Science.gov

Sample records for city preliminary study

  1. Preliminary study of microzonation in South Tangerang City using analysis of Vs-30

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibowo, B. A.; Rudiyanto, A.; Ibrahim, G.; Ali, Y. H.; Perreira, A. T. F.; Trismahargyono

    2016-05-01

    A preliminary microzonation study was held in South Tangerang City region through the analysis of Vs-30 and. Vs-30 values was acquired from MASW (Multi Analysis Surface Method) Survey. The survey used PASI Multichannel Seismograph Type 16s24u in 8 (eight) different location around the South Tangerang City. After acquiring the data, the multichannel recording data was processed using Geopsy software to produce the 1-D Model of Shear Velocity in 30 meters depth. From the Vs-30 and we are able to determine the class of each site and the spatial distribution of Vs-30 and Dominant Period Values in South Tangerang City.From the Vs-30's results, The North Serpong Site had the highest Vs-30 values if compared with the other sites (318.5390393 m/s), and categorized as the D Class site. Ciputat site owned the lowest Vs-30 values (124.7685506 m/s) and categorized as the E Class Site. The range of Vs-30 values in South Tangerang from the Vs-30 spatial distribution map are about 120-320 m/s.

  2. Abusive Head Trauma at a Tertiary Care Children's Hospital in Mexico City. A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia; Garcia-Pina, Corina A.; Loredo-Abdala, Arturo; Paz, Francisco; Garcia, Sandra G.; Schilmann, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Determine the prevalence, clinical signs and symptoms, and demographic and family characteristics of children attending a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City, Mexico, to illustrate the characteristics of abusive head trauma among this population. Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of infants and children under 5,…

  3. [Preliminary study on ecological footprint in Bashang region of Zhangjiakou city].

    PubMed

    Hu, Mengchun; Zhang, Yongchun; Miao, Xubo; Shen, Weishou; Ma, Ronghua

    2003-02-01

    The ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity in Bashang region of Zhangjiakou city were calculated with the statistical data of the region in 1999. Based on calculation, the balance between ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity was analyzed, and the threshold values of the ecological carrying capacity and population capacity of the region at the current production level were determined. Strategies on reducing ecological deficit in this region were also brought forward.

  4. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Kansas City Plant (KCP), conducted March 23 through April 3, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by a multidisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team members are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the KCP. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulations. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data observations of the operations performed at the KCP, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan is being executed by DOE's Argonne National Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the KCP Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the KCP Survey. 94 refs., 39 figs., 55 tabs.

  5. Volatile Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere of the Botanical Garden of the City of Rio de Janeiro: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Cleyton Martins; Souza, Elaine Cesar C A; da Silva, Luane Lima; Oliveira, Rafael Lopes; Corrêa, Sergio Machado; Arbilla, Graciela

    2016-11-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play a central role in atmospheric chemistry. In this work, VOCs in the Botanical Garden of Rio de Janeiro were determined using the TO-15 Method. The park occupies 1,370,000 m(2) in the southern area of the city and is next to the Tijuca Forest, which is considered the largest secondary urban forest in the world. The total VOC concentrations ranged from 43.52 to 168.75 µg m(-3), depending on the sampling site and dates. In terms of concentration isoprene represented 4 %-14 % of the total VOC masses. The results suggested that the differences in biomass, distance from the street and activities within the park affected the concentrations of VOCs. The ratios of isoprene/aromatic compounds were higher than those determined in other areas of the city, confirming that the atmosphere of this green area has the contribution of other sources. Kinetic and mechanistic reactivities were also evaluated.

  6. Use of compost to restore a contaminated site in Southern Italy: preliminary study to assess compost efficiency in remediating a heavily polluted soil in Taranto city.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancona, Valeria; Campanale, Claudia; Calabrese, Angelantonio; Vito Felice, Uricchio; Simona, Regano

    2014-05-01

    Soil pollution is one of the most soil relevant threats recognized in the world. Contamination affects soil quality and soil capacity to react against several land degradation processes (erosion, organic depletion, desertification, etc.). The identification of opportune strategies to hinder pollution is a fundamental requirement to restore soil quality. In particular, large attentions have got the techniques, which promote the decontamination, and at the same time, improve fertility allowing a new use of a soil restored. In this work we present a preliminary study to assess the use of compost (an organic fertilizer produced through a process of transformation and controlled stabilization of selected organic waste at the source) in remediating a heavily polluted soil in southern Italy. The study site is located in Taranto city (Apulia Region) and is contaminated predominantly by heavy metals and lightly by organic toxic compounds such us polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). An exhaustive chemical characterization has been carried out on soil samples and then, a treatment with compost was applied on the study site. Successively, two data acquisition campaigns have been realized (after 4 and 7 months by compost treatment, respectively). Soil chemical analyses of texture, electrical conductivity, pH, organic carbon content, total nitrogen, available phosphorous, carbonate and water content have been carried out to investigate soil properties. In the polluted site chemical analyses of characterization showed low content of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous) and high level of carbonate. Heavy metals screenings, carried out through ICP-MS equipment, evidenced a massive contamination by Be, Se, Sn, Pb, Cr, Zn, while GC-MS investigations revealed a lower pollution by PCBs. The results of the monitoring campaigns showed a consistent reduction of the heavy metals concentrations: a higher decrease is observed after 7 months by compost treatment. At the same time, a considerable

  7. A preliminary study on sulfate reduction bacteria behaviors in groundwater by sulfur and carbon isotopes: a case study in Jiaozuo City, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong; Liu, Congqiang

    2014-12-01

    Inorganic pollutants in groundwater, such as sulfate and nitrate, have been a serious problem in China for decades. These pollutants are difficult to be removed because of their high solubility and ease of transport in subsurface environment. It had been found that microorganism could be one of the most feasible methods for inorganic pollutant elimination. During the process of degradation, some microorganisms can utilize sulfur and nitrogen in sulfate and nitrate forms, respectively, as energy sources. Meanwhile, significant variations of sulfur stable isotope ratios happened. Therefore sulfur isotope can be used as a good indicator for pollutant degradation and microbial activities. Shallow groundwater (SGW), deep groundwater (DGW), and surface water (SFW) were investigated in alluvial plain in Jiaozuo City, China. The results of hydrochemical analysis indicated that K(+), Na(+), and HCO3(-) were dominant ions in DGW, Mg(2+) and HCO3(-) were dominant ions in SGW, and Ca(2+) and HCO3 (-) were dominant in SFW except for LR sample. A wide variation of δ (34)SSO4 values ranging from + 7.3 to +23.6‰ had been observed for all water samples, with a mean value of +20.7, +12.6 and +10.0‰ for DGW, SGW, and SFW respectively. At the same time, δ(13)C values of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) ranged from -12.4 to -5.7‰, with a mean value of -7.5, -9.0, and -9.6‰ for DGW, SGW, and SFW, respectively. The microbial degradation processes resulted in significant sulfur isotope fractionations in DGW. Organic carbon was utilized by bacteria and transferred into inorganic carbon, leading to negative fractionation of carbon isotopes. Thus the variations in stable isotope ratios of sulfur and carbon in groundwater can be used as good indicators for understanding of the relationship between bacteria behaviors and sulfate degradation.

  8. A preliminary sketch of the georesources in Niamey city (Niger)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spadafora, Francesco; De Luca, Domenico A.; Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Lasagna, Manuela; Perotti, Luigi; Yadji, Guero; Tankari Dan-Badjo, Abdourahamane; Moussa, Issaka; Harouna, Moussa; Moussa, Konaté

    2015-04-01

    The present paper is about a preliminary study of the georesources (water and raw materials for construction) of Niamey city (Niger). Such research is part of an UNICOO project (funded by the University of Turin) and connected to the Edulink Cooperation Project (R.U.S.S.A.D.E.), a multidisciplinary project between Italy, Niger, Burquina Faso and Tchad funded on ACP- EU cooperation program in Higher Education. The main goals are the qualitative and quantitative characterization of the surface water and groundwater, and of aggregates (exploited in sands and gravel quarries). More specifically, at the beginning of the study there was a census of wells and quarries in the Niamey area, with a consequent sampling survey (surface water and groundwater sampling and aggregate sampling). After that, an in situ characterization was set: measure of piezometric levels in wells, water characterization (pH, electrolytic conductivity, temperature, nitrate and ammonia concentration) and an in situ evaluation of the quarrying techniques and quarry exploitation (present and old quarries). The samples were analyzed in Earth Science Dep. (UNITO) to evaluate the content of the main anions and cations (chemical analysis of sampled water) and the size distribution of the materials coming from the investigated quarries. Schematic reports of wells and quarries (location and features) were produced with the support of a Geodatabase with all available data. Geomatics instruments and methodologies (Geotagged Photos, Digital Mapping, GNSS Survey, Satellite Multitemporal Maps,) were basic starting point for the field data collection and a fundamental aid for data arrangement and final dissemination. The present study evidenced the actual condition of surface water and groundwater, also highlighting local phenomena of pollution. Nitrate in groundwater, i.e., showed locally concentration up to 5 times the WHO limit (50 mg/L). Thanks to the local quarry survey it was possible to evaluate how the

  9. Sioux City Riverbank Filtration Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mach, R.; Condon, J.; Johnson, J.

    2003-04-01

    The City of Sioux City (City) obtains a large percentage of their drinking water supply from both a horizontal collector well system and vertical wells located adjacent to the Missouri River. These wells are set in either the Missouri Alluvium or the Dakota Sandstone aquifer. Several of the collector well laterals extend out beneath the Missouri River, with the laterals being over twenty feet below the river channel bottom. Due to concerns regarding ground water under direct surface water influence, the Iowa Department of Natural Resources (IDNR) required the City to expand their water treatment process to deal with potential surface water contaminant issues. With the extensive cost of these plant upgrades, the City and Olsson Associates (OA) approached the IDNR requesting approval for assessing the degree of natural riverbank filtration for water treatment. If this natural process could be ascertained, the level of treatment from the plant could be reduced. The objective of this study was to quantify the degree of surface water (i.e. Missouri River) filtration due to the underlying Missouri River sediments. Several series of microscopic particulate analysis where conducted, along with tracking of turbidity, temperature, bacteria and a full scale particle count study. Six particle sizes from six sampling points were assessed over a nine-month period that spanned summer, fall and spring weather periods. The project was set up in two phases and utilized industry accepted statistical analyses to identify particle data trends. The first phase consisted of twice daily sample collection from the Missouri River and the collector well system for a one-month period. Statistical analysis of the data indicated reducing the sampling frequency and sampling locations would yield justifiable data while significantly reducing sampling and analysis costs. The IDNR approved this modification, and phase II included sampling and analysis under this reduced plant for an eight

  10. City of Hoboken Energy Surety Analysis: Preliminary Design Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Stamp, Jason Edwin; Baca, Michael J.; Munoz-Ramos, Karina; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Eddy, John P.; Smith, Mark A.; Guttromson, Ross; Henry, Jordan M.; Jensen, Richard Pearson

    2014-09-01

    In 2012, Hurricane Sandy devastated much of the U.S. northeast coastal areas. Among those hardest hit was the small community of Hoboken, New Jersey, located on the banks of the Hudson River across from Manhattan. This report describes a city-wide electrical infrastructure design that uses microgrids and other infrastructure to ensure the city retains functionality should such an event occur in the future. The designs ensure that up to 55 critical buildings will retain power during blackout or flooded conditions and include analysis for microgrid architectures, performance parameters, system control, renewable energy integration, and financial opportunities (while grid connected). The results presented here are not binding and are subject to change based on input from the Hoboken stakeholders, the integrator selected to manage and implement the microgrid, or other subject matter experts during the detailed (final) phase of the design effort.

  11. Preliminary evidence for a theory of the fractal city.

    PubMed

    Batty, M; Xie, Y

    1996-10-01

    "In this paper, we argue that the geometry of urban residential development is fractal. Both the degree to which space is filled and the rate at which it is filled follow scaling laws which imply invariance of function, and self-similarity of urban form across scale. These characteristics are captured in population density functions based on inverse power laws whose parameters are fractal dimensions. First we outline the relevant elements of the theory in terms of scaling relations and then we introduce two methods for estimating fractal dimension based on varying the size of cities and the scale at which their form is detected. Exact and statistical estimation techniques are applied to each method respectively generating dimensions which measure the extent and the rate of space filling. These methods are then applied to residential development patterns in six industrial cities in the northeastern United States...."

  12. Dielectric cure monitoring: Preliminary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, B. E.; Semmel, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary studies have been conducted on two types of dielectric cure monitoring systems employing both epoxy resins and phenolic composites. An Audrey System was used for 23 cure monitoring runs with very limited success. Nine complete cure monitoring runs have been investigated using a Micromet System. Two additional measurements were performed to investigate the Micromet's sensitivity to water absorption in a post-cure carbon-phenolic material. While further work is needed to determine data significance, the Micromet system appears to show promise as a feedback control device during processing.

  13. Inner City Education--Studying the Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliburton, Warren J.

    1973-01-01

    Standing at the vantage point of the 1970s, the author looks back at some of the studies produced in the sixties, calling education and educators to task for the failings of the teaching-learning process in the inner city. (Author/JM)

  14. 78 FR 41398 - City of Berlin, Berlin Water Works; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... Water Treatment Plant Hydroelectric Project (Project) to be located on a water supply conduit at the City of Berlin's municipal water treatment plant (WTP), in Coos County, New Hampshire. The sole purpose... Energy Regulatory Commission City of Berlin, Berlin Water Works; Notice of Preliminary Permit...

  15. Impact of rapid urbanization on the microclimate of Indian cities: a case study for the city of Bhubaneswar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, D.; Roberts, G. J.; Dash, J.; Vinoj, V.; Lekshmi, K.; Tripathy, S.

    2016-05-01

    The impact of rapid urbanization in cities on their microclimate is at present a great cause of global concern. One of the major consequences is the unexpected rise in temperatures in the cities compared to their surrounding areas, termed as the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect. Over the past many years, several Indian cities are under severe stress owing to such extreme anomalous changes in their micro-meteorological conditions making them unfriendly for habitation. Presented here is a case study on Bhubaneswar - one such city on the east coast of India undergoing rapid urbanization in recent times. In this study, Land Surface Temperatures (LST) from MODIS Terra and Aqua instruments at 1 km2 spatial resolution along with the Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) change data from Landsat was used over a 25 km radius about the city for a 15 years' period from 2000 to 2014. Preliminary analyses indicate spatio-temporal changes in LULC to be one of the primary and significant factors responsible for changes in the UHI effect over the city. Investigations on the spatio-temporal variations in LST across the city and its relationship with vegetation cover indicate that overexploitation of various resources demanded by a fast growing population has led to significant changes in LULC patterns in the last few years. Analysis of the changes in the urban energy balance and resulting UHI effect across the city under various urban growth scenarios and different proportions of green urban area are in progress.

  16. Impacts of cool cities on air quality: A preliminary modeling assessment for Nashville TN, Dallas TX and Atlanta GA

    SciTech Connect

    Taha, Haider

    1998-06-15

    Previous atmospheric modeling efforts that concentrated on the Los Angeles Basin suggested beneficial and significant air quality impacts from cool cities strategies. This paper discusses an extension of similar modeling efforts to three regions, Atlanta GA, Dallas - Ft. Worth TX, and Nashville TN, that experience smog and air quality problems. According to the older ozone air quality standard (120 ppb), these regions were classified as serious, moderate, and marginal, respectively, but may be out of compliance with respect to the newer, 80-ppb/8-hours standard. Results from this exploratory modeling work suggest a range of possible impacts on meteorological and air quality conditions. For example, peak ozone concentrations during each region's respective episode could be decreased by 1-6 ppb (conservative and optimistic scenarios, respectively) in Nashville, 5-15 ppb in Dallas - Fort Worth, and 5-12 ppb in Atlanta following implementation of cool cities. The reductions are generally smaller than those obtained from simulating the Los Angeles Basin but are still significant. In all regions, the simulations suggest, the net, domain-wide effects of cool cities are reductions in ozone mass and improvements in air quality. In Atlanta, Nashville, and Dallas, urban areas benefiting from reduced smog reach up to 8460, 7350, and 12870 km{sup 2} in area, respectively. Results presented in this paper should be taken as exploratory and preliminary. These will most likely change during a more comprehensive modeling study to be started soon with the support of the US Environmental Protection Agency. The main purpose of the present project was to obtain the initial data (emission inventories) for these regions, simulate meteorological conditions, and perform preliminary sensitivity analysis. In the future, additional regions will be simulated to assess the potential of cool cities in improving urban air quality.

  17. Housing and Health in Europe: Preliminary Results of a Pan-European Study

    PubMed Central

    Bonnefoy, Xavier R.; Braubach, Matthias; Moissonnier, Brigitte; Monolbaev, Kubanychbek; Röbbel, Nathalie

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. The World Health Organization’s Regional Office for Europe has undertaken a large study to evaluate housing and health in 7 European cities. Methods. Survey tools were used to obtain information about housing and living conditions, health perception, and health status from a representative sample of the population in each city. Results. In Forli, Italy, the first city studied, preliminary findings indicate some important potential links between housing and health. Conclusions. These findings, when combined with those from the remaining European cities, will likely generate concrete recommendations for the allocation of resources to programs that can improve housing and health. PMID:12948980

  18. Preliminary assessment report for Waiawa Gulch, Installation 15080, Pearl City, Oahu, Hawaii. Installation Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Hawaii Army National Guard (HIARNG) property near Pearl City, Oahu, Hawaii. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Waiawa Gulch property, phase I of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program (IRP).

  19. Preliminary results from two intensive campaigns characterizing urban aerosols at two high altitude cities in the Tropical Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, M. F.; Wiedensohler, A.; Velarde, F.; Moreno, I.; Weinhold, K.; Avila, F.

    2013-05-01

    Preliminary results from a short campaign carried out between September and December of 2012 at the cities of El Alto (16°30'36.09"S; 68°11'55.31"W; 4040 masl) and La Paz (16°30'13.83"S; 68° 7'45.56"W; 3580 masl), Bolivia are presented on this work. Particle size distribution was measured using a Mobility Particle Size Spectrometer (Reference of the World Calibration Center for Aerosol Physics) whereas concentration of black carbon was measured using a Multi Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP). In addition meteorological parameters as well as CO concentration were collected on both locations. In the case of El Alto, the instruments were located within the International Airport of the city at approximately 300 m from the main and only landing strip and at least 1.5 km away from the main roads. On the other hand, in the case of La Paz, the instruments were set up at the Planetarium of University Mayor de San Andres. The building is located besides a road with heavy traffic. Because the two cities are part of the same metropolitan area (the sites were located 7.5 km apart), the cars and trucks produce a similar signature and therefore both background and non-background urban aerosols were sampled during the campaign. In addition, an interesting case was registered at La Paz where a day with practically no vehicular traffic was studied.

  20. Armstrong City: A Permanent Settlement for Exo-Planetary Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenspon, J.

    Development of a permanent placement lunar base is the next fundamental step in an international program to explore and settle other planets within our solar system. While technical, operational, managerial and long-term issues must be considered, the establishment of a lunar facility can serve the preliminary needs of manned civilization in space. Numerous issues become apparent in the consideration of the activation of a lunar base. Specific and realistic determinations must be made about various types of interests in addition to the general conjectures given above. These activities include: - Spacecraft landings and vehicle systems - Crew selection, supplies and habitability - Power production and distribution - Risk management - Science and lunar activities - Base planning and configurations - Integrated operations and maintenance - Management. The development and activation of a lunar colony will require careful consideration to the future of space activities and operations in near Earth space. A lunar city, which we call Armstrong city, is defined by its own unique natural environment, available technology, realistic objectives, and common sense. Armstrong City, a preliminary first lunar base, will most probably be serving as an extended "division" of Earth's space exploration offices. The reasons are very simple and practical. -First, the costs of maintaining a permanent space facility will be lower in the long run than the costs of a series of short duration, rotating manned bases, -Second, studies in long-term space habitation can effectively be carried out in relative safety, -Third, the initial tasks which need to be done will define and establish methodologies and issues for development of future extraterrestrial base concepts, and -Fourth, the complexities of the initial facilities necessary to sustain the citizens can be tempered through developing local resources and reproducible research. In order to bring about development of Armstrong City, four

  1. Study Abroad and the City: Mapping Urban Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Study abroad by U.S. students, despite recent growth into non-western and rural destinations, often remains focused on cities, often very large and highly urbanized ones. While the destination cities for study abroad are located across the globe, European cities remain predominant, and thus, this article focuses on study abroad in one city. The…

  2. How to Study the City on Instagram

    PubMed Central

    Uitermark, Justus

    2016-01-01

    We introduce Instagram as a data source for use by scholars in urban studies and neighboring disciplines and propose ways to operationalize key concepts in the study of cities. These data can help shed light on segregation, the formation of subcultures, strategies of distinction, and status hierarchies in the city. Drawing on two datasets of geotagged Instagram posts from Amsterdam and Copenhagen collected over a twelve-week period, we present a proof of concept for how to explore and visualize sociospatial patterns and divisions in these two cities. We take advantage of both the social and the geographic aspects of the data, using network analysis to identify distinct groups of users and metrics of unevenness and diversity to identify socio-spatial divisions. We also discuss some of the limitations of these data and methods and suggest ways in which they can complement established quantitative and qualitative approaches in urban scholarship. PMID:27336728

  3. 75 FR 20589 - City of Oberlin, OH; Free Flow Power Missouri 1, LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission City of Oberlin, OH; Free Flow Power Missouri 1, LLC; Notice of Competing... Power Missouri 1, LLC (Free Flow Power) filed preliminary permit applications, pursuant to section 4(f..., Inc., 1111 Schrock Road, Suite 100, Columbus, OH 43229, (614) 540-9130. Free Flow Power's...

  4. Pasadena City College SIGI Project. Research Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risser, John J.; Tulley, John E.

    A research study at Pasadena City College in 1975-76 evaluated a computer based career guidance program, SIGI (System of Interactive Guidance and Information), designed by Educational Testing Service to assist community college students in improving their ability to make career decisions. Students identified as desiring aid in career guidance were…

  5. Preliminary study for the OFFELO

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Y.; Litvinenko, V.N.

    2010-08-23

    X-ray Optics-Free FEL Oscillator (OFFELO) has potential of becoming a choice for next generation light sources. Using electron beam for the feedback allows OFFELO to be completely tunable and to combine the peak power of high-gain SASE FELs with extremely narrow bandwidth of the oscillator. While the high-gain X-ray FELs has been studied in depth and has been successfully demonstrated, two other concepts (the transport and the feed-back) involved in OFFELO still need detail studies. In this short paper we focus on the simulation of the feedback process and the evolution of FEL spectrum in X-ray OFFELO. In our initial studies of OFFELO studied the saturation of the system and also its evolution using Genesis 2.0 code with a homemade wrapping code. While and lattice design from the modulator to the radiator, in order to minimize the feedback information loss in transporting the beam.

  6. Preliminary design study of lunar housing configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, K. H.

    1992-01-01

    A preliminary design study assesses various configurations for habitation of the lunar surface. The study assumes an initial 4-man habitation module expandable to a 48-man concept. Through the numerous coupling combinations of identical modules, five basic configuration types are identified. A design model presents each configuration in light of certain issues. The issues include circulation, internal and external spatial characteristics, functional organizations, and future growth potential. The study discusses the attributes, potentials, and unique requirements of each configuration.

  7. Preliminary business plan: District Heating Company for the city of Handlova, Slovakia

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The city of Handlova, Slovakia, needs to replace its district heating system, which is old, unreliable, and expensive to maintain. The current plant is owned by a state-run utility, the Slovensky Energeticky Podnik (SEP). The plan is to privatize the heating plant, acquire capital to rehabilitate the central plant (converting it to a cogeneration facility), install a new hot-water distribution system, and implement an extensive energy efficiency effort in the residential buildings on the system. System capacity is 100 MWt, with annual heat sales estimated to be 450,000 gigajoules per year (GJ/yr). The capital necessary for system improvements is estimated to be 465 million Slovakian Krowns (SK) (in 1997 price levels). The total market value of existing fixed assets that will survive the rehabilitation effort as part of the new systems is estimated at 342 million SK. There has been substantial analysis and preparation for this activity, which is documented in demand-side and supply-side technical and economic analyses, an integrated demand/supply report, and this preliminary business plan. The preparation includes investigation of ownership, management, and technology alternatives; estimation of the market value of existing assets and investment requirements; and forecasting of future cash flows. These preliminary projections indicate that the cost of heating from the new system will be reasonable from both a cost per unit of energy basis (SK/GJ) and, form the perspective of an apartment dweller in Handlova, on a total cost per year basis. Delivering heat at the projected cost will, however, require a substantial change in the way that the heating plant is run, with proportionally very large reductions in labor, operations and maintenance, and overhead charges. In addition, there will need to be significant revenues from the sale of electricity to the national grid.

  8. Preliminary summary of the ETF conceptual studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seikel, G. R.; Bercaw, R. W.; Pearson, C. V.; Owens, W. R.

    1978-01-01

    Power plant studies have shown the attractiveness of MHD topped steam power plants for baseload utility applications. To realize these advantages, a three-phase development program was initiated. In the first phase, the engineering data and experience were developed for the design and construction of a pilot plant, the Engineering Test Facility (ETF). Results of the ETF studies are reviewed. These three parallel independent studies were conducted by industrial teams led by the AVCO Everett Research Laboratory, the General Electric Corporation, and the Westinghouse Corporation. A preliminary analysis and the status of the critical evaluation of these results are presented.

  9. A preliminary neutron crystallographic study of thaumatin

    SciTech Connect

    Teixeira, Susana C. M.; Blakeley, Matthew P.; Leal, Ricardo M. F.; Mitchell, Edward P.; Forsyth, V. Trevor

    2008-05-01

    Preliminary neutron crystallographic data from the sweet protein thaumatin have been recorded using the LADI-III diffractometer at the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL). The results illustrate the feasibility of a full neutron structural analysis aimed at further understanding the molecular basis of the perception of sweet taste. Such an analysis will exploit the use of perdeuterated thaumatin. A preliminary neutron crystallographic study of the sweet protein thaumatin is presented. Large hydrogenated crystals were prepared in deuterated crystallization buffer using the gel-acupuncture method. Data were collected to a resolution of 2 Å on the LADI-III diffractometer at the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL). The results demonstrate the feasibility of a full neutron crystallographic analysis of this structure aimed at providing relevant information on the location of H atoms, the distribution of charge on the protein surface and localized water in the structure. This information will be of interest for understanding the specificity of thaumatin–receptor interactions and will contribute to further understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the perception of taste.

  10. Preliminary Survey of Ectoparasites and Associated Pathogens from Norway Rats in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Frye, M. J.; Firth, C.; Bhat, M.; Firth, M. A.; Che, X.; Lee, D.; Williams, S. H.; Lipkin, W. I.

    2015-01-01

    The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is a reservoir of many zoonotic pathogens and lives in close proximity to humans in urban environments. Human infection with rodent-borne disease occurs either directly through contact with a rat or its excreta, or indirectly via arthropod vectors such as fleas and ticks. Here, we report on the diversity and abundance of ectoparasitic arthropod species and associated pathogenic bacteria from 133 Norway rats trapped over a 10-mo period in Manhattan, New York, NY. Norway rats were host to the tropical rat mite [Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst)], the spiny rat mite (Laelaps echidnina Berlese), Laelaps nuttalli Hirst, the spined rat louse [Polyplax spinulosa (Burmeister)], and the Oriental rat flea [(Xenopsylla cheopis) (Rothschild)], with an average of 1.7 species per individual. A flea index of 4.1 X. cheopis was determined, whereas previous studies in New York City reported 0.22 fleas per rat. Multiple species of pathogenic Bartonella were identified from Oriental rat fleas that were related to Bartonella tribocorum, Bartonella rochalimae, and Bartonella elizabethae. However, no evidence of Yersinia pestis or Rickettsia spp. infection was detected in fleas. The identification of multiple medically important ectoparasite species in New York City underscores the need for future efforts to fully characterize the diversity and distribution of ectoparasites on Norway rats, and assess the risk to humans of vector-borne disease transmission. PMID:26336309

  11. Preliminary Survey of Ectoparasites and Associated Pathogens from Norway Rats in New York City.

    PubMed

    Frye, M J; Firth, C; Bhat, M; Firth, M A; Che, X; Lee, D; Williams, S H; Lipkin, W I

    2015-03-01

    The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is a reservoir of many zoonotic pathogens and lives in close proximity to humans in urban environments. Human infection with rodent-borne disease occurs either directly through contact with a rat or its excreta, or indirectly via arthropod vectors such as fleas and ticks. Here, we report on the diversity and abundance of ectoparasitic arthropod species and associated pathogenic bacteria from 133 Norway rats trapped over a 10-mo period in Manhattan, New York, NY. Norway rats were host to the tropical rat mite [Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst)], the spiny rat mite (Laelaps echidnina Berlese), Laelaps nuttalli Hirst, the spined rat louse [Polyplax spinulosa (Burmeister)], and the Oriental rat flea [(Xenopsylla cheopis) (Rothschild)], with an average of 1.7 species per individual. A flea index of 4.1 X. cheopis was determined, whereas previous studies in New York City reported 0.22 fleas per rat. Multiple species of pathogenic Bartonella were identified from Oriental rat fleas that were related to Bartonella tribocorum, Bartonella rochalimae, and Bartonella elizabethae. However, no evidence of Yersinia pestis or Rickettsia spp. infection was detected in fleas. The identification of multiple medically important ectoparasite species in New York City underscores the need for future efforts to fully characterize the diversity and distribution of ectoparasites on Norway rats, and assess the risk to humans of vector-borne disease transmission.

  12. A computer controlled pulsatile pump: preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Zwarts, M S; Topaz, S R; Jones, D N; Kolff, W J

    1996-12-01

    A Stepper Motor Driven Reciprocating Pump (SDRP) can replace roller pumps and rotary pumps for cardio pulmonary bypass, hemodialysis and regional perfusion. The blood pumping ventricles are basically the same as ventricles used for air driven artificial hearts and ventricular assist devices. The electric stepper motor uses a flexible linkage belt to produce a reciprocating movement, which pushes a hard sphere into the diaphragm of the blood ventricles. The SDRP generates pulsatile flow and has a small priming volume. The preset power level of the motor driver limits the maximum potential outflow pressure, so the driver acts as a safety device. A double pump can be made by connecting two fluid pumping chambers to opposing sides of the motor base. Each pump generates pulsatile flow. Pressure and flow studies with water were undertaken. Preliminary blood studies showed low hemolysis, even when circulating a small amount of blood up to 16 hours.

  13. Study of City Landscape Heritage Using Lidar Data and 3d-City Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinowicz, P.; Czynska, K.

    2015-04-01

    In contemporary town planning protection of urban landscape is a significant issue. It regards especially those cities, where urban structures are the result of ages of evolution and layering of historical development process. Specific panoramas and other strategic views with historic city dominants can be an important part of the cultural heritage and genius loci. Other hand, protection of such expositions introduces limitations for future based city development. Digital Earth observation techniques creates new possibilities for more accurate urban studies, monitoring of urbanization processes and measuring of city landscape parameters. The paper examines possibilities of application of Lidar data and digital 3D-city models for: a) evaluation of strategic city views, b) mapping landscape absorption limits, and c) determination protection zones, where the urbanization and buildings height should be limited. In reference to this goal, the paper introduces a method of computational analysis of the city landscape called Visual Protection Surface (VPS). The method allows to emulate a virtual surface above the city including protection of a selected strategic views. The surface defines maximum height of buildings in such a way, that no new facility can be seen in any of selected views. The research includes also analyses of the quality of simulations according the form and precision of the input data: airborne Lidar / DSM model and more advanced 3D-city models (incl. semantic of the geometry, like in CityGML format). The outcome can be a support for professional planning of tall building development. Application of VPS method have been prepared by a computer program developed by the authors (C++). Simulations were carried out on an example of the city of Dresden.

  14. A preliminary magnetic study of Sawa lake sediments, Southern Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameen, Nawrass

    2016-04-01

    A preliminary magnetic study combined with chemical analyses was carried out in Sawa Lake in Al-Muthanna province, southern Iraq, about 22 km south west of Samawa city (31°18'48.80"N, 45°0'25.25"E). The lake is about 4.74 km length, 1.75 km width and 5.5 m height, it is surrounded by a salt rim which is higher than the lake water by about 2.8 m and sea water by about 18.5 m (Naqash et al., 1977 in Hassan, 2007). The lake is an elongated closed basin with no surface water available to it, it may be fed by groundwater of the Euphrates and Dammam aquifers through system of joints and cracks. This study aims to investigate the concentrations of selected heavy metals as pollutants and magnetic susceptibility (MS) and other magnetic properties of sediment samples from fifty sites collected from the bottom of the lake, the study area lies in an industrial area. The results show spatial variations of MS with mean value of about 4.58 x 10-8 m3 kg-1. Scanning electron microscopy and magnetic mineralogy parameters indicate the dominance of soft magnetic phase like magnetite and presence of hard magnetic phase like hematite. Spatial variations of MS combined with the concentrations of heavy metals suggests the efficiency of magnetic methods as effective, inexpensive and non-time consuming method to outlining the heavy metal pollution. References: Hassan W.F., 2007. The Physio-chemical characteristic of Sawa lake water in Samawa city-Iraq. Marine Mesopotamica, 22(2), 167-179.

  15. Impromptu Speaking and Interpretation Studies: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to look at forensics-based competition events and determine what, if any, impact they could have on the language learning and public speaking skills of interpreters in training. This paper details the nature of the impromptu and extemporaneous speaking events in forensics competitions and introduces a…

  16. Preliminary design study for an atomospheric science facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchison, R.

    1972-01-01

    The activities and results of the Atmospheric Science Facility preliminary design study are reported. The objectives of the study were to define the scientific goals, to determine the range of experiment types, and to develop the preliminary instrument design requirements for a reusable, general purpose, optical research facility for investigating the earth's atmosphere from a space shuttle orbital vehicle.

  17. 77 FR 41781 - City of Quincy; FFP Project 109, LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Applications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    .... City of Quincy's proposed project would consist of: (1) Sixty new 500-kilowatt submersible low-head... megawatts; (2) fifteen existing submersible tainter gates; (3) a new 40-foot by 35-foot substation; (4)...

  18. 77 FR 41782 - City of Quincy; FFP Project 110, LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Applications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    .... City of Quincy's proposed project would consist of: (1) Forty new 500-kilowatt submersible low-head...-generators, having a total combined generating capacity of 14 megawatts; (2) fourteen existing...

  19. 78 FR 61985 - City of Astoria, Oregon; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-09

    ... Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On September 24, 2013, City of Astoria, Oregon (Astoria) filed a notice of intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of the Federal Power Act, as amended by section 4 of the...

  20. 78 FR 56872 - City of Barre, Vermont; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On August 29, 2013, City of Barre, Vermont filed a notice of intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of the Federal Power Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower...

  1. 78 FR 64935 - Borough of Ellwood City, Pennsylvania; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... Project would be located at the Borough of Ellwood City's wastewater treatment plant in Lawrence County... of: (1) An intake from the existing 24-inch wastewater discharge pipe; (2) a proposed 20-foot-wide by... returning flows to an existing rip-rapped wastewater discharge channel; and (4) appurtenant facilities....

  2. The Attitudes of Negro High School Students in Kansas City, Missouri: A Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiddmont, Norman; Levine, Daniel U.

    This report evaluates a questionnaire submitted to 529 economically disadvantaged black high school students in Kansas City, Missouri. The questionnaire was designed to assess attitudes in the following areas: value placed on education and its importance for one's future; interracial relationships, the Black Power movement, and violence; interest…

  3. Building Clean. The Control of Crime, Corruption, and Racketeering in the Public Construction Markets of New York City. A Preliminary Assessment of Efforts Made by the Office of the Inspector General, New York City School Construction Authority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mark H.; Tumin, R. Zachary

    The Office of the Inspector General of the New York City School Construction Authority (SCA) is attempting to secure the School Construction Authority and its building program from crime, corruption, and racketeering. This report is a preliminary assessment of this effort. It sets forth for practitioners and theorists the strategy that guided the…

  4. 33. Historic American Buildings Survey COPY OF PRELIMINARY STUDY FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Historic American Buildings Survey COPY OF PRELIMINARY STUDY FOR HEALY BUILDING, c. 1876 (COURTESY OF THE COMMISSION OF FINE ARTS) - Georgetown University, Healy Building, Thirty-seventh & O Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. Image based 3D city modeling : Comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2014-06-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing rapidly for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally four main image based approaches were used for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers were used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling, third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling and fourth approach is mainly based on Computer Vision techniques. SketchUp, CityEngine, Photomodeler and Agisoft Photoscan are the main softwares to represent these approaches respectively. These softwares have different approaches & methods suitable for image based 3D city modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete such type of comparative study available to create complete 3D city model by using images. This paper gives a comparative assessment of these four image based 3D modeling approaches. This comparative study is mainly based on data acquisition methods, data processing techniques and output 3D model products. For this research work, study area is the campus of civil engineering department, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India). This 3D campus acts as a prototype for city. This study also explains various governing parameters, factors and work experiences. This research work also gives a brief introduction, strengths and weakness of these four image based techniques. Some personal comment is also given as what can do or what can't do from these softwares. At the last, this study shows; it concluded that, each and every software has some advantages and limitations. Choice of software depends on user requirements of 3D project. For normal visualization project, SketchUp software is a good option. For 3D documentation record, Photomodeler gives good result. For Large city

  6. Preliminary Studies for a Drilling Robot Firefighter.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZArION 6a OFFICE SIMBOL 7a. NAME OF MONTORING ORGANIZATION (If dapplble) Naval Postgraduate School Code 69Sm Naval Surface...Weapons Ctr Code R402 Sc ADDRESS(City. State. and ZIPCod*) 10 SOURCE Of FViNOIN6 NUMBERS White Oak PROGRAM PRO,ECT TASK OC IT.,o ELEMENT NO NO NO...Sept. 01 Ś SL.,PL’ENTARY NOTATION COSA’t CODES ’S SUBAECT TERMS (Continue on reverse of neceladry dna uientry by bio(e Aumoerb FID GROUP SUB-GROUP

  7. Preliminary design studies of an advanced general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary design studies are presented for an advanced general aviation aircraft. Advanced guidance and display concepts, laminar flow, smart structures, fuselage and wing structural design and manufacturing, and preliminary configuration design are discussed. This project was conducted as a graduate level design class under the auspices of the KU/NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program in Aeronautics. The results obtained during the fall semester of 1990 (Phase 1) and the spring semester of 1991 (Phase 2) are presented.

  8. Health assessment for Stoughton City Landfill, Stoughton, Wisconsin, Region 5. CERCLIS No. WID980901219. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-02

    The Stoughton City Landfill is listed on the National Priorities List. The site is located on the northeast edge of Stoughton, Wisconsin, where the city owned and operated a solid-waste landfill from the mid 1950s until it closed operation in 1978. From 1953 to 1963, the site accepted unknown amounts of wastes such as vinyl scrap from a tire manufacturer. In November of 1983, The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources sampled six on-site monitoring wells. The results showed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in three wells. Subsequent sampling in March of 1984 confirmed VOC contamination in the same wells. Potential environmental pathways include ground water, surface water, and soil. Air is not considered a potential pathway at this time since the landfill was capped and seeded in 1978. No VOCs were detected in the air samples which were taken in 1985. No problems were observed with the landfill cap during the site visit. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via contaminated ground water, surface water and soil.

  9. Preliminary geologic map of the Big Bear City 7.5' Quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Fred K.; digital preparation by Cossette, Pamela M.

    2004-01-01

    This data set maps and describes the geology of the Big Bear City 7.5' quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California. Created using Environmental Systems Research Institute's ARC/INFO software, the data base consists of the following items: (1) a rock-unit coverage and attribute tables (polygon and arc) containing geologic contacts, units and rock-unit labels as annotation which are also included in a separate annotation coverage, bbc_anno (2) a point coverage containing structural point data and (3) a coverage containing fold axes. In addition, the data set includes the following graphic and text products: (1) A PostScript graphic plot-file containing the geologic map, topography, cultural data, a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram, a Description of Map Units (DMU), an index map, a regional geologic and structure map, and an explanation for point and line symbols; (2) PDF files of the Readme (including the metadata file as an appendix), and a screen graphic of the plot produced by the PostScript plot file. The geologic map describes a geologically complex area on the north side of the San Bernardino Mountains. Bedrock units in the Big Bear City quadrangle are dominated by (1) large Cretaceous granitic bodies ranging in composition from monzogranite to gabbro, (2) metamorphosed sedimentary rocks ranging in age from late Paleozoic to late Proterozoic, and (3) Middle Proterozoic gneiss. These rocks are complexly deformed by normal, reverse, and thrust faults, and in places are tightly folded. The geologic map database contains original U.S. Geological Survey data generated by detailed field observation and by interpretation of aerial photographs. The map data was compiled on base-stable cronoflex copies of the Big Bear City 7.5' topographic map, transferred to a scribe-guide and subsequently digitized. Lines, points, and polygons were edited at the USGS using standard ARC/INFO commands. Digitizing and editing artifacts significant enough to display at a scale of

  10. Preliminary design study. Shuttle modular scanning spectroradiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Fundamental concepts on which to base a detailed design for a Shuttle Modular Scanning Spectroradiometer were developed, and a preliminary design is presented. The recommended design features modularity and flexibility. It includes a 75-cm f/1.7-telescope assembly in an all-reflective Schmidt configuration, a solid state scan system (pushbroom) with high resolution over a 15 deg field of view, and ten detector channels covering the spectral range from 0.45 to 12.5 micrometers. It uses charge transfer device techniques to accommodate a large number of detector elements for earth observation measurements. Methods for in-flight radiometric calibration, for image motion compensation, and for data processing are described. Recommendations for ground support equipment are included, and interfaces with the shuttle orbiter vehicle are illustrated.

  11. Ketamine Injection among High Risk Youth: Preliminary Findings from New York City

    PubMed Central

    Lankenau, Stephen E.; Clatts, Michael C.

    2007-01-01

    Ketamine, a synthetic drug commonly consumed by high risk youth, produces a range of experiences, including sedation, dissociation, and hallucinations. While ketamine is more typically sniffed, we describe a small sample of young ketamine injectors (n=25) in New York City and highlight risks associated with this emerging type of injection drug use. Our findings indicate that the injection practices, injection groups, and use norms surrounding ketamine often differ from other injection drug use: intramuscular injections were more common than intravenous injections; injection groups were often large; multiple injections within a single episode were common; bottles rather than cookers were shared; and the drug was often obtained for free. Our findings suggest that the drug injection practices exercised by ketamine injectors place them at risk for bloodborne pathogens, such as HIV, HBV, and HCV. We conclude that ketamine injectors represent an emerging, though often hidden, population of injection drug users, particularly among high risk, street-involved youth. PMID:17440604

  12. Preliminary investigation of radon concentration in surface water and drinking water in Shenzhen City, South China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Wang, Nanping; Li, Shijun

    2015-11-01

    A radon survey in surface water and drinking water was conducted using a portable degassing system associated with an ionisation chamber AlphaGUARD (PQ2000) for understanding levels of dissolved radon ((222)Rn) concentration in different types of water sources and risk assessment of radon in drinking water in Shenzhen City (SC) with a population of 10 628 900 in 2013, Guangdong Province of China. The measurements show that arithmetic means ± standard deviations of radon ((222)Rn) concentration are 52.05 ± 6.64, 0.29 ± 0.26, 0.15 ± 0.23 and 0.37 ± 0.42 kBq m(-3) in spring water, surface water, large and small public water supplies, respectively. Only radon concentrations of two water samples collected in mountainous areas are more than 11.10 kBq m(-3), exceeding the limit of radon concentration in drinking water stipulated by the national standard of China (GB5749-2006). The annual effective doses due to radon in drinking water were also calculated. The investigation suggests that there are no risks caused by radon in the drinking water in SC.

  13. Sociology, Psychology, and Theoretical Legacy of the Kansas City Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Victor W.

    1994-01-01

    Theoretical impact of Kansas City Studies stems from issues ignored as much as from those addressed. Studies advanced search for "normal" aging, although diversity was not adequately addressed initially. Also adopted and furthered a highly individualistic understanding of aging, whereas the sociological analyses lacked adequate…

  14. Tobacco smoking in seven Latin American cities: the CARMELA study

    PubMed Central

    Champagne, B M; Schargrodsky, H; Pramparo, P; Boissonnet, C; Wilson, E

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to explore tobacco smoking in seven major cities of Latin America. Methods The Cardiovascular Risk Factor Multiple Evaluation in Latin America (CARMELA) study is a cross-sectional epidemiological study of 11 550 adults between 25 and 64 years old in Barquisimeto, Venezuela; Bogota, Colombia; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Lima, Peru; Mexico City, Mexico; Quito, Ecuador; and Santiago, Chile. Tobacco smoking, including cigarettes, cigars and pipes, was surveyed among other cardiovascular risk factors. Results Santiago and Buenos Aires had the highest smoking prevalence (45.4% and 38.6%, respectively); male and female rates were similar. In other cities, men smoked more than women, most markedly in Quito (49.4% of men vs 10.5% of women). Peak male smoking prevalence occurred among the youngest two age groups (25–34 and 35–44 years old). Men and women of Buenos Aires smoked the highest number of cigarettes per day on average (15.7 and 12.4, respectively). Men initiated regular smoking earlier than women in each city (ranges 13.7–20.0 years vs 14.2–21.1 years, respectively). Exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke at workplace for more than 5 h per day was higher in Barquisimeto (28.7%), Buenos Aires (26.8%) and Santiago (21.5%). The highest prevalence of former smokers was found among men in Buenos Aires, Santiago and Lima (30.0%, 26.8% and 26.0% respectively). Conclusions Smoking prevalence was high in the seven CARMELA cities, although patterns of smoking varied among cities. A major health and economic burden is inevitable in urban Latin America unless effective comprehensive tobacco control measures recommended by the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control are implemented. PMID:20709777

  15. Urban ergonomics: an ongoing study of city signs and maps.

    PubMed

    Alves, Patricia; Arezes, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess whether the existing signals in three European cities were developed according usability principles and ergonomic aspects for the citizen. City maps and signals will be tested using efficiency, effectiveness and user's satisfaction criteria. Among the urban areas are the center of Paris-FR, assumed to be well signalized, the historical center of Guimarães-PT and Chorweiler, Cologne-DE, a residential neighborhood of modern urbanism characterized by the extensive use of vegetation, the landscape homogeneity, and, consequently, by the difficult navigation.

  16. Preliminary design studies of an advanced general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Ron; Demoss, Shane; Dirkzwager, AB; Evans, Darryl; Gomer, Charles; Keiter, Jerry; Knipp, Darren; Seier, Glen; Smith, Steve; Wenninger, ED

    1991-01-01

    The preliminary design results are presented of the advanced aircraft design project. The goal was to take a revolutionary look into the design of a general aviation aircraft. Phase 1 of the project included the preliminary design of two configurations, a pusher, and a tractor. Phase 2 included the selection of only one configuration for further study. The pusher configuration was selected on the basis of performance characteristics, cabin noise, natural laminar flow, and system layouts. The design was then iterated to achieve higher levels of performance.

  17. Pasadena City College SIGI Project Research Design. Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risser, John J.; Tulley, John E.

    A pilot study evaluation of SIGI (System of Interactive Guidance and Information) at Pasadena City College in 1974-75 tested the effectiveness of an experimental research design for an expanded field test of the system the following year. (SIGI is a computer based career guidance program designed by Educational Testing Service to assist community…

  18. Simulations: A Case Study of City & Guilds' Newest Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Andrew; Dearing, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a case study of City & Guilds' development of simulation-based assessments for its ICT user qualification. These simulations are authentic scenario-based replicas of word processing and spreadsheet software, which present a series of tasks that the test-taker completes as if they were using…

  19. Preliminary Design Study of a Hybrid Airship for Flight Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browning, R. G. E.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of using components from four small helicopters and an airship envelope as the basis for a quad-rotor research aircraft was studied. Preliminary investigations included a review of candidate hardware and various combinations of rotor craft/airship configurations. A selected vehicle was analyzed to assess its structural and performance characteristics.

  20. Preliminary simulation studies related to the Cerro Prieto Field

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Witherspoon, P.A.; Rivera, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Results of preliminary numerical simulations of the behavior of the Cerro Prieto field are discussed. The purpose of these studies is to examine: (1) the effect of using conventional isothermal methods of well test data analysis for geothermal systems, and (2) the influence of recharge from over under underlying aquifers on the temperature of a producing geothermal reservoir. 8 refs.

  1. National Day Care Study: Preliminary Findings and Their Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travers, Jeffrey; And Others

    This interim report on the National Day Care Study (NDCS) presents preliminary findings of the 4-year research program designed to answer major policy questions about federal funding of center-based preschool day care. Major NDCS objectives have been to determine the impact of variations in staff-child ratio, group size, and staff size and…

  2. PTSD and Impaired Eye Expression Recognition: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Jakob Zeuthen; Zachariae, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This preliminary study examined whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was related to difficulties in identifying the mental states of others in a group of refugees. Sixteen Bosnian refugees, referred to treatment in an outpatient treatment center for survivors of torture and war-related trauma in Denmark (CETT), were compared to 16 non-PTSD…

  3. Building momentum: an ethnographic study of inner-city redevelopment.

    PubMed Central

    Fullilove, M T; Green, L; Fullilove, R E

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: One factor contributing to the decay of inner-city areas, and to consequent excess mortality, is the massive loss of housing. This report studied the effects of a redevelopment project on social functioning in an inner-city community. METHODS: This ethnographic study included the following elements: a longitudinal study of 10 families living in renovated housing, repeated observations and photographing of the street scene, focus groups, and informal interviews with area residents. The project was located in the Bradhurst section of Harlem in New York City and was focused on a redevelopment effort sponsored by local congregations. RESULTS: Those who were able to move into newly renovated housing found that their living conditions were greatly improved. Neighborhood revitalization lagged behind the rehabilitation of individual apartment houses. This uneven redevelopment was a visual and sensory reminder of "what had been." Residents missed the warmth and social support that existed in Harlem before its decline. CONCLUSIONS: Rebuilding damaged housing contributes greatly to the well-being of inner-city residents. The current pace and scope of rebuilding are insufficient to restore lost vitality. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:10358672

  4. Preliminary United States-Mexico border watershed analysis, twin cities area of Nogales, Arizona and Nogales, Sonora

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, Laura Margaret; Gray, Floyd; Castaneda, Mario; Bultman, Mark; Bolm, Karen Sue

    2002-01-01

    The United States - Mexico border area faces the challenge of integrating aspects of its binational physical boundaries to form a unified or, at least, compatible natural resource management plan. Specified geospatial components such as stream drainages, mineral occurrences, vegetation, wildlife, and land-use can be analyzed in terms of their overlapping impacts upon one another. Watersheds have been utilized as a basic unit in resource analysis because they contain components that are interrelated and can be viewed as a single interactive ecological system. In developing and analyzing critical regional natural resource databases, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other federal and non-governmental agencies have adopted a ?watershed by watershed? approach to dealing with such complicated issues as ecosystem health, natural resource use, urban growth, and pollutant transport within hydrologic systems. These watersheds can facilitate the delineation of both large scale and locally important hydrologic systems and urban management parameters necessary for sustainable, diversified land-use. The twin border cities area of Nogales, Sonora and Nogales, Arizona, provide the ideal setting to demonstrate the utility and application of a complete, cross-border, geographic information systems (GIS) based, watershed analysis in the characterization of a wide range of natural resource as well as urban features and their interactions. In addition to the delineation of a unified, cross-border watershed, the database contains sewer/water line locations and status, well locations, geology, hydrology, topography, soils, geomorphology, and vegetation data, as well as remotely sensed imagery. This report is preliminary and part of an ongoing project to develop a GIS database that will be widely accessible to the general public, researchers, and the local land management community with a broad range of application and utility.

  5. Preliminary toxicological study of ferric acetyl acetonate

    SciTech Connect

    London, J.E.; Smith, D.M.

    1983-01-01

    The calculated acute oral LD/sub 50//sup 30/ (lethal does for 50% of the animals occuring with 30 days after compound administration) values for ferric acetyl acetonate were 584 mg/kg in mice and 995 mg/kg in rats. According to classical guidelines, this compound would be considered slightly toxic in both species. Skin application studies in the rabbit demonstrated the compound to be irritating. The eye irritation study disclosed the compound to be a severe irritant causing permanent damage to the cornea (inflammation and scarring resulting in blindness). The sensitization study in the guinea pig did not show ferric acetyl acetonate to be deleterious in this regard.

  6. Decision Support Systems: A Preliminary Study,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-09-01

    goal for data management research is an integrated data system -12- _ _...__ _ _ ... ’ . ENGLISH LOGIC FORMAL DATA LISP OR SUBSET (KOWALSKI LANG FOR...studies are indicated to determine if cannonical forms can be used to make vector operations out of operations like COND (from LISP ). Studies of the...W.W., Boyer, Robert S., and Henneman , William H., (1972), "Computer Proofs of Limits Theorems", A.I. Jour., 3, pp. 27-60. 12. Bledsoe, W.W. and

  7. Engineering Technology Education Study. Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Society for Engineering Education, Washington, DC.

    This is the half-way report of a 2-year study of engineering technology education that began in August 1969. The various sections include: (1) the history, traditions and transitions of engineering technology education; (2) abstracts of 4 important reports of technology education since 1960; (3) recent trends in the field; (4) goals, objectives,…

  8. Preliminary Study of Child's Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yumoto, Kazuko

    1984-01-01

    A naturalistic study looked at the acquisition of English by two Japanese boys, aged 4 and 8 years, during a 2.5-year stay in the United States. Data were collected through observation and transcription of spontaneous speech in daily life. Analysis included a variety of features of language use and of the acquisition process, including attitudes…

  9. Preliminary Water Quality Assessment of Calumpang River in Batangas City, Philippines, Using Surface Water Analysis and UAV-Based Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lit, J. M. C.; Espaldon, M. V. O.; Eslava, D. F.; Macatangay, R. C.; Saludes, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Water is an integral part of nature; it is crucial in supporting life. Bodies of water in our planet include rivers, which provide various ecosystem services. Monitoring water quality is essential for assessment of current conditions of water bodies as well as of the progress of rehabilitation efforts. Calumpang River in Batangas City, Philippines, holds huge potential for ecosystem services; this potential is hindered by its degraded water quality at present. This study aims to develop an initial method for water quality assessment through interpolation of imagery from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), and surface water quality data (Chl-A and CDOM) measured from in situ water sampling on defined reference points on the Calumpang River, with considerations for temporal variations (i.e. dry vs. wet season). Surface water quality data for dry and wet seasons and UAV imagery collected and analyzed from the dry season serve as preliminary results. Data indicate that there were higher Chl-A concentrations during the dry season, as expected. In contrast, CDOM concentrations were higher during the wet season. This is attributed to increased amount of detritus in the river accumulated through runoff and loading. The method of interpolating UAV imagery and water quality data can serve and be further improved as a means for rapid assessment of the water quality in water bodies in the future, and aid in the evaluation, monitoring, and management of water resources.

  10. Preliminary shuttle structural dynamics modeling design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design and development of a structural dynamics model of the space shuttle are discussed. The model provides for early study of structural dynamics problems, permits evaluation of the accuracy of the structural and hydroelastic analysis methods used on test vehicles, and provides for efficiently evaluating potential cost savings in structural dynamic testing techniques. The discussion is developed around the modes in which major input forces and responses occur and the significant structural details in these modes.

  11. Study of spirometry in children from Mexico City

    SciTech Connect

    Namihira, D.; Strope, G.L.; Helms, R.W.; Pekow, P.; Bojalil, B.M.; Fernandez, F.

    1986-11-01

    A study was conducted in two elementary schools in Mexico City to determine values for pulmonary function tests in school-aged residents of Mexico City. The schools were located in Xalostoc, a highly industrialized area of Mexico City, and San Lorenzo, a suburban area of the city. Although data regarding atmospheric pollution were not available, there is an acknowledged higher level of macroenvironmental air pollution in Xalostoc. Pulmonary function tests were performed on 468 children in San Lorenzo and 405 children in Xalostoc. No differences between residents of the two communities for acute or chronic respiratory conditions were detected by questionnaire. The pulmonary function data demonstrate that boys have larger forced vital capacities (FVC) and forced expiratory flows over the middle half of the FVC (FEF25-75) than girls. Slopes of regression lines for FVC but not for FEF25-75 are greater in boys and girls from Xalostoc than in boys and girls from San Lorenzo. This suggests that young children from Xalostoc may experience ill effects of air pollution but develop catch-up growth later. There were no important community or gender effects on slopes of regression lines for height and weight on age. In general, the regression lines for FVC and FEF25-75 were below regression lines reported for children of Mexican ancestry living at sea level.

  12. Preliminary evaluation of the ground-water-flow system in the Twin Cities Metropolitan area, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guswa, John H.; Siegel, Donald I.; Gillies, Daniel C.

    1982-01-01

    Areal distribution of calcium, sodium, sulfate, and chloride concentrations were analyzed to provide information on the hydrologic and geochemical relationships between aquifers. Ground water is generally of the calcium magnesium bicarbonate type. Concentration of dissolved solids in water from the Jordan Sandstone and Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifer generally decreases from southwest to northeast across the study area. This decrease probably reflects differences in the quality of recharge water and geochemical processes within the aquifers, such as ion exchange.

  13. Preliminary study of possible ORELA replacement options

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Martin, J.A.; Horen, D.J.

    1984-06-01

    Based on two conceptual design studies performed by the LANL Accelerator Technology Division, the possibilities in terms of accelerator systems for replacing ORELA with a more intense Maxwellian-type continuous-energy neutron source are summarized and discussed. The neutron intensities from ORELA are compared with those from existing or potential accelerator systems used for cross-section and condensed-matter studies. The best replacement options seem to involve a spallation source from 200- to 400-MeV protons on an ORELA-like target. Pulsing and intensity desiderata with such a source are discussed which correspond to a spectrum-averaged 100-fold improved figure of merit over ORELA for TOF measurements with only a tenfold increased source strength. Existing accelerator designs seem to be inadequate for such a source. Consequently, two conceptual designs were developed for this study by the LANL Accelerator Technology Division. The first conceptual design is for a 200-MeV large linac capable of accelerating 1.3 A during a macropulse; this linac standing alone could serve as an ORELA replacement source. The second conceptual design is for a much smaller 250-MeV PIGMI linac with a 28-mA macropulse current which feeds a proton accumulator ring and bunch-compressor transport line. This linac-ring-compressor (LIRIC) option would give a more cost-effective neutron source for cross-section measurements, whereas the large linac, or a modified version of it, would give a much simpler system more suitable for expansion. In particular, both conceptual designs would incorporate the present ORELA building and would provide approximately 100-fold improved neutron sources over ORELA for cross-section measurements. The total estimated cost of the LIRIC system would be $43M (1984), whereas the cost of the large linac would be about a factor of two more. 55 references, 11 figures, 19 tables.

  14. Preliminary design study of a baseline MIUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfer, B. M.; Shields, V. E.; Rippey, J. O.; Roberts, H. L.; Wadle, R. C.; Wallin, S. P.; Gill, W. L.; White, E. H.; Monzingo, R.

    1977-01-01

    Results of a conceptual design study to establish a baseline design for a modular integrated utility system (MIUS) are presented. The system concept developed a basis for evaluating possible projects to demonstrate an MIUS. For the baseline study, climate conditions for the Washington, D.C., area were used. The baseline design is for a high density apartment complex of 496 dwelling units with a planned full occupancy of approximately 1200 residents. Environmental considerations and regulations for the MIUS installation are discussed. Detailed cost data for the baseline MIUS are given together with those for design and operating variations under climate conditions typified by Las Vegas, Nevada, Houston, Texas, and Minneapolis, Minnesota. In addition, results of an investigation of size variation effects, for 300 and 1000 unit apartment complexes, are presented. Only conceptual aspects of the design are discussed. Results regarding energy savings and costs are intended only as trend information and for use in relative comparisons. Alternate heating, ventilation, and air conditioning concepts are considered in the appendix.

  15. Preliminary systems design study assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-10-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. The SDS results are published in eight volumes. Volume I contains an executive summary. The SDS summary and analysis of results are presented in Volume II. Volumes III through VII contain descriptions of twelve system and four subsystem concepts. Volume VIII contains the appendixes.

  16. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Quapp, W.J.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-07-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. The SDS results are published in eight volumes. Volume 1 contains an executive summary. The SDS summary and analysis of results are presented in Volume 2. Volumes 3 through 7 contain detailed descriptions of twelve system and four subsystem concepts. Volume 8 contains the appendixes. 23 refs., 23 figs., 16 tabs.

  17. Preliminary study of disc hydrodynamic polishing.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Lin, Bin; Zhang, XiaoFeng; Liu, PengFei

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a developed polishing method based on elastic emission machining and Jules Verne-a variation on fluid jet polishing-is presented. This method is named disc hydrodynamic polishing (DHDP). A computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based model that consists of a CFD model and an erosion model is introduced to predict the surface roughness obtained by DHDP. The performance of DHDP is studied by experiments. The slurry used in the experiments comprises 95% deionized water and 5% cerium oxide particles. Fused-silica glass is chosen as the workpiece. After the experiments, an ultrasmooth surface without cracks is obtained. The simulation results principally coincide with the experimental results. The experimental results show that the actual roughness is slightly less than the prediction and smaller particles are more favorable for obtaining a better surface roughness.

  18. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE ROOTS OF COCCULUS HIRSUTUS, LINN.

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Sourabh; Lavhale, Manish; Nayak, S.

    2004-01-01

    The roots of Cocculus hirsutus (Linn) Diels was analyzed for preliminary phytochemical studies including physical constant (total ash, acid soluble and insoluble ash and moisture content), extractive values in different solvents (petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, methanol and water), and phytochemical tests. The plant is well reputed in traditional system of medicine, present studies will help in further validation and standardization of the plant. PMID:22557132

  19. Preliminary Photomicrographic Studies of Fuel Sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Dana W; Spencer, Robert C

    1932-01-01

    Photomicrographs were taken of fuel sprays injected into air at various densities for the purpose of studying the spray structure and the stages in the atomization of the fuel. The photomicrographs were taken at magnifying powers of 2.5, 3.25, and 10, using a spark discharge of very short duration for illumination. The results indicate that the theory advanced by Dr. R. A. Castleman, Jr., on the atomization of fuel in carburetors may also be applied to the atomization of fuel sprays of the solid-injection type. The fuel leaves the nozzle as a solid column, is ruffled and then torn into small, irregular ligaments by the action of the air. These ligaments are then quickly broken up into drops by the surface tension of the fuel. The photomicrographs also show that the dispersion of a fuel spray at a given distance from the nozzle increases with an increase in the jet velocity or an increase in the air density. The first portions of fuel sprays injected from an automatic injection valve into air at atmospheric density have a much greater dispersion than the later portions, but this difference decreases rapidly as the air density is increased.

  20. Helicopter pilot back pain: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, D F; Reading, T E

    1984-02-01

    Because of the high prevalence of back pain experienced by U.S. Army helicopter pilots, a study was conducted to ascertain the feasibility of reproducing these symptoms in the laboratory. A mock-up of a UH-1H seat and control configuration was mounted to a multi-axis vibration simulator (MAVS). Eleven subjects were tested on the apparatus for two 120-min periods. During one period, the MAVS was programmed to reproduce vibrations recorded from a UH-1H in cruise flight. The subjects received no vibration during the other test period. All subjects reported back pain which they described as identical to the pain they experience during flight, during one or more of their test periods. There was no statistical difference between the vibration and nonvibration test conditions (p greater than 0.05) in terms of time of onset of pain or intensity of pain as measured by a visual analog scale. It appears the vibration at the frequencies and amplitudes tested plays little or no role in the etiology of the back symptoms reported by these pilots. It is proposed that the primary etiological factor for these symptoms is the poor posture pilots are obliged to assume for extended periods while operating helicopters.

  1. Preliminary 2D design study for A&PCT

    SciTech Connect

    Keto, E.; Azevedo, S.; Roberson, P.

    1995-03-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is currently designing and constructing a tomographic scanner to obtain the most accurate possible assays of radioactivity in barrels of nuclear waste in a limited amount of time. This study demonstrates a method to explore different designs using laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. In particular, we examine the trade-off between spatial resolution and signal-to-noise. The simulations are conducted in two dimensions as a preliminary study for three dimensional imaging. We find that the optimal design is entirely dependent on the expected source sizes and activities. For nuclear waste barrels, preliminary results indicate that collimators with widths of 1 to 3 inch and aspect ratios of 5:1 to 10:1 should perform well. This type of study will be repeated in 3D in more detail to optimize the final design.

  2. Improving air quality in megacities: Mexico City case study.

    PubMed

    Molina, Luisa T; Molina, Mario J

    2004-06-01

    The development and effective implementation of solutions to the air pollution problems in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area is essential to guarantee the health and welfare of its inhabitants. To achieve this, it is essential to have the active and informed participation of the civil society, the academic community, the private sector, and the government, because dealing with pollution requires the use of different strategies in multiple fields of action. The Mexico City case study brings together health, transportation, administration, and many other interdisciplinary approaches to understanding and defeating air pollution. Although focused on the Mexico City area, the work conducted under this case study has significance for developing nations generally. Although policies to reduce air pollution should be based on the best available scientific knowledge, political will and capacity must transform this knowledge into action. This case study has developed a series of recommendations emphasizing the interaction between different disciplines that have provided the foundation for the 10-year air quality management program prepared by the Mexican Metropolitan Environmental Commission.

  3. Preliminary study of niobium alloy contamination by transport through helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuermann, C. M.; Moore, T. J.; Wheeler, D. R.

    1987-01-01

    Transport of gaseous contaminants through the working fluid to or from sensitive refractory alloys is theoretically possible during long time operation of Brayton and Stirling space power generation systems which use a gas as the working fluid. A test was designed which could give an answer to whether transport of contaminants through the working fluid was a potential major problem. The findings of that preliminary study are summarized.

  4. Preliminary dose comparisons for the MRS Systems Study

    SciTech Connect

    Pelto, P.J.; Lavender, J.C.

    1989-04-01

    This report provides preliminary information on the radiological doses to the public and the workers for alternative system configurations proposed in the MRS Systems Study. Information published in the MRS Environmental Assessment (DOE 1986) was used as a basis for this analysis. The risk differences between alternative configurations were found to be small and should not be viewed as a major factor in selecting alternative configurations. 1 ref.

  5. Preliminary Study of a Piston Pump for Cryogenic Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biermann, Arnold E.; Kohl, Robert C.

    1959-01-01

    Preliminary data are presented covering the performance of a low-speed, five-cylinder piston pump designed for handling boiling hydrogen. This pump was designed for a flow of 55 gallons per minute at 240 rpm with a discharge pressure of 135 pounds per square inch. Tests were made using JP-4 fuel, liquid nitrogen, and liquid hydrogen. Pump delivery and endurance characteristics were satisfactory for the range of operation covered. In connection with the foregoing pump development, the cavitation characteristics of a preliminary visual model, glass-cylinder pump and of a simple reciprocating disk were studied. Subcooling of approximately 0.60 F was obtained from the cavitation produced by reciprocating a disk in boiling nitrogen and in boiling water. The subcooling obtained in a similar manner with liquid hydrogen was somewhat less.

  6. Preliminary map showing limonitic areas in the Silver City 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, Arizona and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raines, Gary L.

    1984-01-01

    This map is a part of a folio of maps of the Silver City 1o x 2o quadrangle, Arizona and New Mexico, prepared under the Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program. As a part of this study Landstat images were used to map the anomalous areas of limonitic materials as a guide to hydrothermal alteration which, in turn, acts as a guide to mineralized systems. The term limonite, defined by Blanchard (1968) as a general term for undifferentiated ferric oxide percipitates, is here modified to include any mineral with the typical spectral reflectance properties of the ferric oxide minerals such as hematite and goethite, as defined by Hunt (1980). The nap shows anomalous areas of limonitic miaterials that might be associated with mineralization. 

  7. The Copenhagen City Heart Study (Østerbroundersøgelsen)

    PubMed Central

    Aguib, Yasmine; Al Suwaidi, Jassim

    2015-01-01

    The Copenhagen City Heart Study, also known as “Østerbroundersøgelsen”, is a large prospective cardio-vascular population study of 20,000 women and men that was launched in 1975 by Dr Peter Schnohr and Dr Gorm Jensen together with statistician Jørgen Nyboe and Prof. A. Tybjærg Hansen. The original purpose of the study was to focus on prevention of coronary heart disease and stroke. During the years many other aspects have been added to the study: pulmonary diseases, heart failure, arrhythmia, alcohol, arthrosis, eye diseases, allergy, epilepsia, dementia, stress, vital exhaustion, social network, sleep-apnoe, ageing and genetics. In this review we highlight unique aspects of the Copenhagen City Heat Study (CCHS) and its outcome in investigations of clinical and molecular aspects of health and disease in the regional and global population. To increase the impact of population studies with a focus on risk and prevention of cardiovascular and related diseases and to maximize the likelihood of identifying disease causes and effective therapeutics, lessons learned from past research should be applied to the design, implementation and interpretation of future studies. PMID:26779513

  8. Preliminary Study for a Tetrahedron Formation: Quality Factors and Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzman, Jose J.; Schiff, Conrad; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Spacecraft flying in tetrahedron formations are excellent for electromagnetic and plasma studies. The quality of the science recorded is strongly affected by the tetrahedron evolution. This paper is a preliminary study on the computation of quality factors and visualization for a formation of four or five satellites. Four of the satellites are arranged geometrically in a tetrahedron shape. If a fifth satellite is present, it is arbitrarily initialized at the geometric center of the tetrahedron. The fifth satellite could act as a collector or as a spare spacecraft. Tetrahedron natural coordinates are employed for the initialization. The natural orbit evolution is visualized in geocentric equatorial inertial and in geocentric solar magnetospheric coordinates.

  9. Public health assessment for tri-cities Barrel Company, Inc. , Fenton, Broome County, New York, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NYD980509285. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-18

    The Tri-Cities Barrel Company, Inc., facility was included on the original New York State Registry of Hazardous Waste Sites in June 1980 when it was discovered that hazardous waste had been discharged to ground surface and to unlined lagoons. This site was later placed on the National Priorities List (NPL). Four monitoring wells were drilled and sampled during a preliminary site investigation. The on-site contamination of groundwater was documented by sampling of monitoring wells in 1986. One private well near the site showed low levels of ethylbenzene, meta-xylene and ortho-xylene; it is not clear, however, if this was related to the site. A second sample was taken from this well in 1990 and did not detect any contaminants. Since the preliminary report, additional waste lagoons have been identified and the site was expanded to include the entire 13 acres owned by the Tri-Cities Barrel Company. A remedial investigation is currently ongoing. Based on information reviewed, this site is an indeterminate public health hazard because the extent of contamination in groundwater has not been defined and contamination in areas north of I-88 has not been confirmed or defined. The primary health concern associated with exposure to chemicals at the site comes from their potential to cause cancer in humans or animals.

  10. Biocontamination Control for Spacesuit Garments - A Preliminary Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Richard A.; Orndoff, Evelyne; Korona, F. Adam; Poritz, Darwin; Smith, Jelanie; Wong, Wing

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a preliminary study that was conducted to review, test, and improve on current space suit biocontamination control. Biocontamination from crew members can cause space suit damage and objectionable odors and lead to crew member health hazards. An understanding of the level of biocontamination is necessary to mitigate its effects. A series of tests were conducted with the intent of evaluating current suit materials, ground and on-orbit disinfectants, and potential commercial off-the-shelf antimicrobial materials. Included in this paper is a discussion of the test methodology, results, and analysis method.

  11. The lived experience of mothering after prison: the preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Margaret O

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this interpretive phenomenological preliminary study was to gain a better understanding of the experience of mothering after prison. In-depth interviewing was conducted with two participants for a period of 4 months after their release from prison. All interviews were focused on the research question, "What has been your experience of mothering since your release from prison?" Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The following four themes emerged: "always the mother,"separation anxiety,"new demands: divided loyalties," and "the honeymoon is over."

  12. Energy efficient engine: Preliminary design and integration studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, R. P.; Hirschkron, R.; Koch, C. C.; Neitzel, R. E.; Vinson, P. W.

    1978-01-01

    Parametric design and mission evaluations of advanced turbofan configurations were conducted for future transport aircraft application. Economics, environmental suitability and fuel efficiency were investigated and compared with goals set by NASA. Of the candidate engines which included mixed- and separate-flow, direct-drive and geared configurations, an advanced mixed-flow direct-drive configuration was selected for further design and evaluation. All goals were judged to have been met except the acoustic goal. Also conducted was a performance risk analysis and a preliminary aerodynamic design of the 10 stage 23:1 pressure ratio compressor used in the study engines.

  13. Experimental Studies of Ion Beam Neutralization: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, N.; Polansky, J.; Downey, R.; Wang, J.

    2011-05-20

    A testing platform is designed to study ion beam neutralization in the mesothermal, collisionless region. In the experimental setup, argon neutrals were ionized in a microwave cavity and accelerated by a plasma lens system which was biased to 2500 V above the system ground. Electrons were boiled off from two hot tungsten filaments to neutralize the ion beam. The plasma is diagnosed using Langmuir probe and Faraday probe. A 3-D traversing system and a complete data acquisition loop were developed to efficiently measure 3-D beam profile. Preliminary measurements of beam profiles are presented for different operating conditions.

  14. Preliminary Study of a Pull Plug Friction Weld

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, George R.

    1999-01-01

    A pull plug friction weld, simply defined, comprises inserting a rotating cone-shaped cylinder into a somewhat cone-shaped hole in a plate. The rotating plug makes contact with the edge of the plate and the resulting friction generates heat. The temperature of the plate material eventually reaches a magnitude that will cause the plate material at the edge of the hole to flow. This can be termed a temperature dependent plastic flow. The rotation of the plug is terminated, additional pressure is applied and the metal at the interface of the two materials cools and welding occurs. This preliminary study addresses only three aspects of a complete analysis that is multi-faceted. The transient temperature distribution for different pull plug configurations has been studied in some detail even though the initial conditions and boundary conditions may still be deemed tentative. The stress distribution within the pull plug caused by the heating pressure was studied along with a preliminary analysis of the thermoelastic stress distribution caused by friction heating. There are no definitive results for the stress analysis. Additional study will be required.

  15. Anthropological Approaches to the Study of Housing Areas: Lessons from Oaxaca City, Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Arthur D.

    The anthropological study of the city's role in the evolution of human systems requires the use of both macro and micro levels of analysis. From the macro perspective, the city is viewed as part of a wider complex society, while from the micro point of view, the city provides the context for understanding specific human institutions or processes…

  16. Preliminary design study of the TMT Telescope structure system: overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usuda, Tomonori; Ezaki, Yutaka; Kawaguchi, Noboru; Nagae, Kazuhiro; Kato, Atsushi; Takaki, Junji; Hirano, Masaki; Hattori, Tomoya; Tabata, Masaki; Horiuchi, Yasushi; Saruta, Yusuke; Sofuku, Satoru; Itoh, Noboru; Oshima, Takeharu; Takanezawa, Takashi; Endo, Makoto; Inatani, Junji; Iye, Masanori; Sadjadpour, Amir; Sirota, Mark; Roberts, Scott; Stepp, Larry

    2014-07-01

    We present an overview of the preliminary design of the Telescope Structure System (STR) of Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). NAOJ was given responsibility for the TMT STR in early 2012 and engaged Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (MELCO) to take over the preliminary design work. MELCO performed a comprehensive preliminary design study in 2012 and 2013 and the design successfully passed its Preliminary Design Review (PDR) in November 2013 and April 2014. Design optimizations were pursued to better meet the design requirements and improvements were made in the designs of many of the telescope subsystems as follows: 1. 6-legged Top End configuration to support secondary mirror (M2) in order to reduce deformation of the Top End and to keep the same 4% blockage of the full aperture as the previous STR design. 2. "Double Lower Tube" of the elevation (EL) structure to reduce the required stroke of the primary mirror (M1) actuators to compensate the primary mirror cell (M1 Cell) deformation caused during the EL angle change in accordance with the requirements. 3. M1 Segment Handling System (SHS) to be able to make removing and installing 10 Mirror Segment Assemblies per day safely and with ease over M1 area where access of personnel is extremely difficult. This requires semi-automatic sequence operation and a robotic Segment Lifting Fixture (SLF) designed based on the Compliance Control System, developed for controlling industrial robots, with a mechanism to enable precise control within the six degrees of freedom of position control. 4. CO2 snow cleaning system to clean M1 every few weeks that is similar to the mechanical system that has been used at Subaru Telescope. 5. Seismic isolation and restraint systems with respect to safety; the maximum acceleration allowed for M1, M2, tertiary mirror (M3), LGSF, and science instruments in 1,000 year return period earthquakes are defined in the requirements. The Seismic requirements apply to any EL angle, regardless of the

  17. Preliminary survey report: control technology for manual transfer of chemical powders at City of Hamilton Municipal Electric Plant, Hamilton, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Godbey, F.W.

    1984-08-01

    Health-hazard control methods, work processes, and existing control technologies used in the manual transfer of chemical powders were surveyed at the City of Hamilton Municipal Electric Site, Hamilton, Ohio in May, 1984. The facility employed 48 workers involved in generating electricity. Soda ash, phosphates, and flake caustic soda were used in water-treatment operations. Water was used to produce steam which in turn was used to drive the electricity-generating rotors. The dry materials were manually removed from drums and sacks and dumped into 75 gallon water tanks. The mixture was manually stirred with a stick until the dry materials were in solution. The solution was then automatically pumped into one of three boiler drums. No ventilation was used in the water treatment area. Workers were encouraged to use good work practices, and were provided with safety glasses, respirators, and gloves. Employees received pre-employment physical examinations and training in first-aid procedures. The author does not recommend an in-depth study of control technologies at the facility since no unique state-of-the-art methods are used.

  18. Preliminary design study of advanced multistage axial flow core compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisler, D. C.; Koch, C. C.; Smith, L. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary design study was conducted to identify an advanced core compressor for use in new high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines to be introduced into commercial service in the 1980's. An evaluation of anticipated compressor and related component 1985 state-of-the-art technology was conducted. A parametric screening study covering a large number of compressor designs was conducted to determine the influence of the major compressor design features on efficiency, weight, cost, blade life, aircraft direct operating cost, and fuel usage. The trends observed in the parametric screening study were used to develop three high-efficiency, high-economic-payoff compressor designs. These three compressors were studied in greater detail to better evaluate their aerodynamic and mechanical feasibility.

  19. R&D Requirements, RF Gun Mode Studies, FEL-2 Steady-StateStudies, Preliminary FEL-1 Time-Dependent Studies, and Preliminary LayoutOption Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, John; Corlett, John; Doolittle, Larry; Fawley, William; Lidia, Steven; Penn, Gregory; Ratti, Alex; Staples, John; Wilcox Russell; Wurtele, Jonathan; Zholents, Alexander

    2005-10-01

    This report constitutes the third deliverable of LBNLs contracted role in the FERMI {at} Elettra Technical Optimization study. It describes proposed R&D activities for the baseline design of the Technical Optimization Study, initial studies of the RF gun mode-coupling and potential effects on beam dynamics, steady-state studies of FEL-2 performance to 10 nm, preliminary studies of time-dependent FEL-1 performance using electron bunch distribution from the start-to-end studies, and a preliminary investigation of a configuration with FEL sinclined at a small angle from the line of the linac.

  20. Nevada potential repository preliminary transportation strategy Study 2. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to build on the findings of the Nevada Potential Repository Preliminary Transportation Strategy Study 1 (CRWMS M&O 1995b), and to provide additional information for input to the repository environmental impact statement (EIS) process. In addition, this study supported the future selection of a preferred rail corridor and/or heavy haul route based on defensible data, methods, and analyses. Study research did not consider proposed legislation. Planning was conducted according to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan (DOE 1994a). The specific objectives of Study 2 were to: eliminate or reduce data gaps, inconsistencies, and uncertainties, and strengthen the analysis performed in Study 1; develop a preliminary list of rail route evaluation criteria that could be used to solicit input from stakeholders during scoping meetings. The evaluation criteria will be revised based on comments received during scoping; restrict and refine the width of the four rail corridors identified in Study 1 to five miles or less, based on land use constraints and engineering criteria identified and established in Study 2; evaluate national-level effects of routing spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste to the four identified branch lines, including the effects of routing through or avoiding Las Vegas; continue to gather published land use information and environmental data to support the repository EIS; continue to evaluate heavy haul truck transport over three existing routes as an alternative to rail and provide sufficient information to support the repository EIS process; and evaluate secondary uses for rail (passenger use, repository construction, shared use).

  1. Study of electromagnetic radiation pollution in an Indian city.

    PubMed

    Dhami, A K

    2012-11-01

    Electromagnetic radiation emitted by cell phone towers is a form of environmental pollution and is a new health hazard, especially to children and patients. The present studies were taken to estimate the microwave/RF pollution by measuring radiation power densities near schools and hospitals of Chandigarh city in India. The cell phone radiations were measured using a handheld portable power density meter TES 593 and specific absorption rates were estimated from the measured values. These values of electromagnetic radiation in the environment were compared with the levels at which biological system of humans and animals starts getting affected. The values were also compared with the international exposure limits set by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The highest measured power density was 11.48 mW/m(2) which is 1,148% of the biological limit. The results indicated that the exposure levels in the city were below the ICNIRP limit, but much above the biological limit.

  2. Megacity Radiative Forcing: A Mexico City Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, M.; Olsen, S.; Mazzoleni, C.; Chylek, P.; Zhang, Y.; Randerson, J. T.; Horowitz, L.

    2007-05-01

    We assess the radiative forcing of the largest megacity in North America, Mexico City. While particular aspects of the regional environmental impacts of cities on their surroundings have been thoroughly investigated, e.g., air quality and acid rain, relatively little effort has been focused on the net radiative impact of a megacity on global climate. The range of radiative impacts from a megacity covers many spatial and temporal scales from short-term regional-scale effects due to aerosols and relatively short-lived gases (ozone) to long-term global-scale impacts due to longer-lived trace gases (e.g., carbon dioxide, methane). In this study we combine chemistry-transport model simulations from the Model for Ozone And Related Chemical Tracers (MOZART-2) with in situ and satellite observations from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to calculate the global radiative forcing of megacity emissions. We also explore the radiative impact of various emission control strategies that focus on improving regional air quality. Our results suggest that the warming by greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide and ozone can be moderated or exacerbated by aerosols depending on their optical properties. As the size and number of megacities increase and clean air regulations are implemented, metrics such as the net radiative forcing may become increasingly important in comparing the impact of urban centers and assessing the trade-offs between improving local air quality and minimizing global radiative impacts.

  3. Characterization of burns using hyperspectral imaging technique - a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Calin, Mihaela Antonina; Parasca, Sorin Viorel; Savastru, Roxana; Manea, Dragos

    2015-02-01

    Surgical burn treatment depends on accurate estimation of burn depth. Many methods have been used to asses burns, but none has gained wide acceptance. Hyperspectral imaging technique has recently entered the medical research field with encouraging results. In this paper we present a preliminary study (case presentation) that aims to point out the value of this optical method in burn wound characterization and to set up future lines of investigation. A hyperspectral image of a leg and foot with partial thickness burns was obtained in the fifth postburn day. The image was analyzed using linear spectral unmixing model as a tool for mapping the investigated areas. The article gives details on the mathematical bases of the interpretation model and correlations with clinical examination pointing out the advantages of hyperspectral imaging technique. While the results were encouraging, further more extended and better founded studies are being prepared before recognizing hyperspectral imaging technique as an applicable method of burn wound assessment.

  4. Preliminary Studies for Three Experiments at Treiman-Yang Criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kres, I. V.; Kondratyev, V. N.; Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.

    2016-05-01

    Nuclear reactions with three bodies in their final state may proceed through different reaction mechanisms. The Feynman graph technique has been widely used to describe such reactions. However, it is very difficult in general to select the graphs that dominate in given process. The Treiman-Yang criterion is one of the most powerful experimental tests for verifying the pole approximation prediction when describing a quasi-free reaction mechanism. We propose the theoretical study of the H2(B10, α Be7)ns, H1(B11, α1α2)αs, He3(Be9, α1α2)αs reactions at different energies. The preliminary study helps to check the existence of a QF channel by using the TY creterion.

  5. Seeing the Heat: Preliminary Studies of Cryocrystallography Using Infrared Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snell, E. H.; Judge, R. A.; Larson, M.; vanderWoerd, M. J.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As preparation for an extensive study imaging the cryocooling process of macromolecular crystals we have demonstrated the ability to thermally image solid objects and liquids at temperatures far below 273 K. In the case of a large lysozyme crystal qualitative measurements show the cooling process to take about 0.6s with the cooling taking place in a wave from the face of the crystal nearest to the origin of the cryostream, to the point furthest away from the origin. Annealing of this lysozyme crystal, cooled under good cryoprotectant conditions, showed cold striations formed perpendicular to the cooling stream. These striations became more pronounced after successive annealing. Cryocooling of a non-cryoprotected crystal of glucose isomerase displayed an S-shaped cold front wave traveling across the sample. These preliminary results are qualitative but show the power of infrared imaging as a new tool for fundamental and practical cryocrystallography studies.

  6. Possession experiences in dissociative identity disorder: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ross, Colin A

    2011-01-01

    Dissociative trance disorder, which includes possession experiences, was introduced as a provisional diagnosis requiring further study in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.). Consideration is now being given to including possession experiences within dissociative identity disorder (DID) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.), which is due to be published in 2013. In order to provide empirical data relevant to the relationship between DID and possession states, I analyzed data on the prevalence of trance, possession states, sleepwalking, and paranormal experiences in 3 large samples: patients with DID from North America; psychiatric outpatients from Shanghai, China; and a general population sample from Winnipeg, Canada. Trance, sleepwalking, paranormal, and possession experiences were much more common in the DID patients than in the 2 comparison samples. The study is preliminary and exploratory in nature because the samples were not matched in any way.

  7. First Breath prenatal smoking cessation pilot study: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Jehn, Lisette; Lokker, Nicole; Matitz, Debra; Christiansen, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Despite the many dangers associated with smoking during pregnancy, it remains a salient public health problem for Wisconsin women. The First Breath pilot program was developed in an attempt to reduce rates of smoking during pregnancy among low-income women. Preliminary results suggest that the First Breath counseling-based approach is effective, with a quit rate of 43.8% among First Breath enrollees at 1 month postpartum. Women receiving First Breath cessation counseling also had higher quit rates at every measurement period versus women in a comparison group who were receiving whatever cessation care was available in their county in the absence of First Breath. The First Breath pilot study has demonstrated success in helping pregnant women quit smoking and in creating a model for integration of cessation services into prenatal health care service provision. It is through this success that First Breath is expanding beyond the pilot study stage to a statewide program in 2003.

  8. 76 FR 5584 - City of Salem, OR; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... would consist of three developments: Franzen Reservoir Plant; Turner Control Plant; and Fairmount Reservoir Plant, and would utilize flows from two existing pipelines for the City of Salem's water system drawing water from the existing Franzen and Fairmount reservoirs. The Franzen Reservoir Plant...

  9. Preliminary Examination of First Year Female University Students: Smoking Practices and Beliefs in a City with No-Smoking Legislation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Paula C.; Camblin, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Young adults between the ages of 20 to 24 are reported to have the highest smoking rates of any other age group. A questionnaire was used to assess the smoking practices and beliefs of 323 female university students. All participants were first year students entering university in a city where smoke-free legislation had been enacted. Results…

  10. Preliminary Examination of First Year Female University Students: Smoking Practices and Beliefs in a City with No-Smoking Legislation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Paula C.; Camblin, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Young adults between the ages of 20 to 24 are reported to have the highest smoking rates of any other age group. A questionnaire was used to assess the smoking practices and beliefs of 323 female university students. All participants were first year students entering university in a city where smoke-free legislation had been enacted. Results…

  11. Preliminary Studies of a Phase Modulation Technique for Measuring Chromaticity

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Cheng-Yang; /Fermilab

    2006-04-01

    The classical method for measuring chromaticity is to slowly modulate the RF frequency and then measuring the betatron tune excursion. The technique that is discussed in this paper modulates instead the phase of the RF and then the chromaticity is obtained by phase demodulating the betatron tune. However, this technique requires knowledge of the betatron frequency in real time in order for the phase to be demodulated. Fortunately, the Tevatron has a tune tracker based on the phase locked loop principle which fits this requirement. A preliminary study with this technique has showed that it is a promising method for doing continuous chromaticity measurement and raises the possibility of doing successful chromaticity feedback with it.

  12. Biased attention in childhood anxiety disorders: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Vasey, M W; Daleiden, E L; Williams, L L; Brown, L M

    1995-04-01

    This study provides preliminary tests of two hypotheses: (1) Anxiety-disordered children show an attentional bias toward emotionally threatening stimuli, and (2) normal controls show an attentional bias away from emotionally threatening stimuli. Twelve children, 9 to 14 years of age, with primary diagnoses of anxiety disorder were compared with 12 normal controls matched for age, gender, vocabulary level, and reading ability. Subjects completed a reaction time task that measured visual attention toward threatening versus neutral words. The anxious group showed the predicted attentional bias toward threat words. However, controls did not show the predicted bias away from threat words. These results are the first showing that biased attentional processing occurs among clinically anxious children. The potential role of such an attentional bias in childhood anxiety disorders and future direction for research are discussed.

  13. An overview of photochemical smog studies in Australian cities

    SciTech Connect

    Physick, W.L.

    1996-12-31

    The problem of photochemical smog is being addressed by authorities in the five major cities of Australia. Detrimental levels of smog are exceeded occasionally in the larger cities of Sydney and Melbourne, while the geographic features and meteorology of Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide suggest potentially unacceptable levels as those cities continue to grow. Motor vehicles are the dominant source of precursor emissions for smog and this is reflected in the comparison by Ahmet and van Dijk (1994) of hourly-averaged ozone exceedences for Australia`s major cities, i.e., the number of exceedences is roughly proportional to the population. Although statistics such as these can be strongly influenced by the distribution of monitors within a network, the relatively low exceedence threshold (0.08 ppm) probably ensures that the results are a realistic indicator of the relative extent of the problem in each city.

  14. Options for management of municipal solid waste in New York City: A preliminary comparison of health risks and policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Moy, Pearl; Krishnan, Nikhil; Ulloa, Priscilla; Cohen, Steven; Brandt-Rauf, Paul W.

    2008-01-01

    Landfill disposal and waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration remain the two principal options for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). One critical determinant of the acceptability of these options is the different health risks associated with each. In this analysis relying on published data and exposure modeling, we have performed health risk assessments for landfill disposal versus WTE treatment options for the management of New York City’s MSW. These are based on the realistic scenario of using a waste transfer station (WTS) in Brooklyn and then transporting the untreated MSW by truck to a landfill in Pennsylvania or using a WTE facility in Brooklyn and then transporting the resultant ash by truck to a landfill in Pennsylvania. The overall results indicate that the individual cancer risks for both options would be considered generally acceptable, although the risk from landfilling is approximately 5 times greater than from WTE treatment; the individual non-cancer health risks for both options would be considered generally unacceptable, although once again the risk from landfilling is approximately 5 times greater than from WTE treatment. If one considers only the population in Brooklyn that would be directly affected by the siting of either a WTS or a WTE facility in their immediate neighborhood, individual cancer and non-cancer health risks for both options would be considered generally acceptable, but risks for the former remain considerably higher than for the latter. These results should be considered preliminary due to several limitations of this study such as: consideration of risks only from inhalation exposures; assumption that only volume and not composition of the waste stream is altered by WTE treatment; reliance on data from the literature rather than actual measurements of the sites considered, assuming comparability of the sites. However, the results of studies such as this, in conjunction with ecological, socioeconomic and equity considerations

  15. Preliminaries toward studying resonant extraction from the Debuncher

    SciTech Connect

    Michelotti, Leo; Johnstone, John; /Fermilab

    2009-06-01

    A recent proposal to detect {mu} {yields} e direct conversion at Fermilab asks for slow extraction of protons from the antiproton source, specifically from the Debuncher. [1] A third-integer resonance originally was considered for this, partly because of the Debuncher's three-fold symmetry and partly because its operational horizontal tune, {nu}{sub x} {approx} 9.765, is already within 0.1 of {nu}{sub x} = 29/3. Using a half integer resonance, {nu}{sub x} = 19/2, though not part of the original proposal, has been suggested more recently because (a) Fermilab has had a good deal of experience with half-integer extraction from the Tevatron, the Main Injector and the erstwhile Main Ring, and (b) for reasons we shall examine later, it depopulates the entire bunch without an abort at the end. This memo presents considerations preliminary to studying both possibilities. It is meant only as a starting point for investigations to be carried out in the future. The working constraints and assumptions have oscillated between two extremes: (1) making minimal changes in the antiproton source to minimize cost and (2) building another machine in the same tunnel. In this memo we adopt an attitude aligned more toward the first. The assumed parameters are listed in Table 1. A few are not (easily) subject to change, such as those related to the beam's momentum and revolution frequency and the acceptance of the debuncher. Two resonance exemplars are presented in the next section, with an explanation of the analytic and semi-analytic calculations that can be done for each. Section 3 contains preliminary numerical work that was done to validate the exemplars within the context of extraction from the Debuncher. A final section contains a summary. Following the bibliography, appendices contain (a) a qualitative, conceptual discussion of extraction for the novice, (b) a telegraphic review of the perturbative incantations used to filter the exemplars as principal resonances of quadrupole

  16. Megacity Radiative Forcing: A Mexico City Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, S. C.; Dubey, M. K.; Chylek, P.; Mazzoleni, C.; Zhang, Y.; Randerson, J. T.; Horowitz, L.

    2006-12-01

    We assess the radiative forcing budget of the largest megacity in North America, Mexico City. While particular aspects of the regional environmental impacts of cities on their surroundings have been thoroughly investigated, e.g., air quality and acid rain, relatively little effort has been focused on the net radiative impact of a megacity on global climate. The range of radiative impacts from a megacity covers many spatial and temporal scales from short-term regional-scale effects due to aerosols and relatively short-lived gases (O3) to long-term global-scale impacts due to long-lived trace gases (e.g., CH4, CO2). In this study we use both bottom-up and top-down approaches to evaluate these radiative forcings. From the bottom up we utilize emission inventories and the Model for Ozone And Related Chemical Tracers (MOZART-2) chemistry-aerosol model. From the top down we use observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument, the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), and in situ aerosol single scattering albedo measurements collected during the Megacity Initiative-Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign. We also explore the radiative impact of various emission control strategies that focus on improving urban air quality. We show that the warming by greenhouse gases like CO2 and ozone can be moderated or exacerbated by aerosols depending on their optical properties. As the size and number of megacities increase and clean air regulations are implemented, metrics such as the net radiative forcing may become increasingly important in comparing the impact of urban centers and assessing pollution abatement policies.

  17. Assessment of exposure to opiates and cocaine during pregnancy in a Mediterranean city: preliminary results of the "Meconium Project".

    PubMed

    Pichini, Simona; Puig, Carme; Zuccaro, Piergiorgio; Marchei, Emilia; Pellegrini, Manuela; Murillo, Janeth; Vall, Oriol; Pacifici, Roberta; García-Algar, Oscar

    2005-10-04

    For the first time in Europe, the "Meconium Project" aimed to estimate the prevalence of drug use by pregnant women and the effects of exposure to illicit drugs during pregnancy on the fetus and infant. Between October 2002 and February 2004, 1151 (79%) dyads among the 1439 mother-infant dyads from the Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain, met eligibility criteria and agreed to participate in the study. We present preliminary results on the first 830 meconium samples and 549 mother-infant dyads, for which statistical analysis of socio-economic and demographic characteristics and newborn somatometry was completed. The meconium analysis showed an overall 7.9% positivity for drugs of abuse, with 6-monoacetylmorphine and cocaine being the analytes, most frequently found in samples positive for opiates and cocaine. Structured interview disclosed 1.3, 1.8 and 1.3% of mothers exposed to opiates, cocaine and both drugs, while only one mother declared ecstasy consumption. Meconium analysis showed that prevalence of opiates, cocaine and combined drugs exposure was 8.7, 4.4 and 2.2%, respectively, and confirmed the case of ecstasy use. Arecoline, the main areca nut alkaloid, was found in meconium specimens from four Asiatic newborns, whose mothers declared beetle nut consumption during pregnancy. Parental ethnicity was not associated with drug use, nor was the social class, although a higher tendency toward drug consumption was observed in professional and partly skilled mothers. Drug consuming mothers showed a higher number of previous pregnancies and abortions (p<0.05) when compared to non-consumer mothers (meconium negative test), probably due to a lack of family planning. Consumption of opiates and cocaine during pregnancy was associated with active tobacco smoking, a higher number of smoked cigarettes and cannabis use. Exposure status and smoking behavior correlated with significantly lower birth weight in newborns from mothers exposed only to cocaine and to opiates and

  18. Homelessness and Drug Abuse among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men in New York City: A Preliminary Epidemiological Trajectory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clatts, Michael C.; Goldsamt, Lloyd; Yi, Huso; Gwadz, Marya Viorst

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to profile the role of homelessness in drug and sexual risk in a population of young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Data are from a cross-sectional survey collected between 2000 and 2001 in New York City (N=569). With the goal of examining the import of homelessness in increased risk for the onset of drug and…

  19. The Study of Poverty in the Jewish Community, City of New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenshein, Joel; Ribner, Sol

    Poverty in New York City has been studied but never the specific problem of the Jewish minority groupings. The present study was geared towards presenting the incidences of poverty within the Jewish population in New York City and in presenting the beginning sociological picture of poverty among Jews. The study went through three phases. A first…

  20. Preliminary Study of a Model Rotor in Descent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAlister, K. W.; Tung, C.; Sharpe, D. L.; Huang, S.; Hendley, E. M.

    2000-01-01

    Within a program designed to develop experimental techniques for measuring the trajectory and structure of vortices trailing from the tips of rotor blades, the present preliminary study focuses on a method for quantifying the trajectory of the trailing vortex during descent flight conditions. This study also presents rotor loads and blade surface pressures for a range of tip-path plane angles and Mach numbers. Blade pressures near the leading edge and along the outer radius are compared with data obtained on the same model rotor, but in open jet facilities. A triangulation procedure based on two directable laser-light sheets, each containing an embedded reference, proved effective in defining the spatial coordinates of the trailing vortex. When interrogating a cross section of the flow that contains several trailing vortices, the greatest clarity was found to result when the flow is uniformly seeded. Surface pressure responses during blade-vortex interactions appeared equally sensitive near the leading edge and along the outer portion of the blade, but diminished rapidly as the distance along the blade chord increased. The pressure response was virtually independent of whether the tip-path plane angle was obtained through shaft tilt or cyclic pitch. Although the shape and frequency of the pressure perturbations on the advancing blade during blade-vortex interaction are similar to those obtained in open-jet facilities, the angle of the tip-path plane may need to be lower than the range covered in this study.

  1. Preliminary studies to determine the shelf life of HEPA filters

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, H.; Fretthold, J.K.; Rainer, F.

    1995-02-01

    We have completed a preliminary study using filter media tests and filter qualification tests to investigate the effect of shelf-life on HEPA filter performance. Our media studies showed that the tensile strength decreased with age, but the data were not sufficient to establish a shelf-life. Thermogravimetric analyses demonstrated that one manufacturer had media with low tensile strength due to insufficient binder. The filter qualification tests (heated air and overpressure) conducted on different aged filters showed that filter age is not the primary factor affecting filter performance; materials and the construction design have a greater effect. An unexpected finding of our study was that sub-standard HEPA filters have been installed in DOE facilities despite existing regulations and filter qualification tests. We found that the filter with low tensile strength failed the overpressure test. The same filter had passed the heated air test, but left the filter so structurally weak, it was prone to blow-out. We recommend that DOE initiate a filter qualification program to prevent this occurrence.

  2. Urban Groundwater Mapping - Bucharest City Area Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaitanaru, Dragos; Radu Gogu, Constantin; Bica, Ioan; Anghel, Leonard; Amine Boukhemacha, Mohamed; Ionita, Angela

    2013-04-01

    Urban Groundwater Mapping (UGM) is a generic term for a collection of procedures and techniques used to create targeted cartographic representation of the groundwater related aspects in urban areas. The urban environment alters the physical and chemical characteristics of the underneath aquifers. The scale of the pressure is controlled by the urban development in time and space. To have a clear image on the spatial and temporal distribution of different groundwater- urban structures interaction we need a set of thematic maps is needed. In the present study it is described the methodological approach used to obtain a reliable cartographic product for Bucharest City area. The first step in the current study was to identify the groundwater related problems and aspects (changes in the groundwater table, infiltration and seepage from and to the city sewer network, contamination spread to all three aquifers systems located in quaternary sedimentary formations, dewatering impact for large underground structures, management and political drawbacks). The second step was data collection and validation. In urban areas there is a big spectrum of data providers related to groundwater. Due to the fact that data is produced and distributed by different types of organizations (national agencies, private companies, municipal water regulator, etc) the validation and cross check process is mandatory. The data is stored and managed by a geospatial database. The design of the database follows an object-orientated paradigm and is easily extensible. The third step consists of a set of procedures based on a multi criteria assessment that creates the specific setup for the thematic maps. The assessment is based on the following criteria: (1) scale effect , (2) time , (3) vertical distribution and (4) type of the groundwater related problem. The final

  3. A preliminary study on potential of developing shower/laundry wastewater reclamation and reuse system.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weizhen; Leung, Andrew Y T

    2003-09-01

    With the ever-increasing urban population and economic activities, water usage and demand are continuously increasing. Hence, finding/re-creating adequate water supply and fully utilizing wastewater become important issues in sustainable urban development and environmental benign aspect. Considering Hong Kong's situation, e.g., lack of natural fresh water, domination of municipal wastewater, etc., developing wastewater reclamation and reuse system is of specific significance to exploit new water resource and save natural fresh water supplied from Mainland China. We propose and have carried out some preliminary studies on the potential of categorizing municipal wastewater, developing grey and storm water recycling system in public housing estate, investigating the feasibility and potential of using reclaimed grey water, etc. Since there is very limited experience in grey water recycling, such initial studies can help to understand and increase knowledge in utilizing grey water, to foresee the feasibility of developing new water resource, to estimate the cost-effectiveness of reclaiming grey water in metropolitan city.

  4. An International Review of Eco-City Theory, Indicators, and Case Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Williams, Christopher

    2013-03-01

    This report is intended to answer the question: “What international experiences with ‘eco-cities’ can help the central Chinese government evaluate the performance of Chinese cities that pursue ‘lowcarbon’ urban development?” To answer this question, we reviewed the literature on eco-cities and closely related concepts, surveyed performance indicators used to evaluate sustainable urban development around the world, and compiled case studies of exceptional eco- and sustainable cities.

  5. Archaeoastronomical Information in the Study of Cremation Necropolis: Preliminary Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejuto, J.; Cerde, M. L.; Rodríguez, C.

    2009-08-01

    This work remarks the significance that archaeoastronomical studies have for archaeological research. These studies provide us data about the perception that ancient societies had about astronomical events and how these facts were added to their religious and ideological world. Thus, archaeoastronomy become a valuable source of information when aimed to solve any question involving the ancient societies. We take as reference in this work some of the Late Bronze Age{'}s cremation necropolis, representatives of usually called Urnfields, to check if their design can be related to some celestial phenomena: Can Bech de Baix (Gerona), Can Pitieu-Can Roqueta(Barcelona), Molá (Tarragona), Can Missert (Tarragona), Les Obagues (Tarragona), La Colomina (Lleida) and La Torraza (Navarra). Likewise a new standard in archaeological excavations maps is proposed. This will allow getting the information more available and improving further studies.

  6. Energy efficient engine preliminary design and integration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    The technology and configurational requirements of an all new 1990's energy efficient turbofan engine having a twin spool arrangement with a directly coupled fan and low-pressure turbine, a mixed exhaust nacelle, and a high 38.6:1 overall pressure ratio were studied. Major advanced technology design features required to provide the overall benefits were a high pressure ratio compression system, a thermally actuated advanced clearance control system, lightweight shroudless fan blades, a low maintenance cost one-stage high pressure turbine, a short efficient mixer and structurally integrated engine and nacelle. A conceptual design analysis was followed by integration and performance analyses of geared and direct-drive fan engines with separate or mixed exhaust nacelles to refine previously designed engine cycles. Preliminary design and more detailed engine-aircraft integration analysis were then conducted on the more promising configurations. Engine and aircraft sizing, fuel burned, and airframe noise studies on projected 1990's domestic and international aircraft produced sufficient definition of configurational and advanced technology requirements to allow immediate initiation of component technology development.

  7. Physico-Chemical profile of Puga Khanda: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Baragi, Pramod C.; Baragi, Umapati C.; Bhat, Sathyanarayana; Prajapati, Pradeep Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Herbal medicines are the oldest known form of medicine in the world. However, the quality control and the assurance still remains a challenge because of the high variability of chemical components. Herbal drugs, singlely or in combinations, contain numerous compounds in complex matrices in which no single active constituent is responsible for the overall efficacy. This creates a challenge in establishing quality control standards and the standardization of finished herbal products. Many formulations have been mentioned in Ayurvedic text for Vrushyatwa (aphrodisiac). Puga Khanda is one among such formulations. Aim: To develop preliminary physico-chemical profile of Puga Khanda. Materials and Methods: Puga Khanda was prepared in three batches as per the classical reference mentioned in Bhaishajya Ratnavali. The formulation was subjected for physico-chemical analysis, phytochemical analysis and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Results and Conclusion: The study revealed that organoleptic characters, pH and extractive values of all 3 samples were almost equal. All the samples had 60% of sugar needed for preservation and 2/3rd of it was non reducing sugar. The total alkaloids ranged from 0.002 to 0.004% w/w. In TLC study the entire samples showed similar pattern except the 2nd sample of Puga Khanda. PMID:25364209

  8. Intraarterial Ultrasound in Pancreatic Cancer: Feasibility Study and Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Larena-Avellaneda, Axel; Timm, Stephan; Kickuth, Ralph; Kenn, Werner; Steger, Ulrich; Jurowich, Christian; Germer, Christoph-Thomas

    2010-08-15

    Despite technological advances in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging, the involvement of the celiac or mesenteric artery in pancreatic cancer remains uncertain in many cases. Infiltration of these vessels is important in making decisions about therapy choices but often can only be definitively determined through laparotomy. Local (intraarterial) ultrasound may increase diagnostic accuracy. Using the Volcano intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) system, we applied a transfemoral method to scan the celiac and mesenteric arteries directly intraarterial. This technique was used in five patients with suspected pancreatic cancer. Technical success was achieved in all cases. In one case, a short dissection of the mesenteric artery occurred but could be managed interventionally. In tumors that did not contact with the vessels, IVUS was unable to display the tissue pathology. Our main interest was the infiltration of the arteries. In one case, infiltration was certain in the CT scan but uncertain in two patients. In the latter two cases, IVUS correctly predicted infiltration in one and freedom from tumor in the other case. In our preliminary study, IVUS correctly predicted arterial infiltration in all cases. IVUS did not provide new information when the tumor was far away from the vessel. Compared with IVUS in the portal vein, the information about the artery is more detailed, and the vessel approach is easier. These results encouraged us to design a prospective study to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of this method.

  9. Laboratory study of corrosion of steam generator tubes: Preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Sala, B.; Organista, M.; Henry, K.; Erre, R.; Gelpi, A.; Cattant, F.; Dupin, M.

    1995-12-31

    The secondary side intergranular attack (IGA) and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of steam generator tubes often occurs in crevices where impurities are concentrated, due to local elevated temperatures and restricted water flow. From the analysis of tubes pulled from plants, it is believed that alumino-silicates deposits and/or organic species may play a role in the development of IGA in near neutral environments. New observations suggest that similar environments and similar processes are operative inside the corroded grain boundaries. A former study using autoclave tests was mainly devoted to the formation of alumino-silicate deposits similar to those observed in plants. The present work pursued the study of local environments responsible for IGA/SC. It confirms former results on the catalytic decomposition of organic species into acetates and presents more details on the mechanism of formation of alumino-silicate deposits on alloy 600, particularly on the role of iron and, to a lesser extent, nickel cations. It was showed that, under the alumino-silicate deposits and in the presence of some organic species, a non-protective chromium rich layer may grow instead of the usual protective spinel oxide. The mechanism responsible for the formation of this layer is believed to involve interaction between iron and, to a lesser extent, nickel with silica and/or possible interaction between chromium and acetates. Preliminary capsule tests indicate that these conditions may induce the initiation of IGA.

  10. Thulium-170-labeled microparticles for local radiotherapy: preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Polyak, Andras; Das, Tapas; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Kiraly, Reka; Dabasi, Gabriella; Joba, Robert Peter; Jakab, Csaba; Thuroczy, Julianna; Postenyi, Zita; Haasz, Veronika; Janoki, Gergely; Janoki, Gyozo A; Pillai, Maroor R A; Balogh, Lajos

    2014-10-01

    The present article describes the preparation, characterization, and biological evaluation of Thulium-170 ((170)Tm) [T1/2 = 128.4 days; Eβmax = 968 keV; Eγ = 84 keV (3.26%)] labeled tin oxide microparticles for its possible use in radiation synovectomy (RSV) of medium-sized joints. (170)Tm was produced by irradiation of natural thulium oxide target. 170Tm-labeled microparticles were synthesized with high yield and radionuclidic purity (> 99%) along with excellent in vitro stability by following a simple process. Particle sizes and morphology of the radiolabeled particles were examined by light microscope, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscope and found to be of stable spherical morphology within the range of 1.4-3.2 μm. The preparation was injected into the knee joints of healthy Beagle dogs intraarticularly for biological studies. Serial whole-body and regional images were taken by single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) and SPECT-CT cameras up to 9 months postadministration, which showed very low leakage (< 8% of I.D.) of the instilled particles. The majority of leaked radiocolloid particles were found in inguinal lymph nodes during the 9 months of follow-up. All the animals tolerated the treatment well; the compound did not show any possible radiotoxicological effect. These preliminary studies showed that 170Tm-labeled microparticles could be a promising nontoxic and effective radiopharmaceutical for RSV applications or later local antitumor therapy.

  11. A preliminary study of Mars rover/sample return missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Solar System Exploration Committee (SSEC) of the NASA Advisory Council recommends that a Mars Sample Return mission be undertaken before the year 2000. Comprehensive studies of a Mars Sample Return mission have been ongoing since 1984. The initial focus of these studies was an integrated mission concept with the surface rover and sample return vehicle elements delivered to Mars on a single launch and landed together. This approach, to be carried out as a unilateral U.S. initiative, is still a high priority goal in an Augmented Program of exploration, as the SSEC recommendation clearly states. With this background of a well-understood mission concept, NASA decided to focus its 1986 study effort on a potential opportunity not previously examined; namely, a Mars Rover/Sample Return (MRSR) mission which would involve a significant aspect of international cooperation. As envisioned, responsibility for the various mission operations and hardware elements would be divided in a logical manner with clearly defined and acceptable interfaces. The U.S. and its international partner would carry out separately launched but coordinated missions with the overall goal of accomplishing in situ science and returning several kilograms of surface samples from Mars. Important considerations for implementation of such a plan are minimum technology transfer, maximum sharing of scientific results, and independent credibility of each mission role. Under the guidance and oversight of a Mars Exploration Strategy Advisory Group organized by NASA, a study team was formed in the fall of 1986 to develop a preliminary definition of a flight-separable, cooperative mission. The selected concept assumes that the U.S. would undertake the rover mission with its sample collection operations and our international partner would return the samples to Earth. Although the inverse of these roles is also possible, this study report focuses on the rover functions of MRSR because rover operations have not

  12. Issues of Sustainable Redevelopment of City Core: A Study of Developed and Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoth, N.; Jain, R. K.; Raheja, G.; Brar, T. S.

    2013-05-01

    The inner city core has undergone maximum misuse and transformation in the absence of building bye laws and regulation, resulting in decay and dilapidated buildings. These city core areas have been places of life, vitality, wealth, power, enlightenment and culture. However these inner city areas have become marginalized in the process of urban growth and has problems related to decay, dwindling economic conditions and dilapidation leading to migration of the population to better and modern areas. This study intends to investigate the impacts of redevelopment within the core area of developed and developing countries, involving environmental, technical, socioeconomic and legal issues that may influence the attainment of sustainable targets for city core redevelopment.

  13. Evaluation of Education of Inner City Handicapped Children, Case Studies in Five Cities. Volume I, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abram, Robert E.; And Others

    Reported was an evaluation of the education of inner city (IC) handicapped children in five cities. Focused on were an assessment of present education programs, a comparison of services provided IC children with services provided non-inner city (NIC) children, a determination of needs unique to handicapped children in inner city areas, formulation…

  14. ECG Response of Koalas to Tourists Proximity: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Brooks, Lisa; Yamamoto, Maki; Kato, Akiko

    2009-01-01

    Koalas operate on a tight energy budget and, thus, may not always display behavioral avoidance reaction when placed in a stressful condition. We investigated the physiological response of captive koalas Phascolarctos cinereus in a conservation centre to the presence of tourists walking through their habitat. We compared, using animal-attached data-recorders, the electrocardiogram activity of female koalas in contact with tourists and in a human-free area. One of the koalas in the tourist zone presented elevated heart rate values and variability throughout the recording period. The remaining female in the exhibit area showed a higher field resting heart rates during the daytime than that in the isolated area. In the evening, heart rate profiles changed drastically and both the koalas in the exhibit and in the tourist-free zones displayed similar field resting heart rates, which were lower than those during the day. In parallel, the autonomic nervous systems of these two individuals evolved from sympathetic-dominant during the day to parasympathetic-dominant in the evening. Our results report ECG of free-living koalas for the first time. Although they are preliminary due to the difficulty of having sufficient samples of animals of the same sex and age, our results stress out the importance of studies investigating the physiological reaction of animals to tourists. PMID:19823679

  15. Real-time trichromatic holographic interferometry: preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albe, Felix; Bastide, Myriam; Desse, Jean-Michel; Tribillon, Jean-Louis H.

    1998-08-01

    In this paper we relate our preliminary experiments on real- time trichromatic holographic interferometry. For this purpose a CW `white' laser (argon and krypton of Coherent- Radiation, Spectrum model 70) is used. This laser produces about 10 wavelengths. A system consisting of birefringent plates and polarizers allows to select a trichromatic TEM00 triplet: blue line ((lambda) equals 476 nm, 100 mW), green line ((lambda) equals 514 nm, 100 mW) and red line ((lambda) equals 647 nm, 100 mW). In a first stage we recorded a trichromatic reflection hologram with a separate reference beam on a single-layer silver-halide panchromatic plate (PFG 03C). After processing, the hologram is put back into the original recording set-up, as in classical experiments on real-time monochromatic holographic interferometry. So we observe interference fringes between the 3 reconstructed waves and the 3 actual waves. The interference fringes of the phenomenon are observed on a screen and recorded by a video camera at 25 frames per second. A color video film of about 3 minutes of duration is presented. Some examples related to phase objects are presented (hot airflow from a candle, airflow from a hand). The actual results show the possibility of using this technique to study, in real time, aerodynamic wakes and mechanical deformation.

  16. Textual appropriation in engineering master's theses: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Eckel, Edward J

    2011-09-01

    In the thesis literature review, an engineering graduate student is expected to place original research in the context of previous work by other researchers. However, for some students, particularly those for whom English is a second language, the literature review may be a mixture of original writing and verbatim source text appropriated without quotations. Such problematic use of source material leaves students vulnerable to an accusation of plagiarism, which carries severe consequences. Is such textual appropriation common in engineering master's writing? Furthermore, what, if anything, can be concluded when two texts have been found to have textual material in common? Do existing definitions of plagiarism provide a sufficient framework for determining if an instance of copying is transgressive or not? In a preliminary attempt to answer these questions, text strings from a random sample of 100 engineering master's theses from the ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database were searched for appropriated verbatim source text using the Google search engine. The results suggest that textual borrowing may indeed be a common feature of the master's engineering literature review, raising questions about the ability of graduate students to synthesize the literature. The study also illustrates the difficulties of making a determination of plagiarism based on simple textual similarity. A context-specific approach is recommended when dealing with any instance of apparent copying.

  17. Studying the anthropogenic radionuclides in Puerto Rico: Preliminary Result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ithier-Guzmán, W.; Pyrtle, A. J.; Smoak, J.

    2004-12-01

    Local introduction of anthropogenic radionuclides to Puerto Rico's terrestrial and aquatic environments began in 1962 as a result of US government-sponsored research activities. Some of the earlier experiments examined the effects of radiation in tropical rainforests and the potential of superheated boiling nuclear reactor technology. More recent activities involved the use of depleted uranium during military exercises on Vieques. While the presence of radionuclides in Puerto Rico is documented, little research has been done to assess the environmental impact of this anthropogenic material. After entering Puerto Rico's environment, it is likely that some radionuclides are transported away from initial introduction sites. It is important that the distributions and behavior of radionuclides in Puerto Rico be determined. As such an investigation of this material throughout Puerto Rico was initiated. Sediment Cs-137 and Pb-210 activities, as well as ancillary geochemistry data are presented. These preliminary findings will be utilized as part of an ongoing study to determine radionuclide distributions and behaviors, with respect to aquatic geochemistry and dominant transport processes.

  18. A Preliminary Study of Functional Connectivity in Comorbid Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Kathryn R.; Gee, Dylan G.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Gabbay, Vilma; Hulvershorn, Leslie; Mueller, Bryon A.; Camchong, Jazmin; Bell, Christopher J.; Houri, Alaa; Kumra, Sanjiv; Lim, Kelvin O.; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) begins frequently in adolescence and is associated with severe outcomes, but the developmental neurobiology of MDD is not well understood. Research in adults has implicated fronto-limbic neural networks in the pathophysiology of MDD, particularly in relation to the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Developmental changes in brain networks during adolescence highlight the need to examine MDD-related circuitry in teens separately from adults. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study examined functional connectivity in adolescents with MDD (n=12) and healthy adolescents (n=14). Seed-based connectivity analysis revealed that adolescents with MDD have decreased functional connectivity in a subgenual ACC-based neural network that includes the supragenual ACC (BA 32), the right medial frontal cortex (BA 10), the left inferior (BA 47) and superior frontal cortex (BA 22), superior temporal gyrus (BA 22), and the insular cortex (BA 13). These preliminary data suggest that MDD in adolescence is associated with abnormal connectivity within neural circuits that mediate emotion processing. Future research in larger, un-medicated samples will be necessary to confirm this finding. We conclude that hypothesis-driven, seed-based analyses of resting state fMRI data hold promise for advancing our current understanding of abnormal development of neural circuitry in adolescents with MDD. PMID:19446602

  19. Lymphangiogenesis in Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma - Preliminary Study with Clinicopathological Correlations

    PubMed Central

    Benharroch, Daniel; Prinsloo, Isebrand; Gopas, Jacob; Lazarev, Irena

    2016-01-01

    A role for lymphangiogenesis in metastatic breast and prostate cancers has been suggested recently. The relevance of lymphangiogenesis in cancer as a rule, and more specifically in classical Hodgkin lymphoma, is poorly understood in comparison with that of angiogenesis. In a preliminary (pilot) study we have investigated the role of lymphatic vessels growth in 19 cases of classical Hodgkin lymphoma stained with the D2-40 (podoplanin) antibody. In each case, three lymphatic vessels hot spots were scrutinized twice. Of the 57 hot spots thus identified, we chose 15 at random for photography, microvessel counting and image analysis. We determined the mean perimeter, surface area, major axis length and complexity factor for each hot spot and correlated them with clinical and biological features of classical Hodgkin lymphoma. No correlations were found with clinical features. No associations were noted with the standard immuno-markers of classical Hodgkin lymphoma. However, significant inverse correlations were shown with pRb, BAX and IκB-α expression. The mean lymphatic major axis length was inversely correlated with the complexity factor. Last, we carried out an additional clinicopathological correlation of the expression of pRb, BAX and IκB-α in a cohort of classical Hodgkin lymphoma patients previously published. PMID:27877228

  20. Preliminary design studies on a nuclear seawater desalination system

    SciTech Connect

    Wibisono, A. F.; Jung, Y. H.; Choi, J.; Kim, H. S.; Lee, J. I.; Jeong, Y. H.; No, H. C.

    2012-07-01

    Seawater desalination is one of the most promising technologies to provide fresh water especially in the arid region. The most used technology in seawater desalination are thermal desalination (MSF and MED) and membrane desalination (RO). Some developments have been done in the area of coupling the desalination plant with a nuclear reactor to reduce the cost of energy required in thermal desalination. The coupling a nuclear reactor to a desalination plant can be done either by using the co-generation or by using dedicated heat from a nuclear system. The comparison of the co-generation nuclear reactor with desalination plant, dedicated nuclear heat system, and fossil fueled system will be discussed in this paper using economical assessment with IAEA DEEP software. A newly designed nuclear system dedicated for the seawater desalination will also be suggested by KAIST (Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology) research team and described in detail within this paper. The suggested reactor system is using gas cooled type reactor and in this preliminary study the scope of design will be limited to comparison of two cases in different operating temperature ranges. (authors)

  1. Calibration Study and Preliminary Results of PRad Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levillain, Maxime; PRad Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The latest measurements of the proton radius through muonic hydrogen Lamb shift show a discrepancy of 7 σ from a global analysis of standard hydrogen Lamb shift and elastic ep -scattering. In order to understand this proton radius puzzle, the PRad experiment successfully took in last June some elastic ep -scattering data at very low Q2 (2 .10-4 to 10-1 GeV2) with very accurate angle and energy measurements to minimize the systematic uncertainties. Before measuring the cross-sections that will be used to extract the electromagnetic form factor GE(Q2) and the proton radius, a very careful calibration of the electromagnetic calorimeter (HyCal) must be performed to get a good energy resolution and separate ep -events from M øller events especially at low angle. We will present an extended study of the electromagnetic calorimeter calibration of this experiment as well as some preliminary results on ep - and ee -scattering processes extracted from the data. The PRad experiment is supported in part by NSF MRI Award PHY-1229153.

  2. Bio-Contamination Control for Spacesuit Garments - A Preliminary Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Richard; Korona, Adam; Orndoff, Evelyn; Ott, Mark; Poritz, Darwin

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines a preliminary study to review, test, and improve upon the current state of spacesuit bio-contamination control. The study includes an evaluation of current and advanced suit materials, ground and on-orbit cleaning methods, and microbial test and analysis methods. The first aspect of this study was to identify potential anti-microbial textiles and cleaning agents, and to review current microbial test methods. The anti-microbial cleaning agent and textile market survey included a review of current commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) products that could potentially be used as future space flight hardware. This review included replacements for any of the softgood layers that may become contaminated during an extravehicular activity (EVA), including the pressure bladder, liquid cooling garment, and ancillary comfort undergarment. After a series of COTS anti-microbial textiles and clean ing agents were identified, a series of four tests were conducted: (1) a stacked configuration test that was conducted in order to review how bio-contamination would propagate through the various suit layers, (2) a individual materials test that evaluated how well each softgood layer either promoted or repressed growth, (3) a cleaning agent test that evaluated the efficacy on each of the baseline bladders, and (4) an evaluation of various COTS anti-microbial textiles. All antimicrobial COTS materials tested appeared to control bacteria colony forming unit (CFU) growth better than the Thermal Comfort Undergarment (TCU) and ACES Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG)/EMU Liquid Cooling Ventilation Garment (LCVG) materials currently in use. However, a comparison of fungi CFU growth in COTS to current suit materials appeared to vary per material. All cleaning agents tested in this study appeared to inhibit the level of bacteria and fungi growth to acceptable levels for short duration tests. While several trends can be obtained from the current analysis, a series of test improvements are

  3. Health assessment for Packaging Corporation of America, Filer City, Manistee County, Michigan, Region 5. CERCLIS No. MID980794747. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-10

    Packaging Corporation of America is listed on the National Priorities List. The site is located in Filer City, Stronach Township, Manistee County, Michigan. The Packaging Corporation of America (PCA) and its prior owner, American Box Board Company (ABBCo), have operated a neutral sulfite semi-chemical (NSSC) pulping mill in Filer City for the production of corrugated medium for corrugated boxes. Seepage lagoons operated from 1951 through 1974, receiving a total of 7.2 billion gallons of waste materials. Inorganic chemicals detected in lagoon sediments in 1986 include (with maximum concentrations in ppm): aluminum, 6,250; barium, 633; cadmium, 33; calcium, 228,000; chromium, 29; copper, 173; iron, 25,900; lead, 128; magnesium, 11,300; manganese, 2,200; mercury, 2.5; nickel, 20; potassium, 8,940; sodium, 74,300; vanadium, 15; and zinc, 2,080. A similar profile of inorganics was found in subsurface soils and ground water in 1987. Arsenic and cadmium were also detected off-site in high concentrations in a monitoring well sample from 1981. Organic chemicals were also detected in the ground water in the 1987 sampling. These included (maximum concentrations in ppb); 2-butanone, 1,700; tetrachloroethene, 18; chloroform, 8.7; bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, 10; phenol, 70,000; 2-methylphenol, 6,200; 4-methylphenol, 16,000; and benzoic acid, 240,000. The site is of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health that could result from possible exposure to hazardous substances at levels that may result in adverse health effects over time. Human exposure to heavy metals and organic chemicals may occur via ground water contamination.

  4. [Peritoneal equilibration test: Conventional versus adapted. Preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Zaloszyc, Ariane; Schmitt, Claus Peter; Schaefer, Betti; Doutey, Armelle; Terzic, Joëlle; Menouer, Soraya; Higel, Laetitia; Fischbach, Michel

    2017-02-01

    Conventional automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) is prescribed as a repetition of cycles with the same dwell time and the same fill volume. Water and sodium balance remains a common problem among patients on peritoneal dialysis. More recently, adapted automated peritoneal dialysis was described, as a combination of short dwells with a low volume, in order to enhance ultrafiltration, followed by long dwells with a large fill volume to favor solute removal. We performed a preliminary crossover study on 4 patients. The total amount of dialysate was the same, i.e. 2L/m(2) as well as the total duration of the test, i.e. 150 minutes. The conventional test was made with two identical cycles, each cycle had a fill volume of 1L/m(2) and a duration of 75 minutes, while the adapted test was performed with one short cycle, i.e. 30 minutes with a low fill volume, i.e. 0.6L/m(2), followed by a long cycle, i.e. 120 minutes, with a large fill volume, i.e. 1.4L/m(2). Sodium extraction was improved by 29.3mmol/m(2) (169%) in the adapted test in comparison to the conventional test. Ultrafiltration was enhanced by 159mL/m(2) (128%) in the adapted test compared to the conventional one. Glucose absorption was decreased by 35% in the adapted test in comparison to the conventional test and osmotic conductance was also improved. In conclusion, adapted dialysis may allow for a better volume and sodium balance, since we observed an improvement in sodium extraction and ultrafiltration. This pre-study authorizes an improvement of the European Pediatric Study's protocol on Adapted APD, already started and which will continue in the next months.

  5. Progress in preliminary studies at Ottana Solar Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demontis, V.; Camerada, M.; Cau, G.; Cocco, D.; Damiano, A.; Melis, T.; Musio, M.

    2016-05-01

    The fast increasing share of distributed generation from non-programmable renewable energy sources, such as the strong penetration of photovoltaic technology in the distribution networks, has generated several problems for the management and security of the whole power grid. In order to meet the challenge of a significant share of solar energy in the electricity mix, several actions aimed at increasing the grid flexibility and its hosting capacity, as well as at improving the generation programmability, need to be investigated. This paper focuses on the ongoing preliminary studies at the Ottana Solar Facility, a new experimental power plant located in Sardinia (Italy) currently under construction, which will offer the possibility to progress in the study of solar plants integration in the power grid. The facility integrates a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant, including a thermal energy storage system and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) unit, with a concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) plant and an electrical energy storage system. The facility has the main goal to assess in real operating conditions the small scale concentrating solar power technology and to study the integration of the two technologies and the storage systems to produce programmable and controllable power profiles. A model for the CSP plant yield was developed to assess different operational strategies that significantly influence the plant yearly yield and its global economic effectiveness. In particular, precise assumptions for the ORC module start-up operation behavior, based on discussions with the manufacturers and technical datasheets, will be described. Finally, the results of the analysis of the: "solar driven", "weather forecasts" and "combined storage state of charge (SOC)/ weather forecasts" operational strategies will be presented.

  6. Study of Adult Vocational Education Programs in Three Cities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Analytic Systems, Inc., Vienna, VA.

    A study was conducted in three cities (Philadelphia, Cleveland, and San Francisco), selected to represent a cross section of major cities based on resident socio-economic characteristics, industrial base, and school system configuration. The effect of the decision of local school administrators concerning the critical needs of the community with…

  7. Navigation Simulation Study, Galveston Causeway, Chocolate Bayou, Texas City Wye, Intracoastal Waterway, Texas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-03-01

    Chocolate Bayou, and Texas City Wye was conducted. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of proposed improvements on commercial tows navigating...the reaches. A numerical model of the existing channels at Galveston Causeway, Chocolate Bayou and Texas City Wye was developed. The model was

  8. Studying and Teaching about the Internal Environments of Single-Structure Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Michael L.

    The field of urban geography has as its prime foci the study and teaching of the spatial relationships that exist among the various structures, areas, and inhabitants within cities. The idea of a single-structure city, a building where people can live, work, and be entertained with a climatically-controlled environment is no longer a utopian…

  9. Preliminary report on the groundwater isotope study in the Brentwood Region

    SciTech Connect

    Davisson, M.L.; Campbell, K.R.

    1994-10-12

    Under contract with the City of Brentwood and auxiliary support by the East Contra Costa Irrigation District (ECCID), a preliminary research assessment of the groundwater resources beneath the Brentwood region is complete. The research was performed by an isotope geochemistry approach rather than traditional hydrogeological methods. The isotope approach is inexpensive relative to the traditional methods and has been used here mostly as a tracer that details the source, migration paths, and migration rates of existing groundwater supplies. In addition, the isotope results provide a quantitative framework in which to answer questions important to Brentwood including: (1) What is the long-term and short-term sustainability of the groundwater resources relative to current urban growth projections? (2) How can the good water quality be maximized in groundwater wells under short and long-term groundwater use schemes? (3) What underground areas exist within the Brentwood region that indicate untapped groundwater supplies that may provide plentiful, good quality water? This preliminary report focuses only on the first question. The second and third questions will be addressed in the final report to be completed by January 1, 1995. Furthermore, the conclusions in this preliminary report of how much groundwater is available for use will be incorporated into the Groundwater Management Plan currently being developed by the ECCID in conjunction with the City of Brentwood.

  10. Chemical components of shredded paper insulation: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kelman, B J; Swenson, L J; Uppala, L V; Cohen, J M; Millette, J R; Mueller, W F

    1999-03-01

    We conducted an evaluation of shredded paper insulation to identify potentially toxic components. The study was to provide a preliminary characterization of a few samples of insulation currently in use. The following samples were analyzed: previously produced insulation (PPI) containing fire retardants, shredded recycled paper (PPI feedstock), freshly produced insulation (FPI), and insulation which had been installed in a residence (II). Volatile constituents were analyzed by GC-MS from headspace air of samples held at room temperature or heated to 90 degrees C. Extractable constituents were sampled by extracting with methylene chloride, and analyzing by GC-MS. Formaldehyde analysis was done according to EPA Method TO11. Headspace air at room temperature contained no detectable quantities of volatile constituents for any sample measured. In headspace air at 90 degrees C, only PPI contained traces of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and higher aldehydes, and FPI traces of toluene. Extracts of PPI contained traces of octadecadienoic acid methyl ester and aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and higher aldehydes. Extracts of PPI feedstock contained traces of a substituted cyclohexenecarboxylic acid. FPI contained extractable diethyl phthalate (30-50 micrograms/g). Extracts of II contained traces of methyl palmitate, an octadecenoic acid methyl ester, and a phthalate plasticizer. No formaldehyde was detected. PPI was composed of approximately 98 percent paper fiber and 2 percent pre-gelatinized starch. PPI samples agglomerated together with less than 0.01 percent separating from clumps as fine dust. Boron and sodium were expected and confirmed because they were added to PPI and FPI as fire retardants. Chromium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, and silicon were present at detectable concentrations. Study calculations indicate that an occupant would have to completely consume all the fine particles produced from 3.3 kg of insulation per day to

  11. Preliminary study of the CRRES magnetospheric barium releases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huba, J. D.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Lyon, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary theoretical and computational analyses of the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) magnetospheric barium releases are presented. The focus of the studies is on the evolution of the diamagnetic cavity which is formed by the barium ions as they expand outward, and on the structuring of the density and magnetic field during the expansion phase of the releases. Two sets of simulation studies are discussed. The first set is based upon a 2D ideal MHD code and provides estimates of the time and length scales associated with the formation and collapse of the diamagnetic cavity. The second set uses a nonideal MHD code; specifically, the Hall term is included. This additional term is critical to the dynamics of sub-Alfvenic plasma expansions, such as the CRRES barium releases, because it leads to instability of the expanding plasma. Detailed simulations of the G4 and G10 releases were performed. In both cases the expanding plasma rapidly structured: the G4 release structured at time t less than about 3 s and developed scale sizes of about 1-2 km, while the G10 release structured at time t less than about 22 s and developed scale sizes of about 10-15 km. It is also found that the diamagnetic cavity size is reduced from those obtained from the ideal MHD results because of the structure. On the other hand, the structuring allows the formation of plasma blobs which appear to free stream across the magnetic field; thus, the barium plasma can propagate to larger distances traverse to the magnetic field than the case where no structuring occurs. Finally, a new normal mode of the system was discovered which may be excited at the leading edge of the expanding barium plasma.

  12. Nevada potential repository preliminary transportation strategy: Study 1

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1995-04-01

    Limited feasible options exist when considering the shipment of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. These options are rail or truck; because of the weight associated with transportation casks (68.0 to 113.4 tonnes/75 to 125 tons), heavy-haul trucks are also considered. Yucca Mountain currently lacks rail service or an existing right-of-way for rail; it also lacks a dedicated highway suitable for heavy-haul trucks. Approximately 11,230 shipments by rail are planned from waste producer sites to Nevada, with an additional 1,041 shipments by legal-weight truck from four reactor sites not capable of upgrading for rail shipment. This study identifies the reasonable alternatives for waste transport to the potential repository site, describes the evaluation process performed to identify those alternatives, and discusses the reasons for elimination of transportation routes deemed to be not reasonable. The study concluded that heavy haul truck transportation is feasible-cost is very favorable when compared to rail-but route restrictions must be further evaluated. In addition to restrictions due to seasonal weather conditions, specific routes have additional restrictions, including no travel on holidays or weekends, and travel during daylight hours only. Further restrictions will be imposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation based on routing of radioactive materials by highway. Operation and maintenance costs for heavy-haul over a 24-year period, based on preliminary information, were calculated on an estimated operational cost of $15,000 per trip, with an estimated 468 trips per year average (11,230 total trips), for an estimated cost of $171 million to $173 million, depending on the route used. Because the initial costs and the total system life cycle costs of heavy-haul are approximately 50 percent lower than the lowest rail cost, this option will continue to be evaluated.

  13. In vivo radioprotection by alpha-TMG: preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Satyamitra, M; Devi, P U; Murase, H; Kagiya, V T

    2001-08-08

    alpha-TMG is a novel water-soluble derivative of Vitamin E that has shown excellent antioxidant activity. The parent compound has demonstrated protection against radiation induced chromosomal damage in vivo. Hence, the preliminary experiments to determine the radioprotective activity of alpha-TMG were carried out in adult Swiss albino mice. Acute toxicity of the drug was studied taking 24h, 72 h and 30 day mortality after a single intraperitoneal injection of 500-2000 mg/kg body weight of the drug. The drug LD(50) for 24h and 72 h/30 day survival were found to be 1120 and 1000 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The optimum time of drug administration and drug dose-dependent effect on in vivo radiation protection of bone marrow chromosomes was studied in mice. Injection of 600 mg/kg of the drug 15 min before or within 5, 15 or 30min after 3Gy whole body gamma radiation resulted in a significant decrease in the aberrant metaphases percent at 24h post-irradiation; the maximum effect was seen when the drug was given immediately after irradiation. Injection of 200-800 mg/kg TMG within 5 min of irradiation with 3 Gy produced a significant dose-dependent reduction in the radiation induced percent aberrant metaphases and in the frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes at 24h after exposure, with a corresponding decrease in the different types of aberrations. The optimum dose for protection without drug toxicity was 600 mg/kg body weight. At this dose, TMG produced 70 and >60% reduction in the radiation induced percent aberrant metaphases and micronucleated erythrocytes, respectively. The high water solubility and effectiveness when administered post-irradiation favor TMG as a likely candidate for protection in case of accidental exposures.

  14. Family Planning for Inner-City Adolescent Males: Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Janet; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes a pilot family planning program in an inner-city pediatric practice. Male adolescents were more likely to accept contraceptives if the provider first raised the topic of birth control to them. Identified a desire for anonymity/confidentiality and embarrassment or discomfort as the key reasons for not seeking contraceptives. Emphasizes…

  15. Aurora City Schools Kindergarten Math Readiness Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aurora City Schools, OH.

    The program goals and objectives for Kindergarten mathematics readiness in Aurora City Schools are listed and described. Consideration of Kindergarten Philosophy, the diverse population of students, the organizational design of adopted textbooks, child development and learning styles, are all assessed in establishing scope and sequence. The…

  16. A Preliminary Study of the Burgers Equation with Symbolic Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derickson, Russell G.; Pielke, Roger A.

    2000-07-01

    A novel approach based on recursive symbolic computation is introduced for the approximate analytic solution of the Burgers equation. Once obtained, appropriate numerical values can be inserted into the symbolic solution to explore parametric variations. The solution is valid for both inviscid and viscous cases, covering the range of Reynolds number from 500 to infinity, whereas current direct numerical simulation (DNS) methods are limited to Reynolds numbers no greater than 4000. What further distinguishes the symbolic approach from numerical and traditional analytic techniques is the ability to reveal and examine direct nonlinear interactions between waves, including the interplay between inertia and viscosity. Thus, preliminary efforts suggest that symbolic computation may be quite effective in unveiling the “anatomy” of the myriad interactions that underlie turbulent behavior. However, due to the tendency of nonlinear symbolic operations to produce combinatorial explosion, future efforts will require the development of improved filtering processes to select and eliminate computations leading to negligible high order terms. Indeed, the initial symbolic computations present the character of turbulence as a problem in combinatorics. At present, results are limited in time evolution, but reveal the beginnings of the well-known “saw tooth” waveform that occurs in the inviscid case (i.e., Re=∞). Future efforts will explore more fully developed 1-D flows and investigate the potential to extend symbolic computations to 2-D and 3-D. Potential applications include the development of improved subgrid scale (SGS) parameterizations for large eddy simulation (LES) models, and studies that complement DNS in exploring fundamental aspects of turbulent flow behavior.

  17. Byssinosis in a textile factory in Cameroon: a preliminary study.

    PubMed Central

    Takam, J; Nemery, B

    1988-01-01

    To assess the risk of byssinosis in a cotton textile factory in Cameroon a preliminary study was conducted on a random sample of 125 men from production areas and 68 men from non-production areas. Symptoms were assessed by a questionnaire, which also included questions regarding sleep; peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) was measured with a miniature peak flow meter at the end of a working day and total dust concentrations were assessed by static and personal sampling with Casella dust samplers giving values of 6.4 +/- 2.6 mg/m3 (m +/- SD) in production areas and 1.7 +/- 0.7 mg/m3 in control areas. Exposed subjects had significantly more symptoms (particularly in smokers) and lower PEF values than controls (408 +/- 961/min v 468 +/- 701/min, p less than 0.001). Twenty three exposed subjects (18%) reported chest tightness on returning to work after the weekly break (compared with one control, p less than 0.01). Subjects with byssinosis had lower PEF values than those without chest tightness (356 +/- 501/min v 426 +/- 951/min, p less than 0.01), more chronic bronchitis (52% v 6%, p less than 0.001), they were more often smokers (61% v 31%, p less than 0.05), and came generally, though not exclusively, from the opening carding spinning department with the highest concentrations of total dust (8 +/- 2 mg/m3) and an estimated prevalence of byssinosis of 28%. There were no significant differences in sleep related symptoms between the exposed and controls, though the 23 subjects with byssinosis tended to report more snoring (48%), early morning headache (48%), and sleep improvement over the working week (44%) than all the other subjects (28%, 24%, and 24% respectively, p less than 0.1). PMID:3219305

  18. Infrared laser sealing of porcine tissues: preliminary in vivo studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilip, Christopher M.; Hutchens, Thomas C.; Kerr, Duane; Latimer, Cassandra; Rosenbury, Sarah B.; Giglio, Nicholas C.; Schweinsberger, Gino R.; Perkins, William C.; Wilson, Christopher R.; Ward, Arlen; Nau, William H.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2015-02-01

    We are exploring infrared (IR) lasers as an alternative energy modality to radiofrequency (RF) and ultrasonic (US) devices intended to provide rapid surgical hemostasis with minimal collateral zones of thermal damage and tissue necrosis. Previously, a 1470-nm IR laser sealed and cut ex vivo porcine renal arteries of 1-8 mm in 2 s, yielding burst pressures < 1200 mmHg (compared to normal systolic blood pressure of 120 mmHg) and thermal coagulation zones < 3 mm (including the seal). This preliminary study describes in vivo testing of a laser probe in a porcine model. A prototype, fiber optic based handheld probe with vessel/tissue clasping mechanism was tested on blood vessels < 6 mm diameter using incident 1470-nm laser power of 35 W for 1-5 s. The probe was evaluated for hemostasis after sealing isolated and bundled vasculature of abdomen and hind leg, as well as liver and lung parenchyma. Sealed vessel samples were collected for histological analysis of lateral thermal damage. Hemostasis was achieved in 57 of 73 seals (78%). The probe consistently sealed vasculature in small bowel mesentery, mesometrium, and gastro splenic and epiploic regions. Seal performance was less consistent on hind leg vasculature including saphenous arteries and bundles and femoral and iliac arteries. Collagen denaturation averaged 1.6 mm in 8 samples excised for histologic examination. A handheld laser probe sealed porcine vessels in vivo. With further improvements in probe design and laser parameter optimization, IR lasers may provide an alternative to RF and US vessel sealing devices.

  19. Preliminary study for small animal preclinical hadrontherapy facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, G.; Pisciotta, P.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Romano, F.; Cammarata, F.; Marchese, V.; Forte, G. I.; Lamia, D.; Minafra, L.; Bravatá, V.; Acquaviva, R.; Gilardi, M. C.; Cuttone, G.

    2017-02-01

    Aim of this work is the study of the preliminary steps to perform a particle treatment of cancer cells inoculated in small animals and to realize a preclinical hadrontherapy facility. A well-defined dosimetric protocol was developed to explicate the steps needed in order to perform a precise proton irradiation in small animals and achieve a highly conformal dose into the target. A precise homemade positioning and holding system for small animals was designed and developed at INFN-LNS in Catania (Italy), where an accurate Monte Carlo simulation was developed, using Geant4 code to simulate the treatment in order to choose the best animal position and perform accurately all the necessary dosimetric evaluations. The Geant4 application can also be used to realize dosimetric studies and its peculiarity consists in the possibility to introduce the real target composition in the simulation using the DICOM micro-CT image. This application was fully validated comparing the results with the experimental measurements. The latter ones were performed at the CATANA (Centro di AdroTerapia e Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate) facility at INFN-LNS by irradiating both PMMA and water solid phantom. Dosimetric measurements were performed using previously calibrated EBT3 Gafchromic films as a detector and the results were compared with the Geant4 simulation ones. In particular, two different types of dosimetric studies were performed: the first one involved irradiation of a phantom made up of water solid slabs where a layer of EBT3 was alternated with two different slabs in a sandwich configuration, in order to validate the dosimetric distribution. The second one involved irradiation of a PMMA phantom made up of a half hemisphere and some PMMA slabs in order to simulate a subcutaneous tumour configuration, normally used in preclinical studies. In order to evaluate the accordance between experimental and simulation results, two different statistical tests were made: Kolmogorov test and

  20. Adsorption of Roxarsone onto Drinking Water Treatment Residuals: Preliminary Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, J.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Sharma, S.

    2006-05-01

    above parameters were varied one at a time to study their effects on roxarsone adsorption. Desorption studies were carried out using 125 mg/L phosphorous at predetermined interval of time. In addition to analyzing for total As by an ICP-MS, aqueous speciation of As was performed using a coupled HPLC-ICP-MS system. Preliminary studies show significant roxarsone adsorption capacity of the WTRs.

  1. A Preliminary Outcome Study of Response Ability Pathways Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forthun, Larry F.; McCombie, Jeff W.

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 68 classroom teachers participated in a preliminary evaluation of Response Ability Pathways (RAP), a reclaiming training course for adults who work with children and youth. RAP offers basic training in the Circle of Courage Model and provides participants with general strategies for assisting youth who are experiencing challenges.…

  2. Orofacial Muscle Activity of Children Who Stutter: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Ellen M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This preliminary investigation of stuttering development and maturation of speech motor processes recorded the electromyographic activity of the orofacial muscles of nine children who stuttered. Results suggest that the emergence of tremor-like instabilities in the speech motor processes of stuttering children may coincide with aspects of general…

  3. Technology User Groups and Early Childhood Education: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parette, Howard P.; Hourcade, Jack J.; Blum, Craig; Watts, Emily H.; Stoner, Julia B.; Wojcik, Brian W.; Chrismore, Shannon B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a preliminary examination of the potential of Technology User Groups as a professional development venue for early childhood education professionals in developing operational and functional competence in using hardware and software components of a Technology toolkit. Technology user groups are composed of varying numbers of…

  4. PRELIMINARY RESEARCH FINDINGS OF THE EL PASO CHILDREN'S HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The El-Paso-Ciudad Juarez area is one of the largest metropolitan areas on the U.S.-Mexico border. Sources of air pollutants inlcude the more than 18 million vehicles, which annually cross between the two cities, heavily traveled roads and interstate freeways, and local indust...

  5. Study on Asia's growing cities: Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    1981-01-01

    Focus in this discussion of migration and urbanization in Korea is on the following: historical perspective, implications of urban growth, urbanization trends and population distribution, patterns of migration, socioeconomic differences, and population redistribution policies. Korea is one of the most densely populated countries in Asia. Attempts to deal successfully with this phenomenon have met with varying degrees of success. Population concentration in the capital region continues to be a problem and has resulted in acute housing shortages, rapidly rising land prices, and on encroachment of urban land use into prime agricultural land surrounding the Seoul metropolitan region. Between 1955-1975 the population of Seoul increased from 1.6 million to 6.9 million for the capital city proper and to 9.4 million for its metropolitan region, including 5 satellite cities. This fringe spillover began in the late 1960s. The metropolitan area, comprising 4 cities around the fast growing city of Busan in the south, was formed in the mid-1970s with 3.2 million people. At this time major policy concerns center on the demographic phenomenon of continued concentrations in the Seoul and Busan regions. Problem issues which persist include nonfarm polarization, regional imbalance, diverging intra-sectoral incomes, and the aging rural labor force. Despite its nearness to the demilitarized zone, Seoul was and continues to be the focal point of economic and educational opportunity. The early 1960s brought little variation in migration and urbanization trends. In 1961 family planning and planned economic development were initiated but their impact came several years later. The overall urban growth rate dropped from 5.4 to 4.6% in the 1960-1966 period, and Seoul's pace of expansion slowed down to an annual average of 6.5%. Yet, the capital continued its urbanizing dominance. By 1975 Korea had 3 cities with a population of over 3 million: Seoul, Busan, and Daegu. In 1975 48.4% of the

  6. Numerical Sedimentation Study of Shoaling on the Ohio River near Mound City, Illinois

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 5- 12 Numerical Sedimentation Study of Shoaling on the Ohio River near Mound City , Illinois Co as ta l a nd H yd...Numerical Sedimentation Study of Shoaling on the Ohio River near Mound City , Illinois David Abraham, PhD., P.E., and Nate Clifton Coastal and Hydraulics...was conducted on the Ohio River in the vicinity of Mound City , IL. The purpose of the study was to evaluate shoaling tendencies between River Miles

  7. A Multilevel Regression Model for Geographical Studies in Sets of Non-Adjacent Cities.

    PubMed

    Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Martínez-Beneito, Miguel Ángel

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, small-area-based ecological regression analyses have been published that study the association between a health outcome and a covariate in several cities. These analyses have usually been performed independently for each city and have therefore yielded unrelated estimates for the cities considered, even though the same process has been studied in all of them. In this study, we propose a joint ecological regression model for multiple cities that accounts for spatial structure both within and between cities and explore the advantages of this model. The proposed model merges both disease mapping and geostatistical ideas. Our proposal is compared with two alternatives, one that models the association for each city as fixed effects and another that treats them as independent and identically distributed random effects. The proposed model allows us to estimate the association (and assess its significance) at locations with no available data. Our proposal is illustrated by an example of the association between unemployment (as a deprivation surrogate) and lung cancer mortality among men in 31 Spanish cities. In this example, the associations found were far more accurate for the proposed model than those from the fixed effects model. Our main conclusion is that ecological regression analyses can be markedly improved by performing joint analyses at several locations that share information among them. This finding should be taken into consideration in the design of future epidemiological studies.

  8. Preliminary design studies for the DESCARTES and CIDER codes

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, P.W.; Miley, T.B.; Ouderkirk, S.J.; Nichols, W.E.

    1992-12-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) project is developing several computer codes to model the release and transport of radionuclides into the environment. This preliminary design addresses two of these codes: Dynamic Estimates of Concentrations and Radionuclides in Terrestrial Environments (DESCARTES) and Calculation of Individual Doses from Environmental Radionuclides (CIDER). The DESCARTES code will be used to estimate the concentration of radionuclides in environmental pathways, given the output of the air transport code HATCHET. The CIDER code will use information provided by DESCARTES to estimate the dose received by an individual. This document reports on preliminary design work performed by the code development team to determine if the requirements could be met for Descartes and CIDER. The document contains three major sections: (i) a data flow diagram and discussion for DESCARTES, (ii) a data flow diagram and discussion for CIDER, and (iii) a series of brief statements regarding the design approach required to address each code requirement.

  9. Preliminary experimental study of a carbon fiber array cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, An-kun; Fan, Yu-wei

    2016-08-01

    The preliminary experimental results of a carbon fiber array cathode for the magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) operations are reported. When the diode voltage and diode current were 480 kV and 44 kA, respectively, high-power microwaves with a peak power of about 3 GW and a pulse duration of about 60 ns were obtained in a MILO device with the carbon fiber array cathode. The preliminary experimental results show that the shot-to-shot reproducibility of the diode current and the microwave power is stable until 700 shots. No obvious damage or deterioration can be observed in the carbon fiber surface morphology after 700 shots. Moreover, the cathode performance has no observable deterioration after 700 shots. In conclusion, the maintain-free lifetime of the carbon fiber array cathode is more than 700 shots. In this way, this carbon fiber array cathode offers a potential replacement for the existing velvet cathode.

  10. Preliminary Fatigue Studies on Aluminum Alloy Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1938-01-01

    Preliminary information on the complex subject of the fatigue strength of fabricated structural members for aircraft is presented in the test results obtained on several different types of airship girders subjected to axial tension and compression in a resonance fatigue machine. A description of this machine as well as numerous photographs of the fatigue failures are given. There is also presented an extended bibliography on the subject of fatigue strength.

  11. Computing and information sciences preliminary engineering design study

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, J O; Pearson, E W; Thomas, J J; Brothers, J W; Campbell, W K; DeVaney, D M; Jones, D R; Littlefield, R J; Peterson, M J

    1991-04-01

    This document presents the preliminary design concept for the integrated computing and information system to be included in the Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington, for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The EMSL is scheduled for completion and occupancy in 1994 or 1995 and will support the DOE environmental mission, in particular hazardous waste remediation. The focus of the report is on the Computing and Information Sciences engineering task of providing a fully integrated state-of-the-art computing environment for simulation, experimentation and analysis in support of molecular research. The EMSL will house two major research organizations, the Molecular Sciences Research Center (MSRC) and part of the Environmental Sciences Research Center (ESRC). Included in the report is a preliminary description of the computing and information system to be included. The proposed system architecture is based on a preliminary understanding of the EMSL users' needs for computational resources. As users understand more about the scientific challenges they face, the definition of the functional requirements will change. At the same time, the engineering team will be gaining experience with new computing technologies. Accordingly, the design architecture must evolve to reflect this new understanding of functional requirements and enabling technologies. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. In Situ Oxidation of Liquid Trichloroethylene by Permanganate Solutions: Preliminary Results of Column Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Schroth, Martin H.; Oostrom, Mart; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Istok, Jonathan D.; H.J. Morel-Seytoux

    2000-01-11

    In situ oxidation of liquid trichloroethylene by permanganate solutions: Preliminary results of column studies. In: Proceedings of the 19th American Geophysical Union Hydrology Days, H. J. Morel-Seytoux, ed., pp. 411-420. Hydrology Days Pub., Atherton, Ca.

  13. Summary of the Preliminary Optical ICHMI Design Study: A Preliminary Engineering Design Study for a Standpipe Viewport

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Qiao, Hong; Berglin, Eric J.; Hatchell, Brian K.

    2013-12-26

    This summary report examines an in-vessel optical access concept intended to support standoff optical instrumentation, control and human-machine interface (ICHMI) systems for future advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) applications. Optical-based measurement and sensing systems for AdvSMR applications have several key benefits over traditional instrumentation and control systems used to monitor reactor process parameters, such as temperature, flow rate, pressure, and coolant chemistry (Anheier et al. 2013). Direct and continuous visualization of the in-vessel components can be maintained using external cameras. Many optical sensing techniques can be performed remotely using open optical beam path configurations. Not only are in-vessel cables eliminated by these configurations, but also sensitive optical monitoring components (e.g., electronics, lasers, detectors, and cameras) can be placed outside the reactor vessel in the instrument vault, containment building, or other locations where temperatures and radiation levels are much lower. However, the extreme AdvSMR environment present challenges for optical access designs and optical materials. Optical access is not provided in any commercial nuclear power plant or featured in any reactor design, although successful implementation of optical access has been demonstrated in test reactors (Arkani and Gharib 2009). This report outlines the key engineering considerations for an AdvSMR optical access concept. Strict American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) construction codes must be followed for any U.S. nuclear facility component (ASME 2013); however, the scope of this study is to evaluate the preliminary engineering issues for this concept, rather than developing a nuclear-qualified design. In addition, this study does not consider accident design requirements. In-vessel optical access using a standpipe viewport concept serves as a test case to explore the engineering challenges and performance requirements

  14. City of Klamath Falls, Oregon Geothermal Power Plant Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Brian Brown, PE; Stephen Anderson, PE, Bety Riley

    2011-07-31

    The purpose of the Klamath Falls project is to demonstrate the effectiveness of a combined thermal distribution system and power generation facility. The city of Klamath Falls operates a geothermal district heating system which would appear to be an attractive opportunity to install a power generation system. Since the two wells have operated reliably and consistently over many years, no new sources or resource exploration would be necessary. It appears that it will cost more to construct, operate, maintain and amortize a proposed geothermal facility than the long?term value of the power it would produce. The success of a future project will be determined by whether utility power production costs will remain low and whether costs of construction, operations, or financing may be reduced. There are areas that it would be possible to reduce construction cost. More detailed design could enable the city to obtain more precise quotes for components and construction, resulting in reduction in contingency projections. The current level of the contingency for uncertainty of costs is between $200,000 and $300,000. Another key issue with this project appears to be operation cost. While it is expected that only minimal routine monitoring and operating expenses will occur, the cost of water supply and waste water disposal represents nearly one quarter of the value of the power. If the cost of water alone could be reduced, the project could become viable. In addition, the projected cost of insurance may be lower than estimated under a city?wide policy. No provisions have been made for utilization of federal tax incentives. If a transaction with a third-party owner/taxpayer were to be negotiated, perhaps the net cost of ownership could be reduced. It is recommended that these options be investigated to determine if the costs and benefits could be brought together. The project has good potential, but like many alternative energy projects today, they only work economically if the

  15. Preliminary Results From the C-Pulse® OPTIONS HF European Multicenter Post-Market Study

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Antonia; Krabatsch, Thomas; Schmitto, Jan D.; Hetzer, Roland; Seidel, Mirko; Dohmen, Pascal M.; Hotz, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Background The C-Pulse® System is an extra-aortic balloon counterpulsation device. It is used to treat patients with heart failure disease in NYHA functional class III or ambulatory class IV. Material/Methods We present preliminary site-reported 6-month data from 3 centers in Germany as part of the prospective observational post-market OPTIONS HF study. Results Between May 2013 and March 2014, the C-Pulse System was implanted in 8 patients (7 male) with a mean age of 61.6±9.3 years. Four had ischemic and 4 had non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. No stroke, myocardial infarction, major bleeding, or major infection due to the device were reported. One patient developed non-device-related refractory tachycardia with worsening heart failure 12 h after surgery and underwent left ventricular assist device implantation. Within 6 months of observation, functional status improved from NYHA III to II in 5 patients, and 2 remained in NYHA III. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction increased from 24.3±7.9% to 44.5±4.5% (p<0.0001). Mean Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire overall score improved from 28.6±19.1 to 59.1±22.5 (p=0.0183). Six-minute walk test was performed in 6 out of 7 patients at follow-up. The mean distance improved from 252.0±85.1 m to 279.2±87.5 m (p>0.05). One patient was weaned off the device after 6 months of support. Conclusions The C-Pulse System provides a therapeutic option for patients with moderate-to-severe heart failure and seems to improve quality of life and cardiac function over time. PMID:26887528

  16. Evaluating Pillar Industry's Transformation Capability: A Case Study of Two Chinese Steel-Based Cities.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhidong; Marinova, Dora; Guo, Xiumei; Gao, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Many steel-based cities in China were established between the 1950s and 1960s. After more than half a century of development and boom, these cities are starting to decline and industrial transformation is urgently needed. This paper focuses on evaluating the transformation capability of resource-based cities building an evaluation model. Using Text Mining and the Document Explorer technique as a way of extracting text features, the 200 most frequently used words are derived from 100 publications related to steel- and other resource-based cities. The Expert Evaluation Method (EEM) and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) techniques are then applied to select 53 indicators, determine their weights and establish an index system for evaluating the transformation capability of the pillar industry of China's steel-based cities. Using real data and expert reviews, the improved Fuzzy Relation Matrix (FRM) method is applied to two case studies in China, namely Panzhihua and Daye, and the evaluation model is developed using Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation (FCE). The cities' abilities to carry out industrial transformation are evaluated with concerns expressed for the case of Daye. The findings have policy implications for the potential and required industrial transformation in the two selected cities and other resource-based towns.

  17. Strategies to Reduce the Harmful Effects of Extreme Heat Events: A Four-City Study

    PubMed Central

    White-Newsome, Jalonne L.; McCormick, Sabrina; Sampson, Natalie; Buxton, Miatta A.; O’Neill, Marie S.; Gronlund, Carina J.; Catalano, Linda; Conlon, Kathryn C.; Parker, Edith A.

    2014-01-01

    Extreme heat events (EHEs) are becoming more intense, more frequent and longer lasting in the 21st century. These events can disproportionately impact the health of low-income, minority, and urban populations. To better understand heat-related intervention strategies used by four U.S. cities, we conducted 73 semi-structured interviews with government and non-governmental organization leaders representing public health, general social services, emergency management, meteorology, and the environmental planning sectors in Detroit, MI; New York City, NY; Philadelphia, PA and Phoenix, AZ—cities selected for their diverse demographics, climates, and climate adaptation strategies. We identified activities these leaders used to reduce the harmful effects of heat for residents in their city, as well as the obstacles they faced and the approaches they used to evaluate these efforts. Local leaders provided a description of how local context (e.g., climate, governance and city structure) impacted heat preparedness. Despite the differences among study cities, political will and resource access were critical to driving heat-health related programming. Upon completion of our interviews, we convened leaders in each city to discuss these findings and their ongoing efforts through day-long workshops. Our findings and the recommendations that emerged from these workshops could inform other local or national efforts towards preventing heat-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:24531122

  18. Preliminary results from a shallow water benthic grazing study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, N.L.; Monismith, Stephen G.; Thompson, Janet K.

    2005-01-01

    Despite great improvements in our knowledge on the effects of benthic grazers on seston concentrations in water columns, the effects of different hydrodynamic conditions on grazing rates has not been formulated. This makes it difficult to assess the system-wide effect of the benthic ecosystem on phytoplankton concentrations. Furthermore, it affects our ability to predict the potential success of a benthic species, such as the invasive clams Corbicula fluminea and Potamocorbula amurensis. This paper presents the preliminary results of a control volume approach to elucidate the effect of different hydrodynamic conditions on the grazing rates of Corbicula fluminea.

  19. Decontamination of Johnston Island Coral: a preliminary study

    SciTech Connect

    Kochen, R.L.

    1986-02-17

    A preliminary investigation was completed on the characterization and decontamination of coral samples from Johnston Island. These samples were found to contain individual particles (2 to 0.25 mm) of contaminated coral as well as a piece of contaminated magnetic metal. They ranged in activity from about 70 to 811 nCi Am-241. The decontamination methods investigated were froth flotation, ferrite treatment, attrition scrubbing, ultrasonic treatment and dry sieving. Dry sieving, the more effective technique, separated about 42 wt % of the coral into a decontaminated fraction. This fraction (>4 mm) contained about 0.5% of the total activity. 7 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. Preliminary Studies on Pulsed Electric Field Breakdown of Lead Azide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-10-01

    subjected to combinations of 400.0 nm irradiation (strongly absorbed by Pb(N_)-) and strong field, for both polarities, again with no effect . It has...II n»Kt*tmy mad I4mtlty by MeeM mmt»mr) .± Lead Azide Electric Field Initiation Contact Effects Surface Effects Radiation Effect ! A9STMACT...reported. Specifically, ws-d4*eu«s the effects of contacts on the initiation of explosives by electric fields, and present preliminary weaouresents

  1. A preliminary study of international migration of the Chinese people.

    PubMed

    Zhu, G

    1994-01-01

    within the border of Jinjiang City, and counties in Putian City, in Longxi City, and in Xiamen Prefecture. Guangdong immigrants came from cities, places in the Pearl River Delta area and the Tan River Valley, counties in Xingmei hakka area, and Hainan Island. 90% of immigrants settled in southeast Asia (Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, Burma, Vietnam, Kampuchea, and Laos), and 8% came to North America and Latin America. Most were men, young, not well educated, and unemployed.

  2. Urban Growth Scenarios of a Future MEGA City: Case Study Ahmedabad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, A.; Kraus, V.; Steinnocher, K.

    2016-06-01

    The study of urban areas and their development focuses on cities, their physical and demographic expansion and the tensions and impacts that go along with urban growth. Especially in developing countries and emerging national economies like India, consistent and up to date information or other planning relevant data all too often is not available. With its Smart Cities Mission, the Indian government places great importance on the future developments of Indian urban areas and pays tribute to the large-scale rural to urban migration. The potentials of urban remote sensing and its contribution to urban planning are discussed and related to the Indian Smart Cities Mission. A case study is presented showing urban remote sensing based information products for the city of Ahmedabad. Resulting urban growth scenarios are presented, hotspots identified and future action alternatives proposed.

  3. Social differences in avoidable mortality between small areas of 15 European cities: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health and inequalities in health among inhabitants of European cities are of major importance for European public health and there is great interest in how different health care systems in Europe perform in the reduction of health inequalities. However, evidence on the spatial distribution of cause-specific mortality across neighbourhoods of European cities is scarce. This study presents maps of avoidable mortality in European cities and analyses differences in avoidable mortality between neighbourhoods with different levels of deprivation. Methods We determined the level of mortality from 14 avoidable causes of death for each neighbourhood of 15 large cities in different European regions. To address the problems associated with Standardised Mortality Ratios for small areas we smooth them using the Bayesian model proposed by Besag, York and Mollié. Ecological regression analysis was used to assess the association between social deprivation and mortality. Results Mortality from avoidable causes of death is higher in deprived neighbourhoods and mortality rate ratios between areas with different levels of deprivation differ between gender and cities. In most cases rate ratios are lower among women. While Eastern and Southern European cities show higher levels of avoidable mortality, the association of mortality with social deprivation tends to be higher in Northern and lower in Southern Europe. Conclusions There are marked differences in the level of avoidable mortality between neighbourhoods of European cities and the level of avoidable mortality is associated with social deprivation. There is no systematic difference in the magnitude of this association between European cities or regions. Spatial patterns of avoidable mortality across small city areas can point to possible local problems and specific strategies to reduce health inequality which is important for the development of urban areas and the well-being of their inhabitants. PMID:24618273

  4. Associations between green space and health in English cities: an ecological, cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bixby, Honor; Hodgson, Susan; Fortunato, Léa; Hansell, Anna; Fecht, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Green space has been identified as a modifiable feature of the urban environment and associations with physiological and psychological health have been reported at the local level. This study aims to assess whether these associations between health and green space are transferable to a larger scale, with English cities as the unit of analysis. We used an ecological, cross-sectional study design. We classified satellite-based land cover data to quantify green space coverage for the 50 largest cities in England. We assessed associations between city green space coverage with risk of death from all causes, cardiovascular disease, lung cancer and suicide between 2002 and 2009 using Poisson regression with random effect. After adjustment for age, income deprivation and air pollution, we found that at the city level the risk of death from all causes and a priori selected causes, for men and women, did not significantly differ between the greenest and least green cities. These findings suggest that the local health effects of urban green space observed at the neighbourhood level in some studies do not transfer to the city level. Further work is needed to establish how urban residents interact with local green space, in order to ascertain the most relevant measures of green space.

  5. A Preliminary Case Study for Rectenna Sites in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwanto, Y.; Collins, P.

    2004-12-01

    Electricity power generation using alternative energy sources in Indonesia has become an important policy. Until now, the contribution from alternative energy sources (especially from renewable energy sources) is very small, only about 1% of the total energy supply. It is expected that in the next 10 years this contribution will be raised to 20%. The development of renewable energy sources is primarily performed in remote areas, that are poor in infrastructure facilities. This is considered to be a good policy since there are many such remote areas in Indonesia that need development programs. The existence of Solar Power Satellite system will open a new horizon in alternative energy supply, including Indonesia, because of its higher efficiency compared to conventional terrestrial solar cells, with almost no influence from either climate or solar position. Like other countries in the world, Indonesia, although one of the largest mineral energy producers in the world (i.e. oil, coal, and natural gas), still gives attention to energy diversification programs, including solar energy utilization. SPS, being based on solar energy, could be a good choice. The Indonesian archipelago consists of thousands of islands (more than 13,000) and is the equatorial country with the longest equatorial extent (more than 5000 km). This condition is very good for energy reception from the SPS 2000 pilot plant since the energy transmitting system (spacetenna) will orbit above the equator. Along the equator there could be placed more than four receiving stations (rectenna), especially in remote areas. Thus, it is very important to consider the involvement of Indonesia in SPS energy reception research. This paper describes a preliminary study of the development possibilities in SPS energy reception in Indonesia. To define the rectenna sites and physical development aspect, this study considers some major aspects: environmental, technical, social, and economic aspects. Environmental aspects

  6. Preliminary study of niobium alloy contamination by transport through helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuermann, Coulson M.; Moore, Thomas J.; Wheeler, Donald R.

    1987-01-01

    Preliminary tests were conducted to determine if interstitial element transport through a circulating helium working fluid was a potential problem in Brayton and Stirling space power systems. Test specimens exposed to a thermal gradient for up to 3000-hr included Nb-1%Zr, a Sm-Co alloy (referred to as SmCo in this paper), Hiperco 50 steel, and alumina to simulate various engine components of the Brayton and Stirling systems. Results indicate that helium transport of interstitial contaminants can be minimized over a 7-yr life with a monometallic Nb-1%Zr design. Exposure with other materials indicated a potential for interstitial contaminant transport. Determination of contamination kinetics and the effects on structural integrity will require additional testing.

  7. Characterization and subsequent utilization of microbially solubilized coal: Preliminary studies

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, B.H.; Nicklaus, D.M.; Woodward, C.A.; Lewis, S.N.; Faison, B.D.

    1989-01-01

    The solubilization of low-ranked coals by fungi, such as Paecilomyces and Candida, in defined submerged culture systems has been demonstrated. Current efforts focus on the characterization of the aqueous solubilized coal products and the development of technologies for their subsequent utilization. Solubilized coal products have been fractionated, and preliminary characterizations performed. Differences in product composition have been detected with respect to the organism used in culture duration. Prospects for the conversion of the aerobically-solubilized coal into less-oxidized products have been developed which can remain active and viable in the presence of the aqueous coal product or vanillin, a coal model compound. The results suggest that a methanogenic consortium was able to produce methane and carbon dioxide from the product of coal biosolubilization by Paecilomyces as a sole carbon source. Work continues on the development of cultures able to convert the aqueous coal product and its various fractions into methane or fuel alcohols. 17 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Numerical Study of the Effect of Urbanization on the Climate of Desert Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, Samy

    This study uses the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate and predict the changes in local climate attributed to the urbanization for five desert cities. The simulations are performed in the fashion of climate downscaling, constrained by the surface boundary conditions generated from high resolution land-use maps. For each city, the land-use maps of 1985 and 2010 from Landsat satellite observation, and a projected land-use map for 2030, are used to represent the past, present, and future. An additional set of simulations for Las Vegas, the largest of the five cities, uses the NLCD 1992 and 2006 land-use maps and an idealized historical land-use map with no urban coverage for 1900. The study finds that urbanization in Las Vegas produces a classic urban heat island (UHI) at night but a minor cooling during the day. A further analysis of the surface energy balance shows that the decrease in surface Albedo and increase effective emissivity play an important role in shaping the local climate change over urban areas. The emerging urban structures slow down the diurnal wind circulation over the city due to an increased effective surface roughness. This leads to a secondary modification of temperature due to the interaction between the mechanical and thermodynamic effects of urbanization. The simulations for the five desert cities for 1985 and 2010 further confirm a common pattern of the climatic effect of urbanization with significant nighttime warming and moderate daytime cooling. This effect is confined to the urban area and is not sensitive to the size of the city or the detail of land cover in the surrounding areas. The pattern of nighttime warming and daytime cooling remains robust in the simulations for the future climate of the five cities using the projected 2030 land-use maps. Inter-city differences among the five urban areas are discussed.

  9. Urban sustainable energy development: A case study of the city of Philadelphia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argyriou, Iraklis

    This study explores the role of cities in sustainable energy development through a governance-informed analysis. Despite the leading position of municipalities in energy sustainability, cities have been mostly conceptualized as sites where energy development is shaped by external policy scales, i.e. the national level. A growing body of research, however, critiques this analytical perspective, and seeks to better understand the type of factors and dynamics that influence energy sustainability within a multi-level policy context for urban energy. Given that particular circumstances are applicable across cities, a context-specific analysis can provide insight regarding how sustainable energy development takes place in urban areas. In applying such an analytical perspective on urban energy sustainability, this study undertakes a qualitative case study analysis for the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, by looking at four key local policy initiatives relevant to building energy efficiency and solar electricity development at the municipal government and city-wide level. The evaluation of the initiatives suggests that renewable electricity use has increased substantially in the city over the last years but the installed capacity of local renewable electricity systems, including solar photovoltaics, is low. On the other hand, although the city has made little progress in meeting its building energy efficiency targets, more comprehensive action is taken in this area. The study finds that the above outcomes have been shaped mainly by four factors. The first is the city government's incremental policy approach aiming to develop a facilitative context for local action. The second is the role that a diverse set of stakeholders have in local sustainable energy development. The third is the constraints that systemic policy barriers create for solar power development. The fourth is the ways through which the relevant multi-level policy environment structures the city

  10. Women in Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Liz

    1982-01-01

    Suggesting that women are at a disadvantage in cities and towns, discusses experiences of women at home, working women, women traveling, shopping, and growing old in cities. Includes suggestions for studying women in cities. (JN)

  11. FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR POTASSIUM IODIDE (KI) DISTRIBUTION IN NEW YORK CITY.

    SciTech Connect

    MOSS, STEVEN

    2005-04-29

    The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH), Bureau of Environmental Science and Engineering, Office of Radiological Health (ORH) [as the primary local technical consultant in the event of a radiological or nuclear incident within the boundaries of New York City] requested the assistance of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with the development of a Feasibility Study for Potassium Iodide (KI) distribution in the unlikely event of a significant release of radioactive iodine in or near New York City. Brookhaven National Laboratory had previously provided support for New York City with the development of the radiological/nuclear portions of its All Hazards Emergency Response Plans. The work is funded by Medical and Health Research Association (MHRA) of New York City, Inc., under a work grant by the Federal Centers for Disease Control (CDC) for Public Health Preparedness and Response for Bioterrorism. This report is part of the result of that effort. The conclusions of this report are that: (1) There is no credible radiological scenario that would prompt the need for large segments of the general population of New York City to take KI as a result of a projected plume exposure to radioiodine reaching even the lowest threshold of 5 rem to the thyroid; and (2) KI should be stockpiled in amounts and locations sufficient for use by first responders/emergency responders in response to any localized release of radioiodine.

  12. Epidemiological study of sarin poisoning in Matsumoto City, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, T; Ohta, S; Morita, H; Midorikawa, Y; Mimura, S; Yanagisawa, N

    1998-03-01

    On the night of June 27, 1994, about 12 liters of sarin were released by terrorists in Matsumoto City, Japan. In order to investigate the epidemic, community-based questionnaire surveys were conducted. The subjects were all inhabitants (2052 people) living and staying in an area of 1050 meters from north to south and 850 meters from east to west including the sarin release site. Participants included 1743 people who answered the questionnaire at the first survey; those with symptoms were contacted for follow-up at four months and one year after the episode. The number of sarin victims were 471 persons. Muscarinic signs were common to all victims; nicotinic signs were only seen in severely affected victims. The geographical distribution of sarin victims was closely related to the direction of the wind. Three weeks after the intoxication, 129 victims still had some symptoms such as dysesthesia of the extremities. At that time, many victims had begun to experience asthenopia, which was even more frequent at four months. Although victims who felt sarin-related symptoms had decreased by a year, some still had symptoms such as asthenopia. Sarin released in a suburban area affected approximately 500 inhabitants living nearby; some still had symptoms a year after the intoxication.

  13. Study of marble deterioration at City Hall, Schenectady, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, R.J.; Castillo, R.

    1984-01-01

    Constructed in 1930 at a cost of over one million dollars, the City Hall in Schenectady, New York, is listed in the U.S. Register of Historical Buildings. The masonry materials were the finest available at the time of construction; granite, fire hardened exterior brick and Vermont marble - Imperical Danby, an equivalent to Carrara marble from Italy. It is known today that the lack of impurities in the Imperial Danby leads to weak crystalline properties. Cleaned with water, sponges and stiff brushes upon completion of construction, the exterior was not cleaned over a fifty-year period. The research indicated that the marble grains are being structurally weakened by a chemical conversion process of marble to gypsum crystals. The surface zone of chemical activity (2-5 mm) shows the presence of fly ash and iron particles and points to the possibility of a catalytic mechanism for the conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfate. This research has established symptoms which are consistent with prior reported research into building material deterioration. However, the results presented are not supportive of one mechanism over another.

  14. Utilization of optimal study design for maternal and fetal sheep propofol pharmacokinetics study: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Sherwin, Catherine M T; Ngamprasertwong, Pornswan; Sadhasivam, Senthilkumar; Vinks, Alexander A

    2014-02-01

    Multiple blood samples are generally required for measurement of pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters. D-optimal design is a popular and frequently used approach for determination of sampling time points in order to minimize the number of samples, while optimizing the estimation of PK parameters. Optimal design utilizing ADAPT (v5, BSR, University of Southern California, Los Angeles) developed a sparse sampling strategy to determine measurement of propofol in pregnant sheep. Propofal was administered as supplemental anesthetic agent to inhalation anesthesia to mimic anesthesia for open fetal surgery. In our preliminary study, propofol 3 mg/kg was given as a bolus to the ewe, followed by propofol infusion at rate 450 mcg/kg/min for 60 minutes, then decreased to 75 mcg/kg/min for 90 more minutes and then ceased. A three compartment model described the PK parameters with the fetus assumed as the third compartment. Initially, sampling times were chosen from thirteen time points as previously stated in the literature. Using priori propofol PK estimates, the final 9 sample time points were proposed in an optimal design with a change in infusion rate occurring between 65 and 75 minutes and sampling proposed at 5, 15, 25, 65, 75, 100, 110, 150, and 180 minutes. D-optimal design optimized the number and timing of samplings, which led to a reduction of cost and man power in the study protocol while preserving the ability to estimate propofol PK parameters in the maternal and fetal sheep model. Initial evaluation of samples collected from three sheep using the optimal design strategy confirmed the performance of the design in obtaining effective PK parameter estimates.

  15. Relationship of Transportation Noise and Annoyance for Two Metropolitan Cities in Korea: Population Based Study.

    PubMed

    Sung, Joo Hyun; Lee, Jiho; Park, Sang Jin; Sim, Chang Sun

    2016-01-01

    Transportation noise is known to have negative impact on both public health and life quality. This study evaluated the relationship between transportation noise and annoyance levels, and also the difference of annoyance levels in two metropolitan cities based on epidemiologic surveys. Two thousand adult subjects living in Seoul and Ulsan were enrolled by stratified random sampling on the basis of noise maps from July 2015 to January 2016. Individual annoyance in accordance with transportation noise levels in two metropolitan cities were surveyed using an 11-point visual analog scale questionnaire. The results show that transportation noise level was significantly correlated with annoyance in both cities. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk of being 'highly annoyed' increased with noise level (Ldn, day-night average sound level) in both cities. After adjusting for age, residence period, sociodemographic factors (sex, education, marriage, income, alcohol, smoking, and exercise) and noise sensitivity, the risk of being 'highly annoyed' was increased with noise levels in both cities. In comparison to those of areas with noise levels below 55 dBA, the adjusted odds ratios of 'highly annoyed' for areas with 55-65 dBA and over 65 dBA were 2.056 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.225-3.450), 3.519 (95% CI 1.982-6.246) in Seoul and 1.022 (95% CI 0.585-1.785), 1.704 (95% CI 1.005-2.889) in Ulsan, respectively. Based on the results of a population study, we showed that transportation noise levels were significantly associated with annoyance in adults. However, there were some differences between the two cities. In this study, there were differences in transportation noise between the two cities. Seoul has complex noise (traffic and aircraft), compared to single road traffic noise in Ulsan. Therefore, single and complex transportation noise may have different effects on annoyance levels.

  16. Contamination of individuals by radon daughters: a preliminary study

    SciTech Connect

    Stebbings, J.H.; Dignam, J.J.

    1988-03-01

    Body radon daughter contamination reflects relative individual respiratory exposures to radon daughters; counts can be related both to household radon levels and to lung cancer risk factors such as sex and tobacco smoking. Radon daughters were counted by gamma spectroscopy from 180 adult residents of eastern Pennsylvania. A seven-position, 35-min scan was conducted in a mobile body counter, generally during afternoon or evening hours. Track-etch detectors for household radon were distributed, and were recovered from 80% of the subjects. Over 75% of the population had environmentally enhanced radon daughter contamination. House radon levels were strongly related, as anticipated, to radon daughter contamination in the 112 subjects for whom both sets of measurements were available (p less than .001); basement measurements were as strongly related to personal contamination as were living area measurements; bedroom measurements were slightly more strongly correlated. Both sex (p less than .02) and cigarette smoking (p less than .01) significantly modified the relationships, after nonlinear adjustment for travel times. Using a logarithmic model, a given house living-area radon level was associated in females with body contamination by radon daughters 2-3 times that in males. Nonsmokers had 2-4 times higher levels of contamination than smokers. Results are for the total of internal and external contamination, these being highly correlated in preliminary experiments. Time usage and activity patterns of the subjects are believed to be important in explaining these findings, and may become important variables in radon risk assessment.

  17. Laparoscopic Herniorrhaphy with Porcine Small Intestinal Submucosa: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Introduction: Using mesh or a synthetic prosthesis during the laparoscopic repair of inguinal hernias has been demonstrated to be safe and effective. A new material, porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS mesh), has been successfully used in canine and rodent animal models with excellent results. This mesh is degradable and resorbable with a marked decrease in the possibility of becoming infected. However, the amount of fibroblast ingrowth is equal to that with polypropylene mesh. Methods: A comparison was made between this new SIS mesh to repair 15 inguinal hernias in 12 patients and polypropylene mesh used in 12 similar patients. A preperitoneal approach with balloon dissection was used in all patients. Results: Demographics were similar in both groups. The results were excellent and compared equally. Complications (seroma, discomfort) were minimal in both groups and were similar. Conclusions: Porcine small intestinal submucosa, SIS mesh, can be used for laparoscopic repair of inguinal hernias. Long-term follow-up will be necessary to confirm these preliminary results. PMID:12166756

  18. The Myres Hill remote sensing intercomparison study: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clive, P. J. M.; Chindurza, I.; Ravey, I.; Bass, J.; Boyle, R. J.; Jones, P.; Lang, S. J.; Bradley, S.; Hay, L.; Oldroyd, A.; Stickland, M.

    2008-05-01

    Two remote sensing techniques (SODAR and LIDAR) have been developed for measuring wind speed and turbulence from ground level up to altitudes of 300 m or higher. Although originally developed in the defence sector, these techniques are now generating considerable interest in the renewable energy and meteorological sectors. Despite the benefits of these instruments they are not yet generally accepted for due diligence measurements by wind energy developers and financial institutions. There is a requirement for a series of independent assessments of these new metrology techniques, comparing their measurements with the approved cup-type anemometer readings. This is being addressed at TUV NEL's Myres Hill wind turbine test site in a measurement programme supported by the DIUS National Measurement Systems Measurement for Innovators scheme and a consortium of 21 industrial collaborators. Data from SODAR and LIDAR systems are being compared with results from cup-type anemometers mounted at different heights on an 80m meteorological mast. An ultrasonic sensor is also mounted on the mast. The objective of the test programme is to assess the effectiveness of SODAR and LIDAR wind speed measurement techniques under different operating regimes and atmospheric conditions. Results from the measurements will provide definitive data on the performance of the remote wind speed sensing techniques under test on complex terrain typical of many wind farm sites. Preliminary measurements based on data acquired during the initial measurement campaign are presented.

  19. Installation Restoration Program. Preliminary Assessment: 137th Tactical Airlift Wing, Oklahoma Air National Guard, Will Rogers World Airport, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    INSTALLATION RESTORATION PROGRAM 00 PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENTcc U 137th Tactical Airlift Wing Oklahoma Aih National Guard I’~~C Will Rogers World...TRUST PROPERTY LINE 3 :40w OKLAHOV A ANG I,LL R G[R ORLD AIRPORT -1 I LU Copies of the final report may be purchased from: National Technical Information...Preliminary Assessment 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Preliminary Assessment S. FUNDING NUMBERS 137th Tactical Airlift Wing Oklahoma Air National Guard Will Rogers

  20. Proliferation concerns in the Russian closed nuclear weapons complex cities : a study of regional migration behavior.

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, Kristen Lee

    2004-07-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the legacy of the USSR weapons complex with an estimated 50 nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons cities containing facilities responsible for research, production, maintenance, and destruction of the weapons stockpile. The Russian Federation acquired ten such previously secret, closed nuclear weapons complex cities. Unfortunately, a lack of government funding to support these facilities resulted in non-payment of salaries to employees and even plant closures, which led to an international fear of weapons material and knowledge proliferation. This dissertation analyzes migration in 33 regions of the Russian Federation, six of which contain the ten closed nuclear weapons complex cities. This study finds that the presence of a closed nuclear city does not significantly influence migration. However, the factors that do influence migration are statistically different in regions containing closed nuclear cities compared to regions without closed nuclear cities. Further, these results show that the net rate of migration has changed across the years since the break up of the Soviet Union, and that the push and pull factors for migration have changed across time. Specifically, personal and residential factors had a significant impact on migration immediately following the collapse of the Soviet Union, but economic infrastructure and societal factors became significant in later years. Two significant policy conclusions are derived from this research. First, higher levels of income are found to increase outmigration from regions, implying that programs designed to prevent migration by increasing incomes for closed city residents may be counter-productive. Second, this study finds that programs designed to increase capital and build infrastructure in the new Russian Federation will be more effective for employing scientists and engineers from the weapons complex, and consequently reduce the potential for emigration of

  1. Hospital waste management system - a case study of a south Indian city.

    PubMed

    Hanumantha Rao, P

    2009-06-01

    It is more than 5 years since the prescribed deadline, 30 December 2002, for all categories of towns covered by the Biomedical Waste Management (BMW) Rules 1998 elapsed. Various reports indicate that the implementation of the BMW Rules is not satisfactory even in the large towns and cities in India. Few studies have looked at the ;macro system' of the biomedical waste management in India. In this context the present study describes the role of the important stakeholders who comprise the 'macrosystem' namely the pollution control board, common waste management facilities, municipal corporation, state government (Directorate of Medical Education and Health Systems Development Project), professional agencies such as the India Medical Association and non-governmental organizations, in the implementation of BMW rules in a capital city of a state in south India. Brief descriptions of the ;micro-system' (i.e. biomedical waste management practices within a hospital) of six hospitals of different types in the study city are also presented.

  2. Preliminary Studies of a Pulsed Detonation Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cambier, Jean-Luc; Adelman, H. G.; Menees, G. P.; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    In the new era of space exploration, there is a strong need for more efficient, cheaper and more reliable propulsion devices. With dramatic increase in specific impulse, the overall mass of fuel to be lifted into orbit is decreased, and this leads, in turn, to much lower mass requirements at lift-off, higher payload ratios and lower launch costs. The Pulsed Detonation engine (PDE) has received much attention lately due to its unique combination of simplicity, light-weight and efficiency. Current investigations focus principally on its use as a low speed, airbreathing engine, although other applications have also been proposed. Its use as a rocket propulsion device was first proposed in 1988 by the present authors. The superior efficiency of the Pulsed Detonation Rocket Engine (PDRE) is due to the near constant volume combustion process of a detonation wave. Our preliminary estimates suggest that the PDRE is theoretically capable of achieving specific impulses as high as 720 sec, a dramatic improvement over the current 480 sec of conventional rocket engines, making it competitive with nuclear thermal rockets. In addition to this remarkable efficiency, the PDRE may eliminate the need for high pressure cryogenic turbopumps, a principal source of failures. The heat transfer rates are also much lower, eliminating the need for nozzle cooling. Overall, the engine is more reliable and has a much lower weight. This paper will describe in detail the operation of the PDRE and calculate its performance, through numerical simulations. Engineering issues will be addressed and discussed, and the impact on mission profiles will also be presented. Finally, the performance of the PDRE using in-situ resources, such as CO and O2 from the martian atmosphere, will also be computed.

  3. A Preliminary Study of Seismicity at Ceboruco, Volcano, Nayarit, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, J. J.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Trejo-Gomez, E.

    2007-12-01

    Ceboruco Volcano is located northwestern of Tepic-Zacoalco graben (Jalisco, Mexico). Its volcanic activity can be divided in four eruptive cycles differentiated by their volcano explosivity index (VEI) and chemical variations as well. As a result of andesitic effusive activity, during the first cycle the "paleo-Ceboruco" edifice was constructed. The end of this cycle is defined by a plinian eruption (VEI is estimated between 3 and 4) which occurred some 1020 years ago and formed the external caldera. During the second cycle an andesitic dome extruded in the interior of the caldera. The dome, called Dos Equis, collapsed and formed the internal caldera. The third cycle is represented by andesitic lava flows which partially cover the northern and south-southwestern part of the edifice. The last cycle is represented by historic andesitic lava flows located in the southwestern flank of the volcano. In February 2003 as part of an agreement with Nayarit Civil Defense a seismic station was installed in the SW flank of the volcano. The station is equipped with a Marslite (lennartz) digitizer with a 3DLe 1Hz. seismic sensor. Detection system is based on a STA/LTA recording algorithm. More than 2000 small earthquakes have been attributed to various local sources, and some of this earthquakes are possibly located beneath Ceboruco volcano. A preliminary classification separates high frequency and low frequency seismic events. The sources of high frequency earthquakes appear to be distributed as evidenced from waveforms variety and changing S-P arrivals separations. The low frequency seismic events also show varying signatures and some of them exhibit extended coda, including some monochromatic character.

  4. Preliminary study on soil to rock spectral ratio method of microtremor measurement in Taipei Basin, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jyun Yan; Wen, Kuo Liang; Te Chen, Chun; Chang, Shun Chiang

    2014-05-01

    Taipei city is the capital of Taiwan which located in Taipei basin and covered with hundreds meter of alluvial layer that might cause serious damage during huge earthquake. Prediction of possible strong motion levels occurred in the basin then became popular. Engineers most like to use Ground Motion Prediction Equation (GMPEs) as common tool for seismic hazard calculation but GMPEs were usually debated that it can only give one prediction value (PGA, PGV, Sa etc.) rather than time history or spectrum. Seismologists tried theoretical simulation (1D, 2D, 3D method) but could only give low frequency (usually less than 1 Hz) results restricted to that the shallow structures were not clear enough. Resent years, wide frequency simulation techniques such as empirical green's function added stochastic simulation method (hybrid method) were applied to several different purposes but site effect still plays an important role that need to be considered. Traditionally soil to rock spectral ratio of shear wave (denoted as S/R) was widely applied to check basin effect for decades but the technique needs lots of permanent stations and several years to get enough records. If some site located within strong motion network but not close enough to the strong motion stations, interpolate or extrapolate results needed to be used. Wen and Huang (2012) conducted a dense microtremor measurement network in whole Taiwan and applied microtremor H/V to discuss dominant frequency with traditional transfer functions from earthquake shear wave and found good agreement between them. Furthermore, in this study, the ability of soil to rock spectral ratio of microtremor (denoted as MS/R) measurement was tested in Taipei basin. The preliminary results showed MS/R had good agreement with S/R between 0.2 to 5 Hz. And distance from soil site to reference rock site should no greater than 8 to 10 km base on degree of spectrum difference (DSPD) calculation. If the MS/R works that site effect study from this

  5. Feasibility study of rainwater harvesting system in Sylhet City.

    PubMed

    Alam, R; Munna, G; Chowdhury, M A I; Sarkar, M S K A; Ahmed, M; Rahman, M T; Jesmin, F; Toimoor, M A

    2012-01-01

    In rural areas in Bangladesh, groundwater is the principal source of water supply. This underground water is available in considerable amount in shallow aquifers. It is free from pathogenic microorganisms and hence water-borne diseases. In plain lands, other than hilly areas, water supply to 97% rural population comes from tube-wells, which is regarded to be a phenomenal achievement in preserving public health. Besides, a dependable water supply system all throughout the country is offset by two factors: (a) high salinity in surface plus groundwater in coastal areas; (b) want of suitable groundwater aquifers in hilly areas and the high cost of setting up tube-wells due to deep underground water table and stony layers. However, presence of arsenic in underground water now poses a serious threat to the success once made in water supply by setting up of manually operated tube-wells in the village areas-the achievement is now on the brink of total collapse. In about 61 districts out of 64, presence of arsenic exceeds a quantity of 0.05 mg/1, a permissible limit as per Bangladeshi water quality standard. Harvesting rainwater can be a pragmatic solution to this problem, which is common in many places in Sylhet especially in the hilly areas on the north eastern part of the city. This can be an alternative source of drinking water because of availability of rainwater from March to October. Heavy rain occurs from end of May till mid September, which is commonly known as the rainy season. This paper focuses on the possibility of harvesting rainwater in rural communities and thickly populated urban areas of Sylhet. It also demonstrates the scopes of harvesting rainwater using simple and low-cost technology. With setting up of a carefully planned rainwater storage tank, a family can have all of its drinking water from rain. Planned use of rainwater through rainwater harvesting in the roof catchments may fulfill the entire annual domestic water demand of a family in the rural

  6. Analyzing the Roles, Activities, and Skills of Learning Technologists: A Case Study from City University London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Olivia; Sumner, Neal

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a case study carried out at City University London into the role of learning technologists. The article examines how the role developed by providing points of comparison with a report on the career development of learning technology staff in UK universities in 2001. This case study identified that learning technologists…

  7. Conceptions of Change: A Phenomenographical Study of the Reinvention Initiative at the City Colleges of Chicago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horace, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to add to the literature on community colleges and organizational change. This study explored how interested parties, internal and external, understood the organizational change called the Reinvention Initiative occurring at the City Colleges of Chicago and how this organizational change influenced constituencies'…

  8. Head Start and Urban Children's School Readiness: A Birth Cohort Study in 18 Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

    2011-01-01

    We used longitudinal data from a birth cohort study, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, to investigate the links between Head Start and school readiness in a large and diverse sample of urban children at age 5 (N = 2,803; 18 cities). We found that Head Start attendance was associated with enhanced cognitive ability and social…

  9. City College of San Francisco Academy and Pathway Dual Enrollment Program. Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community College Research Center, Columbia University, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a case study of a dual enrollment program at the City College of San Francisco. The case study describes different aspects of the program, including implementation, student recruitment, enrollment, course offerings, student support services, high school/college collaboration, challenges, and sustainability. (Contains 1…

  10. Me and We Power, K-2. Comprehensive Social Studies Curriculum for the Inner City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitch, Sarah

    Focus on Inner City Social Studies (FICSS) is a project conceived by Melvin Arnoff to promote change in social studies curriculum and instruction in accordance with the needs and problems of an urban society. In practical terms, the purpose of the project, developed from 1968-1971 on a grant to Youngstown and other Ohio school districts, is to…

  11. Diabetes Control among Vietnamese Patients in Ho Chi Minh City: An Observational Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yokokawa, Hirohide; Khue, Nguyen Thy; Goto, Aya; Nam, Tran Quang; Trung, Tran The; Khoa, Vo Tuan; Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Boi; Minh, Pham Nghiem; Vinh, Nguyen Quang; Okayama, Akira; Yasumura, Seiji

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the extent of diabetic control and its associated factors among Vietnamese patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The study was conducted among 652 outpatients who were recruited at a public general hospital (People Hospital 115) and a private clinic (Medic Center) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Median age…

  12. Immigrants from the Appalachian Region to the City of Columbus, Ohio: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rico-Velasco, Jesus Antonio

    The major purpose of the study was to provide information and test specific hypotheses about the causes and nature of the process of migration and the adjustment of Appalachian migrants to the city of Columbus, Ohio. In the study, the Appalachian region was approached not only as a geographic area but also as an ecological structure, a cultural…

  13. Preliminary Design Study of a National Program for Training Skilled Aviation Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Univ., Tempe.

    This study supplementing a 1967 study of Arizona State University, recommends preliminary plans for the design of a national training center capable of accommodating 2,200 fliers and aviation technicians and the steps that should be taken to complete the facility by September 1972. Specific recommendations are: (1) negotiations between the…

  14. Identification of Emerging Self-Injurious Behavior in Young Children: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Patricia F.; Chin, Michelle D.; Huete, John M.; Cataldo, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is a chronic disorder that often begins in early childhood; however, few studies have examined the onset of SIB in young children. This preliminary study reports on the identification, assessment, and observation of SIB in 32 children who had begun to engage in SIB within the previous 6 months. Participants were under…

  15. A Comparative Study of Anomaly Detection Techniques for Smart City Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Font, Victor; Garrigues, Carles; Rifà-Pous, Helena

    2016-06-13

    In many countries around the world, smart cities are becoming a reality. These cities contribute to improving citizens' quality of life by providing services that are normally based on data extracted from wireless sensor networks (WSN) and other elements of the Internet of Things. Additionally, public administration uses these smart city data to increase its efficiency, to reduce costs and to provide additional services. However, the information received at smart city data centers is not always accurate, because WSNs are sometimes prone to error and are exposed to physical and computer attacks. In this article, we use real data from the smart city of Barcelona to simulate WSNs and implement typical attacks. Then, we compare frequently used anomaly detection techniques to disclose these attacks. We evaluate the algorithms under different requirements on the available network status information. As a result of this study, we conclude that one-class Support Vector Machines is the most appropriate technique. We achieve a true positive rate at least 56% higher than the rates achieved with the other compared techniques in a scenario with a maximum false positive rate of 5% and a 26% higher in a scenario with a false positive rate of 15%.

  16. A Comparative Study of Anomaly Detection Techniques for Smart City Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Font, Victor; Garrigues, Carles; Rifà-Pous, Helena

    2016-01-01

    In many countries around the world, smart cities are becoming a reality. These cities contribute to improving citizens’ quality of life by providing services that are normally based on data extracted from wireless sensor networks (WSN) and other elements of the Internet of Things. Additionally, public administration uses these smart city data to increase its efficiency, to reduce costs and to provide additional services. However, the information received at smart city data centers is not always accurate, because WSNs are sometimes prone to error and are exposed to physical and computer attacks. In this article, we use real data from the smart city of Barcelona to simulate WSNs and implement typical attacks. Then, we compare frequently used anomaly detection techniques to disclose these attacks. We evaluate the algorithms under different requirements on the available network status information. As a result of this study, we conclude that one-class Support Vector Machines is the most appropriate technique. We achieve a true positive rate at least 56% higher than the rates achieved with the other compared techniques in a scenario with a maximum false positive rate of 5% and a 26% higher in a scenario with a false positive rate of 15%. PMID:27304957

  17. 2-year study of chemical composition of bulk deposition in a South China coastal city: comparison with East Asian cities

    SciTech Connect

    K.M. Wai; P.A. Tanner; C.W.F. Tam

    2005-09-01

    Using the emission strengths of the precursor gases, the nature of soil in China, the ventilation power and half value rainout region length, the nss-SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Ca{sup 2+}, and NH{sub 4}{sup +} concentrations, and pH of rainwater at Hong Kong and other cities of China and Japan are compared and rationalized. The chemical composition of Hong Kong bulk deposition from 1998 to 2000 is taken from the collection and analysis of 156 daily samples. The volume-weighted average (VWA) pH is 4.2 over the whole study period. Nonsea salt- (nss-) sulfate is the most abundant species in the samples, and the pH mostly depended upon the concentrations of the major species nss-SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Ca{sup 2+}, and NH{sub 4}{sup +}. All species concentrations show higher levels in the cold season (especially NO{sub 3}- and Ca{sup 2+}), which indicates the dominant dilution effects in the warm season due to heavy rainfall and the influence of the continental outflow of pollutants during the cold season. For Hong Kong bulk deposition, the VWA pH is slightly lower in the cold season, and there is a slight decrease in VWA pH over the period from 1994 to 2000. The impact of acid rain in Hong Kong is briefly discussed. 36 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Semantic Framework of Internet of Things for Smart Cities: Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ningyu; Chen, Huajun; Chen, Xi; Chen, Jiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the advancement of sensor technology has led to the generation of heterogeneous Internet-of-Things (IoT) data by smart cities. Thus, the development and deployment of various aspects of IoT-based applications are necessary to mine the potential value of data to the benefit of people and their lives. However, the variety, volume, heterogeneity, and real-time nature of data obtained from smart cities pose considerable challenges. In this paper, we propose a semantic framework that integrates the IoT with machine learning for smart cities. The proposed framework retrieves and models urban data for certain kinds of IoT applications based on semantic and machine-learning technologies. Moreover, we propose two case studies: pollution detection from vehicles and traffic pattern detection. The experimental results show that our system is scalable and capable of accommodating a large number of urban regions with different types of IoT applications. PMID:27649185

  19. Geothermal resource, engineering and economic feasibility study for the City of Ouray, Colorado. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.T.; Raskin, R.; Zocholl, J.R.

    1982-07-31

    A geothermal energy feasibility study has been performed for the City of Ouray, Colorado, to determine the potential economic development opportunities to the City. The resource assessment indicates the resource to be associated with the Ouray fault zone, the Leadville limestone formation, the high thermal gradient in the area of the San Juan mountains, and the recharge from precipitation in the adjacent mountains. Four engineering designs of alternative sizes, costs, applications, and years of start-up have been defined to offer the City a range of development scales. Life cycle cost analyses have been conducted for cases of both public and private ownership. All systems are found to be feasible on both economic and technical grounds. 49 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Semantic Framework of Internet of Things for Smart Cities: Case Studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ningyu; Chen, Huajun; Chen, Xi; Chen, Jiaoyan

    2016-09-14

    In recent years, the advancement of sensor technology has led to the generation of heterogeneous Internet-of-Things (IoT) data by smart cities. Thus, the development and deployment of various aspects of IoT-based applications are necessary to mine the potential value of data to the benefit of people and their lives. However, the variety, volume, heterogeneity, and real-time nature of data obtained from smart cities pose considerable challenges. In this paper, we propose a semantic framework that integrates the IoT with machine learning for smart cities. The proposed framework retrieves and models urban data for certain kinds of IoT applications based on semantic and machine-learning technologies. Moreover, we propose two case studies: pollution detection from vehicles and traffic pattern detection. The experimental results show that our system is scalable and capable of accommodating a large number of urban regions with different types of IoT applications.

  1. A Preliminary Field Study of Turbulent Flow Over and Inside a Forest Edge.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    anemometer , and x-hot wire and hot film anemometers . tThis report documents the results of these preliminary tudies of turbulent flow over and inside the...Calibration of a Miniature Octant Wind Direction Sensor 20 Correction of the Gill Anemometer Cosine Response Error 22 V. Preliminary Study of the...As Figure 3.1 for the temperature sensors Figure 3.3 As Figure 3.1 for the cup anemometers Figure 3.4 As Figure 3.1 for the thermal anemometers Figure

  2. Systems design study of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft. Volume 2. Preliminary program development plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The preliminary development plan for the Pioneer Venus program is presented. This preliminary plan treats only developmental aspects that would have a significant effect on program cost. These significant development areas were: master program schedule planning; test planning - both unit and system testing for probes/orbiter/ probe bus; ground support equipment; performance assurance; and science integration Various test planning options and test method techniques were evaluated in terms of achieving a low-cost program without degrading mission performance or system reliability. The approaches studied and the methodology of the selected approach are defined.

  3. Studies of acid aerosols in six cities and in a new multi-city investigation: design issues.

    PubMed Central

    Speizer, F E

    1989-01-01

    Techniques for measuring acid aerosols in the ambient environment have been developed only recently. As part of the on-going Harvard Study on the Health Effects of Sulfur Dioxide and Respirable Particulates, we have developed monitoring equipment for acidic particles that can be used in multiple field settings. Preliminary data suggest that these strong acid aerosol measurements may correlate with respiratory symptoms more closely than similar measurements of particulate matter less than 15 microns in size. These results have led to the beginning of a U.S.-Canadian cooperative study to assess the chronic effects of acid aerosols on the health of North American children. Communities are being selected on the basis of anticipated levels of H2SO4 in ambient air along with predicted levels of ozone and nitrates. Each community will undergo a 1-year period of every other day, 24-hr monitoring with newly developed monitoring equipment that will allow for quantification of H+ ion concentrations, as well as for specific measures of ozone and acid fractions. At the end of the 1-year period, while measurements are still being made, approximately 600 children aged 7 to 11 in each of up to 24 communities will be assessed with standardized questionnaires completed by parents, and pulmonary function will be measured in the children while in school. By estimating chronic exposure from the year-long measurement of acid aerosols and consideration of specific criteria for selecting communities to study, we hope to minimize potential confounding to allow us to assess the chronic impact of strong acid in the atmosphere on the respiratory health of these children. PMID:2707212

  4. PRELIMINARY EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FINDINGS FROM THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools. The four-week study was performed in October and November, 2003. The study involved repeated daily...

  5. Marin City Families First: Three Case Studies. Ruby and James: A Second Chance. Eleanor: Standing on My Own. Freda: The Value of Family. Child and Family Studies Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WestEd, San Francisco, CA.

    Marin City is an isolated African American community located in mostly affluent Marin County, California. Thirty-six percent of households in Marin City fall below the poverty line. This report provides three case studies from the Marin City Families First (MCFF) program, an intervention that aims to develop a model comprehensive child and family…

  6. Surrounding greenness, proximity to city parks and pregnancy outcomes in Kaunas cohort study.

    PubMed

    Grazuleviciene, Regina; Danileviciute, Asta; Dedele, Audrius; Vencloviene, Jone; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Uždanaviciute, Inga; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2015-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that green space can improve the health and well-being of urban residents. However, there has been no consistent evidence of the effect of city parks on reproductive health. We investigated whether surrounding greenness levels and/or distance to city parks affect birth outcomes. This study was based on 3292 singleton live-births from the Kaunas birth cohort, Lithuania (2007-2009), who were enrolled in the FP7 PHENOTYPE project study. Residential surrounding greenness level was ascertained as average of satellite-based normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) within buffers of 100 m, 300 m, and 500 m of each maternal home and distance to a city park was defined as distance to boundaries of the nearest city park. For each indicator of green space exposure, linear or logistic regression models were constructed to estimate change in birth outcomes adjusted for relevant covariates. An increase in distance to a city parks was associated with an increase in risk of preterm birth and decrease of gestational age. We found a statistically significant association between low surrounding greenness and term low birth weight. After assessing effect modification based on the low surrounding greenness (NDVI-500city parks (>1000 m), we found increased risks for low birth weight (OR 2.23, 1.20-4.15), term low birth weight (OR 2.97, 1.04-8.45) and preterm birth (OR 1.77, 1.10-2.81) for subjects with low surrounding greenness and farther distance from a park. Both higher surrounding greenness level and proximity to park have beneficial effects on pregnancy outcomes. A beneficial park effect on foetal growth is most apparent in the environment with low surrounding greenness level. Further investigation is needed to confirm this association.

  7. [Methodology and social, demographic, cognitive, and frailty profiles of community-dwelling elderly from seven Brazilian cities: the FIBRA Study].

    PubMed

    Neri, Anita Liberalesso; Yassuda, Mônica Sanches; Araújo, Ludgleydson Fernandes de; Eulálio, Maria do Carmo; Cabral, Benedita Edina; Siqueira, Maria Eliane Catunda de; Santos, Geraldine Alves dos; Moura, José Guilherme de Arruda

    2013-04-01

    A study was designed to identify conditions of frailty in relation to social, demographic, health, cognitive, functional, and psychosocial variables in community-dwelling elderly. The article presents the methodology and preliminary data. A total of 3,478 elderly (65 years and older) were selected from probabilistic samples of seven Brazilian cities chosen by convenience and participated in a data collection session in a community setting. The following characteristics predominated: women (67.7%), married (48%) or widowed (36.4%), living with a son or daughter and family (52.6%), head of family (64.5%), and 1-4 years of schooling (49%); 28.8% were illiterate and 24.8% presented a cognitive deficit; 9.1% were frail, 51.8% pre-frail, and 39.1% non-frail. There were more frail individuals among women, those 80 years or older, the widowed, the illiterate, those who had never attended school, and those with cognitive deficit. In general, the social and demographic data corroborate Brazilian epidemiological studies, while those on frailty, cognitive status, and schooling corroborate the international literature.

  8. We Are Living History: Reflections of a New York City Social Studies Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schur, Joan Brodsky

    2001-01-01

    Presents the reflections of a social studies teacher from New York City about the September 11, 2001, attacks and the days following it. Focuses on her personal experiences during that time period and the response of the school where she taught. (CMK)

  9. The Baltimore City Drug Treatment Court: 3-Year Self-Report Outcome Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfredson, Denise C.; Kearley, Brook W.; Najaka, Stacy S.; Rocha, Carlos M.

    2005-01-01

    This study reports results from interviews with 157 research participants who were interviewed 3 years after randomization into treatment and control conditions in the evaluation of the Baltimore City Drug Treatment Court. The interviews asked about crime, substance use, welfare, employment, education, mental and physical health, and family and…

  10. Roanoke City Schools Social Studies Skills Evaluation Project 1976-1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Larry; Fleming, Dan

    One of four projects conducted in Virginia during the 1976-1977 school year, this guide describes the project in Roanoke City Schools to upgrade social studies skills. Experimental and control groups were established at grades 7-8, grades 9-10, and grades 11-12. Although pretests were administered to both groups, only the experimental group…

  11. A Study of Attitudes and Support Systems of Inner City Adolescent Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuckerman, Barry; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A study of 23 inner city adolescent and 32 older mothers was conducted to test the hypothesis that the simultaneous occurrence of adolescence and motherhood would result in special infant rearing attitudes, concerns, and support systems which interfere with mothering. Journal available from The C.V. Mosby Company, 11830 Westline Industrial Drive,…

  12. Five Cities High School Dropout Study: Characteristics of Hispanic High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Ricardo; And Others

    This study describes the individual, family, school, and community characteristics of Hispanic ninth-grade students enrolled in predominantly minority high schools in five major U.S. cities: Chicago, Miami, Milwaukee, Newark, and San Antonio. The data, which are reported for four groups--Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, Cubans, and Central…

  13. Vertical Cities of the Future: Implications for the Study and Teaching of Urban Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Michael L.

    1974-01-01

    The implications of a vertical city, of which the John Hancock Center in Chicago is a prototype, should be considered by teachers of urban studies. Questions clustering around nine discussion areas indicate the kinds of expanded, critical, and interdisciplinary thinking that planning and teaching for the future require. (JH)

  14. Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden City Central Office

    SciTech Connect

    2010-12-01

    This case study describes how Verizon's Central Office in Garden City, NY, installed a 1.4-MW phosphoric acid fuel cell system as an alternative solution to bolster electric reliability, optimize the company's energy use, and reduce costs in an environmentally responsible manner.

  15. Engendering Student Success: A Study of Long Beach City College EOP&S Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Ricardo E.

    This study examined the academic, social, and institutional variables impacting the persistence and attrition rates of Extended Opportunity Programs and Services (EOP&S) students at Long Beach City College (LBCC) in California during the fall 1997 and spring 1998 semesters. EOP&S was a state-funded program to provide retention services to…

  16. The Growth and Structure of Cities Program: An Innovative Approach to Urban Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryn Mawr Coll., PA.

    The long term aims of the Growth and Structure of Cities major at Bryn Mawr College are to introduce into the curriculum an interdisciplinary program which builds on existing strengths within the college and which offers students the opportunity to study the changing character of the contemporary urban environment in an historical, aesthetic, and…

  17. Interinstitutional Cooperation in the Urban City: Some Hypotheses and a Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Arthur H., Jr.

    The San Francisco Consortium, composed of the University of California Medical Center, the University of San Francisco, San Francisco State College, Golden Gate College, and City College of San Francisco, is based on geographic proximity rather than on similarity of goals among member institutions. The author of this study has made several…

  18. Government, Grade Five, Unit One, 5.1. Comprehensive Social Studies Curriculum for the Inner City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Anne

    This fifth grade unit is one of a sequential learning series of the Focus on Inner City Social Studies (FICSS) project developed in accordance with the needs and problems of an urban society. A description of the project is provided in SO 008 271. As part of the fifth grade curriculum focusing on power, this six week unit examines the power base…

  19. Selective Energy Feasibility Study -- Richmond College, City University of New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consulting Engineer, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A study of the presently available data on magnitude, duration, and coincidence of electrical demands determined that onsite electrical power generation in the form of a selective energy system should be incorporated within the central utilities plant projected for the Richmond College Campus of the City University of New York (CUNY). (Author/MLF)

  20. A modeling study of aeolian erosion enhanced by surface wind confluences over Mexico City

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using erosion and air quality models, a study on the effect of PM10 episodes in Mexico City is presented. The important contribution of Aeolian erosion on urban air quality, its genesis, morphology, location and regional implications such as the role played by surface confluences, the dry Lake of T...

  1. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Drinking Purposes Using GIS Modelling (case Study: City of Tabriz)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeihouni, M.; Toomanian, A.; Shahabi, M.; Alavipanah, S. K.

    2014-10-01

    Tabriz is the largest industrial city in North West of Iran and it is developing rapidly. A large proportion of water requirements for this city are supplied from dams. In this research, groundwater quality assessed through sampling 70 wells in Tabriz and its rural areas. The purposes of this study are: (1) specifying spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters such as Chloride, Electrical Conductivity (EC), pH, hardness and sulphate (2) mapping groundwater quality for drinking purpose by employing Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method in the study area using GIS and Geosatistics. We utilized an interpolation technique of ordinary kriging for generating thematic map of each parameter. The final map indicates that the groundwater quality esaeicni from North to South and from West to East of the study area. The areas located in Center, South and South West of the study area have the optimum quality for drinking purposes which are the best locations to drill wells for supplying water demands of Tabriz city. In critical conditions, the groundwater quality map as a result of this research can be taken into account by East Azerbaijan Regional Water Company as decision support system to drill new wells or selecting existing wells to supply drinking water to Tabriz city.

  2. Government Driven Partnership for Lifelong Learning in Korea: A Case Study of Four Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Wonsup; Cha, Minyoung

    2008-01-01

    This case study investigated the reality of lifelong learning partnerships in four cities in Korea based on IPA (Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis). With the emphasis on lifelong learning grounded on a global knowledge economy-focused approach, the Korean government has taken initiatives to facilitate it through the administrative educational…

  3. PRELIMINARY HEALTH BURDEN ANALYSIS FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC RECREATIONAL WATER STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: The National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water Study (NEEAR) offers a rare opportunity for researchers. The study's design involves the collection of health data before and after visiting the beach in conjunction with water quality...

  4. Developing Parenting Skills through Health Visitors: Preliminary Results from an Evaluation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jim

    Preliminary results of a study of the extent to which training health visitors in behavior modification techniques improves the effectiveness of their work with families of young children are presented. A total of 14 health visitors were recruited and assigned to training and delay-of-training groups. Selected from case loads, participating…

  5. Early Language and Literacy Development among Young English Language Learners: Preliminary Insights from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessingh, Hetty; Elgie, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on the preliminary findings of a two-staged empirical study aimed at gaining insights into the variables salient in the early language and literacy development of young English language learners (ELL). Increasingly, young ELL, whether foreign-born or Canadian-born, arrive at school with little developed English-language…

  6. Work Experiences of People with Mental Illness in Malaysia: A Preliminary Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boo, Su-Lyn; Loong, Jaymee; Ng, Wai-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    This is a preliminary qualitative study, using a basic interpretive approach, to investigate the work experiences of people with mental illness in Malaysia. Six females and four males (aged 30-70) from a residential home for the mentally ill participated in semi-structured interviews. Three inter-relating themes emerged, namely the experience of…

  7. Preliminary Study of Coupling Electrical Energy to Detonation Reaction Zone of Primasheet-1000 Explosive

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    Preliminary Study of Coupling Electrical Energy to Detonation Reaction Zone of Primasheet-1000 Explosive by Thuvan Piehler, Charles Hummer...1000 Explosive Thuvan Piehler, Charles Hummer, Richard Benjamin, Eugene Summers, and Kevin McNesby Weapons and Materials Research Directorate...5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Thuvan Piehler, Charles Hummer, Richard Benjamin, Eugene Summers, Kevin McNesby

  8. Zero-gravity cloud physics laboratory: Experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, L. R.; Greco, E. V.

    1973-01-01

    The experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies on the zero G cloud physics laboratory are reported. This program involves the definition and development of an atmospheric cloud physics laboratory and the selection and delineations of a set of candidate experiments that must utilize the unique environment of zero gravity or near zero gravity.

  9. Correlates of Cigarette Smoking among Male Chinese College Students in China--A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Kaigang; Kay, Noy S.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this preliminary study was to examine the association between four constructs of the Health Belief Model (HBM) (i.e. perceived severity of smoking-related health problems, perceived susceptibility to smoking-health related problems, perceived barriers to non-smoking and perceived benefits of non-smoking) and cigarette smoking …

  10. Validity and Reliability of Turkish Version of Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-2: Results of Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Diken, Ozlem; Gilliam, James E.; Ardic, Avsar; Sweeney, Dwight

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to explore the validity and reliability of Turkish Version of the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-2 (TV-GARS-2). Participants included 436 children diagnosed with autism (331 male and 105 female, mean of ages was 8.01 with SD = 3.77). Data were also collected from individuals diagnosed with intellectual…

  11. Individual and Family Factors Impacting Diabetic Control for the Adolescent: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Mary; And Others

    Sixteen adolescents between the ages of 15 and 18 years and their parents participated in a preliminary study on the impact of family and individual factors on diabetes control for the adolescent. It was hypothesized that there was a relationship between the adolescent's perception of adolescent development, social support, depression, family…

  12. Factorial Structure of the Pain Rehabilitation Expectations Scale: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheing, Gladys L. Y.; Lai, Amy K. M.; Vong, Sinfia K. S.; Chan, Fong H.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report the preliminary validation results for the Pain Rehabilitation Expectations Scale (PRES). The PRES is a clinical tool developed to measure the expectations about rehabilitation treatment and outcome for people with back pain. Fifty people with chronic back pain were recruited from 11 physiotherapy outpatient…

  13. School Library Support of Health Education in China: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Geoffrey Z.; Zhang, Wuhong

    2008-01-01

    This preliminary study investigates the current situation of school library support of K-12 health education in China. A survey of 42 school librarians and 115 K-12 teachers from selected schools was conducted to find out their views about school library's role in school health education and their current practice of library use in health…

  14. Nd:YAG laser treatment of herpes and aphthous ulcers: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkins, Frederick M.; O'Toole, Thomas J.; Yancey, John M.

    2000-06-01

    Previously herpes labialis and recurrent aphthous ulcers have not been successfully treated. A preliminary study with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser evaluated the results with a protocol of four minute non-contact exposures for both types of lesions. Most patients experienced relief of symptoms. The progress of herpes lesion was halted and aphthous lesions became desensitized.

  15. Occupational Therapy in the Context of Head Start: A Preliminary Survey Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowyer, Patricia; Moore, Cary C.; Thom, Carly

    2016-01-01

    This preliminary, descriptive study yields information on the utilization of occupational therapy services within Head Start programs. Participants completed an Internet-based survey of 25 questions pertaining to the understanding, scope, and utilization of occupational therapy services. Surveys were completed by 35 respondents nationwide. A total…

  16. Factors affecting weight gain and dietary intake in Latino males residing in Mississippi: A preliminary study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research indicates that as Latinos become more acculturated to the United States, their diet changes and they experience weight gain. There is also a high incidence of depression in this population. The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine the correlations between sociodemographic factor...

  17. Comparison of Brain Activity during Drawing and Clay Sculpting: A Preliminary qEEG Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruk, Kerry A.; Aravich, Paul F.; Deaver, Sarah P.; deBeus, Roger

    2014-01-01

    A preliminary experimental study examined brain wave frequency patterns of female participants (N = 14) engaged in two different art making conditions: clay sculpting and drawing. After controlling for nonspecific effects of movement, quantitative electroencephalographic (qEEG) recordings were made of the bilateral medial frontal cortex and…

  18. Application of the stormwater management model to a piedmont city: a case study of Jinan City, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haijun; Huang, Guoru; Wu, Chuanhao

    2014-01-01

    The stormwater management model (SWMM) was adapted and calibrated to Jinan, a typical piedmont city in China, to verify the large-scale applicability of the model to piedmont cities. Fourteen storms were used for model calibration and validation. The calibrated model predicted the measured data with satisfactory accuracy and reliability. A sensitivity analysis was then conducted to evaluate the impact of the model parameters; it showed that: (1) the model outputs were most sensitive to imperviousness and conduit roughness; and (2) infiltration parameters and depression storage play an important role in total runoff and peak flow. The urban drainage system of Jinan was assessed using urban design storms with the calibrated model, and the effects of engineered flood control measures were evaluated. The overall results demonstrate that SWMM is applicable on a large scale to piedmont cities.

  19. The Status of Women in Alaska, 1977. A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dorothy M.; And Others

    To determine the precise nature and extent of the problem confronting Alaskan women, the Legislature in 1976 directed the Human Rights Commission to conduct a study on the status of women in education, employment, health, and the justice system. This publication contains the results of that study. Data for the study were secured through interviews…

  20. New York City Energy-Water Integrated Planning: A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatt,V.; Crosson, K. M.; Horak, W.; Reisman, A.

    2008-12-16

    The New York City Energy-Water Integrated Planning Pilot Study is one of several projects funded by Sandia National Laboratories under the U.S. Department of Energy Energy-Water Nexus Program. These projects are intended to clarify some key issues and research needs identified during the Energy-Water Nexus Roadmapping activities. The objectives of the New York City Pilot Project are twofold: to identify energy-water nexus issues in an established urban area in conjunction with a group of key stakeholders and to define and apply an integrated energy and water decision support tool, as proof-of-concept, to one or more of these issues. During the course of this study, the Brookhaven National Laboratory project team worked very closely with members of a Pilot Project Steering Committee. The Steering Committee members brought a breadth of experience across the energy, water and climate disciplines, and all are well versed in the particular issues faced by an urban environment, and by New York City in particular. The first task was to identify energy-water issues of importance to New York City. This exercise was followed by discussion of the qualities and capabilities that an ideal decision support tool should display to address these issues. The decision was made to start with an existing energy model, the New York City version of the MARKAL model, developed originally at BNL and now used globally by many groups for energy analysis. MARKAL has the virtue of being well-vetted, transparent, and capable of calculating 'material' flows, such as water use by the energy system and energy requirements of water technology. The Steering Committee members defined five scenarios of interest, representing a broad spectrum of New York City energy-water issues. Brookhaven National Laboratory researchers developed a model framework (Water-MARKAL) at the desired level of detail to address the scenarios, and then attempted to gather the New York City-specific information required to

  1. Partial protection of seasonal trivalent inactivated vaccine against novel pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009: case-control study in Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Garcia, Lourdes; Valdespino-Gómez, Jose Luis; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Jimenez-Corona, Aida; Higuera-Iglesias, Anjarath; Cruz-Hervert, Pablo; Cano-Arellano, Bulmaro; Garcia-Anaya, Antonio; Ferreira-Guerrero, Elizabeth; Baez-Saldaña, Renata; Ferreyra-Reyes, Leticia; Ponce-de-León-Rosales, Samuel; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia; Rodriguez-López, Mario Henry; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of 2008-9 seasonal trivalent inactivated vaccine with cases of influenza A/H1N1 during the epidemic in Mexico. Design Frequency matched case-control study. Setting Specialty hospital in Mexico City, March to May 2009. Participants 60 patients with laboratory confirmed influenza A/H1N1 and 180 controls with other diseases (not influenza-like illness or pneumonia) living in Mexico City or the State of Mexico and matched for age and socioeconomic status. Main outcome measures Odds ratio and effectiveness of trivalent inactivated vaccine against influenza A/H1N1. Results Cases were more likely than controls to be admitted to hospital, undergo invasive mechanical ventilation, and die. Controls were more likely than cases to have chronic conditions that conferred a higher risk of influenza related complications. In the multivariate model, influenza A/H1N1 was independently associated with trivalent inactivated vaccine (odds ratio 0.27, 95% confidence interval 0.11 to 0.66) and underlying conditions (0.15, 0.08 to 0.30). Vaccine effectiveness was 73% (95% confidence interval 34% to 89%). None of the eight vaccinated cases died. Conclusions Preliminary evidence suggests some protection from the 2008-9 trivalent inactivated vaccine against pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009, particularly severe forms of the disease, diagnosed in a specialty hospital during the influenza epidemic in Mexico City. PMID:19808768

  2. Opportunistic mobile air pollution monitoring: A case study with city wardens in Antwerp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van den Bossche, Joris; Theunis, Jan; Elen, Bart; Peters, Jan; Botteldooren, Dick; De Baets, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore the potential of opportunistic mobile monitoring to map the exposure to air pollution in the urban environment at a high spatial resolution. Opportunistic mobile monitoring makes use of existing mobile infrastructure or people's common daily routines to move measurement devices around. Opportunistic mobile monitoring can also play a crucial role in participatory monitoring campaigns as a typical way to gather data. A case study to measure black carbon was set up in Antwerp, Belgium, with the collaboration of city employees (city wardens). The Antwerp city wardens are outdoors for a large part of the day on surveillance tours by bicycle or on foot, and gathered a total of 393 h of measurements. The data collection is unstructured both in space and time, leading to sampling bias. A temporal adjustment can only partly counteract this bias. Although a high spatial coverage was obtained, there is still a rather large uncertainty on the average concentration levels at a spatial resolution of 50 m due to a limited number of measurements and sampling bias. Despite of this uncertainty, large spatial patterns within the city are clearly captured. This study illustrates the potential of campaigns with unstructured opportunistic mobile monitoring, including participatory monitoring campaigns. The results demonstrate that such an approach can indeed be used to identify broad spatial trends over a wider area, enabling applications including hotspot identification, personal exposure studies, regression mapping, etc. But, they also emphasize the need for repeated measurements and careful processing and interpretation of the data.

  3. Preliminary study of Kelso Dunes using AVIRIS, TM, and AIRSAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Pung; Blumberg, Dan G.; Greeley, Ronald

    1995-01-01

    Remote sensing of sand dunes helps in the understanding of aeolian process and provides important information about the regional geologic history, environmental change, and desertification. Remotely sensed data combined with field studies are valuable in studying dune morphology, regional aeolian dynamics, and aeolian depositional history. In particular, active and inactive sands of the Kelso Dunes have been studied using landsat TM and AIRSAR. In this report, we describe the use of AVIRIS data to study the Kelso dunes and to compare the AVIRIS information with that from TM and AIRSAR.

  4. Limitations and drawbacks of using Preliminary Environmental Reports (PERs) as an input to Environmental Licensing in Sao Paulo State: A case study on natural gas pipeline routing

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchhoff, Denis . E-mail: dkirchho@fes.uwaterloo.ca; Montano, Marcelo . E-mail: minduim@sc.usp.br; Ranieri, Victor Eduardo Lima . E-mail: vranieri@sc.usp.br; Dutra de Oliveira, Isabel Silva . E-mail: beldutra@sc.usp.br; Doberstein, Brent . E-mail: bdoberst@fes.uwaterloo.ca; Pereira de Souza, Marcelo . E-mail: mps@sc.usp.br

    2007-05-15

    This article discusses the limitations and implications to environmental management issues posed by the Environmental Licensing approach adopted in Sao Paulo State. In Brazil, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an essential precondition to the Environmental Licensing of activities and, in fact, it has been the most important and required tool for the licensing of projects. However, in 1994 the State of Sao Paulo implemented a simplified instrument called a 'Preliminary Environmental Report' in order to make the environmental licensing process faster. Since then, the Preliminary Environmental Report (PER) has had the role of indicating whether an EIA needs to be elaborated upon or not. The positives and negatives regarding technical, institutional and legal aspects related to the use of Preliminary Environmental Reports (rather than EIA) are discussed using the case study of a high-pressure natural gas pipeline between the cities of Sao Carlos and Porto Ferreira in the State of Sao Paulo. The main conclusion is that the Environmental Licensing process in Sao Paulo should not use PERs as the sole input to decision making about proposed activities, since the PER approach does not guarantee that the proposed activity is environmentally suitable, does not address locational issues or comparison of alternatives, and risk assessment issues are not considered in the earliest stages of assessment.

  5. Young Children's Perceptions of Scientists: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buldu, Mehmet

    2006-01-01

    Background: Since the 1950s, there has been a growing body of research dealing with perceptions children have of scientists. Typically, research studies in this area have utilized children's drawings in an effort to discern what those perceptions are. Studies assessing perceptions children have of scientists have shown that children have…

  6. Citations to Wikipedia in Chemistry Journals: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazzeal, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    Wikipedia has been the subject of an increasing number of studies. Many of these have focused on the quality of Wikipedia articles and the use of Wikipedia by students. Little research has focused on the use of Wikipedia by scholars. This study helps to fill that gap by examining citations to Wikipedia in chemistry journals from three major…

  7. Personality Study of Hawaii Japanese Nonagenarians: Preliminary Findings. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izutsu, Satoru; Rose, Charles L.

    As part of a larger study of the demographics, family, household, health, diet, activity, functioning, and mental ability of older Japanese people living in Hawaii which will be compared to similar studies conducted in Japan, personality data were obtained from 101 noninstitutionalized Japanese with an average age of 92 years, residing in Hawaii.…

  8. Resettlement Case Study: Non-Impacted Small Midwestern City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Refugee Service Center.

    The resettlement experiences of a Laotian family in a Midwestern agricultural community is studied. The characters and places are fictitious, but the story is based on actual experiences of refugee families resettling in areas without a heavy refugee influx. The information is drawn from interviews with refugees of several nationalities and with…

  9. Study Abroad and the City: Bringing the Lessons Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Study abroad's purpose, once conceived primarily as a means for acquiring knowledge in a content area as well as language acquisition, began in the 1980s to be considered a vehicle for helping American students become less "parochial" and better prepared to live and work in a globalized world. To achieve these goals, students must be…

  10. Rethinking urban space in cities - A study of parks in Hyderabad, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrinagesh, B.; Markandey, Kalpana

    2016-06-01

    Urban areas being economically diversified attract large streams of migrants making for a burgeoning population. This is more prevalent in the developing countries. The concomitants of this are high density, heavy traffic movement and increased pollution levels. To reduce the stressful life of city dwellers it is important to have open spaces, where one can pursue leisure time activities a few removes from clutter. A public space is a space that is generally open and accessible to people. Roads, public parks, libraries etc, are typically considered public space. The term ‘public space’ is also often misconstrued to mean other things such as ‘gathering place’, which is an element of the larger concept of social space. Hyderabad, the historical city is the capital of Telangana, India and extends from longitude 78o23’ to 78o33’E and latitude of 17o17’ to 17o31’N. It is the second largest city in terms of area and fifth largest in terms of population. It is one of the fastest growing cities in India. There is a huge influx of people from other states in search of better opportunities. The main objectives of the study are; to study the sprawl and changing demographic structure of the city of Hyderabad, to study the accessibility of parks, to study the need for the emergence of a local public sphere. The data base will be mainly on secondary data collected from various government sources. A primary survey will be conducted based on a structured questionnaire. GIS and other mapping techniques will be applied to analyse the data.

  11. Pulmonary functions in petrol pump workers: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Mayank; Khaliq, Farah; Singhal, Siddarth; Tandon, O P

    2007-01-01

    Occupational exposures to petrol/diesel vapors have been shown to affect functioning of different systems of the body. The present study was planned to assess the pulmonary functions in petrol pump workers (filling attendants) who are continuously exposed to petrol/diesel vapors during duty hours. Thirty healthy non-smoker males working in petrol pump for more than one year formed the study group, while thirty healthy non-smoker males from hospital staff served as control group. The pulmonary functions were assessed using computerized spirometer. The FVC and FEV1 were decreased in the study group while their ratio did not differ much. Both the inspiratory and expiratory flow rates were also decreased in the study group. These findings point towards adverse effects of petrol/diesel fumes mainly on lower airways with restrictive pattern of disease.

  12. Kids in the city study: research design and methodology

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity is essential for optimal physical and psychological health but substantial declines in children's activity levels have occurred in New Zealand and internationally. Children's independent mobility (i.e., outdoor play and traveling to destinations unsupervised), an integral component of physical activity in childhood, has also declined radically in recent decades. Safety-conscious parenting practices, car reliance and auto-centric urban design have converged to produce children living increasingly sedentary lives. This research investigates how urban neighborhood environments can support or enable or restrict children's independent mobility, thereby influencing physical activity accumulation and participation in daily life. Methods/Design The study is located in six Auckland, New Zealand neighborhoods, diverse in terms of urban design attributes, particularly residential density. Participants comprise 160 children aged 9-11 years and their parents/caregivers. Objective measures (global positioning systems, accelerometers, geographical information systems, observational audits) assessed children's independent mobility and physical activity, neighborhood infrastructure, and streetscape attributes. Parent and child neighborhood perceptions and experiences were assessed using qualitative research methods. Discussion This study is one of the first internationally to examine the association of specific urban design attributes with child independent mobility. Using robust, appropriate, and best practice objective measures, this study provides robust epidemiological information regarding the relationships between the built environment and health outcomes for this population. PMID:21781341

  13. Numerical aerodynamic simulation facility preliminary study, volume 2 and appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Data to support results obtained in technology assessment studies are presented. Objectives, starting points, and future study tasks are outlined. Key design issues discussed in appendices include: data allocation, transposition network design, fault tolerance and trustworthiness, logic design, processing element of existing components, number of processors, the host system, alternate data base memory designs, number representation, fast div 521 instruction, architectures, and lockstep array versus synchronizable array machine comparison.

  14. Protocol Development and Preliminary Toxicity Study of CBRN Nanomaterials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-05

    Program Army Institute of Public Health Specialty: 500C, Toxicity Tests Toxicology Study No. 87-XE-0EJ5-11 (FY12 Continuation) Use of trademarked name(s...toxicity by Microtox test and human cytotoxicity by NRU assay. These studies fill the data gaps and provide toxicity information useful in risk...Transepithelial Permeability (TEP) assays were developed and tested on EpiAirway. a 3-D human tracheal/bronchial epithelial equivalent. Further evaluation of the

  15. Hydrogen Gas Retention and Release from WTP Vessels: Summary of Preliminary Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Daniel, Richard C.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Rassat, Scot D.; Wells, Beric E.; Bao, Jie; Boeringa, Gregory K.; Buchmiller, William C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Chun, Jaehun; Karri, Naveen K.; Li, Huidong; Tran, Diana N.

    2015-07-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is currently being designed and constructed to pretreat and vitrify a large portion of the waste in the 177 underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. A number of technical issues related to the design of the pretreatment facility (PTF) of the WTP have been identified. These issues must be resolved prior to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) reaching a decision to proceed with engineering, procurement, and construction activities for the PTF. One of the issues is Technical Issue T1 - Hydrogen Gas Release from Vessels (hereafter referred to as T1). The focus of T1 is identifying controls for hydrogen release and completing any testing required to close the technical issue. In advance of selecting specific controls for hydrogen gas safety, a number of preliminary technical studies were initiated to support anticipated future testing and to improve the understanding of hydrogen gas generation, retention, and release within PTF vessels. These activities supported the development of a plan defining an overall strategy and approach for addressing T1 and achieving technical endpoints identified for T1. Preliminary studies also supported the development of a test plan for conducting testing and analysis to support closing T1. Both of these plans were developed in advance of selecting specific controls, and in the course of working on T1 it was decided that the testing and analysis identified in the test plan were not immediately needed. However, planning activities and preliminary studies led to significant technical progress in a number of areas. This report summarizes the progress to date from the preliminary technical studies. The technical results in this report should not be used for WTP design or safety and hazards analyses and technical results are marked with the following statement: “Preliminary Technical Results for Planning – Not to be used for WTP Design

  16. Pollution: Problems and Solutions. Grade Nine, Unit One, 9.1 Comprehensive Social Studies Curriculum for the Inner City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamison, Sandra; Campbell, Bruce

    The ninth grade unit of the FICSS series (Focus on Inner City Social Studies -- see SO 008 271) studies the economic and political realities of the inner city. This document, the first unit of the 9th grade section, deals with the ecological crises involving pollution and its causes. Specific problems include air pollution, pesticides, herbicides,…

  17. [Omeprazole: a new treatment for paranasal sinus polyps in Widal syndrome. Preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Serra, J; Piñas, J; Arnaiz, J A; Quesada, P; Naches, S; Lorente, J; Carne, X

    1998-05-01

    A preliminary report is made of the potential therapeutic effect of omeprazol in reducing nasosinusal polyps. This study is based on the empirical observation of nasal airflow improvement in patients suffering from nasosinusal polyposis after administering omeprazol. Different phases of the study suggested that patients with Widal's syndrome benefited the most. Based on the results of this study, we have undertaken a randomized, parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

  18. Assessing interpersonal aspects of schizoid personality disorder: preliminary validation studies.

    PubMed

    Kosson, David S; Blackburn, Ronald; Byrnes, Katherine A; Park, Sohee; Logan, Caroline; Donnelly, John P

    2008-03-01

    In 2 studies, we examined the reliability and validity of an interpersonal measure of schizoid personality disorder (SZPD) based on nonverbal behaviors and interpersonal interactions occurring during interviews. A total of 556 male jail inmates in the United States participated in Study 1; 175 mentally disordered offenders in maximum security hospitals in the United Kingdom participated in Study 2. Across both samples, scores on the Interpersonal Measure of Schizoid Personality Disorder (IM-SZ) exhibited adequate reliability and patterns of correlations with other measures consistent with expectations. The scale displayed patterns of relatively specific correlations with interview and self-report measures of SZPD. In addition, the IM-SZ correlated in an expected manner with features of psychopathy and antisocial personality and with independent ratings of interpersonal behavior. We address implications for assessment of personality disorder.

  19. Preliminary studies of combustor sensitivity to alternative fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humenik, F. M.

    1980-01-01

    Combustion problems associated with using alternative fuels ground power and aeropropulsion applications were studied. Rectangular sections designed to simulate large annular combustor test conditions were examined. The effects of using alternative fuels with reduced hydrogen content, increased aromatic content, and a broad variation in fuel property characteristics were also studied. Data of special interest were collected which include: flame radiation characteristics in the various combustor zones; the correponding increase in liner temperature from increased radiant heat flux; the effect of fuel bound nitrogen on oxides of nitrogen (NO sub x) emissions; and the overall total effect of fuel variations on exhaust emissions.

  20. Computer-Generated Geometry Instruction: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Helen W.; Zentall, Sydney S.

    2011-01-01

    This study hypothesized that increased intensity of graphic information, presented in computer-generated instruction, could be differentially beneficial for students with hyperactivity and inattention by improving their ability to sustain attention and hold information in-mind. To this purpose, 18 2nd-4th grade students, recruited from general…

  1. A Normative Study of Children's Drawings: Preliminary Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaver, Sarah P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes methodology, data analysis, and initial results of a research study with the long-term goal of establishing contemporary normative data on drawings from children living in the United States. The pool of participants was composed of 316 fourth graders (mean age 9.69 years) and 151 second graders (mean age 7.56 years) who each…

  2. Theoretical Evaluation Self-Test (Test): A Preliminary Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Over nearly 40 years, several scales have been developed to measure therapist theoretical orientation (Poznanski & McLennan, 1995). This study, unlike previous efforts, focuses on "community clinicians"--social workers and other mental health professionals (such as psychologists, counselors, psychiatrists, and psychiatric nurses) who…

  3. Functional Communication Training in Rett Syndrome: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byiers, Breanne J.; Dimian, Adele; Symons, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is associated with a range of serious neurodevelopmental consequences including severe communicative impairments. Currently, no evidence-based communication interventions exist for the population (Sigafoos et al., 2009). The purpose of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of functional assessment (FA) and…

  4. Problems of Eskimo Relocation for Industrial Employment. A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, D. S.

    A study was conducted to determine the reasons for variable success in relocating Eskimo families from rural areas of the northern territories of Canada to southern centers of industrial employment (railways, mining centers). The data were collected by interviewing 105 Eskimos, both male and female, married and single, who had migrated south. The…

  5. Violence Prevention in Middle School: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KIllam, Wendy K.; Roland, Catherine B.; Weber, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Violence in schools continues reflecting violence within society. There is a growing need for violence prevention programs within the schools that provide students with the skills needed to cope with interpersonal and relationship is-sues effectively. This study was conducted at a middle school and there were 345 middle school students (6th to 8th…

  6. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. Volume 8, Appendixes

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. This volume of the Systems Design Study contain four Appendixes that were part of the study. Appendix A is an EG&G Idaho, Inc., report that represents a review and compilation of previous reports describing the wastes and quantities disposed in the Subsurface Disposal Area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Appendix B contains the process flowsheets considered in this study, but not selected for detailed analysis. Appendix C is a historical tabulation of radioactive waste incinerators. Appendix D lists Department of Energy facilities where cementation stabilization systems have been used.

  7. Learning Disabilities in Alcohol-Dependent Adults: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Sharyn S.; Jasinski, Donald R.

    1990-01-01

    The study found that 40 percent of 25 adult alcoholics were found to have had special education, remedial services, or repeated grade failure concurrent with a familial history of alcoholism and current discrepancies indicative of learning disabilities. Results suggest that childhood learning disorders may be related to the development of…

  8. Preliminary study of NAVSTAR/GPS for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alberts, R. D.; Ruedger, W. H.

    1976-01-01

    The activities conducted as a planning effort to focus attention on the applicability of the global positioning system for general aviation are described. The description of GPS, its impact on economic and functional aspects of general aviation avionics, as well as a declaration of potential extensions of the basic concept have been studied in detail.

  9. Renal denervation by intravascular ultrasound: Preliminary in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinelnikov, Yegor; McClain, Steve; Zou, Yong; Smith, David; Warnking, Reinhard

    2012-10-01

    Ultrasound denervation has recently become a subject of intense research in connection with the treatment of complex medical conditions including neurological conditions, development of pain management, reproduction of skin sensation, neuropathic pain and spasticity. The objective of this study is to investigate the use of intravascular ultrasound to produce nerve damage in renal sympathetic nerves without significant injury to the renal artery. This technique may potentially be used to treat various medical conditions, such as hypertension. The study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Ultrasound was applied to renal nerves of the swine model for histopathological evaluation. Therapeutic ultrasound energy was delivered circumferentially by an intravascular catheter maneuvered into the renal arteries. Fluoroscopic imaging was conducted pre-and post-ultrasound treatment. Animals were recovered and euthanized up to 30 hours post procedure, followed by necropsy and tissue sample collection. Histopathological examination showed evidence of extensive damage to renal nerves, characterized by nuclear pyknosis, hyalinization of stroma and multifocal hemorrhages, with little or no damage to renal arteries. This study demonstrates the feasibility of intravascular ultrasound as a minimally invasive renal denervation technique. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of this technique and its related clinical significance.

  10. Burnout among Special Education Administrators: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Research on the extent of stress and burnout among special education administrators is not as well developed as research on the extent of stress and burnout among teachers. This study utilized the Maslach Burnout Inventory to determine levels of stress and burnout among administrators of special education. Results indicated administrators of…

  11. Preliminary study of ceramic-metal interface in thermal boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremouilles, G.; Derep, J. Luc

    1987-10-01

    The interface of yttrium doped zircon ceramic on NiCrAlY alloy is studied. The different phases in the zircon are examined with electron microscopy. The presence of alumina in the interface is demonstrated. The possibility of damaging the NiCrAlY substrate when using a plasma gun is discussed.

  12. Landmarks in the World Wide Web: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heffron, Jennifer K.; Dillon, Andrew; Mostafa, Javed

    1996-01-01

    Outlines results of a pilot study examining what constitutes a landmark in hypertext. Seven subjects began a search task from the same Indiana University School of Library and Information Science Homepage; searches had to be conducted without the use of search engines, and strictly following hypertext links. (Author/AEF)

  13. Relationship of Transportation Noise and Annoyance for Two Metropolitan Cities in Korea: Population Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Joo Hyun; Lee, Jiho; Park, Sang Jin; Sim, Chang Sun

    2016-01-01

    Transportation noise is known to have negative impact on both public health and life quality. This study evaluated the relationship between transportation noise and annoyance levels, and also the difference of annoyance levels in two metropolitan cities based on epidemiologic surveys. Two thousand adult subjects living in Seoul and Ulsan were enrolled by stratified random sampling on the basis of noise maps from July 2015 to January 2016. Individual annoyance in accordance with transportation noise levels in two metropolitan cities were surveyed using an 11-point visual analog scale questionnaire. The results show that transportation noise level was significantly correlated with annoyance in both cities. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk of being ‘highly annoyed’ increased with noise level (Ldn, day-night average sound level) in both cities. After adjusting for age, residence period, sociodemographic factors (sex, education, marriage, income, alcohol, smoking, and exercise) and noise sensitivity, the risk of being ‘highly annoyed’ was increased with noise levels in both cities. In comparison to those of areas with noise levels below 55 dBA, the adjusted odds ratios of ‘highly annoyed’ for areas with 55–65 dBA and over 65 dBA were 2.056 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.225–3.450), 3.519 (95% CI 1.982–6.246) in Seoul and 1.022 (95% CI 0.585–1.785), 1.704 (95% CI 1.005–2.889) in Ulsan, respectively. Based on the results of a population study, we showed that transportation noise levels were significantly associated with annoyance in adults. However, there were some differences between the two cities. In this study, there were differences in transportation noise between the two cities. Seoul has complex noise (traffic and aircraft), compared to single road traffic noise in Ulsan. Therefore, single and complex transportation noise may have different effects on annoyance levels. PMID:28005976

  14. Multiple scattering of waves in random media: Application to the study of the city-site effect in Mexico City area.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizawa, O. A.; Clouteau, D.

    2007-12-01

    Long-duration, amplifications and spatial response's variability of the seismic records registered in Mexico City during the September 1985 earthquake cannot only be explained by the soil velocity model. We will try to explain these phenomena by studying the extent of the effect of buildings' diffracted wave fields during an earthquake. The main question is whether the presence of a large number of buildings can significantly modify the seismic wave field. We are interested in the interaction between the incident wave field propagating in a stratified half- space and a large number of structures at the free surface, i.e., the coupled city-site effect. We study and characterize the seismic wave propagation regimes in a city using the theory of wave propagation in random media. In the coupled city-site system, the buildings are modeled as resonant scatterers uniformly distributed at the surface of a deterministic, horizontally layered elastic half-space representing the soil. Based on the mean-field and the field correlation equations, we build a theoretical model which takes into account the multiple scattering of seismic waves and allows us to describe the coupled city-site system behavior in a simple and rapid way. The results obtained for the configurationally averaged field quantities are validated by means of 3D results for the seismic response of a deterministic model. The numerical simulations of this model are computed with MISS3D code based on classical Soil-Structure Interaction techniques and on a variational coupling between Boundary Integral Equations for a layered soil and a modal Finite Element approach for the buildings. This work proposes a detailed numerical and a theoretical analysis of the city-site interaction (CSI) in Mexico City area. The principal parameters in the study of the CSI are the buildings resonant frequency distribution, the soil characteristics of the site, the urban density and position of the buildings in the city, as well as

  15. Advanced Analysis of Finger-Tapping Performance: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Barut, Çağatay; Kızıltan, Erhan; Gelir, Ethem; Köktürk, Fürüzan

    2013-01-01

    Background: The finger-tapping test is a commonly employed quantitative assessment tool used to measure motor performance in the upper extremities. This task is a complex motion that is affected by external stimuli, mood and health status. The complexity of this task is difficult to explain with a single average intertap-interval value (time difference between successive tappings) which only provides general information and neglects the temporal effects of the aforementioned factors. Aims: This study evaluated the time course of average intertap-interval values and the patterns of variation in both the right and left hands of right-handed subjects using a computer-based finger-tapping system. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Methods: Thirty eight male individuals aged between 20 and 28 years (Mean±SD = 22.24±1.65) participated in the study. Participants were asked to perform single-finger-tapping test for 10 seconds of test period. Only the results of right-handed (RH) 35 participants were considered in this study. The test records the time of tapping and saves data as the time difference between successive tappings for further analysis. The average number of tappings and the temporal fluctuation patterns of the intertap-intervals were calculated and compared. The variations in the intertap-interval were evaluated with the best curve fit method. Results: An average tapping speed or tapping rate can reliably be defined for a single-finger tapping test by analysing the graphically presented data of the number of tappings within the test period. However, a different presentation of the same data, namely the intertap-interval values, shows temporal variation as the number of tapping increases. Curve fitting applications indicate that the variation has a biphasic nature. Conclusion: The measures obtained in this study reflect the complex nature of the finger-tapping task and are suggested to provide reliable information regarding hand performance. Moreover, the

  16. Depressed patients’ preferences for type of psychotherapy: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Yrondi, Antoine; Rieu, Julie; Massip, Claire; Bongard, Vanina; Schmitt, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Background The treatment recommendations for depressed patients by the American Psychiatric Association encourage a focus on the patient’s preferences. The focus of this study was the preference of depressed inpatients for the type of psychotherapy. Methods Twenty-nine subjects of both sexes who were hospitalized with a major depressive episode were interviewed at 5-day intervals with the same questions after the depressive episode resolved, as indicated by a score less than 7 on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). The selection of items was performed by expert consensus. Results The supportive psychotherapy scores were the highest, followed by psychodynamic psychotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. The two sessions conducted at 5-day intervals showed no significant difference, which reflected the stability of choices and preferences of patients. Conclusion In this study, the patients preferred supportive psychotherapy as first-line therapy compared to psychodynamic psychotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. PMID:26491265

  17. Preliminary report of an immunological study in urological cancer.

    PubMed

    Serrallach, N; Jimenez, J F; Aguiló, F; Anguera, A; Clavo, M; Orejas, V; Torner, V; Serrate, R

    1975-01-01

    In this study, 32 cases of cancer of the genito-urinary tract are discussed from the viewpoint of immunology. In eight cases treated surgically, there has been no evidence of recurrence over a period of 1-4 years. Those with a good immunological response have a satisfactory course. Patients with a good response have been treated by radical surgery depending on the stage of the tumour, whilst those with a poor response have been treated less radically by reduction of the tumour mass in the hope that a better response may develop. The authors of this report feel that the 'inhibition of the lymphocyte migration test' is a very important factor to evaluate in the study and immunological evolution of the patient. Also, and concerning cases with good immunological response, the poor results after surgery makes us consider the importance and value of blocking factors of the serum closely related to the B type lymphocytes.

  18. Dissociation and fantasy proneness in psychiatric patients: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Merckelbach, Harald; à Campo, Joost; Hardy, Solange; Giesbrecht, Timo

    2005-01-01

    Nonclinical studies found that dissociative experiences are intimately linked to a trait known as fantasy proneness. We examined the links among dissociative symptoms, fantasy proneness, and impulsivity in psychiatric outpatients. Our sample consisted of 22 patients with schizophrenia, 20 patients with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder, and 19 patients with a major depressive disorder. For the whole sample, levels of dissociation were found to be related to fantasy proneness and impulsivity. There were group differences in dissociative symptoms, with patients with borderline personality disorder reporting more such symptoms than patients with either schizophrenia or major depressive disorder. The overlap between dissociation and fantasy proneness may have important ramifications for studies addressing comorbid phenomena of dissociative symptoms.

  19. Gravity of the New Madrid seismic zone; a preliminary study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, V.E.

    1995-01-01

    In the winter of 1811-12, three of the largest historic earthquakes in the United States occurred near New Madrid, Mo. Seismicity continues to the present day throughout a tightly clustered pattern of epicenters centered on the bootheel of Missouri, including parts of northeastern Arkansas, northwestern Tennessee, western Kentucky, and southern Illinois. In 1990, the New Madrid seismic zone/Central United States became the first seismically active region east of the Rocky Mountains to be designated a priority research area within the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP). This Professional Paper is a collection of papers, some published separately, presenting results of the newly intensified research program in this area. Major components of this research program include tectonic framework studies, seismicity and deformation monitoring and modeling, improved seismic hazard and risk assessments, and cooperative hazard mitigation studies.

  20. Sleep habits and patterns of college students: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Buboltz, W C; Brown, F; Soper, B

    2001-11-01

    The negative effects of sleep difficulties have been well documented. However, the prevalence of such problems among US college students has not been well studied. Design difficulties are common in the limited number of existing investigations, making it difficult to estimates the prevalence and types of disturbance studied. The authors describe the use of a quantitative-based assessment instrument to provide an initial indication of students' sleep problems and to serve as a means of addressing some of the deficiencies in the literature. In their sample of 191 undergraduates at a rural southern university, they found that most of the students exhibited some form of sleep disturbance and that women, in general, reported more sleep disturbances than men did. They suggest how colleges and university officials can alter procedures to minimize students' sleep disturbances and reduce the deleterious effects of sleep problems on academic performance.

  1. Preliminary space station solar array structural design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsey, J. T.; Bush, H. G.; Mikulas, M. M., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Structurally efficient ways to support the large solar arrays (3,716 square meters which are currently considered for space station use) are examined. An erectable truss concept is presented for the on orbit construction of winged solar arrays. The means for future growth, maintenance, and repair are integrally designed into this concept. Results from parametric studies, which highlight the physical and structural differences between various configuration options are presented. Consideration is given to both solar blanket and hard panel arrays.

  2. Energy efficient engine: Preliminary design and integration studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    A mixed exhaust, direct drive fan turbofan configuration was selected from four candidates. This choice was based on its ability to exceed study goals of 12% lower thrust specific fuel consumption and 5% lower direct operating cost by the 1990's with commercially acceptable technical risk and relative mechanical simplicity. The evaluation leading to configuration selection is discussed. Necessary technology advancements are identified and related to the goals.

  3. Preliminary studies on antipyretic and analgesic properties of Taverniera abyssinica.

    PubMed

    Dagne, E; Yenesew, A; Capasso, F; Mascolo, N; Pinto, A

    1990-10-01

    In an attempt to ascertain the pharmacological basis of the use of the marketed traditional drug Taverniera abyssinica A. Rich. (Amharic name Dingetegna), crude extracts as well as purified substances of this plant were tested for their antipyretic and analgesic properties. Antipyretic activity was determined on rats made hyperthermic by yeast injection and analgesic activity was determined by the hot plate, as well as the acetic acid induced writhing, methods. The study showed that the plant possesses significant antipyretic and analgesic activities.

  4. Preliminary results from two international pluvial flood event studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roezer, Viktor; Spekkers, Matthieu; Kreibich, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    Pluvial floods have caused severe damages to urban dwellings in Europe and elsewhere in recent years. With a predicted increase in extreme weather events as well as an ongoing urbanization, pluvial flood damage is expected to increase in the future. These type of flood events, caused by stormwater being unable to enter urban drainage systems or flowing out of urban drainage systems when capacity is exceeded, often happen with little warning and in areas which are often not obviously prone to flooding. Up to now little research was done on the adverse consequences of pluvial floods, as empirical damage data of pluvial flooding is scarce. In this study, results of two telephone surveys are discussed. The surveys comprise interviews with more than 500 flood-affected households in Germany (Münster and Greven) and the Netherlands (Amsterdam), related to the severe rain event of July 28th 2014. Respondents were asked a series of questions about the damage to their building structure and contents, as well as on topics such as early warning, emergency and precautionary measures, building properties and hazard characteristics. The questionnaire was developed with the aim to create a harmonized transnational pluvial flood damage survey that can potentially be extended to other European countries. New indicator variables have been developed to account for different national and regional standards in building structure, early warning, socio-economic data and recovery. The survey data from the German and Dutch case studies are compared with the goal to identify similarities and differences in damage reducing factors and recovery. Water level data and other hazard characteristics are used to form comparable groups out of the German and Dutch sample. Within these groups, regional distinctions in building topology and use are expected to have the strongest impact on differences between reported damage amounts of the two case studies. The newly collected data will be used in

  5. A Preliminary Study of 3D Printing on Rock Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chao; Zhao, Gao-Feng

    2015-05-01

    3D printing is an innovative manufacturing technology that enables the printing of objects through the accumulation of successive layers. This study explores the potential application of this 3D printing technology for rock mechanics. Polylactic acid (PLA) was used as the printing material, and the specimens were constructed with a "3D Touch" printer that employs fused deposition modelling (FDM) technology. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests and direct tensile strength (DTS) tests were performed to determine the Young's modulus ( E) and Poisson's ratio ( υ) for these specimens. The experimental results revealed that the PLA specimens exhibited elastic to brittle behaviour in the DTS tests and exhibited elastic to plastic behaviour in the UCS tests. The influence of structural changes in the mechanical response of the printed specimen was investigated; the results indicated that the mechanical response is highly influenced by the input structures, e.g., granular structure, and lattice structure. Unfortunately, our study has demonstrated that the FDM 3D printing with PLA is unsuitable for the direct simulation of rock. However, the ability for 3D printing on manufactured rock remains appealing for researchers of rock mechanics. Additional studies should focus on the development of an appropriate substitution for the printing material (brittle and stiff) and modification of the printing technology (to print 3D grains with arbitrary shapes).

  6. Assessment and attitude of university students about elderly: Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Tabari, ZA; Ghaedi, FB; Hamissi, JH; Eskandari, S

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the attitude of dental students towards elderly patients. This approach might increase the responsiveness and need of the geriatric dental education within the undergraduate dental students curriculum, which is the persistent necessity for today communities. Methods & Materials: A cross–sectional study was conducted on 201 students who were randomly selected. The investigation was carried out in Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. The attitude of dental students towards elderly was measured with a self-administered questionnaire consisting of an Aging Semantic Differential scale (ASD), which was developed by Rozencranz and Mc Nevin. Results: According to the findings of this study, the students’ attitude remained very positive towards the elderly patients as they showed a strong demand to work with elderly patients. This consisted of a 24 bipolar pair of adjectives that described the attributes of behavioral characteristics thought to be applicable to persons of all ages. Conclusion: According to our finding, the future geriatric dentistry is not towards a weak point in Iran as compared with the undesirable attitudes of dental students in the developed countries.

  7. Parkinson's disease and forced exercise: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Qutubuddin, Abu; Reis, Timothy; Alramadhani, Raed; Cifu, David X; Towne, Alan; Carne, William

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The concept of forced exercise has drawn attention for the treatment of Parkinson's disease symptoms with anecdotal reports of success. This study sought to ascertain any significant effect of forced exercise using a motorized stationary bicycle when compared to controls on Parkinson's disease symptoms in a blinded, randomized, and controlled setting. Setting. Parkinson's disease outpatient clinic, Veterans Administration Medical Center. Method. We assessed 23 patients (13 experimental and 10 controls) on a number of standard Parkinson's measures at baseline, after participation in eight weeks of twice weekly forced exercise or eight weeks of conventional clinic care, and then after a three-month period had elapsed. Dependent measures were UPDRS-III, Berg Balance Scale, finger taping test, and the PDQ-39. Results. Results did not demonstrate any main effect differences between the exercise and control groups on any measure at any point in time. A within subjects effect was demonstrated for the forced exercise group on overall UPDRS-III scores at the three-month end point. No other within group effects were noted. Results suggest that early enthusiasm for forced exercise may need tempering. Limitations of the study are discussed as well as numerous logistical challenges to this type of study.

  8. A preliminary study to Assess Model Uncertainties in Fluid Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Marc Oliver Delchini; Jean C. Ragusa

    2009-09-01

    The goal of this study is to assess the impact of various flow models for a simplified primary coolant loop of a light water nuclear reactor. The various fluid flow models are based on the Euler equations with an additional friction term, gravity term, momentum source, and energy source. The geometric model is purposefully chosen simple and consists of a one-dimensional (1D) loop system in order to focus the study on the validity of various fluid flow approximations. The 1D loop system is represented by a rectangle; the fluid is heated up along one of the vertical legs and cooled down along the opposite leg. A pressurizer and a pump are included in the horizontal legs. The amount of energy transferred and removed from the system is equal in absolute value along the two vertical legs. The various fluid flow approximations are compressible vs. incompressible, and complete momentum equation vs. Darcy’s approximation. The ultimate goal is to compute the fluid flow models’ uncertainties and, if possible, to generate validity ranges for these models when applied to reactor analysis. We also limit this study to single phase flows with low-Mach numbers. As a result, sound waves carry a very small amount of energy in this particular case. A standard finite volume method is used for the spatial discretization of the system.

  9. Parkinson's Disease and Forced Exercise: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Timothy; Alramadhani, Raed; Cifu, David X.; Towne, Alan; Carne, William

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The concept of forced exercise has drawn attention for the treatment of Parkinson's disease symptoms with anecdotal reports of success. This study sought to ascertain any significant effect of forced exercise using a motorized stationary bicycle when compared to controls on Parkinson's disease symptoms in a blinded, randomized, and controlled setting. Setting. Parkinson's disease outpatient clinic, Veterans Administration Medical Center. Method. We assessed 23 patients (13 experimental and 10 controls) on a number of standard Parkinson's measures at baseline, after participation in eight weeks of twice weekly forced exercise or eight weeks of conventional clinic care, and then after a three-month period had elapsed. Dependent measures were UPDRS-III, Berg Balance Scale, finger taping test, and the PDQ-39. Results. Results did not demonstrate any main effect differences between the exercise and control groups on any measure at any point in time. A within subjects effect was demonstrated for the forced exercise group on overall UPDRS-III scores at the three-month end point. No other within group effects were noted. Results suggest that early enthusiasm for forced exercise may need tempering. Limitations of the study are discussed as well as numerous logistical challenges to this type of study. PMID:23853722

  10. Long-term remote sensing monitoring coal mining activity in resource-based cities: a case study of Qitaihe City, Northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Zhou, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    Mining activity has strongly impacted the sustainable socioeconomic development of resource-based cities. The systematic monitoring of the change in mining activity can provide evidence for the transition and future development of resource-based cities. This paper chose Qitaihe, one of the four coal mining cities in northeastern China as the study area. Remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) technique, as well as methods on landscape pattern analysis were used to study the evolution of mining activity from 4 different periods over 58 years’ time. Results showed that the area of land used in mining increased by about six times during the study period with cultivated land the main type that contributed to this increase. Mining activity showed an eastward trend, developing from one concentration circle to four circles, from a disordered system to a relatively integrated system. It was also suggested that differentiated policies should be adopted in different mining circles. This study also provides a framework for future city planning and sustainable development.

  11. An Application Domain Extension to CityGML for immovable property taxation: A Turkish case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çağdaş, Volkan

    2013-04-01

    It is generally acknowledged that immovable property taxes are one of the main revenue sources for local government. The literature emphasizes that the administration of property taxes needs well-developed inventories or registers that provide complete and accurate records of the taxed properties and their legal-economic attributes. This requirement is generally fulfilled by Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) in which the coordinate exchange and sharing of geo-spatial data is provided by separate registers/information systems such as: cadastral systems, building and address registers. Recently, the Open Geospatial Consortium presented a core component of a 3D SDI in the form of an international domain standard for representing, storing and exchanging 3D city models. The CityGML allows the semantic and 3D geometrical representation of physical objects but does not deal with the legal and administrative aspects of the city objects which are required for the process of property taxation. This paper outlines the development of an Application Domain Extension (ADE) for the immovable property taxation domain that expands the CityGML data model with the legal and administrative concepts defined in Turkish Law. The study shows that this ADE could be a 3D national data model for municipal information systems and facilitate a more efficient taxation process, as well as providing data for urban planning, facility management and other municipal services.

  12. Mesiodistal odontometrics as a distinguishing trait: A comparative preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Sravya, Taneeru; Dumpala, Rakesh Kumar; Guttikonda, Venkateswara Rao; Manchikatla, Praveen Kumar; Narasimha, Vanajakshi China

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Sex determination is a vital step in reconstructing an individual profile from unidentified skeletal remnants. Variations in tooth size are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Tooth size variations have been reported among different populations. Aim: To identify the sex by determining the mesiodistal (MD) dimensions of maxillary canines. Objectives: (1) To compare the MD diameter of all maxillary canines — (a) in the entire urban and tribal population, (b) in urban male and urban female populations, (c) in tribal male and tribal female populations, and (d) in the entire male and female populations and (2) To estimate the percentage of sexual dimorphism individually in urban and tribal populations. Materials and Methods: Fifty subjects each from urban and tribal populations in equal gender ratio were selected in Khammam district, Telangana, for the purpose of this study. After obtaining informed consent, maxillary study models of the selected subjects were made. MD diameters of left and right maxillary canines were measured on casts using vernier calipers. The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: (1) The total tribal population showed a greater MD diameter of maxillary canines than the total urban population, (2) Urban males showed a greater MD diameter of maxillary canines than urban females, (3) Tribal males showed a greater MD diameter of maxillary canines than tribal females, (4) The entire male population showed a greater MD diameter of maxillary canines than the entire female population, and (5) The percentage of dimorphism between males and females in individual groups was found to be significant. Conclusion: The study showed maxillary canines exhibiting significant sexual dimorphism and can be used as a distinguishing trait for sex determination along with other procedures. PMID:27555727

  13. [Animal health policies and practices in the Americas: preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Rojas, H; Stuardo, L; Benavides, D

    2005-08-01

    The Americas have a large population of farm animals, mostly for export. There are diverse production systems distributed over an extensive and varied geography, which hampers efforts to respond to the demands of the different markets. This study provides an overview of the elements influencing animal welfare implementation, such as the requirements of importing countries, the requirements of private agents, the demands of producers and manufacturers, quality promotion policies, the demands of the community, the recommendations of reference bodies and the results of applied research. To explore the level of animal welfare development in the countries of the region, a detailed case study was made of Chile, in addition to a survey of the Member Countries of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in the Americas. An analysis was made of progress with the issues considered by the OIE as priorities, namely humane slaughter for human consumption, transport and killing for disease control purposes. Furthermore, the study considers various aspects of production which the OIE has not included up to now. It also explores the status of research and producer and consumer perceptions of the issue. The results reveal that the level of development and implementation of animal welfare differs from one country to another. While the adoption of animal welfare regulations certainly relates to all the above-mentioned aspects, the one which appears to have the most impact is the export of livestock products to certain markets. Although there is great interest in improving animal welfare conditions, this calls for the general characteristics of animal husbandry in the various countries to be taken into account. While some livestock production in the Americas follows world patterns, many countries still find it difficult to integrate good animal welfare practices, owing to specific geographical, social and cultural situations that are reflected in local livestock development

  14. Conditioning arbitrary stimuli to cigarette smoke intake: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Payne, T J; Etscheidt, M; Corrigan, S A

    1990-01-01

    This study represents an attempt to classically condition arbitrary stimuli to cigarette smoke intake. A smoker either smoked or mock-smoked a cigarette in two discriminative contexts for 20 sessions. The contingencies were reversed during an additional last two sessions. Measures of heart rate, skin temperature, and puff duration were monitored during all sessions. Results suggested that both manipulations of smoke delivery and context cues were related to puff duration. The pattern of psychophysiological reactivity was mixed and not easily interpreted. This experimental paradigm may be useful in the investigation of conditioning factors underlying addictive behaviors.

  15. Preliminary Study of Uranium Oxide Dissolution in Simulated Lung Fluid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    34 Eidson attributed the initial dissolution phase to the ammyiium diuranate component of the yellow cake. 19Follow-up animal inhalation studies, using... Sodium chloride 6.019 " Potassium chloride 0.298 Sodium phosphate, dibasic, anhydrous 0.142 Sodium sulfate, anhydrous 0.071 Calcium chloride, dih•,drate...0.368 Sodium acetate, trihydrate 0.953 ’ Sodium bicarbonate 2.604 Sodium citrate, dihydrate 0.097 6 A ".d increase the rate of solution, 95 per cent of

  16. A preliminary phenomenological study of being hypnotized and hypnotizing.

    PubMed

    Woodard, Fredrick James

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents phenomenological research conducted following Woodard's phenomenological and perceptual research methodology for understanding hypnotic experiencing. The research emphasizes examining the internal experiencings of individuals involved in hypnotic experiencing. Examples are presented of Individual Situated Structures and the General Structures from both a group of 8 participants who hypnotized their clients and another group of 17 individuals who volunteered to be hypnotized. The explicated themes identified in hypnotic experiencing (the hypnotic relationship, phenomenology of trance, use of imagination, problem with psychic energy, a gestalt of experiencing, and linear-nonlinear experiencing) are discussed. The author discusses limitations of this study and suggestions for further work.

  17. Study of distribution and factors affecting syphilis epidemic among inner-city minorities of Baltimore.

    PubMed

    Williams, P B; Ekundayo, O

    2001-11-01

    Disparities in health and medical conditions among ethnic and racial groups have been repeatedly documented. These inequalities, which have been noted in the recent past, include health outcomes such as quality of life and mortality, process, accessibility and appropriateness of care, and the prevalence of certain degenerative conditions and infectious diseases. Syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease (STD) which seemed to have disappeared or had been controlled over the years, has now re-emerged as a major public health problem in many rural, urban and suburban communities. Progression of the current rate of syphilis, which erupted in Baltimore during the later part of 1994, has continued unabated, most especially among the ethnic minorities, despite efforts of the Baltimore City Health Department and Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene to control the epidemic. With the current incidence rates of 270 per 100 000 live births for congenital syphilis and 99.3 per 100 000 population for primary, secondary and latent syphilis (96% of the cases being in the non-white population), Baltimore becomes the city with the highest number of syphilis cases in the nation, surpassing the national average of 2.6 cases per 100 000 population. This study, which utilizes a combination of retrospective and questionnaire-oriented approach, was designed to assess factors that influenced the high incidence of syphilis among Baltimore inner-city dwellers between 1994 and 1998. Data for the study included syphilis reports from private physicians, the Baltimore City Health Department, STD clinics, the Center for Disease Control (CDC), and ethnographic interviews. Factors favoring the distribution and infectivity of the disease among the inner-city dwellers include greater poverty, high level of communication gaps between providers and a cross-section of minority inner-city dwellers, exchange of sex for crack cocaine, lower educational background, and inadequate and

  18. Uptake of Elements From Aerosols by Humans ~ A Case Study From Delhi & Bangalore Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, S.; Yadav, S.; Jain, V. K.

    2006-05-01

    Aerosol research has gained tremendous importance globally due to the cumulative effects of increasing industrialization and urbanization on aerosol production which can have an alarming impact on the climate of the planet as well as the health of its inhabitants. Therefore, there is an increasing need to study aerosols for all of their physicochemical and biological aspects on both local and global scales. World over extensive research has gone into studying the physical and the chemical aspects of aerosols. However, little information is yet available on the health impacts of aerosols particularly in the Asian context. Here we report uptake of various elements that are concentrated in aerosols by the human body in Delhi and Bangalore cities and their possible health effects. In many urban areas, for example in Delhi, inhalable fractions of aerosols are known to have high concentrations of elements such as Cu, Zn, Pb, Ba, Ni and Cr (Yadav and Rajamani 2004). Also aerosols in the North West part of India seem to be particularly enriched in these elements. If so, there is a high possibility of these elements getting into the human system either directly or indirectly through water and food. To determine the concentrations of these elements that are present in significant concentrations in the inhalable fractions of aerosols, human hair and blood samples are used as proxies. Both these regions have contrasting geographic and climatic conditions. Delhi (altitude : 213-305m above MSL) located on the fringes of the Thar desert which supplies considerable amount of dust, is semi-arid with annual rainfall of 60-80 cms & temperatures varying between 1° - 45°. Bangalore (altitude of 900m above MSL) receives a high annual rainfall of 80-100 cms and being located on the fringes of tropical forests of the Sahyadri Mountains (Western Ghats) receives little crustal contribution to the aerosols. Samples from least polluted mountainous areas of Himalayas (Gangothri) and Sahyadri

  19. Preliminary noise tradeoff study of a Mach 2.7 cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascitti, V. R.; Maglieri, D. J. (Editor); Raney, J. P. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    NASA computer codes in the areas of preliminary sizing and enroute performance, takeoff and landing performance, aircraft noise prediction, and economics were used in a preliminary noise tradeoff study for a Mach 2.7 design supersonic cruise concept. Aerodynamic configuration data were based on wind-tunnel model tests and related analyses. Aircraft structural characteristics and weight were based on advanced structural design methodologies, assuming conventional titanium technology. The most advanced noise prediction techniques available were used, and aircraft operating costs were estimated using accepted industry methods. The 4-engines cycles included in the study were based on assumed 1985 technology levels. Propulsion data was provided by aircraft manufacturers. Additional empirical data is needed to define both noise reduction features and other operating characteristics of all engine cycles under study. Data on VCE design parameters, coannular nozzle inverted flow noise reduction and advanced mechanical suppressors are urgently needed to reduce the present uncertainties in studies of this type.

  20. Sexual hormone serum levels and temporomandibular disorders. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Landi, Nicola; Lombardi, Ilaria; Manfredini, Daniele; Casarosa, Elena; Biondi, Katya; Gabbanini, Massimo; Bosco, Mario

    2005-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of sexual hormones in a young adult population affected by articular forms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD), measuring 17beta-estradiol and progesterone serum levels. In the study, we included 40 patients (20 males and 20 females) with a Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) axis I group II diagnosis of disk displacement and/or group III diagnosis of arthralgia, osteoarthritis or osteoarhrosis, and 32 healthy controls. In female patients, blood samples were collected in follicular and luteal phases of the same menstrual cycle, while only one blood sample was drawn in male patients. Serum levels of estradiol and progesterone were determined using a radioimmunoassay and the comparison between the two groups was performed using a t test. Regarding estradiol, our results showed significantly higher serum levels in patients affected by TMD than in healthy controls, both in males (p < 0.01) and in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle in females (p < 0.05), while no difference was found for progesterone serum levels. Considering the multifactorial etiology of TMD and the hypothesis that some joint tissues (e.g., bone, cartilage, collagen, proteins) could be a target for sexual hormones, these data suggest that high serum estrogen levels might be implicated in the physiopathology of TMD.

  1. Ultrasonic nebulization atmospheric pressure glow discharge - Preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greda, Krzysztof; Jamroz, Piotr; Pohl, Pawel

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric pressure glow microdischarge (μAPGD) generated between a small-sized He nozzle jet anode and a flowing liquid cathode was coupled with ultrasonic nebulization (USN) for analytical optical emission spectrometry (OES). The spatial distributions of the emitted spectra from the novel coupled USN-μAPGD system and the conventional μAPGD system were compared. In the μAPGD, the maxima of the intensity distribution profiles of the atomic emission lines Ca, Cd, In, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na and Sr were observed in the near cathode region, whereas, in the case of the USN-μAPGD, they were shifted towards the anode. In the novel system, the intensities of the analytical lines of the studied metals were boosted from several to 35 times. As compared to the conventional μAPGD-OES with the introduction of analytes through the sputtering and/or the electrospray-like nebulization of the flowing liquid cathode solution, the proposed method with the USN introduction of analytes in the form of a dry aerosol provides improved detectability of the studied metals. The detection limits of metals achieved with the USN-μAPGD-OES method were in the range from 0.08 μg L- 1 for Li to 52 μg L- 1 for Mn.

  2. Preliminary studies on immobilization of lipase using chicken eggshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salleh, S.; Serri, N. A.; Hena, S.; Tajarudin, H. A.

    2016-06-01

    A few advantages of enzyme immobilization are reusability of expensive enzyme, improvement of stability and activity compared to crude enzyme. Various organic components can be used as carrier for enzyme immobilization such as chicken eggshell. It can be used as a carrier for immobilization as its mineral component mostly contains of calcium carbonate. In the present study, Tributyrin method was used to test enzyme activity of Rhizomucour Miehei, Candida Antarctica and Candida Rugosa. Rhizomucour Miehei shows the highest enzyme activity (360.8 mol/min/mL lipase) and was used in further experiment. Experiment was continued to study incubation time for lipase immobilization on eggshell (1-4 hours) and reaction time of esterification of sugar ester (0-72 hours). Two hours incubation time for lipase immobilization was observed and gives the highest yield of sugar ester (78.13%). Fructose and stearic acid as substrate was used for the production of sugar ester. The highest percentage of sugar ester production was shown at 36 hours of reaction time.

  3. Spherical Cryogenic Hydrogen Tank Preliminary Design Trade Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Collier, Craig S.; Yarrington, Phillip W.

    2007-01-01

    A structural analysis, sizing optimization, and weight prediction study was performed by Collier Research Corporation and NASA Glenn on a spherical cryogenic hydrogen tank. The tank consisted of an inner and outer wall separated by a vacuum for thermal insulation purposes. HyperSizer (Collier Research and Development Corporation), a commercial automated structural analysis and sizing software package was used to design the lightest feasible tank for a given overall size and thermomechanical loading environment. Weight trade studies were completed for different panel concepts and metallic and composite material systems. Extensive failure analyses were performed for each combination of dimensional variables, materials, and layups to establish the structural integrity of tank designs. Detailed stress and strain fields were computed from operational temperature changes and pressure loads. The inner tank wall is sized by the resulting biaxial tensile stresses which cause it to be strength driven, and leads to an optimum panel concept that need not be stiffened. Conversely, the outer tank wall is sized by a biaxial compressive stress field, induced by the pressure differential between atmospheric pressure and the vacuum between the tanks, thereby causing the design to be stability driven and thus stiffened to prevent buckling. Induced thermal stresses become a major sizing driver when a composite or hybrid composite/metallic material systems are used for the inner tank wall for purposes such as liners to contain the fuel and reduce hydrogen permeation.

  4. Preliminary study on hydrogeology in tectonically active areas.

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Lappin, Allen R.; Gettemy, Glen L.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Arnold, Bill Walter; James, Scott Carlton; Lee, Moo Yul; Meier, Diane A.

    2006-09-01

    This report represents the final product of a background literature review conducted for the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. Internationally, research of hydrological and transport processes in the context of high level waste (HLW) repository performance, has been extensive. However, most of these studies have been conducted for sites that are within tectonically stable regions. Therefore, in support of NUMO's goal of selecting a site for a HLW repository, this literature review has been conducted to assess the applicability of the output from some of these studies to the geological environment in Japan. Specifically, this review consists of two main tasks. The first was to review the major documents of the main HLW repository programs around the world to identify the most important hydrologic and transport parameters and processes relevant in each of these programs. The review was to assess the relative importance of processes and measured parameters to site characterization by interpretation of existing sensitivity analyses and expert judgment in these documents. The second task was to convene a workshop to discuss the findings of Task 1 and to prioritize hydrologic and transport parameters in the context of the geology of Japan. This report details the results and conclusions of both of these Tasks.

  5. Preliminary Attitude Control Studies for the ASTER Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victorino Sarli, Bruno; Luís da Silva, André; Paglione, Pedro

    2013-10-01

    This work discusses an attitude control study for the ASTER mission, the first Brazilian mission to the deep space. The study is part of a larger scenario that is the development of optimal trajectories to navigate in the 2001 SN263 asteroid system, together with the generation of orbit and attitude controllers for autonomous operation. The spacecraft attitude is defined from the orientation of the body reference system to the Local Vertical Local Horizontal (LVLH) of a circular orbit around the Alpha asteroid. The rotational equations of motion involve the dynamic equations, where the three angular speeds are generated from a set of three reaction wheels and the gravitational torque. The rotational kinematics is represented in the Euler angles format. The controller is developed via the linear quadratic regulator approach with output feedback. It involves the generation of a stability augmentation (SAS) loop and a tracking outer loop, with a compensator of desired structure. It was chosen the feedback of the p, q and r angular speeds in the SAS, one for each reaction wheel. In the outer loop, it was chosen a proportional integral compensator. The parameters are tuned using a numerical minimization that represents a linear quadratic cost, with weightings in the tracking error and controls. Simulations are performed with the nonlinear model. For small angle manoeuvres, the linear results with reaction wheels or thrusters are reasonable, but, for larger manoeuvres, nonlinear control techniques shall be applied, for example, the sliding mode control.

  6. Preliminary 1H NMR study on archaeological waterlogged wood.

    PubMed

    Maccotta, Antonella; Fantazzini, Paola; Garavaglia, Carla; Donato, Ines D; Perzia, Patrizia; Brai, Maria; Morreale, Filippa

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Relaxation (MRR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are powerful tools to obtain detailed information on the pore space structure that one is unlikely to obtain in other ways. These techniques are particularly suitable for Cultural Heritage materials, because they use water 1H nuclei as a probe. Interaction with water is one of the main causes of deterioration of materials. Porous structure in wood, for example, favours the penetration of water, which can carry polluting substances and promote mould growth. A particular case is waterlogged wood from underwater discoveries and moist sites; in fact, these finds are very fragile because of chemical, physical and biological decay from the long contact with the water. When wood artefacts are brought to the surface and directly dried in air, there is the collapse of the cellular structures, and wood loses its original form and dimensions and cannot be used for study and museum exhibits. In this work we have undertaken the study of some wood finds coming from Ercolano's harbour by MRR and MRI under different conditions, and we have obtained a characterization of pore space in wood and images of the spatial distribution of the confined water in the wood.

  7. Psychophysiological patterns during cell phone text messaging: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Lin, I-Mei; Peper, Erik

    2009-03-01

    This study investigated the psychophysiological patterns associated with cell phone text messaging (texting). Twelve college students who were very familiar with texting were monitored with surface electromyography (SEMG) from the shoulder (upper trapezius) and thumb (abductor pollicis brevis/opponens pollicis); blood volume pulse (BVP) from the middle finger, temperature from the index finger, and skin conductance (SC) from the palm of the non-texting hand; and respiration from the thorax and abdomen. The counter-balanced procedure consisted of a 2 min pre-baseline, 1 min receiving text messages, 2 min middle baseline, 1 min sending text messages and 2 min post-baseline. The results indicated that all subjects showed significant increases in respiration rate, heart rate, SC, and shoulder and thumb SEMG as compared to baseline measures. Eighty-three percentage of the participants reported hand and neck pain during texting, and held their breath and experienced arousal when receiving text messages. Subjectively, most subjects were unaware of their physiological changes. The study suggests that frequent triggering of these physiological patterns (freezing for stability and shallow breathing) may increase muscle discomfort symptoms. Thus, participants should be trained to inhibit these responses to prevent illness and discomfort.

  8. Optimization of ultrasound scanner characteristics: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, S C; Evans, J A

    1993-07-01

    It is generally accepted that different transducer characteristics are optimal for different examinations, but it is not always obvious which other scanner/transducer parameters, e.g. signal processing should be selected for a given examination. We have examined noise and grey-level parameters for two specific anatomical sections (one showing the liver and right kidney and one showing the uterus) using a combination of subjective and objective assessment. The results confirm that the images chosen for this study have different requirements in terms of noise and grey-scale processing. The uterus image requires a large range of greys assigned to the lower level echoes and requires low noise levels. The liver/kidney image was not affected by noise levels in the systems used and required the lower amplitude grey-levels to be compressed, liberating a greater range of greys for the higher amplitude echoes.

  9. Functional communication training in rett syndrome: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Byiers, Breanne J; Dimian, Adele; Symons, Frank J

    2014-07-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is associated with a range of serious neurodevelopmental consequences including severe communicative impairments. Currently, no evidence-based communication interventions exist for the population ( Sigafoos et al., 2009 ). The purpose of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of functional assessment (FA) and functional communication training (FCT) methods for teaching 3 individuals (ages 15-47 years) with classic RTT novel communicative behaviors. Using single-case experimental designs, functional reinforcers were identified (FA) and each participant quickly learned to activate a voice-output switch to obtain a reinforcer (FCT). These results suggest that individuals with classic RTT can learn novel communicative responses, which has important implications for future intervention research.

  10. Preliminary Design Study for a National Digital Seismograph Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Jon; Hutt, Charles R.

    1981-01-01

    Introduction Recently, the National Research Council published a report by the Panel on National, Regional, and Local Seismograph Networks of the Committee on Seismology in which the principal recommendation was for the establishment of a national digital seismograph network (NDSN). The Panel Report (Bolt, 1980) addresses both the need and the scientific requirements for the new national network. The purpose of this study has been to translate the scientific requirements into an instrumentation concept for the NSDS. There are literally hundreds, perhaps thousands, of seismographs in operation within the United States. Each serves an important purpose, but most have limited objectives in time, in region, or in the types of data that are being recorded. The concept of a national network, funded and operated by the Federal Government, is based on broader objectives that include continuity of time, uniform coverage, standardization of data format and instruments, and widespread use of the data for a variety of research purposes. A national digital seismograph network will be an important data resource for many years to come; hence, its design is likely to be of interest to most seismologists. Seismologists have traditionally been involved in the development and field operation of seismic systems and thus have been familiar with both the potential value and the limitations of the data. However, in recent years of increasing technological sophistication, the development of data sstems has fallen more to system engineers, and this trend is likely to continue. One danger in this is that the engineers may misinterpret scientific objectives or subordinate them to purely technological considerations. Another risk is that the data users may misuse or misinterpret the data because they are not aware of the limitations of the data system. Perhaps the most important purpose of a design study such as this is to stimulate a dialogue between system engineers and potential data users

  11. Shuttle infrared telescope facility (SIRTF) preliminary design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An overall picture of the SIRTF system is first presented, including the telescope, focal plane instruments, cryogen supply, shuttle and spacelab support subsystems, mechanical and data interfaces with the vehicles, ground support equipment, and system requirements. The optical, mechanical, and thermal characteristics of the telescope are then evaluated, followed by a description of the SIRTF internal stabilization subsystem and its interface with the IPS. Expected performance in the shuttle environment is considered. Tradeoff studies are described, including the Gregorian versus the Cassegrain telescope, aperture diameter tradeoff, a CCD versus an image dissector for the star tracker, the large ambient telescope versus the SIRTF, and a dedicated gimbal versus the IPS. Operations from integration through launch and recovery are also discussed and cost estimates for the program are presented.

  12. A preliminary study of pulse-laser powered orbital launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsurayama, Hiroshi; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Arakawa, Yoshihiro

    2009-10-01

    An air-breathing pulse-laser powered orbital launcher has been proposed as an alternative to conventional chemical launch systems. The aim of the present study is to assess its feasibility through the estimation of its achievable payload mass per unit beam power and launch cost. A transfer trajectory from the ground to a geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) is proposed, and the launch trajectory to its geosynchronous transfer orbit (GTO) is computed using the realistic performance modeled in the pulsejet, ramjet, and rocket flight modes of the launcher. Results show that the launcher can transfer 0.084 kg of payload per 1 MW beam power to a geosynchronous earth orbit. The cost becomes a quarter of existing systems if one can divide a single launch into 24,000 multiple launches.

  13. [Effectiveness of magnetotherapy in optic nerve atrophy. A preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Zobina, L V; Orlovskaia, L S; Sokov, S L; Sabaeva, G F; Kondé, L A; Iakovlev, A A

    1990-01-01

    Magnetotherapy effects on visual functions (vision acuity and field), on retinal bioelectric activity, on conductive vision system, and on intraocular circulation were studied in 88 patients (160 eyes) with optic nerve atrophy. A Soviet Polyus-1 low-frequency magnetotherapy apparatus was employed with magnetic induction of about 10 mT, exposure 7-10 min, 10-15 sessions per course. Vision acuity of patients with its low (below 0.04 diopters) values improved in 50 percent of cases. The number of patients with vision acuity of 0.2 diopters has increased from 46 before treatment to 75. Magnetotherapy improved ocular hemodynamics in patients with optic nerve atrophy, it reduced the time of stimulation conduction along the vision routes and stimulated the retinal ganglia cells. The maximal effect was achieved after 10 magnetotherapy sessions. A repeated course carried out in 6-8 months promoted a stabilization of the process.

  14. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF METHODS TO CHEMICALLY BIND ZINC

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.

    2011-06-10

    To address the {sup 65}Zn contamination issue in the TEF, a multi-task experimental program was initiated. The first two experimental tasks were completed. The results of the third experimental task are reported here. This task was conducted to determine if the zinc vapors could be chemically bound on two non hydrogen active substrates. Based on a thermodynamic study copper and cobalt were the most favorable for capturing zinc without forming hydrides. Within the experimental parameters tested, which include temperatures of 350, 400, and 450 C at pressures of nominally 20-40 millitorr, the zinc deposited on the both copper screen and cobalt rods but did not react to form a compound. The conditions that were tested are not prototypic and additional testing under higher vacuum conditions, i.e., .01 millitorr, may enhance the reactivity of the surfaces and is recommended.

  15. Psychological Preparation for Paralympic Athletes: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Blumenstein, Boris; Orbach, Iris

    2015-07-01

    Since the first Paralympics in 1960 there has been an increase in social and scientific interest in Paralympic athletes' personality, their preparation, and their sport results. During the last 20 yr, researchers and practitioners have been focused on psychological-skills programs for athletes with disabilities. The purpose of this article was to describe a psychological-preparation program for Israeli Paralympic athletes. Two subprograms, the learning-modification-application approach and the Simulation Training Exercise Program, were adapted to athletes' disability and sport demands. Two case studies, from table tennis and sailing (Sonar 3-person keelboat), are described to demonstrate how systematic sport psychology preparation can be effectively integrated into the training process of Paralympic athletes. Some recommendations for Paralympic athletes are presented.

  16. A Preliminary Study of Surface Temperature Cold Bias in COAMPS

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, H-N S; Leach, M J; Sugiyama, G A; Aluzzi, F J

    2001-04-27

    It is well recognized that the model predictability is more or less hampered by the imperfect representations of atmospheric state and model physics. Therefore, it is a common problem for any numerical models to exhibit some sorts of biases in the prediction. In this study, the emphasis is focused on the cold bias of surface temperature forecast in Naval Research Laboratory's three-dimensional mesoscale model, COAMPS (Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System). Based on the comparison with the ground station data, there were two types of ground temperature cold biases identified in LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) operational forecasts of COAMPS over the California and Nevada regions during the 1999 winter and the 2000 spring. The first type of cold bias appears at high elevation regions covered by snow, and its magnitude can be as large as 30 F - 40 F lower than observed. The second type of cold bias mainly exists in the snow-free clear-sky regions, where the surface temperature is above the freezing point, and its magnitude can be up to 5 F - 10 F lower than observed. These cold biases can affect the low-level stratification, and even the diurnal variation of winds in the mountain regions, and therefore impact the atmospheric dispersion forecast. The main objective of this study is to explore the causes of such cold bias, and to further the improvement of the forecast performance in COAMPS. A series of experiments are performed to gauge the sensitivity of the model forecast due to the physics changes and large-scale data with various horizontal and vertical resolutions.

  17. Wind energy in electric power production, preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lento, R.; Peltola, E.

    1984-01-01

    The wind speed conditions in Finland have been studied with the aid of the existing statistics of the Finnish Meteorological Institute. With the aid of the statistics estimates on the available wind energy were also made. Eight hundred wind power plants, 1.5 MW each, on the windiest west coast would produce about 2 TWh energy per year. Far more information on the temporal, geographical and vertical distribution of the wind speed than the present statistics included is needed when the available wind energy is estimated, when wind power plants are dimensioned optimally, and when suitable locations are chosen for them. The investment costs of a wind power plant increase when the height of the tower or the diameter of the rotor is increased, but the energy production increases, too. Thus, overdimensioning the wind power plant in view of energy needs or the wind conditions caused extra costs. The cost of energy produced by wind power can not yet compete with conventional energy, but the situation changes to the advantage of wind energy, if the real price of the plants decreases (among other things due to large series production and increasing experience), or if the real price of fuels rises. The inconvinience on the environment caused by the wind power plants is considered insignificant. The noise caused by the plant attenuates rapidly with distance. No harmful effects to birds and other animals caused by the wind power plants have been observed in the studies made abroad. Parts of the plant getting loose during an accident, or ice forming on the blades are estimated to fly even from a large plant only a few hundred meters.

  18. A preliminary study on the dielectric constant of WPC based on some tropical woods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chia, L. H. L.; Chua, P. H.; Hon, Y. S.; Lee, E.

    The use of WPC as an important insulating material is studied by determining its dielectric constant. The variation of dielectric constant with moisture content is also investigated. Preliminary results show that all untreated woods studied have a higher dielectric constant than their polymer composites with the exception of Kapur and Keruing. It is therefore postulated that the presence of polymers has led to a decrease in the number of polarizable units. Such a material may be useful commercially.

  19. Preliminary study of a wing-tip vortex using laser velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, R. K.; Mcalister, K. W.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements have been made in the wake of a semi-span NACA 0015 airfoil with emphasis on the region of the wing tip vortex. The spanwise and streamwise velocity components were measured using a two-component laser Doppler velocimeter. The purpose of the study was to initiate the operation of a laser velocimeter system and to perform preliminary wake measurements in preparation for a more extensive study of the structure and near field development of a tip vortex.

  20. Preliminary study of application of Moringa oleifera resin as polymer electrolyte in DSSC solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saehana, Sahrul; Darsikin, Muslimin

    2016-04-01

    This study reports the preliminary study of application of Moringa oleifera resin as polymer electrolyte in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). We found that polymer electrolyte membrane was formed by using solution casting methods. It is observed that polymer electrolyte was in elastic form and it is very potential to application as DSSC component. Performance of DSSC which employing Moringa oleifera resin was also observed and photovoltaic effect was found.

  1. Preliminary Hydrogeologic Characterization Results from the Wallula Basalt Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    B.P. McGrail; E. C. Sullivan; F. A. Spane; D. H. Bacon; G. Hund; P. D. Thorne; C. J. Thompson; S. P. Reidel; F. S. Colwell

    2009-12-01

    The DOE's Big Sky Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership has completed drilling the first continental flood basalt sequestration pilot borehole to a total depth (TD) of 4,110 feet on the Boise White Paper Mill property at Wallula, Washington. Site suitability was assessed prior to drilling by the 2007-2008 acquisition, processing and analysis of a four-mile, five-line three component seismic swath, which was processed as a single data-dense line. Analysis of the seismic survey data indicated a composite basalt formation thickness of {approx}8,000 feet and absence of major geologic structures (i.e., faults) along the line imaged by the seismic swath. Drilling of Wallula pilot borehole was initiated on January 13, 2009 and reached TD on April 6, 2009. Based on characterization results obtained during drilling, three basalt breccia zones were identified between the depth interval of 2,716 and 2,910 feet, as being suitable injection reservoir for a subsequent CO2 injection pilot study. The targeted injection reservoir lies stratigraphically below the massive Umtanum Member of the Grande Ronde Basalt, whose flow-interior section possesses regionally recognized low-permeability characteristics. The identified composite injection zone reservoir provides a unique and attractive opportunity to scientifically study the reservoir behavior of three inter-connected reservoir intervals below primary and secondary caprock confining zones. Drill cuttings, wireline geophysical logs, and 31one-inch diameter rotary sidewall cores provided geologic data for characterization of rock properties. XRF analyses of selected rock samples provided geochemical characterizations of the rocks and stratigraphic control for the basalt flows encountered by the Wallula pilot borehole. Based on the geochemical results, the pilot borehole was terminated in the Wapshilla Ridge 1 flow of the Grande Ronde Basalt Formation. Detailed hydrologic test characterizations of 12 basalt interflow reservoir

  2. Preliminary Study of Methods for Upgrading USGS Antarctic Seismological Capability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holcomb, L. Gary

    1982-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate potential methods for obtaining higher quality seismic data from Antarctica. Currently, USGS-sponsored WWSSN stations are located at Scott Base, Sanae Base, and at South Pole Station. Scott and Sanae Stations are located near the coast; data obtained from coastal installations are normally degraded by noise generated by ocean wave action on the coast. Operations at South Pole are rather difficult because of the severe environmental characteristics and the extended logistics which are required to provide supplies and operating personnel to its remote location. Short-period data quality from Pole Station has been moderately high with a short-period magnification of 100K at 1Hz. Long-period magnifications have been rather low (<1K @ 15 s period). Recent relocation of the seismic recording facilities at South Pole Station as a result of the construction of a completely new station facility has caused serious degradation of the data quality due to faulty installation techniques. Repairs have been implemented to remedy these deficiencies and to regain the data quality which existed before the move to new facilities. However, the technology being used at South Pole Station is of WWSSN vintage; as a result it is about 20 years old. Much has been learned about achieving higher magnifications since the WWSSN was designed. This study will evaluate the feasibility of applying recent technological advances to Antarctic seismology. Seismological data from the Antarctic Continent is important to the world's seismological community because of the Antarctic's unique geographic position on the globe. Land masses are scarce in that part of the world; the Antarctic sits right in the middle of the void. Therefore, its data are important for completing the data set for the southern hemisphere. Upgrading the USGS seismic capability in the Antarctic should also prove to be a wise investment from another point of view. Although the initial

  3. Weldon Spring, Missouri, Raffinate Pits 1, 2, 3, and 4: Preliminary grout development screening studies for in situ waste immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, E.W.; Gilliam, T.M.; Dole, L.R.; West, G.A.

    1987-04-01

    Results of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's initial support program to develop a preliminary grout formula to solidify in situ the Weldon Spring waste are presented. The screening study developed preliminary formulas based on a simulated composite waste and then tested the formulas on actual waste samples. Future data needs are also discussed. 1 ref., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. A Preliminary Study of CO2 Flux Measurements by Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibert, Fabien; Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Hilton, T.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Andrews, Arlyn; Ismail, Syed; Singh, Upendra N.

    2008-01-01

    A mechanistic understanding of the global carbon cycle requires quantification of terrestrial ecosystem CO2 fluxes at regional scales. In this paper, we analyze the potential of a Doppler DIAL system to make flux measurements of atmospheric CO2 using the eddy-covariance and boundary layer budget methods and present results from a ground based experiment. The goal of this study is to put CO2 flux point measurements in a mesoscale context. In June 2007, a field experiment combining a 2-m Doppler Heterodyne Differential Absorption Lidar (HDIAL) and in-situ sensors of a 447-m tall tower (WLEF) took place in Wisconsin. The HDIAL measures simultaneously: 1) CO2 mixing ratio, 2) atmosphere structure via aerosol backscatter and 3) radial velocity. We demonstrate how to synthesize these data into regional flux estimates. Lidar-inferred fluxes are compared with eddy-covariance fluxes obtained in-situ at 396m AGL from the tower. In cases where the lidar was not yet able to measure the fluxes with acceptable precision, we discuss possible modifications to improve system performance.

  5. An automatic tooth preparation technique: A preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Fusong; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Yaopeng; Sun, Yuchun; Wang, Dangxiao; Lyu, Peijun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to validate the feasibility and accuracy of a new automatic tooth preparation technique in dental healthcare. An automatic tooth preparation robotic device with three-dimensional motion planning software was developed, which controlled an ultra-short pulse laser (USPL) beam (wavelength 1,064 nm, pulse width 15 ps, output power 30 W, and repeat frequency rate 100 kHz) to complete the tooth preparation process. A total of 15 freshly extracted human intact first molars were collected and fixed into a phantom head, and the target preparation shapes of these molars were designed using customised computer-aided design (CAD) software. The accuracy of tooth preparation was evaluated using the Geomagic Studio and Imageware software, and the preparing time of each tooth was recorded. Compared with the target preparation shape, the average shape error of the 15 prepared molars was 0.05–0.17 mm, the preparation depth error of the occlusal surface was approximately 0.097 mm, and the error of the convergence angle was approximately 1.0°. The average preparation time was 17 minutes. These results validated the accuracy and feasibility of the automatic tooth preparation technique.

  6. Preliminary hydrochemical study of Ronda ultramafic massif (South Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadillo, Iñaki; Urresti, Begoña; Jiménez, Pablo; Martos, Sergio; José Durán, Juan; Benavente, José; Carrasco, Francisco; Pedrera, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    During 2015 more than 70 springs related to the peridotite outcrops of the Ronda mountainous massif, South Spain, have been identified. The field work included "in situ" measurements of physical-chemical parameters (T, EC, pH), and water sampling for major components and stable isotopes of water and DIC. The hydrogeochemical study allowed us to characterize different flow systems: (1) springs with very low to medium electrical conductivities (200-700 μS/cm) and pH below 9.0, and (2) springs with EC above 700 μS/cm and pH above 9.0. The first group of springs are supposed to be linked with surface and subsurface flows. The hydrogeochemical reactions that determine their composition are characterized by the low solubility of minerals, atmospheric CO2 (open system) and active serpentinization reactions that supplies hundreds of ppm of Mg2+. All of them are waters of HCO3-Mg or HCO3-Mg-Na type. The second group of springs drains water with EC above 700 μS/cm and pH over 9. In general, these springs are associated to deep flows connected to regional faults or major tectonic features. Deeper flow enhances water-rock interaction and time of contact, so this system evolves towards a closed system to O2 and CO2. All these waters are old or older than the first group and show reducing features and are of Na-Cl or OH-Ca type.

  7. A preliminary study of patient comfort associated with customised mouthguards

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, C.; Kinirons, M.; Geary, L.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare patient perception of custom made mouthguards of ideal and less than ideal designs in terms of their comfort and "wearability". METHOD: A mouthguard of ideal design (A) and one incorporating common design faults of underextension and unadjusted occlusion (B) were provided for 22 active sportsmen and women. They were not informed of the details of the design or the status of the protector. Half the participants were asked to wear mouthguard A first and the other half wore B first, each worn for one hour on two consecutive nights. Questionnaires were used to evaluate and rate the comfort and wearability of each mouthguard. RESULTS: Eighteen people completed the study. The ideal appliance was rated as significantly more retentive and comfortable overall and specifically was more comfortable to lips, gums, and tongue. It was also recognised as being less bulky, less likely to keep the teeth apart, or to cause pain in the jaw muscles. CONCLUSIONS: Comfort is likely to be increased if mouthguards are extended labially to within 2 mm of the vestibular reflection, adjusted to allow even occlusal contact, rounded at the buccal peripheries, and tapered at the palatal edges. 


 PMID:10378071

  8. Preliminary Study of Advanced Turboprops for Low Energy Consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, G. A.; Strack, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    The fuel savings potential of advanced turboprops (operational about 1985) was calculated and compared with that of an advanced turbofan for use in an advanced subsonic transport. At the design point, altitude 10.67 km and Mach 0.80, turbine-inlet temperature was fixed at 1590 K while overall pressure ratio was varied from 25 to 50. The regenerative turboprop had a pressure ratio of only 10 and an 85 percent effective rotary heat exchanger. Variable camber propellers were used with an efficiency of 85 percent. The study indicated a fuel savings of 33 percent, a takeoff gross weight reduction of 15 percent, and a direct operating cost reduction of 18 percent was possible when turboprops were used instead of the reference turbofan at a range of 10 200 km. These reductions were 28, 11, and 14 percent, respectively, at a range of 5500 km. Increasing overall pressure ratio from 25 to 50 saved little fuel and slightly increased takeoff gross weight.

  9. Firearm fatalities. A preliminary study report from Iran.

    PubMed

    Amiri, A; Sanaei-Zadeh, H; Towfighi Zavarei, H; Rezvani Ardestani, F; Savoji, N

    2003-09-01

    During the one-year period from March 2002 to March 2003 there were 89 firearm fatalities investigated by the Legal Medicine Organization of Iran in Tehran. We determined the characteristics of these 89 firearm deaths which comprised 0.83% of all postmortem examinations. Of these, 60.7% were homicides, 30.3% suicides, 4.5% accidental, and 4.5% unclassifiable. Most victims were young male. Military rifles were responsible for almost all suicides, whereas in homicide handguns were the preferred weapons. The most common site of entrance wounds in suicides were the under the chin (37%) and chest (25.9%). In homicide group, 42.6% of entrance wounds were located in the head. The suicidal gunshots were fired from contact/near contact range in 84.6% while this was the case in only two cases of the homicides. All but one of the suicides were committed at the garrisons or police stations. The unique pattern of suicide that was found in this series was not similar to that reported in earlier studies. We believe our pattern of firearm fatalities must be in great part due to the Iran's strict gun control regulations and cultural background.

  10. Preliminary study of visual effect of multiplex hologram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Huaiping; Xiong, Bingheng; Yang, Hong; Zhang, Xueguo

    2004-06-01

    The process of any movement of real object can be recorded and displayed by a multiplex holographic stereogram. An embossing multiplex holographic stereogram and a multiplex rainbow holographic stereogram have been made by us, the multiplex rainbow holographic stereogram reconstructs the dynamic 2D line drawing of speech organs, the embossing multiplex holographic stereogram reconstructs the process of an old man drinking water. In this paper, we studied the visual result of an embossing multiplex holographic stereogram made with 80 films of 2-D pictures. Forty-eight persons of aged from 13 to 67 were asked to see the hologram and then to answer some questions about the feeling of viewing. The results indicate that this kind of holograms could be accepted by human visual sense organ without any problem. This paper also discusses visual effect of the multiplex holography stereograms base on visual perceptual psychology. It is open out that the planar multiplex holograms can be recorded and present the movement of real animal and object. Not only have the human visual perceptual constancy for shape, just as that size, color, etc... but also have visual perceptual constancy for binocular parallax.

  11. An automatic tooth preparation technique: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Fusong; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Yaopeng; Sun, Yuchun; Wang, Dangxiao; Lyu, Peijun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to validate the feasibility and accuracy of a new automatic tooth preparation technique in dental healthcare. An automatic tooth preparation robotic device with three-dimensional motion planning software was developed, which controlled an ultra-short pulse laser (USPL) beam (wavelength 1,064 nm, pulse width 15 ps, output power 30 W, and repeat frequency rate 100 kHz) to complete the tooth preparation process. A total of 15 freshly extracted human intact first molars were collected and fixed into a phantom head, and the target preparation shapes of these molars were designed using customised computer-aided design (CAD) software. The accuracy of tooth preparation was evaluated using the Geomagic Studio and Imageware software, and the preparing time of each tooth was recorded. Compared with the target preparation shape, the average shape error of the 15 prepared molars was 0.05–0.17 mm, the preparation depth error of the occlusal surface was approximately 0.097 mm, and the error of the convergence angle was approximately 1.0°. The average preparation time was 17 minutes. These results validated the accuracy and feasibility of the automatic tooth preparation technique. PMID:27125874

  12. An automatic tooth preparation technique: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fusong; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Yaopeng; Sun, Yuchun; Wang, Dangxiao; Lyu, Peijun

    2016-04-29

    The aim of this study is to validate the feasibility and accuracy of a new automatic tooth preparation technique in dental healthcare. An automatic tooth preparation robotic device with three-dimensional motion planning software was developed, which controlled an ultra-short pulse laser (USPL) beam (wavelength 1,064 nm, pulse width 15 ps, output power 30 W, and repeat frequency rate 100 kHz) to complete the tooth preparation process. A total of 15 freshly extracted human intact first molars were collected and fixed into a phantom head, and the target preparation shapes of these molars were designed using customised computer-aided design (CAD) software. The accuracy of tooth preparation was evaluated using the Geomagic Studio and Imageware software, and the preparing time of each tooth was recorded. Compared with the target preparation shape, the average shape error of the 15 prepared molars was 0.05-0.17 mm, the preparation depth error of the occlusal surface was approximately 0.097 mm, and the error of the convergence angle was approximately 1.0°. The average preparation time was 17 minutes. These results validated the accuracy and feasibility of the automatic tooth preparation technique.

  13. Preliminary Study for Designing a Novel Vein-Visualizing Device

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Donghoon; Kim, Yujin; Yoon, Siyeop; Lee, Deukhee

    2017-01-01

    Venipuncture is an important health diagnosis process. Although venipuncture is one of the most commonly performed procedures in medical environments, locating the veins of infants, obese, anemic, or colored patients is still an arduous task even for skilled practitioners. To solve this problem, several devices using infrared light have recently become commercially available. However, such devices for venipuncture share a common drawback, especially when visualizing deep veins or veins of a thick part of the body like the cubital fossa. This paper proposes a new vein-visualizing device applying a new penetration method using near-infrared (NIR) light. The light module is attached directly on to the declared area of the skin. Then, NIR beam is rayed from two sides of the light module to the vein with a specific angle. This gives a penetration effect. In addition, through an image processing procedure, the vein structure is enhanced to show it more accurately. Through a phantom study, the most effective penetration angle of the NIR module is decided. Additionally, the feasibility of the device is verified through experiments in vivo. The prototype allows us to visualize the vein patterns of thicker body parts, such as arms. PMID:28178227

  14. Preliminary piloted simulation studies of the HL-20 lifting body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivers, Robert A.; Jackson, E. Bruce; Ragsdale, W. A.

    1994-05-01

    NASA Langley Research Center is developing a lifting body vehicle, designated the HL-20, as one option of the proposed Personnel Launch System for NASA's future manned access to space requirements. Data derived from wind-tunnel and computational fluid dynamics analyses of the conceptual design led to the derivation of a flight simulator model to investigate the potential flight characteristics of the HL-20. A simulation investigation was initiated to determine if satisfactory unpowered horizontal landings could be accomplished. Control law design and trajectory development were directed toward this end. The study uncovered several deficiencies subsequently corrected through design changes, and it validated the predicted subsonic aerodynamic properties. Expanding the investigation to the Mach 4 to Mach 1 regime revealed flight characteristics necessitating the development of innovative control techniques. This article will present the significant results uncovered to date by flight simulator evaluations of a lifting body class of vehicle, and will demonstrate the effectiveness of flight simulation as an integrated part of the conceptual design phase.

  15. Segmentation and quantification for Alzheimer's disease (AD): a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Tianhu; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Zhuge, Ying; Moonis, Gul; Clark, Christopher

    2003-05-01

    Alzheimer's is a progressive brain disease and is clinically characterized by cognitive symptoms that, in combination with behavioral disturbances, significantly interfere with activities of daily living. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of developing volumetric measures of the structural damage and atrophy of brain derived from multiprotocol MR imaging. Our approach first applies intensity inhomogeneity correction and intensity standardization to PD and T2 weighted MR images to create base images for quantitative image analysis. Then, vectorial scale-based fuzzy connectedness segmentation (VSFCS) and morphological operations are applied to the base images to extract masks of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), grey matter (GM), and white matter (WM), and further to create a clean and accurate intracranial (IC) mask. After separating CSF from brain parenchyma (BP), VSFCS is applied to BP (PD and T2) images to generate pure GM and WM masks, and then subtracting these pure from the BP mask to detect AD lesions. This method was applied to a set of conventional PD and T2 weighted MR images that were obtained from 5 patients with probable AD and 5 healthy normal control subjects. The segmented images of individual brain tissue regions (CSF, GM, WM, and AD lesion) are consistent with a Neuroradiologist's examination. The quantitative analysis shows that patients with AD have more atrophy. The mean value of the volume of brain parenchyma of patients with AD is about 10% less than that of healthy controls.

  16. Preliminary Study for Designing a Novel Vein-Visualizing Device.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donghoon; Kim, Yujin; Yoon, Siyeop; Lee, Deukhee

    2017-02-07

    Venipuncture is an important health diagnosis process. Although venipuncture is one of the most commonly performed procedures in medical environments, locating the veins of infants, obese, anemic, or colored patients is still an arduous task even for skilled practitioners. To solve this problem, several devices using infrared light have recently become commercially available. However, such devices for venipuncture share a common drawback, especially when visualizing deep veins or veins of a thick part of the body like the cubital fossa. This paper proposes a new vein-visualizing device applying a new penetration method using near-infrared (NIR) light. The light module is attached directly on to the declared area of the skin. Then, NIR beam is rayed from two sides of the light module to the vein with a specific angle. This gives a penetration effect. In addition, through an image processing procedure, the vein structure is enhanced to show it more accurately. Through a phantom study, the most effective penetration angle of the NIR module is decided. Additionally, the feasibility of the device is verified through experiments in vivo. The prototype allows us to visualize the vein patterns of thicker body parts, such as arms.

  17. Robotic consolle for ocular surgery: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Francesca; Pini, Roberto; Menabuoni, Luca; Lenzetti, Ivo; Russo, Sheila; Menciassi, Arianna; Fortuna, Damiano

    2014-02-01

    Minimally invasive surgery has recently been improved by the use of robot-assisted procedures in several medical fields. Among the ocular surgeries there are a few examples of sophisticated vitreoretinal procedures, while robotic-assisted surgery of the anterior eye segment is still under study. In this paper we propose a new approach to the robotic assisted ocular surgery: a CO2 laser system is equipped with a micromanipulator and scanner, and it is proposed to induce photothermal effects for the removal of neoformations. A sensorized tool is connected to the patient eye and to the robotic arm. This tool is equipped with force and position sensors: by the use of the spatial information from the robotic console and from the patient it is possible to control the position of the target itself and to block it in the correct position for performing surgery. The system is provided by a feedback alarm that remove the block of the patient head in any moment. The optimized robotic consolle can be used in performing scleral cuts and in the treatment of pterigium or neoformations.

  18. NEOWISE STUDIES OF ASTEROIDS WITH SLOAN PHOTOMETRY: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Hand, E.; Grav, T.; Mo, W.; Tholen, D. J.; McMillan, R. S.; Maleszewski, C.; Wright, E.; Watkins, J.; Spahr, T.; Cutri, R. M.; Walker, R.

    2012-01-20

    We have combined the NEOWISE and Sloan Digital Sky Survey data to study the albedos of 24,353 asteroids with candidate taxonomic classifications derived using Sloan photometry. We find a wide range of moderate to high albedos for candidate S-type asteroids that are analogous to the S complex defined by previous spectrophotometrically based taxonomic systems. The candidate C-type asteroids, while generally very dark, have a tail of higher albedos that overlaps the S types. The albedo distribution for asteroids with a photometrically derived Q classification is extremely similar to those of the S types. Asteroids with similar colors to (4) Vesta have higher albedos than the S types, and most have orbital elements similar to known Vesta family members. Finally, we show that the relative reflectance at 3.4 and 4.6 {mu}m is higher for D-type asteroids and suggest that their red visible and near-infrared spectral slope extends out to these wavelengths. Understanding the relationship between size, albedo, and taxonomic classification is complicated by the fact that the objects with classifications were selected from the visible/near-infrared Sloan Moving Object Catalog, which is biased against fainter asteroids, including those with lower albedos.

  19. Social network analysis in identifying influential webloggers: A preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasmuni, Noraini; Sulaiman, Nor Intan Saniah; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, second generation of internet-based services such as weblog has become an effective communication tool to publish information on the Web. Weblogs have unique characteristics that deserve users' attention. Some of webloggers have seen weblogs as appropriate medium to initiate and expand business. These webloggers or also known as direct profit-oriented webloggers (DPOWs) communicate and share knowledge with each other through social interaction. However, survivability is the main issue among DPOW. Frequent communication with influential webloggers is one of the way to keep survive as DPOW. This paper aims to understand the network structure and identify influential webloggers within the network. Proper understanding of the network structure can assist us in knowing how the information is exchanged among members and enhance survivability among DPOW. 30 DPOW were involved in this study. Degree centrality and betweenness centrality measurement in Social Network Analysis (SNA) were used to examine the strength relation and identify influential webloggers within the network. Thus, webloggers with the highest value of these measurements are considered as the most influential webloggers in the network.

  20. Preliminary Study on Water Filled Tank Perforation by Rod Projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xin-Ke; Guo, Zi-Tao; Mu, Zhong-Cheng; Zhang, Wei

    2009-06-01

    The effects of fluid structure interactions resulting from the impact of a fluid filled tank is of the interests for engineers from both the military and civilian field, where hydrodynamic-ram (HRAM) phenomena is well known. And it is believed HRAM is responsible for the vulnerability and the possible catastrophic failure of the whole tank. Thus HRAM is related to the majority concerns on this topic, where the targets were usually assumed to be thin. In order to investigate the influence of water on the crashworthiness of a tank with relatively thick walls, 3 ballistic shots on the water filled tank with two 3 mm 2A12 aluminum plates as front and back target and 4 shots on the tank without any water by 12.7 mm rods were conducted. The failure patterns were indentified from the tests and the difference in the failure mechanism was further studied by a series of detailed numerical simulations on the corresponding tests in hydro-code AUTODYN-2D by using both the coupled Lagrange-Euler technology and the SPH method. And also, the challenge of numerical simulation in this field is addressed.

  1. Magnetic field studies at jupiter by voyager 2: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Ness, N F; Acuna, M H; Lepping, R P; Burlaga, L F; Behannon, K W; Neubauer, F M

    1979-11-23

    Data from the Goddard Space Flight Center magnetometers on Voyager 2 have yielded on inbound trajectory observations of multiple crossings of the bow shock and magnetosphere near the Jupiter-sun line at radial distances of 99 to 66 Jupiter radii (RJ) and 72 to 62 RJ, respectively. While outbound at a local hour angle of 0300, these distances increase appreciably so that at the time of writing only the magnetopause has been observed between 160 and 185 RJ. These results and the magnetic field geometry confirm the earlier conclusion from Voyager I studies that Jupiter has an enormous magnetic tail, approximately 300 to 400 RJ in diameter, trailing behind the planet with respect to the supersonic flow of the solar wind. Addi- tional observations of the distortion of the inner magnetosphere by a concentrated plasma show a spatial merging of the equatorial magnetodisk current with the cur- rent sheet in the magnetic tail. The spacecraft passed within 62,000 kilometers of Ganymede (radius = 2,635 kilometers) and observed characteristic fluctuations in- terpreted tentatively as being due to disturbances arising from the interaction of the Jovian magnetosphere with Ganymede.

  2. Preliminary study of synergism of acid rain and diflubenzuron

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.J.S.; Clark, J.M.; Edman, J.D.

    1995-06-01

    Diflubenzuron{sup 1} (Dimilin{reg_sign}) was used on over 7 million acres in the U.S. in 1990 to control forest pests, particularly the gypsy moth. This chitin synthesis inhibitor affects insects and other anthropods. It is a restricted use pesticide due to its nontarget effects on aquatic macroinvertebrates. The effects of a single aerial application on nontarget aquatic macroinvertebrate communities were reviewed by Eisler (1992). Crustacea and immature insects (especially the true flies, mosquitoes, midges and black flies) are the most sensitive nontarget aquatic organisms to diflubenzuron. Diflubenzuron, N-[[4-(chlorophenyl)amino]carbonyl]-2,6-difluorobenzamide, is not the only mortality factor aquatic organisms face from human pollution. Acid deposition is a frequent stress factor in freshwater habitats in the Northeast USA. Acidic pulses can drop vernal pools (e.g., temporary, springtime, snowmelt pools) to pH levels below 3.0. Aquatic invertebrates vary in their tolerance to acidification. Reduced pH completely eliminates some species. A combination of stress factors could lead to synergistic effects, over and above the impact seen with a single stressor. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are synergist effects of diflubenzuron and lowered pH on the mortality of a nontarget aquatic organism. 11 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Use of illicit stimulant drugs in Finland: a wastewater study in ten major cities.

    PubMed

    Kankaanpää, Aino; Ariniemi, Kari; Heinonen, Mari; Kuoppasalmi, Kimmo; Gunnar, Teemu

    2014-07-15

    Estimations of drug use at the national level are generally based on various sources of information, such as drug seizures, socio-scientific studies, toxicological data and hospital records. Nevertheless, all of these approaches have limitations that cannot be overcome, even if conclusions are drawn from combined data retrieved from different sources. Drug epidemiology through wastewater analysis has the potential to provide unique perspectives, internationally comparable data, and up-to-date information on the use of both traditional illicit drugs and new psychoactive substances (NPSs). In Finland, no large-scale studies on regional illicit drug consumption, based on a wastewater approach, have been reported. In this study, 24-h influent composite samples were collected during two 1-week study periods from ten different wastewater treatment plants in May and November-December 2012. The cities included in the study represent the geographical areas throughout Finland and cover 40% of the Finnish population. The samples were analyzed with an in-house validated, ultra high-performance liquid-chromatography mass spectrometric (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for various common illicit drugs and some NPS type stimulant drugs. The results were also compared with available statistics, information on drug seizures and laboratory-confirmed toxicological data, as well as other studies available based on wastewater analysis. The data show that illicit stimulant drug use is more common in the larger cities of Southern Finland. Amphetamine was the most commonly used drug in all 10 cities during both collection periods (excluding the collection period in May in Lappeenranta). Cocaine consumption remains very low in Finland in comparison to other European countries; it was concentrated in the biggest cities in Southern Finland. This study shows interesting temporal and spatial differences in drug use in Finland, as well as the possibilities of using wastewater analytics to reveal local

  4. A preliminary study of CO2 sequestration of cement paste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Lee, H.; Hwang, J.; Oh, J.; Lee, J.

    2013-12-01

    Recently, CO2 capture and storage technologies to reduce CO2 concentration in the atmosphere have been extensively studied because global warming is a worldwide issue. Waste cement is a potential raw material for mineral carbonation. In general, carbonation refers a calcite forming reaction in hydrated cement. The carbonation of portlandite in hydrated cement is very straightforward. However, the carbonation of CSH (calcium silicate hydrate: CaO-SiO2-H2O) composing the largest portion of hydrated cement involved in complex reactions and is a key to increase the carbonation efficiency of waste cement. The present study was conducted to have basic information for utilizing waste cement as a raw material for CO2 sequestration. Cement paste was made with W:C= 6:4 and stored for 28 days in water bath. The prepared cement paste was pulverized, and fine grains sizing less than 0.15mm was used for experiment. For the direct aqueous carbonation experiment, 15g of sample is reacted with 200 ml of 1M NaHCO3 in 500ml HDPE bottle. 1M NaCl and 0.25 M MgCl2 was used for additives after leaching test with 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5M NaCl and MgCl2 solutions, and the carbonation efficiency of these additives was evaluated. After reaction, the reacted cement paste and supernatant solution were separated from centrifuging at 5000rpm. The reacted cement paste was analyzed with XRD, DSC/TGA and SEM/EDS. The supernatant solution was filtered with 0.45um membrane filter, and nitric acid was added to lower 2 for preventing calcite precipitation. Then, chemical composition of solution was analyzed with ICP-OES. The leaching of Ca ion is increased with increasing NaCl concentration and is maximized at 1M solution. Extremely small leaching of Si ion indicates that NaCl feebly affect on the carbonation of CSH. The leaching of Ca ion in MgCl2 solution is 10 times greater than in NaCl solution and is maximized at 0.5M solution. The increased Ca leaching is probably caused by the decalcification of

  5. NEOWISE STUDIES OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRICALLY CLASSIFIED ASTEROIDS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Grav, T.; Mo, W.; Tholen, D.; McMillan, R. S.; Maleszewski, C.; Spahr, T.; Cutri, R. M.; Wright, E.; Watkins, J.

    2011-11-10

    The NEOWISE data set offers the opportunity to study the variations in albedo for asteroid classification schemes based on visible and near-infrared observations for a large sample of minor planets. We have determined the albedos for nearly 1900 asteroids classified by the Tholen, Bus, and Bus-DeMeo taxonomic classification schemes. We find that the S-complex spans a broad range of bright albedos, partially overlapping the low albedo C-complex at small sizes. As expected, the X-complex covers a wide range of albedos. The multiwavelength infrared coverage provided by NEOWISE allows determination of the reflectivity at 3.4 and 4.6 {mu}m relative to the visible albedo. The direct computation of the reflectivity at 3.4 and 4.6 {mu}m enables a new means of comparing the various taxonomic classes. Although C, B, D, and T asteroids all have similarly low visible albedos, the D and T types can be distinguished from the C and B types by examining their relative reflectance at 3.4 and 4.6 {mu}m. All of the albedo distributions are strongly affected by selection biases against small, low albedo objects, as all objects selected for taxonomic classification were chosen according to their visible light brightness. Due to these strong selection biases, we are unable to determine whether or not there are correlations between size, albedo, and space weathering. We argue that the current set of classified asteroids makes any such correlations difficult to verify. A sample of taxonomically classified asteroids drawn without significant albedo bias is needed in order to perform such an analysis.

  6. Iontophoretic delivery of terbinafine in onychomycosis: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Amichai, B; Nitzan, B; Mosckovitz, R; Shemer, A

    2010-01-01

    Background Onychomycosis is a common disease; topical treatment is usually poorly effective, while systemic treatment is more effective but may be associated with side-effects. Iontophoretic drug delivery may improve drug penetration through the nail and lead to better therapeutic results. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of topical treatments with terbinafine HCl delivered with or without an iontophoretic patch in patients with onychomycosis of the toenails. Methods Patients enrolled into the study were divided randomly into two groups. Group A was treated with terbinafine and an iontophoretic patch (at a constant current density of 100 microA cm(-2)). Group B was treated with terbinafine without iontophoresis. Treatment was overnight wear, every day, 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Follow-up period was 8 weeks from the end of treatment. Results A significant clinical response was recorded in patients of group A (active group). The percentage of patients having healthy toenail growth of more than 1.5 mm at the end of treatment was 40% compared with 11% in patients treated with terbinafine without current (passive group). The percentage of patients having fungal elements (KOH) in nail specimens decreased significantly at 8 weeks following the completion of treatment: 16% in the active group vs. 53% in the passive group. Patients in the active group reported a tingling sensation that is expected when using an iontophoretic drug delivery treatment. Conclusions The delivery of terbinafine under an electrical current of 100 microA cm(-2) appears to be efficacious and safe and is well tolerated for the treatment of nail onychomycosis.

  7. Optical Quality and Related Factors in Ocular Hypertension: Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Jing; Yang, Yan-Ning; Huang, Lin-Ying; Wang, Bo; Han, Yu-Can; Yan, Jiang-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background. To evaluate the optical quality and related factors in patients with ocular hypertension (OHT). Methods. This was a prospective case-control study. A total of 12 eyes with OHT and 20 control eyes underwent testing with Optical Quality Analysis System II (OQAS II) to evaluate the modulation transfer function cut off frequency (MTF cutoff), the Strehl 2D ratio (SR), objective scatter index (OSI), tear-film mean OSI (TFOSI), and the OQAS values (OV100%,OV20%, and OV9%). Results. The optical quality of patients with OHT declined, with lower MTF cutoff (OHT 36.86 ± 7.11 cpd , controls 48.50 ± 4.04 cpd, t = -4.60, P < 0.05), lower SR (OHT 0.22 ± 0.04, controls 0.27 ± 0.05, t = -2.72, P < 0.05), lower OV100% (OHT 1.26 ± 0.25, controls 1.61 ± 0.14, t = -4.03, P < 0.05), lower OV20% (OHT 1.27 ± 0.27, controls 1.72 ± 0.20, t = -4.00, P < 0.05), and lower OV9% (OHT 1.30 ± 0.25, controls 1.69 ± 0.32, t = -2.28, P < 0.05). There were not any statistically significant differences in OSI and TFOSI. The MTF cutoff in patients with OHT was correlated significantly with age (r = -0.59, P < 0.05). Conclusions. Optical quality of patients with OHT is reduced, with lower MTF cutoff, SR, OV100%, OV20%, and OV9%. MTF cutoff is negatively related to age.

  8. Temperature, temperature extremes, and mortality: a study of acclimatisation and effect modification in 50 US cities

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Ramón, M; Schwartz, J

    2007-01-01

    Objectives The authors examined the increase in mortality associated with hot and cold temperature in different locations, the determinants of the variability in effect estimates, and its implications for adaptation. Methods The authors conducted a case-crossover study in 50 US cities. They used daily mortality and weather data for 6 513 330 deaths occurring during 1989–2000. Exposure was assessed using two approaches. First, the authors determined exposure to extreme temperatures using city-specific indicator variables based on the local temperature distribution. Secondly, they used piecewise linear variables to assess exposure to temperature on a continuous scale above/below a threshold. Effects of hot and cold temperature were examined in season-specific models. In a meta-analysis of the city-specific results, the authors examined several city characteristics as effect modifiers. Results Mortality increases associated with both extreme cold (2-day cumulative increase 1.59% (95% CI 0.56 to 2.63)) and extreme heat (5.74% (95% CI 3.38 to 8.15)) were found, the former being especially marked for myocardial infarction and cardiac arrest deaths. The increase in mortality was less marked at less extreme temperatures. The effect of extreme cold (defined as a percentile) was homogeneous across cities with different climates, suggesting that only the unusualness of the cold temperature (and not its absolute value) had a substantial impact on mortality (that is, acclimatisation to cold). Conversely, heat effects were quite heterogeneous, with the largest effects observed in cities with milder summers, less air conditioning and higher population density. Adjustment for ozone led to similar results, but some residual confounding could be present due to other uncontrolled pollutants. Conclusions The authors confirmed in a large sample of cities that both cold and hot temperatures increase mortality risk. These findings suggest that increases in heat-related mortality

  9. Wing design for a civil tiltrotor transport aircraft: A preliminary study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rais-Rohani, Masoud

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary study was conducted on the design of the wing-box structure for a civil tiltrotor transport aircraft. The wing structural weight is to be minimized subject to structural and aeroelastic constraints. The composite wing-box structure is composed of skin, stringers, ribs, and spars. The design variables include skin ply thicknesses and orientations and spar cap and stringer cross-sectional areas. With the total task defined, an initial study was conducted to learn more about the intricate dynamic and aeroelastic characteristics of the tiltrotor aircraft and their roles in the wing design. Also, some work was done on the wing finite-element modeling (via PATRAN) which would be used in structural analysis and optimization. Initial studies indicate that in order to limit the wing/rotor aeroelastic and dynamic interactions in the preliminary design, the cruise speed, rotor system, and wing geometric attributes must all be held fixed.

  10. A Pilot Study of Personal Classified Ads Appearing in Capital-City Daily Newspapers: The Kinds, the Guidelines, the Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazier-Smith, Linda

    A pilot study examined trends in the appearance of personal advertisements (individuals seeking dates/mates) in the classified columns of daily newspapers located in state capital cities, as well as newspaper guidelines for the acceptance of personal ads. Daily newspapers in the capital city of each state and some of the larger nationally…

  11. Characterizing the fabric of the urban environment: A case study of Salt Lake City, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem; Rose, L. Shea

    2001-02-28

    Urban fabric data are needed in order to estimate the impact of light-colored surfaces (roofs and pavements) and urban vegetation (trees, grass, shrubs) on the meteorology and air quality of a city, and to design effective implementation programs. In this report, we discuss the result of a semi-automatic Monte-Carlo statistical approach used to develop data on surface-type distribution and city-fabric makeup (percentage of various surface-types) using aerial color orthophotography. The digital aerial photographs for Salt Lake City covered a total of about 34 km2 (13 mi2). At 0.50-m resolution, there were approximately 1.4 x 108 pixels of data. Four major land-use types were examined: (1) commercial, (2) industrial, (3) educational, and (4) residential. On average, for the areas studied, vegetation covers about 46 percent of the area (ranging 44-51 percent), roofs cover about 21 percent (ranging 15-24 percent), and paved surfaces about 26 percent (ranging 21-28 percent). For the most part, trees shade streets, parking lots, grass, and sidewalks. In most non-residential areas, paved surfaces cover 46-66 percent of the area. In residential areas, on average, paved surfaces cover about 32 percent of the area. Land-use/land-cover (LU/LC) data from the United States Geological Survey were used to extrapolate these results from neighborhood scales to metropolitan Salt Lake City. In an area of roughly 560 km2, defining most of metropolitan Salt Lake City, over 60 percent is residential. The total roof area is about 110 km2, and the total paved surface area (roads, parking areas, sidewalks) covers about 170 km2. The total vegetated area covers about 230 km2.

  12. Shock absorption in lumbar disc prosthesis: a preliminary mechanical study.

    PubMed

    LeHuec, J C; Kiaer, T; Friesem, T; Mathews, H; Liu, M; Eisermann, L

    2003-08-01

    Lumbar disc prostheses have been used in treating symptomatic degenerative disc diseases. A few prostheses of the ball-socket design are currently available for clinical use, the joint mechanism being materialized either with a hard polymer core or a metal-to-metal couple. Other prostheses of "shock absorber" design were not available at the time of the study. The objective of this work was to establish whether there was a difference in the shock absorption capacity between a device having an ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene center core and a device having a metal-on-metal bearing. Vibration and shock loading were applied to two lumbar total disc prostheses: PRODISC, manufactured by Spine Solutions, and MAVERICK Total Disc Replacement, manufactured by Medtronic Sofamor Danek. The shock absorption capacity of the device was evaluated by comparing the input and the output force measurements. The disc prosthesis was mounted onto a test apparatus. Each side of the device was equipped with a force sensor. The input shock load and the output resulting forces were simultaneously measured and recorded. The loading force pattern included 1). a static preload of 350 N plus an oscillating vibration of 100 N with frequency sweeping from 0 to 100 Hz and 2). a sudden shock load of 250 N applied over a 0.1-second interval. Both input and output signal data were processed and were transformed into their frequency spectrums. The vibration and shock transmissibility of the device, defined as the ratio of the output spectrum over the input spectrum, were calculated in sweeping the frequency from 0 to 100 Hz. The phase deviation was calculated to characterize the shock absorber effects. For both tested devices under vibration and shock loading, the phase angle displacement between the input and the output signals was 10 degrees. Under oscillating vibration loading, both tested devices had a transmission ratio higher than 99.8%. Over the frequency interval 1-100 Hz, the

  13. Is Climate Chang Responsible to Recent Urban Flooding in Devloping Cities in Africa? A Case study of Addis Ababa City, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moges, Semu; Raschid-Sally, Liqa; Gebremichael, Mekonnen

    2013-04-01

    Cities in Africa show extraordinary expansion of the built environment and imperviousness of the surface condition. Addis Ababa is a case in point, where over the priod of 1984 to 2002, the city asphalted area has increased from 4.72 sq.km (1984) to 27.7 sq.km (2002). Similarly the paved area has expanded five fold from the original 11.1 sq.km, whilst the built environment expanded from 60.1 to 212.7 sq.km. Using hydrological modeling, we demonstrated due to the surface condition change, runoff generation potential has shown significant increase from 28% (in 1984) to 45% (in 2002), showing over 60% change in the runoff volume. The changing condition of the surface is increasing anabtedly, worsening the flooding condition. Similarly, climate change study shows likely increase of precipitation in and around Addis Ababa by about 13 to 17% and comparative increase in flooding. Unlike many cities in Europe, cities in developing countries are confronted with impact emanating from climate change as well as surface condition change. The impact of flooding caused due to the expansion of built environment is found to be more significant in the short term that the climate change, however, the climate change may dominate the long term future of flooding pattern as cities mature towards 2050. Therefore, It is important to view the impacts expansion of built environment and climate change in tandem in future time horizon since the dominance of the impact is different in different temporal scale. In the case of Addis Ababa, we strongly present the following four suggesions: i) the city adminstration re-estabilish the abandoned flood and drainage department of the city as the main flood regulatory and management body working in tandem with Addis Ababa Roads Authority, Water Supply and Sanitation Authority and Urban Planning Authority; ii) The old design guidlines for palnning and design of urban drainage system is not working any more (assumed stationarity condition), we suggest

  14. Groundwater Quality Assessment Using Averaged Water Quality Index: A Case Study of Lahore City, Punjab, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umair Shahid, Syed; Iqbal, Javed

    2016-10-01

    Water quality is considered as a major issue in mega cities of developing countries. The city of Lahore has over 10 million populations with the highest population density in the Punjab Province, Pakistan. Groundwater is the main source of drinking water in Lahore. The groundwater quality should be regularly monitored to cope up with drinking water quality issues. The water quality index (WQI), previously used in many studies was usually based on one-year data to analyze the water quality situation of the study area. However, the results obtained from the data, based on single observation from different points may have distortion. This might have occurred due to the inclusion of multiple types of errors induced in the data as a result of improper sampling design, lack of expertise in terms of both sampling method and sample testing, instrumental and human errors, etc. Therefore, the study evaluated the groundwater physicochemical parameters (turbidity, pH, total dissolved solids, hardness, chlorides, alkalinity and calcium) for three years. The averaged water quality index (AWQI) was computed using ArcGIS 10.3 model builder. The AWQI map indicated that the water quality in the study area was generally good except in few places like Anarkali, Baghbanpura, Allama Iqbal Town, Mughalpura and Mozang due to relatively higher turbidity levels. The results of this study can be used for decision making regarding provision of clean drinking water to the city of Lahore. Moreover, the methodology adopted in this study can be implemented in other mega cities as well to monitor groundwater quality.

  15. Understanding Human Perception of Building Categories in Virtual 3d Cities - a User Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutzauer, P.; Becker, S.; Niese, T.; Deussen, O.; Fritsch, D.

    2016-06-01

    Virtual 3D cities are becoming increasingly important as a means of visually communicating diverse urban-related information. To get a deeper understanding of a human's cognitive experience of virtual 3D cities, this paper presents a user study on the human ability to perceive building categories (e.g. residential home, office building, building with shops etc.) from geometric 3D building representations. The study reveals various dependencies between geometric properties of the 3D representations and the perceptibility of the building categories. Knowledge about which geometries are relevant, helpful or obstructive for perceiving a specific building category is derived. The importance and usability of such knowledge is demonstrated based on a perception-guided 3D building abstraction process.

  16. Identification and preliminary SAR studies of (+)-Geodin as a glucose uptake stimulator for rat adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Sato, Seiichi; Okusa, Noriyuki; Ogawa, Akiyo; Ikenoue, Takao; Seki, Tetsuya; Tsuji, Takashi

    2005-09-01

    (+)-Geodin (1) was isolated from Penicillium glabrum AJ117540 with activity that stimulates glucose uptake by rat adipocytes. Unlike insulin it is active in the presence of wortmannin. Dihydrogeodin (2) and sulochrin (3) which are the precursors of (+)-geodin biosynthesis were also isolated from the same fungus. Preliminary SAR studies of 1 showed some analogues had enhanced activity. Especially, the activities of racemic geodin and dibromo analogue (7a) were comparable to that of the natural product. Geodin (1), a known fungal metabolite, was isolated from Penicillium glabrum AJ117540 as an active substance (Fig. 1). Dihydrogeodin (2) and sulochrin (3), the precursors of 1, were also isolated from the same fungal extract. In this study, preliminary mechanistic insight and SAR are reported.

  17. Manual lymph drainage attenuates frontal EEG asymmetry in subjects with psychological stress: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jung-Myo; Kim, Sung-Joong

    2014-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate the effect of manual lymph drainage (MLD) of the neck on frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry in subjects with psychological stress. [Subjects] Thirteen subjects with psychological stress participated in the study. [Methods] Subjects received MLD of the neck for 15 min. [Results] Analysis of the frontal asymmetry index showed that the energy shift in the alpha frequency band from the left hemisphere to the right hemisphere after MLD resulted in greater left-side activation (positive asymmetry values), which could be related to the positive emotional state observed particularly in the F7-F8 area. [Conclusion] These preliminary findings suggest that frontal EEG asymmetry was significantly attenuated after MLD.

  18. A Fifteen Year Follow Up Study of the North Kansas City Public Schools Work Study Graduates. 1966-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coonley, Pat; And Others

    Data were collected at a 15 year class reunion of 100 graduates of a work study program for educable mentally retarded students in the North Kansas City Public Schools. Ss were interviewed personally by one of their former teachers or the vocational adjustment coordinator. Among findings were the following: 64% had their own automobile; 56% lived…

  19. SOURCE APPORTIONMENT STUDIES OF PM-2.5 IN TWO CZECH CITIES: POSSIBLE USES IN HEALTH STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerosol and gas phase air pollutant measurements were made in two cities during an ongoing air pollution-health outcome study in the Czech Republic. Teplice, located in northwestern Bohemia, was selected because the local population was exposed to high air pollution levels. Prac...

  20. Road Climate in Cities: A Study of the Stockholm Area, South-East Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavsson, Torbjörn; Bogren, Jörgen; Green, Cecilia

    2001-12-01

    The difference between air and road surface temperature in urban and rural areas is an important consideration when modelling the road climate. In this study the effect of the urban heat island in the Stockholm area on road climate is examined. Factors such as distance from the city centre, traffic and topography are analysed in order to assess their impact on the spatial variation of road and air temperature.

  1. Kinetic Studies on Photodeposition of Polydiacetylene Thin Film from Solution: Preliminary Determination of the Rate Law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paley, M. S.; Armstrong, S.; Witherow, W. K.; Frazier, D. O.

    1996-01-01

    Preliminary kinetic studies were undertaken on the photodeposition of thin films of a polydiacetylene derivative of 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline from monomer solutions onto quartz substrates. Solutions of the monomer, DAMNA, in 1,2-dichloroethane at various concentrations were irradiated at 364 nm using an argon-ion laser at several intensities. It was found that the rate of polydiacetylene (PDAMNA) film photodeposition varies linearly with UV light intensity and as the square root of monomer concentration.

  2. Preliminary seismic hazard assessment, shallow seismic refraction and resistivity sounding studies for future urban planning at the Gebel Umm Baraqa area, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Mohamed H.; Hanafy, Sherif M.; Gamal, Mohamed A.

    2008-12-01

    Gebel Umm Baraqa Fan, west Gulf of Aqaba, Sinai, is one of the most important tourism areas in Egypt. However, it is located on the active Dead Sea-Gulf of Aqaba Levant transform fault system. Geophysical studies, including fresh water aquifer delineation, shallow seismic refraction, soil characterization and preliminary seismic hazard assessment, were conducted to help in future city planning. A total of 11 vertical electrical soundings (1000-3000 m maximum AB/2) and three bore-holes were drilled in the site for the analysis of ground water, total dissolved solids (TDS) and fresh water aquifer properties. The interpretation of the one-dimensional (1D) inversion of the resistivity data delineated the fresh water aquifer and determined its hydro-geologic parameters. Eleven shallow seismic refraction profiles (125 m in length) have been collected and interpreted using the generalized reciprocal method, and the resulting depth-velocity models were verified using an advanced finite difference (FD) technique. Shallow seismic refraction effectively delineates two subsurface layers (VP ~ 450 m s-1 and VP ~ 1000 m s-1). A preliminary seismic hazard assessment in Umm Baraqa has produced an estimate of the probabilistic peak ground acceleration hazard in the study area. A recent and historical earthquake catalog for the time period 2200 BC to 2006 has been compiled for the area. New accurate seismic source zoning is considered because such details affect the degree of hazard in the city. The estimated amount of PGA reveals values ranging from 250 to 260 cm s-2 in the bedrock of the Umm Baraqa area during a 100 year interval (a suitable time window for buildings). Recommendations as to suitable types of buildings, considering the amount of shaking and the aquifer properties given in this study, are expected to be helpful for the Umm Baraqa area.

  3. Lorain Harbor, Ohio. Preliminary Feasibility Study (Stage 2). Review of Reports. Volume 1. Main Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    Republic Steel, Karl Kumant of U. S. Steel, and Victor Anderson of the Lake Pilots Association for their interest in and contribution to the study...Cleveland, OH and 90 miles east of Toledo , OH, accommodates the waterborne movement of bulk cargo to and from the city of Lorain and points inland. It...Routes 57 and 58. The Lorain-Elyria metropolitan area is served by Interstates 90 and 80, connecting between Toledo and Cleveland. Interstate 71

  4. Energy Feedback at the City-Wide Scale A comparison to building scale studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Richard Allan

    Climate change is a growing concern throughout the world. In the United States, leadership has so far failed to establish targeted reductions and agreement on mitigation strategies. Despite this, many large cities are taking on the challenge of measuring their emissions, establishing targeted reductions, and defining strategies for mitigation in the form of Climate Action Plans. Reporting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by these cities is usually based on a one-time, annual calculation. Many studies have been conducted on the impact of providing energy use data or feedback to households, and in some cases, institutional or commercial businesses. In most of those studies, the act of providing feedback has resulted in a reduction of energy use, ranging from 2% to 15%, depending upon the features of the feedback. Many of these studies included only electric use. Studies where all energy use was reported are more accurate representations of GHG emissions. GHG emissions and energy use are not the same, depending on the fuel source and in the case of this paper, the focus is on reducing energy use. This research documents the characteristics of the feedback provided in those studies in order to determine which are most effective and should be considered for application to the community-wide scale. Eleven studies, including five primary and six secondary research papers, were reviewed and analyzed for the features of the feedback. Trends were established and evaluated with respect to their effectiveness and potential for use at the community-wide scale. This paper concludes that additional research is required to determine if the use of energy feedback at the city scale could result in savings similar to those observed at the household scale. This additional research could take advantage of the features assessed here in order to be more effective and to implement the features that are best able to scale up. Further research is needed to determine whether combining city

  5. Improving the City-scale Emission Inventory of Anthropogenic Air Pollutants: A Case Study of Nanjing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, L.; Zhao, Y.; Xu, R.; Xie, F.; Wang, H.; Qin, H.; Wu, X.; Zhang, J.

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the improvement of city-scale emission inventory, a high-resolution emission inventory of air pollutants for Nanjing is first developed combining detailed source information, and then justified through quantitative analysis with observations. The best available domestic emission factors and unit-/facility-based activity level data were compiled based on a thorough field survey on major emission sources. Totally 1089 individual emission sources were identified as point sources and all the emission-related parameters including burner type, combustion technology, fuel quality, and removal efficiency of pollution control devices, are carefully investigated and analyzed. Some new data such as detailed information of city fueling-gas stations, construction sites, monthly activity level, data from continuous emission monitoring systems and traffic flow information were combined to improve spatiotemporal distribution of this inventory. For SO2, NOX and CO, good spatial correlations were found between ground observation (9 state controlling air sampling sites in Nanjing) and city-scale emission inventory (R2=0.34, 0.38 and 0.74, respectively). For TSP, PM10 and PM2.5, however, poorer correlation was found due to relatively weaker accuracy in emission estimation and spatial distribution of road dust. The mixing ratios between specific pollutants including OC/EC, BC/CO and CO2/CO, are well correlated between those from ground observation and emission. Compared to MEIC (Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China), there is a better spatial consistence between this city-scale emission inventory and NO2 measured by OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument). In particular, the city-scale emission inventory still correlated well with satellite observations (R2=0.28) while the regional emission inventory showed little correlation with satellite observations (R2=0.09) when grids containing power plants are excluded. It thus confirms the improvement of city-scale emission

  6. Firearm and Nonfirearm Homicide in 5 South African Cities: A Retrospective Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Mary Lou; Myers, Jonathan E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We assessed the effectiveness of South Africa’s Firearm Control Act (FCA), passed in 2000, on firearm homicide rates compared with rates of nonfirearm homicide across 5 South African cities from 2001 to 2005. Methods. We conducted a retrospective population-based study of 37 067 firearm and nonfirearm homicide cases. Generalized linear models helped estimate and compare time trends of firearm and nonfirearm homicides, adjusting for age, sex, race, day of week, city, year of death, and population size. Results. There was a statistically significant decreasing trend regarding firearm homicides from 2001, with an adjusted year-on-year homicide rate ratio of 0.864 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.848, 0.880), representing a decrease of 13.6% per annum. The year-on-year decrease in nonfirearm homicide rates was also significant, but considerably lower at 0.976 (95% CI = 0.954, 0.997). Results suggest that 4585 (95% CI = 4427, 4723) lives were saved across 5 cities from 2001 to 2005 because of the FCA. Conclusions. Strength, timing and consistent decline suggest stricter gun control mediated by the FCA accounted for a significant decrease in homicide overall, and firearm homicide in particular, during the study period. PMID:24432917

  7. Personnel and Organization of Schools in the Small Cities (2,500 to 10,000 Population, 1924-25). Bulletin, 1926, No. 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganders, Harry S.

    1926-01-01

    This study has been undertaken as a step preliminary to the development of a satisfactory system of school accounting for the smaller cities. It was undertaken because, in making an intensive study of the school accounting systems in a number of small cities, it was found that there is a wide variation in practice in the duties performed by…

  8. Scenario prediction of emerging coastal city using CA modeling under different environmental conditions: a case study of Lingang New City, China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yongjiu; Liu, Yan

    2016-09-01

    The world's coastal regions are experiencing rapid urbanization coupled with increased risk of ecological damage and storm surge related to global climate and sea level rising. This urban development issue is particularly important in China, where many emerging coastal cities are being developed. Lingang New City, southeast of Shanghai, is an excellent example of a coastal city that is increasingly vulnerable to environmental change. Sustainable urban development requires planning that classifies and allocates coastal lands using objective procedures that incorporate changing environmental conditions. In this paper, we applied cellular automata (CA) modeling based on self-adaptive genetic algorithm (SAGA) to predict future scenarios and explore sustainable urban development options for Lingang. The CA model was calibrated using the 2005 initial status, 2015 final status, and a set of spatial variables. We implemented specific ecological and environmental conditions as spatial constraints for the model and predicted four 2030 scenarios: (a) an urban planning-oriented Plan Scenario; (b) an ecosystem protection-oriented Eco Scenario; (c) a storm surge-affected Storm Scenario; and (d) a scenario incorporating both ecosystem protection and the effects of storm surge, called the Ecostorm Scenario. The Plan Scenario has been taken as the baseline, with the Lingang urban area increasing from 45.8 km(2) in 2015 to 66.8 km(2) in 2030, accounting for 23.9 % of the entire study area. The simulated urban land size of the Plan Scenario in 2030 was taken as the target to accommodate the projected population increase in this city, which was then applied in the remaining three development scenarios. We used CA modeling to reallocate the urban cells to other unconstrained areas in response to changing spatial constraints. Our predictions should be helpful not only in assessing and adjusting the urban planning schemes for Lingang but also for evaluating urban planning in coastal

  9. Study of noise pollution for three consecutive years during Deepawali festival in Meerut City, Uttar Pradesh (India).

    PubMed

    Singh, Digvijay; Joshi, B D

    2012-07-01

    The present paper deals with monitoring of noise pollution at different places of Meerut City (India) on the night of Deepawali festival. During the present study the noise levels were measured with the help of sound meter. The noise pollution is decreasing considerably for the last three years and it is recorded minimum in 2009 as compared to 2008 and 2007. The main reason of this decrement is the growing environmental awareness in the people of Meerut City. Needless to say, students of most of the school in Meerut City now prefer to celebrate Deepawali, festival of lights without sound and smoke. The campaign for eco-friendly Deepawali is expected to catch on with people in Meerut City which has already demonstrated its commitment towards environment conservation. Mainly fire crackers are used during Deepawali. The present paper is an attempt to create awareness among the people of Meerut City about the bitter truth of fire crackers.

  10. Violence in Advertisements in New York City Subway Stations: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey H; Fullwood, M D; LeBlanc, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Violence has become a public health concern in the United States. Violent visually stimulating content encompasses various techniques such as fear, humor, shock, or violence, to stimulate a response or appeal toward awareness of human emotion. Exposing impressionable youth to violent advertisements can be particularly problematic. This is especially true in places like New York City where violent crime is a prevalent problem. With annual ridership reaching over 1.7 billion in 2014, the New York City subway system is abundant with advertisements. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the frequency and type of violent advertising on the Lexington Avenue/East Side Line in New York City, running through the Bronx and Manhattan to represent the lower and higher median income earning boroughs. There were no statistically different findings in median household income at site of station by number of ads or source of violent. Destruction was the most common form of violence (n = 32, 42.7 %) followed by intent to strike (n = 18, 24 %), showing a weapon (n = 15, 20 %) and horror (n = 10, 13.3 %). Most ads (n = 46, 61.3 %) were found in stations heading uptown toward and through the Bronx, the borough where median household income is lowest, whereas 29 (38.7 %) were found in stations heading downtown. Future studies could focus on additional boroughs and subways lines, and could be collected at multiple points in time to determine of how prevalent violent advertising is throughout New York City and at different time frames.

  11. Violence in Advertisements in New York City Subway Stations: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Basch, Corey H.; Fullwood, M. D.; LeBlanc, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Violence has become a public health concern in the United States. Violent visually stimulating content encompasses various techniques such as fear, humor, shock, or violence, to stimulate a response or appeal toward awareness of human emotion. Exposing impressionable youth to violent advertisements can be particularly problematic. This is especially true in places like New York City where violent crime is a prevalent problem. With annual ridership reaching over 1.7 billion in 2014, the New York City subway system is abundant with advertisements. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the frequency and type of violent advertising on the Lexington Avenue/East Side Line in New York City, running through the Bronx and Manhattan to represent the lower and higher median income earning boroughs. There were no statistically different findings in median household income at site of station by number of ads or source of violent. Destruction was the most common form of violence (n = 32, 42.7 %) followed by intent to strike (n = 18, 24 %), showing a weapon (n = 15, 20 %) and horror (n = 10, 13.3 %). Most ads (n = 46, 61.3 %) were found in stations heading uptown toward and through the Bronx, the borough where median household income is lowest, whereas 29 (38.7 %) were found in stations heading downtown. Future studies could focus on additional boroughs and subways lines, and could be collected at multiple points in time to determine of how prevalent violent advertising is throughout New York City and at different time frames. PMID:26518776

  12. Association between meteorological factors and bacillary dysentery incidence in Chaoyang city, China: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Zhu, Yaxin; Zhu, Zhiwei; Qu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To quantify the relationship between meteorological factors and bacillary dysentery incidence. Design Ecological study. Setting We collected bacillary dysentery incidences and meteorological data of Chaoyang city from the year 1981 to 2010. The climate in this city was a typical northern temperate continental monsoon. All meteorological factors in this study were divided into 4 latent factors: temperature, humidity, sunshine and airflow. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the relationship between meteorological factors and the incidence of bacillary dysentery. Material Incidences of bacillary dysentery were obtained from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Chaoyang city, and meteorological data were collected from the Bureau of Meteorology in Chaoyang city. Primary outcome measures The indexes including χ2, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), comparative fit index (CFI), standardised root mean square residual (SRMR) and goodness-of-fit index (GFI) were used to evaluate the goodness-of-fit of the theoretical model to the data. The factor loads were used to explore quantitative relationship between bacillary dysentery incidences and meteorological factors. Results The goodness-of-fit results of the model showing that RMSEA=0.08, GFI=0.84, CFI=0.88, SRMR=0.06 and the χ2 value is 231.95 (p=0.0) with 15 degrees of freedom. Temperature and humidity factors had positive correlations with incidence of bacillary dysentery, with the factor load of 0.59 and 0.78, respectively. Sunshine had a negative correlation with bacillary dysentery incidence, with a factor load of −0.15. Conclusions Humidity and temperature should be given greater consideration in bacillary dysentery prevention measures for northern temperate continental monsoon climates, such as that of Chaoyang. PMID:27940632

  13. Volume 1. Preliminary design study: AXAF x ray calibration spectrometers. Volume 2. Revised preliminary design study: AXAF x ray calibration spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this work was to provide a preliminary design concept for a Flux Monitor Spectrometer (FMS) for use at the X Ray Astrophysics Facility (XRAF) during High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) testing that met the requirements of SAO-AXAF-88-025 dated July 31, 1991. The calibration test team determined that the spectral resolution of the FMS had to be greater than or equal to twice that of all the AXAF spectrometers throughout the 0.1 to 10 KeV range of x-ray energies. Since this effectively doubled the resolution required by SAO-AXAF-88-025, a change order was approved by the Marshall Space Flight Center and given to Radiation Sciences to revise their study.

  14. The MSFC Collaborative Engineering Process for Preliminary Design and Concept Definition Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulqueen, Jack; Jones, David; Hopkins, Randy

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a collaborative engineering process developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Concepts Office for performing rapid preliminary design and mission concept definition studies for potential future NASA missions. The process has been developed and demonstrated for a broad range of mission studies including human space exploration missions, space transportation system studies and in-space science missions. The paper will describe the design team structure and specialized analytical tools that have been developed to enable a unique rapid design process. The collaborative engineering process consists of integrated analysis approach for mission definition, vehicle definition and system engineering. The relevance of the collaborative process elements to the standard NASA NPR 7120.1 system engineering process will be demonstrated. The study definition process flow for each study discipline will be will be outlined beginning with the study planning process, followed by definition of ground rules and assumptions, definition of study trades, mission analysis and subsystem analyses leading to a standardized set of mission concept study products. The flexibility of the collaborative engineering design process to accommodate a wide range of study objectives from technology definition and requirements definition to preliminary design studies will be addressed. The paper will also describe the applicability of the collaborative engineering process to include an integrated systems analysis approach for evaluating the functional requirements of evolving system technologies and capabilities needed to meet the needs of future NASA programs.

  15. A Study of Aerosols Transportation around City Boundary in the Fog Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, J.; Li, J. H.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, B. L.; Wang, Q. T.

    2011-09-01

    The structure of city surface seriously affects transport and diffusion of pollutant aerosol particles in the fog weather. So dynamic model population balance model (PBM) of aerosol particles and multiphase-coupled flow model were established to describe the fluid-particle system of fog. Based on the Eulerian-Lagrangian method and Multi-Monte Carlo method, a study of aerosols transportation around city boundary was conducted. The computed results show a part of aerosols change into droplets during the formation of fog, and the average sizes of aerosols, droplets are about 0.032 7 μm and 28.7 μm with time evolution to 60 min. For the development of fog, with time of 60 min and wind of 2 m/s, the number of aerosol is down to 84.5% of initial value, and the average particle size is down to 22.1 μm accordingly. During the dissipation of fog, the numbers of aerosol and fog droplet are decreased to the 1.65% and 0.016 5% of initial value. As wind speed rising, the turbulent motion strength of particles is increased. Eventually, the droplets have almost disappeared, and a small number of aerosols are still suspended in the atmosphere. The computed results reflect the transport and dynamic characteristics for respirable aerosols around city boundary during three stages of fog.

  16. Environmental health indicators and a case study of air pollution in Latin American cities.

    PubMed

    Bell, Michelle L; Cifuentes, Luis A; Davis, Devra L; Cushing, Erin; Telles, Adriana Gusman; Gouveia, Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Environmental health indicators (EHIs) are applied in a variety of research and decision-making settings to gauge the health consequences of environmental hazards, to summarize complex information, or to compare policy impacts across locations or time periods. While EHIs can provide a useful means of conveying information, they also can be misused. Additional research is needed to help researchers and policy-makers understand categories of indicators and their appropriate application. In this article, we review current frameworks for environmental health indicators and discuss the advantages and limitations of various forms. A case study EHI system was developed for air pollution and health for urban Latin American centers in order to explore how underlying assumptions affect indicator results. Sixteen cities were ranked according to five indicators that considered: population exposed, children exposed, comparison to health-based guidelines, and overall PM(10) levels. Results indicate that although some overall patterns in rankings were observed, cities' relative rankings were highly dependent on the indicator used. In fact, a city that was ranked best under one indicator was ranked worst with another. The sensitivity of rankings, even when considering a simple case of a single pollutant, highlights the need for clear understanding of EHIs and how they may be affected by underlying assumptions. Careful consideration should be given to the purpose, assumptions, and limitations of EHIs used individually or in combination in order to minimize misinterpretation of their implications and enhance their usefulness.

  17. A comprehensive study on landfill site selection for Kolkata City, India.

    PubMed

    Paul, Koushik; Dutta, Amit; Krishna, A P

    2014-07-01

    Kolkata is one of the four major metropolitan cities in India and the capital city of the state of West Bengal. With an area of 187.33 km2 and a population of about 10 million (including a floating population of about 6 million), the city generates about 3500 Metric Ton (MT) of solid waste per day. Currently, Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) disposes its waste at Dhapa (21.47 ha), where the disposal rate exceeds 3000 MT/day, and at Garden Reach (3.52 ha), where the disposal rate is 100 MT/day. Considering the exhaustion of Dhapa land space, city planners are urgently searching for an alternate disposal ground. National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), under the sponsorship of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), has brought out literature developing the site selection criteria for municipal solid waste disposal ground to suit Indian conditions. The developed criteria encompass environmental conditions, accessibility, geological and hydrogeological conditions, and ecological and societal effects. This paper attempts to locate the most suitable site for disposal of KMC area solid waste using the multicriterion decision analysis as stipulated in CPCB 2003 guidelines and the overlay analysis of geographic information system (GIS). Implications: The paper is based on landfill site selection for dumping of solid waste generated within Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) area. The methodology uses GIS/remote sensing, Site Sensitivity Index (an offshoot of pairwise comparison technique developed in CPCB 2003 guidelines, Government of India), and the Delphi technique. Dhapa landfill site, where solid waste of KMC area is currently being disposed, is exhausted; the authors of this article thus found it relevant to carry out a research on the selection of an alternative landfill site. The study undertaken was comprehensive, yet presented in a lucid way so that policymakers will find easy to comprehend.

  18. Reverse logistics system and recycling potential at a landfill: A case study from Kampala City

    SciTech Connect

    Kinobe, J.R.; Gebresenbet, G.; Niwagaba, C.B.; Vinnerås, B.

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Quantifies the different waste streams delivered at the landfill. • Evaluates the amount of potential waste products that enters into the reverse cycle. • Drawing out the reverse logistics activities from Kampala City to Kiteezi landfill. • Identify the storage, collection and transportation mechanisms of products to the various destinations; and finally. • The study suggests efficient measures to improve reverse logistics system. - Abstract: The rapid growing population and high urbanisation rates in Sub-Saharan Africa has caused enormous pressure on collection services of the generated waste in the urban areas. This has put a burden on landfilling, which is the major waste disposal method. Waste reduction, re-use and recycling opportunities exist but are not fully utilized. The common items that are re-used and re-cycled are plastics, paper, aluminum, glass, steel, cardboard, and yard waste. This paper develops an overview of reverse logistics at Kiteezi landfill, the only officially recognised waste disposal facility for Kampala City. The paper analyses, in details the collection, re-processing, re-distribution and final markets of these products into a reversed supply chain network. Only 14% of the products at Kiteezi landfill are channeled into the reverse chain while 63% could be included in the distribution chain but are left out and disposed of while the remaining 23% is buried. This is because of the low processing power available, lack of market value, lack of knowledge and limited value addition activities to the products. This paper proposes possible strategies of efficient and effective reverse logistics development, applicable to Kampala City and other similar cities.

  19. The study on LUCC and its human drive factors in Quanzhou City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, JianShun; Zhong, KaiWen; Zhang, JinQian; Chen, SongLin

    2008-10-01

    Based on the 1988 and 2000 remote sensing data and the "3S" technology, we not only attempt to analyze the dynamic change form the structure of quantity and spatial change of Land Use in Quanzhou City, but also use the representatively correlation method to explain the interrelation between this change of Land Use and the social economic factors, by the CANCORR program of SPSS. Furthermore, according to the viewpoint of Humanism, we try to find out the function of the social power factors, the social culture factors which conclude natural view, axiology, dietetically custom, habitation fashion and consumed tropism .etc and the developing industries of local color on the Land Use change. From this research, the result show: 1) the structure of quantity of Land Use change remarkably from county to county, the most reducing quantity of paddy field, dry land and garden plot are separately the county of DeHua, HuiAn and NanAn. And the most driver factor is the developing industries of local color; 2) the type change of Land Use caused by the production value of extractive industry, light industry and the third industry, basic contracture investment, output of tea and fruit, convenient extent of road and income of per farmer and so on in Quanzhou City between 1988 and 2000. In a word, the dynamic change of Land Use impact by more factors we have mentioned, and it's extend is more and more multistage, especially in Quanzhou City. As we study, the dynamic change of Land Use is enslaved to human factors in Quanzhou City.

  20. Preliminary experimental results on studying possibility of variable mass liner (VML) formation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The main objective of the present experiment was to study the formation process and initial stage of acceleration of a variable-mass plasma liner (VML). The method is based on magnetic acceleration of a liner with the mass reduced during such acceleration. The experiment was carried out on February 16 at VNIIEF. This report describes the results of measurements obtained in the experiment and preliminary analysis of the results characterizing operation of the test facility main units: helical EMG; 5-module disk EMG 400 mm in diameter (DEMG); ponderomotive unit (PU) with a cylindric condensed liner and a special tooth-cutoff. The first part of the report presents measurement results obtained on the VNIIEF`s diagnostic equipment that are compared with those obtained by American specialists on their diagnostic equipment. Information submitted by American specialists is included in part 2 of this report. The second part of the report presents preliminary computational-theoretic analysis of the main measured results describing operation of DEMG TL system in the experiment; experimental data are compared with theoretical ones obtained before and after the experiment. But more emphasis is placed on the data preliminary analysis indicating that in the experiment a variable mass liner is formed (VML or plasma bubble).

  1. Blade system design studies volume II : preliminary blade designs and recommended test matrix.

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Dayton A.

    2004-06-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Partnerships for Advanced Component Technologies (WindPACT) program, Global Energy Concepts, LLC is performing a Blade System Design Study (BSDS) concerning innovations in materials, processes and structural configurations for application to wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt range. The BSDS Volume I project report addresses issues and constraints identified to scaling conventional blade designs to the megawatt size range, and evaluated candidate materials, manufacturing and design innovations for overcoming and improving large blade economics. The current report (Volume II), presents additional discussion of materials and manufacturing issues for large blades, including a summary of current trends in commercial blade manufacturing. Specifications are then developed to guide the preliminary design of MW-scale blades. Using preliminary design calculations for a 3.0 MW blade, parametric analyses are performed to quantify the potential benefits in stiffness and decreased gravity loading by replacement of a baseline fiberglass spar with carbon-fiberglass hybrid material. Complete preliminary designs are then presented for 3.0 MW and 5.0 MW blades that incorporate fiberglass-to-carbon transitions at mid-span. Based on analysis of these designs, technical issues are identified and discussed. Finally, recommendations are made for composites testing under Part I1 of the BSDS, and the initial planned test matrix for that program is presented.

  2. THE FEASIBILITY AND EFFICACY OF ECCENTRIC EXERCISE WITH OLDER CANCER SURVIVORS: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    PubMed Central

    LaStayo, Paul C.; Larsen, Stephanie; Smith, Sheldon; Dibble, Lee; Marcus, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Older individuals who have survived cancer, and the commensurate treatment, often experience a reduced quality of life in part due to their impaired muscular abilities and deficits in mobility. The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of resistance exercise via negative, eccentrically-induced work (RENEW) with older cancer survivors. Methods Older cancer survivors with a perception of moderate muscle weakness and fatigue participated in 12 weeks of RENEW. Measures of feasibility included: 1) the participant’s ability to progress the total amount of work of RENEW; 2) whether peak knee extension torque production became impaired; and 3) whether RENEW induced leg muscle pain as measured on a visual analog scale. The preliminary measure of efficacy included: the performance of a timed up and go mobility test. Results The participants significantly increased the total average work per week over the 12 weeks of RENEW. Participants increased (p<0.001) their work ~3-fold from week 3 (7.6± 5.1 kJ) to week 12 (22.1±14.8kJ) without muscle pain over the 12 week RENEW training period. Knee extension peak torque production improved (11%) significantly (p=0.02) (pretest: 248 ±92 N; posttest: 275±99 N) after 12 weeks of RENEW. The time to perform the TUG test improved (14%) significantly (p<0.001) (pretest: 8.4±2.7; posttest: 7.2±2.3 s) after 12 weeks of RENEW, suggesting preliminary efficacy. Conclusion Collectively, RENEW appears feasible and potentially efficacious for older, weak and fatigued cancer survivors. Implications for Cancer Survivors The use of eccentric muscle exercise may be ideally suited for older cancer survivors due to its high force and low energetic cost capabilities. PMID:21155509

  3. A case-control study of bladder cancer using city directories as a source of occupational data.

    PubMed

    Steenland, K; Burnett, C; Osorio, A M

    1987-08-01

    Commercial city directories, currently produced in 1,250 United States cities, potentially provide yearly information on occupation and employer for all city residents over age 18 years. To investigate the usefulness of these occupational data, the authors have conducted a case-control study of male bladder cancer mortality in Hamilton County, Ohio (which includes Cincinnati). A total of 731 bladder cancer cases who died during 1960-1982 were matched on age, sex, race, date-of-death, and residence at death to two controls per case. Risks of bladder cancer death were calculated by occupation, industry, and specific employer, using both city directories (multiple statements) and death certificates (single statement). Four companies showed a significant excess bladder cancer risk when using city directories. Only one would have been identified using death certificates, which ask for usual lifetime type of industry rather than a specific company name. Using city directories, significant positive associations were found between bladder cancer and occupation as an engineer, tailor, carpenter, furnace operator, blending machine operator, chemist, pressing machine operator, house cleaner, or salesman. For industry, the authors found significant positive associations for the textile, chemical, grain mill, foundry, petroleum, building service, entertainment, and advertising industries. A significant increase in risk for those with 20 or more years of employment was seen for those employed as truck drivers and furnace operators, or those employed in the railroad industry. A check of the validity of city directory data indicated that 77 per cent of the listings agreed with Social Security earnings reports for employer in any given year. One limitation of Hamilton County city directory data was the fairly large number of yearly listings without any occupational data (15 per cent for occupation, 36 per cent for employer). While city directory data do provide work history over

  4. HIV/AIDS Prevention in Zambia: A Preliminary Study of Obstacles to Behavior Change in the Copperbelt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    PREVENTION IN ZAMBIA: A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF OBSTACLES TO BEHAVIOR CHANGE IN THE COPPERBELT by Jana Ramona Alley Nyerges June 2006 Thesis Co...A Preliminary Study of Obstacles to Behavior Change in the Copperbelt 6. AUTHOR(S) Jana Ramona Alley Nyerges 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING... Copperbelt region in Zambia, finding significant evidence that both social and economic factors operate as fundamental obstacles to behavior change

  5. Shuttle ground operations efficiencies/technologies study. Volume 4: Preliminary Issues Database (PIDB) catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholz, A. L.; Hart, M. T.; Lowry, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    The Preliminary Issues Database (PIDB) was assembled very early in the study as one of the fundamental tools to be used throughout the study. Data was acquired from a variety of sources and compiled in such a way that the data could be easily sorted in accordance with a number of different analytical objectives. The system was computerized to significantly expedite sorting and make it more usable. The information contained in the PIDB is summarized and the reader is provided with the capability to manually find items of interest.

  6. Preliminary study of PCBs in raccoons living on or near the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Halbrook, Richard S.

    2016-01-15

    The “Ecological Monitoring at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant: Historical Evaluation and Guidelines for Future Monitoring” report (Halbrook, et al. 2007) recommended the raccoon as a species for study at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). This species was selected to fill data gaps in ecological resources and provide resource managers with knowledge that will be valuable in making decisions and implementing specific actions to safeguard ecological resources and reduce human exposure. The current paper reports results of a preliminary evaluation to establish protocols for collection of tissues and initial screening of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in raccoons collected near the PGDP. These data are useful in developing future more comprehensive studies.

  7. Separation and/or divorce sexual assault in rural Ohio: preliminary results of an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    DeKeseredy, Walter S; Joseph, Carolyn

    2006-03-01

    A rapidly growing social scientific literature shows that many women are at great risk of being killed, beaten, or psychologically abused when they exit or try to leave their marital and/or cohabiting partners. However, less than a handful of studies have examined male-to-female sexual assaults during and after separation or divorce. Furthermore, the bulk of the limited empirical work on this problem was done in urban areas. Thus, the main objective of this article is to help fill two major research gaps by presenting the preliminary results of an ongoing exploratory study of separation and/or divorce sexual assault in rural Ohio.

  8. Preliminary study on improvement of cementitious grout thermal conductivity for geothermal heat pump applications

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, M.L.

    1996-06-01

    Preliminary studies were preformed to determine whether thermal conductivity of cementitious grouts used to backfill heat exchanger loops for geothermal heat pumps could be improved, thus improving efficiency. Grouts containing selected additives were compares with conventional bentonite and cement grouts. Significant enhancement of grout alumina grit, steel fibers, and silicon carbide increased the thermal conductivity when compared to unfilled, high solids bentonite grouts and conventional cement grouts. Furthermore, the developed grouts retained high thermal conductivity in the dry state, where as conventional bentonite and cement grouts tend to act as insulators if moisture is lost. The cementitious grouts studied can be mixed and placed using conventional grouting equipment.

  9. Intention of Students in Less Developed Cities in China to Opt for Undergraduate Education Abroad: Does This Vary as Their Perceptions of the Attractions of Overseas Study Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Fan-sing

    2010-01-01

    This study is based on a survey in 2007 of 12,961 senior secondary final year students in seven major cities in China, and shows that students in less developed cities manifest a stronger intention to study abroad than students in better off cities, controlling for students' other demographic characteristics and their major perceived attractions…

  10. Influenza newspaper reports and the influenza epidemic: an observational study in Fukuoka City, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hagihara, Akihito; Onozuka, Daisuke; Miyazaki, Shougo; Abe, Takeru

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined whether the weekly number of newspaper articles reporting on influenza was related to the incidence of influenza in a large city. Design Prospective, non-randomised, observational study. Setting Registry data of influenza cases in Fukuoka City, Japan. Participants A total of 83 613 cases of influenza cases that occurred between October 1999 and March 2007 in Fukuoka City, Japan. Main outcome measure A linear model with autoregressive time series errors was fitted to time series data on the incidence of influenza and the accumulated number of influenza-related newspaper articles with different time lags in Fukuoka City, Japan. In order to obtain further evidence that the number of newspaper articles a week with specific time lags is related to the incidence of influenza, Granger causality was also tested. Results Of the 16 models including ‘number of newspaper articles’ with different time lags between 2 and 17 weeks (xt-2 to t-17), the β coefficients of ‘number of newspaper articles’ at time lags between t-5 and t-13 were significant. However, the β coefficients of ‘number of newspaper articles’ that are significant with respect to the Granger causality tests (p<0.05) were the weekly number of newspaper articles at time lags between t-6 and t-10 (time shift of 10 weeks, β=−0.301, p<0.01; time shift of 9 weeks, β=−0.200, p<0.01; time shift of 8 weeks, β=−0.156, p<0.01; time shift of 7 weeks, β=−0.122, p<0.05; time shift of 6 weeks, β=−0.113, p<0.05). Conclusions We found that the number of newspaper articles reporting on influenza in a week was related to the incidence of influenza 6–10 weeks after media coverage in a large city in Japan. PMID:26719323

  11. Social Experiments in Tokyo Metropolitan Area Convection Study for Extreme Weather Resilient Cities(TOMACS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuyoshi, Nakatani; Nakamura, Isao; MIsumi, Ryohei; Shoji, Yoshinori

    2015-04-01

    Introduction TOMACS research project has been started since 2010 July in order to develop the elementary technologies which are required for the adaptation of societies to future global warming impacts that cannot be avoided by the reduction of greenhouse gases. In collaboration with related government institutions, local governments, private companies, and residents, more than 25 organizations and over 100 people are participated. TOMACS consists of the following three research themes: Theme 1: Studies on extreme weather with dense meteorological observations Theme 2: Development of the extreme weather early detection and prediction system Theme 3: Social experiments on extreme weather resilient cities Theme 1 aims to understand the initiation, development, and dissipation processes of convective precipitation in order to clarify the mechanism of localized heavy rainfall which are potential causes of flooding and landslides. Theme 2 aims to establish the monitoring and prediction system of extreme phenomena which can process real-time data from dense meteorological observation networks, advanced X-band radar network systems and predict localized heavy rainfalls and strong winds. Through social experiments, theme 3 aims to establish a method to use information obtained by the monitoring system of extreme phenomena to disaster prevention operations in order to prevent disasters and reduce damage. Social Experiments Toyo University is the core university for the social experiments accomplishment. And following organizations are participating in this research theme: NIED, the Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection (TMRIEP), University of Tokyo, Tokyo Fire Department (TFD), Edogawa Ward in Tokyo, Yokohama City, Fujisawa City and Minamiashigara City in Kanagawa, East Japan Railway Company, Central Japan Railway Company, Obayashi Corporation, and Certified and Accredited Meteorologists of Japan(CAMJ). The social experiments have carried out

  12. Serological study of the lymphochoriomeningitis virus (LCMV) in an inner city of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Riera, Laura; Castillo, Ernesto; Del Carmen Saavedra, María; Priotto, José; Sottosanti, Josefa; Polop, Jaime; Ambrosio, Ana María

    2005-06-01

    Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is the prototype of the family Arenaviridae and is associated with the natural reservoir, Mus domesticus (Md). It causes meningitis and a flu-like illness characterized by malaise, myalgia, retrorbital headache, and photophobia. This study presents the data obtained in a rodent and human serological study during 6 years (1998-2003) in the city of Rio Cuarto, Argentina. Antibodies anti-LCMV were sought by ELISA in rodents and humans. LCMV was found only in Md species in 9.4% of animals. The results also show some seasonal, no significant variations in the prevalence of the infection. Distribution of positive mice was not modified significantly by trapping sites, sex, or age of the animals. The prevalence of LCMV positive urban residents was found to be consistently low (1-3.6%) along the study period, with overage prevalence of 3.3% and values in males (4.6%) significantly higher than in females (2.6%) (P < 0.05). Seven of 432 pregnant women were found to be LCMV positive, but the absence of LCMV antibodies in the newborns demonstrated that the mothers were infected before pregnancy. This study is the first evidence on endemic LCMV in an Argentine city located outside the endemic area of Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF) and described the need to study other areas and increase awareness of this viral infection.

  13. Public health assessment for Richardson Flat Tailings, Park City, Summit County, Utah, Region 8. Cerclis No. UTD980952840. Addendum. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-03

    The document is an addendum to the preliminary public health assessment prepared for the Richardson Flat Tailings site by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) in July 1990 (PB90-260092). ATSDR's Health Activities Recommendation Panel (HARP) has evaluated the data and information developed in the Richardson Flat Tailings Public Health Assessment. The panel determined that, because of the apparent lack of past and present public health hazards and community health concerns, no follow-up health activities are indicated at this time.

  14. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women in Aguascalientes City, Mexico: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Terrones-Saldívar, María del Carmen; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Muñoz-Terrones, María Daniela Enriqueta; Gallegos-González, Roberto Oswaldo; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Reyes-Robles, Martha Elena; Jaramillo-Juárez, Fernando; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We determined the seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in Aguascalientes City, Mexico. Design A cross-sectional survey. Setting Pregnant women were enrolled in the central Mexican city of Aguascalientes. Participants We studied 338 pregnant women who attended prenatal care in 3 public health centres. Primary and secondary outcome measures Women were examined for IgG/IgM antibodies to T. gondii by using commercially available enzyme immunoassays, and an avidity test. Multiple analyses were used to determine the association of T. gondii seropositivity with the characteristics of the pregnant women. Results Of the 338 pregnant women studied, 21 (6.2%) had IgG antibodies to T. gondii, and 1 (4.8%) of them was also positive for IgM antibodies to T. gondii. Avidity of IgG antibodies to T. gondii was high in the IgM-positive sample. Logistic regression analysis of sociodemographic, behavioural and housing variables showed that T. gondii seropositivity was associated with white ethnicity (OR=149.4; 95% CI 10.8 to 2054.1; p<0.01), not washing hands before eating (OR=6.41; 95% CI 1.73 to 23.6; p=0.005) and use of latrine (OR=37.6; 95% CI 4.63 to 306.31; p=0.001). Conclusions Results demonstrate that pregnant women in Aguascalientes City have a low seroprevalence of T. gondii infection. However, this low prevalence indicates that most pregnant women are at risk for a primary infection. Factors associated with T. gondii exposure found in this study, including food hygiene, may be useful to determine preventive measures against T. gondii infection and its sequelae. PMID:27371556

  15. Molecular Epidemiological Study of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the Focus of Bushehr City, Southwestern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Shahbazi, Farideh; Darvishi, Mohammad; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Jafari, Reza; Khajeian, Mohammad; Rassi, Yavar; Soleimani, Hassan; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Darabi, Hossein; Arandian, Mohammad Hossein; Sanei-Dehkordi, Alireza; Heidari, Mansour

    2013-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) represents the most frequent vector borne parasitoses in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological features of CL including human infection and the reservoir host in the city of Bushehr, Bushehr Province, Iran during 2010–2011. Methods: Studies on human infection was carried out on 2962 school children aged 7–14 years old from 60 primary schools and among 400 households with a total population of 1568 in four infected districts of the city in December 2010. Serosity materials from patients on glass slides were collected for molecular identification of causative agent. Rodents were caught by Sherman traps and examined for identification of the parasite. Results: Prevalence of scars and ulcers among the inhabitants were 5.86% and 0.12% respectively. Molecular study indicated the presence of two coexisting species: Leishmania major and L. tropica among patients. The scar rate was 1.24% but no ulcers were seen among the students. Nineteen rodents were caught and identified as Tatera indica (47.4%) and Rattus norvegicus (52.6%). Specimens from 7 T. indica and 9 R. norvegicus were examined by two techniques, microscopic examination and nested-PCR. Out of 7 T. indica, 14.3% were infected with L. major and 42.9% with L. turanica by nested-PCR. Out of 9 R. norvegicus 22.2% were infected with L. turanica and 11.1% with L. gerbilli. Conclusion: Based on this survey L. major and L. tropica are the causative agents of the disease among patients and T. indica plays a predominant role in the dissemination of L. major in the city. PMID:24409436

  16. A preliminary model to avoid the overestimation of sample size in bioequivalence studies.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, E; Abraira, V; Guerra, P; Borobia, A M; Duque, B; López, J L; Mosquera, B; Lubomirov, R; Carcas, A J; Frías, J

    2013-02-01

    Often the only available data in literature for sample size estimations in bioequivalence studies is intersubject variability, which tends to result in overestimation of sample size. In this paper, we proposed a preliminary model of intrasubject variability based on intersubject variability for Cmax and AUC data from randomized, crossovers, bioequivalence (BE) studies. From 93 Cmax and 121 AUC data from test-reference comparisons that fulfilled BE criteria, we calculated intersubject variability for the reference formulation and intrasubject variability from ANOVA. Lineal and exponential models (y=a(1-e-bx)) were fitted weighted by the inverse of the variance, to predict the intrasubject variability based on intersubject variability. To validate the model we calculated the coefficient of cross-validation of data from 30 new BE studies. The models fit very well (R2=0.997 and 0.990 for Cmax and AUC respectively) and the cross-validation correlation were 0.847 for Cmax and 0.572 for AUC. A preliminary model analyses allow us to estimate the intrasubject variability based on intersubject variability for sample size calculation purposes in BE studies. This approximation provides an opportunity for sample size reduction avoiding unnecessary exposure of healthy volunteers. Further modelling studies are desirable to confirm these results especially suggestions of the higher intersubject variability range.

  17. Risk perception, risk management and vulnerability to landslides in the hill slopes in the city of La Paz, Bolivia. A preliminary statement.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Fabien

    2008-09-01

    The article begins by describing the difficult living conditions of many people in the hill slopes (laderas) of La Paz, Bolivia, demonstrating that they are exposed to a combination of natural and social hazards. It shows that residents, community leaders and city planners tend to underestimate or deny risk, with important consequences for risk management, such as a failure to raise risk awareness. The article then proposes some hypotheses to explain risk perceptions in La Paz, discarding the usual single-approach interpretations and suggesting instead more nuanced theoretical explanations to account for why people build their homes in such hazardous environments.

  18. [The results of complex social and ecologic study in the city of Ufa].

    PubMed

    Zakharov, I D; Magasumov, A M; Simonova, N I; Eĭdel'man, Ia L; Simenido, Iu V

    1997-01-01

    The authors present results of social and ecologic study carried out in Ufa. The results describe the course of ecologically important processes and phenomena in correlation with the public subjective understanding. Public health is influenced by hygienic parameters of food and water quality as well as a complex of social, economic and psychologic factors. Weak correlation between those parameters and ambient air pollution necessitates more accurate approach to ecologic mapping of cities and to manipulation with data on lower atmosphere pollution with chemical hazards.

  19. Unlocking the Potential of Urban Communities: Case Studies of Twelve Learning Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdés-Cotera, Raúl, Ed.; Longworth, Norman, Ed.; Lunardon, Katharina, Ed.; Wang, Mo, Ed.; Jo, Sunok, Ed.; Crowe, Sinéad, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    UNESCO established the UNESCO Global Network of Learning Cities (GNLC) to encourage the development of learning cities. By providing technical support, capacity development, and a platform where members can share ideas on policies and best practice, this international exchange network helps urban communities create thriving learning cities. The…

  20. A Case Study in Policy Change: Mayoral Control in New York City's Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlynn, Adam

    2010-01-01

    During the 33 years New York City schools were controlled primarily by community school boards, the city's mayors posited that greater mayoral influence was the cure for the ills afflicting the city's schools. This paper applies theories of policy change to the 30-year battle for control of New York's schools while highlighting the role of the…

  1. Dynamic resource allocation in a hierarchical multiprocessor system: A preliminary study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ngai, Tin-Fook

    1986-01-01

    An integrated system approach to dynamic resource allocation is proposed. Some of the problems in dynamic resource allocation and the relationship of these problems to system structures are examined. A general dynamic resource allocation scheme is presented. A hierarchial system architecture which dynamically maps between processor structure and programs at multiple levels of instantiations is described. Simulation experiments were conducted to study dynamic resource allocation on the proposed system. Preliminary evaluation based on simple dynamic resource allocation algorithms indicates that with the proposed system approach, the complexity of dynamic resource management could be significantly reduced while achieving reasonable effective dynamic resource allocation.

  2. Effects of implant angulation, material selection, and impression technique on impression accuracy: a preliminary laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Rutkunas, Vygandas; Sveikata, Kestutis; Savickas, Raimondas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary laboratory study was to evaluate the effects of 5- and 25-degree implant angulations in simulated clinical casts on an impression's accuracy when using different impression materials and tray selections. A convenience sample of each implant angulation group was selected for both open and closed trays in combination with one polyether and two polyvinyl siloxane impression materials. The influence of material and technique appeared to be significant for both 5- and 25-degree angulations (P < .05), and increased angulation tended to decrease impression accuracy. The open-tray technique was more accurate with highly nonaxially oriented implants for the small sample size investigated.

  3. [Environmental physiological characteristics of some mosses in Shanghai: a preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Xuan, Xuemei; Wang, Yan; Cao, Tong; Cai, Weimin

    2004-11-01

    The preliminary study on the environmental physiological characteristics of bryophytes collected from Shanghai area, including their responses to drought, temperature, humidity, light and growth substrate, as well as their tissue culture technology showed that different species of bryophytes under same conditions and the same species under different conditions had different drought resistance. Adding organic matter to sand soil and short-illumination benefited the growth of bryophytes. Treating with proper growth hormones could accelerate the reproduction and growth of bryophyte. Hogland medium was suitable for the tissue culture of bryophytes.

  4. Stress responses after pediatric bone marrow transplantation: preliminary results of a prospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Stuber, M L; Nader, K; Yasuda, P; Pynoos, R S; Cohen, S

    1991-11-01

    This paper reports the preliminary findings of a longitudinal prospective study of young children undergoing bone marrow transplantation. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress were seen in these children up to 12 months after transplant. The bone marrow transplantation survivors demonstrated more denial and avoidance and fewer arousal symptoms than has been noted in children traumatized by a violent life threat, such as a sniper attack. These data suggest the use of post-traumatic stress as a model in understanding some of the symptoms of pediatric bone marrow transplantation survivors and may be applicable to other children exposed to the double life threat of serious illness and intensive medical intervention.

  5. Description and preliminary studies of a computer drawn instrument landing approach display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. J.; Lallman, F. J.

    1978-01-01

    A computer drawn instrument landing approach display, which shows a box located on the desired path, aligned with the path, and moving along the path at a selected distance ahead of the aircraft, was examined. Vertical and lateral displacements from the desired path and aircraft altitude information are used as inputs to the computer. A preliminary simulation study with pilot subjects has shown that the pilots find the display very easy to use, and they achieved better performance scores with the box display than with a cross pointer instrument landing display.

  6. A Preliminary Study on the Possibility of Using Ultrasound in Driver Assistance Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Honda, Hirohiko

    This paper presents a preliminary study on the possibility of using ultrasound in driver assistance systems. Subjects' lap time in a driving video game was measured as an index of their performance of driving operations under acoustic conditions with and without an ultrasound signal at 23kHz, 70dB. The results show that the performance characteristics of the subjects changed when the ultrasound signal was presented. Ultrasound signal tends to concentrate on handling the vehicle and decreasing an attention to check the over speed driving, as a second task. We prove the possibility to apply ultrasound signal to control operator's attention and behavior.

  7. Incorporation of tramadol drug into Li-fluorohectorite clay: A preliminary study of a medical nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdés, L.; Hernández, D.; de Ménorval, L. Ch.; Pérez, I.; Altshuler, E.; Fossum, J. O.; Rivera, A.

    2016-07-01

    During the last years, clays have been increasingly explored as hosts for drugs. In the present paper, we have been able to host the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Tramadol, into the clay Li-fluorohectorite (Li-Fh). We preliminary evaluate its incorporation by means of UV spectroscopy and X ray diffraction. Our results indicate that the clay hosts the drug molecule in its interlayer space. We suggest a set of parameters to guarantee an efficient incorporation process. Future studies will concentrate on the release of the drug from the clay nanofluid.

  8. A preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study of baclofen effects in alcoholic smokers

    PubMed Central

    Zywiak, William H.; Edwards, Steven M.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Swift, Robert M.; Kenna, George A.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale There is presently no approved single treatment for dual alcohol and nicotine dependencies. Objective This pilot study investigated baclofen effects in alcoholic smokers. Methods This was a preliminary double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical study with 30 alcoholic smokers randomized to baclofen at 80 mg/day or placebo. A subgroup (n=18) participated in an alcohol cue-reactivity experiment. Results Baclofen, compared with placebo, significantly decreased the percent days of abstinence from alcohol-tobacco co-use (p=0.004). Alcohol dependence severity moderated baclofen effects, with the higher severity group having the greater baclofen response (p<0.001). Although the percent days of alcohol-tobacco co-use declined in both groups, this decline was greater after placebo than baclofen (p<0.001). Secondary analyses on alcohol or tobacco use alone suggested that the increase in percent days of co-abstinence was driven by the medication differences on heavy drinking days and on percent days smoking. In the cue-reactivity substudy, baclofen slightly decreased alcohol urge (p=0.058) and significantly reduced salivation (p=0.001), but these effects were not related to cue type. Conclusions This study provides preliminary evidence suggesting a possible role of baclofen in the treatment of alcoholic smokers. However, the mixed results and the small sample require larger confirmatory studies. PMID:24973894

  9. High risk cohort study for psychiatric disorders in childhood: rationale, design, methods and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Gadelha, Ary; Pan, Pedro Mario; Moriyama, Tais Silveira; Graeff-Martins, Ana Soledade; Tamanaha, Ana Carina; Alvarenga, Pedro; Valle Krieger, Fernanda; Fleitlich-Bilyk, Bacy; Jackowski, Andrea; Sato, João Ricardo; Brietzke, Elisa; Polanczyk, Guilherme Vanoni; Brentani, Helena; de Jesus Mari, Jair; Do Rosário, Maria Conceição; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; Mercadante, Marcos Tomanik; Miguel, Eurípedes Constantino; Rohde, Luis Augusto

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study is to present the rationale, methods, design and preliminary results from the High Risk Cohort Study for the Development of Childhood Psychiatric Disorders. We describe the sample selection and the components of each phases of the study, its instruments, tasks and procedures. Preliminary results are limited to the baseline phase and encompass: (i) the efficacy of the oversampling procedure used to increase the frequency of both child and family psychopathology; (ii) interrater reliability and (iii) the role of differential participation rate. A total of 9937 children from 57 schools participated in the screening procedures. From those 2512 (random = 958; high risk = 1554) were further evaluated with diagnostic instruments. The prevalence of any child mental disorder in the random strata and high-risk strata was 19.9% and 29.7%. The oversampling procedure was successful in selecting a sample with higher family rates of any mental disorders according to diagnostic instruments. Interrater reliability (kappa) for the main diagnostic instrument range from 0.72 (hyperkinetic disorders) to 0.84 (emotional disorders). The screening instrument was successful in selecting a sub-sample with "high risk" for developing mental disorders. This study may help advance the field of child psychiatry and ultimately provide useful clinical information.

  10. [Study on strategies of pollution prevention in coastal city of Zhejiang Province based on scenario analysis].

    PubMed

    Tian, Jin-Ping; Chen, Lü-Jun; Du, Peng-Fei; Qian, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Scenario analysis was used to study the environmental burden in a coastal city of Zhejiang province under different patterns of economic development. The aim of this research is to propose advices on decision making by illustrating how to make emissions reduced by transforming the pattern of economic development in a developed coastal area, which had acquired the level of 70 000 yuan GDP per cap. At first, 18 heavy pollution industries were screened out, by referencing total emissions of chemical oxygen demand, ammonia-nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxide. Then, a model of scenario analysis and the back-up calculation program were designed to study the sustainable development of the heavy pollution industries. With 2008 and 2015 as the reference year and the target year respectively, emissions of four pollutants mentioned above in the 18 heavy pollution industries in the city were analyzed under six scenarios. The total emissions of 4 pollutants should be reduced to an expectant degree, which is set as the constraint prerequisite of the scenario analysis. At last, some suggestions for decision-making are put forward, which include maintaining a moderate increase rate of GDP around 7%, strengthening the adjustment of economic structure, controlling the increasing rate of industrial added value of the industries with heavy pollution, optimizing the structure of industries with heavy pollution, decreasing the intensity of waste emission by implementing cleaner production to reduce emission produce at the source, and strengthening regulations on the operation of waste treatment plants to further promote the efficiency of waste treatment. Only by implementing such measures mentioned above, can the total emissions of chemical oxygen demand, ammonia-nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxide of the 18 industries with heavy pollution in the city be reduced by a 10%, 10%, 5%, and 15% respectively based on the reference year.

  11. Epidemiological Study on Sand Flies in an Endemic Focus of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Bushehr City, Southwestern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Darvishi, Mohammad; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Shahbazi, Farideh; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Jafari, Reza; Soleimani, Hassan; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Nastaran; Khajeian, Mohammad; Darabi, Hossein; Arandian, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most important health problem in the city of Bushehr, southwestern Iran. The objective of the study was to determine some ecological aspects of sand flies in the city during 2010–2011. Sand flies were collected monthly from outdoors and indoors by sticky traps at four selected districts of the city. They were also dissected and examined by nested-PCR for identification of the parasite during August–September of 2011. A total of 1234 adult sand flies were collected and 6 species including 3 of Genus Phlebotomus and 3 of Genus Sergentomyia were identified. Four species including P. papatasi (3.98%), P. sergenti (1.14%), S. tiberiadis (87.18%), and S. baghdadis (7.7%) were found indoors. Six species including P. papatasi (3.47%), P. sergenti (3.17%), P. alexandri (0.1%), S. tiberiadis (77.74%), S. baghdadis (15.41%), and one female of S. clydei (0.11%) were collected from outdoors. Sand flies started to appear from March and disappear at the end of January. There was only one peak in the density curve in July. The study revealed that S. tiberiadis and S. baghdadis could enter indoors which 89 and 81.8% of them were found blood-fed, respectively. Moreover, P. papatasi, S. tiberiadis, and S. baghdadis were active indoors and outdoors in most months of the year. Nested-PCR of P. papatasi females was positive against kinetoplast DNA of L. major and L. turanica and also mixed natural infections were found by L. gerbilli and L. turanica. Moreover, mixed infections by L. major and L. turanica were observed in this species. Sergentomyia clydei and S. tiberiadis were found to be negative to any DNA of Leishmania species. Phlebotomus sergenti females were found infected with DNA of L. turanica and this is the first report of natural infection and detection of the parasite from this sand fly species in worldwide. PMID:25699245

  12. [Preliminary Study on Linear Alkylbenzenes as Indicator for Process of Urbanization].

    PubMed

    Xu, Te; Zeng, Hui; Ni, Hong-Gang

    2016-01-15

    In this study, we selected Shenzhen City as a typical region of urbanization and took Linear alkylbenzenes ( LABs) as an environmental molecular marker to investigate the relationship between soil LABs levels and urbanization indexes on the basis of analysis of spatial distribution of LABs in surface soil. Our results indicated relations between the LABs levels in soil and the five urbanization indexes, such as the population, water supply, urban construction, income and expenditure, as well as industrial structure. These results suggested that LABs levels were correlated with urbanization and could be used as an environmental molecular indicator for the process of urbanization.

  13. Urban Growth Modeling Using AN Artificial Neural Network a Case Study of Sanandaj City, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammady, S.; Delavar, M. R.; Pahlavani, P.

    2014-10-01

    Land use activity is a major issue and challenge for town and country planners. Modelling and managing urban growth is a complex problem. Cities are now recognized as complex, non-linear and dynamic process systems. The design of a system that can handle these complexities is a challenging prospect. Local governments that implement urban growth models need to estimate the amount of urban land required in the future given anticipated growth of housing, business, recreation and other urban uses within the boundary. There are so many negative implications related with the type of inappropriate urban development such as increased traffic and demand for mobility, reduced landscape attractively, land use fragmentation, loss of biodiversity and alterations of the hydrological cycle. The aim of this study is to use the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to make a powerful tool for simulating urban growth patterns. Our study area is Sanandaj city located in the west of Iran. Landsat imageries acquired at 2000 and 2006 are used. Dataset were used include distance to principle roads, distance to residential areas, elevation, slope, distance to green spaces and distance to region centers. In this study an appropriate methodology for urban growth modelling using satellite remotely sensed data is presented and evaluated. Percent Correct Match (PCM) and Figure of Merit were used to evaluate ANN results.

  14. [Adaptability of APSIM model in Southwestern China: A case study of winter wheat in Chongqing City].

    PubMed

    Dai, Tong; Wang, Jing; He, Di; Zhang, Jian-ping; Wang, Na

    2015-04-01

    Field experimental data of winter wheat and parallel daily meteorological data at four typical stations in Chongqing City were used to calibrate and validate APSIM-wheat model and determine the genetic parameters for 12 varieties of winter wheat. The results showed that there was a good agreement between the simulated and observed growth periods from sowing to emergence, flowering and maturity of wheat. Root mean squared errors (RMSEs) between simulated and observed emergence, flowering and maturity were 0-3, 1-8, and 0-8 d, respectively. Normalized root mean squared errors (NRMSEs) between simulated and observed above-ground biomass for 12 study varieties were less than 30%. NRMSE between simulated and observed yields for 10 varieties out of 12 study varieties were less than 30%. APSIM-wheat model performed well in simulating phenology, aboveground biomass and yield of winter wheat in Chongqing City, which could provide a foundational support for assessing the impact of climate change on wheat production in the study area based on the model.

  15. Urban Growth Modeling Using Anfis Algorithm: a Case Study for Sanandaj City, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammady, S.; Delavar, M. R.; Pijanowski, B. C.

    2013-10-01

    not easy to obtain the optimal structure. Since, in this type of fuzzy logic, neural network has been used, therefore, by using a learning algorithm the parameters have been changed until reach the optimal solution. Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) computing due to ability to understand nonlinear structures is a popular framework for solving complex problems. Fusion of ANN and FIS has attracted the growing interest of researchers in various scientific and engineering areas due to the growing need of adaptive intelligent systems to solve the real world problems. In this research, an ANFIS method has been developed for modeling land use change and interpreting the relationship between the drivers of urbanization. Our study area is the city of Sanandaj located in the west of Iran. Landsat images acquired in 2000 and 2006 have been used for model development and calibration. The parameters used in this study include distance to major roads, distance to residential regions, elevation, number of urban pixels in a 3 by 3 neighborhood and distance to green space. Percent Correct Match (PCM) and Figure of Merit were used to assess model goodness of fit were 93.77% and 64.30%, respectively.

  16. Predicting methylphenidate response in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Blair A; Coghill, David; Matthews, Keith; Steele, J Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is established as the main pharmacological treatment for patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Whilst MPH is generally a highly effective treatment, not all patients respond, and some experience adverse reactions. Currently, there is no reliable method to predict how patients will respond, other than by exposure to a trial of medication. In this preliminary study, we sought to investigate whether an accurate predictor of clinical response to methylphenidate could be developed for individual patients, using sociodemographic, clinical and neuropsychological measures. Of the 43 boys with ADHD included in this proof-of-concept study, 30 were classed as responders and 13 as non-responders to MPH, with no significant differences in age nor verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) between the groups. Here we report the application of a multivariate analysis approach to the prediction of clinical response to MPH, which achieved an accuracy of 77% (p = 0.005). The most important variables to the classifier were performance on a 'go/no go' task and comorbid conduct disorder. This preliminary study suggested that further investigation is merited. Achieving a highly significant accuracy of 77% for the prediction of MPH response is an encouraging step towards finding a reliable and clinically useful method that could minimise the number of children needlessly being exposed to MPH.

  17. Preliminary study on quality evaluation of pecans with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Cao, Wei; Mathanker, Sunil; Zhang, Weili; Wang, Ning

    2010-11-01

    This paper reports a preliminary work on a feasibility study of applying terahertz (THz) technology for pecan quality evaluation. A set of native pecan nuts collected in 2009 were used during the experiment. Each pecan nutmeat was manually sliced at a thickness of about 1mm, 2mm, and 3mm and a size of about 2cm (length) ×1cm (width). Pecan shell and inner separator were also cut into the same size. The absorption spectra for the nutmeat slices, shell, and inner separator were collected using a THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) developed by a group of researchers at Oklahoma State University. The test results show that nutmeat, shell, and inner separator had different absorption characteristics within the bandwidth of 0.2-2.0 THz. To study the capability of insect damage detection of the THz spectroscopy, the absorption spectra of insects (living manduca sexta and dry pecan weevil) were also collected. Due to high water contents in the insects, very obvious spectral characteristics were found. The results from the preliminary study show a potential of THz technology applied for quality detection of bio-products. However, since bio-products mostly have high water content and are handled under an environment with certain levels of water content, practical issues needs to be further investigated to make the THz technology a feasible tool for quality evaluation.

  18. Physical and Dosimetric Optimization of Laser Equipment in Dermatology: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Soriani, A.; D'Alessio, D.; Cattelan, V.; Cameli, N.; Mariano, M.; Ungania, S.; Guerrisi, M.; Strigari, L.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary study is to investigate the correlation between clinical set-up at present used in the treatment of specific skin conditions and laser beam absorbed power in the tissue. This study focused on the CO2 and Nd-Yag laser equipment used in the daily clinical practice in the Department of Dermatology of San Gallicano Institute in Rome. Different types of tissue-equivalent material with various water and haemoglobin concentrations were tested to evaluate laser beam attenuation power. In particular, thinly sliced pork loin, of uniform consistency and without fat, was selected for its high content of haemoglobin to mimic human tissues. An optical power meter was used to measure the power or energy of a laser beam. During measurements, the tissue equivalent phantoms were positioned on the detector head and the laser beam was orthogonally oriented. The results of two experimental set-ups are reported here. The dependence of residual power (W) as a function of ex vivo tissue thickness (mm) for different laser output powers was studied. Data were fitted by a parametric logistic equation. These preliminary data allow for more accurately determining the energy fraction released from lasers to the tissues in order to improve clinical outcomes. PMID:25295246

  19. Efficacy of fentanyl transdermal patch in pain control after lower third molar surgery: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Vasovic, Miroslav; Andric, Miroslav; Todorovic, Ljubomir; Kokovic, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Background Surgical removal of impacted lower third molars is a common oral surgical procedure, generally followed by moderate to severe postoperative pain. Transdermal drug delivery as a concept offers interesting possibilities for postoperative pain control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of transdermal system with fentanyl in relieving pain following impacted lower third molar surgery. Material and Methods Seventeen patients with bilateral impacted lower third molars were included in this preliminary study. For postoperative pain control, patients randomly received a fentanyl patch plus placebo tablet after the first operation and regular (placebo) patch and an analgesic, after the second operation. Analgesia was evaluated during first 24 hours postoperatively according to patients’ reports about time of first pain appearance and additional analgesic consumption. Pain severity was rated using a 10 cm long visual analogue scale (VAS). Results Intensity of postoperative pain and postoperative analgesic consumption were significantly lower after the Fentanyl Transdermal System (FTS) was applied (p<0.05). Duration of postoperative analgesia was significantly higher with FTS when compared to control treatment (p<0.05). Conclusions Based on the results of this preliminary study, transdermal system with fentanyl significantly reduced postoperative pain after third molar surgery. Key words:Analgesia, fentanyl, transdermal administration, third molar surgery, acute pain, postoperative care. PMID:27475691

  20. Comparative measurement and quantitative risk assessment of alcohol consumption through wastewater-based epidemiology: An international study in 20 cities.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Yeonsuk; Barceló, Damià; Barron, Leon P; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Castiglioni, Sara; de Voogt, Pim; Emke, Erik; Hernández, Félix; Lai, Foon Yin; Lopes, Alvaro; de Alda, Miren López; Mastroianni, Nicola; Munro, Kelly; O'Brien, Jake; Ort, Christoph; Plósz, Benedek G; Reid, Malcolm J; Yargeau, Viviane; Thomas, Kevin V

    2016-09-15

    Quantitative measurement of drug consumption biomarkers in wastewater can provide objective information on community drug use patterns and trends. This study presents the measurement of alcohol consumption in 20 cities across 11 countries through the use of wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE), and reports the application of these data for the risk assessment of alcohol on a population scale using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach. Raw 24-h composite wastewater samples were collected over a one-week period from 20 cities following a common protocol. For each sample a specific and stable alcohol consumption biomarker, ethyl sulfate (EtS) was determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The EtS concentrations were used for estimation of per capita alcohol consumption in each city, which was further compared with international reports and applied for risk assessment by MOE. The average per capita consumption in 20 cities ranged between 6.4 and 44.3L/day/1000 inhabitants. An increase in alcohol consumption during the weekend occurred in all cities, however the level of this increase was found to differ. In contrast to conventional data (sales statistics and interviews), WBE revealed geographical differences in the level and pattern of actual alcohol consumption at an inter-city level. All the sampled cities were in the "high risk" category (MOE<10) and the average MOE for the whole population studied was 2.5. These results allowed direct comparisons of alcohol consumption levels, patterns and risks among the cities. This study shows that WBE can provide timely and complementary information on alcohol use and alcohol associated risks in terms of exposure at the community level.

  1. Lead levels in paint flakes from buildings in Nigeria: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Nduka, J K C; Orisakwe, O E; Maduawguna, C A

    2008-09-01

    Lead is a malleable metal previously used to improve the durability and color luster of paint applied in homes and on industrial structures such as bridges. Lead has deleterious effects on multiple organs in humans. There is paucity of information on the extent of the use of lead-based paint in Nigerian houses. This study has attempted to estimate the extent of use of lead-based paint in buildings in Eastern Nigeria using 168 buildings. Flaked paint samples were collected from residential, church, commercial, and school buildings from four most populous cities in Eastern Nigeria namely Enugu, Onitsha, Aba, and Port Harcourt, and they were digested using conc HNO(3):HCLO(4) (1:1) and analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The lead levels from buildings in Enugu ranged from 39.385 +/- 1.111-69.843 +/- 4.886 mg/kg. The highest level of lead was found in Onitsha ranging from 49.503 +/- 0.000-74.352 +/- 0.571 mg/kg. Residential buildings, which mainly serve the under privileged populations, has the highest lead level in this study. In Aba, the highest lead level (66.432 +/- 0.013 mg/kg) was found in commercial buildings aged 5-10 years. The lead levels in paint flakes from buildings in the four cities tended to decrease with increasing age of the buildings. Taken together all the building paint flakes from the four cities had lead levels higher than the United States Environmental Protection Agency permissible level of 5 mg/kg. There is a need for primary intervention strategy to reduce the paint lead levels in Nigeria.

  2. Relationships Between Social Host Laws and Underage Drinking: Findings From a Study of 50 California Cities

    PubMed Central

    Paschall, Mallie J; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W; Thomas, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Many states and local communities have enacted social host (SH) laws to reduce underage drinking in private settings. However, little is known about whether such laws are effective. This study examined relationships between city SH laws and underage drinking in general and at parties in private settings. Method: SH policy data were collected for 50 California cities in 2009, and SH policies were rated for comprehensiveness and stringency. Annual telephone interviews were conducted with a cohort of 1,483 adolescents (ages 13–16 at Wave 1) from 2009 to 2011 to assess past-year alcohol use, heavy drinking, and drinking at parties. Multilevel analyses were first conducted for the total sample to examine relationships between SH laws and adolescents’ past-year drinking, with other city and individual characteristics controlled for. Parallel analyses were then conducted for a subsample of 667 youth who had reported any past-year drinking. Results: SH policy ratings were unrelated to any of the past-year drinking outcomes for the total sample of adolescents. However, among past-year drinkers, a stronger SH policy was inversely related to drinking at parties (β = -.06, p < .05) but was unrelated to past-year alcohol use and heavy drinking in general. There were no moderating effects of SH policy on change in adolescents’ past-year drinking over the 3-year period. Conclusions: Local SH policies that include strict liability and civil penalties that are imposed administratively may be associated with less frequent underage drinking in private settings, particularly among adolescents who have already initiated alcohol use. PMID:25343646

  3. High seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in inmates: A case control study in Durango City, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Tinoco, J.; Sánchez-Anguiano, L. F.; Ramos-Nevárez, A.; Cerrillo-Soto, S. M.; Sáenz-Soto, L.; Liesenfeld, O.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The seroprevalence of infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii and the association with risk factors has not been determined in inmates. Through a case-control study, 166 inmates from a state correctional facility in Durango City, Mexico and 166 age- and gender-matched non-incarcerated subjects were examined for the presence of anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Results Seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies was higher in inmates (35, 21.1%) than in controls (14, 8.4%) (OR = 2.90; 95% CI: 1.43–5.94; P = 0.001). Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were detected in two (1.2%) inmates and in seven (4.2%) controls (P = 0.17). Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, incarceration, and behavioral characteristics of inmates revealed that T. gondii seropositivity was associated with being born out of Durango State (OR = 3.91; 95% CI: 1.29–11.79; P = 0.01). In addition, T. gondii seroprevalence was higher (P = 0.03) in inmates that had suffered from injuries (17/56: 30.4%) than those without such history (18/110: 16.4%). Conclusions The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in inmates in Durango City is higher than the seroprevalences found in the general population in the same city, indicating that inmates may represent a new risk group for T. gondii infection. Further research on T. gondii infection in inmates is needed. PMID:24678408

  4. AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY: STUDY DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY BIOMARKER RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a collaborative effort between the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to quantify cancer and non-cancer health risks in the agricultural communit...

  5. Gaining a better understanding of respiratory health inequalities among cities: An ecological case study on elderly males in the larger French cities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years, there have been a growing number of studies on spatial inequalities in health covering a variety of scales, from small areas to metropolitan areas or regions, and for various health outcomes. However, few investigations have compared health status between cities with a view to gaining a better understanding of the relationships between such inequalities and the social, economic and physical characteristics. This paper focuses on disparities in respiratory health among the 55 largest French cities. The aim is to explore the relationships between inter-urban health patterns, city characteristics and regional context, and to determine how far a city’s health status relates to the features observed on different geographical scales. Methods We used health data describing hospitalizations for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) as a proxy for respiratory health, and the total number of hospitalizations (overall) as a proxy for general health. This last indicator was used as a benchmark. A large set of indicators relating to socioeconomic, physical and amenity aspects of the cities (urban units) was also constructed. Data were analyzed using linear correlations and multiple linear regression models. Results The results suggest that socioeconomic characteristics are major discriminators for inequalities in respiratory health status among urban units. Indeed, once combined to socioeconomic characteristics, only a climate indicator remained significant among the physical indicators. It appeared that the pollution indicators which were significantly correlated with COPD hospitalization rates loosed significance when associated to the socio-economic indicators in a multiple regression. The analysis showed that among the socio-economic indicators, an employment indicator derived at the regional scale, and two indicators reflecting the unequal intra-urban spatial distribution of population according to their education, were the most

  6. Monitoring of environmental parameters for CO2 sequestration: a case study of Nagpur City, India.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, P R; Gajghate, D G; Dhadse, Sharda; Suple, Sonali; Satapathy, D R; Wate, S R

    2007-12-01

    Carbon dioxide concentration is an index of total amount of combustion and natural ventilation in an urban environment and therefore required more careful attention for assessment of CO(2) level in air environment. An attempt was made to monitor CO(2) levels in ambient air of Nagpur city at industrial, commercial and residential sites. In addition to this a remote sensing studies and biotic survey for floral biodiversity were carried out to study the green cover at respective sampling locations. The observations showed that the largest amount of CO(2) occurred at night due to absence of photosynthesis and lowest concentration of CO(2) was observed in the afternoon due to photosynthesis at its maximum level. The most pollution tolerant species found in Nagpur city are having higher Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) value, which acts as a natural sink for CO(2) sequestration. In case of commercial site the CO(2) level is highest (366 ppm) because of lowest vegetation and vehicular pollution. The generation of database of CO(2) concentration and floral biodiversity along with percentage of green cover helps to formulate the strategy for prevention of global worming phenomenon.

  7. Head Start and Urban Children’s School Readiness: A Birth Cohort Study in 18 Cities

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

    2011-01-01

    We used longitudinal data from a birth cohort study, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, to investigate the links between Head Start and school readiness in a large and diverse sample of urban children at age 5 (N = 2,803; 18 cities). We found that Head Start attendance was associated with enhanced cognitive ability and social competence and reduced attention problems but not reduced internalizing or externalizing behavior problems. These findings were robust to model specifications (including models with city-fixed effects and propensity-scoring matching). Furthermore, the effects of Head Start varied by the reference group. Head Start was associated with improved cognitive development when compared with parental care or other nonparental care, as well as improved social competence (compared with parental care) and reduced attention problems (compared with other nonparental care). In contrast, compared with attendance at pre-kindergarten or other center-based care, Head Start attendance was not associated with cognitive gains but with improved social competence and reduced attention and externalizing behavior problems (compared with attendance at other center-based care). These associations were not moderated by child gender or race/ethnicity. PMID:21244155

  8. City 2020+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  9. Serum nerve growth factor levels in autistic children in Turkish population: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Dinçel, Nida; Ünalp, Aycan; Kutlu, Ayşe; Öztürk, Aysel; Uran, Nedret; Ulusoy, Sadık

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: It has been hypothesized that abnormal levels of serum nerve growth factor (NGF) may represent a serological marker for autistic children who may develop cognitive impairment, regression and finally epilepsy. The objective of this preliminary study was to measure serum NGF concentrations of autistic children and compare these levels with those of healthy children. Methods: Consecutive children who were referred to the Paediatric Neurology and Child Psychiatry Policlinics of Dr. Behçet Uz Child Disease and Pediatric Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Turkey between February and September 2008 were included in the study. Serum samples were analyzed for NGF levels using ChemiKine NGF Sandwich ELISA Kit. Comparisons between the study and the control groups were made using student's t test and Chi-square test. Results: Forty-nine autistic children and an equal number of healthy children (control group) were included in the study. No significant difference was found between the study and the control groups in terms of children's age, while number of boys was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the study group. Average serum NGF concentrations were 46.94 ± 51.40 and 32.94 ± 12.48 pg/ml in the study and control group, respectively. Serum NGF concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the study group compared with the control group. Interpretation & conclusions: Our preliminary findings show that enhanced serum NGF concentration may be used as a potential diagnostic tool in autism, however, further studies including a large number of patients are required to confirm the findings. PMID:24521633

  10. Payload specialist station study. Volume 2, part 1: Preliminary design document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The details of six tasks of the payload Specialist Station study are discussed: (1) derive payload control and display requirements; (2) perform functional analyses; (3) perform system synthesis; (4) perform trade studies; (5) perform preliminary design; and (6) provide data format. Functional analysis diagrams were developed for the study payloads. These diagrams presented the payload's functional activities flow based on the six mission phases established. These phases are: (1) launch, ascent, orbit insertion; (2) on-orbit checkout and activation; (3) on-orbit operation; (4) deployment/retrieval; (5) on-orbit deactivation; and (6) descent, landing, post-landing. To perform system synthesis the widest variety of available hardware and software, as individual pieces of equipment and as systems, was investigated. The intent was to synthesize a complete AFD system or systems which could accommodate the range of requirements identified for the study missions.

  11. Development of an online automatic computed radiography dose data mining program: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ng, Curtise K C; Sun, Zhonghua

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have reported the computed radiography (CR) dose creep problem and therefore the need to have monitoring processes in place in clinical departments. The objective of this study is to provide a better technological solution to implement a regular CR dose monitoring process. An online automatic CR dose data mining program which can be applied to different systems was developed based on freeware and existing softwares in the Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) server. The program was tested with 69 CR images. This preliminary study shows that the program addresses the major weaknesses of some existing studies including involvement of manual procedures in the monitoring process and being only applicable to a single manufacturer's CR images. The proposed method provides an efficient and effective solution to implement a CR dose monitoring program regularly in busy clinical departments to regulate the dose creep problem so as to reinforce the 'As Low As Reasonably Achievable' (ALARA) principle.

  12. Antidepressant response to aripiprazole augmentation associated with enhanced FDOPA utilization in striatum: a preliminary PET study

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Charles R.; Chibnall, John T.; Cumming, Paul; Mintun, Mark A.; Gebara, Marie Anne I.; Perantie, Dana C.; Price, Joseph L.; Cornell, Martha E.; McConathy, Jonathan E.; Gangwani, Sunil; Sheline, Yvette I.

    2014-01-01

    Several double blind, prospective trials have demonstrated an antidepressant augmentation efficacy of aripiprazole in depressed patients unresponsive to standard antidepressant therapy. Although aripiprazole is now widely used for this indication, and much is known about its receptor-binding properties, the mechanism of its antidepressant augmentation remains ill-defined. In vivo animal studies and in vitro human studies using cloned dopamine dopamine D2 receptors suggest aripiprazole is a partial dopamine agonist; in this preliminary neuroimaging trial, we hypothesized that aripiprazole’s antidepressant augmentation efficacy arises from dopamine partial agonist activity. To test this, we assessed the effects of aripiprazole augmentation on the cerebral utilization of 6-[18F]-fluoro-3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (FDOPA) using positron emission tomography (PET). Fourteen depressed patients, who had failed 8 weeks of antidepressant therapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, underwent FDOPA PET scans before and after aripiprazole augmentation; eleven responded to augmentation. Whole brain, voxel-wise comparisons of pre- and post-aripiprazole scans revealed increased FDOPA trapping in the right medial caudate of augmentation responders. An exploratory analysis of depressive symptoms revealed that responders experienced large improvements only in putatively dopaminergic symptoms of lassitude and inability to feel. These preliminary findings suggest that augmentation of antidepressant response by aripiprazole may be associated with potentiation of dopaminergic activity. PMID:24468015

  13. Partner-guided cancer pain management at the end of life: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Francis J; Ahles, Tim A; Sutton, Linda; Dalton, JoAnn; Baucom, Don; Pope, Mary Susan; Knowles, Verena; McKinstry, Elizabeth; Furstenberg, Charlotte; Syrjala, Karen; Waters, Sandra J; McKee, Daphne; McBride, Colleen; Rumble, Meredith; Scipio, Cindy

    2005-03-01

    This preliminary study tested the efficacy of a partner-guided cancer pain management protocol for patients who are at the end of life. Seventy-eight advanced cancer patients meeting criteria for hospice eligibility and their partners were randomly assigned to a partner-guided pain management training intervention, or usual care control condition. The partner-guided pain management training protocol was a three-session intervention conducted in patients' homes that integrated educational information about cancer pain with systematic training of patients and partners in cognitive and behavioral pain coping skills. Data analyses revealed that the partner-guided pain management protocol produced significant increases in partners' ratings of their self-efficacy for helping the patient control pain and self-efficacy for controlling other symptoms. Partners receiving this training also showed a trend to report improvements in their levels of caregiver strain. Overall, the results of this preliminary study suggest that a partner-guided pain management protocol may have benefits in the context of cancer pain at the end of life. Given the significance of pain at the end of life, future research in this area appears warranted.

  14. Performance of a low-cost methane sensor for ambient concentration measurements in preliminary studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugster, W.; Kling, G. W.

    2012-03-01

    Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after CO2 and contributes to global warming. Its sources are not uniformly distributed across terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and most of the methane flux is expected to stem from hotspots which often occupy a very small fraction of the total landscape area. Continuous time-series measurements of CH4 concentrations can help identify and locate these methane hot-spots. Newer, low-cost trace gas sensors such as the Figaro TGS 2600 can detect CH4 even at ambient concentrations. Hence, in this paper we tested this sensor under real-world conditions over Toolik Lake, Alaska, to determine its suitability for preliminary studies before placing more expensive and service-intensive equipment at a given locality. A reasonably good agreement with parallel measurements made using a Los Gatos Research FMA 100 methane analyzer was found after removal of the strong cross-sensitivities for temperature and relative humidity. Correcting for this cross-sensitivity increased the absolute accuracy required for in-depth studies, and the reproducibility between two TGS 2600 sensors run in parallel is very good. We conclude that the relative CH4 concentrations derived from such sensors are sufficient for preliminary investigations in the search of potential methane hot-spots.

  15. Performance of a low-cost methane sensor for ambient concentration measurements in preliminary studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugster, W.; Kling, G. W.

    2012-08-01

    Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after CO2 and contributes to global warming. Its sources are not uniformly distributed across terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and most of the methane flux is expected to stem from hotspots which often occupy a very small fraction of the total landscape area. Continuous time-series measurements of CH4 concentrations can help identify and locate these methane hotspots. Newer, low-cost trace gas sensors such as the Figaro TGS 2600 can detect CH4 even at ambient concentrations. Hence, in this paper we tested this sensor under real-world conditions over Toolik Lake, Alaska, to determine its suitability for preliminary studies before placing more expensive and service-intensive equipment at a given locality. A reasonably good agreement with parallel measurements made using a Los Gatos Research FMA 100 methane analyzer was found after removal of the strong sensitivities for temperature and relative humidity. Correcting for this sensitivity increased the absolute accuracy required for in-depth studies, and the reproducibility between two TGS 2600 sensors run in parallel is very good. We conclude that the relative CH4 concentrations derived from such sensors are sufficient for preliminary investigations in the search of potential methane hotspots.

  16. [The use of MLVA for Corynebacterium diphtheriae genotyping--preliminary studies].

    PubMed

    Zasada, Aleksandra A; Jagielski, Marek; Rzeczkowska, Magdalena; Januszkiewicz, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of strain NCTC 13129 C. diphtheriae were investigated in order to identify tandem repeats (VNTR). From 75 VNTR loci identified in the genome 14 were selected. Primers were designed and PCR conditions were optimized for amplification of the selected VNTR markers. Preliminary studies of usefulness of selected VNTR markers were conducted using a group of 28 C. diphtheriae strains. From 14 markers 8 were regarded as potentially useful. The diversity of individual markers ranged from 1 to 6 alleles (Simpson index from 0 to 0,746). No diversity were observed for 3 VNTR markers but it could be a results of too small group of strains analyzed in the tests. Simpson diversity index calculated for all the markers tested on 28 strains was 0,87. Results of the preliminary studies showed usefulness of MLVA for C. diphtheriae genotyping. Nevertheless, confirmation of reliability of the method should be done using a large group of strains. Moreover, the method should be compared with other genotyping methods.

  17. Light ion production for a future radiobiological facility at CERN: preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Stafford-Haworth, Joshua; Bellodi, Giulia; Küchler, Detlef; Lombardi, Alessandra; Röhrich, Jörg; Scrivens, Richard

    2014-02-01

    Recent medical applications of ions such as carbon and helium have proved extremely effective for the treatment of human patients. However, before now a comprehensive study of the effects of different light ions on organic targets has not been completed. There is a strong desire for a dedicated facility which can produce ions in the range of protons to neon in order to perform this study. This paper will present the proposal and preliminary investigations into the production of light ions, and the development of a radiobiological research facility at CERN. The aims of this project will be presented along with the modifications required to the existing linear accelerator (Linac3), and the foreseen facility, including the requirements for an ion source in terms of some of the specification parameters and the flexibility of operation for different ion types. Preliminary results from beam transport simulations will be presented, in addition to some planned tests required to produce some of the required light ions (lithium, boron) to be conducted in collaboration with the Helmholtz-Zentrum für Materialien und Energie, Berlin.

  18. The Acoustic Change Complex in Young Children with Hearing Loss: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Amy S; Eisenberg, Laurie S; Boothroyd, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    The acoustic change complex (ACC) is a cortical auditory evoked potential elicited in response to a change in an ongoing sound. The ACC may have promise for assessing speech perception in infants and toddlers. In this preliminary study, the ACC was elicited in adults and young children in response to changes in speech stimuli representing vowel height /u/-/a/ and vowel place /u/-/i/ contrasts. The participants were adults with normal hearing (n = 3), children with normal hearing (n = 5), and children with mild to moderately severe bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (n = 5). The children with hearing loss were hearing aid users. The ages ranged from 2 years 3 months to 6 years 3months for the children and 44 to 55 years for the adults. Robust P1-N1-P2 responses were present for the adults and P1-N2 responses were present for all but the youngest child with hearing loss. The ACC response for the vowel place contrast was less robust than that for the vowel height contrast in one child with substantial hearing loss. The findings from this preliminary study support the conclusion that the ACC can be used successfully to assess auditory resolution in most young children.

  19. Preliminary structural MRI based brain classification of chronic pelvic pain: A MAPP network study.

    PubMed

    Bagarinao, Epifanio; Johnson, Kevin A; Martucci, Katherine T; Ichesco, Eric; Farmer, Melissa A; Labus, Jennifer; Ness, Timothy J; Harris, Richard; Deutsch, Georg; Apkarian, A Vania; Mayer, Emeran A; Clauw, Daniel J; Mackey, Sean

    2014-12-01

    Neuroimaging studies have shown that changes in brain morphology often accompany chronic pain conditions. However, brain biomarkers that are sensitive and specific to chronic pelvic pain (CPP) have not yet been adequately identified. Using data from the Trans-MAPP Research Network, we examined the changes in brain morphology associated with CPP. We used a multivariate pattern classification approach to detect these changes and to identify patterns that could be used to distinguish participants with CPP from age-matched healthy controls. In particular, we used a linear support vector machine (SVM) algorithm to differentiate gray matter images from the 2 groups. Regions of positive SVM weight included several regions within the primary somatosensory cortex, pre-supplementary motor area, hippocampus, and amygdala were identified as important drivers of the classification with 73% overall accuracy. Thus, we have identified a preliminary classifier based on brain structure that is able to predict the presence of CPP with a good degree of predictive power. Our regional findings suggest that in individuals with CPP, greater gray matter density may be found in the identified distributed brain regions, which are consistent with some previous investigations in visceral pain syndromes. Future studies are needed to improve upon our identified preliminary classifier with integration of additional variables and to assess whether the observed differences in brain structure are unique to CPP or generalizable to other chronic pain conditions.

  20. Light ion production for a future radiobiological facility at CERN: Preliminary studies

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford-Haworth, Joshua; Bellodi, Giulia; Küchler, Detlef; Lombardi, Alessandra; Scrivens, Richard; Röhrich, Jörg

    2014-02-15

    Recent medical applications of ions such as carbon and helium have proved extremely effective for the treatment of human patients. However, before now a comprehensive study of the effects of different light ions on organic targets has not been completed. There is a strong desire for a dedicated facility which can produce ions in the range of protons to neon in order to perform this study. This paper will present the proposal and preliminary investigations into the production of light ions, and the development of a radiobiological research facility at CERN. The aims of this project will be presented along with the modifications required to the existing linear accelerator (Linac3), and the foreseen facility, including the requirements for an ion source in terms of some of the specification parameters and the flexibility of operation for different ion types. Preliminary results from beam transport simulations will be presented, in addition to some planned tests required to produce some of the required light ions (lithium, boron) to be conducted in collaboration with the Helmholtz-Zentrum für Materialien und Energie, Berlin.

  1. Relationships between maximal oxygen uptake and endothelial function in healthy male adults: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Buscemi, Silvio; Canino, Baldassare; Batsis, John A; Buscemi, Chiara; Calandrino, Vincenzo; Mattina, Alessandro; Arnone, Mariangela; Caimi, Gregorio; Cerasola, Giovanni; Verga, Salvatore

    2013-04-01

    Aerobic capacity, as indicated by maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) has an important role in contrasting the traditional cardiovascular risk factors and preventing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It is known that endothelial function, measured as flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, is strictly linked to atherogenesis and cardiovascular risk. However, the relationship between VO2 max and FMD has not been fully investigated especially in healthy non-obese subjects. This preliminary study cross-sectionally investigated the relationship between VO2 max and FMD in 22 non-obese, healthy sedentary male subjects. Dividing the cohort in two subgroups of 11 subjects each according to the median value of VO2 max, the FMD was significantly lower in the subgroup with lower VO2 max (mean ± sem: 7.1 ± 0.7 vs. 9.5 ± 0.8 %; P = 0.035). Absolute VO2 max (mL min(-1)) was significantly and independently correlated with body fat mass (r = -0.50; P = 0.018) and with FMD (r = 0.44; P = 0.039). This preliminary study suggests that maximal oxygen uptake is independently correlated with endothelial function in healthy non-obese adults. These results are also in agreement with the possibility that improving maximal oxygen uptake may have a favorable effect on endothelial function and vice versa.

  2. Source apportionment of particulate matter in a South Asian Mega City: A case study of Karachi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahid, imran

    2016-04-01

    Pakistan is facing unabated air pollution as a major issue and its cities are more vulnerable as compared to urban centers in the developed world. During the last few decades, there has been a rapid increase in population, urbanization, industrialization, transportation and other human activities. In year June 2015 heat wave in largest South Asian mega city Karachi more than 1500 people died in one week. Unfortunately no air quality monitoring system is operation in any city of Pakistan. There is a sharp increase in both the variety and quantity of air pollutants and their corresponding sources. In this study contributions of different sources to particulate matter concentration has estimated in urban area of Karachi. Carbonaceous species (elemental carbon, organic carbon, carbonate carbon), soluble ions (Ca++, Mg++, Na+, K+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, SO4--), saccharides (levoglucosan, galactosan, mannosan, sucrose, fructose, glucose, arabitol and mannitol) were measured in atmospheric fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10) particles collected under pre-monsoon conditions (March - April 2009) at an urban site in Karachi (Pakistan). Average concentrations of PM2.5 were 75μg/m3 and of PM10 437μg/m3. The large difference between PM10 and PM2.5 originated predominantly from mineral dust. "Calcareous dust" and „siliceous dust" were the overall dominating material in PM, with 46% contribution to PM2.5 and 78% to PM10-2.5. 20 Combustion particles and secondary organics (EC+OM) comprised 23% of PM2.5 and 6% of PM10-2.5. EC, as well as OC ambient levels were higher (59% and 56%) in PM10-2.5 than in 22 PM2.5. Biomass burning contributed about 3% to PM2.5, and had a share of about 13% of "EC+OM" in PM2.5. The impact of bioaerosol (fungal spores) was minor and had a share of 1 and 2% of the OC in the PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 size fractions. Of secondary inorganic constituents (NH4)2SO4 contributes 4.4% to PM2.5 and no detectable quantity to PM10-2.5. The sea salt contribution is about 2% both to

  3. Final definition and preliminary design study for the initial atmospheric cloud physics laboratory, a Spacelab mission payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The following areas related to the final definition and preliminary design study of the initial atmospheric cloud physics laboratory (ACPL) were covered: (1) proposal organization, personnel, schedule, and project management, (2) proposed configurations, (3) study objectives, (4) ACPL experiment program listing and description, (5) mission/flight flexibility and modularity/commonality, (6) study plan, and (7) description of following tasks: requirement analysis and definition task flow, systems analysis and trade studies, subsystem analysis and trade studies, specifications and interface control documents, preliminary design task flow, work breakdown structure, programmatic analysis and planning, and project costs. Finally, an overview of the scientific requirements was presented.

  4. A pathological study of the epidemiology of atherosclerosis in Mexico city.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Saldaña, Joel; Rodriguez-Flores, Marcela; Cantú-Brito, Carlos; Aguirre-Garcia, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To examine the frequency and patterns of association of cardiovascular risk factors with atherosclerosis in five different arterial territories at post-mortem in Mexico City. Methods. We obtained five arterial territories arteries (circle of Willis, coronary, carotid, renal, and aorta) of 185 men and women 0 to 90 years of age who underwent autopsy at the Medical Forensic Service of Mexico City. We determined the prevalence and extent of atherosclerotic lesions by histopathology according to the classification of the American Heart Association as early (types I-III) and advanced (types IV-VI), and according to the degree of stenosis and correlated with cardiovascular risk factors. Results. Atherosclerotic lesions were identified in at least one arterial territory in 181 subjects (97.8%), with involvement of two ore more territories in 178 subjects (92.2%). Advanced lesions were observed in 36% and 67% of subjects under 15 and between 16 and 35 years, respectively. Any degree of atherosclerosis was associated with the presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, overweight, obesity, and smoking, and to a greater extent with the presence of two or more risk factors (P < 0.001). However, emerging and advanced athersoclerosis was observed in 53% and 20% people with no risk factors. Conclusions. The study shows a high prevalence of atherosclerosis in all age groups and both sexes. There is considerable development of atherosclerotic disease in subjects without known risk factors.

  5. A Pathological Study of the Epidemiology of Atherosclerosis in Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Saldaña, Joel; Rodriguez-Flores, Marcela; Cantú-Brito, Carlos; Aguirre-Garcia, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To examine the frequency and patterns of association of cardiovascular risk factors with atherosclerosis in five different arterial territories at post-mortem in Mexico City. Methods. We obtained five arterial territories arteries (circle of Willis, coronary, carotid, renal, and aorta) of 185 men and women 0 to 90 years of age who underwent autopsy at the Medical Forensic Service of Mexico City. We determined the prevalence and extent of atherosclerotic lesions by histopathology according to the classification of the American Heart Association as early (types I–III) and advanced (types IV–VI), and according to the degree of stenosis and correlated with cardiovascular risk factors. Results. Atherosclerotic lesions were identified in at least one arterial territory in 181 subjects (97.8%), with involvement of two ore more territories in 178 subjects (92.2%). Advanced lesions were observed in 36% and 67% of subjects under 15 and between 16 and 35 years, respectively. Any degree of atherosclerosis was associated with the presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, overweight, obesity, and smoking, and to a greater extent with the presence of two or more risk factors (P < 0.001). However, emerging and advanced athersoclerosis was observed in 53% and 20% people with no risk factors. Conclusions. The study shows a high prevalence of atherosclerosis in all age groups and both sexes. There is considerable development of atherosclerotic disease in subjects without known risk factors. PMID:24719773

  6. [Pilot study on the presence of Legionella spp in 6 Italian cities' dental units].

    PubMed

    Montagna, M T; Tatò, D; Napoli, C; Castiglia, P; Guidetti, L; Liguori, G; Petti, S; Tanzi, M L

    2006-01-01

    Among the microorganism involved in environmental contamination, Legionella spp is actually considered an important infectious hazard. The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence of Legionella spp in water samples collected from 138 dental unit selected from public outpatient clinics of 6 Italian cities. The samples were taken from oral rinsing cup, air-water syringe, ultrasonic scaler and the turbine to investigate Legionella spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the total heterotrophic count at 36 degrees and 22 degrees. Legionella spp was present in 33,3% dental unit water; but a significant difference was shown among the enrolled cities. In 43,5% of water sample Legionella concentration was 1.000-10.000 CFU/L and in 30,4% was >10.000 CFU/L. L. pneumophila 1 was found in 23,9% of water samples. The results demonstrate that the concentration of Legionella spp in dental unit water lines could be high and this suggests that the exposure to these micoorganism during the dental practise could be a potential health risk both for dental personnel and for the patients too, especially when immunocompromised.

  7. Diversity of Alticinae in Oaxaca, Mexico: A preliminary study (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Furth, David G

    2013-01-01

    This is a preliminary study of the diversity of the Flea Beetles (Alticinae) of the Mexican state of Oaxaca based on fieldwork by the author in 1991, 1997, and 2010, the literature, and specimens in several institutional collections. The number of genera and species for Mexico as well as for Oaxaca increased significantly from previous studies. There are now 625 species in 90 genera recorded from Mexico with 275 species in 68 genera recorded from Oaxaca. There are 113 species known only from the state of Oaxaca and another 38 species known only from Oaxaca and the surrounding states. Oaxaca has a relatively high diversity as well as a high percentage of endemism. This study also demonstrates the effects of how even a small amount of fieldwork together with extracting specimen data from institutional collections can significantly increase the total faunistic and diversity knowledge of an area. A complete list of the genera and species known from Oaxaca is included.

  8. A Preliminary Study of Flame Propagation in a Spark-ignition Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Spencer, R C

    1937-01-01

    The N.A.C.A. combustion apparatus was altered to operate as a fuel-injection, spark-ignition engine, and a preliminary study was made of the combustion of gasoline-air mixtures at various air-fuel ratios. Air-fuel ratios ranging from 10 to 21.6 were investigated. Records from an optical indicator and films from a high-speed motion-picture camera were the chief sources of data. Schlieren photography was used for an additional study. The results show that the altered combustion apparatus has characteristics similar to those of a conventional spark-ignition engine and should be useful in studying phenomena in spark-ignition engines. The photographs show the flame front to be irregularly shaped rather than uniformly curved. With a theoretically correct mixture the reaction, as indicated by the photographs, is not completed in the flame front but continues for some time after the combustion front has traversed the mixture.

  9. Preliminary Study of Testosterone and Empathy in Determining Recidivism and Antisocial Behavior.

    PubMed

    House, Samuel J; Laan, Jacob M; Molden, Raymond K; Ritchie, James C; Stowe, Zachary N

    2017-02-15

    Recidivism, repeated criminal behavior after conviction and correction of prior offenses, is a costly problem across the nation. However, the contribution of empathy in determining the risk of recidivism has received limited attention, although lack of empathy has been related to antisocial personality disorder in various studies. Studies linked testosterone to aggression, antisocial behavior, and criminality, and evidence support hormonal connections between empathy and aggression. Adult male prison inmates convicted of violent or nonviolent offenses were included in a cross-sectional study of empathy, antisocial behavior, salivary testosterone, and recidivism. Subjects underwent criminal history, Empathy Quotient, Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and salivary testosterone assays. Bivariate analyses indicated multiple correlations between variables. Multivariate modeling analyses found a significant relationship between self-reported conviction number and psychopathy scale score (p = 0.013). These preliminary results suggest avenues of investigation of factors contributing to recidivism risk.

  10. Two-coordinate terminal zinc hydride complexes: synthesis, structure and preliminary reactivity studies.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, Michael J C; Middleton, Ewart; Kefalidis, Christos E; Dange, Deepak; Juckel, Martin M; Maron, Laurent; Jones, Cameron

    2016-08-18

    The first examples of essentially two-coordinate, monomeric zinc hydride complexes, LZnH (L = -N(Ar)(SiR3)) (Ar = C6H2{C(H)Ph2}2R'-2,6,4; R = Me, R' = Pr(i) (L'); R = Pr(i), R' = Me (L*); R = Pr(i), R' = Pr(i) (L(†))) have been prepared and shown by crystallographic studies to have near linear N-Zn-H fragments. The results of computational studies imply that any PhZn interactions in the compounds are weak at best. Preliminary reactivity studies reveal the compounds to be effective for the stoichiometric hydrozincation and catalytic hydrosilylation of carbonyl compounds.

  11. SECONDARY WASTE/ETF (EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY) PRELIMINARY PRE-CONCEPTUAL ENGINEERING STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    MAY TH; GEHNER PD; STEGEN GARY; HYMAS JAY; PAJUNEN AL; SEXTON RICH; RAMSEY AMY

    2009-12-28

    This pre-conceptual engineering study is intended to assist in supporting the critical decision (CD) 0 milestone by providing a basis for the justification of mission need (JMN) for the handling and disposal of liquid effluents. The ETF baseline strategy, to accommodate (WTP) requirements, calls for a solidification treatment unit (STU) to be added to the ETF to provide the needed additional processing capability. This STU is to process the ETF evaporator concentrate into a cement-based waste form. The cementitious waste will be cast into blocks for curing, storage, and disposal. Tis pre-conceptual engineering study explores this baseline strategy, in addition to other potential alternatives, for meeting the ETF future mission needs. Within each reviewed case study, a technical and facility description is outlined, along with a preliminary cost analysis and the associated risks and benefits.

  12. Selection and durability of seal materials for a bedded salt repository: preliminary studies

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, D.M.; Grutzeck, M.W.; Wakeley, L.D.

    1983-11-01

    This report details preliminary results of both experimental and theoretical studies of cementitious seal materials for use in a proposed nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. Effects of changes in bulk composition and environment upon phase stability and physical/mechanical properties have been evaluated for more than 25 formulations. Bonding and interfacial characteristics of the region between host rock and seal material or concrete aggregate and cementitious matrix for selected formulations have been studied. Compatibilities of clays and zeolites in brines typical of the SE New Mexico region have been investigated, and their stabilities reviewed. Results of these studies have led to the conclusion that cementitious materials can be formulated which are compatible with the major rock types in a bedded salt repository environment. Strengths are more than adequate, permeabilities are consistently very low, and elastic moduli generally increase only very slightly with time. Seal formulation guidelines and recommendations for present and future work are presented. 73 references, 25 figures, 61 tables.

  13. Diversity of Alticinae in Oaxaca, Mexico: A preliminary study (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)1

    PubMed Central

    Furth, David G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This is a preliminary study of the diversity of the Flea Beetles (Alticinae) of the Mexican state of Oaxaca based on fieldwork by the author in 1991, 1997, and 2010, the literature, and specimens in several institutional collections. The number of genera and species for Mexico as well as for Oaxaca increased significantly from previous studies. There are now 625 species in 90 genera recorded from Mexico with 275 species in 68 genera recorded from Oaxaca. There are 113 species known only from the state of Oaxaca and another 38 species known only from Oaxaca and the surrounding states. Oaxaca has a relatively high diversity as well as a high percentage of endemism. This study also demonstrates the effects of how even a small amount of fieldwork together with extracting specimen data from institutional collections can significantly increase the total faunistic and diversity knowledge of an area. A complete list of the genera and species known from Oaxaca is included. PMID:24163579

  14. Evaluating Pillar Industry’s Transformation Capability: A Case Study of Two Chinese Steel-Based Cities

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhidong; Marinova, Dora; Guo, Xiumei; Gao, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Many steel-based cities in China were established between the 1950s and 1960s. After more than half a century of development and boom, these cities are starting to decline and industrial transformation is urgently needed. This paper focuses on evaluating the transformation capability of resource-based cities building an evaluation model. Using Text Mining and the Document Explorer technique as a way of extracting text features, the 200 most frequently used words are derived from 100 publications related to steel- and other resource-based cities. The Expert Evaluation Method (EEM) and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) techniques are then applied to select 53 indicators, determine their weights and establish an index system for evaluating the transformation capability of the pillar industry of China’s steel-based cities. Using real data and expert reviews, the improved Fuzzy Relation Matrix (FRM) method is applied to two case studies in China, namely Panzhihua and Daye, and the evaluation model is developed using Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation (FCE). The cities’ abilities to carry out industrial transformation are evaluated with concerns expressed for the case of Daye. The findings have policy implications for the potential and required industrial transformation in the two selected cities and other resource-based towns. PMID:26422266

  15. Preliminary Study of a Millimeter Wave FMCW InSAR for UAS Indoor Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Scannapieco, Antonio F.; Renga, Alfredo; Moccia, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Small autonomous unmanned aerial systems (UAS) could be used for indoor inspection in emergency missions, such as damage assessment or the search for survivors in dangerous environments, e.g., power plants, underground railways, mines and industrial warehouses. Two basic functions are required to carry out these tasks, that is autonomous GPS-denied navigation with obstacle detection and high-resolution 3D mapping with moving target detection. State-of-the-art sensors for UAS are very sensitive to environmental conditions and often fail in the case of poor visibility caused by dust, fog, smoke, flames or other factors that are met as nominal mission scenarios when operating indoors. This paper is a preliminary study concerning an innovative radar sensor based on the interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) principle, which has the potential to satisfy stringent requirements set by indoor autonomous operation. An architectural solution based on a frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) scheme is proposed after a detailed analysis of existing compact and lightweight SAR. A preliminary system design is obtained, and the main imaging peculiarities of the novel sensor are discussed, demonstrating that high-resolution, high-quality observation of an assigned control volume can be achieved. PMID:25621606

  16. Preliminary study of a millimeter wave FMCW InSAR for UAS indoor navigation.

    PubMed

    Scannapieco, Antonio F; Renga, Alfredo; Moccia, Antonio

    2015-01-22

    Small autonomous unmanned aerial systems (UAS) could be used for indoor inspection in emergency missions, such as damage assessment or the search for survivors in dangerous environments, e.g., power plants, underground railways, mines and industrial warehouses. Two basic functions are required to carry out these tasks, that is autonomous GPS-denied navigation with obstacle detection and high-resolution 3Dmapping with moving target detection. State-of-the-art sensors for UAS are very sensitive to environmental conditions and often fail in the case of poor visibility caused by dust, fog, smoke, flames or other factors that are met as nominal mission scenarios when operating indoors. This paper is a preliminary study concerning an innovative radar sensor based on the interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) principle, which has the potential to satisfy stringent requirements set by indoor autonomous operation. An architectural solution based on a frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) scheme is proposed after a detailed analysis of existing compact and lightweight SAR. A preliminary system design is obtained, and the main imaging peculiarities of the novel sensor are discussed, demonstrating that high-resolution, high-quality observation of an assigned control volume can be achieved.

  17. Decreased cell proliferation and higher oxidative stress in fibroblasts from Down Syndrome fetuses. Preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Amparo; García-Giménez, José Luis; Audí, Laura; Toran, Nuria; Andaluz, Pilar; Dasí, Francisco; Viña, José; Pallardó, Federico V

    2014-01-01

    Down Syndrome is the most common chromosomal disease and is also known for its decreased incidence of solid tumors and its progeroid phenotype. Cellular and systemic oxidative stress has been considered as one of the Down Syndrome phenotype causes. We correlated, in a preliminary study, the fibroblast proliferation rate and different cell proliferation key regulators, like Rcan1 and the telomere length from Down Syndrome fetuses, with their oxidative stress profile and the Ribonucleic acid and protein expression of the main antioxidant enzymes together with their activity. Increased oxidized glutathione/glutathione ratio and high peroxide production were found in our cell model. These results correlated with a distorted antioxidant shield. The messenger RNA (SOD1) and protein levels of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase were increased together with a decreased mRNA expression and protein levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx). As a consequence the [Cu/ZnSOD/(catalase+GPx)] activity ratio increases which explains the oxidative stress generated in the cell model. In addition, the expression of thioredoxin 1 and glutaredoxin 1 is decreased. The results obtained show a decreased antioxidant phenotype that correlates with increased levels of Regulator of calcineurin 1 and attrition of telomeres, both related to oxidative stress and cell cycle impairment. Our preliminary results may explain the proneness to a progeroid phenotype.

  18. Temperament, personality, and treatment outcome in major depression: a 6-month preliminary prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kudo, Yuka; Nakagawa, Atsuo; Wake, Taisei; Ishikawa, Natsumi; Kurata, Chika; Nakahara, Mizuki; Nojima, Teruo; Mimura, Masaru

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite available treatments, major depression is a highly heterogeneous disorder, which leads to problems in classification and treatment specificity. Previous studies have reported that personality traits predict and influence the course and treatment response of depression. The Temperament and Personality Questionnaire (T&P) assesses eight major constructs of personality traits observed in those who develop depression. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of T&P’s eight constructs on the treatment outcome of depressed patients. Patients and methods A preliminary 6-month prospective study was conducted with a sample of 51 adult patients with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) without remarkable psychomotor disturbance using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition. All patients received comprehensive assessment including the T&P at baseline. We compared each T&P construct score between patients who achieved remission and those who did not achieve remission after 6 months of treatment for depression using both subjective and objective measures. All 51 (100%) patients received the 6-month follow-up assessment. Results This study demonstrated that higher scores on T&P personal reserve predicted poorer treatment outcome in patients with MDD. Higher levels of personal reserve, rejection sensitivity, and self-criticism correlated with higher levels of depression. Higher levels of rejection sensitivity and self-criticism were associated with non-remitters; however, when we controlled for baseline depression severity, this relationship did not show significance. Conclusion Although the results are preliminary, this study suggests that high scores on T&P personal reserve predict poorer treatment outcome and T&P rejection sensitivity and self-criticism correlate with the severity of depression. Longer follow-up studies with large sample sizes are required to improve the understanding of these

  19. A study of the palatal rugae pattern among male female and transgender population of Bhopal city

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Eshani; Chandrashekhar, B. R; Hongal, Sudheer; Torwane, Nilesh; Goel, Pankaj; Mishra, Priyesh

    2015-01-01

    Context: Transgenders are highly disadvantaged people, deprived of adequate opportunities of earning a respectable living. The forensic literature has emphasized on two genders, male and female, the existence of a third gender (Transgenders) is almost negligible in the literature, and this makes it compulsive to determine their identity through forensic approaches at the time of disasters. Previous studies have demonstrated that no two palatal rugae pattern are alike in their configuration and this unique feature has led us to undertake a study to establish individual identities using palatal rugae pattern. Aims: The purpose of this study was to compare the palatal rugae pattern among male, female, and transgender population of the Bhopal city. Settings and Design: This study was cross sectional in nature and conducted on a convenience sample of 148 subjects selected from Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh. The study involved 49 males, 51 females, and 48 eunuchs in the age range of 17 to 35 years. Materials and Methods: Maxillary impression using alginate impression material was made and the cast was prepared using die stone on palatal area and dental stone as a base. The palatal rugae pattern was assessed on the basis of number, length, shape, direction, and unification. Statistical Analysis Used: One way ANOVA was used for comparing the mean values between different genders. The multiple pairwise comparisons were done with the Bonferroni post hoc correction. The statistical significance was fixed at 0.05. Results: The statistically significant difference with regard to some parameters like number of rugae, fragmentary rugae, wavy rugae, curve rugae, forwardly directed, and backwardly directed rugae between transgender and other gender groups were present. Conclusion: The difference in the parameters of the palatal rugae pattern among the transgender population and the other gender group is attributed to be the genetic makeup and sexual dimorphism. PMID:26005304

  20. Water reclamation and intersectoral water transfer between agriculture and cities--a FAO economic wastewater study.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Ingo; Salgot, Miquel; Koo-Oshima, Sasha

    2011-01-01

    Cost-benefit studies on replacing conventional agricultural water resources with reclaimed water in favour of cities are still rare. Some results of a study under auspices of the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) are presented. By means of an illustrative example at Lobregat River basin in Spain, it could be proved that reclaimed water reuse and intersectoral water transfer can result in economic and environmental benefits at the watershed level. The agricultural community faces cost savings in water pumping and fertilising, increases in yields and incomes; the municipality benefits from additional water resources released by farmers. Farmers should be encouraged to participate by implementing adequate economic incentives. Charging farmers with the full cost of water reclamation may discourage farmers from joining water exchange projects. Particularly in regions with water scarcity, investments in reclaimed water reuse and water exchange arrangements usually pay back and are profitable in the long term.

  1. Perceptions of mental illness in Mexico: a descriptive study in the city of Chihuahua.

    PubMed

    Parra, F

    1987-01-01

    This work is a study of perceptions toward mental illness among respondents from the city of Chihuahua in Mexico. A non-probability sample of forty-seven respondents was taken during a two-week stay in the summer of 1985. To tap respondents' perceptions of mental illness, vignettes characterizing people normally thought to have symptoms of mental illness were employed. The study reveals that men and women perceive mental illness differently. In three out of four vignettes, women perceive mental disorder than men. It is argued that the reason for the disparity in perceptions between the sexes is the result of the sexual differentiation that exists in Mexico. With regard to whom the respondents would refer the person for help, the majority of the respondents recommended that, whether or not the person in the vignette is characterized as mentally ill or simply "sick", the person should seek professional help.

  2. Preliminary study of the acid deposition in the Tijuana Area (Mexico)

    SciTech Connect

    Bravo, H.; Sosa, R.; Torres, R. )

    1988-01-01

    Transboundary air pollution is of widespread international concern. Tijuana, Mexico, and San Diego, California, form one of the fastest growing border communities in the world. Projections place the current population of three million residents at nearly five million by the year 2000. Although the two cities are divided by an international border they share a common air base. Tijuana and southern portions of San Diego County are particularly affected by the exchange of air flow through the Tijuana River Canyon. The development of an air pollution acid rain monitoring and sampling program across the border, particularly in Tijuana is imperative because of a planned new Tijuana industrial city, large numbers of existing industries without adequate emission controls, and thousands of vehicles generated pollutants on both sides of the border. The first steps toward an acid rain study along the mexican border began in 1985, with a project between the National Council of Science and Technology - (CONACYT) and the Center of the Atmospheric Sciences of the University of Mexico (CCA, UNAM). The goal of this project is to obtain acid rain data from five sites along the border. One of these sites is Tijuana, B.C., Mexico. The data obtained are reported in the paper.

  3. Nubac Disc Arthroplasty: Preclinical Studies and Preliminary Safety and Efficacy Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Songer, Matthew; Pimenta, Luis; Werner, Dieter; Reyes-Sanchez, Alejandro; Balsano, Massimo; Agrillo, Umberto; Coric, Domagoj; Davenport, Kenneth; Yuan, Hansen

    2007-01-01

    Background Disc arthroplasty is gaining popularity for treatment of low-back pain caused by degenerative disc disease (DDD). It can involve total disc replacement or partial disc or nucleus replacement (or augmentation). Compared with total disc replacement, nucleus replacement is less invasive, has less surgical risk, has faster postoperative recovery, and doesn't “burn bridges” should further surgery be required. However, nucleus replacement has a high risk of implant expulsion because the device is not fixed to the vertebrae. Nubac is the first polyetheretherketone (PEEK)-on-PEEK articulated disc arthroplasty device designed to optimally restore the lumbar anatomy and biomechanics. Methods ISO 10993 standards were used to evaluate the biocompatibility of the PEEK material. Chemical and thermal–mechanical tests and in vivo study assessed PEEK's biostability after exposure to high g irradiation and harsh oxidative conditions. Biomechanical tests to evaluate kinematic properties and anatomical restoration of the implanted lumbar motion segments and implant expulsion risk assessments were performed with a human cadaveric model. Because of the novelty of PEEK-on-PEEK as a self-mating articulating material, extensive wear tests were conducted with unidirectional and coupled motions. Static and fatigue strength also were tested. Animal study with a baboon model was conducted with gross, radiographic, biomechanical, and histological evaluations at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Preliminary clinical data were collected through a prospective multicenter cohort study. Results PEEK demonstrated exceptional biocompatibility and biodurability. Nubac restored disc height and motion segment range of motion. The unique articulating design of the Nubac demonstrated low risk of implant expulsion in a human cadaveric model. Wear tests showed that the Nubac has minimal wear and compares favorably to other disc arthroplasty materials. The Nubac also had excellent static and

  4. [Metallic content of water sources and drinkable water in industrial cities of Murmansk region].

    PubMed

    Doushkina, E V; Dudarev, A A; Sladkova, Yu N; Zachinskaya, I Yu; Chupakhin, V S; Goushchin, I V; Talykova, L V; Nikanov, A N

    2015-01-01

    Performed in 2013, sampling of centralized and noncentralized water-supply and analysis of engineering technology materials on household water use in 6 cities of Murmansk region (Nikel, Zapolyarny, Olenegorsk, Montchegorsk, Apatity, Kirovsk), subjected to industrial emissions, enabled to evaluate and compare levels of 15 metals in water sources (lakes and springs) and the cities' drinkable waters. Findings are that some cities lack sanitary protection zones for water sources, most cities require preliminary water processing, water desinfection involves only chlorination. Concentrations of most metals in water samples from all the cities at the points of water intake, water preparation and water supply are within the hygienic norms. But values significantly (2-5 times) exceeding MACs (both in water sources and in drinkable waters of the cities) were seen for aluminium in Kirovsk city and for nickel in Zapolarny and Nikel cities. To decrease effects of aluminium, nickel and their compounds in the three cities' residents (and preserve health of the population and offsprings), the authors necessitate specification and adaptation of measures to purify the drinkable waters from the pollutants. In all the cities studied, significantly increased concentrations of iron and other metals were seen during water transportation from the source to the city supply--that necessitates replacement of depreciated water supply systems by modern ones. Water taken from Petchenga region springs demonstrated relatively low levels of metals, except from strontium and barium.

  5. Comparison of Guided and Unguided Ocriplasmin Injection for the Treatment of Vitreomacular Traction: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Mastropasqua, Rodolfo; Di Antonio, Luca; Ciciarelli, Vincenzo; Aharrh-Gnama, Agbeanda; Rispoli, Marco; Carpineto, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective quality control study aimed at comparing resolution in patients treated with intravitreal ocriplasmin (IVO) using two injection techniques, classical injection procedure (unguided) and targeted injection using a surgical microscope with a 30-gauge 1-inch needle (guided) for the treatment of focal VMT without macular hole. The two groups presented a statistically significant difference in terms of resolution of VMT within the first month following treatment: 1/7 for the unguided group versus 6/7 for the guided group (p = 0.0291). The majority of the guided group presented an earlier resolution than the single resolved case in the unguided group. The results of this preliminary study indicate that the injection of ocriplasmin closer to the site of VMT results in the resolution in a higher number of cases and that this resolution occurs in a short time interval. PMID:27066269

  6. Preliminary engineering study: Quick opening valve MSFC high Reynolds number wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    FluiDyne Engineering Corporation has conducted a preliminary engineering study of a quick-opening valve for the MSFC High Reynolds Number Wind Tunnel under NASA Contract NAS8-35056. The subject valve is intended to replace the Mylar diaphragm system as the flow initiation device for the tunnel. Only valves capable of opening within 0.05 sec. and providing a minimum of 11.4 square feet of flow area were considered. Also, the study focused on valves which combined the quick-opening and tight shutoff features in a single unit. A ring sleeve valve concept was chosen for refinement and pricing. Sealing for tight shutoff, ring sleeve closure release and sleeve actuation were considered. The resulting cost estimate includes the valve and requisite modifications to the facility to accommodate the valve as well as the associated design and development work.

  7. Turkish children's Bender-Gestalt Test performance: a pilot study and preliminary norms.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Serap

    2007-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to provide preliminary data for norms on the Bender-Gestalt Test for 253 children ages 5 yr., 5 mo. to 11 yr., 10 mo. in Turkey. The Koppitz Developmental Scoring System gave mean error scores of 4.2 (SD = 3.3) for girls and 3.6 (SD = 3.0) for boys. The mean error scores obtained by all age groups are presented and compared with other cross-cultural data. These scores decreased across age groups, supporting Bender's maturational hypothesis of the test. The present sample performed at a higher developmental level than the Koppitz normative sample for the 5- and 6-year age groups, while means for other age groups were similar to the original U.S. norms. That this pattern is supported in other cross-cultural studies is discussed as well as the importance of developing local norms for visual spatial tests.

  8. Preliminary Study of OCD and Health Disparities at the U.S.-Mexico Border

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Tom; Vera, Beatriz; Perez, Oriana

    2007-01-01

    The widespread and devastating nature of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) sharply contrasts with the paucity of research involving Mexican Americans and Mexicans who suffer from this condition. This mixed-methods preliminary study was intended to provide initial data and to pilot the procedures for a larger investigation of the cultural identification, symptomatology, health concerns, coping mechanisms, and quality of life of Mexican Americans and Mexicans with OCD living in the U.S.-Mexico border region of El Paso, Texas and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. For the sample of six participants, whose symptoms ranged from moderate to extreme, OCD was associated with marked impairment in quality of life, particularly in terms of social functioning, an area of central importance for many Mexican Americans and Mexicans. Areas of further study were identified, with the aim of developing culturally sensitive interventions to decrease health disparities involving OCD. PMID:17917689

  9. A new piezoelectric actuator induces bone formation in vivo: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Reis, Joana; Frias, Clara; Canto e Castro, Carlos; Botelho, Maria Luísa; Marques, António Torres; Simões, José António Oliveira; Capela e Silva, Fernando; Potes, José

    2012-01-01

    This in vivo study presents the preliminary results of the use of a novel piezoelectric actuator for orthopedic application. The innovative use of the converse piezoelectric effect to mechanically stimulate bone was achieved with polyvinylidene fluoride actuators implanted in osteotomy cuts in sheep femur and tibia. The biological response around the osteotomies was assessed through histology and histomorphometry in nondecalcified sections and histochemistry and immunohistochemistry in decalcified sections, namely, through Masson's trichrome, and labeling of osteopontin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. After one-month implantation, total bone area and new bone area were significantly higher around actuators when compared to static controls. Bone deposition rate was also significantly higher in the mechanically stimulated areas. In these areas, osteopontin increased expression was observed. The present in vivo study suggests that piezoelectric materials and the converse piezoelectric effect may be used to effectively stimulate bone growth.

  10. Using Financial Ratios to Select Companies for Tax Auditing: A Preliminary Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marghescu, Dorina; Kallio, Minna; Back, Barbro

    Tax auditing procedures include an investigation of the accounting records of a company and of other sources of information in order to assess whether the taxation has been based on correct and complete information. When there are found discrepancies between the accounting information and the real situation, the taxation should be corrected so that the eventual tax defaults are assessed and debited. The paper analyzes to what extent the financial performance of a company can be used as an indicator of tax defaults. We focus on one type of tax, namely employer's contribution, and four financial ratios. We evaluate the model in a study of Finnish companies by using a binomial logistic regression analysis. The study is exploratory and at a preliminary stage.

  11. Forensic scatology: preliminary experimental study of the preparation and potential for identification of captive carnivore scat.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, Rebecca J; Skinner, Mark F

    2012-01-01

    Carnivore scats recovered from animal attack and/or scavenging contexts frequently contain forensic evidence such as human bone fragments. Forensic cases with carnivore involvement are increasingly prevalent, necessitating a methodology for the recovery and analysis of scat evidence. This study proposes a method for the safe preparation of carnivore scat, recovery of bone inclusions, and quantification and comparison of scat variables. Fourteen scats (lion, jaguar, lynx, wolf, and coyote) were prepared with sodium-acetate-formalin fixative; analytical variables included carnivore individual, species, body size, and taxonomic family. Scat variables, particularly bone fragment inclusions, were found to vary among carnivore individuals, families, species, and sizes. The methods in this study facilitate safe scat processing, the complete recovery of digested evidence, and the preliminary identification of involved animals. This research demonstrates that scat collected from forensic contexts can yield valuable information concerning both the victim and the carnivore involved.

  12. A Preliminary Study on the Vapor/Mist Phase Lubrication of a Spur Gearbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Wilfredo; Handschuh, Robert F.

    1999-01-01

    Organophosphates have been the primary compounds used in vapor/mist phase lubrication studies involving ferrous bearing material. Experimental results have indicated that the initial formation of an iron phosphate film on a rubbing ferrous surface, followed by the growth (by cationic diffusion) of a lubricious pyrophosphate-type coating over the iron phosphate, is the reason organophosphates work well as vapor/mist phase lubricants. Recent work, however, has shown that this mechanism leads to the depletion of surface iron atoms and to eventual lubrication failure. A new organophosphate formulation was developed which circumvents surface iron depletion. This formulation was tested by generating an iron phosphate coating on an aluminum surface. The new formulation was then used to vapor/mist phase lubricate a spur gearbox in a preliminary study.

  13. Preliminary study on weapon grade uranium utilization in molten salt reactor miniFUJI

    SciTech Connect

    Aji, Indarta Kuncoro; Waris, A.

    2014-09-30

    Preliminary study on weapon grade uranium utilization in 25MWth and 50MWth of miniFUJI MSR (molten salt reactor) has been carried out. In this study, a very high enriched uranium that we called weapon grade uranium has been employed in UF{sub 4} composition. The {sup 235}U enrichment is 90 - 95 %. The results show that the 25MWth miniFUJI MSR can get its criticality condition for 1.56 %, 1.76%, and 1.96% of UF{sub 4} with {sup 235}U enrichment of at least 93%, 90%, and 90%, respectively. In contrast, the 50 MWth miniFUJI reactor can be critical for 1.96% of UF{sub 4} with {sup 235}U enrichment of at smallest amount 95%. The neutron spectra are almost similar for each power output.

  14. A preliminary study of aquaporin 1 immunolocalization in chronic subdural hematoma membranes.

    PubMed

    Basaldella, Luca; Perin, Alessandro; Orvieto, Enrico; Marton, Elisabetta; Itskevich, David; Dei Tos, Angelo Paolo; Longatti, Pierluigi

    2010-07-01

    Aquaporin 1 (AQP1) is a molecular water channel expressed in many anatomical locations, particularly in epithelial barriers specialized in water transport. The aim of this study was to investigate AQP1 expression in chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) membranes. In this preliminary study, 11 patients with CSDH underwent burr hole craniectomy and drainage. Membrane specimens were stained with a monoclonal antibody targeting AQP1 for immunohistochemical analysis. The endothelial cells of the sinusoid capillaries of the outer membranes exhibited an elevated immunoreactivity to AQP1 antibody compared to the staining intensity of specimens from the inner membrane and normal dura. These findings suggest that the outer membrane might be the source of the increased fluid accumulation responsible for chronic hematoma enlargement.

  15. Preliminary studies of the use of nail as a material for reconstructive or cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Taylor, P; Kaakedjian, G

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the biocompatibility and stability of implanted nail as a preliminary step in the assessment of its potential as a material for small scale reconstructive or cosmetic surgery. Rat nails were placed subcutaneously in the back of 12 Lewis rats, which were then sacrificed in groups of 4 at 4, 8, and 12 months for macroscopic and microscopic examination of the implants. A layer of strongly adherent connective tissue, containing inflammatory cells, had formed around the nails at 4 months, but by 8 to 12 months this reaction had subsided, leaving the nails imbedded in connective tissue adhering to the dermal wall, with no evidence of implant rejection, granuloma formation, or degradation. The results suggest that nail merits further study as a surgical implant material, because of its staying power and lack of immunogenicity.

  16. Preliminary Structural Sizing and Alternative Material Trade Study of CEV Crew Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steve M.; Collier, Craig S.; Yarrington, Phillip W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary structural sizing and alternate material trade study for NASA s Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Crew Module (CM). This critical CEV component will house the astronauts during ascent, docking with the International Space Station, reentry, and landing. The alternate material design study considers three materials beyond the standard metallic (aluminum alloy) design that resulted from an earlier NASA Smart Buyer Team analysis. These materials are graphite/epoxy composite laminates, discontinuously reinforced SiC/Al (DRA) composites, and a novel integrated panel material/concept known as WebCore. Using the HyperSizer (Collier Research and Development Corporation) structural sizing software and NASTRAN finite element analysis code, a comparison is made among these materials for the three composite CM concepts considered by the 2006 NASA Engineering and Safety Center Composite Crew Module project.

  17. Female genital mutilation among Iraqi Kurdish women: a cross-sectional study from Erbil city

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Iraqi Kurdistan region is one of the areas where female genital mutilation is reportedly widely practiced but inadequately studied. The aim of this study was to determine (i) the prevalence of female genital mutilation among Muslim Kurdish women in Erbil city, (ii) the patterns and types of female genital mutilation, (iii) the factors associated with this practice and (iv) women’s knowledge and attitudes towards this practice. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in the primary health care centers and the Maternity Teaching Hospital in Erbil city, involving 1987 women aged 15–49 years. Data were obtained about female genital mutilation status and knowledge and perception towards this practice. The participants were clinically examined to verify the self-reported female genital mutilation status. Results The self-reported prevalence of female genital mutilation was 70.3%, while it was 58.6% according to clinical examination of the women’s genitalia. The most common type of female genital mutilation was type I (99.6%) and the most common age at which mutilation was performed was 4–7 years (60.2%). This practice was mostly performed by traditional birth attendants (72.5%). Only 6.4% of mutilated women reported having complications after mutilation, most commonly bleeding (3.6%). The practice was more reported among housewives (OR = 3.3), those women whose mothers were mutilated (OR = 15.1) or with unknown mutilation status (OR = 7.3) and those women whose fathers were illiterate (OR = 1.4) or could only read and write (OR = 1.6). The common reasons for practicing female genital mutilation were cultural tradition (46.7%) and dictate of religion (38.9%). Only 30% of the participants were aware about the health consequences of female genital mutilation. More than one third (36.6%) of the women support the practice and 34.5% have intention to mutilate their daughters. Conclusions Prevalence of female genital mutilation

  18. Study on the Construction and Application of 3D Geographic Information Services for the Smart City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, W.-Q.

    2014-04-01

    Smart City, whose main characteristics are intelligence and interconnection capability, has become an important goal of some cities' development. This paper, based on urban three-dimensional geographic information characteristics, analyses 3D geographic information requirements in the Smart City construction and development process, proposes construction and management methods for 3D geographic information. Furthermore, this paper takes Shanghai Geographic Information Public Service Platform as an example, discusses 3D geographic information application in multiple fields, and proves that it is an effective ways to promote Intelligent City construction.

  19. Perceptions of Community: A Case Study of a Partnership between a Small Suburban College and an Inner-City Neighborhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benz, Sharon A.

    2012-01-01

    This mixed method, single case study describes a university-community partnership between a small, suburban liberal arts college and an inner-city neighborhood located over eight miles away. The ultimate goal of the study was to improve the partnership for community and campus partners. The study does this by focusing on partnership members'…

  20. Assessment of Children's Psychological Development and Data Analytic Framework in New York City Infant Day Care Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Mark

    This report briefly describes the procedures for assessing children's psychological development and the data analytic framework used in the New York City Infant Day Care Study. This study is a 5-year, longitudinal investigation in which infants in group and family day care programs and infants reared at home are compared. Children in the study are…