Science.gov

Sample records for city taliolmpiamngude sndmuste

  1. Education Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaked, Haim

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several cities in Israel have labeled themselves "Education Cities," concentrating on education as their central theme. Employing qualitative techniques, this article aims to describe, define, and conceptualize this phenomenon as it is being realized in three such cities. Findings show that Education Cities differ from…

  2. Mexico City

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... Two small brighter patches within the hazy area indicate low fog. In the left-hand panel, the city basin appears significantly clearer, but ... very high altitudes, in contrast to the low-lying haze and fog near Mexico City. When the stereo retrieval determines that a location is ...

  3. Atypical Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this creative challenge, Surrealism and one-point perspective combine to produce images that not only go "beyond the real" but also beyond the ubiquitous "imaginary city" assignment often used to teach one-point perspective. Perhaps the difference is that in the "atypical cities challenge," an understanding of one-point perspective is a means…

  4. City Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dargan, Amanda; Zeitlin, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Today, fewer city blocks preserve the confidence of lifestyle and urban geography that sustain traditional games and outdoor play. Large groups of children choosing sides and organizing Red Rover games are no longer commonplace. Teachers must encourage free play; urban planners must build cities that are safe play havens. (MLH)

  5. City 2020+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  6. City Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    This article provides information on the evolution of the building material, concrete, and suggests hands-on activities that allow students to experience concrete's qualities, test the heat absorbency of various ground surface materials, discover how an area's geology changes, and search for city fossils. A reproducible activity sheet is included.…

  7. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  8. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  9. Jerusalem: City of Dreams, City of Sorrows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricks, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Jerusalem is more than an intriguing global historical city; it is a classroom for liberal learning and international understanding. It had never been a city of one language, one religion and one culture. Looking at the origins of Jerusalem's name indicates its international and multicultural nature. While Israelis designate Jerusalem as their…

  10. What Is Clean Cities?

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-08-01

    This Clean Cities Program fact sheet describes the purpose and scope of this DOE program. Clean Cities facilitates the use of alternative and advanced fuels and vehicles to displace petroleum in the transportation sector.

  11. 26. 'CITY HOSPITAL, BLACKWELL'S ISLAND.' (Source: New York City Department ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. 'CITY HOSPITAL, BLACKWELL'S ISLAND.' (Source: New York City Department of Public Finance, Real Estate Owned by the City of New York under Jurisdiction of the Department of Public Charities, 1909.) - Island Hospital, Roosevelt Island, New York County, NY

  12. Build a City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Jean A.

    1985-01-01

    A week-long build-a-city project is described which lets students become familiar with the history of the five Platonic solids (tetrahedron, octahedron, hexahedron, isosahedron, dodecahedron) and then use these solids to create a city using posterboard and construction paper. (MNS)

  13. Utah: Salt Lake City

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... backdrops for the 2002 Winter Olympics, to be held in Salt Lake City, Utah. The mountains surrounding Salt Lake City are renowned for ... western edge of the Rocky Mountains and eastern rim of the Great Basin. This early-winter image pair was acquired by the Multi-angle ...

  14. The Industrial City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohl, Raymond

    1976-01-01

    This article, the sixth installment in Environment's "Looking Back" series, traces the woes of America's industrialized cities to the movement that developed cities primarily as centers for industrial enterprise rather than as places for people to live. Today's social ills, from pollution to poverty, developed from that movement. (BT)

  15. CITY III Operator's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Envirometrics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    CITY III is a computer-assisted simulation game of an urban system involving player operation of and interaction with economic, social, and government components. The role of operator in the game is to take the handwritten inputs (decisions) from the CITY III participants, process them, and return output which initiates the next round of…

  16. Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Salt Lake City, Utah, will host the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. The city is located on the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake and sits to the west of the Wasatch Mountains, which rise more than 3,500 meters (10,000 feet) above sea level. The city was first settled in 1847 by pioneers seeking relief from religious persecution. Today Salt Lake City, the capital of Utah, is home to more than 170,000 residents. This true-color image of Salt Lake City was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), flying aboard Landsat 7, on May 26, 2000. The southeastern tip of the Great Salt Lake is visible in the upper left of the image. The furrowed green and brown landscape running north-south is a portion of the Wasatch Mountains, some of which are snow-capped (white pixels). The greyish pixels in the center of the image show the developed areas of the city. A number of water reservoirs can be seen east of the mountain range. Salt Lake City International Airport is visible on the northwestern edge of the city. About 20 miles south of the airport is the Bingham Canyon Copper Mine (tan pixels), the world's largest open pit excavation. See also this MODIS image of Utah. Image courtesy NASA Landsat7 Science Team and USGS Eros Data Center

  17. Innovation and the City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleiman, Neil; Forman, Adam; Ko, Jae; Giles, David; Bowles, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    With Washington trapped in budget battles and partisan gridlock, cities have emerged as the best source of government innovation. Nowhere is this more visible than in New York City. Since taking office in 2002, Mayor Bloomberg has introduced a steady stream of innovative policies, from a competition to recruit a new applied sciences campus and a…

  18. Walkout in Crystal City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrios, Greg

    2009-01-01

    When students take action, they create change that extends far beyond the classroom. In this article, the author, who was a former teacher from Crystal City, Texas, remembers the student walkout that helped launch the Latino civil rights movement 40 years ago. The Crystal City student walkout remains a high point in the history of student activism…

  19. Inequality and City Size*

    PubMed Central

    Baum-Snow, Nathaniel; Pavan, Ronni

    2013-01-01

    Between 1979 and 2007 a strong positive monotonic relationship between wage inequality and city size has developed. This paper investigates the links between this emergent city size inequality premium and the contemporaneous nationwide increase in wage inequality. After controlling for the skill composition of the workforce across cities of different sizes, we show that at least 23 percent of the overall increase in the variance of log hourly wages in the United States from 1979 to 2007 is explained by the more rapid growth in the variance of log wages in larger locations relative to smaller locations. This influence occurred throughout the wage distribution and was most prevalent during the 1990s. More rapid growth in within skill group inequality in larger cities has been by far the most important force driving these city size specific patterns in the data. Differences in the industrial composition of cities of different sizes explain up to one-third of this city size effect. These results suggest an important role for agglomeration economies in generating changes in the wage structure during the study period. PMID:24954958

  20. Great cities look small.

    PubMed

    Sim, Aaron; Yaliraki, Sophia N; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-08-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximizing the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterize the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of gross domestic product and human immunodeficiency virus infection rates across US metropolitan areas, we illustrate the effect of changes in local and city-wide connectivities by considering the economic impact of two contemporary inter- and intra-city transport developments in the UK: High Speed 2 and London Crossrail. This derivation of the model suggests that the scaling of different urban indicators with population size has an explicitly mechanistic origin. PMID:26179988

  1. Great cities look small

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Aaron; Yaliraki, Sophia N.; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P. H.

    2015-01-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximizing the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterize the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of gross domestic product and human immunodeficiency virus infection rates across US metropolitan areas, we illustrate the effect of changes in local and city-wide connectivities by considering the economic impact of two contemporary inter- and intra-city transport developments in the UK: High Speed 2 and London Crossrail. This derivation of the model suggests that the scaling of different urban indicators with population size has an explicitly mechanistic origin. PMID:26179988

  2. Optimisation of city size.

    PubMed

    Laurila, Hannu

    2011-01-01

    Club theoretical analysis of migration between asymmetrical cities shows that centralised policy intervention is necessary to ensure the efficient allocation of people between cities. Administrative and economic measures are compared as policy instruments of central government. These instruments are found to differ in their effects on residential allocation and welfare. In particular, a lump-sum tax-transfer programme pools the welfare-creating potentials of cities, thus affecting the efficiency condition. Therefore, lump-sum tax-transfers are superior to both quantity rationing and Pigouvian taxes, and they also activate, rather than stabilise, migration. PMID:21584984

  3. City Lights of Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Growth in 'mega-cities' is altering the landscape and the atmosphere in such a way as to curtail normal photosynthesis. By using data from The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System, researchers have been able to look at urban sprawl by monitoring the emission of light from cities at night. By overlaying these 'light maps' onto other data such as soil and vegetation maps, the research shows that urbanization can have a variable but measurable impact on photosynthetic productivity. For more information, read Bright Lights, Big City Image by the NASA GSFC Scientific Visualization Studio

  4. The Sustainable City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangloff, Deborah

    1995-01-01

    Focuses on methods to make cities more sustainable through the processes of energy efficiency, pollution and waste reduction, capture of natural processes, and the merger of ecological, economic, and social factors. (LZ)

  5. City sewer collectors biocorrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksiażek, Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the biocorrosion of city sewer collectors impregnated with special polymer sulphur binders, polymerized sulphur, which is applied as the industrial waste material. The city sewer collectors are settled with a colony of soil bacteria which have corrosive effects on its structure. Chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria utilize the residues of halites (carbamide) which migrate in the city sewer collectors, due to the damaged dampproofing of the roadway and produce nitrogen salts. Chemoorganotrophic bacteria utilize the traces of organic substrates and produce a number of organic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, citric, oxalic and other). The activity of microorganisms so enables the origination of primary and secondary salts which affect physical properties of concretes in city sewer collectors unfavourably.

  6. Cincinnati; Our Convention City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borchin, Anna

    1970-01-01

    During Easter week, 1971, Cincinnati will be the hostess of the 50th anniversary convention of the Catholic Library Association. Items of historical interest concerning the city are briefly described. (NH)

  7. [Cities in peril, Mahgreb].

    PubMed

    Naciri, M

    1994-10-01

    The urban population has surpassed 50% in the Maghreb: first in Tunisia, followed by Algeria and Morocco. This phenomenon has greatly affected the distribution of power and the forms of its exercise in the political, social, and economic domain. The old city social strata are becoming extinct while city management is falling more and more under the control of cadres originally from rural areas. Urbanization is occurring at a slower pace than in other developing countries, however. In Morocco, the small- and medium-sized towns are growing at a faster rate than the cities. Their lack of infrastructure and services, like those that exist in the periphery of large cities, preoccupies the small- and medium-sized towns. The urban explosion is much more contained than its management is adapting. Legal and illegal housing will dominate the Moroccan city in the future. In the last decade, Moroccan authorities have tried to establish mechanisms to integrate populations in slums and illegal housing with the urban space. The Tunisians are also working on this. In Algeria, the rigid, urban formal management leaves no room to develop any type of housing. The problem of housing is even more grave here than the other 2 countries. Structural adjustment policies promote selling rather than renting houses. The government is not involved in social and health services. Algeria has a 2-tier society: a minority involved in the private sector and the majority who depends on the collapsing public sector which cannot meet the great needs of the poor. Persons with college degrees are unemployed in Algeria. One no longer knows how to build towns with the traditional medinas. The transportation system is falling apart in cities. Cities dump liquid and solid wastes directly into the sea or the wadis. The major risk of maghrebian cities lies in socioeconomic inequalities.

  8. Sinking coastal cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, G.; Bucx, T.; Dam, R.; de Lange, G.; Lambert, J.

    2015-11-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. A major cause for severe land subsidence is excessive groundwater extraction related to rapid urbanization and population growth. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs for (infra)structure. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. As subsidence is often spatially variable and can be caused by multiple processes, an assessment of subsidence in delta cities needs to answer questions such as: what are the main causes? What is the current subsidence rate and what are future scenarios (and interaction with other major environmental issues)? Where are the vulnerable areas? What are the impacts and risks? How can adverse impacts be mitigated or compensated for? Who is involved and responsible to act? In this study a quick-assessment of subsidence is performed on the following mega-cities: Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok. Results of these case studies will be presented and compared, and a (generic) approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas is provided.

  9. Learning Cities on the Move

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The modern Learning City concept emerged from the work of OECD on lifelong learning with streams of Learning Cities and Educating Cities having much in common but having little contact with each other. While the early development of Learning Cities in the West has not been sustained, the present situation is marked by the dynamic development of…

  10. Sinking Coastal Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, G.; Stuurman, R.; De Lange, G.; Bucx, T.; Lambert, J.

    2014-12-01

    In many coastal cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will continue to sink, even below sea level. The ever increasing industrial and domestic demand for water in these cities results in excessive groundwater extraction, causing severe subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by climate-induced sea level rise. Land subsidence results in two types damage: foremost it increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. Secondly, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs of roads and transportation networks, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. To survey the extent of groundwater associated subsidence, we conducted a quick-assessment of subsidence in a series of mega-cities (Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok). For each city research questions included: what are the main causes, how much is the current subsidence rate and what are predictions, where are the vulnerable areas, what are the impacts and risks, how can adverse impacts can be mitigated or compensated for, and what governmental bodies are involved and responsible to act? Using the assessment, this paper discusses subsidence modelling and measurement results from the selected cities. The focus is on the importance of delayed settlement after increases in hydraulic heads, the role of the subsurface composition for subsidence rates and best practice solutions for subsiding cities. For the latter, urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management

  11. Universities scale like cities.

    PubMed

    van Raan, Anthony F J

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

  12. Earth's City Lights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Earth's city lights was created with data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Originally designed to view clouds by moonlight, the OLS is also used to map the locations of permanent lights on the Earth's surface. The brightest areas of the Earth are the most urbanized, but not necessarily the most populated. (Compare western Europe with China and India.) Cities tend to grow along coastlines and transportation networks. Even without the underlying map, the outlines of many continents would still be visible. The United States interstate highway system appears as a lattice connecting the brighter dots of city centers. In Russia, the Trans-Siberian railroad is a thin line stretching from Moscow through the center of Asia to Vladivostok. The Nile River, from the Aswan Dam to the Mediterranean Sea, is another bright thread through an otherwise dark region. Even more than 100 years after the invention of the electric light, some regions remain thinly populated and unlit. Antarctica is entirely dark. The interior jungles of Africa and South America are mostly dark, but lights are beginning to appear there. Deserts in Africa, Arabia, Australia, Mongolia, and the United States are poorly lit as well (except along the coast), along with the boreal forests of Canada and Russia, and the great mountains of the Himalaya. The Earth Observatory article Bright Lights, Big City describes how NASA scientists use city light data to map urbanization. Image by Craig Mayhew and Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC, based on DMSP data

  13. Ultrafine particles in cities.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prashant; Morawska, Lidia; Birmili, Wolfram; Paasonen, Pauli; Hu, Min; Kulmala, Markku; Harrison, Roy M; Norford, Leslie; Britter, Rex

    2014-05-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs; diameter less than 100 nm) are ubiquitous in urban air, and an acknowledged risk to human health. Globally, the major source for urban outdoor UFP concentrations is motor traffic. Ongoing trends towards urbanisation and expansion of road traffic are anticipated to further increase population exposure to UFPs. Numerous experimental studies have characterised UFPs in individual cities, but an integrated evaluation of emissions and population exposure is still lacking. Our analysis suggests that the average exposure to outdoor UFPs in Asian cities is about four-times larger than that in European cities but impacts on human health are largely unknown. This article reviews some fundamental drivers of UFP emissions and dispersion, and highlights unresolved challenges, as well as recommendations to ensure sustainable urban development whilst minimising any possible adverse health impacts. PMID:24503484

  14. Finding the Lost City

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Nicholas Clapp, a filmmaker and archeology enthusiast, had accumulated extensive information concerning Ubar, the fabled lost city of ancient Arabia. When he was unable to identify its exact location, however, he turned to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for assistance in applying orbital remote sensing techniques. JPL scientists searched NASA's shuttle imaging radar, as well as Landsat and SPOT images and discovered ancient caravan tracks. This enabled them to prepare a map of the trails, which converged at a place known as Ash Shisr. An expedition was formed, which found structures and artifacts from a city that predates previous area civilization by a thousand years. Although it will take time to validate the city as Ubar, the discovery is a monumental archeological triumph.

  15. Ultrafine particles in cities.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prashant; Morawska, Lidia; Birmili, Wolfram; Paasonen, Pauli; Hu, Min; Kulmala, Markku; Harrison, Roy M; Norford, Leslie; Britter, Rex

    2014-05-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs; diameter less than 100 nm) are ubiquitous in urban air, and an acknowledged risk to human health. Globally, the major source for urban outdoor UFP concentrations is motor traffic. Ongoing trends towards urbanisation and expansion of road traffic are anticipated to further increase population exposure to UFPs. Numerous experimental studies have characterised UFPs in individual cities, but an integrated evaluation of emissions and population exposure is still lacking. Our analysis suggests that the average exposure to outdoor UFPs in Asian cities is about four-times larger than that in European cities but impacts on human health are largely unknown. This article reviews some fundamental drivers of UFP emissions and dispersion, and highlights unresolved challenges, as well as recommendations to ensure sustainable urban development whilst minimising any possible adverse health impacts.

  16. Building functional cities.

    PubMed

    Henderson, J Vernon; Venables, Anthony J; Regan, Tanner; Samsonov, Ilia

    2016-05-20

    The literature views many African cities as dysfunctional with a hodgepodge of land uses and poor "connectivity." One driver of inefficient land uses is construction decisions for highly durable buildings made under weak institutions. In a novel approach, we model the dynamics of urban land use with both formal and slum dwellings and ongoing urban redevelopment to higher building heights in the formal sector as a city grows. We analyze the evolution of Nairobi using a unique high-spatial resolution data set. The analysis suggests insufficient building volume through most of the city and large slum areas with low housing volumes near the center, where corrupted institutions deter conversion to formal sector usage. PMID:27199420

  17. Reproducing in cities.

    PubMed

    Mace, Ruth

    2008-02-01

    Reproducing in cities has always been costly, leading to lower fertility (that is, lower birth rates) in urban than in rural areas. Historically, although cities provided job opportunities, initially residents incurred the penalty of higher infant mortality, but as mortality rates fell at the end of the 19th century, European birth rates began to plummet. Fertility decline in Africa only started recently and has been dramatic in some cities. Here it is argued that both historical and evolutionary demographers are interpreting fertility declines across the globe in terms of the relative costs of child rearing, which increase to allow children to outcompete their peers. Now largely free from the fear of early death, postindustrial societies may create an environment that generates runaway parental investment, which will continue to drive fertility ever lower.

  18. Inner City Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Togias, Alkis

    2014-01-01

    SYNOPSIS The inner city has long been recognized as an area of high asthma morbidity and mortality. A wide range of factors interact to create this environment. These factors include well-recognized asthma risk factors that are not specific to the inner city, the structure and delivery of health care, the location and function of the urban environment, and social inequities. This article will review these facets and discuss successful and unsuccessful interventions in order to understand what is needed to solve this problem. PMID:25459579

  19. The Plains City Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Olphen, Marcela; Rios, Francisco; Berube, William; Dexter, Robin; McCarthy, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This case study portrays a contemporary phenomenon that affects many U.S. school districts. Specifically, the authors address the challenges that the superintendent of the Plains City school district faced as a result of a change in the demographic distribution of his district. The gradual development of the pig farming industry in Plains City…

  20. Clean Cities Tools

    SciTech Connect

    2014-12-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities offers a large collection of Web-based tools on the Alternative Fuels Data Center. These calculators, interactive maps, and data searches can assist fleets, fuels providers, and other transportation decision makers in their efforts to reduce petroleum use.

  1. Making Cities Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Neil B.; Engel, Jane

    1981-01-01

    Describes several examples of urban parks and the renewal of city open spaces. Community groups interested in getting funding from government or private sources must cope with budget restrictions by making effective, innovative use of available money. Government agencies with funds allocated for urban improvements are mentioned. (AM)

  2. Big-City Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to implementing innovative classroom technology programs, urban school districts face significant challenges stemming from their big-city status. These range from large bureaucracies, to scalability, to how to meet the needs of a more diverse group of students. Because of their size, urban districts tend to have greater distance…

  3. Mexico City aerosol study

    SciTech Connect

    Falcon, Y.I. ); Ramirez, C.R. )

    1988-01-01

    Mexico City is located in a valley at high elevation (2,268 m) and is subject to atmospheric inversion related problems similar to those found in Denver, Colorado. In addition, Mexico City has a tropical climate (latitude 19{degrees} 25 minutes N), and therefore has more sunlight available for production of photochemical smog. There are approximately 9.5 million people spread in a 1,500 km{sup 2} (25 sq. mi) urban area, and more than two million automobiles (D.G.P.T. 1979) which use leaded gasoline. Furthermore, Mexico City is the principal industrial center in the country with more than 131,000 industries. The growth of the city has led to a serious air pollution problem, and there is concern over the possible pollutant effects on human health. The authors discuss work done to characterize the chemical composition of the aerosol. It is shown that many of the organic compounds which have been detected in urban aerosols are carcinogens.

  4. Accepted into Education City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asquith, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Qatar's Education City, perhaps the world's most diverse campus, is almost entirely unknown in the United States, but represents the next step in the globalization of American higher education--international franchising. Aided by technology such as online libraries, distance learning and streaming video, U.S. universities offer--and charge tuition…

  5. India's Cities in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryjak, George J.

    1984-01-01

    Indian cities are growing rapidly due to natural increase and migration from rural areas. This has caused huge pollution problems and has resulted in overcrowded schools and hospitals. Conflict between religious groups has increased; so has crime. India is modernizing, but not fast enough. (CS)

  6. CITIES ARE CHANGING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RAVITZ, MEL

    THE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL AND SOCIAL CHANGES IN LARGE CITIES ARE DISCUSSED. POPULATION GROWTH IN THE LAST FEW YEARS HAS OCCURRED PRIMARILY IN THE SUBURBS. URBAN RENEWAL HAS REALIGNED AND RELOCATED THE RACES AND THE SOCIAL CLASSES, AND FREEWAY CONSTRUCTION HAS CREATED INTERURBAN STRIPS. CASUALTIES OF THESE CHANGES ARE CROWDING THE MIDDLE NEIGHBORHOODS…

  7. Nature in the City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferbert, Mary Lou

    1981-01-01

    Describes a science program developed by the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, "Nature in the City," in which students and teachers learn together about the natural community surrounding their school. Includes program's rationale, list of "adventures," and methods. Discusses strategies of Sherlock Holmes'"adventure" focusing on animal tracks…

  8. Bug City: Bees [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography, fun…

  9. New City, New Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Frank

    2010-01-01

    After eight years at the helm of the City College of New York, where Dr. Gregory Williams grew enrollment at the minority-serving institution by 60 percent, instituted more rigorous admissions standards and launched the college's first capital campaign that raised more than $300 million, last fall he became the 27th president of the University of…

  10. City Kids Go Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Tricia

    1993-01-01

    Describes Outward Bound Urban Resources Initiative, a six-week summer course whose goal is to work with urban youth to develop solutions for local environmental problems. Among the activities described include converting city lots into parks, neighborhood cleanup, and tree planting. (MDH)

  11. Bug City: Ants [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic…

  12. Bug City: Beetles [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography, fun…

  13. The New City Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, Janice

    1975-01-01

    Cities throughout the country are sponsoring family projects that convert vacant lots and rooftops to productive neighborhood gardens. It is hoped that utilization of these otherwide wasted areas will provide extra food for low income families, as well as promote community spirit and organization. (MA)

  14. Sinking coastal cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, Gilles; Bucx, Tom; Dam, Rien; De Lange, Ger; Lambert, John

    2014-05-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs. This effects roads and transportation networks, hydraulic infrastructure - such as river embankments, sluice gates, flood barriers and pumping stations -, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. Excessive groundwater extraction after rapid urbanization and population growth is the main cause of severe land subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. Because of ongoing urbanization and population growth in delta areas, in particular in coastal megacities, there is, and will be, more economic development in subsidence-prone areas. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by extreme weather events (short term) and rising sea levels (long term).Consequently, detrimental impacts will increase in the near future, making it necessary to address subsidence related problems now. Subsidence is an issue that involves many policy fields, complex technical aspects and governance embedment. There is a need for an integrated approach in order to manage subsidence and to develop appropriate strategies and measures that are effective and efficient on both the short and long term. Urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management and related spatial planning strategies are just examples of the options available. A major rethink is needed to deal with the 'hidden' but urgent

  15. New York City's Education Battles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Peter

    2008-01-01

    When Bloomberg gave his first State of the City address, in January, 2002, he announced his intention to seek mayoral control of the schools and abolish the infamous New York City Board of Education, which he called "a rinky-dink candy store." He joined a long list of New York mayors, educators, and business leaders who believed that the city's…

  16. Martian City Map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    30 May 2004 Seasonal frost can enhance the view from orbit of polar polygonal patterns on the surface of Mars. Sometimes these patterns look something like a city map, or the view from above a city lit-up at night. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an example from the south polar region near 80.7oS, 70.6oW. Polar polygons on Mars are generally believed, though not proven, to be the result of freeze/thaw cycles of ice occurring within the upper few meters (several yards) of the martian subsurface. The image shown here covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across; sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  17. Garden City, Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Center pivot irrigation systems create red circles of healthy vegetation in this image of croplands near Garden City, Kansas. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on September 25, 2000. This is a false-color composite image made using near infrared, red, and green wavelengths. The image has also been sharpened using the sensor's panchromatic band. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  18. Asthma in inner cities.

    PubMed Central

    LeNoir, M. A.

    1999-01-01

    While the management of asthma has improved over the past two decades, the incidence of asthma in the inner city has not. The inner city, comprising a disproportionate number of people who live close to or below the poverty line, shows increased rates of morbidity and mortality from asthma. African Americans and Hispanic Americans are two to six times more likely to die from asthma than their white counterparts. When federally funded programs have targeted reducing morbidity and mortality in children from these populations, they have succeeded, but in a national study only 18 states had initiatives targeting asthma in low-income populations. This is tantamount to a public health crisis. Patients are not always properly diagnosed and are often without a regular source of health care, and symptoms are seen only in an acute context. Living conditions for the inner-city child have significant allergen triggers associated with house dust, cockroaches, cigarette smoke, chemical pollutants, and particulate matter. Viral infections, such as those caused by respiratory syncytial virus, are worse in crowded living conditions. The desirability of an increased public awareness of the seriousness of the disease and the need for chronic health care are issues that should be raised, through culturally relevant public means and in the knowledge that visual information is most effective. Physicians must understand the proper use of rescue and controller drugs, and asthma education must expand beyond doctors and nurses in their offices. The National Medical Association is committed to doing this aggressively, and community organizations, alliances, and coalitions must also aggressively follow. Public agencies must be lobbied to set high standards for proper asthma care and resources. With organizations acting in concert, the mortality and morbidity from asthma can be substantially prevented in the inner city. PMID:12653387

  19. Human diffusion and city influence

    PubMed Central

    Lenormand, Maxime; Gonçalves, Bruno; Tugores, Antònia; Ramasco, José J.

    2015-01-01

    Cities are characterized by concentrating population, economic activity and services. However, not all cities are equal and a natural hierarchy at local, regional or global scales spontaneously emerges. In this work, we introduce a method to quantify city influence using geolocated tweets to characterize human mobility. Rome and Paris appear consistently as the cities attracting most diverse visitors. The ratio between locals and non-local visitors turns out to be fundamental for a city to truly be global. Focusing only on urban residents' mobility flows, a city-to-city network can be constructed. This network allows us to analyse centrality measures at different scales. New York and London play a central role on the global scale, while urban rankings suffer substantial changes if the focus is set at a regional level. PMID:26179991

  20. Human diffusion and city influence.

    PubMed

    Lenormand, Maxime; Gonçalves, Bruno; Tugores, Antònia; Ramasco, José J

    2015-08-01

    Cities are characterized by concentrating population, economic activity and services. However, not all cities are equal and a natural hierarchy at local, regional or global scales spontaneously emerges. In this work, we introduce a method to quantify city influence using geolocated tweets to characterize human mobility. Rome and Paris appear consistently as the cities attracting most diverse visitors. The ratio between locals and non-local visitors turns out to be fundamental for a city to truly be global. Focusing only on urban residents' mobility flows, a city-to-city network can be constructed. This network allows us to analyse centrality measures at different scales. New York and London play a central role on the global scale, while urban rankings suffer substantial changes if the focus is set at a regional level.

  1. Human diffusion and city influence.

    PubMed

    Lenormand, Maxime; Gonçalves, Bruno; Tugores, Antònia; Ramasco, José J

    2015-08-01

    Cities are characterized by concentrating population, economic activity and services. However, not all cities are equal and a natural hierarchy at local, regional or global scales spontaneously emerges. In this work, we introduce a method to quantify city influence using geolocated tweets to characterize human mobility. Rome and Paris appear consistently as the cities attracting most diverse visitors. The ratio between locals and non-local visitors turns out to be fundamental for a city to truly be global. Focusing only on urban residents' mobility flows, a city-to-city network can be constructed. This network allows us to analyse centrality measures at different scales. New York and London play a central role on the global scale, while urban rankings suffer substantial changes if the focus is set at a regional level. PMID:26179991

  2. Is a healthy city also an age-friendly city?

    PubMed

    Jackisch, Josephine; Zamaro, Gianna; Green, Geoff; Huber, Manfred

    2015-06-01

    Healthy Ageing is an important focus of the European Healthy Cities Network and has been supported by WHO since 2003 as a key strategic topic, since 2010 in cooperation with the Global Network of Age-friendly Cities and Communities. Based on the methodology of realist evaluation, this article synthesizes qualitative evidence from 33 structured case studies (CS) from 32 WHO European Healthy Cities, 72 annual reports from Network cities and 71 quantitative responses to a General Evaluation Questionnaire. City cases are assigned to three clusters containing the eight domains of an age-friendly city proposed by WHO's Global Age-friendly City Guide published in 2007. The analysis of city's practice and efforts in this article takes stock of how cities have developed the institutional prerequisites and processes necessary for implementing age-friendly strategies, programmes and projects. A content analysis of the CS maps activities across age-friendly domains and illustrates how cities contribute to improving the social and physical environments of older people and enhance the health and social services provided by municipalities and their partners.

  3. Large cities are less green

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Erneson A.; Andrade, José S.; Makse, Hernán A.

    2014-01-01

    We study how urban quality evolves as a result of carbon dioxide emissions as urban agglomerations grow. We employ a bottom-up approach combining two unprecedented microscopic data on population and carbon dioxide emissions in the continental US. We first aggregate settlements that are close to each other into cities using the City Clustering Algorithm (CCA) defining cities beyond the administrative boundaries. Then, we use data on CO2 emissions at a fine geographic scale to determine the total emissions of each city. We find a superlinear scaling behavior, expressed by a power-law, between CO2 emissions and city population with average allometric exponent β = 1.46 across all cities in the US. This result suggests that the high productivity of large cities is done at the expense of a proportionally larger amount of emissions compared to small cities. Furthermore, our results are substantially different from those obtained by the standard administrative definition of cities, i.e. Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). Specifically, MSAs display isometric scaling emissions and we argue that this discrepancy is due to the overestimation of MSA areas. The results suggest that allometric studies based on administrative boundaries to define cities may suffer from endogeneity bias. PMID:24577263

  4. Large cities are less green.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Erneson A; Andrade, José S; Makse, Hernán A

    2014-02-28

    We study how urban quality evolves as a result of carbon dioxide emissions as urban agglomerations grow. We employ a bottom-up approach combining two unprecedented microscopic data on population and carbon dioxide emissions in the continental US. We first aggregate settlements that are close to each other into cities using the City Clustering Algorithm (CCA) defining cities beyond the administrative boundaries. Then, we use data on CO2 emissions at a fine geographic scale to determine the total emissions of each city. We find a superlinear scaling behavior, expressed by a power-law, between CO2 emissions and city population with average allometric exponent β = 1.46 across all cities in the US. This result suggests that the high productivity of large cities is done at the expense of a proportionally larger amount of emissions compared to small cities. Furthermore, our results are substantially different from those obtained by the standard administrative definition of cities, i.e. Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). Specifically, MSAs display isometric scaling emissions and we argue that this discrepancy is due to the overestimation of MSA areas. The results suggest that allometric studies based on administrative boundaries to define cities may suffer from endogeneity bias.

  5. Large cities are less green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Erneson A.; Andrade, José S.; Makse, Hernán A.

    2014-02-01

    We study how urban quality evolves as a result of carbon dioxide emissions as urban agglomerations grow. We employ a bottom-up approach combining two unprecedented microscopic data on population and carbon dioxide emissions in the continental US. We first aggregate settlements that are close to each other into cities using the City Clustering Algorithm (CCA) defining cities beyond the administrative boundaries. Then, we use data on CO2 emissions at a fine geographic scale to determine the total emissions of each city. We find a superlinear scaling behavior, expressed by a power-law, between CO2 emissions and city population with average allometric exponent β = 1.46 across all cities in the US. This result suggests that the high productivity of large cities is done at the expense of a proportionally larger amount of emissions compared to small cities. Furthermore, our results are substantially different from those obtained by the standard administrative definition of cities, i.e. Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). Specifically, MSAs display isometric scaling emissions and we argue that this discrepancy is due to the overestimation of MSA areas. The results suggest that allometric studies based on administrative boundaries to define cities may suffer from endogeneity bias.

  6. Securing water for the cities.

    PubMed

    Satterthwaite, D

    1993-01-01

    Many cities in developing countries have grown so much that they can no longer provide adequate, sustainable water. Over pumping in Dakar and Mexico City has forced those cities to obtain water from ever more distant sources. In Dakar, the result has been saltwater intrusion. Overpumping has caused Mexico City to sink, in some areas by as much as 9 m, resulting in serious damage to buildings and sewage and drainage pipes. Other cities facing similar water problems are coastal cities in Peru (e.g., Lima), La Rioja and Catamarca in Argentina, cities in Northern Mexico, and cities in dry areas of Africa. For some cities, the problem is not so much ever more distant water supplies but insufficient funds to expand supplies. Bangkok and Jakarta both face saltwater intrusion into their overdrawn aquifers. Even through agriculture is the dominant user of water in most countries, demand concentrated in a small area exhausts local and regional sources and pollutes rivers, lakes, and coasts with untreated human and industrial waste. Most cities in Africa and Asia do not have a sewerage system. Further, most cities do not have the drains to deal with storm water and external floodwater, causing frequent, seasonal flooding. The resulting stagnant water provides breeding grounds for insect vectors of diseases (e.g., malaria). The problems in most cities are a result of poor management, not lack of water. Reducing leaks in existing piped distribution systems from the usual 60% loss of water to leaks to 12% would increase the available water 2-fold. Another way to address water shortages would be commercial, industrial, and recreational use of minimally treated waste water, such as is the case in Madras and Mexico City. Political solutions are needed to resolve inadequate water supply and waste management.

  7. CityGML - Interoperable semantic 3D city models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröger, Gerhard; Plümer, Lutz

    2012-07-01

    CityGML is the international standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) for the representation and exchange of 3D city models. It defines the three-dimensional geometry, topology, semantics and appearance of the most relevant topographic objects in urban or regional contexts. These definitions are provided in different, well-defined Levels-of-Detail (multiresolution model). The focus of CityGML is on the semantical aspects of 3D city models, its structures, taxonomies and aggregations, allowing users to employ virtual 3D city models for advanced analysis and visualization tasks in a variety of application domains such as urban planning, indoor/outdoor pedestrian navigation, environmental simulations, cultural heritage, or facility management. This is in contrast to purely geometrical/graphical models such as KML, VRML, or X3D, which do not provide sufficient semantics. CityGML is based on the Geography Markup Language (GML), which provides a standardized geometry model. Due to this model and its well-defined semantics and structures, CityGML facilitates interoperable data exchange in the context of geo web services and spatial data infrastructures. Since its standardization in 2008, CityGML has become used on a worldwide scale: tools from notable companies in the geospatial field provide CityGML interfaces. Many applications and projects use this standard. CityGML is also having a strong impact on science: numerous approaches use CityGML, particularly its semantics, for disaster management, emergency responses, or energy-related applications as well as for visualizations, or they contribute to CityGML, improving its consistency and validity, or use CityGML, particularly its different Levels-of-Detail, as a source or target for generalizations. This paper gives an overview of CityGML, its underlying concepts, its Levels-of-Detail, how to extend it, its applications, its likely future development, and the role it plays in scientific research. Furthermore, its

  8. Constructing cities, deconstructing scaling laws

    PubMed Central

    Arcaute, Elsa; Hatna, Erez; Ferguson, Peter; Youn, Hyejin; Johansson, Anders; Batty, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cities can be characterized and modelled through different urban measures. Consistency within these observables is crucial in order to advance towards a science of cities. Bettencourt et al. have proposed that many of these urban measures can be predicted through universal scaling laws. We develop a framework to consistently define cities, using commuting to work and population density thresholds, and construct thousands of realizations of systems of cities with different boundaries for England and Wales. These serve as a laboratory for the scaling analysis of a large set of urban indicators. The analysis shows that population size alone does not provide us enough information to describe or predict the state of a city as previously proposed, indicating that the expected scaling laws are not corroborated. We found that most urban indicators scale linearly with city size, regardless of the definition of the urban boundaries. However, when nonlinear correlations are present, the exponent fluctuates considerably. PMID:25411405

  9. The dynamics of city formation*

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, J. Vernon; Venables, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines city formation in a country whose urban population is growing steadily over time, with new cities required to accommodate this growth. In contrast to most of the literature there is immobility of housing and urban infrastructure, and investment in these assets is taken on the basis of forward-looking behavior. In the presence of these fixed assets cities form sequentially, without the population swings in existing cities that arise in current models, but with swings in house rents. Equilibrium city size, absent government, may be larger or smaller than is efficient, depending on how urban externalities vary with population. Efficient formation of cities with internalization of externalities involves local government intervention and borrowing to finance development. The paper explores the institutions required for successful local government intervention. PMID:25089087

  10. City of Paris, France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This highly detailed view of the City of Paris 49.0N, 0.0E) shows a varied land use pattern in great detail. Several airports are clearly seen such as the two major international airports of Orly and Le Bourget. Paris was founded in pre-Roman times on an island in the Seine River and continued as a Roman outpost. The easily defensible location was one of the keys to growth. Other factors include easy access by river and the productive hinterland.

  11. Digging the city

    SciTech Connect

    Paulson, S.L.

    1996-02-01

    For city dwellers and commuters, major construction and repair projects by underground utilities have traditionally meant torn-up streets, detours, snarled traffic, flaring tempers and other urban headaches. For store and business owners, utility projects also have frequently been harmful to the bottom line. Customer parking often is curtailed and deliveries are missed because of street excavations, and business hours may even have to be cut because of interruptions in utility service. But natural gas utilities in major cities across the country are working hard to change that reality. Their effort has two major focuses: community-relations programs that anticipate problems and ease tensions between the utility and local residents and business owners, and new technologies that drastically limit the amount of excavation that needs to be done in repairing or replacing gas distribution lines. The paper describes a case study in the community-relations side of the equation which involved a recent project by Pacific Gas and Electric Co. (PG and E) in the congested streets of San Francisco`s famed Chinatown.

  12. Big City Education: Its Challenge to Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskew, Laurence D.

    This chapter traces the migration from farms to cities and the later movement from cities to suburbs and discusses the impact of the resulting big city environment on the governance of big city education. The author (1) suggests how local, State, and Federal governments can improve big city education; (2) discusses ways of planning for the future…

  13. Kid-Friendly Cities Report Card, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polansky, Lee S., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This report examines the health and wellbeing of children in the United States' largest cities, covering every city with a population of 100,000 or more, as well as the largest cities in states without any cities of this size. Research shows that many cities are becoming more child-friendly, with better access to good education, jobs, and health…

  14. Smart cities of the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batty, M.; Axhausen, K. W.; Giannotti, F.; Pozdnoukhov, A.; Bazzani, A.; Wachowicz, M.; Ouzounis, G.; Portugali, Y.

    2012-11-01

    Here we sketch the rudiments of what constitutes a smart city which we define as a city in which ICT is merged with traditional infrastructures, coordinated and integrated using new digital technologies. We first sketch our vision defining seven goals which concern: developing a new understanding of urban problems; effective and feasible ways to coordinate urban technologies; models and methods for using urban data across spatial and temporal scales; developing new technologies for communication and dissemination; developing new forms of urban governance and organisation; defining critical problems relating to cities, transport, and energy; and identifying risk, uncertainty, and hazards in the smart city. To this, we add six research challenges: to relate the infrastructure of smart cities to their operational functioning and planning through management, control and optimisation; to explore the notion of the city as a laboratory for innovation; to provide portfolios of urban simulation which inform future designs; to develop technologies that ensure equity, fairness and realise a better quality of city life; to develop technologies that ensure informed participation and create shared knowledge for democratic city governance; and to ensure greater and more effective mobility and access to opportunities for urban populations. We begin by defining the state of the art, explaining the science of smart cities. We define six scenarios based on new cities badging themselves as smart, older cities regenerating themselves as smart, the development of science parks, tech cities, and technopoles focused on high technologies, the development of urban services using contemporary ICT, the use of ICT to develop new urban intelligence functions, and the development of online and mobile forms of participation. Seven project areas are then proposed: Integrated Databases for the Smart City, Sensing, Networking and the Impact of New Social Media, Modelling Network Performance

  15. Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This simulated natural color image presents a late spring view of north central Utah that includes all of the Olympic sites. The image extends from Ogden in the north, to Provo in the south; and includes the snow-capped Wasatch Mountains and the eastern part of the Great Salt Lake.

    This image was acquired on May 28, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution

  16. Social Planning for Small Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, James

    Derived mainly from publications by the League of California Cities, this guide to social planning for small cities presents the following: (1) social planning definitions; (2) a checklist of social planning concerns (provision for: adequate income and economic opportunity; optimal environmental conditions for basic material needs; optimal health…

  17. New York City: Musically Speaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    New York City as a subject has fascinated generations of artists, writers, and musicians. However, the glamorous image of the city has changed over the years, and in the 1960s, popular music, in particular, began to reflect a utopia/dystopia dichotomy in relation to New York. During the past twenty years, six popular singer-songwriters who have…

  18. Chicago, Illinois: The Windy City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2008-01-01

    Once famous mainly for stockyards and steel mills, Chicago now boasts more top-rated five-star restaurants than any other city in the United States and has been voted by various publications as one of the "Top 10 U.S. Destinations," one of the "Best Walking Cities" in the United States, and one of the "Ten Best Places to…

  19. Educating cities in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, Graciela; Valdés-Cotera, Raúl

    2013-09-01

    This article considers the development of educating cities from a political perspective, illustrating in detail the diversity of organisations and individuals involved and the challenges they are facing. Bearing in mind that educating cities were established from the 1990s onwards in Europe and spread to other continents from there, the purpose of this article is to demonstrate how this proposal was adopted in Latin America. After discussing the basic aims of educating cities, the paper focuses on the Latin American experience, giving examples of existing projects within the educating cities initiative. The authors are particularly interested in the contrast between the political intentions of educating cities on the one hand and the social, economic, political and cultural world on the other hand. They observe that in this context there is a danger of the individual being forgotten, which contradicts the actual intention of the educating city concept. They also discuss the problem of who should carry out the realisation of educating cities and how the various stakeholders might coordinate their actions. Contemplating new directions at the end of their paper, the authors sum up a number of guidelines and offer recommendations for action in developing educating cities.

  20. Broken Cities: Liberalism's Urban Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Steven

    1998-01-01

    Argues how the nation's inner-city population exodus and economic decay is a result of modern liberal social policy. Three failures of liberalism regarding inner cities are examined: the failure to nurture the sources of economic growth; the failure to understand urban neighborhoods; and the failure to appreciate the importance of a strong moral…

  1. The Future of American Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulhern, John J., Ed.

    This document contains the proceedings of a conference dealing with the issues that face U.S. cities today. Convened in October of 1979, the conference was sponsored by the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia. The document contains addresses and comments by six authorities on the current fiscal situation of large cities. The presentation…

  2. Knowledge Infrastructures for Solar Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of contemporary cities into solar cities will be affected by the decisions of countless specialists according to an established intellectual and professional division of labor. These specialists belong to groups responsible for advancing and applying a body of knowledge, and jointly, these bodies of knowledge make up a knowledge…

  3. Educating Cities in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messina, Graciela; Valdés-Cotera, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the development of educating cities from a political perspective, illustrating in detail the diversity of organisations and individuals involved and the challenges they are facing. Bearing in mind that educating cities were established from the 1990s onwards in Europe and spread to other continents from there, the purpose of…

  4. City Planning Unit: Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, William Edward

    Described is a project designed to make government lessons and economics more appealing to sixth-grade students by having them set up and run a model city. General preparation procedures and set-up of the project, specific lesson plans, additional activities, and project evaluation are examined. An actual 3-dimensional model city was set up on…

  5. Archaeoastronomy and Calendar Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2016-02-01

    The use of astronomy for collective purposes, both religious and political, is apparent in the earliest astronomical records, from the evidence for Palaeolithic lunar calendars to megalithic monuments and Mesopotamian celestial-omen reports. This paper will consider the application of the heavens to the organisation of the ‘Cosmic State’, the human polity modelled on the assumption of a close relationship between society on the one hand and planetary and stellar patterns on the other. I will also examine the foundation of Baghdad within the tradition of celestial town planning and argue that the city may be seen as a ‘talisman’, designed to connect heaven to Earth and ensure peace, stability and political success by harmonising time and space.

  6. Healthy Cities: a guide to the literature.

    PubMed Central

    Kenzer, M

    2000-01-01

    The author reviews the literature on attempts by city governments, international agencies, and nongovernmental and community organizations to improve city life around the world through Healthy Cities projects. PMID:10968770

  7. 49 CFR 372.221 - Twin Cities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....-Tenn. (3) Davenport, Iowa, and Rock Island and Moline, Ill. (4) Delmar, Del-Md. (5) Harrison, Ohio-West Harrison, Ind. (6) Junction City, Ark.-La. (7) Kansas City, Mo.-Kansas City, Kans. (8) Minneapolis-St....

  8. The big, bad city: mega-city myth?

    PubMed

    Richardson, H W

    1989-01-01

    This paper raises the question of whether or not the virtues of big city size were exaggerated in the literature which appeared in the 1970s with respect to developing country megacities. It examines negative externalities (especially pollution), the capital costs associated with megacity growth, the productivity advantages of large cities, the role of spatial restructuring towards a policentric pattern as a relief to core city congestion, and the problems of metropolitan management (including the appropriate institutional framework). The adoption of constructive policy actions could handle the following problems: that the declining rates of megacity growth may reflect declining productivity advantages; that capital costs of urbanization increase strongly with city size; that there are diseconomies of scale in urban management; that negative externalities may be more severe in developing country megacities in physical but not in imputed monetary damage terms; and that policentric evolution may be hampered by the wrong type of government intervention. PMID:12343008

  9. The backbone of a city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scellato, S.; Cardillo, A.; Latora, V.; Porta, S.

    2006-03-01

    Recent studies have revealed the importance of centrality measures to analyze various spatial factors affecting human life in cities. Here we show how it is possible to extract the backbone of a city by deriving spanning trees based on edge betweenness and edge information. By using as sample cases the cities of Bologna and San Francisco, we show how the obtained trees are radically different from those based on edge lengths, and allow an extended comprehension of the “skeleton” of most important routes that so much affects pedestrian/vehicular flows, retail commerce vitality, land-use separation, urban crime and collective dynamical behaviours.

  10. The ecological future of cities.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Mark J; MacGregor-Fors, Ian

    2016-05-20

    The discipline of urban ecology arose in the 1990s, primarily motivated by a widespread interest in documenting the distribution and abundance of animals and plants in cities. Today, urban ecologists have greatly expanded their scope of study to include ecological and socioeconomic processes, urban management, planning, and design, with the goal of addressing issues of sustainability, environmental quality, and human well-being within cities and towns. As the global pace of urbanization continues to intensify, urban ecology provides the ecological and social data, as well as the principles, concepts and tools, to create livable cities.

  11. The ecological future of cities.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Mark J; MacGregor-Fors, Ian

    2016-05-20

    The discipline of urban ecology arose in the 1990s, primarily motivated by a widespread interest in documenting the distribution and abundance of animals and plants in cities. Today, urban ecologists have greatly expanded their scope of study to include ecological and socioeconomic processes, urban management, planning, and design, with the goal of addressing issues of sustainability, environmental quality, and human well-being within cities and towns. As the global pace of urbanization continues to intensify, urban ecology provides the ecological and social data, as well as the principles, concepts and tools, to create livable cities. PMID:27199416

  12. Cities lead on climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancost, Richard D.

    2016-04-01

    The need to mitigate climate change opens up a key role for cities. Bristol's year as a Green Capital led to great strides forward, but it also revealed that a creative and determined partnership across cultural divides will be necessary.

  13. New Federalism, Taxes, and Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Marshall

    1982-01-01

    Discusses how recent changes in federal policies have adversely affected cities. Modifications of the state block grant system, tax laws, reductions in federal support for welfare programs, and a massive federal debt have all hurt urban economies. (AM)

  14. Layout of Ancient Maya Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aylesworth, Grant R.

    Although there is little doubt that the ancient Maya of Mesoamerica laid their cities out based, in part, on astronomical considerations, the proliferation of "cosmograms" in contemporary scholarly discourse has complicated matters for the acceptance of rigorous archaeoastronomical research.

  15. Deer Tracks in the City?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Cassie Fay; Beeman-Cadwallader, Nicole; Riggs, Morgan; Rodriguez, Antonia; Buck, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    "Why would a deer print be in the city?" wondered a student. She had noticed the track near a grocery store that morning with her mother. She was familiar with deer and had noticed their prints on a trip to a local museum; however, she had never seen a deer in the city before this experience. As she retold the story to her classmates, her question…

  16. Network Structure and City Size

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, David

    2012-01-01

    Network structure varies across cities. This variation may yield important knowledge about how the internal structure of the city affects its performance. This paper systematically compares a set of surface transportation network structure variables (connectivity, hierarchy, circuity, treeness, entropy, accessibility) across the 50 largest metropolitan areas in the United States. A set of scaling parameters are discovered to show how network size and structure vary with city size. These results suggest that larger cities are physically more inter-connected. Hypotheses are presented as to why this might obtain. This paper then consistently measures and ranks access to jobs across 50 US metropolitan areas. It uses that accessibility measure, along with network structure variables and city size to help explain journey-to-work time and auto mode share in those cities. A 1 percent increase in accessibility reduces average metropolitan commute times by about 90 seconds each way. A 1 percent increase in network connectivity reduces commute time by 0.1 percent. A 1 percent increase in accessibility results in a 0.0575 percent drop in auto mode share, while a 1 percent increase in treeness reduces auto mode share by 0.061 percent. Use of accessibility and network structure measures is important for planning and evaluating the performance of network investments and land use changes. PMID:22253764

  17. Achieving Energy Independence by Reviving America's Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Neil; Winterer, Amey

    1982-01-01

    Discusses how it is in our nation's energy interest that cities and city living prosper and that movement of people out of cities and into nonurban areas be reversed. However, national energy policy itself favors suburban sprawl-type development and works against city revival. (AM)

  18. Sustainable Development of the Learning City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juceviciene, Palmira

    2010-01-01

    Kaunas is the second largest city in Lithuania and has strong links with its large rural hinterland. Working from the ideas and examples in "Learning Cities for a Learning Century," (Longworth, 1999) and through contact with other cities that have already implemented lifelong learning concepts, the city has, since 2001, started out on the journey…

  19. The Copper Balance of Cities

    PubMed Central

    Kral, Ulrich; Lin, Chih-Yi; Kellner, Katharina; Ma, Hwong-wen; Brunner, Paul H

    2014-01-01

    Material management faces a dual challenge: on the one hand satisfying large and increasing demands for goods and on the other hand accommodating wastes and emissions in sinks. Hence, the characterization of material flows and stocks is relevant for both improving resource efficiency and environmental protection. This article focuses on the urban scale, a dimension rarely investigated in past metal flow studies. We compare the copper (Cu) metabolism of two cities in different economic states, namely, Vienna (Europe) and Taipei (Asia). Substance flow analysis is used to calculate urban Cu balances in a comprehensive and transparent form. The main difference between Cu in the two cities appears to be the stock: Vienna seems close to saturation with 180 kilograms per capita (kg/cap) and a growth rate of 2% per year. In contrast, the Taipei stock of 30 kg/cap grows rapidly by 26% per year. Even though most Cu is recycled in both cities, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration represents an unused Cu potential accounting for 1% to 5% of annual demand. Nonpoint emissions are predominant; up to 50% of the loadings into the sewer system are from nonpoint sources. The results of this research are instrumental for the design of the Cu metabolism in each city. The outcomes serve as a base for identification and recovery of recyclables as well as for directing nonrecyclables to appropriate sinks, avoiding sensitive environmental pathways. The methodology applied is well suited for city benchmarking if sufficient data are available. PMID:25866460

  20. Prioritizing obesity in the city.

    PubMed

    Dean, Jennifer Asanin; Elliott, Susan J

    2012-02-01

    A decade ago, the World Health Organization declared obesity to be a global epidemic. Accordingly, there is a growing body of research examining how "obesogenic environments" contribute to the increasing prevalence of obesity. Using the ANGELO Framework, this research explores the role of municipal policies and practices in constructing obesogenic environments in two Southern Ontario cities in order to examine how socio-cultural and political environments shape excess body weight. Data was collected from municipal policy documents, public health websites, and key informants in Hamilton and Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. Results indicate that while the cities took different approaches to dealing with obesity, they both reflected the cities' overall prioritizing of health. Additionally, the findings reveal the pervasiveness of values and attitudes held in the socio-cultural environment in further shaping (and being shaped by) political as well as economic and physical environments in the cities. The importance of explicitly acknowledging the official discourse of the city, which this study demonstrates to be a significant factor in constructing obesogenic environments, is highlighted. Theoretical contributions and policy implications are also discussed.

  1. City scale pollen concentration variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Molen, Michiel; van Vliet, Arnold; Krol, Maarten

    2016-04-01

    Pollen are emitted in the atmosphere both in the country-side and in cities. Yet the majority of the population is exposed to pollen in cities. Allergic reactions may be induced by short-term exposure to pollen. This raises the question how variable pollen concentration in cities are in temporally and spatially, and how much of the pollen in cities are actually produced in the urban region itself. We built a high resolution (1 × 1 km) pollen dispersion model based on WRF-Chem to study a city's pollen budget and the spatial and temporal variability in concentration. It shows that the concentrations are highly variable, as a result of source distribution, wind direction and boundary layer mixing, as well as the release rate as a function of temperature, turbulence intensity and humidity. Hay Fever Forecasts based on such high resolution emission and physical dispersion modelling surpass traditional hay fever warning methods based on temperature sum methods. The model gives new insights in concentration variability, personal and community level exposure and prevention. The model will be developped into a new forecast tool to serve allergic people to minimize their exposure and reduce nuisance, coast of medication and sick leave. This is an innovative approach in hay fever warning systems.

  2. Brigham City Hydro Generation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ammons, Tom B.

    2015-10-31

    Brigham City owns and operates its own municipal power system which currently includes several hydroelectric facilities. This project was to update the efficiency and capacity of current hydro production due to increased water flow demands that could pass through existing generation facilities. During 2006-2012, this project completed efficiency evaluation as it related to its main objective by completing a feasibility study, undergoing necessary City Council approvals and required federal environmental reviews. As a result of Phase 1 of the project, a feasibility study was conducted to determine feasibility of hydro and solar portions of the original proposal. The results indicated that the existing Hydro plant which was constructed in the 1960’s was running at approximately 77% efficiency or less. Brigham City proposes that the efficiency calculations be refined to determine the economic feasibility of improving or replacing the existing equipment with new high efficiency equipment design specifically for the site. Brigham City completed the Feasibility Assessment of this project, and determined that the Upper Hydro that supplies the main culinary water to the city was feasible to continue with. Brigham City Council provided their approval of feasibility assessment’s results. The Upper Hydro Project include removal of the existing powerhouse equipment and controls and demolition of a section of concrete encased penstock, replacement of penstock just upstream of the turbine inlet, turbine bypass, turbine shut-off and bypass valves, turbine and generator package, control equipment, assembly, start-up, commissioning, Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA), and the replacement of a section of conductors to the step-up transformer. Brigham City increased the existing 575 KW turbine and generator with an 825 KW turbine and generator. Following the results of the feasibility assessment Brigham City pursued required environmental reviews with the DOE and

  3. City planning as preventive medicine.

    PubMed

    Corburn, Jason

    2015-08-01

    The health and well-being of rapidly growing urban populations is a global health issue. Cities in the global north and south are faced with rising health inequities - or avoidable differences in health determinants and outcomes based on place, social status and ethnicity. This commentary suggests that focusing only on treatment interventions in cities is likely to fail because populations will be forced to go back into the urban living and working conditions that likely made them sick in the first place. City planning as preventive medicine includes taking a relational and systems approach to urban health, requiring health assessments for all urban policy making, promoting neighborhood health centers as engines of community economic development and gathering place-based health indicator data to track progress and adapt interventions over time as conditions change.

  4. Star City, Russia Medical Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Michael R.; Senter, Cedric H.; Roden, Sean K.; Gilmore, Stevan; Powers, William E.; Alexander, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Since the beginning of the NASA/Mir missions, NASA has had astronauts in training at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), also known as Star City, with crewmembers currently there to train for the International Space Station missions. Agreements have been reached with all International Partners that allow the crewmember's parent agency to provide a flight surgeon to oversee crewmember health and safety during training away from home. NASA Medical Operations through the Bioastronautics Contract employs flight surgeons to provide medical support for U.S. crewmembers and their support staff. This poster presentation reviews the aspects of NASA medical operations at Star City.

  5. Youth and the City Streets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husby, Lynn; Brendtro, Larry

    1992-01-01

    This "Voices of Pioneers" section of the journal highlights the work of Jane Addams, who founded the settlement house movement in America with the establishment of Hull House in Chicago in 1899. Presents excerpts from Addams' book "The Spirit of Youth and the City Streets (1909)" to illustrate her views on guns, stealing, rebellion, and drugs. (NB)

  6. City Lights in Modern Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, Patricia

    1979-01-01

    City Lights Books of San Francisco has served as a literary meeting place, as a bookstore that concentrates on serious literature--especially poetry, as a publisher of significant voices such as those of Allen Ginsberg and Charles Bukowski, and as an institution with a political conscience. (JMD)

  7. Policymaking in European healthy cities.

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, Evelyne; Green, Geoff; Spanswick, Lucy; Palmer, Nicola

    2015-06-01

    This paper assesses policy development in, with and for Healthy Cities in the European Region of the World Health Organization. Materials for the assessment were sourced through case studies, a questionnaire and statistical databases. They were compiled in a realist synthesis methodology, applying theory-based evaluation principles. Non-response analyses were applied to ascertain the degree of representatives of the high response rates for the entire network of Healthy Cities in Europe. Further measures of reliability and validity were applied, and it was found that our material was indicative of the entire network. European Healthy Cities are successful in developing local health policy across many sectors within and outside government. They were also successful in addressing 'wicked' problems around equity, governance and participation in themes such as Healthy Urban Planning. It appears that strong local leadership for policy change is driven by international collaboration and the stewardship of the World Health Organization. The processes enacted by WHO, structuring membership of the Healthy City Network (designation) and the guidance on particular themes, are identified as being important for the success of local policy development. PMID:26069314

  8. Heritage contribution in sustainable city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostami, R.; Khoshnava, S. M.; Lamit, H.

    2014-02-01

    The concept of sustainability has been an integral part of development work since the late 1970s. Sustainability is no longer a buzzword but a reality that must be addressed by cities all over the world. Increasing empirical evidence indicates that city sustainability is not just related to technical issues, such as carbon emissions, energy consumption and waste management, or on the economic aspects of urban regeneration and growth, but also it covers social well-being of different groups living within increasingly cosmopolitan towns and cities. Heritage is seen as a major component of quality of life, features that give a city its unique character and provide the sense of belonging that lies at the core of cultural identity. In other words, heritage by providing important social and psychological benefits enrich human life with meanings and emotions, and raise quality of life as a key component of sustainability. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to examine the role that built cultural heritage can play within sustainable urban development.

  9. Bug City: Aquatic Insects [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography, fun…

  10. Miami, Florida: The Magic City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2008-01-01

    With its subtropical climate and intimate ties to Latin America, Miami is like no other city in the United States. More than 65 percent of its population is Hispanic, and Spanish is the most commonly heard language. Situated at the southern tip of the 500-mile-long Florida peninsula, Miami is the largest urban area in the southeastern United…

  11. Policymaking in European healthy cities.

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, Evelyne; Green, Geoff; Spanswick, Lucy; Palmer, Nicola

    2015-06-01

    This paper assesses policy development in, with and for Healthy Cities in the European Region of the World Health Organization. Materials for the assessment were sourced through case studies, a questionnaire and statistical databases. They were compiled in a realist synthesis methodology, applying theory-based evaluation principles. Non-response analyses were applied to ascertain the degree of representatives of the high response rates for the entire network of Healthy Cities in Europe. Further measures of reliability and validity were applied, and it was found that our material was indicative of the entire network. European Healthy Cities are successful in developing local health policy across many sectors within and outside government. They were also successful in addressing 'wicked' problems around equity, governance and participation in themes such as Healthy Urban Planning. It appears that strong local leadership for policy change is driven by international collaboration and the stewardship of the World Health Organization. The processes enacted by WHO, structuring membership of the Healthy City Network (designation) and the guidance on particular themes, are identified as being important for the success of local policy development.

  12. The Literature of City Magazines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Rob

    The research literature on city magazines can be divided into five primary sources: books on magazines, popular magazines/journals and newspapers, business magazines, scholarly journals, and unpublished theses. "The New Yorker," founded in 1925 specifically for a sophisticated, metropolitan audience, is considered a precursor of the current glossy…

  13. The Schoolhouse in the City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toffler, Alvin, Ed.

    A conference entitled "The Schoolhouse in the City" was convened at Stanford University, July 10-14, 1967. Sponsored by Stanford's School Planning Laboratory and supported by Educational Facilities Laboratories and the U. S. Office of Education, the conference brought together as speakers leading figures in local, state, and federal government,…

  14. Bug City: Ladybugs & Fireflies [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon, including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic…

  15. Building Inclusive Cities and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiler, Christa

    2008-01-01

    Canada prides itself on being an inclusive country. Immigrants from all over the world arrive in Canada's cities with their families because they feel welcome and safe. According to research, engagement towards social inclusion increased among Canadians during the last 30 last years. These changing values resulted in the creation of official…

  16. Project WISH: The Emerald City

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oz, Hayrani; Dunne, Jim; Butchar, Stan; George, Tommy; Hellstrom, Rob; Kringen, Tricia; Owens, George; Perrea, Mike; Semeraro, Paul; Thorndike, Phil

    1992-01-01

    Phase 3 of Project WISH saw the evolution of the Emerald City (E-City) from a collection of specialized independent analyses and ideas to a working structural design integrated with major support systems and analyses. Emphasis was placed on comparing and contrasting the closed and open cycle gas core nuclear rocket engines to further determine the optimum propulsive system for the E-City. Power and thermal control requirements were then defined and the question of how to meet these requirements was addressed. Software was developed to automate the mission/system/configuration analysis so changes dictated by various subsystem constraints could be managed efficiently and analyzed interactively. In addition, the liquid hydrogen propellant tank was statically designed for minimum mass and shape optimization using a finite element modeling package called SDRC I-DEAS. Spoke and shaft cross-sectional areas were optimized on ASTROS (Automated Structural Optimization System) for mass minimization. A structural dynamic analysis of the optimal structure also conducted using ASTROS enabled a study of the modes, frequencies, displacements, and accelerations of the E-City. Finally, the attitude control system design began with an initial mass moment of inertia analysis and was then designed and optimized using linear quadratic regulator control theory.

  17. Kansas City Plots Next Steps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Kansas City (Missouri) Public Schools is at a crossroads. The district has struggled for decades with poor academic achievement, dwindling enrollment and budget, and short-term superintendents--27 in the past 40 years. Most recently, after a two-year stint during which he helped the district get its financial house in order, closing nearly half of…

  18. Bug City: Flies & Mosquitoes [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon, including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic…

  19. Clean Cities Program Contacts (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet provides contact information for program staff of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program, as well as contact information for the nearly 100 local Clean Cities coalitions across the country.

  20. Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    2013-05-24

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  1. Clean Cities Now Vol. 16.1

    SciTech Connect

    2012-05-01

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  2. Empirical synchronized flow in oversaturated city traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerner, Boris S.; Hemmerle, Peter; Koller, Micha; Hermanns, Gerhard; Klenov, Sergey L.; Rehborn, Hubert; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Based on a study of anonymized GPS probe vehicle traces measured by personal navigation devices in vehicles randomly distributed in city traffic, empirical synchronized flow in oversaturated city traffic has been revealed. It turns out that real oversaturated city traffic resulting from speed breakdown in a city in most cases can be considered random spatiotemporal alternations between sequences of moving queues and synchronized flow patterns in which the moving queues do not occur.

  3. 77 FR 22523 - Safety Zone; 2012 Ocean City Air Show; Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 2012 Ocean City Air Show; Atlantic Ocean... proposes establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean in Ocean City, MD. This..., 2012, the Town of Ocean City will host an air show event over the Atlantic Ocean in Ocean City, MD....

  4. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include...

  5. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include...

  6. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include...

  7. A Status Report on Children in America's Cities: A 52-City Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Conference of Mayors, Washington, DC.

    A survey of officials in 52 cities in the United States gathered information on the conditions and issues relating to urban children, on how city governments are structured to respond to those needs, and on city programs and initiatives which benefit children. Information provided by the cities was supplemented by data from the Bureau of the…

  8. 76 FR 18753 - City of Springfield, Illinois, City Water, Light and Power; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission City of Springfield, Illinois, City Water, Light and Power; Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 24, 2011, The City of Springfield, Illinois, City Water, Light and...

  9. The city and its need for technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, B. L.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental program has been undertaken to explore the process of identifying and transferring newer technology for the benefit of the city. This paper describes the nature of the problems involved in the experiment, some of the areas of supposed commonality with other cities and some of the prerequisites for any city to become involved with technological innovation.

  10. The Politics of City Planning Simulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolson, Kenneth

    This research paper presents an analysis of the computer simulation, SimCity, used for an urban city planning class. The data were gathered by actual use of the simulation and an electronic mail network was employed to secure impressions from users of the simulation. SimCity (developed by Maxis) provides the player with rules of human factors,…

  11. Project RICE (Responsive Inner City Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattai, P. Rudy

    Project RICE (Responsive Inner City Education) prepared a cadre of 36 teachers drawn from majority and minority populations in 3 inner-city schools in Buffalo (New York) to complement mastery of subject matter with appropriate pedagogical styles. The project was designed to test the hypothesis that minority students in inner-city schools do not…

  12. Making Cities Skilled. Civic Bulletin No. 40

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaeser, Edward L.

    2006-01-01

    Throughout history, cities that have been centers of great learning have usually also taken their place as economic powerhouses. Here in America, economists have long noticed that educated cities--that is, cities with a greater percentage of knowledgeable and skilled residents--have fared better economically than their unskilled counterparts, but…

  13. Characteristics of cities with rapid transit

    SciTech Connect

    Siregar, F.M.

    1991-01-01

    This study identifies the characteristics of cities and urban areas associated with rapid transit systems as part of the urban multimodal transportation system. This is addressed by studying the characteristics of global cities that have utilized rapid transit (100 cities in 1986) and a global sample of cities that have not (100 cities). Data are collected on eighteen variables which include population size, growth rate, density of the central city and metropolitan area, automobile registrations per 1,000 population, city bus riderships, existence of a tramway system in the city, number of large banks located in the city, the country's economy, and whether it is a capital city. The research found that two of the most important city characteristics associated with rapid transit utilization are city population size and level of automobile ownership. The larger the population size and the higher the number of automobiles per 1,000 population, the greater the occurrence of rapid-transit systems. Also, rapid transit systems world wide are growing in number, and the largest growth of rapid transit ridership is being generated by rapid transit systems in developing countries.

  14. City Schools: Lessons from New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravitch, Diane, Ed.; Viteritti, Joseph P., Ed.

    This book presents a collection of essays by researchers and educators that examine the largest school system in the U.S.--the New York City school system. There are 5 parts with 15 chapters. Part 1, "Education in the City," includes: (1) "Schooling in New York City: The Socioeconomic Context" (Emanuel Tobier) and (2) "Public Schools That Work"…

  15. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 18, No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    2015-01-19

    This is version 18.2 of Clean Cities Now, the official biannual newsletter of the Clean Cities program. Clean Cities is an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  16. Creating Smart-er Cities: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allwinkle, Sam; Cruickshank, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The following offers an overview of what it means for cities to be "smart." It draws the supporting definitions and critical insights into smart cities from a series of papers presented at the 2009 Trans-national Conference on Creating Smart(er) Cities. What the papers all have in common is their desire to overcome the all too often…

  17. Project WISH: The Emerald City

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Project WISH (Wandering Interplanetary Space Harbor) is a three-year design effort currently being conducted at The Ohio State University. Its goal is the design of a space oasis to be used in the exploration of the solar system during the midtwenty-first century. This spacecraft, named Emerald City, is to conduct and provide support for missions to other planetary bodies with the purpose of exploration, scientific study, and colonization. It is to sustain a crew of between 500 and 1000 people at a time, and be capable of traveling from a nominal orbit to the planets in reasonably short flight times. Such a ship obviously presents many technical and design challenges, some of which were examined through the course of Project WISH. This year, Phase 2 (1990-1991) of Project WISH was carried out. The basic design of the Emerald City resulting from Phase 1 (1989-1990) was taken and improved upon through more detailed analysis and revision. At the core of this year's study were orbital mechanics, propulsion, attitude control, and human factors. Throughout the year, these areas were examined and information was compiled on their technologies, performances, and relationships. Then, using the data obtained through these studies, two specific missions were designed: an envelope mission from a nominal orbit of 4 AU to Saturn and a single point design for a specific mission from the Earth to Mars. The latter was designed in view of the special interest that Mars is attracting for near-future space exploration. The mission to Saturn has all the first six planets within its flight envelope in less than or equal to a 3-year flight time at any time upon demand, and it has Uranus in its flight envelope most of the time upon demand. These mission studies provided data on the approximate size, weight, number of engines, and other important design values that would be required for the Emerald City.

  18. City-Level Energy Decision Making. Data Use in Energy Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation in U.S. Cities

    SciTech Connect

    Aznar, Alexandra; Day, Megan; Doris, Elizabeth; Mathur, Shivani; Donohoo-Vallett, Paul

    2015-07-08

    The Cities-LEAP technical report, City-Level Energy Decision Making: Data Use in Energy Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation in U.S. Cities, explores how a sample of cities incorporates data into making energy-related decisions. This report provides the foundation for forthcoming components of the Cities-LEAP project that will help cities improve energy decision making by mapping specific city energy or climate policies and actions to measurable impacts and results.

  19. Building a City: A Spin Off Project. Part II of Students Discovering Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Adele

    1988-01-01

    Discusses "Students Discovering Cities" and related activities, explaining how the program evolved into a city planning project for fourth graders in West Jordan, Utah. Describes the final stage of the project in which students "built" their city inside the school gymnasium, complete with streets, lights, cardboard buildings, and green spaces.…

  20. Gods of the City? Reflecting on City Building Games as an Early Introduction to Urban Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bereitschaft, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    For millions of gamers and students alike, city building games (CBGs) like SimCity and the more recent Cities: Skylines present a compelling initial introduction to the world of urban planning and development. As such, these games have great potential to shape players' understanding and expectations of real urban patterns and processes. In this…

  1. A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America's Cities, 2000: A 25-City Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Eugene T.

    To assess the status of hunger and homelessness in U.S. cities during the year 2000, the U.S. Conference of Mayors surveyed 25 major cities whose mayors were members of its Task Force on Hunger and Homelessness. The survey sought information and estimates from each city on emergency food supplies and services, the causes of hunger and…

  2. Elizabeth City State University: Elizabeth City, North Carolina (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.

    1985-09-25

    The Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Solar Radiation Monitoring Network operated from July 1985 through December 1996. Funded by DOE, the six-station network provided 5-minute averaged measurements of direct normal, global, and diffuse horizontal solar irradiance. The data were processed at NREL to improve the assessment of the solar radiation resources in the southeastern United States. Historical HBCU data available online include quality assessed 5-min data, monthly reports, and plots. In January 1997 the HBCU sites became part of the CONFRRM solar monitoring network and data from the two remaining active stations, Bluefield State College and Elizabeth City State University, are collected by the NREL Measurement & Instrumentation Data Center (MIDC).

  3. Uncertainties in city greenhouse gas inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wattenbach, Martin; Redweik, Richard; Luedtke, Stefan; Deng-Beck, Chang; Ross, Lutz; Nagel, Claus

    2015-04-01

    In 1993 mayors from 50 cities in 20 countries gathered at the UN in New York under the umbrella of the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) to issue a declaration aimed at cutting carbon dioxide emissions from cities. By today 465 cities report their GHG emissions in ICLEIs carbonn Cities Climate Registry (cCR) . Many cities worldwide are on the route to implement the combined new standard for city-based GHG accounting and reporting, named the Global Protocol for Community-Scale GHG Emissions (GPC). These extensive data sources offer the unique chance to better understand, manage and reduce city GHG emissions. However, many cities are already reporting or have reported their GHG emission in non GPC conform tools. This heterogeneous data source raises the question on how these data could be potentially transferred to a GPC conform level. For the transfer process it is very important to understand and quantify the potential losses of information and increase or decrease in uncertainty due to class conversions and associated recalculations of GHG data. Here we compare existing GHG reports from different sources based on the use of different tools. We look at data from the carbonn Registry by ICLEI, the CDP, C40 and the Ecoregion tool. Using examples of existing data form cities in Europe we demonstrate potential information losses and inconsistencies leading to increased uncertainty. We also illustrate the potential mapping schemes for the data structures and identify uncertainties from using alternative mappings. In conclusion it is essential to develop consistent data structures in order to allow the use of city GHG data for time series analysis and city intercomparison.

  4. Low-carbon infrastructure strategies for cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, C. A.; Ibrahim, N.; Hoornweg, D.

    2014-05-01

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions to avert potentially disastrous global climate change requires substantial redevelopment of infrastructure systems. Cities are recognized as key actors for leading such climate change mitigation efforts. We have studied the greenhouse gas inventories and underlying characteristics of 22 global cities. These cities differ in terms of their climates, income, levels of industrial activity, urban form and existing carbon intensity of electricity supply. Here we show how these differences in city characteristics lead to wide variations in the type of strategies that can be used for reducing emissions. Cities experiencing greater than ~1,500 heating degree days (below an 18 °C base), for example, will review building construction and retrofitting for cold climates. Electrification of infrastructure technologies is effective for cities where the carbon intensity of the grid is lower than ~600 tCO2e GWh-1 whereas transportation strategies will differ between low urban density (<~6,000 persons km-2) and high urban density (>~6,000 persons km-2) cities. As nation states negotiate targets and develop policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, attention to the specific characteristics of their cities will broaden and improve their suite of options. Beyond carbon pricing, markets and taxation, governments may develop policies and target spending towards low-carbon urban infrastructure.

  5. Prague: The City Is the Museum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meilach, Dona Z.

    2001-01-01

    States that Prague, the capital of the Czech-Republic, is a virtual art museum because of the number of architectural styles and other artworks throughout the city. Explores the various architectural styles that are present in the city from the Gothic monasteries and churches to examples of contemporary styles. (CMK)

  6. Toward 2025 in the Massillon City Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Adrienne

    2007-01-01

    Fred Blosser, Superintendent of Massillon City Schools, asked Adrienne O'Neill, Ed.D., President of the Stark Education Partnership, to conduct a study of curriculum, instruction, and professional development in the Massillon City Schools. A white paper was requested that would contain a critical analysis of curriculum, instruction, professional…

  7. Transforming New York City's Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholomew, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    In 2002, Michael Bloomberg, New York City's newly elected mayor, hoped to fix his city's public schools, which were widely perceived as plagued by a gamut of problems that ranged from low test scores to patronage-riddled schools and districts. A special bill approved by the New York State Legislature made Bloomberg solely accountable to the New…

  8. Public Education in New York City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landes, Rosalind

    One of the major concerns of the First National City Bank's Public Affairs Committee is the cost and quality of urban education. The Bank's Regional Economics Section inquired into various aspects of public education in New York City. While the study is considered as a tentative exploration of a complex subject, questions concerning businessmen…

  9. Urban Scaling of Cities in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    van Raan, Anthony F. J.; van der Meulen, Gerwin; Goedhart, Willem

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the socioeconomic scaling behavior of all cities with more than 50,000 inhabitants in the Netherlands and found significant superlinear scaling of the gross urban product with population size. Of these cities, 22 major cities have urban agglomerations and urban areas defined by the Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics. For these major cities we investigated the superlinear scaling for three separate modalities: the cities defined as municipalities, their urban agglomerations and their urban areas. We find superlinearity with power-law exponents of around 1.15. But remarkably, both types of agglomerations underperform if we compare for the same size of population an agglomeration with a city as a municipality. In other words, an urban system as one formal municipality performs better as compared to an urban agglomeration with the same population size. This effect is larger for the second type of agglomerations, the urban areas. We think this finding has important implications for urban policy, in particular municipal reorganizations. A residual analysis suggests that cities with a municipal reorganization recently and in the past decades have a higher probability to perform better than cities without municipal restructuring. PMID:26751785

  10. Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-23

    The Fall 2013 issue of the biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  11. Clean Cities 2010 Annual Metrics Report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.

    2012-10-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2010. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  12. A School Voucher Program for Baltimore City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lips, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Baltimore City's public school system is in crisis. Academically, the school system fails on any number of measures. The city's graduation rate is barely above 50 percent and students continually lag well behind state averages on standardized tests. Adding to these problems is the school system's current fiscal crisis, created by years of fiscal…

  13. FUEL CELL BUS DEMONSTRATION IN MEXICO CITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the performance of a cull-size, zero-emission, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel-cell-powered transit bus in the atmospheric environment of Mexico City. To address the air quality problems caused by vehicle emissions in Mexico City, a seminar on clean vehic...

  14. Can Cities Sustain Life in the Greenhouse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, John; Hughes, Kristen; Toly, Noah; Wang, Young-Doo

    2006-01-01

    Data from the Global Environmental Monitoring System indicate that pollutants such as sulphur dioxide and total suspended particulate routinely appear in the lower atmosphere of major cities at concentrations well above health guidelines set by the World Health Organization. As well, cities are major contributors to the build-up of greenhouse…

  15. The Press is Failing the Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Mott, John

    The failure of today's newspapers to provide creative leadership in successfully integrating our cities is tragic. White racism has become a critical factor in the neglect of our cities, as has the reluctance of some newspeople to involve themselves more deeply in efforts to explain today's urban crisis. Much of the journalism profession's…

  16. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 18, No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    2014-04-30

    The Spring 2014 edition of the semi-annual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on deployment of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  17. Safety in the City Public School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amoroso, Louis J.

    1976-01-01

    Describes the organization and operation of the Office of School Safety, the department responsible for maintaining order and security in the New York City public schools. (Available from Security World Publishing Company, Inc., P.O. Box 272, Culver City, CA 90230; $14.00 annually) (JG)

  18. Election of Women to City Councils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnig, Albert K.; Walter, Oliver B.

    1976-01-01

    The authors discuss the results of a survey which collected data on female candidacy for city council offices and on election victories. Questionnaires were mailed to 838 U.S. cities with a population of 25,000 or more. (Author/RM)

  19. Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    2015-12-18

    Clean Cities Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  20. Bicentennial Bandwagon: The Role of the City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohut, Sylvester, Jr.

    1977-01-01

    To answer critics of the Bicentennial who are wary of studying too much past history and ignoring problems facing cities today, the author suggests areas which can be studies which are relevant to both the past and present. For example, major cities still experience age-old problems of fire, sanitation, traffic control, crime, and public works.…

  1. Urban Scaling of Cities in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Raan, Anthony F J; van der Meulen, Gerwin; Goedhart, Willem

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the socioeconomic scaling behavior of all cities with more than 50,000 inhabitants in the Netherlands and found significant superlinear scaling of the gross urban product with population size. Of these cities, 22 major cities have urban agglomerations and urban areas defined by the Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics. For these major cities we investigated the superlinear scaling for three separate modalities: the cities defined as municipalities, their urban agglomerations and their urban areas. We find superlinearity with power-law exponents of around 1.15. But remarkably, both types of agglomerations underperform if we compare for the same size of population an agglomeration with a city as a municipality. In other words, an urban system as one formal municipality performs better as compared to an urban agglomeration with the same population size. This effect is larger for the second type of agglomerations, the urban areas. We think this finding has important implications for urban policy, in particular municipal reorganizations. A residual analysis suggests that cities with a municipal reorganization recently and in the past decades have a higher probability to perform better than cities without municipal restructuring. PMID:26751785

  2. Hispanic Diversity in New York City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurak, Douglas T.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This issue of the Hispanic Research Center's journal contains four articles which focus on various aspects of the Hispanic community in New York City. In the first article, Douglas T. Gurak and Lloyd H. Rogler use data from censuses, ethnographic accounts, and public documents to profile New York City's Hispanic population. They review the…

  3. Growing Greener Cities: Environmental Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Forestry Association, Washington, DC.

    This environmental education guide, developed by American Forests, includes five lessons created to help teachers use "Growing Greener Cities," a tree-planting handbook. The lessons are designed to teach students the role trees and forests play in cities. Lesson one begins with an introduction, several preparatory exercises to orient students to…

  4. Literacy as Social Action in City Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cridland-Hughes, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This study examines critical literacy and the intersections of oral, aural, written, and performative literate practices in City Debate, an afterschool program dedicated to providing debate instruction to students in a major Southeastern city. Previous research into definitions and beliefs about literacy in an urban debate program over its twenty…

  5. The "Inner City" Is My Blues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Danne E.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author shares that what she knows about the inner city does not stem from the location of her childhood. Rather, she knows about the inner city through the vernacular of her peers who use it to entitle courses; name proposals, scholarly presentations, and research foci; refer to practicum settings where numerous prospective…

  6. Gaming Techniques for City Planning: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Barbara

    A bibliography which attempts to pull together gaming literature from various fields for the use of city planners is presented. It contains samples from fields related to city planning, especially administration and education. It includes references to simulation, decision-making theory, etc. (Author/CK)

  7. Colleges as Shining Cities on a Hill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Kathleen Kennedy

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author proposes that the notion of America be reintroduced as the "shining city on a hill," that abiding image from American history. The image of the shining city on a hill captures the imagination because it reflects the abiding truth that people become fully human in society, not outside of it. People need one another to…

  8. City Life: Rankings (Livability) versus Perceptions (Satisfaction)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Adam

    2013-01-01

    I investigate the relationship between the popular Mercer city ranking (livability) and survey data (satisfactions). Livability aims to capture "objective" quality of life such as infrastructure. Survey items capture "subjective" quality of life such as satisfaction with city. The relationship between objective measures of quality of life and…

  9. Clean Cities 2011 Annual Metrics Report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.

    2012-12-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2011. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  10. Nature in the City. Adventure Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferbert, Mary Lou

    "Nature in the City" is a program designed to introduce young city dwellers to the wealth of nature that thrives in their urban world. The goal is not to produce botanists or zoologists, but to build attitudes and values as children increase their awareness, understanding, and appreciation of nature. Although the natural communities within cities…

  11. Benchmarking and Energy Saving Tool for Low Carbon Cities (BEST Cities)

    SciTech Connect

    2014-02-01

    BEST-Cities is designed to provide city authorities with strategies they can follow to reduce city-wide carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions. The tool quickly assesses local energy use and energy-related CO2 emissions across nine sectors (i.e., industry, public and commercial buildings, residential buildings, transportation, power and heat, street lighting, water & wastewater, solid waste, and urban green space), giving officials a comprehensive perspective on their local carbon performance. Cities can also use the tool to benchmark their energy and emissions performance to other cities inside and outside China, and identify those sectors with the greatest energy saving and emissions reduction potential.

  12. Virtual Cities as a Collaborative Educational Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Daniel Nehme; de Oliveira, Otto Lopes Braitback; Remião, Joelma Adriana Abrão; Silveira, Paloma Dias; Martins, Márcio André Rodrigues; Axt, Margarete

    The CIVITAS (Virtual Cities with Technologies for Learning and Simulating) project presents a research, teaching and extension approach directed to the construction of cities imagined by students in the first years of elementary school, with an emphasis to the fourth grade. The teacher ventures on a deviation from the official curriculum proposed to reflect upon the invention of cities along with the children. Within this context, the game Città is introduced as an environment that allows the creation of digital real/virtual/imagined cities, and enables different forms of interaction among the students through networked computers. The cooperative situations, made possible by the access to the game, are tools for teachers and students to think about the information that operate as general rules and words of order with the invention of the city/knowledge.

  13. The exploding cities of the developing world.

    PubMed

    Linden, E

    1996-01-01

    Some problems posed by the rapid urbanization of the developing world are reviewed. The author suggests that the fate of these rapidly growing cities will determine the fate of both nations and regions. He notes that rather than continuing to swell the megacities, such as Mexico City, recent demographic trends have been favoring secondary cities, which are facing increasing problems with proportionally fewer resources at their disposal. The problems of disease in crowded urban environments are discussed. The author presents examples of cities with declining services and quality of life, such as Kinshasa, as well as examples of more successful city development, such as Curitiba. Prospects for the successful resolution of urban problems are assessed.

  14. Universal predictability of mobility patterns in cities.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiao-Yong; Zhao, Chen; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2014-11-01

    Despite the long history of modelling human mobility, we continue to lack a highly accurate approach with low data requirements for predicting mobility patterns in cities. Here, we present a population-weighted opportunities model without any adjustable parameters to capture the underlying driving force accounting for human mobility patterns at the city scale. We use various mobility data collected from a number of cities with different characteristics to demonstrate the predictive power of our model. We find that insofar as the spatial distribution of population is available, our model offers universal prediction of mobility patterns in good agreement with real observations, including distance distribution, destination travel constraints and flux. By contrast, the models that succeed in modelling mobility patterns in countries are not applicable in cities, which suggests that there is a diversity of human mobility at different spatial scales. Our model has potential applications in many fields relevant to mobility behaviour in cities, without relying on previous mobility measurements. PMID:25232053

  15. City of Tallahassee Innovative Energy Initiatives

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, Todd; Moragne, Corliss L.

    2014-06-25

    The City of Tallahassee's Innovative Energy Initiatives program sought, first, to evaluate customer response and acceptance to in-home Smart Meter-enabled technologies that allow customers intelligent control of their energy usage. Additionally, this project is in furtherance of the City of Tallahassee's ongoing efforts to expand and enhance the City's Smart Grid capacity and give consumers more tools with which to effectively manage their energy consumption. This enhancement would become possible by establishing an "operations or command center" environment that would be designed as a dual use facility for the City's employees - field and network staff - and systems responsible for a Smart Grid network. A command center would also support the City's Office of Electric Delivery and Energy Reliability's objective to overcome barriers to the deployment of new technologies that will ensure a truly modern and robust grid capable of meeting the demands of the 2151 century.

  16. Green cities, smart people and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansouri Kouhestani, F.; Byrne, J. M.; Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Harrison, T.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change will require substantial changes to urban environments. Cities are huge sources of greenhouse gases. Further, cities will suffer tremendously under climate change due to heat stresses, urban flooding, energy and water supply and demand changes, transportation problems, resource supply and demand and a host of other trials and tribulations. Cities that evolve most quickly and efficiently to deal with climate change will likely take advantage of the changes to create enjoyable, healthy and safer living spaces for families and communities. Technology will provide much of the capability to both mitigate and adapt our cities BUT education and coordination of citizen and community lifestyle likely offers equal opportunities to make our cities more sustainable and more enjoyable places to live. This work is the first phase of a major project evaluating urban mitigation and adaptation policies, programs and technologies. All options are considered, from changes in engineering, planning and management; and including a range of citizen and population-based lifestyle practices.

  17. Workforce mobility: Contributing towards smart city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nor, N. M.; Wahap, N. A.

    2014-02-01

    Smart cities gained importance as a means of making ICT enabled services and applications available to the citizens, companies and authorities that form part of a city's system. It aims at increasing citizen's quality of life, and improving the efficiency and quality of the services provided by governing entities and businesses. This perspective requires an integrated vision of a city and of its infrastructures in all components. One of the characteristics of a smart city is mobility. The concept of mobility, especially for the workforce, is studied through a research carried out on a daily work undertaken as a prototype in the administrative town of Putrajaya, Malaysia. Utilizing the location track from GNSS integrated with mobile devices platform, information on movement and mobility was analysed for quality and efficiency of services rendered. This paper will highlight the research and outcomes that were successfully carried out and will suggest that workforce mobility management can benefit the authorities towards implementing a smart city concept.

  18. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey, BINGHAMTON CITY HALL, PHOTOCOPY OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey, BINGHAMTON CITY HALL, PHOTOCOPY OF ORIGINAL COMPETITION DRAWING (GENERAL PERSPECTIVE) - 1896 FROM THE OFFICE OF THE CITY ENGINEER, BINGHAMTON, NEW YORK. - Binghamton City Hall, Collier Street, Binghamton, Broome County, NY

  19. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey, BINGHAMTON CITY HALL, PHOTOCOPY OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey, BINGHAMTON CITY HALL, PHOTOCOPY OF ORIGINAL COMPETITION DRAWING OF A LONGITUDINAL SECTION - 1896 FROM THE OFFICE OF THE CITY ENGINEER, BINGHAMTON, NEW YORK. - Binghamton City Hall, Collier Street, Binghamton, Broome County, NY

  20. 13. Historic American Buildings Survey, BINGHAMTON CITY HALL, PHOTOCOPY OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic American Buildings Survey, BINGHAMTON CITY HALL, PHOTOCOPY OF ORIGINAL COMPETITION DRAWING OF FIRST FLOOR PLAN - 1896 FROM THE OFFICE OF THE CITY ENGINEER, BINGHAMTON, NEW YORK. - Binghamton City Hall, Collier Street, Binghamton, Broome County, NY

  1. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL FIRST FLOOR DOORS TO THE CITY CLERK AND TAX & PERMIT DIVISION OFFICES, FACING NORTH. - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. Smart City Planning Can Cut Deadly Diseases, Improve Air Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161133.html Smart City Planning Can Cut Deadly Diseases, Improve Air Quality Study ... three quarters of this population living in cities, city planning must be part of a comprehensive solution to ...

  3. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey 'NEW JAIL FOR THE CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey 'NEW JAIL FOR THE CITY OF BALTIMORE, MARYLAND' Undated Line Engraving - Original in Maryland Historical Society - Baltimore City Jail, 801 Van Buren & East Madison Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  4. INTERSECTION OF 445 NORTH & 1040 EAST, SALT LAKE CITY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERSECTION OF 445 NORTH & 1040 EAST, SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 18272, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  5. 200 MAIN STREET, SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    200 MAIN STREET, SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING EAST OF "MAIN' STREET. REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 18273, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  6. The Uses of Big Data in Cities.

    PubMed

    Bettencourt, Luís M A

    2014-03-01

    There is much enthusiasm currently about the possibilities created by new and more extensive sources of data to better understand and manage cities. Here, I explore how big data can be useful in urban planning by formalizing the planning process as a general computational problem. I show that, under general conditions, new sources of data coordinated with urban policy can be applied following fundamental principles of engineering to achieve new solutions to important age-old urban problems. I also show that comprehensive urban planning is computationally intractable (i.e., practically impossible) in large cities, regardless of the amounts of data available. This dilemma between the need for planning and coordination and its impossibility in detail is resolved by the recognition that cities are first and foremost self-organizing social networks embedded in space and enabled by urban infrastructure and services. As such, the primary role of big data in cities is to facilitate information flows and mechanisms of learning and coordination by heterogeneous individuals. However, processes of self-organization in cities, as well as of service improvement and expansion, must rely on general principles that enforce necessary conditions for cities to operate and evolve. Such ideas are the core of a developing scientific theory of cities, which is itself enabled by the growing availability of quantitative data on thousands of cities worldwide, across different geographies and levels of development. These three uses of data and information technologies in cities constitute then the necessary pillars for more successful urban policy and management that encourages, and does not stifle, the fundamental role of cities as engines of development and innovation in human societies.

  7. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Kansas City Plant (KCP), conducted March 23 through April 3, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by a multidisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team members are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the KCP. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulations. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data observations of the operations performed at the KCP, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan is being executed by DOE's Argonne National Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the KCP Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the KCP Survey. 94 refs., 39 figs., 55 tabs.

  8. Services Oriented Smart City Platform Based On 3d City Model Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prandi, F.; Soave, M.; Devigili, F.; Andreolli, M.; De Amicis, R.

    2014-04-01

    The rapid technological evolution, which is characterizing all the disciplines involved within the wide concept of smart cities, is becoming a key factor to trigger true user-driven innovation. However to fully develop the Smart City concept to a wide geographical target, it is required an infrastructure that allows the integration of heterogeneous geographical information and sensor networks into a common technological ground. In this context 3D city models will play an increasingly important role in our daily lives and become an essential part of the modern city information infrastructure (Spatial Data Infrastructure). The work presented in this paper describes an innovative Services Oriented Architecture software platform aimed at providing smartcities services on top of 3D urban models. 3D city models are the basis of many applications and can became the platform for integrating city information within the Smart-Cites context. In particular the paper will investigate how the efficient visualisation of 3D city models using different levels of detail (LODs) is one of the pivotal technological challenge to support Smart-Cities applications. The goal is to provide to the final user realistic and abstract 3D representations of the urban environment and the possibility to interact with a massive amounts of semantic information contained into the geospatial 3D city model. The proposed solution, using OCG standards and a custom service to provide 3D city models, lets the users to consume the services and interact with the 3D model via Web in a more effective way.

  9. Daily Water Use in Nine Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidment, David R.; Miaou, Shaw-Pin

    1986-06-01

    Transfer functions are used to model the short-term response of daily municipal water use to rainfall and air temperature variations. Daily water use data from nine cities are studied, three cities each from Florida, Pennsylvania, and Texas. The dynamic response of water use to rainfall and air temperature is similar across the cities within each State; in addition the responses of the Texas and Florida cities are very similar to one another while the response of the Pennsylvania cities is more sensitive to air temperature and less to rainfall. There is little impact of city size on the response functions. The response of water use to rainfall depends first on the occurrence of rainfall and second on its magnitude. The occurrence of a rainfall more than 0.05 in./day (0.13 cm/day) causes a drop in the seasonal component of water use one day later that averages 38% for the Texas cities, 42% for the Florida cities, and 7% for the Pennsylvania cities. In Austin, Texas, a spatially averaged rainfall series shows a clearer relationship with water use than does rainfall data from a single gage. There is a nonlinear response of water use to air temperature changes with no response for daily maximum air temperatures between 40° and 70°F (4-21°C) an increase in water use with air temperature beyond 70°F; above 85°-90°F (29°-32°C) water use increases 3-5 times more per degree than below that limit in Texas and Florida. The model resulting from these studies can be used for daily water use forecasting and water conservation analysis.

  10. Global politics in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Wulf, D; Willson, P D

    1984-01-01

    At the 1984 United Nations International Conference on Population held in August, delegates from 149 countries affirmed that population dynamics are an intrinsic part of development and that all people, including adolescents, have a right to family planning information and services. Despite concern for continued US support for population activities, the US delegation in Mexico City clearly emphasized its government's commitment to increased funding. The conference also accepted by acclamation the Mexico City Declaration on Population and Development drafted by 29 countries which stresses the importance of increased funding for population policy, the urgent need to improve women's status and the concern for the effects of the deepening economic crisis, Legal abortion and voluntary sterilization as fertility determinants were ignored. The meeting put to rest any notion that population and development activities are competing spheres of action. In contrast to its 1974 position, the US emphasized entrepreneurial initiative within a free-market system as a stimulus to economic development. The status of women was a major issue brought up by the delegations of Zimbabwe and Australia. The crucial but uncertain issue of funding was addressed by most country represehntatives and most developed countries pledged at least continued if not increased funding for development programs. Most discussion on the abortion issue was almost universally based on repudiation of the procedure as a family planning method. The role of the US in the abortion issue is discussed. The US criticized 2 international agencies that provide most of family planning services to which the US provides funding but which are promoting abortion through affiliates. The US affirmed it would not participate in or assist abortion promotion as a birth control method. The nature and scope of the current economic world crisis caused profound differences between the US and most developing countries' delegations

  11. Putting renewable energy to work in cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPerson, B.; Mara, G.; Courier, K.; Finneran, K.

    The purpose of the book is to supply city officials with information needed to develop local policies that encourage the use of energy conservation and renewable energy technologies. The basic assumptions are that city energy officials need technical information, that urban energy managers must be conscious of the constraints and opportunities posed by existing conditions and that no urban program can afford to overlook the links between energy and housing, employment, and economic development. Part One contains guidelines to help local energy officials assess their own urban energy contexts. Parts Two and Three indicate how different energy technologies might fit within different city contexts or neighborhoods.

  12. A city invests in its future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, J. N.

    1974-01-01

    Events occurring during the past four years which led to the City of Burbank's decision to acquire an energy source adequate for the city's present and future power requirements are discussed. The community reaction to this unprecedented move is also covered. Burbank's long-range plans for the development of geothermal energy are outlined as well as the challenges which confront a public utility in implementing its projected goals. There are several advantages accurring to the city which in the opinion of the Burbank City Council and the administration justify this venture. The need for a cooperative climate which will enable all electrical utilities to better meet their obligations to the public, which is their prime responsibility before all other considerations, is analyzed.

  13. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.; Bergeron, P.

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes the Department of Energy's Clean Cities coalition accomplishments in 2008, including petroleum displacement data, membership, funding, sales of alternative fuel blends, deployment of AFVs and HEVs, idle reduction initiatives, and fuel economy activities.

  14. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2009 (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.

    2011-08-01

    Document provides Clean Cities coalition metrics about the use of alternative fuels; the deployment of alternative fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and idle reduction initiatives; fuel economy activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles driven.

  15. Understanding the City Size Wage Gap*

    PubMed Central

    Baum-Snow, Nathaniel; Pavan, Ronni

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we decompose city size wage premia into various components. We base these decompositions on an estimated on-the-job search model that incorporates latent ability, search frictions, firm-worker match quality, human capital accumulation and endogenous migration between large, medium and small cities. Counterfactual simulations of the model indicate that variation in returns to experience and differences in wage intercepts across location type are the most important mechanisms contributing to observed city size wage premia. Variation in returns to experience is more important for generating wage premia between large and small locations while differences in wage intercepts are more important for generating wage premia betwen medium and small locations. Sorting on unobserved ability within education group and differences in labor market search frictions and distributions of firm-worker match quality contribute little to observed city size wage premia. These conclusions hold for separate samples of high school and college graduates. PMID:24273347

  16. Calibration intervals at Bendix Kansas City

    SciTech Connect

    James, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    The calibration interval evaluation methods and control in each calibrating department of the Bendix Corp., Kansas City Division is described, and a more detailed description of those employed in metrology is provided.

  17. Two Cities, Water, and a Metropolitan University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlin, Gary D.; Anderson, Joel E.

    2003-01-01

    Describes how the University of Arkansas helped the cities of Little Rock and North Little Rock to resolve a difficult and longstanding conflict over water rates and the provision of drinking water. (EV)

  18. Voluntary Noise Mapping for Smart City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poslončec-Petrić, V.; Vuković, V.; Frangeš, S.; Bačić, Ž.

    2016-09-01

    One of the main concept objectives of smart cities is to create a quality living environment that is long-term sustainable and economically justified. In that context, modern cities are aware of the exposure to various forms of physical and non-physical pollution that needs to be remediated, eliminated or reduced. To achieve that it is necessary to quality determine the sources and reasons of each pollution. The most prominent examples of physical pollution that affects the quality of life of citizens in cities are light and noise pollution. Noise pollution or noise, is mostly the consequence of road and rail traffic in cities and it directly affects the health of citizens. Traffic control, reduction of peak congestion, dispersion and traffic redirection or building protective barriers, are ways that cities use to reduce the amount of noise or its effects. To make these measures efficient it is necessary to obtain the information related to the level of noise in certain areas, streets, cities. To achieve this, smart cities use noise mapping. The city of Zagreb since 2012, participates in the i-SCOPE project (interoperable Smart City services trough Open Platform for urban Ecosystems). i-SCOPE delivers an open platform on top of which it develops, three "smart city" services: optimization of energy consumption through a service for accurate assessment of solar energy potential and energy loss at building level, environmental monitoring through a real-time environmental noise mapping service leveraging citizen's involvement will who act as distributed sensors city-wide measuring noise levels through an application on their mobile phones and improved inclusion and personal mobility of aging and diversely able citizens through an accurate personal routing service. The students of Faculty of Geodesy University of Zagreb, who enrolled in the course Thematic Cartography, were actively involved in the voluntary data acquisition in order to monitor the noise in real time

  19. MATRIX City: A Multi-Risk Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euchner, F.; Mignan, A.

    2012-04-01

    MATRIX City (the MATRIX Common IT sYstem) is the computational platform that is being developed in the course of the New Multi-Hazard and Multi-Risk Assessment Methods for Europe (MATRIX) project. MATRIX aims to develop multi-type hazard and risk assessment and mitigation tools suited to the European context. The core of MATRIX City is a risk engine of a novel type that is based on a sequential simulation approach, which allows to quantify interactions and other time-dependent processes at the hazard, exposure, vulnerability and risk levels. For risk estimation in realistic scenarios, data availability is crucial. To overcome this limitation, MATRIX City provides a component called Virtual City. It is a collection of heuristic databases, which provides a generic approach to quantifying multi-type hazard and risk when data coverage is poor, and for sensitivity analysis. MATRIX City results are intended to provide a "big picture" of the expected impact of multi-type hazard and risk modelling (as opposed to static modelling), thus being a valuable tool for decision support. MATRIX City development uses a modern software engineering approach (test-driven development, continuous integration). The architecture is flexible, so that new perils, new models and large datasets can be accommodated easily. However, it should be noted that hazard computation is not part of MATRIX City. Hazard footprints have to be provided as input data, as well as exposure and vulnerability. The data model used in MATRIX City is an enhancement of the Natural hazards' Risk Markup Language (NRML). An XML serialization of this data model, which is a GML (Geographic Markup Language) application schema, is used for data interchange.

  20. What is Clean Cities? October 2011 (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Brochure describes the Clean Cities program and includes the contact information for its 85 coalitions. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP), Clean Cities is a government-industry partnership that reduces petroleum consumption in the transportation sector. Clean Cities contributes to the energy, environmental, and economic security of the United States by supporting local decisions to reduce our dependence on imported petroleum. Established in 1993 in response to the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992, the partnership provides tools and resources for voluntary, community-centered programs to reduce consumption of petroleum-based fuels. In nearly 100 coalitions, government agencies and private companies voluntarily come together under the umbrella of Clean Cities. The partnership helps all parties identify mutual interests and meet the objectives of reducing the use of petroleum, developing regional economic opportunities, and improving air quality. Clean Cities deploys technologies and practices developed by VTP. These include idle-reduction equipment, electric-drive vehicles, fuel economy measures, and renewable and alternative fuels, such as natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (propane), electricity, hydrogen, biofuels, and biogas. Idle-reduction equipment is targeted primarily to buses and heavy-duty trucks, which use more than 2 billion gallons of fuel every year in the United States while idling. Clean Cities fuel economy measures include public education on vehicle choice and fuel-efficient driving practices.

  1. Mobility and accessibility in historic cities.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ana Carla; Paschoalin, Rachel Filgueiras; Castañon, José Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The historic cities of Brazil, despite its colonial structure, don't fail to go through transformations that affect contemporary cities, which is the main source of problems, leading to new approaches to urban issues such as mobility and accessibility. The uncontrolled growth of tourism in the historic cities can be considered as a big problem, because at the same time, they have committed to the conservation of its built heritage and demand control of the activities that occur in their areas without harm. Then, a permanent dialogue between conservatives and planners could be accomplished by joining the various sectoral policies. The study of urban mobility in historical sites was in fact the focus of this work because of their peculiarities, such as its specific characteristics of urban structure, morphology and occupation. In fact, the development of tourism in historic centers generates specific demands, such as adaptation to new uses of the houses, intensive movement of people and vehicles, illegal parking, among others. Beyond threatening the city preservation, does not provide mobility and accessibility to tourists, because these cities were not designed for the tourism conditions and needs of contemporary life. Characteristic features of Brazilian baroque cities, such as topography , the narrow streets, narrow or nonexistent sidewalks, steep turns and ramps strong, are not suitable for heavy vehicles, traffic and pedestrian circulation. Thus, studies concerning conservation urban integrated are aimed at an approach to interaction between historic preservation of the environment with the dynamic socio-economic of the local. PMID:22317715

  2. Indoor Radon Measurements in Mexico City

    SciTech Connect

    Bogard, James S; Espinosa Garcia, Guillermo

    2008-01-01

    Mexico City is one of the most populated cities in the world with almost 22 million inhabitants, located at an altitude of 2200 m. The old city was founded on an ancient lake and the zone is known by its high seismicity; indoor radon determination is an important public health issue. In this paper the data of indoor radon levels in Mexico City, measured independently by two research groups, both using Nuclear Track Detector systems but different methodologies, are correlated. The measurements were done during similar exposure periods of time, at family houses from the political administrative regions of the city. The results indicate a correlation coefficient between the two sets of data of R = 0.886. Most of the differences between the two sets of data are inherent to houses having extreme (very high or very low indoor radon) included in the statistics of each group. The total average indoor radon found in Mexico City considering the two methods was 87 Bq m{sup -3}.

  3. Long-Serving City Managers: Why Do They Stay?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Douglas J.; Hassett, Wendy L.

    2003-01-01

    Responses from 107 city managers with more than 20 years of experience indicate that long-serving city managers are usually in smaller cities that are homogenous and politically stable. Most are white males with above-average education levels, who have support from elected officials and commitments to the cities they serve. (Contains 28…

  4. Study Abroad and the City: Mapping Urban Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Study abroad by U.S. students, despite recent growth into non-western and rural destinations, often remains focused on cities, often very large and highly urbanized ones. While the destination cities for study abroad are located across the globe, European cities remain predominant, and thus, this article focuses on study abroad in one city. The…

  5. [City College Advisory Service and Workshop Center for Open Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    City Univ. of New York, NY. City Coll. Workshop Center for Open Education.

    The City College Advisory Service and Workshop Center for Open Education, located on the main campus of City College in New York City, is a free facility for all participants in the school process--teachers, principals, supervisors, paraprofessionals, parents, and graduate/undergraduate students in the New York City area. It is sponsored by the…

  6. Comparison of social structures within cities of very different sizes

    PubMed Central

    Grindrod, P.; Lee, T. E.

    2016-01-01

    People make a city, making each city as unique as the combination of its inhabitants. However, some cities are similar and some cities are inimitable. We examine the social structure of 10 different cities using Twitter data. Each city is decomposed to its communities. We show that in many cases one city can be thought of as an amalgamation of communities from another city. For example, we find the social network of Manchester is very similar to the social network of a virtual city of the same size, where the virtual city is composed of communities from the Bristol network. However, we cannot create Bristol from Manchester since Bristol contains communities with a social structure that are not present in Manchester. Some cities, such as Leeds, are outliers. That is, Leeds contains a particularly wide range of communities, meaning we cannot build a similar city from communities outside of Leeds. Comparing communities from different cities, and building virtual cities that are comparable to real cities, is a novel approach to understand social networks. This has implications when using social media to inform or advise residents of a city. PMID:26998323

  7. 250 NORTH & MAIN STREET (PARK 83, SALT LAKE CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    250 NORTH & MAIN STREET (PARK 8-3, SALT LAKE CITY CEMETERY LOCATER), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING NORTH - REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 18271, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  8. Farmers flock to coastal cities.

    PubMed

    Zhou, M; Mulley, S

    1994-01-01

    China's rural-urban migration flows, particularly into Shanghai, Guangdong province, Beijing, and coastal areas, present challenges for urban development. The impact on rural and urban areas and suggestions for minimizing undesirable consequences were discussed. Professor Zhang Qingwu, deputy director of the Population Research Institute of Xiamen University in Fujian province, believes that the large migrating populations and those without residence cards pose problems for heavily populated cities: they strain resources (housing, water and electricity supplies, transportation, telecommunication, environmental hygiene, food supplies, and educational facilities). Crime increases. Municipal departments must increase their administrative load in service sectors. The general idea is that rural-to-urban migration reflects social progress and adds to a productive work force. Flexible policies are recommended. In Guangdong province, where migrants arrived from Sichuan and Hunan provinces, counties from the latter two provinces have established offices for supervising their former residents. Employment adjustment can be anticipated when the major flock of migrants arrive after the Lantern Festival. Professor Gui Shixun of the Population Research Institute of East China Normal University and advisor to the State Family Planning Commission recommends that development strategies incorporate planning for imbalances between local population and migrant urban workers. In some areas, women represent the bulk of migrants, while in other areas men do. Cultural development should be stressed, with investments also improved in telecommunications, traffic and transportation, education, and hygiene. Professor Jiang Zhixue recommends shifting from labor-intensive enterprises to technology-intensive enterprises and a better trained work force. Other schemes, such as the purchase by migrants of residence cards in Xiamen, would entitle migrants to the same rights and obligations as

  9. Development, primacy, and systems of cities.

    PubMed

    El-shakhs, S

    1972-10-01

    The relationship between the evolutionary changes in the city size distribution of nationally defined urban systems and the process of socioeconomic development is examined. Attention is directed to the problems of defining and measuring changes in city size distributions, using the results to test empirically the relationship of such changes to the development process. Existing theoretical structures and empirical generalizations which have tried to explain or to describe, respectively, the hierarchical relationships of cities are represented by central place theory and rank size relationships. The problem is not that deviations exist but that an adequate definition is lacking of urban systems on the 1 hand, and a universal measure of city size distribution, which could be applied to any system irrespective of its level of development, on the other. The problem of measuring changes in city size distributions is further compounded by the lack of sufficient reliable information about different systems of cities for the purposes of empirical comparative analysis. Changes in city size distributions have thus far been viewed largely within the framework of classic equilibrium theory. A more differentiated continuum of the development process should replace the bioplar continuum of underdeveloped developed countries in relating changes in city size distribution with development. Implicit in this distinction is the view that processes which influence spatial organization during the early formative stages of development are inherently different from those operating during the more advanced stages. 2 approaches were used to examine the relationship between national levels of development and primacy: a comparative analysis of a large number of countries at a given point in time; and a historical analysis of a limited sample of 2 advanced countries, the US and Great Britain. The 75 countries included in this study cover a wide range of characteristics. The study found a

  10. Study of City Landscape Heritage Using Lidar Data and 3d-City Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinowicz, P.; Czynska, K.

    2015-04-01

    In contemporary town planning protection of urban landscape is a significant issue. It regards especially those cities, where urban structures are the result of ages of evolution and layering of historical development process. Specific panoramas and other strategic views with historic city dominants can be an important part of the cultural heritage and genius loci. Other hand, protection of such expositions introduces limitations for future based city development. Digital Earth observation techniques creates new possibilities for more accurate urban studies, monitoring of urbanization processes and measuring of city landscape parameters. The paper examines possibilities of application of Lidar data and digital 3D-city models for: a) evaluation of strategic city views, b) mapping landscape absorption limits, and c) determination protection zones, where the urbanization and buildings height should be limited. In reference to this goal, the paper introduces a method of computational analysis of the city landscape called Visual Protection Surface (VPS). The method allows to emulate a virtual surface above the city including protection of a selected strategic views. The surface defines maximum height of buildings in such a way, that no new facility can be seen in any of selected views. The research includes also analyses of the quality of simulations according the form and precision of the input data: airborne Lidar / DSM model and more advanced 3D-city models (incl. semantic of the geometry, like in CityGML format). The outcome can be a support for professional planning of tall building development. Application of VPS method have been prepared by a computer program developed by the authors (C++). Simulations were carried out on an example of the city of Dresden.

  11. Evaluation of Education of Inner City Handicapped Children, Case Studies in Five Cities. Volume I, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abram, Robert E.; And Others

    Reported was an evaluation of the education of inner city (IC) handicapped children in five cities. Focused on were an assessment of present education programs, a comparison of services provided IC children with services provided non-inner city (NIC) children, a determination of needs unique to handicapped children in inner city areas, formulation…

  12. Exodus to cities and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, K

    1990-08-15

    Concerns about deterioration of the quality of life in mega-cities in India, thought to be due to in-migration, are shown to be misplaced in this essay. Not only is the deterioration due merely to rising expectations, but its causes are problems on a national level. It is true that population growth in the 12 largest cities in India, 3.35%, is more rapid than growth rates in the country as a whole, 2.22%. Bangalore is growing the fastest, 5.68% annually, but generally Indian cities are growing less rapidly that many other Asian cities, e.g. Dacca, 7.37%. Urbanization to the extent of 60.70% of the population is in fact necessary for development. The primary reason for in-migration is employment for men, and marriage accompanying employed husbands for women. Contrary to common opinion, the educational status of in- migrants is higher than that of the region, and female literacy is higher in cities than in the rest of the state, e.g., 61% for Bombay, vs. 35% in Maharashtra State. The occupational status is frequently high: production, transport equipment operator, laborer, professional, technical executive managerial, sales and service. Furthermore, as urbanization proceeds, construction laborers and service workers are in demand. Quality of life defined by infant and maternal mortality is higher in cities than in the surrounding rural area. This quality of life is the reason why people migrate to the city. Unfortunately, frustrations are also rising as expectations for improved housing, water, air, transportation and consumer-durables rise faster than they can be supplied. PMID:12343049

  13. On the Internet of Things, smart cities and the WHO Healthy Cities.

    PubMed

    Kamel Boulos, Maged N; Al-Shorbaji, Najeeb M

    2014-03-27

    This article gives a brief overview of the Internet of Things (IoT) for cities, offering examples of IoT-powered 21st century smart cities, including the experience of the Spanish city of Barcelona in implementing its own IoT-driven services to improve the quality of life of its people through measures that promote an eco-friendly, sustainable environment. The potential benefits as well as the challenges associated with IoT for cities are discussed. Much of the 'big data' that are continuously generated by IoT sensors, devices, systems and services are geo-tagged or geo-located. The importance of having robust, intelligent geospatial analytics systems in place to process and make sense of such data in real time cannot therefore be overestimated. The authors argue that IoT-powered smart cities stand better chances of becoming healthier cities. The World Health Organization (WHO) Healthy Cities Network and associated national networks have hundreds of member cities around the world that could benefit from, and harness the power of, IoT to improve the health and well-being of their local populations.

  14. 78 FR 32556 - Safety Zone; 2013 Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Ocean City, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 2013 Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean... establishing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Ocean... Atlantic Ocean in Ocean City, MD. In recent years, there have been unfortunate instances of jets and...

  15. 75 FR 18778 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean... proposes establishing a temporary safety zone on the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Ocean City, Maryland... the Atlantic Ocean to protect mariners and the public from the hazards associated with air show...

  16. 75 FR 56467 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Beachfront Air Show, Ocean City, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... zone in an area of the Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, NJ. The temporary safety zone will restrict vessel traffic from a portion of the Atlantic Ocean during the Ocean City Beachfront Air Show, which is an aerial demonstration to be held over the waters of the Atlantic Ocean. The temporary safety zone is necessary...

  17. 76 FR 31235 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean... establish a temporary safety zone on the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Ocean City, MD to support the... Atlantic Ocean to protect mariners from the hazards associated with air show events. DATES: This rule...

  18. On the Internet of Things, smart cities and the WHO Healthy Cities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This article gives a brief overview of the Internet of Things (IoT) for cities, offering examples of IoT-powered 21st century smart cities, including the experience of the Spanish city of Barcelona in implementing its own IoT-driven services to improve the quality of life of its people through measures that promote an eco-friendly, sustainable environment. The potential benefits as well as the challenges associated with IoT for cities are discussed. Much of the 'big data' that are continuously generated by IoT sensors, devices, systems and services are geo-tagged or geo-located. The importance of having robust, intelligent geospatial analytics systems in place to process and make sense of such data in real time cannot therefore be overestimated. The authors argue that IoT-powered smart cities stand better chances of becoming healthier cities. The World Health Organization (WHO) Healthy Cities Network and associated national networks have hundreds of member cities around the world that could benefit from, and harness the power of, IoT to improve the health and well-being of their local populations. PMID:24669838

  19. Investigating the Enrichment of a 3D City Model with Various CityGML Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floros, G.; Dimopoulou, E.

    2016-10-01

    Recent developments in the massive 3D acquisition area made possible the generation of dense and precise 3D data, ranging from the representation of a simple building to a whole city. Nowadays, increasing urbanization, rapid growth of urban areas, and subsequently development of mega cities, are among the most important changes occurring worldwide. Therefore, developing techniques to manage these cities seems quite necessary. The aim of this paper is to investigate the enrichment of a 3D City Model with additional attributes, via appropriate CityGML Modules. The paper focuses on addressing the challenging issues that derive from a complex virtual 3D city modeling. More specifically, the paper investigates a complex built-up area, presenting and analyzing its constituting structures. Within this framework, the following CityGML modules are investigated: Bridge, Transportation Complex, CityFurniture, Land Use and Vegetation. To this purpose, the BIM-Standard software Trimble SketchUp and the data conversion tool FME are used. The processes of both modeling and converting are analyzed in detail. General conclusions and future research considerations are presented.

  20. On the Internet of Things, smart cities and the WHO Healthy Cities.

    PubMed

    Kamel Boulos, Maged N; Al-Shorbaji, Najeeb M

    2014-01-01

    This article gives a brief overview of the Internet of Things (IoT) for cities, offering examples of IoT-powered 21st century smart cities, including the experience of the Spanish city of Barcelona in implementing its own IoT-driven services to improve the quality of life of its people through measures that promote an eco-friendly, sustainable environment. The potential benefits as well as the challenges associated with IoT for cities are discussed. Much of the 'big data' that are continuously generated by IoT sensors, devices, systems and services are geo-tagged or geo-located. The importance of having robust, intelligent geospatial analytics systems in place to process and make sense of such data in real time cannot therefore be overestimated. The authors argue that IoT-powered smart cities stand better chances of becoming healthier cities. The World Health Organization (WHO) Healthy Cities Network and associated national networks have hundreds of member cities around the world that could benefit from, and harness the power of, IoT to improve the health and well-being of their local populations. PMID:24669838

  1. The Chicago City-Wide Institute of the City Colleges of Chicago.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago City Colleges, IL. Chicago City-Wide Inst.

    This document describes the Chicago City-Wide Institute, a non-campus college established in 1974 as the ninth administrative unit of the City Colleges of Chicago. The basic mission of the Institute is to develop and operate programs at the college level for adults who cannot or choose not to go to a traditional college campus. The Institute also…

  2. The Solar City Daegu 2050 Project: Visions for a Sustainable City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jong-dall; Han, Dong-hi; Na, Jung-gyu

    2006-01-01

    The Solar City Daegu 2050 Project (SCD 2050) represents a comprehensive model for shaping the future of this city of 2.5 million residents with a mixed industrial and services economic base. Its specific aims are as follows: realization of a carbon footprint consistent with standards of global sustainability and equity; the development of a…

  3. A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America's Cities: 1990. A 30-City Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxman, Laura DeKoven; Reyes, Lilia M.

    To assess the status of hunger and homelessness in urban America during 1990, the U.S. Conference of Mayors surveyed the 30 major cities whose mayors are members of its Task Force on Hunger and Homelessness. This report summarizes survey findings. The survey sought information from each city on the following questions: (1) the demand for emergency…

  4. A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America's Cities: 1991. A 28-City Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxman, Laura DeKoven

    To assess the status of hunger and homelessness in urban America during 1991, The U.S. Conference of Mayors surveyed 28 major cities whose mayors are members of its Task Force on Hunger and Homelessness. The survey sought information and estimates from each city on: (1) the demand for emergency food assistance and emergency shelter and the…

  5. A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America's Cities, 2002: A 25-City Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Eugene T.

    To assess the status of hunger and homelessness in U.S. cities during 2002, 25 major cities completed surveys regarding demand for emergency food assistance and emergency shelter and capacity of local agencies to meet the demand; causes of hunger and homelessness and demographics of populations experiencing these problems; exemplary programs or…

  6. A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America's Cities, 2001: A 27-City Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Eugene T.

    To assess the status of hunger and homelessness in U.S. cities during 2001, data were collected from 27 cities on demands for emergency food assistance and shelter and the capacity of local agencies to meet that demand; causes of hunger and homelessness and demographics of populations experiencing them; exemplary responses; availability of…

  7. Developing a City Governance Index: Based on Surveys in Five Major Chinese Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yong, Guo; Wenhao, Cheng

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the establishment of a City Governance Index to evaluate the levels of governance of cities. We identified seven key dimensions of governance and then divided each of them into four stages: input, mechanism, result and effect. Each dimension/stage mix is correlated with indicators that can be measured with both objective and…

  8. 78 FR 34300 - Safety Zone; Bullhead City Regatta, Bullhead City, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ...The Coast Guard is proposing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of the Colorado River in Bullhead City, Arizona for the Bullhead City Regatta on August 10, 2013. This temporary safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of the participants, crew, spectators, participating vessels, and other vessels and users of the waterway. Persons and vessels would be prohibited from......

  9. 77 FR 36439 - Safety Zone; Bullhead City Regatta; Bullhead City, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bullhead City Regatta; Bullhead City,...

  10. 76 FR 38568 - Safety Zone; Bullhead City Regatta, Bullhead City, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of the Colorado River in Bullhead City, Arizona for the Bullhead City Regatta on August 13, 2011. This temporary safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of the participants, crew, spectators, participating vessels, and other vessels and users of the waterway. Persons and vessels would be prohibited from......

  11. A Status Report on Homeless Families in America's Cities. A 29-City Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxman, Laura DeKoven; Reyes, Lilia M.

    This survey assesses the status of homelessness among families in cities. The data were collected from city officials during April 1987. The findings include the following: (1) the number of homeless families increased by 31 percent during the last two years; (2) families represented one-third of the homeless and a single parent headed two-thirds…

  12. Benchmarking and Energy Saving Tool for Low Carbon Cities (BEST Cities)

    2014-02-01

    BEST-Cities is designed to provide city authorities with strategies they can follow to reduce city-wide carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions. The tool quickly assesses local energy use and energy-related CO2 emissions across nine sectors (i.e., industry, public and commercial buildings, residential buildings, transportation, power and heat, street lighting, water & wastewater, solid waste, and urban green space), giving officials a comprehensive perspective on their local carbon performance. Cities can also use the toolmore » to benchmark their energy and emissions performance to other cities inside and outside China, and identify those sectors with the greatest energy saving and emissions reduction potential.« less

  13. Air pollution assessment on city of Tirana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandija, F.; Zoga, P.

    2012-04-01

    Air pollution is one of the hot topics on nowadays studies. This problem is often encountered on urban centers, especially on metropolitan areas. These areas are usually characterized by densely population, heavy traffic rates and the presence of many industrial plants on their suburbs. Problems regarding to air pollution on these areas are more evident over metropolitan areas in developing countries. Air pollution is mostly related to health effects, especially in outdoor environments. These effects regards primarily on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Air pollution assessment on a specific area requires not only the estimation of pollutant concentrations in that area, but also determination of their principal sources as well as prediction of eventual scenarios on the area under investigation. This study is focused on air pollution assessment on the city of Tirana, which is the major urban centre and the capital city of Albania. This city has about one million inhabitants. During the last 20 years, its population has grown about four fold, and it is still growing. Because of Albania is a developing country, its capital city is involved on serious environmental problems. Considering these facts, we have conducted continuous monitoring campaigns on several sites of Tirana. These monitoring campaigns consist on measurement of several pollutant gases (SO2, CO, CO2, NOx, etc.) and particulate matter over a period of 20 months. In this paper there are obtained diurnal and annual variations of pollutant concentrations, there is modeled their spatial distributions over the area of the city, and there are estimated the potential contributions of principal sources like traffic and industrial plants. During the entire monitoring campaign there are recorded also meteorological parameters, like temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, wind direction, precipitations, etc. In this way we have tried to obtain the correlations between pollutant

  14. Shrinking cities: urban challenges of globalization.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Fernandez, Cristina; Audirac, Ivonne; Fol, Sylvie; Cunningham-Sabot, Emmanuèle

    2012-01-01

    Urban shrinkage is not a new phenomenon. It has been documented in a large literature analyzing the social and economic issues that have led to population flight, resulting, in the worse cases, in the eventual abandonment of blocks of housing and neighbourhoods. Analysis of urban shrinkage should take into account the new realization that this phenomenon is now global and multidimensional — but also little understood in all its manifestations. Thus, as the world's population increasingly becomes urban, orthodox views of urban decline need redefinition. The symposium includes articles from 10 urban analysts working on 30 cities around the globe. These analysts belong to the Shrinking Cities International Research Network (SCIRN), whose collaborative work aims to understand different types of city shrinkage and the role that different approaches, policies and strategies have played in the regeneration of these cities. In this way the symposium will inform both a rich diversity of analytical perspectives and country-based studies of the challenges faced by shrinking cities. It will also disseminate SCIRN's research results from the last 3 years.

  15. Shrinking cities: urban challenges of globalization.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Fernandez, Cristina; Audirac, Ivonne; Fol, Sylvie; Cunningham-Sabot, Emmanuèle

    2012-01-01

    Urban shrinkage is not a new phenomenon. It has been documented in a large literature analyzing the social and economic issues that have led to population flight, resulting, in the worse cases, in the eventual abandonment of blocks of housing and neighbourhoods. Analysis of urban shrinkage should take into account the new realization that this phenomenon is now global and multidimensional — but also little understood in all its manifestations. Thus, as the world's population increasingly becomes urban, orthodox views of urban decline need redefinition. The symposium includes articles from 10 urban analysts working on 30 cities around the globe. These analysts belong to the Shrinking Cities International Research Network (SCIRN), whose collaborative work aims to understand different types of city shrinkage and the role that different approaches, policies and strategies have played in the regeneration of these cities. In this way the symposium will inform both a rich diversity of analytical perspectives and country-based studies of the challenges faced by shrinking cities. It will also disseminate SCIRN's research results from the last 3 years. PMID:22518881

  16. Do Global Cities Enable Global Views? Using Twitter to Quantify the Level of Geographical Awareness of U.S. Cities

    PubMed Central

    Han, Su Yeon; Tsou, Ming-Hsiang; Clarke, Keith C.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic social media content, such as Twitter messages, can be used to examine individuals’ beliefs and perceptions. By analyzing Twitter messages, this study examines how Twitter users exchanged and recognized toponyms (city names) for different cities in the United States. The frequency and variety of city names found in their online conversations were used to identify the unique spatiotemporal patterns of “geographical awareness” for Twitter users. A new analytic method, Knowledge Discovery in Cyberspace for Geographical Awareness (KDCGA), is introduced to help identify the dynamic spatiotemporal patterns of geographic awareness among social media conversations. Twitter data were collected across 50 U.S. cities. Thousands of city names around the world were extracted from a large volume of Twitter messages (over 5 million tweets) by using the Twitter Application Programming Interface (APIs) and Python language computer programs. The percentages of distant city names (cities located in distant states or other countries far away from the locations of Twitter users) were used to estimate the level of global geographical awareness for Twitter users in each U.S. city. A Global awareness index (GAI) was developed to quantify the level of geographical awareness of Twitter users from within the same city. Our findings are that: (1) the level of geographical awareness varies depending on when and where Twitter messages are posted, yet Twitter users from big cities are more aware of the names of international cities or distant US cities than users from mid-size cities; (2) Twitter users have an increased awareness of other city names far away from their home city during holiday seasons; and (3) Twitter users are more aware of nearby city names than distant city names, and more aware of big city names rather than small city names. PMID:26167942

  17. Do Global Cities Enable Global Views? Using Twitter to Quantify the Level of Geographical Awareness of U.S. Cities.

    PubMed

    Han, Su Yeon; Tsou, Ming-Hsiang; Clarke, Keith C

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic social media content, such as Twitter messages, can be used to examine individuals' beliefs and perceptions. By analyzing Twitter messages, this study examines how Twitter users exchanged and recognized toponyms (city names) for different cities in the United States. The frequency and variety of city names found in their online conversations were used to identify the unique spatiotemporal patterns of "geographical awareness" for Twitter users. A new analytic method, Knowledge Discovery in Cyberspace for Geographical Awareness (KDCGA), is introduced to help identify the dynamic spatiotemporal patterns of geographic awareness among social media conversations. Twitter data were collected across 50 U.S. cities. Thousands of city names around the world were extracted from a large volume of Twitter messages (over 5 million tweets) by using the Twitter Application Programming Interface (APIs) and Python language computer programs. The percentages of distant city names (cities located in distant states or other countries far away from the locations of Twitter users) were used to estimate the level of global geographical awareness for Twitter users in each U.S. city. A Global awareness index (GAI) was developed to quantify the level of geographical awareness of Twitter users from within the same city. Our findings are that: (1) the level of geographical awareness varies depending on when and where Twitter messages are posted, yet Twitter users from big cities are more aware of the names of international cities or distant US cities than users from mid-size cities; (2) Twitter users have an increased awareness of other city names far away from their home city during holiday seasons; and (3) Twitter users are more aware of nearby city names than distant city names, and more aware of big city names rather than small city names.

  18. Do Global Cities Enable Global Views? Using Twitter to Quantify the Level of Geographical Awareness of U.S. Cities.

    PubMed

    Han, Su Yeon; Tsou, Ming-Hsiang; Clarke, Keith C

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic social media content, such as Twitter messages, can be used to examine individuals' beliefs and perceptions. By analyzing Twitter messages, this study examines how Twitter users exchanged and recognized toponyms (city names) for different cities in the United States. The frequency and variety of city names found in their online conversations were used to identify the unique spatiotemporal patterns of "geographical awareness" for Twitter users. A new analytic method, Knowledge Discovery in Cyberspace for Geographical Awareness (KDCGA), is introduced to help identify the dynamic spatiotemporal patterns of geographic awareness among social media conversations. Twitter data were collected across 50 U.S. cities. Thousands of city names around the world were extracted from a large volume of Twitter messages (over 5 million tweets) by using the Twitter Application Programming Interface (APIs) and Python language computer programs. The percentages of distant city names (cities located in distant states or other countries far away from the locations of Twitter users) were used to estimate the level of global geographical awareness for Twitter users in each U.S. city. A Global awareness index (GAI) was developed to quantify the level of geographical awareness of Twitter users from within the same city. Our findings are that: (1) the level of geographical awareness varies depending on when and where Twitter messages are posted, yet Twitter users from big cities are more aware of the names of international cities or distant US cities than users from mid-size cities; (2) Twitter users have an increased awareness of other city names far away from their home city during holiday seasons; and (3) Twitter users are more aware of nearby city names than distant city names, and more aware of big city names rather than small city names. PMID:26167942

  19. How to Study the City on Instagram.

    PubMed

    Boy, John D; Uitermark, Justus

    2016-01-01

    We introduce Instagram as a data source for use by scholars in urban studies and neighboring disciplines and propose ways to operationalize key concepts in the study of cities. These data can help shed light on segregation, the formation of subcultures, strategies of distinction, and status hierarchies in the city. Drawing on two datasets of geotagged Instagram posts from Amsterdam and Copenhagen collected over a twelve-week period, we present a proof of concept for how to explore and visualize sociospatial patterns and divisions in these two cities. We take advantage of both the social and the geographic aspects of the data, using network analysis to identify distinct groups of users and metrics of unevenness and diversity to identify socio-spatial divisions. We also discuss some of the limitations of these data and methods and suggest ways in which they can complement established quantitative and qualitative approaches in urban scholarship.

  20. City of Chicago Brownfield case study

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, K.J.; Anderson, S.W.; Albano, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    Dealing with complex environmental issues frequently inhibits redevelopment of industrial sites in urban settings. In 1993, the City of Chicago (City) Department of Planning and Development, Department of Buildings, and Mayor`s Office joined the Department of Environment to investigate reuse of former industrial/commercial properties (brownfields) suspected of environmental or industrial contamination. The collective result is the Brownfield Program, a three-pronged initiative: Brownfield Pilot Program, Brownfield Forum, and Brownfield Research. Black and Veatch Waste Science, Inc. (Waste Science) carried the Brownfield Program forward by performing a Phase 1 environmental site assessment for the City on one of five pilot sites. Waste Science subsequently completed a Phase 2 environmental site assessment and Phase 3 site remediation at the site. Waste oil and PCB-contaminated soil was removed.

  1. How to Study the City on Instagram.

    PubMed

    Boy, John D; Uitermark, Justus

    2016-01-01

    We introduce Instagram as a data source for use by scholars in urban studies and neighboring disciplines and propose ways to operationalize key concepts in the study of cities. These data can help shed light on segregation, the formation of subcultures, strategies of distinction, and status hierarchies in the city. Drawing on two datasets of geotagged Instagram posts from Amsterdam and Copenhagen collected over a twelve-week period, we present a proof of concept for how to explore and visualize sociospatial patterns and divisions in these two cities. We take advantage of both the social and the geographic aspects of the data, using network analysis to identify distinct groups of users and metrics of unevenness and diversity to identify socio-spatial divisions. We also discuss some of the limitations of these data and methods and suggest ways in which they can complement established quantitative and qualitative approaches in urban scholarship. PMID:27336728

  2. How to Study the City on Instagram

    PubMed Central

    Uitermark, Justus

    2016-01-01

    We introduce Instagram as a data source for use by scholars in urban studies and neighboring disciplines and propose ways to operationalize key concepts in the study of cities. These data can help shed light on segregation, the formation of subcultures, strategies of distinction, and status hierarchies in the city. Drawing on two datasets of geotagged Instagram posts from Amsterdam and Copenhagen collected over a twelve-week period, we present a proof of concept for how to explore and visualize sociospatial patterns and divisions in these two cities. We take advantage of both the social and the geographic aspects of the data, using network analysis to identify distinct groups of users and metrics of unevenness and diversity to identify socio-spatial divisions. We also discuss some of the limitations of these data and methods and suggest ways in which they can complement established quantitative and qualitative approaches in urban scholarship. PMID:27336728

  3. Did Nile flooding sink two ancient cities?

    PubMed

    Said, Rushdi

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of the two cities of Herakleion and East Canopus under the waters of the Bay of Abu Qir (east of Alexandria, Egypt) stirred worldwide attention when it was first announced in the summer of 2000. Their disappearance some 1,250 years ago has been ascribed by Stanley, Goddio and Schnepp to a strong Nile flood that caused riverbank failure and the destruction of the two cities, rather than to the action of earthquakes, as was first proposed when the ruins were discovered. But I believe that this interpretation is flawed, because no flood could have reached the Abu Qir Bay at the time of the disappearance of the two cities, as the Canopic branch of the Nile, along whose banks they were situated, had dried to a trickle more than 200 years earlier. PMID:11780107

  4. Putting renewable energy to work in cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mara, G.

    1982-06-01

    Guidelines are provided to help local energy officials assess their own urban energy contexts, and indications are given of how different energy technologies might fit within different city contexts or neighborhoods. Applications discussed include domestic hot water, heating and cooling of buildings, and community heating and cooling systems. Electricity, industrial process heat and fuels from revewable resources are included. Incremental planning as a way of making the best use of scarce resources is discussed, and the conservation and renewable options are overviewed. Land use for energy programs is discussed, and the kind of information needed on the city's existing building stock is given. Information needed on energy supply and distribution is also discussed. Socioeconomic factors of the city's energy and situation and related action are described.

  5. LGBTQs in the city, queering urban space.

    PubMed

    Doderer, Yvonne P

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1960s, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) culture has developed in big cities and metropolises everywhere (not only in the West, but also in Asia, Latin America and indeed Africa). This essay examines how cities provide the spatial conditions necessary for the formation of such emancipatory movements based on identity politics and strategies which transcend binary gender dualism. The starting point of this investigation is my thesis that only urban life enables LGBTQ individuals to live their lives fully, realize their (sexual) identities, and furthermore organize themselves collectively, become publicly visible, and appropriate urban, societal and political spaces.

  6. Oklahoma City, Canadian River, OK, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view of Oklahoma City, OK (35.5N, 97.5W) surrounded by the grasslands of the central plains, is detailed enough to use as a map of the major highways and throughfares within the city and surrounding area. Tinker Air Force Base and Will Rogers International Airport as well as Lakes Hefner, Stanley Draper and nearby recreation areas. The smaller community of Norman, on the banks of the Canadian River to the south, is home to the University of Oklahoma.

  7. LGBTQs in the city, queering urban space.

    PubMed

    Doderer, Yvonne P

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1960s, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) culture has developed in big cities and metropolises everywhere (not only in the West, but also in Asia, Latin America and indeed Africa). This essay examines how cities provide the spatial conditions necessary for the formation of such emancipatory movements based on identity politics and strategies which transcend binary gender dualism. The starting point of this investigation is my thesis that only urban life enables LGBTQ individuals to live their lives fully, realize their (sexual) identities, and furthermore organize themselves collectively, become publicly visible, and appropriate urban, societal and political spaces. PMID:21542205

  8. The vision of a smart city

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.E.; Bowerman, B.; Braverman, J.; Taylor, J.; Todosow, H.; Von Wimmersperg, U.

    2000-09-28

    The vision of ''Smart Cities'' is the urban center of the future, made safe, secure environmentally green, and efficient because all structures--whether for power, water, transportation, etc. are designed, constructed, and maintained making use of advanced, integrated materials, sensors, electronics, and networks which are interfaced with computerized systems comprised of databases, tracking, and decision-making algorithms. This paper discusses a current initiative being led by the Brookhaven National Laboratory to create a research, development and deployment agenda that advances this vision. This is anchored in the application of new technology to current urban center issues while looking 20 years into the future and conceptualizing a city framework that may exist.

  9. Philadelphia-Atlantic City: highballing the highrollers

    SciTech Connect

    Kizzia, T.

    1980-12-08

    An existing 65 mi rail corridor from Philadelphia, Pa., to Atlantic City, N.J., is being studied for redevelopment. The French Compagnie General d'Electricite wants to develop this route for a high speed electric system. Trains would cover the distance in 40 minutes, with top speeds hitting 125 mph. Potential ridership includes casino visitors to Atlantic City and commuters into Philadelphia. The status of the project and its future are outlined. Several other foreign companies are interested in developing some rail lines in the U.S. Congress is taking steps to encourage these private investments in the U.S. rail system. (1 photo)

  10. Empowerment for Healthy Cities and communities in Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji Young; Nam, Eun Woo; Dhakal, Sarita

    2014-10-01

    The Healthy Cities project started in 1998 in Korea. Around the world, public health and healthy cities are becoming bigger and bigger priorities. Capacity mapping is an important tool for improving a country's health status. This study aims to review the initiation of the Korean "Healthy City" project. Korea follows a bottom-up approach for the development of Healthy City policies and has implemented plans accordingly. Korea has created a unique program through Healthy Cities; it has developed a Healthy City act, indicators for evaluating the program, a health impact assessment program, an award system, and a domestic networking system.

  11. Empowerment for Healthy Cities and communities in Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji Young; Nam, Eun Woo; Dhakal, Sarita

    2014-10-01

    The Healthy Cities project started in 1998 in Korea. Around the world, public health and healthy cities are becoming bigger and bigger priorities. Capacity mapping is an important tool for improving a country's health status. This study aims to review the initiation of the Korean "Healthy City" project. Korea follows a bottom-up approach for the development of Healthy City policies and has implemented plans accordingly. Korea has created a unique program through Healthy Cities; it has developed a Healthy City act, indicators for evaluating the program, a health impact assessment program, an award system, and a domestic networking system. PMID:25216789

  12. City Forensics: Using Visual Elements to Predict Non-Visual City Attributes.

    PubMed

    Arietta, Sean M; Efros, Alexei A; Ramamoorthi, Ravi; Agrawala, Maneesh

    2014-12-01

    We present a method for automatically identifying and validating predictive relationships between the visual appearance of a city and its non-visual attributes (e.g. crime statistics, housing prices, population density etc.). Given a set of street-level images and (location, city-attribute-value) pairs of measurements, we first identify visual elements in the images that are discriminative of the attribute. We then train a predictor by learning a set of weights over these elements using non-linear Support Vector Regression. To perform these operations efficiently, we implement a scalable distributed processing framework that speeds up the main computational bottleneck (extracting visual elements) by an order of magnitude. This speedup allows us to investigate a variety of city attributes across 6 different American cities. We find that indeed there is a predictive relationship between visual elements and a number of city attributes including violent crime rates, theft rates, housing prices, population density, tree presence, graffiti presence, and the perception of danger. We also test human performance for predicting theft based on street-level images and show that our predictor outperforms this baseline with 33% higher accuracy on average. Finally, we present three prototype applications that use our system to (1) define the visual boundary of city neighborhoods, (2) generate walking directions that avoid or seek out exposure to city attributes, and (3) validate user-specified visual elements for prediction.

  13. Living in a network of scaling cities and finite resources.

    PubMed

    Qubbaj, Murad R; Shutters, Shade T; Muneepeerakul, Rachata

    2015-02-01

    Many urban phenomena exhibit remarkable regularity in the form of nonlinear scaling behaviors, but their implications on a system of networked cities has never been investigated. Such knowledge is crucial for our ability to harness the complexity of urban processes to further sustainability science. In this paper, we develop a dynamical modeling framework that embeds population-resource dynamics-a generalized Lotka-Volterra system with modifications to incorporate the urban scaling behaviors-in complex networks in which cities may be linked to the resources of other cities and people may migrate in pursuit of higher welfare. We find that isolated cities (i.e., no migration) are susceptible to collapse if they do not have access to adequate resources. Links to other cities may help cities that would otherwise collapse due to insufficient resources. The effects of inter-city links, however, can vary due to the interplay between the nonlinear scaling behaviors and network structure. The long-term population level of a city is, in many settings, largely a function of the city's access to resources over which the city has little or no competition. Nonetheless, careful investigation of dynamics is required to gain mechanistic understanding of a particular city-resource network because cities and resources may collapse and the scaling behaviors may influence the effects of inter-city links, thereby distorting what topological metrics really measure. PMID:24722889

  14. OneCleveland: Connecting the Digital City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonick, Lev; Junnar, Priya

    2005-01-01

    A new urban landscape characterizes cities around the globe, eclipsing the smokestacks of the 19th century and skyscrapers of the 20th century, yet the topography of the 21st century digital cityscape is almost invisible. In sharp contrast to the limits of interaction imposed by geography, architecture, and physical distances characteristic of…

  15. Bug City: Butterflies and Moths [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography, fun…

  16. [Landscape ecological planning of Jiaozuo city].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Fang, Chuanglin; Li, Hongwei

    2005-09-01

    With the application of the principles of landscape ecology and the techniques of geographic information systems, the landscape of Jiaozuo city was divided into six types, i. e., farmland, garden plot, woodland, residential and industrial area, waters, and others. The landscape diversity, dominance, fragmentation, and isolation indexes were calculated by models and GIS to analyze the spatial patterns of these landscape types. Based on the optimization of landscape spatial patterns, a pattern for developing a rational and natural ecosystem in Jiaozuo city was proposed, i. e., keeping four or five large natural patches, planning small artificial green patches, linking the large and small patches by various corridors to ensure the ecosystem inside the city to circulate well, combining residential areas properly to form a urban troop with Jiaozuo town as the center and with seven surrounding towns joined through highways to form a network city pattern. After doing these, urban built-up areas could be linked each other, and inlayed in a natural ecological matrix. This pattern could strengthen the ecological connection, raise the stability of the ecosystem, and maintain the balance of urban ecological system.

  17. Bug City: Spiders and Scorpions [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography, fun…

  18. Innovation and the City. Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Adam; Giles, David; Kleiman, Neil; Ko, Jae

    2013-01-01

    As cities across the country and globe continue to generate new solutions to a wide variety of vexing problems, sharing information about what works and what doesn't has become more important than ever. Yet, outside of a few prominent policies, the vast majority of successful municipal experiments never reach a national audience or, for that…

  19. Determinants of urban sprawl in European cities

    PubMed Central

    Alvanides, Seraphim; Garrod, Guy

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence that helps to answer several key questions relating to the extent of urban sprawl in Europe. Building on the monocentric city model, this study uses existing data sources to derive a set of panel data for 282 European cities at three time points (1990, 2000 and 2006). Two indices of urban sprawl are calculated that, respectively, reflect changes in artificial area and the levels of urban fragmentation for each city. These are supplemented by a set of data on various economic and geographical variables that might explain the variation of the two indices. Using a Hausman-Taylor estimator and random regressors to control for the possible correlation between explanatory variables and unobservable city-level effects, we find that the fundamental conclusions of the standard monocentric model are valid in the European context for both indices. Although the variables generated by the monocentric model explain a large part of the variation of artificial area, their explanatory power for modelling the fragmentation index is relatively low. PMID:26321770

  20. Adolescents' Sedentary Behaviors in Two European Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aibar Solana, Alberto; Bois, Julien E.; Zaragoza, Javier; Bru, Noëlle; Paillard, Thierry; Generelo, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine and compare the correlates of objective sedentary behavior (SB) and nonschool self-reported SB in adolescents from 2 midsized cities, 1 in France (Tarbes) and 1 in Spain (Huesca). Stability of objective SB and nonschool self-reported SB were also assessed at different time points during 1 academic…

  1. Teaching About Life in the City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisniewski, Richard, Ed.

    The purpose of this yearbook is to examine key aspects of American urban society, to identify issues that are central to all social studies instruction about the city, and to present specific ideas on how teachers can teach about these issues both inside and outside the classroom. Fifteen social scientists and educators contributed articles to the…

  2. Building New York City's Innovation Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, Jim; Bowles, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Academic research institutions have long been important economic anchors for New York City. They provide thousands of jobs and serve as a magnet for talented students and faculty, who inject hundreds of millions of dollars into the local economy through federal research grants. Yet, even though New York's concentration of top-fight scientific…

  3. Educational Aspirations in Inner City Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve; Winston, Joe

    2008-01-01

    This research aimed to assess the nature and level of pupils' educational aspirations and to elucidate the factors that influence these aspirations. A sample of five inner city comprehensive secondary schools were selected by their local authority because of poor pupil attendance, below-average examination results and low rates of continuing in…

  4. How the Racial Composition of Cities Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Larry H.

    1975-01-01

    Uses available data on components of population change (natural increase and net migration to answer whether the increasing percent black in central cities of urban areas is due to an increase in blacks, black immigration, or white emigration to suburbs. [Available from Land Economics, c/o University of Wisconsin, Social Science Building, Madison,…

  5. Concept of a Model City Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giammatteo, Michael C.

    The model cities concept calls for an educational complex which includes the nonschool educational institutions and facilities of the community as well as actual school facilities. Such an educational complex would require a wider administrative base than the school yet smaller than the municipal government. Examples of nonschool educational…

  6. Innovative Degree Programs Matched to City Strengths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukhatme, Uday

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, IUPUI has steadily acquired a considerable national reputation as an up-and-coming university. Some of the reasons for this recognition include the RISE Initiative and the large number of innovative degree programs recently started at IUPUI based on campus strengths and the priorities of the city of Indianapolis. Some specific…

  7. When the City Is Your Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggio, Milla Cozart; Sapolis, Lisa G.; Chen, Xiangming

    2011-01-01

    Students who attend Trinity College in Hartford, Connecticut, have elected to spend their university years in one of America's most distinguished small cosmopolitan cities. Over the last two decades as the world has become rapidly urbanized, Hartford has become a critically contested site where economic poverty, environmental degradation,…

  8. Reducing Adverse Impact: One City's Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Jeff

    Following a workshop on "Innovations in Employment Testing that Improve Validity and Reduce Adverse Impact," the City of Louisville (Kentucky) implemented a strategy to develop a comprehensive testing and recruiting program for police recruits. To improve candidate expectations and preparation, the following activities were undertaken: intense…

  9. Waste Management in Greater Dhaka City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, M. H.

    1993-01-01

    This study focuses on the environmental degradation of Greater Dhaka City (GDC) resulting from pollution created by the indiscriminate disposal of industrial wastes, open dumping of solid wastes, inadequate treatment and disposal of domestic sewage, and unplanned disposal of leachate from agricultural land. Measures to protect the GDC environment…

  10. 49 CFR 372.221 - Twin Cities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... commercial zones, utilizing the general population-mileage formula as set forth in § 372.241, each of the following combinations of cities shall be considered as a single municipality: (a) Having a population equal to the sum of their combined populations, and (b) Having boundaries comprised of their...

  11. Faculty Mentoring of Undergraduates at City College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitz, Edward S.

    In an effort to meet the diverse interests of the students and to move away from a rigidly structured curriculum, the Civil Engineering Department at the City College of New York has offered the civil engineering student an elective program that incorporates engineering and science electives as well as liberal arts electives. It was readily…

  12. The Evolution of One-Newspaper Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosse, James N.

    This is one of several papers presented at a Federal Trade Commission Symposium on Media Concentration. It analyzes trends in the development of one-newspaper cities. Some of the trends noted are that face-to-face competition has declined considerably over the last five decades, going from 90% of the circulation in 1923 to 30% of the circulation…

  13. City Children in African Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    A descriptive study identified titles and features of children's books set in an African city. Data were collected from various reviews of children's literature for titles published since 1980. In addition, the Cooperative Children's Book Center's log list of acquired titles for Africa from 1990 to 1996 was reviewed. Results showed that authors…

  14. Bug City: House and Backyard Insects [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography, fun…

  15. 4-H for Central City Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paige, Joseph C.

    1970-01-01

    Joseph C. Paige is the Dean of Community Education and Director of Cooperative Extension Service of the only urban Land-Grant College, Federal City College, in Washington, D.C. Here he is interviewed about 4-H with children of poor ethnic groups in the District of Columbia. (NL)

  16. The Alcoholism Situation in a Northern City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martynov, M. Iu.; Martynova, D. Iu.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol abuse in Russia has been increasing in recent years, especially in northern regions, as has the incidence of alcohol-related disease rates. A survey was conducted in Surgut (the Khanty-Mansi autonomous okrug) that determined the factors lending to the prevalence of alcohol abuse among the population of the northern city and assessed the…

  17. Environmental Science for the Inner City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminski, Darrell L.

    1969-01-01

    Presents the objectives, activities, materials, and procedure of a six-week summer course in environmental science for inner-city students at the Horace Mann Junior High School, Omaha, Nebraska. Included in this program are studies of the wildlife, conservation, and natural science of the Eastern Nebraska region. (LC)

  18. Inflation, economic policy, and the inner city

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, L.A.

    1981-07-01

    This article describes the greater impact of inflation among the poor and minorities in American inner cities than among other population groups. Surveys show, however, that minorities are even more concerned over unemployment and racial discrimination than over inflation. There are indications that, especially today, crime and potential group disorder are affected by or influence inflation, unemployment, and discrimination in the inner city. With these interrelated factors in mind, present federal economic policy is reviewed, critiqued, and interpreted as basically consistent with Keynesian economic theory. Modifications of and alternatives to present policy are offered that fit both inner-city needs and the concerns of the rest of American society. These policies include targeted private sector neighborhood development and self-help, private sector productivity increases through workplace democracy, private-public sector codetermination of investment, private-public sector job guarantees, and public anti-inflation policy carefully targeted at the basic necessities of energy, food, housing, and health care - which have a disproportionate effect on inflation in the inner city, as well as the overall economy. Coalitions are suggested that could politically implement such policies.

  19. New York: Multi-Speak City!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Economic Development Council, NY.

    This guide was written to help teachers make students aware of the multilingual and multi-ethnic nature of New York City in order to experience and explore different languages and customs. New York is a center for variety in language and culture in the areas of diplomacy, international commerce, media and communications, foods and fashion, the…

  20. Kansas City Metropolitan Community Colleges. Audit Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Office of the State Auditor, Jefferson City.

    This audit report reviews the employment contracts, related compensation, and other benefits provided for the chancellor and other officers of the Kansas City Metropolitan Community Colleges (KCMCC) in Missouri. The chancellor is allowed to either solicit bids or negotiate for contracted services such as architects, construction managers,…

  1. Measure the Climate, Model the City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boufidou, E.; Commandeur, T. J. F.; Nedkov, S. B.; Zlatanova, S.

    2011-08-01

    Modern large cities are characterized by a high building concentration, little aeration and lack of green spaces. Such characteristics create an urban climate which is different from the climate outside of cities. An example of an urban climate effect is the so-called Urban Heat Island: cities tend to be warmer than the surrounding rural areas. The higher temperature results in an increase in energy consumption since people, especially in summer, use artificial means to cool themselves. Although means of mitigating the UHI effect exist, they are difficult to justify, as knowledge about urban climate is limited, and analysis tools are lacking. This paper presents the work carried during the 2010 MSc Geomatics Synthesis Project. A 3D spatial relational database has been implemented which is meant to act as starting point in the development of a 3D climate-enabled geographical information system. To this end, the database stores 3D geometries representing the built environment and its thematic properties. The database is also able to store measurements of climate parameters, in this case temperature, obtained through mobile sensors. Spatial analyses and queries are supported, allowing users to calculate areas, distances, buffers, add and remove geometries and thematic attributes. The database design is based on the CityGML information model which has been extended to allow the storage of climate parameters relevant to urban climate research.

  2. City emergency medical services system issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persse, David E.; Bradley, Richard N.

    2003-09-01

    The City of Houston is continuously improving its preparedness for disasters and terrorism. This preparation requires strong and clear leadership. This includes a designated individual to lead the region"s preparation in the health and medical arena. An effective leader requires an effective command and control center. Real-time information on the situation is imperative.

  3. Valley City State College Planning Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valley City State Coll., ND.

    The Valley City State College, North Dakota, planning manual, which was based on the Futures Creating Paradigm methodology, is presented. The paradigm is a methodology for interdisciplinary policy planning and establishment of objectives and goals. The first planning stage involved preparing comprehensive narratives in the following areas likely…

  4. Data Needs for Big City Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eubanks, Eugene E.

    Public schools in the big cities and urban areas will become proportionally more minority and poor in the 1980's and 1990's. The traditional measures used to collect data on minority population have proved to be inaccurate. The following items are needed and will be of value to people working in urban public schools: (1) data which distinguish…

  5. Clean Cities Now Vol. 19, No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-24

    Now is the official bi-annual newsletter of Clean Cities, an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  6. Project Wish: The Emerald City, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Phase 3 of Project Wish saw the evolution of the Emerald City (E-City) from a collection of specialized independent analyses and ideas to a working structural design integrated with major support systems and analyses. Emphasis was placed on comparing and contrasting the closed and open cycle gas core nuclear rocket engines to further determine the optimum propulsive system for the C-City. Power and thermal control requirements were then defined and the question of how to meet these requirements was addressed. Software was developed to automate the mission/system/configuration analysis so changes dictated by various subsystems constraints could be managed efficiently and analyzed interactively. In addition, the liquid hydrogen propellant tank was statically designed for minimum mass and shape optimization using a finite element modeling package called SDRC I-DEAS while spoke and shaft cross-sectional areas were optimized on ASTROS (Automated Structural Optimization System). A structural dynamic analysis also conducted using ASTROS enabled a study of the displacements, accelerations, modes and frequencies of the C-City. Finally, the attitude control system design began with an initial mass moment of inertia analysis and was then designed and optimized using linear quadratic regulator control theory.

  7. With Geospatial in Path of Smart City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homainejad, A. S.

    2015-04-01

    With growth of urbanisation, there is a requirement for using the leverage of smart city in city management. The core of smart city is Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), and one of its elements is smart transport which includes sustainable transport and Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). Cities and especially megacities are facing urgent transport challenge in traffic management. Geospatial can provide reliable tools for monitoring and coordinating traffic. In this paper a method for monitoring and managing the ongoing traffic in roads using aerial images and CCTV will be addressed. In this method, the road network was initially extracted and geo-referenced and captured in a 3D model. The aim is to detect and geo-referenced any vehicles on the road from images in order to assess the density and the volume of vehicles on the roads. If a traffic jam was recognised from the images, an alternative route would be suggested for easing the traffic jam. In a separate test, a road network was replicated in the computer and a simulated traffic was implemented in order to assess the traffic management during a pick time using this method.

  8. Vocational Maturity among Inner-City Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Peter E.; Hansen, James C.

    1970-01-01

    This study investigates the efficacy of the Vocational Development Inventory in measuring the vocational maturity of inner city boys. Intelligence test results were converted to standardized T scores. Mean vocational maturity scores indicate large differences which disappear when intelligence is controlled by analysis of convariance. A variety of…

  9. South African Cities: A Social Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western, John

    1986-01-01

    Traces the history of the development of cities in South Africa, paying special attention to the development of urban social controls. Three eras are identified: (1) mercantilism, (2) imperialism, and (3) apartheid. Concludes that enormous human costs are entailed by these attempts at social engineering. (JDH)

  10. Physical Education Through Movement in the City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munz, Lorraine

    The product of a Special Studies Institute, this teacher developed resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) presents concepts and activities relative to physical education in the urban out-of-doors. Focus is on adapting physical education to an urban environment, utilizing city resources and instilling skills necessary to cope with…

  11. Enrollment Trends in Big-City Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Allan C.

    1989-01-01

    The crisis in urban schools involves an exodus of white middle class families from the city or to private schools and a build-up of educationally disadvantaged minority students. Enrollment trends indicate that, unless appropriate action is taken, public schools will further deteriorate as they house fewer middle class students. (SM)

  12. Bug City: Crickets, Grasshoppers & Friends [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon, including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic…

  13. Big Challenges for a Small City School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal Leadership, 2007

    2007-01-01

    So well-chronicled are the challenges faced by schools in large urban and metropolitan areas that a lay person may perceive the nation's rural and small-city schools as bucolic settings where educators do not have a care in the world other than keeping the occasional cow from wandering onto the playground during recess. The reality, of course, is…

  14. Management Approaches for Inner City Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polsgrove, Lewis; Mosley, William

    Discussed are general and direct strategies for developing behavioral and academic self control in children in inner city classrooms. Reviewed are traditional classroom management practices in terms of nonmanagement, overmanagement, and mismanagement. Effective general strategies recommended include modeling by the teacher and behavioral…

  15. Cities cooperate on household hazardous waste collection

    SciTech Connect

    Yost, K.D. )

    1994-03-01

    This article describes a household hazardous waste collection project. The project resulted from Missouri solid waste regulations and the recognition of five suburban cities of St. Louis that there was a need to provide residents with an environmentally sound method of disposing of household hazardous waste. The project was 90 percent funded by a state grant.

  16. City Yearns for Rebirth among Ruin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2007-01-01

    Over the next few weeks, dozens of schools will open across New Orleans for the second full academic year since Hurricane Katrina. As many as 33,000 children are expected to report to one of the campuses in the city's patchwork of charter and traditional public schools. Unlike last fall--when many schools opened without textbooks, functioning…

  17. [Typhus in Mexico City in 1915].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Martha Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    The year 1915 was particularly difficult; it was characterized by droughts, famines, and outbreaks of diseases including typhus.This text exposes its spread in Mexico City as well as the measures implemented to combat it, carried out before knowing the etiology of the illness, focused on cleaning up the environment and the measures undertaken afterwards with the aim of delousing people.

  18. Educational Guidance: New Responses for Inner Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This document summarizes a project which attempted to develop and evaluate the provision of educational guidance for unemployed adults, especially those from ethnic minority groups in inner city areas in the United Kingdom. This report: (1) outlines the background of the project; (2) indicates key features of the shop-front guidance unit that was…

  19. Mayoral Control in the Windy City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    When former U.S. congressman and Obama administration chief of staff Rahm Emanuel marched triumphantly into the Chicago mayor's office in 2011, he promised to revamp Chicago Public Schools (CPS) in ways that had barely been contemplated in 16 years of mayoral control over the city's sprawling public-school system. This article discusses…

  20. Clean Cities 2011 Vehicle Buyer's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 Clean Cities Light-Duty Vehicle Buyer's Guide is a consumer publication that provides a comprehensive list of commercially available alternative fuel and advanced vehicles in model year 2011. The guide allows for side-by-side comparisons of fuel economy, price, emissions, and vehicle specifications.

  1. Clio Vanishes from New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manuel, Frank E.

    1974-01-01

    The content of higher education and, in particular, the discipline of history has been lost in the massive New York City system. A center or institute for history to serve the entire system and to reestablish intellectual excellence is envisioned. (JH)

  2. "Peasants in Cities": Paradox or Conceptual Muddle?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, Barry L.

    1974-01-01

    Written in response to T. G. McGee's recent discussion of the "peasants in cities" paradox (see EJ080361), this article argues that a modified version of Eric Wolf's definition of "peasants" is the most useful one currently available. (Author/KM)

  3. "City Bugs" Website Turns Teens into Taxonomists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Jill

    1998-01-01

    A collaborative pilot program between Oakland Unified School District (California), University of California at Berkeley, and Cooperative Extension uses the Internet to teach urban teens about insects. Students catch, identify, mount, and photograph insects; photographs are then digitized for inclusion in the "City Bugs" Web site, which also…

  4. The Long Island City Training Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long Island City Business Development Corp., NY.

    In an effort to promote economic development in the Long Island City (New York) area, a study was conducted of the training and human resource needs of local manufacturing firms and the demographic characteristics of the local labor force. Specifically, the study sought to examine company needs, highlight programs available to address those needs,…

  5. How Cities Make Their Own Weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall

    2004-01-01

    Urbanization is one of the extreme cases of land use change. Most of world's population has moved to urban areas. Although currently only 1.2% of the land is considered urban, the spatial coverage and density of cities are expected to rapidly increase in d e near future. It is estimated that by the year 2025, 60% of the world's population will live in cities. Human activity in urban environments also alters weather and climate processes. However, our understanding of urbanization on the total Earth-weather-climate system is incomplete. Recent literature continues to provide evidence that anomalies in precipitation exist over and downwind of major cities. Current and future research efforts are actively seeking to verify these literature findings and understand potential cause-effect relationships. The novelty of this study is that it utilizes rainfall data from multiple satellite data sources (e.g. TRMM precipitation radar, TRMM-geosynchronous-rain gauge merged product, and SSM/I) and ground-based measurements to identify spatial anomalies and temporal trends in precipitation for cities around the world. We will also present results from experiments using a regional atmospheric-land surface modeling system. Early results will be presented and placed within the context of weather prediction, climate assessment, and societal applications.

  6. City FLEX 89: Meeting the Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfano, Kathy

    Information is provided on San Diego City College's Flex 89 Program, a 3-day staff development effort offered for the college's administrators, full-time and adjunct faculty, and classified staff. The packet includes the flyer sent to all participants, the Flex Catalog and registration form, an example of an enrollment confirmation, the program…

  7. Typical Raised Planter Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Typical Raised Planter - Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by N. Shartel Avenue to the West, N. Hudson Avenue to the East, Couch Drive to the North, and Colcord Drive to the South, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  8. West Lawn Site and Planting Plans Oklahoma City Civic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West Lawn Site and Planting Plans - Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by N. Shartel Avenue to the West, N. Hudson Avenue to the East, Couch Drive to the North, and Colcord Drive to the South, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  9. Site Plans (2008 As Built) Oklahoma City Civic Center, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Site Plans (2008 As Built) - Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by N. Shartel Avenue to the West, N. Hudson Avenue to the East, Couch Drive to the North, and Colcord Drive to the South, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  10. Granite Monument Plaza Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Granite Monument Plaza - Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by N. Shartel Avenue to the West, N. Hudson Avenue to the East, Couch Drive to the North, and Colcord Drive to the South, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  11. Site Plans (1936 and 2001) Oklahoma City Civic Center, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Site Plans (1936 and 2001) - Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by N. Shartel Avenue to the West, N. Hudson Avenue to the East, Couch Drive to the North, and Colcord Drive to the South, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  12. Municipal Building Planting Plan Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Municipal Building Planting Plan - Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by N. Shartel Avenue to the West, N. Hudson Avenue to the East, Couch Drive to the North, and Colcord Drive to the South, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  13. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 15, No. 1, April 2011 (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-04-01

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on electric vehicle deployment, renewable natural gas, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  14. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF ENTRANCE INTO ALUMINUM CITY TERRACE ALONG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF ENTRANCE INTO ALUMINUM CITY TERRACE ALONG EAST HILL DRIVE. BUILDING 1 ON RIGHT, BUILDING 2 ON LEFT, FACING EAST. - Aluminum City Terrace, East Hill Drive, New Kensington, Westmoreland County, PA

  15. 5. APPROACH VIEW FROM CRESCENT CITY (SOUTH) END OF BRIDGE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. APPROACH VIEW FROM CRESCENT CITY (SOUTH) END OF BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. Emergency bracing under collapsed cantilever tower visible inside trusses. - Smith River Bridge, CA State Highway 199 Spanning Smith River, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  16. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL TWENTY-FOURTH FLOOR EXISTING CONDITIONS SHOWING STRUCTURE AND BRACING, FACING NORTHWEST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL TWENTY-FOURTH FLOOR EXISTING CONDITIONS SHOWING STRUCTURE AND BRACING, FACING SOUTH - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL TWENTY-FOURTH FLOOR EXISTING CONDITIONS SHOWING STRUCTURE AND BRACING, FACING EAST. - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. Clean Cities Now: Vol. 16, No. 1, May 2012 (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-05-01

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  20. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL FIFTH FLOOR BREAK ROOM OFF OF ORIGINAL ART COMMISSION ROOMS, FACING NORTHEAST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL FIFTH FLOOR BREAK ROOM OFF OF ORIGINAL ART COMMISSION ROOMS, FACING SOUTHEAST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. Clean Cities Now: Vol. 16, No. 2, Fall 2012 (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  3. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL THIRD FLOOR SHOWING ROTUNDA COLUMN CAPITALS AND LIGHT FIXTURES, FACING SOUTHEAST. - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL THIRD FLOOR SHOWING ROTUNDA COLUMN CAPITALS AND LIGHT FIXTURES, FACING SOUTHEAST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL THIRD FLOOR SHOWING ROTUNDA STANDING LIGHT FIXTURE, FACING NORTHEAST. - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL SOUTH ENTRY SHOWING DOORS AND LIGHT FIXTURES, FACING NORTH. - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL EAST ENTRANCE PORCH SHOWING VAULTS AND LIGHT FIXTURE, FACING UP. - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL WEST ENTRANCE COURTYARD SHOWING BRONZE DOORS, LIGHT FIXTURES AND GRILLS, FACING EAST. - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. Solar America Cities Awards: Solar America Initiative Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-03-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the Solar America Cities activities within the Solar America Initiative and lists the 25 cities that have received financial awards from the U.S. Department of Energy.

  10. Clean Cities Now: Vol. 17, No. 1, Spring 2013 (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Sutor, J.; Tucker, E.; Thomas, J.

    2013-05-01

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  11. City and Islington College, in the United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Grace

    2002-01-01

    Describes a substantial capital improvement campaign at City and Islington College in London, England, a postsecondary education institution spread over 10 sites in the city. Describes the rationale, planning, general design principles, and specifics of the three main projects. (EV)

  12. Space-Age City Planning--In the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosser, Phyllis

    1979-01-01

    A City Building Education System uses the process of city planning to teach basic reading, writing, and math skills to children from kindergarten through junior high school and to stimulate creative thinking and problem solving abilities. (JMF)

  13. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL FOURTEENTH FLOOR FIRE HOSE NEAR NORTHEAST STAIR, FACING EAST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL FIFTH FLOOR WEST OFFICE AREA THAT WAS ORIGINAL ART COMMISSION ROOMS, FACING NORTHEAST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL FIFTH FLOOR NORTH OFFICE AREA, FACING NORTH - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL NINETEENTH FLOOR MAIN OFFICE AREA SHOWING BEAM AND COLUMN CONNECTION NEAR NORTHWEST CORNER, FACING NORTHWEST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL NINETEENTH FLOOR MAIN OFFICE AREA SHOWING DEMOLITION OF SOUTH WALL, FACING SOUTH - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL NINETEENTH FLOOR MAIN OFFICE AREA SHOWING BEAM AND COLUMN CONNECTION NEAR SOUTHEAST CORNER, FACING SOUTHEAST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL NINETEENTH FLOOR MAIN OFFICE AREA, FACING NORTHWEST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL FOURTEENTH FLOOR, SERVICE AREA DOOR NEAR ELEVATOR LOBBY, FACING SOUTH - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL NINETEENTH FLOOR MAIN OFFICE AREA, FACING NORTHEAST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. DETAIL OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL NINETEENTH FLOOR MAIN OFFICE AREA SHOWING DEMOLITION OF WEST WALL, FACING WEST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Monica Griesbach, Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL FIFTH FLOOR WEST OFFICE AREA THAT WAS ORIGINAL ART COMMISSION ROOMS, FACING NORTHWEST. - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. Overview of MWD 1 southeast of Boulder City Substation. MWD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of MWD 1 southeast of Boulder City Substation. MWD 2 on left; newer Nevada Power Company line on right - Hoover Dam, Metropolitan Water District Line 1, U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  5. Mexico City, Mexico as seen from STS-62

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This image is the clearest photo of Mexico City, Mexico taken from U.S. Manned Spacecraft. North is to the upper right. Mexico City sits in a basin surrounded by large volcanoes. The restricted atmospheric circulation in the basin, coupled with the inevitable air emissions produced by a city of 20 million people has created a critical air pollution problem for the city. In most photographs of the region, Mexico City is obscured by haze. The clarity of the photograph allows many key cultural features to be identified, including all of the major boulevards, the horse track (western part of the city), the university (south of the city), and the museum areas. Large, man-made ponds east of the city also stand out.

  6. Pennsylvania Railroad: Pennsylvania Station. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pennsylvania Railroad: Pennsylvania Station. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 95.50. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  7. B & O Railroad: Bayview Bridge. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    B & O Railroad: Bayview Bridge. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 92.02. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  8. Edison Highway Bridge. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Edison Highway Bridge. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 92.02. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  9. Wilkins Avenue Bridge. Violetville, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Wilkins Avenue Bridge. Violetville, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 100.59. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  10. Gwynns Falls Bridge. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Gwynns Falls Bridge. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 99.20. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  11. B & P Tunnel west portal. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    B & P Tunnel west portal. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 97.43. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  12. Loudon Park Substation. Violetville, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Loudon Park Substation. Violetville, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 100.50. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  13. Union Junction Interlocking Tower. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Union Junction Interlocking Tower. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 95.49. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  14. North Avenue Bridge. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North Avenue Bridge. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 96.00. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  15. Photocopy of photograph (from Picturesque and Descriptive Kansan City, Missouri, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (from Picturesque and Descriptive Kansan City, Missouri, Keenah, Wisconsin: Art Publishing Co., 1890) Photographer unknown, ca. 1890 BANK INTERIOR - New York Life Insurance Building, 20 West Ninth Street, Kansas City, Jackson County, MO

  16. [Climatope change and its relations with city development of Haikou City in 1961-2007].

    PubMed

    Tang, Shao-xia; Zhao, Cong-ju; Yuan, Jian-ping; Bi, Hua; Zhao, Zhi-zhong; Lan, Xin-rong

    2010-10-01

    Based on the 1961-2007 meteorological data of Haikou City and its urbanization level in 1989-2007, this paper studied the climatope change and its relations with city development of the City. In 1995-2007, the mean annual air temperature in Haikou had an obvious increase, with an increment of 0.93 degrees C x a(-1), while the mean annual relative humidity decreased obviously, with a decrement of 3% per year, compared with those in 1961-1990. Both the mean annual air temperature and the mean annual relative humidity had significant correlations with the urbanization level of Haikou, suggesting that urbanization could better explain the recent 20 years variation of climate elements in Haikou. The city development of Haikou not only changed the climatope elements, but also affected the air quality, making the frequency of acid rain increased, and the mean annual acid rain pH value decreased.

  17. Healing America's Cities: How Urban Parks Can Make Cities Safe and Healthy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Environments, 1995

    1995-01-01

    An excerpt from the 1994 report, "Healing America's Cities," produced by the Trust for Public Land. Presents evidence of a powerful link between the availability of recreational facilities and the level of urban crime. (LZ)

  18. Manila, mega city by the year 2000.

    PubMed

    Yamson, W N

    1990-01-01

    Fueled by internal migration, Manila's rapid population has left the philippine capital unable to provide basic services to the city's population. With an annual growth rate of 2.3%, Manila's current population of 8 million is expected to increase to 10 million by the year 2000. The number of migrants to the city has steadily increased over the last 20 years; a recent study indicates that 1/2 of the population currently living in the Manila metropolitan area was born in the province. The growth that began in the 1970 has coincided with increases in the birth rate. As one expert noted, by the year 2000, 1/2 of the city's growth will be due to a high birth rate. The rapidly growing population has made it difficult for the government to provide adequate food, water systems, and other services. The increasing number of people living in squalor are at great risk on contracting communicable diseases, and suffer from poor maternal and child health, inadequate nutrition, and lack safe drinking water and waste disposal systems. Most of the migrants come to the city looking for employment and opportunity, but many are left economically trapped, working in low-paying and often gruelling jobs. Critics attribute the population imbalance to government policies that have favored the city and neglected the countryside. Realizing the dangers associated with the massive urban growth, the government has begun to address the problem. It has asked business to invest in the countryside, it has built roads and bridges there to spur economic growth, and has tried to convince people to return to the province.

  19. Evaluation of partnership working in cities in phase IV of the WHO Healthy Cities Network.

    PubMed

    Lipp, Alistair; Winters, Tim; de Leeuw, Evelyne

    2013-10-01

    An intersectoral partnership for health improvement is a requirement of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network of municipalities. A review was undertaken in 59 cities based on responses to a structured questionnaire covering phase IV of the network (2003-2008). Cities usually combined formal and informal working partnerships in a pattern seen in previous phases. However, these encompassed more sectors than previously and achieved greater degrees of collaborative planning and implementation. Additional WHO technical support and networking in phase IV significantly enhanced collaboration with the urban planning sector. Critical success factors were high-level political commitment and a well-organized Healthy City office. Partnerships remain a successful component of Healthy City working. The core principles, purpose and intellectual rationale for intersectoral partnerships remain valid and fit for purpose. This applied to long-established phase III cities as well as newcomers to phase IV. The network, and in particular the WHO brand, is well regarded and encourages political and organizational engagement and is a source of support and technical expertise. A key challenge is to apply a more rigorous analytical framework and theory-informed approach to reviewing partnership and collaboration parameters.

  20. Caribbean Life in New York City: Sociocultural Dimensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Constance R., Ed.; Chaney, Elsa M., Ed.

    This book comprises the following papers discussing Caribbean life in New York City: (1) The Context of Caribbean Migration (Elsa M. Chaney); (2) The Caribbeanization of New York City and the Emergence of a Transnational Socio-Cultural System (Constance R. Sutton); (3) New York City and Its People: An Historical Perspective Up to World War II…

  1. Educational Decision Making and the Distribution of Influence in Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, Robert L.

    A study determined the extent of influence members of a city's business elite have on civil rights policy of the city's school system. The National Opinion Research Center interviewed the school superintendent, school board members, civil rights leaders, other political leaders, and members of the business elite in eight large cities. The study…

  2. HYDROCARBON AND CARBONYL OZONE PRECURSORS IN MEXICO CITY AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban air pollution is an environmental problem in many cities around the world that has serious immediate and long-term implications to the health of the population and to the physical environment. Mexico City, in particular, faces a severe air pollution problem. The city is...

  3. 25. 'VIEW OF CITY HOSPITAL DISTRICT, BLACKWELL'S ISLAND, FROM MANHATTAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. 'VIEW OF CITY HOSPITAL DISTRICT, BLACKWELL'S ISLAND, FROM MANHATTAN SHORE.' (Source: New York City Department of Public Finance, Real Estate Owned by the City of New York Under Jurisdiction of the Department of Public Charities, 1909.) - Island Hospital, Roosevelt Island, New York County, NY

  4. Measuring Up: Educational Improvement & Opportunity in 50 Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeArmond, Michael; Denice, Patrick; Gross, Betheny; Hernandez, Jose; Jochim, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    This report provides a new resource for understanding the state of urban public schools in the U.S. Geared specifically toward city leaders who want to evaluate how well traditional district and charter schools are serving all their city's children and how their schools compare to those in other cities, the report measures outcomes for all public…

  5. Mini Schools: The New "Global City Communities" of Vancouver

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Ee-Seul

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades, under the mutually constitutive processes of neoliberal urbanization and globalization, Vancouver has radically transformed and become a serious contender for the title of "world-class city". Against the background of this socio-spatial force reconfiguring the city, I explore how the city's unique development of "mini…

  6. The State of the Cities, 1999. Third Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, DC. Office of Policy Development and Research.

    This third annual report discusses recent progress and challenges that lie ahead for U.S. cities and metropolitan regions. Part 1 examines social and economic trends affecting U.S. cities and the potential for a city/suburb alliance to promote a common agenda that would address the challenges and seize the opportunities reflected in the trends.…

  7. Selected Readings on New York City. Grade Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    Sixteen readings, intended for fifth grade students, describe New York City from 1628 through 1845. Arranged chronologically, the readings, many of which are secondary materials, show changes and development within the city from its beginning in 1628 as a farming community called New Amsterdam to its growth as a commercial city by 1845. Topics are…

  8. Cities and Urban Land Use in Advanced Placement Human Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Larry R.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the cities and urban land use section of the Advanced Placement (AP) human geography course, focusing on the: (1) definitions of urbanism; (2) origin and evolution of cities; (3) functional character of contemporary cities; (4) built environment and social space; and (5) responses to urban growth. (CMK)

  9. New York City's Children First: Lessons in School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelleher, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Under Mayor Michael Bloomberg, New York City's education system embarked on a massive change effort, known as Children First, that produced significant results: new and better school options for families, more college-ready graduates, and renewed public confidence in New York City's schools. New York City's reform effort has also produced…

  10. INVESTIGATION OF FISCALLY INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT CITY SCHOOL DISTRICTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GITTELL, MARILYN; AND OTHERS

    A TWO-PART COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS IS MADE OF LARGE AND SMALL CITY SCHOOL SYSTEMS. PART I ANALYZES A WIDE RANGE OF FISCAL AND NON-FISCAL VARIABLES ASSOCIATED WITH FISCAL STATUS OF CITY SCHOOL SYSTEMS. IT COVERS THE 2,788 CITY SCHOOL DISTRICTS IN THE UNITED STATES WITH ENROLLMENTS OVER 3,000. COMPLEX INTERRELATIONSHIPS SURROUNDING FISCAL STATUS IN…

  11. An Analytical Quality Framework for Learning Cities and Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preisinger-Kleine, Randolph

    2013-01-01

    There is broad agreement that innovation, knowledge and learning have become the main source of wealth, employment and economic development of cities, regions and nations. Over the past two decades, the number of European cities and regions which label themselves as "learning city" or "learning region" has constantly grown.…

  12. City Voices, Children's Needs: New Ways of Taking Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melaville, Atelia

    This publication summarizes challenges and emerging issues that cities face as they respond to the needs of children and families. Data come from in-depth interviews with officials from 28 cities that participate in the National League of Cities' Municipalities in Transition Project, a high-level research effort drawing on information and…

  13. 33 CFR 80.1152 - Crescent City Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crescent City Harbor, CA. 80.1152 Section 80.1152 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1152 Crescent City Harbor, CA. A line drawn from Crescent City Entrance Light...

  14. Meat Processing and Garden City, KS: Boom and Bust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadway, Michael J.; Stull, Donald D.

    2006-01-01

    In December 1980, the world's largest beef processing plant opened 10 miles west of Garden City, KS. Three years later another beef plant opened on Garden City's eastern edge. Full employment in the surrounding region meant that most of the 4000 workers needed to run these plants had to come from elsewhere--and they did. Garden City grew by…

  15. The Rating Guide to Life in America's Small Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, G. Scott

    This book lists and rates 219 U.S. "micropolitan" areas, defined as small cities and their surrounding territories, or combinations of neighboring small cities. The book consists of tables rating these cities, listed by state, in each of the following 10 categories: (1) climate and environment; (2) diversions; (3) economics; (4) education; (5)…

  16. Did Divorces Decline after the Oklahoma City Bombing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakonezny, Paul A.; Reddick, Rebecca; Rodgers, Joseph Lee

    2004-01-01

    The Oklahoma City bombing in April 1995 was an act of terrorism that had many potential influences on the city and state, including influences on families. We analyzed divorce data from 1985 to 2000 for all 77 counties in Oklahoma to assess the divorce response to the Oklahoma City bombing. Our prediction was that divorce rates in Oklahoma would…

  17. High Comfort - Low Impact Concepts For Buildings and Cities

    SciTech Connect

    Schuler, Matthias

    2012-04-30

    This lecture provides an overview of what Transsolar is doing in the field of sustainable buildings and cities. Topics covered include: Why sustainability for buildings and cities; What does sustainability mean for buildings and cities; The company's "KlimaEngineering" approach; and Project examples.

  18. CHINESE PLAT, 1919 (L19 19 4 E, SALT LAKE CITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHINESE PLAT, 1919 (L19 19 4 E, SALT LAKE CITY CEMETERY LOCATER), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST AT CHINESE PLAT MARKER AND BURNER. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  19. Space Radar Image of Star City, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image shows the Star City cosmonaut training center, east of Moscow, Russia. Four American astronauts are training here for future long-duration flights aboard the Russian Mir space station. These joint flights are giving NASA and the Russian Space Agency experience necessary for the construction of the international Alpha space station, beginning in late 1997. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR), on its 62nd orbit on October 3, 1994. This Star City image is centered at 55.55 degrees north latitude and 38.0 degrees east longitude. The area shown is approximately 32 kilometers by 49 kilometers (20 miles by 30 miles). North is to the top in this image. The radar illumination is from the top of the image. The image was produced using three channels of SIR-C radar data: red indicates L-band (23 cm wavelength, horizontally transmitted and received); green indicates L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue indicates C-band (6 cm wavelength, horizontally transmitted and vertically received). In general, dark pink areas are agricultural; pink and light blue areas are urban communities; black areas represent lakes and rivers; dark blue areas are cleared forest; and light green areas are forested. The prominent black runways just right of center are Shchelkovo Airfield, about 4 km long. The textured pale blue-green area east and southeast of Shchelkovo Airfield is forest. Just east of the runways is a thin railroad line running southeast; the Star City compound lies just east of the small bend in the rail line. Star City contains the living quarters and training facilities for Russian cosmonauts and their families. Moscow's inner loop road is visible at the lower left edge of the image. The Kremlin is just off the left edge, on the banks of the meandering Moskva River. The Klyazma River snakes to the southeast from the reservoir in the upper left (shown in bright red

  20. Influence of exposure differences on city-to-city variations in PM2.5-mortality effect estimates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multi-city population-based epidemiological studies have observed heterogeneity between city specific PM2.5-mortality effect estimates. One possibility is city-specific differences in overall population exposure to PM2.5. In a previous analysis we explored this latter point by cl...

  1. The State of the Cities, 2000: Megaforces Shaping the Future of the Nation's Cities. Fourth Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, DC.

    This report, fourth in a series, recounts the most recent data on indicators of the social and economic vitality of U.S. cities and positions the Administration's urban policy agenda to address challenges confronting cities. This year the report identifies four megaforces that are shaping the future of U.S. cities and presents findings showing…

  2. Power laws, discontinuities and regional city size distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garmestani, A.S.; Allen, C.R.; Gallagher, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    Urban systems are manifestations of human adaptation to the natural environment. City size distributions are the expression of hierarchical processes acting upon urban systems. In this paper, we test the entire city size distributions for the southeastern and southwestern United States (1990), as well as the size classes in these regions for power law behavior. We interpret the differences in the size of the regional city size distributions as the manifestation of variable growth dynamics dependent upon city size. Size classes in the city size distributions are snapshots of stable states within urban systems in flux. ?? 2008.

  3. Lead in ancient Rome's city waters.

    PubMed

    Delile, Hugo; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Goiran, Jean-Philippe; Keay, Simon; Albarède, Francis

    2014-05-01

    It is now universally accepted that utilization of lead for domestic purposes and water distribution presents a major health hazard. The ancient Roman world was unaware of these risks. How far the gigantic network of lead pipes used in ancient Rome compromised public health in the city is unknown. Lead isotopes in sediments from the harbor of Imperial Rome register the presence of a strong anthropogenic component during the beginning of the Common Era and the Early Middle Ages. They demonstrate that the lead pipes of the water distribution system increased Pb contents in drinking water of the capital city by up to two orders of magnitude over the natural background. The Pb isotope record shows that the discontinuities in the pollution of the Tiber by lead are intimately entwined with the major issues affecting Late Antique Rome and its water distribution system.

  4. Scaling of prosocial behavior in cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbesman, Samuel; Christakis, Nicholas A.

    2011-06-01

    Previous research has examined how various behaviors scale in cities in relation to their population sizes. Behavior related to innovation and productivity has been found to increase per capita as the size of the city increases, a phenomenon known as superlinear scaling. Criminal behavior has also been found to scale superlinearly. Here we examine a variety of prosocial behaviors (e.g., voting and organ donation), which also would be presumed to be categorized into a single class of scaling with population. We find that, unlike productivity and innovation, prosocial behaviors do not scale in a unified manner. We argue how this might be due to the nature of interactions that are distinct for different prosocial behaviors.

  5. Physics of traffic gridlock in a city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerner, Boris S.

    2011-10-01

    Based on simulations of stochastic three-phase and two-phase traffic flow models, we reveal that at a signalized city intersection under small link inflow rates at which a vehicle queue developed during the red phase of the light signal dissolves fully during the green phase, i.e., no traffic gridlock should be expected, nevertheless, spontaneous traffic breakdown with subsequent city gridlock occurs with some probability after a random time delay. In most cases, this traffic breakdown is initiated by a phase transition from free flow to a synchronized flow occurring upstream of the queue at the light signal. The probability of traffic breakdown at the light signal is an increasing function of the link inflow rate and duration of the red phase of the light signal.

  6. Lead in ancient Rome's city waters.

    PubMed

    Delile, Hugo; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Goiran, Jean-Philippe; Keay, Simon; Albarède, Francis

    2014-05-01

    It is now universally accepted that utilization of lead for domestic purposes and water distribution presents a major health hazard. The ancient Roman world was unaware of these risks. How far the gigantic network of lead pipes used in ancient Rome compromised public health in the city is unknown. Lead isotopes in sediments from the harbor of Imperial Rome register the presence of a strong anthropogenic component during the beginning of the Common Era and the Early Middle Ages. They demonstrate that the lead pipes of the water distribution system increased Pb contents in drinking water of the capital city by up to two orders of magnitude over the natural background. The Pb isotope record shows that the discontinuities in the pollution of the Tiber by lead are intimately entwined with the major issues affecting Late Antique Rome and its water distribution system. PMID:24753588

  7. A Hazy Day in Mexico City

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Mexico City has one of the world's most serious air pollution problems. The city is located atop a high plain at an altitude of 2200 meters, and is surrounded on three sides by mountains and snow-capped volcanoes. Since incident solar radiation does not vary significantly with season at tropical latitudes, photochemical smog is produced much of the year. In winter, air quality can worsen significantly when thermal inversions keep polluted air masses close to the surface.

    Atmospheric particulates (aerosols) are readily visible at oblique view angles, and differences in aerosol amount on two days are indicated by these images of central Mexico from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). The images at left and center are natural color views acquired by MISR's 70-degree forward-viewing camera on April 9 and December 5, 2001, respectively. Mexico City can be identified in the center panel by the large area of haze accumulation above image center. Two small brighter patches within the hazy area indicate low fog. In the left-hand panel, the city basin appears significantly clearer, but some haze remains apparent across the Sierra Madre mountains in the lower portion of the images. On the right is an elevation field corresponding to the December 5 view. Automated MISR stereoscopic retrievals reveal the clouds at lower right to be at very high altitudes, in contrast to the low-lying haze and fog near Mexico City. When the stereo retrieval determines that a location is not covered by clouds, digital terrain elevation data are displayed instead. High clouds appear as the orange and red areas, and mountainous areas appear light blue and green. The position of the clouds within the 70-degree image are slightly southward of their location in the elevation map as a consequence of geometric parallax.

    Major sources of air pollutants within the basin enclosing the Mexico City urban area include exhaust from 3.5 million vehicles, thousands of industries, and

  8. Roman City Planning and Spatial Organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-García, A. César; Magli, Giulio

    The towns founded by the Romans over the course of some eight centuries of history were always inspired by rigid principles of spatial organization, followed by the Roman military camps as well. The symbolism embodied in such rules was tightly and undubitably connected with the power of Rome. According to a variety of ancient sources, city planning involved ritual procedures inherited from the Etruscans and closely connected with the equipartition of the Cosmos according to cardinal directions. As a consequence, a role for astronomy has to be expected in Roman city planning. However, attempts at establishing a common rule have been doomed to failure up to now due both to methodological issues and to the practical mentality of the Romans, which in many cases appears to have overruled symbolic principles. We discuss these issues and present recent results obtained on the towns of Italy and of the Iberian Peninsula, which help to clarify the matter.

  9. Environmental justice in the therapeutic inner city.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Jeffrey R; Crabtree, Alexis

    2010-07-01

    Vancouver's Downtown Eastside (DTES) has long been characterized as Canada's skid row within public narratives that raise concerns about communicable diseases, open drug use, survival sex work, and homelessness. This stigmatizing gaze has bolstered a deficit-oriented philosophy that emphasizes measures to mitigate these threats, ostensibly by erasing the moral and environmental depravity from the landscape. However, such measures threaten to further marginalize DTES residents by perpetuating public sentiments of fear and disgust toward the inner city. In this paper, we challenge this orientation by reporting the results of a research process in which DTES residents chronicled their impressions of the neighbourhood. Our findings reveal a paradoxical therapeutic response to environmental injustice in the inner city, one that enables society's most marginalized people to find support, solidarity, and acceptance in their everyday struggles to survive, even thrive, amidst the structural and physical violence of the urban margins. PMID:20303316

  10. Havana: aging in an aging city.

    PubMed

    Coyula, Miguel

    2010-10-01

    In Cuba, various factors have led to nearly zero population growth and a rapidly aging society. In a few years, the rush of baby-boomers reaching retirement will stand the population pyramid on its head, as the country's life expectancy already nears 80 years. Almost 20% of all Cubans live in Havana, demographically and structurally an aging city. Yet, the city is not prepared to offer its older inhabitants the spaces, services and housing options they require for a healthy quality of life. Studies must be undertaken to address this issue comprehensively, generating creative alternatives for wise use of limited resources to fulfill the material, social and spiritual needs of this growing population sector. KEYWORDS Aging, quality of life, social environment, urban health, housing for the elderly, Cuba.

  11. Reactive nitrogen chemistry in Mexico City outflow - a unique case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flocke, F.; Weinheimer, A.; Hodzic, A.; Emmons, L.; McKenna, D.; Tie, X.; Madronich, S.; Zheng, W.; Montzka, D.; Knapp, D.; Campos, T.; Apel, E.; Hills, A.; Mauldin, L.; Cantrell, C.; Anderson, R.; Kosciuch, E.; Jimenez, J.; Decarlo, P.; Dunlea, E.; Aiken, A.; Atlas, E.; Blake, D.; Meinardi, S.; Baker, A.; Beyersdorf, A.; Karl, T.; Clarke, T.; Shinozuka, Y.; McNaughton, C.; Zhou, J.; Springston, S.; Skamarock, W.; Fast, J.; Voss, P.; Zaveri, R.; Wennberg, P.; Crounse, J.; McCabe, D.

    2007-12-01

    The chemistry and fate of reactive nitrogen emitted from Mexico City is examined. Measurements of NOx, NOy, PANs, alkyl nitrates, HNO3, and particulate nitrate were made on board the NCAR/NSF C-130 aircraft during the 2006 MILAGRO campaign. Near- and far-field outflow from the Mexico City metropolitan area was probed by the C-130 ranging from city overflights to a distance of 1000 km from the city. Reactive nitrogen and CO measurements made on board the DOE G-1 aircraft are also used. In addition, Mexico City outflow was successfully tagged by two radio controlled CMET Balloons and the same air was measured on two consecutive days during the March 18/19 outflow event. The reactive nitrogen data is examined with regard to NOy partitioning, ozone formation efficiency, and the ultimate fate of NOy, as a function of time and distance from the city. The NOx sequestration chemistry is examined using the WRF-Chem model. Because of the unique conditions in Mexico City with regard to altitude and climate as well as the high particle loading in the area the chemistry in the Mexico City outflow is very different compared to other mega-cities such as New York City. These differences and the resulting impacts on the region around the city will be discussed.

  12. Congenital anophthalmos in Benin city, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ukponmwan, C U

    1999-01-01

    Clinical Anophthalmos is a very rare condition and this is illustrated in Benin City, Nigeria where the two cases described are the only cases that have been seen at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital over a period of twenty years. The two cases were unilateral anophthalmos. The first case is a case of primary anophthalmos while the second case is the consecutive or degenerative type of anophthalmos.

  13. Clean Cities 2014 Vehicle Buyer's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    2013-12-01

    The Clean Cities 2014 Vehicle Buyer's Guide is an annual guide which features a comprehensive list of 2014 light-duty alternative fuel and advanced vehicles, grouped by fuel and technology. The guide provides model-specific information on vehicle specifications, manufacturer suggested retail price, fuel economy, energy impact, and emissions. The information can be used to identify options, compare vehicles, and help inform purchase decisions.

  14. City of Indianapolis Better Buildings Program

    SciTech Connect

    Trovillion, Kristen

    2014-11-04

    In June 2010, the City of Indianapolis’ Office of Sustainability was awarded $10 million in grant funds through the U.S. Department of Energy’s Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (CFDA 81.128) funded by the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The purpose of the grant funds was to achieve energy savings in residential and commercial buildings through energy efficiency upgrades such as air sealing and insulation.

  15. We, the Americans: Our Cities and Suburbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD.

    The 1970 Census showed that we Americans are an urban people. Seven of every 10 U.S. residents live in metropolitan areas: 3 in central cities and 4 in suburban areas. The movement to the suburbs swelled to high tide in the 1950's. Although it abated somewhat in the 1960's, it reached an historic height in 1970. In April 1970 there were 203.2…

  16. Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Atlanta

    SciTech Connect

    ICF Kaiser

    1999-05-19

    The Atlanta Clean City was the first to join the program in 1993, and has been successfully spreading the word about the benefits of alternative fuels ever since. They have already surpassed their year 2000 goal of operating more than 2,600 alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). More than 30 stakeholders continue to help spur the Atlanta AFV market development by implementing innovative alternative fuel projects. Stakeholders actively support legislation that encourages the use of AFVs and sponsor workshops on advancing the choice.

  17. Groundwater sustainability in Asian Mega city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, M.

    2009-12-01

    Population increased in many Asian coastal cities, and increased demand of groundwater as water resources caused many subsurface environments. Subsurface environmental problems such as land subsidence due to excessive pumping, groundwater contamination and subsurface thermal anomaly, have occurred repeatedly in Asian mega cities with a time lag depending on the development stage of urbanization. This study focus on four subjects; urban, water, heat, and material in subsurface environment, and intensive field observations and data collections had been made in the basins including Tokyo, Osaka, Bangkok, Jakarta, Manila, Seoul, and Taipei. The new methods for evaluating the changes in groundwater storage by gravimeter measurements in situ and Satellite GRACE, and residence time evaluation by 85Kr and CFCs, have been developed in this study. The combined effects of heat island and global warming from subsurface temperature in Asian mega cities evaluated the magnitude and timing of the urbanization which were preserved in subsurface thermal environment. The effects of law/institution on change in reliable water resources between groundwater and surface water, have been also investigated. The groundwater is “private water”, on the other hand, the surface water is “public water”. Regulation of groundwater pumping due to serious land subsidence did not work without alternative water resources, and the price of water is another major factor for the change in reliable water resources between groundwater and surface water. Land use/cover changes at three ages (1940’s, 1970’s and 2000’s) have been analyzed based on GIS with 0.5 km grid at seven targeted cities. The development of integrated indicators based on GIS for understanding the relationship between human activities and subsurface environment have been made in this study. Finally, we address the sustainable use of groundwater and subsurface environments for better future development and human well-being.

  18. Pollutant dispersion characteristics in Dhaka city, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Khandaker M. A.; Easa, Said M.

    2012-02-01

    Air pollution is a major environmental concern in major cities around the world. The major causes of air pollution include rapid industrialization/urbanization and increased non environment-friendly energy production. This paper analyses the atmospheric pollutant such as carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM) dispersion characteristics of Dhaka city. The yearly and diurnal variations of pollutant concentration are described by taking into consideration of both meteorological and emission source parameters highlighting washout effect due to rainfall and inversion phenomena. Concentration of PM (both PM2.5 and PM10) and CO in the ambient air are measured for a period of one year with Airmetric Minivol air samplers and Gas Chromatographic (GC) technique, respectively. The trend over the year shows an increase in the monthly average hourly PM and CO concentrations in winter months (November to March) when both PM10 and PM2.5 annual average concentrations (about 130 and 95 μg m-3, respectively) exhibit levels exceeding World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines as well as exceed more than twice the national standards of annual PM10 (50 μg m-3) and PM2.5 (15 μg m-3) concentrations. Such high pollutant concentrations may have significant health implications for residents of Dhaka city. It is also found that the PM concentration increases with the increase of wind speed during dry winter season and is also influenced by transboundary air pollution. The data and subsequent recommendations can be useful in formulating air quality management strategies for the Dhaka city.

  19. Urbanization data of Samara city, Russia.

    PubMed

    Boori, Mukesh Singh; Choudhary, Komal; Kupriyanov, Alexander; Kovelskiy, Viktor

    2016-03-01

    A method has been developed for urbanization by using satellite data and socio-economic data. These datasets consists three decade Landsat images and population data. A detailed description using flow chart is given to show how to use this data to produce land use/cove maps. The land use/cove maps were used to know the urban growth in Samara City, Russia. PMID:26937466

  20. Urbanization data of Samara city, Russia.

    PubMed

    Boori, Mukesh Singh; Choudhary, Komal; Kupriyanov, Alexander; Kovelskiy, Viktor

    2016-03-01

    A method has been developed for urbanization by using satellite data and socio-economic data. These datasets consists three decade Landsat images and population data. A detailed description using flow chart is given to show how to use this data to produce land use/cove maps. The land use/cove maps were used to know the urban growth in Samara City, Russia.

  1. Urbanization data of Samara city, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Boori, Mukesh Singh; Choudhary, Komal; Kupriyanov, Alexander; Kovelskiy, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    A method has been developed for urbanization by using satellite data and socio-economic data. These datasets consists three decade Landsat images and population data. A detailed description using flow chart is given to show how to use this data to produce land use/cove maps. The land use/cove maps were used to know the urban growth in Samara City, Russia. PMID:26937466

  2. Presidential Symposia and Events: Salt Lake City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walworth, Frank

    2009-03-01

    During 2009 ACS President Thomas H. Lane is committed to promoting education, building new and productive relationships that support the ACS strategic plan, and developing outcome-based metrics to guide the Society. At the 237th ACS national meeting in Salt Lake City, Lane is supporting six presidential symposia and events. Please consult the online technical program (accessed Jan 2009) for up-to-date information.

  3. Water as a coolant of the city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solcerova, Anna; van de Ven, Frans; van de Giesen, Nick

    2014-05-01

    Rapid urbanization during the last century showed the necessity for understanding urban climate. Since already half of the world population lives in cities - and this number is predicted to increase in coming years and decades - making big urban areas comfortable places gains interest of the general public and policy makers, as well as scientists. It is well known fact that urban climate differs significantly from the climate of rural areas. This is caused by several factors such as lack of evaporation, anthropogenic heat, specific geometry of street canyons, etc. Magnitude of the effect of each of these factors is a widely discussed topic throughout the literature. One of the most important factors is a lack of evaporation and consequent change in the energy balance compared to rural areas. This research aims to reveal the effect of water in the city on the temperature and comfort of inhabitants. We hypothesize that water works as a cooling liquid of cities and the lack of it is the main reason for formation of so called urban heat island. We focus on two major ways water can be stored in cities; in a form of open water areas, and in plants and green areas in general. Open water buffers the temperature extremes in its surroundings, but also has a warming effect at night due to its higher heat capacity compared to buildings and pavements. Trees are then providing shading and transpirate significant amount of water. On the other hand, shading effect alone, as provided by for example mash, can increase the temperature in the area simply because it prevents ventilation. Human comfort is however not determined only by temperature; for example higher air humidity is known to lower comfort of inhabitants and therefore mitigate the cooling effect of evaporation. Understanding properly the different effects of urban climate, and the particular aspects that can influence it, is important for optimal urban design that provides pleasant living environment.

  4. Mosquitoes established in Lhasa city, Tibet, China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2009, residents of Lhasa city, Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR), China reported large numbers of mosquitoes and bites from these insects. It is unclear whether this was a new phenomenon, which species were involved, and whether these mosquitoes had established themselves in the local circumstances. Methods The present study was undertaken in six urban sites of Chengguan district Lhasa city, Tibet. Adult mosquitoes were collected by bed net trap, labor hour method and light trap in August 2009 and August 2012. The trapped adult mosquitoes were initially counted and identified according to morphological criteria, and a proportion of mosquitoes were examined more closely using a multiplex PCR assay. Results 907 mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex were collected in this study. Among them, 595 were females and 312 were males. There was no significant difference in mosquito density monitored by bed net trap and labor hour method in 2009 and 2012. Of 105 mosquitoes identified by multiplex PCR, 36 were pure mosquitoes (34.29%) while 69 were hybrids (65.71%). The same subspecies of Culex pipiens complex were observed by bed net trap, labor hour method and light trap in 2009 and 2012. Conclusion The local Culex pipiens complex comprises the subspecies Cx. pipiens pipiens, Cx. pipiens pallens, Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus and its hybrids. Mosquitoes in the Cx. pipiens complex, known to be, potentially, vectors of periodic filariasis and encephalitis, are now present from one season to the next, and appear to be established in Lhasa City, TAR. PMID:24060238

  5. Professional diversity and the productivity of cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettencourt, Luís M. A.; Samaniego, Horacio; Youn, Hyejin

    2014-06-01

    Attempts to understand the relationship between diversity, productivity and scale have remained limited due to the scheme-dependent nature of the taxonomies describing complex systems. We analyze the diversity of US metropolitan areas in terms of profession diversity and employment to show how this frequency distribution takes a universal scale-invariant form, common to all cities, in the limit of infinite resolution of occupational taxonomies. We show that this limit is obtained under general conditions that follow from the analysis of the variation of the occupational frequency across taxonomies at different resolutions in a way analogous to finite-size scaling in statistical physical systems. We propose a theoretical framework that derives the form and parameters of the limiting distribution of professions based on the appearance, in urban social networks, of new occupations as the result of specialization and coordination of labor. By deriving classification scheme-independent measures of functional diversity and modeling cities as social networks embedded in infrastructural space, these results show how standard economic arguments of division and coordination of labor can be articulated in detail in cities and provide a microscopic basis for explaining increasing returns to population scale observed at the level of entire metropolitan areas.

  6. Clean Cities 2012 Annual Metrics Report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Cities program advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use in transportation. A national network of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions brings together stakeholders in the public and private sectors to deploy alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies, as they emerge. Each year DOE asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterizes the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

  7. Blanket of Snow Covers Salt Lake City

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On December 23, 2001, less than two months before the start of the 2002 Winter Olympics, snow blankets Salt Lake City and the surrounding area. The Great Salt Lake, on the left hand side of the image above, often contributes to the region's snowfall through the 'lake-effect.' As cold air passes over a large body of water it both warms and absorbs moisture. The warm air then rises (like a hot air balloon) and cools again. As it cools, the water vapor condenses out, resulting in snowfall. Just to the east (right) of the Great Salt Lake the mountains of the Wasatch Range lift air from the lake even higher, enhancing the lake-effect, resulting in an average snowfall of 64 inches a year in Salt Lake City and 140 inches in Park City, which is located at the foot of the Wasatch Front. For more information about the lake-effect, read Lake-Effect Snowfalls. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  8. Synchronized flow in oversaturated city traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerner, Boris S.; Klenov, Sergey L.; Hermanns, Gerhard; Hemmerle, Peter; Rehborn, Hubert; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Based on numerical simulations with a stochastic three-phase traffic flow model, we reveal that moving queues (moving jams) in oversaturated city traffic dissolve at some distance upstream of the traffic signal while transforming into synchronized flow. It is found that, as in highway traffic [Kerner, Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.85.036110 85, 036110 (2012)], such a jam-absorption effect in city traffic is explained by a strong driver's speed adaptation: Time headways (space gaps) between vehicles increase upstream of a moving queue (moving jam), resulting in moving queue dissolution. It turns out that at given traffic signal parameters, the stronger the speed adaptation effect, the shorter the mean distance between the signal location and the road location at which moving queues dissolve fully and oversaturated traffic consists of synchronized flow only. A comparison of the synchronized flow in city traffic found in this Brief Report with synchronized flow in highway traffic is made.

  9. America's Urban Forests: Keeping Our Cities Cool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Quattrochi, Dale A.

    1997-01-01

    The additional heating of the air over the city is the result of the replacement of naturally vegetated surfaces with those composed of asphalt, concrete, rooftops and other man-made materials. The temperatures of these artificial surfaces can be 20 to 40 C higher than vegetated surfaces. Materials such as asphalt store much of the sun's energy and remains hot long after sunset. This produces a dome of elevated air temperatures 5 to 8 C greater over the city, compared to the air temperatures over adjacent rural areas. This effect is called the "urban heat island". Tree canopies can reduce the urban heat island effect by dissipating the solar energy received by transpiring water from leaf surfaces which cools the air by taking "heat" from the air to evaporate the water and by shading surfaces like asphalt, roofs, and concrete parking lots which prevents initial heating and storage of heat. It is difficult to take enough temperature measurements over a large city area to characterize the surface temperature variability and quantify the temperature reduction effects of tree canopies. However, the use of remotely sensed thermal data from airborne scanners are ideal for the task. In a study funded by NASA, a series of flights over Huntsville AL were performed in September 1994 and over Atlanta in May 1997. In this article we will examine the techniques of analyzing remotely sensed data for measuring the effect of tree canopies in reducing the urban heat island effect.

  10. Air pollution in mega cities in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Chak K.; Yao, Xiaohong

    Due to its rapidly expanding economic and industrial developments, China is currently considered to be the engine of the world's economic growth. China's economic growth has been accompanied by an expansion of the urban area population and the emergence of a number of mega cities since the 1990. This expansion has resulted in tremendous increases in energy consumption, emissions of air pollutants and the number of poor air quality days in mega cities and their immediate vicinities. Air pollution has become one of the top environmental concerns in China. Currently, Beijing, Shanghai, and the Pearl River Delta region including Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Hong Kong, and their immediate vicinities are the most economically vibrant regions in China. They accounted for about 20% of the total GDP in China in 2005. These are also areas where many air pollution studies have been conducted, especially over the last 6 years. Based on these previous studies, this review presents the current state of understanding of the air pollution problems in China's mega cities and identifies the immediate challenges to understanding and controlling air pollution in these densely populated areas.

  11. Future flood losses in major coastal cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallegatte, Stephane; Green, Colin; Nicholls, Robert J.; Corfee-Morlot, Jan

    2013-09-01

    Flood exposure is increasing in coastal cities owing to growing populations and assets, the changing climate, and subsidence. Here we provide a quantification of present and future flood losses in the 136 largest coastal cities. Using a new database of urban protection and different assumptions on adaptation, we account for existing and future flood defences. Average global flood losses in 2005 are estimated to be approximately US$6billion per year, increasing to US$52billion by 2050 with projected socio-economic change alone. With climate change and subsidence, present protection will need to be upgraded to avoid unacceptable losses of US$1trillion or more per year. Even if adaptation investments maintain constant flood probability, subsidence and sea-level rise will increase global flood losses to US$60-63billion per year in 2050. To maintain present flood risk, adaptation will need to reduce flood probabilities below present values. In this case, the magnitude of losses when floods do occur would increase, often by more than 50%, making it critical to also prepare for larger disasters than we experience today. The analysis identifies the cities that seem most vulnerable to these trends, that is, where the largest increase in losses can be expected.

  12. Exploring the city of Rubble: botanical fieldwork in bombed cities in Germany after World War II.

    PubMed

    Lachmund, Jens

    2003-01-01

    In recent decades, the flora and fuana of cities have become the objects of the inter-disciplinary research field of urban ecology and related policies of urban nature conservation. Although the term "urban ecology" is quite recent, it is argued in this paper that the formation of urban nature as an object of ecological knowledge has a much longer history. For example, in Germany, after World War II, the large rubble areas that existed in all bombed cities soon became important research fields for botanists studying plant migration and vegetation development in the context of the city. This paper uses the case of these botanical research activities to shed light on the historical origins of ecological thinking about nature in the city. Drawing upon a socio-spatial approach to science and practice, the paper explores the interaction between the social and material order of the city and the formation of ecological knowledge. As will be shown, botanists studying the rubble areas created various representations (e.g., lists, statistical tabulations, maps) of urban space that contributed to the transformation of the cultural and political meaning of urban wastelands. At the same time, it will be argued, urban wastelands were practically appropriated as scientific workplaces in which these representations were locally crafted. What later became the science and politics of urban ecology is to a large extent the outcome of this mutual shaping of knowledge and urban space in the post-Second World War period. PMID:12966933

  13. Do women in major cities experience better health? A comparison of chronic conditions and their risk factors between women living in major cities and other cities in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Christiani, Yodi; Byles, Julie E.; Tavener, Meredith; Dugdale, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Inhabitants of rural areas can be tempted to migrate to urban areas for the type and range of facilities available. Although urban inhabitants may benefit from greater access to human and social services, living in a big city can also bring disadvantages to some residents due to changes in social and physical environments. Design We analysed data from 4,208 women aged >15 years old participating in the fourth wave of the Indonesia Family Life Survey. Chronic condition risk factors – systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), body mass index (BMI), and tobacco use – among women in four major cities in Indonesia (Jakarta, Surabaya, Medan, and Bandung) were compared against other cities. Fractional polynomial regression models were applied to examine the association between living in the major cities and SBP, DBP, BMI, and tobacco use. The models were also adjusted for age, education, employment status, migration status, ethnic groups, and religion. The patterns of SBP, DBP, and BMI were plotted and contrasted between groups of cities. Results Chronic condition prevalence was higher for women in major cities than in contrasting cities (p<0.005). Living in major cities increased the risk of having higher SBP, DBP, BMI and being a current smoker. Chronic disease risk factors in major cities were evident from younger ages. Conclusions Women residing in Indonesia's major cities have a higher risk of developing chronic conditions, starting at younger ages. The findings highlight the challenges inherent in providing long-term healthcare with its associated cost within major Indonesian cities and the importance of chronic disease prevention programmes targeting women at an early age. PMID:26689455

  14. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Tuba City site, Tuba City, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    1981-09-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Tuba City site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Tuba City, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 0.8 million tons of tailings at the Tuba City site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors.

  15. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Tuba City site, Tuba City, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Tuba City site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Tuba City, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 0.8 million tons of tailings at the Tuba City site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors.

  16. The mini climatic city a dedicated space for technological innovations devoted to Sustainable City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derkx, François; Lebental, Bérengère; Merliot, Erick; Dumoulin, Jean; Bourquin, Frédéric

    2015-04-01

    Our cities, from megalopolis to rural commune, are systems of an extraordinary technological and human complexity. Their balance is threatened by the growing population and rarefaction of resources. Massive urbanization endanges the environment, while global climate change, through natural hazards generated (climatic, hydrological and geological), threats people and goods. Connect the city, that is to say, design and spread systems able to route, between multiple actors, a very large amount of heterogeneous information natures and analyzed for various purposes, is at the heart of the hopes to make our cities more sustainable: climate-resilient, energy efficient and actresses of the energy transition, attractive to individuals and companies, health and environment friendly. If multiple players are already aware of this need, progress is slow because, beyond the only connectivity, it is the urban intelligence that will create the sustainable city, through coordinated capabilities of Perception, Decision and Action: to measure phenomena; to analyze their impact on urban sustainability in order to define strategies for improvement; to effectively act on the cause of the phenomenon. In this very active context with a strong societal impact, the Sense-City project aims to accelerate research and innovation in the field of sustainable city, particularly in the field of micro and nanosensors. The project is centered around a "mini climatic City", a unique mobile environmental chamber in Europe of 400m² that can accommodate realistic models of city main components, namely buildings, infrastructures, distribution networks or basements. This R&D test place, available in draft form from January 2015 and in finalized version in 2016, will allow to validate, in realistic conditions, innovative technologies performances for the sustainable city, especially micro- and nano-sensors, at the end of their development laboratory and upstream of industrialization. R & D platform

  17. Digging the New York City Skyline: soil fungal communities in green roofs and city parks.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Krista L; Payne, Sara G; Palmer, Matthew I; Gillikin, Caitlyn M; Keefe, Dominique; Kim, Su Jin; Gedallovich, Seren M; Discenza, Julia; Rangamannar, Ramya; Koshner, Jennifer A; Massmann, Audrey L; Orazi, Giulia; Essene, Adam; Leff, Jonathan W; Fierer, Noah

    2013-01-01

    In urban environments, green roofs provide a number of benefits, including decreased urban heat island effects and reduced energy costs for buildings. However, little research has been done on the non-plant biota associated with green roofs, which likely affect their functionality. For the current study, we evaluated whether or not green roofs planted with two native plant communities in New York City functioned as habitats for soil fungal communities, and compared fungal communities in green roof growing media to soil microbial composition in five city parks, including Central Park and the High Line. Ten replicate roofs were sampled one year after planting; three of these roofs were more intensively sampled and compared to nearby city parks. Using Illumina sequencing of the fungal ITS region we found that green roofs supported a diverse fungal community, with numerous taxa belonging to fungal groups capable of surviving in disturbed and polluted habitats. Across roofs, there was significant biogeographical clustering of fungal communities, indicating that community assembly of roof microbes across the greater New York City area is locally variable. Green roof fungal communities were compositionally distinct from city parks and only 54% of the green roof taxa were also found in the park soils. Phospholipid fatty acid analysis revealed that park soils had greater microbial biomass and higher bacterial to fungal ratios than green roof substrates. City park soils were also more enriched with heavy metals, had lower pH, and lower quantities of total bases (Ca, K, and Mg) compared to green roof substrates. While fungal communities were compositionally distinct across green roofs, they did not differentiate by plant community. Together, these results suggest that fungi living in the growing medium of green roofs may be an underestimated component of these biotic systems functioning to support some of the valued ecological services of green roofs.

  18. Digging the New York City Skyline: Soil Fungal Communities in Green Roofs and City Parks

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Krista L.; Payne, Sara G.; Palmer, Matthew I.; Gillikin, Caitlyn M.; Keefe, Dominique; Kim, Su Jin; Gedallovich, Seren M.; Discenza, Julia; Rangamannar, Ramya; Koshner, Jennifer A.; Massmann, Audrey L.; Orazi, Giulia; Essene, Adam; Leff, Jonathan W.; Fierer, Noah

    2013-01-01

    In urban environments, green roofs provide a number of benefits, including decreased urban heat island effects and reduced energy costs for buildings. However, little research has been done on the non-plant biota associated with green roofs, which likely affect their functionality. For the current study, we evaluated whether or not green roofs planted with two native plant communities in New York City functioned as habitats for soil fungal communities, and compared fungal communities in green roof growing media to soil microbial composition in five city parks, including Central Park and the High Line. Ten replicate roofs were sampled one year after planting; three of these roofs were more intensively sampled and compared to nearby city parks. Using Illumina sequencing of the fungal ITS region we found that green roofs supported a diverse fungal community, with numerous taxa belonging to fungal groups capable of surviving in disturbed and polluted habitats. Across roofs, there was significant biogeographical clustering of fungal communities, indicating that community assembly of roof microbes across the greater New York City area is locally variable. Green roof fungal communities were compositionally distinct from city parks and only 54% of the green roof taxa were also found in the park soils. Phospholipid fatty acid analysis revealed that park soils had greater microbial biomass and higher bacterial to fungal ratios than green roof substrates. City park soils were also more enriched with heavy metals, had lower pH, and lower quantities of total bases (Ca, K, and Mg) compared to green roof substrates. While fungal communities were compositionally distinct across green roofs, they did not differentiate by plant community. Together, these results suggest that fungi living in the growing medium of green roofs may be an underestimated component of these biotic systems functioning to support some of the valued ecological services of green roofs. PMID:23469260

  19. Strong advocacy led to successful implementation of smokefree Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    Crosbie, Eric; Sebrié, Ernesto M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe the approval process and implementation of the 100% smokefree law in Mexico City and a competing federal law between 2007 and 2010. Methods Reviewed smokefree legislation, published newspaper articles and interviewed key informants. Results Strong efforts by tobacco control advocacy groups and key policymakers in Mexico City in 2008 prompted the approval of a 100% smokefree law following the WHO FCTC. As elsewhere, the tobacco industry utilised the hospitality sector to block smokefree legislation, challenged the City law before the Supreme Court and promoted the passage of a federal law that required designated smoking areas. These tactics disrupted implementation of the City law by causing confusion over which law applied in Mexico City. Despite interference, the City law increased public support for 100% smokefree policies and decreased the social acceptability of smoking. In September 2009, the Supreme Court ruled in favour of the City law, giving it the authority to go beyond the federal law to protect the fundamental right of health for all citizens. Conclusions Early education and enforcement efforts by tobacco control advocates promoted the City law in 2008 but advocates should still anticipate continuing opposition from the tobacco industry, which will require continued pressure on the government. Advocates should utilise the Supreme Court’s ruling to promote 100% smokefree policies outside Mexico City. Strong advocacy for the City law could be used as a model of success throughout Mexico and other Latin American countries. PMID:21059606

  20. The scaling of green space coverage in European cities

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Richard A.; Gaston, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    Most people on the planet live in dense aggregations, and policy directives emphasize green areas within cities to ameliorate some of the problems of urban living. Benefits of urban green spaces range from physical and psychological health to social cohesion, ecosystem service provision and biodiversity conservation. Green space coverage differs enormously among cities, yet little is known about the correlates or geography of this variation. This is important because urbanization is accelerating and the consequences for green space are unclear. Here, we use standardized major axis regression to explore the relationships between urban green space coverage, city area and population size across 386 European cities. We show that green space coverage increases more rapidly than city area, yet declines only weakly as human population density increases. Thus, green space provision within a city is primarily related to city area rather than the number of inhabitants that it serves, or a simple space-filling effect. Thus, compact cities (small size and high density) show very low per capita green space allocation. However, at high levels of urbanicity, the green space network is robust to further city compaction. As cities grow, interactions between people and nature depend increasingly on landscape quality outside formal green space networks, such as street plantings, or the size, composition and management of backyards and gardens. PMID:19324636

  1. The scaling of green space coverage in European cities.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Richard A; Gaston, Kevin J

    2009-06-23

    Most people on the planet live in dense aggregations, and policy directives emphasize green areas within cities to ameliorate some of the problems of urban living. Benefits of urban green spaces range from physical and psychological health to social cohesion, ecosystem service provision and biodiversity conservation. Green space coverage differs enormously among cities, yet little is known about the correlates or geography of this variation. This is important because urbanization is accelerating and the consequences for green space are unclear. Here, we use standardized major axis regression to explore the relationships between urban green space coverage, city area and population size across 386 European cities. We show that green space coverage increases more rapidly than city area, yet declines only weakly as human population density increases. Thus, green space provision within a city is primarily related to city area rather than the number of inhabitants that it serves, or a simple space-filling effect. Thus, compact cities (small size and high density) show very low per capita green space allocation. However, at high levels of urbanicity, the green space network is robust to further city compaction. As cities grow, interactions between people and nature depend increasingly on landscape quality outside formal green space networks, such as street plantings, or the size, composition and management of backyards and gardens.

  2. Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The Kansas City Plant is a government-owned, contractor-operated facility. AlliedSignal and its predecessors have been the operating contractors since 1949. The principal operation performed at the Kansas City Plant is the manufacture of non-nuclear components for nuclear weapons. This activity involves metals and plastics machining, plastics fabrication, plating, microelectronics, and electrical and mechanical assembly. No radioactive materials are machined or processed. This report presents information and data pertaining to the environmental monitoring program and compliance with environmental standards.

  3. A Tale of Five Cities; A Report of the New York State Senate Standing Committee on Cities and City of New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, John E.

    New York City, Buffalo, Rochester, Syracuse, and Yonkers share many qualities of cities in the Northeast including blighted neighborhoods, deserted factories, heavy municipal debt, shrinking constitutional taxing and borrowing limits, reductions in services, an aging housing market, substantial unemployment, and financially dependent school…

  4. Think City Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ford Motor Company

    2005-03-01

    The THINK city Electric Vehicle (EV) Demonstration Program Project, initiated late 2001, has been successfully completed as of April 2005. US. Partners include Federal, State and Municipal agencies as well as commercial partners. Phase I, consisting of placement of the vehicles in demonstration programs, was completed in 2002. Phase II, the monitoring of these programs was completed in 2004. Phase III, the decommissioning and/or exporting of vehicles concluded in 2005. Phase I--the Program successfully assigned 192 EV's with customers (including Hertz) in the state of California, 109 in New York (including loaner and demo vehicles), 16 in Georgia, 7 to customers outside of the US and 52 in Ford's internal operations in Dearborn Michigan for a total of 376 vehicles. The Program was the largest operating Urban EV Demonstration Project in the United States. Phase II--the monitoring of the operational fleet was ongoing and completed in 2004, and all vehicles were returned throughout 2004 and 2005. The Department of Energy (DOE) was involved with the monitoring of the New York Power Authority/THINK Clean Commute Program units through partnership with Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (ETEC), which filed separate reports to DOE. The remainder of the field fleet was monitored through Ford's internal operations. Vehicles were retired from lease operation throughout the program for various operator reasons. Some of the vehicles were involved in re-leasing operations. At the end of the program, 376 vehicles had been involved, 372 of which were available for customer use while 4 were engineering prototype and study vehicles. Phase III--decommissioning and/or export of vehicles. In accordance with the NHTSA requirement, City vehicles could not remain in the United States past their three-year allowed program timeframe. At the end of leases, City vehicles have been decommissioned and/or exported to KamKorp in Norway.

  5. HUBBLE SEES A VAST 'CITY' OF STARS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In these pictures, a 'city' of a million stars glitters like a New York City skyline. The images capture the globular cluster 47 Tucanae, located 15,000 light-years from Earth in the southern constellation Tucana. Using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers went hunting in this large city for planetary companions: bloated gaseous planets that snuggle close to their parent stars, completing an orbit in a quick three to five days. To their surprise, they found none. This finding suggests that the cluster's environment is too hostile for breeding planets or that it lacks the necessary elements for making them. The picture at left, taken by a terrestrial telescope, shows most of the cluster, a tightly packed group of middle-aged stars held together by mutual gravitational attraction. The box near the center represents the Hubble telescope's view. The image at right shows the Hubble telescope's close-up look at a swarm of 35,000 stars near the cluster's central region. The stars are tightly packed together: They're much closer together than our Sun and its closest stars. The picture, taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, depicts the stars' natural colors and tells scientists about their composition and age. For example, the red stars denote bright red giants nearing the end of their lives; the more common yellow stars are similar to our middle-aged Sun. Most of the stars in the cluster are believed to have formed about 10 billion years ago. The bright, blue stars -- thought to be remnants of stellar collisions and mergers -- provide a few rejuvenated, energetic stars in an otherwise old system. The Hubble picture was taken in July 1999. Credits for Hubble image: NASA and Ron Gilliland (Space Telescope Science Institute) Credits for ground-based image: David Malin, c Anglo-Australian Observatory

  6. Lost City and the Search For Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    Since their discovery in 1979, high-temperature hot springs fueled by submarine volcanoes have served as models in the search for life elsewhere in the solar system. The early recognition of hot microbial biospheres associated with active volcanism along global mid-ocean ridges fundamentally shifted concepts of how planets and life co-evolve. These metal-rich, acidic systems were thought to represent the most extreme conditions on Earth, hosting novel life based on chemosynthesis. In 2000, this paradigm was profoundly impacted by the discovery of the Lost City hydrothermal field, characterized by conditions never before seen. Here, 60 m-tall limestone chimneys vent pH 10-11, metal-poor, 90°C fluids rich in hydrogen and abiotically-produced methane and formate. The fluid chemistry is driven, not by volcanic heat, but by fluid-rock reactions in underlying ultramafic basement at up to ~ 200°C. These peridotite-hosted biotopes differ significantly from volcanic-hosted vent systems in which carbon dioxide is a dominant volatile species. Instead, serpentinzation reactions yield high hydrogen and low molecular-weight hydrocarbons that result in energy-rich habitats with cell concentrations that reach 109cells/gram carbonate. The absence of volcanism, and on-going serpentinization reactions result in a remarkably stable system with venting active for >150,000 years. With the discovery of Lost City, it is clear that high temperature volcanic activity is not a prerequisite for life. Exothermic serpentinization reactions occur under a wide-range of temperatures and can result in up to a 40% volume of expansion, which may both close and open fractures. Hence, Lost City may serve as a model in the search for life on other planets and moons with rocky, undifferentiated terranes and overlying oceans. Within such systems, interior cooling, coupled with tidally-induced heating may induce hydrothermal flow, and perhaps life-sustaining environments in the absence of volcanism.

  7. Smoking prevalence in Cienfuegos City, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Benet, Mikhail; Espinosa, Alfredo; Morejón, Alain; Diez, Emiliano; Landrove, Orlando; Ordúñez, Pedro O

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Over the last 40 years, high smoking prevalence has been reported throughout Cuba, including in Cienfuegos city in the central part of the island. OBJECTIVES Determine smoking prevalence and potential associated risk factors in Cienfuegos city for 2010-2011. METHODS A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Cienfuegos city in the context of CARMEN (Collaborative Action for Risk Factor Prevention & Effective Management of Non-communicable Diseases), a PAHO multi-country initiative for a multidimensional approach to chronic non-communicable diseases. Participants totaled 2193 (aged 15-74 years), randomly selected through complex probabilistic three-stage sampling. Variables examined in relation to smoking included age, sex, skin color, civil status and educational level. RESULTS Approximately 25% of those surveyed were smokers (30.3% of men and 21.0% of women). For men, prevalence was highest in the groups aged 25-34 and 55-64 years; for women, in the group aged 45-54 years. Concerning skin color, smoking rates were higher among black and mestizo persons (29.5%); and concerning civil status, higher among those who were separated, widowed or divorced (30.0%). Smoking prevalence fell with higher educational level; in keeping with that trend, the university-educated group had the lowest prevalence (16.2%). CONCLUSIONS Although one in four Cienfuegos residents aged ≥15 years smoked in 2010-2011, prevalence there is lower than in previous surveys. Knowledge of differences observed in age, sex, skin color, civil status and educational level can be useful for planning future smoking prevention and control actions.

  8. Imported plague--New York City, 2002.

    PubMed

    2003-08-01

    On November 1, 2002, a married couple traveled from Santa Fe County, New Mexico, to New York City (NYC), where they both became ill with fever and unilateral inguinal adenopathy; bubonic plague (Yersinia pestis) was diagnosed subsequently. This report summarizes the clinical and public health investigation of these cases and underscores the importance of rapid diagnosis and communication among health-care providers, public health agencies, and the public when patients seek medical attention for an illness that might be caused by an agent of terrorism.

  9. Salt Lake City, Utah, Perspective View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This 3-D perspective view, in simulated natural colors, presents a late spring view over Salt Lake City towards the snow-capped Wasatch Mountains to the east. The image was created by draping ASTER image data over digital topography data from the US Geological Survey's National Elevation Data.

    This image was acquired on May 28, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation

  10. Structural Seismic Risk at David City, Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, E.; Battlo, J.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Tapia, A.; Lindhom, C.

    2007-12-01

    At the southwest margin of the Isthmus of Panama, the Cocos, Nazca and Panama Microplate join in a triple junction. In this tectonic setting, the Panama Fracture Zone (PFZ) which bounds the Nazca and Cocos plate, subducts in an oblique and shallow manner. This zone is one of the most active seismic areas of Central America. On July 18, 1934, the largest earthquake in Panama in historical times (Ms= 7.7) occurred in its northern region. This event caused extensive damage to towns located in the border of Panama and Costa Rica and during the two subsequent days, six aftershocks with magnitude greater than 6.0 were recorded. David City, with 130,000 inhabitants is the most important urban center in southwestern Panama and lies at the northern end of the PFZ. This city was impacted by the strong destructive earthquakes (Ms>7.0) that took place in 1879 and 1934, both with epicenters located on the northern terminus of the PFZ. In this work, we collected and digitized historical seismograms to measure the centroid moment tensor (CMT) from the main 1934 earthquake. Additionally, we gathered new macroseismic information to create improved and more complete isoseismals maps of the 1879 and 1934 events. We determined the probabilistic seismic hazard for David City using records of historical and recent seismicity and the characteristics of local faults. The hazard computation results are presented as peak iso-acceleration curves for rock/hard soil for a recurrence time of 500 years. An elastic response spectrum was obtained with a uniform exceedance probability of 10% in 50 years with one degree of freedom and 5% of damping. Our results indicate maximum peak ground acceleration (PGA) in downtown David of 3.8 and 4.5 m/s2 with a probability annual exceedance of 0.002 and 0.001, respectively. Structural vulnerability was determined analyzing the quality and construction design of housing, buildings, and critical facilities as well as the type of soil where these structures

  11. Global change and the ecology of cities.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Nancy B; Faeth, Stanley H; Golubiewski, Nancy E; Redman, Charles L; Wu, Jianguo; Bai, Xuemei; Briggs, John M

    2008-02-01

    Urban areas are hot spots that drive environmental change at multiple scales. Material demands of production and human consumption alter land use and cover, biodiversity, and hydrosystems locally to regionally, and urban waste discharge affects local to global biogeochemical cycles and climate. For urbanites, however, global environmental changes are swamped by dramatic changes in the local environment. Urban ecology integrates natural and social sciences to study these radically altered local environments and their regional and global effects. Cities themselves present both the problems and solutions to sustainability challenges of an increasingly urbanized world.

  12. Addicted women. Profiles from the inner city.

    PubMed

    Dumas, L

    1992-12-01

    This article has focused on addicted women and the contexts in which they present to the community nurse. An effort has been made to broaden the clinical applications to include the societal problems underlying addiction and the policy issues that must be addressed to solve them. Addicted women can be described from a societal dimension, in which the health care system reflects disarray and fiscal chaos, and from a community dimension. The two dimensions link the public and the private spheres. To evaluate addicted women and the options for their recovery more effectively, it is helpful to integrate the societal and personal milieu--public issues and the private lives that illustrate them. This is how policy is best formulated. The numbers of addicted women in the health care system reflect only the tip of the iceberg. Health care providers must strive to reach women who are outside of the health care system who have not been connected to a hospital, shelter, or home care agency. Researchers need to differentiate sample patient populations, and the patient selection bias needs to be addressed early on. A model of a community support for recovery located within a housing project was a viable option for reaching addicted women. The role of nurses is becoming increasingly unique. Nurses are skilled as caregivers and clinicians. They can open doors of opportunity for inner-city women and children by developing health-promotive programs in hospital settings for substance abusing women and by continuing to work with their colleagues in the community context. On both dimensions, nurses have front-line accessibility to women and children who are vulnerable. Often, commonality of gender strengthens the nurse/patient relationship and facilitates trust as well as empathy between female addicts and their nurse advocate counterparts. Never has the call to inner-city nurses been more compelling. The problems related to drug abuse and parenting are multidimensional. They resist

  13. Kansas City Plant Celebrates Safety Milestone

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    A gang of motorcycle riders arrived at the NNSA's Kansas City Plant on July 1 to help celebrate a significant safety achievement - working nearly five million hours, covering a one-year period without a lost-time injury. The bikers -- some of whom are plant employees -- represent Bikers Against Child Abuse, the local nonprofit selected to receive a $5,000 donation as part of the plant's safety achievement celebration. The organization was selected because it aligns with the plant's community outreach focus on Family Safety & Security and partnership with the plant's union members.

  14. Kansas City Plant Celebrates Safety Milestone

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-06

    A gang of motorcycle riders arrived at the NNSA's Kansas City Plant on July 1 to help celebrate a significant safety achievement - working nearly five million hours, covering a one-year period without a lost-time injury. The bikers -- some of whom are plant employees -- represent Bikers Against Child Abuse, the local nonprofit selected to receive a $5,000 donation as part of the plant's safety achievement celebration. The organization was selected because it aligns with the plant's community outreach focus on Family Safety & Security and partnership with the plant's union members.

  15. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF ELM CITY PLANT (A. FRANCIS WALKER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF ELM CITY PLANT (A. FRANCIS WALKER, 1905-07) FROM SECOND AVENUE ON OPPOSITE SIDE OF ENTRANCE. THIS STRUCTURE WAS ORIGINALLY BUILT AS THE ELM CITY COTTON MILL OF CALLAWAY MILLS. NOTE RESERVOIR IN FOREGROUND. THIS PHOTOGRAPH IS THE LEFT SIDE OF A PANORAMA VIEW THAT INCLUDES HAER Nos. GA-128-2 AND GA-128-3. - Elm City Cotton Mill, 1000 Elm Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

  16. City of Troitsk and Sooty Snow, Chelyabinsk, CIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This view shows the industrial pollution around the Siberian city of Troitsk (54.0N, 61.0E). Troitsk is the smallest of a group of three heavy industrial cities east of the Urals, the others being Magnitogorsk and Chelyabinsk. All have been cited as being some of the worst industrial polluted cities in the CIS. Despite being the smallest of the three, Troitsk has the largest area of soot blackened snow. Respiratory diseases among the citizens are chronic.

  17. Green and sustainable City will become the development objective of China's Low Carbon City in future.

    PubMed

    Li-Qun, Liu; Chun-Xia, Liu; Yun-Guang, Gao

    2014-01-01

    Environmental pollution and greenhouse gas emissions are becoming significant environmental issues in China, thus the sustainable development and revival of the country is impossible using the conventional path of encouraging economic growth at the expense of the environment. In response to the global warming, the prices of the traditional energy rise considerably, and a series of environmental problems, China must improve its own mode of economic development. Hundreds of Chinese cities have billions of square meters of buildings and most industry and the annual energy demand is an astronomical figure. China's government is facing increasing pressure in the low carbon international backdrop, and the low carbon city becomes the inevitable developmental direction of Chinese city in the foreseeable future. The description is first centered on energy structure/energy consumption per unit/urbanized status, and urban energy consumption status, and then concerned with the efforts and measures of Chinese government, to realize the energy saving. Finally, we present the developmental prospect and barriers and the promotion measures related to the low carbon city under the government policy, financial incentives and funding supports, etc. PMID:24423063

  18. 75 FR 34932 - Safety Zone; Michigan City Super Boat Grand Prix, Lake Michigan, Michigan City, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... Super Boat Grand Prix, Lake Michigan, Michigan City, IN in the Federal Register (75 FR 22333). We... intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Lake Michigan due to a high speed boat racing event. This... associated with a high speed boat racing event. DATES: This regulation is effective from 9 a.m. until 4...

  19. Ohio's City-School District Income Tax: A Tale of Two Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Ronald J.; Stewart, Douglas O.; Taub, Allan J.

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes alternative tax systems available to school districts in Ohio and reviews their development. Presents socioeconomic information about the populations of two Ohio towns, summarizes limitations of the property tax as the primary source of local school funds, and discusses implications of passing a city-district income tax in Euclid, Ohio.…

  20. 77 FR 29932 - Safety Zone; Nautical City Festival Air Show, Rogers City, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... will then become highlighted in blue. In the ``Document Type'' drop down menu select ``Proposed Rule... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... Proposed Rule To safeguard against the dangers posed by the Nautical City Festival air show near...

  1. Clocks for the city: circadian differences between forest and city songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Dominoni, D. M.; Helm, B.; Lehmann, M.; Dowse, H. B.; Partecke, J.

    2013-01-01

    To keep pace with progressing urbanization organisms must cope with extensive habitat change. Anthropogenic light and noise have modified differences between day and night, and may thereby interfere with circadian clocks. Urbanized species, such as birds, are known to advance their activity to early morning and night hours. We hypothesized that such modified activity patterns are reflected by properties of the endogenous circadian clock. Using automatic radio-telemetry, we tested this idea by comparing activity patterns of free-living forest and city European blackbirds (Turdus merula). We then recaptured the same individuals and recorded their activity under constant conditions. City birds started their activity earlier and had faster but less robust circadian oscillation of locomotor activity than forest conspecifics. Circadian period length predicted start of activity in the field, and this relationship was mainly explained by fast-paced and early-rising city birds. Although based on only two populations, our findings point to links between city life, chronotype and circadian phenotype in songbirds, and potentially in other organisms that colonize urban habitats, and highlight that urban environments can significantly modify biologically important rhythms in wild organisms. PMID:23740778

  2. Results of the Art in the City Project; Art in the City and Telecommunications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sessa, Anneliese

    This student project involved publishing the author's log of art museum and gallery visits, undertaken as part of a liberal arts class, on some of the computer bulletin boards in the New York City area. Purposes of the project were to share what was learned in the class, to acquire experience with online group interaction, and to determine what is…

  3. Clocks for the city: circadian differences between forest and city songbirds.

    PubMed

    Dominoni, D M; Helm, B; Lehmann, M; Dowse, H B; Partecke, J

    2013-07-22

    To keep pace with progressing urbanization organisms must cope with extensive habitat change. Anthropogenic light and noise have modified differences between day and night, and may thereby interfere with circadian clocks. Urbanized species, such as birds, are known to advance their activity to early morning and night hours. We hypothesized that such modified activity patterns are reflected by properties of the endogenous circadian clock. Using automatic radio-telemetry, we tested this idea by comparing activity patterns of free-living forest and city European blackbirds (Turdus merula). We then recaptured the same individuals and recorded their activity under constant conditions. City birds started their activity earlier and had faster but less robust circadian oscillation of locomotor activity than forest conspecifics. Circadian period length predicted start of activity in the field, and this relationship was mainly explained by fast-paced and early-rising city birds. Although based on only two populations, our findings point to links between city life, chronotype and circadian phenotype in songbirds, and potentially in other organisms that colonize urban habitats, and highlight that urban environments can significantly modify biologically important rhythms in wild organisms. PMID:23740778

  4. Green and sustainable City will become the development objective of China's Low Carbon City in future.

    PubMed

    Li-Qun, Liu; Chun-Xia, Liu; Yun-Guang, Gao

    2014-01-14

    Environmental pollution and greenhouse gas emissions are becoming significant environmental issues in China, thus the sustainable development and revival of the country is impossible using the conventional path of encouraging economic growth at the expense of the environment. In response to the global warming, the prices of the traditional energy rise considerably, and a series of environmental problems, China must improve its own mode of economic development. Hundreds of Chinese cities have billions of square meters of buildings and most industry and the annual energy demand is an astronomical figure. China's government is facing increasing pressure in the low carbon international backdrop, and the low carbon city becomes the inevitable developmental direction of Chinese city in the foreseeable future. The description is first centered on energy structure/energy consumption per unit/urbanized status, and urban energy consumption status, and then concerned with the efforts and measures of Chinese government, to realize the energy saving. Finally, we present the developmental prospect and barriers and the promotion measures related to the low carbon city under the government policy, financial incentives and funding supports, etc.

  5. City Kids Count Pocket Guide. Measures of Child Well-Being in the Nation's Largest Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2004

    2004-01-01

    For more than 15 years, the KIDS COUNT initiative, has produced data books filled with statistics reflecting the general well-being of children in each state. This Pocket Guide is designed to give state-level policymakers a better understanding of conditions faced by families in their large cities and how they compare to those in the large cities…

  6. The Continuing Growth of Hunger, Homelessness, and Poverty in America's Cities: 1987. A 26-City Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Lilia M.; Waxman, Laura DeKoven

    This survey assesses the status of hunger, homelessness, and poverty in cities in the United States during 1987. The findings include the following: (1) the number of the homeless and the poor had increased and was expected to continue to increase; (2) the demand for emergency food assistance and emergency shelter assistance had increased and was…

  7. A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America's Cities: 1989. A 27-City Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Conference of Mayors, Washington, DC.

    This document comprises a report on the status of hunger and homelessness during 1989 in 27 major American cities. A survey was used to gather the following information: (1) demand for emergency food and shelter assistance and the capacity to meet the demand; (2) causes of hunger and homelessness and the demographics of the affected populations;…

  8. A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America's Cities: 1988. A 27-City Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxman, Laura DeKoven; Reyes, Lilia M.

    In 1988 officials in 27 major cities were surveyed on the following topics: (1) ability to meet demand for emergency food assistance and shelter; (2) causes and demographics of hunger and homelessness; (3) status of low-income housing; and (4) outlook for 1989. Summary findings included the following: (1) demand for emergency food assistance…

  9. Cities through the Prism of People’s Spending Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hawelka, Bartosz; Murillo Arias, Juan; Ratti, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Scientific studies of society increasingly rely on digital traces produced by various aspects of human activity. In this paper, we exploit a relatively unexplored source of data–anonymized records of bank card transactions collected in Spain by a big European bank, and propose a new classification scheme of cities based on the economic behavior of their residents. First, we study how individual spending behavior is qualitatively and quantitatively affected by various factors such as customer’s age, gender, and size of his/her home city. We show that, similar to other socioeconomic urban quantities, individual spending activity exhibits a statistically significant superlinear scaling with city size. With respect to the general trends, we quantify the distinctive signature of each city in terms of residents’ spending behavior, independently from the effects of scale and demographic heterogeneity. Based on the comparison of city signatures, we build a novel classification of cities across Spain in three categories. That classification exhibits a substantial stability over different city definitions and connects with a meaningful socioeconomic interpretation. Furthermore, it corresponds with the ability of cities to attract foreign visitors, which is a particularly remarkable finding given that the classification was based exclusively on the behavioral patterns of city residents. This highlights the far-reaching applicability of the presented classification approach and its ability to discover patterns that go beyond the quantities directly involved in it. PMID:26849218

  10. Cities through the Prism of People's Spending Behavior.

    PubMed

    Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Sitko, Izabela; Tachet des Combes, Remi; Hawelka, Bartosz; Murillo Arias, Juan; Ratti, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Scientific studies of society increasingly rely on digital traces produced by various aspects of human activity. In this paper, we exploit a relatively unexplored source of data-anonymized records of bank card transactions collected in Spain by a big European bank, and propose a new classification scheme of cities based on the economic behavior of their residents. First, we study how individual spending behavior is qualitatively and quantitatively affected by various factors such as customer's age, gender, and size of his/her home city. We show that, similar to other socioeconomic urban quantities, individual spending activity exhibits a statistically significant superlinear scaling with city size. With respect to the general trends, we quantify the distinctive signature of each city in terms of residents' spending behavior, independently from the effects of scale and demographic heterogeneity. Based on the comparison of city signatures, we build a novel classification of cities across Spain in three categories. That classification exhibits a substantial stability over different city definitions and connects with a meaningful socioeconomic interpretation. Furthermore, it corresponds with the ability of cities to attract foreign visitors, which is a particularly remarkable finding given that the classification was based exclusively on the behavioral patterns of city residents. This highlights the far-reaching applicability of the presented classification approach and its ability to discover patterns that go beyond the quantities directly involved in it.

  11. 'Wasteaware' benchmark indicators for integrated sustainable waste management in cities.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David C; Rodic, Ljiljana; Cowing, Michael J; Velis, Costas A; Whiteman, Andrew D; Scheinberg, Anne; Vilches, Recaredo; Masterson, Darragh; Stretz, Joachim; Oelz, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses a major problem in international solid waste management, which is twofold: a lack of data, and a lack of consistent data to allow comparison between cities. The paper presents an indicator set for integrated sustainable waste management (ISWM) in cities both North and South, to allow benchmarking of a city's performance, comparing cities and monitoring developments over time. It builds on pioneering work for UN-Habitat's solid waste management in the World's cities. The comprehensive analytical framework of a city's solid waste management system is divided into two overlapping 'triangles' - one comprising the three physical components, i.e. collection, recycling, and disposal, and the other comprising three governance aspects, i.e. inclusivity; financial sustainability; and sound institutions and proactive policies. The indicator set includes essential quantitative indicators as well as qualitative composite indicators. This updated and revised 'Wasteaware' set of ISWM benchmark indicators is the cumulative result of testing various prototypes in more than 50 cities around the world. This experience confirms the utility of indicators in allowing comprehensive performance measurement and comparison of both 'hard' physical components and 'soft' governance aspects; and in prioritising 'next steps' in developing a city's solid waste management system, by identifying both local strengths that can be built on and weak points to be addressed. The Wasteaware ISWM indicators are applicable to a broad range of cities with very different levels of income and solid waste management practices. Their wide application as a standard methodology will help to fill the historical data gap.

  12. Meta-principles for developing smart, sustainable, and healthy cities.

    PubMed

    Ramaswami, Anu; Russell, Armistead G; Culligan, Patricia J; Sharma, Karnamadakala Rahul; Kumar, Emani

    2016-05-20

    Policy directives in several nations are focusing on the development of smart cities, linking innovations in the data sciences with the goal of advancing human well-being and sustainability on a highly urbanized planet. To achieve this goal, smart initiatives must move beyond city-level data to a higher-order understanding of cities as transboundary, multisectoral, multiscalar, social-ecological-infrastructural systems with diverse actors, priorities, and solutions. We identify five key dimensions of cities and present eight principles to focus attention on the systems-level decisions that society faces to transition toward a smart, sustainable, and healthy urban future.

  13. Expedition 35/36 Crew Departs Star City

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 35 Flight Enginners Chris Cassidy, Pavel Vinogradov and Alexander Misurkin participated in traditional ceremonies at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City, Russia outside Mo...

  14. Meta-principles for developing smart, sustainable, and healthy cities.

    PubMed

    Ramaswami, Anu; Russell, Armistead G; Culligan, Patricia J; Sharma, Karnamadakala Rahul; Kumar, Emani

    2016-05-20

    Policy directives in several nations are focusing on the development of smart cities, linking innovations in the data sciences with the goal of advancing human well-being and sustainability on a highly urbanized planet. To achieve this goal, smart initiatives must move beyond city-level data to a higher-order understanding of cities as transboundary, multisectoral, multiscalar, social-ecological-infrastructural systems with diverse actors, priorities, and solutions. We identify five key dimensions of cities and present eight principles to focus attention on the systems-level decisions that society faces to transition toward a smart, sustainable, and healthy urban future. PMID:27199418

  15. Gasoline marketing: Octane mislabeling in New York City

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The problem of octane mislabeling at gasoline stations in New York City has grown - from 46 or fewer citations in 1981 to 171 citations in 1986. No single source of octane mislabeling exists but the city has found both gasoline station operators and fuel distributors to blame. The problem does not seem to be unique to any one type of gasoline station but 57 percent of the 171 citations issued involved gasoline sold under the name of a major refiner; the rest involved unbranded gasoline. Octane cheating can be lucrative in New York City. A station intentionally mislabeling its gasoline could realize amounts many times the city's maximum $500 fine for cheating.

  16. Tri-Cities Index of Innovation and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, Richard A.; Scott, Michael J.; Butner, Ryan S.

    2011-01-17

    In 2001 and 2004, the Economic Development Office of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory published companion reports to the Washington Technology Center Index studies that provided additional information on the Tri-Cities (Kennewick-Richland-Pasco) area of the state, its technology businesses, and important advantages that the Tri-Cities have as places to live and do business. These reports also compared the Tri-Cities area to other technology-based metropolitan areas in the Pacific Northwest and nation along critical dimensions known to be important to technology firms. This report updates the material in these earlier reports, and highlights a growing Tri-Cities metropolitan area.

  17. Using Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis in Assessing Seismic Risk for Taipei City and New Taipei City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Ming-Kai; Wang, Yu-Ju; Cheng, Chin-Tung; Ma, Kuo-Fong; Ke, Siao-Syun

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we evaluate the seismic hazard and risk for Taipei city and new Taipei city, which are important municipalities and the most populous cities in Taiwan. The evaluation of seismic risk involves the combination of three main components: probabilistic seismic hazard model, exposure model defining the spatial distribution of elements exposed to the hazard and vulnerability functions capable of describing the distribution of percentage of loss for a set of intensity measure levels. Seismic hazard at Taipei city and New Taipei city assumed as the hazard maps are presented in terms of ground motion values expected to be exceed at a 10% probability level in 50 years (return period 475 years) and a 2% probability level in 50 years (return period 2475 years) according to the Taiwan Earthquake Model (TEM), which assesses two seismic hazard models for Taiwan. The first model adopted the source parameters of 38 seismogenic structures identified by the TEM geologists. The other model considered 33 active faults and was published by the Central Geological Survey (CGS), Taiwan, in 2010. The 500m by 500m Grid-based building data were selected for the evaluation which capable of providing detail information about the location, value and vulnerability classification of the exposed elements. The results from this study were evaluated by the Openquake engine, the open-source software for seismic risk and hazard assessment developed within the global earthquake model (GEM) initiative. Our intention is to give the first attempt on the modeling the seismic risk from hazard in an open platform for Taiwan. An analysis through disaggregation of hazard components will be also made to prioritize the risk for further policy making.

  18. Determining the bioclimatic comfort in Kastamonu City.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Mehmet

    2015-10-01

    Bioclimatic comfort defines the optimal climatic conditions in which people feel healthy and dynamic. Bioclimatic comfort mapping methods are useful to urban managers and planners. For the purposes of planning, climatic conditions, as determined by bioclimatic comfort assessments, are important. Bioclimatic components such as temperature, relative humidity, and wind speeds are important in evaluating bioclimatic comfort. In this study of the climate of Kastamonu province, the most suitable areas in terms of bioclimatic comfort have been identified. In this context, climate values belonging to the province of Kastamonu are taken from a total of nine meteorological stations. Altitude (36-1050 m) between stations is noted for revealing climatic changes. The data collected from these stations, including average temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed values are transferred to geographical information system (GIS) using ArcMap 10.2.2 software. GIS maps created from the imported data has designated the most suitable comfort areas in and around the city of Kastamonu. As a result, the study shows that Kastamonu has suitable ranges for bioclimatic comfort zone. The range of bioclimatic comfort value for Kastamonu is 17.6 °C. It is between a comfort ranges which is 15-20 °C. Kastamonu City has suitable area for bioclimatic comfort. PMID:26400090

  19. Municipal solid waste management in Beijing City

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhenshan Yang Lei; Qu XiaoYan; Sui Yumei

    2009-09-15

    This paper presents an overview of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Beijing City. Beijing, the capital of China, has a land area of approximately 1368.32 km{sup 2} with an urban population of about 13.33 million in 2006. Over the past three decades, MSW generation in Beijing City has increased tremendously from 1.04 million tons in 1978 to 4.134 million tons in 2006. The average generation rate of MSW in 2006 was 0.85 kg/capita/day. Food waste comprised 63.39%, followed by paper (11.07%), plastics (12.7%) and dust (5.78%). While all other wastes including tiles, textiles, glass, metals and wood accounted for less than 3%. Currently, 90% of MSW generated in Beijing is landfilled, 8% is incinerated and 2% is composted. Source separation collection, as a waste reduction method, has been carried out in a total of 2255 demonstration residential and commercial areas (covering about 4.7 million people) up to the end of 2007. Demonstration districts should be promoted over a wider range instead of demonstration communities. The capacity of transfer stations and treatment plants is an urgent problem as these sites are seriously overloaded. These problems should first be solved by constructing more sites and converting to new treatment technologies. Improvements in legislation, public education and the management of waste pickers are problematic issues which need to be addressed.

  20. Determining the bioclimatic comfort in Kastamonu City.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Mehmet

    2015-10-01

    Bioclimatic comfort defines the optimal climatic conditions in which people feel healthy and dynamic. Bioclimatic comfort mapping methods are useful to urban managers and planners. For the purposes of planning, climatic conditions, as determined by bioclimatic comfort assessments, are important. Bioclimatic components such as temperature, relative humidity, and wind speeds are important in evaluating bioclimatic comfort. In this study of the climate of Kastamonu province, the most suitable areas in terms of bioclimatic comfort have been identified. In this context, climate values belonging to the province of Kastamonu are taken from a total of nine meteorological stations. Altitude (36-1050 m) between stations is noted for revealing climatic changes. The data collected from these stations, including average temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed values are transferred to geographical information system (GIS) using ArcMap 10.2.2 software. GIS maps created from the imported data has designated the most suitable comfort areas in and around the city of Kastamonu. As a result, the study shows that Kastamonu has suitable ranges for bioclimatic comfort zone. The range of bioclimatic comfort value for Kastamonu is 17.6 °C. It is between a comfort ranges which is 15-20 °C. Kastamonu City has suitable area for bioclimatic comfort.

  1. Project WISH: The Emerald City, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the Permanently Manned Autonomous Space Oasis, designated Project WISH: The Emerald City, is to serve as permanent living quarters for space colonists. In addition, it will serve as a stopover for space missions and will be capable of restationing itself practically anywhere within the solar system to provide support for these missions. The station should be self-sufficient, with no specific dependence on any resources from Earth. The 1990 to 1991 design team continued work started by last year's class. Further studies were conducted in the areas of orbital mechanics, propulsion, attitude control, and human factors. Critical elements were identified in each of these areas, and guidelines were established for the design of the Emerald City. Using the knowledge gained from these studies, two particular missions of interest, a Saturn Envelope mission and an Earth to Mars mission, were examined. The size and mass estimates, along with the methodologies used in their determination, are considered to be the main accomplishments of phase 2.

  2. Fatal gunshot injuries in Benin City, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akhiwu, Wilson O; Igbe, Alex P

    2013-10-01

    An upsurge in gun violence in recent times in our environment necessitated this study, which aims to document the patterns of fatal gunshot injuries with the hope of finding a solution to this problem. The study was a retrospective analysis of cases of fatal gunshot injuries on which autopsies were carried out over the 5-year period from January 1998 to December 2002 at Police Medical Services, Benin City - a Nigerian ancient town located in the South-South zone of the country. Most cases of medico-legal death in Benin City and environs are referred to the Police Pathologist at the center for autopsy. A total of 210 cases representing 27.2% of all medico-legal deaths during the study period were reviewed. Males were far more affected than females (M:F = 10.7:1). The intent for the fatal gunshots was murder (88.5%), excusable homicide (4.8%), accident (4.3%) and suicide (0.5%). In 1.9% of the deaths, the circumstances were not clear. Armed robbers, thugs and assassins accounted for 88.1% of the fatal shots, while the Police accounted for 9.0%. The trunk was affected much more than the head, neck and limbs. There is a need to improve security in the country and reduce poverty. Illegal firearms should also be removed from circulation. An improvement in emergency health services will reduce deaths from gunshots.

  3. Subsurface urban heat islands in German cities.

    PubMed

    Menberg, Kathrin; Bayer, Peter; Zosseder, Kai; Rumohr, Sven; Blum, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the intensity and extension of subsurface urban heat islands (UHI), and the individual role of the driving factors has not been revealed either. In this study, we compare groundwater temperatures in shallow aquifers beneath six German cities of different size (Berlin, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Karlsruhe and Darmstadt). It is revealed that hotspots of up to +20K often exist, which stem from very local heat sources, such as insufficiently insulated power plants, landfills or open geothermal systems. When visualizing the regional conditions in isotherm maps, mostly a concentric picture is found with the highest temperatures in the city centers. This reflects the long-term accumulation of thermal energy over several centuries and the interplay of various factors, particularly in heat loss from basements, elevated ground surface temperatures (GST) and subsurface infrastructure. As a primary indicator to quantify and compare large-scale UHI intensity the 10-90%-quantile range UHII(10-90) of the temperature distribution is introduced. The latter reveals, in comparison to annual atmospheric UHI intensities, an even more pronounced heating of the shallow subsurface.

  4. Seismic hazard analysis for Jayapura city, Papua

    SciTech Connect

    Robiana, R. Cipta, A.

    2015-04-24

    Jayapura city had destructive earthquake which occurred on June 25, 1976 with the maximum intensity VII MMI scale. Probabilistic methods are used to determine the earthquake hazard by considering all possible earthquakes that can occur in this region. Earthquake source models using three types of source models are subduction model; comes from the New Guinea Trench subduction zone (North Papuan Thrust), fault models; derived from fault Yapen, TareraAiduna, Wamena, Memberamo, Waipago, Jayapura, and Jayawijaya, and 7 background models to accommodate unknown earthquakes. Amplification factor using geomorphological approaches are corrected by the measurement data. This data is related to rock type and depth of soft soil. Site class in Jayapura city can be grouped into classes B, C, D and E, with the amplification between 0.5 – 6. Hazard maps are presented with a 10% probability of earthquake occurrence within a period of 500 years for the dominant periods of 0.0, 0.2, and 1.0 seconds.

  5. Subsurface urban heat islands in German cities.

    PubMed

    Menberg, Kathrin; Bayer, Peter; Zosseder, Kai; Rumohr, Sven; Blum, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the intensity and extension of subsurface urban heat islands (UHI), and the individual role of the driving factors has not been revealed either. In this study, we compare groundwater temperatures in shallow aquifers beneath six German cities of different size (Berlin, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Karlsruhe and Darmstadt). It is revealed that hotspots of up to +20K often exist, which stem from very local heat sources, such as insufficiently insulated power plants, landfills or open geothermal systems. When visualizing the regional conditions in isotherm maps, mostly a concentric picture is found with the highest temperatures in the city centers. This reflects the long-term accumulation of thermal energy over several centuries and the interplay of various factors, particularly in heat loss from basements, elevated ground surface temperatures (GST) and subsurface infrastructure. As a primary indicator to quantify and compare large-scale UHI intensity the 10-90%-quantile range UHII(10-90) of the temperature distribution is introduced. The latter reveals, in comparison to annual atmospheric UHI intensities, an even more pronounced heating of the shallow subsurface. PMID:23178772

  6. A Growing Anticline in Tainan City, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.; Lee, C.; Cheng, C.; Liao, C.; Wen, S.

    2001-12-01

    Tainan City has been known as an earthquake prone town since the early immigration of the ¡§Han¡" people from Mainland China about four hundred years ago. For the purpose of clarifying tectonic activity and paleo-earthquakes in the Tainan City area, we have finished the excavation of three trenches and the drilling of four holes at the so-called Houchiali Fault on the eastern margin of the Tainan tableland. We carefully observed the cores and exposures in the trenches, performed a detailed mapping, and took samples for C-14 dating and other types of analysis. The results show the trench sites are located at a flexure scarp without direct evidence of faulting. But, from the fact of tilting of Holocene sediments to about 50 degrees and the development of a fracture system in the sediments, one may realize that this is without doubt an active structure. We have tested many different models to interpret the observed geologic evidence in the trenches and outcrops, finally determined a growing fault-propagation fold model to be the best interpretation for the Tainan Anticline, while the Houchiali fault is a back-kink or a blind back-thrust type. A diapiric fold had been discussed as possible for a long time by many researchers, but a fault-propagation fold in origin does not contradict with a mud diapiric feature, which was formed during the folding. Field evidence shows that the main active phase of the Houchiali Fault and the Tainan Anticline would have been after the deposition of the Tainan Formation about two to three thousand years ago. During the active deformation phase, the Tawan Formation onlaped the Tainan Formation, as well as tilted during the folding, thus, beds on higher stratigraphic horizon show lower dip-angle. Estimated from a detailed geologic profile, the horizontal shortening of the anticline is estimated to be 30 meters. The vertical uplift of the Tainan Formation is also about 30 meters. This indicates that the deformation rate has been about 1

  7. Measuring Polycentricity of Mega-City Regions in China Based on the Intercity Migration Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Xiaoyan; Yeh, Anthony G. O.

    2016-06-01

    This paper uses the intercity migration flows to examine relations between Chinese cities, identify the important mega-city regions and measure each region's polycentricity from an interaction perspective. Data set contains the long-term residential migration trajectories of three million Sina weibo users across 345 cities. Cities with close connectivity deployed around one or several mega cities are identified as mega-city regions. Features of the mega-city regions are characterized by the strength of migration flows, density of connections, and regional migration patterns. The results show that the disparities exist in different mega-city regions; most mega-city regions are lack of polycentricity.

  8. Brazilian city planners, American city planning? New perspectives on urban planning in Rio de Janeiro, 1930-1945.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Vera F

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the connections between the ideas and principles of American city planning from 1920 with those articulated by Brazilian city planners in the 1930s and implemented by the administration of the City of Rio de Janeiro, then the capital of Brazil, notably during the period of the Estado Novo [The New State] from 1937 to 1945. In a period characterized by the centralization of political power and the concentration of decision-making in the hands of the president and the state, the City of Rio de Janeiro undertook a series of restructuring projects which utilized new forms of administration and organization. This article explores the links between urban planning in Brazil and the USA that were a notable feature of these projects. It examines particular requirements set down in city plans, city planning commissions and funding for urban activities, such as 'excess condemnation', by focusing upon articles and books written by four Brazilian engineers and proposals put forward by the American City Planning Institute, detailed in the proceedings of the National Conference on City Planning, in the periodical, City Planning and works by affiliated authors.

  9. Integrating Dynamic Data and Sensors with Semantic 3D City Models in the Context of Smart Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, K.; Kolbe, T. H.

    2016-10-01

    Smart cities provide effective integration of human, physical and digital systems operating in the built environment. The advancements in city and landscape models, sensor web technologies, and simulation methods play a significant role in city analyses and improving quality of life of citizens and governance of cities. Semantic 3D city models can provide substantial benefits and can become a central information backbone for smart city infrastructures. However, current generation semantic 3D city models are static in nature and do not support dynamic properties and sensor observations. In this paper, we propose a new concept called Dynamizer allowing to represent highly dynamic data and providing a method for injecting dynamic variations of city object properties into the static representation. The approach also provides direct capability to model complex patterns based on statistics and general rules and also, real-time sensor observations. The concept is implemented as an Application Domain Extension for the CityGML standard. However, it could also be applied to other GML-based application schemas including the European INSPIRE data themes and national standards for topography and cadasters like the British Ordnance Survey Mastermap or the German cadaster standard ALKIS.

  10. [Demography of Mexico City. The same problems with less population].

    PubMed

    Camposortega Cruz, S

    1991-01-01

    The Mexico City metropolitan area currently extends over 4451.2 sq km, completely covering the Federal District and 27 municipios in the state of Mexico. The current population of the Mexico City metropolitan area is estimated at about 16.1 million and its growth rate at approximately 2%/year. The crude birth rate is 24/1000 and the crude death rate 6/1000. The metropolitan Mexico City population represents 18.6% of the total Mexican population. Mexico's other large cities fall far behind in total population, Guadalajara with 3.16 million, Monterrey with 2.77 million, and Puebla with 1.5 million. Mexico City is 1 of the 5 largest cities of the world. Estimates of the current Mexico City population differ substantially from projections completed in the 1980s, which calculated populations of 19-22 million. The explanation of the difference lies primarily in overestimation of the metropolitan population in the 1980 census, the basis for the projections. Preliminary data from the 1990 census, data from the 1987 National Fertility and Health Survey, vital statistics, and some data on internal migration allow a preliminary correction of calculations relating to Mexico's population dynamics. During the 20th century, Mexico City's population has grown from 345,000 in 1900 to 1,029,000 in 1930, 3,136,000 in 1950, 9,045,000 in 1970, and 15,785,000 in 1990. The most rapid growth occurred in 1930-70, when the population grew by more than 5% annually. The growth rate declined to 3.65% between 1970-80 and according to preliminary estimated to 1.92% in 1980-90. Factors explaining the declining growth rate may include the fertility decline in Mexico City, reorientation of migration away from Mexico City and toward inntermediate cities with under 1 million inhabitants, and departures from Mexico City caused by the 1985 earthquakes, private and public decentralization policies, pollution, and other factos which have reduced the attractiveness of the capital. The reevised

  11. Virtual 3d City Modeling: Techniques and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2013-08-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as Building, Tree, Vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. There are various terms used for 3D city models such as "Cybertown", "Cybercity", "Virtual City", or "Digital City". 3D city models are basically a computerized or digital model of a city contains the graphic representation of buildings and other objects in 2.5 or 3D. Generally three main Geomatics approach are using for Virtual 3-D City models generation, in first approach, researcher are using Conventional techniques such as Vector Map data, DEM, Aerial images, second approach are based on High resolution satellite images with LASER scanning, In third method, many researcher are using Terrestrial images by using Close Range Photogrammetry with DSM & Texture mapping. We start this paper from the introduction of various Geomatics techniques for 3D City modeling. These techniques divided in to two main categories: one is based on Automation (Automatic, Semi-automatic and Manual methods), and another is Based on Data input techniques (one is Photogrammetry, another is Laser Techniques). After details study of this, finally in short, we are trying to give the conclusions of this study. In the last, we are trying to give the conclusions of this research paper and also giving a short view for justification and analysis, and present trend for 3D City modeling. This paper gives an overview about the Techniques related with "Generation of Virtual 3-D City models using Geomatics Techniques" and the Applications of Virtual 3D City models. Photogrammetry, (Close range, Aerial, Satellite), Lasergrammetry, GPS, or combination of these modern Geomatics techniques play a major role to create a virtual 3-D City model. Each and every techniques and method has some advantages and some drawbacks. Point cloud model is a modern trend for virtual 3-D city model. Photo-realistic, Scalable, Geo-referenced virtual 3

  12. Population-Area Relationship for Medieval European Cities

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, José; Bettencourt, Luís M. A.; Ortman, Scott G.; Smith, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Medieval European urbanization presents a line of continuity between earlier cities and modern European urban systems. Yet, many of the spatial, political and economic features of medieval European cities were particular to the Middle Ages, and subsequently changed over the Early Modern Period and Industrial Revolution. There is a long tradition of demographic studies estimating the population sizes of medieval European cities, and comparative analyses of these data have shed much light on the long-term evolution of urban systems. However, the next step—to systematically relate the population size of these cities to their spatial and socioeconomic characteristics—has seldom been taken. This raises a series of interesting questions, as both modern and ancient cities have been observed to obey area-population relationships predicted by settlement scaling theory. To address these questions, we analyze a new dataset for the settled area and population of 173 European cities from the early fourteenth century to determine the relationship between population and settled area. To interpret this data, we develop two related models that lead to differing predictions regarding the quantitative form of the population-area relationship, depending on the level of social mixing present in these cities. Our empirical estimates of model parameters show a strong densification of cities with city population size, consistent with patterns in contemporary cities. Although social life in medieval Europe was orchestrated by hierarchical institutions (e.g., guilds, church, municipal organizations), our results show no statistically significant influence of these institutions on agglomeration effects. The similarities between the empirical patterns of settlement relating area to population observed here support the hypothesis that cities throughout history share common principles of organization that self-consistently relate their socioeconomic networks to structured urban spaces. PMID

  13. Salt Lake City, Utah, Winter 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This simulated natural color image presents a snowy, winter view of north central Utah that includes all of the Olympic sites. The image extends from Ogden in the north, to Provo in the south; and includes the snow-capped Wasatch Mountains and the eastern part of the Great Salt Lake.

    This image was acquired on February 8, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal

  14. Genesis of the City Flood Queretaro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosa, E. G.; Salinas, N. R.

    2013-12-01

    In 1446 the emperor Moctezuma Ihuicamina talked about of the Queretaro region, which was northern border of their empire (From Torquemeda, 1975). Septien (1999, page 17, Volume 1). "The news that came the Otomi region, spoken the good soil fertility of the Querétaro valley, being an attractive to this place". The aims research is show how the from foundation of the prehispanic period the city of Santiago Queretaro was marked by the development and growth, and as fascinating Mexico historical events recorded their urban-hydraulic direction shows a clear symbiosis between the model prehispanic and colonial urban was conceived it as a compact core, it is currently set to modern urbanization, fragmenting the natural system of the hydrologic surface runoff , adapting and adopting solutions that break the natural equilibrium of the valley Queretaro. In the period 1970-2003 in Mexico 1744 floods was reported but in Queretaro occurred only 10 floods because in 22nd place ranking by frequency of floods, Matias Ramirez et al (2006). Since the foundation of Santiago de Querétaro (1455) the changes of uses soils and the construction of channels had caused the strangulation of city, without regarding the natural of the ways of water of the river Querétaro, so occupied by collectors or drains that also constriction the system of urban water of city of Queretaro that breakdowns with the architecture and natural ways of water. Similarly, historical tracking flooding is not only an exploration of public actions on the implementation of protection works, but also updates the concept of cultural heritage, as fixed and cultivates social memory of the preservation of knowledge the territory. Every time a flood comes increasing concern of whether it corresponds to situations already lived. The flood occurred last February 2010 that affected five delegations besides Querétaro Historic Center (Alameda), the Arquitos, Quintas del Marques, among other colonies, is testimony to the

  15. Trends in Birth Rates: New York City 1970-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Madelon L.; Elkin, Elena

    2001-01-01

    Examined teen birth rates in New York City health districts over 25 years, noting ethnic variations. Data from Department of Health vital statistics indicated that the decline in the birth rate among New York City teens was most significant in health districts populated predominantly by blacks. There were substantial decreases among older teens…

  16. State of the Child: New York City II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lash, Trude W.; And Others

    Part I of this report is organized around six dimensions of the quality of life of children in New York City: the demography of the City, the characteristics of families with children, children's health, children's ability to learn, the situation of children living away from home, and crimes committed against and by children. Public expenditures…

  17. Central City White Flight: Racial and Nonracial Causes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, William H.

    The cumulative adverse impact of residential white flight from large central cities on the residual population has led policy makers to be wary of instituting programs which will further exacerbate the process. Recent policy debates have evolved over the question of whether white city-to-suburb movement is affected more significantly by…

  18. The University and the Inner City: A Redefinition of Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spikes, W. Franklin, Ed.

    The university and the inner city is examined in this collection of papers. Chapters include: Establishing an Urban Commuter University: The Need for Community (Reynold Feldman and Barbara Hursh); Adult and Community Education: Mobilizing the Resources of the City (Roger Hiemstra); The Arts and Humanities in an Urban Environment (Neil Rudin);…

  19. Healthy cities: overview of a WHO international program.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, G

    2000-01-01

    Health is the outcome of all the factors and activities impinging upon the lives of individuals and communities. The last decade has seen an emerging understanding within development circles that living conditions are greatly affected by local action, by the work of local government, and by community groups and organizations. In addressing health and environmental issues and making interventions, an integrated approach, based on 'settings', exemplified in the Healthy Cities approach, has proved most effective. A Healthy City project can involve people and organizations in the programs and activities that are needed for better health, and enables a city or neighborhood to mobilize the human and financial resources required to address many health and quality of life issues. The WHO program involves implementating city projects and networks in all regions of the world and serves as a vehicle for many health programs, including major disease control initiatives. Healthy City projects allow Ministries of Health to develop stronger partnerships with local government organizations (such as the Union of Local Authorities and its members, "Local Agenda 21" initiatives, and others). One focus for the program is the development of 'multi-'multi-city action plans' for major global priority issues, including AIDS, sanitation, women's health, and violence, to ensure that major public health programs are strengthened by wider community participation. It is recognized that city networking--at national, regional, and international levels--now must be better exploited by individual cities and municipalities to solve local health problems. PMID:10939093

  20. Build an Earthquake City! Grades 6-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Erik; Ryan, Emily; Swift, Charles

    In this activity, students build a city out of sugar cubes, bouillon cubes, and gelatin cubes. The city is then put through simulated earthquakes to see which cube structures withstand the shaking the best. This activity requires a 50-minute time period for completion. (Author/SOE)

  1. From mobile phone data to the spatial structure of cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louail, Thomas; Lenormand, Maxime; Cantu Ros, Oliva G.; Picornell, Miguel; Herranz, Ricardo; Frias-Martinez, Enrique; Ramasco, José J.; Barthelemy, Marc

    2014-06-01

    Pervasive infrastructures, such as cell phone networks, enable to capture large amounts of human behavioral data but also provide information about the structure of cities and their dynamical properties. In this article, we focus on these last aspects by studying phone data recorded during 55 days in 31 Spanish cities. We first define an urban dilatation index which measures how the average distance between individuals evolves during the day, allowing us to highlight different types of city structure. We then focus on hotspots, the most crowded places in the city. We propose a parameter free method to detect them and to test the robustness of our results. The number of these hotspots scales sublinearly with the population size, a result in agreement with previous theoretical arguments and measures on employment datasets. We study the lifetime of these hotspots and show in particular that the hierarchy of permanent ones, which constitute the `heart' of the city, is very stable whatever the size of the city. The spatial structure of these hotspots is also of interest and allows us to distinguish different categories of cities, from monocentric and ``segregated'' where the spatial distribution is very dependent on land use, to polycentric where the spatial mixing between land uses is much more important. These results point towards the possibility of a new, quantitative classification of cities using high resolution spatio-temporal data.

  2. Chinese City Children and Youth's Walking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quan, Minghui; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie; Wang, Chao

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Although walking has been demonstrated as one of the best forms for promoting physical activity (PA), little is known about Chinese city children and youth's walking behavior. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess ambulatory PA behavior of Chinese city children and youth. Method: The daily steps of 2,751 children and…

  3. Development of Ecological Place Meaning in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ, Alex; Peters, Scott J.; Krasny, Marianne E.; Stedman, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    Urban environmental education helps students to recognize ecological features and practices of cities. To understand the value and practice of developing such ecological place meaning, we conducted narrative research with educators and students in urban environmental education programs in the Bronx, New York City. Narratives showed that educators…

  4. Salt Lake City, Utah: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Salt Lake City, UT, a 2007 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  5. 2. VIEW OF ATLANTIC CITY LOOKING NORTHNORTHWEST, THE MARLBOROUGH, BLENHEIM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF ATLANTIC CITY LOOKING NORTH-NORTHWEST, THE MARLBOROUGH, BLENHEIM AND DENNIS HOTELS ARE IN THE FOREGROUND TO THE LFET OF THE HIGHROSE CLARIDGE HOTEL IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH - Marlborough, Blenheim & Dennis Hotels (aerial views), Between Park Place, Michigan Avenue & Boardwalk, Atlantic City, Atlantic County, NJ

  6. 1. VIEW OF ATLANTIC CITY LOOKING NORTHNORTHWEST, THE MARLBOROGH, BLENHEIM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF ATLANTIC CITY LOOKING NORTH-NORTHWEST, THE MARLBOROGH, BLENHEIM, AND DENNIS HOTELS ARE IN THE FOREGROUND TO THE LEFT OF THE HIGHRISE CLARIDGE HOTEL IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH - Marlborough, Blenheim & Dennis Hotels (aerial views), Between Park Place, Michigan Avenue & Boardwalk, Atlantic City, Atlantic County, NJ

  7. Revitalizing Education in the Big Cities. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morphet, Edgar L.; And Others

    This report is concerned with the problems and procedures relative to planning and effecting needed improvements in big city education and is based on the assumption that States should continue to be primarily responsible for education. Five authors discuss (1) big city education: its challenge to governance; (2) urban learning environments,…

  8. Connecting Londoners with Their City through Digital Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Frazer

    2013-01-01

    London is one of the most complex, dynamic and diverse cities in the world, with 8 million residents, over 300 languages spoken in its schools, and some 30 million overseas visitors every year. Reaching out to and connecting all these people with the city's heritage while catering to their many interests, motivations and learning needs is a huge…

  9. Distress in the City: Racism, Fundamentalism and a Democratic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Linden

    2016-01-01

    Every day brings news about so-called Islamic State and its seduction of young people in the West. The radicalization of young Muslims causes alarm; even the desirability of multiculturalism is questioned in troubled cities where racism and Islamophobia are on the rise. This book is a case study of one distressed post-industrial city struggling…

  10. Population Growth and Policies in Mega-Cities. Sao Paulo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations New York, NY. Dept. of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis.

    This document is one in a series of studies that focus on the population policies and plans of a number of mega-cities in developing countries. The object of the series is to examine the formulation, implementation, and evaluation of the population policies of mega-cities from a broad perspective, emphasizing the reciprocal links between…

  11. Education Empowerment Zones: Revitalizing Ohios Cities through School Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Joshua C.; Staley, Samuel R.; Hisrich, Matthew S.; Barry, Aengus L.

    This study proposes the creation of Education Empowerment Zones (EEZs) in Ohio's major cities as part of a strategy to reestablish the competitive advantage of the inner city. Combining community schools and an expanded education voucher available to the middle class, EEZs could lead revitalizing efforts by enticing middle-income families with…

  12. Medicaid Home Care Services and Survival in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Steven M.; Simone, Bridget; Brassard, Andrea; Stern, Yaakov; Mayeux, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: New York City's Medicaid Home Care Services Program provides an integrated program of housekeeping and personal assistance care along with regular nursing assessments. We sought to determine if this program of supportive care offers a survival benefit to older adults. Design and Methods: Administrative data from New York City's Medicaid…

  13. 75 FR 71523 - National Farm-City Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-29800 Filed 11-23-10... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8605 of November 19, 2010 National Farm-City Week, 2010 By the President of... environmentally sustainable way of life for future generations. During National Farm-City Week, we recognize...

  14. Deja Vu: Family Homelessness in New York City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Children and Poverty, New York, NY.

    This report describes family homelessness in New York City, which has risen sharply since 1980. Currently, the City's family shelter system is at capacity. Homeless children are typically raised by single mothers who receive no child support, are 27 years old, are unemployed and receiving welfare, and have had at least one public assistance…

  15. Understanding Expanded School Mental Health Services in Baltimore City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walrath, Christine M.; Bruns, Eric J.; Anderson, Karyn L.; Glass-Siegal, Marcia; Weist, Mark D.

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the nature of expanded school mental health (ESMH) services in Baltimore City, which at the time of the study were incorporated into 40% of the citys public schools. A provider survey was distributed to ESMH clinicians to gather information on the characteristics of service providers and recipients, types of services being…

  16. Development of Metropolitan (CITY III) Model. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Peter

    CITY III, a computer-assisted simulation model to be used in the study of complex interactions and consequences of public and private decision-making in an urban setting, is described in this report. The users of the model, with the help of a computer, become public and private decision-makers in a simulated city and, by interacting with one…

  17. Urban land expansion in Quanzhou City, China, 1995-2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With its phenomenal development in recent decades, urbanization in China has been covered in a large number of studies. These studies have focused on large cities, with smaller and lesser known cities largely overlooked. This study analyzed the spatiotemporal changes of land use in Quanzhou, a histo...

  18. Demographic Disparities of Inner-City Eighth Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Samuel S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Develops a definition of inner-city children based on community location and poverty level, and applies this definition to eighth grade data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988. Inner-city students differ from others in racial and ethnic backgrounds, family incomes, parents' education and employment, and family composition. (SLD)

  19. Cities: A Window into Larger and Smaller Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sassen, Saskia

    2012-01-01

    Cities are complex systems. But they are incomplete systems. In this incompleteness lies the possibility of making--making the urban, the political, the civic, a history. The urban is not alone in having these characteristics, but these characteristics are a necessary part of the DNA of the urban. Every city is distinct and so is every discipline…

  20. 19. Photocopy of original Drawing by City Engineer's Office, 1903 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photocopy of original Drawing by City Engineer's Office, 1903 (original in possession of City Engineer's Office, Grand Rapids, Michigan) PLANS FOR BRIDGE STREET BRIDGE ACROSS GRAND RIVEER AT GRAND RAPIDS, MICHIGAN, APRIL 17, 1903, PLAN 2 - SHEET 1. - Bridge Street Bridge, Spanning Grand River, Michigan & Bridge Streets, Grand Rapids, MI