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Sample records for civil defence commission

  1. Towards an internet civil defence against bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    LaPorte, R E; Sauer, F; Dearwater, S; Sekikawa, A; Sa, E R; Aaron, D; Shubnikov, E

    2001-09-01

    Approaches towards the public-health prevention of bioterrorism are too little, and too late. New information-based approaches could yield better homeland protection. An internet civil defence is presented where millions of eyes could help to identify suspected cases of bioterrorism, with the internet used to report, confirm, and prevent outbreaks.

  2. The Civil Rights Commission Must Persist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Gerald A.

    2007-01-01

    Columnist George Will and others have questioned the continuing need for a federal civil rights commission, because civil rights protections have been on the books since 1964. The chairman of the Commission, Gerald Reynolds, here responds that practitioners of critical legal theory, advocates of the Akaka-Secession bill, some proponents of…

  3. The Civil Rights Commission Must Persist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Gerald A.

    2007-01-01

    Columnist George Will and others have questioned the continuing need for a federal civil rights commission, because civil rights protections have been on the books since 1964. The chairman of the Commission, Gerald Reynolds, here responds that practitioners of critical legal theory, advocates of the Akaka-Secession bill, some proponents of…

  4. Doctors' attitudes on civil defence and nuclear weapon issues.

    PubMed

    Hunter-Brown, I H

    1989-01-01

    97 out of 219 doctors responded to a questionnaire on medical aspects of nuclear weapons. A majority of the respondents considered that the then-current civil defence planning was not a valuable use of National Health Service resources, and that an attack with nuclear weapons would cause a degree of suffering beyond the profession's capacity to treat; thought doctors should have a special voice on nuclear issues; and believed Britain should not be increasing its nuclear weapons, and that if expenditure on them were reduced, the savings should go on health. The high support for organizations like MAPW was gratifying.

  5. Civil Defence Pedagogies and Narratives of Democracy: Disaster Education in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadderton, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    "Disaster education" is a fledgling area of study in lifelong education. Many countries educate their populations for disasters, to mitigate potential damage and loss of life, as well as contribute to national security. In this paper, which draws on interview data from the German Federal Office for Civil Defence and Disaster Assistance…

  6. Civil Defence Pedagogies and Narratives of Democracy: Disaster Education in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadderton, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    "Disaster education" is a fledgling area of study in lifelong education. Many countries educate their populations for disasters, to mitigate potential damage and loss of life, as well as contribute to national security. In this paper, which draws on interview data from the German Federal Office for Civil Defence and Disaster Assistance…

  7. Protect and Survive: "Whiteness" and the Middle-Class Family in Civil Defence Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, John

    2008-01-01

    "Civil defence pedagogies" normalise continuous emergency through educational channels such as school, community and adult education. Using critical whiteness studies, and critiques of white supremacy from critical race theory, as a conceptual base, the protection of whiteness, and particularly the white middle-class family, is considered to be…

  8. Protect and Survive: "Whiteness" and the Middle-Class Family in Civil Defence Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, John

    2008-01-01

    "Civil defence pedagogies" normalise continuous emergency through educational channels such as school, community and adult education. Using critical whiteness studies, and critiques of white supremacy from critical race theory, as a conceptual base, the protection of whiteness, and particularly the white middle-class family, is considered to be…

  9. STUDY OF SHOCK ISOLATION METHODS FOR CIVIL DEFENCE SHELTERS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    defense shelters for protection of personnel and equipment against ground shock effects from nuclear weapons. The report includes a comprehensive review of...The results are presented of a study devoted to the establishment of basic criteria and shock isolation techniques applicable to hardened civil

  10. U.S. Commission on Civil Rights: Concerns about Commission Operations. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. General Government Div.

    This report reviews the following aspects of the United States Commission on Civil Rights from 1978 through 1985: (1) employment trends; (2) hiring and use of consultant, temporary, and Schedule C employees; (3) referrals from state employment service offices; (4) affirmative action; (5) awards and promotions; (6) commissioners' and special…

  11. The State of Civil Rights: 1977. A Report of the United States Commission on Civil Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    This report reviews executive, legislative, and judicial actions, and other developments, favorable and unfavorable, that the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights considers critical to the national goals of eliminating discrimination and enhancing equal opportunity for all Americans. The areas of opportunity examined are employment, education, housing,…

  12. The State of Civil Rights: 1977. A Report of the United States Commission on Civil Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    This report reviews executive, legislative, and judicial actions, and other developments, favorable and unfavorable, that the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights considers critical to the national goals of eliminating discrimination and enhancing equal opportunity for all Americans. The areas of opportunity examined are employment, education, housing,…

  13. 16 CFR 1.94 - Commission proceeding to assess civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commission proceeding to assess civil penalty. 1.94 Section 1.94 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Penalties for Violation of Appliance Labeling Rules § 1.94 Commission proceeding to assess civil penalty. If the...

  14. Residential housing and nuclear attack: The ineffectiveness of current civil defence measures

    SciTech Connect

    Diacon, D.

    1985-01-01

    Diane Diacon of the Building and Social Housing Foundation has conducted an independent investigation of the question, and in this book she sums up the results. She first examines the nature of nuclear attack, and then goes on to explore the usefulness of specially-designed nuclear shelters and the likely disruption of essential services in the case of war. She concludes that the protection afforded by residential housing is in fact extremely poor, and that the civil defence measures contemplated by government bureaucrats are likely to be utterly ineffective.

  15. The Test of Our Progress: The Clinton Record on Civil Rights. Report of the Citizens' Commission on Civil Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Corinne M., Ed.; Taylor, William L., Ed.

    The first part of this report consists of the findings of the Citizens' Commission on Civil Rights on the record of the Clinton administration on civil rights. Six years into President Clinton's term, he continues to speak with understanding and empathy about the plight of people trapped in racial and ethnic isolation, but his administration has…

  16. A Golden Age of Security and Education? Adult Education for Civil Defence in the United States 1950-1970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, John

    2015-01-01

    A number of authors consider that the early period of US security and education (1950-1970) was in some way a "golden age" where there was a prevailing societal orientation towards civil defence. This is supported, to some extent, through "Duck and Cover" type activities in schools and in community preparedness efforts. This…

  17. A Golden Age of Security and Education? Adult Education for Civil Defence in the United States 1950-1970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, John

    2015-01-01

    A number of authors consider that the early period of US security and education (1950-1970) was in some way a "golden age" where there was a prevailing societal orientation towards civil defence. This is supported, to some extent, through "Duck and Cover" type activities in schools and in community preparedness efforts. This…

  18. The Continuing Struggle: Civil Rights and the Clinton Administration. Report of the Citizens' Commission on Civil Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Corrine M., Ed.; Taylor, William L., Ed.

    In 1993 the Citizens' Commission on Civil Rights concluded that the election of Bill Clinton as President presented a new opportunity to work toward equal opportunity. In 1995, at the midpoint of his first term, the Commission identified the new and often formidable challenges his administration was facing in dealing with issues of equal…

  19. The United States Commission on Civil Rights Statement on Affirmative Action. Clearinghouse Publication 54.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    In this position paper on affirmative action prepared by the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights it is noted that the single most important occurrence in the evolution of equal employment law was the recognition by the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and the Supreme Court of the U.S. that the mandate of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 could…

  20. Hearing Before the United States Commission on Civil Rights (Phoenix, Arizona, November 17-18, 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights held two days of hearings in Phoenix to investigate the civil rights status of Arizona Indian Tribes, to ascertain the nature and extent of their problems, and to try to arrive at a means to rectify those problems. The testimony offered at the public session came from representatives of local, state, Federal and…

  1. Hearing Before the United States Commission on Civil Rights (Phoenix, Arizona, November 17-18, 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights held two days of hearings in Phoenix to investigate the civil rights status of Arizona Indian Tribes, to ascertain the nature and extent of their problems, and to try to arrive at a means to rectify those problems. The testimony offered at the public session came from representatives of local, state, Federal and…

  2. Statement before the Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, on the Operations of the United States Commission on Civil Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, William J.

    This report presents the findings of an investigation and audit of certain aspects of the operations of the United States Commission on Civil Rights commissioned by the Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights. First, each allegation made against the Commission is briefly outlined and then findings are discussed…

  3. The Tarnished Golden Door: Civil Rights Issues in Immigration; A Report of the United States Commission on Civil Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    This report represents the findings and conclusions of the United States Commission on Civil Rights with respect to the administration of justice in the enforcement of the immigration laws of the United States. The first section discusses past and present discriminatory provisions of immigration laws. The second section focuses on problems in the…

  4. "Commissioned by God": Mother Bickerdyke during the Civil War.

    PubMed

    Sartin, Jeffrey S

    2003-10-01

    Mary Ann Bickerdyke, nurse, herbalist, and humanitarian, stood out as a singular figure during the American Civil War and afterward. She advocated nutrition and herbal medicines at a time when "heroic," if futile, treatments were often the rule. Her compassion toward ill soldiers was legendary and provided her with the nickname "Mother." Nevertheless, she did not hesitate to stand up to the bureaucratic and occasionally incompetent physician administrators who opposed her. Working in an arena typically off limits for women, she exceeded the bounds proscribed for her sex during the 19th century as a naturopathic physician, humanitarian, and social reformer.

  5. DORIS downstream service: a support to civil defence autorithies in landslides and subsidence risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciampalini, A.; Del Ventisette, C.; Moretti, S.; Manunta, M.; Calò, F.; Paglia, L.; Ardizzone, F.; Guzzetti, F.; Rossi, M.; Bellotti, F.; Colombo, D.; Strozzi, T.; Wegmuller, U.; Mora, O.; Sanches, F.

    2012-04-01

    , additional information on ground displacements through the generation of very long deformation time series, spanning an almost 20 year time interval by properly combining ERS-1, ERS-2 and ENVISAT data. In this work we present the preliminary results relevant to selected European areas (Umbria (Central Italy), Nebrodi (Sicily, Southern Italy), Zermatt (Switzerland), Silesian Coal basin (Poland), Mallorca (Spain) and Budapest basin (Hungary)) affected by ground deformation, highlighting as such EO data and technologies can significantly improve the ability of European Civil Defence authorities to assess and manage the risk induced by natural and man-made hazards.

  6. The Threshold of the State: Civil Defence, the Blackout and the Home in Second World War Britain.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, James

    2017-06-01

    This article reconsiders the way that the British state extended its control of the home during the Second World War, using the implementation of air raid precautions and the blackout as a lens through which to view the state's developing attitudes to domestic space. Presented here is not the familiar story of pitch-dark, dangerous streets or altered cityscapes of fear and destruction; instead, by examining personal testimony the article inverts traditional treatments of the blackout to look at the interior of dwellings, demonstrating how the realities of total warfare impinged upon the psychological elements that constituted the home. What emerges not only expands historical understandings of the wartime experience of civilians, it also shows civil defence measures as highly visible points on an often antagonistic trajectory of state interactions with citizens concerning the privacy and security of the dwelling in the modern city. The requirements of civil defence, I argue, were not merely the product of exceptional wartime circumstances, but symptomatic of long-standing attempts to open up dwellings to state scrutiny. These attempts had both a significant pre-war lineage and, crucially, implications beyond the end of the war in private homes and on social housing estates. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Statement on Metropolitan School Desegregation; A Report of the United States Commission on Civil Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, William L.; And Others

    This report by the United States Commission on Civil Rights focuses on the desegregation of metropolitan schools. It begins by summarizing the research on the causes of racial isolation in metropolitan areas, and connects this research to issues raised in Milliken V. Bradley. In this case, the Supreme Court noted that legal decisions affecting…

  8. The Navajo Nation: An American Colony. A Report of the United States Commission on Civil Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Carol J.; Lewis, Hester

    The major portion of this report is devoted to the Anglo and American Indian testimony from the 1973 Commission on Civil Rights Hearings on Navajo economic development, employment, education, and health care. Among the major recommendations cited are those calling for: (1) legal recognition of the Navajo Tribal Council to provide for favorable tax…

  9. Hearing Before the United States Commission on Civil Rights, San Antonio, Texas, December 9-14, 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    The United States Commission on Civil Rights held hearings in San Antonio, Texas from December 9 to 14, 1968 under the authority of the Civil Rights Act of 1957. The purpose of the hearing was to collect information regarding the civil rights problems of Mexican Americans in the five Southwestern States. Of concern were the issues of education,…

  10. Hearing Before the United States Commission on Civil Rights, San Antonio, Texas, December 9-14, 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    The United States Commission on Civil Rights held hearings in San Antonio, Texas from December 9 to 14, 1968 under the authority of the Civil Rights Act of 1957. The purpose of the hearing was to collect information regarding the civil rights problems of Mexican Americans in the five Southwestern States. Of concern were the issues of education,…

  11. New Challenges: The Civil Rights Record of the Clinton Administration Mid-Term. Report of the Citizens' Commission on Civil Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Corrine M., Ed.; Taylor, William L., Ed.

    This report is the work of the Citizens' Commission on Civil Rights, a bipartisan group of former federal officials with responsibility for equal opportunity. Part 1 contains three chapters: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Executive Summary and Review"; and (3) "Recommendations of the Commission." Part 2 contains the…

  12. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 10 - Commission Policy Relating to the Acceptance of Settlements in Administrative and Civil Proceedings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... defendant wishes to continue to deny the allegations of the complaint or the findings of fact or conclusions..., the Commission makes uncontested findings of fact and conclusions of law. Similarly, in settling a civil proceeding with a defendant the Commission invites the federal court to make conclusions of law...

  13. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 10 - Commission Policy Relating to the Acceptance of Settlements in Administrative and Civil Proceedings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... defendant wishes to continue to deny the allegations of the complaint or the findings of fact or conclusions..., the Commission makes uncontested findings of fact and conclusions of law. Similarly, in settling a civil proceeding with a defendant the Commission invites the federal court to make conclusions of...

  14. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 10 - Commission Policy Relating to the Acceptance of Settlements in Administrative and Civil Proceedings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... defendant wishes to continue to deny the allegations of the complaint or the findings of fact or conclusions..., the Commission makes uncontested findings of fact and conclusions of law. Similarly, in settling a civil proceeding with a defendant the Commission invites the federal court to make conclusions of...

  15. Federal Civil Rights Commitments: An Assessment of Enforcement Resources and Performance. United States Commission on Civil Rights Clearinghouse Publication 82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    This report reviews, in the context of their budget and staff resources, selected activities of six Federal agencies with significant responsibility for enforcing civil rights laws. They are: (1) the Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights; (2) The Department of Health and Human Services' Office for Civil Rights; (3) the Department of…

  16. Commissions of audit in Australia: health system privatisation directives and civil conscription protections.

    PubMed

    Colton, Caroline; Faunce, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    The use of commissions of audit as vehicles to drive privatisation policy agendas in areas such as health service delivery has become popular with conservative federal and State governments. Such commissions have characteristically been established early in the terms of such governments with carefully planned terms of reference and membership. The policy directions they advocate, unlike election policies, have not come under the intense scrutiny, wide public debate or the opportunities for (dis)endorsement afforded by the electoral process. Governments do, however, anticipate and often accept recommendations from these reviews, and use them as justification to implement policy based on their findings. This highlights the power entrusted to review bodies and the risks to the public interest arising from limited public consultation. An example can be seen in the proposed privatisation of important aspects of Australia's public sector, particularly including those related to health systems delivery, currently entering a new iteration through the work of the National Commission of Audit appointed in October 2013. The NCA follows on from various State audit commissions which in recent years have directed the divestment of government responsibilities to the private and not-for-profit sectors. Through a discussion on the formation of policy frameworks by the NCA and the Queensland Commission of Audit, this column examines the ideological thrust of the commissions and how they synergise to produce a national directive on the future of public sector health services. The practical impacts on health service procurement and delivery in critical areas are examined, using the case of the federally contracted out medical service for asylum seekers and two hospitals in Western Australia, a State which is well advanced in the privatisation of public hospitals. The column then examines the release to the media early in the NCA's process of the submission to introduce a $6 general

  17. Consultation of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. (Washington, DC, June 6-7, 1984). Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    A result of the United States Commission on Civil Rights consultation on the concept of equal pay for work of comparable value, this publication presents all papers submitted by participants. The papers are: "The Earnings Gap in Historical Perspective" (Claudia Goldin); "Occupational Segregation and the Earnings Gap" (Andrea H.…

  18. Volume I: Testimony. Hearing Before the United States Commission on Civil Rights (Window Rock, Arizona, October 22-24, 1973).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1973

    Three days of hearings held on the Reservation at Window Rock, Arizona focused on the civil rights of the people of the Navajo Nation. Seeking to explore those areas of economic and social development in which the Navajo could better attain self-determination, the Commission heard testimony on economic development, private employment, health care,…

  19. Rights at Risk: Equality in an Age of Terrorism. Report of the Citizens' Commission on Civil Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piche, Dianne M., Ed.; Taylor, William L., Ed.; Reed, Robin A., Ed.

    This volume chronicles the progress of the administration, executive branch agencies, and Congress in ending discrimination and advancing civil rights. The study has 21 chapters in 2 parts. Part one includes: (1) "Rights at Risk"; and (2) "Recommendations of the Commission." Part two includes a series of working papers prepared…

  20. The Civil Rights Act and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. The Constitution Community: Contemporary United States (1968 to the Present).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Linda

    In 1964, Congress passed Public Law 82-352. This civil rights act forbade hiring, promoting, and firing discrimination based on sex or race. Title VII of the act created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to implement the law. Subsequent legislation expanded the role of the EEOC. Today, the EEOC enforces laws that prohibit…

  1. Fulfilling the Letter and Spirit of the Law. Desegregation of the Nation's Public Schools. A Report to the United States Commission on Civil Rights, August 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knorr, Frank, Ed.

    This report contains the Civil Rights Commission's evaluation of school desegregation in a variety of school districts throughout the United States and is based on data obtained from commission hearings, State Advisory Committee to the Commission meetings, mail surveys to 1,291 school districts, and 900 indepth interviews in 29 school districts.…

  2. To establish a national commission on presidential war powers and civil liberties.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Conyers, John, Jr. [D-MI-14

    2009-01-06

    House - 06/12/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Comparable Worth: Issue for the 80's. A Consultation of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights (Washington, DC, June 6-7, 1984). Volume 2: Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    These proceedings consists of statements by the authors of consultation papers on comparable worth previously submitted to the United States Commission on Civil Rights along with discussions between the consultation participant/authors and members of the Commission concerning issues raised both in the papers and in the statements. The opening…

  4. Equal Opportunity in Suburbia: A Report of the United States Commission on Civil Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    This report is the result of an investigation initiated by the Commission to study metropolitan area development and its social and economic impact on urban minorities. In public hearings in St. Louis, Baltimore, and Washington, D.C., between January 1970 and June 1971, the Commission documented the problem with the testimony of more than 150…

  5. Ten-Year Check-Up: Have Federal Agencies Responded to Civil Rights Recommendations? Volume IV: An Evaluation of the Departments of Education, Health and Human Services, and Housing and Urban Development, and the Equal Opportunity Commission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDougall, Sock-Foon C.; Butler, Margaret; Johnson, Wanda

    2004-01-01

    During this four-volume study, the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights evaluated 11 federal agencies to determine whether or not they have responded to recommendations offered in previous reports and if civil rights enforcement improved as a result. Throughout the volumes, the Commission has identified good and inadequate civil rights practices that…

  6. The Southwest Indian Report. A Report of the U. S. Commission on Civil Rights, May 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, John H., Jr.; And Others

    The investigation of civil rights violations for American Indians in Arizona and New Mexico covers Federal, state, and local employment; elementary, secondary, and higher education; and health needs, especially the Indian Health Service. It also discusses urban and reservation administration of justice and water rights. Conclusions and…

  7. Predicting the impact of lava flows at Mount Etna by an innovative method based on Cellular Automata: Applications regarding land-use and civil defence planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisci, G. M.; Avolio, M. V.; D'Ambrosio, D.; di Gregorio, S.; Lupiano, G. V.; Rongo, R.; Spataro, W.; Benhcke, B.; Neri, M.

    2009-04-01

    Forecasting the time, character and impact of future eruptions is difficult at volcanoes with complex eruptive behaviour, such as Mount Etna, where eruptions occur from the summit and on the flanks, affecting areas distant from each other. Modern efforts for hazard evaluation and contingency planning in volcanic areas draw heavily on hazard maps and numerical simulations. The computational model here applied belongs to the SCIARA family of lava flow simulation models. In the specific case this is the SCIARA-fv release, which is considered to give the most accurate and efficient performance, given the extent (567 km2) of the study area and the great number of simulations to be carried out. The model is based on the Cellular Automata computational paradigm and, specifically, on the Macroscopic Cellular Automata approach for the modelling of spatially extended dynamic systems2. This work addresses the problem of compiling high-detailed susceptibility maps with an elaborate approach in the numerical simulation of Etnean lava flows, based on the results of 39,300 simulations of flows erupted from a grid of 393 hypothetical vents in the eastern sector of Etna. This sector was chosen because it is densely populated and frequently affected by flank eruptions. Besides the definition of general susceptibility maps, the availability of a large number of lava flows of different eruption types, magnitudes and locations simulated for this study allows the instantaneous extraction of various scenarios on demand. For instance, in a Civil Defence oriented application, it is possible to identify all source areas of lava flows capable of affecting a given area of interest, such as a town or a major infrastructure. Indeed, this application is rapidly accomplished by querying the simulation database, by selecting the lava flows that affect the area of interest and by circumscribing their sources. Eventually, a specific category of simulation is dedicated to the assessment of protective

  8. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 91-257-2184, Ohio Civil Rights Commission, 200 Goodall Complex, Cincinnati, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Echt, A.; Wilcox, T.G.; Crandall, M.S.; Martinez, K.F.

    1992-03-01

    In response to an employer request, an investigation was undertaken of poor indoor air quality at the Ohio Civil Rights Commission (SIC-9441), Cincinnati, Ohio. The Commission occupied three floors of an office building which was newly renovated in 1985. Complaints began following water leaks from condensate pans in the air handling units on third floor east and third floor west beginning in August of 1990. Carbon-dioxide (124389) concentrations, temperature and relative humidity were measured during the study at six different locations inside the building. Carbon-dioxide levels rose from a mean of 366 parts per million (ppm) in the morning to a mean of 638ppm in the afternoon. Temperatures ranged from 69.9 to 75.3 degrees-F. Relative humidity ranged from 51.5 to 75.5%. Over half the employees had experienced symptoms such as nasal congestion, headaches, or eye irritation while in the building. The filters for the outside air supply fit poorly and allowed dust from the outside to go around the filters, permitting entrance of organic material into the air handling system. Significant moisture blowby of the cooling coils was also noted. According to the authors, there was no clear evidence that the employees' respiratory symptoms were caused by contaminants in the building; however, the presence of thermophilic actinomycetes within the building raises concern. The authors recommend specific measures to help reduce complaints related to the indoor climate of the building.

  9. School Closings in Montgomery County, Maryland. A Report of the Maryland Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, Baltimore.

    In January 1982, the Maryland Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights conducted a forum in order to hear from community representatives, members of the Montgomery County School Board, and other local officials about the impact of school board decisions to close selected schools in the countywide school district. On the…

  10. Federal and State Services and the Maine Indian. A Report of the Maine Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akins, Andrew; And Others

    Pursuant to its responsibilities to advise the Commission on Civil Rights, the Maine Advisory Committee's hearings, investigations, and recommendations relative to Federal and State services for American Indians in Maine are detailed in this report. Dealing first with policy and law as manifest in: (1) Self-Determination; (2) Federal Indian…

  11. 11 CFR 111.32 - How will the Commission notify respondents of a reason to believe finding and a proposed civil...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... reason to believe finding and a proposed civil money penalty? 111.32 Section 111.32 Federal Elections... money penalty? If the Commission determines, by an affirmative vote of at least four (4) of its members... report was late (if filed); (b) The applicable schedule of penalties; (c) The number of times the...

  12. Supplemental Studies for the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders. Praeger Special Studies in U.S. Economic and Social Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, Washington, DC.

    This report, released by The National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders in July, 1968, is comprised of three studies: (1) "The Racial Attitudes in Fifteen American Cities" study includes black views of racial issues, white beliefs about Negroes, a comparison of black and white attitudes and experiences in the city, and the uses of…

  13. Affirmative Action in American Law Schools: A Briefing before the United States Commission on Civil Rights Held in Washington, D.C., June 16, 2006. Briefing Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Commission on Civil Rights, 2007

    2007-01-01

    On June 16, 2006, a panel of experts briefed members of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights on affirmative action in American law schools. The panel convened to debate the empirical strength of the research on the effects of racial preferences in law school admissions and the legal and policy implications of the American Bar Association's…

  14. Access to the Medical Profession in Colorado by Minorities and Women. A Report Prepared by the Colorado Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muldrow, William; And Others

    During spring 1975, the Colorado Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights investigated four main areas where minorities and women traditionally encountered obstacles because of their minority status and/or sex: academic preparation at the preprofessional level and recruitment to a medical center, admission to medical school,…

  15. Statement of Hubert Velarde, Jicarilla Apache Tribe to United States Commission on Civil Rights at Albuquerque Convention Center (Albuquerque, New Mexico, November 14, 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velarde, Hubert

    The statement by the President of the Jicarilla Apache Tribe emphasizes reservation problems that need to be examined. Presented at a 1972 Civil Rights Commission hearing on Indian Concerns, Velarde's statement listed employment, education, the administration of justice, water rights, and medical services as areas for investigation. (KM)

  16. Access to the Medical Profession in Colorado by Minorities and Women. A Report Prepared by the Colorado Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muldrow, William; And Others

    During spring 1975, the Colorado Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights investigated four main areas where minorities and women traditionally encountered obstacles because of their minority status and/or sex: academic preparation at the preprofessional level and recruitment to a medical center, admission to medical school,…

  17. Civil liberties and the critics of safe vaccination: Australian Vaccination Network Inc v Health Care Complaints Commission [2012] NSWSC 110.

    PubMed

    Vines, Tim; Faunce, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    Public immunisation programs have, time and again, demonstrated their effectiveness at reducing mortality and morbidity from vaccine-preventable diseases such as measles and pertussis. Governments, health agencies and almost all health practitioners regard vaccines as safe and cost-effective treatments with a low risk profile. Nevertheless, despite, or perhaps because of, their success, immunisation programs and vaccines have increasingly been questioned by various lobby groups, sceptical of the safety of vaccines and the motives of those who administer them. Whereas the reach of these groups would have once been limited by the cost of postage, the internet has delivered a global audience. The extent to which these anti-vaccination advocates are expected to comply with the ethical and professional standards applied to registered health professionals remains unresolved in Australia. As demonstrated in the case of Australian Vaccination Network Inc v Health Care Complaints Commission [2012] NSWSC 110, the ability of professional oversight bodies to regulate the information promoted by these lobby groups is limited by traditional conceptions of the doctor-patient relationship and the clinical setting in which medical advice is delivered. Acknowledging that vaccines, like all medical treatments, involve some level of risk, this article explores the relationship between the state, parents, family, medical professionals and such lobbyists within a human rights framework, suggesting that most public immunisation programs deliver benefits in "the best interest of the child" that, on balance, provide a good result for the civil liberties of Australians.

  18. How can we learn to live with rivers? The findings of the Institution of Civil Engineers Presidential Commission on flood-risk management.

    PubMed

    Fleming, George

    2002-07-15

    In the wake of the floods of 1998 and 2000 the Government invited the Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE) to carry out a technical review of flood-risk management in England and Wales and to consider the most appropriate approaches to flood-risk management for the 21st century. The findings of this Commission are published in the ICE report Learning to live with rivers. Further information on the Commission and its work is available at www.icenet.org.uk/presidential.htm. This paper provides an introduction to the need for such a review and the scope of the Commission's work. A summary of the findings of the Commission are presented along with key recommendations for improved flood-risk management in the future.

  19. Defence Against Terrorism: The Evolution of Military Surveillance Systems into Effective Counter Terrorism Systems Suitable for Use in Combined Military Civil Environments. Dream or Reality?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-25

    Suitable for Use in Combined Military Civil Environments. Dream or Reality ? C J Skinner, S Cochrane, M Field, R Johnston AMS Ltd Lyon Way, Frimley...Suitable for Use in Combined Military Civil Environments. Dream or Reality ? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...Terrorism Systems Suitable for Use in Combined Military Civil Environments. Dream or Reality ? RTO-MP-SCI-158 25 - 3 UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED UNCLASSIFIED

  20. U.S. Commission on Civil Rights: Compliance with Appropriation Provisions as of March 31, 1988. Report to the Chairman, Committee on Appropriations, U.S. Senate, and the Chairman, Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. General Government Div.

    This document presents an audit of the United States Commission on Civil Rights. The following aspects were examined: (1) compliance with the requirements of Public Law 100-202, which imposes hiring regulations; (2) regional offices; (3) civil rights monitoring; (4) consultants; (5) temporary employees; (6) mission-related external services…

  1. Welcoming Remarks of Edward Yudin, Vice Chairman, New Mexico Committee to the U. S. Commission on Civil Rights at Hearings on Indian Problems (Albuquerque, New Mexico, November 14-15, 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yudin, Edward

    Presented in this welcoming address to the U. S. Commission on Civil Rights were (1) the functions of the Commission's State Advisory Committees; and (2) the purpose of the hearing investigating problems of American Indians in New Mexico. Lower educational attainment, life expectancy, and low income levels were some problems that were examined.…

  2. A critique of the Law Commission's report on injuries to unborn children and the proposed Congenital Disabilities (Civil Liability) Bill *

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Ian; Edwards, R G

    1975-01-01

    The authors are members of the British Association Committee on Social Concern and Biological Advances. Following earlier discussions of legal and social problems arising from certain medical advances, they undertook, independently, to examine the Law Commission's study. PMID:1214266

  3. Indian Tribes: A Continuing Quest for Survival. A Report of the United States Commission on Civil Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Bonnie, Ed.

    Based on Commission public hearings held in 1977 through 1979 and on research conducted since 1977, this report examines state, federal, and tribal governments' role in major conflicts concerning fishing rights, reservation criminal law enforcement, and Eastern Indian land claims existing between Indian tribes and non-Indians. Chapter 1 discusses…

  4. The Benefits of Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Elementary and Secondary Education. A Briefing before the United States Commission on Civil Rights Held in Washington, D.C., July 28, 2006. Briefing Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Commission on Civil Rights, 2006

    2006-01-01

    On July 28, 2006, a panel of experts briefed members of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights on the putative benefits of racial and ethnic diversity in elementary and secondary education. Four experts presented written statements to the Commissioners that assessed the social science literature on this issue. They also addressed whether or not…

  5. Racial and Ethnic Tensions in American Communities: Poverty, Inequality, and Discrimination--A National Perspective. Executive Summary and Transcript of Hearing before the United States Commission on Civil Rights (Washington, D.C., May 21-22, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    In February 1991 the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights began a long- term study of the factors contributing to increased racial and ethnic tensions in the United States. This document is a summary of key points made at a National Perspectives Hearing that was part of this study. Following 2 days of testimony and the discussions of eight panels, five…

  6. Defence White Paper 2013

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Asia, the Middle East, and Africa 65 The United Kingdom 66 Spain 66 Canada and Latin America 67 Defence White Paper 2013 v Europe and the North...Defence and National Security 111 CHAPTER TWELVE: INDUSTRY AND INNOVATION POLICY 115 Global Defence and Broader Industry Trends 116 The...Relationship between Defence and Industry 117 Priorities for Industry Capability 118 Defence Industry and Innovation Policy Priorities 119 Enhancing Innovation

  7. The Unfinished Business, Twenty Years Later. A Report Submitted to The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights by its Fifty-One State Advisory Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    This reference work details state by state progress in civil rights since the enactment of the Civil Rights Act of 1957. The 51 reports (50 states plus the District of Columbia) reiterate the major problems of the past two decades including education and employment. Other civil rights issues identified by the State advisory committees were:…

  8. Civil War Sesquicentennial Commission Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Jackson, Jesse L., Jr. [D-IL-2

    2011-04-07

    04/08/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Federal Workforce, U.S. Postal Service, and Labor Policy . (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Civil War Sesquicentennial Commission Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Webb, Jim [D-VA

    2011-03-16

    Senate - 05/11/2011 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on National Parks. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 112-124. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Civil War Sesquicentennial Commission Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Landrieu, Mary L. [D-LA

    2009-10-22

    Senate - 12/03/2009 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on National Parks. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 111-318. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Civil War Sesquicentennial Commission Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Jackson, Jesse L., Jr. [D-IL-2

    2011-04-07

    House - 04/08/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Federal Workforce, U.S. Postal Service, and Labor Policy . (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Civil War Sesquicentennial Commission Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Webb, Jim [D-VA

    2011-03-16

    05/11/2011 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on National Parks. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 112-124. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Civil War Sesquicentennial Commission Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Landrieu, Mary L. [D-LA

    2009-10-22

    12/03/2009 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on National Parks. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 111-318. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Civil War Sesquicentennial Commission Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Landrieu, Mary L. [D-LA

    2009-10-22

    12/03/2009 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on National Parks. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 111-318. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Civil War Sesquicentennial Commission Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Jackson, Jesse L., Jr. [D-IL-2

    2011-04-07

    04/08/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Federal Workforce, U.S. Postal Service, and Labor Policy . (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. Civil War Sesquicentennial Commission Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Webb, Jim [D-VA

    2011-03-16

    05/11/2011 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on National Parks. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 112-124. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Summary and Analysis of the Feedback from Civil Society as Part of the Consultation on the Commission's Memorandum on Lifelong Learning. Supporting Document to the Communication from the Commission Making a European Area of Lifelong Learning a Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document presents a Consultation Platform formed by seven major networks to maximize impact of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and civil society organizations on development of the Communication on Lifelong Learning. Section 2 is a summary of platform conclusions structured according to these six key messages in the Memorandum on…

  18. 76 FR 75522 - Notice of a Public Meeting of the Wyoming Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... the meeting. Callers can expect to incur charges for calls they initiate over wireless lines, and the Commission will not refund any incurred charges. Callers will incur no charge for calls they initiate over...

  19. Diverse opportunities in defence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Gareth

    2016-08-01

    Working at the UK's defence laboratory gives Gareth Brown the ability to apply his physics and mathematics knowledge to real-world applications - and not necessarily in the ways you might expect. This article is Crown copyright

  20. Defence Reporter. Spring 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    of a series of services and products produced by ATHENA to keep readers up -to- date with the latest developments in key areas of defence science...the MOD’s ATHENA Collection. Defence Reporter is available by subscription. To sign up for this free service, please send an e-mail with your full...for the oral route. This study was set up lo enable some confirmation of published LD50 information of orally dosed ricin but also to enable some

  1. Defence Industrial Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    make clear which industrial capabilities we need to have onshore (and this includes those maintained by foreign- owned defence companies), industry...industry to deliver the complex system of systems that will make up the Future Rapid Effects System (FRES) fleet. xxi. It is questionable whether... make clear which industrial capabilities we need to have onshore (and this includes those maintained by foreign- owned defence companies), industry may

  2. Air Defence Alerting Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trapmore, Clive

    1990-04-01

    The Air Defence Alerting Device, otherwise known as ADAD, is a passive infra-red system which detects the presence of a potentially hostile airborne threat and relays its bearings to a Close Air Defence Weapon System (CADWS). The equipment is therefore a cueing device which directs a weapon system operator (or his sight) to the bearing of the threat. From an overall weapon system point of view, use of ADAD realises a very significant increase in weapon effectiveness which is greatly welcomed in these times of constrained defence budgets. The ADAD system is believed to be the first of its kind in the world to be procured in production quantities - it will go into service with the UK Army in the early 1990's.

  3. Alternative defence policy

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, G.

    1987-01-01

    This book considers key questions connected with the present crisis, questions such as Would conventional deterrence really be effective. Just what is the Labour Party's policy. How precisely might Britain be transformed into a non-aligned, non-military state. The future of British defence policy is an issue of major concern not just in Britain but throughout the world, especially in the United States where there are major anxieties in the Pentagon about what will happen if the Labour Party wins an election outright. British defence policy is currently in a state of crisis. The former position where a reasonably united establishment on one hand confronted nuclear disarmers on the other has been replaced by a position where a wide spectrum of different opinions is held not just by the peace movement and the opposition parties but by many people in the Conservative party and the military also.

  4. Defence on demand: mechanisms behind optimal defence patterns

    PubMed Central

    Meldau, Stefan; Erb, Matthias; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2012-01-01

    Background The optimal defence hypothesis (ODH) predicts that tissues that contribute most to a plant's fitness and have the highest probability of being attacked will be the parts best defended against biotic threats, including herbivores. In general, young sink tissues and reproductive structures show stronger induced defence responses after attack from pathogens and herbivores and contain higher basal levels of specialized defensive metabolites than other plant parts. However, the underlying physiological mechanisms responsible for these developmentally regulated defence patterns remain unknown. Scope This review summarizes current knowledge about optimal defence patterns in above- and below-ground plant tissues, including information on basal and induced defence metabolite accumulation, defensive structures and their regulation by jasmonic acid (JA). Physiological regulations underlying developmental differences of tissues with contrasting defence patterns are highlighted, with a special focus on the role of classical plant growth hormones, including auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins and brassinosteroids, and their interactions with the JA pathway. By synthesizing recent findings about the dual roles of these growth hormones in plant development and defence responses, this review aims to provide a framework for new discoveries on the molecular basis of patterns predicted by the ODH. Conclusions Almost four decades after its formulation, we are just beginning to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for the patterns of defence allocation predicted by the ODH. A requirement for future advances will be to understand how developmental and defence processes are integrated. PMID:23022676

  5. 10 CFR 110.64 - Civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil penalty. 110.64 Section 110.64 Energy NUCLEAR... Enforcement § 110.64 Civil penalty. (a) In response to a violation, the Commission may institute a proceeding to impose a civil penalty under section 234 of the Atomic Energy Act by issuing a notice to...

  6. 10 CFR 110.64 - Civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Civil penalty. 110.64 Section 110.64 Energy NUCLEAR... Enforcement § 110.64 Civil penalty. (a) In response to a violation, the Commission may institute a proceeding to impose a civil penalty under section 234 of the Atomic Energy Act by issuing a notice to...

  7. 10 CFR 110.64 - Civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Civil penalty. 110.64 Section 110.64 Energy NUCLEAR... Enforcement § 110.64 Civil penalty. (a) In response to a violation, the Commission may institute a proceeding to impose a civil penalty under section 234 of the Atomic Energy Act by issuing a notice to...

  8. 10 CFR 110.64 - Civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Civil penalty. 110.64 Section 110.64 Energy NUCLEAR... Enforcement § 110.64 Civil penalty. (a) In response to a violation, the Commission may institute a proceeding to impose a civil penalty under section 234 of the Atomic Energy Act by issuing a notice to...

  9. Defence Reporter. Autumn 2013

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Reporter is one part of a series of services and products produced by ATHENA to keep readers up -to- date with the latest developments in key areas...ATHENA Collection. Defence Reporter is available by subscription. To sign up for this free service, please send an e-mail with your full name and...here is that in a joined- up coalition environment our allies will not be able to discover UK data and if they do have it, they may not treat it

  10. 46 CFR 506.3 - Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. 506.3... PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 506.3 Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. The Commission shall... each civil monetary penalty provided by law within the jurisdiction of the Commission by the...

  11. Civil Rights Issues Facing Asian Americans in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chun, Ki-Taek; Zalokar, Nadja

    In 1989, the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights held a series of roundtable conferences to learn about the civil rights concerns of Asian Americans within their communities. Using information gathered at these conferences as a point of departure, the Commission undertook this study of the wide-ranging civil rights issues facing Asian Americans in the…

  12. 46 CFR 506.3 - Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. 506.3 Section 506.3 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 506.3 Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. The Commission shall, not later than October 23, 1996, and at least...

  13. 46 CFR 506.3 - Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. 506.3... PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 506.3 Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustment. The Commission shall... each civil monetary penalty provided by law within the jurisdiction of the Commission by the...

  14. 29 CFR 2203.3 - Public attendance at Commission meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., or for the use of an agency responsible for the regulation or supervision of financial institutions... Commission's issuance of a subpoena or the Commission's participation in a civil action or proceeding,...

  15. 45 CFR 701.10 - Membership of the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Membership of the Commission. 701.10 Section 701.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS OF THE COMMISSION Organization Statement § 701.10 Membership of the Commission....

  16. 45 CFR 701.10 - Membership of the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Membership of the Commission. 701.10 Section 701.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS OF THE COMMISSION Organization Statement § 701.10 Membership of the Commission....

  17. 45 CFR 701.10 - Membership of the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Membership of the Commission. 701.10 Section 701.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS OF THE COMMISSION Organization Statement § 701.10 Membership of the Commission....

  18. 45 CFR 701.10 - Membership of the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Membership of the Commission. 701.10 Section 701.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS OF THE COMMISSION Organization Statement § 701.10 Membership of the Commission....

  19. 45 CFR 701.10 - Membership of the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Membership of the Commission. 701.10 Section 701.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS OF THE COMMISSION Organization Statement § 701.10 Membership of the Commission....

  20. 29 CFR 1626.19 - Filing of Commission lawsuit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filing of Commission lawsuit. 1626.19 Section 1626.19 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION PROCEDURES-AGE DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT ACT § 1626.19 Filing of Commission lawsuit. The right of the Commission to file a civil action under the ADEA is not...

  1. Beyond Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, Michael R.; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2004-08-31

    The emerging practice of building commissioning generally provides energy savings of 10% to, in some cases, more than 60% of a building's energy consumption. Moreover, commissioning ensures that equipment and systems are installed and operate properly, providing occupants with the conditions expected. Without commissioning, new buildings can have incorrect equipment installed, devices like fans installed backwards, and unimplemented control algorithms to mention a few deficiencies sometimes found. Existing buildings can have faulty and failed equipment such as clogged filters and coils, stuck dampers, leaky valves, and imbalanced air distribution, as well as overridden controls, improper set points, and incorrect schedules. Commissioning of new and existing buildings helps prevent and alleviate such problems. Yet only a small fraction of commercial buildings has ever been commissioned, and many buildings that have been commissioned have only a fraction of the recommended actions implemented. Time may change this situation or maybe other changes can accelerate the progress of commissioning. Will commissioning continue in the future as it is performed today or must it change? The authors share a vision for how the functions provided by commissioning could change in the future. The paper delves into the roles of automation technology for functional testing, diagnostics, prognostics, data management, asset tracking, and project management in building commissioning. Methods of delivery explored for these capabilities include laptop-, desktop-, and pda-based tools, web-based services, and ubiquitous embedded networked processing. The authors present a vision for how these technologies could change the practice of commissioning and the impacts this could bring for commercial buildings in the U.S. and throughout the world. Potential impacts on building performance, energy consumption, peak power, and occupant satisfaction are examined.

  2. 77 FR 2711 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: Office for Civil Rights, Education. ACTION: Notice of open meeting (Amended). SUMMARY: On January 5, 2012, the Office for Civil Rights published in the Federal Register (FR Doc. 2011-33800 Filed 1-4-12; 8:45 a.m.) a notice of open meeting on January 23, 2012 for...

  3. Commissioning MMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Paul; Gramling, Cheryl; Stone, John; Smith, Patrick; Reiter, Jenifer

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses commissioning of NASAs Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) Mission. The mission includes four identical spacecraft with a large, complex set of instrumentation. The planning for and execution of commissioning for this mission is described. The paper concludes by discussing lessons learned.

  4. Civil Rights

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Civil Rights Program enforces federal civil rights laws that prohibit discrimination against members of the public by recipients of EPA funds, and protects employees and applicants for employment from discrimination.

  5. Defence Food Research Activities Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    7 7115618 DEFENCE FOOD RESEARCH ACTIVITES REPORTWU ARMED)FORCES 1/ FOOD SCIENCE ESTARLISHMENT SCOTTSDALE (ADSTRA L A 1983 DLASFIED F/G6/8 *EEL A...681 1)epartment of I)efence I)efence Science and Technology Organization Armed Forces Food Science Establishment Scottsdale, Tasmania AFFSE REPORT 2/83...DEFENCE FOOD RESEARCH ACTIVITIES REPORTI [UI C) COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA, 1983 DTICELECTE Approved For Public Release 1978-83 ItC FILE COPY 83 .9 o

  6. 78 FR 44419 - Civil Monetary Penalties Inflation Adjustments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... Monetary Penalties Inflation Adjustments AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Final rules. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as amended, the Federal Election Commission is adopting final rules to apply inflation adjustments to certain...

  7. 76 FR 46723 - Agenda and Notice of Public Meeting of the New Jersey Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS Agenda and Notice of Public Meeting of the New Jersey Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights Notice is hereby given, pursuant to the provisions of the rules and regulations of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights (Commission) and th...

  8. Joint Commission

    MedlinePlus

    Skip to main content The Joint Commission Log In | Request Guest Access Forgot password? | Log In Help Contact Us | Careers | JCR Web Store | Press Room Search Home Accreditation Accreditation Ambulatory Health ...

  9. Encouraging Minority Students to Pursue Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Careers. A Briefing before the United States Commission on Civil Rights Held in Washington, D.C. Briefing Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Commission on Civil Rights, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Commission held a briefing entitled, "Encouraging Minority Students to Pursue Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Careers." In particular, the Commission examined why minority college students who begin their college studies intending to major in science, technology, engineering or math (STEM) leave these disciplines in disproportionate…

  10. Civil Drafting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schertz, Karen; Kellum, Mary, Ed.

    This curriculum guide contains a course in civil drafting to train entry-level workers for jobs in the field. The module contains 12 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to civil drafting; (2) map scales and measurement; (3) standard symbols and abbreviations; (4) interpretation of surveyor's notations; (5) legal…

  11. In Defence of the Lecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, R. Scott

    2015-01-01

    In response to the lecture format coming under "attack" and being replaced by online materials and smaller tutorials, this paper attempts to offer not only a defence but also to assert that the potential value of the lecture is difficult to replicate through other learning formats. Some of the criticisms against lectures will be…

  12. 77 FR 65100 - Adjustment of Civil Monetary Penalties for Inflation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 143 RIN 3038-AD76 Adjustment of Civil Monetary Penalties for Inflation AGENCY... inflation. This rule sets forth the maximum, inflation-adjusted dollar amount for civil monetary penalties... and orders thereunder. The rule, as amended, implements the Federal Civil Penalties...

  13. 29 CFR 1614.408 - Civil action: Equal Pay Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil action: Equal Pay Act. 1614.408 Section 1614.408 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Appeals and Civil Actions § 1614.408 Civil action: Equal Pay Act. A...

  14. Avoiding the Next Failure of Imagination: Highlighting Opportunities for National Guard Cyber Civil Support Teams through an Analysis of the National Cyber Response Capacity Gap Using 9/11 Commission Report Methodologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-13

    Teams (CST); Chemical, Biological, Radiological , Nuclear and High Yield Explosive (CBRNE) enhanced response force packages (CERF-P); and Homeland...46 cyber CSTs would be primarily responsible for four main tasks: supporting civil authorities at a domestic cyber incident site through forensic ...who train and deploy together, including two teams of digital forensics and incident response specialists for attention to direct victim system

  15. Defence Capability Plan 2009 (Australian Department of Defence). Public Version

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-24

    2017 to 2019 Points of Contact Phase: Capability Staff: Defence Materiel Organisation: Phase 2A/2B Program Manager New Air Combat Capability (02...radio backbone for the Battlefield Command Support System already in service and Battlefield Management Systems intended to be procured under LAND 75...the acquisition contract proposed for the common service, and are to be managed regionally. Through-life Support A PSI is to be engaged under the

  16. Defence Science and Technology Organisation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    develops new food forms with defence significance and monitors commercial innovations. It operates many types of food dehydration equipment and has developed...umergenc.i water packs that are resealable and con iithstand pilot ejection forces as Lcell as lou" pressures of unpr’ ssunsed aircraft. These pictures show...Dr G. Driver conducts food acceptability studies for servicemen in various situations, develops special ration packs for combat and surival situations

  17. RNA silencing suppression by plant pathogens: defence, counter-defence and counter-counter-defence.

    PubMed

    Pumplin, Nathan; Voinnet, Olivier

    2013-11-01

    RNA silencing is a central regulator of gene expression in most eukaryotes and acts both at the transcriptional level through DNA methylation and at the post-transcriptional level through direct mRNA interference mediated by small RNAs. In plants and invertebrates, the same pathways also function directly in host defence against viruses by targeting viral RNA for degradation. Successful viruses have consequently evolved diverse mechanisms to avoid silencing, most notably through the expression of viral suppressors of RNA silencing. RNA silencing suppressors have also been recently identified in plant pathogenic bacteria and oomycetes, suggesting that disruption of host silencing is a general virulence strategy across several kingdoms of plant pathogens. There is also increasing evidence that plants have evolved specific defences against RNA-silencing suppression by pathogens, providing yet another illustration of the never-ending molecular arms race between plant pathogens and their hosts.

  18. 11 CFR 111.37 - What will the Commission do once it receives the respondent's written response and the reviewing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....C. 434(a) and the amount of the civil money penalty, the Commission shall authorize the reviewing... letter of its final determination. (c) The Commission will modify the proposed civil money penalty only if the respondent is able to demonstrate that the amount of the proposed civil money penalty was...

  19. The psychiatric defence and international criminal law.

    PubMed

    Tobin, John

    2007-01-01

    Following the development of the International Criminal Court (ICC) the mental state of the perpetrators of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes will become a more important issue in regard to defence and mitigating factors. This article examines how the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in particular has dealt with the mental illness defence to date, and how its judgements can serve as guidance for the ICC as it becomes the major international court of the future. The absence of a mental health defence in the Statutes of the ICTY and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda has led to a reliance on the Rules of Procedure and Evidence of the two tribunals. There are major difficulties in using the mental health defence as it is defined in the Statutes of the ICC because of a requirement for the destruction of mental capacity as a valid defence. Fitness to plead and the defence of intoxication are also examined.

  20. Defence Reporter. Summer/Autumn 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    defence science and technology literature. Defence Reporter is one part of a series of services and products produced by ATHENA to keep readers up ...To sign up for this free service, please send an e-mail with your full name and address details to: DefenceReporter@dstl.gov.uk. © Crown Copyright...methodological limitations. An alternative approach based on ‘bottom up ’ comparisons with existing platforms of similar capabilities is also described. In

  1. Australian Defence Force Demographic Data and Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    AUSTRALIAN DEFENCE FORCE DEMOGRAPHIC DATA AND CHALLENGES Directorate of Strategic Personnel Planning and Research DSPPR Technical Note 10/2001...DATE 00 OCT 2001 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Australian Defence Force Demographic Data and Challenges 5a...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 AUSTRALIAN DEFENCE FORCE DEMOGRAPHIC DATA AND CHALLENGES The findings and views expressed in this report are the results

  2. Defence Capability Plan 2006-2016

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-14

    Version Points of Contact Phase 8B Capability Staff: Defence Materiel Organisation: Squadron Leader Greg Trott Ms Katrina Burzynski (02) 6265...Capability Plan 2006 – 2016 Public Version 0 Points of Contact Phase 7 Capability Staff: Defence Materiel Organisation: Major Paul Randall Mr Ross...Staff: Defence Materiel Organisation: Major Paul Randall Lieutenant Colonel Duncan Roach (02) 6265 4441 (03) 9282 5380 LAND 58 Phase 3 Weapon

  3. Civil Disobedience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue looks at three historical and recent instances of civil disobedience. The first article examines the Free Speech Movement, which arose on the Berkeley campus of the University of California in the 1960s. The second article recounts the struggle of Mahatma Gandhi to free India from the British Empire. The final article explores the…

  4. 75 FR 48662 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: Office for Civil Rights, U.S. Department of Education. ACTION... Education (Secretary) invites interested parties to submit nominations for individuals to serve on...

  5. Plant defences against herbivore and insect attack

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plants deploy a number of defences against attack by insects and other herbivores. Direct defence is conferred by plant products and structures that deter or kill the herbivores. Chemical toxins and deterrents vary widely among plant species, and some typical toxins include alkaloids, terpenoids, st...

  6. Evolutionarily stable defence and signalling of that defence.

    PubMed

    Broom, M; Speed, M P; Ruxton, G D

    2006-09-07

    We examine the evolution and maintenance of defence and conspicuousness in prey species using a game theoretic model. In contrast to previous works, predators can raise as well as lower their attack probabilities as a consequence of encountering moderately defended prey. Our model predicts four distinct possibilities for evolutionarily stable strategies (ESSs) featuring maximum crypsis. Namely that such a solution can exist with (1) zero toxicity, (2) a non-zero but non-aversive level of toxicity, (3) a high, aversive level of toxicity or (4) that no such maximally cryptic solution exists. Maximally cryptic prey may still invest in toxins, because of the increased chance of surviving an attack (should they be discovered) that comes from having toxins. The toxin load of maximally cryptic prey may be sufficiently strong that the predators will find them aversive, and seek to avoid similar looking prey in future. However, this aversiveness does not always necessarily trigger aposematic signalling, and highly toxic prey can still be maximally cryptic, because the increased initial rate of attack from becoming more conspicuous is not necessarily always compensated for by increased avoidance of aversive prey by predators. In other circumstances, the optimal toxin load may be insufficient to generate aversion but still be non-zero (because it increases survival), and in yet other circumstances, it is optimal to make no investment in toxins at all. The model also predicts ESSs where the prey are highly defended and aversive and where this defence is advertised at a cost of increased conspicuousness to predators. In many circumstances there is an infinite array of these aposematic ESSs, where the precise appearance is unimportant as long as it is highly visible and shared by all members of the population. Yet another class of solutions is possible where there is strong between-individual variation in appearance between conspicuous, poorly defended prey.

  7. Transcriptional control of plant defence responses.

    PubMed

    Buscaill, Pierre; Rivas, Susana

    2014-08-01

    Mounting of efficient plant defence responses depends on the ability to trigger a rapid defence reaction after recognition of the invading microbe. Activation of plant resistance is achieved by modulation of the activity of multiple transcriptional regulators, both DNA-binding transcription factors and their regulatory proteins, that are able to reprogram transcription in the plant cell towards the activation of defence signalling. Here we provide an overview of recent developments on the transcriptional control of plant defence responses and discuss defence-related hormone signalling, the role of WRKY transcription factors during the regulation of plant responses to pathogens, nuclear functions of plant immune receptor proteins, as well as varied ways by which microbial effectors subvert plant transcriptional reprogramming to promote disease.

  8. 29 CFR 1614.401 - Appeals to the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Appeals and Civil Actions § 1614.401 Appeals to the Commission. (a) A complainant may... Federal Labor Relations Authority (FLRA) on the grievance when an issue of employment discrimination was...

  9. Coastal modelling for flood defence.

    PubMed

    Battjes, Jurjen A; Gerritsen, Herman

    2002-07-15

    This paper reviews practices and trends in hydrodynamic and statistical analyses and modelling in the Netherlands with regard to the risk of coastal flooding. We restrict ourselves to the physical phenomena of tides, storm surges and wind waves. We first give a brief outline of established policy in the Netherlands regarding accepted levels of risk of flooding, and current changes therein. This is followed by a summary of a statistical reanalysis of historical storm-surge data combined with numerical hydrodynamic modelling, aimed at improved estimates of probabilities of occurrence of extreme water levels along the Dutch coast. Recent developments concerning the physical and numerical modelling of inundation of low-lying areas are presented. State-of-the-art modelling of wind waves in coastal areas is also reviewed. Research issues in the area of coastal modelling for flood defence are indicated.

  10. Area Air Defence as a Network Enabled Capability for the New Norwegian Frigates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    INTRODUCTION The Royal Norwegian Navy (RNoN) is procuring five Fridtjof Nansen -class frigates (FN-class) that will be commissioned during the next few years...this article and also reviewed the whole paper. ABSTRACT The new Norwegian Nansen -class frigates lack an organic long range air defence capability...frigates will be an important element in execution of these tasks. The Nansen -class was originally intended and specified primarily as Anti

  11. 47 CFR 97.407 - Radio amateur civil emergency service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radio amateur civil emergency service. 97.407 Section 97.407 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Providing Emergency Communications § 97.407 Radio amateur civil emergency...

  12. 47 CFR 97.407 - Radio amateur civil emergency service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio amateur civil emergency service. 97.407 Section 97.407 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Providing Emergency Communications § 97.407 Radio amateur civil emergency...

  13. 47 CFR 97.407 - Radio amateur civil emergency service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radio amateur civil emergency service. 97.407 Section 97.407 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Providing Emergency Communications § 97.407 Radio amateur civil emergency...

  14. 47 CFR 97.407 - Radio amateur civil emergency service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radio amateur civil emergency service. 97.407 Section 97.407 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Providing Emergency Communications § 97.407 Radio amateur civil emergency...

  15. 47 CFR 97.407 - Radio amateur civil emergency service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radio amateur civil emergency service. 97.407 Section 97.407 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Providing Emergency Communications § 97.407 Radio amateur civil emergency...

  16. 18 CFR 430.31 - Sanctions: Civil and criminal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanctions: Civil and criminal. 430.31 Section 430.31 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA § 430.31 Sanctions: Civil and criminal. (a...

  17. 18 CFR 430.31 - Sanctions: Civil and criminal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sanctions: Civil and criminal. 430.31 Section 430.31 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA § 430.31 Sanctions: Civil and criminal. (a...

  18. Congress 2014 Commission Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Hastings, Alcee L. [D-FL-23

    2009-10-29

    House - 01/04/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. The mechanical defence advantage of small seeds.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Evan C; Wright, S Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Seed size and toughness affect seed predators, and size-dependent investment in mechanical defence could affect relationships between seed size and predation. We tested how seed toughness and mechanical defence traits (tissue density and protective tissue content) are related to seed size among tropical forest species. Absolute toughness increased with seed size. However, smaller seeds had higher specific toughness both within and among species, with the smallest seeds requiring over 2000 times more energy per gram to break than the largest seeds. Investment in mechanical defence traits varied widely but independently of the toughness-mass allometry. Instead, a physical scaling relationship confers a toughness advantage on small seeds independent of selection on defence traits and without a direct cost. This scaling relationship may contribute to seed size diversity by decreasing fitness differences among large and small seeds. Allometric scaling of toughness reconciles predictions and conflicting empirical relationships between seed size and predation.

  20. Calcium in plant defence-signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Lecourieux, David; Ranjeva, Raoul; Pugin, Alain

    2006-01-01

    In plant cells, the calcium ion is a ubiquitous intracellular second messenger involved in numerous signalling pathways. Variations in the cytosolic concentration of Ca2+ ([Ca2+]cyt) couple a large array of signals and responses. Here we concentrate on calcium signalling in plant defence responses, particularly on the generation of the calcium signal and downstream calcium-dependent events participating in the establishment of defence responses with special reference to calcium-binding proteins.

  1. The Harbour Defence IKC2 Experience

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Choon Kiat, Tan Defence Science and Technolgy Agency 1 Depot Road #22-01 DefenceTechnology Tower A Singapore 109679 Phone : +65 63732338 Fax...Command Post (Desktop) Mobile Units (PDA) Radar 1 Web Service Radar 2 Web Service Radar 1 Tracks Msg Radar 2 Tracks Msg Web Service Abstraction...was found to be adequate for the mobile forces, providing a relatively constant throughput of 8 kbps throughout the base, though minor service

  2. Public Private Partnerships Applicability to Defence Procurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    Public Private Partnerships Applicability to Defence Procurement Jonathan Barnes KPMG Corporate Finance Report Documentation Page Report Date...25SEP2001 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) 25SEP2001 - 27SEP2001 Title and Subtitle Public Private Partnerships Applicability to Defence...unclassified Classification of Abstract unclassified Limitation of Abstract UU Number of Pages 6 kpmg Aim Provide an appreciation of: n Public Private Partnerships

  3. Civil Service Systems and Job Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coutourier, Jean

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, focuses on the National Civil Service League: essential elements of the League's program for achieving equal employment opportunity include outreach recruitment, accurate job descriptions, valid job-related examinations, and aggressive…

  4. 75 FR 15993 - Civil Penalty Factors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... of a civil penalty to seek are the following: The nature, circumstances, extent and gravity of the... Commission, and, in what amount: The nature, circumstances, extent and gravity of the violation, including... FFA has no comparable separate factor apart from the nature, circumstances, extent, and gravity of...

  5. 10 CFR 110.64 - Civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Civil penalty. 110.64 Section 110.64 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Violations and... check, draft, or money order payable to the Treasurer of the United States, and mailed to the Secretary...

  6. Host defences against Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Romero, G; Quintero, J; Astiazarán-García, H; Velazquez, C

    2015-08-01

    Giardia spp. is a protozoan parasite that inhabits the upper small intestine of mammals and other species and is the aetiological agent of giardiasis. It has been demonstrated that nitric oxide, mast cells and dendritic cells are the first line of defence against Giardia. IL-6 and IL-17 play an important role during infection. Several cytokines possess overlapping functions in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. IgA and CD4(+) T cells are fundamental to the process of Giardia clearance. It has been suggested that CD4(+) T cells play a double role during the anti-Giardia immune response. First, they activate and stimulate the differentiation of B cells to generate Giardia-specific antibodies. Second, they act through a B-cell-independent mechanism that is probably mediated by Th17 cells. Several Giardia proteins that stimulate humoral and cellular immune responses have been described. Variant surface proteins, α-1 giardin, and cyst wall protein 2 can induce host protective responses to future Giardia challenges. The characterization and evaluation of the protective potential of the immunogenic proteins that are associated with Giardia will offer new insights into host-parasite interactions and may aid in the development of an effective vaccine against the parasite. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. UK photonics in defence and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gracie, C.; Tooley, I.; Wilson, A.

    2008-10-01

    The UK is globally recognised as strong in Photonics. However its Photonics sector is fragmented and the size and sectors of interest have not previously been established. The UK government has instigated the formation of the Photonics Knowledge Transfer Network (PKTN) to bring the Photonics community together. The UK features in Defence & Security; Communications; Measurement; Medical Technology; Lighting; Solar Energy; Information Technology and Flat Panels. This expertise is scattered through out the UK in geographic areas each with a breadth of Photonic interests. The PKTN has mapped the UK capability in all Photonics sectors. This paper will present the capability of the Companies, Research Institutions and Infrastructure making up the Defence & Security Photonics scene in the UK. Large Defence companies in the UK are well known throughout the world. However, there are a large number of SMEs, which may not be as well known in the supply chain. These are being actively encouraged by the UK MoD to engage with the Defence & Security Market and shall be discussed here. The presentation will reference a number of organisations which help to fund and network the community, such as the Defence Technology Centres. In addition the Roadmap for Defence & Security in the UK, produced for the UK Photonics Strategy (July 2006) by the Scottish Optoelectronics Association will be described and the plans in taking it forward under the PKTN will be revealed.

  8. Class III peroxidases in plant defence reactions.

    PubMed

    Almagro, L; Gómez Ros, L V; Belchi-Navarro, S; Bru, R; Ros Barceló, A; Pedreño, M A

    2009-01-01

    When plants are attacked by pathogens, they defend themselves with an arsenal of defence mechanisms, both passive and active. The active defence responses, which require de novo protein synthesis, are regulated through a complex and interconnected network of signalling pathways that mainly involve three molecules, salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene (ET), and which results in the synthesis of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. Microbe or elicitor-induced signal transduction pathways lead to (i) the reinforcement of cell walls and lignification, (ii) the production of antimicrobial metabolites (phytoalexins), and (iii) the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Among the proteins induced during the host plant defence, class III plant peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7; hydrogen donor: H(2)O(2) oxidoreductase, Prxs) are well known. They belong to a large multigene family, and participate in a broad range of physiological processes, such as lignin and suberin formation, cross-linking of cell wall components, and synthesis of phytoalexins, or participate in the metabolism of ROS and RNS, both switching on the hypersensitive response (HR), a form of programmed host cell death at the infection site associated with limited pathogen development. The present review focuses on these plant defence reactions in which Prxs are directly or indirectly involved, and ends with the signalling pathways, which regulate Prx gene expression during plant defence. How they are integrated within the complex network of defence responses of any host plant cell will be the cornerstone of future research.

  9. Proposed procedural regulations--Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Proposed regulations; request for comments.

    PubMed

    1981-01-30

    The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission is publishing for comment proposed procedural regulations (29 CFR Part 1626). These regulations advise the public as to the procedures the Commission proposes to follow in processing charges and issuing interpretations and opinions under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act. These regulations will complement the Commission's existing procedural regulations under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

  10. 18 CFR 430.31 - Sanctions: Civil and criminal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sanctions: Civil and criminal. 430.31 Section 430.31 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION... the Commission may, in his discretion, request the appropriate law enforcement officers of...

  11. 18 CFR 430.31 - Sanctions: Civil and criminal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sanctions: Civil and criminal. 430.31 Section 430.31 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION... the Commission may, in his discretion, request the appropriate law enforcement officers of...

  12. 18 CFR 430.31 - Sanctions: Civil and criminal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Sanctions: Civil and criminal. 430.31 Section 430.31 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION... the Commission may, in his discretion, request the appropriate law enforcement officers of...

  13. 10 CFR 13.3 - Basis for civil penalties and assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Basis for civil penalties and assessments. 13.3 Section 13.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.3 Basis for civil penalties and assessments. (a) Claims. (1) Any person who makes a claim that the person knows or has reason...

  14. 17 CFR Table IV to Subpart E of... - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Inflation Adjustments IV Table IV to Subpart E of Part 201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Adjustment of Civil Monetary Penalties Pt. 201, Subpt. E, Table IV Table IV to Subpart E of Part 201—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments U.S. Code citation Civil...

  15. 17 CFR Table II to Subpart E of... - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Inflation Adjustments II Table II to Subpart E of Part 201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Adjustment of Civil Monetary Penalties Pt. 201, Subpt. E, Table II Table II to Subpart E of Part 201—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments U.S. Code citation Civil...

  16. 17 CFR Table II to Subpart E of... - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Inflation Adjustments II Table II to Subpart E of Part 201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Adjustment of Civil Monetary Penalties Pt. 201, Subpt. E, Table II Table II to Subpart E of Part 201—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments U.S. Code citation Civil...

  17. 28 CFR 16.90 - Exemption of Civil Rights Division Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption of Civil Rights Division....S.C. 552a (j) and (k): Central Civil Rights Division Index File and Associated Records (JUSTICE/CRT... on Employment Civil Rights Matters Referred by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission...

  18. 28 CFR 16.90 - Exemption of Civil Rights Division Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption of Civil Rights Division....S.C. 552a (j) and (k): Central Civil Rights Division Index File and Associated Records (JUSTICE/CRT... on Employment Civil Rights Matters Referred by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission...

  19. 28 CFR 16.90 - Exemption of Civil Rights Division Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption of Civil Rights Division....S.C. 552a (j) and (k): Central Civil Rights Division Index File and Associated Records (JUSTICE/CRT... on Employment Civil Rights Matters Referred by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission...

  20. 28 CFR 16.90 - Exemption of Civil Rights Division Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption of Civil Rights Division....S.C. 552a (j) and (k): Central Civil Rights Division Index File and Associated Records (JUSTICE/CRT... on Employment Civil Rights Matters Referred by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission...

  1. 17 CFR Table 1 to Subpart E of... - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments 1 Table 1 to Subpart E of Part 201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Adjustment of Civil Monetary Penalties Pt. 201, Subpt. E, Table I Table 1 to Subpart E of Part 201—Civil...

  2. 17 CFR 201.1003 - Adjustment of civil monetary penalties-2005.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adjustment of civil monetary penalties-2005. 201.1003 Section 201.1003 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Adjustment of Civil Monetary Penalties § 201.1003 Adjustment of civil monetary penalties—2005. As required by the Debt...

  3. 17 CFR 201.1004 - Adjustment of civil monetary penalties-2009.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adjustment of civil monetary penalties-2009. 201.1004 Section 201.1004 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Adjustment of Civil Monetary Penalties § 201.1004 Adjustment of civil monetary penalties—2009. As required by the Debt...

  4. 17 CFR 201.1005 - Adjustment of civil monetary penalties-2013.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adjustment of civil monetary penalties-2013. 201.1005 Section 201.1005 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Adjustment of Civil Monetary Penalties § 201.1005 Adjustment of civil monetary penalties—2013. As required by the Debt...

  5. 17 CFR Table II to Subpart E of... - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments II Table II to Subpart E of Part 201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Adjustment of Civil Monetary Penalties Pt. 201, Subpt. E, Table II Table II to Subpart E of Part 201—Civil...

  6. 17 CFR Table IV to Subpart E of... - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments IV Table IV to Subpart E of Part 201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Adjustment of Civil Monetary Penalties Pt. 201, Subpt. E, Table IV Table IV to Subpart E of Part 201—Civil...

  7. 17 CFR 201.1001 - Adjustment of civil monetary penalties-1996.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adjustment of civil monetary penalties-1996. 201.1001 Section 201.1001 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Adjustment of Civil Monetary Penalties § 201.1001 Adjustment of civil monetary penalties—1996. As required by the Debt...

  8. 29 CFR 1614.409 - Effect of filing a civil action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of filing a civil action. 1614.409 Section 1614.409 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Appeals and Civil Actions § 1614.409 Effect of filing a civil action...

  9. ["1st Therapeutic Red Cross Hospital" during the civil war].

    PubMed

    Simonenko, V B; Abashin, V G

    2014-04-01

    The article presents the documentary information about the founding, the establishment and early years of the 1st Therapeutic Red Cross Hospital - in the future - Mandryka Central Military Clinical Hospital of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation. Presented the work of the Hospital during the dificult period of the Civil War, typhus epidemic, famine and devastation. Specified its staffing structure, command, medical and administrative staff, travel and accommodation till the moment of the deployment in the Silver Lane in Moscow.

  10. History and Civility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Larry Schaefer's history of civility is a succinct summary of the implicit and evolving definitions of civility over 2500 years of civilization. Beginning with the Romans and the root word "civitas," meaning the rights and duties of citizenship, civility appears in classical literature as integral to the roots of democracy in the context…

  11. Do strigolactones contribute to plant defence?

    PubMed

    Torres-Vera, Rocío; García, Juan M; Pozo, María J; López-Ráez, Juan A

    2014-02-01

    Strigolactones are multifunctional molecules involved in several processes outside and within the plant. As signalling molecules in the rhizosphere, they favour the establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, but they also act as host detection cues for root parasitic plants. As phytohormones, they are involved in the regulation of plant architecture, adventitious rooting, secondary growth and reproductive development, and novel roles are emerging continuously. In the present study, the possible involvement of strigolactones in plant defence responses was investigated. For this purpose, the resistance/susceptibility of the strigolactone-deficient tomato mutant Slccd8 against the foliar fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata was assessed. Slccd8 was more susceptible to both pathogens, pointing to a new role for strigolactones in plant defence. A reduction in the content of the defence-related hormones jasmonic acid, salicylic acid and abscisic acid was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry in the Slccd8 mutant, suggesting that hormone homeostasis is altered in the mutant. Moreover, the expression level of the jasmonate-dependent gene PinII, involved in the resistance of tomato to B. cinerea, was lower than in the corresponding wild-type. We propose here that strigolactones play a role in the regulation of plant defences through their interaction with other defence-related hormones, especially with the jasmonic acid signalling pathway.

  12. Capability engineering: transforming defence acquisition in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagotto, Jack; Walker, Robert S.

    2004-07-01

    Capability engineering, a new methodology with the potential to transform defence planning and acquisition, is described. The impact of capability engineering on existing defence business processes and organizations is being explored in Canada during the course of a four-year Technology Demonstration Project called Collaborative Capability Definition, Engineering and Management (CapDEM). Having completed the first of three experimentation spirals within this project, a high-level capability engineering process model has been defined. The process begins by mapping strategic defence guidance onto defence capabilities, using architectural models that articulate the people, process and materiel requirements of each capability when viewed as a system-of-systems. For a selected capability, metrics are rigorously applied to these models to assess their ability to deliver the military capability outcomes required by a set of predefined tasks and force planning scenarios. By programming the modification of these tasks and planning scenarios over time according to evolving capability objectives, quantifiable capability gaps are identified, that in turn drive the process towards options to close these gaps. The implementation plan for these options constitutes a capability evolution roadmap to support defence-investment decisions. Capability engineering is viewed as an essential enabler to meeting the objective of improved capability management, subsuming the functions of capability generation, sustainment and employment.

  13. Plant RNA silencing in viral defence.

    PubMed

    Pantaleo, Vitantonio

    2011-01-01

    RNA silencing is described in plants and insects as a defence mechanism against foreign nucleic acids, such as invading viruses. The RNA silencing-based antiviral defence involves the production of virus-derived small interfering RNAs and their association to effector proteins, which together drive the sequence specific inactivation of viruses. The entire process of antiviral defence 'borrows' several plant factors involved in other specialized RNA silencing endogenous pathways. Different viruses use variable strategies to infect different host plants, which render the antiviral RNA silencing a complex phenomenon far to be completely clarified. This chapter reports current advances in understanding the main steps of the plant's RNA-silencing response to viral invasion and discusses some of the key questions still to be answered.

  14. Prophage-mediated defence against viral attack and viral counter-defence.

    PubMed

    Dedrick, Rebekah M; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Bustamante, Carlos A Guerrero; Garlena, Rebecca A; Mavrich, Travis N; Pope, Welkin H; Reyes, Juan C Cervantes; Russell, Daniel A; Adair, Tamarah; Alvey, Richard; Bonilla, J Alfred; Bricker, Jerald S; Brown, Bryony R; Byrnes, Deanna; Cresawn, Steven G; Davis, William B; Dickson, Leon A; Edgington, Nicholas P; Findley, Ann M; Golebiewska, Urszula; Grose, Julianne H; Hayes, Cory F; Hughes, Lee E; Hutchison, Keith W; Isern, Sharon; Johnson, Allison A; Kenna, Margaret A; Klyczek, Karen K; Mageeney, Catherine M; Michael, Scott F; Molloy, Sally D; Montgomery, Matthew T; Neitzel, James; Page, Shallee T; Pizzorno, Marie C; Poxleitner, Marianne K; Rinehart, Claire A; Robinson, Courtney J; Rubin, Michael R; Teyim, Joseph N; Vazquez, Edwin; Ware, Vassie C; Washington, Jacqueline; Hatfull, Graham F

    2017-01-09

    Temperate phages are common, and prophages are abundant residents of sequenced bacterial genomes. Mycobacteriophages are viruses that infect mycobacterial hosts including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis, encompass substantial genetic diversity and are commonly temperate. Characterization of ten Cluster N temperate mycobacteriophages revealed at least five distinct prophage-expressed viral defence systems that interfere with the infection of lytic and temperate phages that are either closely related (homotypic defence) or unrelated (heterotypic defence) to the prophage. Target specificity is unpredictable, ranging from a single target phage to one-third of those tested. The defence systems include a single-subunit restriction system, a heterotypic exclusion system and a predicted (p)ppGpp synthetase, which blocks lytic phage growth, promotes bacterial survival and enables efficient lysogeny. The predicted (p)ppGpp synthetase coded by the Phrann prophage defends against phage Tweety infection, but Tweety codes for a tetrapeptide repeat protein, gp54, which acts as a highly effective counter-defence system. Prophage-mediated viral defence offers an efficient mechanism for bacterial success in host-virus dynamics, and counter-defence promotes phage co-evolution.

  15. Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) in Defence Feeding,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    k ARD-Ai25 944 ASCORBIC ACID ( VITAMIN C) IN DEFENCE FEEDING(U) ARMED I/i I FORCES FOOD SCIENCE ESTABLISHMENT SCOTTSDALE I NOSFE (AUSTRALIA) C H4...1963 A . , r ’ . - -~ . * u ,. l m -, -’ W - -r n UNCLASSIFIED l. ~kc 3 27 3 ’" * ASCORBIC ACID ( VITAMIN C) IN DEFENCE FEEDING by C. H. FORBES-EWAN...fresh vegetables could prevent and cure scurvy, it was not until the early 20th Century that the factor involved, vitamin C, was purified. Vitamin C

  16. Commission 28: Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadler, Elaine M.; Combes, Françoise; Okamura, Sadanori; Binney, James J.; Fairall, Anthony P.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Lilly, Simon J.; Karachentseva, Valentina; Kraan-Korteweg, Renée C.; Knapp, Gillian R.; Leibundgut, Bruno; Narlikar, Jayant V.

    2007-12-01

    The members of Commission 28 on Galaxies were very busy during this General Assembly, with the Commission involved in two Symposia (IAU Symposium No. 235 Galaxy Evolution across the Hubble Time, IAU Symposium No. 238 Black Holes: from Stars to Galaxies), and two Joint Discussions (JD07 The Universe at z > 6, JD15 New Cosmology Results from the Spitzer Space Telescope). Therefore, the Business Meeting was combined with the Division VIII Business Meeting, which included a short information session on the new Commission 28 Organizing Committee. The triennial report of the Commission for 2003-2005 was also distributed, and is available on the Commission 28 web site.

  17. Commissioning HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schiess, K.

    1995-12-01

    In recent years, commissioning has been viewed as a separate process that had to be specified and implemented by a specialized entity. This article discusses commissioning in the HVAC field and looks at it from an international perspective. The author has worked in Europe, South Africa (British system) and the USA. The differences between the British and the American methods of commissioning are discussed, with examples given where the American way was unsuccessful. It is the design engineer`s job to test and accept (commission) an installation after the contractor has demonstrated the performance to the satisfaction of the design engineer. Once the plant is commissioned, it is put into service.

  18. Malaysian Defence and E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhary, Jowati binti

    2005-01-01

    This paper begins with an analysis of the changing security scenario in the Asian region, with special focus on Malaysian defence strategies and foreign policies. Beginning in the mid 1990s, the Malaysian government shifted its attention away from the counter insurgency strategies of the early decades of independence to focus on wider questions of…

  19. In Defence of the Classroom Science Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrory, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Science demonstrations are often criticised for their passive nature, their gratuitous exploitation and their limited ability to develop scientific knowledge and understanding. This article is intended to present a robust defence of the use of demonstrations in the classroom by identifying some of their unique and powerful benefits--practical,…

  20. Swedish Defence Acquisition Transformation: A Research Agenda

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-13

    presentation • A small country perspective • The swinging pendulum : “From preparedness to deployment to preparedness?” – or “from national defence to PSOs to...history of war The swinging (political) pendulum • A. 200 years of peace – Standing in preparedness • B. Post Cold War – Deployed on PSOs • C

  1. Driving Danish Defence Towards Political Goals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    everything from research methodology to English grammar . Your patience and understanding throughout the year have been admirable. My research committee... essential messages. The communication perspective focuses on how it was used in this particular change process, for enforcing leadership and the efficiency...structure of the analysis will be based on qualitative research, identifying essential communications from the Defence Senior Leadership and comparing

  2. Defence Output Measures: An Economics Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    Des budgets de la comptabilité des intrants, des extrants, de la gestion et des ressources ont été utilisés comme mesures relatives aux résultats...This Report focused on financial management information (e.g. management of stocks and assets)) and made no mention of defence output measures. At

  3. Superconductivity: Recent Developments and Defence Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-11

    particular interest to the defence community include: batteries , bearings, electromagnetic guns and launchers, energy storage, free electron lasers...has looked at muon spin rotation measurements of the penetration depth of magnetic fields into the superconductors. Basic research is under way at Chalk...and batteries (3) High density magnetic field transducers (4) Magnetic levitation (5) Magnetic, frictionless be arings (6) Magnetic separation (7

  4. In Defence of the Classroom Science Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrory, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Science demonstrations are often criticised for their passive nature, their gratuitous exploitation and their limited ability to develop scientific knowledge and understanding. This article is intended to present a robust defence of the use of demonstrations in the classroom by identifying some of their unique and powerful benefits--practical,…

  5. Probiotics: beneficial factors of the defence system.

    PubMed

    Antoine, Jean Michel

    2010-08-01

    Probiotics, defined as living micro-organisms that provide a health benefit to the host when ingested in adequate amounts, have been used traditionally as food components to help the body to recover from diarrhoea. They are commonly ingested as part of fermented foods, mostly in fresh fermented dairy products. They can interact with the host through different components of the gut defence systems. There is mounting clinical evidence that some probiotics, but not all, help the defence of the host as demonstrated by either a shorter duration of infections or a decrease in the host's susceptibility to pathogens. Different components of the gut barrier can be involved in the strengthening of the body's defences: the gut microbiota, the gut epithelial barrier and the immune system. Many studies have been conducted in normal free-living subjects or in subjects during common infections like the common cold and show that some probiotic-containing foods can improve the functioning of or strengthen the body's defence. Specific probiotic foods can be included in the usual balanced diet of consumers to help them to better cope with the daily challenges of their environment.

  6. 25 CFR 585.7 - When will the Commission issue its decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... CIVIL FINE ASSESSMENTS, ORDERS OF TEMPORARY CLOSURE, THE CHAIR'S DECISIONS TO VOID OR MODIFY MANAGEMENT CONTRACTS, THE COMMISSION'S PROPOSALS TO REMOVE A CERTIFICATE OF SELF-REGULATION, THE CHAIR'S DECISIONS TO...

  7. Testing the optimal defence hypothesis for two indirect defences: extrafloral nectar and volatile organic compounds

    PubMed Central

    Radhika, Venkatesan; Kost, Christian; Bartram, Stefan; Heil, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Many plants respond to herbivory with an increased production of extrafloral nectar (EFN) and/or volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to attract predatory arthropods as an indirect defensive strategy. In this study, we tested whether these two indirect defences fit the optimal defence hypothesis (ODH), which predicts the within-plant allocation of anti-herbivore defences according to trade-offs between growth and defence. Using jasmonic acid-induced plants of Phaseolus lunatus and Ricinus communis, we tested whether the within-plant distribution pattern of these two indirect defences reflects the fitness value of the respective plant parts. Furthermore, we quantified photosynthetic rates and followed the within-plant transport of assimilates with 13C labelling experiments. EFN secretion and VOC emission were highest in younger leaves. Moreover, the photosynthetic rate increased with leaf age, and pulse-labelling experiments suggested transport of carbon to younger leaves. Our results demonstrate that the ODH can explain the within-plant allocation pattern of both indirect defences studied. PMID:18493790

  8. Civil Law Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents a glossary of civil law terms originally compiled for journalists by the American Bar Association. Defines many essential civil law concepts and practices including compensatory damages, jurisdiction, motion to dismiss, discovery, and remedy. (MJP)

  9. Rusi/Brassey's defence yearbook 1987 97th edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This annual review of defence and strategic affairs provides an up-to-date survey of international strategic affairs, contemporary weapons and developments and future trends. For all those involved in defence studies, university and public libraries and the general public. Contents: The Year Ahead; The Middle East; NATO; The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe; UK defence policy; The Issues: What is SDI.; Will SDI help. A military view; SDI-the industrial implications; Conventional defence, a military view; An alternative view; European armaments cooperation; Terrorism; Sri Lanka: the Tamils; Israel 1986; The Iran/Iraq war; Arab view; South Africa; Chronology of conflict; Defence literature; Arms control; Nuclear weapons; Characteristics.

  10. Thermal Imaging And Its Application In Defence Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akula, Aparna; Ghosh, Ripul; Sardana, H. K.

    2011-10-01

    Thermal imaging is a boon to the armed forces namely army, navy and airforce because of its day night working capability and ability to perform well in all weather conditions. Thermal detectors capture the infrared radiation emitted by all objects above absolute zero temperature. The temperature variations of the captured scene are represented as a thermogram. With the advent of infrared detector technology, the bulky cooled thermal detectors having moving parts and demanding cryogenic temperatures have transformed into small and less expensive uncooled microbolometers having no moving parts, thereby making systems more rugged requiring less maintenance. Thermal imaging due to its various advantages has a large number of applications in military and defence. It is popularly used by the army and navy for border surveillance and law enforcement. It is also used in ship collision avoidance and guidance systems. In the aviation industry it has greatly mitigated the risks of flying in low light and night conditions. They are widely used in military aviation to identify, locate and target the enemy forces. Recently, they are also being incorporated in civil aviation for health monitoring of aircrafts.

  11. Civility and Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Robert

    1981-01-01

    Media in the '70s stressed the importance of self and popularized psychology. Amidst self-help best sellers, encounter sessions, and special interest groups, the author asks, "What has happened to civility?" and "Can a culture without civility call itself civilized?" Condensed and reprinted from "Daedalus," Summer 1980. (Editor)

  12. 29 CFR 1614.407 - Civil action: Title VII, Age Discrimination in Employment Act and Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil action: Title VII, Age Discrimination in Employment Act and Rehabilitation Act. 1614.407 Section 1614.407 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Appeals and Civil Actions § 1614.407 Civil action: Title VII, Ag...

  13. 20 CFR 1002.62 - Does USERRA cover a member of the Commissioned Corps of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Commissioned Corps of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Civil Air Patrol, or the Coast... Commissioned Corps of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a “uniformed service” for... Uniformed Services § 1002.62 Does USERRA cover a member of the Commissioned Corps of the National......

  14. 20 CFR 1002.62 - Does USERRA cover a member of the Commissioned Corps of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Commissioned Corps of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Civil Air Patrol, or the Coast... Commissioned Corps of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a “uniformed service” for... Uniformed Services § 1002.62 Does USERRA cover a member of the Commissioned Corps of the National......

  15. Guidelines for residential commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, Craig P.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-01-31

    Currently, houses do not perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict, largely because they are field assembled and there is no consistent process to identify problems or to correct them. Residential commissioning is a solution to this problem. This guide is the culmination of a 30-month project that began in September 1999. The ultimate objective of the project is to increase the number of houses that undergo commissioning, which will improve the quality, comfort, and safety of homes for California citizens. The project goal is to lay the groundwork for a residential commissioning industry in California focused on end-use energy and non-energy issues. As such, we intend this guide to be a beginning and not an end. Our intent is that the guide will lead to the programmatic integration of commissioning with other building industry processes, which in turn will provide more value to a single site visit for people such as home energy auditors and raters, home inspectors, and building performance contractors. Project work to support the development of this guide includes: a literature review and annotated bibliography, which facilitates access to 469 documents related to residential commissioning published over the past 20 years (Wray et al. 2000), an analysis of the potential benefits one can realistically expect from commissioning new and existing California houses (Matson et al. 2002), and an assessment of 107 diagnostic tools for evaluating residential commissioning metrics (Wray et al. 2002). In this guide, we describe the issues that non-experts should consider in developing a commissioning program to achieve the benefits we have identified. We do this by providing specific recommendations about: how to structure the commissioning process, which diagnostics to use, and how to use them to commission new and existing houses. Using examples, we also demonstrate the potential benefits of applying the recommended whole-house commissioning approach to

  16. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission: Thirty Years Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Herbert

    1983-01-01

    Examines problems which prevented the development of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) into an effective agency; emphasizes its litigation record after Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was amended in 1972. Recommends that the EEOC be changed from a "claims adjustment bureau" to an enforcement agency. (Author/ML)

  17. Trade-offs between constitutive and induced defences drive geographical and climatic clines in pine chemical defences.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Xoaquín; Mooney, Kailen A; Rasmann, Sergio; Petry, William K; Carrillo-Gavilán, Amparo; Zas, Rafael; Sampedro, Luis

    2014-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that geographic and climatic clines drive the patterns of plant defence allocation and defensive strategies. We quantified early growth rate and both constitutive and inducible chemical defences of 18 Pinaceae species in a common greenhouse environment and assessed their defensive allocation with respect to each species' range across climatic gradients spanning 31° latitude and 2300 m elevation. Constitutive defences traded-off with induced defences, and these defensive strategies were associated with growth rate such that slow-growing species invested more in constitutive defence, whereas fast-growing species invested more in inducible defence. The position of each pine species along this trade-off axis was in turn associated with geography; moving poleward and to higher elevations, growth rate and inducible defences decreased, while constitutive defence increased. These geographic patterns in plant defence were most strongly associated with variation in temperature. Climatic and geographical clines thus act as drivers of defence profiles by mediating the constraints imposed by trade-offs, and this dynamic underlays global patterns of defence allocation.

  18. THE COLLEGE COMMISSIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FOOKS, JOYCE LANE

    THE HISTORIES, ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES, MODES OF OPERATION, GOALS, AND SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES OF EIGHT COLLEGE SCIENCE COMMISSIONS ARE PRESENTED. THE GOAL OF THE EIGHT COLLEGE SCIENCE COMMISSIONS IS TO BRING UNDERGRADUATE SCIENCE INSTRUCTION CLOSER TO THE RESEARCH FRONTIER, UPDATE COURSES, AND FOSTER THE SPIRIT OF INQUIRY. INTERCOMMISSION…

  19. The Building Commissioning Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, John A.; Casault, Rick

    This book discusses building commissioning, which is the process of certifying that a new facility meets the required specifications. As buildings have become more complex, the traditional methods for building start-up and final acceptance have been proven inadequate, and building commissioning has been developed, which often necessitates the use…

  20. Get into Commission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limback, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Teachers may be apprehensive about commissioning, and frequently directors do not see it as realistic for their programs. It took the author a while to commission a piece, even though he is often on the composer side. The author asserts that there's already plenty of high-quality literature out there to keep teachers busy, but a bigger factor is…

  1. Are natural antibodies involved in tumour defence?

    PubMed

    Bohn, J

    1999-09-01

    Natural antibodies (NAb) are found in the serum of healthy individuals. These antibodies are produced without any apparent specific antigenic stimulation. They are one part of the circulating immunoglobulins and are found in virtually all vertebrate species. NAb react to various self- and non-self antigens. A protective function in different infection models could be demonstrated. Several groups have reported the ability of NAb to bind to tumour cells. Their possible role in tumour defence is documented in mice. The present status of attempts to characterise the role of NAb in tumour defence is discussed, particularly as regards the human immune system. This paper focuses on antibody cell interactions and discusses the genetic background of the Nab-producing B-cells.

  2. Ten-Year Check-Up: Have Federal Agencies Responded to Civil Rights Recommendations? Volume I: A Blueprint for Civil Rights Enforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudert, Eileen; Alba, Manuel; Zieseniss, Mireille; Wolf, Michael

    During the 1990s, the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights issued reports evaluating the operations of 11 major federal civil-rights enforcement agencies. The reports focused on the enforcement process. From these original reports rose a series of subsequent reports of federal implementation of recommendations for enforcement. This report catalogs and…

  3. Commissioning of HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schiess, K.

    1995-06-01

    In recent years various presentation and discussions have taken place which looked at commissioning as a separate process that had to be specified and implemented by a specialized entity in a project. This presentation discusses commissioning in the HVAC field and looks at it from an international perspective. The author has worked in Europe, South Africa (British system) and in the USA. The differences are discussed between the British and the American methods with some examples where the American way of commissioning was unsuccessful. The conclusion is that it is the design engineer`s job to test and accept (commission) an installation after the contractor has demonstrated the performance to the satisfaction of the design engineer. Once the plant is commissioned, it is put into service.

  4. The Man-in-the-Middle Defence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Ross; Bond, Mike

    Eliminating middlemen from security protocols helps less than one would think. EMV electronic payments, for example, can be made fairer by adding an electronic attorney - a middleman which mediates access to a customer’s card. We compare middlemen in crypto protocols and APIs with those in the real world, and show that a man-in-the-middle defence is helpful in many circumstances. We suggest that the middleman has been unfairly demonised.

  5. Autonomous Systems: Issues for Defence Policymakers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    this provision, but bullets tipped with poison or specifically designed to cause untreatable wounds would be. There is no reason why autonomous weapon...During the Cold War, defence planners faced a similar problem of ‘fragile stability’, whereby vulnerable nuclear arsenals incentivized an enemy to...in ways that are conducive to the cause of peace. An accelerated tempo of operations may lead to combat that is more chaotic, but not more

  6. Doubts about a classic defence of abortion.

    PubMed

    Difford, Jo

    2011-01-01

    Professor Judith Jarvis Thomson's seminal paper "A defence of abortion" published in 1971 has formed part of higher education syllabi for decades. In the paper Thomson criticizes one of the fundamental arguments against abortion, that is, the right of the foetus to life by denying that the foetus is a person. This article argues that her thought experiments do not compare to the reality of abortion and focuses on the influence of the paper on arguments concerning personhood.

  7. Neurons of self-defence: neuronal innervation of the exocrine defence glands in stick insects.

    PubMed

    Stolz, Konrad; von Bredow, Christoph-Rüdiger; von Bredow, Yvette M; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard; Trenczek, Tina E; Strauß, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Stick insects (Phasmatodea) use repellent chemical substances (allomones) for defence which are released from so-called defence glands in the prothorax. These glands differ in size between species, and are under neuronal control from the CNS. The detailed neural innervation and possible differences between species are not studied so far. Using axonal tracing, the neuronal innervation is investigated comparing four species. The aim is to document the complexity of defence gland innervation in peripheral nerves and central motoneurons in stick insects. In the species studied here, the defence gland is innervated by the intersegmental nerve complex (ISN) which is formed by three nerves from the prothoracic (T1) and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG), as well as a distinct suboesophageal nerve (Nervus anterior of the suboesophageal ganglion). In Carausius morosus and Sipyloidea sipylus, axonal tracing confirmed an innervation of the defence glands by this N. anterior SOG as well as N. anterior T1 and N. posterior SOG from the intersegmental nerve complex. In Peruphasma schultei, which has rather large defence glands, only the innervation by the N. anterior SOG was documented by axonal tracing. In the central nervous system of all species, 3-4 neuron types are identified by axonal tracing which send axons in the N. anterior SOG likely innervating the defence gland as well as adjacent muscles. These neurons are mainly suboesophageal neurons with one intersegmental neuron located in the prothoracic ganglion. The neuron types are conserved in the species studied, but the combination of neuron types is not identical. In addition, the central nervous system in S. sipylus contains one suboesophageal and one prothoracic neuron type with axons in the intersegmental nerve complex contacting the defence gland. Axonal tracing shows a very complex innervation pattern of the defence glands of Phasmatodea which contains different neurons in different nerves from two adjacent body segments

  8. 29 CFR 1614.402 - Time for appeals to the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Time for appeals to the Commission. 1614.402 Section 1614.402 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Appeals and Civil Actions § 1614.402 Time for appeals to the...

  9. Journal clubs: a strategy to teach civility to nursing students.

    PubMed

    Kerber, Cindy; Jenkins, Sheryl; Woith, Wendy; Kim, Myoungjin

    2012-05-01

    Incivility affects nurses and nursing students and can negatively influence patient care and the quality of nursing education. The Institute of Medicine, The Joint Commission, and the American Association of Colleges of Nursing recommended implementation of strategies to manage incivility and build social capital. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore the influence of a journal club as an educational intervention to build civility and academic integrity among nursing students. Seventy-nine nursing students completed the Nurses' Intervention for Civility Education Questionnaire and the Ways of Coping Questionnaire before and after the Civility Journal Club intervention. Students involved in the Civility Journal Club were more aware of civility and incivility, more likely to be helpful to their peers, and better equipped to cope with episodes of incivility.

  10. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This report includes the issuances received during the specified period from Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the Directors` Decisions (DD), and the Denials of Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM).

  11. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This report includes the issuances received during the specified period from the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the Directors Decisions (DD), and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM).

  12. State Emergency Response Commissions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Governor of each state has designated a State Emergency Response Commission (SERC) that is responsible for implementing the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) provisions within its state.

  13. Commissioning the LCLS Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Akre, R.; Dowell, D.; Emma, P.; Frisch, J.; Gilevich, S.; Hays, G.; Hering, Ph.; Iverson, R.; Limborg-Deprey, C.; Loos, H.; Miahnahri, A.; Schmerge, J.; Turner, J.; Welch, J.; White, W.; Wu, J.; /SLAC

    2007-11-28

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a SASE x-ray Free-Electron Laser (FEL) project presently under construction at SLAC. The injector section, from drive laser and RF photocathode gun through first bunch compressor chicane, was installed in fall 2006. Initial system commissioning with an electron beam was completed in August 2007, with the goal of a 1.2-micron emittance in a 1-nC bunch clearly demonstrated. The second phase of commissioning, including second bunch compressor and full linac, is planned for 2008, with FEL commissioning in 2009. We report experimental results and experience gained in the first phase of commissioning, including the photo-cathode drive laser, RF gun, photocathode, S-band and X-band RF systems, first bunch compressor, and the various beam diagnostics.

  14. SPEAR3 Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Harkay, K.; Sajaev, V.; Boland, M.J.; Tan, Y.E.; Krinsky, S.; Podobedov, B.; Decking, W.; Ropert, A.; Byrd, J.M.; Robin, D.; Scarvie, T.; Steier, C.; Fedurin, M.G.; Jines, P.; Chang, H.-P.; Kuo, C.-C.; Tsai, H.-J.; Yoon, M.H.; Boge, M.; Allison, S.; Bellomo, P.; /SLAC, SSRL /SOLEIL, Saint-Aubin

    2005-05-09

    The successful commissioning of the new SPEAR3 light source at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) will be reviewed. Orbit control, beam-based alignment, and an orbit interlock were commissioned. Orbit motion was characterized as a function of frequency. The linear optics was corrected for ID focusing and coupling errors. The nonlinear optics were investigated with dynamic aperture measurements as a function of energy and tune.

  15. Commission 51: Bioastronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, William; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Boss, Alan; Cosmovici, Cristiano; Kwok, Sun; Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Morrison, David; Udry, Stephane

    2010-05-01

    Commission 51 met on August 12, 2009. Outgoing President Alan Boss chaired the meeting, and there were several dozen members present, including incoming President William Irvine, incoming Vice President Pascale Ehrenfreund, and outgoing Past President Karen Meech. Commission 51 (C51) was re-authorized for a term of six more years at the 2006 Prague General Assembly of the IAU, and hence comes up for renewal at the 2012 IAU General Assembly in Beijing, China.

  16. Jasmonate in plant defence: sentinel or double agent?

    PubMed

    Yan, Chun; Xie, Daoxin

    2015-12-01

    Plants and their biotic enemies, such as microbial pathogens and herbivorous insects, are engaged in a desperate battle which would determine their survival-death fate. Plants have evolved efficient and sophisticated systems to defend against such attackers. In recent years, significant progress has been made towards a comprehensive understanding of inducible defence system mediated by jasmonate (JA), a vital plant hormone essential for plant defence responses and developmental processes. This review presents an overview of JA action in plant defences and discusses how microbial pathogens evade plant defence system through hijacking the JA pathway.

  17. Understanding the Civil Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshon, Robert E.; Bolduan, Linda M.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a concise and informative overview of the civil justice system. Examines various components and issues including the federal and state court systems, differences between civil and criminal law, background in common law, types of civil law, civil procedure, and the effect and implementation of civil law in everyday life. (MJP)

  18. Mechanisms for the Implementation of Civil Rights Guarantees by Educational Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul T.; Rettig, Richard A.

    This report derives from a study of the implementation of civil rights guarantees by elementary, secondary, and higher education institutions. The study was commissioned by the Office of Civil Rights (OCR) with the objective of determining whether the OCR should more closely monitor and enforce compliance with Federal regulations concerning the…

  19. The Federal Civil Rights Enforcement Effort--1974. Volume II: To Provide ... For Fair Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Grace M.; And Others

    This report evaluates the Civil Rights activities of seven federal agencies with fair housing responsibilities. It is the second of a series of six reports to be issued by the Commission on Civil Rights describing the structure, mechanisms, and procedures utilized by the federal departments and agencies in their effort to end discrimination…

  20. Civil Rights Issues of Asian and Pacific Americans: Myths and Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Laura, Ed.; And Others

    This report contains papers presented and the transcripts of proceedings of a consultation to the United States Commission on Civil Rights on the civil rights of Asian and Pacific Americans. The proceedings are divided into nine sections. Each section contains the transcripts of summarized presentations of papers, discussions on each topic, and…

  1. Federal Civil Rights Enforcement Efforts in Mid-America. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights.

    This report summarizes a 1983 study, following previous research by the United States Commission on Civil Rights. The study examined several aspects of civil rights programs within federal agencies in Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Nebraska: distribution of authority and resources, accomplishments in 1980, and plans for 1983. Information was obtained…

  2. The Federal Civil Rights Enforcement Effort--1974. Volume 3: To Ensure Equal Educational Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Whitney; And Others

    In October 1970 the Commission on Civil Rights published its first evaluation of the federal government's efforts to end discrimination against the nation's minority and female citizens. This document, third in a series of six, evaluates three federal agencies and determines how well they have done their civil rights enforcement jobs. The…

  3. 17 CFR Table IV to Subpart E of... - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Inflation Adjustments IV Table IV to Subpart E of Part 201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Adjustment of Civil Monetary Penalties Pt. 201, Subpt. E, Table IV Table IV to Subpart E of Part 201—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Table IV to Subpart E U.S...

  4. Civil Rights Issues Facing the Blind and Visually Impaired in Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, Springfield.

    This report is the result of a conference that examined major civil rights issues facing people who are blind and visually impaired in Illinois and is intended to inform the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights concerning issues of equal protection. The introductory chapter reviews leading types and causes of blindness and visual impairment, incidence…

  5. 46 CFR 502.12 - Applicability of Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability of Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. 502.12 Section 502.12 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Information § 502.12 Applicability of Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. In proceedings under this part, for situation...

  6. 29 CFR 2200.2 - Scope of rules; applicability of Federal Rules of Civil Procedure; construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Scope of rules; applicability of Federal Rules of Civil Procedure; construction. 2200.2 Section 2200.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION RULES OF PROCEDURE General Provisions § 2200.2 Scope of rules; applicability of Federal Rules of Civil...

  7. 29 CFR 2200.2 - Scope of rules; applicability of Federal Rules of Civil Procedure; construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Scope of rules; applicability of Federal Rules of Civil Procedure; construction. 2200.2 Section 2200.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION RULES OF PROCEDURE General Provisions § 2200.2 Scope of rules; applicability of Federal Rules of Civil...

  8. 29 CFR 2200.2 - Scope of rules; applicability of Federal Rules of Civil Procedure; construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of rules; applicability of Federal Rules of Civil Procedure; construction. 2200.2 Section 2200.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION RULES OF PROCEDURE General Provisions § 2200.2 Scope of rules; applicability of Federal Rules of Civil...

  9. 46 CFR 502.12 - Applicability of Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicability of Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. 502.12 Section 502.12 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Information § 502.12 Applicability of Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. In proceedings under this part, for situation...

  10. 17 CFR Table III to Subpart E of... - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments III Table III to Subpart E of Part 201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Adjustment of Civil Monetary Penalties Pt. 201, Subpt. E, Table III Table III to Subpart E of Part 201—Civi...

  11. 17 CFR Table V to Subpart E of... - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Inflation Adjustments V Table V to Subpart E of Part 201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Adjustment of Civil Monetary Penalties Pt. 201, Subpt. E, Table V Table V to Subpart E of Part 201—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments U.S. Code citation...

  12. 17 CFR Table V to Subpart E of... - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Inflation Adjustments V Table V to Subpart E of Part 201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Adjustment of Civil Monetary Penalties Pt. 201, Subpt. E, Table V Table V to Subpart E of Part 201—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments U.S. Code citation...

  13. 29 CFR 1614.310 - Right to file a civil action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Right to file a civil action. 1614.310 Section 1614.310 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Related Processes § 1614.310 Right to file a civil action. An individual...

  14. Herbivory: Caterpillar saliva beats plant defences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musser, Richard O.; Hum-Musser, Sue M.; Eichenseer, Herb; Peiffer, Michelle; Ervin, Gary; Murphy, J. Brad; Felton, Gary W.

    2002-04-01

    Blood-feeding arthropods secrete special salivary proteins that suppress the defensive reaction they induce in their hosts. This is in contrast to herbivores, which are thought to be helpless victims of plant defences elicited by their oral secretions. On the basis of the finding that caterpillar regurgitant can reduce the amount of toxic nicotine released by the tobacco plant Nicotiana tabacum, we investigate here whether specific salivary components from the caterpillar Helicoverpa zea might be responsible for this suppression. We find that the enzyme glucose oxidase counteracts the production of nicotine induced by the caterpillar feeding on the plant.

  15. Iron homeostasis in host defence and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ganz, Tomas; Nemeth, Elizabeta

    2016-01-01

    Iron is an essential trace element for multicellular organisms and nearly all microorganisms. Although iron is abundant in the environment, common forms of iron are minimally soluble and therefore poorly accessible to biological organisms. Microorganisms entering a mammalian host face multiple mechanisms that further restrict their ability to obtain iron and thereby limit their pathogenicity. Iron levels also modulate host defence, as iron content in macrophages regulates their cytokine production. Here, we review recent advances that highlight the role of systemic and cellular iron-regulating mechanisms in protecting hosts from infection, emphasizing aspects that are applicable to human health and disease. PMID:26160612

  16. Clostridium difficile colitis: pathogenesis and host defence.

    PubMed

    Abt, Michael C; McKenney, Peter T; Pamer, Eric G

    2016-10-01

    Clostridium difficile is a major cause of intestinal infection and diarrhoea in individuals following antibiotic treatment. Recent studies have begun to elucidate the mechanisms that induce spore formation and germination and have determined the roles of C. difficile toxins in disease pathogenesis. Exciting progress has also been made in defining the role of the microbiome, specific commensal bacterial species and host immunity in defence against infection with C. difficile. This Review will summarize the recent discoveries and developments in our understanding of C. difficile infection and pathogenesis.

  17. In Defence of Multimodal Re-Signification: A Response to Havard Skaar's "In Defence of Writing"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adami, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    Responding to "In defence of writing" by Havard Skaar, published in issue 43.1 of this journal (April 2009), the present article argues that (1) compared with text production "from scratch," producing texts through copy-and-paste requires a different type of--rather than less--semiotic work, and that (2) digitally produced writing may involve the…

  18. Apps for Ancient Civilizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

  19. Schools and Civil Defense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    Civil defense is a planned, coordinated action to protect the population during any emergency whether arising from thermonuclear attack or natural disaster. The Federal Government has assumed four responsibilities--(1) to keep track of the nature of the threat which the civil defense program must meet, (2) to prepare and disseminate information…

  20. The Measure of Civilizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barry

    2002-01-01

    This article explores whether it is possible to compare civilizations one with another; that is, whether one can construct some neutral and objective framework in terms of which we could establish in what respects one civilization might deserve to be ranked more highly than its competitors. The author states that, in addressing the idea of an…

  1. Apps for Ancient Civilizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

  2. Commissioning Experience of SNS

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, Michael A

    2007-07-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source accelerator complex consists of a 2.5 MeV H{sup -} front-end injector system, a 186 MeV normal-conducting linear accelerator, a 1 GeV superconducting linear accelerator, an accumulator ring, and associated beam transport lines. The linac was commissioned in five discrete runs, starting in 2002 and completed in 2005. The accumulator ring and associated beam transport lines were commissioned in two runs in January-February and April 2006. With the completed commissioning of the SNS accelerator, the facility has begun initial low-power operations. In the course of beam commissioning, most beam performance parameters and beam intensity goals have been achieved at low duty factor. A number of beam dynamics measurements have been performed, including emittance evolution, transverse coupling in the ring, beam instability thresholds, and beam distributions on the target. The commissioning results, achieved beam performance and initial operating experience of the SNS linac will be presented.

  3. 25 CFR 700.833 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Civil penalty amounts. 700.833 Section 700.833 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New... destroyed or not recovered. (3) Violations limited to the removal of arrowheads located on the surface...

  4. Equal Employment Opportunity Civil Suits: An Analysis of Their Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakano, George M.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses pertinent aspects of the Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972, Civil Service Commission and Air Force regulations, and judicial decisions and remedies that bear on the responsibilities and rights of the Air Force. Available from Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402; sc $1.80.…

  5. Narcissism, defence and the positive transference.

    PubMed

    Hanly, C

    1982-01-01

    Questions concerning the positive transference and its therapeutic use have been raised by the psychology of the self. By drawing upon Freud, Abraham and Sharpe, an attempt is made to test whether classical structural, dynamic and developmental theories still provide an adequate theoretical framework for understanding the vicissitudes of the positive transference in patients with significant narcissistic psychopathology. I propose the concept of a narcissistic mechanism of defence which, relying upon the convertibility of object libido into narcissistic libido (and the reverse), utilizes the substitution of activities and inanimate objects for persons in order to compensate for narcissistic injuries and to carry out unconscious aggression motivated by the same injuries. The case of Mrs M reveals that narcissistic transference phenomena, while requiring specific therapeutic interpretation, nevertheless are intrinsically related developmentally to object libidinal conflicts. The patient's narcissistic injuries were found to be intrinsically related to stage specific traumata at the oral, anal and phallic stages. Thus while the narcissistic aspects of these traumata had to be treated therapeutically in their own right, they could not have been successfully treated without the concurrent or sequential treatment of the object libidinal conflicts connected with them. Finally, it is argued that the hypothesis of a narcissistic defence mechanism supported by the hypothesis of pre-oedipal narcissistic projective and introjective identifications with narcissistically divinized or demonized parents within the framework of classical theory can account for the clinical phenomena of narcissistic neuroses.

  6. Insect-plant interactions: endocrine defences.

    PubMed

    Bowers, W S

    1984-01-01

    It is the inevitable consequence of evolution that competitive species living together in a restricted space must try to exclude each other. Plants and insects are prime examples of this eternal competition, and although neither of these is in danger of extinction, their mutual defensive strategies are of compelling interest to the human race. Plant defences based on the insecticidal activity of certain of their secondary chemicals are readily apparent. Only through research into the fundamentals of insect physiology and biochemistry are more subtle defensive mechanisms revealed, linked to the disruption of the insect endocrine system. A diverse number of chemical structures are found in plants, which interfere with hormone-mediated processes in insects. Examples include: mimics of the insect's juvenile hormones such as juvabione from the balsam fir and the juvocimenes from sweet basil, which lethally disrupt insect development, and the precocenes found in Ageratum species, which act as anti-juvenile hormonal agents. The latter appear to serve as 'suicide substrates', undergoing activation into cytotoxins when acted on by specialized enzymes resident in the insect endocrine gland (corpus allatum) that is responsible for juvenile hormone biosynthesis and secretion. Consideration of these plant defensive strategies, which have been reached through aeons of evolutionary experimentation, may assist the human race in its defences against its principal competitors for food, fibre and health.

  7. Science and outreach for planetary defence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinschi, M.

    2011-10-01

    The recent IAA Planetary Defence Conference held in Romania, focused on a hot topic: from Threat to Action. It is true that we ought to protect the planet but also educate the population in this direction. Increasing rumours about pseudo-scientific issues, such as the impact with asteroids, comets or debris of spatial missions, the effects of the growing solar activity, the displacement of the terrestrial rotation axis following major earthquakes, let alone spreading news about the end-of-the-world, show how crucial it is to prepare people to understand what is going on in the universe and, in particular, on our planet, and how to deal with inevitable events. Another central question is in order: who should be in charge of this education? Perhaps the journalists, but they lack the necessary preparation to present correct and updated information to the public. Or the scientists, but they are extremely busy and concentrated on their projects aimed at defending the planet and at answering the vast array of questions that their research stirs up. Our goal is to answer the following question: to what extent is it the scientist's responsibility and to what extent the journalist's to educate people for the planetary defence? In addition, we shall suggest how they can effectively co-ordinate efforts to solve the current problems of a society submerged in increasingly sophisticated but decreasingly informed technologies.

  8. Commissioning of CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Hutton

    1994-06-01

    Construction of the CEBAF accelerator, a 4 GeV CW recirculating linac, is virtually complete. The 338 power sources and superconducting RF cavities, which have all run above nominal operating gradient in vertical tests (average 10.7 MeV/m), are installed. All the major components of the nine recirculation arcs are installed and aligned. Pre-commissioning was performed in parallel with construction. Ninety-nine superconducting cavities were operated simultaneously at the nominal gradient of 5 MeV/m. A maximum beam current of 110 PA CW (ZOO PA design) was reached. A cryomodule with eight cavities has operated at 8 MeV/m. Commissioning of the entire machine began in May 94. Results obtained during commissioning of the two linacs and the first arc are presented. 600 MeV beam is ready to be brought to the first experimental hall meeting a DOE milestone established in 1988.

  9. 20 CFR 1002.62 - Does USERRA cover a member of the Commissioned Corps of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Commissioned Corps of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a “uniformed service” for... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Civil Air Patrol, and the Coast Guard Auxiliary is not protected by...

  10. 20 CFR 1002.62 - Does USERRA cover a member of the Commissioned Corps of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Commissioned Corps of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a “uniformed service” for... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Civil Air Patrol, and the Coast Guard Auxiliary is not protected by...

  11. 20 CFR 1002.62 - Does USERRA cover a member of the Commissioned Corps of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Commissioned Corps of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a “uniformed service” for... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Civil Air Patrol, and the Coast Guard Auxiliary is not protected by...

  12. ATF2 Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Seryi, A.; Christian, G.; Parker, B.; Schulte, D.; Delahaye, J.-P.; Tomas, R.; Zimmermann, F.; Wolski, A.; Elsen, E.; Sanuki, T.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Ross, M.; Wendt, M.; Takahashi, T.; Bai, S.; Gao, J.; Bolzon, B.; Geffroy, N.; Jeremie, A.; Apsimon, R.; Burrows, P.; /Oxford U., JAI /Kyoto U., Inst. Chem. Res. /Kyungpook Natl. U. /Orsay, LAL /Phang Accelerator Lab /Royal Holloway, U. of London /SLAC /Daresbury /University Coll. London /Manchester U. /Univ. of Tokyo U.

    2009-10-30

    ATF2 is a final-focus test beam line that aims to focus the low-emittance beam from the ATF damping ring to a beam size of about 37 nm, and at the same time to demonstrate nm beam stability, using numerous advanced beam diagnostics and feedback tools. The construction has been finished at the end of 2008 and the beam commissioning of ATF2 has started in December of 2008. ATF2 is constructed and commissioned by ATF international collaborations with strong US, Asian and European participation.

  13. Resolving defence mechanisms: A perspective based on dissipative structure theory.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Guo, Ben-Yu

    2017-04-01

    Theories and classifications of defence mechanisms are not unified. This study addresses the psychological system as a dissipative structure which exchanges information with the external and internal world. When using defence mechanisms, the cognitive-affective schema of an individual could remain stable and ordered by excluding psychological entropy, obtaining psychological negentropy or by dissipating the energy of self-presentation. From this perspective, defences can be classified into three basic types: isolation, compensation and self-dissipation. However, not every kind of defence mechanisms can actually help the individual. Non-adaptive defences are just functioning as an effective strategy in the short run but can be a harmful approach in the long run, while adaptive defences could instead help the individual as a long-term mechanism. Thus, we would like to suggest that it is more useful for the individual to use more adaptive defence mechanisms and seek out social or interpersonal support when undergoing psychic difficulties. As this model of defences is theoretical at present, we therefore aim to support and enrich this viewpoint with empirical evidence. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  14. Computed Tomography Technology: Development and Applications for Defence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baheti, G. L.; Saxena, Nisheet; Tripathi, D. K.; Songara, K. C.; Meghwal, L. R.; Meena, V. L.

    2008-09-01

    Computed Tomography(CT) has revolutionized the field of Non-Destructive Testing and Evaluation (NDT&E). Tomography for industrial applications warrants design and development of customized solutions catering to specific visualization requirements. Present paper highlights Tomography Technology Solutions implemented at Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur (DLJ). Details on the technological developments carried out and their utilization for various Defence applications has been covered.

  15. Costs of Inducible Defence along a Resource Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Brönmark, Christer; Lakowitz, Thomas; Nilsson, P. Anders; Ahlgren, Johan; Lennartsdotter, Charlotte; Hollander, Johan

    2012-01-01

    In addition to having constitutive defence traits, many organisms also respond to predation by phenotypic plasticity. In order for plasticity to be adaptive, induced defences should incur a benefit to the organism in, for example, decreased risk of predation. However, the production of defence traits may include costs in fitness components such as growth, time to reproduction, or fecundity. To test the hypothesis that the expression of phenotypic plasticity incurs costs, we performed a common garden experiment with a freshwater snail, Radix balthica, a species known to change morphology in the presence of molluscivorous fish. We measured a number of predator-induced morphological and behavioural defence traits in snails that we reared in the presence or absence of chemical cues from fish. Further, we quantified the costs of plasticity in fitness characters related to fecundity and growth. Since plastic responses may be inhibited under limited resource conditions, we reared snails in different densities and thereby levels of competition. Snails exposed to predator cues grew rounder and thicker shells, traits confirmed to be adaptive in environments with fish. Defence traits were consistently expressed independent of density, suggesting strong selection from predatory molluscivorous fish. However, the expression of defence traits resulted in reduced growth rate and fecundity, particularly with limited resources. Our results suggest full defence in predator related traits regardless of resource availability, and costs of defence consequently paid in traits related to fitness. PMID:22291961

  16. Some Methods for Scenario Analysis in Defence Strategic Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Scenarios are an important tool in the strategic planning process, and are increasingly used in both the Defence and business world. This paper...illustrated with small examples. We also demonstrate a single, flexible approach to combining these methods using a typical Defence strategic planning problem

  17. Costs of inducible defence along a resource gradient.

    PubMed

    Brönmark, Christer; Lakowitz, Thomas; Nilsson, P Anders; Ahlgren, Johan; Lennartsdotter, Charlotte; Hollander, Johan

    2012-01-01

    In addition to having constitutive defence traits, many organisms also respond to predation by phenotypic plasticity. In order for plasticity to be adaptive, induced defences should incur a benefit to the organism in, for example, decreased risk of predation. However, the production of defence traits may include costs in fitness components such as growth, time to reproduction, or fecundity. To test the hypothesis that the expression of phenotypic plasticity incurs costs, we performed a common garden experiment with a freshwater snail, Radix balthica, a species known to change morphology in the presence of molluscivorous fish. We measured a number of predator-induced morphological and behavioural defence traits in snails that we reared in the presence or absence of chemical cues from fish. Further, we quantified the costs of plasticity in fitness characters related to fecundity and growth. Since plastic responses may be inhibited under limited resource conditions, we reared snails in different densities and thereby levels of competition. Snails exposed to predator cues grew rounder and thicker shells, traits confirmed to be adaptive in environments with fish. Defence traits were consistently expressed independent of density, suggesting strong selection from predatory molluscivorous fish. However, the expression of defence traits resulted in reduced growth rate and fecundity, particularly with limited resources. Our results suggest full defence in predator related traits regardless of resource availability, and costs of defence consequently paid in traits related to fitness.

  18. Comparative analysis of passive defences in spiders (Araneae).

    PubMed

    Pekár, Stano

    2014-07-01

    Being frequent prey of many predators, including especially wasps and birds, spiders have evolved a variety of defence mechanisms. Here I studied patterns of passive defences, namely anachoresis, crypsis, masquerade, aposematism and Batesian mimicry, in spiders. Using published information pertaining more than 1000 spider species, the phylogenetic pattern of different passive defences (i.e. defences that decrease the risk of an encounter with the predator) was investigated. Furthermore, I studied the effect of foraging guild, geographical distribution and diel activity on the frequency of defences as these determine the predators diversity, presence and perception. I found that crypsis (background matching) combined with anachoresis (hiding) was the most frequent defence confined mainly to families/genera at the base of the tree. Aposematism (warning coloration) and Batesian mimicry (imitation of noxious/dangerous model) were found in taxa that branched later in the tree, and masquerade (imitation of inedible objects) was confined to families at intermediate positions of the tree. Aposematism and Batesian mimicry were restricted to a few lineages. Masquerade was used particularly by web-building species with nocturnal activity. Aposematism was rare but mainly used by web-building diurnal species. Batesian mimicry was frequently observed in cursorial species with diurnal activity. Cryptic species were more common in temperate zones, whereas aposematic and mimetic species were more common in the tropics. Here I show that the evolution of passive defences in spiders was influenced by the ecology of species. Then, I discuss the evolutionary significance of the particularly defences.

  19. Computed Tomography Technology: Development and Applications for Defence

    SciTech Connect

    Baheti, G. L.; Saxena, Nisheet; Tripathi, D. K.; Songara, K. C.; Meghwal, L. R.; Meena, V. L.

    2008-09-26

    Computed Tomography(CT) has revolutionized the field of Non-Destructive Testing and Evaluation (NDT and E). Tomography for industrial applications warrants design and development of customized solutions catering to specific visualization requirements. Present paper highlights Tomography Technology Solutions implemented at Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur (DLJ). Details on the technological developments carried out and their utilization for various Defence applications has been covered.

  20. 78 FR 12412 - Commission Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Commission Meeting AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Susquehanna River Basin Commission will hold its regular business meeting on March 21, 2013, in Harrisburg...

  1. 77 FR 28420 - Commission Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Commission Meeting AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Susquehanna River Basin Commission will hold its regular business meeting on June 7, 2012, in Binghamton, New...

  2. 77 FR 70204 - Commission Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Commission Meeting AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Susquehanna River Basin Commission will hold its regular business meeting on December 14, 2012, in Annapolis...

  3. 78 FR 52601 - Commission Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... COMMISSION Commission Meeting AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Susquehanna River Basin Commission will hold its regular business meeting on September 19, 2013, in Binghamton, New York. Details concerning the matters to be addressed at the business meeting are contained in the...

  4. Ecological mechanisms for the coevolution of mating systems and defence.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Stuart A

    2015-02-01

    The diversity of flowering plants is evident in two seemingly unrelated aspects of life history: sexual reproduction, exemplified by the stunning variation in flower form and function, and defence, often in the form of an impressive arsenal of secondary chemistry. Researchers are beginning to appreciate that plant defence and reproduction do not evolve independently, but, instead, may have reciprocal and interactive (coevolutionary) effects on each other. Understanding the mechanisms for mating-defence interactions promises to broaden our understanding of how ecological processes can generate these two rich sources of angiosperm diversity. Here, I review current research on the role of herbivory as a driver of mating system evolution, and the role of mating systems in the evolution of defence strategies. I outline different ecological mechanisms and processes that could generate these coevolutionary patterns, and summarize theoretical and empirical support for each. I provide a conceptual framework for linking plant defence with mating system theory to better integrate these two research fields.

  5. A saponin-detoxifying enzyme mediates suppression of plant defences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouarab, K.; Melton, R.; Peart, J.; Baulcombe, D.; Osbourn, A.

    2002-08-01

    Plant disease resistance can be conferred by constitutive features such as structural barriers or preformed antimicrobial secondary metabolites. Additional defence mechanisms are activated in response to pathogen attack and include localized cell death (the hypersensitive response). Pathogens use different strategies to counter constitutive and induced plant defences, including degradation of preformed antimicrobial compounds and the production of molecules that suppress induced plant defences. Here we present evidence for a two-component process in which a fungal pathogen subverts the preformed antimicrobial compounds of its host and uses them to interfere with induced defence responses. Antimicrobial saponins are first hydrolysed by a fungal saponin-detoxifying enzyme. The degradation product of this hydrolysis then suppresses induced defence responses by interfering with fundamental signal transduction processes leading to disease resistance.

  6. Asymmetric selection and the evolution of extraordinary defences.

    PubMed

    Urban, Mark C; Bürger, Reinhard; Bolnick, Daniel I

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary biologists typically predict future evolutionary responses to natural selection by analysing evolution on an adaptive landscape. Much theory assumes symmetric fitness surfaces even though many stabilizing selection gradients deviate from symmetry. Here we revisit Lande's adaptive landscape and introduce novel analytical theory that includes asymmetric selection. Asymmetric selection and the resulting skewed trait distributions bias equilibrium mean phenotypes away from fitness peaks, usually toward the flatter shoulder of the individual fitness surface. We apply this theory to explain a longstanding paradox in biology and medicine: the evolution of excessive defences against enemies. These so-called extraordinary defences can evolve in response to asymmetrical selection when marginal risks of insufficient defence exceed marginal costs of excessive defence. Eco-evolutionary feedbacks between population abundances and asymmetric selection further exaggerate these defences. Recognizing the effect of asymmetrical selection on evolutionary trajectories will improve the accuracy of predictions and suggest novel explanations for apparent sub-optimality.

  7. Decreased structural defence of an invasive thistle under warming.

    PubMed

    Zhang, R; Leshak, A; Shea, K

    2012-01-01

    Plant structural defences play a key role in preventing fitness loss due to herbivory. However, how structural defences are affected by potential climate change is rarely examined. We examined how leaf morphological traits that relate to the structural defence of an invasive thistle, Carduus nutans, change in a warmer climate. We manipulated warming using open-top chambers (OTCs) and examined the morphology of leaves at three different positions (the 5th, 10th and 15th leaves, counted from the top of the plant) in two destructive summer censuses. We found that structural defence traits were different under ambient versus warmed conditions. Prickle densities (both the number of prickles per leaf area and the number of prickles per leaf mass) were significantly lower in plants grown in a warmer climate. Our results suggest that plant structural defences may be reduced under warming, and therefore should be considered when examining species' responses to climate change.

  8. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This report includes the issuances received during the specified period from the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the Directors` Decisions (DD), and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM). The summaries and headnotes preceding the opinions reported herein are not to be deemed a part of those opinions or have any independent legal significance.

  9. Conservation Commissions in Massachusetts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffey, Andrew J. W.

    The Conservation Foundation reported on the experience of a resource development specialist in the state of Massachusetts on the public's growing concern for environmental quality. After tracing the origins of the Massachusetts movement, the report draws upon a variety of specific state experiences to illustrate the commission's growing pains and…

  10. Legal Commission Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian Journal, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The Legal Commission of the International Non-Governmental Organizations Conference on Discrimination Against Indigenous Populations adopted the following agenda: legal status of indigenous populations; the land question; indigenous laws and courts; discrimination against indigenous peoples in existing laws and their application; and creation of…

  11. Ethics Commission Member's Comment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Sue Spayth

    1988-01-01

    Presents a National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) Ethics Commission member's comments and suggestions about how early childhood educators can best make sound decisions about the ethical dilemma of the welfare of the child and the confidentiality of its divorced parents. (BB)

  12. Expedition 29 State Commission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-12

    Expedition 29 Soyuz Commander Anton Shkaplerov speaks during the State Commission meeting to approve the Soyuz launch of Expedition 29 to the International Space Station, Saturday, Nov. 12, 2011 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch November 14 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  13. Expedition 29 State Commission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-12

    Expedition 29 Russian Flight Engineer Anatoly Ivanishin speaks during the State Commission meeting to approve the Soyuz launch of Expedition 29 to the International Space Station, Saturday, Nov. 12, 2011 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch November 14 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  14. Expedition 29 State Commission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-12

    NASA Expedition 29 backup crew member Joseph Acaba speaks during the State Commission meeting to approve the Soyuz launch of Expedition 29 to the International Space Station, Saturday, Nov. 12, 2011 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch November 14 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  15. Expedition 28 State Commission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-06

    Expedition 28 NASA Flight Engineer Mike Fossum stands during the State Commission meeting to approve the Soyuz launch of Expedition 28 to the International Space Station, Monday, June 6, 2011, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch on Tuesday, June 8, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  16. Expedition 29 State Commission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-12

    Michael Suffredini, Manager, International Space Station (ISS) Program speaks during the State Commission meeting to approve the Soyuz launch of Expedition 29 to the International Space Station, Saturday, Nov. 12, 2011, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch November 14 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  17. Expedition 28 State Commission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-06

    Expedition 28 Russian backup Flight Engineer Oleg Kononenko is seen seated during the State Commission meeting to approve the Soyuz launch of Expedition 28 to the International Space Station, Monday, June 6, 2011, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch on Tuesday, June 8, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  18. Expedition 33 State Commission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-22

    Members of the State Commission meet at the Cosmosnaut hotel to approve the Soyuz launch of Expedition 33/34 Flight Engineer Kevin Ford of NASA, Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin of ROSCOSMOS on Monday, Oct. 22, 2012 in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Expedition 28 State Commission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-06

    Michael Suffredini, Manager, International Space Station (ISS) Program, center, speaks during the State Commission meeting to approve the Soyuz launch of Expedition 28 to the International Space Station, Monday, June 6, 2011, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch on on Tuesday, June 8, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  20. Expedition 29 State Commission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-12

    Vladimir Popovkin, Head of the Russian Federal Space Agency (ROSCOSMOS) speaks during the State Commission meeting to approve the Soyuz launch of Expedition 29 to the International Space Station, Saturday, Nov. 12, 2011, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch November 14 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  1. Expedition 41 State Commission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-24

    Michael Suffredini, NASA International Space Station Program Manager, speaks during the State Commission meeting to approve the Soyuz launch of Expedition 41 to the International Space Station, Wednesday, Sept. 24, 2014, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch Sept. 26 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  2. Expedition 29 State Commission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-12

    Expedition 29 backup crew member Sergei Revin speaks during the State Commission meeting to approve the Soyuz launch of Expedition 29 to the International Space Station, Saturday, Nov. 12, 2011 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch November 14 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  3. Expedition 28 State Commission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-06

    Vladimir Popovkin, Head of the Russian Federal Space Agency (ROSCOSMOS) speaks during the State Commission meeting to approve the Soyuz launch of Expedition 28 to the International Space Station, Monday, June 6, 2011, at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The mission is set to launch on Tuesday, June 8, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  4. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This report includes the issuances received during the specified period from the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the Directors` Decisions (DD), and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM). The summaries and headnotes preceding the opinions reported herein are not to be deemed a part of those opinions or have any independent legal significance.

  5. Commission on Liberal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazzard, George W.

    1976-01-01

    Study emphasis within the Commission on Liberal Learning during the year was on the role of liberal education in the society of the future. The relationship of undergraduate liberal education to the world macro-problem--population growth, industrial production, food, materials and energy scarcities, pollution and environmental degradation--was…

  6. Federal Election Commission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Lee Ann

    1996-01-01

    Presents a concise overview of the responsibilities, membership, structure, and requirements of the Federal Election Commission (FEC). Created in 1974, the FEC oversees the financial activities of candidates and political parties. Discusses corporate and union political action committees (PACs) as well as contribution limits and prohibitions. (MJP)

  7. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This report includes the issuances received during the specified period from the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the Directors Decisions (DD), and the Denials of Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM). The summaries and headnotes preceding the opinions reported herein are not to be deemed a part of those opinions or have any independent legal significance.

  8. Climates, Landscapes, and Civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-10-01

    Humans are now the dominant driver of global climate change. From ocean acidification to sea level rise, changes in precipitation patterns, and rising temperatures, global warming is presenting us with an uncertain future. However, this is not the first time human civilizations have faced a changing world. In the AGU monograph Climates, Landscapes, and Civilizations, editors Liviu Giosan, Dorian Q. Fuller, Kathleen Nicoll, Rowan K. Flad, and Peter C. Clift explore how some ancient peoples weathered the shifting storms while some faded away. In this interview, Eos speaks with Liviu Giosan about the decay of civilizations, ancient adaptation, and the surprisingly long history of humanity's effect on the Earth.

  9. Optimal design of snow avalanche passive defence structure using reliability approach to quantify buildings vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favier, P.; Bertrand, D.; Eckert, N.; Naaim, M.

    2012-04-01

    To protect elements at risk (humans, roads, houses, etc.) against snow avalanches, civil engineering structures, such as dams or mounds, are used. The design of such defence structures is done following a deterministic approach which considers European regulation. The minimization of expected total losses is an interesting alternative that generalizes cost-benefit approach to a continuous decision variable. For this purpose, not only the hazard magnitude but also the buildings vulnerability must be evaluated carefully. The aim of this work is therefore to combine state of the art sub-models for the probabilistic description of avalanche flows and the numerical evaluation of damages to buildings. We defined the risk as the expectation of the cost consequences of avalanches activity. Disposal consequences are quantified thanks to reliability methods. In this formulation, the accuracy of both the hazard estimation and the vulnerability calculation has to be consistent according to precision and computational costs. To do so, a numerical approach has been developed to evaluate the physical vulnerability of concrete buildings submitted to avalanche loadings. The ensuing application illustrates our approach. A reinforced concrete slab is considered to model the building with a finite element method. Reliability approach enables to produce a response spectrum of the structure against avalanche impact. Finally, vulnerability curves are built. Outcomes of the risk calculation are examined to find sensitivity on the optimal design of snow defence structures.

  10. Nanothermites for space and defence applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comet, Marc; Spitzer, Denis; Moeglin, Jean-Pierre

    2009-05-01

    Thermites are energetic materials which are made of a metallic oxide mixed with a reducing metal1. The reactivity of classical thermites is moderate but it can be substantially improved when micron-sized particles are replaced by nanoparticles. In this paper, three examples of nanothermites are given in order to illustrate the contribution of these nanomaterials in the future spatial and defence applications: - the incidence of the size of the metallic oxide particles on the reactivity was illustrated by the case of WO3/Al nanothermites, - the correlation between the composition/structure of the oxide phase and the reactivity was achieved on AlxMoyOz/Al nanothermites, - the fabrication of Gas Generating Nanothermites was performed by adding military explosives in porous mineral oxides (Cr2O3; MnO2) used to fabricate nanothermites.

  11. Kin recognition affects plant communication and defence

    PubMed Central

    Karban, Richard; Shiojiri, Kaori; Ishizaki, Satomi; Wetzel, William C.; Evans, Richard Y.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of many animals to recognize kin has allowed them to evolve diverse cooperative behaviours; such ability is less well studied for plants. Many plants, including Artemisia tridentata, have been found to respond to volatile cues emitted by experimentally wounded neighbours to increase levels of resistance to herbivory. We report that this communication was more effective among A. tridentata plants that were more closely related based on microsatellite markers. Plants in the field that received cues from experimentally clipped close relatives experienced less leaf herbivory over the growing season than those that received cues from clipped neighbours that were more distantly related. These results indicate that plants can respond differently to cues from kin, making it less likely that emitters will aid strangers and making it more likely that receivers will respond to cues from relatives. More effective defence adds to a growing list of favourable consequences of kin recognition for plants. PMID:23407838

  12. Kin recognition affects plant communication and defence.

    PubMed

    Karban, Richard; Shiojiri, Kaori; Ishizaki, Satomi; Wetzel, William C; Evans, Richard Y

    2013-04-07

    The ability of many animals to recognize kin has allowed them to evolve diverse cooperative behaviours; such ability is less well studied for plants. Many plants, including Artemisia tridentata, have been found to respond to volatile cues emitted by experimentally wounded neighbours to increase levels of resistance to herbivory. We report that this communication was more effective among A. tridentata plants that were more closely related based on microsatellite markers. Plants in the field that received cues from experimentally clipped close relatives experienced less leaf herbivory over the growing season than those that received cues from clipped neighbours that were more distantly related. These results indicate that plants can respond differently to cues from kin, making it less likely that emitters will aid strangers and making it more likely that receivers will respond to cues from relatives. More effective defence adds to a growing list of favourable consequences of kin recognition for plants.

  13. The Strange Death of UK Civil Defence Education in the 1980s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, John

    2015-01-01

    In the cold war, the United Kingdom government devised a number of public education campaigns to inform citizens about the precautions that they should undertake in the event of a nuclear attack. One such campaign, Protect and Survive, was released to the general public and media in May 1980. The negative publicity this publication received is…

  14. The Strange Death of UK Civil Defence Education in the 1980s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, John

    2015-01-01

    In the cold war, the United Kingdom government devised a number of public education campaigns to inform citizens about the precautions that they should undertake in the event of a nuclear attack. One such campaign, Protect and Survive, was released to the general public and media in May 1980. The negative publicity this publication received is…

  15. Food level and sex shape predator-induced physiological stress: immune defence and antioxidant defence.

    PubMed

    Slos, Stefanie; De Meester, Luc; Stoks, Robby

    2009-09-01

    Despite the potential impact on prey fitness and predator-prey interactions, most studies of predation risk ignore physiological responses and their dependence upon food level and sex. Therefore, we reared male and female larvae of the damselfly Lestes viridis under predator stress (dragonfly larvae) at high and low food levels, and subsequently scored for important variables of insect immune defence (i.e. phenoloxidase) and antioxidant defence [i.e. superoxide dismutase, and catalase (CAT)]. Under predation risk, larvae did not decrease growth rate or immune defence, and only slightly reduced food intake in the high food treatment, probably because of time stress, i.e. little time available to complete the larval development. However, larvae facing predator stress did show an upregulation of antioxidant enzymes. This upregulation was dependent upon food level for CAT and both food level and sex for SOD, consistent with energetic constraints and sex differences in the link between longevity and adult fitness. Our results illustrate that predator stress can influence life history, behavioural and physiological responses differentially and in a context-dependent way. This implies that non-consumptive physiological effects of predators on their prey show independent yet similar complexities in behavioural and life history response variables. In general, our results advocate that mechanistic studies on predator-prey interactions may benefit from including physiological variables.

  16. Civil engineering reference guide

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, F.S.

    1986-01-01

    The civil engineering reference guide contains the following: Structural theory. Structural steel design. Concrete design and construction. Wood design and construction. Bridge engineering. Geotechnical engineering. Water engineering. Environmental engineering. Surveying.

  17. Civil Support Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    incorporated into the joint dictionary . The new DODD 3025.1 will supersede the existing version, and the definitions of military support to civil...authorities and military assistance to civil authorities will be eliminated from the joint dictionary . When updated, National Guard Regulation 500-1 will...maps, specific local information).  Recreation and tourism center (source for maps and specific, local information).  Chief medical examiner

  18. Equal Employment Opportunities for Women under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; a Memorandum on Policy for the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Submitted.. to the Interdepartmental Committee on the Status of Women and Transmitted with Approval of the Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens Advisory Council on the Status of Women, Washington, DC.

    Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits discrimination in employment on account of sex, race, color, religion, or national origin. To achieve the great potential of Title VII for securing social and economic gains for women workers, as well as others, the law must be interpreted with wisdom and perspective, vigorously administered and…

  19. Insect eggs suppress plant defence against chewing herbivores.

    PubMed

    Bruessow, Friederike; Gouhier-Darimont, Caroline; Buchala, Antony; Metraux, Jean-Pierre; Reymond, Philippe

    2010-06-01

    Plants activate direct and indirect defences in response to insect egg deposition. However, whether eggs can manipulate plant defence is unknown. In Arabidopsis thaliana, oviposition by the butterfly Pieris brassicae triggers cellular and molecular changes that are similar to the changes caused by biotrophic pathogens. In the present study, we found that the plant defence signal salicylic acid (SA) accumulates at the site of oviposition. This is unexpected, as the SA pathway controls defence against fungal and bacterial pathogens and negatively interacts with the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway, which is crucial for the defence against herbivores. Application of P. brassicae or Spodoptera littoralis egg extract onto leaves reduced the induction of insect-responsive genes after challenge with caterpillars, suggesting that egg-derived elicitors suppress plant defence. Consequently, larval growth of the generalist herbivore S. littoralis, but not of the specialist P. brassicae, was significantly higher on plants treated with egg extract than on control plants. In contrast, suppression of gene induction and enhanced S. littoralis performance were not seen in the SA-deficient mutant sid2-1, indicating that it is SA that mediates this phenomenon. These data reveal an intriguing facet of the cross-talk between SA and JA signalling pathways, and suggest that insects have evolved a way to suppress the induction of defence genes by laying eggs that release elicitors. We show here that egg-induced SA accumulation negatively interferes with the JA pathway, and provides an advantage for generalist herbivores.

  20. Commissioning the Majorana Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenqin; Majorana Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The Majorana Demonstrator deploys high purity germanium (HPGe) detector modules to search for neutrinoless double beta (0 νββ) decay in 76Ge. The experiment is aimed at demonstrating the technical feasibility and low backgrounds for a next generation Ge-based BBz experiment. The program of testing and commissioning the Demonstrator modules is a critical step to debug and improve the experimental apparatus, to establish and refine operational procedures, and to develop data analysis tools. In this talk, we will discuss our experience commissioning the Demonstrator modules and show how this program leads to successful data-taking. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics and Nuclear Physics Programs of the National Science Foundation, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility.

  1. Specificity in Mesograzer-Induced Defences in Seagrasses

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Crego, Begoña; Arteaga, Pedro; Ueber, Alexandra; Engelen, Aschwin H.; Santos, Rui; Molis, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Grazing-induced plant defences that reduce palatability to herbivores are widespread in terrestrial plants and seaweeds, but they have not yet been reported in seagrasses. We investigated the ability of two seagrass species to induce defences in response to direct grazing by three associated mesograzers. Specifically, we conducted feeding-assayed induction experiments to examine how mesograzer-specific grazing impact affects seagrass induction of defences within the context of the optimal defence theory. We found that the amphipod Gammarus insensibilis and the isopod Idotea chelipes exerted a low-intensity grazing on older blades of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa, which reflects a weak grazing impact that may explain the lack of inducible defences. The isopod Synischia hectica exerted the strongest grazing impact on C. nodosa via high-intensity feeding on young blades with a higher fitness value. This isopod grazing induced defences in C. nodosa as indicated by a consistently lower consumption of blades previously grazed for 5, 12 and 16 days. The lower consumption was maintained when offered tissues with no plant structure (agar-reconstituted food), but showing a reduced size of the previous grazing effect. This indicates that structural traits act in combination with chemical traits to reduce seagrass palatability to the isopod. Increase in total phenolics but not in C:N ratio and total nitrogen of grazed C. nodosa suggests chemical defences rather than a modified nutritional quality as primarily induced chemical traits. We detected no induction of defences in Zostera noltei, which showed the ability to replace moderate losses of young biomass to mesograzers via compensatory growth. Our study provides the first experimental evidence of induction of defences against meso-herbivory that reduce further consumption in seagrasses. It also emphasizes the relevance of grazer identity in determining the level of grazing impact triggering resistance and compensatory

  2. Commission 42: Close Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rucinski, Slavek M.; Ribas, Ignasi; Giménez, Alvaro; Harmanec, Petr; Hilditch, Ronald W.; Kaluzny, Janusz; Niarchos, Panayiotis; Nordström, Birgitta; Oláh, Katalin; Richards, Mercedes T.; Scarfe, Colin D.; Sion, Edward M.; Torres, Guillermo; Vrielmann, Sonja

    2010-05-01

    During the commission business session, the past President presented the new Organizing Committee which was selected by the OC through a e-mail vote conducted during the months before the Rio de Janeiro General Assembly. The new OC will consist of Ignasi Ribas (President), Mercedes Richards (Vice President), and Slavek Rucinski (Past President) with the members: David Bradstreet, Petr Harmanec, Janusz Kaluzny, Joanna Mikolajewska, Ulisse Munari, Panos Niarchos, Katalin Olah, Theo Pribulla, Colin Scarfe and Guillermo Torres.

  3. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This report includes the issuances received during the April 1996 reporting period from the Commission, the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards, the Administrative Law Judges, the Directors` Decisions, and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking. Included are issuances pertaining to: (1) Yankee Nuclear Power Station, (2) Georgia Tech Research Reactor, (3) River Bend Station, (4) Millstone Unit 1, (5) Thermo-Lag fire barrier material, and (6) Louisiana Energy Services.

  4. Expedition 39 State Commission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-24

    General Director of the Russian Federal Space Agency, Roscosmos, Oleg Ostapenko, as seen during the State Commission meeting to approve the Soyuz rocket launch of Expedition 39 Soyuz Commander Alexander Skvortsov of the Russian Federal Space Agency, Flight Engineer Steve Swanson of NASA, and Flight Engineer Oleg Artemyev of Roscosmos on a six month mission aboard the International Space Station, Monday, March 24, 2014 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Expedition 38 State Commission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-06

    Members of the State Commission meet to approve the Soyuz rocket launch of Expedition 38 Soyuz Commander Mikhail Tyurin of Roscosmos, Flight Engineer Koichi Wakata of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, and, Flight Engineer Rick Mastracchio of NASA for a six month mission aboard the International Space Station, Wednesday, Nov. 6, 2013 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Expedition 38 State Commission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-06

    President of RSC Energia, Designer General V.A. Lopota, talks during the State Commission meeting to approve the Soyuz rocket launch of Expedition 38 Soyuz Commander Mikhail Tyurin of Roscosmos, Flight Engineer Koichi Wakata of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, and, Flight Engineer Rick Mastracchio of NASA for a six month mission aboard the International Space Station, Wednesday, Nov. 6, 2013 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Expedition 38 State Commission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-06

    JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) President Naoki Okumura talks during the State Commission meeting to approve the Soyuz rocket launch of Expedition 38 Soyuz Commander Mikhail Tyurin of Roscosmos, Flight Engineer Koichi Wakata of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, and, Flight Engineer Rick Mastracchio of NASA for a six month mission aboard the International Space Station, Wednesday, Nov. 6, 2013 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. The Defence Medical Library Service and military medicine.

    PubMed

    Walker, S B

    2005-01-01

    The Defence Medical Library Service (DMLS) supports the clinical practice and career development of military health professionals across the world. Clinical governance and the need for medical knowledge to be evidence-based means the DMLS has a central role to play in support of defence medicine. The DMLS is important for enabling health professionals to make sense of the evidence-based pyramid and the hierarchy of medical knowledge. The Royal Centre for Defence Medicine (RCDM) in Birmingham is recognised as an international centre of excellence. The information, knowledge and research requirements of the RCDM will provide opportunities for the DMLS to support and engage with the academic community.

  9. Non-immunological defence mechanisms of the gut.

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, S A; Gyr, K

    1992-01-01

    Non-immunological defence mechanisms represent an important line of intestinal defence in addition to humoral and cellular immunity. This review summarises the evidence for the role of the non-immunological defence system. Protective factors that have been amply documented are gastric juice, intestinal motility, and intestinal flora. Components of pancreatic juice, lysozyme, and epithelial cell turnover may also be involved. Special attention is given to gastric acid, infection with Helicobacter pylori, and hypochlorhydria and their association with infectious diarrhoea. Epidemic hypochlorhydria is discussed since this increases sensitivity to intestinal infections in third world countries. PMID:1644343

  10. Searching for extraterrestrial civilizations.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, T B; Morris, M

    1977-05-06

    We have argued that planning for a search for extraterrestrial intelligence should involve a minimum number of assumptions. In view of the feasibility (at our present level of understanding) of using nuclear fusion to effect interstellar travel at a speed of 0.1c, it appears unwarranted (at this time) to assume that it would not occur for at least some technologically advanced civilizations. One cannot even conclude that humans would not attempt this within the next few centuries. On the contrary, the most likely future situation, given the maintenance of technological growth and the absence of extraterrestrial interference, is that our civilization will explore and colonize our galactic neighborhood. A comparison of the time scales of galactic evolution and interstellar travel leads to the conclusion that the galaxy is either essentially empty with respect to technological civilizations or extensively colonized. In the former instance, a SETI would be unproductive. In the latter, a SETI could be fruitful if a signal has been deliberately directed at the earth or at an alien outpost, probe, or communication relay station in our solar system. In the former case, an existing antenna would probably be sufficient to detect the signal. In the latter case, success would depend on the way in which the communications were coded. Failure to detect a signal could permit any of the following conclusions: (i) the galaxy is devoid of technological civilizations, advanced beyond our own, (ii) such civilizations exist, but cannot (for some reason which is presently beyond our ken) engage in interstellar colonization, or (iii) such civilizations are not attempting overt contact with terrestrial civilizations and their intercommunications, if present, are not coded in a simple way. To plan at this time for a high-cost, large-array SETI based on the last two possibilities appears to be rather premature.

  11. 29 CFR 1608.6 - Affirmative action plans which are part of Commission conciliation or settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION AFFIRMATIVE ACTION APPROPRIATE UNDER TITLE VII OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964, AS AMENDED § 1608.6 Affirmative action plans which are part of Commission... determination of no reasonable cause under § 1608.10(a) and will advise the respondent of its right...

  12. 29 CFR 1608.6 - Affirmative action plans which are part of Commission conciliation or settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION AFFIRMATIVE ACTION APPROPRIATE UNDER TITLE VII OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964, AS AMENDED § 1608.6 Affirmative action plans which are part of Commission... determination of no reasonable cause under § 1608.10(a) and will advise the respondent of its right...

  13. 29 CFR 1608.6 - Affirmative action plans which are part of Commission conciliation or settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION AFFIRMATIVE ACTION APPROPRIATE UNDER TITLE VII OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964, AS AMENDED § 1608.6 Affirmative action plans which are part of Commission... determination of no reasonable cause under § 1608.10(a) and will advise the respondent of its right...

  14. 29 CFR 1608.6 - Affirmative action plans which are part of Commission conciliation or settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION AFFIRMATIVE ACTION APPROPRIATE UNDER TITLE VII OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964, AS AMENDED § 1608.6 Affirmative action plans which are part of Commission... determination of no reasonable cause under § 1608.10(a) and will advise the respondent of its right...

  15. 29 CFR 1608.6 - Affirmative action plans which are part of Commission conciliation or settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION AFFIRMATIVE ACTION APPROPRIATE UNDER TITLE VII OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964, AS AMENDED § 1608.6 Affirmative action plans which are part of Commission... determination of no reasonable cause under § 1608.10(a) and will advise the respondent of its right...

  16. A Guide to Building Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, Michael C.

    2011-09-01

    Commissioning is the process of verifying that a building's heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) and lighting systems perform correctly and efficiently. Without commissioning, system and equipment problems can result in higher than necessary utility bills and unexpected and costly equipment repairs. This report reviews the benefits of commissioning, why it is a requirement for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification, and why building codes are gradually adopting commissioning activities into code.

  17. Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1990-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest provides summary information regarding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, its regulatory responsibilities, and areas licensed by the commission. This is an annual publication for the general use of the NRC Staff and is available to the public. The digest is divided into two parts: the first presents an overview of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the second provides data on NRC commercial nuclear reactor licensees and commercial nuclear power reactors worldwide.

  18. Development of a Defence Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) Database Demonstrator,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-11-01

    This report discusses the development of a Defence Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) database demonstrator program. The Demonstrator program...showcases the interoperability, portability, survivability and security features of Open Software Foundation’s Distributed Computing Environment.

  19. Grazing-activated chemical defence in a unicellular marine alga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Gordon V.; Steinke, Michael; Kirst, Gunter O.

    1997-06-01

    Marine plankton use a variety of defences against predators, some of which affect trophic structure and biogeochemistry. We have previously shown that, during grazing by the protozoan Oxyrrhis marina on the alga Emiliania huxleyi, dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) from the prey is converted to dimethyl sulphide (DMS) when lysis of ingested prey cells initiates mixing of algal DMSP and the enzyme DMSP lyase. Such a mechanism is similar to macrophyte defence reactions,. Here we show that this reaction deters protozoan herbivores, presumably through the production of highly concentrated acrylate, which has antimicrobial activity. Protozoan predators differ in their ability to ingest and survive on prey with high-activity DMSP lyase, but all grazers preferentially select strains with low enzyme activity when offered prey mixtures. This defence system involves investment in a chemical precursor, DMSP, which is not self-toxic and has other useful metabolic functions. We believe this is the first report of grazing-activated chemical defence in unicellular microorganisms.

  20. Damaged-self recognition in plant herbivore defence.

    PubMed

    Heil, Martin

    2009-07-01

    Feeding by herbivores induces plant defences, but we still do not know all the signals that mediate this response. Here, I argue that a general principle in this mediation is 'damaged-self recognition', that is, the perception of motifs by the plant that indicate disintegrated plant cells. Most defence-inducing molecules are (or contain) plant-derived motifs or disintegrate plant cells and thereby release defence elicitors. By perceiving the 'damaged self', plants can retain evolutionary control over their interactions with herbivores rather than allowing herbivores to dominate the interaction. The concept of 'damaged-self recognition' provides a paradigm for plant responses to herbivory and helps the search for the currently unknown elicitors of those defence responses, which have so far only been described at the phenotypic level.

  1. Chemical antipredator defence is linked to higher extinction risk

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Many attributes of species may be linked to contemporary extinction risk, though some such traits remain untested despite suggestions that they may be important. Here, I test whether a trait associated with higher background extinction rates, chemical antipredator defence, is also associated with current extinction risk, using amphibians as a model system—a group facing global population declines. I find that chemically defended species are approximately 60% more likely to be threatened than species without chemical defence, although the severity of the contemporary extinction risk may not relate to chemical defence. The results confirm that background and contemporary extinction rates can be predicted from the same traits, at least in certain cases. This suggests that associations between extinction risk and phenotypic traits can be temporally stable over long periods. The results also provide novel insights into the relevance of antipredator defences for species subject to conservation concerns. PMID:28018657

  2. The role of thionins in rice defence against root pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hongli; Gheysen, Godelieve; Ullah, Chhana; Verbeek, Ruben; Shang, Chenjing; De Vleesschauwer, David; Höfte, Monica; Kyndt, Tina

    2015-10-01

    Thionins are antimicrobial peptides that are involved in plant defence. Here, we present an in-depth analysis of the role of rice thionin genes in defence responses against two root pathogens: the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola and the oomycete Pythium graminicola. The expression of rice thionin genes was observed to be differentially regulated by defence-related hormones, whereas all analysed genes were consistently down-regulated in M. graminicola-induced galls, at least until 7 days post-inoculation (dpi). Transgenic lines of Oryza sativa cv. Nipponbare overproducing OsTHI7 revealed decreased susceptibility to M. graminicola infection and P. graminicola colonization. Taken together, these results demonstrate the role of rice thionin genes in defence against two of the most damaging root pathogens attacking rice.

  3. Expedition 18 State Commission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-10

    The State Commission gives the approval for launch of the Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft carrying Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke, Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov and American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott to the International Space Station, Saturday, Oct. 11, 2008, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. The three crew members are scheduled to launch Oct. 12 for a docking with the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crew members currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Expedition 18 State Commission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-10

    Expedition 18 Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov, left, and Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke listen to the State Commission give the approval for launch of the Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft, Saturday, Oct. 11, 2008, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Lonchakov, Fincke and American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott are scheduled to launch Oct. 12 and then to dock with the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crew members currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Expedition 18 State Commission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-10

    A Russian flight surgeon, right, along with the quarantined prime and backup crews listen to the State Commission give the final approval for the launch of the Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft, Saturday, Oct. 11, 2008 in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke, Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov and American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott are scheduled to launch Oct. 12 and dock with the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crew members currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. The SNS RFQ Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Ratti, A.; Ayers, J.; Doolittle, L.; DiGennaro, R.; Gough, R.A.; Hoff, M.; Keller, R.; MacGill, J.; Staples, J.; Thomae, R.; Virostek, S.; Yourd, R.; Aleksandrov, A.

    2002-08-16

    LBNL has built for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project a 402.5 MHz RFQ that is designed to accelerate up to 60 mA H{sup -} from 65 keV to 2.5 MeV [1]. A one millisecond pulse length at 60 Hz provides a 6% duty factor. The RFQ has now been built, conditioned at full duty factor and tested with beam. This paper will present results from the final installation, tuning and beam commissioning. Beam measurements include acceleration and transport efficiencies and transverse emittances. The LEBT optics were tuned for best results. Performance testing of the RF power distribution is also discussed here.

  7. SNS Cryogenic Systems Commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatfield, D.; Casagrande, F.; Campisi, I.; Gurd, P.; Howell, M.; Stout, D.; Strong, H.; Arenius, D.; Creel, J.; Dixon, K.; Ganni, V.; Knudsen, P.

    2006-04-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The cold section of the Linac consists of 81 superconducting radio frequency cavities cooled to 2.1K by a 2400 watt cryogenic refrigeration system. The major cryogenic system components include warm helium compressors with associated oil removal and gas management, 4.5K cold box, 7000L liquid helium dewar, 2.1K cold box (consisting of 4 stages of cold compressors), gaseous helium storage, helium purification and gas impurity monitoring system, liquid nitrogen storage and the cryogenic distribution transfer line system. The overall system commissioning and future plans will be presented.

  8. Commission 31: Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defraigne, Pascale; Manchester, Richard; Matsakis, Demetrios; Petit, Gerard; Hosokawa, Mizuhiko; Leschiutta, Sigfrid; Zhai, Zao-Cheng

    2010-05-01

    Dr R. N. Manchester and Dr M. Hosokawa have been elected as, respectively, the new President and Vice-President of the Commission for the next term, 2009-2012. Concerning the Organizing Committee (OC) Members, we welcome as new members: Felicitas Aris (BIPM, France), Philip Tuckey (LNE-SYRTE, France), Vladimir Zharov (MSU, Russia), and Shougang Zhang (NTSC, China) and we acknowledge the outgoing members: Demetrios Matsakis, Gerard Petit, Mizuhiko Hosokawa, Sigfrid Leschiutta and Zao-Cheng Zhai. P. Defraigne remains on the OC as immediate Past-President.

  9. SNS Cryogenic Systems Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    D. Hatfield; F. Casagrande; I. Campisi; P. Gurd; M. Howell; D. Stout; H. Strong; D. Arenius; J. Creel; K. Dixon; V. Ganni; and P. Knudsen

    2005-08-29

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The cold section of the Linac consists of 81 superconducting radio frequency cavities cooled to 2.1K by a 2400 watt cryogenic refrigeration system. The major cryogenic system components include warm helium compressors with associated oil removal and gas management, 4.5K cold box, 7000L liquid helium dewar, 2.1K cold box (consisting of 4 stages of cold compressors), gaseous helium storage, helium purification and gas impurity monitoring system, liquid nitrogen storage and the cryogenic distribution transfer line system. The overall system commissioning and future plans will be presented.

  10. DEFTEST. Defence Technological and Scientific Thesaurus. Volume 1. A - L.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    October, 1986. Produced by DISTI8 (Defence Infomation Services Technical Information Sysm) In June, 1981, DEFTEST was derived from the Engineers Joint ...ed, Canberra, National Library of Australia, 1986 ISBN 0-642-10403-4 Australian Joint Services Glossary, Pan 1, Canberra, Department of Defence, 1981...edition, NASA, January 1987 NASA-SP-7053 (Supp 2) Thesaurus of engineering and scientific terms, New York, Engineers Joint Council, 1967 vii

  11. Classification of extraterrestrial civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tong B.; Chang, Grace

    1991-06-01

    A scheme of classification of extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI) communities based on the scope of energy accessible to the civilization in question is proposed as an alternative to the Kardeshev (1964) scheme that includes three types of civilization, as determined by their levels of energy expenditure. The proposed scheme includes six classes: (1) a civilization that runs essentially on energy exerted by individual beings or by domesticated lower life forms, (2) harnessing of natural sources on planetary surface with artificial constructions, like water wheels and wind sails, (3) energy from fossils and fissionable isotopes, mined beneath the planet surface, (4) exploitation of nuclear fusion on a large scale, whether on the planet, in space, or from primary solar energy, (5) extensive use of antimatter for energy storage, and (6) energy from spacetime, perhaps via the action of naked singularities.

  12. Between-Population Outbreeding Affects Plant Defence

    PubMed Central

    Leimu, Roosa; Fischer, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Between-population crosses may replenish genetic variation of populations, but may also result in outbreeding depression. Apart from direct effects on plant fitness, these outbreeding effects can also alter plant-herbivore interactions by influencing plant tolerance and resistance to herbivory. We investigated effects of experimental within- and between-population outbreeding on herbivore resistance, tolerance and plant fitness using plants from 13 to 19 Lychnis flos-cuculi populations. We found no evidence for outbreeding depression in resistance reflected by the amount of leaf area consumed. However, herbivore performance was greater when fed on plants from between-population compared to within-population crosses. This can reflect outbreeding depression in resistance and/or outbreeding effects on plant quality for the herbivores. The effects of type of cross on the relationship between herbivore damage and plant fitness varied among populations. This demonstrates how between-population outbreeding effects on tolerance range from outbreeding depression to outbreeding benefits among plant populations. Finally, herbivore damage strengthened the observed outbreeding effects on plant fitness in several populations. These results raise novel considerations on the impact of outbreeding on the joint evolution of resistance and tolerance, and on the evolution of multiple defence strategies. PMID:20838662

  13. Middle Devonian liverwort herbivory and antiherbivore defence.

    PubMed

    Labandeira, Conrad C; Tremblay, Susan L; Bartowski, Kenneth E; VanAller Hernick, Linda

    2014-04-01

    To test the extent of herbivory in early terrestrial ecosystems, we examined compression-impression specimens of the late Middle Devonian liverwort Metzgeriothallus sharonae, from the Catskill Delta deposit of eastern New York state. Shale fragments of field-collected specimens were processed by applying liquid nitrocellulose on exposed surfaces. After drying, the film coatings were lifted off and mounted on microscope slides for photography. Unprocessed fragments were photographed under cedarwood oil for enhanced contrast. An extensive repertoire of arthropodan-mediated herbivory was documented, representing three functional feeding groups and nine subordinate plant-arthropod damage types (DTs). The herbivory is the earliest occurrence of external foliage-feeding and galling in the terrestrial fossil record. Our evidence indicates that thallus oil body cells, similar to the terpenoid-containing oil bodies of modern liverworts, were probably involved in the chemical defence of M. sharonae against arthropod herbivores. Based on damage patterns of terrestrial plants and an accompanying but sparse body-fossil record, Devonian arthropodan herbivores were significantly smaller compared to those of the later Palaeozoic. These data collectively suggest that a broad spectrum herbivory may have had a more important role in early terrestrial ecosystems than previously thought.

  14. Searching for extraterrestrial civilizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Morris, M.

    1977-01-01

    Three interrelated assumptions are critically examined in an attempt to outline a productive strategy for a search for extraterrestrial intelligence. Questions concerning the feasibility of interstellar travel are investigated. It is concluded that the probability of interstellar travel is high enough that, given a modest number of advanced civilizations, at least one of them will engage in interstellar voyages and colonize the galaxy. Assuming, however, that technological civilizations are rare the galaxy would be essentially unpopulated. Attention is given to the present lack of contact with extraterrestrial beings and frequencies for interstellar beacons.

  15. Righting Civil Wrongs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murrell, Dan S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The 1991 Civil Rights Act fills many gaps in existing employment laws, but its implications for higher education go beyond employment to admissions and students affairs. Trustees should direct administrators to review personnel policies and practices and liability insurance coverage in light of the new law. (Author/MSE)

  16. History and Undergraduate Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Peter

    1995-01-01

    It is argued that a traditional, historically-oriented course in 17th- and 18th-century French civilization continues to be an appropriate and effective approach for undergraduate French study, in preparation for later, more sophisticated cultural analysis. Four course components are discussed: class lectures; literary text selection; textbook…

  17. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  18. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  19. European Civilization. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppert, Ella C.; Halac, Dennis

    The instructional materials in this teaching guide for Course II, Unit IV, follow and build upon a previous sequential course described in SO 003 169 offering ninth grade students a study on the development of Western European Civilization. Focus is upon four periods of high development: The High Middle Ages (12th Century), The Renaissance (15th…

  20. European Civilization. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppert, Ella C.; Halac, Dennis

    The instructional materials in this teaching guide for Course II, Unit IV, follow and build upon a previous sequential course described in SO 003 169 offering ninth grade students a study on the development of Western European Civilization. Focus is upon four periods of high development: The High Middle Ages (12th Century), The Renaissance (15th…

  1. Hydraulics in civil engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, A.; Morfett, J.

    1986-01-01

    This undergraduate text combines fundamental theoretical concepts with design applications to provide coverage of hydraulics in civil engineering. The authors have incorporated the results of research in many areas and have taken advantage of the availability of microcomputers in the presentation and solution of problems. In addition, the text embodies a set of worked examples to illustrate the theoretical concepts, and typical problems.

  2. Civil Law: 12 Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresbach, Debra

    These learning activities on civil law are intended to supplement the secondary level Scholastic materials "Living Law." Case studies, simulations, and role-play activities are included. Information provided for each activity includes a brief overview, background information, teacher instructions and a description of each activity.…

  3. Civil partnerships five years on.

    PubMed

    Ross, Helen; Gask, Karen; Berrington, Ann

    2011-01-01

    The Civil Partnership Act 2004, which came into force in December 2005 allowing same-sex couples in the UK to register their relationship for the first time, celebrated its fifth anniversary in December 2010. This article examines civil partnership in England and Wales, five years on from its introduction. The characteristics of those forming civil partnerships between 2005 and 2010 including age, sex and previous marital/civil partnership status are examined. These are then compared with the characteristics of those marrying over the same period. Further comparisons are also made between civil partnership dissolutions and divorce. The article presents estimates of the number of people currently in civil partnerships and children of civil partners. Finally the article examines attitudes towards same-sex and civil partner couples both in the UK and in other countries across Europe.

  4. Commission 10: Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Klimchuk, James A.; Charbonneau, Paul; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Hasan, S. Sirajul; Hudson, Hugh S.; Kusano, Kanya; Mandrini, Cristina H.; Peter, Hardi; Vršnak, Bojan; Yan, Yihua

    2012-04-01

    Commission 10 of the International Astronomical Union has more than 650 members who study a wide range of activity phenomena produced by our nearest star, the Sun. Solar activity is intrinsically related to solar magnetic fields and encompasses events from the smallest energy releases (nano- or even picoflares) to the largest eruptions in the Solar System, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which propagate into the Heliosphere reaching the Earth and beyond. Solar activity is manifested in the appearance of sunspot groups or active regions, which are the principal sources of activity phenomena from the emergence of their magnetic flux through their dispersion and decay. The period 2008-2009 saw an unanticipated extended solar cycle minimum and unprecedentedly weak polar-cap and heliospheric field. Associated with that was the 2009 historical maximum in galactic cosmic rays flux since measurements begun in the middle of the 20th Century. Since then Cycle 24 has re-started solar activity producing some spectacular eruptions observed with a fleet of spacecraft and ground-based facilities. In the last triennium major advances in our knowledge and understanding of solar activity were due to continuing success of space missions as SOHO, Hinode, RHESSI and the twin STEREO spacecraft, further enriched by the breathtaking images of the solar atmosphere produced by the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) launched on 11 February 2010 in the framework of NASA's Living with a Star program. In August 2012, at the time of the IAU General Assembly in Beijing when the mandate of this Commission ends, we will be in the unique position to have for the first time a full 3-D view of the Sun and solar activity phenomena provided by the twin STEREO missions about 120 degrees behind and ahead of Earth and other spacecraft around the Earth and ground-based observatories. These new observational insights are continuously posing new questions, inspiring and advancing theoretical analysis and

  5. Commission 45: Spectral Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giridhar, Sunetra; Gray, Richard O.; Corbally, Christopher J.; Bailer-Jones, Coryn A. L.; Eyer, Laurent; Irwin, Michael J.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Majewski, Steven; Minniti, Dante; Nordström, Birgitta

    This report gives an update of developments (since the last General Assembly at Prague) in the areas that are of relevance to the commission. In addition to numerous papers, a new monograph entitled Stellar Spectral Classification with Richard Gray and Chris Corbally as leading authors will be published by Princeton University Press as part of their Princeton Series in Astrophysics in April 2009. This book is an up-to-date and encyclopedic review of stellar spectral classification across the H-R diagram, including the traditional MK system in the blue-violet, recent extensions into the ultraviolet and infrared, the newly defined L-type and T-type spectral classes, as well as spectral classification of carbon stars, S-type stars, white dwarfs, novae, supernovae and Wolf-Rayet stars.

  6. Expedition 38 State Commission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-06

    Expedition 38 Flight Engineer Koichi Wakata of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, left, Soyuz Commander Mikhail Tyurin of Roscosmos, and, Flight Engineer Rick Mastracchio of NASA, right, are seen behind glass, while in quarantine, during the State Commission meeting held to approve the Soyuz launch of the crew for a six month mission aboard the International Space Station, Wednesday, Nov. 6, 2013 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. An Olympic torch that will be launched with the crew for a four-day visit to the station is seen on the left. The torch will return to Earth with another trio of station residents on Nov. 11 and will be part of the torch relay that ends with the lighting of the flame at the Fisht Stadium in Sochi, Russia Feb. 7 to mark the opening of the 2014 Winter Olympics. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Civility in Classes and Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumpkin, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Civility is a polite or courteous act, expression, or standard of conduct, including the display of respect and tolerance to everyone. Teaching and modeling civility in classes and with sport teams is essential so students and athletes can learn the importance of and demonstrate civility in their interactions with others. Teachers and coaches…

  8. Report on the AATF National Survey of Graduate Studies in French/Francophone Culture and Civilization (FFCC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durand, Alain-Philippe

    2003-01-01

    Presents the results of a survey of the teaching of French/Francophone Culture and Civilization (FFCC) in French graduate programs in the United States. The survey was commissioned by the American Association of Teachers of French Commission on Cultural Competence. (Author/VWL)

  9. Model Commissioning Plan and Guide Specifications

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The objectives of Model Commissioning Plan and Guide Specifications are to ensure that the design team applies commissioning concepts to the design and prepares commissioning specifications and a commission plan for inclusion in the bid construction documents.

  10. Defence and Security Research Coexistence, Coherence, and Convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breant, Christian; Karock, Ulrich

    Defence and security research have coexisted at the European Union level since the inception of the European Defence Agency (EDA). The agency was established under a Joint Action of the Council of Ministers on 12 July 2004, "to support the Member States and the Council in their effort to improve European defence capabilities in the field of crisis management and to sustain the European Security and Defence Policy as it stands now and develops in the future".1 The political decision to create the EDA was taken at the Thessaloniki European Council on 19 and 20 June 2003. Heads of State or Government tasked the Council bodies to undertake the requisite actions, in the course of 2004, to create an intergovernmental agency in the field of defence capabilities development, research, acquisition and armaments. The EDA has been located in Brussels right from the start. It is an intergovernmental EU agency under the Council's authority within the single institutional framework of the Union. It performs its mission in close cooperation with its participating Member States (pMS) and the European institutional actors.

  11. Evaluating arguments during instigations of defence motivation and accuracy motivation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cheng-Hong

    2017-05-01

    When people evaluate the strength of an argument, their motivations are likely to influence the evaluation. However, few studies have specifically investigated the influences of motivational factors on argument evaluation. This study examined the effects of defence and accuracy motivations on argument evaluation. According to the compatibility between the advocated positions of arguments and participants' prior beliefs and the objective strength of arguments, participants evaluated four types of arguments: compatible-strong, compatible-weak, incompatible-strong, and incompatible-weak arguments. Experiment 1 revealed that participants possessing a high defence motivation rated compatible-weak arguments as stronger and incompatible-strong ones as weaker than participants possessing a low defence motivation. However, the strength ratings between the high and low defence groups regarding both compatible-strong and incompatible-weak arguments were similar. Experiment 2 revealed that when participants possessed a high accuracy motivation, they rated compatible-weak arguments as weaker and incompatible-strong ones as stronger than when they possessed a low accuracy motivation. However, participants' ratings on both compatible-strong and incompatible-weak arguments were similar when comparing high and low accuracy conditions. The results suggest that defence and accuracy motivations are two major motives influencing argument evaluation. However, they primarily influence the evaluation results for compatible-weak and incompatible-strong arguments, but not for compatible-strong and incompatible-weak arguments.

  12. Commissioning of NSLS-II

    SciTech Connect

    Willeke, F.

    2015-05-03

    NSLS-II, the new 3rd generation light source at BNL was designed for a brightness of 1022 photons s-1mm-2mrad-2 (0.1%BW)-1. It was constructed between 2009 and 2014. The storage ring was commissioned in April 2014 which was followed by insertion device and beamline commissioning in the fall of 2014. All ambitious design parameters of the facility have already been achieved except for commissioning the full beam intensity of 500mA which requires more RF installation. This paper reports on the results of commissioning.

  13. Civil War vascular injuries.

    PubMed

    Blaisdell, F William

    2005-01-01

    As the result of the insistence of the Surgeon General during the United States Civil War, there was extensive documentation of injuries to major blood vessels and their resulting complications. The specific treatment of vascular injuries during the Civil War was ligation of the injured vessel or amputation. This was before there was any knowledge of the cause and prevention of infection. Overall, the results were dismal, with a mortality rate of nearly 60% for the more than 1000 soldiers treated by arterial ligation. The most important contribution of these medical reports was to define how the injuries should be diagnosed and managed. Many of the principles that developed as the result of this post-war review are as valid today as they were then. Unfortunately, it seems that many of these lessons have had to be relearned by the surgeons who have participated in each of our subsequent military conflicts.

  14. Manifestations of advanced civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracewell, R. N.

    A list of possible modes of detecting advanced civilizations elsewhere in the universe is provided, including EM Alfven, and gravity waves, matter transfer, and exotica such as tachyons, black hole tunneling, and telepathy. Further study is indicated for low frequency radio wave propagation, which may travel along magnetic fields to reach the earth while laser beams are not favored because of the power needed for transmitting quanta instead of waves. IR, X ray, and UV astronomy are noted to be suitable for detecting signals in those ranges, while Alfven wave communication will be best observed by probes outside the orbit of Jupiter, where local anomalies have less effect. Particle propagation communication is viewed as unlikely, except as a trace of an extinct civilization, but panspermia, which involves interstellar spreading of seeds and/or spores, receives serious attention, as does laser probe or pellet propulsion.

  15. Galactic-scale civilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.

    1980-01-01

    Evolutionary arguments are presented in favor of the existence of civilization on a galactic scale. Patterns of physical, chemical, biological, social and cultural evolution leading to increasing levels of complexity are pointed out and explained thermodynamically in terms of the maximization of free energy dissipation in the environment of the organized system. The possibility of the evolution of a global and then a galactic human civilization is considered, and probabilities that the galaxy is presently in its colonization state and that life could have evolved to its present state on earth are discussed. Fermi's paradox of the absence of extraterrestrials in light of the probability of their existence is noted, and a variety of possible explanations is indicated. Finally, it is argued that although mankind may be the first occurrence of intelligence in the galaxy, it is unjustified to presume that this is so.

  16. Galactic-scale civilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.

    1980-01-01

    Evolutionary arguments are presented in favor of the existence of civilization on a galactic scale. Patterns of physical, chemical, biological, social and cultural evolution leading to increasing levels of complexity are pointed out and explained thermodynamically in terms of the maximization of free energy dissipation in the environment of the organized system. The possibility of the evolution of a global and then a galactic human civilization is considered, and probabilities that the galaxy is presently in its colonization state and that life could have evolved to its present state on earth are discussed. Fermi's paradox of the absence of extraterrestrials in light of the probability of their existence is noted, and a variety of possible explanations is indicated. Finally, it is argued that although mankind may be the first occurrence of intelligence in the galaxy, it is unjustified to presume that this is so.

  17. Commissioning a Hodoscope Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lulis, Andrew; Merhi, Abdul; Frank, Nathan; Bazin, Daniel; Smith, Jenna; Thoennessen, Michael; MoNA Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    Experiments on neutron-rich nuclei are interesting since they test the limits of current nuclear theory. One method to populate neutron-rich nuclei is to utilize the (d,p) reaction in which the beam nucleus picks up a neutron from the target. This heavier nucleus immediately emits a neutron resulting in the same nucleus as the beam but with lower energy. One challenge is to discriminate decay products from unreacted beam particles by their difference in energy. A hodoscope was recently installed at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) as part of the MoNA-LISA-Sweeper setup to make experiments using a (d,p) reaction possible. The hodoscope is a 5 × 5 scintillator array consisting of CsI(Na) crystals with a resolution of better than 1%. This presentation will describe the recently commissioned detector and the results of the first data analysis using this device. Work supported by Augustana College and the National Science Foundation grant #0969173.

  18. Commissioning the SNO+ detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descamps, Freija; SNO+ Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The SNO+ experiment is the successor to the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO), in which SNO's heavy water is replaced by approximately 780T of liquid scintillator (LAB). The combination of the 2km underground location, the use of ultra-clean materials and the high light-yield of the liquid scintillator means that a low background level and a low energy threshold can be achieved. This creates a new multipurpose neutrino detector with the potential to address a diverse set of physics goals, including the detection of reactor, solar, geo- and supernova neutrinos. A main physics goal of SNO+ is the search for neutrinoless double beta decay. By loading the liquid scintillator with 0.5% of natural Tellurium, resulting in about 1300kg of 130Te (isotopic abundance is slightly over 34%), a competitive sensitivity to the effective neutrino mass can be reached. This talk will present the status of the SNO+ detector, specifically the results and status of the detector commissioning with water.

  19. ALICE TPC commissioning results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, D. T.; Alice Tpc Collaboration

    2010-05-01

    ALICE is a dedicated heavy-ion experiment at CERN LHC aiming to study the properties of the quark-gluon plasma. A lead-lead collision might produce several 10 00 new particles. Detailed study of the event requires precise measurements of the particle tracks. A 90 m3 Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with more than 500 000 read-out pads was built as the main central barrel tracker. Collisions can be recorded at a rate of up to about 1 kHz. The front-end electronics, designed from FPGAs and custom ASICs, performs shaping, amplification, digitisation and digital filtering of the signals. The data are forwarded to DAQ via 216 1.25 Gb/s fibre-optical links. Configuration, control and monitoring is done by an embedded Linux system on the front-end electronics. Before production runs with beam, extensive commissioning using tracks from cosmics and from the laser system as well as clusters from radioactive krypton gas is needed. Extensive results have been obtained with respect to the performance of the TPC including its sub-systems.

  20. National Knowledge Commission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitroda, Sam

    2007-04-01

    India's National Knowledge Commission (NKC) established by the prime minister is focused on building institutions and infrastructure in Education, Science and Technology, Innovation etc. to meet the challenges of the knowledge economy in the 21st century and increase India's competitive advantage in the global market. India today stands poised to reap the benefits of a rapidly growing economy and a major demographic advantage, with 550 million young people below the age of 25 years, the largest in the world. The NKC is focused on five critical areas of knowledge related to access, concepts, creation, applications and services. This includes a variety of subject areas such as language, translations, libraries, networks, portals, affirmative action, distance learning, intellectual property, Entrepreneurship, application in Agriculture, health, small and medium scale industries, e-governance etc. One of the keys to this effort is to build a national broadband gigabit of networks of 500 nodes to connect universities, Libraries, Laboratories, Hospitals, Agriculture institutions etc. to share resources and collaborate on multidisciplinary activities. This presentation will introduce the NKC, discuss methodology, subject areas, specific recommendation and outline a plan to build knowledge networks and specifics on network architecture, applications, and utilities.

  1. Commissioning the SNO+ Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caden, E.; Coulter, I.; SNO+ Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    SNO+ is a multipurpose liquid scintillator neutrino experiment based at SNOLAB in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The experiment’s main physics goal is a search for neutrinoless double beta decay in Tellurium-130, but SNO+ will also study low energy solar neutrinos, geo- and reactor-antineutrinos, among other topics. We are reusing much of the hardware from the original SNO experiment, but significant work has taken place to transform the heavy water detector into a liquid scintillator detector. We present upgrades and improvements to the read-out electronics and trigger system to handle the higher data rates expected by a scintillator experiment. We show the successful installation and testing of a hold-down rope net for the acrylic vessel to counter-act the buoyancy of organic liquid scintillator. We also describe the new scintillator process plant and cover gas systems that have been constructed to achieve the purification necessary to meet our physics goals. We are currently commissioning the experiment with ultra-pure water in preparation for filling with scintillator in early 2017 and present the current status of this work.

  2. LIGO Detector Commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, Frederick

    2003-04-01

    The initial LIGO interferometer design was based on more than 20 years of experience with test interferometers, but the increase in scale, new operating environments and extreme technical requirements presented challenges for commissioning. Detector installation began in 1998 with injection optics at Hanford, WA. By 1999, light was resonating in a single 2-km Fabry-Perot arm cavity. Subsequent engineering runs tested stability and analyzed environmental influences, particularly the earth tides and the microseism. By October 2000, the first lock of a kilometer-scale, power recycled Fabry-Perot-Michelson interferometer was obtained, using an automated system to analyze optical signals and reconfigure control loops as the mirrors are drawn into position. The many control loops that minimize length and angle fluctuations of the mirrors relative to the laser light were tuned and noise sources were identified and reduced iteratively as sensitivity improved by several orders of magnitude. Following installation of the last LIGO mirror in 2001, engineering run 7 provided the first triple-coincidence operation of LIGO's interferometers at Hanford and Livingston, LA in early 2002. Clear signals of mirrors recoiling from the Brownian motion of the suspension-wire violin modes first emerged from the noise during science run 1 in September 2002, at approximately the expected amplitude. Detector robustness has steadily improved and uninterrupted locking on a dark fringe for more than a day has been achieved. The support of the US National Science Foundation under Cooperative Agreement No. PHY-0107417 is gratefully acknowledged.

  3. [Civil status and suicide].

    PubMed

    Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Bitzer-Quintero, Oscar Kurt; García-González, Adolfo; Celis-de la Rosa, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    To determine if civil status acts as a risk factor in suicide and how it modifies according to gender, age and population size. A retrospective study which analyzes information from the mortality data from the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Information, from 1998 to 2002. Variables like suicides age, sex, cause of death, federal entity, population size and civil status were registered. Single men showed twofold risk for committing suicide. Women did not show any associated risk for suicide according to civil status. The risk of married men for committing suicide increased gradually with age. Medium-sized communities with less than 19,999 habitants presented the highest risk for habitants to commit suicide. Suicide is associated to gender especially to men who are not married and living in small and medium-sized communities. One explanation could be the lack of integrated behavior as defined by Emile Durkheim, where the physical density of society will determine behavior and ideas. This social structure phenomenon is called the "moral cocoon." This works around the individual being less individualistic and granting him/her the feeling of belonging to a group.

  4. 77 FR 55454 - Agenda and Notice of Public Meeting of the North Dakota Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... purpose of the briefing and listening meeting is to hear civil and human rights issues of concern by citizens of the state and a briefing by a state human rights coalition. Members of the public are entitled... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMISSION ON CIVIL...

  5. Grape marc extract acts as elicitor of plant defence responses.

    PubMed

    Goupil, Pascale; Benouaret, Razik; Charrier, Olivia; Ter Halle, Alexandra; Richard, Claire; Eyheraguibel, Boris; Thiery, Denis; Ledoigt, Gérard

    2012-07-01

    Plant protection based on novel alternative strategies is a major concern in agriculture to sustain pest management. The marc extract of red grape cultivars reveals plant defence inducer properties. Treatment with grape marc extract efficiently induced hypersensitive reaction-like lesions with cell death evidenced by Evans Blue staining of tobacco leaves. Examination of the infiltration zone and the surrounding areas under UV light revealed the accumulation of autofluorescent compounds. Both leaf infiltration and a foliar spray of the red grape extract on tobacco leaves induced defence gene expression. The PR1 and PR2 target genes were upregulated locally and systemically in tobacco plants following grape marc extract treatment. The grape extract elicited an array of plant defence responses making this natural compound a potential phytosanitary product with a challenging issue and a rather attractive option for sustainable agriculture and environmentally friendly practices.

  6. The insanity defence: from wild beasts to M'Naghten.

    PubMed

    Allnutt, Stephen; Samuels, Anthony; O'driscoll, Colman

    2007-08-01

    This paper provides an overview of the insanity defence. An historical context is offered and each element of the M'Naghten Rules is discussed, highlighting differing interpretations within various jurisdictions. Discussion is offered on the role of expert evidence in addressing the 'ultimate issue' before the courts. Significant case law in relation to the insanity defence is highlighted. Psychiatrists have an important role to play in addressing issues central to the M'Naghten Rules and making these accessible and comprehensible to court and jurors in particular. Insanity is a legal construct designed to determine the extent to which a person may be deemed criminally responsible for a criminal act and is often difficult to reconcile within medical and public paradigms of mental illness and justice. Principles are offered to guide psychiatrists who are called to give evidence in cases where the mental illness defence has been raised.

  7. 76 FR 46783 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-549); Comment Request; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... prohibiting market manipulation (regulations adopted in Order No. 670, implementing the EPAct 2005 anti-manipulation provisions \\2\\) and the generally applicable five-year statute of limitations where the Commission seeks civil penalties for violations of the anti-manipulation rules or other rules, regulations, or...

  8. Plant defence as a complex and changing phenotype throughout ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-López, Sofía; Villamil, Nora; Zedillo-Avelleyra, Paulina; Boege, Karina

    2015-10-01

    Ontogenetic changes in anti-herbivore defences are common and result from variation in resource availability and herbivore damage throughout plant development. However, little is known about the simultaneous changes of multiple defences across the entire development of plants, and how such changes affect plant damage in the field. The aim of this study was to assess if changes in the major types of plant resistance and tolerance can explain natural herbivore damage throughout plant ontogeny. An assessment was made of how six defensive traits, including physical, chemical and biotic resistance, simultaneously change across the major transitions of plant development, from seedlings to reproductive stages of Turnera velutina growing in the greenhouse. In addition, an experiment was performed to assess how plant tolerance to artificial damage to leaves changed throughout ontogeny. Finally, leaf damage by herbivores was evaluated in a natural population. The observed ontogenetic trajectories of all defences were significantly different, sometimes showing opposite directions of change. Whereas trichome density, leaf toughness, extrafloral nectary abundance and nectar production increased, hydrogen cyanide and compensatory responses decreased throughout plant development, from seedlings to reproductive plants. Only water content was higher at the intermediate juvenile ontogenetic stages. Surveys in a natural population over 3 years showed that herbivores consumed more tissue from juvenile plants than from younger seedlings or older reproductive plants. This is consistent with the fact that juvenile plants were the least defended stage. The results suggest that defensive trajectories are a mixed result of predictions by the Optimal Defence Theory and the Growth-Differentiation Balance Hypothesis. The study emphasizes the importance of incorporating multiple defences and plant ontogeny into further studies for a more comprehensive understanding of plant defence evolution.

  9. Moving nitrogen to the centre of plant defence against pathogens.

    PubMed

    Mur, Luis A J; Simpson, Catherine; Kumari, Aprajita; Gupta, Alok Kumar; Gupta, Kapuganti Jagadis

    2017-03-01

    Plants require nitrogen (N) for growth, development and defence against abiotic and biotic stresses. The extensive use of artificial N fertilizers has played an important role in the Green Revolution. N assimilation can involve a reductase series ( NO3- → NO2- → NH4+ ) followed by transamination to form amino acids. Given its widespread use, the agricultural impact of N nutrition on disease development has been extensively examined. When a pathogen first comes into contact with a host, it is usually nutrient starved such that rapid assimilation of host nutrients is essential for successful pathogenesis. Equally, the host may reallocate its nutrients to defence responses or away from the site of attempted infection. Exogenous application of N fertilizer can, therefore, shift the balance in favour of the host or pathogen. In line with this, increasing N has been reported either to increase or to decrease plant resistance to pathogens, which reflects differences in the infection strategies of discrete pathogens. Beyond considering only N content, the use of NO3- or NH4+ fertilizers affects the outcome of plant-pathogen interactions. NO3- feeding augments hypersensitive response- (HR) mediated resistance, while ammonium nutrition can compromise defence. Metabolically, NO3- enhances production of polyamines such as spermine and spermidine, which are established defence signals, with NH4+ nutrition leading to increased γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels which may be a nutrient source for the pathogen. Within the defensive N economy, the roles of nitric oxide must also be considered. This is mostly generated from NO2- by nitrate reductase and is elicited by both pathogen-associated microbial patterns and gene-for-gene-mediated defences. Nitric oxide (NO) production and associated defences are therefore NO3- dependent and are compromised by NH4+ . This review demonstrates how N content and form plays an essential role in defensive primary and secondary metabolism and

  10. Plant defence as a complex and changing phenotype throughout ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    Ochoa-López, Sofía; Villamil, Nora; Zedillo-Avelleyra, Paulina; Boege, Karina

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Ontogenetic changes in anti-herbivore defences are common and result from variation in resource availability and herbivore damage throughout plant development. However, little is known about the simultaneous changes of multiple defences across the entire development of plants, and how such changes affect plant damage in the field. The aim of this study was to assess if changes in the major types of plant resistance and tolerance can explain natural herbivore damage throughout plant ontogeny. Methods An assessment was made of how six defensive traits, including physical, chemical and biotic resistance, simultaneously change across the major transitions of plant development, from seedlings to reproductive stages of Turnera velutina growing in the greenhouse. In addition, an experiment was performed to assess how plant tolerance to artificial damage to leaves changed throughout ontogeny. Finally, leaf damage by herbivores was evaluated in a natural population. Key Results The observed ontogenetic trajectories of all defences were significantly different, sometimes showing opposite directions of change. Whereas trichome density, leaf toughness, extrafloral nectary abundance and nectar production increased, hydrogen cyanide and compensatory responses decreased throughout plant development, from seedlings to reproductive plants. Only water content was higher at the intermediate juvenile ontogenetic stages. Surveys in a natural population over 3 years showed that herbivores consumed more tissue from juvenile plants than from younger seedlings or older reproductive plants. This is consistent with the fact that juvenile plants were the least defended stage. Conclusions The results suggest that defensive trajectories are a mixed result of predictions by the Optimal Defence Theory and the Growth–Differentiation Balance Hypothesis. The study emphasizes the importance of incorporating multiple defences and plant ontogeny into further studies for a more

  11. Why the Eurocontrol Safety Regulation Commission Policy on Safety Nets and Risk Assessment is Wrong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooker, Peter

    2004-05-01

    Current Eurocontrol Safety Regulation Commission (SRC) policy says that the Air Traffic Management (ATM) system (including safety minima) must be demonstrated through risk assessments to meet the Target Level of Safety (TLS) without needing to take safety nets (such as Short Term Conflict Alert) into account. This policy is wrong. The policy is invalid because it does not build rationally and consistently from ATM's firm foundations of TLS and hazard analysis. The policy is bad because it would tend to retard safety improvements. Safety net policy must rest on a clear and rational treatment of integrated ATM system safety defences. A new safety net policy, appropriate to safe ATM system improvements, is needed, which recognizes that safety nets are an integrated part of ATM system defences. The effects of safety nets in reducing deaths from mid-air collisions should be fully included in hazard analysis and safety audits in the context of the TLS for total system design.

  12. Reflections on the Gordon Commission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haertel, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Background:This brief reflection on the work of the Gordon Commission calls out significant themes and implications found in the various papers authored by the commissioners and other scholars, especially those included in this special issue of Teachers College Record. Purpose: The forward-looking vision of the Gordon Commission is contrasted with…

  13. Vermont Technical Education Commission Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermont State Technical Education Commission, Montpelier.

    A 1968 New England Regional Commission grant to the Vermont Department of Administration financed a feasibility study for a technical college at the postsecondary level. The commission undertook two specific studies: an examination of ultimate career destinations of Vermont secondary students and a survey of Vermont industry to determine immediate…

  14. Comparative genomics tools applied to bioterrorism defence.

    PubMed

    Slezak, Tom; Kuczmarski, Tom; Ott, Linda; Torres, Clinton; Medeiros, Dan; Smith, Jason; Truitt, Brian; Mulakken, Nisha; Lam, Marisa; Vitalis, Elizabeth; Zemla, Adam; Zhou, Carol Ecale; Gardner, Shea

    2003-06-01

    Rapid advances in the genomic sequencing of bacteria and viruses over the past few years have made it possible to consider sequencing the genomes of all pathogens that affect humans and the crops and livestock upon which our lives depend. Recent events make it imperative that full genome sequencing be accomplished as soon as possible for pathogens that could be used as weapons of mass destruction or disruption. This sequence information must be exploited to provide rapid and accurate diagnostics to identify pathogens and distinguish them from harmless near-neighbours and hoaxes. The Chem-Bio Non-Proliferation (CBNP) programme of the US Department of Energy (DOE) began a large-scale effort of pathogen detection in early 2000 when it was announced that the DOE would be providing bio-security at the 2002 Winter Olympic Games in Salt Lake City, Utah. Our team at the Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) was given the task of developing reliable and validated assays for a number of the most likely bioterrorist agents. The short timeline led us to devise a novel system that utilised whole-genome comparison methods to rapidly focus on parts of the pathogen genomes that had a high probability of being unique. Assays developed with this approach have been validated by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). They were used at the 2002 Winter Olympics, have entered the public health system, and have been in continual use for non-publicised aspects of homeland defence since autumn 2001. Assays have been developed for all major threat list agents for which adequate genomic sequence is available, as well as for other pathogens requested by various government agencies. Collaborations with comparative genomics algorithm developers have enabled our LLNL team to make major advances in pathogen detection, since many of the existing tools simply did not scale well enough to be of practical use for this application. It is hoped that a discussion of a real-life practical application of

  15. Commission 31: Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsakis, Demetrios; Defraigne, Pascale; Hosokawa, M.; Leschiutta, S.; Petit, G.; Zhai, Z.-C.

    2007-03-01

    The most intensely discussed and controversial issue in time keeping has been the proposal before the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) to redefine Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) so as to replace leap seconds by leap hours. Should this proposal be adopted, the practice of inserting leap seconds would cease after a specific date. Should the Earth's rotation continue to de-accelerate at its historical rate, the next discontinuity in UTC would be an hour inserted several centuries from now. Advocates of this proposal cite the need to synchronize satellite and other systems, such as GPS, Galileo, and GLONASS, which did not exist and were not envisioned when the current system was adopted. They note that leap second insertions can be and have been incorrectly implemented or accounted for. Such errors have to date had localized impact, but they could cause serious mishaps involving loss of life. For example, some GPS receivers have been known to fail simply because there was no leap second after a long enough interval, other GPS receivers failed because the leap second information was broadcast more than three months in advance, and some commercial software used for internet time-transfer Network Time Protocol (NTP) could either discard all data received after a leap second or interpret it as a frequency change. The ambiguity associated with the extra second could also disrupt financial accounting and certain forms of encryption. Those opposed to the proposal question the need for a change, and also point out the costs of adjusting to the proposed change and its inconvenience to amateur astronomers and others who rely upon astronomical calculations published in advance. Reports have been circulated that the cost of checking and correcting software to accommodate the new definition of UTC would be many millions of dollars for some systems. In October 2005 American Astronomical Society asked the ITU for a year's time to study the issue. This commission has

  16. Civil space technology initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) is a major, focused, space technology program of the Office of Aeronautics, Exploration and Technology (OAET) of NASA. The program was initiated to advance technology beyond basic research in order to expand and enhance system and vehicle capabilities for near-term missions. CSTI takes critical technologies to the point at which a user can confidently incorporate the new or expanded capabilities into relatively near-term, high-priority NASA missions. In particular, the CSTI program emphasizes technologies necessary for reliable and efficient access to and operation in Earth orbit as well as for support of scientific missions from Earth orbit.

  17. Civil Law Study Guide.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    involved in the commission of lewd and lascivious acts, sodomy, indecent exposure, indecent act(s) with, or assault upon, a child , or acts for compensation... child (Preliminary notification should be provided to NMPC-66/83 before the initiation of administrative processing in incest cases.)]. MILPERSMAN...2. name changes; 3. routine or "short form" statutory probates of small estates; 4. divorce, separation, and child -custody matters; 5. paternity; . 6

  18. A Review of Enterprise Architecture Use in Defence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    functions in Defence. The concept of CIS support to operations recognises the intrinsic relationship between information in its broadest sense and...guidance was provided on the conduct of the ARM, including considerations such as information to be provided, reviewer requirements, attendance quorum

  19. Evolution of hosts paying manifold costs of defence.

    PubMed

    Cressler, Clayton E; Graham, Andrea L; Day, Troy

    2015-04-07

    Hosts are expected to incur several physiological costs in defending against parasites. These include constitutive energetic (or other resource) costs of a defence system, facultative resource costs of deploying defences when parasites strike, and immunopathological costs of collateral damage. Here, we investigate the evolution of host recovery rates, varying the source and magnitude of immune costs. In line with previous work, we find that hosts paying facultative resource costs evolve faster recovery rates than hosts paying constitutive costs. However, recovery rate is more sensitive to changes in facultative costs, potentially explaining why constitutive costs are hard to detect empirically. Moreover, we find that immunopathology costs which increase with recovery rate can erode the benefits of defence, promoting chronicity of infection. Immunopathology can also lead to hosts evolving low recovery rate in response to virulent parasites. Furthermore, when immunopathology reduces fecundity as recovery rate increases (e.g. as for T-cell responses to urogenital chlamydiosis), then recovery and reproductive rates do not covary as predicted in eco-immunology. These results suggest that immunopathological and resource costs have qualitatively different effects on host evolution and that embracing the complexity of immune costs may be essential for explaining variability in immune defence in nature. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Long-term familiarity promotes joining in neighbour nest defence.

    PubMed

    Grabowska-Zhang, A M; Sheldon, B C; Hinde, C A

    2012-08-23

    Familiarity plays an important role in the evolution of sociality and cooperation. Familiar individuals may gain a reputation for participating in, or defecting from, cooperative tasks. Previous research suggests that long-term familiarity with territorial neighbours benefits breeders. We tested the hypothesis that great tits (Parus major) are more likely to join in neighbours' nest defence if those neighbours are familiar from the previous year. We show that neighbours that shared a territory boundary the previous year are more likely to join their neighbours' nest defence than neighbours that did not share a boundary before. Closer neighbours did not differ from distant neighbours in their latency to join. For familiar neighbours that joined, there was no difference in call rate in relation to whether one or both members of the focal pair were familiar. First-time breeders (by definition unfamiliar) did not join each other's nest defence. This is the first evidence of a relationship between familiarity and joining in nest defence. Such direct benefits of familiarity may have important implications in the evolution of sociality.

  1. Australia’s National Security: A Defence Update 2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Australia’s response to the Bali bombing 13 Bastille Middle East Forward deployment of personnel in support of UN efforts to disarm Iraq Operation Operation... Bastille Operation Operation Citadel report.p65 21/2/03, 8:5427 DEFENCE UPDATE 200328 D PS N O V 01 0/ 02 report.p65 21/2/03, 8:5428

  2. A Strong Remedy to a Weak Ethical Defence of Homeopathy.

    PubMed

    Shaw, David

    2015-12-01

    In this article, I indicate and illustrate several flaws in a recent "ethical defence" of homeopathy. It transpires that the authors' arguments have several features in common with homeopathic remedies, including strong claims, a lack of logic or evidence, and no actual effect.

  3. Communal range defence in primates as a public goods dilemma.

    PubMed

    Willems, Erik P; Arseneau, T Jean M; Schleuning, Xenia; van Schaik, Carel P

    2015-12-05

    Classic socio-ecological theory holds that the occurrence of aggressive range defence is primarily driven by ecological incentives, most notably by the economic defendability of an area or the resources it contains. While this ecological cost-benefit framework has great explanatory power in solitary or pair-living species, comparative work on group-living primates has always found economic defendability to be a necessary, but not sufficient condition to account for the distribution of effective range defence across the taxon. This mismatch between theory and observation has recently been ascribed to a collective action problem among group members in, what is more informatively viewed as, a public goods dilemma: mounting effective defence of a communal range against intrusions by outgroup conspecifics. We here further develop this framework, and report on analyses at three levels of biological organization: across species, across populations within a single lineage and across groups and individuals within a single population. We find that communal range defence in primates very rarely involves collective action sensu stricto and that it is best interpreted as the outcome of opportunistic and strategic individual-level decisions. Whether the public good of a defended communal range is produced by solitary, joint or collective action is thus the outcome of the interplay between the unique characteristics of each individual, local and current socio-ecological conditions, and fundamental life-history traits of the species.

  4. A cellular backline: specialization of host membranes for defence.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Christine

    2015-03-01

    In plant-pathogen interactions, the host plasma membrane serves as a defence front for pathogens that invade from the extracellular environment. As such, the lipid bilayer acts as a scaffold that targets and delivers defence responses to the site of attack. During pathogen infection, numerous changes in plasma membrane composition, organization, and structure occur. There is increasing evidence that this facilitates the execution of a variety of responses, highlighting the regulatory role membranes play in cellular responses. Membrane microdomains such as lipid rafts are hypothesized to create signalling platforms for receptor signalling in response to pathogen perception and for callose synthesis. Further, the genesis of pathogen-associated structures such as papillae and the extra-haustorial membrane necessitates polarization of membranes and membrane trafficking pathways. Unlocking the mechanisms by which this occurs will enable greater understanding of how targeted defences, some of which result in resistance, are executed. This review will survey some of the changes that occur in host membranes during pathogen attack and how these are associated with the generation of defence responses. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. An Annotated Bibliography of Defence, Disarmament, and Peace

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    Tradeoffs, health expenditure, models of expenditure PEROFF , K.; PODOLAK-WUUUN, M. Does Spending on Defence Cut Spending on Health?: A Time-series...Bibliography of ten references. Demographic characteristics, occupations. LEON , C. B. Working for Uncle Sam: A Look at Members of the Armed Forces

  6. Communal range defence in primates as a public goods dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Erik P.; Arseneau, T. Jean. M.; Schleuning, Xenia; van Schaik, Carel P.

    2015-01-01

    Classic socio-ecological theory holds that the occurrence of aggressive range defence is primarily driven by ecological incentives, most notably by the economic defendability of an area or the resources it contains. While this ecological cost–benefit framework has great explanatory power in solitary or pair-living species, comparative work on group-living primates has always found economic defendability to be a necessary, but not sufficient condition to account for the distribution of effective range defence across the taxon. This mismatch between theory and observation has recently been ascribed to a collective action problem among group members in, what is more informatively viewed as, a public goods dilemma: mounting effective defence of a communal range against intrusions by outgroup conspecifics. We here further develop this framework, and report on analyses at three levels of biological organization: across species, across populations within a single lineage and across groups and individuals within a single population. We find that communal range defence in primates very rarely involves collective action sensu stricto and that it is best interpreted as the outcome of opportunistic and strategic individual-level decisions. Whether the public good of a defended communal range is produced by solitary, joint or collective action is thus the outcome of the interplay between the unique characteristics of each individual, local and current socio-ecological conditions, and fundamental life-history traits of the species. PMID:26503678

  7. Sense Making in the Australian Defence Organisation (ADO) Intelligence Community

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    Sense Making in the Australian Defence Organisation (ADO) Intelligence Community Mark Burnett, Pete Wooding * and Paul Prekop...3 And it is possible to inter-relate all three models – see Rousseau and Breton 2005. DSTO-GD...worthy of more detailed consideration. DSTO-GD-0440 22 References Breton , R. and Rousseau, R. (2005), "The C-OODA: A Cognitive Version

  8. Landscape settings as part of earth wall systems for defence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk

    2013-04-01

    Remnants of earth wall systems from different periods are preserved in many European countries. They were built for different functions, such as defence, demarcating ownership or keeping wild animals or cattle in or out a terrain, and often changed function over time. Earth walls date from a past in which man had limited access to man- and horsepower. In the case of defence systems, our ancestors made use of the landscape settings to improve the strength. The poster gives an overview of landscape settings used for this purpose, from prehistoric up to medieval age, for building round and linear earth wall defence systems. Round earth walls systems are found on: • High viewpoints along a river, often in combination with marshland at its feet, • Almost completely cut-off meanders of antecedent rivers. This natural setting offered an ideal defence. It allowed an almost 360 degree view and exposed the enemy for a long time when passing the river, while the steep slopes and narrow entrance made the hill fort difficult to access, • Islands in lakes, • Bordering a lake at one side, • Confluences of rivers, • Hills near the sea and a natural harbour with possibilities for defence, • High flat hill tops of medium size with steep sides. Of each situation examples are presented. Linear earth wall defence systems For linear defence earth walls no overview of landscape settings can be given, for lack of sufficient data. The Celtic, 10 m steep Beech Bottom Dyke earth wall system from around 20 A.D. connects two steeply incised river valleys. For building the Hadrian Wall (UK) the Romans made use of earth walls paralleling the steepest cuesta of the Cheviot hills. The Viking Danewerk (Ger), was built on push moraines and used the coastal marsh lands at their feet for defence. And the defence of the earth wall around the Velder (NL, probably 13th century) made use of the many small streams crossing this marshy coversand landscape, by diverting them into a canal

  9. 18 CFR 375.101 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false The Commission. 375.101... OF ENERGY REVISED GENERAL RULES THE COMMISSION General Provisions § 375.101 The Commission. (a) Establishment. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission is an independent regulatory commission within the...

  10. 47 CFR 0.1 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false The Commission. 0.1 Section 0.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION Organization General § 0.1 The Commission. The Federal Communications Commission is composed of five (5) members who are appointed by the...

  11. 47 CFR 0.1 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The Commission. 0.1 Section 0.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION Organization General § 0.1 The Commission. The Federal Communications Commission is composed of five (5) members who are appointed by the...

  12. 18 CFR 375.101 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false The Commission. 375.101... OF ENERGY REVISED GENERAL RULES THE COMMISSION General Provisions § 375.101 The Commission. (a) Establishment. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission is an independent regulatory commission within the...

  13. 47 CFR 0.1 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The Commission. 0.1 Section 0.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION Organization General § 0.1 The Commission. The Federal Communications Commission is composed of five (5) members who are appointed by the...

  14. 11 CFR 9002.3 - Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commission. 9002.3 Section 9002.3 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: GENERAL ELECTION FINANCING DEFINITIONS § 9002.3 Commission. Commission means the Federal Election Commission, 999 E Street, NW...

  15. 11 CFR 9032.3 - Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commission. 9032.3 Section 9032.3 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY MATCHING FUND DEFINITIONS § 9032.3 Commission. Commission means the Federal Election Commission, 999 E Street NW...

  16. 47 CFR 0.1 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The Commission. 0.1 Section 0.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION Organization General § 0.1 The Commission. The Federal Communications Commission is composed of five (5) members who are appointed by the...

  17. 18 CFR 375.101 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The Commission. 375.101... OF ENERGY REVISED GENERAL RULES THE COMMISSION General Provisions § 375.101 The Commission. (a) Establishment. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission is an independent regulatory commission within the...

  18. 18 CFR 375.101 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 375.101 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REVISED GENERAL RULES THE COMMISSION General Provisions § 375.101 The Commission. (a) Establishment. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission is an independent regulatory commission within the...

  19. Host-defence-related proteins in cows' milk.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, T T; Smolenski, G A; Harris, D P; Gupta, S K; Haigh, B J; Broadhurst, M K; Molenaar, A J; Stelwagen, K

    2012-03-01

    Milk is a source of bioactive molecules with wide-ranging functions. Among these, the immune properties have been the best characterised. In recent years, it has become apparent that besides the immunoglobulins, milk also contains a range of minor immune-related proteins that collectively form a significant first line of defence against pathogens, acting both within the mammary gland itself as well as in the digestive tract of the suckling neonate. We have used proteomics technologies to characterise the repertoire of host-defence-related milk proteins in detail, revealing more than 100 distinct gene products in milk, of which at least 15 are known host-defence-related proteins. Those having intrinsic antimicrobial activity likely function as effector proteins of the local mucosal immune defence (e.g. defensins, cathelicidins and the calgranulins). Here, we focus on the activities and biological roles of the cathelicidins and mammary serum amyloid A. The function of the immune-related milk proteins that do not have intrinsic antimicrobial activity is also discussed, notably lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, RNase4, RNase5/angiogenin and cartilage-glycoprotein 39 kDa. Evidence is shown that at least some of these facilitate recognition of microbes, resulting in the activation of innate immune signalling pathways in cells associated with the mammary and/or gut mucosal surface. Finally, the contribution of the bacteria in milk to its functionality is discussed. These investigations are elucidating how an effective first line of defence is achieved in the bovine mammary gland and how milk contributes to optimal digestive function in the suckling calf. This study will contribute to a better understanding of the health benefits of milk, as well as to the development of high-value ingredients from milk.

  20. 28 CFR 31.202 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 31.202 Section 31.202....202 Civil rights. (a) To carry out the State's Federal civil rights responsibilities the plan must: (1) Designate a civil rights contact person who has lead responsibility in insuring that all applicable civil...

  1. 22 CFR 1006.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1006.920 Section 1006.920...) Definitions § 1006.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  2. 21 CFR 1404.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1404.920 Section 1404.920 Food and...) Definitions § 1404.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  3. 22 CFR 1006.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1006.920 Section 1006.920...) Definitions § 1006.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  4. 22 CFR 1006.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1006.920 Section 1006.920...) Definitions § 1006.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  5. 34 CFR 85.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil judgment. 85.920 Section 85.920 Education Office...) Definitions § 85.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  6. 22 CFR 1508.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1508.920 Section 1508.920...) Definitions § 1508.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  7. 34 CFR 85.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 85.920 Section 85.920 Education Office...) Definitions § 85.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  8. 22 CFR 208.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Civil judgment. 208.920 Section 208.920 Foreign...) Definitions § 208.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  9. 22 CFR 1508.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1508.920 Section 1508.920...) Definitions § 1508.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  10. 21 CFR 1404.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1404.920 Section 1404.920 Food and...) Definitions § 1404.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  11. 22 CFR 1508.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1508.920 Section 1508.920...) Definitions § 1508.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  12. 22 CFR 1006.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1006.920 Section 1006.920...) Definitions § 1006.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  13. 22 CFR 1508.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1508.920 Section 1508.920...) Definitions § 1508.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  14. 21 CFR 1404.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1404.920 Section 1404.920 Food and...) Definitions § 1404.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  15. 22 CFR 1508.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1508.920 Section 1508.920...) Definitions § 1508.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  16. 22 CFR 1006.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1006.920 Section 1006.920...) Definitions § 1006.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  17. 2 CFR 180.915 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 180.915 Section 180.915... § 180.915 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  18. 21 CFR 1404.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1404.920 Section 1404.920 Food and...) Definitions § 1404.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  19. 22 CFR 208.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil judgment. 208.920 Section 208.920 Foreign...) Definitions § 208.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  20. 21 CFR 1404.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1404.920 Section 1404.920 Food and...) Definitions § 1404.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  1. 78 FR 32295 - Commission Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... presentations on the following items: (1) Presentation on upgrades to the Commission's Susquehanna Early Warning System program; (2) election of officers for FY-2014; (3) the proposed Water Resources Program; (4...

  2. Wisconsin SRF Electron Gun Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Bisognano, Joseph J.; Bissen, M.; Bosch, R.; Efremov, M.; Eisert, D.; Fisher, M.; Green, M.; Jacobs, K.; Keil, R.; Kleman, K.; Rogers, G.; Severson, M.; Yavuz, D. D.; Legg, Robert A.; Bachimanchi, Ramakrishna; Hovater, J. Curtis; Plawski, Tomasz; Powers, Thomas J.

    2013-12-01

    The University of Wisconsin has completed fabrication and commissioning of a low frequency (199.6 MHz) superconducting electron gun based on a quarter wave resonator (QWR) cavity. Its concept was optimized to be the source for a CW free electron laser facility. The gun design includes active tuning and a high temperature superconducting solenoid. We will report on the status of the Wisconsin SRF electron gun program, including commissioning experience and first beam measurements.

  3. NSF commission holds first meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Richard M.

    There has been considerable discussion in Washington science policy circles over the past few weeks about the newly established National Science Board Commission on the Future of the National Science Foundation. The commission, chaired by William Danforth, chancellor of Washington University, and Robert Galvin, former chief executive officer of Motorola, held its first meeting on September 17. Unfortunately, this meeting offered few indications of what changes might result from this exercise.

  4. The origins of the health defence system against contagious illness: the strategies of isolation and quarantine in Mediterranean cities from the XIV-XIX centuries.

    PubMed

    Tognotti, Eugenia

    2005-01-01

    From the onset of the Black Death in 1347-48, Italian cities which faced the Mediterranean, an epidemic sea, constructed a complex and articulated health defence system which was an example to all other western countries. The cornerstones of this health defence system lay in quarantine, sanitary cordons, lazarets, disinfection, and in the social regulation of the population at risk. Medicine played no part. Its impotence in dealing with epidemic diseases left health defence to the initiative of the civil authorities who rigorously fought the repeated incursions of plague, which from the end of Middle Ages severely tried and tested social organisation, economic life and public order, all of which were threatened by reactions of fear and aggression. From the fifteenth century onwards the public authorities instituted health magistracies which perfected policing and hygiene strategies based on isolation, separation and social control. This progressively extended to individuals in the community through 'health certificates'. This paper follows the evolution and crises of the conceptual, cultural adn institutional response to epidemics through the centuries up to the appearance of the plague of cholera and its disappearance.

  5. Codes of professional conduct for Australian Defence Force military physicians: evenomating the serpent?

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Mike

    2010-09-01

    The scandal of health professionals' involvement in recent human rights abuses in United States military detention centres has prompted concern that Australian military physicians should be well protected against similar pressures to participate in harsh interrogations. A framework of military health ethics has been proposed. Would a code of professional conduct be a partial solution? This article examines the utility of professional codes: can they transform unethical behaviour or are they only of value to those who already behave ethically? How should such codes be designed, what support mechanisms should be in place and how should complaints be managed? A key recommendation is that codes of professional conduct should be accompanied by publicly transparent procedures for the investigation of serious infractions and appropriate disciplinary action when proven. The training of military physicians should also aim to develop a sound understanding of both humanitarian and human rights law. At present, both civil and military education of physicians generally lacks any component of human rights law. The Australian Defence Force (ADF) seems well placed to add codes of professional conduct to its existing ethical framework because of strong support at the highest executive levels.

  6. 75 FR 5244 - Civil Penalties

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as amended by the Debt Collection Improvement Act of... penalties and to foster compliance with the law, the Federal Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustment Act... ``Act''), requires us and other Federal agencies to adjust civil penalties for inflation. Under...

  7. 75 FR 79978 - Civil Penalties

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... the Federal Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as amended by the Debt Collection Improvement Act of 1996, which requires NHTSA to review and, as warranted, adjust penalties based on inflation... Federal Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461, Notes, Pub. L. 101-...

  8. Defense Support to Civil Authorities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-22

    Response Authority and Other Military Assistance to Civil Authority ( MACA ) [on-line pamphlet], The Army Lawyer (Charlottesville, VA: Judge Advocate...City Bombing: Immediate Response Authority and Other Military Assistance to Civil Authority ( MACA ). The Army Lawyer. [Charlottesville, VA]: Judge

  9. Environmental Ethics and Civil Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesilind, P. Aarne

    1987-01-01

    Traces the development of the civil engineering code of ethics. Points out that the code does have an enforceable provision that addresses the engineer's responsibility toward the environment. Suggests revisions to the code to accommodate the environmental impacts of civil engineering. (TW)

  10. Civil Engineering Technology Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland Community Coll., Farmington, MI. Office of Institutional Planning and Analysis.

    In 1991, a study was conducted by Oakland Community College (OCC) to evaluate the need for a proposed Civil Engineering Technology program. An initial examination of the literature focused on industry needs and the job market for civil engineering technicians. In order to gather information on local area employers' hiring practices and needs, a…

  11. Introducing Islamic Civilization: Course Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Reuben W., Ed.

    The syllabus reflects a course in Islamic civilization taught at the University of Chicago and includes the recommendations of participants at a conference on the problems of presenting such a course. The "civilization approach" offers a panoramic view of various related fields, affords a perspective on the problems of analyzing changes over time,…

  12. Introducing Islamic Civilization: Course Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Reuben W., Ed.

    The syllabus reflects a course in Islamic civilization taught at the University of Chicago and includes the recommendations of participants at a conference on the problems of presenting such a course. The "civilization approach" offers a panoramic view of various related fields, affords a perspective on the problems of analyzing changes over time,…

  13. 18 CFR 385.1602 - Civil penalties, as adjusted (Rule 1602).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Civil penalties, as adjusted (Rule 1602). 385.1602 Section 385.1602 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... penalties provided by law within the jurisdiction of the Commission are: (a) 15 U.S.C....

  14. 18 CFR 385.1602 - Civil penalties, as adjusted (Rule 1602).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Civil penalties, as adjusted (Rule 1602). 385.1602 Section 385.1602 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... penalties provided by law within the jurisdiction of the Commission are: (a) 15 U.S.C....

  15. 18 CFR 385.1511 - Collection of civil penalties (Rule 1511).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Collection of civil penalties (Rule 1511). 385.1511 Section 385.1511 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... States. Interest will begin to accrue on the date the Commission issues a final order under Rule 1508...

  16. 46 CFR 502.603 - Assessment of civil penalties: Procedure; criteria for determining amount; limitations; relation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assessment of civil penalties: Procedure; criteria for determining amount; limitations; relation to compromise. 502.603 Section 502.603 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME... applicable statutes. The Commission shall also consider the respondent's degree of culpability, history of...

  17. 46 CFR 502.603 - Assessment of civil penalties: Procedure; criteria for determining amount; limitations; relation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Assessment of civil penalties: Procedure; criteria for determining amount; limitations; relation to compromise. 502.603 Section 502.603 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME... applicable statutes. The Commission shall also consider the respondent's degree of culpability, history of...

  18. Early Childhood Education Issues in Texas: Implications for Civil Rights. A Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, Austin.

    The Texas Advisory Committee to the U. S. Commission on Civil Rights conducted a public forum and gathered information on the extent to which early childhood education programs have affected equal educational opportunities for minority students in Texas. The hearings were held in response to the failure of public education systems to meet the…

  19. 46 CFR 502.603 - Assessment of civil penalties: Procedure; criteria for determining amount; limitations; relation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Assessment of civil penalties: Procedure; criteria for determining amount; limitations; relation to compromise. 502.603 Section 502.603 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Compromise, Assessment, Mitigation, Settlement, and Collection...

  20. Intraspecific variation in a generalist herbivore accounts for differential induction and impact of host plant defences.

    PubMed

    Kant, Merijn R; Sabelis, Maurice W; Haring, Michel A; Schuurink, Robert C

    2008-02-22

    Plants and herbivores are thought to be engaged in a coevolutionary arms race: rising frequencies of plants with anti-herbivore defences exert pressure on herbivores to resist or circumvent these defences and vice versa. Owing to its frequency-dependent character, the arms race hypothesis predicts that herbivores exhibit genetic variation for traits that determine how they deal with the defences of a given host plant phenotype. Here, we show the existence of distinct variation within a single herbivore species, the spider mite Tetranychus urticae, in traits that lead to resistance or susceptibility to jasmonate (JA)-dependent defences of a host plant but also in traits responsible for induction or repression of JA defences. We characterized three distinct lines of T. urticae that differentially induced JA-related defence genes and metabolites while feeding on tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum). These lines were also differently affected by induced JA defences. The first line, which induced JA-dependent tomato defences, was susceptible to those defences; the second line also induced JA defences but was resistant to them; and the third, although susceptible to JA defences, repressed induction. We hypothesize that such intraspecific variation is common among herbivores living in environments with a diversity of plants that impose diverse selection pressure.

  1. Intraspecific variation in a generalist herbivore accounts for differential induction and impact of host plant defences

    PubMed Central

    Kant, Merijn R; Sabelis, Maurice W; Haring, Michel A; Schuurink, Robert C

    2007-01-01

    Plants and herbivores are thought to be engaged in a coevolutionary arms race: rising frequencies of plants with anti-herbivore defences exert pressure on herbivores to resist or circumvent these defences and vice versa. Owing to its frequency-dependent character, the arms race hypothesis predicts that herbivores exhibit genetic variation for traits that determine how they deal with the defences of a given host plant phenotype. Here, we show the existence of distinct variation within a single herbivore species, the spider mite Tetranychus urticae, in traits that lead to resistance or susceptibility to jasmonate (JA)-dependent defences of a host plant but also in traits responsible for induction or repression of JA defences. We characterized three distinct lines of T. urticae that differentially induced JA-related defence genes and metabolites while feeding on tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum). These lines were also differently affected by induced JA defences. The first line, which induced JA-dependent tomato defences, was susceptible to those defences; the second line also induced JA defences but was resistant to them; and the third, although susceptible to JA defences, repressed induction. We hypothesize that such intraspecific variation is common among herbivores living in environments with a diversity of plants that impose diverse selection pressure. PMID:18055390

  2. Commission 16: Physical Study of Planets & Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Melissa A.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Courtin, Regis; Lara, Luisa M.; Kim, Sang Joon; Ksanfomality, Leonid V.; Morrison, David; Tejfel, Viktor G.; Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma A.

    2010-05-01

    The Business Meeting of IAU Commission 16 was held at the General Assembly in Rio de Janeiro on August 13, 2009. The meeting was called to order at 9:15am by Commission President, Régis Courtin, with 12 members present. Commission 16 now has 312 members, up from 271 at the last General Assembly. It is now the third largest Commission in Division III, after Commission 15 and Commission 51.

  3. 76 FR 71431 - Civil Penalty Calculation Methodology

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Civil Penalty Calculation Methodology AGENCY: Federal... its civil penalty methodology. Part of this evaluation includes a forthcoming explanation of the... methodology for calculation of certain civil penalties. To induce compliance with federal regulations,...

  4. Revised RCRA civil-penalty policy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-26

    The directive gives guidance on how to calculate and document civil penalties for administrative and civil judicial proceedings at settlement. The directive supersedes OSWER Directive 9900.1, Final RCRA Civil Penalty Policy dated May 8, 1984.

  5. High speed civil transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogardus, Scott; Loper, Brent; Nauman, Chris; Page, Jeff; Parris, Rusty; Steinbach, Greg

    1990-01-01

    The design process of the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) combines existing technology with the expectation of future technology to create a Mach 3.0 transport. The HSCT was designed to have a range in excess of 6000 nautical miles and carry up to 300 passengers. This range will allow the HSCT to service the economically expanding Pacific Basin region. Effort was made in the design to enable the aircraft to use conventional airports with standard 12,000 foot runways. With a takeoff thrust of 250,000 pounds, the four supersonic through-flow engines will accelerate the HSCT to a cruise speed of Mach 3.0. The 679,000 pound (at takeoff) HSCT is designed to cruise at an altitude of 70,000 feet, flying above most atmospheric disturbances.

  6. The rivers of civilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macklin, Mark G.; Lewin, John

    2015-04-01

    The hydromorphic regimes that underpinned Old World river-based civilizations are reviewed in light of recent research. Notable Holocene climatic changes varied from region to region, whilst the dynamics of floodplain environments were equally diverse, with river channel changes significantly affecting human settlement. There were longer-term trends in Holocene hydroclimate and multi-centennial length 'flood-rich' and 'flood-poor' episodes. These impacted on five identified flooding and settlement scenarios: (i) alluvial fans and aprons; (ii) laterally mobile rivers; (iii) rivers with well-developed levees and flood basins; (iv) river systems characterised by avulsions and floodouts; and (v) large river-fed wetlands. This gave a range of changes that were either more or less regular or incremental from year-to-year (and thus potentially manageable) or catastrophic. The latter might be sudden during a flood event or a few seasons (acute), or over longer periods extending over many decades or even centuries (chronic). The geomorphic and environmental impacts of these events on riparian societies were very often irreversible. Contrasts are made between allogenic and autogenic mechanism for imposing environmental stress on riverine communities and a distinction is made between channel avulsion and contraction responses. Floods, droughts and river channel changes can precondition as well as trigger environmental crises and societal collapse. The Nile system currently offers the best set of independently dated Holocene fluvial and archaeological records, and the contrasted effects of changing hydromorphological regimes on floodwater farming are examined. The persistence of civilizations depended essentially on the societies that maintained them, but they were also understandably resilient in some environments (Pharaonic Egypt in the Egyptian Nile), appear to have had more limited windows of opportunity in others (the Kerma Kingdom in the Nubian Nile), or required

  7. Life-history constraints in grassland plant species: a growth-defence trade-off is the norm

    Treesearch

    E.M. Lind; E.T. Borer; E.W. Seabloom; P.B. Adler; J.D. Bakker; D.M. Blumenthal; M. Crawley; K.F. Davies; J. Firn; D.S. Gruner; S. Harpole; Y. Hautier; H. Hillebrand; J.M.H. Knops; B.A. Melbourne; B. Mortensen; A.C. Risch; M. Schuetz; C.J. Stevens; P.D. Wragg

    2013-01-01

    Plant growth can be limited by resource acquisition and defence against consumers, leading to contrasting trade-off possibilities. The competition-defence hypothesis posits a trade-off between competitive ability and defence against enemies (e.g. herbivores and pathogens). The growth-defence hypothesis suggests that strong competitors for nutrients are also defended...

  8. Civil Code, 11 December 1987.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    Article 162 of this Mexican Code provides, among other things, that "Every person has the right freely, responsibly, and in an informed fashion to determine the number and spacing of his or her children." When a marriage is involved, this right is to be observed by the spouses "in agreement with each other." The civil codes of the following states contain the same provisions: 1) Baja California (Art. 159 of the Civil Code of 28 April 1972 as revised in Decree No. 167 of 31 January 1974); 2) Morelos (Art. 255 of the Civil Code of 26 September 1949 as revised in Decree No. 135 of 29 December 1981); 3) Queretaro (Art. 162 of the Civil Code of 29 December 1950 as revised in the Act of 9 January 1981); 4) San Luis Potosi (Art. 147 of the Civil Code of 24 March 1946 as revised in 13 June 1978); Sinaloa (Art. 162 of the Civil Code of 18 June 1940 as revised in Decree No. 28 of 14 October 1975); 5) Tamaulipas (Art. 146 of the Civil Code of 21 November 1960 as revised in Decree No. 20 of 30 April 1975); 6) Veracruz-Llave (Art. 98 of the Civil Code of 1 September 1932 as revised in the Act of 30 December 1975); and 7) Zacatecas (Art. 253 of the Civil Code of 9 February 1965 as revised in Decree No. 104 of 13 August 1975). The Civil Codes of Puebla and Tlaxcala provide for this right only in the context of marriage with the spouses in agreement. See Art. 317 of the Civil Code of Puebla of 15 April 1985 and Article 52 of the Civil Code of Tlaxcala of 31 August 1976 as revised in Decree No. 23 of 2 April 1984. The Family Code of Hidalgo requires as a formality of marriage a certification that the spouses are aware of methods of controlling fertility, responsible parenthood, and family planning. In addition, Article 22 the Civil Code of the Federal District provides that the legal capacity of natural persons is acquired at birth and lost at death; however, from the moment of conception the individual comes under the protection of the law, which is valid with respect to the

  9. Flow cytometry as a tool to quantify oyster defence mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Goedken, Michael; De Guise, Sylvain

    2004-04-01

    The fast growing oyster aquaculture industry is greatly hindered by Perkinsus marinus and Haplosporidium nelsoni which can kill up to 80% of the production. The relationship between parasites and oyster defence mechanisms is unclear. Two defence mechanisms of the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) were quantified at the single cell level utilising flow cytometry. Phagocytosis was measured using fluorescent beads. Respiratory burst activity was quantified as the H2O2-specific increase in dichlorofluorescein-associated fluorescence upon stimulation. These two assays distinguished three populations of haemocytes (granulocytes, hyalinocytes and intermediate cells) with unique functional characteristics. Granulocytes were most active at phagocytosis and H2O2 production while hyalinocytes were relatively inactive. The intermediate cells had moderate phagocytic and respiratory burst activity. Flow cytometry can rapidly, accurately and directly quantify the morphology and function of a large number of individual cells, and will lead to a better understanding of the bivalve immune system.

  10. Military social work in the South African National Defence Force.

    PubMed

    Kruger, A; Van Breda, A D

    2001-11-01

    The transformation of the South African National Defence Force has prompted a critical reassessment of the Directorate of Social Work. As a result, the directorate realized the need for a formal business plan to align the profession strategically with the core business of the military system. After completion of the business plan, the need for a unique military social work practice model was identified. Such a model should present social workers with a strategy for the achievement of the goals and objectives of the business plan. The practice model rests on two key concepts: binocular vision and practice positions. Since the onset of the transformation process in the South African National Defence Force, these two documents have reflected the changing milieu within which social work is practiced. The main concepts of these documents are presented.

  11. Upstream and downstream signals of nitric oxide in pathogen defence.

    PubMed

    Gaupels, Frank; Kuruthukulangarakoola, Gitto Thomas; Durner, Jörg

    2011-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is now recognised as a crucial player in plant defence against pathogens. Considerable progress has been made in defining upstream and downstream signals of NO. Recently, MAP kinases, cyclic nucleotide phosphates, calcium and phosphatidic acid were demonstrated to be involved in pathogen-induced NO-production. However, the search for inducers of NO synthesis is difficult because of the still ambiguous enzymatic source of NO. Accumulation of NO triggers signal transduction by other second messengers. Here we depict NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED 1 and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase as central redox switches translating NO redox signalling into cellular responses. Although the exact position of NO in defence signal networks is unresolved at last some NO-related signal cascades are emerging.

  12. A Comparative Analysis of Sonic Defences in Bombycoidea Caterpillars

    PubMed Central

    Bura, Veronica L.; Kawahara, Akito Y.; Yack, Jayne E.

    2016-01-01

    Caterpillars have long been used as models for studying animal defence. Their impressive armour, including flamboyant warning colours, poisonous spines, irritating sprays, and mimicry of plant parts, snakes and bird droppings, has been extensively documented. But research has mainly focused on visual and chemical displays. Here we show that some caterpillars also exhibit sonic displays. During simulated attacks, 45% of 38 genera and 33% of 61 species of silk and hawkmoth caterpillars (Bombycoidea) produced sounds. Sonic caterpillars are found in many distantly-related groups of Bombycoidea, and have evolved four distinct sound types- clicks, chirps, whistles and vocalizations. We propose that different sounds convey different messages, with some designed to warn of a chemical defence and others, to startle predators. This research underscores the importance of exploring acoustic communication in juvenile insects, and provides a model system to explore how different signals have evolved to frighten, warn or even trick predators. PMID:27510510

  13. A Comparative Analysis of Sonic Defences in Bombycoidea Caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Bura, Veronica L; Kawahara, Akito Y; Yack, Jayne E

    2016-08-11

    Caterpillars have long been used as models for studying animal defence. Their impressive armour, including flamboyant warning colours, poisonous spines, irritating sprays, and mimicry of plant parts, snakes and bird droppings, has been extensively documented. But research has mainly focused on visual and chemical displays. Here we show that some caterpillars also exhibit sonic displays. During simulated attacks, 45% of 38 genera and 33% of 61 species of silk and hawkmoth caterpillars (Bombycoidea) produced sounds. Sonic caterpillars are found in many distantly-related groups of Bombycoidea, and have evolved four distinct sound types- clicks, chirps, whistles and vocalizations. We propose that different sounds convey different messages, with some designed to warn of a chemical defence and others, to startle predators. This research underscores the importance of exploring acoustic communication in juvenile insects, and provides a model system to explore how different signals have evolved to frighten, warn or even trick predators.

  14. Cell polarization, a crucial process in fungal defence.

    PubMed

    Schmelzer, Elmon

    2002-09-01

    Plant cells responding to fungal attack undergo large morphological alterations, along with rapid and extensive metabolic reprogramming. Cytological analysis of single infected plant cells revealed a large complexity of interdependent, rapid and dynamic changes of a multitude of cellular components. Among these changes are major rearrangements of the cytoskeleton, translocation of cytoplasm and of the cell nucleus to the fungal penetration site, and local apposition of barrier material around this site, which results in massive cell-wall reinforcement. If this first line of defence is overcome by the pathogen, in many cases, it is followed by hypersensitive plant cell death, which stops growth of the penetrating fungus and finally leads to its death. The speed and magnitude of the initial defence response appear to be crucial to plant disease resistance.

  15. The Advent of Representative Associations in the Irish Defence Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-05

    personnel have a voice outside the strict chain of command in that they may put their case 32 directly to public representatives and lobby Congress... chain of command . It could speak directly to the Minister of Defence expressing the collective views and feelings of French soldiers about their...surely have indicated to the military authorities that the traditional use of chain of command was not effective in communicating the soldier’s needs or

  16. A Framework for the Automation of Air Defence Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-01

    and Integration. [les Avancees en concepts systemes pour vehicules et en integration] To order the complete compilation report, use: ADA381871 The...are also inherent attack a target. to an autonomous architecture. The main difference The major advantages of distributing data to all between our...available for a single air defence task. [6] Krogmann, U., Towards Autonomous Systems, in AGAR.D Lecture Series 210, Advances in Soft- 5 Conclusions

  17. A Network Centric Warfare (NCW) Compliance Process for Australian Defence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    and Processes element would fit. In the proposed FIC approach , Structures and Processes are included under Organisation. FIC analysis for NCW...This work was done under the auspices of the DSTO NCW S&T Initiative. Produced by DSTO Defence Science and Technology...Figure E2 NCW Compliance Process Alignment with Capability Development Process The distinctive feature of the proposed NCW Compliance approach

  18. The Case to Widen Defence Acquisition Research Paradigms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-30

    expansion in the range of research paradigms employed is necessary in order to better understand, account for, and integrate social science issues into...Industry Chair, Defense Acquisition University Contracting as a Science David Lamm, Naval Postgraduate School The Case to Widen Defence...wide variety of course material ranging from project management to contract law. Mr. Branch’s clients included Computer Sciences Corporation, QSS

  19. Ministry of Defence Main Estimates 2009-10

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-02

    10 military equipment for use in the operational environment (e.g. further adaptations to Tornado aircraft and Lynx and Merlin helicopters). UORs...Defence Main Estimates 2009–10 13 21. A Departmental Minute laid before the House on the same day that we received the Government response to our...modifications to military equipment for use in the operational environment (eg further adaptations to Tornado aircraft and Lynx and Merlin helicopters). UORs by

  20. Debugging and Logging Services for Defence Service Oriented Architectures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Debugging and Logging Services for Defence Service Oriented Architectures Michael Pilling Command, Control, Communications and...paralled de- bugging , SOAs introduce the complexity of significant parts of one’s programs being provided by others. This paper examines the features of...timestamps will allow programmers fixing bugs to avoid many spurious symptoms and get a clearer picture of the problem at hand. • Logging of

  1. Australian DefenceScience. Volume 15, Number 3, Spring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    disks , a capability which is of interest to DSTO. Other potential areas of use for Defence are those of face recognition for security access and...instruments of vastly different complexity. The simplest of these instruments used was the Secchi disc, a 30 cm diameter white disc, which was...lowered into the water until it could no longer be seen, thereby providing a measure known as the Secchi disc depth. A more sophisticated measurement tool

  2. The Diffusion Ordered Spectroscopy (DOSY) Pulse Sequence and Defence Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    The Diffusion Ordered SpectroscopY ( DOSY ) Pulse Sequence and Defence Applications Simon P. B. Ovenden and David J. Bourne...discuss all aspects of the DOSY two dimensional NMR experiment, including setting up the experiment, the collection of raw data, and the data processing...required. Details of the DOSY experiment are explained through data collected on a variety of samples involving several chemical classes. At the end

  3. Theater Sustainment Reserve for the Rwanda Defence Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    The reserve requirement will be a key feature of the needed aforementioned structure. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Great Lakes Region , Rwanda Defence Forces...Lakes region has been largely influenced by the presence of the Forces Démocratiques pour la Libération du Rwanda (FDLR), a terror group based in the...should be exterminated. According to this ideology, extermination of this group would ensure national and regional peace and prosperity. Prior to

  4. Australian DefenceScience. Volume 13, Number 4, Summer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    fuselage and cockpit, mid and aft fuselage, empennage , wing , wing and fuselage intersection, and finally engine nacelles. A photographic survey of...own rivet lines as a guide. Areas of high curvature in three dimensions, like the engine nacelles, empennage - fuselage intersection and wing -fuselage...tony.cox@dsto.defence.gov.au Design and illustration: Rebekah Meere Phone: 61 3 9626 7141 Fax: 61 3 9626 7133 e-mail: rebekah.meere

  5. Signalling network construction for modelling plant defence response.

    PubMed

    Miljkovic, Dragana; Stare, Tjaša; Mozetič, Igor; Podpečan, Vid; Petek, Marko; Witek, Kamil; Dermastia, Marina; Lavrač, Nada; Gruden, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Plant defence signalling response against various pathogens, including viruses, is a complex phenomenon. In resistant interaction a plant cell perceives the pathogen signal, transduces it within the cell and performs a reprogramming of the cell metabolism leading to the pathogen replication arrest. This work focuses on signalling pathways crucial for the plant defence response, i.e., the salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene signal transduction pathways, in the Arabidopsis thaliana model plant. The initial signalling network topology was constructed manually by defining the representation formalism, encoding the information from public databases and literature, and composing a pathway diagram. The manually constructed network structure consists of 175 components and 387 reactions. In order to complement the network topology with possibly missing relations, a new approach to automated information extraction from biological literature was developed. This approach, named Bio3graph, allows for automated extraction of biological relations from the literature, resulting in a set of (component1, reaction, component2) triplets and composing a graph structure which can be visualised, compared to the manually constructed topology and examined by the experts. Using a plant defence response vocabulary of components and reaction types, Bio3graph was applied to a set of 9,586 relevant full text articles, resulting in 137 newly detected reactions between the components. Finally, the manually constructed topology and the new reactions were merged to form a network structure consisting of 175 components and 524 reactions. The resulting pathway diagram of plant defence signalling represents a valuable source for further computational modelling and interpretation of omics data. The developed Bio3graph approach, implemented as an executable language processing and graph visualisation workflow, is publically available at http://ropot.ijs.si/bio3graph/and can be utilised for

  6. Australian Defence Risk Management Framework: A Comparative Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    contemplated well ahead of the traditional corporate and business - planning processes. There is also an upside to using risk management, i.e. improving...place to properly manage these risks; • To ensure that risk management is integrated into Defence�s business planning processes; and • To establish...and based on AS/NZS 4360:1999 and the Defence Risk Management Policy. It prescribes risk management to be integrated into the business planning process

  7. Commission 41: History of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurshtein, Alexander A.; Nha, Il-Seong; Ruggles, Clive L. N.; DeVorkin, David H.; Dick, Wolfgang R.; Kochhar, Rajesh; Nakamura, Tsuko; Pigatto, Luisa; Stephenson, F. Richard; Warner, Brian

    2007-12-01

    On Tuesday 22 August 2006 approximately 40 people attended the Commission 41 History of Astronomy Business Meeting at the IAU XXVI General Assembly in Prague. Commission president Alex Gurshtein opened the meeting, welcoming the commission members and calling for a moment of silence for those members who passed away in the last triennium. David DeVorkin was appointed recording secretary for the meeting, with Steven Dick as the scruitineer of the ballot. A moment of silence was then observed in the memory of members departed over the last triennium, including: Jerzy Dobrzycki (Poland), Robert Duncan (Australia), Mohammad Edalati (Iran), Philip Morrison (USA), John Perdix (Australia), Neil Porter (Ireland), Gibson Reaves (USA), Brian Robinson (Australia), and Raymond E. White (USA).

  8. Technical Civilizations in the Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2005-01-01

    Are there other technical civilizations in the galaxy? Past analyses come to different conclusions. Cocconi and Morrison demonstrated in 1959 that interstellar radio communication was possible and Drake conducted the first search for beacons in 1960. The Drake equation estimates the number of galactic civilizations that are transmitting beacons as the product of the rate of star formation in the galaxy, the fraction of stars with planets, their average number of earthlike planets, the fraction with intelligent life and interstellar communication, and the average lifetime of a technical civilization. The Drake model of the galaxy contains many technical civilizations with communication but no interstellar travel. Michael Hart in 1975 strongly challenged this model. Starting with the fact that no extraterrestrials have been observed on Earth, and assuming that interstellar colonization is possible, he concluded that it was very likely that we are the first civilization in our galaxy and that searching or beacons is probably a waste of time and money. The Fermi paradox similarly reasons that if extraterrestrials exist: they should be here, and asks, Where are they? The Hart/Fermi model of the galaxy contains only our civilization and suggests we may colonize the galaxy. A third galactic model is that we are alone but will never develop interstellar travel. The fourth alternate model has many technical civilizations, with interstellar travel and colonization. The possibilities are clear and momentous. Either we are the only technical civilization in the galaxy or there are others. Technical civilizations will colonize the galaxy or not. We have four cosmic conjectures - one or many, colonization or not - but however unlikely they seem based on our limited evidence, one of these four models must be collect.

  9. Material civilization: things and society.

    PubMed

    Dant, Tim

    2006-06-01

    This paper argues that although classical sociology has largely overlooked the importance of social relations with the material world in shaping the form of society, Braudel's concept of 'material civilization' is a useful way to begin to understand the sociological significance of this relationship. The limitations of Braudel's historical and general concept can be partially overcome with Elias's analysis of the connection between 'technization' and 'civilization' that allows for both a civilizing and a de-civilizing impact of emergent forms of material relation that both lengthen and shorten the chains of interdependence between the members of a society. It is suggested that the concept of the 'morality of things' employed by a number of commentators is useful in summarizing the civilizing effects of material objects and addressing their sociological significance. From the sociology of consumption the idea of materiality as a sign of social relationships can be drawn, and from the sociology of technology the idea of socio-technical systems and actor-networks can contribute to the understanding of material civilization. It is argued that the concept of 'material capital' can usefully summarize the variable social value of objects but to understand the complexity of material civilization as it unfolds in everyday life, an analysis of 'material interaction' is needed. Finally the paper suggests some initial themes and issues apparent in contemporary society that the sociological study of material civilization might address; the increased volume, functional complexity and material specificity of objects and the increased social complexity, autonomy and substitutability that is entailed. A theory of 'material civilization' is the first step in establishing a sociology of objects.

  10. Technical Civilizations in the Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2005-01-01

    Are there other technical civilizations in the galaxy? Past analyses come to different conclusions. Cocconi and Morrison demonstrated in 1959 that interstellar radio communication was possible and Drake conducted the first search for beacons in 1960. The Drake equation estimates the number of galactic civilizations that are transmitting beacons as the product of the rate of star formation in the galaxy, the fraction of stars with planets, their average number of earthlike planets, the fraction with intelligent life and interstellar communication, and the average lifetime of a technical civilization. The Drake model of the galaxy contains many technical civilizations with communication but no interstellar travel. Michael Hart in 1975 strongly challenged this model. Starting with the fact that no extraterrestrials have been observed on Earth, and assuming that interstellar colonization is possible, he concluded that it was very likely that we are the first civilization in our galaxy and that searching or beacons is probably a waste of time and money. The Fermi paradox similarly reasons that if extraterrestrials exist: they should be here, and asks, Where are they? The Hart/Fermi model of the galaxy contains only our civilization and suggests we may colonize the galaxy. A third galactic model is that we are alone but will never develop interstellar travel. The fourth alternate model has many technical civilizations, with interstellar travel and colonization. The possibilities are clear and momentous. Either we are the only technical civilization in the galaxy or there are others. Technical civilizations will colonize the galaxy or not. We have four cosmic conjectures - one or many, colonization or not - but however unlikely they seem based on our limited evidence, one of these four models must be collect.

  11. Last Hired, First Fired: Layoffs and Civil Rights. A Report of the United States Commission on Civil Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    The effects of the 1974-75 economic recession on the effort to ensure equal employment opportunity for the Nation's minority groups and women are examined in the first section of this report, which documents the layoff of disproportionately large numbers of minority and female workers during the recession, generally resulting from the fact that…

  12. Resistance, rupture and repetition: Civil society strategies against intimate partner violence in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Lilja, Mona; Baaz, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a new interpretation of the 'resistance' carried out by local civil society organisations in Cambodia against intimate partner violence (IPV). In this, the paper explores the nexus between 'rupture', 'resistance' and 'repetition' and concludes that different 'repetitions' can contribute to acts of violence while simultaneously creating possibilities for resisting IPV. In regard to the latter, the concept of 'rupture' is investigated as a performative politics through which organisations try to disrupt the 'repetitions' of violent masculinities. Furthermore, it is argued that the importance of 'repetitions' and the concept of time should be acknowledged. The French criminal defence lawyer Jacques Vergès' understanding of 'rupture' and the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze's notions of 'repetition' inform the analysis. To exemplify our discussion and findings, the paper embraces stories of a number of civil society workers who facilitate various men's groups in Cambodia in order to negotiate the practice of IPV.

  13. Defence and security applications of quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasso, Robert J.

    2016-09-01

    Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCL) have seen tremendous recent application in the realm of Defence and Security. And, in many instances replacing traditional solid state lasers as the source of choice for Countermeasures, Remote Sensing, In-situ Sensing, Through-Barrier Sensing, and many others. Following their development and demonstration in the early 1990's, QCL's reached some maturity and specific defence and security application prior to 2005; with much initial development fostered by DARPA initiatives in the US, dstl, MoD, and EOARD funding initiatives in the UK, and University level R&D such as those by Prof Manijeh Razeghi at Northwestern University [1], and Prof Ted Masselink at Humboldt University [2]. As QCL's provide direct mid-IR laser output for electrical input, they demonstrate high quantum efficiency compared with diode pumped solid state lasers with optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) to generate mid-Infrared output. One particular advantage of QCL's is their very broad operational bandwidth, extending from the terahertz to the near-infrared spectral regions. Defence and Security areas benefiting from QCL's include: Countermeasures, Remote Sensing, Through-the-Wall Sensing, and Explosive Detection. All information used to construct this paper obtained from open sources.

  14. Anosognosia as motivated unawareness: the 'defence' hypothesis revisited.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Oliver H; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini; Solms, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Anosognosia for hemiplegia has seen a century of almost continuous research, yet a definitive understanding of its mechanism remains elusive. Essentially, anosognosic patients hold quasi-delusional beliefs about their paralysed limbs, in spite of all the contrary evidence, repeated questioning, and logical argument. We review a range of findings suggesting that emotion and motivation play an important role in anosognosia. We conclude that anosognosia involves (amongst other things) a process of psychological defence. This conclusion stems from a wide variety of clinical and experimental investigations, including data on implicit awareness of deficit, fluctuations in awareness over time, and dramatic effects upon awareness of psychological interventions such as psychotherapy, reframing of the emotional consequences of the paralysis, and first versus third person perspectival manipulations. In addition, we review and refute the (eight) arguments historically raised against the 'defence' hypothesis, including the claim that a defence-based account cannot explain the lateralised nature of the disorder. We argue that damage to a well-established right-lateralised emotion regulation system, with links to psychological processes that appear to underpin allocentric spatial cognition, plays a key role in anosognosia (at least in some patients). We conclude with a discussion of implications for clinical practice.

  15. Effect of hypoxia and hypercapina on the airways defence reflexes.

    PubMed

    Tatár, M; Tarkanov, I A; Korpás, J; Kulik, A M

    1987-01-01

    In experiments on 10 adult anaesthetized cats (pentobarbital 30 mg.kg-1 i.p.) the effect of stimultaneous hypoxia and hypercapnia was studied on the defence respiratory reflexes of the airways. Expiratory reflex and cough were elicited by mechanical stimulation of the airways mucosa, and the obtained values were evaluated on basis of the intrapleural pressure. Inhalation of the hypoxic-hypercapnic gas mixture (11% + 7% CO2 in N2) for 15 minutes led to a significant decrease of respiratory frequency, tidal volume and PaCO2, while pHa and PaCO2 also decreased significantly together with the intensity of the expiratory reflex and that of cough. Recent studies, showed that in the course of the effect of hypoxia (11% O2) and of hypercapnia (5% CO2), cough intensity decreased, but the change was not significant. The decrease of the intensity of respiratory defence reflexes under hypoxic-hypercapnic conditions might have been due to the changes of centrally controlling structures, or to the effector part of the reflex arc, resulting from fatigue of the respiratory muscles. The possible effect of anaesthesia exerting a significant influence on the intensity and character of airways defence reflexes could not be excluded.

  16. Insects had it first: surfactants as a defence against predators

    PubMed Central

    Rostás, Michael; Blassmann, Katrin

    2008-01-01

    Insects have evolved an astonishing array of defences to ward off enemies. Well known and widespread is the regurgitation of oral secretion (OS), fluid that repels attacking predators. In herbivores, the effectiveness of OS has been ascribed so far to the presence of deterrent secondary metabolites sequestered from the host plant. This notion implies, however, that generalists experience less protection on plants with low amounts of secondary metabolites or with compounds ineffective against potential enemies. Resolving the dilemma, we describe a novel defence mechanism that is independent of deterrents as it relies on the intrinsic detergent properties of the OS. The OS of Spodoptera exigua (and other species) was found to be highly amphiphilic and well capable of wetting the hydrophobic cuticle of predatory ants. As a result, affected ants stopped attacking and engaged in extensive cleansing. The presence of surfactants was sufficient to explain the defensive character of herbivore OS. We hypothesize that detergency is a common but unrecognized mode of defence, which provides a base level of protection that may or may not be further enhanced by plant-derived deterrents. Our study also proves that insects ‘invented’ the use of defensive surfactants long before modern agriculture had started applying them as insecticides. PMID:18986976

  17. The circadian clock and defence signalling in plants.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mayank; Bhatt, Deepesh

    2015-02-01

    The circadian clock is the internal time-keeping machinery in higher organisms. Cross-talk between the circadian clock and a diverse range of physiological processes in plants, including stress acclimatization, hormone signalling, photomorphogenesis and defence signalling, is currently being explored. Recent studies on circadian clock genes and genes involved in defence signalling have indicated a possible reciprocal interaction between the two. It has been proposed that the circadian clock shapes the outcome of plant-pathogen interactions. In this review, we highlight the studies carried out so far on two model plant pathogens, namely Pseudomonas syringae and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, and the involvement of the circadian clock in gating effector-triggered immunity and pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity. We focus on how the circadian clock gates the expression of various stress-related transcripts in a prolific manner to enhance plant fitness. An understanding of this dynamic relationship between clock and stress will open up new avenues in the understanding of endogenous mechanisms of defence signalling in plants. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  18. Invasive predatory crayfish do not trigger inducible defences in tadpoles

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Mestre, Ivan; Díaz-Paniagua, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species cause deep impacts on ecosystems worldwide, contributing to the decline and extinction of indigenous species. Effective defences against native biological threats in indigenous species, whether structural or inducible, often seem inoperative against invasive species. Here, we show that tadpoles of the Iberian green frog detect chemical cues from indigenous predators (dragonfly nymphs) and respond by reducing their activity and developing an efficient defensive morphology against them (increased tail depth and pigmentation). Those defensive responses, however, were not activated against a highly damaging invasive predator (red swamp crayfish). Induced defences increased tadpole survival when faced against either indigenous dragonflies or invasive crayfish, so its inactivation in the presence of the invasive predator seems to be due to failure in cue recognition. Furthermore, we tested for local adaptation to the invasive predator by comparing individuals from ponds either exposed to or free from crayfish. In both cases, tadpoles failed to express inducible defences against crayfish, indicating that ca 30 years of contact with the invasive species (roughly 10–15 frog generations) have been insufficient for the evolution of recognition of invasive predator cues. PMID:21450734

  19. Parallel evolution of passive and active defence in land snails

    PubMed Central

    Morii, Yuta; Prozorova, Larisa; Chiba, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Predator-prey interactions are major processes promoting phenotypic evolution. However, it remains unclear how predation causes morphological and behavioural diversity in prey species and how it might lead to speciation. Here, we show that substantial divergence in the phenotypic traits of prey species has occurred among closely related land snails as a result of adaptation to predator attacks. This caused the divergence of defensive strategies into two alternatives: passive defence and active defence. Phenotypic traits of the subarctic Karaftohelix land snail have undergone radiation in northeast Asia, and distinctive morphotypes generally coexist in the same regions. In these land snails, we documented two alternative defence behaviours against predation by malacophagous beetles. Furthermore, the behaviours are potentially associated with differences in shell morphology. In addition, molecular phylogenetic analyses indicated that these alternative strategies against predation arose independently on the islands and on the continent suggesting that anti-predator adaptation is a major cause of phenotypic diversity in these snails. Finally, we suggest the potential speciation of Karaftohelix snails as a result of the divergence of defensive strategies into passive and active behaviours and the possibility of species radiation due to anti-predatory adaptations. PMID:27833102

  20. A-void--an exploration of defences against sensing nothingness.

    PubMed

    Emanuel, R

    2001-12-01

    The author describes the potentially annihilating terror implicit in the experience of contact with the void--the 'domain of the non-existent' or nothingness, conceived as an immensely hostile object, terrifying space or a place of 'nameless dread'. All manifestations of existence are threatened by contact with the void, necessitating the deployment of a variety of defences. These various defences--universally employed to avoid contact with this domain--are then discussed. These include trying to search for a fixed sense of identity that can often propel people to seek refuge inside an object or state of mind, as described in Meltzer's 'claustrum' and Steiner's 'psychic retreat'. Other defences, including distraction and grandiosity, are also described. The author then goes on to discuss techniques for helping patients to tolerate contact with mental states engendered by the threat of potential contact with the void, in order to strengthen their capacity to feel and thus enlarge their repertoire of coping with anxiety in a non-reactive and thus growth-inducing manner. This involves discussion about psychoanalytically informed Buddhist understanding of these states and the nature of identity itself, as well as the correlation between these insights and those offered by Bion and other psychoanalytic writers.

  1. Nitrogen dioxide compromises defence functions of the airway epithelium.

    PubMed

    Kakinoki, Y; Ohashi, Y; Tanaka, A; Washio, Y; Yamada, K; Nakai, Y; Morimoto, K

    1998-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure on airway epithelial defence functions, such as ciliary activity, mucociliary transport velocity and junctional barrier function, remains to be elucidated. Our study investigates the effect of 24-h exposure to 3.0 ppm of NO2 on the airway epithelial defence functions in the healthy rabbit. Fifty-two healthy rabbits were exposed to 3.0 ppm of NO2 (NO2 group) or pure air (control group) for 24 successive hours in exposure chambers. After completion of the exposure sequence, the ciliary activity in the trachea was examined by a photoelectric method, the mucociliary transport velocity in the trachea by an endoscopic method and epithelial permeability of the trachea to fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextrans (FD-70s; molecular weight: 70,000 daltons) by an in vitro tracheal sac method. In the NO2 group, all epithelial defence functions, including ciliary activity, mucociliary transport velocity and epithelial permeability were significantly inferior to those in the control group. Although there was considerable overlap in the parameters examined between the two groups, approximately two-thirds of the animals were susceptible to 24-h exposure to 3 ppm of NO2. Dysfunction of both the junctional barrier and the mucociliary system could allow easier entry of allergen molecules to the airway parenchyma, where immunocomponent cells exist. NO2 might be involved to some extent in the clinical manifestation of airway allergic disorders through epithelial dysfunction.

  2. Compromised Rat Testicular Antioxidant Defence System by Hypothyroidism before Puberty.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Dipak K; Roy, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Altered thyroid function during early stages of development is known to affect adversely testicular growth, physiology, and antioxidant defence status at adulthood. The objective of the present study is to investigate the modulation of antioxidant defence status in neonatal persistent hypothyroid rats before their sexual maturation and also to identify the specific testicular cell populations vulnerable to degeneration during neonatal hypothyroidism in immature rats. Hypothyroidism was induced in neonates by feeding the lactating mother with 0.05% 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) through the drinking water. From the day of parturition till weaning (25 day postpartum), the pups received PTU through mother's milk (or) drinking water and then directly from drinking water containing PTU for the remaining period of experimentation. On the 31st day postpartum, the animals were sacrificed for the study. An altered antioxidant defence system marked by elevated SOD, CAT, and GR activities, with decreased GPx and GST activities were observed along with increased protein carbonylation, disturbed redox status in hypothyroid immature rat testis. This compromised testicular antioxidant status might have contributed to poor growth and development by affecting the spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in rats before puberty as indicated by reduced germ cell number, complete absence of round spermatids, decreased seminiferous tubule diameter, and decreased testosterone level.

  3. Commission 41: History of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive; Kochhar, Rajesh; Il-Seong, Nha; Belmonte, Juan; Corbin, Brenda; de Jong, Teije; Norris, Ray; Pigatto, Luisa; Soma, Mitsuru; Sterken, Chris; Xiaochun, Sun

    2012-04-01

    Commission 41 was created at the VIIth IAU General Assembly in Zürich in 1948. From an inauspicious start-Otto Neugebauer was appointed the first President in his absence, but proceeded to express his conviction that ``an international organization in the history of astronomy has no positive function. . .my only activity during my term of service consisted in iterated attempts to resign''-the Commission quickly assumed a key role in the international development of the history of astronomy as an academic discipline.

  4. Cyanogenesis of Wild Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) Is an Efficient Direct Defence in Nature

    PubMed Central

    Ballhorn, Daniel J.; Kautz, Stefanie; Heil, Martin; Hegeman, Adrian D.

    2009-01-01

    In natural systems plants face a plethora of antagonists and thus have evolved multiple defence strategies. Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) is a model plant for studies of inducible indirect anti-herbivore defences including the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and extrafloral nectar (EFN). In contrast, studies on direct chemical defence mechanisms as crucial components of lima beans' defence syndrome under natural conditions are nonexistent. In this study, we focus on the cyanogenic potential (HCNp; concentration of cyanogenic glycosides) as a crucial parameter determining lima beans' cyanogenesis, i.e. the release of toxic hydrogen cyanide from preformed precursors. Quantitative variability of cyanogenesis in a natural population of wild lima bean in Mexico was significantly correlated with missing leaf area. Since existing correlations do not by necessity mean causal associations, the function of cyanogenesis as efficient plant defence was subsequently analysed in feeding trials. We used natural chrysomelid herbivores and clonal lima beans with known cyanogenic features produced from field-grown mother plants. We show that in addition to extensively investigated indirect defences, cyanogenesis has to be considered as an important direct defensive trait affecting lima beans' overall defence in nature. Our results indicate the general importance of analysing ‘multiple defence syndromes’ rather than single defence mechanisms in future functional analyses of plant defences. PMID:19424497

  5. Chromatin assembly factor CAF-1 represses priming of plant defence response genes.

    PubMed

    Mozgová, Iva; Wildhaber, Thomas; Liu, Qinsong; Abou-Mansour, Eliane; L'Haridon, Floriane; Métraux, Jean-Pierre; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Hofius, Daniel; Hennig, Lars

    2015-09-01

    Plants have evolved efficient defence systems against pathogens that often rely on specific transcriptional responses. Priming is part of the defence syndrome, by establishing a hypersensitive state of defence genes such as after a first encounter with a pathogen. Because activation of defence responses has a fitness cost, priming must be tightly controlled to prevent spurious activation of defence. However, mechanisms that repress defence gene priming are poorly understood. Here, we show that the histone chaperone CAF-1 is required to establish a repressed chromatin state at defence genes. Absence of CAF-1 results in spurious activation of a salicylic acid-dependent pathogen defence response in plants grown under non-sterile conditions. Chromatin at defence response genes in CAF-1 mutants under non-inductive (sterile) conditions is marked by low nucleosome occupancy and high H3K4me3 at transcription start sites, resembling chromatin in primed wild-type plants. We conclude that CAF-1-mediated chromatin assembly prevents the establishment of a primed state that may under standard non-sterile growth conditions result in spurious activation of SA-dependent defence responses and consequential reduction of plant vigour.

  6. Cyanogenesis of wild lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) is an efficient direct defence in nature.

    PubMed

    Ballhorn, Daniel J; Kautz, Stefanie; Heil, Martin; Hegeman, Adrian D

    2009-01-01

    In natural systems plants face a plethora of antagonists and thus have evolved multiple defence strategies. Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) is a model plant for studies of inducible indirect anti-herbivore defences including the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and extrafloral nectar (EFN). In contrast, studies on direct chemical defence mechanisms as crucial components of lima beans' defence syndrome under natural conditions are nonexistent. In this study, we focus on the cyanogenic potential (HCNp; concentration of cyanogenic glycosides) as a crucial parameter determining lima beans' cyanogenesis, i.e. the release of toxic hydrogen cyanide from preformed precursors. Quantitative variability of cyanogenesis in a natural population of wild lima bean in Mexico was significantly correlated with missing leaf area. Since existing correlations do not by necessity mean causal associations, the function of cyanogenesis as efficient plant defence was subsequently analysed in feeding trials. We used natural chrysomelid herbivores and clonal lima beans with known cyanogenic features produced from field-grown mother plants. We show that in addition to extensively investigated indirect defences, cyanogenesis has to be considered as an important direct defensive trait affecting lima beans' overall defence in nature. Our results indicate the general importance of analysing 'multiple defence syndromes' rather than single defence mechanisms in future functional analyses of plant defences.

  7. Herbivore induction of jasmonic acid and chemical defences reduce photosynthesis in Nicotiana attenuata.

    PubMed

    Nabity, Paul D; Zavala, Jorge A; DeLucia, Evan H

    2013-01-01

    Herbivory initiates a shift in plant metabolism from growth to defence that may reduce fitness in the absence of further herbivory. However, the defence-induced changes in carbon assimilation that precede this reallocation in resources remain largely undetermined. This study characterized the response of photosynthesis to herbivore induction of jasmonic acid (JA)-related defences in Nicotiana attenuata to increase understanding of these mechanisms. It was hypothesized that JA-induced defences would immediately reduce the component processes of photosynthesis upon attack and was predicted that wild-type plants would suffer greater reductions in photosynthesis than plants lacking JA-induced defences. Gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and thermal spatial patterns were measured together with the production of defence-related metabolites after attack and through recovery. Herbivore damage immediately reduced electron transport and gas exchange in wild-type plants, and gas exchange remained suppressed for several days after attack. The sustained reductions in gas exchange occurred concurrently with increased defence metabolites in wild-type plants, whereas plants lacking JA-induced defences suffered minimal suppression in photosynthesis and no increase in defence metabolite production. This suppression in photosynthesis occurred only after sustained defence signalling and defence chemical mobilization, whereas a short bout of feeding damage only transiently altered components of photosynthesis. It was identified that lipoxygenase signalling interacted with photosynthetic electron transport and that the resulting JA-related metabolites reduced photosynthesis. These data represent a metabolic cost to mounting a chemical defence against herbivory and link defence-signalling networks to the differential effects of herbivory on photosynthesis in remaining leaf tissues in a time-dependent manner.

  8. 10 CFR 1.11 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false The Commission. 1.11 Section 1.11 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.11 The Commission. (a) The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, composed of five members, one of whom is designated by the...

  9. 17 CFR 140.10 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false The Commission. 140.10 Section..., AND PROCEDURES OF THE COMMISSION Functions § 140.10 The Commission. The Commission is composed of a Chairman and four other Commissioners, not more than three of whom may be members of the same political...

  10. 17 CFR 140.10 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false The Commission. 140.10 Section...) ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND PROCEDURES OF THE COMMISSION Functions § 140.10 The Commission. The Commission is composed of a Chairman and four other Commissioners, not more than three of whom may be members of the same...

  11. 17 CFR 140.10 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false The Commission. 140.10 Section..., AND PROCEDURES OF THE COMMISSION Functions § 140.10 The Commission. The Commission is composed of a Chairman and four other Commissioners, not more than three of whom may be members of the same political...

  12. 17 CFR 140.10 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false The Commission. 140.10 Section..., AND PROCEDURES OF THE COMMISSION Functions § 140.10 The Commission. The Commission is composed of a Chairman and four other Commissioners, not more than three of whom may be members of the same political...

  13. 16 CFR 0.1 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false The Commission. 0.1 Section 0.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.1 The Commission. The Federal Trade Commission is an independent administrative agency which was organized in 1915...

  14. 10 CFR 1.11 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false The Commission. 1.11 Section 1.11 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.11 The Commission. (a) The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, composed of five members, one of whom is designated by the...

  15. 16 CFR 0.1 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false The Commission. 0.1 Section 0.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.1 The Commission. The Federal Trade Commission is an independent administrative agency which was organized in 1915...

  16. 10 CFR 1.11 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Commission. 1.11 Section 1.11 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.11 The Commission. (a) The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, composed of five members, one of whom is designated by the...

  17. 17 CFR 140.10 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The Commission. 140.10 Section..., AND PROCEDURES OF THE COMMISSION Functions § 140.10 The Commission. The Commission is composed of a Chairman and four other Commissioners, not more than three of whom may be members of the same political...

  18. 16 CFR 0.1 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Commission. 0.1 Section 0.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.1 The Commission. The Federal Trade Commission is an independent administrative agency which was organized in 1915...

  19. 16 CFR 4.15 - Commission meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commission meetings. 4.15 Section 4.15... RULES § 4.15 Commission meetings. (a) In general. (1) Meetings of the Commission, as defined in 5 U.S.C... announcements of meetings. For each meeting, the Commission shall announce: (i) The time, place and subject...

  20. Federal Communications Commission Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... Part XVIII Federal Communications Commission Semiannual Regulatory Agenda ] FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (FCC) FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Ch. I Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Semiannual regulatory agenda. SUMMARY: Twice a year, in spring and fall...