 1 year of age, pregnant and lacting women, with suggestive sarcoptic cutaneous lesions from Coro, Falcon State, Venezuela. The diagnosis was made by clinical examination and microscope observation (KOH 10%) of scrapings of cutaneous lesions. The acceptability were quantified using visual analogue scale (VAS) and other two behavioral (BS) scores. Enrolled patients applied ointment 1 daily dose for 6 days, 1 week rest, repeated for 2 days, thoroughly washing off with neutral soap and applying lubricant cream. Differential schedule concentrations were: 2% for children below 2 years and up to 6 years old; 2-5% for scholars, adolescents and pregnant; 5-8% for adults and elderly; being exposition time to the ointment of 3 hours for children under 2 years old, and overnight for reminding age-groups. Efficacy was evaluated 7-30 days post-treatment by clinic observation, quantification and scraping of the sarcoptic lesions. A safety assessment was based on adverse effects reported by patients or observed by the physician. 38 (95%) out of 40 patients were clinical and ectoparasitologically cured 7-30 days after cessation of ointment application, with no relapses or relevant adverse effects, producing a significant (t = 9.26; p < 0.0001) decrease at the end of evaluation period in the median values of number of lesions (28.08-9.18 vs. 0.00). Only 2 (5%) patients developed a mild dermatitis reaction, and subsequently no completed the follow up. It's proven highly therapeutic effectiveness as well as widely availability

  1. Occurrence of 226Ra in Ground Waters From a Granitic Aquifer at the City of Itatiba, Eastern Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, R. N.; Lucas, F. D.; Brenha Ribeiro, F.

    2007-05-01

    Among the naturally occurring radionuclides, 226Ra play an important role in establishing the ground water radioactivity level. In this work, it is presented the 226Ra activity concentration measured in ground water drawn from a granitic fractured aquifer at the Ribeira Folded Belt, eastern Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The ground water samples were collected twice in the same well in June, 2nd and July 6th, 2005. After discarding about fifteen minutes of continuous well pumping, ground waters samples are collected in 50 L polyethylene containers, previously conditioned with nitric acid, 0.03 mol/L. The water temperature, pH and Eh are measured at the sampling site. The water samples were preserved by addition of 2.0 mL of concentrated nitric acid to lower its pH to less than 2. In laboratory, three 20 L aliquots were selected for independent radiochemical processing. Radium is precipitated from water samples in the form of barium-radium sulfate. The barium-radium precipitate is filtered and dried over the filter paper. The radium containing filter is then sealed with an adhesive plastic film and hermetically closed in a rigid polystyrene sample holder. The sample is left at rest for at least 40 days to allow the short lived daughters (222Rn, 214Pb and 214Bi) reach secular radioactive equilibrium with 226Ra. The radium activity is then indirectly measured by gamma-ray spectrometry through the full absorption peaks from the 214Pb and 214Bi. The gamma-ray spectrometry activity measurements are made by comparison with 226Ra standards. These standards were prepared by the radium precipitation from secondary standard solutions obtained by dilution of a (19.52 +/- 0.72) Bq/g 226Ra solution. The precipitate standards were prepared following the procedure adopted for the ground water samples. The observed 226Ra activity concentration were (43 +/- 2) mBq/L and (46 +/- 3) mBq/L, for the first and second water sampling campaigns, respectively.

  2. Atmospheric pollution in cities of Russia: statistics, causes and characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, A.; Petrova, D.

    2017-06-01

    The article considers the issues of air pollution assessment in Russian industrial regions (2014) and cities (2012). The statistical data is presented both in terms of absolute emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere of Russian cities and relative air pollution calculated for 1 average statistical inhabitant. Classifications of the ecological state of Russian cities on the basis of specific (per inhabitant) air pollution and the air pollution by predominant type source (stationary or non-stationary) are proposed.

  3. A Study of Near-Surface Seismic Methods on Terrain Susceptible to Landslides in the City of Campos do Jordão, State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shams, B. S.

    2015-12-01

    This study seeks to prove the usefulness of near-surface seismic methods as complementary data to conventional geotechnical and geological data in the characterization of areas of landslide risk. The setting is located in a low income housing neighborhood in the city of Campos do Jordão, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The area was devastated by numerous landslides between December 1999 to January 2000 after heavy rainfall in the area. Currently the area is being monitored by the National Center for Monitoring and Warning of Natural Disasters (CEMADEN). The landslides in this area are known to be shallow. The survey line passes within a couple feet of the CEMADEN monitoring station which measures soil temperature, soil moisture, rainfall intensity, and rainfall accumulation (Mendes et. al 2015). Refraction and Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) surveys were performed. In order to better identify the fundamental mode of the Rayleigh wave, separate surveys isolating the vertical and radial components of the Rayleigh wave were performed. By comparing the obtained Shear wave (Vs) and Compressional wave (Vp) profiles with the already known geotechnical data provided by CEMADEN and geological data from a previous study (Ahrendt 2005) of the site a better understanding of the geological interfaces that constitute the landslide prone area is obtained.

  4. Object-Based Image Analysis of WORLDVIEW-2 Satellite Data for the Classification of Mangrove Areas in the City of SÃO LUÍS, MARANHÃO State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kux, H. J. H.; Souza, U. D. V.

    2012-07-01

    Taking into account the importance of mangrove environments for the biodiversity of coastal areas, the objective of this paper is to classify the different types of irregular human occupation on the areas of mangrove vegetation in São Luis, capital of Maranhão State, Brazil, considering the OBIA (Object-based Image Analysis) approach with WorldView-2 satellite data and using InterIMAGE, a free image analysis software. A methodology for the study of the area covered by mangroves at the northern portion of the city was proposed to identify the main targets of this area, such as: marsh areas (known locally as Apicum), mangrove forests, tidal channels, blockhouses (irregular constructions), embankments, paved streets and different condominiums. Initially a databank including information on the main types of occupation and environments was established for the area under study. An image fusion (multispectral bands with panchromatic band) was done, to improve the information content of WorldView-2 data. Following an ortho-rectification was made with the dataset used, in order to compare with cartographical data from the municipality, using Ground Control Points (GCPs) collected during field survey. Using the data mining software GEODMA, a series of attributes which characterize the targets of interest was established. Afterwards the classes were structured, a knowledge model was created and the classification performed. The OBIA approach eased mapping of such sensitive areas, showing the irregular occupations and embankments of mangrove forests, reducing its area and damaging the marine biodiversity.

  5. Know Your Rights Handbook: The 2007-08 New York State Education Budget and Reform Law and State Education Department Regulations, as Amended in 2008-09. New York City Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campaign for Fiscal Equity, Inc., 2008

    2008-01-01

    In April 2007, the New York State Legislature and the Governor passed historic education legislation to provide a multi-year, massive infusion of new school funding; the creation of a clear cut system of accountability that will focus on putting into practice key educational strategies; and a fair and simple funding formula, known as Foundation…

  6. Know Your Rights Handbook: The 2007-08 New York State Education Budget and Reform Law and State Education Department Regulations, as Amended in 2008-09. New York City Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campaign for Fiscal Equity, Inc., 2008

    2008-01-01

    In April 2007, the New York State Legislature and the Governor passed historic education legislation to provide a multi-year, massive infusion of new school funding; the creation of a clear cut system of accountability that will focus on putting into practice key educational strategies; and a fair and simple funding formula, known as Foundation…

  7. Great cities look small

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Aaron; Yaliraki, Sophia N.; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P. H.

    2015-01-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximizing the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterize the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of gross domestic product and human immunodeficiency virus infection rates across US metropolitan areas, we illustrate the effect of changes in local and city-wide connectivities by considering the economic impact of two contemporary inter- and intra-city transport developments in the UK: High Speed 2 and London Crossrail. This derivation of the model suggests that the scaling of different urban indicators with population size has an explicitly mechanistic origin. PMID:26179988

  8. Great cities look small.

    PubMed

    Sim, Aaron; Yaliraki, Sophia N; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-08-06

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximizing the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterize the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of gross domestic product and human immunodeficiency virus infection rates across US metropolitan areas, we illustrate the effect of changes in local and city-wide connectivities by considering the economic impact of two contemporary inter- and intra-city transport developments in the UK: High Speed 2 and London Crossrail. This derivation of the model suggests that the scaling of different urban indicators with population size has an explicitly mechanistic origin.

  9. Starrett City energy exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The Starrett City/26th Ward Energy Project is a joint effort of Starrett City (a privately owned and operated 5881-unit high rise housing complex located in Brooklyn, NY) and the city of New York Department of Environmental Protection to develop the means to utilize waste-derived energy produced as by-products of municipal waste water treatment. Starrett City, a development of over 20,000 residents with its own schools, shopping and community centers, and power plant, is located directly across the street from the City of New York's 26th Ward Water Pollution Control Plant. Out of five energy exchange options, a cooperative project team recommended three: (1) transmitting all digester gas from the 26th Ward wastewater sewage-treatment facility to Starrett's cogeneration-type total energy plant (TEP), (2) piping hot water from the Starrett TEP to provide space and process heat to the 26th Ward, and (3) pumping treated effluent from the 26th Ward to the TEP to eliminate the need for Starrett's cooling tower. Starrett City assumed all installation and maintenance costs, both on city property and the TEP. Starrett projects a 53$ million saving in fuel costs over the next 20 years. The project will serve as a model for similar energy resource development efforts and offer the rationale for the private sector and municipalities to build together for the future.

  10. City Lights of Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Growth in 'mega-cities' is altering the landscape and the atmosphere in such a way as to curtail normal photosynthesis. By using data from The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System, researchers have been able to look at urban sprawl by monitoring the emission of light from cities at night. By overlaying these 'light maps' onto other data such as soil and vegetation maps, the research shows that urbanization can have a variable but measurable impact on photosynthetic productivity. For more information, read Bright Lights, Big City Image by the NASA GSFC Scientific Visualization Studio

  11. The establishment of the School of Public Health at the State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center: the first nationally accredited school of public health in a public university in New York City.

    PubMed

    Imperato, Pascal James; LaRosa, Judith H; Kavaler, Florence; Benker, Karen; Schechter, Leslie

    2011-02-01

    The State University of New York (SUNY), Downstate Medical Center initiated a Master of Public Health (MPH) degree program in July 2001 following planning efforts that began in 1995. Twelve students entered the program in June 2002, and currently some 110 MPH students and 12 Doctor of Public Health (DrPH) students are enrolled. This article describes the long and complex process of transforming the original MPH degree program, with its single focus on urban and immigrant health, with a student enrollment of 12 and 8 full-time faculty, into a school of public health with a large student enrollment of 122 students, 25 full-time faculty, five MPH degree tracks, and four DrPH degree tracks. The process of establishing the SUNY Downstate School of Public Health in 2009 from its inception as an MPH program in 2001 spanned a period of 8 years. This process was guided by a commitment to two basic principles. The first was to maintain the original 2005 program accreditation by the Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH). The second was to sequentially secure accreditation for all subsequent four MPH and four DrPH degree tracks through CEPH's procedure of substantive change approval. This policy assured continuous national CEPH accreditation of the original Urban and Immigrant Health MPH degree track and all added degree programs. The 5-year period following the initial CEPH accreditation of the MPH program in 2005 was one of intense development during which all of the essential elements for CEPH accreditation of a school of public health were put into place. This rapid development was made possible by the vision and full support of Downstate's president, John C. LaRosa, MD, FACP, and the dedicated efforts of many. This included the students, faculty, staff, and administrators of the School of Public Health, the school's Community Advisory Group, several external advisors, and many in the medical center's Central Administration, College of Medicine, School of Graduate

  12. American Podiatric Medical Association Best Walking City Competition, 2003.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Allan H; Tzamaras, George Paul; Scherer, Julia E

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, the American Podiatric Medical Association conducted its second annual "Walking City Competition." The objective of the study was to update and expand on the results of a previous study conducted in 2002, taking into account a wider variety of measures of walking and walking conditions and identifying the best cities for walking in the United States on a regional basis.

  13. Factors Affecting Principal Turnover: A Study of Three Midwestern Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belt, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. This dissertation addresses the problem of principal turnover. Using state and city level administrative data, a study of principals and their schools in greater Kansas City, Missouri, St. Louis, Missouri, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin, was conducted with the goal of discovering themes that emerge regarding the factors associated with turnover…

  14. Statistics of Large City School Districts. 1983 Edition. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, James Gordon

    This paper provides statistical data on 20 large city school districts across the United States, using information made available by the National Center for Education Statistics, the Bureau of Census, and the Department of Commerce. It includes information on student enrollment in 20 cities whose pupil membership in 1980-81 ranged from one million…

  15. Distress in the City: Racism, Fundamentalism and a Democratic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Linden

    2016-01-01

    Every day brings news about so-called Islamic State and its seduction of young people in the West. The radicalization of young Muslims causes alarm; even the desirability of multiculturalism is questioned in troubled cities where racism and Islamophobia are on the rise. This book is a case study of one distressed post-industrial city struggling…

  16. Recent Movements in City School Systems. Bulletin, 1927, No. 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deffenbaugh, W. S.

    1927-01-01

    The growth of cities has created many new social, economic, and educational problems in the United States, for within a half century the country has become not predominantly rural but predominantly urban. The cities of the country have become the centers of political, industrial, and commercial power, as well as of wealth, education, and culture.…

  17. Distress in the City: Racism, Fundamentalism and a Democratic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Linden

    2016-01-01

    Every day brings news about so-called Islamic State and its seduction of young people in the West. The radicalization of young Muslims causes alarm; even the desirability of multiculturalism is questioned in troubled cities where racism and Islamophobia are on the rise. This book is a case study of one distressed post-industrial city struggling…

  18. Global City Lights

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-11-09

    The Eastern U.S., Europe, and Japan are brightly lit by their cities, while interiors of Africa, Asia, Australia, and South America are dark and lightly populated in this image created in 2000 by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

  19. City of Parsons, Kansas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the city of Parsons, KS, for alleged violations at the wastewater treatment plant located at 1636 22000 Rd, Parsons, KS 67357.

  20. City sewer collectors biocorrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksiażek, Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the biocorrosion of city sewer collectors impregnated with special polymer sulphur binders, polymerized sulphur, which is applied as the industrial waste material. The city sewer collectors are settled with a colony of soil bacteria which have corrosive effects on its structure. Chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria utilize the residues of halites (carbamide) which migrate in the city sewer collectors, due to the damaged dampproofing of the roadway and produce nitrogen salts. Chemoorganotrophic bacteria utilize the traces of organic substrates and produce a number of organic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, citric, oxalic and other). The activity of microorganisms so enables the origination of primary and secondary salts which affect physical properties of concretes in city sewer collectors unfavourably.

  1. City of Waukee, Iowa

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against City of Waukee, Iowa, for alleged violations at the Westown Parkway and R22 Intersection Improvement Project construction site in Waukee, Iowa 50263.

  2. Cincinnati; Our Convention City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borchin, Anna

    1970-01-01

    During Easter week, 1971, Cincinnati will be the hostess of the 50th anniversary convention of the Catholic Library Association. Items of historical interest concerning the city are briefly described. (NH)

  3. City of Albia, Iowa

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the City of Albia, located at 120 South A Street, Albia, Iowa 52531, for alleged violations at the Waste Water Treatment Plant.

  4. The Sustainable City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangloff, Deborah

    1995-01-01

    Focuses on methods to make cities more sustainable through the processes of energy efficiency, pollution and waste reduction, capture of natural processes, and the merger of ecological, economic, and social factors. (LZ)

  5. Towards healthy cities.

    PubMed

    Satterthwaite, D

    1996-01-01

    Cities contain many of the world's most unhealthy living environments. They are considered ecologically unsustainable because of high consumption and waste levels, attributed to high population density. However, well planned and managed cities can combine high living standards with remarkably low levels of energy consumption, resource use and wastes. The concentration of people and production creates many more possibilities of collecting and recycling wastes and for walking, bicycling and a high quality public transport. This potential for providing healthy, stimulating and valued places to live and work for all age groups could be achieved with good governance. In any city, this approach means encouragement and support from all levels of government for a great range of investments of capital, expertise and time by individuals, households, communities, voluntary organizations and nongovernmental organizations, as well as private enterprises. Moreover, this means managing competing claims and finding common ground between enterprises, trade unions and residents about what should be done to make the city healthier.

  6. ROBOTS TO ROCKET CITY

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-06

    HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FROM NORTH ALABAMA GATHER AT THE U.S. SPACE AND ROCKET CENTER'S DAVIDSON CENTER FOR THE "ROBOTS TO ROCKET CITY" EVENT SHOWCASING THEIR INDIVIDUAL ROBOTS PRIOR TO LATER COMPETITIONS.

  7. [Cities in peril, Mahgreb].

    PubMed

    Naciri, M

    1994-10-01

    The urban population has surpassed 50% in the Maghreb: first in Tunisia, followed by Algeria and Morocco. This phenomenon has greatly affected the distribution of power and the forms of its exercise in the political, social, and economic domain. The old city social strata are becoming extinct while city management is falling more and more under the control of cadres originally from rural areas. Urbanization is occurring at a slower pace than in other developing countries, however. In Morocco, the small- and medium-sized towns are growing at a faster rate than the cities. Their lack of infrastructure and services, like those that exist in the periphery of large cities, preoccupies the small- and medium-sized towns. The urban explosion is much more contained than its management is adapting. Legal and illegal housing will dominate the Moroccan city in the future. In the last decade, Moroccan authorities have tried to establish mechanisms to integrate populations in slums and illegal housing with the urban space. The Tunisians are also working on this. In Algeria, the rigid, urban formal management leaves no room to develop any type of housing. The problem of housing is even more grave here than the other 2 countries. Structural adjustment policies promote selling rather than renting houses. The government is not involved in social and health services. Algeria has a 2-tier society: a minority involved in the private sector and the majority who depends on the collapsing public sector which cannot meet the great needs of the poor. Persons with college degrees are unemployed in Algeria. One no longer knows how to build towns with the traditional medinas. The transportation system is falling apart in cities. Cities dump liquid and solid wastes directly into the sea or the wadis. The major risk of maghrebian cities lies in socioeconomic inequalities.

  8. Exodus to cities and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, K

    1990-08-15

    Concerns about deterioration of the quality of life in mega-cities in India, thought to be due to in-migration, are shown to be misplaced in this essay. Not only is the deterioration due merely to rising expectations, but its causes are problems on a national level. It is true that population growth in the 12 largest cities in India, 3.35%, is more rapid than growth rates in the country as a whole, 2.22%. Bangalore is growing the fastest, 5.68% annually, but generally Indian cities are growing less rapidly that many other Asian cities, e.g. Dacca, 7.37%. Urbanization to the extent of 60.70% of the population is in fact necessary for development. The primary reason for in-migration is employment for men, and marriage accompanying employed husbands for women. Contrary to common opinion, the educational status of in- migrants is higher than that of the region, and female literacy is higher in cities than in the rest of the state, e.g., 61% for Bombay, vs. 35% in Maharashtra State. The occupational status is frequently high: production, transport equipment operator, laborer, professional, technical executive managerial, sales and service. Furthermore, as urbanization proceeds, construction laborers and service workers are in demand. Quality of life defined by infant and maternal mortality is higher in cities than in the surrounding rural area. This quality of life is the reason why people migrate to the city. Unfortunately, frustrations are also rising as expectations for improved housing, water, air, transportation and consumer-durables rise faster than they can be supplied.

  9. Tri-Cities Index of Innovation and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, Richard A.; Scott, Michael J.; Butner, Ryan S.

    2011-01-17

    In 2001 and 2004, the Economic Development Office of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory published companion reports to the Washington Technology Center Index studies that provided additional information on the Tri-Cities (Kennewick-Richland-Pasco) area of the state, its technology businesses, and important advantages that the Tri-Cities have as places to live and do business. These reports also compared the Tri-Cities area to other technology-based metropolitan areas in the Pacific Northwest and nation along critical dimensions known to be important to technology firms. This report updates the material in these earlier reports, and highlights a growing Tri-Cities metropolitan area.

  10. Sinking coastal cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, G.; Bucx, T.; Dam, R.; de Lange, G.; Lambert, J.

    2015-11-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. A major cause for severe land subsidence is excessive groundwater extraction related to rapid urbanization and population growth. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs for (infra)structure. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. As subsidence is often spatially variable and can be caused by multiple processes, an assessment of subsidence in delta cities needs to answer questions such as: what are the main causes? What is the current subsidence rate and what are future scenarios (and interaction with other major environmental issues)? Where are the vulnerable areas? What are the impacts and risks? How can adverse impacts be mitigated or compensated for? Who is involved and responsible to act? In this study a quick-assessment of subsidence is performed on the following mega-cities: Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok. Results of these case studies will be presented and compared, and a (generic) approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas is provided.

  11. 300 Cities - An Exploration in Characterizing US Cities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    Computational Analysis of Social and Organizational Systems CASOS technical report. This work was supported by the IRS...Cities CMU-ISR-08-122 - 1 - CASOS Report Overview The goal of the 300-Cities Project is to identify canonical city types, which can subsequently...person. 300 Cities CMU-ISR-08-122 - 2 - CASOS Report the agent-class analysis, followed by similar descriptions of the city-match analysis. A

  12. Learning Cities on the Move

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The modern Learning City concept emerged from the work of OECD on lifelong learning with streams of Learning Cities and Educating Cities having much in common but having little contact with each other. While the early development of Learning Cities in the West has not been sustained, the present situation is marked by the dynamic development of…

  13. Avoiding decline: Fostering resilience and sustainability in midsize cities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Birge, Hannah E.; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Bevans, Rebecca A.; Burnett, Jessica L.; Cosens, Barbara; Cai, Ximing; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Linkov, Igor; Scott, Elizabeth A.; Solomon, Mark D.; Uden, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    Eighty-five percent of United States citizens live in urban areas. However, research surrounding the resilience and sustainability of complex urban systems focuses largely on coastal megacities (>1 million people). Midsize cities differ from their larger counterparts due to tight urban-rural feedbacks with their immediate natural environments that result from heavy reliance and close management of local ecosystem services. They also may be less path-dependent than larger cities due to shorter average connection length among system components, contributing to higher responsiveness among social, infrastructural, and ecological feedbacks. These distinct midsize city features call for a framework that organizes information and concepts concerning the sustainability of midsize cities specifically. We argue that an integrative approach is necessary to capture properties emergent from the complex interactions of the social, infrastructural, and ecological subsystems that comprise a city system. We suggest approaches to estimate the relative resilience of midsize cities, and include an example assessment to illustrate one such estimation approach. Resilience assessments of a midsize city can be used to examine why some cities end up on sustainable paths while others diverge to unsustainable paths, and which feedbacks may be partially responsible. They also provide insight into how city planners and decision makers can use information about the resilience of midsize cities undergoing growth or shrinkage relative to their larger and smaller counterparts, to transform them into long-term, sustainable social-ecological systems.

  14. Detection of Fracture Patterns Within the Southern Portion of a Residential Complex (Tepozanes), Los Reyes-La Paz County (Edo. de Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, R. E.; Arango, C.; Tejero, A.; Cifuentes, G.; Hernandez, E.

    2008-12-01

    Most of the urban zone within the Valley of Mexico is built on top of the sediments of the ancient lakes of Chalco, Xochimilco, Mexico, Texcoco, Xaltocan and Zumpango. The sediments that cover this great valley are mainly composed by highly saturated clay-sandy materials; which offer a weak resistance to the constructions built on top. In addition, the increasing need of water supply for the population living in the valley (~22 million inhabitants) has weakened the main groundwater aquifers. This has lead to a differentiated subsidence and collapse of buildings, habitation units and roads. These effects put in a serious risk the inhabitants and the infrastructure of the city. As an example, we present a case of an area located in a densely populated zone, within a low-income residential complex denominated Tepozanes. This is located in the Los Reyes-La Paz County (Mexico State), towards the southeastern portion of the Valley of Mexico. The area is geologically limited by the Chimalhuacan Hill to the N, by the Santa Catarina volcanic range to the S. The previously mentioned effects are evident in the constructions of some buildings, where an exposed fracture is found in the NE-SW direction. This feature is affecting the structure of one of them in the residential complex, where the fracture runs underneath. A geophysical study was proposed to characterize the subsoil and to define the fracturing patterns in the zone. The electrical resistivity tomography (ETR) method employing the capacitive and galvanic modes was used to define the fracturing patters and the position at depth of the saturated layers, which might affect the Residential buildings. As a complement, GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) profiles were carried out on the same profiles to correlate the information obtained from the ETR capacitive method which has a better resolution in the shallower zone. The computed results show that the buildings foundations were set on top of a high resistivity layer (~1000

  15. Sinking Coastal Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, G.; Stuurman, R.; De Lange, G.; Bucx, T.; Lambert, J.

    2014-12-01

    In many coastal cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will continue to sink, even below sea level. The ever increasing industrial and domestic demand for water in these cities results in excessive groundwater extraction, causing severe subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by climate-induced sea level rise. Land subsidence results in two types damage: foremost it increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. Secondly, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs of roads and transportation networks, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. To survey the extent of groundwater associated subsidence, we conducted a quick-assessment of subsidence in a series of mega-cities (Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok). For each city research questions included: what are the main causes, how much is the current subsidence rate and what are predictions, where are the vulnerable areas, what are the impacts and risks, how can adverse impacts can be mitigated or compensated for, and what governmental bodies are involved and responsible to act? Using the assessment, this paper discusses subsidence modelling and measurement results from the selected cities. The focus is on the importance of delayed settlement after increases in hydraulic heads, the role of the subsurface composition for subsidence rates and best practice solutions for subsiding cities. For the latter, urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management

  16. Brazilian city planners, American city planning? New perspectives on urban planning in Rio de Janeiro, 1930-1945.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Vera F

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the connections between the ideas and principles of American city planning from 1920 with those articulated by Brazilian city planners in the 1930s and implemented by the administration of the City of Rio de Janeiro, then the capital of Brazil, notably during the period of the Estado Novo [The New State] from 1937 to 1945. In a period characterized by the centralization of political power and the concentration of decision-making in the hands of the president and the state, the City of Rio de Janeiro undertook a series of restructuring projects which utilized new forms of administration and organization. This article explores the links between urban planning in Brazil and the USA that were a notable feature of these projects. It examines particular requirements set down in city plans, city planning commissions and funding for urban activities, such as 'excess condemnation', by focusing upon articles and books written by four Brazilian engineers and proposals put forward by the American City Planning Institute, detailed in the proceedings of the National Conference on City Planning, in the periodical, City Planning and works by affiliated authors.

  17. 15. Photocopy of Engineering Drawing, Structural Steel Details (from City ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy of Engineering Drawing, Structural Steel Details (from City of Norton Shores) - William S. Antisdale Memorial State Reward Bridge, Spanning Mona Lake at Henry Street, Norton Shores, Muskegon County, MI

  18. Universities scale like cities.

    PubMed

    van Raan, Anthony F J

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

  19. Universities Scale Like Cities

    PubMed Central

    van Raan, Anthony F. J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the ‘gross university income’ in terms of total number of citations over ‘size’ in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities -the top-100 European universities- we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment. PMID:23544062

  20. STS-36 night Earth observation of New York City, New York

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-36 Earth observation shows New York City, New York at night lit up along the Eastern seaboard of the United States and the Atlantic Ocean. The city lights designate the densely populated central city and the major highways surrounding it.

  1. 3 CFR 8757 - Proclamation 8757 of November 18, 2011. National Farm-City Week, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... secure our clean energy future. During National Farm-City Week, we celebrate the essential contributions... Farm-City Week, 2011 8757 Proclamation 8757 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8757 of November 18, 2011 Proc. 8757 National Farm-City Week, 2011By the President of the United States of America...

  2. 41 CFR 102-173.55 - What is the naming convention for Cities and Townships?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... domain name with the city (town) name or abbreviation, and clear reference to the State in which the city... dash. Examples of preferred domain names include— (i) Chicago-il.gov; (ii) Cityofcharleston-sc.gov... TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.55 What is the naming convention for Cities and...

  3. 41 CFR 102-173.55 - What is the naming convention for Cities and Townships?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... domain name with the city (town) name or abbreviation, and clear reference to the State in which the city... dash. Examples of preferred domain names include— (i) Chicago-il.gov; (ii) Cityofcharleston-sc.gov... TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN Registration § 102-173.55 What is the naming convention for Cities and...

  4. Keeping Track of New York City's Children: The Millenium Edition, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens' Committee for Children of New York, NY.

    This publication presents data about population characteristics in New York City from city, state, and federal agencies and synthesizes large data sets into basic indicators of social and economic wellbeing and tracking conditions for children in New York City's 59 community districts. It ranks child wellbeing in the districts across a range of…

  5. Keeping Track of New York City's Children: The Millenium Edition, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens' Committee for Children of New York, NY.

    This publication presents data about population characteristics in New York City from city, state, and federal agencies and synthesizes large data sets into basic indicators of social and economic wellbeing and tracking conditions for children in New York City's 59 community districts. It ranks child wellbeing in the districts across a range of…

  6. STS-36 night Earth observation of New York City, New York

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-03-03

    STS-36 Earth observation shows New York City, New York at night lit up along the Eastern seaboard of the United States and the Atlantic Ocean. The city lights designate the densely populated central city and the major highways surrounding it.

  7. Splenic enlargement and abdominal scarifications in childhood malaria: beliefs, practices and their possible roles in management as seen in Benin City, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ibadin, O M; Ofili, A N; Airauhi, L U; Ozolua, E I; Umoru, A B

    2008-06-01

    To achieve sustainable reduction in malaria burden in Africa, cultural practices that foster increased malaria burden must be addressed. In Edo state Nigeria, scarification/tattooing on the left hypochondrium presumably over an enlarged spleen arising mainly from malaria is widely practiced. This practice is deleterious, diversionary and causes complications. To evaluate the beliefs and practice, regarding abdominal wall scarification in children and within the context of malaria control. This was carried out among experienced women in child care selected from Egor Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria. Information relating to beliefs, knowledge and their practices including possible socio-cultural/economic determinants were obtained with use of questionnaires in a cross-sectional and descriptive study. Of the 400 questionnaires administered 394 were responded to. The modal age bracket was 26-30 years. (Range, 18 - 56 years) Respondents were mainly Binis, Esan, and Ibos amongst others. About 27.0% of respondents considered the spleen a "bag of worms". Other views included "collection of bad blood", 27.2% and as a sickness of its own, 14.7%. Named causes of splenomegaly were fever, 59.6% and evil spirit, 15.5%. Over 45.0% of respondents would consult the herbalists for splenomegaly. Less educated (chi(2) = 40.0, p< 0.005), women over 40 years of age (chi(2) = 13.5, p < 0.05) and Esan/Bini ethnic groups (chi(2) = 15.6, p < 0.05) are more prone to the practice. Reasons for widespread use included perceived effectiveness, low cost and accessibility. Information on scarification was obtained mainly from family members, 49.5%; neighbours, 25.1%; and friends/colleagues, 16.7%. Practice of scarification is deep rooted and widespread in the study location. It has potentials to negate efforts involved in malaria control. Education including public enlightenment campaign should effectively check the practice.

  8. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  9. Building functional cities.

    PubMed

    Henderson, J Vernon; Venables, Anthony J; Regan, Tanner; Samsonov, Ilia

    2016-05-20

    The literature views many African cities as dysfunctional with a hodgepodge of land uses and poor "connectivity." One driver of inefficient land uses is construction decisions for highly durable buildings made under weak institutions. In a novel approach, we model the dynamics of urban land use with both formal and slum dwellings and ongoing urban redevelopment to higher building heights in the formal sector as a city grows. We analyze the evolution of Nairobi using a unique high-spatial resolution data set. The analysis suggests insufficient building volume through most of the city and large slum areas with low housing volumes near the center, where corrupted institutions deter conversion to formal sector usage.

  10. Finding the Lost City

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Nicholas Clapp, a filmmaker and archeology enthusiast, had accumulated extensive information concerning Ubar, the fabled lost city of ancient Arabia. When he was unable to identify its exact location, however, he turned to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for assistance in applying orbital remote sensing techniques. JPL scientists searched NASA's shuttle imaging radar, as well as Landsat and SPOT images and discovered ancient caravan tracks. This enabled them to prepare a map of the trails, which converged at a place known as Ash Shisr. An expedition was formed, which found structures and artifacts from a city that predates previous area civilization by a thousand years. Although it will take time to validate the city as Ubar, the discovery is a monumental archeological triumph.

  11. Ultrafine particles in cities.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prashant; Morawska, Lidia; Birmili, Wolfram; Paasonen, Pauli; Hu, Min; Kulmala, Markku; Harrison, Roy M; Norford, Leslie; Britter, Rex

    2014-05-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs; diameter less than 100 nm) are ubiquitous in urban air, and an acknowledged risk to human health. Globally, the major source for urban outdoor UFP concentrations is motor traffic. Ongoing trends towards urbanisation and expansion of road traffic are anticipated to further increase population exposure to UFPs. Numerous experimental studies have characterised UFPs in individual cities, but an integrated evaluation of emissions and population exposure is still lacking. Our analysis suggests that the average exposure to outdoor UFPs in Asian cities is about four-times larger than that in European cities but impacts on human health are largely unknown. This article reviews some fundamental drivers of UFP emissions and dispersion, and highlights unresolved challenges, as well as recommendations to ensure sustainable urban development whilst minimising any possible adverse health impacts.

  12. Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-02-07

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This simulated natural color image presents a late spring view of north central Utah that includes all of the Olympic sites. The image extends from Ogden in the north, to Provo in the south; and includes the snow-capped Wasatch Mountains and the eastern part of the Great Salt Lake. This image was acquired on May 28, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03464

  13. Panama City and Canal

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-09-30

    STS068-237-099 (30 September-11 October 1994) --- This 70mm frame shows the Panama Canal (center, between the two dark green belts) the main ship way to travel from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. Also seen is a great deal of detail in Panama City (left center, on the Pacific Ocean coastline). Geologists studying the photography returned by Shuttle astronauts feel this picture is the best ever of the city. Agricultural fields can be seen on the east side of Panama City and on both sides of the Pan American Highway (the straight thin line extending to the left). Sedimentation in the Chepo River (upper left) is thought to be due to eroded soil from the agricultural lands near the sea. This river is surrounded by swamps lying along the Pacific coastline.

  14. Project WISH: The Emerald City

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Project WISH (Wandering Interplanetary Space Harbor) is a three-year design effort currently being conducted at The Ohio State University. Its goal is the design of a space oasis to be used in the exploration of the solar system during the midtwenty-first century. This spacecraft, named Emerald City, is to conduct and provide support for missions to other planetary bodies with the purpose of exploration, scientific study, and colonization. It is to sustain a crew of between 500 and 1000 people at a time, and be capable of traveling from a nominal orbit to the planets in reasonably short flight times. Such a ship obviously presents many technical and design challenges, some of which were examined through the course of Project WISH. This year, Phase 2 (1990-1991) of Project WISH was carried out. The basic design of the Emerald City resulting from Phase 1 (1989-1990) was taken and improved upon through more detailed analysis and revision. At the core of this year's study were orbital mechanics, propulsion, attitude control, and human factors. Throughout the year, these areas were examined and information was compiled on their technologies, performances, and relationships. Then, using the data obtained through these studies, two specific missions were designed: an envelope mission from a nominal orbit of 4 AU to Saturn and a single point design for a specific mission from the Earth to Mars. The latter was designed in view of the special interest that Mars is attracting for near-future space exploration. The mission to Saturn has all the first six planets within its flight envelope in less than or equal to a 3-year flight time at any time upon demand, and it has Uranus in its flight envelope most of the time upon demand. These mission studies provided data on the approximate size, weight, number of engines, and other important design values that would be required for the Emerald City.

  15. Project WISH: The Emerald City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Project WISH (Wandering Interplanetary Space Harbor) is a three-year design effort currently being conducted at The Ohio State University. Its goal is the design of a space oasis to be used in the exploration of the solar system during the midtwenty-first century. This spacecraft, named Emerald City, is to conduct and provide support for missions to other planetary bodies with the purpose of exploration, scientific study, and colonization. It is to sustain a crew of between 500 and 1000 people at a time, and be capable of traveling from a nominal orbit to the planets in reasonably short flight times. Such a ship obviously presents many technical and design challenges, some of which were examined through the course of Project WISH. This year, Phase 2 (1990-1991) of Project WISH was carried out. The basic design of the Emerald City resulting from Phase 1 (1989-1990) was taken and improved upon through more detailed analysis and revision. At the core of this year's study were orbital mechanics, propulsion, attitude control, and human factors. Throughout the year, these areas were examined and information was compiled on their technologies, performances, and relationships. Then, using the data obtained through these studies, two specific missions were designed: an envelope mission from a nominal orbit of 4 AU to Saturn and a single point design for a specific mission from the Earth to Mars. The latter was designed in view of the special interest that Mars is attracting for near-future space exploration. The mission to Saturn has all the first six planets within its flight envelope in less than or equal to a 3-year flight time at any time upon demand, and it has Uranus in its flight envelope most of the time upon demand. These mission studies provided data on the approximate size, weight, number of engines, and other important design values that would be required for the Emerald City.

  16. 1988 Population Trends for Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Office of Financial Management, Olympia.

    This statistical profile provides current demographic data for Washington State and its counties, incorporated cities and towns. Seventeen tables show population by age and sex; population for counties, incorporated cities and towns, and the state; components of population change; a rank order of total persons in incorporated cities and towns;…

  17. Inner City Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Togias, Alkis

    2014-01-01

    SYNOPSIS The inner city has long been recognized as an area of high asthma morbidity and mortality. A wide range of factors interact to create this environment. These factors include well-recognized asthma risk factors that are not specific to the inner city, the structure and delivery of health care, the location and function of the urban environment, and social inequities. This article will review these facets and discuss successful and unsuccessful interventions in order to understand what is needed to solve this problem. PMID:25459579

  18. Heavy metal concentration of river sediment in the light of the environmental quality standard value of Japan from the river in and around the Tokyo Japan: A case study at the Tama, Tsurumi, Edo and Ara rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, K.; Matsumoto, I.

    2008-12-01

    The river sediment is basically composed of clastic materials derived from the surface of the Earth. Purpose of our study is clarify the quantitative estimation of ratio of influence given to river sediment of nature and human activity by using of heavy metals. We show the geochemical and geological characteristics of stream sediments from the Tama, Tsurumi, Edo and Ara Rivers that flow in Tokyo bay, Japan. We show research results of the degree of contamination in above four rivers that are the relativery polluted river in Japan. Sediment samples collected from various points along the upper and lower streams were subjected to content analysis and elution analysis (using liquate (flow) out test) on the heavy metals like Cd, CN, Pb, Cr(6+), As and Hg from the river sediment for the purpose of environment assessment. Content of Cd, CN, Pb, Cr(6+), As, and Hg except Pb was above the environmental quality limit in few locations of the Tsurumi river. However, in the down-river part (mouth region) Pb-concentration was 10 times higher than at the source regions as the result of human impact; for Hg the same tendency was detected at the all rivers. This study is the first research that investigated river sediment in the light of the envirnomental quality standard in Tokyo area, Japan.

  19. City of Crystal City, Missouri - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA is providing notice of proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the City of Crystal City, Missouri, a municipality located in Jefferson County, Missouri, 63019, for alleged violations associated with the City’s wastewater treatment progra

  20. Do changes in socio-demographic characteristics impact up-to-date immunization status between 3 and 24 months of age? A prospective study among an inner-city birth cohort in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pati, Susmita; Huang, Jiayu; Wong, Angie; Baba, Zeinab; Ostapenko, Svetlana; Fiks, Alexander G; Cnaan, Avital

    2017-05-04

    Low-income child populations remain under-vaccinated. Our objective was to determine differences in the relative importance of maternal health literacy and socio-demographic characteristics that often change during early childhood on up-to-date (UTD) immunization status among a low-income population. We performed secondary data analysis of a longitudinal prospective cohort study of 744 Medicaid-eligible mother-infant dyads recruited at the time of the infant's birth from an inner-city hospital in the United States and surveyed every 6 months for 24 months. Our primary outcome was infant UTD status at 24 months abstracted from a citywide registry. We assessed maternal health literacy with the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (short version). We collected socio-demographic information via surveys at birth and every 6 months. We compared predictors of UTD status at 3, 7, and 24 months. The cohort consisted of primarily African-American (81.5%) mothers with adequate health literacy (73.9%). Immunizations were UTD among 56.7% of infants at 24 months of age. Maternal health literacy was not a significant predictor of UTD immunization status. Instead, adjusted results showed that significant predictors of not-UTD status at 24 months were lack of a consistent health care location or "medical home" (OR 0.17, 95%CI 0.18-0.37), inadequate prenatal care (OR 0.48, 95%CI 0.25-0.95), and prior not-UTD status (OR 0.31, 95%CI 0.20-0.47). Notably, all upper confidence limits are less than 1.0 for these variables. Health care location type (e.g., hospital-affiliate, community-based, none) was a significant predictor of vaccine status at age 3 months, 7 months, and 24 months. Investing in efforts to support early establishment of a medical home to obtain comprehensive coordinated preventive care, including providing recommended vaccines on schedule, is a prudent strategy to improve vaccination status at the population level.