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Sample records for clara cells favours

  1. Clara epithelial cell depletion in the lung.

    PubMed

    Sonar, Sanchaita S; Dudda, Jan C

    2013-01-01

    The bronchial epithelium has been increasingly recognized as an important immunomodulatory compartment in asthma and other lung diseases. Clara cells, which comprise the nonciliated secretory epithelial cells, are an important epithelial cell type with functions in the regulation of lung homeostasis and inflammation. Using naphthalene, Clara cells can be depleted within 24 h and regenerate by 1 month, hence, providing an easy method to study the impact of Clara cells on lung inflammation.

  2. Clara cells drive eosinophil accumulation in allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Sonar, S S; Ehmke, M; Marsh, L M; Dietze, J; Dudda, J C; Conrad, M L; Renz, H; Nockher, W A

    2012-02-01

    Development of allergic asthma is a complex process involving immune, neuronal and tissue cells. In the lung, Clara cells represent a major part of the "immunomodulatory barrier" of the airway epithelium. To understand the contribution of these cells to the inflammatory outcome of asthma, disease development was assessed using an adjuvant-free ovalbumin model. Mice were sensitised with subcutaneous injections of 10 μg endotoxin-free ovalbumin in conjunction with naphthalene-induced Clara cell depletion. Clara epithelial cell depletion in the lung strongly reduced eosinophil influx, which correlated with decreased eotaxin levels and, moreover, diminished the T-helper cell type 2 inflammatory response, including interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-13. In contrast, airway hyperresponsiveness was increased. Further investigation revealed Clara cells as the principal source of eotaxin in the lung. These findings are the first to show that Clara airway epithelial cells substantially contribute to the infiltration of eotaxin-responsive CCR3+ immune cells and augment the allergic immune response in the lung. The present study identifies Clara cells as a potential therapeutic target in inflammatory lung diseases such as allergic asthma.

  3. Nerve growth factor enhances Clara cell proliferation after lung injury.

    PubMed

    Sonar, S S; Schwinge, D; Kilic, A; Yildirim, A O; Conrad, M L; Seidler, K; Müller, B; Renz, H; Nockher, W A

    2010-07-01

    The lung epithelia facilitate wound closure by secretion of various cytokines and growth factors. Nerve growth factor (NGF) has been well described in airway inflammation; however, its likely role in lung repair has not been examined thus far. To investigate the repair function of NGF, experiments were performed in vitro using cultured alveolar epithelial cells and in vivo using a naphthalene-induced model of Clara epithelial cell injury. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments revealed airway epithelial cell proliferation following injury to be dependent on NGF and the expression of its receptor, tropomyosin-receptor-kinase A. Additionally, NGF also augmented in vitro migration of alveolar type II cells. In vivo, transgenic mice over-expressing NGF in Clara cells (NGFtg) did not reveal any proliferation or alteration in Clara cell phenotype. However, following Clara cell specific injury, proliferation was increased in NGFtg and impaired upon inhibition of NGF. Furthermore, NGF also promoted the expression of collagen I and fibronectin in vitro and in vivo during repair, where significantly higher levels were measured in re-epithelialising NGFtg mice. Our study demonstrates that NGF promotes the proliferation of lung epithelium in vitro and the renewal of Clara cells following lung injury in vivo.

  4. Clara cell adenomas of the mouse lung. Interaction with alveolar type 2 cells.

    PubMed

    Palmer, K C

    1985-09-01

    Multiple pulmonary adenomas were induced in the offspring of pregnant Swiss-Webster mice by transplacental exposure to ethylnitrosourea (ENU) on the 15th day of gestation. Development and growth of tumors were followed for up to a year after birth. Morphologic assessment indicated that the majority of adenomas were of Clara-cell origin and were relatively normal on the basis of structural features. Histochemical studies, utilizing nitroblue tetrazolium reductase activity as a marker for normal Clara cells demonstrated that the Clara-cell-derived tumors possessed nearly normal enzyme activity. Microscopic studies of the tumors and adjacent parenchyma revealed a unique Type 2 cell response to the presence of Clara-cell adenomas occurring in the alveoli beyond the margins of the tumor. Otherwise normal-appearing Type 2 cells, in a narrow zone around the Clara-cell tumors, accumulated large amounts of surfactantlike osmiophilic lamellar material within cytoplasmic vacuoles as early as 30 days after birth. These changes were clearly a Clara-cell-tumor-related response, and not seen in association with other non-Clara-cell adenomas of the same lung. Furthermore, the alterations occurred exclusively in Type 2 cells. The extent of Type 2 cell change was correlated with tumor size and age. Autoradiographic studies with tritiated choline showed marked incorporation of the labeled precursor by the altered Type 2 cells. By electron microscopy, these inclusions were membrane-limited and contained osmiophilic lamellar structures similar to lamellar bodies in normal Type 2 cells. Because these Clara cell adenomas may act as a concentrated focus of normal Clara cells, the alterations seen in Type 2 cells may reflect an amplification of a normal interaction between bronchiolar Clara cells and alveolar Type 2 cells in the centriacinar and juxtabronchiolar alveoli.

  5. Santa Clara County Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Mitlitsky; Sara Mulhauser; David Chien; Deepak Shukla; David Weingaertner

    2009-11-14

    The Santa Clara County Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (PSOFC) project demonstrated the technical viability of pre-commercial PSOFC technology at the County 911 Communications headquarters, as well as the input fuel flexibility of the PSOFC. PSOFC operation was demonstrated on natural gas and denatured ethanol. The Santa Clara County Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (PSOFC) project goals were to acquire, site, and demonstrate the technical viability of a pre-commercial PSOFC technology at the County 911 Communications headquarters. Additional goals included educating local permit approval authorities, and other governmental entities about PSOFC technology, existing fuel cell standards and specific code requirements. The project demonstrated the Bloom Energy (BE) PSOFC technology in grid parallel mode, delivering a minimum 15 kW over 8760 operational hours. The PSOFC system demonstrated greater than 81% electricity availability and 41% electrical efficiency (LHV net AC), providing reliable, stable power to a critical, sensitive 911 communications system that serves geographical boundaries of the entire Santa Clara County. The project also demonstrated input fuel flexibility. BE developed and demonstrated the capability to run its prototype PSOFC system on ethanol. BE designed the hardware necessary to deliver ethanol into its existing PSOFC system. Operational parameters were determined for running the system on ethanol, natural gas (NG), and a combination of both. Required modeling was performed to determine viable operational regimes and regimes where coking could occur.

  6. Sox2 Is Required for Maintenance and Differentiation of Bronchiolar Clara, Ciliated, and Goblet Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tompkins, David H.; Besnard, Valérie; Lange, Alexander W.; Wert, Susan E.; Keiser, Angela R.; Smith, April N.; Lang, Richard; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

    2009-01-01

    The bronchioles of the murine lung are lined by a simple columnar epithelium composed of ciliated, Clara, and goblet cells that together mediate barrier function, mucociliary clearance and innate host defense, vital for pulmonary homeostasis. In the present work, we demonstrate that expression of Sox2 in Clara cells is required for the differentiation of ciliated, Clara, and goblet cells that line the bronchioles of the postnatal lung. The gene was selectively deleted in Clara cells utilizing Scgb1a1-Cre, causing the progressive loss of Sox2 in the bronchioles during perinatal and postnatal development. The rate of bronchiolar cell proliferation was decreased and associated with the formation of an undifferentiated, cuboidal-squamous epithelium lacking the expression of markers of Clara cells (Scgb1a1), ciliated cells (FoxJ1 and α-tubulin), and goblet cells (Spdef and Muc5AC). By adulthood, bronchiolar cell numbers were decreased and Sox2 was absent in extensive regions of the bronchiolar epithelium, at which time residual Sox2 expression was primarily restricted to selective niches of CGRP staining neuroepithelial cells. Allergen-induced goblet cell differentiation and mucus production was absent in the respiratory epithelium lacking Sox2. In vitro, Sox2 activated promoter-luciferase reporter constructs for differentiation markers characteristic of Clara, ciliated, and goblet cells, Scgb1a1, FoxJ1, and Agr2, respectively. Sox2 physically interacted with Smad3 and inhibited TGF-β1/Smad3-mediated transcriptional activity in vitro, a pathway that negatively regulates proliferation. Sox2 is required for proliferation and differentiation of Clara cells that serve as the progenitor cells from which Clara, ciliated, and goblet cells are derived. PMID:20011520

  7. The role and importance of club cells (Clara cells) in the pathogenesis of some respiratory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rokicki, Marek; Wojtacha, Jacek; Dżeljijli, Agata

    2016-01-01

    The report presents the cellular structure of the respiratory system as well as the history of club cells (Clara cells), their ultrastructure, and location in the airways and human organs. The authors discuss the biochemical structure of proteins secreted by these cells and their importance for the integrity and regeneration of the airway epithelium. Their role as progenitor cells for the airway epithelium and their involvement in the biotransformation of toxic xenobiotics introduced into the lungs during breathing is emphasized. This is followed by a discussion of the clinical aspects associated with club cells, demonstrating that tracking the serum concentration of club cell-secreted proteins is helpful in the diagnosis of a number of lung tissue diseases. Finally, suggestions are provided regarding the possible use of proteins secreted by club cells in the treatment of serious respiratory conditions. PMID:27212975

  8. Restoration of the normal Clara cell phenotype after chronic allergic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Felix D; Quintar, Amado A; Leimgruber, Carolina; García, Luciana; Uribe Echevarría, Elisa M; Torres, Alicia I; Maldonado, Cristina A

    2013-01-01

    Bronchiolar Clara cells play a critical role in lung homoeostasis. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic allergy on these cells and the efficacy of budesonide (BUD) and montelukast (MK) in restoring their typical phenotypes after ovalbumin-induced chronic allergy in mice. Chronic allergy induced extensive bronchiolar Alcian blue-periodic acid-Schiff (AB/PAS)-positive metaplasia. In addition, cells accumulated numerous big electron-lucent granules negative for Clara cell main secretory protein (CC16), and consequently, CC16 was significantly reduced in bronchoalveolar lavage. A concomitant reduction in SP-D and CYP2E1 content was observed. The phenotypic changes induced by allergy were pharmacologically reversed by both treatments; MK was more efficient than BUD in doing so. MK decreased AB/PAS reactivity to control levels whereas they remained persistently elevated after BUD. Moreover, most non-ciliated cells recovered their normal morphology after MK, whereas for BUD normal cells coexisted with ‘transitional’ cells that contained remnant mucous granules and stained strongly for CC16 and SP-D. Glucocorticoids were also less able to reduce inflammatory infiltration and maintained higher percentage of neutrophils, which may have contributed to prolonged mucin expression. These results show that chronic allergy-induced mucous metaplasia of Clara cells affects their defensive mechanisms. However, anti-inflammatory treatments were able to re-establish the normal phenotype of Clara cell, with MK being more efficient at restoring a normal profile than BUD. This study highlights the role of epithelial cells in lung injuries and their contribution to anti-inflammatory therapies. PMID:23998365

  9. Power conversion and quality of the Santa Clara 2 MW direct carbonate fuel cell demonstration plant

    SciTech Connect

    Skok, A.J.; Abueg, R.Z.; Schwartz, P.

    1996-12-31

    The Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP) is the first application of a commercial-scale carbonate fuel cell power plant on a US electric utility system. It is also the largest fuel cell power plant ever operated in the United States. The 2MW plant, located in Santa Clara, California, utilizes carbonate fuel cell technology developed by Energy Research Corporation (ERC) of Danbury, Connecticut. The ultimate goal of a fuel cell power plant is to deliver usable power into an electrical distribution system. The power conversion sub-system does this for the Santa Clara Demonstration Plant. A description of this sub-system and its capabilities follows. The sub-system has demonstrated the capability to deliver real power, reactive power and to absorb reactive power on a utility grid. The sub-system can be operated in the same manner as a conventional rotating generator except with enhanced capabilities for reactive power. Measurements demonstrated the power quality from the plant in various operating modes was high quality utility grade power.

  10. Serum clara cell protein: a sensitive biomarker of increased lung epithelium permeability caused by ambient ozone.

    PubMed

    Broeckaert, F; Arsalane, K; Hermans, C; Bergamaschi, E; Brustolin, A; Mutti, A; Bernard, A

    2000-06-01

    Ozone in ambient air may cause various effects on human health, including decreased lung function, asthma exacerbation, and even premature mortality. These effects have been evidenced using various clinical indicators that, although sensitive, do not specifically evaluate the O(3)-increased lung epithelium permeability. In the present study, we assessed the acute effects of ambient O(3) on the pulmonary epithelium by a new approach relying on the assay in serum of the lung-specific Clara cell protein (CC16 or CC10). We applied this test to cyclists who exercised for 2 hr during episodes of photochemical smog and found that O(3) induces an early leakage of lung Clara cell protein. The protein levels increased significantly into the serum from exposure levels as low as 0.060-0.084 ppm. Our findings, confirmed in mice exposed to the current U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for O(3) (0.08 ppm for 8 hr) indicate that above the present natural background levels, there is almost no safety margin for the effects of ambient O(3) on airway permeability. The assay of CC16 in the serum represents a new sensitive noninvasive test allowing the detection of early effects of ambient O(3) on the lung epithelial barrier. PMID:10856027

  11. Serum clara cell protein: a sensitive biomarker of increased lung epithelium permeability caused by ambient ozone.

    PubMed Central

    Broeckaert, F; Arsalane, K; Hermans, C; Bergamaschi, E; Brustolin, A; Mutti, A; Bernard, A

    2000-01-01

    Ozone in ambient air may cause various effects on human health, including decreased lung function, asthma exacerbation, and even premature mortality. These effects have been evidenced using various clinical indicators that, although sensitive, do not specifically evaluate the O(3)-increased lung epithelium permeability. In the present study, we assessed the acute effects of ambient O(3) on the pulmonary epithelium by a new approach relying on the assay in serum of the lung-specific Clara cell protein (CC16 or CC10). We applied this test to cyclists who exercised for 2 hr during episodes of photochemical smog and found that O(3) induces an early leakage of lung Clara cell protein. The protein levels increased significantly into the serum from exposure levels as low as 0.060-0.084 ppm. Our findings, confirmed in mice exposed to the current U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for O(3) (0.08 ppm for 8 hr) indicate that above the present natural background levels, there is almost no safety margin for the effects of ambient O(3) on airway permeability. The assay of CC16 in the serum represents a new sensitive noninvasive test allowing the detection of early effects of ambient O(3) on the lung epithelial barrier. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:10856027

  12. Startup, testing, and operation of the Santa Clara 2MW direct carbonate fuel cell demonstration plant

    SciTech Connect

    Skok, A.J.; Leo, A.J.; O`Shea, T.P.

    1996-12-31

    The Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP) is a collaboration between several utility organizations, Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE), and the U.S. Dept. Of Energy aimed at the demonstration of Energy Research Corporation`s (ERC) direct carbonate fuel cell (DFC) technology. ERC has been pursuing the development of the DFC for commercialization near the end of this decade, and this project is an integral part of the ERC commercialization effort. The objective of the Santa Clara Demonstration Project is to provide the first full, commercial scale demonstration of this technology. The approach ERC has taken in the commercialization of the DFC is described in detail elsewhere. An aggressive core technology development program is in place which is focused by ongoing interaction with customers and vendors to optimize the design of the commercial power plant. ERC has selected a 2.85 MW power plant unit for initial market entry. Two ERC subsidiaries are supporting the commercialization effort: the Fuel Cell Manufacturing Corporation (FCMC) and the Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE). FCMC manufactures carbonate stacks and multi-stack modules, currently from its production facility in Torrington, CT. FCE is responsible for power plant design, integration of all subsystems, sales/marketing, and client services. FCE is serving as the prime contractor for the design, construction, and testing of the SCDP Plant. FCMC has manufactured the multi-stack submodules used in the DC power section of the plant. Fluor Daniel Inc. (FDI) served as the architect-engineer subcontractor for the design and construction of the plant and provided support to the design of the multi-stack submodules. FDI is also assisting the ERC companies in commercial power plant design.

  13. Metabolism and bioactivation of 3-methylindole by Clara cells, alveolar macrophages, and subcellular fractions from rabbit lungs.

    PubMed

    Thornton-Manning, J R; Nichols, W K; Manning, B W; Skiles, G L; Yost, G S

    1993-10-01

    3-Methylindole (3MI), a fermentation product of tryptophan produced by intestinal and ruminal microflora, has been shown to cause pneumotoxicity in several species subsequent to cytochrome P450-mediated biotransformation. Among several species studied, rabbits are comparatively resistant to 3MI-induced pneumotoxicity, especially when compared to goats or mice. In this study, rabbit pulmonary cells and subcellular fractions were used to examine the metabolism and bioactivation of 3MI. A covalent-binding metabolite was produced in 3MI incubations by both Clara cells and macrophages. The addition of the cytochrome P450 inhibitor, 1-aminobenzotriazole, to these incubations inhibited the production of covalent-binding metabolite(s) by 94% in Clara cells and only 24% in macrophages. In incubations of Clara cells or macrophages with 3MI and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a polar conjugate was detected and tentatively identified as an adduct of 3-hydroxy-3-methylindolenine (3H3MIN). Also identified were 3[(N-glutathione-S-yl)-methyl]-indole (3MI-GSH) and 3-methyloxindole (3MOI). In rabbit lung microsomal incubations with 3MI and glutathione (GSH), 3MI-GSH, 3MOI, indole-3-carbinol, and a GSH adduct of 3H3MIN were identified. The addition of cytosol to the microsomal incubations with GSH did not increase the rate of formation of the GSH adducts, indicating that cytosolic GSH-S-transferases are not essential in the formation of these metabolites. GSH significantly decreased the covalent binding of an electrophilic metabolite in microsomal incubations. These data suggest that GSH may be important in the mitigation of 3MI toxicity. Furthermore, the comparison of 3MI bioactivation to electrophilic intermediates in Clara cells and alveolar macrophages suggests that 3MI is metabolized by different oxidative pathways in the two different cell types, although the same metabolites were produced by the two cell types. This study shows that rabbit pulmonary enzymes are capable of

  14. Elevation of susceptibility to ozone-induced acute tracheobronchial injury in transgenic mice deficient in Clara cell secretory protein

    SciTech Connect

    Plopper, C.G. . E-mail: cgplopper@ucdavis.edu; Mango, G.W.; Hatch, G.E.; Wong, V.J.; Toskala, E.; Reynolds, S.D.; Tarkington, B.K.; Stripp, B.R.

    2006-05-15

    Increases in Clara cell abundance or cellular expression of Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP) may cause increased tolerance of the lung to acute oxidant injury by repeated exposure to ozone (O{sub 3}). This study defines how disruption of the gene for CCSP synthesis affects the susceptibility of tracheobronchial epithelium to acute oxidant injury. Mice homozygous for a null allele of the CCSP gene (CCSP-/-) and wild type (CCSP+/+) littermates were exposed to ozone (0.2 ppm, 8 h; 1 ppm, 8 h) or filtered air. Injury was evaluated by light and scanning electron microscopy, and the abundance of necrotic, ciliated, and nonciliated cells was estimated by morphometry. Proximal and midlevel intrapulmonary airways and terminal bronchioles were evaluated. There was no difference in airway epithelial composition between CCSP+/+ and CCSP-/- mice exposed to filtered air, and exposure to 0.2 ppm ozone caused little injury to the epithelium of both CCSP+/+ and CCSP-/- mice. After exposure to 1.0 ppm ozone, CCSP-/- mice suffered from a greater degree of epithelial injury throughout the airways compared to CCSP+/+ mice. CCSP-/- mice had both ciliated and nonciliated cell injury. Furthermore, lack of CCSP was associated with a shift in airway injury to include proximal airway generations. Therefore, we conclude that CCSP modulates the susceptibility of the epithelium to oxidant-induced injury. Whether this is due to the presence of CCSP on the acellular lining layer surface and/or its intracellular distribution in the secretory cell population needs to be defined.

  15. Elevation of susceptibility to ozone-induced acute tracheobronchial injury in transgenic mice deficient in Clara cell secretory protein.

    PubMed

    Plopper, C G; Mango, G W; Hatch, G E; Wong, V J; Toskala, E; Reynolds, S D; Tarkington, B K; Stripp, B R

    2006-05-15

    Increases in Clara cell abundance or cellular expression of Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP) may cause increased tolerance of the lung to acute oxidant injury by repeated exposure to ozone (O3). This study defines how disruption of the gene for CCSP synthesis affects the susceptibility of tracheobronchial epithelium to acute oxidant injury. Mice homozygous for a null allele of the CCSP gene (CCSP-/-) and wild type (CCSP+/+) littermates were exposed to ozone (0.2 ppm, 8 h; 1 ppm, 8 h) or filtered air. Injury was evaluated by light and scanning electron microscopy, and the abundance of necrotic, ciliated, and nonciliated cells was estimated by morphometry. Proximal and midlevel intrapulmonary airways and terminal bronchioles were evaluated. There was no difference in airway epithelial composition between CCSP+/+ and CCSP-/- mice exposed to filtered air, and exposure to 0.2 ppm ozone caused little injury to the epithelium of both CCSP+/+ and CCSP-/- mice. After exposure to 1.0 ppm ozone, CCSP-/- mice suffered from a greater degree of epithelial injury throughout the airways compared to CCSP+/+ mice. CCSP-/- mice had both ciliated and nonciliated cell injury. Furthermore, lack of CCSP was associated with a shift in airway injury to include proximal airway generations. Therefore, we conclude that CCSP modulates the susceptibility of the epithelium to oxidant-induced injury. Whether this is due to the presence of CCSP on the acellular lining layer surface and/or its intracellular distribution in the secretory cell population needs to be defined.

  16. Consequences of abrupt glutathione depletion in murine Clara cells: ultrastructural and biochemical investigations into the role of glutathione loss in naphthalene cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Phimister, Andrew J; Williams, Kurt J; Van Winkle, Laura S; Plopper, Charles G

    2005-08-01

    Glutathione plays many critical roles within the cell, including offering protection from reactive chemicals. The bioactivated toxicant naphthalene forms chemically reactive intermediates that can deplete glutathione and covalently bind to cellular proteins. Naphthalene selectively injures the nonciliated epithelial cells of the intrapulmonary airways (i.e., Clara cells). This study attempted to define what role glutathione loss plays in naphthalene cytotoxicity by comparing Swiss-Webster mice treated with naphthalene with those treated with the glutathione depletor diethylmaleate. High-resolution imaging techniques were used to evaluate acute changes in Clara cell ultrastructure, membrane permeability, and cytoskeleton structure. A single dose of either diethylmaleate (1000 mg/kg) or naphthalene (200 mg/kg) caused similar glutathione losses in intrapulmonary airways (< 20% of control). Diethylmaleate did not increase membrane permeability, disrupt mitochondria, or lead to cell death--hallmark features of naphthalene cytotoxicity. However, diethylmaleate treatment did cause Clara cell swelling, plasma membrane blebs, and actin cytoskeleton disruptions similar to naphthalene treatment. Structural changes in mitochondria and Golgi bodies also were noted. Changes in ATP levels were measured as an indication of overall cell function, in isolated airway explants incubated with diethylmaleate, naphthalene, or naphthalene metabolites in vitro. Only the reactive metabolites of naphthalene caused significant ATP losses. Unlike the lethal injury caused by naphthalene, the disruptive cellular changes associated with glutathione loss from diethylmaleate seemed to be reversible after recovery of glutathione levels. This suggests that glutathione depletion may be responsible for some aspects of naphthalene cytotoxicity, but it is not sufficient to cause cell death without further stresses.

  17. p172: An alveolar type II and Clara cell specific protein with late developmental expression and upregulation by hyperoxic lung injury.

    PubMed

    Girod, C E; Shin, D H; Hershenson, M B; Solway, J; Dahl, R; Miller, Y E

    1996-06-01

    The epithelium of the alveolus and distal airway meets unique requirements, functioning as a gas exchange membrane and barrier to alveolar flooding by vascular contents as well as to bloodstream contamination by airborne toxins and pathogens. Gene products specifically expressed by this epithelium, notably the surfactant apoproteins, have had important clinical application. No cell surface antigen specific for alveolar type II and Clara cells has been described. We report the biochemical characterization, tissue and developmental expression, and upregulation by injury of a 172 kD protein recognized by a monoclonal antibody, 3F9, synthesized in response to immunization with freshly isolated rat alveolar type II cells. p172 is expressed in a polarized fashion by the apical surface of rat alveolar type II and Clara cells. An immunohistochemical survey of various rat tissues and organs reveals lung specificity. p172 is first detectable in rare epithelial cells at 19 days of gestation, a time when the fully differentiated alveolar type II cell is identified by the first detection of lamellar bodies. There is a dramatic increase in p172 expression just prior to birth. Hyperoxic lung injury results in increased expression of p172. The upregulation of p172 by hyperoxia and its cell-specific expression suggests an important adaptive function.

  18. Serum clara-cell protein and beta2-microglobulin as early markers of occupational exposure to nitric oxides.

    PubMed

    Hałatek, T; Gromadzińska, J; Wasowicz, W; Rydzyński, K

    2005-02-01

    Biochemical effects of NOx on 60 workers (both genders) of nitric acid production were studied. The control group consisted of 61 nonexposed people employed elsewhere in the plant. Although the actual threshold limit valuetime weighted averages (TLV-TWA) were not exceeded in the specific conditions of our study, the subjects were exposed to NO2 and NO during several exposure episodes with peak maximal concentrations of 140 ppm and 515 ppm, respectively. Additional cross-week evaluation of several biochemical biomarkers in 15 NOx-exposed workers from one shift was performed. The objective of the study was to evaluate the value of serum Clara-cell protein (CC16) as a marker of bronchoalveolar epithelium activity. Antioxidant status was assessed by measuring activity of enzymes: glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), ceruloplasmin (Cp) in plasma, or superoxide dismutase (SOD), gluthatione S-transferase (GST), and nonenzymatic alpha-tocopherol in erythrocytes and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in plasma. Serum hyaluronic acid (HA) determining the connective tissue matrix status of airways, and beta2-microglobulin in serum (beta2M-S) and urine (beta2M-U) as a marker of renal function in occupational exposure to NOx were also employed. Exposure to NOx initiates peroxidative chain depleting of lipoprotein pool (alpha-tocopherol) in blood. Serum CC16 levels in NOx-exposed workers were found to be closely connected with alpha-tocopherol content. In NOx-exposed workers, the beta2M-S level was significantly higher than in the nonexposed ones, with the exception of smokers. Results of the cross-week study confirm cumulative systemic effects of NOx on several examined biomarkers. SOD and GST were found to be depleted. A transient higher level of HA after a 5-d shift significantly inversely correlated with CC16 level. The data imply that NOx-depleted levels of CC16 are detectable already after an 8-h shift. Our results demonstrate that even low NOx human exposure can

  19. The natural antioxidants, pomegranate extract and soy isoflavones, favourably modulate canine endothelial cell function.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina M; Waldenberger, Ferdinand Rudolf; Freudenthaler, Angelika; Ginouvès-Guerdoux, Amandine; McGahie, David; Gatto, Hugues

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease, preceded by vascular endothelial dysfunction, is a prominent cause of death in dogs. L-carnitine and taurine, well known for their antioxidative capacity, beneficially affect cardiovascular disease as well as certain dog cardiomyopathies. It is well established that vascular endothelial dysfunction precedes cardiovascular disease and that "vasoprotective factors" (NO and antioxidants) prevent apoptosis, whereas "risk factors" such as oxidized LDL, hyperglycemia, and free fatty acids trigger it in cultured human vascular endothelial cells. Whereas human vascular cell in vitro models are widely established and used for the characterisation of potential vasoprotective substances, such models are not available for canine endothelial cells. In the present study we therefore developed an in vitro model, which allows the testing of the effects of different substances on proliferation and apoptosis in canine aortic endothelial cells. This model was used to test L-carnitine, taurine, pomegranate extract, and Soy Isoflavones in comparison to reference substances (glutathione and pioglitazone) previously shown to modulate human endothelial cell function. L-carnitine and taurine neither exhibited antiproliferative nor antiapoptotic activities in the context of this study. However extracts from pomegranate and soy isoflavones dramatically reduced proliferation and apoptosis in a dose dependent fashion, being in line with a vasoprotective activity in dogs.

  20. When is incomplete epigenetic resetting in germ cells favoured by natural selection?

    PubMed Central

    Uller, Tobias; English, Sinead; Pen, Ido

    2015-01-01

    Resetting of epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation, in germ cells or early embryos is not always complete. Epigenetic states may therefore persist, decay or accumulate across generations. In spite of mounting empirical evidence for incomplete resetting, it is currently poorly understood whether it simply reflects stochastic noise or plays an adaptive role in phenotype determination. Here, we use a simple model to show that incomplete resetting can be adaptive in heterogeneous environments. Transmission of acquired epigenetic states prevents mismatched phenotypes when the environment changes infrequently relative to generation time and when maternal and environmental cues are unreliable. We discuss how these results may help to interpret the emerging data on transgenerational epigenetic inheritance in plants and animals. PMID:26136447

  1. When is incomplete epigenetic resetting in germ cells favoured by natural selection?

    PubMed

    Uller, Tobias; English, Sinead; Pen, Ido

    2015-07-22

    Resetting of epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation, in germ cells or early embryos is not always complete. Epigenetic states may therefore persist, decay or accumulate across generations. In spite of mounting empirical evidence for incomplete resetting, it is currently poorly understood whether it simply reflects stochastic noise or plays an adaptive role in phenotype determination. Here, we use a simple model to show that incomplete resetting can be adaptive in heterogeneous environments. Transmission of acquired epigenetic states prevents mismatched phenotypes when the environment changes infrequently relative to generation time and when maternal and environmental cues are unreliable. We discuss how these results may help to interpret the emerging data on transgenerational epigenetic inheritance in plants and animals.

  2. Aerosol delivery of kinase-deficient Akt1 attenuates Clara cell injury induced by naphthalene in the lungs of dual luciferase mice.

    PubMed

    Minai-Tehrani, Arash; Park, Young-Chan; Hwang, Soon-Kyung; Kwon, Jung-Taek; Chang, Seung-Hee; Park, Sung-Jin; Yu, Kyeong-Nam; Kim, Ji-Eun; Shin, Ji-Young; Kim, Ji-Hye; Kang, Bitna; Hong, Seong-Ho; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2011-12-01

    Conventional lung cancer therapies are associated with poor survival rates; therefore, new approaches such as gene therapy are required for treating cancer. Gene therapies for treating lung cancer patients can involve several approaches. Among these, aerosol gene delivery is a potentially more effective approach. In this study, Akt1 kinase-deficient (KD) and wild-type (WT) Akt1 were delivered to the lungs of CMV-LucR-cMyc-IRES-LucF dual reporter mice through a nose only inhalation system using glucosylated polyethylenimine and naphthalene was administrated to the mice via intraperitoneal injection. Aerosol delivery of Akt1 WT and naphthalene treatment increased protein levels of downstream substrates of Akt signaling pathway while aerosol delivery of Akt1 KD did not. Our results showed that naphthalene affected extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) protein levels, ERK-related signaling, and induced Clara cell injury. However, Clara cell injury induced by naphthalene was considerably attenuated in mice exposed to Akt1 KD. Furthermore, a dual luciferase activity assay showed that aerosol delivery of Akt1 WT and naphthalene treatment enhanced cap-dependent protein translation, while reduced cap-dependent protein translation was observed after delivering Akt1 KD. These studies demonstrated that our aerosol delivery is compatible for in vivo gene delivery. PMID:22122896

  3. Expanded lung T-bet+RORγT+ CD4+ T-cells in sarcoidosis patients with a favourable disease phenotype.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Ylva; Lepzien, Rico; Kullberg, Susanna; Eklund, Anders; Smed-Sörensen, Anna; Grunewald, Johan

    2016-08-01

    Disease phenotypes of pulmonary sarcoidosis are distinguished by clinical rather than immunological criteria. We aimed to characterise patterns of CD4(+) T-cell lineage plasticity underlying the differences in clinical presentation and disease course between the acute form, Löfgren's syndrome, and the heterogeneous, potentially progressive "non-Löfgren" form.33 pulmonary sarcoidosis patients and nine controls underwent bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage. CD4(+) T-cell transcription factor, chemokine receptor and T-cell receptor expression, proliferation and cytokine production were assessed in the lavage fluid and peripheral blood using flow cytometry and multicolour FluoroSpot.CD4(+) T-cells simultaneously expressing the T-helper cell (Th)1 and Th17 transcriptional regulators T-bet and RORγT (T-bet(+)RORγT(+)) were identified in the lavage, but not blood, of all subjects, and to a significantly higher degree in Löfgren's patients. T-bet(+)RORγT(+) cells proliferated actively, produced interferon (IFN)γ and interleukin (IL)-17A, co-expressed the chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CCR6, and correlated with nonchronic disease. T-cell receptor-restricted Vα2.3(+)Vβ22(+) T-cells strongly co-expressed T-bet/RORγT and CXCR3/CCR6. Cytokine production was more heterogeneous in Löfgren's patients, with significantly higher IL-17A, IL-10, IL-22 and IL-2, but lower IFNγ.Here we demonstrate the presence of lung T-bet(+)RORγT(+)CXCR3(+)CCR6(+) CD4(+) T-cells and Th17-associated cytokines especially in sarcoidosis patients with a favourable prognosis, suggesting a Th1/Th17-permissive environment in the lung with implications for disease resolution. PMID:27230441

  4. A hypomorphic IgH-chain allele affects development of B-cell subsets and favours receptor editing.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Sven; Drewel, Diana; Steinbart, Thomas; Weisel, Florian; Härtel, Eric; Pötzsch, Sonja; Welzel, Heike; Brandl, Andreas; Yu, Philipp; Mudde, Geert C; Schweizer, Astrid; Nitschke, Lars; Winkler, Thomas H

    2011-05-27

    The quality and quantity of BCR signals impact on cell fate decisions of B lymphocytes. Here, we describe novel gene-targeted mice, which in the context of normal VDJ recombination show hypomorphic expression of immunoglobulin μ heavy chain (μHC) mRNA levels and hence lower pre-BCR and BCR levels. Hypomorphic expression of μHC leads to augmented selection processes at all stages of B-cell development, noticeably at the expansion of pre-B cells, the positive selection of immature B lymphocytes in the bone marrow and the selection of the follicular (FO), marginal zone (MZ) and B1 B-lymphocyte compartment in peripheral lymphoid organs. Immature as well as mature FO and MZ B lymphocytes in the peripheral lymphoid organs express lower levels of the receptor for B-cell activating factor (BAFF). In addition, hypomorphic expression of the BCR favours receptor editing. Together, our results highlight the critical importance of pre-BCR and BCR receptor levels for the normal development of B-lymphocyte subpopulations in the context of intact VDJ recombination and a diverse antibody repertoire.

  5. Human B cells induce dendritic cell maturation and favour Th2 polarization by inducing OX-40 ligand

    PubMed Central

    Maddur, Mohan S.; Sharma, Meenu; Hegde, Pushpa; Stephen-Victor, Emmanuel; Pulendran, Bali; Kaveri, Srini V.; Bayry, Jagadeesh

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in immune homeostasis by regulating the functions of various immune cells, including T and B cells. Notably, DCs also undergo education on reciprocal signalling by these immune cells and environmental factors. Various reports demonstrated that B cells have profound regulatory functions, although only few reports have explored the regulation of human DCs by B cells. Here we demonstrate that activated but not resting B cells induce maturation of DCs with distinct features to polarize Th2 cells that secrete interleukin (IL)-5, IL-4 and IL-13. B-cell-induced maturation of DCs is contact dependent and implicates signalling of B-cell activation molecules CD69, B-cell-activating factor receptor, and transmembrane activator and calcium-modulating cyclophilin ligand interactor. Mechanistically, differentiation of Th2 cells by B-cell-matured DCs is dependent on OX-40 ligand. Collectively, our results suggest that B cells have the ability to control their own effector functions by enhancing the ability of human DCs to mediate Th2 differentiation. PMID:24910129

  6. Interactions between natural killer cells and dendritic cells favour T helper1-type responses to BCG in calves.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Carly A; Mahan, Suman; Entrican, Gary; Hope, Jayne C

    2016-08-17

    Vaccination of neonatal calves with BCG induces a significant level of protection from infection with Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis. Since neonatal vaccination of humans with BCG induces activation of NK cells, and young calves have high circulating numbers of these cells, we hypothesised that NK cells are important in the protective response to BCG. Furthermore, since NK cells play a role in shaping adaptive immune responses through interactions with DCs, we investigated the interactions between NK cells and DCs in the context of BCG. DCs infected with BCG expressed significantly higher levels of MHC class II and the co-stimulatory molecules CD40 and CD80, alongside augmented production of the Th1 polarising cytokine IL-12, when compared with uninfected DCs. Following in vitro co-culture with BCG-infected DCs, NK cells increased their expression of the activatory molecule CD25, with preferential activation of the CD2- NK cell subset. NK cell effector function, as measured by production of IFN-γ, was also significantly enhanced following co-culture with BCG-infected DCs. This study provides novel evidence to demonstrate that NK cells phenotypically and functionally mature after interactions with DCs in the context of BCG. Furthermore, through the production of IFN-γ and IL-12 by NK cells and DCs respectively, this interaction may drive protective Th1-type immune responses to Mycobacteria.

  7. Interactions between natural killer cells and dendritic cells favour T helper1-type responses to BCG in calves.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Carly A; Mahan, Suman; Entrican, Gary; Hope, Jayne C

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination of neonatal calves with BCG induces a significant level of protection from infection with Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis. Since neonatal vaccination of humans with BCG induces activation of NK cells, and young calves have high circulating numbers of these cells, we hypothesised that NK cells are important in the protective response to BCG. Furthermore, since NK cells play a role in shaping adaptive immune responses through interactions with DCs, we investigated the interactions between NK cells and DCs in the context of BCG. DCs infected with BCG expressed significantly higher levels of MHC class II and the co-stimulatory molecules CD40 and CD80, alongside augmented production of the Th1 polarising cytokine IL-12, when compared with uninfected DCs. Following in vitro co-culture with BCG-infected DCs, NK cells increased their expression of the activatory molecule CD25, with preferential activation of the CD2- NK cell subset. NK cell effector function, as measured by production of IFN-γ, was also significantly enhanced following co-culture with BCG-infected DCs. This study provides novel evidence to demonstrate that NK cells phenotypically and functionally mature after interactions with DCs in the context of BCG. Furthermore, through the production of IFN-γ and IL-12 by NK cells and DCs respectively, this interaction may drive protective Th1-type immune responses to Mycobacteria. PMID:27530534

  8. Qualitative and quantitative changes in cytochrome P-450-dependent xenobiotic metabolism in pulmonary microsomes and isolated Clara cell populations derived from ozone-exposed rats

    SciTech Connect

    Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Dormans, J.A.M.A.; Rombout, P.J.A.; van Bree, L.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of a prolonged ozone exposure (1.6 mg ozone/m/sup 3/; 7 d; 24 h/d) on pulmonary cytochrome P-450-dependent xenobiotic metabolism was studied both in whole rat lung as well as in isolated bronchiolar Clara cell preparations. Ozone exposure was demonstrated to result in significant quantitative but also qualitative changes. All components of the pulmonary microsomal electron transport system appeared to be significantly increased in the lungs of exposed animals both per lung and per gram lung, although increases were no longer observed when expressed per milligram microsomal lung protein. Remarkably, it was demonstrated that the increases in the components of the pulmonary cytochrome P-450 system were not accompanied by a concomitant increase in all cytochrome P-450-dependent substrate conversions. In whole-lung microsomes ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activities were unchanged or even significantly reduced when expressed per lung, per gram lung, per milligram microsomal protein, or per picomole cytochrome P-450. In contrast to these observations, pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylation appeared to be significantly increased upon ozone exposure when expressed per lung, per gram lung, and even per picomole cytochrome P-450.

  9. Plasma wakefield acceleration at CLARA facility in Daresbury Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, G.; Nie, Y.; Mete, O.; Hanahoe, K.; Dover, M.; Wigram, M.; Wright, J.; Zhang, J.; Smith, J.; Pacey, T.; Li, Y.; Wei, Y.; Welsch, C.

    2016-09-01

    A plasma accelerator research station (PARS) has been proposed to study the key issues in electron driven plasma wakefield acceleration at CLARA facility in Daresbury Laboratory. In this paper, the quasi-nonlinear regime of beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration is analysed. The wakefield excited by various CLARA beam settings are simulated by using a 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) code. For a single drive beam, an accelerating gradient up to 3 GV/m can be achieved. For a two bunch acceleration scenario, simulation shows that a witness bunch can achieve a significant energy gain in a 10-50 cm long plasma cell.

  10. Stromal regulatory T-cells are associated with a favourable prognosis in gastric cancer of the cardia

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T-cells (Treg) may be responsible for the failure of host anti-tumour immunity by suppressing cytotoxic T- cells. We assessed the prognostic significance of tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in intestinal-type gastric cardiac cancer. Methods Tumour infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) subsets and tumour infiltrating macrophages (TIM) were investigated in 52 cases using tissue microarrays. The interrelationship between the cell populations (CD3+, CD8+, CD20+, CD68+, GranzymeB+, FoxP3+) in different compartments and NED-survival was investigated (median follow-up time: 61 months). Results Intraepithelial infiltration with TIL and TIM including Treg was generally low and not related to NED-survival. However, patients with large numbers of FoxP3+ Treg in the tumour stroma (>125.9 FoxP3+TILs/mm2) had a median survival time of 58 months while those with low FoxP3+ TIL counts (<125.9 FoxP3+TILs/mm2) had a median survival time of 32 months (p = 0.006). Patients with high versus low stromal CD68+/FoxP3+ cell ratios in primary tumour displayed median survivals of 32 and 55 months, respectively (p = 0.008). Conclusion Our results suggest that inflammatory processes within the tumour stroma of gastric intestinal-type adenocarcinomas located at the gastric cardia may affect outcome in two ways. Tumour-infiltrating macrophages are likely to promote carcinogenesis while large numbers of Treg are associated with improved outcome probably by inhibiting local inflammatory processes promoting carcinogenesis. Thus, inhibition of Treg may not be a feasible treatment option in gastric adenocarcinoma. PMID:19732435

  11. Proteomic profiling of naïve multiple myeloma patient plasma cells identifies pathways associated with favourable response to bortezomib-based treatment regimens.

    PubMed

    Dytfeld, Dominik; Rosebeck, Shaun; Kandarpa, Malathi; Mayampurath, Anoop; Mellacheruvu, Dattatreya; Alonge, Mattina M; Ngoka, Lambert; Jasielec, Jagoda; Richardson, Paul G; Volchenboum, Samuel; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I; Sreekumar, Arun; Jakubowiak, Andrzej J

    2015-07-01

    Toward our goal of personalized medicine, we comprehensively profiled pre-treatment malignant plasma cells from multiple myeloma patients and prospectively identified pathways predictive of favourable response to bortezomib-based treatment regimens. We utilized two complementary quantitative proteomics platforms to identify differentially-regulated proteins indicative of at least a very good partial response (VGPR) or complete response/near complete response (CR/nCR) to two treatment regimens containing either bortezomib, liposomal doxorubicin and dexamethasone (VDD), or lenalidomide, bortezomib and dexamethasone (RVD). Our results suggest enrichment of 'universal response' pathways that are common to both treatment regimens and are probable predictors of favourable response to bortezomib, including a subset of endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways. The data also implicate pathways unique to each regimen that may predict sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, and immunomodulatory drugs, which was associated with acute phase response signalling. Overall, we identified patterns of tumour characteristics that may predict response to bortezomib-based regimens and their components. These results provide a rationale for further evaluation of the protein profiles identified herein for targeted selection of anti-myeloma therapy to increase the likelihood of improved treatment outcome of patients with newly-diagnosed myeloma. PMID:25824111

  12. Proteomic profiling of naïve multiple myeloma patient plasma cells identifies pathways associated with favourable response to bortezomib-based treatment regimens.

    PubMed

    Dytfeld, Dominik; Rosebeck, Shaun; Kandarpa, Malathi; Mayampurath, Anoop; Mellacheruvu, Dattatreya; Alonge, Mattina M; Ngoka, Lambert; Jasielec, Jagoda; Richardson, Paul G; Volchenboum, Samuel; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I; Sreekumar, Arun; Jakubowiak, Andrzej J

    2015-07-01

    Toward our goal of personalized medicine, we comprehensively profiled pre-treatment malignant plasma cells from multiple myeloma patients and prospectively identified pathways predictive of favourable response to bortezomib-based treatment regimens. We utilized two complementary quantitative proteomics platforms to identify differentially-regulated proteins indicative of at least a very good partial response (VGPR) or complete response/near complete response (CR/nCR) to two treatment regimens containing either bortezomib, liposomal doxorubicin and dexamethasone (VDD), or lenalidomide, bortezomib and dexamethasone (RVD). Our results suggest enrichment of 'universal response' pathways that are common to both treatment regimens and are probable predictors of favourable response to bortezomib, including a subset of endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways. The data also implicate pathways unique to each regimen that may predict sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, and immunomodulatory drugs, which was associated with acute phase response signalling. Overall, we identified patterns of tumour characteristics that may predict response to bortezomib-based regimens and their components. These results provide a rationale for further evaluation of the protein profiles identified herein for targeted selection of anti-myeloma therapy to increase the likelihood of improved treatment outcome of patients with newly-diagnosed myeloma.

  13. Status of Santa Clara MCFC product development test

    SciTech Connect

    Leo, A.J.; O`Shea, T.P.

    1995-12-01

    The 2MW plant is the world`s first application of a commercial-scale carbonate fuel cell power plant on an electric utility system. It is located at 1255 Space Park Drive in the City of Santa Clara, CA. The balance of plant pretesting effort will continue through Sept. 1995, when the stack installation effort will be initiated.

  14. Status of Santa Clara MCFC product development test

    SciTech Connect

    Leo, A.J.; O`Shea, T.P.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of the 2MW Santa Clara Demonstration Project is the demonstration of the carbonate fuel cell technology at full scale. Additional objectives of the project include the demonstration of specific advantages of the direct carbonate fuel cell power plant, such as high efficiency, low emissions, reactive power capability, and high reliability and availability. The project will also provide design input for precommercial early production power plants.

  15. Pregnancy may favour the development of severe autoimmune central diabetes insipidus in women with vasopressin cell antibodies: description of two cases.

    PubMed

    Bellastella, Giuseppe; Bizzarro, Antonio; Aitella, Ernesto; Barrasso, Mariluce; Cozzolino, Domenico; Di Martino, Sergio; Esposito, Katherine; De Bellis, Annamaria

    2015-03-01

    Recently, an increased incidence of central diabetes insipidus (CDI) in pregnancy, and less frequently in the post partum period, has been reported, most probably favoured by some conditions occurring in pregnancy. This study was aimed at investigating the influence of pregnancy on a pre-existing potential/subclinical hypothalamic autoimmunity. We studied the longitudinal behaviour of arginine-vasopressin cell antibodies (AVPcAbs) and post-pituitary function in two young women with a positive history of autoimmune disease and presence of AVPcAbs, but without clinical CDI, and who became pregnant 5 and 7 months after our first observation. The behaviour of post-pituitary function and AVPcAbs (by immunofluorescence) was evaluated at baseline, during pregnancy and for 2 years after delivery. AVPcAbs, present at low/middle titres at baseline in both patients, showed a titre increase during pregnancy in one patient and after delivery in the other patient, with development of clinically overt CDI. Therapy with 1-deamino-8-d-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) caused a prompt clinical remission. After a first unsuccessful attempt of withdrawal, the therapy was definitively stopped at the 6th and the 7th month of post partum period respectively, when AVPcAbs disappeared, accompanied by post-pituitary function recovery, persisting until the end of the follow-up. The determination of AVPcAbs is advisable in patients with autoimmune diseases planning their pregnancy, because they could be considered good predictive markers of gestational or post partum autoimmune CDI. The monitoring of AVPcAb titres and post-pituitary function during pregnancy in these patients may allow for an early diagnosis and an early replacement therapy, which could induce the disappearance of these antibodies with consequent complete remission of CDI.

  16. Epstein-Barr virus-driven B Cell Proliferation with CD4+ T Cell Expansion: A Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis-like Disease Related to Hyperinterleukin-10 Secretion of Remarkably Favourable Outcome with Rituximab.

    PubMed

    Cervera, P; Guihot, A; Gorochov, G; Lassoued, K; Coppo, P

    2015-12-01

    Granulomatous lymphomatosis is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven B cell proliferation associated with an exuberant CD4(+) T cell reaction with usually histopathological pictures of angiocentrism. So far, the characteristics of CD4(+) T cells in granulomatous lymphomatosis and the mechanism leading to their expansion remain poorly explored. We report a 56-year-old female with a past history of cold agglutinin disease, which was successfully treated with 4 weekly infusions of rituximab. She presented one year later with features of granulomatous lymphomatosis that resulted in severe lung and bone marrow infiltration. We provide evidence that CD4(+) T cell expansion was oligoclonal, involved anergic cells and did not result from an EBV-driven stimulation. Rather, it resulted possibly from a high production of interleukin-10 by immunoblastic EBV-positive B cells. The outcome was remarkably favourable with rituximab and steroids. Our results suggest that an EBV-driven B cell proliferation should be investigated in patients presenting with a CD4(+) T cells alveolitis or other systemic manifestations resulting from a CD4(+) T cell expansion. These features should prompt to introduce an immunosuppressive therapy including steroids and rituximab. Our results deserve further investigations to confirm our pathophysiological hypotheses in CD4(+) T cell expansions associated with EBV-driven B cell proliferations and to assess whether granulomatous lymphomatosis could result from comparable mechanisms. PMID:26332210

  17. Distribution of immune cells in head and neck cancer: CD8+ T-cells and CD20+ B-cells in metastatic lymph nodes are associated with favourable outcome in patients with oro- and hypopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) are generally considered to represent a host immune response directed against tumour antigens. TIL are also increasingly recognised as possible prognostic parameters. However, the effects observed are variable indicating that results cannot be extrapolated from type of tumour to another. Moreover, it has been suggested that primary solid tumours may be ignored by the immune system and that a meaningful immune response is only mounted in regional lymph nodes. Methods We have examined the local distribution of immune cells in tumour-related compartments in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). In a second step, the prognostic impact of these cells on disease-free survival (DFS) was analysed. A total of 198 tissue cores from 33 patients were evaluated using tissue mircroarray technique and immunohistochemistry. Tumour-infiltrating immune cells were identified using antibodies specific for CD3, CD8, GranzymeB, FoxP3, CD20 and CD68 and quantified using an image analysis system. Results We demonstrate a relative expansion of FoxP3+ regulatory T-cells (Treg) and of cytotoxic T-cells among tumour infitrating T-cells. We also show that intratumoural CD20+ B-cells are significantly more frequent in metastatic deposits than in primary tumours. Furthermore, we observed a reduced number of peritumoural CD8+ T-cells in metastatic lymph nodes as compared to univolved regional nodes suggesting a local down-modulation of cellular immunity. All other immune cells did not show significant alterations in distribution. We did not observe an association of tumour infiltrating immune cells at the primary site with outcome. However, increased numbers of intraepithelial CD8+ TIL in metastatic tumours as well as large numbers of peritumoural B-cells in lymph node metastases were associated with favourable outcome. Unexpectedly, no effect on patient outcome was observed for Treg in any compartment. Conclusion Our results suggest that

  18. CLARA: an integrated clinical research administration system.

    PubMed

    Bian, Jiang; Xie, Mengjun; Hogan, William; Hutchins, Laura; Topaloglu, Umit; Lane, Cheryl; Holland, Jennifer; Wells, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Administration of human subject research is complex, involving not only the institutional review board but also many other regulatory and compliance entities within a research enterprise. Its efficiency has a direct and substantial impact on the conduct and management of clinical research. In this paper, we report on the Clinical Research Administration (CLARA) platform developed at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. CLARA is a comprehensive web-based system that can streamline research administrative tasks such as submissions, reviews, and approval processes for both investigators and different review committees on a single integrated platform. CLARA not only helps investigators to meet regulatory requirements but also provides tools for managing other clinical research activities including budgeting, contracting, and participant schedule planning.

  19. CLARA: an integrated clinical research administration system

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Jiang; Xie, Mengjun; Hogan, William; Hutchins, Laura; Topaloglu, Umit; Lane, Cheryl; Holland, Jennifer; Wells, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Administration of human subject research is complex, involving not only the institutional review board but also many other regulatory and compliance entities within a research enterprise. Its efficiency has a direct and substantial impact on the conduct and management of clinical research. In this paper, we report on the Clinical Research Administration (CLARA) platform developed at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. CLARA is a comprehensive web-based system that can streamline research administrative tasks such as submissions, reviews, and approval processes for both investigators and different review committees on a single integrated platform. CLARA not only helps investigators to meet regulatory requirements but also provides tools for managing other clinical research activities including budgeting, contracting, and participant schedule planning. PMID:24778201

  20. SOUTH SANTA CLARA COUNTY MIGRANT TREATMENT CLINIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SKILLICORN, STANLEY A.

    IN THE SUMMER OF 1965, A MIGRANT HEALTH CLINIC WAS STARTED IN THE SOUTHERN PART OF SANTA CLARA COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. THE CLINIC DIFFERS FROM THE PUBLIC HEALTH DEPARTMENT'S CLINICS BY OFFERING TREATMENT AND MEDICATION, INSTEAD OF ONLY PREVENTIVE SERVICES. THE ENTIRE STAFF, FROM DOCTORS TO BABY-SITTERS, VOLUNTEERS ITS TIME, AND THE CLINIC IS NOW OPEN…

  1. Sea Level Rise in Santa Clara County

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milesi, Cristina

    2005-01-01

    Presentation by Cristina Milesi, First Author, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA at the "Meeting the Challenge of Sea Level Rise in Santa Clara County" on June 19, 2005 Santa Clara County, bordering with the southern portion of the San Francisco Bay, is highly vulnerable to flooding and to sea level rise (SLR). In this presentation, the latest sea level rise projections for the San Francisco Bay will be discussed in the context of extreme water height frequency and extent of flooding vulnerability. I will also present preliminary estimations of levee requirements and possible mitigation through tidal restoration of existing salt ponds. The examples will draw mainly from the work done by the NASA Climate Adaptation Science Investigators at NASA Ames.

  2. Documentation of the Santa Clara Valley regional ground-water/surface-water flow model, Santa Clara Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, R.T.; Li, Zhen; Faunt, C.C.

    2004-01-01

    into upper- and lower-aquifer systems. Ground-water inflow occurs as natural recharge in the form of streamflow infiltration and areal infiltration of precipitation along stream channels, artificial recharge from infiltration of imported water at recharge ponds and along selected stream channels, and leakage along selected transmission pipelines. Ground-water outflow occurs as evapotranspiration, stream base flow, discharge through pumpage from wells, and subsurface flow to the San Francisco Bay. The geohydrologic framework of the regional ground-water flow system was represented as six model layers. The hydraulic properties were redefined on the basis of cell-based lithologic properties that were delineated in terms of aggregate thicknesses of coarse-grained, fine-grained, and mixed textural categories. The regional aquifer systems also are dissected by several laterally extensive faults that may form at least partial barriers to the lateral flow of ground water. The spatial extent of the ground-water flow model was extended and refined to cover the entire Santa Clara Valley, including the Evergreen subregion. The temporal discretization was refined and the period of simulation was extended to 197099. The model was upgraded to MODFLOW-2000 (MF2K) and was calibrated to fit historical ground-water levels, streamflow, and land subsidence for the period 197099. The revised model slightly overestimates measured water levels with an root-mean-square error of -7.34 feet. The streamflow generally shows a good match on gaged creeks and rivers for flows greater than 1.2 cubic feet per second. The revised model also fits the measured deformation at the borehole extensometer site located near San Jose within 16 to 27 percent and the extensometer site near Sunnyvale within 3 percent of the maximum measured seasonal deformation for the deepest extensometers. The total ground-water inflow and outflow of about 225,500 acre-feet per

  3. Sulphur alters NFκB-p300 cross-talk in favour of p53-p300 to induce apoptosis in non-small cell lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Saha, Shilpi; Bhattacharjee, Pushpak; Guha, Deblina; Kajal, Kirti; Khan, Poulami; Chakraborty, Sreeparna; Mukherjee, Shravanti; Paul, Shrutarshi; Manchanda, Rajkumar; Khurana, Anil; Nayak, Debadatta; Chakrabarty, Rathin; Sa, Gaurisankar; Das, Tanya

    2015-08-01

    Adverse side effects of chemotherapy during cancer treatment have shifted considerable focus towards therapies that are not only targeted but are also devoid of toxic side effects. We evaluated the antitumorigenic activity of sulphur, and delineated the molecular mechanisms underlying sulphur-induced apoptosis in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells. A search for the underlying mechanism revealed that the choice between the two cellular processes, NFκBp65-mediated survival and p53-mediated apoptosis, was decided by the competition for a limited pool of transcriptional coactivator protein p300 in NSCLC cells. In contrast, sulphur inhibited otherwise upregulated survival signaling in NSCLC cells by perturbing the nuclear translocation of p65NFκB, its association with p300 histone acetylase, and subsequent transcription of Bcl-2. Under such anti-survival condition, induction of p53-p300 cross-talk enhanced the transcriptional activity of p53 and intrinsic mitochondrial death cascade. Overall, the findings of this preclinical study clearly delineated the molecular mechanism underlying the apoptogenic effect of the non-toxic homeopathic remedy, sulphur, in NSCLC cells.

  4. Favourability: concept, distinctive characteristics and potential usefulness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acevedo, Pelayo; Real, Raimundo

    2012-07-01

    The idea of analysing the general favourability for the occurrence of an event was presented in 2006 through a mathematical function. However, even when favourability has been used in species distribution modelling, the conceptual framework of this function is not yet well perceived among many researchers. The present paper is conceived for providing a wider and more in-depth presentation of the idea of favourability; concretely, we aimed to clarify both the concept and the main distinctive characteristics of the favourability function, especially in relation to probability and suitability, the most common outputs in species distribution modelling. As the capabilities of the favourability function go beyond species distribution modelling, we also illustrate its usefulness for different research disciplines for which this function remains unknown. In particular, we stressed that the favourability function has potential to be applied in all the cases where the probability of occurrence of an event is analysed, such as, for example, habitat selection or epidemiological studies.

  5. Favourable effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on the late step of the cell division in a piezophilic bacterium, Shewanella violacea DSS12, at high-hydrostatic pressures.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Jun; Sato, Takako; Nakasone, Kaoru; Kato, Chiaki; Mihara, Hisaaki; Esaki, Nobuyoshi; Kurihara, Tatsuo

    2011-08-01

    Shewanella violacea DSS12, a deep-sea bacterium, produces eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) as a component of membrane phospholipids. Although various isolates from the deep sea, such as Photobacterium profundum SS9, Colwellia psychrerythraea 34H and various Shewanella strains, produce EPA- or docosahexaenoic acid-containing phospholipids, the physiological role of these polyunsaturated fatty acids remains unclear. In this article, we illustrate the physiological importance of EPA for high-pressure adaptation in strain DSS12 with the help of an EPA-deficient mutant (DSS12(pfaA)). DSS12(pfaA) showed significant growth retardation at 30 MPa, but not at 0.1 MPa. We also found that DSS12(pfaA) grown at 30 MPa forms filamentous cells. When an EPA-containing phospholipid (sn-1-oleoly-sn-2-eicosapentaenoyl phosphatidylethanolamine) was supplemented, the growth retardation and the morphological defect of DSS12(pfaA) were suppressed, indicating that the externally added EPA-containing phospholipid compensated for the loss of endogenous EPA. In contrast, the addition of an oleic acid-containing phospholipid (sn-1,2-dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine) did not affect the growth and the morphology of the cells. Immunofluorescent microscopic analysis with anti-FtsZ antibody revealed a number of Z-rings and separated nucleoids in DSS12(pfaA) grown at 30 MPa. These results demonstrate the physiological importance of EPA for the later step of Z-ring formation of S. violacea DSS12 under high-pressure conditions. PMID:21518217

  6. (Why) Does Evolution Favour Embryogenesis?

    PubMed

    Rensing, Stefan A

    2016-07-01

    Complex multicellular organisms typically possess life cycles in which zygotes (formed by gamete fusion) and meiosis occur. Canonical animal embryogenesis describes development from zygote to birth. It involves polarisation of the egg/zygote, asymmetric cell divisions, establishment of axes, symmetry breaking, formation of organs, and parental nutrition (at least in early stages). Similar developmental patterns have independently evolved in other eukaryotic lineages, including land plants and brown algae. The question arises whether embryo-like structures and associated developmental processes recurrently emerge because they are local optima of the evolutionary landscape. To understand which evolutionary principles govern complex multicellularity, we need to analyse why and how similar processes evolve convergently - von Baer's and Haeckel's phylotypic stage revisited in other phyla. PMID:26987708

  7. Pre-Treatment Deep Curettage Can Significantly Reduce Tumour Thickness in Thick Basal Cell Carcinoma While Maintaining a Favourable Cosmetic Outcome When Used in Combination with Topical Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Eidi; Mørk, Cato; Foss, Olav Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) has limitations in the treatment of thick skin tumours. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of pre-PDT deep curettage on tumour thickness in thick (≥2 mm) basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Additionally, 3-month treatment outcome and change of tumour thickness from diagnosis to treatment were investigated. At diagnosis, mean tumour thickness was 2.3 mm (range 2.0–4.0). Pre- and post-curettage biopsies were taken from each tumour prior to PDT. Of 32 verified BCCs, tumour thickness was reduced by 50% after deep curettage (P ≤ 0.001). Mean tumour thickness was also reduced from diagnosis to treatment. At 3-month followup, complete tumour response was found in 93% and the cosmetic outcome was rated excellent or good in 100% of cases. In conclusion, deep curettage significantly reduces BCC thickness and may with topical PDT provide a favourable clinical and cosmetic short-term outcome. PMID:22191035

  8. Sources of emergency water supplies in Santa Clara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akers, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    Water distribution systems in Santa Clara County, Calif., may be damaged and rendered inoperable by a large earthquake or other disaster. In such an event, individual agencies may have to implement emergency measures to supply water for drinking, firefighting, decontamination, or other purposes. In Santa Clara County, 128 wells have been identified as potential water-supply sources in emergencies. The criteria used to select the wells are: yield of at least 3 liters per second (50 gallons per minute), good water quality, ready accessibility, and available emergency power. Purification methods of small water supplies are described. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. 78 FR 67210 - Santa Clara Pueblo Disaster #NM-00038

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Santa Clara Pueblo Disaster NM-00038 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice...: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and...

  10. Cultural Contact through Musical Poetry in Clara Janes's "Kampa"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faszer-McMahon, Debra

    2009-01-01

    Clara Janes's "Kampa" is a love song dedicated to the renowned Czech poet Vladimir Holan. The work includes a musical and lyrical composition performed on tape, and its unconventional musical mode offers an alternative to divisions between western and non-western literary and musical forms. The poetry of "Kampa" presents musical methods of…

  11. Escaping Slavery: "Sweet Clara and the Freedom Quilt."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Sue Ann

    This lesson uses the picture book "Sweet Clara and the Freedom Quilt" by Deborah Hopkinson and an interactive website to enhance third- through fifth-grade students' understanding of the Underground Railroad and slavery, development of reading comprehension skills, and application of mapping skills. During three 45-60 minute lessons, students…

  12. Bilingual Education Project, Santa Clara County, California. Final Report, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Clara County Office of Education, San Jose, CA.

    The Spanish Dame Bilingual Education Project, located in Santa Clara County, California, served 190 children who came from homes where the primary language was Spanish and who resided within the target area schools of the Alum Rock School District. The objectives of the preschool project were (1) to demonstrate a home-teaching procedure designed…

  13. Natural Law, Santa Clara, and the Supreme Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Raymond S.; Lujan, Phillip

    The court case, "Santa Clara Pueblo, et al. v. Julia Martinez, et al.," is the subject of this paper. It gives the background of the case of a woman whose children were refused admittance to tribal rolls because of an ordinance prohibiting the enrollment of children whose father is not a tribal member. The paper gives the arguments of…

  14. 27 CFR 9.126 - Santa Clara Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Clara Valley” viticultural area are 25 U.S.G.S. Quadrangle (7.5 Minute Series) maps. They are titled: (1) Calaveras Reservoir, Calif., 1961 (photorevised 1980); (2) Castle Rock Ridge, Calif., 1955 (photorevised... southwest of the Pacheco Ranger Station) on the Pacheco Peak, Calif. U.S.G.S. map. (2) From the...

  15. 27 CFR 9.126 - Santa Clara Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Clara Valley” viticultural area are 25 U.S.G.S. Quadrangle (7.5 Minute Series) maps. They are titled: (1) Calaveras Reservoir, Calif., 1961 (photorevised 1980); (2) Castle Rock Ridge, Calif., 1955 (photorevised... southwest of the Pacheco Ranger Station) on the Pacheco Peak, Calif. U.S.G.S. map. (2) From the...

  16. 27 CFR 9.126 - Santa Clara Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Santa Clara Valley. 9.126 Section 9.126 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas §...

  17. ["The piano trio" Robert Schumann, Clara Schumann and Johannes Brahms].

    PubMed

    Albretsen, C S

    1998-12-10

    The relationship between the pianist and composer Clara Schumann and the composers Robert Schumann and Johannes Brahms has for a century been an interesting topic. Clara and Robert Schumann both suffered separation from their mothers during early childhood. Johannes Brahms was intensely spoiled by his mother. Robert Schumann needed a structuring wife in his adult life, while Johannes Brahms turned to be afraid of intrusive women. Robert Schumann's psychotic breakdown in February 1854 had a complex background: a hypomanic state, some marital problems, a stressful journey with musical appearances, and possibly a difficulty in differentiating between himself and his new friend Johannes Brahms. As for Clara Schumann, who lost her mother before the age of five, musical activities became her way of overcoming the difficulties of life. She was able to support Robert in his lunatic asylum and their seven children growing up in three separate towns. The chronic diseases of the sons: schizophrenia, polyarthritis and tuberculosis made a deep impression on her and her fingers and hands were periodically immobilised with severe pain. For four decades Johannes was her able "son" and Clara was his "mother", at a safe distance.

  18. Can natural selection favour altruism between species?

    PubMed

    Wyatt, G A K; West, S A; Gardner, A

    2013-09-01

    Darwin suggested that the discovery of altruism between species would annihilate his theory of natural selection. However, it has not been formally shown whether between-species altruism can evolve by natural selection, or why this could never happen. Here, we develop a spatial population genetic model of two interacting species, showing that indiscriminate between species helping can be favoured by natural selection. We then ask if this helping behaviour constitutes altruism between species, using a linear-regression analysis to separate the total action of natural selection into its direct and indirect (kin selected) components. We show that our model can be interpreted in two ways, as either altruism within species, or altruism between species. This ambiguity arises depending on whether or not we treat genes in the other species as predictors of an individual's fitness, which is equivalent to treating these individuals as agents (actors or recipients). Our formal analysis, which focuses upon evolutionary dynamics rather than agents and their agendas, cannot resolve which is the better approach. Nonetheless, because a within-species altruism interpretation is always possible, our analysis supports Darwin's suggestion that natural selection does not favour traits that provide benefits exclusively to individuals of other species.

  19. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Clara cell 10-kDa protein: in pursuit of clinical significance of sera in patients with asthma and sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Shijubo, N; Itoh, Y; Yamaguchi, T; Abe, S

    2000-01-01

    We have produced nine monoclonal antibodies to human CC10/protein-1 and analyzed their characterization. TY-5, TY-7, and TY-8 recognized restricted possible hydrophobic epitopes and their binding to CC10 prevented the other clones from CC10 binding, suggesting that these antibodies induce strong conformational change. TY-1, TY-2, TY-3, TY-6, and 6D4 recognize amino acid residues 61-68 and the presence of disulfide bonds might be essential for epitope expression of these five clones. The best combination was TY-1 and TY-2 in developing an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), whereas TY-5 was most suitable for immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. We found significantly lower serum CC10 levels in asthmatic subjects and higher serum CC10 levels in sarcoidosis subjects than in controls. Data of CC10 levels in BAL fluids of sarcoidosis subjects were similar to those in the circulation. CC10-positive epithelial cells were significantly lower in small airways of asthmatic subjects than in controls, and CC10-positive epithelial cells were inversely correlated with T cell and mast cell accumulation in the airways of asthmatic subjects. CC10 may be a downregulator in both Th1- and Th2-mediated chronic inflammatory diseases. The use of these MoAbs and recombinant CC10 is a powerful tool to investigate the clinical roles of CC10/P1 and the structure and function of CC10/P1. PMID:11193763

  20. CLARA: A Contemporary Approach to Physics Data Processing

    SciTech Connect

    V Gyurjyan, D Abbott, J Carbonneau, G Gilfoyle, D Heddle, G Heyes, S Paul, C Timmer, D Weygand, E Wolin

    2011-12-01

    In traditional physics data processing (PDP) systems, data location is static and is accessed by analysis applications. In comparison, CLARA (CLAS12 Reconstruction and Analysis framework) is an environment where data processing algorithms filter continuously flowing data. In CLARA's domain of loosely coupled services, data is not stored, but rather flows from one service to another, mutating constantly along the way. Agents, performing event processing, can then subscribe to particular data/events at any stage of the data transformation, and make intricate decisions (e.g. particle ID) by correlating events from multiple, parallel data streams and/or services. This paper presents a PDP application development framework based on service oriented and event driven architectures. This system allows users to design (Java, C++, and Python languages are supported) and deploy data processing services, as well as dynamically compose PDP applications using available services. The PDP service bus provides a layer on top of a distributed pub-sub middleware implementation, which allows complex service composition and integration without writing code. Examples of service creation and deployment, along with the CLAS12 track reconstruction application design will be presented.

  1. 78 FR 67336 - Habitat Conservation Plan for the United Water Conservation District, Santa Clara River Watershed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... 0648-XC961 Habitat Conservation Plan for the United Water Conservation District, Santa Clara River...) regarding expected applications from the United Water Conservation District (United) for incidental take..., operations, and maintenance of water management facilities within the lower Santa Clara River...

  2. 76 FR 9640 - Prevailing Rate Systems: Santa Clara, CA, Tulsa County, OK, and Angelina County, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... INFORMATION: On August 3, 2010, the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) issued a proposed rule (75 FR..., ``Santa Clara,'' which was abolished as a NAF FWS wage area by a final rule (74 FR 9951) published on... MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 532 RIN 3206-AM22 Prevailing Rate Systems: Santa Clara, CA, Tulsa County, OK,...

  3. Communication Implications of the "Martinez" Case for the Santa Clara Pueblo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lujan, Philip D.

    In "Martinez vs. Santa Clara," an Indian woman sought to overturn a tribal decision made by the Santa Clara Pueblo, in which tribal enrollment had been denied to her children. The case raised legal issues that are related to the Indian Civil Rights Act (ICRA) and to the relationship of the United States Constitution to tribal law. The ICRA, which…

  4. Groundwater quality in the Santa Clara River Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Carmen A.; Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The Santa Clara River Valley (SCRV) study unit is located in Los Angeles and Ventura Counties, California, and is bounded by the Santa Monica, San Gabriel, Topatopa, and Santa Ynez Mountains, and the Pacific Ocean. The 460-square-mile study unit includes eight groundwater basins: Ojai Valley, Upper Ojai Valley, Ventura River Valley, Santa Clara River Valley, Pleasant Valley, Arroyo Santa Rosa Valley, Las Posas Valley, and Simi Valley (California Department of Water Resources, 2003; Montrella and Belitz, 2009). The SCRV study unit has hot, dry summers and cool, moist winters. Average annual rainfall ranges from 12 to 28 inches. The study unit is drained by the Ventura and Santa Clara Rivers, and Calleguas Creek. The primary aquifer system in the Ventura River Valley, Ojai Valley, Upper Ojai Valley, and Simi Valley basins is largely unconfined alluvium. The primary aquifer system in the remaining groundwater basins mainly consists of unconfined sands and gravels in the upper portion and partially confined marine and nonmarine deposits in the lower portion. The primary aquifer system in the SCRV study unit is defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. Public-supply wells typically are completed in the primary aquifer system to depths of 200 to 1,100 feet below land surface (bls). The wells contain solid casing reaching from the land surface to a depth of about 60-700 feet, and are perforated below the solid casing to allow water into the well. Water quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the water in the shallower and deeper parts of the aquifer. Land use in the study unit is approximately 40 percent (%) natural (primarily shrubs, grassland, and wetlands), 37% agricultural, and 23% urban. The primary crops are citrus, avocados, alfalfa, pasture, strawberries, and dry beans. The largest urban areas in the study unit are the cities of

  5. Eosinophils elicit proliferation of naive and fungal-specific cells in vivo so enhancing a T helper type 1 cytokine profile in favour of a protective immune response against Cryptococcus neoformans infection.

    PubMed

    Garro, Ana P; Chiapello, Laura S; Baronetti, Jose L; Masih, Diana T

    2011-10-01

    Experimental Cryptococcus neoformans infection in rats has been shown to have similarities with human cryptococcosis, because as in healthy humans, rats can effectively contain cryptococcal infection. Moreover, it has been shown that eosinophils are components of the immune response to C. neoformans infections. In a previous in vitro study, we demonstrated that rat peritoneal eosinophils phagocytose opsonized live yeasts of C. neoformans, thereby triggering their activation, as indicated by the up-regulation of MHC and co-stimulatory molecules and the increase in interleukin-12, tumour necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ production. Furthermore, this work demonstrated that C. neoformans-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes cultured with these activated C. neoformans-pulsed eosinophils proliferated, and produced important amounts of T helper type 1 (Th1) cytokines in the absence of Th2 cytokine synthesis. In the present in vivo study, we have shown that C. neoformans-pulsed eosinophils are also able to migrate into lymphoid organs to present C. neoformans antigens, thereby priming naive and re-stimulating infected rats to induce T-cell and B-cell responses against infection with the fungus. Furthermore, the antigen-specific immune response induced by C. neoformans-pulsed eosinophils, which is characterized by the development of a Th1 microenvironment with increased levels of NO synthesis and C. neoformans-specific immunoglobulin production, was demonstrated to be able to protect rats against subsequent infection with fungus. In summary, the present work demonstrates that eosinophils act as antigen-presenting cells for the fungal antigen, hence initiating and modulating a C. neoformans-specific immune response. Finally, we suggest that C. neoformans-loaded eosinophils might participate in the protective immune response against these fungi.

  6. Tar Creek study, Sargent oil field, Santa Clara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, David L.; Fedasko, Bill; Carnahan, J.R.; Brunetti, Ross; Magoon, Leslie B.; Lillis, Paul G.; Lorenson, T.D.; Stanley, Richard G.

    2002-01-01

    Field work in the Tar Creek area of Sargent oil field was performed June 26 to 28, 2000. The Santa Clara County study area is located in Sections, 30, 31, and 32, Township 11 South, Range 4 East, M.D.B&M; and in Sections 25 and 36, Township 11 South, Range 3 East, M.D.B.&M., north and south of Tar Creek, west of Highway 101. The work was a cooperative effort of the California Department of Conservation's Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources (DOGGR), California Geological Survey (CGS), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The purpose of the project was to map the stratigraphy and geologic structure (David Wagner, CGS); sample oil for age dating (Les Magoon, USGS); and search for undocumented wells plus conduct a GPS survey of the area (Bill Fedasko, J.P. Carnahan, and Ross Brunetti, DOGGR)

  7. Modeling the Cienega de Santa Clara, Sonora, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huckelbridge, K. H.; Hidalgo, H.; Dracup, J.; Ibarra Obando, S. E.

    2002-12-01

    The Cienega de Santa Clara is a created wetland located in the Colorado River Delta (CRD), in Sonora, Mexico. It is sustained by agricultural return flows from the Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation District in Arizona and the Mexicali Valley in Mexico. As one of the few wetlands remaining in the CRD, it provides critical habitat for several species of fish and birds, including several endangered species such as the desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius) and the Yuma clapper rail (Rallus longirostris yumanensis). However, this habitat may be in jeopardy if the quantity and quality of the agricultural inflows are significantly altered. This study seeks to develop a model that describes the dynamics of wetland hydrology, vegetation, and water quality as a function of inflow variability and salinity loading. The model is divided into four modules set up in sequence. For a given time step, the sequence begins with the first module, which utilizes basic diffusion equations to simulate mixing processes in the shallow wetland when the flow and concentration of the inflow deviate from the baseline. The second module develops a vegetated-area response to the resulting distribution of salinity in the wetland. Using the new area of vegetation cover determined by the second module and various meteorological variables, the third module calculates the evapotranspiration rate for the wetland, using the Penman-Montieth equation. Finally, the fourth module takes the overall evapotranspiration rate, along with precipitation, inflow and outflow and calculates the new volume of the wetland using a water balance. This volume then establishes the initial variables for the next time step. The key outputs from the model are salinity concentration, area of vegetation cover, and wetland volume for each time step. Results from this model will illustrate how the wetland's hydrology, vegetation, and water quality are altered over time under various inflow scenarios. These outputs can ultimately be used

  8. Water-quality investigation, Upper Santa Clara River Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowers, James C.; Irwin, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Water-quality data are summarized for the upper Santa Clara River basin, California from studies beginning August 1974 through June 1976 and during past monitoring programs. Data were collected for nitrogen, phosphorus, total organic carbon, trace elements, detergents, and pesticide compounds. Because of the limited number of samples, the data are only an estimate of conditions that existed in the basin. Sampling was designed so that samples from each site would represent seasonal variations in discharge. Most constituents were fairly low in concentration near the headwaters at Ravenna and higher below the urban and agricultural area near Saugus. Mean specific conductance in the river ranged from 745 micromhos per centimeter at 25 deg C below the headwaters near Lang to 2,640 micromhos at the Los Angeles-Ventura County line. Results also indicate that discharge was not the single factor controlling the concentration variance for most constituents. Regression analyses indicated a high correlation between specific conductance and most major inorganic chemical constituents, and between specific conductance and discharge. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. Scenario liquefaction hazard maps of Santa Clara Valley, Northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, T.L.; Noce, T.E.; Bennett, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Maps showing the probability of surface manifestations of liquefaction in the northern Santa Clara Valley were prepared with liquefaction probability curves. These curves were based on complementary cumulative frequency distributions of the liquefaction potential index (LPI) for surficial geologic units in the study area. LPI values were computed with extensive cone penetration test soundings. Maps were developed for three earthquake scenarios, an M 7.8 event on the San Andreas fault comparable to the 1906 event, an M 6.7 event on the Hayward fault comparable to the 1868 event, and an M 6.9 event on the Calaveras fault. Ground motions were estimated with the Boore and Atkinson (2008) attenuation relation. Liquefaction is predicted for all three events in young Holocene levee deposits along the major creeks. Liquefaction probabilities are highest for the M 7.8 earthquake, ranging from 0.33 to 0.37 if a 1.5 m deep water table is assumed, and from 0.10 to 0.14, if a 5 m deep water table is assumed. Liquefaction probabilities of the other surficial geologic units are less than 0.05. Probabilities for the scenario earthquakes are generally consistent with observations during historical earthquakes.

  10. Space Day 2002; Directors Breakfast @ NASA Ames Visitors Center for student Winners of Santa Clara

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Space Day 2002; Directors Breakfast @ NASA Ames Visitors Center for student Winners of Santa Clara Valley Science & Engineering Fair and San Francisco Bay Aera Science Fair (Students are addressed by Bob Rosen, Ames Associate Director for Aerospace Programs)

  11. The veil of ignorance can favour biological cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Queller, David C.; Strassmann, Joan E.

    2013-01-01

    Lack of information is a constraint but ignorance can sometimes assist the evolution of cooperation by constraining selfishness. We discuss examples involving both ignorance of role or pay-off and ignorance of relatedness. Ignorance can favour cooperative traits like grouping and warning coloration and reduce conflicts from meiotic drive, imprinting, greenbeards and various forms of nepotism. PMID:24132090

  12. The veil of ignorance can favour biological cooperation.

    PubMed

    Queller, David C; Strassmann, Joan E

    2013-01-01

    Lack of information is a constraint but ignorance can sometimes assist the evolution of cooperation by constraining selfishness. We discuss examples involving both ignorance of role or pay-off and ignorance of relatedness. Ignorance can favour cooperative traits like grouping and warning coloration and reduce conflicts from meiotic drive, imprinting, greenbeards and various forms of nepotism.

  13. Wave propagation and site response in the Santa Clara Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, Joe B.; Boatwright, J.; Lindh, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    Forty-two portable digital instruments were deployed across the Santa Clara Valley from June until early November 1998; this array recorded 14 small and moderate local events and 7 large teleseismic events. We analyze the ground motion from these events to determine station delays and relative site amplification within the Valley. P waves from an event at the southern edge of the valley are early (??t > -0.35 sec) at stations over an axial ridge in the basement interface in the middle of the valley, but late (??t < 0.20 sec) for stations over the Cupertino and Evergreen basins to either side. The S-wave delays are approximately twice as large. Teleseismic P-waves from an M = 7.0 event beneath the Bonin Islands show a similar pattern in travel-time delays. The P waves are amplified by factors of 1.5-3 for frequencies below 2 Hz at stations within either basin, compared with stations on the axial ridge. The P-wave coda appear enhanced at 2-3 sec, but coda Q estimates at frequencies from 0.2 to 1.1 Hz are not markedly different at stations over the basin compared with stations on the ridge with the possible exceptions of consistently high values over the northern end of the Evergreen Basin. We invert the S-wave spectra for site-specific attenuation and amplification from the 14 local events by assuming a common source spectra for each event, 1/r geometrical spreading, and constraining the inversion using the 30-m velocity profile at four stations in the array. The largest amplifications occurred in the 1- to 6-Hz band at stations near the northwest edge of the Evergreen basin. While the highest amplifications occur at stations with the lowest S-wave velocities, the scatter obscures the correlation between velocity and amplification. The stations in the basins are characterized by higher attenuation than the stations on the basement ridge.

  14. Clara Haber, nee Immerwahr (1870–1915): Life, Work and Legacy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We examine the life, work, and legacy of Clara Haber, nee Immerwahr, who became the first woman to earn a doctorate from the University of Breslau, in 1900. In 1901 she married the chemist Fritz Haber. With no employment available for female scientists, Clara freelanced as an instructor in the continued education of women, mainly housewives, while struggling not to become a housewife herself. Her duties as a designated head of a posh household hardly brought fulfillment to her life. The outbreak of WWI further exacerbated the situation, as Fritz Haber applied himself in extraordinary ways to aid the German war effort. The night that he celebrated the “success” of the first chlorine cloud attack, Clara committed suicide. We found little evidence to support claims that Clara was an outspoken pacifist who took her life because of her disapproval of Fritz Haber's involvement in chemical warfare. We conclude by examining “the myth of Clara Immerwahr” that took root in the 1990s from the perspective offered by the available scholarly sources, including some untapped ones. PMID:27099403

  15. Clara Barton: teacher, nurse, Civil War heroine, founder of the American Red Cross.

    PubMed

    Evans, Gerald D

    2003-01-01

    Clara Barton was a nineteenth century woman driven to greatness. She was a teacher, a nurse, a Civil War heroine and founder of the American Red Cross. In order to cut a path into the future we must know where we have been. The story of Clara Barton is about someone who cut that path. It is about courage, overcoming obstacles, never giving up and doing the job that needs doing. What makes it fascinating is the human side, the weaknesses that coloured her life. We can learn from her journey as we develop our own path into the future.

  16. The relationship of daily mortality to suspended particulates in Santa Clara County, 1980-1986.

    PubMed Central

    Fairley, D

    1990-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between daily mortality and suspended particulates in Santa Clara County, CA, for years 1980 to 1986. An association was found between high particulate concentrations and increased mortality. This association persists after adjustment for temperature, relative humidity, year, and seasonality. Contrary to expectation, the magnitude of the particulate effect appears the same or larger than that estimated for London, despite Santa Clara County's cleaner air. The persistence of an effect at these lower particulate concentrations suggests that the particulate variable may be acting as a surrogate for some constituent particles, such as acid aerosols. PMID:2088743

  17. Arguments in favour of compulsory treatment of opioid dependence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Twelve agencies of the United Nations, including the World Health Organization, have issued a joint statement that calls on Member States to replace the compulsory detention of people who use opioids in treatment centres with voluntary, evidence-informed and rights-based health and social services. The arguments in favour of this position fall into three broad categories: Compulsory treatment centres infringe on an individual’s liberty, they put human beings at risk of harm, and evidence of their effectiveness against opioid dependence has not been generated. The United Nations statement underscores that although countries apply different criteria for sending individuals to compulsory treatment centres, detention often takes place without due process, legal safeguards or judicial review. This clearly violates internationally recognized human rights standards. Furthermore, people who are committed to these centres are often exposed to physical and sexual violence, forced labour and sub-standard living conditions. They are often denied health care, despite their heightened vulnerability to HIV infection and tuberculosis. Finally, there is no evidence, according to the statement, that these centres offer an environment that is conducive to recovery from opioid dependence or to the rehabilitation of commercial sex workers or of children who have suffered sexual exploitation, abuse or lack of care and protection. The author of this paper sets forth several arguments that counter the position taken by the United Nations and argues in favour of compulsory treatment within a broader harm reduction strategy aimed at protecting society as well as the individual concerned. PMID:23554527

  18. Arguments in favour of compulsory treatment of opioid dependence.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zunyou

    2013-02-01

    Twelve agencies of the United Nations, including the World Health Organization, have issued a joint statement that calls on Member States to replace the compulsory detention of people who use opioids in treatment centres with voluntary, evidence-informed and rights-based health and social services. The arguments in favour of this position fall into three broad categories: Compulsory treatment centres infringe on an individual's liberty, they put human beings at risk of harm, and evidence of their effectiveness against opioid dependence has not been generated. The United Nations statement underscores that although countries apply different criteria for sending individuals to compulsory treatment centres, detention often takes place without due process, legal safeguards or judicial review. This clearly violates internationally recognized human rights standards. Furthermore, people who are committed to these centres are often exposed to physical and sexual violence, forced labour and sub-standard living conditions. They are often denied health care, despite their heightened vulnerability to HIV infection and tuberculosis. Finally, there is no evidence, according to the statement, that these centres offer an environment that is conducive to recovery from opioid dependence or to the rehabilitation of commercial sex workers or of children who have suffered sexual exploitation, abuse or lack of care and protection. The author of this paper sets forth several arguments that counter the position taken by the United Nations and argues in favour of compulsory treatment within a broader harm reduction strategy aimed at protecting society as well as the individual concerned.

  19. Housing Patterns in Relation to Educational Achievement. Project SIMU School: Santa Clara County Component.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Hoffmann, Glenn W.

    This paper focuses attention on the critical importance of zoning and housing to education. It covers the causes of undersirable housing patterns, the apparent effects of these patterns on educational achievement, and possibilities for positive action to reverse the negative effects. Although examples are drawn from Santa Clara County, the thesis…

  20. Spatially explicit West Nile virus risk modeling in Santa Clara County, California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A previously created Geographic Information Systems model designed to identify regions of West Nile virus (WNV) transmission risk is tested and calibrated in Santa Clara County, California. American Crows that died from WNV infection in 2005 provide the spatial and temporal ground truth. Model param...

  1. Spatially Explicit West Nile Virus Risk Modeling in Santa Clara County, CA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A geographic information systems model designed to identify regions of West Nile virus (WNV) transmission risk was tested and calibrated with data collected in Santa Clara County, California. American Crows that died from WNV infection in 2005, provided spatial and temporal ground truth. When the mo...

  2. Discovery of ammocrypta clara (western sand darter) in the upper Ohio River of West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cincotta, Dan A.; Welsh, Stuart A.

    2010-01-01

    Ammocrypta clara Jordan and Meek (western sand darter) occurs primarily in the western portions of Mississippi River system, but also has been reported from a Lake Michigan drainage and a few eastern Texas Gulf Slope rivers. Additional range records depict a semi-disjunct distribution within the Ohio River drainage, including collections from Wabash River in Indiana, the Cumberland, Green, Kentucky and Big Sandy rivers of Kentucky, and the upper Tennessee River in Tennessee and Virginia. This paper documents the occurrence of A. clara from the upper Ohio River drainage within the lower Elk River, West Virginia, based on collections from 1986, 1991, 1995, 2005 and 2006. The Elk River population, consistent with those of other Ohio River drainages, has slightly higher counts for numbers of dorsal-fin rays, scales below lateral line and lateral line scales when compared to data from populations outside of the Ohio River drainage. Modal counts of meristic characters are similar among populations, except for higher modal counts of lateral line scales in the Ohio River population. The discovery of the Elk River population extends the range distribution of A. clara in the Eastern Highlands region, documents wide distributional overlap and additional sympatry with its sister species,A. pellucida (eastern sand darter), and softens support for an east-west Central Highlands vicariance hypothesis for the present distribution of A. clara and A. pellucida.

  3. Endoreduplication and fruit growth in tomato: evidence in favour of the karyoplasmic ratio theory.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Christian; Bourdon, Matthieu; Pirrello, Julien; Cheniclet, Catherine; Gévaudant, Frédéric; Frangne, Nathalie

    2014-06-01

    The growth of a plant organ depends upon the developmental processes of cell division and cell expansion. The activity of cell divisions sets the number of cells that will make up the organ; the cell expansion activity then determines its final size. Among the various mechanisms that may influence the determination of cell size, endopolyploidy by means of endoreduplication appears to be of great importance in plants. Endoreduplication is widespread in plants and supports the process of differentiation of cells and organs. Its functional role in plant cells is not fully understood, although it is commonly associated with ploidy-dependent cell expansion. During the development of tomato fruit, cells from the (fleshy) pericarp tissue become highly polyploid, reaching a DNA content barely encountered in other plant species (between 2C and 512C). Recent investigations using tomato fruit development as a model provided new data in favour of the long-standing karyoplasmic ratio theory, stating that cells tend to adjust their cytoplasmic volume to the nuclear DNA content. By establishing a highly structured cellular system where multiple physiological functions are integrated, endoreduplication does act as a morphogenetic factor supporting cell growth during tomato fruit development.

  4. Global warming favours light-coloured insects in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Zeuss, Dirk; Brandl, Roland; Brändle, Martin; Rahbek, Carsten; Brunzel, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Associations between biological traits of animals and climate are well documented by physiological and local-scale studies. However, whether an ecophysiological phenomenon can affect large-scale biogeographical patterns of insects is largely unknown. Insects absorb energy from the sun to become mobile, and their colouration varies depending on the prevailing climate where they live. Here we show, using data of 473 European butterfly and dragonfly species, that dark-coloured insect species are favoured in cooler climates and light-coloured species in warmer climates. By comparing distribution maps of dragonflies from 1988 and 2006, we provide support for a mechanistic link between climate, functional traits and species that affects geographical distributions even at continental scales. Our results constitute a foundation for better forecasting the effect of climate change on many insect groups. PMID:24866819

  5. Crystallization seeds favour crystallization only during initial growth

    PubMed Central

    Allahyarov, E.; Sandomirski, K.; Egelhaaf, S.U.; Löwen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Crystallization represents the prime example of a disorder–order transition. In realistic situations, however, container walls and impurities are frequently present and hence crystallization is heterogeneously seeded. Rarely the seeds are perfectly compatible with the thermodynamically favoured crystal structure and thus induce elastic distortions, which impede further crystal growth. Here we use a colloidal model system, which not only allows us to quantitatively control the induced distortions but also to visualize and follow heterogeneous crystallization with single-particle resolution. We determine the sequence of intermediate structures by confocal microscopy and computer simulations, and develop a theoretical model that describes our findings. The crystallite first grows on the seed but then, on reaching a critical size, detaches from the seed. The detached and relaxed crystallite continues to grow, except close to the seed, which now prevents crystallization. Hence, crystallization seeds facilitate crystallization only during initial growth and then act as impurities. PMID:25975451

  6. Climate change and habitat conversion favour the same species.

    PubMed

    Frishkoff, Luke O; Karp, Daniel S; Flanders, Jon R; Zook, Jim; Hadly, Elizabeth A; Daily, Gretchen C; M'Gonigle, Leithen K

    2016-09-01

    Land-use change and climate change are driving a global biodiversity crisis. Yet, how species' responses to climate change are correlated with their responses to land-use change is poorly understood. Here, we assess the linkages between climate and land-use change on birds in Neotropical forest and agriculture. Across > 300 species, we show that affiliation with drier climates is associated with an ability to persist in and colonise agriculture. Further, species shift their habitat use along a precipitation gradient: species prefer forest in drier regions, but use agriculture more in wetter zones. Finally, forest-dependent species that avoid agriculture are most likely to experience decreases in habitable range size if current drying trends in the Neotropics continue as predicted. This linkage suggests a synergy between the primary drivers of biodiversity loss. Because they favour the same species, climate and land-use change will likely homogenise biodiversity more severely than otherwise anticipated. PMID:27396714

  7. Climate change and habitat conversion favour the same species.

    PubMed

    Frishkoff, Luke O; Karp, Daniel S; Flanders, Jon R; Zook, Jim; Hadly, Elizabeth A; Daily, Gretchen C; M'Gonigle, Leithen K

    2016-09-01

    Land-use change and climate change are driving a global biodiversity crisis. Yet, how species' responses to climate change are correlated with their responses to land-use change is poorly understood. Here, we assess the linkages between climate and land-use change on birds in Neotropical forest and agriculture. Across > 300 species, we show that affiliation with drier climates is associated with an ability to persist in and colonise agriculture. Further, species shift their habitat use along a precipitation gradient: species prefer forest in drier regions, but use agriculture more in wetter zones. Finally, forest-dependent species that avoid agriculture are most likely to experience decreases in habitable range size if current drying trends in the Neotropics continue as predicted. This linkage suggests a synergy between the primary drivers of biodiversity loss. Because they favour the same species, climate and land-use change will likely homogenise biodiversity more severely than otherwise anticipated.

  8. First light measurements of the Total Solar Irradiance experiment CLARA on NORSAT-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmutz, Werner

    2016-07-01

    NORSAT-1 is a Norwegian micro-satellite, which will be launched April 22, 2016. (In the future at the time of writing this abstract.) The satellite carries two scientific instruments and an AIS receiver for performing ship detection from space. One of the scientific instruments is a Compact Light-weight Absolute RAdiometer (CLARA) and the other is a Langmuir Probe instrument comprising four probes mounted on booms. The latter experiment will measure electron density and the platform's floating potential along the orbit. The University of Oslo provides the Langmuir probes. The radiometer experiment CLARA has been built by PMOD/WRC funded through the Swiss PRODEX program. It will measure Total Solar Irradiance with an instrument of novel design that is optimized for minimizing mass and size by still ensuring highest measuring accuracy and thermal stability. The radiometers of CLARA have been fully characterized as well as calibrated at the TRF facility. It is expected that the first light accuracy of the absolute measurement of Total Solar Irradiance will be better than pm0.3 W/m^{2, allowing to probe the current TSI composite for its absolute level. The presentation will give an overview of the CLARA instrument and its calibration. It is expected that at the time of the COSPAR conference the first light TSI value of CLARA/NORSAT-1 is ready for publication. Together with a previous absolute TSI measurements available for July 27, 2010 measured by PREMOS/PICARD the new absolute TSI measurement will be used to test the accuracy of long term TSI trend given by the relative TSI composite.

  9. Physiological adaptations to weight loss and factors favouring weight regain

    PubMed Central

    Greenway, F L

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major global health problem and predisposes individuals to several comorbidities that can affect life expectancy. Interventions based on lifestyle modification (for example, improved diet and exercise) are integral components in the management of obesity. However, although weight loss can be achieved through dietary restriction and/or increased physical activity, over the long term many individuals regain weight. The aim of this article is to review the research into the processes and mechanisms that underpin weight regain after weight loss and comment on future strategies to address them. Maintenance of body weight is regulated by the interaction of a number of processes, encompassing homoeostatic, environmental and behavioural factors. In homoeostatic regulation, the hypothalamus has a central role in integrating signals regarding food intake, energy balance and body weight, while an ‘obesogenic' environment and behavioural patterns exert effects on the amount and type of food intake and physical activity. The roles of other environmental factors are also now being considered, including sleep debt and iatrogenic effects of medications, many of which warrant further investigation. Unfortunately, physiological adaptations to weight loss favour weight regain. These changes include perturbations in the levels of circulating appetite-related hormones and energy homoeostasis, in addition to alterations in nutrient metabolism and subjective appetite. To maintain weight loss, individuals must adhere to behaviours that counteract physiological adaptations and other factors favouring weight regain. It is difficult to overcome physiology with behaviour. Weight loss medications and surgery change the physiology of body weight regulation and are the best chance for long-term success. An increased understanding of the physiology of weight loss and regain will underpin the development of future strategies to support overweight and obese individuals in their

  10. Why and when is internally driven AGN feedback energetically favoured?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Edward C. D.

    2012-11-01

    Active galactic nucleus (AGN) outflows are the heat given up when gas in a galaxy evolves towards thermodynamic equilibrium. Indeed, while AGN feedback regulates the growth of massive galaxies, its origin can be understood as the spontaneous thermodynamic process which ensures that the (Gibbs) free energy of the system always decreases, enabling the galaxy to reach a more energetically favourable state. In particular, it is shown that feedback heating processes will be favoured whenever the hot atmosphere of a galaxy would effectively gain energy as a result of cooling. For example, as the hot atmosphere of a galaxy cools and contracts, the work done by gravity will be thermalized, with a fraction of the gas also being captured by stars and the supermassive black hole at the centre of the galaxy. If this gain of energy exceeds the loss of energy that occurs when cooling gas drops out of the atmosphere, the Gibbs free energy of the system would increase overall. Since this is energetically unfavourable, feedback heating is initiated which acts to reduce the net cooling rate of the atmosphere, thereby preventing any build-up of energy. The Gibbs free energy can also decrease in the absence of feedback heating, but only if the loss of energy due to mass dropping out of the atmosphere exceeds the gains of energy described above. Therefore, to ensure that the Gibbs free energy always decreases, a galaxy will necessarily flip between these two states, experiencing episodes of heating and cooling. Due to the close long-term balance between heating and cooling, the gas in a galaxy will evolve quasistatically towards thermodynamic equilibrium, which has the observable appearance of galaxy growth being regulated by AGN feedback. The same mechanism also provides an explanation for why strong AGN feedback occurs more frequently in cool-core galaxy clusters than in non-cool-core clusters.

  11. [Biliary atresias operated with favourable results: predictable outcome].

    PubMed

    Broto, J; Gil Vernet, J M; Ormaechea, M

    2005-01-01

    Since 1975, our experience in the treatment of biliary atresia with Kasai's technique has improved little by little, achieving 65% favourable outcome in the last five years. We define "good results" as the complete restoration of biliary flow and normalization of bilirrubin levels. The long-term evolution of these good results can be diverse. The objective of the present work is to analyze the outcome of patients in our series in whom a favourable initial response was achieved, as well as evaluating their present situation and future perspectives. The authors present a total of 17 patients operated by Kasai's technique since 1985, that constitutes the group with good results in our series. The controls were based on general analysis, liver function and periodic ultrasound explorations. All received a standardized medical treatment consisting of vitamin supplements (A, D3, E, K) minerals (zinc, calcium, phosphate, iron) ursodexoxicolic acid, luminal,as well as close control of calorie intake. In two patients the levels of bilirrubine were progressively increased with time, stabilizing at between 5/6 mgs/100 ml, with progressive hepatic hardening, appearance of splenomegalia, indirect signs of portal hypertension and a slight deterioration of hepatic function. One received a transplant at age 12 with Quick levels below 50%. The other, aged 16, continues with an acceptable hepatic function and good quality of life under recommendation of transplant. Eleven patients with ages ranging from fourteen months to seventeen years presented slight and firm hepatomegalia, moderate portal hypertension, GOT 71 +/- 8 mg/100 ml, GPT 97 +/- 11 mg/100 ml and normal bilirrubine levels. From this group, 3 patients, all under five years of age, experienced bleeding from esophageal varices which were controlled by sclerosis and medical treatment (propanolol and isosorbide dinitrate). Recently, one three year-old patient developed a hepatocarcinoma of rapid, mortal evolution. Since then

  12. Sediment discharge in the Santa Clara River Basin, Ventura and Los Angeles Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Rhea P.

    1979-01-01

    Sediment data collected in the Santa Clara River in California basin, during the 1967-75 water years were analyzed to determine the particle size and quantity of sediment transported past three gaging stations. The total sediment discharge of the basin , computed from records of Santa Clara River at Montalvo for water years 1968-75, was 63.5 million tons, of which 59.5 million tons was carried in suspension and an estimated 4 million tons was transported as unsampled sediment discharge. About 17.7 million tons, or 28 percent of the total sediment discharge, was coarse sediment (particles larger than 0.062 millimeter). Most of the sediment was transported during only a few days of floodflow each year. During the 1968-75 water years, approximately 55 percent of the total sediment was transported in 2 days and 92 percent was transported in 53 days. The long-term (1928-75) average annual sediment discharge of the Santa Clara River at Montalvo is estimated at 3.67 million tons. Of that quantity, 2.58 million tons consisted of fine sediment and 1.09 million tons consisted of coarse sediment. A sediment budget for the Santa Clara River basin was estimated for sediment discharges under both natural and actual conditions. The major difference between natural and actual sediment discharges of the Santa Clara River basin is the sediment intercepted upstream from Lake Piru. The combined trap efficiency of Lake Piru and Pyramid Lake approaches 100 percent. Sediment deposited in these reservoirs resulted in about a 6-percent reduction of sediment to the Santa Clara River basin during the historical period (1928-75) and a 12-percent reduction during the period most affected by dams (1953-75). Sediment losses to the basin by gravel mining, diversion of flows, and interception of sediment in the Castaic Creek basin resulted in additional reductions of 2 percent during the period 1928-75 and 4 percent during the period 1953-75. (Kosco-USGS)

  13. Spatial effects favour the evolution of niche construction.

    PubMed

    Silver, Matt; Di Paolo, Ezequiel

    2006-12-01

    We present an individual-based, spatial implementation of an existing two-locus population genetic model of niche construction. Our analysis reveals that, across a broad range of conditions, niche-construction traits can drive themselves to fixation by simultaneously generating selection that favours 'recipient' trait alleles and linkage disequilibrium between niche-construction and recipient trait alleles. The effect of spatiality is key, since it is the local, resource-mediated interaction between recipient and niche-constructing loci which gives rise to gene linkage. Spatial clustering effects point to a possible mechanism by which an initially rare recipient trait whose selection depends on niche construction could establish in an otherwise hostile environment. The same mechanism could also lead to the spread of an established niche-constructing colony. Similar phenomena are observed in the spatial modelling of two species 'engineering webs'. Here, the activities of two niche-constructing species can combine to drive a particular recipient trait to fixation, or in certain circumstances, maintain the presence of polymorphisms through the preservation of otherwise deleterious alleles. This may have some relevance to ecosystem stability and the maintenance of genetic variation, where the frequencies of key resources are affected by the niche-constructing activities of more than one species. Our model suggests that the stability of multi-species webs in natural populations may increase as the complexity of species-environment interactions increases.

  14. Backwater at bridges and densely wooded flood plains, Thompson Creek near Clara, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colson, B.E.; Ming, C.O.; Arcement, George J.

    1979-01-01

    Floodflow data that will provide a base for evaluating digital models relating to open-channel flow were obtained at 22 sites on streams in Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Thirty-five floods were measured. Analysis of the data indicated methods currently in use would be inaccurate where densely vegetated flood plains are crossed by highway embankments and single-opening bridges. This atlas presents flood information at the site on Thompson Creek near Clara, MS: Water depths, velocities, and discharges through bridge openings on Thompson Creek near Clara, MS, for flood of March 3, 1971, are shown, together with peak water-surface elevations along embankments and along cross sections. Manning 's roughness coefficient values in different parts of the flood plain are shown on maps, and flood-frequency relations are shown on a graph. (USGS).

  15. Evaluation of animal control measures on pet demographics in Santa Clara County, California, 1993–2006

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Karen L.; Weng, Hsin-Yi

    2013-01-01

    The measurable benefits of animal control programs are unknown and the aim of this study was to determine the impact of these programs on pet population changes. A prospective cross-sectional study of 1000 households was implemented in 2005 to evaluate characteristics of the owned and unowned population of dogs and cats in Santa Clara County, California. The same population was previously studied 12 years earlier. During this time period, the county instituted in 1994 and then subsequently disestablished a municipal spay/neuter voucher program for cats. Dog intakes declined from 1992–2005, as they similarly did for an adjacent county (San Mateo). However, cat intakes declined significantly more in Santa Clara County than San Mateo, with an average annual decline of approximately 700 cats for the 12 year period. Time series analysis showed a greater than expected decline in the number of cats surrendered to shelters in Santa Clara County during the years the voucher program was in effect (1994–2005). The net savings to the county by reducing the number of cat shelter intakes was estimated at approximately $1.5 million. The measurable benefits of animal control programs are unknown and the aim of this study was to determine the impact of these programs on pet population changes. PMID:23638352

  16. Modelling Favourability for Invasive Species Encroachment to Identify Areas of Native Species Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Báez, José C.; Ferri-Yáñez, Francisco; Bellido, Jesús J.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the vulnerability of the native Mediterranean pond turtle to encroachment by the invasive red-eared slider in southern Spain. We first obtained an ecogeographical favourability model for the Mediterranean pond turtle. We then modelled the presence/absence of the red-eared slider in the Mediterranean pond turtle range and obtained an encroachment favourability model. We also obtained a favourability model for the red-eared slider using the ecogeographical favourability for the Mediterranean pond turtle as a predictor. When favourability for the Mediterranean pond turtle was high, favourability for the red-eared slider was low, suggesting that in these areas the Mediterranean pond turtle may resist encroachment by the red-eared slider. We also calculated favourability overlap between the two species, which is their simultaneous favourability. Grids with low overlap had higher favourability values for the Mediterranean pond turtle and, consequently, were of lesser conservation concern. A few grids had high values for both species, being potentially suitable for coexistence. Grids with intermediate overlap had similar intermediate favourability values for both species and were therefore areas where the Mediterranean pond turtle was more vulnerable to encroachment by the red-eared slider. We mapped the favourability overlap to provide a map of vulnerability of the Mediterranean pond turtle to encroachment by the red-eared slider. PMID:24719577

  17. Moderate oxygen depletion as a factor favouring the filamentous growth of Sphaerotilus natans.

    PubMed

    Seder-Colomina, Marina; Goubet, Anne; Lacroix, Sébastien; Morin, Guillaume; Ona-Nguema, Georges; Esposito, Giovanni; Van Hullebusch, Eric D; Pernelle, Jean-Jacques

    2015-05-01

    Sphaerotilus natans is a neutrophilic iron-related sheath-forming filamentous microorganism that presents dual morphotype: single cells and ensheathed cells forming filaments. As S. natans has been proposed as a sorbent for inorganic pollutants and it is occasionally involved in bulking episodes, elucidating factors affecting its filamentous growth is of crucial interest. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of dissolved oxygen (DO) as a factor affecting S. natans filamentation from single cells. A method to quantify S. natans in its filamentous and single-cell morphotypes, based on a differential filtration procedure coupled with quantitative real-time PCR, was developed here. Scanning Electron Microscopy was used to validate the filtration step. Under actively aerated conditions (DO maintained at 7.6 ± 0.1 mg l(-1)), S. natans grew mainly as single cells throughout the experiment, while a depletion in DO concentration (to ~3 mg l(-1)) induced its filamentous growth. Indeed, when oxygen was reduced the proportion of single cells diminished from 83.3 ± 5.9 to 14.3 ± 3.4% while the filaments increased from 16.7 ± 5.9 to 85.7 ± 3.4%. Our results suggest that oxygen plays a key role in S. natans filamentation and contribute to better understanding of the filamentous proliferation of this bacterium. In addition, the proposed method will be helpful to evaluate other factors favouring filamentous growth. PMID:25666377

  18. Moderate oxygen depletion as a factor favouring the filamentous growth of Sphaerotilus natans.

    PubMed

    Seder-Colomina, Marina; Goubet, Anne; Lacroix, Sébastien; Morin, Guillaume; Ona-Nguema, Georges; Esposito, Giovanni; Van Hullebusch, Eric D; Pernelle, Jean-Jacques

    2015-05-01

    Sphaerotilus natans is a neutrophilic iron-related sheath-forming filamentous microorganism that presents dual morphotype: single cells and ensheathed cells forming filaments. As S. natans has been proposed as a sorbent for inorganic pollutants and it is occasionally involved in bulking episodes, elucidating factors affecting its filamentous growth is of crucial interest. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of dissolved oxygen (DO) as a factor affecting S. natans filamentation from single cells. A method to quantify S. natans in its filamentous and single-cell morphotypes, based on a differential filtration procedure coupled with quantitative real-time PCR, was developed here. Scanning Electron Microscopy was used to validate the filtration step. Under actively aerated conditions (DO maintained at 7.6 ± 0.1 mg l(-1)), S. natans grew mainly as single cells throughout the experiment, while a depletion in DO concentration (to ~3 mg l(-1)) induced its filamentous growth. Indeed, when oxygen was reduced the proportion of single cells diminished from 83.3 ± 5.9 to 14.3 ± 3.4% while the filaments increased from 16.7 ± 5.9 to 85.7 ± 3.4%. Our results suggest that oxygen plays a key role in S. natans filamentation and contribute to better understanding of the filamentous proliferation of this bacterium. In addition, the proposed method will be helpful to evaluate other factors favouring filamentous growth.

  19. Vaccenic acid favourably alters immune function in obese JCR:LA-cp rats.

    PubMed

    Blewett, Heather J; Gerdung, Christopher A; Ruth, Megan R; Proctor, Spencer D; Field, Catherine J

    2009-08-01

    Vaccenic acid (VA) is a ruminant-derived trans-fat and precursor of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The objective of the present study was to explore the effects of VA on immune function in a model of the metabolic syndrome, JCR:LA-cp rats. Lean (2:1 mix of +/cp and +/+) and obese (cp/cp) rats, aged 8 weeks, were fed a control (0% VA) or a VA diet (1.5% (w/w) VA) for 3 weeks (twenty rats per group). Splenocytes and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) immune cell phenotypes (flow cytometry), ex vivo cytokine production (ELISA) and phospholipid fatty acid concentrations were measured. Obese rats had higher proportions of splenic macrophages, total T-cells, helper T-cells (total and percentage CD25+), cytotoxic T-cells (total and percentage CD25+) and produced higher concentrations of IL-6 to concanavalin A (ConA) compared with lean rats. Obese rats had lower proportions of MLN T-cells, new T-cells (CD3+CD90+) and cytotoxic T-cells, but higher proportions of helper cells that were CD45RC+, CD25+ and CD4lo, and produced higher concentrations of IL-2, IL-10, interferon gamma and TNFalpha in response to ConA compared with lean rats. VA was higher in plasma phospholipids and both VA and CLA (cis-9, trans-11) were higher in MLN phospholipids compared with control-fed rats. Lean VA-fed rats had lower proportions of MLN and splenocyte CD45RC+ helper cells, and helper T-cells. Splenocytes from VA-fed rats produced 16-23% less IL-2, IL-10 and TNFalpha compared with controls. VA normalised production of MLN IL-2 and TNFalpha in obese rats to levels similar to those seen in lean rats. These results indicate that dietary VA favourably alters the pro-inflammatory tendency of mesenteric lymphocytes from JCR:LA-cp rats.

  20. Perspectives of Mobile Versus Fixed Mammography in Santa Clara County, California: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Chang-Halpenny, Christine; Kumarasamy, Narmadan A; Venegas, Angela; Braddock III, Clarence H

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Our aim was to examine underserved women’s perceptions on mobile versus fixed mammography in Santa Clara, California through a focus group study. Background: Research has shown that medically underserved women have higher breast cancer mortality rates correlated with under-screening and a disproportional rate of late-stage diagnosis. The Community Health Partnership in Santa Clara County, California runs the Community Mammography Access Project (CMAP) that targets nearly 20,000 medically underserved women over the age of 40 in the county through the collaborative effort of an existing safety net of healthcare providers. However, little data exists on the advantages or disadvantages of mobile mammography units from the patient perspective.  Methods: We assessed underserved women’s perspectives on mammography services in Santa Clara County through two focus groups from women screened at mobile or fixed site programs. Patients were recruited from both CMAP clinics and a county hospital, and focus group data were analyzed using content analysis. Results: We found that women from both the mobile and fixed sites shared similar motivating factors for getting a mammogram. Both groups recognized that screening was uncomfortable but necessary for good health and had positive feedback about their personal physicians. However, mobile participants, in particular, appreciated the atmosphere of mobile screening, reported shorter wait times, and remarked on the good communication from the clinic staff and empathetic treatment they received. However, mobile participants also expressed concern about the quality of films at mobile sites due to delayed initial reading of the films.  Conclusions: Mobile mammography offers a unique opportunity for women of underserved populations to access high satisfaction screenings, and it encourages a model similar to CMAP in other underserved areas. However, emphasis should be placed on providing a warm and welcoming

  1. Paleomagnetic record determined in cores from deep research wells in the Quaternary Santa Clara basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mankinen, Edward A.; Wentworth, Carl M.

    2016-01-01

    The Mono Lake (ca. 32 ka), Pringle Falls (ca. 210 ka), and Big Lost (ca. 565 ka) geomagnetic excursions all seem to be represented in the Santa Clara Valley wells. Possible correlations to the Laschamp (ca. 40 ka) and Blake (ca. 110 ka) excursions are also noted. Three additional excursions that have apparently not been previously reported from western North America occur within cycle 6 (between 536 and 433 ka), near the base of cycle 5 (after 433 ka), and near the middle of cycle 2 (before ca. 75 ka).

  2. Cross-talk between Ras and Rho signalling pathways in transformation favours proliferation and increased motility.

    PubMed

    Sahai, E; Olson, M F; Marshall, C J

    2001-02-15

    Transformation by oncogenic Ras requires the function of the Rho family GTPases. We find that Ras-transformed cells have elevated levels of RhoA-GTP, which functions to inhibit the expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p21/Waf1. These high levels of Rho-GTP are not a direct consequence of Ras signalling but are selected for in response to sustained ERK-MAP kinase signalling. While the elevated levels of Rho-GTP control the level of p21/Waf, they no longer regulate the formation of actin stress fibres in transformed cells. We show that the sustained ERK-MAP kinase signalling resulting from transformation by oncogenic Ras down-regulates ROCK1 and Rho-kinase, two Rho effectors required for actin stress fibre formation. The repression of Rho- dependent stress fibre formation by ERK-MAP kinase signalling contributes to the increased motility of Ras-transformed fibroblasts. Overexpression of the ROCK target LIM kinase restores actin stress fibres and inhibits the motility of Ras-transformed fibroblasts. We propose a model in which Ras and Rho signalling pathways cross-talk to promote signalling pathways favouring transformation.

  3. [Letters from Clara Happel, in New York, to her son: 1936-1945].

    PubMed

    Friedrich, V

    1988-01-01

    Many psychoanalysts of the second generation, among them Clara Happel (1889-1945) were forced to emigrate at the time of the National Socialist domination. The experience of a total upheaval in the history of the world during the emigration period shattered this second generation's feeling of being pioneers. On the intra-psychic plane this was the equivalent of a serious identity crisis. The psychic state among the emigrés is described, using the fate of Clara Happel as an example. She had to master and work through "doubts and losses of all kinds". She did not succeed in escaping the reality of the annihilation which threatened her. The experience of the Nazi domination, the ravages of the Second World War, the reality of a policy of the extermination of men by men and the rise of the danger of nuclear destruction sharpened the process of mourning for things lost. She plunged into a conflict of profound ambivalence. The materialization of the nuclear danger with the dropping of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki brought her face to face with her own frenzy for revenge. The shadow of objective reality fell across her ego in the form of melancholia. She lost the struggle with a reality which had become psychotic. The outside world replaced her inner life. She committed suicide on September 15, 1945. Her fate as a refugee shows that there are some situations where it is impossible to work through the conflict of ambivalence.

  4. [Letters from Clara Happel, in New York, to her son: 1936-1945].

    PubMed

    Friedrich, V

    1988-01-01

    Many psychoanalysts of the second generation, among them Clara Happel (1889-1945) were forced to emigrate at the time of the National Socialist domination. The experience of a total upheaval in the history of the world during the emigration period shattered this second generation's feeling of being pioneers. On the intra-psychic plane this was the equivalent of a serious identity crisis. The psychic state among the emigrés is described, using the fate of Clara Happel as an example. She had to master and work through "doubts and losses of all kinds". She did not succeed in escaping the reality of the annihilation which threatened her. The experience of the Nazi domination, the ravages of the Second World War, the reality of a policy of the extermination of men by men and the rise of the danger of nuclear destruction sharpened the process of mourning for things lost. She plunged into a conflict of profound ambivalence. The materialization of the nuclear danger with the dropping of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki brought her face to face with her own frenzy for revenge. The shadow of objective reality fell across her ego in the form of melancholia. She lost the struggle with a reality which had become psychotic. The outside world replaced her inner life. She committed suicide on September 15, 1945. Her fate as a refugee shows that there are some situations where it is impossible to work through the conflict of ambivalence. PMID:11640264

  5. Congenital cardiac anomalies in relation to water contamination, Santa Clara County, California, 1981-1983

    SciTech Connect

    Swan, S.H.; Shaw, G.; Harris, J.A.; Neutra, R.R.

    1989-05-01

    In November 1981, a leak of solvents from an underground storage tank was detected at an electronics manufacturing plant in Santa Clara County, California. Solvents (predominantly 1,1,1-trichloroethene, or methyl chloroform) were found in a nearby well which supplied drinking water to the surrounding community. Residents were concerned about a possible relation between adverse reproductive outcomes and consumption of contaminated water. To address this concern, the California Department of Health Services conducted two epidemiologic studies: one of these, reported here, is a county-wide study of cardiac anomalies. This study, which looked at major cardiac anomalies among births throughout Santa Clara County in 1981-1983, found an increased prevalence in the service area of the water company which operated the contaminated well. During the potentially exposed time period (January 1981 through August 1982), 12 babies with major cardiac anomalies were born to residents of this area. This represents an excess of six cases over the number expected based on the prevalence in the remainder of the county (relative risk = 2.2, 95 per cent confidence interval 1.2-4.0). No excess was observed in the unexposed time period (September 1982 through December 1983). However, the temporal distribution of major cardiac cases born during the exposed time period suggests that the solvent leak is an unlikely explanation for this excess.

  6. Phenolic composition of the Brazilian seedless table grape varieties BRS Clara and BRS Morena.

    PubMed

    Lago-Vanzela, Ellen Silva; Da-Silva, Roberto; Gomes, Eleni; García-Romero, Esteban; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro

    2011-08-10

    The detailed phenolic composition (anthocyanins, flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, stilbenes, and flavan-3-ols) in the skin and flesh of the new BRS Clara and BRS Morena seedless table grapes has been studied using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The two grapes, especially BRS Morena, contained high amounts of phenolic compounds, mainly located in their skins and qualitatively not different from those found in Vitis vinifera grapes. In addition, BRS Morena (a teinturier variety) showed qualitatively different phenolic compositions in its skin and flesh, mainly affecting the anthocyanin and flavonol profiles. Consistent with high phenolic contents, high antioxidant capacity values were registered for both grape varieties, especially for BRS Morena. Proanthocyanidins and hydroxycinnamoyl-tartaric acids were the major phenolic compounds found in BRS Clara and were also important in BRS Morena, although anthocyanins were the main phenolic compounds in the latter case. These results suggest that the entire grapes, including the skin, may potentially possess properties that are beneficial to human health. In this context, the BRS Morena grape can be considered as a high resveratrol producer.

  7. Santa Clara Valley water district multi-aquifer monitoring-well site, Coyote Creek Outdoor Classroom, San Jose, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, R.T.; Newhouse, M.W.; Wentworth, C.M.; Williams, C.F.; Noce, T.E.; Bennett, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Santa Clara Valley Water District (SCVWD), has completed the first of several multiple-aquifer monitoring-well sites in the Santa Clara Valley. This site monitors ground-water levels and chemistry in the one of the major historic subsidence regions south of San Jose, California, at the Coyote Creek Outdoor Classroom (CCOC) (fig. 1) and provides additional basic information about the geology, hydrology, geochemistry, and subsidence potential of the upper- and lower-aquifer systems that is a major source of public water supply in the Santa Clara Valley. The site also serves as a science education exhibit at the outdoor classroom operated by SCVWD.

  8. The new Heavy-ion MCP-based Ancillary Detector DANTE for the CLARA-PRISMA Setup

    SciTech Connect

    Valiente-Dobon, J. J.; Gadea, A.; Corradi, L.; De Angelis, G.; Della Vedova, F.; Fioretto, E.; Marginean, N.; Napoli, D. R.; Orlandi, R.; Pokrovsky, I.; Sahin, E.; Stefanini, A. M.; Brambilla, S.; Kondratiev, N. A.; Kozulin, E. M.; Beghini, S.; Farnea, E.; Lunardi, S.; Montagnoli, G.; Ur, C. A.

    2006-08-14

    The CLARA-PRISMA setup is a powerful tool for spectroscopic studies of neutron-rich nuclei produced in multi-nucleon transfer and deep-inelastic reactions. It combines the large acceptance spectrometer PRISMA with the {gamma}-ray array CLARA. At present, the ancillary heavy-ion detector DANTE, based on Micro-Channel Plates to be installed at the CLARA-PRISMA setup, is being constructed at LNL. DANTE will open the possibility of measuring {gamma}-{gamma} Doppler-corrected coincidences for the events outside the acceptance of PRISMA. In this presentation, it is described the heavy-ion detector DANTE, as well as the performances of the first prototype.

  9. Donor's age and replicative senescence favour the in-vitro mineralization potential of human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Boraldi, Federica; Bartolomeo, Angelica; Di Bari, Caterina; Cocconi, Andrea; Quaglino, Daniela

    2015-12-01

    Aberrant mineralization of soft connective tissues (ectopic calcification) may occur as a frequent age-related complication. Still, it remains unclear the role of mesenchymal cell donor's age and of replicative senescence on ectopic calcification. Therefore, the ability of cells to deposit in-vitro hydroxyapatite crystals and the expression of progressive ankylosis protein homolog (ANKH), ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1), tissue non specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) and osteopontin (OPN) have been evaluated in human dermal fibroblasts derived from neonatal (nHDF) and adult (aHDF) donors (ex-vivo ageing model) or at low and high cumulative population doublings (CPD) up to replicative senescence (in-vitro ageing model). This study demonstrates that: 1) replicative senescence favours hydroxyapatite formation in cultured fibroblasts; 2) donor's age acts as a major modulator of the mineralizing potential of HDF, since nHDF are less prone than aHDF to induce calcification; 3) donor's age and replicative senescence play in concert synergistically increasing the calcification process; 4) the ANKH+ENPP1/TNAP ratio, being crucial for pyrophosphate/inorganic phosphate balance, is greatly influenced by donor's age, as well as by replicative senescence, and regulates mineral deposition; 5) OPN is only modulated by replicative senescence.

  10. Water resources development in Santa Clara Valley, California: insights into the human-hydrologic relationship

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Jesse L.; Narasimhan, T.N.

    2000-06-01

    Groundwater irrigation is critical to food production and, in turn, to humankind's relationship with its environment. The development of groundwater in Santa Clara Valley, California during the early twentieth century is instructive because (1) responses to unsustainable resource use were largely successful; (2) the proposals for the physical management of the water, although not entirely novel, incorporated new approaches which reveal an evolving relationship between humans and the hydrologic cycle; and (3) the valley serves as a natural laboratory where natural (groundwater basin, surface watershed) and human (county, water district) boundaries generally coincide. Here, I investigate how water resources development and management in Santa Clara Valley was influenced by, and reflective of, a broad understanding of water as a natural resource, including scientific and technological innovations, new management approaches, and changing perceptions of the hydrologic cycle. Market demands and technological advances engendered reliance on groundwater. This, coupled with a series of dry years and laissez faire government policies, led to overdraft. Faith in centralized management and objective engineering offered a solution to concerns over resource depletion, and a group dominated by orchardists soon organized, fought for a water conservation district, and funded an investigation to halt the decline of well levels. Engineer Fred Tibbetts authored an elaborate water salvage and recharge plan that optimized the local water resources by integrating multiple components of the hydrologic cycle. Informed by government investigations, groundwater development in Southern California, and local water law cases, it recognized the limited surface storage possibilities, the spatial and temporal variability, the relatively closed local hydrology, the interconnection of surface and subsurface waters, and the value of the groundwater basin for its storage, transportation, and treatment

  11. Isotopically anomalous silver in the Santa Clara and Pinon iron meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, T.; Kelly, W. R.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1980-01-01

    The isotopic composition and concentration of Ag and the concentration of Pd have been determined in the Santa Clara and Pinon iron meteorites. It is shown that these meteorites contain isotopically anomalous Ag with an excess of Ag-107 relative to normal Ag, confirming earlier findings. Using an improved procedure for cleaning the sample surface from terrestrial Ag, a new concentration of 1.4 x 10 to the 11th atoms of Ag-109/g meteorite is established which is an order of magnitude below the levels found earlier. As a result ratios of Ag-107/Ag-109 were found which are enriched in Ag-107 by 60 percent to 160 percent. The existence of an excess Ag-107 in these two meteorites, which have high Pd-108/Ag-109 ratios of about 7 x 10 to the 4th is established.

  12. Santa Clara County Library, Final Performance Report for Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA) Title VI, Library Literacy Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willingham, Taylor; Trajico, Charity A.; Levy, Michael

    This final performance report provides project outcome information and data to the U.S. Department of Education for the federally-funded Library Literacy Program. The Santa Clara County (California) Library Reading Program Computer Aided Literacy (CAL) Project involved recruitment, public awareness, training, basic literacy, collection…

  13. Mapping Typha Domingensis in the Cienega de Santa Clara Using Satellite Images, Global Positioning System, and Spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanchez, Richard D.; Burnett, Earl E.; Croxen, Fred

    2000-01-01

    The Cienega de Santa Clara, Sonora, Mexico, a brackish wetland area created near the delta of the Colorado River from drainage effluent flowing from the United States since 1977, may undergo changes owing to the operation of the Yuma Desalting Plant in the United States. This has become the largest wetland in the delta region containing rare and endangered species, yet little is known about the environmental impact of these changes. The water quality of the marsh is of growing concern to the Bureau of Reclamation (BOR) which operates the Desalting Plant. Consequently, the BOR solicited the U.S. Geological Survey to investigate the limits and usefulness of satellite, global positioning system (GPS), and spectra data to map the Typha domingensis (cattail) of the Cienega de Santa Clara. Typha domingensis was selected by the BOR as the Cienega de Santa Clara indicator species to best predict the environmental effects of effl uent from the Yuma Desalting Plant. The successful base mapping of Typha domingensis will provide a viable tool for long-term monitoring and stress detection in the Cienega de Santa Clara.

  14. Map showing locations of damaging landslides in Santa Clara County, California, resulting from 1997-98 El Nino rainstorms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, William L.; Harp, Edwin L.; Arnal, Caroline H.; Godt, Jonathan W.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy rainfall associated with a strong El Nino caused over $150 million in landslide damage in the 10-county San Francisco Bay region during the winter and spring of 1998. A team of USGS scientists collected information on landslide locations and damage costs. About $7.6 million in damages were assessed in Santa Clara County.

  15. 76 FR 72972 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of Public Land in Santa Clara County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ...The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Hollister Field Office, proposes to sell a parcel of public land totaling approximately 23.42 acres, more or less, in Santa Clara County, California. The public land would be sold for appraised fair market value. The appraised value of the public land is...

  16. 75 FR 8106 - Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo Counties, CA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of intent to...) and Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife...

  17. Santa Clara County Survey of Drug, Alcohol, and Tobacco Use among Students in Grades 5, 7, 9, 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantine, Norm; And Others

    This report presents findings from the Santa Clara County (California) survey of Drug, Alcohol, and Tobacco Use among Students in Grades 5, 7, 9, and 11 administered during the spring of 1991 to 5,180 students in 51 randomly selected county schools. An executive summary discusses sampling error, sample demographics, and findings on drug use…

  18. 76 FR 68784 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Santa Clara County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... for sale. The BLM proposes that conveyance of the Federal mineral interests would occur simultaneously... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Santa Clara County, CA.... DATES: Written comments regarding the proposed sale must be received by the BLM on or before December...

  19. Suffering for her art: the chronic pain syndrome of pianist Clara Wieck-Schumann.

    PubMed

    Altenmüller, Eckart; Kopiez, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    Clara Schumann was an outstanding pianist, systematically trained as a child prodigy by her father Friedrich Wieck. Married to the composer Robert Schumann she gave birth to 8 children, however, was able to continue performing regularly in public. After the mental breakdown of her husband, she had to increase her public performance activities due to the need to earn a living for her large family. In this time, the first pains in the right arm occurred, which at the beginning were of shorter duration, however increasingly required prolonged periods of rest. Later, when attempting to work on the highly demanding piano works of Johannes Brahms, especially on his first piano concerto, she developed chronic pain, which forced her to interrupt any concert activities for more than 1 year. Obviously, Brahms' modern treatment of the piano in an almost orchestral way imposed technical difficulties which Clara Schumann was not properly prepared to deal with. Finally, she underwent a multimodal pain therapy in the private sanatorium of Dr. Esmarch, which consisted of an integrated interdisciplinary approach comprising pain medication, psychotherapy, physiotherapy and modification of playing habits. She fully recovered and successfully continued her career as an internationally renowned concert pianist. The case report impressively demonstrates the stressors an outstanding female elite musician had to cope with in the 19th century. Furthermore, it is a convincing example of how the intuition and mere experience of a sensitive and understanding doctor lead to the right conclusions and to a modern multimodal pain therapy in chronic overuse injury. Furthermore the case report demonstrates the important role of prevention, including physical exercises, self-awareness, and reasonable practice schedules.

  20. Nutrient contributions to the Santa Barbara Channel, California, from the ephemeral Santa Clara River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, J.A.; Washburn, L.; Brzezinski, Mark A.; Siegel, D.A.

    2005-01-01

    The Santa Clara River delivers nutrient rich runoff to the eastern Santa Barbara Channel during brief (???1-3 day) episodic events. Using both river and oceanographic measurements, we evaluate river loading and dispersal of dissolved macronutrients (silicate, inorganic N and P) and comment on the biological implications of these nutrient contributions. Both river and ocean observations suggest that river nutrient concentrations are inversely related to river flow rates. Land use is suggested to influence these concentrations, since runoff from a subwatershed with substantial agriculture and urban areas had much higher nitrate than runoff from a wooded subwatershed. During runoff events, river nutrients were observed to conservatively mix into the buoyant, surface plume immediately seaward of the Santa Clara River mouth. Dispersal of these river nutrients extended 10s of km into the channel. Growth of phytoplankton and nutrient uptake was low during our observations (1-3 days following runoff), presumably due to the very low light levels resulting from high turbidity. However, nutrient quality of runoff (Si:N:P = 16:5:1) was found to be significantly different than upwelling inputs (13:10:1), which may influence different algal responses once sediments settle. Evaluation of total river nitrate loads suggests that most of the annual river nutrient fluxes to the ocean occur during the brief winter flooding events. Wet winters (such as El Nin??o) contribute nutrients at rates approximately an order-of-magnitude greater than "average" winters. Although total river nitrate delivery is considerably less than that supplied by upwelling, the timing and location of these types of events are very different, with river discharge (upwelling) occurring predominantly in the winter (summer) and in the eastern (western) channel. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Subsurface and petroleum geology of the southwestern Santa Clara Valley ("Silicon Valley"), California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Richard G.; Jachens, Robert C.; Lillis, Paul G.; McLaughlin, Robert J.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Hostettler, Frances D.; McDougall, Kristin A.; Magoon, Leslie B.

    2002-01-01

    Gravity anomalies, historical records of exploratory oil wells and oil seeps, new organic-geochemical results, and new stratigraphic and structural data indicate the presence of a concealed, oil-bearing sedimentary basin beneath a highly urbanized part of the Santa Clara Valley, Calif. A conspicuous isostatic-gravity low that extends about 35 km from Palo Alto southeastward to near Los Gatos reflects an asymmetric, northwest-trending sedimentary basin comprising low-density strata, principally of Miocene age, that rest on higher-density rocks of Mesozoic and Paleogene(?) age. Both gravity and well data show that the low-density rocks thin gradually to the northeast over a distance of about 10 km. The thickest (approx 4 km thick) accumulation of low-density material occurs along the basin's steep southwestern margin, which may be controlled by buried, northeast-dipping normal faults that were active during the Miocene. Movement along these hypothetical normal faults may been contemporaneous (approx 17–14 Ma) with sedimentation and local dacitic and basaltic volcanism, possibly in response to crustal extension related to passage of the northwestward-migrating Mendocino triple junction. During the Pliocene and Quaternary, the normal faults and Miocene strata were overridden by Mesozoic rocks, including the Franciscan Complex, along northeastward-vergent reverse and thrust faults of the Berrocal, Shannon, and Monte Vista Fault zones. Movement along these fault zones was accompanied by folding and tilting of strata as young as Quaternary and by uplift of the modern Santa Cruz Mountains; the fault zones remain seismically active. We attribute the Pliocene and Quaternary reverse and thrust faulting, folding, and uplift to compression caused by local San Andreas Fault tectonics and regional transpression along the Pacific-North American Plate boundary. Near the southwestern margin of the Santa Clara Valley, as many as 20 exploratory oil wells were drilled between 1891

  2. Observations and Modeling of Microseisms in the Santa Clara Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolenc, D.; Dreger, D.; Larsen, S.

    2004-12-01

    Previous studies of the 3D velocity structure in the Santa Clara Valley (SCV) showed that teleseismic, local, and microseism data recorded by the 41-station Santa Clara Valley Seismic Experiment (SCVSE, 6/98-12/98) are all sensitive to basin structure and that they may be used to refine the velocity model of the basins. In our recent work we focused on constraining the source of the microseisms and used this for modeling the microseism observations in the SCV. We used an f-k array method on microseisms recorded during the SCVSE to determine if they are monodirectional and to see if their source can be localized. Our results showed that at low frequencies (0.1 to 0.3 Hz), wavefield observations in the SCV display directionality. At higher frequencies (0.3 to 0.5 Hz), wavefield directionality is lost, which may be due to scattering of the waves by the 3D structure in the SCV basins. The important result of these observations is that the source of the microseisms can be localized and can therefore be used in numerical simulations. We used the 3D finite-difference code E3D (Larsen and Schultz, 1995) and the UCB 3D velocity model (Stidham et al., 1999) to simulate the microseism wavefield. A vertically oriented CLVD source located about 27 km offshore was used to generate isotropic Rayleigh waves. We used the source time function that was a superposition of sine waves at discrete periods over the observed microseismic band. The f-k analysis of simulated waveforms agrees with observations in terms of directionality at low frequencies, and the loss of directionality at higher frequencies. We will attempt to refine the method to simulate microseism wavefield by including the source spectrum derived from the ocean wave data recorded at the Santa Cruz buoy. One objective of this research is to use the obtained results to develop a simultaneous inversion of the teleseismic, local, and microseism observations to constrain the internal velocity structure of the SCV basins.

  3. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Santa Paula, and Santa Clara River Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Rectangular fields of the agriculturally rich Santa Clara River Valley are visible in this perspective view generated using data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and an enhanced Landsat image. The Santa Clara River, which lends its name to this valley, flows from headwaters near Acton, California, 160 km (100 miles) to the Pacific Ocean, and is one of only two natural river systems remaining in southern California. In the foreground of this image, the largely dry riverbed can be seen as a bright feature as it winds its way along the base of South Mountain. The bright region at the right end of this portion of the valley is the city of Santa Paula, California. Founded in 1902, this small, picturesque town at the geographic center of Ventura County is referred to as the 'Citrus Capital of the World.' The city is surrounded by orange, lemon, and avocado groves and is a major distribution point for citrus fruits in the United States. The bright, linear feature in the center of the valley is State Highway 126, the valley's 'main drag.' For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times. Colors, from Landsat data, approximate natural color.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60 meters (about 200 feet)long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  4. Field-trip guide to the southeastern foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains in Santa Clara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoffer, Philip W.; Messina, Paula

    2002-01-01

    This field trip is an introduction to the geology of the southeastern foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains in southern Santa Clara County. Seven stops include four short hikes to access rock exposures and views of the foothills east of Loma Prieta Peak between Gilroy and San José. Field-trip destinations highlight the dominant rock types of the "Franciscan assemblage" including outcrops of serpentinite, basalt, limestone, ribbon chert, graywacke sandstone, and shale. General discussions include how the rocks formed, and how tectonism and stream erosion have changed the landscape through time. All field trip stops are on public land; most are near reservoir dams of the Santa Clara Valley Water District. In addition, stops include examination of an Ohlone Indian heritage site and the New Almaden Mining Museum.

  5. Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire: Psychometric analysis in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Jeremy P.; Carson, Cody S.; Shrestha, Srijana; Kunik, Mark E.; Armento, Maria E.; Stanley, Melinda A.; Amspoker, Amber B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assist researchers and clinicians considering using the Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire (SCSRFQ) with older-adult samples, the current study analyzed the psychometrics of SCSRFQ scores in two older-adult samples. Method Adults age 55 or older who had formerly participated in studies of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety and/or depression were recruited to complete questionnaires. In Study 1 (N = 66), the authors assessed the relations between the SCSRFQ and other measures of religiousness/spirituality, mental health, and demographic variables, using bivariate correlations and nonparametric tests. In Study 2 (N = 223), the authors also conducted confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses of the SCSRFQ, as well as an Item Response Theory analysis. Results The SCSRFQ was moderately to highly positively correlated with all measures of religiousness/spirituality. Relations with mental health were weak and differed across samples. Ethnic minorities scored higher than White participants on the SCSRFQ, but only in Study 2. Factor analyses showed that a single-factor model fit the SCSRFQ best. According to Item Response Theory analysis, SCSRFQ items discriminated well between participants with low-to-moderate levels of the construct but provided little information at higher levels. Conclusion Although the SCSRFQ scores had adequate psychometric characteristics, the measure’s usefulness may be limited in samples of older adults. PMID:24892461

  6. Physical subdivision and description of the water-bearing sediments of the Santa Clara Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wentworth, Carl M.; Jachens, Robert C.; Williams, Robert A.; Tinsley, John C.; Hanson, Randall T.

    2015-01-01

    Maps and cross sections show the elevations of cycle boundaries and the underlying bedrock surface, the varying thicknesses of the cycles and of their fine tops and coarse bottoms, and the aggregate thickness of coarse layers in those bottom intervals. Coarse sediment is more abundant toward some parts of the basin margin and in the southern part of the basin. Cycle boundary surfaces are relatively smooth, and their shapes are consistent with having been intercycle topographic surfaces. The underlying bedrock surface has a relief of more than 1,200 feet and deepens toward the center of the basin and the west edge of the fault-bounded Evergreen Basin, which is concealed beneath the east side of the Quaternary basin. The absence of consistent abrupt changes in thicknesses or boundary elevations across the basin or in cross section indicates that the interior of the basin is largely unfaulted, with the Silver Creek strand of the San Andreas system at the west edge of the Evergreen Basin being the sole exception. The east and west margins of the Santa Clara Basin, in contrast, are marked by reverse and thrust fault systems.

  7. Daily mortality and air pollution in Santa Clara County, California: 1989-1996.

    PubMed Central

    Fairley, D

    1999-01-01

    Since the last revision of the national particulate standards, there has been a profusion of epidemiologic research showing associations between particulates and health effects--mortality in particular. Supported by this research, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency promulgated a national standard for particulate matter [less than/equal to] 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(2.5)). Nevertheless, the San Francisco Bay Area of California may meet this new standard. This study investigates the relationship between daily mortality and air pollution in Santa Clara County (a Bay Area county) using techniques similar to those utilized in earlier epidemiologic studies. Statistically significant associations persist in the early 1990s, when the Bay Area met national air pollution standards for every criteria pollutant. Of the various pollutants, the strongest associations occur with particulates, especially ammonium nitrate and PM(2.5). The continuing presence of associations between mortality and air pollutants calls into question the adequacy of national standards for protecting public health. PMID:10417361

  8. Chromium geochemistry of serpentinous sediment in the Willow core, Santa Clara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oze, Christopher J.; LaForce, Matthew J.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Hanson, Randall T.; Bird, Dennis K.; Coleman, Robert G.

    2003-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of Cr geochemistry in serpentinous sediment completed for a multiple-aquifer ground-water monitoring well (Willow core of Santa Clara County, CA) determined sediment at depths >225 meters contains Cr concentrations ranging from 195 to 1155 mg/kg. Serpentinous sediment from this site is a potential source of non-anthropogenic Cr contamination. Chromium-bearing minerals such as Cr-spinel appear to be the main source of Cr in the sediment; however, Cr-bearing silicates and clay minerals are additional Cr sources. Aqueous Cr concentrations in the sediment are <4.6 mg/L; however, the valence of Cr was not identified in the solutions or in the sediment. Although there is no indication of Cr(VI) contamination derived from the serpentinous sediment, elevated Cr concentrations in the sediment, the observed ‘dissolution’ textures of the Cr-bearing minerals, the estimated redox environment, and water chemistry indicate the formation of Cr(VI) is potentially favorable.

  9. Land subsidence in the Santa Clara Valley, California as of 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poland, J.F.; Ireland, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    From 1916 to 1966 in the San Jose area of Santa Clara Valley, California, deficient rainfall and runoff was accompanied by a fourfold increase in groundwater withdrawals. In response the artesian head declined 180-240 ft. The land surface subsided 12.7 ft in San Jose, due to compaction of the fine-grained compressible beds. The subsidence resulted in flooding of lands, and the compaction of the sediments caused compressional failure of many well casings. From 1967 to 1975, the artesian head recovered 70 to 100 feet due to a fivefold increase in surface water imports, favorable local water supply, decreased withdrawal, and increased recharge. In 1960, the Geological Survey installed extensometers in core holes 1,000 ft deep in San Jose and Sunnyvale. Measurements of compaction of the confined aquifer system obtained from these extensometers demonstrate the marked decrease in rate of compaction in response to the major head recovery since 1967. In San Jose the rate decreased from about 1 ft/yr in 1961 to 0.1 ft/yr in 1973. The subsidence has been stopped by raising the artesian head in the aquifers until it equaled or exceeded the maximum pore pressures in the fine-grained beds. However, the subsidence will recommence if the artesian head is drawn down appreciably below the levels of 1971-73. (USGS)

  10. Adverse pregnancy outcomes in relation to water contamination, Santa Clara County, California, 1980-1981

    SciTech Connect

    Deane, M.; Swan, S.H.; Harris, J.A.; Epstein, D.M.; Neutra, R.R.

    1989-05-01

    An epidemiologic study was conducted to investigate a suspected cluster of adverse outcomes of pregnancies conceived in 1980-1981 among women who resided in a census tract in Santa Clara County, California that was thought to be exposed to drinking water from a well contaminated by an organic solvent, trichloroethane. A comparison census tract that received water from a different source was selected on the basis of demographic comparability. The cluster was confirmed; the odds ratio for spontaneous abortion was 2.3 (95% confidence interval (Cl) 1.3-4.2) after adjustment by multiple logistic regression for maternal risk factors, including maternal age, alcohol consumption, smoking, and prior fetal loss. The relative risk for congenital malformations was 3.1 (95% Cl 1.1-10.4). Because of the lack of precise information on the timing and extent of contamination, the pattern of spontaneous abortion rates throughout the study period cannot be used to either support or refute a causal inference.

  11. Applying the Quit & Win contest model in the Vietnamese community in Santa Clara County

    PubMed Central

    Lai, K. Q.; McPhee, S.; Jenkins, C.; Wong, C.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the effectiveness of modifying and applying a Quit & Win contest model to Vietnamese Americans.
DESIGN—Uncontrolled trial, multicomponent program, including two Quit & Win incentive contests, smoking cessation classes, videotape broadcasts, and newspaper articles.
SUBJECTS AND SETTING—Vietnamese smokers living in Santa Clara County, California.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Contest participation rates and quit rates at six month follow up; saliva cotinine validation of quitting.
RESULTS—There were 57 eligible contest entrants to the 1995 contest, approximately 0.9% of the potential pool of smokers, and 32 entrants to the 1996 contest, approximately 0.5% of the potential pool. Overall, 48 of 49 (98%) individuals who said that they had quit smoking had validation of that fact by saliva cotinine testing. At six months, telephone follow up of 76 individuals revealed a self reported continued abstinence rate of 84.2%.
CONCLUSION—Modification and application of the Quit & Win contest model for Vietnamese resulted not only in reasonable participation by Vietnamese male smokers, but also good success in initial quitting and an unexpectedly high abstinence rate at six month follow up.


Keywords: cessation; intervention; Vietnamese Americans PMID:10841592

  12. Lifetime measurements using the CLARA-PRISMA setup around the {sup 48}Ca doubly-magic nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Valiente-Dobon, J. J.; Gadea, A.; Stefanini, A. M.; Corradi, L.; De Angelis, G.; Fioretto, E.; Grodner, E.; Mason, P.; Napoli, D. R.; Recchia, F.; Sahin, E.; Mengoni, D.; Farnea, E.; Bazzacco, D.; Montagnoli, G.; Ur, C. A.; Lenzi, S. M.; Lunardi, S.; Scarlassara, F.; Dewald, A.

    2008-11-11

    The lifetimes of the first excited states of nuclei around the doubly-magic nucleus {sup 48}Ca have been determined using a novel method that combines the Recoil Distance Doppler Shift (RDDS) method with the CLARA-PRISMA spectrometers. This is the first time such a method is applied to measure lifetimes of neutron-rich nuclei populated via a multinucleon transfer reaction. This novel method and some preliminary results on lifetimes are presented.

  13. Modeling and validation of a 3D velocity structure for the Santa Clara Valley, California, for seismic-wave simulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, S.; Harmsen, S.; Williams, R.A.; Carver, D.; Frankel, A.; Choy, G.; Liu, P.-C.; Jachens, R.C.; Brocher, T.M.; Wentworth, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    A 3D seismic velocity and attenuation model is developed for Santa Clara Valley, California, and its surrounding uplands to predict ground motions from scenario earthquakes. The model is developed using a variety of geologic and geophysical data. Our starting point is a 3D geologic model developed primarily from geologic mapping and gravity and magnetic surveys. An initial velocity model is constructed by using seismic velocities from boreholes, reflection/refraction lines, and spatial autocorrelation microtremor surveys. This model is further refined and the seismic attenuation is estimated through waveform modeling of weak motions from small local events and strong-ground motion from the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Waveforms are calculated to an upper frequency of 1 Hz using a parallelized finite-difference code that utilizes two regions with a factor of 3 difference in grid spacing to reduce memory requirements. Cenozoic basins trap and strongly amplify ground motions. This effect is particularly strong in the Evergreen Basin on the northeastern side of the Santa Clara Valley, where the steeply dipping Silver Creek fault forms the southwestern boundary of the basin. In comparison, the Cupertino Basin on the southwestern side of the valley has a more moderate response, which is attributed to a greater age and velocity of the Cenozoic fill. Surface waves play a major role in the ground motion of sedimentary basins, and they are seen to strongly develop along the western margins of the Santa Clara Valley for our simulation of the Loma Prieta earthquake.

  14. Darwin's Arguments in Favour of Natural Selection and against Special Creationism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nola, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In many places in "The Origin of Species", Darwin compares his own theory of Natural Selection favourably with Special Creationism which comes off as a bad second best. He does this using some version of the argument form known as "Inference to the Best Explanation". The first part of this paper is methodological. It considers Whewell's notion of…

  15. Dynamic contact of droplet with superhydrophobic surface in conditions favour icing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remer, M.; Sobieraj, G.; Gumowski, K.; Rokicki, J.; Psarski, M.; Marczak, J.; Celichowski, G.

    2014-08-01

    Flight like droplet impact with superhydrophobic substrate in conditions favour icing is discussed in this work. Test stand with fast camera and equipment eligible to obtain temperatures and humidity at different ranges, lead to results which can prove, that superhydrophobic surface might be good ice repellent substrate. The influence of air humidity on droplet freezing was confirmed.

  16. Shaded relief aeromagnetic map of the Santa Clara Valley and vicinity, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, Carter W.; Jachens, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    This aeromagnetic map covers the southern portion of San Francisco Bay, the Santa Clara Valley and surrounding mountains, part of which has been modelled in threedimensions (Jachens and other, 2001). The magnetic anomaly map has been compiled from existing digital data. Data was obtained from six aeromagnetic surveys that were flown at different times, spacings and elevations. The International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) for the date of each survey had been removed in the initial processing. The resulting residual magnetic anomalies were analytically continued onto a common surface 305 m (1000 ft) above terrain. Portions of each survey were substantially above the specified flight height listed in the table. The surveys were then merged together using a commercial software package called Oasis Montage. The gray lines on the map indicate the extent of each survey. The program used these regions of overlap to determine the best fit between surveys. Black dots show probable edges of magnetic bodies defined by the maximum horizontal gradient determined using a computer program by Blakely (1995). Crystalline rocks generally contain sufficient magnetic minerals to cause variations in the Earth’s magnetic field that can be mapped by aeromagnetic surveys. Sedimentary rocks are generally weakly magnetized and consequently have a small effect on the magnetic field: thus a magnetic anomaly map can be used to “see through” the sedimentary rock cover and can convey information on lithologic contrasts and structural trends related to the underlying crystalline basement (see Nettleton,1971; Blakely, 1995). Faults often cut magnetic bodies and offset magnetic anomalies can thus be used to help determine fault motion. Serpentinite, which is highly magnetic, is often found along faults. On this map areas of low magnetic anomalies are shown in blues and green while highs are shown in reds and magentas. Faults are from Brabb and others, 1998a,1998b, Graymer and others

  17. Synoptic conditions favouring the occurrence of strong aerosol episodes over the broader Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkikas, A.; Houssos, E. E.; Bartzokas, A.; Hatzianastassiou, N.

    2010-09-01

    The present work aims at determining the synoptic conditions that favour the occurrence of strong aerosol episodes over the broader Mediterranean basin. In a first step, an objective and dynamic algorithm was set up to identify the strong aerosol episodes, based on daily aerosol optical depth values at 550nm (AOD550nm) from MODIS-Terra satellite database over the period 2000-2007. According to the algorithm, strong aerosol episodes occurred in each geographical cell (1o x 1o spatial resolution) of the study area whenever AODmean+2STDV≤AOD550nmcell in term. Subsequently, they were selected only those cases (days), for which at least 50% of the total number of cells of the entire region (~600 pixels) were available, and at least 30 strong aerosol episodes occurred at the pixel-level over the study region. Finally, the total number of selected days with strong aerosol episodes was equal to 219. In order to study the synoptic conditions, prevailing during the days of strong aerosol episodes, the fields of geopotential height at 500mb and mean sea level pressure (SLP) taken from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis project, were used. At first, Factor analysis (S-mode) has been applied, in order to decrease the dimensionality of the raw atmospheric field data (500hPa and SLP). In a further step, Cluster Analysis was also applied to identify/classify the prevailing atmospheric circulation types during the aerosol episodes, into 7 representative clusters. The intra-annual variation of the frequency of occurrence, for each cluster, reveals that strong aerosol episodes mostly occur during spring and summer (89%). This can be attributed either to the stable atmospheric conditions and to the small precipitation amounts (especially in summer) that lead to the accumulation of aerosol particles in the atmosphere or to the prevailing synoptic conditions

  18. Quercitrin-nanocoated titanium surfaces favour gingival cells against oral bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Florit, Manuel; Pacha-Olivenza, Miguel A.; Fernández-Calderón, Maria C.; Córdoba, Alba; González-Martín, Maria L.; Monjo, Marta; Ramis, Joana M.

    2016-01-01

    Many dental implants fail due to the infection and inflammation that walk hand in hand with poor healing and soft tissue integration. Titanium surfaces were nanocoated with quercitrin, a natural flavonoid, with the aim to improve soft tissue integration and increase dental implants success. Streptococcus mutans attachment and biofilm formation was analysed. Then, the anti-inflammatory properties and the potential of quercitrin-nanocoated surfaces to boost soft tissue regeneration were tested using human gingival fibroblasts. An inflammatory situation was mimicked using interleulin-1-beta. We found that quercitrin-nanocoated surfaces decreased initial bacterial adhesion while increasing human gingival fibroblasts attachment. Furthermore, quercitrin-nanocoated Ti increased collagen mRNA levels and decreased matrix metalloproteinase-1/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinanse-1 mRNA ratio, which is related to a reduced metalloproteinase-mediated collagen degradation, while also decreasing the pro-inflammatory prostaglandin E2 release under basal and inflammatory conditions. These results suggest that quercitrin-nanocoated surfaces could enhance the soft tissue integration and increase dental implants success. PMID:26925553

  19. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Santa Clara River Valley, 2007-California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Carmen A.; Montrella, Joseph; Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 460-square-mile Santa Clara River Valley study unit was investigated from April through June 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The Santa Clara River Valley study unit contains eight groundwater basins located in Ventura and Los Angeles Counties and is within the Transverse and Selected Peninsular Ranges hydrogeologic province. The Santa Clara River Valley study unit was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer system. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2007 by the USGS from 42 wells on a spatially distributed grid, and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer system was defined as that part of the aquifer system corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the CDPH database for the Santa Clara River Valley study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may differ from that in shallow or deep water-bearing zones; for example, shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. Eleven additional wells were sampled by the USGS to improve understanding of factors affecting water quality.The status assessment of the quality of the groundwater used data from samples analyzed for anthropogenic constituents, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, as well as naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. The status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of untreated groundwater resources in the primary aquifers of the Santa Clara River Valley study unit

  20. Water quality of Calero Reservoir, Santa Clara County, California, 1981-83

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clifton, D.G.; Gloege, I.S.

    1987-01-01

    Data were collected from December 1980 to September 1983 to describe water quality conditions of Calero Reservoir and the Almaden-Calero canal, Santa Clara County, California. Results show that water in Calero Reservoir and the canal generally met water quality criteria, as identified by the California Regional Water Quality Control Board San Francisco Bay Region, for municipal and domestic supply, water contact and non-contact recreation, warm water fish habitat, wildlife habitat, and fish spawning. Water temperature profiles show that Calero Reservoir can be classified as a warm monomictic reservoir. Water transparency profiles showed rapid attenuation of light with depth in the water column. The depth of the euphotic zone ranged from .5 m to 5.0 m. In winter and spring, light-extinction values generally were high throughout the water column; in summer and fall, values generally were high near the reservoir bottom. Dissolved oxygen concentrations were < 5.0 mg/L in about 22% of the measurements. Median pH values were 7.9 in the reservoir and 8.4 in the canal. Mean specific conductance values were 299 microsiemens/cm at 25 C in the reservoir and 326 in the canal. Calcium and magnesium were the dominant cations and bicarbonate the dominant anion in Calero Reservoir. Concentrations of total recoverable mercury in the bottom sediments in Calero Reservoir ranged from 0.06 to 0.85 mg/kg, but concentrations in the water column were was generally < 1 mg/L. Mean total nitrogen concentration in the Reservoir was 1.00 mg/L, much of it in dissolved form (mean concentration was 0.85 mg/L). Mean total organic nitrogen concentration in Calero Reservoir was 0.65 mg/L, and mean total nitrate concentration was 0.21 mg/L. Mean total phosphorus and dissolved orthophosphorous concentrations were 0.05 and 0.019 mg/L, respectively. Net primary productivity in the euphotic zone ranged from -2,000 to 10,000 mg of oxygen/sq m/day; the median value was 930. Carlson 's trophic-state index

  1. A Contamination Vulnerability Assessment for the Santa Clara and San Mateo County Groundwater Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, J E; Hudson, G B; Eaton, G F; Leif, R

    2004-01-06

    In response to concerns expressed by the California Legislature and the citizenry of the State of California, the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), implemented a program to assess groundwater quality, and provide a predictive capability for identifying areas that are vulnerable to contamination. The program was initiated in response to concern over public supply well closures due to contamination by chemicals such as MtBE from gasoline, and solvents from industrial operations. As a result of this increased awareness regarding groundwater quality, the Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act mandated the SWRCB to develop a comprehensive ambient groundwater-monitoring plan, and led to the initiation of the Ambient Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The primary objective of the GAMA Program is to assess the water quality and to predict the relative susceptibility to contamination of groundwater resources throughout the state of California. Under the GAMA program, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) collaborate with the SWRCB, the U.S. Geological Survey, the California Department of Health Services (DHS), and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) to implement this groundwater assessment program. In 2001 and 2002, LLNL carried out this vulnerability study in the groundwater basins of Santa Clara County and San Mateo County, located to the south of the city of San Francisco. The goal of the study is to provide a probabilistic assessment of the relative vulnerability of groundwater used for the public water supply to contamination from surface sources. This assessment of relative contamination vulnerability is made based on the results of two types of analyses that are not routinely carried out at public water supply wells: ultra low-level measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and groundwater age dating (using the tritium-helium-3 method). In addition, stable oxygen isotope measurements

  2. Predicted Liquefaction in the Greater Oakland and Northern Santa Clara Valley Areas for a Repeat of the 1868 Hayward Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, T. L.; Noce, T. E.; Bennett, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    Probabilities of surface manifestations of liquefaction due to a repeat of the 1868 (M6.7-7.0) earthquake on the southern segment of the Hayward Fault were calculated for two areas along the margin of San Francisco Bay, California: greater Oakland and the northern Santa Clara Valley. Liquefaction is predicted to be more common in the greater Oakland area than in the northern Santa Clara Valley owing to the presence of 57 km2 of susceptible sandy artificial fill. Most of the fills were placed into San Francisco Bay during the first half of the 20th century to build military bases, port facilities, and shoreline communities like Alameda and Bay Farm Island. Probabilities of liquefaction in the area underlain by this sandy artificial fill range from 0.2 to ~0.5 for a M7.0 earthquake, and decrease to 0.1 to ~0.4 for a M6.7 earthquake. In the greater Oakland area, liquefaction probabilities generally are less than 0.05 for Holocene alluvial fan deposits, which underlie most of the remaining flat-lying urban area. In the northern Santa Clara Valley for a M7.0 earthquake on the Hayward Fault and an assumed water-table depth of 1.5 m (the historically shallowest water level), liquefaction probabilities range from 0.1 to 0.2 along Coyote and Guadalupe Creeks, but are less than 0.05 elsewhere. For a M6.7 earthquake, probabilities are greater than 0.1 along Coyote Creek but decrease along Guadalupe Creek to less than 0.1. Areas with high probabilities in the Santa Clara Valley are underlain by latest Holocene alluvial fan levee deposits where liquefaction and lateral spreading occurred during large earthquakes in 1868 and 1906. The liquefaction scenario maps were created with ArcGIS ModelBuilder. Peak ground accelerations first were computed with the new Boore and Atkinson NGA attenuation relation (2008, Earthquake Spectra, 24:1, p. 99-138), using VS30 to account for local site response. Spatial liquefaction probabilities were then estimated using the predicted ground motions

  3. Structure and Velocities of the Northeastern Santa Cruz Mountains and the Western Santa Clara Valley, California, from the SCSI-LR Seismic Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Catchings, R.D.; Goldman, M.R.; Gandhok, G.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The Santa Clara Valley is located in the southern San Francisco Bay area of California and generally includes the area south of the San Francisco Bay between the Santa Cruz Mountains on the southwest and the Diablo Ranges on the northeast. The area has a population of approximately 1.7 million including the city of San Jose, numerous smaller cities, and much of the high-technology manufacturing and research area commonly referred to as the Silicon Valley. Major active strands of the San Andreas Fault system bound the Santa Clara Valley, including the San Andreas fault to the southwest and the Hayward and Calaveras faults to the northeast; related faults likely underlie the alluvium of the valley. This report focuses on subsurface structures of the western Santa Clara Valley and the northeastern Santa Cruz Mountains and their potential effects on earthquake hazards and ground-water resource management in the area. Earthquake hazards and ground-water resources in the Santa Clara Valley are important considerations to California and the Nation because of the valley's preeminence as a major technical and industrial center, proximity to major earthquakes faults, and large population. To assess the earthquake hazards of the Santa Clara Valley better, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has undertaken a program to evaluate potential earthquake sources and potential effects of strong ground shaking within the valley. As part of that program, and to better assess water resources of the valley, the USGS and the Santa Clara Valley Water District (SCVWD) began conducting collaborative studies to characterize the faults, stratigraphy, and structures beneath the alluvial cover of the Santa Clara Valley in the year 2000. Such geologic features are important to both agencies because they directly influence the availability and management of groundwater resources in the valley, and they affect the severity and distribution of strong shaking from local or regional

  4. Ephemeral stream reaches preserve the evolutionary and distributional history of threespine stickleback in the Santa Clara and Ventura River watersheds of southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, Jonathan Q.; Jacobs, David K.; Backlin, Adam R.; Swift, Camm C.; Dellith, Chris; Fisher, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    Much remains to be understood about the evolutionary history and contemporary landscape genetics of unarmored threespine stickleback in southern California, where populations collectively referred to as Gasterosteus aculeatus williamsoni have severely declined over the past 70+ years and are now endangered. We used mitochondrial sequence and microsatellite data to assess the population genetics and phylogeography of unarmored populations sampled immediately downstream from the type locality of G. a. williamsoni in the upper Santa Clara River, and assessed their distinctiveness with respect to low-armor populations in the downstream sections of the river and the adjacent Ventura River. We also characterized the geographic limits of different plate morphs and evaluated the congruence of those boundaries with barriers to dispersal in both river systems and to neutral genetic variation. We show substantial population structuring within the upper reach of the Santa Clara River, but little partitioning between the lower Santa Clara and Ventura Rivers—we attribute these patterns to different ancestry between spatially subdivided populations within the same drainage, a predominance of downstream gene flow, and ability for coastal dispersal between the Santa Clara and Ventura Rivers. We also show that alleles from introduced low-plate stock have infiltrated a native population in at least one upper Santa Clara River tributary, causing this formerly unarmored population to become gradually low-plated over a 30 + year time period. Measures of genetic diversity, census surveys, and severe habitat disturbance all indicate that unarmored stickleback near the type locality are currently at high risk of extinction.

  5. Liquefaction Hazard Maps for Three Earthquake Scenarios for the Communities of San Jose, Campbell, Cupertino, Los Altos, Los Gatos, Milpitas, Mountain View, Palo Alto, Santa Clara, Saratoga, and Sunnyvale, Northern Santa Clara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Noce, Thomas E.; Bennett, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Maps showing the probability of surface manifestations of liquefaction in the northern Santa Clara Valley were prepared with liquefaction probability curves. The area includes the communities of San Jose, Campbell, Cupertino, Los Altos, Los Gatos Milpitas, Mountain View, Palo Alto, Santa Clara, Saratoga, and Sunnyvale. The probability curves were based on complementary cumulative frequency distributions of the liquefaction potential index (LPI) for surficial geologic units in the study area. LPI values were computed with extensive cone penetration test soundings. Maps were developed for three earthquake scenarios, an M7.8 on the San Andreas Fault comparable to the 1906 event, an M6.7 on the Hayward Fault comparable to the 1868 event, and an M6.9 on the Calaveras Fault. Ground motions were estimated with the Boore and Atkinson (2008) attenuation relation. Liquefaction is predicted for all three events in young Holocene levee deposits along the major creeks. Liquefaction probabilities are highest for the M7.8 earthquake, ranging from 0.33 to 0.37 if a 1.5-m deep water table is assumed, and 0.10 to 0.14 if a 5-m deep water table is assumed. Liquefaction probabilities of the other surficial geologic units are less than 0.05. Probabilities for the scenario earthquakes are generally consistent with observations during historical earthquakes.

  6. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Santa Clara River Valley, 2007-California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Carmen A.; Montrella, Joseph; Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 460-square-mile Santa Clara River Valley study unit was investigated from April through June 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The Santa Clara River Valley study unit contains eight groundwater basins located in Ventura and Los Angeles Counties and is within the Transverse and Selected Peninsular Ranges hydrogeologic province. The Santa Clara River Valley study unit was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer system. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2007 by the USGS from 42 wells on a spatially distributed grid, and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer system was defined as that part of the aquifer system corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the CDPH database for the Santa Clara River Valley study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may differ from that in shallow or deep water-bearing zones; for example, shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. Eleven additional wells were sampled by the USGS to improve understanding of factors affecting water quality.The status assessment of the quality of the groundwater used data from samples analyzed for anthropogenic constituents, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, as well as naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. The status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of untreated groundwater resources in the primary aquifers of the Santa Clara River Valley study unit

  7. The Quaternary Silver Creek Fault Beneath the Santa Clara Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wentworth, Carl M.; Williams, Robert A.; Jachens, Robert C.; Graymer, Russell W.; Stephenson, William J.

    2010-01-01

    The northwest-trending Silver Creek Fault is a 40-km-long strike-slip fault in the eastern Santa Clara Valley, California, that has exhibited different behaviors within a changing San Andreas Fault system over the past 10-15 Ma. Quaternary alluvium several hundred meters thick that buries the northern half of the Silver Creek Fault, and that has been sampled by drilling and imaged in a detailed seismic reflection profile, provides a record of the Quaternary history of the fault. We assemble evidence from areal geology, stratigraphy, paleomagnetics, ground-water hydrology, potential-field geophysics, and reflection and earthquake seismology to determine the long history of the fault in order to evaluate its current behavior. The fault formed in the Miocene more than 100 km to the southeast, as the southwestern fault in a 5-km-wide right step to the Hayward Fault, within which the 40-km-long Evergreen pull-apart basin formed. Later, this basin was obliquely cut by the newly recognized Mt. Misery Fault to form a more direct connection to the Hayward Fault, although continued growth of the basin was sufficient to accommodate at least some late Pliocene alluvium. Large offset along the San Andreas-Calaveras-Mt Misery-Hayward Faults carried the basin northwestward almost to its present position when, about 2 Ma, the fault system was reorganized. This led to near abandonment of the faults bounding the pull-apart basin in favor of right slip extending the Calaveras Fault farther north before stepping west to the Hayward Fault, as it does today. Despite these changes, the Silver Creek Fault experienced a further 200 m of dip slip in the early Quaternary, from which we infer an associated 1.6 km or so of right slip, based on the ratio of the 40-km length of the strike-slip fault to a 5-km depth of the Evergreen Basin. This dip slip ends at a mid-Quaternary unconformity, above which the upper 300 m of alluvial cover exhibits a structural sag at the fault that we interpret as

  8. [Anatomical Vitamin C-Research during National Socialism and the Post-war Period: Max Clara's Human Experiments at the Munich Anatomical Institute].

    PubMed

    Schûtz, Mathias; Schochow, Maximilian; Waschke, Jens; Marckmann, Georg; Steger, Florian

    2014-01-01

    In autumn of 1942, Max Clara (1899-1966) became chairman of the anatomical institute Munich. There, he intensified his research concerning the proof of vitamin C with the bodies of executed prisoners which were delivered by the Munich-Stadelheim prison. This research on human organs was pursued by applying ascorbic acid (Cebion) to prisoners before their execution. The paper investigates this intensified and radicalized anatomical research through human experiments, which Max Clara conducted in Munich and published from Istanbul during the postwar years, as well as its scientific references from the Nazi period.

  9. [Anatomical Vitamin C-Research during National Socialism and the Post-war Period: Max Clara's Human Experiments at the Munich Anatomical Institute].

    PubMed

    Schûtz, Mathias; Schochow, Maximilian; Waschke, Jens; Marckmann, Georg; Steger, Florian

    2014-01-01

    In autumn of 1942, Max Clara (1899-1966) became chairman of the anatomical institute Munich. There, he intensified his research concerning the proof of vitamin C with the bodies of executed prisoners which were delivered by the Munich-Stadelheim prison. This research on human organs was pursued by applying ascorbic acid (Cebion) to prisoners before their execution. The paper investigates this intensified and radicalized anatomical research through human experiments, which Max Clara conducted in Munich and published from Istanbul during the postwar years, as well as its scientific references from the Nazi period. PMID:26288924

  10. Women Favour Dyadic Relationships, but Men Prefer Clubs: Cross-Cultural Evidence from Social Networking

    PubMed Central

    David-Barrett, Tamas; Rotkirch, Anna; Carney, James; Behncke Izquierdo, Isabel; Krems, Jaimie A.; Townley, Dylan; McDaniell, Elinor; Byrne-Smith, Anna; Dunbar, Robin I. M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to create lasting, trust-based friendships makes it possible for humans to form large and coherent groups. The recent literature on the evolution of sociality and on the network dynamics of human societies suggests that large human groups have a layered structure generated by emotionally supported social relationships. There are also gender differences in adult social style which may involve different trade-offs between the quantity and quality of friendships. Although many have suggested that females tend to focus on intimate relations with a few other females, while males build larger, more hierarchical coalitions, the existence of such gender differences is disputed and data from adults is scarce. Here, we present cross-cultural evidence for gender differences in the preference for close friendships. We use a sample of ∼112,000 profile pictures from nine world regions posted on a popular social networking site to show that, in self-selected displays of social relationships, women favour dyadic relations, whereas men favour larger, all-male cliques. These apparently different solutions to quality-quantity trade-offs suggest a universal and fundamental difference in the function of close friendships for the two sexes. PMID:25775258

  11. Differential reproductive success favours strong host preference in a highly specialized brood parasite

    PubMed Central

    De Mársico, María C; Reboreda, Juan C

    2008-01-01

    Obligate avian brood parasites show dramatic variation in the degree to which they are host specialists or host generalists. The screaming cowbird Molothrus rufoaxillaris is one of the most specialized brood parasites, using a single host, the bay-winged cowbird (Agelaioides badius) over most of its range. Coevolutionary theory predicts increasing host specificity the longer the parasite interacts with a particular avian community, as hosts evolve defences that the parasite cannot counteract. According to this view, host specificity can be maintained if screaming cowbirds avoid parasitizing potentially suitable hosts that have developed effective defences against parasitic females or eggs. Specialization may also be favoured, even in the absence of host defences, if the parasite's reproductive success in alternative hosts is lower than that in the main host. We experimentally tested these hypotheses using as alternative hosts two suitable but unparasitized species: house wrens (Troglodytes aedon) and chalk-browed mockingbirds (Mimus saturninus). We assessed host defences against parasitic females and eggs, and reproductive success of the parasite in current and alternative hosts. Alternative hosts did not discriminate against screaming cowbird females or eggs. Egg survival and hatching success were similarly high in current and alternative hosts, but the survival of parasitic chicks was significantly lower in alternative hosts. Our results indicate that screaming cowbirds have the potential to colonize novel hosts, but higher reproductive success in the current host may favour host fidelity. PMID:18647716

  12. Differential reproductive success favours strong host preference in a highly specialized brood parasite.

    PubMed

    De Mársico, María C; Reboreda, Juan C

    2008-11-01

    Obligate avian brood parasites show dramatic variation in the degree to which they are host specialists or host generalists. The screaming cowbird Molothrus rufoaxillaris is one of the most specialized brood parasites, using a single host, the bay-winged cowbird (Agelaioides badius) over most of its range. Coevolutionary theory predicts increasing host specificity the longer the parasite interacts with a particular avian community, as hosts evolve defences that the parasite cannot counteract. According to this view, host specificity can be maintained if screaming cowbirds avoid parasitizing potentially suitable hosts that have developed effective defences against parasitic females or eggs. Specialization may also be favoured, even in the absence of host defences, if the parasite's reproductive success in alternative hosts is lower than that in the main host. We experimentally tested these hypotheses using as alternative hosts two suitable but unparasitized species: house wrens (Troglodytes aedon) and chalk-browed mockingbirds (Mimus saturninus). We assessed host defences against parasitic females and eggs, and reproductive success of the parasite in current and alternative hosts. Alternative hosts did not discriminate against screaming cowbird females or eggs. Egg survival and hatching success were similarly high in current and alternative hosts, but the survival of parasitic chicks was significantly lower in alternative hosts. Our results indicate that screaming cowbirds have the potential to colonize novel hosts, but higher reproductive success in the current host may favour host fidelity.

  13. The effect on ambulatory blood pressure of working under favourably and unfavourably perceived supervisors

    PubMed Central

    Wager, N; Fieldman, G; Hussey, T

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the role played by employees' perceptions of their supervisors' interactional styles as a possible source of workplace stress that may be associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates from cardiovascular disorders in workers in the lower strata of organisational hierarchies. Methods: A controlled, quasi-experimental, field study of female healthcare assistants. Allocation to the experimental and control groups was based on participants' responses to a supervisor interactional style questionnaire. Experimental participants (n = 13) reported working under two divergently perceived supervisors at the same workplace, on different days. The control group (n = 15) worked either under one supervisor, or two similarly perceived supervisors. Ambulatory blood pressure was recorded every 30 minutes, over a 12 hour period for three days. Results: The control group showed a 3 mm Hg difference in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and a non-significant difference in diastolic blood pressure (DBP; mean difference 1 mm Hg) between the two supervisor conditions. The experimental group showed significantly higher SBP (15 mm Hg) and DBP (7 mm Hg) when working under a less favoured compared to a favoured supervisor. The degree of divergence in perceptions of supervisors shows a significant positive relation with the difference in blood pressure between the two workdays. Divergence in perceptions of interpersonal fairness is the strongest predictor of difference in blood pressure. Conclusion: An unfavourably perceived supervisor is a potent workplace stressor, which might have a clinically significant impact on supervisees' cardiovascular functioning. PMID:12819279

  14. Harmful filamentous cyanobacteria favoured by reduced water turnover with lake warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posch, Thomas; Köster, Oliver; Salcher, Michaela M.; Pernthaler, Jakob

    2012-11-01

    Anthropogenic-induced changes in nutrient ratios have increased the susceptibility of large temperate lakes to several effects of rising air temperatures and the resulting heating of water bodies. First, warming leads to stronger thermal stratification, thus impeding natural complete water turnover (holomixis), which compensates for oxygen deficits in the deep zones. Second, increased water temperatures and nutrient concentrations can directly favour the growth of harmful algae. Thus, lake-restoration programmes have focused on reducing nutrients to limit toxic algal blooms. Here we present evidence that the ubiquitous harmful cyanobacterium Planktothrix rubescens has become the dominant species in a large lake during the past four decades, although the phosphorus content of the ecosystem decreased fivefold. However, the nitrogen input was not diminished concomitantly, favouring this non-N2-fixing cyanobacterium owing to increased N:P ratios. P. rubescens contains gas vesicles that allow for buoyancy to accumulate within the depth of optimal irradiance. As the toxic cyanobacterium has low consumption by predators, water turnover represents the main mechanism of seasonal population control. Thus, unidirectional lake-restoration measures in parallel with recurrent absence of holomixis owing to lake warming may lead to similar undesired effects that have formerly emerged from fertilization.

  15. Chronic malnutrition favours smaller critical size for metamorphosis initiation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Vijendravarma, R K; Narasimha, S; Kawecki, T J

    2012-02-01

    Critical size at which metamorphosis is initiated represents an important checkpoint in insect development. Here, we use experimental evolution in Drosophila melanogaster to test the long-standing hypothesis that larval malnutrition should favour a smaller critical size. We report that six fly populations subject to 112 generations of laboratory natural selection on an extremely poor larval food evolved an 18% smaller critical size (compared to six unselected control populations). Thus, even though critical size is not plastic with respect to nutrition, smaller critical size can evolve as an adaptation to nutritional stress. We also demonstrate that this reduction in critical size (rather than differences in growth rate) mediates a trade-off in body weight that the selected populations experience on standard food, on which they show a 15-17% smaller adult body weight. This illustrates how developmental mechanisms that control life history may shape constraints and trade-offs in life history evolution.

  16. Soft Gamma-ray selected radio galaxies: favouring giant size discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panessa, Francesca; Bassani, Loredana

    2016-07-01

    Using the recent INTEGRAL/IBIS and Swift/BAT surveys we have extracted a sample of radio galaxies selected in the soft gamma-ray band. The sample consists of known and candidate radio galaxies. The sample extraction criteria will be presented and its general properties outlined. In particular we provide strong evidence that this soft gamma-ray selection favours the discovery of large size radio objects, otherwise known as Giant Radio Galaxies or GRG. The main reasons and/or conditions leading to the formation of these sources are still unclear and this result suggests that they maybe related to exceptional internal properties of the source central engine, like a high jet power or a long activity time. Broad band analysis of new GRG, discovered during this work, will also be presented.

  17. Why increasing longevity may favour a PAYG pension system over a funded system.

    PubMed

    Ediev, Dalkhat M

    2014-03-01

    When pension systems are contrasted it is common to use simplified demographic models, such as overlapping generation models with time-invariant mortality. Breaking with this tradition, we show that for a population with increasing longevity, the pay-as-you-go (PAYG) system may be more advantageous than a funded system (FS). Increasing longevity favours the PAYG system because for the workers living longer at retirement than current retirees, it is less costly to fund others' current pensions than their own. At present, the effect amounts to around 15 per cent in terms of the dependency ratio, or six more years at work in the FS, or 1 per cent per annum in terms of the real interest rate. In most developed countries the effect substantially exceeds that of the usually studied biological interest rate.

  18. The present and future of the most favoured inflationary models after Planck 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escudero, Miguel; Ramírez, Héctor; Boubekeur, Lotfi; Giusarma, Elena; Mena, Olga

    2016-02-01

    The value of the tensor-to-scalar ratio r in the region allowed by the latest Planck 2015 measurements can be associated to a large variety of inflationary models. We discuss here the potential of future Cosmic Microwave Background cosmological observations in disentangling among the possible theoretical scenarios allowed by our analyses of current Planck temperature and polarization data. Rather than focusing only on r, we focus as well on the running of the primordial power spectrum, αs and the running thereof, βs. If future cosmological measurements, as those from the COrE mission, confirm the current best-fit value for βs gtrsim 10-2 as the preferred one, it will be possible to rule-out the most favoured inflationary models.

  19. Darwin's Arguments in Favour of Natural Selection and Against Special Creationism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nola, Robert

    2013-02-01

    In many places in The Origin of Species, Darwin compares his own theory of Natural Selection favourably with Special Creationism which comes off as a bad second best. He does this using some version of the argument form known as `Inference to the Best Explanation'. The first part of this paper is methodological. It considers Whewell's notion of consilience, that is, the way in which theories can get additional confirmation through unifying otherwise disparate and independent facts. Then it considers various forms of inference to the best explanation. The second part of the paper applies these methodological considerations to an analysis of some of the many passages in Origin where Darwin presents his case in favour of Natural Selection. This gives a far superior explanation of biological facts compared with Special Creationism which provides either an inferior explanation or no explanation at all. Contrary to the view that Creationism should not be taught, the passages from Darwin show at least that it should be understood if only to show that it offers no explanation of a wide range of obvious biological facts. As such the passages in Origin in which Darwin presents his case against Creationism can serve as a series of excellent exercises in getting students to think about Natural Selection as opposed to Creationism. For this reason alone they ought to be better known. In addition, Darwin's point in these passages can only be understood using principles of scientific method, such as inference to the best explanation, which are essential in showing that Natural Selection is to be preferred to Creationism.

  20. Plastic traits of an exotic grass contribute to its abundance but are not always favourable.

    PubMed

    Firn, Jennifer; Prober, Suzanne M; Buckley, Yvonne M

    2012-01-01

    In herbaceous ecosystems worldwide, biodiversity has been negatively impacted by changed grazing regimes and nutrient enrichment. Altered disturbance regimes are thought to favour invasive species that have a high phenotypic plasticity, although most studies measure plasticity under controlled conditions in the greenhouse and then assume plasticity is an advantage in the field. Here, we compare trait plasticity between three co-occurring, C(4) perennial grass species, an invader Eragrostis curvula, and natives Eragrostis sororia and Aristida personata to grazing and fertilizer in a three-year field trial. We measured abundances and several leaf traits known to correlate with strategies used by plants to fix carbon and acquire resources, i.e. specific leaf area (SLA), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), leaf nutrient concentrations (N, C:N, P), assimilation rates (Amax) and photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE). In the control treatment (grazed only), trait values for SLA, leaf C:N ratios, Amax and PNUE differed significantly between the three grass species. When trait values were compared across treatments, E. curvula showed higher trait plasticity than the native grasses, and this correlated with an increase in abundance across all but the grazed/fertilized treatment. The native grasses showed little trait plasticity in response to the treatments. Aristida personata decreased significantly in the treatments where E. curvula increased, and E. sororia abundance increased possibly due to increased rainfall and not in response to treatments or invader abundance. Overall, we found that plasticity did not favour an increase in abundance of E. curvula under the grazed/fertilized treatment likely because leaf nutrient contents increased and subsequently its' palatability to consumers. E. curvula also displayed a higher resource use efficiency than the native grasses. These findings suggest resource conditions and disturbance regimes can be manipulated to disadvantage

  1. Water-quality data for the Santa Clara-Calleguas hydrologic unit, Ventura County, California, October 1989 through December 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, J.A.; Martin, P.M.; Densmore, J.N.; Clark, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    More than 700 water samples were collected from 232 wells and 34 surface-water sites in the Santa Clara-Calleguas Hydrologic Unit, Ventura County, California, from October 1989 through December 1993 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Southern California Regional Aquifer-System Analysis study. Most samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, selected trace elements, oxygen-18, and deuterium. Selected samples were analyzed for one or more of the following isotopes: carbon-13/12, carbon-14, strontium-87/86, sulfur-34/32, and tritium. Other samples were analyzed for one or more of the following dissolved gases: hydrogen, methane, oxygen, and freon-11. Location of sampling sites is shown on maps and the results are presented in tables.

  2. Evidence for the existence of Pd-107 in the early solar system. [from Santa Clara iron meteorite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, W. R.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of the concentration and isotopic composition of Ag and Pd in the Santa Clara iron meteorite suggest that in situ decay of Pd-107 occurred in the meteorite or its parent body. The initial solar ratio of Pd-107/Pd-110 is estimated from the observed ratio of excess Ag-107/Pd-110, and the value of the Pd ratio is incompatible with an interval of approximately 100,000,000 years between the end of nucleosynthesis and the formation of planetary objects but is compatible with a later injection of material. The inferred existence of Pd-107 and Al-26 indicates that the late injection included freshly synthesized material of both intermediate and low atomic weight on a similar time scale. The significance of the Pd-107/Ag-107 chronometer is considered.

  3. Demographic factors associated with perceptions about water safety and tap water consumption among adults in Santa Clara County, California, 2011.

    PubMed

    van Erp, Brianna; Webber, Whitney L; Stoddard, Pamela; Shah, Roshni; Martin, Lori; Broderick, Bonnie; Induni, Marta

    2014-06-12

    The objective of this study was to examine differences in tap water consumption and perceptions of bottle versus tap water safety for Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites, as well as associations with other demographic characteristics. Data are from the Santa Clara County, California, Dietary Practices Survey (2011; N = 306). We used logistic regression to examine associations between demographic characteristics and 1) perceptions that bottled water is safer than tap and 2) primarily consuming tap water. Hispanics were less likely than non-Hispanic whites to primarily drink tap water (OR = 0.33; 95% CI, 0.11-0.99), although there was no significant difference in perceptions that bottled water is safer between these groups (OR = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.11-2.27). Hispanics may be an important population for interventions promoting tap water consumption.

  4. Clearing a Career Path: Lessons from Two Communities in Promoting Higher Education Access for the Early Care and Education Workforce. Alameda and Santa Clara Counties, California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukakis, Kara; Bellm, Dan

    2006-01-01

    This report documents the process through which Alameda and Santa Clara Counties have used the Comprehensive Approaches to Raising Educational Standards (CARES) programs and other resources to leverage systemic change in early care and education (ECE) higher education. It describes a range of new and expanded efforts in both counties, and aims to…

  5. Neogene contraction between the San Andreas fault and the Santa Clara Valley, San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, R.J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Schmidt, K.M.; Jachens, R.C.; Stanley, R.G.; Jayko, A.S.; McDougall, K.A.; Tinsley, J.C.; Valin, Z.C.

    1999-01-01

    In the southern San Francisco Bay region of California, oblique dextral reverse faults that verge northeastward from the San Andreas fault experienced triggered slip during the 1989 M7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake. The role of these range-front thrusts in the evolution of the San Andreas fault system and the future seismic hazard that they may pose to the urban Santa Clara Valley are poorly understood. Based on recent geologic mapping and geophysical investigations, we propose that the range-front thrust system evolved in conjunction with development of the San Andreas fault system. In the early Miocene, the region was dominated by a system of northwestwardly propagating, basin-bounding, transtensional faults. Beginning as early as middle Miocene time, however, the transtensional faulting was superseded by transpressional NE-stepping thrust and reverse faults of the range-front thrust system. Age constraints on the thrust faults indicate that the locus of contraction has focused on the Monte Vista, Shannon, and Berrocal faults since about 4.8 Ma. Fault slip and fold reconstructions suggest that crustal shortening between the San Andreas fault and the Santa Clara Valley within this time frame is ~21%, amounting to as much as 3.2 km at a rate of 0.6 mm/yr. Rates probably have not remained constant; average rates appear to have been much lower in the past few 100 ka. The distribution of coseismic surface contraction during the Loma Prieta earthquake, active seismicity, late Pleistocene to Holocene fluvial terrace warping, and geodetic data further suggest that the active range-front thrust system includes blind thrusts. Critical unresolved issues include information on the near-surface locations of buried thrusts, the timing of recent thrust earthquake events, and their recurrence in relation to earthquakes on the San Andreas fault.

  6. Statistical analysis and mathematical modeling of a tracer test on the Santa Clara River, Ventura County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paybins, Katherine S.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Izbicki, John A.; Reichard, Eric G.

    1998-01-01

    To better understand flow processes, solute-transport processes, and ground-water/surface-water interactions on the Santa Clara River in Ventura County, California, a 24-hour fluorescent-dye tracer study was performed under steady-state flow conditions on a 28-mile reach of the river. The study reach includes perennial (uppermost and lowermost) subreaches and ephemeral subreaches of the lower Piru Creek and the middle Santa Clara River. Dye was injected at a site on Piru Creek, and fluorescence of river water was measured continuously at four sites and intermittently at two sites. Discharge measurements were also made at the six sites. The time of travel of the dye, peak dye concentration, and time-variance of time-concentration curves were obtained at each site. The long tails of the time-concentration curves are indicative of sources/sinks within the river, such as riffles and pools, or transient bank storage. A statistical analysis of the data indicates that, in general, the transport characteristics follow Fickian theory. These data and previously collected discharge data were used to calibrate a one-dimensional flow model (DAFLOW) and a solute-transport model (BLTM). DAFLOW solves a simplified form of the diffusion-wave equation and uses empirical relations between flow rate and cross-sectional area, and flow rate and channel width. BLTM uses the velocity data from DAFLOW and solves the advection-dispersion transport equation, including first-order decay. The simulations of dye transport indicated that (1) ground-water recharge explains the loss of dye mass in the middle, ephemeral, subreaches, and (2) ground-water recharge does not explain the loss of dye mass in the uppermost and lowermost, perennial, subreaches. This loss of mass was simulated using a linear decay term. The loss of mass in the perennial subreaches may be caused by a combination of photodecay or adsorption/desorption.

  7. Cockle emergence at the sediment surface: 'favourization' mechanism by digenean parasites?

    PubMed

    Desclaux, C; de Montaudouin, X; Bachelet, G

    2002-11-22

    The aim of the present work was to assess the effect of digenean trematodes on indirect mortality of the cockle Cerastoderma edule, an infaunal bivalve. The tested hypothesis was that parasites altered the burrowing capacity of cockles and thus exposed them at the sediment surface, where they are more vulnerable to predators. If the predator is the final host, this mechanism, which drives the cockle out of the sediment, is considered as a 'favourization'. Cockle populations from 2 stations in Arcachon Bay (France)-Banc d'Arguin (oceanic situation) and La Canelette (lagoonal situation)--were sampled for 1 yr. At La Canelette, monitoring every 2 d showed that 50% of adult cockles regularly migrated to the sediment surface at a rate of 5 cockles m(-2) yr(-1) and disappeared in a few days. In the laboratory, 67% of these 'surface cockles' did not burrow again, suggesting that they would die in the field. Moreover, mortality measured after 7 d in the laboratory was 2 to 5 times higher than mortality of 'buried cockles', at both stations and particularly during summer. Species richness and abundance of digeneans from both stations were compared in 'buried' and 'surface' individuals to determine whether parasites played a role in cockle migration and mortality. Ten and 9 digeneans were found at Banc d'Arguin and La Canelette, respectively, with Himasthla quissetensis and Labratrema minimus being the most prevalent and abundant species at both stations. The abundance of H. quissetensis was slightly higher in surface cockles at Banc d'Arguin, but the difference fluctuated with station and cockle age (or size). L. minimus prevalence was only higher in surface cockles at La Canelette. In the latter station, we estimated that L. minimus and H. quissetensis were responsible for the emergence of 9 and 2%, respectively, of the buried cockles. Although this favourization mechanism may induce some mortality in cockles, it does not alone explain the magnitude of the observed

  8. Favourable response of a virilizing adrenocortical carcinoma to preoperative treatment with ketoconazole and postoperative chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kruimel, J W; Smals, A G; Beex, L V; Swinkels, L M; Pieters, G F; Kloppenborg, P W

    1991-04-01

    A 25-year-old woman presented with an extensive adrenocortical carcinoma with severe virilization and mild Cushing's syndrome. In the tumour there was a primacy of the P450C17 (17,20-lyase) over the P450C21 (21-hydroxylase) route, favouring the synthesis of androgens over corticoids. Preoperatively, the patient was treated with the antimycotic agent ketoconazole, a known inhibitor of steroid synthesis, at a dose of 600 mg/day and after a week 1200 mg/day, to reduce operation risks and to achieve a better metabolic control. This treatment markedly decreased hyperandrogenism and normalized the hypercortisolism. The main effect of ketoconazole was at the 17,20-lyase level and probably at a locus prior in steroidogenesis, i.e. at the P450SCC and/or 17 alpha-hydroxylase level. In contrast with other studies no effect at all was seen on the 11-hydroxylase activity of P450C11. After removal of a massive adrenal carcinoma, extending into the vena cava, vena cava resection and hemihepatectomy because of liver invasion, plasma cortisol and androgen values normalized. Despite adjuvant chemotherapy with o,p'-dichlor-diphenyl-dichloretan (4000 mg daily) hyperandrogenism soon recurred and lung metastases became manifest. Within 2 months after starting combined chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, and doxorubicin lung metastases almost completely disappeared with clinical and biochemical resolution of the hyperandrogenic state.

  9. Does natural selection favour taller stature among the tallest people on earth?

    PubMed

    Stulp, Gert; Barrett, Louise; Tropf, Felix C; Mills, Melinda

    2015-05-01

    The Dutch are the tallest people on earth. Over the last 200 years, they have grown 20 cm in height: a rapid rate of increase that points to environmental causes. This secular trend in height is echoed across all Western populations, but came to an end, or at least levelled off, much earlier than in The Netherlands. One possibility, then, is that natural selection acted congruently with these environmentally induced changes to further promote tall stature among the people of the lowlands. Using data from the LifeLines study, which follows a large sample of the population of the north of The Netherlands (n = 94 516), we examined how height was related to measures of reproductive success (as a proxy for fitness). Across three decades (1935-1967), height was consistently related to reproductive output (number of children born and number of surviving children), favouring taller men and average height women. This was despite a later age at first birth for taller individuals. Furthermore, even in this low-mortality population, taller women experienced higher child survival, which contributed positively to their increased reproductive success. Thus, natural selection in addition to good environmental conditions may help explain why the Dutch are so tall. PMID:25854890

  10. Cryptic female choice favours sperm from major histocompatibility complex-dissimilar males.

    PubMed

    Løvlie, Hanne; Gillingham, Mark A F; Worley, Kirsty; Pizzari, Tommaso; Richardson, David S

    2013-10-22

    Cryptic female choice may enable polyandrous females to avoid inbreeding or bias offspring variability at key loci after mating. However, the role of these genetic benefits in cryptic female choice remains poorly understood. Female red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, bias sperm use in favour of unrelated males. Here, we experimentally investigate whether this bias is driven by relatedness per se, or by similarity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), genes central to vertebrate acquired immunity, where polymorphism is critical to an individual's ability to combat pathogens. Through experimentally controlled natural matings, we confirm that selection against related males' sperm occurs within the female reproductive tract but demonstrate that this is more accurately predicted by MHC similarity: controlling for relatedness per se, more sperm reached the eggs when partners were MHC--dissimilar. Importantly, this effect appeared largely owing to similarity at a single MHC locus (class I minor). Further, the effect of MHC similarity was lost following artificial insemination, suggesting that male phenotypic cues might be required for females to select sperm differentially. These results indicate that postmating mechanisms that reduce inbreeding may do so as a consequence of more specific strategies of cryptic female choice promoting MHC diversity in offspring. PMID:24004935

  11. Does natural selection favour taller stature among the tallest people on earth?

    PubMed

    Stulp, Gert; Barrett, Louise; Tropf, Felix C; Mills, Melinda

    2015-05-01

    The Dutch are the tallest people on earth. Over the last 200 years, they have grown 20 cm in height: a rapid rate of increase that points to environmental causes. This secular trend in height is echoed across all Western populations, but came to an end, or at least levelled off, much earlier than in The Netherlands. One possibility, then, is that natural selection acted congruently with these environmentally induced changes to further promote tall stature among the people of the lowlands. Using data from the LifeLines study, which follows a large sample of the population of the north of The Netherlands (n = 94 516), we examined how height was related to measures of reproductive success (as a proxy for fitness). Across three decades (1935-1967), height was consistently related to reproductive output (number of children born and number of surviving children), favouring taller men and average height women. This was despite a later age at first birth for taller individuals. Furthermore, even in this low-mortality population, taller women experienced higher child survival, which contributed positively to their increased reproductive success. Thus, natural selection in addition to good environmental conditions may help explain why the Dutch are so tall.

  12. Meta-analysis of phenotypic selection on flowering phenology suggests that early flowering plants are favoured.

    PubMed

    Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A; Ollerton, Jeff; Parra-Tabla, Victor; De-Nova, J Arturo

    2011-05-01

    Flowering times of plants are important life-history components and it has previously been hypothesized that flowering phenologies may be currently subject to natural selection or be selectively neutral. In this study we reviewed the evidence for phenotypic selection acting on flowering phenology using ordinary and phylogenetic meta-analysis. Phenotypic selection exists when a phenotypic trait co-varies with fitness; therefore, we looked for studies reporting an association between two components of flowering phenology (flowering time or flowering synchrony) with fitness. Data sets comprising 87 and 18 plant species were then used to assess the incidence and strength of phenotypic selection on flowering time and flowering synchrony, respectively. The influence of dependence on pollinators, the duration of the reproductive event, latitude and plant longevity as moderators of selection were also explored. Our results suggest that selection favours early flowering plants, but the strength of selection is influenced by latitude, with selection being stronger in temperate environments. However, there is no consistent pattern of selection on flowering synchrony. Our study demonstrates that phenotypic selection on flowering time is consistent and relatively strong, in contrast to previous hypotheses of selective neutrality, and has implications for the evolution of temperate floras under global climate change. PMID:21332621

  13. Future Climate Change Will Favour Non-Specialist Mammals in the (Sub)Arctics

    PubMed Central

    Hof, Anouschka R.; Jansson, Roland; Nilsson, Christer

    2012-01-01

    Arctic and subarctic (i.e., [sub]arctic) ecosystems are predicted to be particularly susceptible to climate change. The area of tundra is expected to decrease and temperate climates will extend further north, affecting species inhabiting northern environments. Consequently, species at high latitudes should be especially susceptible to climate change, likely experiencing significant range contractions. Contrary to these expectations, our modelling of species distributions suggests that predicted climate change up to 2080 will favour most mammals presently inhabiting (sub)arctic Europe. Assuming full dispersal ability, most species will benefit from climate change, except for a few cold-climate specialists. However, most resident species will contract their ranges if they are not able to track their climatic niches, but no species is predicted to go extinct. If climate would change far beyond current predictions, however, species might disappear. The reason for the relative stability of mammalian presence might be that arctic regions have experienced large climatic shifts in the past, filtering out sensitive and range-restricted taxa. We also provide evidence that for most (sub)arctic mammals it is not climate change per se that will threaten them, but possible constraints on their dispersal ability and changes in community composition. Such impacts of future changes in species communities should receive more attention in literature. PMID:23285098

  14. Identifying the Environmental Conditions Favouring West Nile Virus Outbreaks in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Markus; Rosà, Roberto; Marini, Giovanni; Chadwick, Elizabeth; Neteler, Markus

    2015-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is a globally important mosquito borne virus, with significant implications for human and animal health. The emergence and spread of new lineages, and increased pathogenicity, is the cause of escalating public health concern. Pinpointing the environmental conditions that favour WNV circulation and transmission to humans is challenging, due both to the complexity of its biological cycle, and the under-diagnosis and reporting of epidemiological data. Here, we used remote sensing and GIS to enable collation of multiple types of environmental data over a continental spatial scale, in order to model annual West Nile Fever (WNF) incidence across Europe and neighbouring countries. Multi-model selection and inference were used to gain a consensus from multiple linear mixed models. Climate and landscape were key predictors of WNF outbreaks (specifically, high precipitation in late winter/early spring, high summer temperatures, summer drought, occurrence of irrigated croplands and highly fragmented forests). Identification of the environmental conditions associated with WNF outbreaks is key to enabling public health bodies to properly focus surveillance and mitigation of West Nile virus impact, but more work needs to be done to enable accurate predictions of WNF risk. PMID:25803814

  15. Macadamia nut consumption modulates favourably risk factors for coronary artery disease in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Garg, Manohar L; Blake, Robert J; Wills, Ron B H; Clayton, Edward H

    2007-06-01

    Macadamia nuts are rich source of monounsaturated fats (oleic and palmitoleic acids) and contain polyphenol compounds, therefore, their consumption can be expected to impart health benefits to humans. This study was conducted to examine the effects of consuming macadamia nuts in hypercholesterolemic male individuals on plasma biomarkers of oxidative stress, coagulation and inflammation. Seventeen hypercholesterolemic male subjects were given macadamia nuts (40-90 g/day), equivalent to 15% energy intake, for a period of 4 weeks. As expected, monounsaturated fatty acids (16:1n-7, 18:1n-9 and 20:1n-9) were elevated in the plasma lipids of all volunteers following intervention with macadamia nuts. Plasma markers of inflammation (leukotriene, LTB(4)) and oxidative stress (8-isoprostane) were significantly lower (1,353 +/- 225 vs. 1,030 +/- 129 pg/mL and 876 +/- 97 vs. 679 +/- 116 pg/mL, respectively) within 4 weeks following macadamia nut intervention. There was a non-significant (23.6%) reduction in the plasma TXB(2)/PGI(2) ratio following macadamia nut consumption. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that short-term macadamia nut consumption modifies favourably the biomarkers of oxidative stress, thrombosis and inflammation, the risk factors for coronary artery disease, despite an increase in dietary fat intake. These data, combined with our previous results on cholesterol-lowering effects of macadamia nuts, suggest that regular consumption of macadamia nuts may play a role in the prevention of coronary artery disease.

  16. Future climate change will favour non-specialist mammals in the (sub)arctics.

    PubMed

    Hof, Anouschka R; Jansson, Roland; Nilsson, Christer

    2012-01-01

    Arctic and subarctic (i.e., [sub]arctic) ecosystems are predicted to be particularly susceptible to climate change. The area of tundra is expected to decrease and temperate climates will extend further north, affecting species inhabiting northern environments. Consequently, species at high latitudes should be especially susceptible to climate change, likely experiencing significant range contractions. Contrary to these expectations, our modelling of species distributions suggests that predicted climate change up to 2080 will favour most mammals presently inhabiting (sub)arctic Europe. Assuming full dispersal ability, most species will benefit from climate change, except for a few cold-climate specialists. However, most resident species will contract their ranges if they are not able to track their climatic niches, but no species is predicted to go extinct. If climate would change far beyond current predictions, however, species might disappear. The reason for the relative stability of mammalian presence might be that arctic regions have experienced large climatic shifts in the past, filtering out sensitive and range-restricted taxa. We also provide evidence that for most (sub)arctic mammals it is not climate change per se that will threaten them, but possible constraints on their dispersal ability and changes in community composition. Such impacts of future changes in species communities should receive more attention in literature.

  17. Amplified mid-latitude planetary waves favour particular regional weather extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Screen, James A.; Simmonds, Ian

    2014-08-01

    There has been an ostensibly large number of extreme weather events in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes during the past decade. An open question that is critically important for scientists and policy makers is whether any such increase in weather extremes is natural or anthropogenic in origin. One mechanism proposed to explain the increased frequency of extreme weather events is the amplification of mid-latitude atmospheric planetary waves. Disproportionately large warming in the northern polar regions compared with mid-latitudes--and associated weakening of the north-south temperature gradient--may favour larger amplitude planetary waves, although observational evidence for this remains inconclusive. A better understanding of the role of planetary waves in causing mid-latitude weather extremes is essential for assessing the potential environmental and socio-economic impacts of future planetary wave changes. Here we show that months of extreme weather over mid-latitudes are commonly accompanied by significantly amplified quasi-stationary mid-tropospheric planetary waves. Conversely, months of near-average weather over mid-latitudes are often accompanied by significantly attenuated waves. Depending on geographical region, certain types of extreme weather (for example, hot, cold, wet, dry) are more strongly related to wave amplitude changes than others. The findings suggest that amplification of quasi-stationary waves preferentially increases the probabilities of heat waves in western North America and central Asia, cold outbreaks in eastern North America, droughts in central North America, Europe and central Asia, and wet spells in western Asia.

  18. Airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain: Identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential source areas.

    PubMed

    Maya-Manzano, José María; Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Smith, Matt; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Reynolds, Andrew M; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela; Sadyś, Magdalena

    2016-11-15

    The pollen grains of Quercus spp. (oak trees) are allergenic. This study investigates airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain with the aim identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential sources areas. Two types of Quercus distribution maps were produced. Airborne Quercus pollen concentrations were measured at three sites located in the Extremadura region (SW Spain) for 3 consecutive years. The seasonal occurrence of Quercus pollen in the air was investigated, as well as days with pollen concentrations ≥80Pm(-3). The distance that Quercus pollen can be transported in appreciable numbers was calculated using clusters of back trajectories representing the air mass movement above the source areas (oak woodlands), and by using a state-of-the-art dispersion model. The two main potential sources of Quercus airborne pollen captured in SW Spain are Q. ilex subsp. ballota and Q. suber. The minimum distances between aerobiological stations and Quercus woodlands have been estimated as: 40km (Plasencia), 66km (Don Benito), 62km (Zafra) from the context of this study. Daily mean Quercus pollen concentration can exceed 1,700Pm(-3), levels reached not less than 24 days in a single year. High Quercus pollen concentration were mostly associated with moderate wind speed events (6-10ms(-1)), whereas that a high wind speed (16-20ms(-1)) seems to be associated with low concentrations. PMID:27443456

  19. Learning styles favoured by professional, amateur, and recreational athletes in different sports.

    PubMed

    González-Haro, Carlos; Calleja-González, Julio; Escanero, Jesus F

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the learning styles of different groups of athletes grouped according to level of performance and sport. Seventy-one male athletes completed a questionnaire on learning styles at the beginning of the 2008-2009 training season. Learning styles were assessed using the Honey-Alonso Learning Styles Questionnaire, and were also converted into learning styles described by Kolb. The Honey-Alonso learning styles were compared among the various groups using one-way analysis of variance, and the Kolb learning styles that were most favoured using a chi-square test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to verify the relationships between variables. No significant differences were observed in learning styles between different sports and physical activities. Years of experience did not correlate strongly with learning styles. With respect to level of performance, the pragmatic component was significantly lower in professional athletes than amateur and recreational athletes. These characteristics of learning styles preferred by the athletes should help coaches and physical trainers to reflect on their role as educators in the context of planning sports training.

  20. Does natural selection favour taller stature among the tallest people on earth?

    PubMed Central

    Stulp, Gert; Barrett, Louise; Tropf, Felix C.; Mills, Melinda

    2015-01-01

    The Dutch are the tallest people on earth. Over the last 200 years, they have grown 20 cm in height: a rapid rate of increase that points to environmental causes. This secular trend in height is echoed across all Western populations, but came to an end, or at least levelled off, much earlier than in The Netherlands. One possibility, then, is that natural selection acted congruently with these environmentally induced changes to further promote tall stature among the people of the lowlands. Using data from the LifeLines study, which follows a large sample of the population of the north of The Netherlands (n = 94 516), we examined how height was related to measures of reproductive success (as a proxy for fitness). Across three decades (1935–1967), height was consistently related to reproductive output (number of children born and number of surviving children), favouring taller men and average height women. This was despite a later age at first birth for taller individuals. Furthermore, even in this low-mortality population, taller women experienced higher child survival, which contributed positively to their increased reproductive success. Thus, natural selection in addition to good environmental conditions may help explain why the Dutch are so tall. PMID:25854890

  1. Is earthquake activity along the French Atlantic margin favoured by local rheological contrasts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazabraud, Yves; Béthoux, Nicole; Delouis, Bertrand

    2013-09-01

    The seismological study of recent seismic crises near Oleron Island confirms the coexistence of an extensional deformation and a transtensive regime in the Atlantic margin of France, which is different from the general western European stress field corresponding to a strike-slip regime. We argue that the switch of the principal stress axes σ1/σ2 in a NW-SE vertical plane is linked with the existence of crustal heterogeneities. Events of magnitude larger than 5 sometimes occur along the Atlantic margin of France, such as the 7 September 1972 (ML = 5.2) earthquake near Oleron island and the 30 September 2002 (ML = 5.7) Hennebont event in Brittany. To test the mechanism of local strain localization, we model the deformation of the hypocentral area of the Hennebont earthquake using a 3D thermo-mechanical finite element code. We conclude that the occurrence of moderate earthquakes located in limited parts of the Hercynian shear zones (as the often reactivated swarms near Oleron) could be due to local reactivation of pre-existing faults. These sporadic seismic ruptures are favoured by stress concentration due to rheological heterogeneities.

  2. Cryptic female choice favours sperm from major histocompatibility complex-dissimilar males

    PubMed Central

    Løvlie, Hanne; Gillingham, Mark A. F.; Worley, Kirsty; Pizzari, Tommaso; Richardson, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Cryptic female choice may enable polyandrous females to avoid inbreeding or bias offspring variability at key loci after mating. However, the role of these genetic benefits in cryptic female choice remains poorly understood. Female red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, bias sperm use in favour of unrelated males. Here, we experimentally investigate whether this bias is driven by relatedness per se, or by similarity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), genes central to vertebrate acquired immunity, where polymorphism is critical to an individual's ability to combat pathogens. Through experimentally controlled natural matings, we confirm that selection against related males' sperm occurs within the female reproductive tract but demonstrate that this is more accurately predicted by MHC similarity: controlling for relatedness per se, more sperm reached the eggs when partners were MHC-dissimilar. Importantly, this effect appeared largely owing to similarity at a single MHC locus (class I minor). Further, the effect of MHC similarity was lost following artificial insemination, suggesting that male phenotypic cues might be required for females to select sperm differentially. These results indicate that postmating mechanisms that reduce inbreeding may do so as a consequence of more specific strategies of cryptic female choice promoting MHC diversity in offspring. PMID:24004935

  3. Airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain: Identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential source areas.

    PubMed

    Maya-Manzano, José María; Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Smith, Matt; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Reynolds, Andrew M; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela; Sadyś, Magdalena

    2016-11-15

    The pollen grains of Quercus spp. (oak trees) are allergenic. This study investigates airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain with the aim identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential sources areas. Two types of Quercus distribution maps were produced. Airborne Quercus pollen concentrations were measured at three sites located in the Extremadura region (SW Spain) for 3 consecutive years. The seasonal occurrence of Quercus pollen in the air was investigated, as well as days with pollen concentrations ≥80Pm(-3). The distance that Quercus pollen can be transported in appreciable numbers was calculated using clusters of back trajectories representing the air mass movement above the source areas (oak woodlands), and by using a state-of-the-art dispersion model. The two main potential sources of Quercus airborne pollen captured in SW Spain are Q. ilex subsp. ballota and Q. suber. The minimum distances between aerobiological stations and Quercus woodlands have been estimated as: 40km (Plasencia), 66km (Don Benito), 62km (Zafra) from the context of this study. Daily mean Quercus pollen concentration can exceed 1,700Pm(-3), levels reached not less than 24 days in a single year. High Quercus pollen concentration were mostly associated with moderate wind speed events (6-10ms(-1)), whereas that a high wind speed (16-20ms(-1)) seems to be associated with low concentrations.

  4. Macadamia nut consumption modulates favourably risk factors for coronary artery disease in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Garg, Manohar L; Blake, Robert J; Wills, Ron B H; Clayton, Edward H

    2007-06-01

    Macadamia nuts are rich source of monounsaturated fats (oleic and palmitoleic acids) and contain polyphenol compounds, therefore, their consumption can be expected to impart health benefits to humans. This study was conducted to examine the effects of consuming macadamia nuts in hypercholesterolemic male individuals on plasma biomarkers of oxidative stress, coagulation and inflammation. Seventeen hypercholesterolemic male subjects were given macadamia nuts (40-90 g/day), equivalent to 15% energy intake, for a period of 4 weeks. As expected, monounsaturated fatty acids (16:1n-7, 18:1n-9 and 20:1n-9) were elevated in the plasma lipids of all volunteers following intervention with macadamia nuts. Plasma markers of inflammation (leukotriene, LTB(4)) and oxidative stress (8-isoprostane) were significantly lower (1,353 +/- 225 vs. 1,030 +/- 129 pg/mL and 876 +/- 97 vs. 679 +/- 116 pg/mL, respectively) within 4 weeks following macadamia nut intervention. There was a non-significant (23.6%) reduction in the plasma TXB(2)/PGI(2) ratio following macadamia nut consumption. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that short-term macadamia nut consumption modifies favourably the biomarkers of oxidative stress, thrombosis and inflammation, the risk factors for coronary artery disease, despite an increase in dietary fat intake. These data, combined with our previous results on cholesterol-lowering effects of macadamia nuts, suggest that regular consumption of macadamia nuts may play a role in the prevention of coronary artery disease. PMID:17437143

  5. Dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are favourable to glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists: yes.

    PubMed

    Scheen, André J

    2012-03-01

    The pharmacological treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is becoming increasingly complex, especially since the availability of incretin-based therapies. Compared with other glucose-lowering strategies, these novel drugs offer some advantages such as an absence of weight gain and a negligible risk of hypoglycaemia and, possibly, better cardiovascular and β-cell protection. The physician has now multiple choices to manage his/her patient after secondary failure of metformin, and the question whether it is preferable to add an oral dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor (gliptin) or an injectable glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist will emerge. Obviously, DPP-4 inhibitors offer several advantages compared with GLP-1 receptor agonists, especially regarding easiness of use, tolerance profile and cost. However, because they can only increase endogenous GLP-1 concentrations to physiological (rather than pharmacological) levels, they are less potent to improve glucose control, promote weight reduction ("weight neutrality") and reduce blood pressure compared to GLP-1 receptor agonists. Of note, none of the two classes have proven long-term safety and positive impact on diabetic complications yet. The role of DPP-4 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists in the therapeutic armamentarium of T2DM is rapidly evolving, but their respective potential strengths and weaknesses should be better defined in long-term head-to-head comparative controlled trials. Instead of trying to answer the question whether DPP-4 inhibitors are favourable to GLP-1 receptor agonists (or vice versa), it is probably more clinically relevant to look at which T2DM patient will benefit more from one or the other therapy considering all his/her individual clinical characteristics ("personalized medicine").

  6. Evaluation of surface-water/ground-water interactions in the Santa Clara River Valley, Ventura County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichard, Eric George; Crawford, Steven M.; Paybins, Katherine S.; Martin, Peter; Land, Michael; Nishikawa, Tracy

    1999-01-01

    The interactions of surface water and ground water along the Santa Clara River in Ventura County, California, were evaluated by analyzing river-discharge and water-quality data and geohydrologic information collected by the U.S. Geological Survey between 1993 and 1995 for the Piru, Fillmore, and Santa Paula subbasins. Measurements of discharge and water quality were made at multiple locations along the Santa Clara River and its tributaries at eight different time periods during different releases from Lake Piru. Geologic, hydraulic, and water-quality data were collected from three new multiple-completion ground-water monitoring wells. These data, together with data collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Southern California Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) study, were analyzed in order to quantify rates and locations of ground-water recharge and discharge within the river, characterize the correlation of recharge and discharge rates with ground-water conditions and reservoir releases, and better characterize the three-dimensional ground-water flow system. Analysis of the data indicates that the largest amount of ground-water recharge from the river consistently occurs in the Piru subbasin. Some ground-water recharge from the river may occur in the upper part of the Fillmore subbasin. Increases in sulfate concentrations indicate that increases in flow at the lower ends of the Piru and Fillmore subbasins result from high-sulfate ground-water discharge. Increases in flow in the lower part of the Santa Paula subbasin are not accompanied by significant sulfate increases. Several sets of regressions indicate possible correlation between net flow changes in the river and depths to ground water and release rates from Lake Piru. These statistical relations may be of use for evaluating alternative Lake Piru release strategies. Data on the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen from the ground-water monitoring wells that were installed as part of this

  7. Morphometry, ultrastructure, myosin isoforms, and metabolic capacities of the "mini muscles" favoured by selection for high activity in house mice.

    PubMed

    Guderley, Helga; Houle-Leroy, Philippe; Diffee, Gary M; Camp, Dana M; Garland, Theodore

    2006-07-01

    Prolonged selective breeding of mice (Mus musculus) for high levels of voluntary wheel running has favoured an unusual phenotype ("mini muscles"), apparently caused by a single Mendelian recessive allele, in which most hind-limb muscles are markedly reduced in mass, but have increased mass-specific activities of mitochondrial enzymes. We examined whether these changes reflect changes in fibre size, number or ultrastructure in normal and "mini-muscle" mice within the two (of four) selectively bred lines (lab designations L3 and L6) that exhibit the phenotype at generations 26 and 27. In both lines, the gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles are smaller in mass (by >50% and 20%, respectively) in affected individuals. The mass-specific activities of mitochondrial enzymes in the gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles were increased in the mini phenotype in both lines, with stronger effects in the gastrocnemius muscle. In the gastrocnemius, the % myosin heavy chain (MHC) IIb was reduced by 50% in L3 and by 30% in L6, whereas the % MHC IIa and I were higher, particularly in L3. Fibre number in the plantaris muscle did not significantly differ between mini and normal muscles, although muscle mass was a significant positive correlate of fibre number. Small fibres were more abundant in mini than normal muscles in L3. Mitochondrial volume density was significantly higher in mini than normal muscle fibres in L3, but not in L6. Microscopy revealed a surprising attribute of the mini muscles: an abundance of small, minimally differentiated, myofibril-containing cells positioned in a disorderly fashion, particularly in the surface layer. We hypothesise that these unusual cells may be satellite cells or type IIb fibres that did not complete their differentiation. Together, these observations suggest that mice with the mini phenotype have reduced numbers of type IIb fibres in many of their hind-limb muscles, leading to a decrease in mass and an increase in mass-specific aerobic capacity

  8. Reconstructed Ancestral Enzymes Impose a Fitness Cost upon Modern Bacteria Despite Exhibiting Favourable Biochemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Joanne K; Prentice, Erica J; Groussin, Mathieu; Arcus, Vickery L

    2015-10-01

    Ancestral sequence reconstruction has been widely used to study historical enzyme evolution, both from biochemical and cellular perspectives. Two properties of reconstructed ancestral proteins/enzymes are commonly reported--high thermostability and high catalytic activity--compared with their contemporaries. Increased protein stability is associated with lower aggregation rates, higher soluble protein abundance and a greater capacity to evolve, and therefore, these proteins could be considered "superior" to their contemporary counterparts. In this study, we investigate the relationship between the favourable in vitro biochemical properties of reconstructed ancestral enzymes and the organismal fitness they confer in vivo. We have previously reconstructed several ancestors of the enzyme LeuB, which is essential for leucine biosynthesis. Our initial fitness experiments revealed that overexpression of ANC4, a reconstructed LeuB that exhibits high stability and activity, was only able to partially rescue the growth of a ΔleuB strain, and that a strain complemented with this enzyme was outcompeted by strains carrying one of its descendants. When we expanded our study to include five reconstructed LeuBs and one contemporary, we found that neither in vitro protein stability nor the catalytic rate was correlated with fitness. Instead, fitness showed a strong, negative correlation with estimated evolutionary age (based on phylogenetic relationships). Our findings suggest that, for reconstructed ancestral enzymes, superior in vitro properties do not translate into organismal fitness in vivo. The molecular basis of the relationship between fitness and the inferred age of ancestral LeuB enzymes is unknown, but may be related to the reconstruction process. We also hypothesise that the ancestral enzymes may be incompatible with the other, contemporary enzymes of the metabolic network. PMID:26349578

  9. Soft γ-ray selected radio galaxies: favouring giant size discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassani, L.; Venturi, T.; Molina, M.; Malizia, A.; Dallacasa, D.; Panessa, F.; Bazzano, A.; Ubertini, P.

    2016-09-01

    Using the recent INTEGRAL/IBIS and Swift/BAT surveys we have extracted a sample of 64 confirmed plus three candidate radio galaxies selected in the soft gamma-ray band. The sample covers all optical classes and is dominated by objects showing a Fanaroff-Riley type II radio morphology; a large fraction (70 per cent) of the sample is made of `radiative mode' or high-excitation radio galaxies. We measured the source size on images from the NRAO VLA Sky Survey, the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at twenty-cm and the Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey images and have compared our findings with data in the literature obtaining a good match. We surprisingly found that the soft gamma-ray selection favours the detection of large size radio galaxies: 60 per cent of objects in the sample have size greater than 0.4 Mpc while around 22 per cent reach dimension above 0.7 Mpc at which point they are classified as giant radio galaxies (GRGs), the largest and most energetic single entities in the Universe. Their fraction among soft gamma-ray selected radio galaxies is significantly larger than typically found in radio surveys, where only a few per cent of objects (1-6 per cent) are GRGs. This may partly be due to observational biases affecting radio surveys more than soft gamma-ray surveys, thus disfavouring the detection of GRGs at lower frequencies. The main reasons and/or conditions leading to the formation of these large radio structures are still unclear with many parameters such as high jet power, long activity time and surrounding environment all playing a role; the first two may be linked to the type of active galactic nucleus discussed in this work and partly explain the high fraction of GRGs found in the present sample. Our result suggests that high energy surveys may be a more efficient way than radio surveys to find these peculiar objects.

  10. Circulating Irisin Concentrations Are Associated with a Favourable Lipid Profile in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Oelmann, Simon; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry; Bahls, Martin; Friedrich, Nele

    2016-01-01

    Background/aims Irisin is a myokine, which is mainly inversely associated with the risk for non-communicable diseases. Irisin improves cellular energy metabolism by uncoupling the mitochondrial respiratory chain resulting in increased energy expenditure using lipids. To date potential associations between irisin concentration and lipid profile are poorly understood. Therefore, this investigation aimed to evaluate potential associations between irisin and lipid levels in the general population. Methods Data of 430 men and 537 women from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND) with available irisin and lipid concentrations were used. Analyses of variance, linear and logistic regression models adjusted for age, HBA1c, waist circumference, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, systolic blood pressure, ALAT were calculated. Results We detected significantly inverse associations between irisin and circulating levels of total [beta coefficient 0.21 (standard error 0.08), p = 0.01], low-density cholesterol [-0.16 (0.07), p = 0.03] and triglycerides [-0.17 (0.08), p = 0.02] for men. Females without lipid lowering medication had an inverse association between irisin and total cholesterol [-0.12 (0.06), p = 0.05]. Further, male subjects with irisin concentrations in the third tertile had an increased odds for elevated low-density cholesterol [odds ratio 1.96 (95% confidence interval 1.07–3.48), p = 0.03) and triglyceride [1.95 (1.09–3.47), p = 0.02] levels, even after exclusion of subjects with lipid lowering medication. In addition, our data revealed an annual rhythm of serum irisin levels with peak levels arise in winter and summer months. Conclusion This is the first investigation to report a significant association between circulating irisin and a favourable lipid profile in the general population. This may infer that higher irisin concentrations are associated with a reduced risk for non-communicable diseases. PMID:27128661

  11. Higher maternal education is associated with favourable growth of young children in different countries

    PubMed Central

    Lakshman, Rajalakshmi; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Jianduan; Koch, Felix S; Marcus, Claude; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Ong, Ken K; Sobko, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood growth affects long-term health and could contribute to health inequalities that persist throughout life. Methods We compared growth data of 4-6 year old children born 1997-2002 in UK (n=15,168), Sweden (n=6,749) and rural China (n=10,327). Standard deviation scores (SDS) were calculated against the WHO Standard. Obesity and overweight were defined by International Obesity Taskforce cut-offs, and stunting, underweight and thinness by height, weight or BMI < −2 SDS. Associations with maternal education were standardised by calculating the Slope Index of Inequality (SII). Results Mean SDS height, weight and BMI in UK (−0.01; 0.42; 0.62, respectively) and Sweden (0.45; 0.59; 0.45) were higher than in China (−0.98, −0.82, −0.29). Higher maternal education was consistently associated with taller offspring height SDS (SII: UK 0.25; Sweden 0.17; China 1.06). Underweight and stunting were less common in UK (prevalence: 0.6% and 2.2%, respectively) and Sweden (0.3% and 0.6%) than in China (9.5% and 16.4%), where these outcomes were inversely associated with maternal education (SII: −25.8% and −12.7%). Obesity prevalence in UK, Sweden and China was 4.8%, 3.7% and 0.4%, respectively. Maternal education was inversely associated with offspring obesity in UK (SII: −3.3%) and Sweden (−2.8%), but not in China (+0.3%). Conclusions Higher maternal education was associated with more favourable growth in young children: lower obesity and overweight in UK and Sweden, and lower stunting and underweight in rural China. Public health strategies to optimize growth in early childhood need to acknowledge socioeconomic factors, but possibly with a different emphasis in different settings. PMID:23450064

  12. Harmful and favourable ultraviolet conditions for human health over Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubarova, Nataly; Zhdanova, Ekaterina

    2014-05-01

    We provide the analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of ultraviolet (UV) radiation over Northern Eurasia taking into account for both its detrimental (erythema and eye-damage effects) and favourable (vitamin D synthesis) influence on human health. The UV effects on six different skin types are considered in order to cover the variety of skin types of European and Asian inhabitants. To better quantifying the vitamin D irradiance threshold we accounted for an open body fraction S as a function of effective air temperature. The spatial and temporal distribution of UV resources was estimated by radiative transfer (RT) modeling (8 stream DISORT RT code) with 1x 1 degree grid and monthly resolution. For this purpose special datasets of main input geophysical parameters (total ozone content, aerosol characteristics, surface UV albedo, UV cloud modification factor) have been created over the territory of Northern Eurasia, which can be of separate interest for the different multidisciplinary scientific applications over the PEEX domain. The new approaches were used to retrieve aerosol and cloud transmittance from different satellite and re-analysis datasets for calculating the solar UV irradiance at ground. Using model simulations and some experimental data we provide the altitude parameterization for different types of biologically active irradiance in mountainous area taking into account not only for the effects of molecular scattering but for the altitude dependence of aerosol parameters and surface albedo. Based on the new classification of UV resources (Chubarova, Zhdanova, 2013) we show that the distribution of harmful (UV deficiency and UV excess) and favorable UV conditions is regulated by various geophysical parameters (mainly, total ozone, cloudiness and open body fraction) and can significantly deviate from latitudinal dependence. The interactive tool for providing simulations of biologically active irradiance and its attribution to the different

  13. Calibration formulae and values for velocity seismometers used in the 1998 Santa Clara Valley, California seismic experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindh, Allan G.; Eaton, Jerry P.; O'Neill Allen, Mary; Healy, John H.; Stewart, Samuel W.; Damerell, Lu

    1999-01-01

    Eaton (1975), Bakun and Dratler (1976), Eaton (1977), Healy and O’Neil (1977), Asten (1977), Stewart and O'Neill (1980), Liu and Peselnick (1986), Eaton (1991), Rodgers et al. (1995), and many others (see Asten (1977) for a list of earlier references) have presented formulae for calculating the damped generator constant (or motor constant), and the damping constant (or fractional damping ratio) for magnetically damped velocity seismometers. Unfortunately the notation varies between authors, and not all the formulae allow for some of the significant variables -- differences in input impedance of the recording system in particular. This has become particularly relevant because the USGS seismic networks in California have traditionally set up their velocity sensors for the 10K Ohm impedance of the standard USGS analog telemetry systems (Eaton, 1977), but modern digital recording systems are usually set up with high input impedances, often of a megaohm or greater. Thus the nominal calibration values valid for USGS velocity sensors in their “normal” configuration are incorrect when they are recorded on other systems. In this short note we have collected the relevant formulae needed, and computed the seismometer responses for the various velocity sensors used in the recent Santa Clara Valley Seismic Experiment (SCVSE, see Lindh et al., 1999).

  14. Radionuclide and heavy metal concentrations in soil, vegetation, and fish collected around and within Tsicoma Lake in Santa Clara Canyon

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.R.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1996-03-01

    Radionuclide ({sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, total U) and heavy metal (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl) contents were determined in soil, vegetation (overstory and understory), and fish (rainbow trout) collected around and within Tsicoma Lake in Santa Clara Canyon in 1995. All heavy metal and most radionuclide contents around or within the lake, except for U in soil, vegetation, and fish, were within or just above upper limit background. Detectable levels (where the analytical result was greater than two times counting uncertainty) of U in soils, vegetation, and fish were found in slightly higher concentrations than in background samples. Overall, however, maximum total committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE)(95% confidence level)--based on consumption of 46 lb of fish--from Tsicoma Lake (0.066 mrem/y) was within the maximum total CEDE from the ingestion of fish from the Mescalero National Fish Hatchery (background)(0.113 mrem/y).

  15. Predicted liquefaction in the greater Oakland area and northern Santa Clara Valley during a repeat of the 1868 Hayward Fault (M6.7-7.0) earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Noce, Thomas E.; Bennett, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Probabilities of surface manifestations of liquefaction due to a repeat of the 1868 (M6.7-7.0) earthquake on the southern segment of the Hayward Fault were calculated for two areas along the margin of San Francisco Bay, California: greater Oakland and the northern Santa Clara Valley. Liquefaction is predicted to be more common in the greater Oakland area than in the northern Santa Clara Valley owing to the presence of 57 km2 of susceptible sandy artificial fill. Most of the fills were placed into San Francisco Bay during the first half of the 20th century to build military bases, port facilities, and shoreline communities like Alameda and Bay Farm Island. Probabilities of liquefaction in the area underlain by this sandy artificial fill range from 0.2 to ~0.5 for a M7.0 earthquake, and decrease to 0.1 to ~0.4 for a M6.7 earthquake. In the greater Oakland area, liquefaction probabilities generally are less than 0.05 for Holocene alluvial fan deposits, which underlie most of the remaining flat-lying urban area. In the northern Santa Clara Valley for a M7.0 earthquake on the Hayward Fault and an assumed water-table depth of 1.5 m (the historically shallowest water level), liquefaction probabilities range from 0.1 to 0.2 along Coyote and Guadalupe Creeks, but are less than 0.05 elsewhere. For a M6.7 earthquake, probabilities are greater than 0.1 along Coyote Creek but decrease along Guadalupe Creek to less than 0.1. Areas with high probabilities in the Santa Clara Valley are underlain by young Holocene levee deposits along major drainages where liquefaction and lateral spreading occurred during large earthquakes in 1868 and 1906.

  16. L2 Learning Opportunities in Different Academic Subjects in Content-Based Instruction -- Evidence in Favour of "Conventional Wisdom"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Yuen Yi

    2014-01-01

    Content-based instruction (CBI) adopts a second language (L2) as the medium of instruction for some or all academic subjects to facilitate L2 learning. There seem however, no uniform policies concerning which academic subjects should be taught in L2, in case only some subjects are involved. Conventional wisdom tends to favour Humanities subjects…

  17. The effects of defoliation on carbon allocation: can carbon limitation reduce growth in favour of storage?

    PubMed

    Wiley, Erin; Huepenbecker, Sarah; Casper, Brenda B; Helliker, Brent R

    2013-11-01

    There is no consensus about how stresses such as low water availability and temperature limit tree growth. Sink limitation to growth and survival is often inferred if a given stress does not cause non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations or levels to decline along with growth. However, trees may actively maintain or increase NSC levels under moderate carbon stress, making the pattern of reduced growth and increased NSCs compatible with carbon limitation. To test this possibility, we used full and half defoliation to impose severe and moderate carbon limitation on 2-year-old Quercus velutina Lam. saplings grown in a common garden. Saplings were harvested at either 3 weeks or 4 months after treatments were applied, representing short- and longer-term effects on woody growth and NSC levels. Both defoliation treatments maintained a lower total leaf area than controls throughout the experiment with no evidence of photosynthetic up-regulation, and resulted in a similar total biomass reduction. While fully defoliated saplings had lower starch levels than controls in the short term, half defoliated saplings maintained control starch levels in both the short and longer term. In the longer term, fully defoliated saplings had the greatest starch concentration increment, allowing them to recover to near-control starch levels. Furthermore, between the two harvest dates, fully and half defoliated saplings allocated a greater proportion of new biomass to starch than did controls. The maintenance of control starch levels in half defoliated saplings indicates that these trees actively store a substantial amount of carbon before growth is carbon saturated. In addition, the allocation shift favouring storage in defoliated saplings is consistent with the hypothesis that, as an adaptation to increasing carbon stress, trees can prioritize carbon reserve formation at the expense of growth. Our results suggest that as carbon limitation increases, reduced growth is not necessarily

  18. Heterosis May Result in Selection Favouring the Products of Long-Distance Pollen Dispersal in Eucalyptus

    PubMed Central

    Costa e Silva, João; Potts, Brad M.; Lopez, Gustavo A.

    2014-01-01

    Using native trees from near the northern and southern extremities of the relatively continuous eastern distribution of Eucalyptus globulus in Tasmania, we compared the progenies derived from natural open-pollination (OP) with those generated from within-region and long-distance outcrossing. Controlled outcrossing amongst eight parents - with four parents from each of the northern and southern regions - was undertaken using a diallel mating scheme. The progeny were planted in two field trials located within the species native range in southern Tasmania, and their survival and diameter growth were monitored over a 13-year-period. The survival and growth performances of all controlled cross types exceeded those of the OP progenies, consistent with inbreeding depression due to a combination of selfing and bi-parental inbreeding. The poorer survival of the northern regional (♀N♂N) outcrosses compared with the local southern regional outcrosses (♀S♂S) indicated differential selection against the former. Despite this mal-adaptation of the non-local ♀N♂N crosses at both southern sites, the survival of the inter-regional hybrids (♀N♂S and ♀S♂N) was never significantly different from that of the local ♀S♂S crosses. Significant site-dependent heterosis was detected for the growth of the surviving long-distance hybrids. This was expressed as mid-parent heterosis, particularly at the more northern planting site. Heterosis increased with age, while the difference between the regional ♀N♂N and ♀S♂S crosses remained insignificant at any age at either site. Nevertheless, the results for growth suggest that the fitness of individuals derived from long-distance crossing may be better at the more northern of the planting sites. Our results demonstrate the potential for early-age assessments of pollen dispersal to underestimate realised gene flow, with local inbreeding under natural open-pollination resulting in selection favouring the products of

  19. Synoptic conditions favouring the occurrence of dust transport from Africa toward Sardinia Island.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canu, Annalisa; Pellizzaro, Grazia; Pintus, Gabriella; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2016-04-01

    characterized by a low-pressure system over the Iberian Peninsula that extended towards Morocco and by the associated high-pressure system over the North-East Africa (Algeria, Tunisia and Libya) and Sicily. This synoptic structure (low pressure over North-Western Africa) forced the dusty air masses towards the Mediterranean basin, favouring the transport of African air masses towards the Sardinia island.

  20. Regional climate modulates the canopy mosaic of favourable and risky microclimates for insects.

    PubMed

    Pincebourde, Sylvain; Sinoquet, Herve; Combes, Didier; Casas, Jerome

    2007-05-01

    of the climatic regime experienced in open air outside canopies. Favourable and risky spots within the canopy do change as a function of the climatic conditions at the regional scale. The shifting nature of the mosaic of suitable and risky habitats may explain the observed uniform distribution of leaf miners within tree canopies. PMID:17439460

  1. Reach-scale channel sensitivity to multiple human activities and natural events: Lower Santa Clara River, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downs, Peter W.; Dusterhoff, Scott R.; Sears, William A.

    2013-05-01

    Understanding the cumulative impact of natural and human influences on the sensitivity of channel morphodynamics, a relative measure between the drivers for change and the magnitude of channel response, requires an approach that accommodates spatial and temporal variability in the suite of primary stressors. Multiple historical data sources were assembled to provide a reach-scale analysis of the lower Santa Clara River (LSCR) in Ventura County, California, USA. Sediment supply is naturally high due to tectonic activity, earthquake-generated landslides, wildfires, and high magnitude flow events during El Niño years. Somewhat typically for the region, the catchment has been subject to four reasonably distinct land use and resource management combinations since European-American settlement. When combined with analysis of channel morphological response (quantifiable since ca. 1930), reach-scale and temporal differences in channel sensitivity become apparent. Downstream reaches have incised on average 2.4 m and become narrower by almost 50% with changes focused in a period of highly sensitive response after about 1950 followed by forced insensitivity caused by structural flood embankments and a significant grade control structure. In contrast, the middle reaches have been responsive but are morphologically resilient, and the upstream reaches show a mildly sensitive aggradational trend. Superimposing the natural and human drivers for change reveals that large scale stressors (related to ranching and irrigation) have been replaced over time by a suite of stressors operating at multiple spatial scales. Lower reaches have been sensitive primarily to 'local' scale impacts (urban growth, flood control, and aggregate mining) whereas, upstream, catchment-scale influences still prevail (including flow regulation and climate-driven sediment supply factors). These factors illustrate the complexity inherent to cumulative impact assessment in fluvial systems, provide evidence for a

  2. Simulated ground motion in Santa Clara Valley, California, and vicinity from M≥6.7 scenario earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harmsen, Stephen C.; Hartzell, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Models of the Santa Clara Valley (SCV) 3D velocity structure and 3D finite-difference software are used to predict ground motions from scenario earthquakes on the San Andreas (SAF), Monte Vista/Shannon, South Hayward, and Calaveras faults. Twenty different scenario ruptures are considered that explore different source models with alternative hypocenters, fault dimensions, and rupture velocities and three different velocity models. Ground motion from the full wave field up to 1 Hz is exhibited as maps of peak horizontal velocity and pseudospectral acceleration at periods of 1, 3, and 5 sec. Basin edge effects and amplification in sedimentary basins of the SCV are observed that exhibit effects from shallow sediments with relatively low shear-wave velocity (330 m/sec). Scenario earthquakes have been simulated for events with the following magnitudes: (1) M 6.8–7.4 Calaveras sources, (2) M 6.7–6.9 South Hayward sources, (3) M 6.7 Monte Vista/Shannon sources, and (4) M 7.1–7.2 Peninsula segment of the SAF sources. Ground motions are strongly influenced by source parameters such as rupture velocity, rise time, maximum depth of rupture, hypocenter, and source directivity. Cenozoic basins also exert a strong influence on ground motion. For example, the Evergreen Basin on the northeastern side of the SCV is especially responsive to 3–5-sec energy from most scenario earthquakes. The Cupertino Basin on the southwestern edge of the SCV tends to be highly excited by many Peninsula and Monte Vista fault scenarios. Sites over the interior of the Evergreen Basin can have long-duration coda that reflect the trapping of seismic energy within this basin. Plausible scenarios produce predominantly 5-sec wave trains with greater than 30 cm/sec sustained ground-motion amplitude with greater than 30 sec duration within the Evergreen Basin.

  3. Interim report on streamflow, sediment discharge, and water quality in the Calabazas Creek Basin, Santa Clara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knott, J.M.; Pederson, G.L.; Middelburg, Robert F.

    1978-01-01

    Streamflow, sediment-discharge, and water-quality data are being collected in the Calabazas Creek basin, Santa Clara County, Calif., to determine annual water and sediment discharge at base-line conditions that are representative of a basin prior to urbanization. Results of the first 3 years of the study (1973-75) are given in this report. Climatic conditions during this period were representative of a very wet year (1973) and 2 years of above-average rainfall (1974 and 1975). Daily water and sediment discharge were monitored at three primary stations, and periodic measurements were made at five secondary stations during selected storms. Most of the total annual sediment discharge at each station was transported during a few days each year. Maximum daily sediment discharge in a given year ranged from 23 to 62 percent of the annual total. Daily water discharge at the gaging station Calabazas Creek at Rainbow Drive, near Cupertino, ranged from no flow to 3.31 cubic meters per second. Streamflow at this location was significantly augmented during low flow by diversion of water from the South Bay Aqueduct. Annual sediment discharge at Calabazas Creek at Rainbow Drive was 4,900 t in 1974 and 9,570 t in 1975. A large quantity of sediment was trapped in a debris basin at Comer Drive upstream from this station during both years. If this sediment had not been trapped, sediment discharge at the station would have been about 35 percent greater in 1974 and 30 percent greater in 1975. Most of the trapped sediment consists of sand and gravel that would probably have been deposited in the Calabazas Creek channel downstream from the station. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. Ground water/surface water responses to global climate simulations, Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin, Ventura, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, R.T.; Dettinger, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    Climate variations can play an important, if not always crucial, role in successful conjunctive management of ground water and surface water resources. This will require accurate accounting of the links between variations in climate, recharge, and withdrawal from the resource systems, accurate projection or predictions of the climate variations, and accurate simulation of the responses of the resource systems. To assess linkages and predictability of climate influences on conjunctive management, global climate model (GCM) simulated precipitation rates were used to estimate inflows and outflows from a regional ground water model (RGWM) of the coastal aquifers of the Santa ClaraCalleguas Basin at Ventura, California, for 1950 to 1993. Interannual to interdecadal time scales of the El Nin??o Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) climate variations are imparted to simulated precipitation variations in the Southern California area and are realistically imparted to the simulated ground water level variations through the climate-driven recharge (and discharge) variations. For example, the simulated average ground water level response at a key observation well in the basin to ENSO variations of tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures is 1.2 m/??C, compared to 0.9 m/??C in observations. This close agreement shows that the GCM-RGWM combination can translate global scale climate variations into realistic local ground water responses. Probability distributions of simulated ground water level excursions above a local water level threshold for potential seawater intrusion compare well to the corresponding distributions from observations and historical RGWM simulations, demonstrating the combination's potential usefulness for water management and planning. Thus the GCM-RGWM combination could be used for planning purposes and - when the GCM forecast skills are adequate - for near term predictions.

  5. Targeting the impact of agri-environmental policy - Future scenarios in two less favoured areas in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nadia; Fleskens, Luuk; Stroosnijder, Leo

    2016-10-01

    Targeting agri-environmental measures (AEM) improves their effectiveness in the delivery of public goods, provided the necessary coordination with other incentives. In less favoured areas (LFA) measures focusing on the conservation of extensive farming contribute to sustainable land management in these areas. In this paper we investigate the implementation of a possible AEM supporting the improvement of permanent pastures coordinated with the extensive livestock and single farm payments actually in place. Through applying a spatially-explicit mixed integer optimisation model we simulate future land use scenarios for two less favoured areas in Portugal (Centro and Alentejo) considering two policy scenarios: a 'targeted AEM', and a 'non-targeted AEM'. We then compare the results with a 'basic policy' option (reflecting a situation without AEM). This is done with regard to landscape-scale effects on the reduction of fire hazard and erosion risk, as well as effects on farm income. The results show that an AEM for permanent pastures would be more cost-effective for erosion and fire hazard mitigation if implemented within a spatially targeted framework. However when cost-effectiveness is assessed with other indicators (e.g. net farm income and share of grazing livestock) 'non-targeted AEM' implementation delivers the best outcome in Alentejo. In Centro the implementation of an AEM involves important losses of income compared to the 'basic policy'. 'Targeted AEM' tends to favour farms in very marginal conditions, i.e. targeting is demonstrated to perform best in landscapes where spatial heterogeneity is higher. The results also show the risk of farm abandonment in the two studied less favoured areas: in all three scenarios more than 30% of arable land is deemed to be abandoned. PMID:27444720

  6. Targeting the impact of agri-environmental policy - Future scenarios in two less favoured areas in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nadia; Fleskens, Luuk; Stroosnijder, Leo

    2016-10-01

    Targeting agri-environmental measures (AEM) improves their effectiveness in the delivery of public goods, provided the necessary coordination with other incentives. In less favoured areas (LFA) measures focusing on the conservation of extensive farming contribute to sustainable land management in these areas. In this paper we investigate the implementation of a possible AEM supporting the improvement of permanent pastures coordinated with the extensive livestock and single farm payments actually in place. Through applying a spatially-explicit mixed integer optimisation model we simulate future land use scenarios for two less favoured areas in Portugal (Centro and Alentejo) considering two policy scenarios: a 'targeted AEM', and a 'non-targeted AEM'. We then compare the results with a 'basic policy' option (reflecting a situation without AEM). This is done with regard to landscape-scale effects on the reduction of fire hazard and erosion risk, as well as effects on farm income. The results show that an AEM for permanent pastures would be more cost-effective for erosion and fire hazard mitigation if implemented within a spatially targeted framework. However when cost-effectiveness is assessed with other indicators (e.g. net farm income and share of grazing livestock) 'non-targeted AEM' implementation delivers the best outcome in Alentejo. In Centro the implementation of an AEM involves important losses of income compared to the 'basic policy'. 'Targeted AEM' tends to favour farms in very marginal conditions, i.e. targeting is demonstrated to perform best in landscapes where spatial heterogeneity is higher. The results also show the risk of farm abandonment in the two studied less favoured areas: in all three scenarios more than 30% of arable land is deemed to be abandoned.

  7. Spatial isolation favours the divergence in microcystin net production by Microcystis in Ugandan freshwater lakes

    PubMed Central

    Okello, William; Ostermaier, Veronika; Portmann, Cyril; Gademann, Karl; Kurmayer, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    It is generally agreed that the hepatotoxic microcystins (MCs) are the most abundant toxins produced by cyanobacteria in freshwater. In various freshwater lakes in East Africa MC-producing Microcystis has been reported to dominate the phytoplankton, however the regulation of MC production is poorly understood. From May 2007 to April 2008 the Microcystis abundance, the absolute and relative abundance of the mcyB genotype indicative of MC production and the MC concentrations were recorded monthly in five freshwater lakes in Uganda: (1) in a crater lake (Lake Saka), (2) in three shallow lakes (Lake Mburo, George, Edward), (3) in Lake Victoria (Murchison Bay, Napoleon Gulf). During the whole study period Microcystis was abundant or dominated the phytoplankton. In all samples mcyB-containing cells of Microcystis were found and on average comprised 20 ± 2% (SE) of the total population. The proportion of the mcyB genotype differed significantly between the sampling sites, and while the highest mcyB proportions were recorded in Lake Saka (37 ± 3%), the lowest proportion was recorded in Lake George (1.4 ± 0.2%). Consequently Microcystis from Lake George had the lowest MC cell quotas (0.03 – 1.24 fg MC cell−1) and resulted in the lowest MC concentrations (0 – 0.5 μg L−1) while Microcystis from Lake Saka consistently showed maximum MC cell quotas (14 – 144 fg cell−1) and the highest MC concentrations (0.5 – 10.2 μg L−1). Over the whole study period the average MC content per Microcystis cell depended linearly on the proportion of the mcyB genotype of Microcystis. It is concluded that Microcystis populations differ consistently and independently of the season in mcyB genotype proportion between lakes resulting in population-specific differences in the average MC content per cell. PMID:20219228

  8. Effects of early developmental conditions on innate immunity are only evident under favourable adult conditions in zebra finches.

    PubMed

    De Coster, Greet; Verhulst, Simon; Koetsier, Egbert; De Neve, Liesbeth; Briga, Michael; Lens, Luc

    2011-12-01

    Long-term effects of unfavourable conditions during development can be expected to depend on the quality of the environment experienced by the same individuals during adulthood. Yet, in the majority of studies, long-term effects of early developmental conditions have been assessed under favourable adult conditions only. The immune system might be particularly vulnerable to early environmental conditions as its development, maintenance and use are thought to be energetically costly. Here, we studied the interactive effects of favourable and unfavourable conditions during nestling and adult stages on innate immunity (lysis and agglutination scores) of captive male and female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Nestling environmental conditions were manipulated by a brood size experiment, while a foraging cost treatment was imposed on the same individuals during adulthood. This combined treatment showed that innate immunity of adult zebra finches is affected by their early developmental conditions and varies between both sexes. Lysis scores, but not agglutination scores, were higher in individuals raised in small broods and in males. However, these effects were only present in birds that experienced low foraging costs. This study shows that the quality of the adult environment may shape the long-term consequences of early developmental conditions on innate immunity, as long-term effects of nestling environment were only evident under favourable adult conditions.

  9. Effects of early developmental conditions on innate immunity are only evident under favourable adult conditions in zebra finches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Coster, Greet; Verhulst, Simon; Koetsier, Egbert; de Neve, Liesbeth; Briga, Michael; Lens, Luc

    2011-12-01

    Long-term effects of unfavourable conditions during development can be expected to depend on the quality of the environment experienced by the same individuals during adulthood. Yet, in the majority of studies, long-term effects of early developmental conditions have been assessed under favourable adult conditions only. The immune system might be particularly vulnerable to early environmental conditions as its development, maintenance and use are thought to be energetically costly. Here, we studied the interactive effects of favourable and unfavourable conditions during nestling and adult stages on innate immunity (lysis and agglutination scores) of captive male and female zebra finches ( Taeniopygia guttata). Nestling environmental conditions were manipulated by a brood size experiment, while a foraging cost treatment was imposed on the same individuals during adulthood. This combined treatment showed that innate immunity of adult zebra finches is affected by their early developmental conditions and varies between both sexes. Lysis scores, but not agglutination scores, were higher in individuals raised in small broods and in males. However, these effects were only present in birds that experienced low foraging costs. This study shows that the quality of the adult environment may shape the long-term consequences of early developmental conditions on innate immunity, as long-term effects of nestling environment were only evident under favourable adult conditions.

  10. Galanin modulates the neural niche to favour perineural invasion in head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Scanlon, Christina Springstead; Banerjee, Rajat; Inglehart, Ronald C; Liu, Min; Russo, Nickole; Hariharan, Amirtha; van Tubergen, Elizabeth A; Corson, Sara L; Asangani, Irfan A; Mistretta, Charlotte M; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; D’Silva, Nisha J

    2015-01-01

    Perineural invasion (PNI) is an indicator of poor survival in multiple cancers. Unfortunately, there is no targeted treatment for PNI since the molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. PNI is an active process, suggesting that cancer cells communicate with nerves. However, nerve-tumour crosstalk is understudied due to the lack of in vivo models to investigate the mechanisms. Here, we developed an in vivo model of PNI to characterise this interaction. We show that the neuropeptide galanin (GAL) initiates nerve-tumour crosstalk via activation of its G-protein-coupled receptor, GALR2. Our data reveal a novel mechanism by which GAL from nerves stimulates GALR2 on cancer cells to induce NFATC2-mediated transcription of cyclooxygenase-2 and GAL. Prostaglandin E2 promotes cancer invasion, and in a feedback mechanism, GAL released by cancer induces neuritogenesis, facilitating PNI. This study describes a novel in vivo model for PNI and reveals the dynamic interaction between nerve and cancer. PMID:25917569

  11. Spatiotemporal quantification of cell dynamics in the lung following influenza virus infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Lu; Xu, Shuoyu; Cheng, Jierong; Zheng, Dahai; Limmon, Gino V.; Leung, Nicola H. N.; Rajapakse, Jagath C.; Chow, Vincent T. K.; Chen, Jianzhu; Yu, Hanry

    2013-04-01

    Lung injury caused by influenza virus infection is widespread. Understanding lung damage and repair progression post infection requires quantitative spatiotemporal information on various cell types mapping into the tissue structure. Based on high content images acquired from an automatic slide scanner, we have developed algorithms to quantify cell infiltration in the lung, loss and recovery of Clara cells in the damaged bronchioles and alveolar type II cells (AT2s) in the damaged alveolar areas, and induction of pro-surfactant protein C (pro-SPC)-expressing bronchiolar epithelial cells (SBECs). These quantitative analyses reveal: prolonged immune cell infiltration into the lung that persisted long after the influenza virus was cleared and paralleled with Clara cell recovery; more rapid loss and recovery of Clara cells as compared to AT2s; and two stages of SBECs from Scgb1a1+ to Scgb1a1-. These results provide evidence supporting a new mechanism of alveolar repair where Clara cells give rise to AT2s through the SBEC intermediates and shed light on the understanding of the lung damage and repair process. The approach and algorithms in quantifying cell-level changes in the tissue context (cell-based tissue informatics) to gain mechanistic insights into the damage and repair process can be expanded and adapted in studying other disease models.

  12. Acute cysticercosis favours rapid and more severe lesions caused by Leishmania major and Leishmania mexicana infection, a role for alternatively activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sosa, Miriam; Rivera-Montoya, Irma; Espinoza, Arlett; Romero-Grijalva, Miriam; López-Flores, Roberto; González, Jorge; Terrazas, Luis I

    2006-08-01

    Parasitic helminths have developed complex mechanisms to modulate host immunity. In the present study we found that previous infection of mice with the cestode Taenia crassiceps favours parasitemia and induces larger cutaneous lesions during both Leishmania major and Leishmania mexicana co-infections. Analysis of cytokine responses into draining lymph nodes indicated that co-infection of T. crassiceps-Leishmania did not inhibit IFN-gamma production in response to Leishmania antigens, but significantly increased IL-4 production. Additionally, anti-Leishmania-specific IgG1 antibodies and total IgE increased in co-infected mice, whereas, IgG2a titers remained similar. Macrophages from Taenia-infected mice displayed increased mRNA transcripts of arginase-1, Ym1, and Mannose Receptor, as well as greater production of urea (all markers for an alternate activation state) compared to macrophages from Leishmania-infected mice. In contrast, lower mRNA transcripts for IL-12p35, IL-12p40, IL-23p19, and iNOS were detected in macrophages obtained from cestode-infected mice compared to uninfected and Leishmania-infected mice after LPS stimulation. The presence of cestode also generated impaired macrophage anti-leishmanicidal activity in vitro, as evidenced by the inability of these macrophages to prevent Leishmania growth compared to macrophages from uninfected mice. This was observed despite the fact that both groups of cells were exposed to IFN-gamma. Flow cytometry showed high IFN-gammaR expression on Taenia-induced macrophages. Thus, lack of response to IFN-gamma is not associated with the absence of its receptor. Our data suggest that cestode infection may favour Leishmania installation by inducing alternatively activated macrophages rather than inhibiting Th1-type responses.

  13. Elevated HOXB9 expression promotes differentiation and predicts a favourable outcome in colon adenocarcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, J; Niu, M; Wang, P; Zhu, X; Li, S; Song, J; He, H; Wang, Y; Xue, L; Fang, W; Zhang, H

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the tumour suppressive proteins and the underlying mechanisms that suppress colon cancer progression. Homeodomain-containing transcription factor HOXB9 plays an important role in embryogenesis and cancer development. We here aim to uncover the potential role of HOXB9 in the regulation of colon adenocarcinoma progression including epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Methods: HOXB9 expression in colon adenocarcinoma cells and patients was analysed by western blot and immunohistochemistry separately. Correlation between HOXB9 expressions with patients' survival was assessed by Kaplan–Meier analysis. HOXB9-regulated target gene expression was determined by RNA sequencing in HOXB9-overexpressing colon adenocarcinoma cells. Results: Elevated HOXB9 expression was identified in well-differentiated colon adenocarcinoma patients and was associated with a better overall patients' survival. Overexpression of HOXB9 inhibited colon adenocarcinoma cell growth, migration, invasion in vitro and tumour growth, liver as well as lung metastases in nude mice; whereas silencing HOXB9 promoted these functions. HOXB9 promoted colon adenocarcinoma differentiation via a mechanism that stimulates mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition, involving downregulation of EMT-promoting transcriptional factors including Snail, Twist, FOXC2 and ZEB1 and upregulation of epithelial proteins including E-cadherin, claudins-1, -4, -7, occludin and ZO-1. Conclusions: HOXB9 is a novel tumour suppressor that inhibits colon adenocarcinoma progression by inducing differentiation. Elevated expression of HOXB9 predicts a longer survival in colon adenocarcinoma patients. PMID:25025961

  14. Potential mechanisms of a periosteum patch as an effective and favourable approach to enhance tendon-bone healing in the human body.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Jiang, Jia; Wu, Yang; Chen, Shiyi

    2012-03-01

    Tendon-bone healing is a progressive and complex pathophysiological process after tendon graft transplantation into a bone tunnel. A fibrous scar tissue layer forms at the graft-bone interface, which means a weak bonding of the graft in the bone tunnel. Periosteum, a favourable autologous tissue, was confirmed to be effective in promoting tendon-bone healing in the human body. The advantages of a periosteum patch for tendon-bone repair include the fact that this tissue meets the three primary requirements for tissue engineering: a source of progenitor cells, a scaffold for recruiting cells and growth factors, and a source of local growth factors. Furthermore, the periosteum can prevent graft micromotion, alleviate inflammation and deter bone resorption. In this review, we highlight the role of progenitor cells in the periosteum, which contribute to the regeneration of new bone and/or fibrocartilage at the tendon-bone interface. In summary, the periosteum has shown significant potential for use in the enhancement of graft-bone healing. Our investigations may provoke further studies on the management of allograft-bone healing and artificial ligament graft healing using a periosteum patch in future.

  15. Geologic map of the Hayward fault zone, Contra Costa, Alameda, and Santa Clara counties, California: a digital database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graymer, R.W.; Jones, D.L.; Brabb, E.E.

    1995-01-01

    The Hayward is one of three major fault zones of the San Andreas system that have produced large historic earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Area (the others being the San Andreas and Calaveras). Severe earthquakes were generated by this fault zone in 1836 and in 1868, and several large earthquakes have been recorded since 1868. The Hayward fault zone is considered to be the most probable source of a major earthquake in the San Francisco Bay Area, as much as 28% chance for a magnitude 7 earthquake before the year 2021 (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1990). The Hayward fault zone, as described in this work, is a zone of highly deformed rocks, trending north 30 degrees west and ranging in width from about 2 to 10 kilometers. The historic earthquake generating activity has been concentrated in the western portion of the zone, but the zone as a whole reflects deformation derived from oblique right-lateral and compressive tectonic stress along a significant upper crustal discontinuity for the past 10 million or more years. The Hayward fault zone is bounded on the east by a series of faults that demarcate the beginning of one or more structural blocks containing rocks and structures unrelated to the Hayward fault zone. The eastern bounding faults are, from the south, the Calaveras, Stonybrook, Palomares, Miller Creek, and Moraga faults. These faults are not considered to be part of the Hayward fault zone, although they are shown on the map to demarcate its boundary. The western boundary of the zone is less clearly defined, because the alluvium of the San Francisco Bay and Santa Clara Valley basins obscures bedrock and structural relationships. Although several of the westernmost faults in the zone clearly project under or through the alluvium, the western boundary of the fault is generally considered to be the westernmost mapped fault, which corresponds more or less with the margin of thick unconsolidated surficial deposits. The Hayward fault

  16. California GAMA Program: Sources and transport of nitrate in shallow groundwater in the Llagas Basin of Santa Clara County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, J E; McNab, W; Esser, B; Hudson, G; Carle, S; Beller, H; Kane, S; Tompson, A B; Letain, T; Moore, K; Eaton, G; Leif, R; Moody-Bartel, C; Singleton, M

    2005-06-29

    A critical component of the State Water Resource Control Board's Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program is to assess the major threats to groundwater resources that supply drinking water to Californians (Belitz et al., 2004). Nitrate is the most pervasive and intractable contaminant in California groundwater and is the focus of special studies under the GAMA program. This report presents results of a study of nitrate contamination in the aquifer beneath the cities of Morgan Hill and Gilroy, CA, in the Llagas Subbasin of Santa Clara County, where high nitrate levels affect several hundred private domestic wells. The main objectives of the study are: (1) to identify the main source(s) of nitrate that issue a flux to the shallow regional aquifer (2) to determine whether denitrification plays a role in the fate of nitrate in the subbasin and (3) to assess the impact that a nitrate management plan implemented by the local water agency has had on the flux of nitrate to the regional aquifer. Analyses of 56 well water samples for major anions and cations, nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate, dissolved excess nitrogen, tritium and groundwater age, and trace organic compounds, show that synthetic fertilizer is the most likely source of nitrate in highly contaminated wells, and that denitrification is not a significant process in the fate of nitrate in the subbasin except in the area of recycled water application. In addition to identifying contaminant sources, these methods offer a deeper understanding of how the severity and extent of contamination are affected by hydrogeology and groundwater management practices. In the Llagas subbasin, the nitrate problem is amplified in the shallow aquifer because it is highly vulnerable with high vertical recharge rates and rapid lateral transport, but the deeper aquifers are relatively more protected by laterally extensive aquitards. Artificial recharge delivers low-nitrate water and provides a means of long

  17. Analysis of seismic waves crossing the Santa Clara Valley using the three-component MUSIQUE array algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobiger, Manuel; Cornou, Cécile; Bard, Pierre-Yves; Le Bihan, Nicolas; Imperatori, Walter

    2016-08-01

    We introduce the MUSIQUE algorithm and apply it to seismic wave field recordings in California. The algorithm is designed to analyse seismic signals recorded by arrays of three-component seismic sensors. It is based on the MUSIC and the quaternion-MUSIC algorithms. In a first step, the MUSIC algorithm is applied in order to estimate the backazimuth and velocity of incident seismic waves and to discriminate between Love and possible Rayleigh waves. In a second step, the polarization parameters of possible Rayleigh waves are analysed using quaternion-MUSIC, distinguishing retrograde and prograde Rayleigh waves and determining their ellipticity. In this study, we apply the MUSIQUE algorithm to seismic wave field recordings of the San Jose Dense Seismic Array. This array has been installed in 1999 in the Evergreen Basin, a sedimentary basin in the Eastern Santa Clara Valley. The analysis includes 22 regional earthquakes with epicenters between 40 and 600 km distant from the array and covering different backazimuths with respect to the array. The azimuthal distribution and the energy partition of the different surface wave types are analysed. Love waves dominate the wave field for the vast majority of the events. For close events in the north, the wave field is dominated by the first harmonic mode of Love waves, for farther events, the fundamental mode dominates. The energy distribution is different for earthquakes occurring north-west and south-east of the array. In both cases, the waves crossing the array are mostly arriving from the respective hemicycle. However, scattered Love waves arriving from the south can be seen for all earthquakes. Combining the information of all events, it is possible to retrieve the Love wave dispersion curves of the fundamental and the first harmonic mode. The particle motion of the fundamental mode of Rayleigh waves is retrograde and for the first harmonic mode, it is prograde. For both modes, we can also retrieve dispersion and

  18. Analysis of seismic waves crossing the Santa Clara Valley using the three-component MUSIQUE array algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobiger, Manuel; Cornou, Cécile; Bard, Pierre-Yves; Le Bihan, Nicolas; Imperatori, Walter

    2016-10-01

    We introduce the MUSIQUE algorithm and apply it to seismic wavefield recordings in California. The algorithm is designed to analyse seismic signals recorded by arrays of three-component seismic sensors. It is based on the MUSIC and the quaternion-MUSIC algorithms. In a first step, the MUSIC algorithm is applied in order to estimate the backazimuth and velocity of incident seismic waves and to discriminate between Love and possible Rayleigh waves. In a second step, the polarization parameters of possible Rayleigh waves are analysed using quaternion-MUSIC, distinguishing retrograde and prograde Rayleigh waves and determining their ellipticity. In this study, we apply the MUSIQUE algorithm to seismic wavefield recordings of the San Jose Dense Seismic Array. This array has been installed in 1999 in the Evergreen Basin, a sedimentary basin in the Eastern Santa Clara Valley. The analysis includes 22 regional earthquakes with epicentres between 40 and 600 km distant from the array and covering different backazimuths with respect to the array. The azimuthal distribution and the energy partition of the different surface wave types are analysed. Love waves dominate the wavefield for the vast majority of the events. For close events in the north, the wavefield is dominated by the first harmonic mode of Love waves, for farther events, the fundamental mode dominates. The energy distribution is different for earthquakes occurring northwest and southeast of the array. In both cases, the waves crossing the array are mostly arriving from the respective hemicycle. However, scattered Love waves arriving from the south can be seen for all earthquakes. Combining the information of all events, it is possible to retrieve the Love wave dispersion curves of the fundamental and the first harmonic mode. The particle motion of the fundamental mode of Rayleigh waves is retrograde and for the first harmonic mode, it is prograde. For both modes, we can also retrieve dispersion and ellipticity

  19. Radionuclides and heavy metals in rainbow trout from Tsichomo, Nana Ka, Wen Povi, and Pin De Lakes in Santa Clara Canyon

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.R.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1998-04-01

    Radionuclide ({sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and total uranium) and heavy metal (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and TI) concentrations were determined in rainbow trout collected from Tsichomo, Nana Ka, Wen Povi, and Pin De lakes in Santa Clara Canyon in 1997. Most radionuclide and heavy metal concentrations in fish collected from these four lakes were within or just above upper limit background concentrations (Abiquiu reservoir), and as a group were statistically (p < 0.05) similar in most parameters to background.

  20. Experimental study of neutron-rich nuclei near the N = 82 closed shell using the 4096Zr +50124Sn reaction with GASP and PRISMA-CLARA arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, W.; Torres, D. A.; Cristancho, F.; Medina, N. H.; Chapman, R.; Smith, J. F.; Mengoni, D.; Truesdale, V.; Grocutt, L.; Mulholland, K.; Kumar, V.; Hadinia, B.; Labiche, M.; Liang, X.; O'Donell, D.; Ollier, J.; Orlandi, R.; Smith, J. F.; Spohr, K. M.; Wady, P.; Wang, Z. M.; Gadea, A.; Ur, C. A.; Lenzi, S. M.; Capponi, L.; Michelangnoli, C.; Bazzacco, D.; Beghini, S.; Mǎrginean, R.; Mengoni, D.; Montagnoli, G.; Recchia, F.; Scarlassara, F.; Lunardi, S.; Kröll, T.; Napoli, D. R.; Corradi, L.; Fioretto, E.; de Angelis, G.; Mǎrginean, N.; Sahin, E.; Stefanini, A. M.; Valiente-Dobon, J. J.; Vedova, F. D.; Axiotis, M.; Martinez, T.; Szilner, S.; Freeman, S. J.; Smith, A. G.; Jones, G.; Thompson, N.; Pollarolo, G.

    2014-11-01

    In this contribution an experimental study of the deep-inelastic reaction 4096Zr +50124Sn at 530 MeV, using the GASP and PRISMA-CLARA arrays, is presented. The experiments populate a wealth of projectile-like and target-like binary fragments, in a large neutron-rich region around N ≥ 50 and Z ≈ 40. Preliminary results on the study of the yrast and near-yrast states for 95Nb will be shown, along with a comparison of the experimental yields obtained in the experiments.

  1. Overexpression of transglutaminase 4 and prostate cancer progression: a potential predictor of less favourable outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhi; Wang, Yang; Liu, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Zhen-Sheng; Ren, Shan-Cheng; Yu, Yong-Wei; Qiao, Meng; Zhai, Bei-Bei; Sun, Ying-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Transglutaminase 4 has been shown to enhance various biological properties of prostate cancer cells, e.g., cell–matrix adhesion, invasiveness and the epithelial–mesenchymal transition. The objectives of this study were to investigate the associations between transglutaminase 4 expression and the established features and biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer. Transglutaminase 4 immunostaining was performed on a tissue microarray. The expression of transglutaminase 4 was evaluated by a scoring method based on the intensity and extent of staining. The clinical and pathological information was obtained through a review of medical records. Follow-up data were obtained by consulting the hospital medical records and the prostate cancer database of our department and by contacting patients or family members. We then compared the transglutaminase 4 expression levels between the prostate cancer tissues and the paracarcinoma tissues and evaluated the correlation of transglutaminase 4 expression with the clinical parameters and biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer. Our results indicated that the transglutaminase 4 staining was significantly higher in tumour tissue than in paracarcinoma tissue (P<0.001) and was positively associated with higher Gleason score (P<0.001) and higher prostate-specific antigen level (P=0.005). Patients with transglutaminase 4 overexpression experienced shorter biochemical recurrence-free survival after surgery (P=0.042) in the univariate analysis but not in the multivariate analysis (P=0.139), which indicated that transglutaminase 4 may serve as a potential predictor of biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer. PMID:23974364

  2. Mortality of the elderly is still exceedingly high at diagnosis of AIDS despite favourable outcomes after highly active antiretroviral therapy in Recife, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, H R; Kitner, D

    2008-07-01

    This study aimed to compare the outcome of an elderly group of AIDS patients with that of a younger group and their features at the time of the diagnosis of AIDS. We evaluated 58 patients aged >60 years and 114 aged 20-39 years, followed for 35.3 months. There was an obvious delay in diagnosing the elderly as they had more AIDS-defining diseases at diagnosis and their most frequent opportunistic infection was pulmonary tuberculosis. Mortality at the time of the diagnosis of AIDS was four times higher in the elderly (24.1% versus 6.1%, P < 0.001). However, when comparing only those submitted to highly active antiretroviral therapy, there was a similar frequency of favourable outcomes; 76.9% in the elderly against 83.1% in the young (P = 0.455). Mean CD4 lymphocyte was 438 cells/mm(3) at the end of follow up in the young when compared with 442 cells/mm(3) in the elderly (P = 0.945). The types of antiretroviral schema and the number of antivirals per patient were similar in both groups.

  3. Sexual antagonism and meiotic drive cause stable linkage disequilibrium and favour reduced recombination on the X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Rydzewski, W T; Carioscia, S A; Liévano, G; Lynch, V D; Patten, M M

    2016-06-01

    Sexual antagonism and meiotic drive are sex-specific evolutionary forces with the potential to shape genomic architecture. Previous theory has found that pairing two sexually antagonistic loci or combining sexual antagonism with meiotic drive at linked autosomal loci augments genetic variation, produces stable linkage disequilibrium (LD) and favours reduced recombination. However, the influence of these two forces has not been examined on the X chromosome, which is thought to be enriched for sexual antagonism and meiotic drive. We investigate the evolution of the X chromosome under both sexual antagonism and meiotic drive with two models: in one, both loci experience sexual antagonism; in the other, we pair a meiotic drive locus with a sexually antagonistic locus. We find that LD arises between the two loci in both models, even when the two loci freely recombine in females and that driving haplotypes will be enriched for male-beneficial alleles, further skewing sex ratios in these populations. We introduce a new measure of LD, Dz', which accounts for population allele frequencies and is appropriate for instances where these are sex specific. Both models demonstrate that natural selection favours modifiers that reduce the recombination rate. These results inform observed patterns of congealment found on driving X chromosomes and have implications for patterns of natural variation and the evolution of recombination rates on the X chromosome.

  4. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Santa Clara River Valley Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montrella, Joseph; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 460-square-mile Santa Clara River Valley study unit (SCRV) was investigated from April to June 2007 as part of the statewide Priority Basin project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw ground water used for public water supplies within SCRV, and to facilitate a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Fifty-seven ground-water samples were collected from 53 wells in Ventura and Los Angeles Counties. Forty-two wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells). Eleven wells (understanding wells) were selected to further evaluate water chemistry in particular parts of the study area, and four depth-dependent ground-water samples were collected from one of the eleven understanding wells to help understand the relation between water chemistry and depth. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, potential wastewater-indicator compounds, and pharmaceutical compounds), a constituent of special interest (perchlorate), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial constituents. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-13, carbon-14 [abundance], stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate, chlorine-37, and bromine-81), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source

  5. Dravet syndrome with favourable cognitive and behavioral development due to a novel SCN1A frameshift mutation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Peifang; Shen, Jue; Yu, Yonglin; Jiang, Lihua; Xu, Jialu; Xu, Lu; Yu, Huimin; Gao, Feng

    2016-07-01

    Children with Dravet syndrome (DS) often have severe cognitive, behaviour and motor impairments. Patients with truncating mutations would logically have the more severe phenotype. Here we present a case of DS with an unusually favourable cognitive and behavioral development with a novel SCN1A frameshift mutation (c.4233-4234insAT). Under regular following up for ten years, the patient had normal expressive language and mild motor clumsiness. It is suggested that besides the type of SCN1A mutation, other mechanisms may be existed to influence the SCN1A phenotype, such as modifier genes, developmental variability, accumulation of somatic mutation in lifetime and environmental insults can all contribute to the cognitive and behavioral outcome.

  6. Circadian Timing in the Lung; A Specific Role for Bronchiolar Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, J. E.; Beesley, S.; Plumb, J.; Singh, D.; Farrow, S.; Ray, D. W.; Loudon, A. S. I.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the core circadian oscillator, located within the suprachiasmatic nucleus, numerous peripheral tissues possess self-sustaining circadian timers. In vivo these are entrained and temporally synchronized by signals conveyed from the core oscillator. In the present study, we examine circadian timing in the lung, determine the cellular localization of core clock proteins in both mouse and human lung tissue, and establish the effects of glucocorticoids (widely used in the treatment of asthma) on the pulmonary clock. Using organotypic lung slices prepared from transgenic mPER2::Luc mice, luciferase levels, which report PER2 expression, were measured over a number of days. We demonstrate a robust circadian rhythm in the mouse lung that is responsive to glucocorticoids. Immunohistochemical techniques were used to localize specific expression of core clock proteins, and the glucocorticoid receptor, to the epithelial cells lining the bronchioles in both mouse and human lung. In the mouse, these were established to be Clara cells. Murine Clara cells retained circadian rhythmicity when grown as a pure population in culture. Furthermore, selective ablation of Clara cells resulted in the loss of circadian rhythm in lung slices, demonstrating the importance of this cell type in maintaining overall pulmonary circadian rhythmicity. In summary, we demonstrate that Clara cells are critical for maintaining coherent circadian oscillations in lung tissue. Their coexpression of the glucocorticoid receptor and core clock components establishes them as a likely interface between humoral suprachiasmatic nucleus output and circadian lung physiology. PMID:18787022

  7. Forced emigration, favourable outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pearn, J

    2001-10-01

    The discipline of public health and preventive medicine in Australia and New Zealand had its genesis in the advocacy of 18th and 19th century military pioneers. Military (Royal Navy and British Army) surgeons were posted to Australia as part of their non-discretionary duty. Civilian doctors emigrated variously for adventure, escapism and gold fever. One group, a particularly influential group disproportionate to their numbers, came in one sense as forced emigrants because of chronic respiratory disease in general, and tuberculosis in particular. Tuberculosis was an occupational hazard of 19th century medical and surgical practice throughout western Europe. This paper analyses six examples of such emigration which had, perhaps unforeseen at the time, significant results in the advancement of public health. Such emigration was in one sense voluntary, but in another was forced upon the victims in their quest for personal survival. In Australia, such medical individuals became leading advocates and successful catalysts for change in such diverse fields as social welfare, public health, the preventive aspects of medical practice, child health, nutrition and medical education. A number of such public health pioneers today have no physical memorials; but their influence is to be seen in the ethos of medical practice in Australia and New Zealand today. Their memory is further perpetuated in the names of Australian native wildflowers and trees that symbolise not only a healthy environment but the long-term investment, accrued with interest, of the institution of public health measures for which their advocacy achieved much success.

  8. Lumpectomy with or without postoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer with favourable prognostic features: results of a randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Holli, K; Saaristo, R; Isola, J; Joensuu, H; Hakama, M

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this trial was to study the value of adding post-operative radiotherapy to lumpectomy in a subgroup of breast cancer patients with favourable patient-, tumour-, and treatment-related prognostic features. 152 women aged over 40 with unifocal breast cancer seen in preoperative mammography were randomly assigned to lumpectomy alone (no-XRT group) or to lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy to the ipsilateral breast (50 Gy given within 5 weeks, XRT group). All cancers were required to be invasive node-negative, smaller than 2 cm in diameter and well or moderately differentiated, to contain no extensive intraductal component, to be progesterone receptor-positive, DNA diploid, have S-phase fraction ≤7 and be excised with at least 1 cm margin. During a mean follow-up time of 6.7 years, 13 (18.1%) cancers recurred locally in the no-XRT and 6 (7.5%) in the XRT group (P = 0.03). There was no difference between the groups in the ultimate breast preservation rate (95.0% vs. 94.4% in XRT and no-XRT, respectively, P = 0.88), distant metastasis-free survival (P = 0.36), or 5-year cancer-specific survival (97.1% in XRT and 98.6 in no-XRT). Radiation therapy given after lumpectomy reduces the frequency of ipsilateral breast recurrences even in women with small breast cancer with several favourable clinical and biological features. However, the breast preservation rate may not increase due to more frequent use of salvage mastectomies in patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11161371

  9. Is pollen removal or seed set favoured by flower longevity in a hummingbird-pollinated Salvia species?

    PubMed Central

    Aximoff, Izar Araujo; Freitas, Leandro

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims The period between the beginning of anthesis and flower senescence modulates the transport of pollen by pollinators among conspecific flowers, and its length may therefore influence reproductive success. This study evaluated whether floral longevity favours pollen removal from the anthers over fecundity (seed set) in an ornithophilous species that does not undergo pollen limitation. Methods Field investigations were conducted on floral longevity, nectar production, pollinator behaviour, and variations in fruit set (FS), mean number of seeds per fruit (MSF) and pollen removal by hummingbirds (PR) during the anthesis of Salvia sellowiana in south-east Brazil. Key Results Anthesis of flowers exposed to pollinators lasted 4 d, as well as on flowers with pollen removed from the anthers or deposited on the stigma. The longevity of bagged flowers was significantly higher (approx. 9 d). FS and PR reached 87·2 and 90 %, respectively, in natural conditions. PR increased gradually over the period of anthesis; however, FS and MSF reached their maxima in the first hours of anthesis. Nectar production was continuous, but the secretion rate was reduced after pollination. The removal of nectar from non-pollinated flowers stimulated its production. Conclusions The longevity of anthesis in S. sellowiana seems to be related to the mechanism of gradual dispensing of pollen, resulting in greater male reproductive success. This is in agreement with the pollen-donation hypothesis. The small number of ovules (four) of S. sellowiana and the high frequency and the foraging mode of its pollinators may favour the selection for floral longevity driven by male fitness in this system. PMID:20622254

  10. Near-Surface Structure and Velocities of the Northeastern Santa Cruz Mountains and the Western Santa Clara Valley, California, From Seismic Imaging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Catchings, R.D.; Gandhok, G.; Goldman, M.R.; Steedman, Clare

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Santa Clara Valley (SCV) is located in the southern San Francisco Bay area of California and is bounded by the Santa Cruz Mountains to the southwest, the Diablo Ranges to the northeast, and the San Francisco Bay to the north (Fig. 1). The SCV, which includes the City of San Jose, numerous smaller cities, and much of the high-technology manufacturing and research area commonly referred to as the Silicon Valley, has a population in excess of 1.7 million people (2000 U. S. Census;http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/06/06085.html The SCV is situated between major active faults of the San Andreas Fault system, including the San Andreas Fault to the southwest and the Hayward and Calaveras faults to the northeast, and other faults inferred to lie beneath the alluvium of the SCV (CWDR, 1967; Bortugno et al., 1991). The importance of the SCV as a major industrial center, its large population, and its proximity to major earthquake faults are important considerations with respect to earthquake hazards and water-resource management. The fault-bounded alluvial aquifer system beneath the valley is the source of about one-third of the water supply for the metropolitan area (Hanson et al., 2004). To better address the earthquake hazards of the SCV, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has undertaken a program to evaluate potential seismic sources, the effects of strong ground shaking, and stratigraphy associated with the regional aquifer system. As part of that program and to better understand water resources of the valley, the USGS and the Santa Clara Valley Water District (SCVWD) began joint studies to characterize the faults, stratigraphy, and structures beneath the SCV in the year 2000. Such features are important to both agencies because they directly influence the availability and management of groundwater resources in the valley, and they affect the severity and distribution of strong shaking from local and regional earthquakes sources that may affect

  11. Comparisons of shear-wave slowness in the Santa Clara Valley, California using blind interpretations of data from invasive and noninvasive methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.; Asten, M.W.

    2008-01-01

    Many groups contributed to a blind interpretation exercise for the determination of shear-wave slowness beneath the Santa Clara Valley. The methods included invasive methods in deep boreholes as well as noninvasive methods using active and passive sources, at six sites within the valley (with most investigations being conducted at a pair of closely spaced sites near the center of the valley). Although significant variability exists between the models, the slownesses from the various methods are similar enough that linear site amplifications estimated in several ways are generally within 20% of one another. The methods were able to derive slownesses that increase systematically with distance from the valley edge, corresponding to a tendency for the sites to be underlain by finer-grained materials away from the valley edge. This variation is in agreement with measurements made in the boreholes at the sites.

  12. Creating a Research Experience in an Undergraduate Geophysics Course: Integrated Geophysical Study of the Silver Creek Fault, Santa Clara Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, D. L.; Williams, R.

    2006-12-01

    An undergraduate geophysics course at the San Jose State University was redesigned to focus on providing students with an integrated research experience that included both formative and summative assessments of learning. To this end, the students carried out four geophysical studies (gravity, magnetic, refraction, and reflection) across the inferred location of the Silver Creek fault, which is buried by the Quaternary alluvium of the Santa Clara Valley within walking distance of the university. The seismic experiments were made possible with equipment loaned by Geometrics Inc. and seismic and borehole data first acquired during a joint study by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Santa Clara Valley Water District. Three field reports, one produced after each of the first three field experiments, provided formative assessment of each student's understanding of the geophysical method, its application to the primary research objective of defining the location and structure of the Silver Creek fault, and their ability to produce a manuscript of professional quality. After each of the field reports, students were required to rewrite the report, based on feedback provided by the instructor, as well as incorporate the analysis and interpretation of the subsequent geophysical study. Students also modified conclusions of the preceding surveys in order to produce an internally consistent interpretation with each new analysis. Regional geologic relations and borehole data provided additional constraints to interpretations based on the geophysical analyses. For summative assessment, students submitted a final manuscript that had undergone three revisions as well as presented an integrated geophysical study of the Silver Creek fault based on the four geophysical experiments. The quality of the field reports showed marked improvement with each successive submission during the semester and were significantly better than in previous versions of the course, which featured various

  13. Development of a local-scale urban stream assessment method using benthic macroinvertebrates: An example from the Santa Clara Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, J.L.; Purcell, A.H.; Fend, S.V.; Resh, V.H.

    2009-01-01

    Research that explores the biological response to urbanization on a site-specific scale is necessary for management of urban basins. Recent studies have proposed a method to characterize the biological response of benthic macroinvertebrates along an urban gradient for several climatic regions in the USA. Our study demonstrates how this general framework can be refined and applied on a smaller scale to an urbanized basin, the Santa Clara Basin (surrounding San Jose, California, USA). Eighty-four sampling sites on 14 streams in the Santa Clara Basin were used for assessing local stream conditions. First, an urban index composed of human population density, road density, and urban land cover was used to determine the extent of urbanization upstream from each sampling site. Second, a multimetric biological index was developed to characterize the response of macroinvertebrate assemblages along the urban gradient. The resulting biological index included metrics from 3 ecological categories: taxonomic composition ( Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera), functional feeding group (shredder richness), and habit ( clingers). The 90th-quantile regression line was used to define the best available biological conditions along the urban gradient, which we define as the predicted biological potential. This descriptor was then used to determine the relative condition of sites throughout the basin. Hierarchical partitioning of variance revealed that several site-specific variables (dissolved O2 and temperature) were significantly related to a site's deviation from its predicted biological potential. Spatial analysis of each site's deviation from its biological potential indicated geographic heterogeneity in the distribution of impaired sites. The presence and operation of local dams optimize water use, but modify natural flow regimes, which in turn influence stream habitat, dissolved O2, and temperature. Current dissolved O2 and temperature regimes deviate from natural

  14. Organic farming favours insect-pollinated over non-insect pollinated forbs in meadows and wheat fields.

    PubMed

    Batáry, Péter; Sutcliffe, Laura; Dormann, Carsten F; Tscharntke, Teja

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relative effects of landscape-scale management intensity, local management intensity and edge effect on diversity patterns of insect-pollinated vs. non-insect pollinated forbs in meadows and wheat fields. Nine landscapes were selected differing in percent intensively used agricultural area (IAA), each with a pair of organic and conventional winter wheat fields and a pair of organic and conventional meadows. Within fields, forbs were surveyed at the edge and in the interior. Both diversity and cover of forbs were positively affected by organic management in meadows and wheat fields. This effect, however, differed significantly between pollination types for species richness in both agroecosystem types (i.e. wheat fields and meadows) and for cover in meadows. Thus, we show for the first time in a comprehensive analysis that insect-pollinated plants benefit more from organic management than non-insect pollinated plants regardless of agroecosystem type and landscape complexity. These benefits were more pronounced in meadows than wheat fields. Finally, the community composition of insect-pollinated and non-insect-pollinated forbs differed considerably between management types. In summary, our findings in both agroecosystem types indicate that organic management generally supports a higher species richness and cover of insect-pollinated plants, which is likely to be favourable for the density and diversity of bees and other pollinators.

  15. Relax and refill: xylem rehydration prior to hydraulic measurements favours embolism repair in stems and generates artificially low PLC values.

    PubMed

    Trifilò, Patrizia; Raimondo, Fabio; Lo Gullo, Maria A; Barbera, Piera M; Salleo, Sebastiano; Nardini, Andrea

    2014-11-01

    Diurnal changes in percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC), with recorded values being higher at midday than on the following morning, have been interpreted as evidence for the occurrence of cycles of xylem conduits' embolism and repair. Recent reports have suggested that diurnal PLC changes might arise as a consequence of an experimental artefact, that is, air entry into xylem conduits upon cutting stems, even if under water, while under substantial tension generated by transpiration. Rehydration procedures prior to hydraulic measurements have been recommended to avoid this artefact. In the present study, we show that xylem rehydration prior to hydraulic measurements might favour xylem refilling and embolism repair, thus leading to PLC values erroneously lower than those actually experienced by transpiring plants. When xylem tension relaxation procedures were performed on stems where refilling mechanisms had been previously inhibited by mechanical (girdling) or chemical (orthovanadate) treatment, PLC values measured in stems cut under native tension were the same as those measured after sample rehydration/relaxation. Our data call for renewed attention to the procedures of sample collection in the field and transport to the laboratory, and suggest that girdling might be a recommendable treatment prior to sample collection for PLC measurements.

  16. High serum levels of soluble CD44 variant isoform v5 are associated with favourable clinical outcome in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Zeimet, A. G.; Widschwendter, M.; Uhl-Steidl, M.; Müller-Holzner, E.; Daxenbichler, G.; Marth, C.; Dapunt, O.

    1997-01-01

    In 96 ovarian cancer patients, the present study investigates the clinical significance of pretreatment concentrations of soluble CD44 standard (CD44s) and its isoforms v5 and v6 determined in the serum and the ascitic fluid by means of recently developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Furthermore, CD44 serum concentrations in the ovarian cancer patients were compared with circulating CD44 levels in 50 healthy age-matched female blood donors. Whereas CD44s was found to be higher and CD44v5 to be lower in ovarian cancer patients than healthy control subjects, no statistical difference between the two cohorts was revealed for CD44 isoform v6. In the ascitic fluid samples, variant isoform v5 and v6 were demonstrated at lower concentrations than serum. Multivariate analysis of overall survival demonstrated that a high pretreatment serum level of soluble CD44 isoform v5 is independently associated with favourable clinical outcome in ovarian cancer. When circulating CD44 isoforms were compared with a panel of serum parameters known to be involved in the immunological network, an inverse correlation between serum CD44v5 levels and indicators of cellular immune system activation, such as soluble interleukin 2 receptor, immunostimulatory protein 90K and neopterin, became apparent. PMID:9413956

  17. Evolutionary process of Bos taurus cattle in favourable versus unfavourable environments and its implications for genetic selection

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Christopher J; Swain, David L; Kadarmideen, Haja N

    2010-01-01

    The evolutionary processes that have enabled Bos taurus cattle to establish around the globe are at the core to the future success of livestock production. Our study focuses on the history of cattle domestication including the last 60 years of B. taurus breeding programmes in both favourable and unfavourable environments and its consequences on evolution and fitness of cattle. We discuss the emergence of ‘production diseases’ in temperate production systems and consider the evolutionary genetics of tropical adaptation in cattle and conclude that the Senepol, N'Dama, Adaptaur and Criollo breeds, among others with similar evolutionary trajectories, would possess genes capable of improving the productivity of cattle in challenging environments. Using our own experimental evidence from northern Australia, we review the evolution of the Adaptaur cattle breed which has become resistant to cattle tick. We emphasize that the knowledge of interactions between genotype, environment and management in the livestock systems will be required to generate genotypes for efficient livestock production that are both economically and environmentally sustainable. Livestock producers in the 21st century will have less reliance on infrastructure and veterinary products to alleviate environmental stress and more on the animal's ability to achieve fitness in a given production environment. PMID:25567936

  18. Evolutionary process of Bos taurus cattle in favourable versus unfavourable environments and its implications for genetic selection.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Christopher J; Swain, David L; Kadarmideen, Haja N

    2010-09-01

    The evolutionary processes that have enabled Bos taurus cattle to establish around the globe are at the core to the future success of livestock production. Our study focuses on the history of cattle domestication including the last 60 years of B. taurus breeding programmes in both favourable and unfavourable environments and its consequences on evolution and fitness of cattle. We discuss the emergence of 'production diseases' in temperate production systems and consider the evolutionary genetics of tropical adaptation in cattle and conclude that the Senepol, N'Dama, Adaptaur and Criollo breeds, among others with similar evolutionary trajectories, would possess genes capable of improving the productivity of cattle in challenging environments. Using our own experimental evidence from northern Australia, we review the evolution of the Adaptaur cattle breed which has become resistant to cattle tick. We emphasize that the knowledge of interactions between genotype, environment and management in the livestock systems will be required to generate genotypes for efficient livestock production that are both economically and environmentally sustainable. Livestock producers in the 21st century will have less reliance on infrastructure and veterinary products to alleviate environmental stress and more on the animal's ability to achieve fitness in a given production environment. PMID:25567936

  19. Adult bacterial meningitis-a quality registry study: earlier treatment and favourable outcome if initial management by infectious diseases physicians.

    PubMed

    Grindborg, Ö; Naucler, P; Sjölin, J; Glimåker, M

    2015-06-01

    Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is challenging for the admitting physician because it is a rare but fulminant disease, usually presenting without typical symptoms, and rapid treatment is pivotal. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of initial management by infectious diseases (ID) physicians vs. non-ID physicians. A total of 520 consecutive adults (>17 years old), 110 with initial ID management and 410 with non-ID management, registered in the Swedish quality registry for community-acquired ABM January 2008 to December 2013, were analysed retrospectively. Primary outcome was appropriate treatment with antibiotics and corticosteroids <1 hour from admission. Secondary analyses were mortality during hospital stay and persisting neurological and hearing deficits at follow-up after 2 to 6 months. Differences in diagnostic treatment sequences also were analysed. Appropriate treatment <1 hour from admission was achieved significantly more often (41%) by ID physicians vs. non-ID physicians (24%) with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.40 to 4.14; p < 0.01) adjusted for confounders. The door-to-antibiotic time was significantly shorter, and significantly more patients were administered corticosteroids together with the first doses of antibiotics in the ID group. A trend of decreased mortality (4.5% vs. 8.0%) and sequelae at follow-up (24% vs. 44%; adjusted OR 0.55: 95% CI 0.31 to 1.00; p 0.05) were observed in the ID group vs. the non-ID group. Antibiotics were started without prior neuroimaging more often in the ID group (86% vs. 57%; p < 0.001). Initial management at the emergency department by ID physicians is associated with earlier appropriate treatment, more appropriate diagnostic treatment sequences and favourable outcome.

  20. FoxA4 Favours Notochord Formation by Inhibiting Contiguous Mesodermal Fates and Restricts Anterior Neural Development in Xenopus Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Murgan, Sabrina; Castro Colabianchi, Aitana Manuela; Monti, Renato José; Boyadjián López, Laura Elena; Aguirre, Cecilia E.; Stivala, Ernesto González; López, Silvia L.

    2014-01-01

    In vertebrates, the embryonic dorsal midline is a crucial signalling centre that patterns the surrounding tissues during development. Members of the FoxA subfamily of transcription factors are expressed in the structures that compose this centre. Foxa2 is essential for dorsal midline development in mammals, since knock-out mouse embryos lack a definitive node, notochord and floor plate. The related gene foxA4 is only present in amphibians. Expression begins in the blastula –chordin and –noggin expressing centre (BCNE) and is later restricted to the dorsal midline derivatives of the Spemann's organiser. It was suggested that the early functions of mammalian foxa2 are carried out by foxA4 in frogs, but functional experiments were needed to test this hypothesis. Here, we show that some important dorsal midline functions of mammalian foxa2 are exerted by foxA4 in Xenopus. We provide new evidence that the latter prevents the respecification of dorsal midline precursors towards contiguous fates, inhibiting prechordal and paraxial mesoderm development in favour of the notochord. In addition, we show that foxA4 is required for the correct regionalisation and maintenance of the central nervous system. FoxA4 participates in constraining the prospective rostral forebrain territory during neural specification and is necessary for the correct segregation of the most anterior ectodermal derivatives, such as the cement gland and the pituitary anlagen. Moreover, the early expression of foxA4 in the BCNE (which contains precursors of the whole forebrain and most of the midbrain and hindbrain) is directly required to restrict anterior neural development. PMID:25343614

  1. Persuading, protesting and exchanging favours: strategies used by Indian sex workers to win local support for their HIV prevention programmes.

    PubMed

    Cornish, Flora; Shukla, Anuprita; Banerji, Riddhi

    2010-01-01

    Given that the communities which are most vulnerable to HIV often have little control over their own lives and their health-related behaviour, HIV prevention policies increasingly recommend that HIV prevention projects work to build relationships with powerful external groups (i.e., build "bridging social capital"). To aid conceptualisation of how community organisations may build such social capital, this paper outlines a typology of strategies for influencing local stakeholders. We present a study of two successful Indian sex workers' organisations, VAMP and DMSC, focusing on how the organisations have influenced three groups of stakeholders, namely police, politicians and local social organisations. Interviews with project employees (45), with representatives of the three groups of stakeholders (12) and fieldwork diaries recording 6 months of observation in each site provide the data. Three approaches emerged. "Persuading" refers to the practice of holding information-giving meetings with stakeholders and requesting their support. It appears to build "weak social ties". "Protesting" entails a collective confrontation with stakeholders, and appears to be useful when the stakeholder has a public image to protect that would be tarnished by protest, and when the protestors can stake a legitimate claim that their rights are being denied. In "exchanging favours", the sex workers' organisations find creative ways to position themselves as offering valued resources to their stakeholders (such as useful information on criminal activities for the police, a stage and audience for politicians or a celebration for local social organisations) as incentives for their support. In conclusion, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each approach, the implications for social capital theorising and implications for community HIV prevention. PMID:21161773

  2. HMG-CoA reductase expression in primary colorectal cancer correlates with favourable clinicopathological characteristics and an improved clinical outcome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An association between tumor-specific HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) expression and good prognosis has previously been demonstrated in breast and ovarian cancer. In this study, the expression, clinicopathological correlates and prognostic value of HMGCR expression in colorectal cancer was examined. Findings Immunohistochemical expression of HMGCR was assessed in tissue microarrays with primary tumours from 557 incident cases of colorectal cancer in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. Pearson’s Chi Square test was applied to explore the associations between HMGCR expression and clinicopathological factors and other investigative biomarkers. Kaplan Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modeling were used to assess the relationship between HMGCR expression and cancer-specific survival (CSS) according to negative vs positive HMGCR expression. A total number of 535 (96.0%) tumours were suitable for analysis, of which 61 (11.4%) were HMGCR negative. Positive cytoplasmic HMGCR expression was associated with distant metastasis-free disease at diagnosis (p = 0.002), lack of vascular invasion (p = 0.043), microsatellite-instability (p = 0.033), expression of cyclin D1 (p = <0.001) and p21 (p = <0.001). Positive HMGCR expression was significantly associated with a prolonged CSS in unadjusted Cox regression analysis in the entire cohort (HR = 1.79; 95% CI 1.20-2.66) and in Stage III-IV disease (HR = 1.71; 95% CI 1.09-2.68), but not after adjustment for established clinicopathological parameters. Conclusions Findings from this prospective cohort study demonstrate that HMGCR is differentially expressed in colorectal cancer and that positive expression is associated with favourable tumour characteristics and a prolonged survival in unadjusted analysis. The utility of HMGCR as a predictor of response to neoadjuvant or adjuvant statin treatment in colorectal cancer merits further study. Virtual slides The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http

  3. Can Postoperative Nutrition be Favourably Maintained by Oral Diet in Patients with Emergency Temporary Ileostomy? A Tertiary Hospital Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Maity, Debabrata; Dey, Ramprasad; Choudhury, Krishnangshu Bhanja; Das, Gautam; Bhattacharya, Ujjwal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Temporary ileostomy is an emergency procedure performed in cases having septic peritonitis in presence of perforation or obstruction or gangrene of small intestine. These patients usually suffer from gross malnutrition following surgery. Aim To measure nutritional status of patients with emergency temporary ileostomy and to determine whether their postoperative nutrition can be favourably maintained by oral diet alone. Materials and Methods Sixty patients were enrolled for the study on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria during the study period from January 2012 to December 2013. Oral feeding was started as soon as ileostomy started functioning and patients expressed hunger, about 48-72 hours postoperatively. An individualized diet chart was formulated for each patient using Harris Benedict Equation. Nutritional assessment was done on 1) 1st day of oral feeding, 2) After 7 days of oral feeding, 3). After three months of oral feeding. Nutritional parameters (anthropometric, biochemical) employed were tabulated and statistically analysed with SPSS v 17, Chicago. Results Out of 60 patients, 36 males and 24 females were enrolled in the study. The patients were in the age group of 20-60 years with a mean age of 45 years. After 7 days of oral nutrition the nutritional status deteriorated with a significant decrease in body weight (p<0.001) and serum haemoglobin (p <0.001). However, at the end of the study, the patients had their nutritional status restored satisfactorily with normalization of basic parameters like bodyweight, haemoglobin and serum albumin (p<0.001). Conclusion Proper dietary advice and oral nutrition were found to be sufficient for gradual restoration and maintenance of satisfactory nutritional status in the postoperative period. PMID:26816941

  4. Persuading, protesting and exchanging favours: strategies used by Indian sex workers to win local support for their HIV prevention programmes.

    PubMed

    Cornish, Flora; Shukla, Anuprita; Banerji, Riddhi

    2010-01-01

    Given that the communities which are most vulnerable to HIV often have little control over their own lives and their health-related behaviour, HIV prevention policies increasingly recommend that HIV prevention projects work to build relationships with powerful external groups (i.e., build "bridging social capital"). To aid conceptualisation of how community organisations may build such social capital, this paper outlines a typology of strategies for influencing local stakeholders. We present a study of two successful Indian sex workers' organisations, VAMP and DMSC, focusing on how the organisations have influenced three groups of stakeholders, namely police, politicians and local social organisations. Interviews with project employees (45), with representatives of the three groups of stakeholders (12) and fieldwork diaries recording 6 months of observation in each site provide the data. Three approaches emerged. "Persuading" refers to the practice of holding information-giving meetings with stakeholders and requesting their support. It appears to build "weak social ties". "Protesting" entails a collective confrontation with stakeholders, and appears to be useful when the stakeholder has a public image to protect that would be tarnished by protest, and when the protestors can stake a legitimate claim that their rights are being denied. In "exchanging favours", the sex workers' organisations find creative ways to position themselves as offering valued resources to their stakeholders (such as useful information on criminal activities for the police, a stage and audience for politicians or a celebration for local social organisations) as incentives for their support. In conclusion, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each approach, the implications for social capital theorising and implications for community HIV prevention.

  5. E-cadherin Controls Bronchiolar Progenitor Cells and Onset of Preneoplastic Lesions in Mice12

    PubMed Central

    Ceteci, Fatih; Ceteci, Semra; Zanucco, Emanuele; Thakur, Chitra; Becker, Matthias; El-Nikhely, Nefertiti; Fink, Ludger; Seeger, Werner; Savai, Rajkumar; Rapp, Ulf R

    2012-01-01

    Although progenitor cells of the conducting airway have been spatially localized and some insights have been gained regarding their molecular phenotype, relatively little is known about the mechanisms regulating their maintenance, activation, and differentiation. This study investigates the potential roles of E-cadherin in mouse Clara cells, as these cells were shown to represent the progenitor/stem cells of the conducting airways and have been implicated as the cell of origin of human non-small cell lung cancer. Postnatal inactivation of E-cadherin affected Clara cell differentiation and compromised airway regeneration under injury conditions. In steady-state adult lung, overexpression of the dominant negative E-cadherin led to an expansion of the bronchiolar stem cells and decreased differentiation concomitant with canonical Wnt signaling activation. Expansion of the bronchiolar stem cell pool was associated with an incessant proliferation of neuroepithelial body.associated Clara cells that ultimately gave rise to bronchiolar hyperplasia. Despite progressive hyperplasia, only a minority of the mice developed pulmonary solid tumors, suggesting that the loss of E-cadherin function leads to tumor formation when additional mutations are sustained. The present study reveals that E-cadherin plays a critical role in the regulation of proliferation and homeostasis of the epithelial cells lining the conducting airways. PMID:23308049

  6. International Implications: Are Polish Higher School Learners in Favour of Darwin's Theory of Evolution Being Taught in Primary and Secondary Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Norman L.; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to determine if Polish higher school learners are in favour of Darwin's evolutionary theory being included in the primary and secondary school curriculum. Thirty three students at AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland were surveyed, and the author found that all of them are in agreement with it. The…

  7. Simulation of ground-water/surface-water flow in the Santa Clara-Calleguas ground-water basin, Ventura County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Randall T.; Martin, Peter; Koczot, Kathryn M.

    2003-01-01

    Ground water is the main source of water in the Santa Clara-Calleguas ground-water basin that covers about 310 square miles in Ventura County, California. A steady increase in the demand for surface- and ground-water resources since the late 1800s has resulted in streamflow depletion and ground-water overdraft. This steady increase in water use has resulted in seawater intrusion, inter-aquifer flow, land subsidence, and ground-water contamination. The Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin consists of multiple aquifers that are grouped into upper- and lower-aquifer systems. The upper-aquifer system includes the Shallow, Oxnard, and Mugu aquifers. The lower-aquifer system includes the upper and lower Hueneme, Fox Canyon, and Grimes Canyon aquifers. The layered aquifer systems are each bounded below by regional unconformities that are overlain by extensive basal coarse-grained layers that are the major pathways for ground-water production from wells and related seawater intrusion. The aquifer systems are bounded below and along mountain fronts by consolidated bedrock that forms a relatively impermeable boundary to ground-water flow. Numerous faults act as additional exterior and interior boundaries to ground-water flow. The aquifer systems extend offshore where they crop out along the edge of the submarine shelf and within the coastal submarine canyons. Submarine canyons have dissected these regional aquifers, providing a hydraulic connection to the ocean through the submarine outcrops of the aquifer systems. Coastal landward flow (seawater intrusion) occurs within both the upper- and lower-aquifer systems. A numerical ground-water flow model of the Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to better define the geohydrologic framework of the regional ground-water flow system and to help analyze the major problems affecting water-resources management of a typical coastal aquifer system. Construction of the Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin model required

  8. Digital mapping of soil related common European biophysical criteria used for the identification of Less Favoured Areas in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pásztor, László; Szabó, József; Bakacsi, Zsófia

    2010-05-01

    One of the main objectives of the EU's Common Agricultural Policy is to encourage maintaining agricultural production in less favoured areas (LFA) in order to sustain agricultural production and use natural resources, in such a way to secure both stable production and income to farmers and to protect the environment. LFA assignment has both ecological and severe economical aspects. Recently the delimitation of LFAs is suggested to be carried out by using common biophysical diagnostic criteria on low soil productivity and poor climate conditions all over Europe. The criterion system was elaborated by JRC and its operational implementation comes under member state competence. This process requires the existence of an adequate national spatial soil information system with appropriate data structure and spatial resolution as well as a proper methodology for its analysis. Hungary possesses an appropriate nationwide, 1:25,000 scale legacy data set originating from the national soil mapping project, which was initiated and led by Kreybig. This national survey was based on field and laboratory soil analyses and at the same time serving practical purposes. Its objective was the preparation of a map series which gives an insight to the geographical site and extent of soil conditions and soil properties for the production directing authorities, agricultural policy-makers, farmers, and the research institutes related to production problems. The similarity between the objectives of the old national mapping and those of the present European activities is remarkable. In the fifties, when the survey was completed, Hungary was the first in the world to have 1:25,000 scale soil information for the whole country. Overall chemical and physical soil properties of the soil root zone featuring soil patches were identified for croplands. Three characteristics were attributed to soil mapping units and displayed on the maps; further soil properties were determined and measured in soil

  9. Foliar photochemical processes and carbon metabolism under favourable and adverse winter conditions in a Mediterranean mixed forest, Catalonia (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperlich, D.; Chang, C. T.; Peñuelas, J.; Gracia, C.; Sabaté, S.

    2014-10-01

    Evergreen trees in the Mediterranean region must cope with a wide range of environmental stresses from summer drought to winter cold. The mildness of Mediterranean winters can periodically lead to favourable environmental conditions above the threshold for a positive carbon balance, benefitting evergreen woody species more than deciduous ones. The comparatively lower solar energy input in winter decreases the foliar light saturation point. This leads to a higher susceptibility to photoinhibitory stress especially when chilly (< 12 °C) or freezing temperatures (< 0 °C) coincide with clear skies and relatively high solar irradiances. Nonetheless, the advantage of evergreen species that are able to photosynthesize all year round where a significant fraction can be attributed to winter months, compensates for the lower carbon uptake during spring and summer in comparison to deciduous species. We investigated the ecophysiological behaviour of three co-occurring mature evergreen tree species (Quercus ilex L., Pinus halepensis Mill., and Arbutus unedo L.). Therefore, we collected twigs from the field during a period of mild winter conditions and after a sudden cold period. After both periods, the state of the photosynthetic machinery was tested in the laboratory by estimating the foliar photosynthetic potential with CO2 response curves in parallel with chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. The studied evergreen tree species benefited strongly from mild winter conditions by exhibiting extraordinarily high photosynthetic potentials. A sudden period of frost, however, negatively affected the photosynthetic apparatus, leading to significant decreases in key physiological parameters such as the maximum carboxylation velocity (Vc, max), the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (Jmax), and the optimal fluorometric quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm). The responses of Vc, max and Jmax were highly species specific, with Q. ilex exhibiting the highest and P

  10. Foliar photochemical processes and carbon metabolism under favourable and adverse winter conditions in a Mediterranean mixed forest, Catalonia (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperlich, D.; Chang, C. T.; Peñuelas, J.; Gracia, C.; Sabaté, S.

    2014-06-01

    Evergreen trees in the Mediterranean region must cope with a wide range of environmental stresses from summer drought to winter cold. The mildness of Mediterranean winters can periodically lead to favourable environmental conditions above the threshold for a positive carbon balance, benefitting evergreen woody species more than deciduous ones. The comparatively lower solar energy input in winter decreases the foliar light saturation point. This leads to a higher susceptibility to photoinhibitory stress especially when chilly (< 12 °C) or freezing temperatures (< 0 °C) coincide with clear skies and relatively high solar irradiances. Nonetheless, the advantage of evergreen species that are able to photosynthesize all year round where a significant fraction can be attributed to winter months, compensates for the lower carbon uptake during spring and summer in comparison to deciduous species. We investigated the ecophysiological behaviour of three co-occurring mature evergreen tree species (Quercus ilex L., Pinus halepensis Mill., and Arbutus unedo L.) during a period of mild winter conditions and their responses to a sudden cold period. The state of the photosynthetic machinery in both periods was thus tested by estimating the foliar photosynthetic potential with CO2 response curves in parallel with chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. The studied evergreen tree species benefited strongly from mild winter conditions by exhibiting extraordinarily high photosynthetic potentials similar to those under spring conditions. A sudden period of frost, however, negatively affected the photosynthetic apparatus, leading to significant decreases in key physiological parameters such as the maximum carboxylation velocity (Vc, max), the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (Jmax), and the optimal fluorometric quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm). This change persisted for several weeks after the cold period despite the recovery of the temperature to the conditions

  11. Achaete-scute homologue-1 tapers neuroendocrine cell differentiation in lungs after exposure to naphthalene.

    PubMed

    Jensen-Taubman, Sandra; Wang, Xiao-Yang; Linnoila, R Ilona

    2010-09-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor achaete-scute homologue-1 (ASH1) plays a critical role in regulating the neuroendocrine (NE) phenotype in normal and neoplastic lung. Transgenic (TG) mice that constitutively express human ASH1 (hASH1) under control of the Clara cell 10-kDa protein (CC10) promoter in non-NE airway lining cells display progressive epithelial hyperplasia and bronchiolar metaplasia or bronchiolization of the alveoli (BOA). However, little is known about the involvement of hASH1 in regeneration of the conducting airway. In this study, we investigated the impact of hASH1 on airway cell injury and repair in the TG mice following an intraperitoneal injection of naphthalene, which specifically ablates bronchiolar Clara cells and induces pulmonary NE cell hyperplasia. We discovered an overall attenuation of NE maturation coupled with increased proliferation in TG mice during post-naphthalene repair. In addition, BOA lesions revealed enhanced epithelial cell proliferation while preserving Clara cell markers CC10 and the principal naphthalene-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P4502F2. These data suggest that ASH1 may play an important role in maintaining a progenitor phenotype that promotes renewal of both NE and epithelial cells. Moreover, ASH1 may propagate a stem cell microenvironment in BOA where epithelium becomes resistant to naphthalene toxicity.

  12. Response of Inflammatory Mediators, Extracellular Matrix Proteins and Stem and Progenitor Cells to Emphysema.

    PubMed

    Skurikhin, E G; Pakhomova, A V; Krupin, V A; Pershina, O V; Pan, E S; Ermolaeva, L A; Vaizova, O E; Rybalkina, O Yu; Dygai, A M

    2016-08-01

    Inflammation, extracellular matrix proteins (hydroxyproline, connective tissue growth factor, collagen, and fibronectin), stem and progenitor cells (multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells, Clara cells, angiogenesis, precursors, endothelial and epithelial cells) were studied in female C57Bl/6 mice with experimental elastase-induced emphysema. Diffuse emphysema reduced the number of endothelial (CD45(-)CD31(+)CD34(+)) and epithelial (CD45(-)CD117(+)CD49f(+)) cells, induced microcirculation disturbances, and decreased the area occupied by the connective tissue. Emphysematous changes in the lungs were accompanied by infiltration of the alveolar septa with macrophages and lymphocytes, increase in the serum and lung concentrations of transforming growth factor-β, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13, and lung concentration of IL-17. In the lungs, inflammation was associated with marked increase in the number of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells CD90(+)CD73(+)CD106(+)CD44(+)) and Clara cells (CD45(-)CD34(-)CD31(-)Sca1(+)) and overexpression of extracellular matrix proteins (hydroxyproline, connective tissue growth factor, collagen, fibronectin) and Clara cells protein. On the other hand, elastase reduced the number of angiogenic precursor cells (CD45(-)CD117(+)Flk1(+)). PMID:27591877

  13. Evaluation of tracer tests completed in 1999 and 2000 on the upper Santa Clara River, Los Angeles and Ventura Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, Marisa H.; Mendez, Gregory O.; Kratzer, Charles R.; Reichard, Eric G.

    2003-01-01

    The interaction of surface water and hyporheic water along the Santa Clara River in Los Angeles and Ventura Counties, California, was evaluated by conducting tracer tests and analyzing water-quality data under different flow conditions in October 1999 and May 2000. Tracer and water-quality samples were collected at multiple river and hyporheic sites as well as at the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts Saugus and Valencia Water Reclamation Plants. These water reclamation plants provide the main source of base flow in the river. Rhodamine WT dye was injected into the river to determine river traveltimes and to indicate when Lagrangian water-quality sampling could be performed at each site. Sodium bromide was injected into the river at a constant rate at the water reclamation plants to evaluate the surface-water and shallow ground-water interactions in the hyporheic zone. In the upper reach of the study area, which extends 2.9 river miles downstream from the Saugus Water Reclamation Plant, traveltime was 3.2 hours during May 2000. In the lower reach, which extends 14.1 river miles downstream from the Valencia Water Reclamation Plant, traveltime was 9.6 hours during October 1999 and 7.1 hours during May 2000. The sodium bromide tracer was detected at both hyporheic locations sampled during October 1999, and at two of the three hyporheic locations sampled during May 2000. On the basis of Rhodamine dye tests, flow curves were constructed from the discharge measurements in the Valencia reach. Flow-curve results indicate net gains in flow throughout most, but not all, of the upper parts of the reach and net losses in flow at the lower part of the reach. Lagrangian water-quality sampling provides information on the changes in chemistry as the water flows downstream from the water reclamation plants. Along both reaches there is an increase in sulfate (40-60 mg/L in the Saugus reach and 160 mg/L in the Valencia reach) and a decrease in chloride (about 45 mg/L in the

  14. Short baseline variations in site response and wave-propagation effects and their structural causes: Four examples in and around the santa clara valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, S.; Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Carver, D.; Liu, P.

    2010-01-01

    Ground motion records of local and regional events from a portable array are used to investigate the structural causes of variations in ground motion over distances of a few hundred meters to a few kilometers in the sedimentary basin environment of the Santa Clara Valley, California, and its margins. Arrays of portable seismic stations are used to target four study areas with different ground motion patterns: (1) an edge of the alluvial basin extending up onto a marginal ridge (Blossom Hill), (2) a Cenozoic basin with a nearly flat bottom (Cupertino Basin), (3) a long, narrow Cenozoic basin with a steep V profile (Evergreen Basin), and (4) a line perpendicular to the trace of the Hayward fault. Average peak velocities on Blossom Hill from local earthquakes are a factor of 2.5 times higher than nearby valley sites. Three-dimensional (3D) modeling is used to conclude that the majority of the amplification is due to lower shear-wave velocities along a local fault zone (Shannon–Berrocal). Site amplification over the Cupertino Basin in the frequency band 0.5–4 Hz is generally low (less than 2.0 relative to a Mesozoic rock site) and spatially uniform. This response is attributed to the shallow, flat-bottomed shape of the basin and the uniform, flat-laying sedimentary fill. In contrast, site amplification in the Evergreen Basin generally exceeds 3.0 and is attributed to the deep, V-shaped geometry of the basin and younger sedimentary fill. 3D waveform modeling shows the elongated shape of the Evergreen Basin causes more efficient trapping of long-period waves for sources along the long axis of the basin. A low-velocity zone is postulated along the Hayward fault with a width between 100 and 200 m, based on elevated site response along the fault trace and 4.5-Hz fault zone guided waves on the horizontal components of stations near the fault.

  15. Using existing data and focused surveys to highlight Cuvier's beaked whales favourable areas: a case study in the central Tyrrhenian Sea.

    PubMed

    Gannier, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the necessary elements to implement strategic mitigation in order to avoid Cuvier's beaked whale (CBW) strandings linked to intense sound sources, such as military active sonars, in the Mediterranean Sea. A careful review of stranding data and the analysis of existing survey results are required to highlight the main characters of the species regional distribution. Focused and repeated surveys are needed to confirm that possible favourable areas, such as the Balearic, Tyrrhenian or Aegean Seas, are really favourable CBW habitats. These surveys should be carried out with sea states 0 to 1 in order to minimize the risk of false absence data. Among the regions of interest, the central Tyrrhenian Sea was surveyed with a 12 m sailboat in 2007 and 2008. With 907 km of effective effort, a mean sighting rate of 1.9 CBW school/100 km was obtained, which is amongst the highest densities recorded in the Mediterranean. PMID:20546808

  16. Geologic, water-chemistry, and hydrologic data from multiple-well monitoring sites and selected water-supply wells in the Santa Clara Valley, California, 1999-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newhouse, M.W.; Hanson, R.T.; Wentworth, C.M.; Everett, Rhett; Williams, C.F.; Tinsley, J.C.; Noce, T.E.; Carkin, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    To better identify the three-dimensional geohydrologic framework of the Santa Clara Valley, lithologic, geologic, geophysical, geomechanical, hydraulic, and water-chemistry data were collected from eight ground-water multiple-well monitoring sites constructed in Santa Clara County, California, as part of a series of cooperative studies between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Santa Clara Valley Water District. The data are being used to update and improve the three-dimensional geohydrologic framework of the basin and to address issues related to water supply, water chemistry, sequence stratigraphy, geology, and geological hazards. This report represents a compilation of data collected from 1999 to 2003, including location and design of the monitoring sites, cone penetrometer borings, geologic logs, lithologic logs, geophysical logs, core analysis, water-chemistry analysis, ground-water-level measurements, and hydraulic and geomechanical properties from wells and core samples. Exploratory cone penetrometer borings taken in the upper 17 to 130 feet at six of the monitoring sites identified the base of Holocene as no deeper than 75 feet in the central confined area and no deeper than 35 feet in the southern unconfined areas of the valley. Generalized lithologic characterization from the monitoring sites indicates about four to six different aquifer units separated by relatively fine-grained units occur within the alluvial deposits shallower than 860 feet deep. Analysis of geophysical logs indicates that coarse-grained units varied in thickness between 10 and 25 feet in the southeastern unconfined area of the valley and between 50 and 200 feet in the south-central and southwestern areas of the valley. Deviations from temperature-gradient logs indicate that the majority of horizontal ground-water flow occurs above a depth of 775 feet in the south central and above 510 feet in the southeastern areas of the valley. Bulk physical properties from more than 1,150 feet of

  17. The Feyrter cell in hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Moosavi, Homeira; Smith, Paul; Heath, Donald

    1973-01-01

    Moosavi, H., Smith, P., and Heath, D. (1973).Thorax,28, 729-741. The Feyrter cell in hypoxia. It is clear that the bronchial tree has functions beyond the mere conduction of air into the alveolar spaces. In addition to the familiar ciliated respiratory epithelial cells the bronchus is lined by non-ciliated Clara and Feyrter cells. In the present study we investigated the histological and ultrastructural features of the bronchial argyrophilic (Feyrter) cell of the neonatal rat. On electron microscopy this cell has all the features of an APUD cell which is associated with the secretion of polypeptide hormones. It bears a close ultrastructural resemblance to the chief cell of the carotid body and shows the same changes in its membrane-bound bodies on exposure to chronic hypoxia. These are strong grounds for believing that the bronchi and bronchioles have either a chemoreceptor or an endocrine function in the neonatal period. Images PMID:4787985

  18. Dopamine favours the emergence of long-term depression versus long-term potentiation in slices of rat prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Law-Tho, D; Desce, J M; Crepel, F

    1995-03-24

    In the present study, we have investigated possible interactions between dopamine and long-term changes in synaptic efficacy induced in layer V pyramidal cells by tetanization of afferents from layer I-II. In the absence of dopamine, we confirmed that high frequency stimulation of excitatory afferents induced long-term potentiation, long-term depression or no change. Inversely, in the presence of dopamine, we have found that the same tetanus led to long-term depression in synaptic transmission in a majority of cells, but no more long-term potentiation. These results suggest that in rat prefrontal cortex, dopamine may determine the direction of activity dependent changes in synaptic efficacy and therefore, plays a functional role in the physiology of this structure.

  19. EVIDENCE OF QUINONE METABOLITES OF NAPHTHALENE COVALENTLY BOUND TO SULFUR NUCLEOPHILES OF PROTEINS OF MURINE CLARA CELLS AFTER EXPOSURE TO NAPHTHALENE. (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  20. Extending Lévy search theory from one to higher dimensions: Lévy walking favours the blind

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    A diverse range of organisms, including T cells, E. coli, honeybees, sharks, turtles, bony fish, jellyfish, wandering albatrosses and even human hunter–gatherers have movement patterns that can be approximated by Lévy walks (LW; sometimes called Lévy flights in the biological and ecological literature). These observations lend support to the ‘Lévy flight foraging hypothesis’ which asserts that natural selection should have led to adaptations for Lévy flight foraging, because Lévy flights can optimize search efficiencies. The hypothesis stems from a rigorous theory of one-dimensional searching and from simulation data for two-dimensional searching. The potential effectiveness of three-dimensional Lévy searches has not been examined but is central to a proper understanding of marine predators and T cells which have provided the most compelling empirical evidence for LW. Here I extend Lévy search theory from one to three dimensions. The new theory predicts that three-dimensional Lévy searching can be advantageous but only when targets are large compared with the perceptual range of the searchers, i.e. only when foragers are effectively blind and need to come into contact with a target to establish its presence. This may explain why effective blindness is a common factor among three-dimensional Lévy walkers. PMID:26346221

  1. Liquefaction Scenarios in the Northern Santa Clara Valley for a Repeat of the 1868 Hayward Fault (M6.7-7.0) Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, T. L.; Noce, T. E.; Bennett, M. J.

    2007-12-01

    The spatial distribution of the probability of liquefaction in the northern Santa Clara Valley, California, was predicted for a repeat of an earthquake like the 1868 Hayward Fault (M6.7-7.0) earthquake. Probabilities were computed with the methodology for probabilistic liquefaction hazard mapping that was developed by Holzer and others (USGS OFR 02-296, 2006). The methodology relies on field-based plots of cumulative frequency of the liquefaction potential index (LPI) for spatially homogenous surficial geologic units. LPI, which is a scalar parameter that integrates the liquefaction potential of the entire soil column, was computed for 164 seismic cone penetration tests (SCPT) that were conducted in Holocene and Pleistocene geologic units. The plots of cumulative frequency were used to estimate the liquefaction probability distribution for each surficial geologic unit given peak ground acceleration (PGA) and earthquake magnitude. Scenario maps were produced with ArcGIS Model Builder. PGA at each node in a 50-m grid was estimated with the new attenuation relation proposed by Boore and Atkinson (2007, v. 3.04). Regional averages of VS30 values, which were based on the SCPT, were used to account for local site amplification. The probability of liquefaction was estimated at each node using the liquefaction probability distribution appropriate for the surficial geology at the node. For a M7 earthquake and an assumed water-table depth of 1.5 m in the central part of the valley, liquefaction probabilities range from 0.1 to 0.2 along Coyote and Guadalupe Creeks, but are less than 0.05 elsewhere. For an M6.7 earthquake, probabilities remain greater than 0.1 along Coyote Creek but decrease along Guadalupe Creek to less than 0.1. For assumed water-table depths greater than 5 m, liquefaction probabilities are less than 0.05 throughout the valley. The probability of lateral spreading is less than 0.05 throughout the valley for both water table depths and both earthquakes

  2. Experimental study of neutron-rich nuclei near the N = 82 closed shell using the {sub 40}{sup 96}Zr+{sub 50}{sup 124}Sn reaction with GASP and PRISMA-CLARA arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Rodríguez, W.; Torres, D. A.; Cristancho, F.; Medina, N. H.; Chapman, R.; Smith, J. F.; Mengoni, D.; Truesdale, V.; Grocutt, L.; Mulholland, K.; Kumar, V.; Hadinia, B.; Labiche, M.; Liang, X.; O'Donell, D.; Ollier, J.; Orlandi, R.; Smith, J. F.; Spohr, K. M.; Wady, P.; and others

    2014-11-11

    In this contribution an experimental study of the deep-inelastic reaction {sub 40}{sup 96}Zr+{sub 50}{sup 124}Sn at 530 MeV, using the GASP and PRISMA-CLARA arrays, is presented. The experiments populate a wealth of projectile-like and target-like binary fragments, in a large neutron-rich region around N ≥ 50 and Z ≈ 40. Preliminary results on the study of the yrast and near-yrast states for {sup 95}Nb will be shown, along with a comparison of the experimental yields obtained in the experiments.

  3. Studies on the diastereoselective oxidation of 1-thio-β-D-glucopyranosides: synthesis of the usually less favoured R(S) sulfoxide as a single diastereoisomer.

    PubMed

    Moya-López, Juan Francisco; Elhalem, Eleonora; Recio, Rocío; Álvarez, Eleuterio; Fernández, Inmaculada; Khiar, Noureddine

    2015-02-14

    A detailed study on the diastereoselective oxidation of 1-thio-β-D-glucopyranosides is reported. It has been shown that the sense and the degree of stereochemical outcome of the oxidation are highly dependent on the substituent of the sulfur and on the protective group of the C2-OH. In the case of thioglycosides with a bulky aglycone, the mesylation of C2-OH has a significant effect on the stereochemical outcome of the oxidation, affording the usually less favoured RS sulfoxide as a single diastereoisomer. The absolute configuration of the final sulfinyl glycosides was ascertained by NMR analysis and corroborated by X-ray crystallography.

  4. Isolation and characterization of latent and active polyphenoloxidase in BRS Clara (CNPUV 154-147 × Centennial seedless) and BRS Morena (Marroo seedless × Centennial seedless) seedless table grapes.

    PubMed

    Lago-Vanzela, Ellen Silva; Pavezzi, Fabiana Carina; Martin, Natália; Gomes, Eleni; Da Silva, Roberto

    2011-11-01

    The seedless grapes BRS Clara and BRS Morena, developed in Brazil, are currently growing in popularity due to their premium texture and taste. However, there are no reports on the polyphenoloxidase (PPO) from these cultivars. In this paper, active and latent PPO from BRS Clara and BRS Morena seedless grapes were extracted using the non-ionic detergents Triton-X-100 (active) and Triton-X-114 (latent), and their catecholase activities were characterized. The PPO extracted using Triton-X-110 exhibited maximum activities at pH 6.0 and at 25 °C. Above 30 °C, a gradual decline in activities was noted, with complete inactivation at 60 °C. The PPO from grapes extracted with Triton-X-114 was activated with 0.2% of the ionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and exhibited maximum activities at pH 5.5 and at 30 °C. It was stable until the temperature reached 60 °C.

  5. FGFR3 mutations, but not FGFR3 expression and FGFR3 copy-number variations, are associated with favourable non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Neuzillet, Yann; van Rhijn, Bas W G; Prigoda, Nadia L; Bapat, Bharati; Liu, Liyang; Bostrom, Peter J; Fleshner, Neil E; Gallie, Brenda L; Zlotta, Alexandre R; Jewett, Michael A S; van der Kwast, Theo H

    2014-08-01

    The fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) is a tyrosine kinase receptor frequently activated by point mutations in bladder cancer (BC). These mutations are associated with genetically stable, Ta and low-grade BC, representing the favourable BC pathway. Conversely, FGFR3 over-expression was recently found in 40 % of muscle invasive BC. We examined FGFR3 mutation status and protein expression in patients originally diagnosed as T1. We also investigated copy-number variations in FGFR3 as a possible alternative mechanism to activate FGFR3. We included 84 patients with T1 BC as their initial diagnosis. A uropathologist reviewed the slides for grade and (sub)stage. The FGFR3 mutation status was examined by PCR-SNaPshot and FGFR3 protein expression by standard immuno-histochemistry (FGFR3-B9). Copy-number status was determined in 69/84 cases with nine probes covering nine exons of the FGFR3 gene (MLPA). Of 27 BC with FGFR3 mutations, 26 (96 %) showed FGFR3 over-expression. Of the 57 wild-type BC, 27 (47 %) BC showed over-expression. Pathological parameters significantly differed (p < 0.01) between mutant and wild-type tumours with the FGFR3 mutation pointing to more favourable BC. However, if the BC exhibited wild-type FGFR3, FGFR3 protein status had no influence on grade and (sub)stage. We found six tumours with more than or equal to three copies of FGFR3. Only 1 of 22 wild-type tumours with over-expression of FGFR3 had more than or equal to three gene copies. In initially diagnosed T1 BC, only the FGFR3 mutation was significantly associated with favourable BC disease characteristics. In addition to almost all FGFR3 mutant BC, 47 % of wild-type BC displayed FGFR3 over-expression, suggesting an alternative mechanism to activate FGFR3. Increased FGFR3 copy number was a rare event and did not account for this mechanism. Nevertheless, FGFR3 wild-type tumours with over-expression of the protein may still represent a subset that might potentially benefit from FGFR3

  6. Entropy favours open colloidal lattices.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiaoming; Chen, Qian; Granick, Steve

    2013-03-01

    Burgeoning experimental and simulation activity seeks to understand the existence of self-assembled colloidal structures that are not close-packed. Here we describe an analytical theory based on lattice dynamics and supported by experiments that reveals the fundamental role entropy can play in stabilizing open lattices. The entropy we consider is associated with the rotational and vibrational modes unique to colloids interacting through extended attractive patches. The theory makes predictions of the implied temperature, pressure and patch-size dependence of the phase diagram of open and close-packed structures. More generally, it provides guidance for the conditions at which targeted patchy colloidal assemblies in two and three dimensions are stable, thus overcoming the difficulty in exploring by experiment or simulation the full range of conceivable parameters.

  7. Imidacloprid and thiacloprid neonicotinoids bind more favourably to cockroach than to honeybee α6 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: insights from computational studies.

    PubMed

    Selvam, Balaji; Graton, Jérôme; Laurent, Adèle D; Alamiddine, Zakaria; Mathé-Allainmat, Monique; Lebreton, Jacques; Coqueret, Olivier; Olivier, Christophe; Thany, Steeve H; Le Questel, Jean-Yves

    2015-02-01

    The binding interactions of two neonicotinoids, imidacloprid (IMI) and thiacloprid (THI) with the extracellular domains of cockroach and honeybee α6 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits in an homomeric receptor have been studied through docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The binding mode predicted for the two neonicotinoids is validated through the good agreement observed between the theoretical results with the crystal structures of the corresponding complexes with Ac-AChBP, the recognized structural surrogate for insects nAChR extracellular ligand binding domain. The binding site of the two insect α6 receptors differs by only one residue of loop D, a serine residue (Ser83) in cockroach being replaced by a lysine residue (Lys108) in honeybee. The docking results show very close interactions for the two neonicotinoids with both α6 nAChR models, in correspondence to the trends observed in the experimental neonicotinoid-Ac-AChBP complexes. However, the docking parameters (scores and energies) are not significantly different between the two insect α6 nAChRs to draw clear conclusions. The MD results bring distinct trends. The analysis of the average interaction energies in the two insects α6 nAChRs shows indeed better affinity of neonicotinoids bound to α6 cockroach compared to honeybee nAChR. This preference is explained by tighter contacts with aromatic residues (Trp and Tyr) of the binding pocket. Interestingly, the non-conserved residue Lys108 of loop D of α6 honeybee nAChR interacts through van der Waals contacts with neonicotinoids, which appear more favourable than the direct or water mediated hydrogen-bond interaction between the OH group of Ser83 of α6 cockroach nAChR and the electronegative terminal group of the two neonicotinoids (nitro in IMI and cyano in THI). Finally, in both insects nAChRs, THI is consistently found to bind more favourably than IMI. PMID:25424654

  8. Favourable IFNL3 Genotypes Are Associated with Spontaneous Clearance and Are Differentially Distributed in Aboriginals in Canadian HIV-Hepatitis C Co-Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Moqueet, Nasheed; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Platt, Robert W.; Young, Jim; Cooper, Curtis; Hull, Mark; Walmsley, Sharon; Klein, Marina B.

    2015-01-01

    Canadian Aboriginals are reported to clear Hepatitis C (HCV) more frequently. We tested the association of spontaneous clearance and three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near the Interferon-lambda 3 (IFNL3) gene (rs12979860, rs8099917, functional variant rs8103142) and compared the SNP frequencies between HIV-HCV co-infected whites and Aboriginals from the Canadian Co-infection Cohort. HCV treatment-naïve individuals with at least two HCV RNA tests were included (n = 538). A spontaneous clearance case was defined as someone with two consecutive HCV RNA-negative tests, at least six months apart. Data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards adjusted for sex and ethnicity. Advantageous variants and haplotypes were more common in Aboriginals than Caucasians: 57% vs. 46% had the rs12979860 CC genotype, respectively; 58% vs. 48%, rs8103142 TT; 74% vs. 67%, the rs12979860 C allele; and 67% vs. 64% the TCT haplotype with three favourable alleles. The adjusted Hazard Ratios (95% CI) for spontaneous clearance were: rs12979860: 3.80 (2.20, 6.54); rs8099917: 5.14 (2.46, 10.72); and rs8103142: 4.36 (2.49, 7.62). Even after adjusting for rs12979860, Aboriginals and females cleared HCV more often, HR (95% CI) = 1.53 (0.89, 2.61) and 1.42 (0.79, 2.53), respectively. Our results suggest that favourable IFNL3 genotypes are more common among Aboriginals than Caucasians, and may partly explain the higher HCV clearance rates seen among Aboriginals. PMID:25803108

  9. Breaks in Pavement and Pipes as Indicators of Range-Front Faulting Resulting from the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake near the Southwest Margin of the Santa Clara Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Kevin M.; Ellen, Stephen D.; Haugerud, Ralph A.; Peterson, David M.; Phelps, Geoffery A.

    1995-01-01

    Damage to pavement and near-surface utility pipes, caused by the October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake, provide indicators for ground deformation in a 663 km2 area near the southwest margin of the Santa Clara Valley, California. The spatial distribution of 1284 sites of such damage documents the extent and distribution of detectable ground deformation. Damage was concentrated in four zones, three of which are near previously mapped faults. The zone through Los Gatos showed the highest concentration of damage, as well as evidence for pre- and post-earthquake deformation. Damage along the foot of the Santa Cruz Mountains reflected shortening that is consistent with movement along reverse faults in the region and with the hypothesis that tectonic strain is distributed widely across numerous faults in the California Coast Ranges.

  10. Fuel cell commercialization — beyond the 'Notice of Market Opportunity for Fuel Cells' (NOMO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serfass, J. A.; Glenn, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    The Notice of Market Opportunity for Fuel Cells (NOMO) was released in Oct. 1988 by the American Public Power Association. Its goal was to identify a manufacturer for commercializing a multi-megawatt fuel cell power plant with attractive cost and performance characteristics, supported by a realistic, yet aggressive commercialization plan, leading to mid-1990s application. Energy Research Corporation's program to commercialize its 2-MW internal-reforming carbonate fuel cell was selected. The program was refined in the development of the Principles and Framework for Commercializing Direct Fuel Cell Power Plants, which defines buyer responsibilities for promotion and coordination of information development, supplier responsibilities for meeting certain milestones and for sharing the results of success in a royalty agreement, and risk management features. Twenty-three electric and gas utilities in the US and Canada have joined the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group to support the buyers' obligations in this program. The City of Santa Clara, CA; Electric Power Research Institute; Los Angeles Department of Water and Power; Southern California Gas Company; Southern California Edison; National Rural Electric Cooperative Association; and Pacific Gas & Electric, have formed the Santa Clara Demonstration Group to build the first 2-MW power plant. The preliminary design for this demonstration is nearly complete. Integrated testing of a 20-kW stack with the complete balance-of-plant, has been successfully accomplished by Pacific Gas & Electric at its test facility in San Ramon, CA.

  11. Mouse papillary lung tumors transplacentally induced by N-nitrosoethylurea: evidence for alveolar type II cell origin by comparative light microscopic, ultrastructural, and immunohistochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Rehm, S; Ward, J M; ten Have-Opbroek, A A; Anderson, L M; Singh, G; Katyal, S L; Rice, J M

    1988-01-01

    A histogenetic study was designed to evaluate controversial findings on the cell of origin of tubular/papillary lung tumors in mice, i.e., bronchiolar Clara cell versus alveolar type II cell. N-Nitrosoethylurea (0.5 mmol or 0.74 mmol/kg) was given to pregnant C3H (C3H/HeNCr MTV-) and Swiss Webster [Tac:(SW)fBR] mice as a single i.p. injection on Day 14, 15, 16, or 18 of gestation. The offspring were studied at various ages ranging from 7 days to 52 wk. Serial sections of the whole lung (100 to 200 sections per mouse) showed that solid/alveolar and papillary tumors arose from the pulmonary acinus, invading the bronchioles only as the tumors grew. Furthermore, a mixture of solid and papillary patterns within a single module did not represent a merging of two tumors but a progression from the solid to the papillary form. By use of two rabbit antisera against mouse lung surfactant apoproteins found in normal alveolar type II cells, it was shown by the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex procedure, by the peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique, and by indirect immunofluorescence that both solid and papillary tumors contained these proteins that are specific markers for alveolar type II cells. With a rabbit anti-rat Clara cell antiserum, none of the tumors studied was immunoreactive while normal Clara cells were reactive. The nitroblue tetrazolium formazan stain for dehydrogenase enzymes, found particularly in Clara cells, did not reveal these enzymes in any lung tumors from either strain. Ultrastructurally, no typical features of the mature Clara cell were detected in papillary or other pulmonary neoplasms. However, all tumors showed characteristic alveolar type II cell structures such as various stages of lamellar body formation, although these features were less well differentiated in the papillary tumors. Argentaffin dense bodies, representing lysosomes and immature forms of lamellar bodies, were commonly observed in papillary tumors. Some features of the papillary tumors

  12. High Caveolin-1 Expression in Tumor Stroma Is Associated with a Favourable Outcome in Prostate Cancer Patients Managed by Watchful Waiting

    PubMed Central

    Hammarsten, Peter; Dahl Scherdin, Tove; Hägglöf, Christina; Andersson, Pernilla; Wikström, Pernilla; Stattin, Pär; Egevad, Lars; Granfors, Torvald; Bergh, Anders

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we have investigated whether Caveolin-1 expression in non-malignant and malignant prostate tissue is a potential prognostic marker for outcome in prostate cancer patients managed by watchful waiting. Caveolin-1 was measured in prostate tissues obtained through transurethral resection of the prostate from 395 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. The majority of the patients (n = 298) were followed by watchful waiting after diagnosis. Tissue microarrays constructed from malignant and non-malignant prostate tissue were stained with an antibody against Caveolin-1. The staining pattern was scored and related to clinicopathologic parameters and outcome. Microdissection and qRT-PCR analysis of Cav-1 was done of the prostate stroma from non-malignant tissue and stroma from Gleason 3 and 4 tumors. Cav-1 RNA expression was highest in non-malignant tissue and decreased during cancer progression. High expression of Caveolin-1 in tumor stroma was associated with significantly longer cancer specific survival in prostate cancer patients. This association remained significant when Gleason score and local tumor stage were combined with Caveolin-1 in a Cox regression model. High stromal Caveolin-1 immunoreactivity in prostate tumors is associated with a favourable prognosis in prostate cancer patients managed by watchful waiting. Caveolin-1 could possibly become a useful prognostic marker for prostate cancer patients that are potential candidates for active surveillance. PMID:27764093

  13. Target cell toxicity of inhaled spermidine in rat lungs.

    PubMed Central

    Foster, J. R.; Smith, L. L.; Hext, P. M.; Brammer, A.; Soames, A. R.; Wyatt, I.

    1990-01-01

    Rats were exposed for a single 6-h period to varying concentrations of aerosols of the polyamine, spermidine trihydrochloride. They were subsequently killed at 6 h, 1, 2, 5, 9 and 14 days after the start of exposure. The lungs were examined for histopathological alterations at both light and electron microscopic level and assays of lung spermidine burdens performed. In rats killed at the 6-h termination period, lung spermidine levels had increased approximately 1.5-fold although concentrations in animals killed on days 1 and 2 showed only marginal increases. Concentrations peaked again on day 5 and henceforth decreased until control spermidine levels were again achieved on day 14. Exposure of rat lungs to spermidine resulted in a specific dose-dependent necrosis of Clara cells of the bronchiolar epithelium and alveolar Type II cells. At the lowest dose used (6 mg/m3) specific necrosis of the Clara cells was seen at the earliest time interval studied, i.e. 6 h, but these cells were rapidly lost and subsequently replaced without evidence of significant cell proliferation by the 2-day sacrifice period. At all higher dose levels additional necrosis of the alveolar Type II cells occurred which was not reversible but which progressed through alveolitis to a fully developed subchronic pneumonitis by 14 days. Images Fig. 4 p624-a Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:2206983

  14. Prey type and foraging ecology of Sanderlings Calidris alba in different climate zones: are tropical areas more favourable than temperate sites?

    PubMed

    Grond, Kirsten; Ntiamoa-Baidu, Yaa; Piersma, Theunis; Reneerkens, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    Sanderlings (Calidris alba) are long-distance migratory shorebirds with a non-breeding range that spans temperate and tropical coastal habitats. Breeding in the High Arctic combined with non-breeding seasons in the tropics necessitate long migrations, which are energetically demanding. On an annual basis, the higher energy expenditures during migration might pay off if food availability in the tropics is higher than at temperate latitudes. We compared foraging behaviour of birds at a north temperate and a tropical non-breeding site in the Netherlands and Ghana, respectively. In both cases the birds used similar habitats (open beaches), and experienced similar periods of daylight, which enabled us to compare food abundance and availability, and behavioural time budgets and food intake. During the non-breeding season, Sanderlings in the Netherlands spent 79% of their day foraging; in Ghana birds spent only 38% of the daytime period foraging and the largest proportion of their time resting (58%). The main prey item in the Netherlands was the soft-bodied polychaete Scolelepis squamata, while Sanderlings in Ghana fed almost exclusively on the bivalve Donax pulchellus, which they swallowed whole and crushed internally. Average availability of polychaete worms in the Netherlands was 7.4 g ash free dry mass (AFDM) m(-2), which was one tenth of the 77.1 g AFDM m(-2) estimated for the beach in Ghana. In the tropical environment of Ghana the Sanderlings combined relatively low energy requirements with high prey intake rates (1.64 mg opposed to 0.13 mg AFDM s(-1) for Ghana and the Netherlands respectively). Although this may suggest that the Ghana beaches are the most favourable environment, processing the hard-shelled bivalve (D. pulchellus) which is the staple food could be costly. The large amount of daytime spent resting in Ghana may be indicative of the time needed to process the shell fragments, rather than indicate rest. PMID:26290790

  15. Prey type and foraging ecology of Sanderlings Calidris alba in different climate zones: are tropical areas more favourable than temperate sites?

    PubMed Central

    Ntiamoa-Baidu, Yaa; Piersma, Theunis; Reneerkens, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    Sanderlings (Calidris alba) are long-distance migratory shorebirds with a non-breeding range that spans temperate and tropical coastal habitats. Breeding in the High Arctic combined with non-breeding seasons in the tropics necessitate long migrations, which are energetically demanding. On an annual basis, the higher energy expenditures during migration might pay off if food availability in the tropics is higher than at temperate latitudes. We compared foraging behaviour of birds at a north temperate and a tropical non-breeding site in the Netherlands and Ghana, respectively. In both cases the birds used similar habitats (open beaches), and experienced similar periods of daylight, which enabled us to compare food abundance and availability, and behavioural time budgets and food intake. During the non-breeding season, Sanderlings in the Netherlands spent 79% of their day foraging; in Ghana birds spent only 38% of the daytime period foraging and the largest proportion of their time resting (58%). The main prey item in the Netherlands was the soft-bodied polychaete Scolelepis squamata, while Sanderlings in Ghana fed almost exclusively on the bivalve Donax pulchellus, which they swallowed whole and crushed internally. Average availability of polychaete worms in the Netherlands was 7.4 g ash free dry mass (AFDM) m−2, which was one tenth of the 77.1 g AFDM m−2 estimated for the beach in Ghana. In the tropical environment of Ghana the Sanderlings combined relatively low energy requirements with high prey intake rates (1.64 mg opposed to 0.13 mg AFDM s−1 for Ghana and the Netherlands respectively). Although this may suggest that the Ghana beaches are the most favourable environment, processing the hard-shelled bivalve (D. pulchellus) which is the staple food could be costly. The large amount of daytime spent resting in Ghana may be indicative of the time needed to process the shell fragments, rather than indicate rest. PMID:26290790

  16. Prey type and foraging ecology of Sanderlings Calidris alba in different climate zones: are tropical areas more favourable than temperate sites?

    PubMed

    Grond, Kirsten; Ntiamoa-Baidu, Yaa; Piersma, Theunis; Reneerkens, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    Sanderlings (Calidris alba) are long-distance migratory shorebirds with a non-breeding range that spans temperate and tropical coastal habitats. Breeding in the High Arctic combined with non-breeding seasons in the tropics necessitate long migrations, which are energetically demanding. On an annual basis, the higher energy expenditures during migration might pay off if food availability in the tropics is higher than at temperate latitudes. We compared foraging behaviour of birds at a north temperate and a tropical non-breeding site in the Netherlands and Ghana, respectively. In both cases the birds used similar habitats (open beaches), and experienced similar periods of daylight, which enabled us to compare food abundance and availability, and behavioural time budgets and food intake. During the non-breeding season, Sanderlings in the Netherlands spent 79% of their day foraging; in Ghana birds spent only 38% of the daytime period foraging and the largest proportion of their time resting (58%). The main prey item in the Netherlands was the soft-bodied polychaete Scolelepis squamata, while Sanderlings in Ghana fed almost exclusively on the bivalve Donax pulchellus, which they swallowed whole and crushed internally. Average availability of polychaete worms in the Netherlands was 7.4 g ash free dry mass (AFDM) m(-2), which was one tenth of the 77.1 g AFDM m(-2) estimated for the beach in Ghana. In the tropical environment of Ghana the Sanderlings combined relatively low energy requirements with high prey intake rates (1.64 mg opposed to 0.13 mg AFDM s(-1) for Ghana and the Netherlands respectively). Although this may suggest that the Ghana beaches are the most favourable environment, processing the hard-shelled bivalve (D. pulchellus) which is the staple food could be costly. The large amount of daytime spent resting in Ghana may be indicative of the time needed to process the shell fragments, rather than indicate rest.

  17. Ageing is a process where the growth effect of neuronal noradrenaline changes progressively in favour of the flow mediated, neurodegenerative and inflammatory effect of plasma noradrenaline.

    PubMed

    Crotty, T P

    2016-08-01

    favour of the neurodegenerative and inflammatory effects of plasma noradrenaline. These observations are the basis of an hypothesis that ageing is caused by a genetically programmed shift in balance away from the growth and anti-inflammatory effects of neuronal noradrenaline, early in life, towards the neurodegenerative and pro-inflammatory effects of plasma noradrenalin, later in life. Death is believed to occur when plasma noradrenaline has damaged the structure of the sympathetic system so much that it can no longer create the minimum quantity of neurotransmitter needed to maintain the level of noradrenergic balance and homeostasis necessary for life. PMID:27372867

  18. Changes in vector species composition and current vector biology and behaviour will favour malaria elimination in Santa Isabel Province, Solomon Islands

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    biting humans in any numbers. Both species appear to be short-lived, a characteristic that will limit their transmission potential. The early night feeding behaviour and a degree of outdoor biting seen in An. farauti and particularly in An. solomonis will require that their response to IRS and LLIN be closely monitored. In coastal villages, where large, favourable breeding sites allow for high numbers of An. farauti may require the addition of larval control to achieve elimination. PMID:21961990

  19. Inherited igneous zircons in jadeitite predate high-pressure metamorphism and jadeitite formation in the Jagua Clara serpentinite mélange of the Rio San Juan Complex (Dominican Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertwig, Andreas; McClelland, William C.; Kitajima, Kouki; Schertl, Hans-Peter; Maresch, Walter V.; Stanek, Klaus; Valley, John W.; Sergeev, Sergey A.

    2016-05-01

    This study utilizes zircon SIMS U-Pb dating, REE and trace-element analysis as well as oxygen isotope ratios of zircon to distinguish jadeite-rich rocks that formed by direct crystallization from a hydrous fluid from those that represent products of a metasomatic replacement process. Zircon was separated from a concordant jadeitite layer and its blueschist host, as well as from loose blocks of albite-jadeite rock and jadeitite that were all collected from the Jagua Clara serpentinite-matrix mélange in the northern Dominican Republic. In the concordant jadeitite layer, three groups of zircon domains were distinguished based on both age as well as geochemical and oxygen isotope values: age groups old (117.1 ± 0.9 Ma), intermediate (three dates: 90.6, 97.3, 106.0 Ma) and young (77.6 ± 1.3 Ma). Zircon populations from the blueschist host as well as the other three jadeite-rich samples generally match zircon domains of the old age group in age as well as geochemistry and oxygen isotope ratios. Moreover, these older zircon populations are indistinguishable from zircon typical of igneous oceanic crust and hence are probably inherited from igneous protoliths of the jadeite-rich rocks. Therefore, the results suggest that all investigated jadeite-rich rocks were formed by a metasomatic replacement process. The younger domains might signal actual ages of jadeitite formation, but there is no unequivocal proof for coeval zircon-jadeite growth.

  20. Blind shear-wave velocity comparison of ReMi and MASW results with boreholes to 200 m in Santa Clara Valley: Implications for earthquake ground-motion assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, W.J.; Louie, J.N.; Pullammanappallil, S.; Williams, R.A.; Odum, J.K.

    2005-01-01

    Multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) and refraction microtremor (ReMi) are two of the most recently developed surface acquisition techniques for determining shallow shear-wave velocity. We conducted a blind comparison of MASW and ReMi results with four boreholes logged to at least 260 m for shear velocity in Santa Clara Valley, California, to determine how closely these surface methods match the downhole measurements. Average shear-wave velocity estimates to depths of 30, 50, and 100 m demonstrate that the surface methods as implemented in this study can generally match borehole results to within 15% to these depths. At two of the boreholes, the average to 100 m depth was within 3%. Spectral amplifications predicted from the respective borehole velocity profiles similarly compare to within 15 % or better from 1 to 10 Hz with both the MASW and ReMi surface-method velocity profiles. Overall, neither surface method was consistently better at matching the borehole velocity profiles or amplifications. Our results suggest MASW and ReMi surface acquisition methods can both be appropriate choices for estimating shearwave velocity and can be complementary to each other in urban settings for hazards assessment.

  1. Dynamic simulation of a direct carbonate fuel cell power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest, J.B.; Ghezel-Ayagh, H.; Kush, A.K.

    1996-12-31

    Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE) is commercializing a 2.85 MW Direct carbonate Fuel Cell (DFC) power plant. The commercialization sequence has already progressed through construction and operation of the first commercial-scale DFC power plant on a U.S. electric utility, the 2 MW Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP), and the completion of the early phases of a Commercial Plant design. A 400 kW fuel cell stack Test Facility is being built at Energy Research Corporation (ERC), FCE`s parent company, which will be capable of testing commercial-sized fuel cell stacks in an integrated plant configuration. Fluor Daniel, Inc. provided engineering, procurement, and construction services for SCDP and has jointly developed the Commercial Plant design with FCE, focusing on the balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment outside of the fuel cell modules. This paper provides a brief orientation to the dynamic simulation of a fuel cell power plant and the benefits offered.

  2. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration: First Results Report

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the early implementation experience for the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Demonstration, the largest fleet of fuel cell buses in the United States. The ZEBA Demonstration group includes five participating transit agencies: AC Transit (lead transit agency), Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA), Golden Gate Transit (GGT), San Mateo County Transit District (SamTrans), and San Francisco Municipal Railway (Muni). The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service.

  3. AB-QTL analysis in winter wheat: I. Synthetic hexaploid wheat (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides x T. tauschii) as a source of favourable alleles for milling and baking quality traits.

    PubMed

    Kunert, Antje; Naz, Ali Ahmad; Dedeck, Oliver; Pillen, Klaus; Léon, Jens

    2007-09-01

    The advanced backcross QTL (AB-QTL) strategy was utilised to locate quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for baking quality traits in two BC(2)F(3) populations of winter wheat. The backcrosses are derived from two German winter wheat cultivars, Batis and Zentos, and two synthetic, hexaploid wheat accessions, Syn022 and Syn086. The synthetics originate from hybridisations of wild emmer (T. turgidum spp. dicoccoides) and T. tauschii, rather than from durum wheat and T. tauschii and thus allowed for the first time to test for exotic QTL effects on wheat genomes A and B in addition to genome D. The investigated quality traits comprised hectolitre weight, grain hardness, flour yield Type 550, falling number, grain protein content, sedimentation volume and baking volume. One hundred and forty-nine SSR markers were applied to genotype a total of 400 BC(2)F(3) lines. For QTL detection, a mixed-model ANOVA was conducted, including the effects DNA marker, BC(2)F(3) line, environment and marker x environment interaction. Overall 38 QTLs significant for a marker main effect were detected. The exotic allele improved trait performance at 14 QTLs (36.8%), while the elite genotype contributed the favourable effect at 24 QTLs (63.2%). The favourable exotic alleles were mainly associated with grain protein content, though the greatest improvement of trait performance due to the exotic alleles was achieved for the traits falling number and sedimentation volume. At the QTL on chromosome 4B the exotic allele increased the falling number by 19.6% and at the QTL on chromosome 6D the exotic allele led to an increase of the sedimentation volume by 21.7%. The results indicate that synthetic wheat derived from wild emmer x T. tauschii carries favourable QTL alleles for baking quality traits, which might be useful for breeding improved wheat varieties by marker-assisted selection.

  4. XB130 promotes bronchioalveolar stem cell and Club cell proliferation in airway epithelial repair and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Toba, Hiroaki; Wang, Yingchun; Bai, Xiaohui; Zamel, Ricardo; Cho, Hae-Ra; Liu, Hongmei; Lira, Alonso; Keshavjee, Shaf; Liu, Mingyao

    2015-01-01

    Proliferation of bronchioalveolar stem cells (BASCs) is essential for epithelial repair. XB130 is a novel adaptor protein involved in the regulation of epithelial cell survival, proliferation and migration through the PI3K/Akt pathway. To determine the role of XB130 in airway epithelial injury repair and regeneration, a naphthalene-induced airway epithelial injury model was used with XB130 knockout (KO) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates. In XB130 KO mice, at days 7 and 14, small airway epithelium repair was significantly delayed with fewer number of Club cells (previously called Clara cells). CCSP (Club cell secreted protein) mRNA expression was also significantly lower in KO mice at day 7. At day 5, there were significantly fewer proliferative epithelial cells in the KO group, and the number of BASCs significantly increased in WT mice but not in KO mice. At day 7, phosphorylation of Akt, GSK-3β, and the p85α subunit of PI3K was observed in airway epithelial cells in WT mice, but to a much lesser extent in KO mice. Microarray data also suggest that PI3K/Akt-related signals were regulated differently in KO and WT mice. An inhibitory mechanism for cell proliferation and cell cycle progression was suggested in KO mice. XB130 is involved in bronchioalveolar stem cell and Club cell proliferation, likely through the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathway. PMID:26360608

  5. Low levels of WWOX protein immunoexpression correlate with tumour grade and a less favourable outcome in patients with urinary bladder tumours

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, D; Abba, M; López-Guerrero, J A; Rubio, J; Solsona, E; Almenar, S; Llombart-Bosch, A; Aldaz, C M

    2014-01-01

    Aims To correlate the immunohistochemical detection of WWOX with histological measures and disease progression within the whole spectrum of urothelial bladder neoplasms. Methods and results One hundred and one patients with primary bladder tumours were retrospectively analysed. Immunohistochemically, a polyclonal antibody was utilized and the level of WWOX protein expression was analysed by using a combined score system based on intensity of the reaction and percentage of immunoreactive tumour cells. WWOX protein expression was consistently expressed in nonneoplastic urothelium, whereas a progressive loss of immunoreactivity was observed as tumour grade and stage increased (P < 0.05). Principal component analysis showed that reduced WWOX immunoexpression was significantly associated with high histological grades (P = 0.001), advanced stage (P = 0.002), tumour size (P = 0.04) and cancer progression (P = 0.028). Invasive urothelial carcinomas of the bladder with squamous metaplasia presented the lowest levels of WWOX protein. Kaplan–Meier analyses demonstrated a significant correlation between loss of WWOX expression and a shorter progression-free survival (P = 0.042), whereas the prediction of overall survival achieved borderline significance (P = 0.053). Conclusion Loss of WWOX immunoexpression strongly correlates with classical clinicopathological factors and appears to be a potential predictive marker of progressive disease. PMID:18452537

  6. Agglutinating mouse IgG3 compares favourably with IgMs in typing of the blood group B antigen: Functionality and stability studies

    PubMed Central

    Klaus, Tomasz; Bzowska, Monika; Kulesza, Małgorzata; Kabat, Agnieszka Martyna; Jemioła-Rzemińska, Małgorzata; Czaplicki, Dominik; Makuch, Krzysztof; Jucha, Jarosław; Karabasz, Alicja; Bereta, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Mouse immunoglobulins M (IgMs) that recognize human blood group antigens induce haemagglutination and are used worldwide for diagnostic blood typing. Contrary to the current belief that IgGs are too small to simultaneously bind antigens on two different erythrocytes, we obtained agglutinating mouse IgG3 that recognized antigen B of the human ABO blood group system. Mouse IgG3 is an intriguing isotype that has the ability to form Fc-dependent oligomers. However, F(ab′)2 fragments of the IgG3 were sufficient to agglutinate type B red blood cells; therefore, IgG3-triggered agglutination did not require oligomerization. Molecular modelling indicated that mouse IgG3 has a larger range of Fab arms than other mouse IgG subclasses and that the unique properties of mouse IgG3 are likely due to the structure of its hinge region. With a focus on applications in diagnostics, we compared the stability of IgG3 and two IgMs in formulated blood typing reagents using an accelerated storage approach and differential scanning calorimetry. IgG3 was much more stable than IgMs. Interestingly, the rapid decrease in IgM activity was caused by aggregation of the molecules and a previously unknown posttranslational proteolytic processing of the μ heavy chain. Our data point to mouse IgG3 as a potent diagnostic tool. PMID:27484487

  7. Agglutinating mouse IgG3 compares favourably with IgMs in typing of the blood group B antigen: Functionality and stability studies.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Tomasz; Bzowska, Monika; Kulesza, Małgorzata; Kabat, Agnieszka Martyna; Jemioła-Rzemińska, Małgorzata; Czaplicki, Dominik; Makuch, Krzysztof; Jucha, Jarosław; Karabasz, Alicja; Bereta, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Mouse immunoglobulins M (IgMs) that recognize human blood group antigens induce haemagglutination and are used worldwide for diagnostic blood typing. Contrary to the current belief that IgGs are too small to simultaneously bind antigens on two different erythrocytes, we obtained agglutinating mouse IgG3 that recognized antigen B of the human ABO blood group system. Mouse IgG3 is an intriguing isotype that has the ability to form Fc-dependent oligomers. However, F(ab')2 fragments of the IgG3 were sufficient to agglutinate type B red blood cells; therefore, IgG3-triggered agglutination did not require oligomerization. Molecular modelling indicated that mouse IgG3 has a larger range of Fab arms than other mouse IgG subclasses and that the unique properties of mouse IgG3 are likely due to the structure of its hinge region. With a focus on applications in diagnostics, we compared the stability of IgG3 and two IgMs in formulated blood typing reagents using an accelerated storage approach and differential scanning calorimetry. IgG3 was much more stable than IgMs. Interestingly, the rapid decrease in IgM activity was caused by aggregation of the molecules and a previously unknown posttranslational proteolytic processing of the μ heavy chain. Our data point to mouse IgG3 as a potent diagnostic tool. PMID:27484487

  8. Quantification of DNA adducts formed in liver, lungs, and isolated lung cells of rats and mice exposed to (14)C-styrene by nose-only inhalation.

    PubMed

    Boogaard, P J; de Kloe, K P; Wong, B A; Sumner, S C; Watson, W P; van Sittert, N J

    2000-10-01

    Bronchiolo-alveolar tumors were observed in mice exposed chronically to 160 ppm styrene, whereas no tumors were seen in rats up to concentrations of 1000 ppm. Clara cells, which are predominant in the bronchiolo-alveolar region in mouse lungs but less numerous in rat and human lung, contain various cytochrome P450s, which may oxidize styrene to the rodent carcinogen styrene-7,8-oxide (SO) and other reactive metabolites. Reactive metabolites may form specific DNA adducts and induce the tumors observed in mice. To determine DNA adducts in specific tissues and cell types, rats and mice were exposed to 160 ppm [ring-U-(14)C]styrene by nose-only inhalation for 6 h in a recirculating exposure system. Liver and lungs were isolated 0 and 42 h after exposure. Fractions enriched in Type II cells and Clara cells were isolated from rat and mouse lung, respectively. DNA adduct profiles differed quantitatively and qualitatively in liver, total lung, and enriched lung cell fractions. At 0 and 42 h after exposure, the two isomeric N:7-guanine adducts of SO (measured together, HPEG) were present in liver at 3.0 +/- 0.2 and 1.9 +/- 0.3 (rat) and 1.2 +/- 0.2 and 3.2 +/- 0.5 (mouse) per 10(8) bases. Several other, unidentified adducts were present at two to three times higher concentrations in mouse, but not in rat liver. In both rat and mouse lung, HPEG was the major adduct at approximately 1 per 10(8) bases at 0 h, and these levels halved at 42 h. In both rat Type II and non-Type II cells, HPEG was the major adduct and was about three times higher in Type II cells than in total lung. For mice, DNA adduct levels in Clara cells and non-Clara cells were similar to total lung. The hepatic covalent binding index (CBI) at 0 and 42 h was 0.19 +/- 0.06 and 0.14 +/- 0.03 (rat) and 0. 25 +/- 0.11 and 0.44 +/- 0.23 (mouse), respectively. The pulmonary CBIs, based on tissues combined for 0 and 42 h, were 0.17 +/- 0.04 (rat) and 0.24 +/- 0.04 (mouse). Compared with CBIs for other genotoxicants

  9. Streamflow gains and losses along San Francisquito Creek and characterization of surface-water and ground-water quality, southern San Mateo and northern Santa Clara counties, California, 1996-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metzger, Loren F.

    2002-01-01

    San Francisquito Creek is an important source of recharge to the 22-square-mile San Francisquito Creek alluvial fan ground-water subbasin in the southern San Mateo and northern Santa Clara Counties of California. Ground water supplies as much as 20 percent of the water to some area communities. Local residents are concerned that infiltration and consequently ground-water recharge would be reduced if additional flood-control measures are implemented along San Francisquito Creek. To improve the understanding of the surface-water/ground-water interaction between San Francisquito Creek and the San Francisquito Creek alluvial fan, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated streamflow gains and losses along San Francisquito Creek and determined the chemical quality and isotopic composition of surface and ground water in the study area.Streamflow was measured at 13 temporary streamflow-measurement stations to determine streamflow gains and losses along a 8.4-mile section of San Francisquito Creek. A series of five seepage runs between April 1996 and May 1997 indicate that losses in San Francisquito Creek were negligible until it crossed the Pulgas Fault at Sand Hill Road. Streamflow losses increased between Sand Hill Road and Middlefield Road where the alluvial deposits are predominantly coarse-grained and the water table is below the bottom of the channel. The greatest streamflow losses were measured along a 1.8-mile section of the creek between the San Mateo Drive bike bridge and Middlefield Road; average losses between San Mateo Drive and Alma Street and from there to Middlefield Road were 3.1 and 2.5 acre-feet per day, respectively.Downstream from Middlefield Road, streamflow gains and losses owing to seepage may be masked by urban runoff, changes in bank storage, and tidal effects from San Francisco Bay. Streamflow gains measured between Middlefield Road and the 1200 block of Woodland Avenue may be attributable to urban runoff and (or) ground-water inflow. Water

  10. Transport and concentration controls for chloride, strontium, potassium and lead in Uvas Creek, a small cobble-bed stream in Santa Clara County, California, U.S.A. 1. Conceptual model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, V.C.; Jackman, A.P.; Zand, S.M.; Zellweger, G.W.; Avanzino, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Stream sediments adsorb certain solutes from streams, thereby significantly changing the solute composition; but little is known about the details and rates of these adsorptive processes. To investigate such processes, a 24-hr. injection of a solution containing chloride, strontium, potassium, sodium and lead was made at the head of a 640-m reach of Uvas Creek in west-central Santa Clara County, California. Uvas Creek is a cobble-bed pool-and-riffle stream draining the eastern slopes of the Santa Cruz Mountains. By September 12, 1973, after a long dry season, Uvas Creek had a low (0.0215 m3s-1 average) flow which varied diurnally, from 0.018 to 0.025 m3s-1. Because stream discharge varied while the injection rate was constant, the concentration of tracers (injected solutes), after mixing in the stream, varied inversely with discharge. Chloride, a nonreactive solute, served as a tracer of water movement. Analysis of extensive chloride concentration data at five sites below the injection point during and after the injection demonstrated that there was considerable underflow of water through the stream gravels; however, the extent of underflow varied greatly within the study reach. Pre-injection water, displaced by tracer-laden water percolating through the gravels, diluted tracers in the stream channel, giving the mistaken impression of groundwater inflow at some points. Accurate measurement of total discharge in such streams requires prolonged tracer injection unless a reach can be found where underflow is negligible. Strontium and potassium were adsorbed by the bed sediments to a moderate extent and lead was strongly adsorbed. A high proportion of these metals could be removed by adsorption from percolating underflow because of extensive and intimate contact with bed sediments. After channel clearing following injection cutoff, 51% of the added strontium and 96% of the lead remained in the study reach, whereas only 19% of the chloride remained. Packets of sized

  11. [Favouring the work-life balance].

    PubMed

    Masurelle, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Saint-Amand-les-Eaux general hospital, in the north of France, actively promotes quality of life at work for its staff. In 2014, during National Quality of Life at Work week, the hospital put in place a programme of activities encouraging a better work-life balance.

  12. Identifying Lagrangian fronts with favourable fishery conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prants, S. V.; Budyansky, M. V.; Uleysky, M. Yu.

    2014-08-01

    Lagrangian fronts (LFs) in the ocean are defined as boundaries between surface waters with strongly different Lagrangian properties. They can be accurately detected in a given velocity field by computing synoptic maps for displacements of synthetic tracers and other Lagrangian indicators. We use Pacific saury catch and location data for a number of commercial fishery seasons in the region of the northwest Pacific with one of the richest fishery in the world. It is shown statistically that the saury fishing grounds with maximal catches are not randomly distributed over the region but located mainly along the sharp LFs where productive cold waters of the Oyashio Current, warmer waters of the southern branch of the Soya Current, and waters of warm-core Kuroshio rings converge. Computation of those fronts in altimetric geostrophic velocity fields both in the years with the First and Second Oyashio Intrusions shows that in spite of different oceanographic conditions LF locations may serve as good indicators of potential fishing grounds. Possible biophysical reasons for saury aggregation near sharp LFs are discussed. We propose a mechanism for effective export of nutrient rich waters based on stretching of material lines in the vicinity of hyperbolic objects in the ocean. The developed method, based on identifying LFs in any velocity fields, is quite general and may be applied to find potential fishing grounds for the other pelagic fish.

  13. Reported Experiences Enhance Favourable Attitudes toward Toads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomazic, Iztok

    2011-01-01

    There are many factors that influence the formation of attitudes, one of the most crucial ones being education. Positive attitudes toward animals can be effectively accomplished principally by enabling students to directly experience organisms and their environments. The following study presents the development of a Toad Attitude Questionnaire…

  14. Natural selection can favour 'irrational' behaviour.

    PubMed

    McNamara, J M; Trimmer, P C; Houston, A I

    2014-01-01

    Understanding decisions is the fundamental aim of the behavioural sciences. The theory of rational choice is based on axiomatic principles such as transitivity and independence of irrelevant alternatives (IIA). Empirical studies have demonstrated that the behaviour of humans and other animals often seems irrational; there can be a lack of transitivity in choice and seemingly irrelevant alternatives can alter decisions. These violations of transitivity and IIA undermine rational choice theory. However, we show that an individual that is maximizing its rate of food gain can exhibit failure of transitivity and IIA. We show that such violations can be caused because a current option may disappear in the near future or a better option may reappear soon. Current food options can be indicative of food availability in the near future, and this key feature can result in apparently irrational behaviour.

  15. Cost of treatment in patients with metastatic soft tissue sarcoma who respond favourably to chemotherpy. The SArcoma treatment and Burden of Illness in North America and Europe (SABINE) study.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, L; Justo, N; Musayev, A; Krishna, A; Burke, T; Pellissier, J; Judson, I; Staddon, A; Blay, J Y

    2016-05-01

    Treatment of metastatic soft tissue sarcoma (mSTS) commonly includes multiple lines of chemotherapy, until a decline in performance status precludes further treatment. The primary objective of this study was to describe the lifetime healthcare resource utilisation and cost among mSTS patients with favourable response to chemotherapy. SABINE was a multi-centre (n = 25), multi-country (n = 9) retrospective chart review study of mSTS patients with favourable response to chemotherapy following 4 cycles. Healthcare resource utilisation was collected from first line until death or end of follow-up. Costs were analysed by health states (defined by treatment line, chemotherapy use and disease progression) and estimated by multiplying the mean weekly cost per health state by the expected number of weeks spent in each health state. Expected per-patient lifetime medical cost was €65 616 (95% CI: €51 454-€85 003); comprised of IV chemotherapy (31.7%), inpatient care (24.8%), concomitant medication (11.0%), oral chemotherapy (8.9%), outpatient visits (8.8%), radiotherapy (6.3%), hospice (4.0%), imaging (3.7%) and laboratory (0.7%). Weekly costs were 280-330% higher during chemotherapy treatment periods than off-chemotherapy, especially after disease progression. Per-patient costs were highest in the USA and lowest in the Netherlands and UK. The economic burden of mSTS is considerable and the amount of resources devoted to its treatment varies across countries.

  16. Immune cells and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ribatti, Domenico; Crivellato, Enrico

    2009-09-01

    Both innate and adaptive immune cells are involved in the mechanisms of endothelial cell proliferation, migration and activation, through the production and release of a large spectrum of pro-angiogenic mediators. These may create the specific microenvironment that favours an increased rate of tissue vascularization. In this review, we will focus on the immune cell component of the angiogenic process in inflammation and tumour growth. As angiogenesis is the result of a net balance between the activities exerted by positive and negative regulators, we will also provide information on some antiangiogenic properties of immune cells that may be utilized for a potential pharmacological use as antiangiogenic agents in inflammation as well as in cancer.

  17. Direct fuel cell product design improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Maru, H.C.; Farooque, M.

    1996-12-31

    Significant milestones have been attained towards the technology development field testing and commercialization of direct fuel cell power plant since the 1994 Fuel Cell Seminar. Under a 5-year cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy signed in December 1994, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) has been developing the design for a MW-scale direct fuel cell power plant with input from previous technology efforts and the Santa Clara Demonstration Project. The effort encompasses product definition in consultation with the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group, potential customers, as well as extensive system design and packaging. Manufacturing process improvements, test facility construction, cell component scale up, performance and endurance improvements, stack engineering, and critical balance-of-plant development are also addressed. Major emphasis of this product design improvement project is on increased efficiency, compactness and cost reduction to establish a competitive place in the market. A 2.85 MW power plant with an efficiency of 58% and a footprint of 420 m{sup 2} has been designed. Component and subsystem testing is being conducted at various levels. Planning and preparation for verification of a full size prototype unit are in progress. This paper presents the results obtained since the last fuel cell seminar.

  18. Cell-specific modulation of surfactant proteins by ambroxol treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Seifart, Carola . E-mail: zwiebel@mailer.uni-marburg.de; Clostermann, Ursula; Seifart, Ulf

    2005-02-15

    Ambroxol [trans-4-(2-amino-3,5-dibromobenzylamino)-cyclohexanole hydrochloride], a mucolytic agent, was postulated to provide surfactant stimulatory properties and was previously used to prevent surfactant deficiency. Currently, the underlying mechanisms are not exactly clear. Because surfactant homeostasis is regulated by surfactant-specific proteins (SP), we analyzed protein amount and mRNA expression in whole lung tissue, isolated type II pneumocytes and bronchoalveolar lavage of Sprague-Dawley rats treated with ambroxol i.p. (75 mg/kg body weight, twice a day [every 12 h]). The methods used included competitive polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Northern blotting, Western immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry. In isolated type II pneumocytes of ambroxol-treated animals, SP-C protein and mRNA content were increased, whereas SP-A, -B and -D protein, mRNA, and immunoreactivity remained unaffected. However, ambroxol treatment resulted in a significant increase of SP-B and in a decrease of SP-D in whole lung tissue with enhanced immunostaining for SP-B in Clara Cells. SP-A and SP-D were significantly decreased in BAL fluid of ambroxol-treated animals. The data suggest that surfactant protein expression is modulated in a cell-specific manner by ambroxol, as type II pneumocytes exhibited an increase in SP-C, whereas Clara cells exhibited an increase in the immunoreactivity for SP-B accounting for the increased SP-B content of whole lung tissue. The results indicate that ambroxol may exert its positive effects, observed in the treatment of diseases related to surfactant deficiency, via modulation of surfactant protein expression.

  19. Cell-specific modulation of surfactant proteins by ambroxol treatment.

    PubMed

    Seifart, Carola; Clostermann, Ursula; Seifart, Ulf; Müller, Bernd; Vogelmeier, Claus; von Wichert, Peter; Fehrenbach, Heinz

    2005-02-15

    Ambroxol [trans-4-(2-amino-3,5-dibromobenzylamino)-cyclohexanole hydrochloride], a mucolytic agent, was postulated to provide surfactant stimulatory properties and was previously used to prevent surfactant deficiency. Currently, the underlying mechanisms are not exactly clear. Because surfactant homeostasis is regulated by surfactant-specific proteins (SP), we analyzed protein amount and mRNA expression in whole lung tissue, isolated type II pneumocytes and bronchoalveolar lavage of Sprague-Dawley rats treated with ambroxol i.p. (75 mg/kg body weight, twice a day [every 12 h]). The methods used included competitive polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Northern blotting, Western immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry. In isolated type II pneumocytes of ambroxol-treated animals, SP-C protein and mRNA content were increased, whereas SP-A, -B and -D protein, mRNA, and immunoreactivity remained unaffected. However, ambroxol treatment resulted in a significant increase of SP-B and in a decrease of SP-D in whole lung tissue with enhanced immunostaining for SP-B in Clara Cells. SP-A and SP-D were significantly decreased in BAL fluid of ambroxol-treated animals. The data suggest that surfactant protein expression is modulated in a cell-specific manner by ambroxol, as type II pneumocytes exhibited an increase in SP-C, whereas Clara cells exhibited an increase in the immunoreactivity for SP-B accounting for the increased SP-B content of whole lung tissue. The results indicate that ambroxol may exert its positive effects, observed in the treatment of diseases related to surfactant deficiency, via modulation of surfactant protein expression.

  20. Matrix modulation of compensatory lung regrowth and progenitor cell proliferation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Shifren, A.; Mazan, M. R.; Gruntman, A. M.; Lascola, K. M.; Nolen-Walston, R. D.; Kim, C. F.; Tsai, L.; Pierce, R. A.; Mecham, R. P.; Ingenito, E. P.

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical stress is an important modulator of lung morphogenesis, postnatal lung development, and compensatory lung regrowth. The effect of mechanical stress on stem or progenitor cells is unclear. We examined whether proliferative responses of epithelial progenitor cells, including dually immunoreactive (CCSP and proSP-C) progenitor cells (CCSP+/SP-C+) and type II alveolar epithelial cells (ATII), are affected by physical factors found in the lung of emphysematics, including loss of elastic recoil, reduced elastin content, and alveolar destruction. Mice underwent single lung pneumonectomy (PNY) to modulate transpulmonary pressure (mechanical stress) and to stimulate lung regeneration. Control mice underwent sham thoracotomy. Plombage of different levels was employed to partially or completely abolish this mechanical stress. Responses to graded changes in transpulmonary pressure were assessed in elastin-insufficient mice (elastin +/−, ELN+/−) and elastase-treated mice with elastase-induced emphysema. Physiological regrowth, morphometry (linear mean intercept; Lmi), and the proliferative responses of CCSP+/SP-C+, Clara cells, and ATII were evaluated. Plombage following PNY significantly reduced transpulmonary pressure, regrowth, and CCSP+/SP-C+, Clara cell, and ATII proliferation following PNY. In the ELN+/− group, CCSP+/SP-C+ and ATII proliferation responses were completely abolished, although compensatory lung regrowth was not significantly altered. In contrast, in elastase-injured mice, compensatory lung regrowth was significantly reduced, and ATII but not CCSP+/SP-C+ proliferation responses were impaired. Elastase injury also reduced the baseline abundance of CCSP+/SP-C+, and CCSP+/SP-C+ were found to be displaced from the bronchioalveolar duct junction. These data suggest that qualities of the extracellular matrix including elastin content, mechanical stress, and alveolar integrity strongly influence the regenerative capacity of the lung, and the

  1. [In vitro strategies for human gametes production from stem cells].

    PubMed

    Tosca, Lucie; Courtot, Anne-Marie; Bennaceur-Griscelli, Annelise; Tachdjian, Gérard

    2011-10-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are self-renewal and pluripotent cells that are able to differentiate in vitro into several cell types in favourable conditions. Technical protocols for in vitro gametes production have been developed in mice and human species. The functionality of such differentiated cells is not always analysed and an early meiotic arrest is a current observation. These kinds of experimentations have also been tested from human induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSC). However, differentiation ends shortly at the primordial germ cell stage.

  2. Rat alveolar type I cells proliferate, express OCT-4, and exhibit phenotypic plasticity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Robert F; Allen, Lennell; Dobbs, Leland G

    2009-12-01

    Alveolar type I (TI) cells are large, squamous cells that cover 95-99% of the internal surface area of the lung. Although TI cells are believed to be terminally differentiated, incapable of either proliferation or phenotypic plasticity, TI cells in vitro both proliferate and express phenotypic markers of other differentiated cell types. Rat TI cells isolated in purities of >99% proliferate in culture, with a sixfold increase in cell number before the cells reach confluence; >50% of the cultured TI cells are Ki67+. At cell densities of 1-2 cells/well, approximately 50% of the cells had the capacity to form colonies. Under the same conditions, type II cells do not proliferate. Cultured TI cells express RTI40 and aquaporin 5, phenotypic markers of the TI cell phenotype. By immunofluorescence, Western blotting, and Q-PCR, TI cells express OCT-4A (POU5F1), a transcription factor associated with maintenance of the pluripotent state in stem cells. Based on the expression patterns of various marker proteins, TI cells are distinct from either of two recently described putative pulmonary multipotent cell populations, the bronchoalveolar stem cell or the OCT-4+ stem/progenitor cell. Although TI cells in adult rat lung tissue do not express either surfactant protein C (SP-C) or CC10, respective markers of the TII and Clara cell phenotypes, in culture TI cells can be induced to express both SP-C and CC10. Together, the findings that TI cells proliferate and exhibit phenotypic plasticity in vitro raise the possibility that TI cells may have similar properties in vivo. PMID:19717550

  3. Local biofuels power plants with fuel cell generators

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstroem, O.

    1996-12-31

    The fuel cell should be a most important option for Asian countries now building up their electricity networks. The fuel cell is ideal for the schemes for distributed generation which are more reliable and efficient than the centralized schemes so far favoured by the industrialized countries in the West. Not yet developed small combined cycle power plants with advanced radial gas turbines and compact steam turbines will be the competition. Hot combustion is favoured today but cold combustion may win in the long run thanks to its environmental advantages. Emission standards are in general determined by what is feasible with available technology. The simple conclusion is that the fuel cell has to prove that it is competitive to the turbines in cost engineering terms. A second most important requirement is that the fuel cell option has to be superior with respect to electrical efficiency.

  4. Soft-sediment deformation from submarine sliding: Favourable conditions and triggering mechanisms in examples from the Eocene Sobrarbe delta (Ainsa, Spanish Pyrenees) and the mid-Cretaceous Ayabacas Formation (Andes of Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odonne, Francis; Callot, Pierre; Debroas, Elie-Jean; Sempere, Thierry; Hoareau, Guilhem; Maillard, Agnès

    2011-04-01

    Soft-sediment deformation structures resulting from submarine sliding are investigated in two natural examples: (1) the Eocene Sobrarbe delta, which covers ~ 500 km 2 of the Ainsa Basin in northern Spain, and (2) the Ayabacas Formation, which crops out over more than 80,000 km 2 in southern Andean Peru. In the Sobrarbe delta, 15% of the sediments were displaced along several slide surfaces, whereas most of the Ayabacas Formation was displaced during the giant submarine collapse of a regional carbonate platform at the Turonian-Coniacian transition. Sliding appears to have been highly favoured by conditions such as high pore-fluid pressure due to undercompaction of fine-grained sediments. High sedimentation rates in the Sobrarbe delta (70-87.5 cm/kyr) facilitated slide formation; slides may also have been controlled by the facies transition between marls and silts or sands at the delta front, as well as relative sea-level changes due to tectonic activity in the south Pyrenees foreland basin. In the Ayabacas Formation, the degree of lithification of siliciclastic materials in the lower part of the involved succession was low at the time of collapse, whereas the overlying limestone sequence had undergone some cementation starting shortly after deposition; the collapse and the different behaviour of materials resulted in an extraordinarily deformed, highly disrupted and slumped chaotic unit. Tectonic activity may have been responsible for some sliding in the Ayabacas Formation and for some seismites in the Sobrarbe delta but relationships between sliding, earthquakes and soft-sediment deformation are not unequivocally clear. In the downslope part of slides, unroofing of sediments shows that they had acquired a compaction sufficient to form mode 1 fractures. Active displacement appears to have been the most effective parameter in controlling soft-sediment deformation associated with submarine sliding. With increasing displacement, displaced rafts increasingly deformed

  5. [Signet ring cell colorectal carcinom - case report].

    PubMed

    Matkovčík, Z; Hlad, J

    2015-08-01

    Signet ring cell colorectal carcinoma is a rare aggressive tumor. The incidence of this desease is very low in young patients and accounts up to 1% of all surgical patients with colorectal cancer. The infrequency of the disease among young patients makes the diagnosis more difficult and the prognosis less favourable. Biopsy results are crucial for verification of signet ring cell carcinoma. Treatment is similar as in other types of colorectal cancer. We report a case of signet ring cell colon cancer in a 22 years old female patient.The aim of this paper is to point out this rare case of infrequent colorectal cancer in a young female patient. PMID:26395957

  6. Cell-specific oxidative stress and cytotoxicity after wildfire coarse particulate matter instillation into mouse lung

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Keisha M.; Franzi, Lisa M.; Last, Jerold A.

    2013-01-01

    Our previous work has shown that coarse particulate matter (PM{sub 10-2.5}) from wildfire smoke is more toxic to lung macrophages on an equal dose (by mass) basis than coarse PM isolated from normal ambient air, as evidenced by decreased numbers of macrophages in lung lavage fluid 6 and 24 hours after PM instillation into mouse lungs in vivo and by cytotoxicity to a macrophage cell line observed directly in vitro. We hypothesized that pulmonary macrophages from mice instilled with wildfire coarse PM would undergo more cytotoxicity than macrophages from controls, and that there would be an increase in oxidative stress in their lungs. Cytotoxicity was quantified as decreased viable macrophages and increased percentages of dead macrophages in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of mice instilled with wildfire coarse PM. At 1 hour after PM instillation, we observed both decreased numbers of viable macrophages and increased dead macrophage percentages as compared to controls. An increase in free isoprostanes, an indicator of oxidative stress, from control values of 28.1 ± 3.2 pg/mL to 83.9 ± 12.2 pg/mL was observed a half-hour after PM instillation. By 1 hour after PM instillation, isoprostane values had returned to 30.4 ± 7.6 pg/mL, not significantly different from control concentrations. Lung sections from mice instilled with wildfire coarse PM showed rapid Clara cell responses, with decreased intracellular staining for the Clara cell secretory protein CCSP 1 hour after wildfire PM instillation. In conclusion, very rapid cytotoxicity occurs in pulmonary macrophages and oxidative stress responses are seen 0.5–1 hour after wildfire coarse PM instillation. These results define early cellular and biochemical events occurring in vivo and support the hypothesis that oxidative stress-mediated macrophage toxicity plays a key role in the initial response of the mouse lung to wildfire PM exposure. -- Highlights: ► We studied very early events (0.5–1 hour) after

  7. Reduced Ang2 expression in aging endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hohensinner, P J; Ebenbauer, B; Kaun, C; Maurer, G; Huber, K; Wojta, J

    2016-06-01

    Aging endothelial cells are characterized by increased cell size, reduced telomere length and increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines. In addition, we describe here that aging reduces the migratory distance of endothelial cells. Furthermore, we observe an increase of the quiescence protein Ang1 and a decrease of the endothelial activation protein Ang2 upon aging. Supplementing Ang2 to aged endothelial cells restored their migratory capacity. We conclude that aging shifts the balance of the Ang1/Ang2 network favouring a quiescent state. Activation of endothelial cells in aging might be necessary to enhance wound healing capacities. PMID:27137842

  8. Clofarabine salvage therapy before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with relapsed or refractory AML: results of the BRIDGE trial.

    PubMed

    Middeke, J M; Herbst, R; Parmentier, S; Bug, G; Hänel, M; Stuhler, G; Schäfer-Eckart, K; Rösler, W; Klein, S; Bethge, W; Bitz, U; Büttner, B; Knoth, H; Alakel, N; Schaich, M; Morgner, A; Kramer, M; Sockel, K; von Bonin, M; Stölzel, F; Platzbecker, U; Röllig, C; Thiede, C; Ehninger, G; Bornhäuser, M; Schetelig, J

    2016-02-01

    In patients with relapsed or refractory (r/r) acute myeloid leukemia (AML), long-term disease control can only be achieved by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We studied the safety and efficacy of clofarabine-based salvage therapy. The study was designed as phase II, multicenter, intent-to-transplant (ITT) study. A total of 84 patients with r/r AML were enrolled. All patients received at least one cycle of CLARA (clofarabine 30 mg/m(2) and cytarabine 1 g/m(2), days 1-5). Chemo-responsive patients with a donor received HSCT in aplasia after first CLARA. Generally, HSCT was performed as soon as possible. The conditioning regimen consisted of clofarabine (4 × 30 mg/m(2)) and melphalan (140 mg/m(2)). The median patient age was 61 years (range 40-75). On day 15 after start of CLARA, 26% of patients were in a morphologically leukemia-free state and 79% exposed a reduction in bone marrow blasts. Overall, 67% of the patients received HSCT within the trial. The primary end point, defined as complete remission after HSCT, was achieved by 60% of the patients. According to the ITT, overall survival at 2 years was 43% (95% confidence interval (CI), 32-54%). The 2-year disease-free survival for transplanted patients was 52% (95% CI, 40-69%). Clofarabine-based salvage therapy combined with allogeneic HSCT in aplasia shows promising results in patients with r/r AML. PMID:26283567

  9. Bystander Effects Induced by Medium From Irradiated Cells: Similar Transcriptome Responses in Irradiated and Bystander K562 Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Herok, Robert; Konopacka, Maria; Polanska, Joanna; Swierniak, Andrzej; Rogolinski, Jacek; Jaksik, Roman; Hancock, Ronald; Rzeszowska-Wolny, Joanna

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: Cells exposed to ionizing radiation release factors that induce deoxyribonucleic acid damage, chromosomal instability, apoptosis, and changes in the proliferation rate of neighboring unexposed cells, phenomena known as bystander effects. This work analyzes and compares changes in global transcript levels induced by direct irradiation and by bystander effects in K562 (human erythroleukemia) cells. Methods and Materials: Cells were X-irradiated with 4 Gy or transferred into culture medium collected from cells 1 h after irradiation (irradiation-conditioned medium). Global transcript profiles were assessed after 36 h of growth by use of Affymetrix microarrays (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) and the kinetics of change of selected transcripts by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results: The level of the majority (72%) of transcripts changed similarly (increase, decrease, or no change) in cells grown in irradiation-conditioned medium or irradiated, whereas only 0.6% showed an opposite response. Transcript level changes in bystander and irradiated cells were significantly different from those in untreated cells grown for the same amount of time and were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for selected genes. Signaling pathways in which the highest number of transcripts changed in both conditions were found in the following groups: neuroactive ligand-receptor, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Janus Kinase-Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (JAK-STAT) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) In control cells more transcripts were downregulated than in irradiated and bystander cells with transcription factors YBX1 and STAT5B, heat shock protein HSPA1A, and ribonucleic acid helicase DDX3X as examples. Conclusions: The transcriptomes of cells grown in medium from X-irradiated cells or directly irradiated show very similar changes. Signals released by irradiated cells may cause

  10. Directing cell migration and organization via nanocrater-patterned cell-repellent interfaces.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hojeong; Koo, Sangmo; Reese, Willie Mae; Loskill, Peter; Grigoropoulos, Costas P; Healy, Kevin E

    2015-09-01

    Although adhesive interactions between cells and nanostructured interfaces have been studied extensively, there is a paucity of data on how nanostructured interfaces repel cells by directing cell migration and cell-colony organization. Here, by using multiphoton ablation lithography to pattern surfaces with nanoscale craters of various aspect ratios and pitches, we show that the surfaces altered the cells' focal-adhesion size and distribution, thus affecting cell morphology, migration and ultimately localization. We also show that nanocrater pitch can disrupt the formation of mature focal adhesions to favour the migration of cells towards higher-pitched regions, which present increased planar area for the formation of stable focal adhesions. Moreover, by designing surfaces with variable pitch but constant nanocrater dimensions, we were able to create circular and striped cellular patterns. Our surface-patterning approach, which does not involve chemical treatments and can be applied to various materials, represents a simple method to control cell behaviour on surfaces. PMID:26213899

  11. Membrane characteristics and osmotic fragility of red cells, fractionated with anglehead centrifugation and counterflow centrifugation.

    PubMed

    van der Vegt, S G; Ruben, A M; Werre, J M; de Gier, J; Staal, G E

    1985-11-01

    Red cell populations were separated on the basis of differences in density using anglehead centrifugation and on the basis of differences in mean cell volume using counterflow centrifugation. In the different fractions, mean surface area was calculated, phospholipid and cholesterol content determined as well as the osmotic behaviour in hypotonic salt solutions. Older red cells appeared to be more resistant to hypotonic salt solutions, due to favourable surface area to volume ratio. PMID:4063204

  12. The loss of Hoxa5 function promotes Notch-dependent goblet cell metaplasia in lung airways

    PubMed Central

    Boucherat, Olivier; Chakir, Jamila; Jeannotte, Lucie

    2012-01-01

    Summary Hox genes encode transcription factors controlling complex developmental processes in various organs. Little is known, however, about how HOX proteins control cell fate. Herein, we demonstrate that the goblet cell metaplasia observed in lung airways from Hoxa5−/− mice originates from the transdifferentiation of Clara cells. Reduced CC10 expression in Hoxa5−/− embryos indicates that altered cell specification occurs prior to birth. The loss of Hoxa5 function does not preclude airway repair after naphthalene exposure, but the regenerated epithelium presents goblet cell metaplasia and less CC10-positive cells, demonstrating the essential role of Hoxa5 for correct differentiation. Goblet cell metaplasia in Hoxa5−/− mice is a FOXA2-independent process. However, it is associated with increased Notch signaling activity. Consistent with these findings, expression levels of activated NOTCH1 and the effector gene HEY2 are enhanced in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In vivo administration of a γ-secretase inhibitor attenuates goblet cell metaplasia in Hoxa5−/− mice, highlighting the contribution of Notch signaling to the phenotype and suggesting a potential therapeutic strategy to inhibit goblet cell differentiation and mucus overproduction in airway diseases. In summary, the loss of Hoxa5 function in lung mesenchyme impacts on epithelial cell fate by modulating Notch signaling. PMID:23213461

  13. [Multifocal Langerhans cell histiocytosis of bone: late revelation in a 76-year-old woman].

    PubMed

    Lahiani, D; Hammami, B K; Maâloul, I; Frikha, M; Baklouti, S; Jlidi, R; Ben Jemaâ, M

    2008-03-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis or histiocytosis X has a variable course from a self-limited eosinophilic granuloma to an aggressive disseminated disease. It mainly affects children. We report a 76-year-old woman with multifocal bone histiocytosis X, involving the rachis, an iliac bone and the skull. The diagnosis has been established by histological exam. Outcome was favourable after chemotherapy.

  14. Epithelial Cell Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Decellularized Lung Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Julio J.; Ghaedi, Mahboobe; Steinbacher, Derek

    2014-01-01

    Identification of appropriate donor cell types is important for lung cell therapy and for lung regeneration. Previous studies have indicated that mesenchymal stromal cells derived from human bone marrow (hBM-MSCs) and from human adipose tissue (hAT-MSCs) may have the ability to trans-differentiate into lung epithelial cells. However, these data remain controversial. Herein, the ability of hBM-MSCs and hAT-MSCs to repopulate acellular rodent lung tissue was evaluated. hBM-MSCs and hAT-MSCs were isolated from bone marrow aspirate and lipoaspirate, respectively. Rat lungs were decellularized with CHAPS detergent, followed by seeding the matrix with hBM-MSCs and hAT-MSCs. Under appropriate culture conditions, both human MSC populations attached to and proliferated within the lung tissue scaffold. In addition, cells were capable of type 2 pneumocyte differentiation, as assessed by marker expression of surfactant protein C (pro-SPC) at the protein and the RNA level, and by the presence of lamellar bodies by transmission electron microscopy. Additionally, hAT-MSCs contributed to Clara-like cells that lined the airways in the lung scaffolds, whereas the hBM-MSCs did not. We also tested the differentiation potential of MSCs on different extracellular matrix components in vitro, and found that protein substrate influences MSC epithelial differentiation. Together our data show the capacity for human MSCs to differentiate toward lung epithelial phenotypes, and the possibility of using these cells for lung cell therapies and tissue engineering. PMID:24393055

  15. Cell-specific oxidative stress and cytotoxicity after wildfire coarse particulate matter instillation into mouse lung.

    PubMed

    Williams, Keisha M; Franzi, Lisa M; Last, Jerold A

    2013-01-01

    Our previous work has shown that coarse particulate matter (PM(10-2.5)) from wildfire smoke is more toxic to lung macrophages on an equal dose (by mass) basis than coarse PM isolated from normal ambient air, as evidenced by decreased numbers of macrophages in lung lavage fluid 6 and 24hours after PM instillation into mouse lungs in vivo and by cytotoxicity to a macrophage cell line observed directly in vitro. We hypothesized that pulmonary macrophages from mice instilled with wildfire coarse PM would undergo more cytotoxicity than macrophages from controls, and that there would be an increase in oxidative stress in their lungs. Cytotoxicity was quantified as decreased viable macrophages and increased percentages of dead macrophages in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of mice instilled with wildfire coarse PM. At 1hour after PM instillation, we observed both decreased numbers of viable macrophages and increased dead macrophage percentages as compared to controls. An increase in free isoprostanes, an indicator of oxidative stress, from control values of 28.1±3.2pg/mL to 83.9±12.2pg/mL was observed a half-hour after PM instillation. By 1hour after PM instillation, isoprostane values had returned to 30.4±7.6pg/mL, not significantly different from control concentrations. Lung sections from mice instilled with wildfire coarse PM showed rapid Clara cell responses, with decreased intracellular staining for the Clara cell secretory protein CCSP 1hour after wildfire PM instillation. In conclusion, very rapid cytotoxicity occurs in pulmonary macrophages and oxidative stress responses are seen 0.5-1hour after wildfire coarse PM instillation. These results define early cellular and biochemical events occurring in vivo and support the hypothesis that oxidative stress-mediated macrophage toxicity plays a key role in the initial response of the mouse lung to wildfire PM exposure.

  16. Direct fuel cell power plants: the final steps to commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, Donald R.

    Since the last paper presented at the Second Grove Fuel Cell Symposium, the Energy Research Corporation (ERC) has established two commercial subsidiaries, become a publically-held firm, expanded its facilities and has moved the direct fuel cell (DFC) technology and systems significantly closer to commercial readiness. The subsidiaries, the Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE) and Fuel Cell Manufacturing Corporation (FCMC) are perfecting their respective roles in the company's strategy to commercialize its DFC technology. FCE is the prime contractor for the Santa Clara Demonstration and is establishing the needed marketing, sales, engineering, and servicing functions. FCMC in addition to producing the stacks and stack modules for the Santa Clara demonstration plant is now upgrading its production capability and product yields, and retooling for the final stack scale-up for the commercial unit. ERC has built and operated the tallest and largest capacities-to-date carbonate fuel cell stacks as well as numerous short stacks. While most of these units were tested at ERC's Danbury, Connecticut (USA) R&D Center, others have been evaluated at other domestic and overseas facilities using a variety of fuels. ERC has supplied stacks to Elkraft and MTU for tests with natural gas, and RWE in Germany where coal-derived gas were used. Additional stack test activities have been performed by MELCO and Sanyo in Japan. Information from some of these activities is protected by ERC's license arrangements with these firms. However, permission for limited data releases will be requested to provide the Grove Conference with up-to-date results. Arguably the most dramatic demonstration of carbonate fuel cells in the utility-scale, 2 MW power plant demonstration unit, located in the City of Santa Clara, California. Construction of the unit's balance-of-plant (BOP) has been completed and the installed equipment has been operationally checked. Two of the four DFC stack sub-modules, each

  17. The Long Terminal Repeat of Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus Is Preferentially Active in Differentiated Epithelial Cells of the Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Palmarini, Massimo; Datta, Shoibal; Omid, Reza; Murgia, Claudio; Fan, Hung

    2000-01-01

    Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is the etiologic agent of a contagious bronchioloalveolar carcinoma of sheep known as sheep pulmonary adenomatosis (SPA; ovine pulmonary carcinoma). JSRV is unique among retroviruses because it transforms the alveolar type II cells and the nonciliated bronchiolar cells (Clara cells) of the lungs; these cells are where JSRV is specifically expressed in both naturally and experimentally SPA-affected sheep. In this study, we investigated the cell specificity of JSRV expression. By transient-transfection assays of 23 different cell lines with a reporter plasmid driven by the JSRV long terminal repeat (LTR), pJS21-luc, we found that the JSRV LTR is preferentially active in cell lines derived from type II pneumocytes and Clara cells (MLE-15 and mtCC1-2 mouse cell lines). Reporter assays using progressive 5′ deletions of pJS21-luc allowed us to establish that the JSRV enhancers are able to activate the JSRV proximal promoter in MLE-15 and mtCC1-2 cells, but they have very low activity in mouse cells of other lineages (e.g., NIH 3T3). The JSRV enhancers are able to activate heterologous promoters in both MLE-15 and 3T3 cells, although optimal activity is achieved in MLE-15 cells only with the homologous JSRV promoter. Thus, JSRV cell-specific LTR activity appears to result from an interaction between the enhancer elements and the JSRV proximal promoter elements. By mutation analysis, we established that an upstream NF-κB-like element appears to be responsible for approximately 50% of the JSRV LTR transcriptional activity in MLE-15 cells. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed evidence of a factor(s) that binds to this sequence. Antibody supershift experiments indicated that the factor(s) is not related to NF-κB component p50 or p52. This factor also appeared to be present in cells that do not support a high level of JSRV expression. Finally the JSRV21 LTR contains putative enhancer binding motifs for transcription factors such

  18. Hedgehog and Bmp polarise haematopoietic stem cell emergence in the zebrafish dorsal aorta

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Robert N.; Pouget, Claire; Gering, Martin; Russell, Angela J.; Davies, Stephen G.; Kimelman, David; Patient, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Summary Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are first detected in the floor of the embryonic dorsal aorta (DA) and here we investigate the signals that induce the HSC programme there. We show that while continued Hedgehog (Hh) signalling from the overlying midline structures maintains the arterial programme characteristic of the DA roof, a ventral Bmp4 signal induces the blood stem cell programme in the DA floor. This patterning of the DA by Hh and Bmp is the mirror image of that in the neural tube, with Hh favouring dorsal rather than ventral cell types, and Bmp favouring ventral rather than dorsal. With the majority of current data supporting a model whereby HSCs derive from arterial endothelium, our data identifies the signal driving this conversion. These findings are important for the production of HSCs from embryonic stem cells and establish a paradigm for the development of adult stem cells. PMID:19531361

  19. Preferential metabolism of N-nitrosodiethylamine by two cell lines derived from human pulmonary adenocarcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Falzon, M.; McMahon, J.B.; Gazdar, A.F.; Schuller, H.M.

    1986-01-01

    Diethylnitrosamine (DEN), in common with other nitrosamines, is a carcinogenic agent which produces tumors in a wide variety of tissues in experimental animals. The pulmonary Clara cell is a major target of N-nitrosamine-induced carcinogenesis in hamsters and rats. DEN is believed to require metabolic activation to elicit its carcinogenic effects. The metabolism of (/sup 14/C)DEN was studied in two cell lines derived from human lung adenocarcinomas and two cell lines derived from human small cell lung cancers by monitoring /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production and covalent binding of radiolabel from (/sup 14/C)DEN to the cell protein and DNA fractions. (/sup 14/C)DEN was metabolized by adenocarcinoma-derived NCI-H322 (with Clara cell features) and NCI-H358 (with features of alveolar type II cells) but not by NCI-H69 and NCI-H128 (derived from small cell carcinoma). Metabolism was markedly inhibited by heat denaturation of the cell protein. (/sup 14/C)DEN metabolism by NCI-H322 was greatly decreased when the incubation was carried out under anaerobic conditions and in the presence of a carbon monoxide enriched atmosphere. These results suggested the involvement of the cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase enzyme system. Metabolism by NCI-H358 was also decreased in the absence of oxygen or presence of carbon monoxide although the effects were relatively small compared with the results with NCI-H322. On the other hand, aspirin or indomethacin, which are inhibitors of the fatty acid cyclooxygenase component of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthetase, preferentially inhibited (/sup 14/C)DEN metabolism by NIC-H358. There were little or no effects of these inhibitors on the metabolism of DEN in NCI-H322. The data suggest that DEN metabolism in different lung cell types may be carried out by different enzyme systems which in turn may contribute to the selective effect of DEN in the lung.

  20. In vitro systems for exposure of lung cells to NO2 and O3.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, R E

    1984-01-01

    In vitro studies of the effects of NO2 and O3 require development of methods for separation and culture of those lung cells that experience in vivo exposure, and also the design and construction of systems for controlled exposure of the cells to known concentrations of the gases. Separation of lung cell types has been accomplished by enzymatic dispersal of lung tissue and centrifugation of the mixed cells on media of various densities in order to separate the cells on the basis of buoyant density or sedimentation rate. The application of centrifugal elutriation has enabled separation of type II alveolar cells and Clara cells with a high degree of purity. Alveolar macrophages and endothelial cells have also been obtained in good yield. Exposure of cultured cells to test atmospheres requires precise control of pollutant levels, close contact of cells and gas without an intervening layer of medium, capability for prolonged exposure, and maintenance of sterile conditions, so that recovered cells can be cultured further or studied for other biological activity. Systems which meet these criteria include roller bottle cultures, petri dish cultures on rocker platforms, cell cultures on cellulose filters fed by perfusion of medium from the side opposite the cells, and cells grown in dishes with gas-permeable film bottoms. Systems that rely on solution of the gases in the overlaying medium do not resemble exposure conditions in vivo, and may not be suitable for studying effects of the poorly soluble oxidant gases. The cell exposure systems have not been used extensively for studies of the effects of pollutants on freshly isolated specific lung cell types. Such studies should be encouraged.

  1. Development and functional evaluation of biomimetic silicone surfaces with hierarchical micro/nano-topographical features demonstrates favourable in vitro foreign body response of breast-derived fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Daniel J T; Oikonomou, Antonios; Hill, Ernie; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2015-06-01

    Reproducing extracellular matrix topographical cues, such as those present within acellular dermal matrix (ADM), in synthetic implant surfaces, may augment cellular responses, independent of surface chemistry. This could lead to enhanced implant integration and performance while reducing complications. In this work, the hierarchical micro and nanoscale features of ADM were accurately and reproducibly replicated in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), using an innovative maskless 3D grayscale fabrication process not previously reported. Human breast derived fibroblasts (n=5) were cultured on PDMS surfaces and compared to commercially available smooth and textured silicone implant surfaces, for up to one week. Cell attachment, proliferation and cytotoxicity, in addition to immunofluorescence staining, SEM imaging, qRT-PCR and cytokine array were performed. ADM PDMS surfaces promoted cell adhesion, proliferation and survival (p=<0.05), in addition to increased focal contact formation and spread fibroblast morphology when compared to commercially available implant surfaces. PCNA, vinculin and collagen 1 were up-regulated in fibroblasts on biomimetic surfaces while IL8, TNFα, TGFβ1 and HSP60 were down-regulated (p=<0.05). A reduced inflammatory cytokine response was also observed (p=<0.05). This study represents a novel approach to the development of functionalised biomimetic prosthetic implant surfaces which were demonstrated to significantly attenuate the acute in vitro foreign body reaction to silicone. PMID:25818416

  2. The effect of TRAIL molecule on cell viability in in vitro beta cell culture.

    PubMed

    Tekmen, I; Ozyurt, D; Pekçetin, C; Buldan, Z

    2007-06-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is an organ-specific autoimmune disorder triggered by autoreactive T cells directed to pancreas beta-cell antigens. In this disorder, more than 90% of beta cells are destroyed. Cell death may be mediated via soluble or membrane-bound cell death ligands. One of these ligands may be tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a member of the TNF-alpha superfamily. In the present study, we examined whether TRAIL had cytotoxic effects on adult rat pancreas beta cell cultures and INS1-E rat insulinoma cell line cultures or not. In this study, cell destruction models were built with TRAIL concentrations of 10, 100 and 1000 ng. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test was used for evaluating cell viability. It was detected that cell cultures with TRAIL added showed no differences statistically when compared with control cultures containing no toxic additions. These results showed that TRAIL did not have significant cytotoxic effects on pancreas beta cell culture and INS-1E rat insulinoma cell line cultures. Detection of the expression of TRAIL receptors and natural apoptosis inhibitor proteins will be favourable to investigate the resistance mechanisms to TRAIL-induced cell death in this cell culture system.

  3. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of the 'non-classical immune cell'.

    PubMed

    Randall, Philippa J; Hsu, Nai-Jen; Quesniaux, Valerie; Ryffel, Bernhard; Jacobs, Muazzam

    2015-10-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis can infect 'non-classical immune cells', which comprise a significant constituency of cells that reside outside of those defined as 'classical immune cells' from myeloid or lymphoid origin. Here we address the influence of specific 'non-classical immune cells' in host responses and their effects in controlling mycobacterial growth or enabling an environment conducive for bacilli persistence. The interaction of M. tuberculosis with epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, adipocytes, glia and neurons and downstream cellular responses that often dictate immune regulation and disease outcome are discussed. Functional integration and synergy between 'classical' and 'non-classical immune cells' are highlighted as critical for determining optimal immune outcomes that favour the host. PMID:25801479

  4. Cancer Cell Colonisation in the Bone Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Casina; Vargas, Geoffrey; Le Pape, François; Clézardin, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Bone metastases are a common complication of epithelial cancers, of which breast, prostate and lung carcinomas are the most common. The establishment of cancer cells to distant sites such as the bone microenvironment requires multiple steps. Tumour cells can acquire properties to allow epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, extravasation and migration. Within the bone metastatic niche, disseminated tumour cells may enter a dormancy stage or proliferate to adapt and survive, interacting with bone cells such as hematopoietic stem cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Cross-talk with the bone may alter tumour cell properties and, conversely, tumour cells may also acquire characteristics of the surrounding microenvironment, in a process known as osteomimicry. Alternatively, these cells may also express osteomimetic genes that allow cell survival or favour seeding to the bone marrow. The seeding of tumour cells in the bone disrupts bone-forming and bone-resorbing activities, which can lead to macrometastasis in bone. At present, bone macrometastases are incurable with only palliative treatment available. A better understanding of how these processes influence the early onset of bone metastasis may give insight into potential therapies. This review will focus on the early steps of bone colonisation, once disseminated tumour cells enter the bone marrow. PMID:27782035

  5. Pseudotime estimation: deconfounding single cell time series

    PubMed Central

    Reid, John E.; Wernisch, Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Repeated cross-sectional time series single cell data confound several sources of variation, with contributions from measurement noise, stochastic cell-to-cell variation and cell progression at different rates. Time series from single cell assays are particularly susceptible to confounding as the measurements are not averaged over populations of cells. When several genes are assayed in parallel these effects can be estimated and corrected for under certain smoothness assumptions on cell progression. Results: We present a principled probabilistic model with a Bayesian inference scheme to analyse such data. We demonstrate our method’s utility on public microarray, nCounter and RNA-seq datasets from three organisms. Our method almost perfectly recovers withheld capture times in an Arabidopsis dataset, it accurately estimates cell cycle peak times in a human prostate cancer cell line and it correctly identifies two precocious cells in a study of paracrine signalling in mouse dendritic cells. Furthermore, our method compares favourably with Monocle, a state-of-the-art technique. We also show using held-out data that uncertainty in the temporal dimension is a common confounder and should be accounted for in analyses of repeated cross-sectional time series. Availability and Implementation: Our method is available on CRAN in the DeLorean package. Contact: john.reid@mrc-bsu.cam.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27318198

  6. 27 CFR 9.126 - Santa Clara Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...: (1) The beginning point is at the junction of Elephant Head Creek and Pacheco Creek (approx. .75 mile... point the boundary moves in a northerly direction up Elephant Head Creek approx. 1.2 miles until it....G.S. map; (29) Then it moves northeast along Pacheco Creek approx. .5 mile to Elephant Head Creek...

  7. 27 CFR 9.126 - Santa Clara Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... intersects the 600 foot elevation contour line; (3) Then it meanders in a northwesterly direction along the 600 foot contour line approx. 55 miles until it intersects Vargas Road in the northwest portion of Sec... elevation contour line at El Corte De Madera, approx. .5 mile north of Trancos Woods on the Mindego...

  8. Geologic map of Late Cenozoic deposits, Santa Clara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helley, E.J.; Brabb, E.E.

    1971-01-01

    This map is the first of several in the San Francisco Bay region showing the distribution and differentiation of the late Cenozoic alluvial, estuarine, and volcanic deposits. The sedimentary deposits of gravel, sand, silt, and clay were separated into geologic map units on the basis of their post-depositional soil development, texture, and geomorphology. Some of the geologic units are associated with different landforms having recognizable topographic expression such as alluvial fans, natural stream terraces, levees, and interfluvial basins. The relative ages of these unites were established on the basis of intensity of soil profile development, stratigraphic position, and geomorphic expression. The older deposits exhibit strongly developed soil profiles with strong horizon differentiation whereas younger deposits display minimal soil profile development, consisting primarily of organic matter accumulations near the land surface. Geomorphic expression and degree of erosion and dissection were additional criteria used to aid in the age determinations. For example, younger deposits form well-defined morphologic features such as levees, terraces, and broad, undissected alluvial fans along the margin of the bay basin and are related to present drainage patterns. The oldest deposits shown on this map (QTs) are structurally deformed by folding and faulting and therefore exhibit no original depositional geomorphic features. These deposits are not related to present drainage patterns but suggest earlier patterns much different from those existing today.

  9. Santa Clara County Library Adult Bibliotherapy Discussion Group Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lack, Clara, Comp.; Bettencourt, Bruce, Comp.

    Brief citations are given for over 300 items each of which has been used at least twice successfully with discussion groups at jails, halfway houses, convalescent hospitals, alcoholic and drug clinics, and psychiatric hospitals during 1974-75. The listings include poetry, films, biographies, essays, plays, short stories, and music. They are…

  10. 77 FR 39726 - Land Acquisitions: Pueblo of Santa Clara

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... Ray, Realty Specialist, Southwest Regional Office, Bureau of Indian Affairs, 1001 Indian School Road..., in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Together With T. 20 N., R. 7 E., Sec. 17, lots 1 to 8, inclusive; Sec. 18, lots 5 to 12, inclusive; Sec. 19, lots 12 to 17, inclusive, lots 19, 21, 23, all that portion of...

  11. Role Of Hif2α Oxygen Sensing Pathway In Bronchial Epithelial Club Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Capelli, Mar; Marsboom, Glenn; Li, Qilong Oscar Yang; Tello, Daniel; Rodriguez, Florinda Melendez; Alonso, Tamara; Sanchez-Madrid, Francisco; García-Rio, Francisco; Ancochea, Julio; Aragonés, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen-sensing pathways executed by the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) induce a cellular adaptive program when oxygen supply becomes limited. However, the role of the HIF oxygen-sensing pathway in the airway response to hypoxic stress in adulthood remains poorly understood. Here we found that in vivo exposure to hypoxia led to a profound increase in bronchial epithelial cell proliferation mainly confined to Club (Clara) cells. Interestingly, this response was executed by hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (HIF2α), which controls the expression of FoxM1, a recognized proliferative factor of Club cells. Furthermore, HIF2α induced the expression of the resistin-like molecules α and β (RELMα and β), previously considered bronchial epithelial growth factors. Importantly, despite the central role of HIF2α, this proliferative response was not initiated by in vivo Vhl gene inactivation or pharmacological inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase oxygen sensors, indicating the molecular complexity of this response and the possible participation of other oxygen-sensing pathways. Club cells are principally involved in protection and maintenance of bronchial epithelium. Thus, our findings identify a novel molecular link between HIF2α and Club cell biology that can be regarded as a new HIF2α-dependent mechanism involved in bronchial epithelium adaptation to oxygen fluctuations. PMID:27150457

  12. Tracheobronchial epithelium of the sheep: IV. Lectin histochemical characterization of secretory epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mariassy, A T; Plopper, C G; St George, J A; Wilson, D W

    1988-09-01

    Conventional histochemical characterization of the mucus secretory apparatus is often difficult to reconcile with the biochemical analysis of respiratory secretions. This study was designed to examine the secretory glycoconjugates in airways using lectins with biochemically defined affinities for main sugar residues of mucus. We used five biotinylated lectins--DBA (Dolichos biflorus) and SBA (Glycine max) for N-acetyl galactosamine (galNAc), BSA I (Bandeiraea simplicifolia) and PNA (Arachis hypogea) for galactose (gal), and UEA I (Ulex europeus)--for detection of fucose (fuc) in HgCl2-fixed, paraffin-embedded, serially sectioned trachea, lobar and segmental bronchi and bronchioles of nine sheep. Lectins selectively localized the carbohydrate residues in luminal secretions, on epithelial cell surfaces, and in secretory cells. In proximal airways, the major carbohydrate residues in luminal secretions, cell surfaces, goblet cells, and glands were fuc and gal-NAc. PNA reacted mainly with apical granules of less than 10% of goblet cells, and gal residues were only detected in some of the mucous cells and on basolateral cell surfaces. Distal airways contained sparse secretion in the lumen, mucous cells contained weakly reactive fuc and gal-NAc, and the epithelial surfaces of Clara cells contained gal. Sugars abundant in the airway secretions were also the major component of cells in glands. We conclude that there is a correlation between specific sugar residues in secretory cells, glycocalyx, and luminal secretions in proximal and distal airways. This suggests that lectins may be used to obtain information about airway secretory cell composition from respiratory secretions. PMID:3189886

  13. Bone marrow-derived progenitor cells in end-stage lung disease patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic lung diseases are marked by progressive inflammation, tissue damage and remodelling. Bone marrow-derived progenitor cells may contribute to these processes. The objectives of this study were to (1) to quantify CD45+Collagen-1+ fibrocytes and a novel epithelial-like population of bone marrow-derived cells, which express Clara Cell Secretory Protein, in patients at the time of lung transplant and (2) to evaluate mediators that may act to recruit these cells during injury. Methods Using an observational design, progenitor cells were quantified by flow cytometry from both bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB). Migration was tested using in vitro transwell assays. Multiplex bead-based assays were used to quantify plasma cytokines. Results An increase in CD45+Collagen-1+ fibrocytes was found in pulmonary fibrosis and bronchiolitis obliterans patients. Cystic fibrosis patients had an increase in CCSP+ cells in both the BM and PB. The proportion of CCSP+ cells in the BM and PB was correlated. CCSP+ cells express the chemokine receptors CCR2, CCR4, CXCR3, and CXCR4, and significantly migrated in vitro toward Stromal Derived Factor-1 (SDF-1) and Stem Cell Growth Factor-β (SCGF-β). Plasma cytokine levels differed between disease groups, with a significant correlation between SCGF-β and CCSP+ cells and between Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 and fibrocytes. Conclusions Different bone marrow-derived cells are found in various lung diseases. Increased fibrocytes were associated with fibrotic lung diseases. An increase in the novel CCSP+ epithelial-like progenitors in cystic fibrosis patients was found. These differences may be mediated by alterations in plasma cytokines responsible for cell recruitment. PMID:23915095

  14. Tracheobronchial epithelium of the sheep: IV. Lectin histochemical characterization of secretory epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mariassy, A T; Plopper, C G; St George, J A; Wilson, D W

    1988-09-01

    Conventional histochemical characterization of the mucus secretory apparatus is often difficult to reconcile with the biochemical analysis of respiratory secretions. This study was designed to examine the secretory glycoconjugates in airways using lectins with biochemically defined affinities for main sugar residues of mucus. We used five biotinylated lectins--DBA (Dolichos biflorus) and SBA (Glycine max) for N-acetyl galactosamine (galNAc), BSA I (Bandeiraea simplicifolia) and PNA (Arachis hypogea) for galactose (gal), and UEA I (Ulex europeus)--for detection of fucose (fuc) in HgCl2-fixed, paraffin-embedded, serially sectioned trachea, lobar and segmental bronchi and bronchioles of nine sheep. Lectins selectively localized the carbohydrate residues in luminal secretions, on epithelial cell surfaces, and in secretory cells. In proximal airways, the major carbohydrate residues in luminal secretions, cell surfaces, goblet cells, and glands were fuc and gal-NAc. PNA reacted mainly with apical granules of less than 10% of goblet cells, and gal residues were only detected in some of the mucous cells and on basolateral cell surfaces. Distal airways contained sparse secretion in the lumen, mucous cells contained weakly reactive fuc and gal-NAc, and the epithelial surfaces of Clara cells contained gal. Sugars abundant in the airway secretions were also the major component of cells in glands. We conclude that there is a correlation between specific sugar residues in secretory cells, glycocalyx, and luminal secretions in proximal and distal airways. This suggests that lectins may be used to obtain information about airway secretory cell composition from respiratory secretions.

  15. Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Mast Cells in Leukoplakia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Malathi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction More than 90% of oral cancers are squamous cell carcinomas with oral leukoplakia being the most common potentially malignant disorder. Among the cell types in the stroma, mast cells play an important role in tumourigenesis through various mechanisms. Aim The present study was aimed at comparing the mast cell count among normal oral mucosa, leukoplakia and Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSSC) and to evaluate the possible role of mast cells in carcinogenesis. Materials and Methods Mast cell count was assessed immunohistochemically using anti-mast cell tryptase amongst 20 cases of leukoplakia and OSSC each and 10 normal gingival samples. Overall comparison was done using Kruskal Wallis test and intergroup comparison was done using Mann-Whitney U test. Results The results of the present study showed an increase in mast cell count from normal oral mucosa (Mean: 7.73) to leukoplakia (Mean: 15.11) to squamous cell carcinoma (Mean: 22.73). Comparison of mean number of mast cells amongst three groups (p-value: 0.001) and intergroup comparisons showed statistical significance. Conclusion Mast cells favour malignant transformation and can be used as indicators of disease progression. PMID:27656549

  16. Impregnation of softwood cell walls with melamine-formaldehyde resin.

    PubMed

    Gindl, W; Zargar-Yaghubi, F; Wimmer, R

    2003-05-01

    Melamine-formaldehyde (MF) resin impregnation has shown considerable potential to improve a number of wood properties, such as surface hardness and weathering resistance. In this study, selected factors influencing the uptake of MF resin into the cell wall of softwood were studied. Using UV-microspectroscopy, it could be shown that water soluble MF diffused well into the secondary cell wall and the middle lamella. Concentrations as high as 24% (v/v) were achieved after an impregnation of 20 h. High cell wall moisture content, high water content of the resin used for impregnation, and low extractive content are factors which are favourable for MF resin uptake into the cell wall. For dry cell walls, solvent exchange drying improved resin uptake to a similar extent, as was the case when cell walls were soaked in water.

  17. Impregnation of softwood cell walls with melamine-formaldehyde resin.

    PubMed

    Gindl, W; Zargar-Yaghubi, F; Wimmer, R

    2003-05-01

    Melamine-formaldehyde (MF) resin impregnation has shown considerable potential to improve a number of wood properties, such as surface hardness and weathering resistance. In this study, selected factors influencing the uptake of MF resin into the cell wall of softwood were studied. Using UV-microspectroscopy, it could be shown that water soluble MF diffused well into the secondary cell wall and the middle lamella. Concentrations as high as 24% (v/v) were achieved after an impregnation of 20 h. High cell wall moisture content, high water content of the resin used for impregnation, and low extractive content are factors which are favourable for MF resin uptake into the cell wall. For dry cell walls, solvent exchange drying improved resin uptake to a similar extent, as was the case when cell walls were soaked in water. PMID:12507874

  18. Cells under pressure - treatment of eukaryotic cells with high hydrostatic pressure, from physiologic aspects to pressure induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Frey, Benjamin; Janko, Christina; Ebel, Nina; Meister, Silke; Schlücker, Eberhard; Meyer-Pittroff, Roland; Fietkau, Rainer; Herrmann, Martin; Gaipl, Udo S

    2008-01-01

    The research on high hydrostatic pressure in medicine and life sciences is multifaceted. According to the used pressure head the research has to be divided into two different parts. To study physiological aspects of pressure on eukaryotic cells physiological pressure (pHHP; < 100 MPa) is used. pHHP induces morphological alterations in the cellular organelles and evokes a reversible stress response similar to the well known heat shock response. pHHP induces highly reversible alterations and normally does not affect cellular viability. The treatment of eukaryotic cells with non-physiological pressure (HHP; > or = 100 MPa) reveals different outcomes. Treatment with HHP < 150 MPa does not markedly affect viability of human cells, but induces apoptosis in murine cells. In human cells apoptosis is observed after treatment with > or = 200 MPa. Moreover, HHP treatment with > 300 MPa leads to necrosis. Therefore, HHP plays a role for the sterilisation of human transplants, of food stuff, and pharmaceuticals. Human tumour cells subjected to HHP > 300 MPa display a necrotic phenotype along with a gelificated cytoplasm, preserve their shape, and retain their immunogenicity. These observations favour the use of HHP to produce whole cell based tumour vaccines. Further experiments revealed that the increment of pressure as well as the pressure holding time influences the cell death of tumour cells. We conclude that high hydrostatic pressure offers both, an economic, easy to apply, clean, and fast technique for the generation of vaccines, and a promising tool to study physiological aspects.

  19. An ultrastructural study of bronchiolar lesions in rats induced by 4-ipomeanol, a product from mold-damaged sweet potatoes.

    PubMed

    Doster, A R; Farrell, R L; Wilson, B J

    1983-04-01

    Repeated intraperitoneal injections of 4-ipomeanol in rats resulted in extensive degeneration and necrosis of nonciliated (Clara) bronchiolar epithelial cells. Subsequently there was necrosis and detachment of ciliated cells from the bronchiolar basal lamina. The remaining nonciliated cells divided and differentiated into ciliated epithelial cells and mature Clara cells. The ability of Clara cells to metabolize certain xenobiotics suggests that they may play an important role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary disease and neoplasia.

  20. High efficiency direct fuel cell hybrid power cycle for near term application

    SciTech Connect

    Steinfeld, G.; Maru, H.C.; Sanderson, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    Direct carbonate fuel cells being developed by Energy Research Corporation can generate power at an efficiency approaching 60% LHV. This unique fuel cell technology can consume natural gas and other hydrocarbon based fuels directly without requiring an external reformer, thus providing a simpler and inherently efficient power generation system. A 2 MW power plant demonstration of this technology has been initiated at an installation in the city of Santa Clara in California. A 2.85 MW commercial configuration shown in Figure 1 is presently being developed. The complete plant includes the carbonate fuel cell modules, an inverter, transformer and switchgear, a heat recovery unit and supporting instrument air and water treatment systems. The emission levels for this 2.85 MW plant are projected to be orders of magnitude below existing or proposed standards. The 30 year levelized cost of electricity, without inflation, is projected to be approximately 5{cents}/kW-h assuming capital cost for the carbonate fuel cell system of $1000/kW.

  1. Selective induction of apoptosis in mouse and human lung epithelial cell lines by the tert-butyl hydroxylated metabolite of butylated hydroxytoluene: a proposed role in tumor promotion.

    PubMed

    Dwyer-Nield, L D; Thompson, J A; Peljak, G; Squier, M K; Barker, T D; Parkinson, A; Cohen, J J; Dinsdale, D; Malkinson, A M

    1998-09-15

    Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) causes lung injury in mice and promotes tumor formation. Hydroxylation of a tert-butyl group on BHT to yield the metabolite, 6-tert-butyl-2-[2'-(2'-hydroxymethyl)-propyl]-4-methylphenol (BHTOH), may be required. BHTOH is more potent than BHT on an equimolar basis in causing lung damage, enhancing lung tumor development, killing isolated bronchiolar non-ciliated Clara cells, and inhibiting lung epithelial gap junctional intercellular communication. One mechanism proposed for tumor promoting agents is selective cytotoxicity; killing normal cells allows uninhibited clonal expansion of neighboring initiated cells. We compared the abilities of BHT, BHTOH, and other BHT metabolites to kill non-tumorigenic and tumorigenic mouse and human lung cell lines, and examined the contribution of apoptosis to this cytotoxicity. These cells lack the cytochrome P450 2B isozyme necessary for converting BHT to BHTOH. BHTOH and 4-hydroperoxy-4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butyl-2,5-cyclohex-adienone+ ++ (BHTOOH) were most toxic, BHT and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone (BHTQu) were less potent, and 4-methyl BHT metabolites that are not pneumotoxic were ineffective. BHTOH most strongly induced apoptosis, based on nuclear condensation and transmission electron microscopy. Non-tumorigenic cells were as susceptible to cell death as the neoplastic cell lines when apoptosis and necrosis are not distinguished, but more sensitive to BHTOH-induced apoptosis. An apoptotic mechanism may underlie the lung tumor promoting actions of BHTOH.

  2. Dengue virus-specific suppressor T cells: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Umesh C; Shrivastava, Richa; Tripathi, Raj K; Nagar, Rachna

    2007-08-01

    Dengue virus was the first microorganism that was shown to induce generation of antigen-specific suppressor T (TS) cells in mice. The cascade of the three generations of TS cells (TS1, TS2, TS3) and their secretary products, the suppressor factors (SF1, SF2), was delineated. The TS pathway was proposed to be protective through inhibition of the production of enhancing antibody, which may enhance the severity of dengue disease. The currently second most favoured mechanism of severe dengue disease is the 'cytokine tsunami'. During the last decade, suppressor/regulatory T cells have been studied in greater detail using modern techniques in various diseases, including viral infections. This brief review discusses the role of dengue-specific suppressor T cells in protection and/or induction of severe dengue disease in view of our current understanding of suppressor/regulatory T cells. PMID:17573929

  3. Creation of Favourable Conditions for Introducing Hydrogen Fuel in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boretsky, E.; Egorova, M.

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents the key problems that hinder the introduction of new fuel for Russian automobile manufacturers. By analyzing the energy market, as well as trends and forecasts of crude oil and petroleum product prices, it proposes the necessary steps for the Government, along with oil producers and automakers, to gradually convert motor vehicles to hydrogen fuel and, therefore, to occupy a high-potential niche in the energy market. The recommended steps are assumed to be applicable not only to this specific case - introduction of hydrogen to the Russian market - but also to any other alternative fuel in a country with the similar or superior national economy.

  4. Intraspecific competition favours niche width expansion in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Bolnick, D I

    2001-03-22

    Ecologists have proposed that when interspecific competition is reduced, competition within a species becomes a potent evolutionary force leading to rapid diversification. This view reflects the observation that populations invading species-poor communities frequently evolve broader niches. Niche expansion can be associated with an increase in phenotypic variance (known as character release), with the evolution of polymorphisms, or with divergence into many species using distinct resources (adaptive radiation). The relationship between intraspecific competition and diversification is known from theory, and has been used as the foundation for some models of speciation. However, there has been little empirical proof that niches evolve in response to intraspecific competition. To test this hypothesis, I introduced cadmium-intolerant Drosophila melanogaster populations to environments containing both cadmium-free and cadmium-laced resources. Here I show that populations experiencing high competition adapted to cadmium more rapidly than low competition populations. This provides experimental confirmation that competition in a population can drive niche expansion onto new resources for which competition is less severe.

  5. Favourable Teaching Approaches in the South Korean Secondary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jambor, Zoltan Paul

    2009-01-01

    Korean education certainly has its strong points as its fifteen year olds produce outstanding results in the area of mathematics and are the world's most literate bunch. However, South Korean high schools are insufficiently preparing students for an often learner centered and creative system of education that often necessitates students to be…

  6. Initial community evenness favours functionality under selective stress.

    PubMed

    Wittebolle, Lieven; Marzorati, Massimo; Clement, Lieven; Balloi, Annalisa; Daffonchio, Daniele; Heylen, Kim; De Vos, Paul; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2009-04-01

    Owing to the present global biodiversity crisis, the biodiversity-stability relationship and the effect of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning have become major topics in ecology. Biodiversity is a complex term that includes taxonomic, functional, spatial and temporal aspects of organismic diversity, with species richness (the number of species) and evenness (the relative abundance of species) considered among the most important measures. With few exceptions (see, for example, ref. 6), the majority of studies of biodiversity-functioning and biodiversity-stability theory have predominantly examined richness. Here we show, using microbial microcosms, that initial community evenness is a key factor in preserving the functional stability of an ecosystem. Using experimental manipulations of both richness and initial evenness in microcosms with denitrifying bacterial communities, we found that the stability of the net ecosystem denitrification in the face of salinity stress was strongly influenced by the initial evenness of the community. Therefore, when communities are highly uneven, or there is extreme dominance by one or a few species, their functioning is less resistant to environmental stress. Further unravelling how evenness influences ecosystem processes in natural and humanized environments constitutes a major future conceptual challenge.

  7. Conditions favouring Bromus tectorum dominance of endangered sagebrush steppe ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reisner, Michael D.; Grace, James B.; Pyke, David A.; Doescher, Paul S.

    2013-01-01

    4. Synthesis and applications. Grazing exacerbates Bromus tectorum dominance in one of North America's most endangered ecosystems by adversely impacting key mechanisms mediating resistance to invasion. If the goal is to conserve and restore resistance of these systems, managers should consider maintaining or restoring: (i) high bunchgrass cover and structure characterized by spatially dispersed bunchgrasses and small gaps between them; (ii) a diverse assemblage of bunchgrass species to maximize competitive interactions with B. tectorum in time and space; and (iii) biological soil crusts to limit B. tectorum establishment. Passive restoration by reducing cumulative cattle grazing may be one of the most effective means of achieving these three goals.

  8. "All in Favour, Say Aye!" Voting in Pupils' Collaborative Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    This paper draws on the findings of an Economic and Social Research Council and British Telecom-funded project which explored the teaching of collaborative talk in the secondary English classroom. During the analysis of the video data collected, voting was observed as a strategy in pupils' collaborative decision-making. Converse to its democratic…

  9. Active pollination favours sexual dimorphism in floral scent.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Tomoko; Kawakita, Atsushi; Goto, Ryutaro; Svensson, Glenn P; Kato, Makoto

    2013-12-01

    Zoophilous flowers often transmit olfactory signals to attract pollinators. In plants with unisexual flowers, such signals are usually similar between the sexes because attraction of the same animal to both male and female flowers is essential for conspecific pollen transfer. Here, we present a remarkable example of sexual dimorphism in floral signal observed in reproductively highly specialized clades of the tribe Phyllantheae (Phyllanthaceae). These plants are pollinated by species-specific, seed-parasitic Epicephala moths (Gracillariidae) that actively collect pollen from male flowers and pollinate the female flowers in which they oviposit; by doing so, they ensure seeds for their offspring. We found that Epicephala-pollinated Phyllanthaceae plants consistently exhibit major qualitative differences in scent between male and female flowers, often involving compounds derived from different biosynthetic pathways. In a choice test, mated female Epicephala moths preferred the scent of male flowers over that of female flowers, suggesting that male floral scent elicits pollen-collecting behaviour. Epicephala pollination evolved multiple times in Phyllantheae, at least thrice accompanied by transition from sexual monomorphism to dimorphism in floral scent. This is the first example in which sexually dimorphic floral scent has evolved to signal an alternative reward provided by each sex, provoking the pollinator's legitimate altruistic behaviour.

  10. The favourable large misorientation angle grain boundaries in graphene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuyun; Xu, Ziwei; Yuan, Qinghong; Xin, John; Ding, Feng

    2015-12-21

    A grain boundary (GB) in graphene is a linear defect between two specifically oriented graphene edges, whose title angles are denoted as θ1 and θ2, respectively. Here we present a systematic theoretical study on the structure and stability of GBs in graphene as a function of the misorientation angle, Φ = (θ1-θ2) and the GB orientation in multi-crystalline graphene, which is denoted by Θ = (θ1 + θ2). It is surprising that although the number of disorders of the GB, i.e., the pentagon-heptagon pairs (5|7s), reaches the maximum at Φ∼ 30°, the GB formation energy versus the Φ curve reaches a local minimum. The subsequent M-shape of the Efvs. the Φ curve is due to the strong cancellation of the local strains around 5|7 pairs by the "head-to-tail" formation. This study successfully explains many previously observed experimental puzzles, such as the multimodal distribution of GBs and the abundance of GB misorientation angles of ∼30°. Besides, this study also showed that the formation energy of GBs is less sensitive to Θ, although the twin boundaries are slightly more stable than others.

  11. Order on programmes of assistance favouring emigrants, 15 January 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This Order sets forth programs of assistance containing the following categories of aid: 1) aid for elderly emigrants who are Spanish or in the process of recovering Spanish citizenship and are ill and incapable of working; 2) aid to cover the extraordinary costs related to emigration or the return of Spanish emigrant workers and their families who are in a state of need; 3) aid to facilitate the integration into the workplace of returned Spanish emigrants who are unemployed; 4) aid for emigrant centers, associations, and federations helping Spanish emigrants; 5) aid to organizations to improve the assistance and hospital and cultural activities that they provide to Spanish emigrants; 6) aid to organizations that promote professional and occupational orientation and training to facilitate the professional promotion and insertion in the workplace of Spanish emigrant workers; 7) aid to Spanish emigrants and their families resident abroad who have special abilities and wish to pursue higher education and lack the means to do so in Spain; 8) aid to young Spanish emigrants resident abroad to promote their participation in cultural, sociocultural, artistic, and youth activities; 9) aid to promote the social integration of foreign workers in Spain; and 10) aid to programs involving the exchange of young workers within the European Economic Community. Further provisions of the Order deal with beneficiaries of aid, documentation required, and applications, among other things. This Order repeals provisions of an Order of 30 January 1987 (Boletin Oficial del Estado, No. 42, 18 February 1987, pp. 4952-4964) on the same topic in so far as those provisions are in conflict with the provisions of this Order.

  12. [Emerging Acinetobacter baumannii infections and factors favouring their occurrence].

    PubMed

    Eveillard, M; Joly-Guillou, M-L

    2012-10-01

    During the last decade, Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) has been increasingly responsible for infections occurring in three particular contexts (in terms of patients and environment). Community AB pneumonia is severe infections, mainly described around the Indian Ocean, and which mainly concern patients with major co-morbidities. AB is also responsible for infections occurring among soldiers wounded in action during operations conducted in Iraq or Afghanistan. Lastly, this bacterium is responsible for infections occurring among casualties from natural disasters like earthquakes and tsunamis. Those infections are often due to multidrug-resistant strains, which can be implicated in nosocomial outbreaks when patients are hospitalized in a local casualty department or during their repatriation thereafter. The source of the contaminations which lead to AB infections following injuries (warfare or natural disasters) is still poorly known. Three hypotheses are usually considered: a contamination of wounds with environmental bacteria, a wound contamination from a previous cutaneous or oropharyngeal endogenous reservoir, or hospital acquisition. The implication of telluric or agricultural primary reservoirs in human AB infections is a common hypothesis which remains to be demonstrated by further specifically designed studies.

  13. Favourable Locations of Possible Periodic Biogen Activity On Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kereszturi, A.

    In aur approach the basic assumptions were the following. 1. If once liquid water- loving organisms developed on ancient Mars, 2. during the later global cooling they tried to follow the location of the liquid water. 3. If there were no continuous exis- tence of liquid water on Mars, 4. but there were warm periods because of the climate changes, 6. locally liquid water appeared at some places like in lakes, subsurface reser- voires, water outbreaks. 6. The living organisms on the ancient probably wet Mars may have interrupted their biogen activity during the frozen periods. 7. The best chance for their reactivation during the next warm period is at that regions where the wet periods was the most frequent and longest. We looked for these possible places and analyzed from this point of view the possibility of repeated watery periods and astrobiological consequences at the equatorial regions (because of high temperature during thicker atmosphere) at volcanic centers (long lasted hot spot activity), in subsurface water basins, and at regions of frequent basal melting of the cryosphere.

  14. Atmospheric and oceanologic conditions favouring large bioproduction of northern Adriatic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, Romina; Lučić, Davor; Njire, Jakica; Djakovac, Tamara; Precali, Robert; Supić, Nastjenjka

    2016-04-01

    An interdisciplinary study based on long term data collected in the northern Adriatic relieved winter period to be crucial for the total annual zooplankton production in the region. Namely, yearly averages of some investigated zooplankton species in the 2000-2007 interval were highly related to their February and/or March abundances. The large winter zooplankton abundances appeared in winters of the "A type", in which freshened waters from the Po River spread over the region. Also, the production of phytoplankton was in winters of the "A type" higher than in winters of the "B type", in which these waters are restricted to the coastal areas and do not impact the open sea. That was presumably due to increase in nutrients. In fact, the total inorganic nitrogen and ortophosphate concentration in eastern part reached maximal February values in the 1990-2007 interval in winters of the "A type". Spreading of the Po River water across the northern Adriatic and appearance of the two winter types depends on the existing geostrophic circulation patterns and atmospheric and hydrologic conditions in the preceding months, thus enabling forecast. Obtained results are basis for the future theoretical ecological model which can explain long term changes in bioproduction in the region and be used in planning future environment actions aimed to sustained development, especially as winter phytoplankton and zooplankton production seems to reflect on annual catch of small pelagic fish important for Adriatic fishery, anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus).

  15. People favour imperfect catching by assuming a stable world.

    PubMed

    López-Moliner, Joan; Keil, Matthias S

    2012-01-01

    The visual angle that is projected by an object (e.g. a ball) on the retina depends on the object's size and distance. Without further information, however, the visual angle is ambiguous with respect to size and distance, because equal visual angles can be obtained from a big ball at a longer distance and a smaller one at a correspondingly shorter distance. Failure to recover the true 3D structure of the object (e.g. a ball's physical size) causing the ambiguous retinal image can lead to a timing error when catching the ball. Two opposing views are currently prevailing on how people resolve this ambiguity when estimating time to contact. One explanation challenges any inference about what causes the retinal image (i.e. the necessity to recover this 3D structure), and instead favors a direct analysis of optic flow. In contrast, the second view suggests that action timing could be rather based on obtaining an estimate of the 3D structure of the scene. With the latter, systematic errors will be predicted if our inference of the 3D structure fails to reveal the underlying cause of the retinal image. Here we show that hand closure in catching virtual balls is triggered by visual angle, using an assumption of a constant ball size. As a consequence of this assumption, hand closure starts when the ball is at similar distance across trials. From that distance on, the remaining arrival time, therefore, depends on ball's speed. In order to time the catch successfully, closing time was coupled with ball's speed during the motor phase. This strategy led to an increased precision in catching but at the cost of committing systematic errors.

  16. Lower hybrid current drive favoured by electron cyclotron radiofrequency heating

    SciTech Connect

    Cesario, R.; Cardinali, A.; Castaldo, C.; Marinucci, M.; Tuccillo, A. A.; Giruzzi, G.; Napoli, F.; Schettini, G.

    2014-02-12

    The important goal of adding to the bootstrap a fraction of non-inductive plasma current, which would be controlled for obtaining and optimizing steady-state profiles, can be reached by using the Current Drive produced by Lower Hybrid waves (LHCD). FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade) experiments demonstrated, indeed, that LHCD is effective at reactor-graded high plasma density, and the LH spectral broadening is reduced, operating with higher electron temperature in the outer region of plasma column (T{sub e-periphery}). This method was obtained following the guidelines of theoretical predictions indicating that the broadening of launched spectrum produced by parametric instability (PI) should be reduced, and the LHCD effect at high density consequently enabled, under higher (T{sub e-periphery}). In FTU, the temperature increase in the outer plasma region was obtained by operating with reduced particle recycling, lithized walls and deep gas fuelling by means of fast pellet. Heating plasma periphery with electron cyclotron resonant waves (ECRH) will provide a further tool for achieving steady-state operations. New FTU experimental results are presented here, demonstrating that temperature effect at the plasma periphery, affecting LH penetration, occurs in a range of plasma parameters broader than in previous work. New information is also shown on the modelling assessing frequencies and growth rates of the PI coupled modes responsible of spectral broadening. Finally, we present the design of an experiment scheduled on FTU next campaign, where ECRH power is used to slightly increase the electron temperature in the outer plasma region of a high-density discharge aiming at restoring LHCD. Consequent to model results, by operating with a toroidal magnetic field of 6.3 T, useful for locating the electron cyclotron resonant layer at the periphery of the plasma column (r/a∼0.8, f{sub 0}=144 GHz), an increase of T{sub e} in the outer plasma (from 40 eV to 80 eV at r/a∼0.8) is expected by the JETTO code, sufficient for recovering LHCD. An ECRH power of 0.8 MW, and the standard FTU regime at high plasma density (n{sub eav}∼1.3×10{sup 20}m{sup −3} and plasma current of 0.5 MA) have been considered. The code has been set with transport modelling to reproduce the evolution of FTU kinetic profiles.

  17. The favourable large misorientation angle grain boundaries in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiuyun; Xu, Ziwei; Yuan, Qinghong; Xin, John; Ding, Feng

    2015-11-01

    A grain boundary (GB) in graphene is a linear defect between two specifically oriented graphene edges, whose title angles are denoted as θ1 and θ2, respectively. Here we present a systematic theoretical study on the structure and stability of GBs in graphene as a function of the misorientation angle, Φ = (θ1 - θ2) and the GB orientation in multi-crystalline graphene, which is denoted by Θ = (θ1 + θ2). It is surprising that although the number of disorders of the GB, i.e., the pentagon-heptagon pairs (5|7s), reaches the maximum at Φ ~ 30°, the GB formation energy versus the Φ curve reaches a local minimum. The subsequent M-shape of the Efvs. the Φ curve is due to the strong cancellation of the local strains around 5|7 pairs by the ``head-to-tail'' formation. This study successfully explains many previously observed experimental puzzles, such as the multimodal distribution of GBs and the abundance of GB misorientation angles of ~30°. Besides, this study also showed that the formation energy of GBs is less sensitive to Θ, although the twin boundaries are slightly more stable than others.A grain boundary (GB) in graphene is a linear defect between two specifically oriented graphene edges, whose title angles are denoted as θ1 and θ2, respectively. Here we present a systematic theoretical study on the structure and stability of GBs in graphene as a function of the misorientation angle, Φ = (θ1 - θ2) and the GB orientation in multi-crystalline graphene, which is denoted by Θ = (θ1 + θ2). It is surprising that although the number of disorders of the GB, i.e., the pentagon-heptagon pairs (5|7s), reaches the maximum at Φ ~ 30°, the GB formation energy versus the Φ curve reaches a local minimum. The subsequent M-shape of the Efvs. the Φ curve is due to the strong cancellation of the local strains around 5|7 pairs by the ``head-to-tail'' formation. This study successfully explains many previously observed experimental puzzles, such as the multimodal distribution of GBs and the abundance of GB misorientation angles of ~30°. Besides, this study also showed that the formation energy of GBs is less sensitive to Θ, although the twin boundaries are slightly more stable than others. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04960a

  18. The favourable large misorientation angle grain boundaries in graphene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuyun; Xu, Ziwei; Yuan, Qinghong; Xin, John; Ding, Feng

    2015-12-21

    A grain boundary (GB) in graphene is a linear defect between two specifically oriented graphene edges, whose title angles are denoted as θ1 and θ2, respectively. Here we present a systematic theoretical study on the structure and stability of GBs in graphene as a function of the misorientation angle, Φ = (θ1-θ2) and the GB orientation in multi-crystalline graphene, which is denoted by Θ = (θ1 + θ2). It is surprising that although the number of disorders of the GB, i.e., the pentagon-heptagon pairs (5|7s), reaches the maximum at Φ∼ 30°, the GB formation energy versus the Φ curve reaches a local minimum. The subsequent M-shape of the Efvs. the Φ curve is due to the strong cancellation of the local strains around 5|7 pairs by the "head-to-tail" formation. This study successfully explains many previously observed experimental puzzles, such as the multimodal distribution of GBs and the abundance of GB misorientation angles of ∼30°. Besides, this study also showed that the formation energy of GBs is less sensitive to Θ, although the twin boundaries are slightly more stable than others. PMID:26568448

  19. ATRA mechanically reprograms pancreatic stellate cells to suppress matrix remodelling and inhibit cancer cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Chronopoulos, Antonios; Robinson, Benjamin; Sarper, Muge; Cortes, Ernesto; Auernheimer, Vera; Lachowski, Dariusz; Attwood, Simon; García, Rebeca; Ghassemi, Saba; Fabry, Ben; del Río Hernández, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly aggressive malignancy with a dismal survival rate. Persistent activation of pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) can perturb the biomechanical homoeostasis of the tumour microenvironment to favour cancer cell invasion. Here we report that ATRA, an active metabolite of vitamin A, restores mechanical quiescence in PSCs via a mechanism involving a retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR-β)-dependent downregulation of actomyosin (MLC-2) contractility. We show that ATRA reduces the ability of PSCs to generate high traction forces and adapt to extracellular mechanical cues (mechanosensing), as well as suppresses force-mediated extracellular matrix remodelling to inhibit local cancer cell invasion in 3D organotypic models. Our findings implicate a RAR-β/MLC-2 pathway in peritumoural stromal remodelling and mechanosensory-driven activation of PSCs, and further suggest that mechanical reprogramming of PSCs with retinoic acid derivatives might be a viable alternative to stromal ablation strategies for the treatment of PDAC. PMID:27600527

  20. ATRA mechanically reprograms pancreatic stellate cells to suppress matrix remodelling and inhibit cancer cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Chronopoulos, Antonios; Robinson, Benjamin; Sarper, Muge; Cortes, Ernesto; Auernheimer, Vera; Lachowski, Dariusz; Attwood, Simon; García, Rebeca; Ghassemi, Saba; Fabry, Ben; Del Río Hernández, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly aggressive malignancy with a dismal survival rate. Persistent activation of pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) can perturb the biomechanical homoeostasis of the tumour microenvironment to favour cancer cell invasion. Here we report that ATRA, an active metabolite of vitamin A, restores mechanical quiescence in PSCs via a mechanism involving a retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR-β)-dependent downregulation of actomyosin (MLC-2) contractility. We show that ATRA reduces the ability of PSCs to generate high traction forces and adapt to extracellular mechanical cues (mechanosensing), as well as suppresses force-mediated extracellular matrix remodelling to inhibit local cancer cell invasion in 3D organotypic models. Our findings implicate a RAR-β/MLC-2 pathway in peritumoural stromal remodelling and mechanosensory-driven activation of PSCs, and further suggest that mechanical reprogramming of PSCs with retinoic acid derivatives might be a viable alternative to stromal ablation strategies for the treatment of PDAC. PMID:27600527

  1. Pathogenic E. coli exploits SslE mucinase activity to translocate through the mucosal barrier and get access to host cells.

    PubMed

    Valeri, Maria; Rossi Paccani, Silvia; Kasendra, Magdalena; Nesta, Barbara; Serino, Laura; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Soriani, Marco

    2015-01-01

    SslE is a zinc-metalloprotease involved in the degradation of mucin substrates and recently proposed as a potential vaccine candidate against pathogenic E. coli. In this paper, by exploiting a human in vitro model of mucus-secreting cells, we demonstrated that bacteria expressing SslE have a metabolic benefit which results in an increased growth rate postulating the importance of this antigen in enhancing E. coli fitness. We also observed that SslE expression facilitates E. coli penetration of the mucus favouring bacteria adhesion to host cells. Moreover, we found that SslE-mediated opening of the mucosae contributed to the activation of pro-inflammatory events. Indeed, intestinal cells infected with SslE-secreting bacteria showed an increased production of IL-8 contributing to neutrophil recruitment. The results presented in this paper conclusively designate SslE as an important colonization factor favouring E. coli access to both metabolic substrates and target cells.

  2. A survey of Italian physicians' opinion about stem cells research: what doctors prefer and what the law requires.

    PubMed

    Frati, Paola; Gulino, Matteo; Pacchiarotti, Arianna; D'Errico, Stefano; Sicuro, Lorella; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the Italian physicians' knowledge/information level about the therapeutic potential of stem cells, the research choice between embryonic and cordonal stem cells, and the preference between autologous and heterologous storage of cordonal stem cells, we performed a national survey. The questionnaire--distributed to 3361 physicians--involved physicians of different religious orientations and of different medical specialities. Most of the physicians involved (67%) were Catholics, and the majority were gynaecologists and paediatricians (43%) who are mainly in charge to inform future mothers about the possibility of cordonal stem cells conservation. The majority of the physicians interviewed do not have specific knowledge about stem cells (59%), most of them having only generic information (92%). The largest part of physicians prefer to use umbilical cord blood cells rather than embryonic stem cells. Nevertheless, a large percentage of physicians were in favour of embryo research, especially when embryos are supernumerary (44% versus 34%). Eighty-seven % of the physicians interviewed proved to have a general knowledge about stem cells and believe in their therapeutic potential. They prefer research on cordonal stem cells rather than on embryo stem cells. Although they are in favour of heterologous stem cells donation, they still prefer cryopreservation for personal use. PMID:24877099

  3. A survey of Italian physicians' opinion about stem cells research: what doctors prefer and what the law requires.

    PubMed

    Frati, Paola; Gulino, Matteo; Pacchiarotti, Arianna; D'Errico, Stefano; Sicuro, Lorella; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the Italian physicians' knowledge/information level about the therapeutic potential of stem cells, the research choice between embryonic and cordonal stem cells, and the preference between autologous and heterologous storage of cordonal stem cells, we performed a national survey. The questionnaire--distributed to 3361 physicians--involved physicians of different religious orientations and of different medical specialities. Most of the physicians involved (67%) were Catholics, and the majority were gynaecologists and paediatricians (43%) who are mainly in charge to inform future mothers about the possibility of cordonal stem cells conservation. The majority of the physicians interviewed do not have specific knowledge about stem cells (59%), most of them having only generic information (92%). The largest part of physicians prefer to use umbilical cord blood cells rather than embryonic stem cells. Nevertheless, a large percentage of physicians were in favour of embryo research, especially when embryos are supernumerary (44% versus 34%). Eighty-seven % of the physicians interviewed proved to have a general knowledge about stem cells and believe in their therapeutic potential. They prefer research on cordonal stem cells rather than on embryo stem cells. Although they are in favour of heterologous stem cells donation, they still prefer cryopreservation for personal use.

  4. Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. They serve as a repair ... body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

  5. Cell Structure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cells, Tissues, & Membranes Cell Structure & Function Cell Structure Cell Function Body Tissues Epithelial Tissue Connective Tissue Muscle Tissue ... apparatus , and lysosomes . « Previous (Cell Structure & Function) Next (Cell Function) » Contact Us | Privacy Policy | Accessibility | FOIA | File Formats ...

  6. Multistage carcinogenesis in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Rubin, H

    2001-01-01

    Rodent fibroblasts explanted from embryos to culture undergo a period of declining growth rate in serial passages leading to crisis, followed by the appearance of variants which can multiply indefinitely. If the "immortal" cell line was established by low density passage, i.e., 3T3 cells, it has a low saturation density and is non-tumorigenic. If it was established by high density passage, it has a high saturation density and is tumorigenic. The establishment of cells goes through successive stages, including increased capacity to multiply in low serum concentration, growth to high saturation density, growth in suspension, assisted tumour formation in susceptible hosts and unassisted tumour formation. Chromosome aberrations and aneuploidy occur long before the capacity to produce tumours appears. Contrary to conventional belief, human fibroblast populations also undergo a continuous loss of capacity to multiply from the time of explantation, with only the longest surviving clone reaching the Hayflick limit. Neoplastic transformation of rodent cells is strongly favoured by maintaining them in a quiescent state at confluence for prolonged periods, which results in genetic damage to the cells. It also produces a large variety of chromosomal aberrations in human cells and extends their replicative lifespan. Individual clones are more susceptible to spontaneous transformation than their heterogeneous parental cultures. The implications of these results for tumour development in vivo are that oncogenic genetic changes may be common under stressful conditions which restrict replication, and that such changes are maximized when a rogue clone reaches a critical size that reduces stabilizing interactions with neighbouring clones. An alternative explanation, described in the Addendum, which we retrospectively favor is that the easily transformed clones are a minority in the uncloned parental population. The reason they transform before the parental population is that when

  7. Modulation of mTOR Signalling Triggers the Formation of Stem Cell-like Memory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Godehard; Jandus, Camilla; Zhang, Lianjun; Grandclément, Camille; Lopez-Mejia, Isabel C.; Soneson, Charlotte; Delorenzi, Mauro; Fajas, Lluis; Held, Werner; Dormond, Olivier; Romero, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Robust, long-lasting immune responses are elicited by memory T cells that possess properties of stem cells, enabling them to persist long-term and to permanently replenish the effector pools. Thus, stem cell-like memory T (TSCM) cells are of key therapeutic value and efforts are underway to characterize TSCM cells and to identify means for their targeted induction. Here, we show that inhibition of mechanistic/mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) by rapamycin or the Wnt-β-catenin signalling activator TWS119 in activated human naive T cells leads to the induction of TSCM cells. We show that these compounds switch T cell metabolism to fatty acid oxidation as favoured metabolic programme for TSCM cell generation. Of note, pharmacologically induced TSCM cells possess superior functional features as a long-term repopulation capacity after adoptive transfer. Furthermore, we provide insights into the transcriptome of TSCM cells. Our data identify a mechanism of pharmacological mTORC1 inhibitors, allowing us to confer stemness to human naive T cells which may be significantly relevant for the design of innovative T cell-based cancer immunotherapies. PMID:26981571

  8. A20 Deficiency in Lung Epithelial Cells Protects against Influenza A Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Vereecke, Lars; Mc Guire, Conor; Sze, Mozes; Schuijs, Martijn J.; Willart, Monique; Itati Ibañez, Lorena; Hammad, Hamida; Lambrecht, Bart N.; Beyaert, Rudi; Saelens, Xavier; van Loo, Geert

    2016-01-01

    A20 negatively regulates multiple inflammatory signalling pathways. We here addressed the role of A20 in club cells (also known as Clara cells) of the bronchial epithelium in their response to influenza A virus infection. Club cells provide a niche for influenza virus replication, but little is known about the functions of these cells in antiviral immunity. Using airway epithelial cell-specific A20 knockout (A20AEC-KO) mice, we show that A20 in club cells critically controls innate immune responses upon TNF or double stranded RNA stimulation. Surprisingly, A20AEC-KO mice are better protected against influenza A virus challenge than their wild type littermates. This phenotype is not due to decreased viral replication. Instead host innate and adaptive immune responses and lung damage are reduced in A20AEC-KO mice. These attenuated responses correlate with a dampened cytotoxic T cell (CTL) response at later stages during infection, indicating that A20AEC-KO mice are better equipped to tolerate Influenza A virus infection. Expression of the chemokine CCL2 (also named MCP-1) is particularly suppressed in the lungs of A20AEC-KO mice during later stages of infection. When A20AEC-KO mice were treated with recombinant CCL2 the protective effect was abrogated demonstrating the crucial contribution of this chemokine to the protection of A20AEC-KO mice to Influenza A virus infection. Taken together, we propose a mechanism of action by which A20 expression in club cells controls inflammation and antiviral CTL responses in response to influenza virus infection. PMID:26815999

  9. Hypoxia Inducible Factor 3α Plays a Critical Role in Alveolarization and Distal Epithelial Cell Differentiation during Mouse Lung Development

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yadi; Kapere Ochieng, Joshua; Kempen, Marjon Buscop-van; Munck, Anne Boerema-de; Swagemakers, Sigrid; van IJcken, Wilfred; Grosveld, Frank; Tibboel, Dick; Rottier, Robbert J.

    2013-01-01

    Lung development occurs under relative hypoxia and the most important oxygen-sensitive response pathway is driven by Hypoxia Inducible Factors (HIF). HIFs are heterodimeric transcription factors of an oxygen-sensitive subunit, HIFα, and a constitutively expressed subunit, HIF1β. HIF1α and HIF2α, encoded by two separate genes, contribute to the activation of hypoxia inducible genes. A third HIFα gene, HIF3α, is subject to alternative promoter usage and splicing, leading to three major isoforms, HIF3α, NEPAS and IPAS. HIF3α gene products add to the complexity of the hypoxia response as they function as dominant negative inhibitors (IPAS) or weak transcriptional activators (HIF3α/NEPAS). Previously, we and others have shown the importance of the Hif1α and Hif2α factors in lung development, and here we investigated the role of Hif3α during pulmonary development. Therefore, HIF3α was conditionally expressed in airway epithelial cells during gestation and although HIF3α transgenic mice were born alive and appeared normal, their lungs showed clear abnormalities, including a post-pseudoglandular branching defect and a decreased number of alveoli. The HIF3α expressing lungs displayed reduced numbers of Clara cells, alveolar epithelial type I and type II cells. As a result of HIF3α expression, the level of Hif2α was reduced, but that of Hif1α was not affected. Two regulatory genes, Rarβ, involved in alveologenesis, and Foxp2, a transcriptional repressor of the Clara cell specific Ccsp gene, were significantly upregulated in the HIF3α expressing lungs. In addition, aberrant basal cells were observed distally as determined by the expression of Sox2 and p63. We show that Hif3α binds a conserved HRE site in the Sox2 promoter and weakly transactivated a reporter construct containing the Sox2 promoter region. Moreover, Hif3α affected the expression of genes not typically involved in the hypoxia response, providing evidence for a novel function of Hif3

  10. Phenotype expression of human bone cells cultured on implant substrates.

    PubMed

    Locci, P; Becchetti, E; Pugliese, M; Rossi, L; Belcastro, S; Calvitti, M; Pietrarelli, G; Staffolani, N

    1997-09-01

    Bone cells derived from the human jaw were cultured on titanium, titanium coated with hydroxyapatite (THA) or with plasma spray (TPS) to study the behaviour of the cells anchored to implant substrates. Bone cells were cultured in MEM with the addition of [3H]-thymidine to evaluate cellular proliferation, and [3H]-glucosamine to evaluate GAG synthesis and accumulation in the extra-cellular matrix (ECM). Moreover, to study the degradation of GAG bone cells were cultured in the presence of NH4Cl, an amine known to inhibit lysosomal activity. Our results show that TPS is the substrate that favours both cellular proliferation and the accumulation of GAG in the ECM. PMID:9377794

  11. Dynamic cell adhesion and migration on nanoscale grooved substrates.

    PubMed

    Lamers, E; te Riet, J; Domanski, M; Luttge, R; Figdor, C G; Gardeniers, J G E; Walboomers, X F; Jansen, J A

    2012-01-01

    Organised nanotopography mimicking the natural extracellular matrix can be used to control morphology, cell motility, and differentiation. However, it is still unknown how specific cell types react with specific patterns. Both initial adhesion and preferential cell migration may be important to initiate and increase cell locomotion and coverage with cells, and thus achieve an enhanced wound healing response around an implantable material. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate how MC3T3-E1 osteoblast initial adhesion and directional migration are influenced by nanogrooves with pitches ranging from 150 nm up to 1000 nm. In this study, we used a multi-patterned substrate with five different groove patterns and a smooth area with either a concentric or radial orientation. Initial cell adhesion measurements after 10 s were performed using atomic force spectroscopy-assisted single-cell force spectroscopy, and demonstrated that nascent cell adhesion was highly induced by a 600 nm pitch and reduced by a 150 nm pitch. Addition of RGD peptide significantly reduced adhesion, indicating that integrins and cell adhesive proteins (e.g. fibronectin or vitronectin) are key factors in specific cell adhesion on nanogrooved substrates. Also, cell migration was highly dependent on the groove pitch; the highest directional migration parallel to the grooves was observed on a 600 nm pitch, whereas a 150 nm pitch restrained directional cell migration. From this study, we conclude that grooves with a pitch of 600 nm may be favourable to enhance fast wound closure, thereby promoting tissue regeneration.

  12. A Versatile Bioreactor for Dynamic Suspension Cell Culture. Application to the Culture of Cancer Cell Spheroids

    PubMed Central

    Madeddu, Denise; Cerino, Giulia; Falco, Angela; Frati, Caterina; Gallo, Diego; Deriu, Marco A.; Falvo D’Urso Labate, Giuseppe; Quaini, Federico; Audenino, Alberto; Morbiducci, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    A versatile bioreactor suitable for dynamic suspension cell culture under tunable shear stress conditions has been developed and preliminarily tested culturing cancer cell spheroids. By adopting simple technological solutions and avoiding rotating components, the bioreactor exploits the laminar hydrodynamics establishing within the culture chamber enabling dynamic cell suspension in an environment favourable to mass transport, under a wide range of tunable shear stress conditions. The design phase of the device has been supported by multiphysics modelling and has provided a comprehensive analysis of the operating principles of the bioreactor. Moreover, an explanatory example is herein presented with multiphysics simulations used to set the proper bioreactor operating conditions for preliminary in vitro biological tests on a human lung carcinoma cell line. The biological results demonstrate that the ultralow shear dynamic suspension provided by the device is beneficial for culturing cancer cell spheroids. In comparison to the static suspension control, dynamic cell suspension preserves morphological features, promotes intercellular connection, increases spheroid size (2.4-fold increase) and number of cycling cells (1.58-fold increase), and reduces double strand DNA damage (1.5-fold reduction). It is envisioned that the versatility of this bioreactor could allow investigation and expansion of different cell types in the future. PMID:27144306

  13. Recombinant rat CC16 protein inhibits LPS-induced MMP-9 expression via NF-κB pathway in rat tracheal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Min; Wang, Hailong; Bai, Ji-Zhong; Cao, Dawei; Jiang, Yi; Zhang, Caiping; Liu, Zhihong; Zhang, Xinri; Hu, Xiaoyun; Xu, Jianying

    2015-01-01

    Clara cell protein (CC16) is a well-known anti-inflammatory protein secreted by the epithelial Clara cells of the airways. It is involved in the development of airway inflammatory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. Previous studies suggest that CC16 gene transfer suppresses expression of interleukin (IL)-8 in bronchial epithelial cells. However, its role in the function of these cells during inflammation is not well understood. In this study, we evaluated the effect of CC16 on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated rat tracheal epithelial cells and its underlying molecular mechanisms. We generated recombinant rat CC16 protein (rCC16) which was bioactive in inhibiting the activity of phospholipase A2. rCC16 inhibited LPS-induced MMP-9 expression at both mRNA and protein levels in a concentration-dependent (0–2 µg/mL) manner, as demonstrated by real time RT-PCR, ELISA, and zymography assays. Gene transcription and DNA binding studies demonstrated that rCC16 suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB activation and its binding of gene promoters as identified by luciferase reporter and gel mobility shift assays, respectively. Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining analyses further revealed that rCC16 concentration dependently inhibited the effects of LPS on nuclear increase and cytosol reduction of NF-κB, on the phosphorylation and reduction of NF-κB inhibitory IκBα, and on p38 MAPK-dependent NF-κB activation by phosphorylation at Ser276 of its p65 subunit. These data indicate that inhibition of LPS-mediated NF-κB activation by rCC16 involves both translocation- and phosphorylation-dependent signaling pathways. When the tracheal epithelial cells were pretreated with chlorpromazine, an inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, cellular uptake of rCC16 and its inhibition of LPS-induced NF-κB nuclear translocation and also MMP-9 production were significantly abolished. Taken

  14. Human alveolar bone-derived cell-culture behaviour on biodegradable poly(L-lactic Acid).

    PubMed

    Bombonato-Prado, Karina Fittipaldi; Wimmers Ferreira, Maidy Redher; Rosa, Adalberto Luiz; de Oliveira, Paulo Tambasco; Jahno, Vanusca Dalosto; da Silva, Jefferson Braga; Ligabue, Rosane; Einloft, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA) is a polymer of great technological interest, whose excellent mechanical properties, thermal plasticity and bioresorbability render it potentially useful for environmental applications, as a biodegradable plastic and as a biocompatible material in biomedicine. The interactions between an implant material surface and host cells play central roles in the integration, biological performance and clinical success of implanted biomedical devices. Osteoblasts from human alveolar bone were chosen to investigate the cell behaviour when in contact with PLA discs. Cell morphology and adhesion through osteopontin (OPN) and fibronectin (FN) expression were evaluated in the initial osteogenesis, as well as cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity and bone nodule formation. It was shown that the polymer favoured cell attachment. Cell proliferation increased until 21 days but in a smaller rate when compared to the control group. On the other hand, ALP activity and bone mineralization were not enhanced by the polymer. It is suggested that this polymer favours cell adhesion in the early osteogenesis in vitro, but it does not enhance differentiation and mineralization.

  15. Relation of CD30 expression to survival and morphology in large cell B cell lymphomas.

    PubMed Central

    Noorduyn, L A; de Bruin, P C; van Heerde, P; van de Sandt, M M; Ossenkoppele, G J; Meijer, C J

    1994-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate whether CD30 expression is correlated with anaplastic morphology, and whether this correlated with a better survival in large cell B cell lymphomas, as has been described for T cell lymphomas. METHODS--CD30 expression was investigated using frozen sections in a series of 146 large cell B cell lymphomas. Clinical data and follow up information were collected from 25 lymphomas with strong CD30 expression, 30 lymphomas with partial CD30 expression, and a control group of 25 lymphomas which did not express CD30. RESULTS--Morphological distinction between anaplastic and non-anaplastic tumours was difficult. Of the cases with an anaplastic morphology, 50% were CD30 positive, as were 24% of the polymorphic centroblastic B cell lymphomas. Only 65% of the morphologically non-anaplastic tumours were completely CD30 negative. There was no difference in survival among patients with lymphomas expressing CD30 and those that did not. Patients with morphologically anaplastic B cell lymphomas did not differ in their survivals from those with other high grade B cell lymphomas. Clinical stage at presentation was the only variable that was significantly associated with survival. CONCLUSIONS--CD30 expression occurs frequently in large cell B cell lymphomas and is poorly related to anaplastic morphology. Morphological distinction between anaplastic and non-anaplastic tumours is difficult. In contrast to T cell lymphomas, CD30 positive B cell lymphomas do not show a relatively favourable clinical course. The results presented here raise serious doubts as to whether large cell B cell lymphoma, based on the expression of CD30 or anaplastic morphology, can really be termed a separate entity. Images PMID:8132806

  16. Role of bentonite clays on cell growth.

    PubMed

    Cervini-Silva, Javiera; Ramírez-Apan, María Teresa; Kaufhold, Stephan; Ufer, Kristian; Palacios, Eduardo; Montoya, Ascención

    2016-04-01

    Bentonites, naturally occurring clays, are produced industrially because of their adsorbent capacity but little is known about their effects on human health. This manuscript reports on the effect of bentonites on cell growth behaviour. Bentonites collected from India (Bent-India), Hungary (Bent-Hungary), Argentina (Bent-Argentina), and Indonesia (Bent-Indonesia) were studied. All four bentonites were screened in-vitro against two human cancer cell lines [U251 (central nervous system, glioblastoma) and SKLU-1 (lung adenocarcinoma)] supplied by the National Cancer Institute (USA). Bentonites induced growth inhibition in the presence of U251 cells, and growth increment in the presence of SKLU-1 cells, showing that interactions between bentonite and cell surfaces were highly specific. The proliferation response for U251 cells was explained because clay surfaces controlled the levels of metabolic growth components, thereby inhibiting the development of high-grade gliomas, particularly primary glioblastomas. On the other hand, the proliferation response for SKLU-1 was explained by an exacerbated growth favoured by swelling, and concomitant accumulation of solutes, and their hydration and transformation via clay-surface mediated reactions. PMID:26849195

  17. Role of bentonite clays on cell growth.

    PubMed

    Cervini-Silva, Javiera; Ramírez-Apan, María Teresa; Kaufhold, Stephan; Ufer, Kristian; Palacios, Eduardo; Montoya, Ascención

    2016-04-01

    Bentonites, naturally occurring clays, are produced industrially because of their adsorbent capacity but little is known about their effects on human health. This manuscript reports on the effect of bentonites on cell growth behaviour. Bentonites collected from India (Bent-India), Hungary (Bent-Hungary), Argentina (Bent-Argentina), and Indonesia (Bent-Indonesia) were studied. All four bentonites were screened in-vitro against two human cancer cell lines [U251 (central nervous system, glioblastoma) and SKLU-1 (lung adenocarcinoma)] supplied by the National Cancer Institute (USA). Bentonites induced growth inhibition in the presence of U251 cells, and growth increment in the presence of SKLU-1 cells, showing that interactions between bentonite and cell surfaces were highly specific. The proliferation response for U251 cells was explained because clay surfaces controlled the levels of metabolic growth components, thereby inhibiting the development of high-grade gliomas, particularly primary glioblastomas. On the other hand, the proliferation response for SKLU-1 was explained by an exacerbated growth favoured by swelling, and concomitant accumulation of solutes, and their hydration and transformation via clay-surface mediated reactions.

  18. Benefits, risks and ethical considerations in translation of stem cell research to clinical applications in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Master, Zubin; McLeod, Marcus; Mendez, Ivar

    2007-03-01

    Stem cells are likely to be used as an alternate source of biological material for neural transplantation to treat Parkinson's disease in the not too distant future. Among the several ethical criteria that must be fulfilled before proceeding with clinical research, a favourable benefit to risk ratio must be obtained. The potential benefits to the participant and to society are evaluated relative to the risks in an attempt to offer the participants a reasonable choice. Through examination of preclinical studies transplanting stem cells in animals and the transplantation of fetal tissue in patients with Parkinson's disease, a current set of potential benefits and risks for neural transplantation of stem cells in clinical research of Parkinson's disease are derived. The potential benefits to research participants undergoing stem cell transplantation are relief of parkinsonian symptoms and decreasing doses of parkinsonian drugs. Transplantation of stem cells as a treatment for Parkinson's disease may benefit society by providing knowledge that can be used to help determine better treatments in the future. The risks to research participants undergoing stem cell transplantation include tumour formation, inappropriate stem cell migration, immune rejection of transplanted stem cells, haemorrhage during neurosurgery and postoperative infection. Although some of these risks are general to neurosurgical transplantation and may not be reduced for participants, the potential risk of tumour formation and inappropriate stem cell migration must be minimised before obtaining a favourable potential benefit to risk calculus and to provide participants with a reasonable choice before they enroll in clinical studies.

  19. Apoptotic tubular cell death during acute renal allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Wever, P C; Aten, J; Rentenaar, R J; Hack, C E; Koopman, G; Weening, J J; ten Berge, I J

    1998-01-01

    Tubular cells are important targets during acute renal allograft rejection and induction of apoptosis might be a mechanism of tubular cell destruction. Susceptibility to induction of apoptosis is regulated by the homologous Bcl-2 and Bax proteins. Expression of Bcl-2 and Bax is regulated by p53, which down-regulates expression of Bcl-2, while simultaneously up-regulating expression of Bax. We studied apoptotic tubular cell death in 10 renal allograft biopsies from transplant recipients with acute rejection by in situ end-labelling and the DNA-binding fluorochrome propidium iodide. Tubular expression of p53, Bcl-2 and Bax was studies by immunohistochemistry. Five renal allograft biopsies from transplant recipients with uncomplicated clinical course and histologically normal renal tissue present in nephrectomy specimens from 4 patients with renal adenocarcinoma served as control specimens. Apoptotic cells and apoptotic bodies were detected in tubular epithelia and tubular lumina in 9 out of 10 acute rejection biopsies. In control renal tissue, apoptotic cells were detected in 1 biopsy only. Compared to control renal tissue, acute renal allograft rejection was, furthermore, associated with a shift in the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax in favour of Bax in tubular epithelia and increased expression of p53 in tubular nuclei. These observations demonstrate that apoptosis contributes in part to tubular cell destruction during acute renal allograft rejection. In accordance, the shift in the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax in favour of Bax indicates increased susceptibility of tubular epithelia to induction of apoptosis. The expression of p53 in tubular nuclei during acute renal allograft rejection indicates the presence of damaged DNA, which can be important in initiation of part of the observed apoptosis. These findings elucidate part of the mechanisms controlling apoptotic tubular cell death during acute renal allograft rejection.

  20. Directing cell migration and organization via nanocrater-patterned cell-repellent interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hojeong; Koo, Sangmo; Reese, Willie Mae; Loskill, Peter; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Healy, Kevin E.

    2015-01-01

    Although adhesive interactions between cells and nanostructured interfaces have been studied extensively1–6, there is a paucity of data on how nanostructured interfaces repel cells by directing cell migration and cell-colony organization. Here, by using multiphoton ablation lithography7 to pattern surfaces with nanoscale craters of various aspect ratios and pitches, we show that the surfaces altered the cells’ focal-adhesion size and distribution, thus affecting cell morphology, migration and ultimately localization. We also show that nanocrater pitch can disrupt the formation of mature focal adhesions to favour the migration of cells toward higher-pitched regions, which present increased planar area for the formation of stable focal adhesions. Moreover, by designing surfaces with variable pitch but constant nanocrater dimensions, we were able to create circular and striped cellular patterns. Our surface-patterning approach, which does not involve chemical treatments and can be applied to various materials, represents a simple method to control cell behaviour on surfaces. PMID:26213899

  1. In vitro aging of rat lung cells. Downregulation of telomerase activity and continuous decrease of telomere length are not incompatible with malignant transformation.

    PubMed

    Petitot, Fabrice; Lebeau, Jérôme; Dano, Laurent; Lectard, Bruno; Altmeyer, Sandrine; Levalois, Céline; Chevillard, Sylvie

    2003-05-15

    Most normal mammalian somatic cells cultivated in vitro enter replicative senescence after a finite number of divisions, as a consequence of the progressive shortening of telomeres during proliferation that reflects one aspect of organism/cellular aging. The situation appears more complex in rodent cells due to physiological telomerase expression in most somatic normal tissues, great telomere length, and the difficulties of finding suitable in vitro culture conditions. To study in vitro aging of rat lung epithelial cells, we have developed primary culture conditions adapted to rat fresh lung explants and have studied for 1 year (50 passages) the changes in cellular proliferation and mortality, genetic instability, telomerase activity, telomere length, and tumorigenic potential. We have observed an absence of senescence and/or crisis, a transient genetic instability, the persistence of a differentiated Clara cell phenotype, a steady decrease in telomerase activity followed by a low residual activity together with a continuous decrease in telomere length, a constant rate of proliferation, and the acquisition of tumorigenic potential. The bypass of the growth arrest and the acquisition of long-term growth properties could be explained by the loss of p16(INK4a) expression, the ARF/p53 pathway not being altered. In conclusion, these results clearly indicate that, in rat lung epithelial cells, in vitro transformation and acquisition of tumorigenic properties can occur even if the telomere length is still decreasing and telomerase activity remains downregulated.

  2. The epigenetics of tumour initiation: cancer stem cells and their chromatin.

    PubMed

    Avgustinova, Alexandra; Benitah, Salvador Aznar

    2016-02-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified in various tumours and are defined by their potential to initiate tumours upon transplantation, self-renew and reconstitute tumour heterogeneity. Modifications of the epigenome can favour tumour initiation by affecting genome integrity, DNA repair and tumour cell plasticity. Importantly, an in-depth understanding of the epigenomic alterations underlying neoplastic transformation may open new avenues for chromatin-targeted cancer treatment, as these epigenetic changes could be inherently more amenable to inhibition and reversal than hard-wired genomic alterations. Here we discuss how CSC function is affected by chromatin state and epigenomic instability. PMID:26874045

  3. Coupling of glutamate and glucose uptake in cultured Bergmann glial cells.

    PubMed

    Mendez-Flores, Orquidia G; Hernández-Kelly, Luisa C; Suárez-Pozos, Edna; Najimi, Mustapha; Ortega, Arturo

    2016-09-01

    Glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, exerts its actions through specific membrane receptors present in neurons and glial cells. Over-stimulation of glutamate receptors results in neuronal death, phenomena known as excitotoxicity. A family of sodium-dependent, glutamate uptake transporters mainly expressed in glial cells, removes the amino acid from the synaptic cleft preventing neuronal death. The sustained sodium influx associated to glutamate removal in glial cells, activates the sodium/potassium ATPase restoring the ionic balance, additionally, glutamate entrance activates glutamine synthetase, both events are energy demanding, therefore glia cells increase their ATP expenditure favouring glucose uptake, and triggering several signal transduction pathways linked to proper neuronal glutamate availability, via the glutamate/glutamine shuttle. To further characterize these complex transporters interactions, we used the well-established model system of cultured chick cerebellum Bergmann glia cells. A time and dose-dependent increase in the activity, plasma membrane localization and protein levels of glucose transporters was detected upon d-aspartate exposure. Interestingly, this increase is the result of a protein kinase C-dependent signaling cascade. Furthermore, a glutamate-dependent glucose and glutamate transporters co-immunoprecipitation was detected. These results favour the notion that glial cells are involved in glutamatergic neuronal physiology. PMID:27184733

  4. Hürthle cell carcinoma: diagnostic and therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Hanief, Mohamed R; Igali, Laszlo; Grama, Dimitrie

    2004-01-01

    Background Hürthle cell carcinoma is a variant of follicular cell carcinoma of thyroid. It may present as a low-grade tumour or as a more aggressive type. Prognosis depends upon the age of the patient, tumour size, extent of invasion and initial nodal or distant metastasis. Patient and methods The case of Hürthle cell carcinoma is reported in a 79-year-old man who presented with a rapidly increasing lump on the left side of his neck, having had a right hemithyroidectomy for colloid goitre 24-years-ago. Fine needle aspiration cytology confirmed the presence of Hürthle cells, raising the possibility of a Hürthle cell neoplasm. The patient underwent staging and surgery. Histology showed Hürthle cell carcinoma and the patient underwent adjuvant therapy. The literature on Hürthle cell neoplasms is reviewed. Conclusions Fine needle aspiration cytology may recognise Hürthle cell lesion but final diagnosis of carcinoma depends upon histological confirmation of vascular or capsular invasion. Staging and surgery in Hürthle cell carcinoma are similar to follicular carcinoma of thyroid with favourable outcome despite the controversy regarding the histological classification and adjuvant therapy. Elderly patients with Hürthle cell carcinoma need to be made aware of their poorer prognosis and should be offered more radical treatment. PMID:15306032

  5. Low-density subculture: a technical note on the importance of avoiding cell-to-cell contact during mesenchymal stromal cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Balint, Richard; Richardson, Stephen M; Cartmell, Sarah H

    2015-10-01

    Numerous scientific studies and clinical trials are carried out each year exploring the use of mesenchymal stromal cells in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. However, the effective and reliable expansion of this very important cell type remains a challenge. In this study the importance of cell-to-cell contact during expansion has been explored on the proliferation and differentiation potential of the produced cells. Cells were cultured up to passage 5 under conditions where cell-to-cell contact was either probable (40-70% confluence; see supporting information, Protocol A) or where it was unlikely (10-50% confluence; see supporting information, Protocol B). The effect of the two different conditions on expansion efficiency; proliferation rate and tri-lineage differentiation potential was assessed. Differences in immunophenotype, cell size and senescence were also investigated. Protocol B cultures expanded twice as fast as those cultured with Protocol A. In passage 5 experiments low confluence expanded cells displayed a 10% higher overall proliferation rate, and produced 23% more cells in growth, 12% more in osteogenic, 77% more in adipogenic, but 27% less in chondrogenic medium. Differentiation potential wasn't decisively affected at the mRNA level. However, Protocol B favoured bone and cartilage differentiation at the secretional level. Protocol A populations showed reduced purity, expressing CD105 in only 76% compared to the 96.7% in Protocol B cultures. Protocol A populations also contained significantly more (+4.2%) senescent cells, however, no difference was found in cell size between the two protocols. The findings of this study suggest that cell-to-cell contact, and therefore high confluence levels, is detrimental to MSC quality.

  6. T Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... or turn off the immune response. Cytotoxic or “killer” T cells directly attack and destroy cells bearing ... involve selective activation of helper T cells and killer T cells, with a corresponding decrease in regulatory ...

  7. Cell division

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... hours after conception, the fertilized egg cell remains a single cell. After approximately 30 hours, it divides ... 3 days, the fertilized egg cell has become a berry-like structure made up of 16 cells. ...

  8. Small interfering RNA silencing of interleukin-6 in mesenchymal stromal cells inhibits multiple myeloma cell growth.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Hoon Koon; Chong, Pei Pei; Abdullah, Maha; Sekawi, Zamberi; Tan, Geok Chin; Leong, Chooi Fun; Cheong, Soon Keng

    2016-01-01

    Studies demonstrated that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) from bone marrow stroma produced high concentration of interleukin-6 (IL-6) that promoted multiple myeloma cell growth. In view of the failure of IL-6 monoclonal antibody therapy to demonstrate substantial clinical responses in early clinical trials, more effective methods are needed in order to disrupt the favourable microenvironment provided by the bone marrow stroma. In this study, we evaluated the short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of IL-6 in MSC and the efficacy of these genetically modified MSC, with IL-6 suppression, on inhibition of U266 multiple myeloma cell growth. IL-6 mRNA and protein were significantly suppressed by 72h post IL-6 siRNA transfection without affecting the biological properties of MSC. Here we show significant inhibition of cell growth and IL-6 production in U266 cells co-cultured with MSC transfected with IL-6 siRNA when compared to U266 cells co-cultured with control MSC. We also show that the tumour volume and mitotic index of tumours in nude mice co-injected with U266 and MSC transfected with IL-6 siRNA were significantly reduced compared to tumours of mice co-injected with control MSC. Our results suggest potential use of RNA interference mediated therapy for multiple myeloma.

  9. Therapeutic effect of lung mixed culture-derived epithelial cells on lung fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kensuke; Fujita, Tetsuo; Umezawa, Hiroki; Namiki, Kana; Yoshioka, Kento; Hagihara, Masahiko; Sudo, Tatsuhiko; Kimura, Sadao; Tatsumi, Koichiro; Kasuya, Yoshitoshi

    2014-11-01

    Cell-based therapy is recognized as one of potential therapeutic options for lung fibrosis. However, preparing stem/progenitor cells is complicated and not always efficient. Here, we show easily prepared cell populations having therapeutic capacity for lung inflammatory disease that are named as 'lung mixed culture-derived epithelial cells' (LMDECs). LMDECs expressed surfactant protein (SP)-C and gave rise to type I alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) in vitro and in vivo that partly satisfied type II AEC-like characteristics. An intratracheal delivery of not HEK 293 cells but LMDECs to the lung ameliorated bleomycin (BLM)-induced lung injury. A comprehensive analysis of bronchoalveolar fluid by western blot array revealed that LMDEC engraftment could improve the microenvironment in the BLM-instilled lung in association with stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/CXC chemokine receptor 4 signaling axis. SDF-1 enhanced both migration activity and differentiating efficiency of LMDECs. Further classification of LMDECs by flow cytometric study showed that a major population of LMDECs (LMDEC(Maj), 84% of total LMDECs) was simultaneously SP-C(+), CD44(+), CD45(+), and hematopoietic cell lineage(+) and that LMDECs included bronchioalveolar stem cells (BASCs) showing SP-C(+)Clara cell secretory protein(+)stem cell antigen (Sca)1(+) as a small population (1.8% of total LMDECs). CD44(+)-sorted LMDEC(Maj) and Sca1(+)-sorted LMDECs equally ameliorated fibrosis induced by BLM like LMDECs did. However, infiltrated neutrophils were observed in Sca1(+)-sorted LMDEC-treated alveoli that was not typical in LMDEC(Maj)- or LMDEC-treated alveoli. These findings suggest that the protective effect of LMDECs against BLM-induced lung injury depends greatly on that of LMDEC(Maj). Furthermore, the cells expressing both alveolar epithelial and hematopoietic cell lineage markers (SP-C(+)CD45(+)) that have characteristics corresponding to LMDEC(Maj) were observed in the alveoli of lung and

  10. Involvement of miR-15a in G0/G1 Phase Cell Cycle Arrest Induced by Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Replication.

    PubMed

    Quan, Rong; Wei, Li; Zhu, Shanshan; Wang, Jing; Cao, Yongchang; Xue, Chunyi; Yan, Xu; Liu, Jue

    2016-01-01

    Many viruses exploit the host cell division cycle to favour their own growth. Here we demonstrated that porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), which is a major causative agent of an emerging and important swine disease complex, PCV2-associated diseases, caused G0/G1 cell cycle arrest through degradation of cyclin D1 and E followed by reduction of retinoblastoma phosphorylation in synchronized PCV2-infected cells dependent upon virus replication. This induction of G0/G1 cell cycle arrest promoted PCV2 replication as evidenced by increased viral protein expression and progeny virus production in the synchronized PCV2-infected cells. To delineate a mechanism of miRNAs in regulating PCV2-induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, we determined expression levels of some relevant miRNAs and found that only miR-15a but not miR-16, miR-21, and miR-34a was significantly changed in the PCV2-infected cells. We further demonstrated that upregulation of miR-15a promoted PCV2-induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest via mediating cyclins D1 and E degradation, in which involves PCV2 growth. These results reveal that G0/G1 cell cycle arrest induced by PCV2 may provide favourable conditions for viral protein expression and progeny production and that miR-15a is implicated in PCV2-induced cell cycle control, thereby contributing to efficient viral replication. PMID:27302568

  11. Involvement of miR-15a in G0/G1 Phase Cell Cycle Arrest Induced by Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Replication

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Rong; Wei, Li; Zhu, Shanshan; Wang, Jing; Cao, Yongchang; Xue, Chunyi; Yan, Xu; Liu, Jue

    2016-01-01

    Many viruses exploit the host cell division cycle to favour their own growth. Here we demonstrated that porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), which is a major causative agent of an emerging and important swine disease complex, PCV2-associated diseases, caused G0/G1 cell cycle arrest through degradation of cyclin D1 and E followed by reduction of retinoblastoma phosphorylation in synchronized PCV2-infected cells dependent upon virus replication. This induction of G0/G1 cell cycle arrest promoted PCV2 replication as evidenced by increased viral protein expression and progeny virus production in the synchronized PCV2-infected cells. To delineate a mechanism of miRNAs in regulating PCV2-induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, we determined expression levels of some relevant miRNAs and found that only miR-15a but not miR-16, miR-21, and miR-34a was significantly changed in the PCV2-infected cells. We further demonstrated that upregulation of miR-15a promoted PCV2-induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest via mediating cyclins D1 and E degradation, in which involves PCV2 growth. These results reveal that G0/G1 cell cycle arrest induced by PCV2 may provide favourable conditions for viral protein expression and progeny production and that miR-15a is implicated in PCV2-induced cell cycle control, thereby contributing to efficient viral replication. PMID:27302568

  12. On measuring cell confluence in phase contrast microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempsey, K. P.; Richardson, J. B.; Lam, K. P.

    2014-03-01

    A principal focus highlighting recent advances in cell based therapies concerns the development of effective treatments for osteoarthritis. Earlier clinicaltrials have shown that 80% of patients receiving mesenchymal stem cell(MSC) based treatment have improved their quality of life by alleviating pain whilst extending the life of their natural joints. The current challenge facing researchers is to identify the biological differences between the treatments that have worked and those which have shown little improvement. One possible candidate for the difference in treatment prognosis is an examination of the proliferation of the ( type) cells as they grow. To further understanding of the proliferation and differentiation of MSC, non-invasive live cell imaging techniques have been developed which capture important cell events and dynamics in cell divisions over an extended period of time. An automated image analysis procedure capable of tracking cell confluence over time has also been implemented, providing an objective and realistic estimation of cell growth within continuous live cell cultures. The proposed algorithm accounts for the halo artefacts that occur in phase microscopy. In addition to a favourable run-time performance, the method was also validated using continuous live MSC cultures, with consistent and meaningful results.

  13. Rat respiratory coronavirus infection: replication in airway and alveolar epithelial cells and the innate immune response

    PubMed Central

    Funk, C. Joel; Manzer, Rizwan; Miura, Tanya A.; Groshong, Steve D.; Ito, Yoko; Travanty, Emily A.; Leete, Jennifer; Holmes, Kathryn V.; Mason, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    The rat coronavirus sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) causes respiratory infection and provides a system for investigating respiratory coronaviruses in a natural host. A viral suspension in the form of a microspray aerosol was delivered by intratracheal instillation into the distal lung of 6–8-week-old Fischer 344 rats. SDAV inoculation produced a 7 % body weight loss over a 5 day period that was followed by recovery over the next 7 days. SDAV caused focal lesions in the lung, which were most severe on day 4 post-inoculation (p.i.). Immunofluorescent staining showed that four cell types supported SDAV virus replication in the lower respiratory tract, namely Clara cells, ciliated cells in the bronchial airway and alveolar type I and type II cells in the lung parenchyma. In bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) a neutrophil influx increased the population of neutrophils to 45 % compared with 6 % of the cells in control samples on day 2 after mock inoculation. Virus infection induced an increase in surfactant protein SP-D levels in BALF of infected rats on days 4 and 8 p.i. that subsided by day 12. The concentrations of chemokines MCP-1, LIX and CINC-1 in BALF increased on day 4 p.i., but returned to control levels by day 8. Intratracheal instillation of rats with SDAV coronavirus caused an acute, self-limited infection that is a useful model for studying the early events of the innate immune response to respiratory coronavirus infections in lungs of the natural virus host. PMID:19741068

  14. Cells anticipate periodic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2009-03-01

    We show that an amoeboid organism can anticipate the timing of periodic events. The plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum moves rapidly under favourable conditions, but stops moving when transferred to less-favourable conditions. Plasmodia exposed to unfavourable conditions, presented in three consecutive pulses at constant intervals, reduced their locomotive speed in response to each episode. When subsequently subjected to favourable conditions, the plasmodia spontaneously reduced their locomotive speed at the time point when the next unfavourable episode would have occurred. This implied anticipation of impending environmental change. After this behaviour had been evoked several times, the locomotion of the plasmodia returned to normal; however, the anticipatory response could subsequently be induced by a single unfavourable pulse, implying recall of the memorized periodicity. We explored the mechanisms underlying these behaviours from a dynamical systems perspective. Our results hint at the cellular origins of primitive intelligence and imply that simple dynamics might be sufficient to explain its emergence.

  15. Gene expression patterns related to osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells during ex vivo expansion.

    PubMed

    Granchi, Donatella; Ochoa, Gorka; Leonardi, Elisa; Devescovi, Valentina; Baglìo, Serena Rubina; Osaba, Lourdes; Baldini, Nicola; Ciapetti, Gabriela

    2010-06-01

    Bone marrow is commonly used as a source of adult multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), defined for their ability to differentiate in vitro into multiple lineages. The ex vivo-expanded MSCs are currently being evaluated as a strategy for the restoration of function in damaged skeletal tissue, both in cell therapy and tissue engineering applications. The aim of this study was to define gene expression patterns underlying the differentiation of MSCs into mature osteoblasts during the expansion in vitro, and to explore a variety of cell functions that cannot be easily evaluated using morphological, cytochemical, and biochemical assays. Cell cultures were obtained from bone marrow samples of six individuals undergoing total hip replacement, and a large-scale transcriptome analysis, using Affymetrix HG-U133A Plus 2.0 array (Affymetrix((R)), Santa Clara, CA), was performed at the occurrence of specific events, including the appearance of MSC surface markers, formation of colonies, and deposition of mineral nodules. We focused our attention on 213 differentially upregulated genes, some belonging to well-known pathways and some having one or more Gene Ontology annotations related to bone cell biology, including angiogenesis, bone-related genes, cell communication, development and morphogenesis, transforming growth factor-beta signaling, and Wnt signaling. Twenty-nine genes, whose role in bone cell pathophysiology has not been described yet, were found. In conclusion, gene expression patterns that characterize the early, intermediate, and late phases of the osteogenic differentiation process of ex vivo-expanded MSCs were defined. These signatures represent a useful tool to monitor the osteogenic process, and to analyze a broad spectrum of functions of MSCs cultured on scaffolds, especially when the constructs are conceived for releasing growth factors or other signals to promote bone regeneration.

  16. Mast cells, angiogenesis, and tumour growth.

    PubMed

    Ribatti, Domenico; Crivellato, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Accumulation of mast cells (MCs) in tumours was described by Ehrlich in his doctoral thesis. Since this early account, ample evidence has been provided highlighting participation of MCs to the inflammatory reaction that occurs in many clinical and experimental tumour settings. MCs are bone marrow-derived tissue-homing leukocytes that are endowed with a panoply of releasable mediators and surface receptors. These cells actively take part to innate and acquired immune reactions as well as to a series of fundamental functions such as angiogenesis, tissue repair, and tissue remodelling. The involvement of MCs in tumour development is debated. Although some evidence suggests that MCs can promote tumourigenesis and tumour progression, there are some clinical sets as well as experimental tumour models in which MCs seem to have functions that favour the host. One of the major issues linking MCs to cancer is the ability of these cells to release potent pro-angiogenic factors. This review will focus on the most recent acquisitions about this intriguing field of research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mast cells in inflammation.

  17. Effects of CO2 laser irradiation on the surface properties of magnesia-partially stabilised zirconia (MgO-PSZ) bioceramic and the subsequent improvements in human osteoblast cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Hao, L; Lawrence, J; Chian, K S

    2004-10-01

    In order to acquire the surface properties favouring osseo-integration at the implant and bone interface, human foetal osteoblast cells (hFOB) were used in an in vitro test to examine changes in cell adhesion on a magnesia-partially stabilised zirconia (MgO-PSZ) bioceramic after CO(2) laser treatment. The surface roughness, microstructure, crystal size and surface energy of untreated and CO(2) laser-treated MgO-PSZ were fully characterised. The in vitro cell evaluation revealed a more favourable cell response on the CO(2) laser-treated MgO-PSZ than on the untreated sample. After 24-h cell incubation, no cell was observed on the MgO-PSZ, whereas a few cells attached on the CO(2) laser-treated MgO-PSZandshowedwellspreadandgood attachment. Moreover, the cell coverage density indicating cell proliferation generally increases with CO(2) laser power densities applied in the experiments. The enhancement of the surface energy of the MgO-PSZ, especially its polar component caused by the CO(2) laser treatment, was found to play a significant role in the initial cell attaching, thus enhancing the cell growth. Moreover, the change in topography induced by the CO(2) laser treatment was identified as one of the factors influencing the hFOB cell response.

  18. Interleukin 10 and dendritic cells are the main suppression mediators of regulatory T cells in human neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Arce-Sillas, A; Álvarez-Luquín, D D; Cárdenas, G; Casanova-Hernández, D; Fragoso, G; Hernández, M; Proaño Narváez, J V; García-Vázquez, F; Fleury, A; Sciutto, E; Adalid-Peralta, L

    2016-02-01

    Neurocysticercosis is caused by the establishment of Taenia solium cysticerci in the central nervous system. It is considered that, during co-evolution, the parasite developed strategies to modulate the host's immune response. The action mechanisms of regulatory T cells in controlling the immune response in neurocysticercosis are studied in this work. Higher blood levels of regulatory T cells with CD4(+) CD45RO(+) forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)(high) and CD4(+) CD25(high) FoxP3(+) CD95(high) phenotype and of non-regulatory CD4(+) CD45RO(+) FoxP3(med) T cells were found in neurocysticercosis patients with respect to controls. Interestingly, regulatory T cells express higher levels of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG-3), programmed death 1 (PD-1) and glucocorticoid-induced tumour necrosis factor receptor (GITR), suggesting a cell-to-cell contact mechanism with dendritic cells. Furthermore, higher IL-10 and regulatory T cell type 1 (Tr1) levels were found in neurocysticercosis patients' peripheral blood, suggesting that the action mechanism of regulatory T cells involves the release of immunomodulatory cytokines. No evidence was found of the regulatory T cell role in inhibiting the proliferative response. Suppressive regulatory T cells from neurocysticercosis patients correlated negatively with late activated lymphocytes (CD4(+) CD38(+) ). Our results suggest that, during neurocysticercosis, regulatory T cells could control the immune response, probably by a cell-to-cell contact with dendritic cells and interleukin (IL)-10 release by Tr1, to create an immunomodulatory environment that may favour the development of T. solium cysticerci and their permanence in the central nervous system.

  19. Advances in ethanol production using immobilized cell systems

    SciTech Connect

    Margaritis, A.; Merchant, F.J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The application of immobilized cell systems for the production of ethanol has resulted in substantial improvements in the efficiency of the process when compared to the traditional free cell system. In this review, the various methods of cell immobilization employed in ethanol production systems have been described in detail. Their salient features, performance characteristics, advantages and limitations have been critically assessed. More recently, these immobilized cell systems have also been employed for the production of ethanol from non-conventional feedstocks such as Jerusalem artichoke extracts, cheese whey, cellulose, cellobiose and xylose. Ethanol production by immobilized yeast and bacterial cells has been attempted in various bioreactor types. Although most of these studies have been carried out using laboratory scale prototype bioreactors, it appears that only fluidized bed, horizontally packed bed bioreactors and tower fermenters may find application on scale-up. Several studies have indicated that upon immobilization, yeast cells performing ethanol fermentation exhibit more favourable physiological and metabolic properties. This, in addition to substantial improvements in ethanol productivities by immobilized cell systems, is indicative of the fact that future developments in the production of ethanol and alcoholic beverages will be directed towards the use of immobilized cell systems. 291 references.

  20. Hypermutation of multiple proto-oncogenes in B-cell diffuse large-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Pasqualucci, L; Neumeister, P; Goossens, T; Nanjangud, G; Chaganti, R S; Küppers, R; Dalla-Favera, R

    2001-07-19

    Genomic instability promotes tumorigenesis and can occur through various mechanisms, including defective segregation of chromosomes or inactivation of DNA mismatch repair. Although B-cell lymphomas are associated with chromosomal translocations that deregulate oncogene expression, a mechanism for genome-wide instability during lymphomagenesis has not been described. During B-cell development, the immunoglobulin variable (V) region genes are subject to somatic hypermutation in germinal-centre B cells. Here we report that an aberrant hypermutation activity targets multiple loci, including the proto-oncogenes PIM1, MYC, RhoH/TTF (ARHH) and PAX5, in more than 50% of diffuse large-cell lymphomas (DLCLs), which are tumours derived from germinal centres. Mutations are distributed in the 5' untranslated or coding sequences, are independent of chromosomal translocations, and share features typical of V-region-associated somatic hypermutation. In contrast to mutations in V regions, however, these mutations are not detectable in normal germinal-centre B cells or in other germinal-centre-derived lymphomas, suggesting a DLCL-associated malfunction of somatic hypermutation. Intriguingly, the four hypermutable genes are susceptible to chromosomal translocations in the same region, consistent with a role for hypermutation in generating translocations by DNA double-strand breaks. By mutating multiple genes, and possibly by favouring chromosomal translocations, aberrant hypermutation may represent the major contributor to lymphomagenesis.

  1. Rosiglitazone induces autophagy in H295R and cell cycle deregulation in SW13 adrenocortical cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cerquetti, Lidia; Sampaoli, Camilla; Amendola, Donatella; Bucci, Barbara; Masuelli, Laura; Marchese, Rodolfo; Misiti, Silvia; De Venanzi, Agostino; Poggi, Maurizio; Toscano, Vincenzo; Stigliano, Antonio

    2011-06-10

    Thiazolidinediones, specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR-{gamma}) ligands, used in type-2 diabetes therapy, show favourable effects in several cancer cells. In this study we demonstrate that the growth of H295R and SW13 adrenocortical cancer cells is inhibited by rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinediones member, even though the mechanisms underlying this effect appeared to be cell-specific. Treatment with GW9662, a selective PPAR-{gamma}-inhibitor, showed that rosiglitazone acts through both PPAR-{gamma}-dependent and -independent mechanisms in H295R, while in SW13 cells the effect seems to be independent of PPAR-{gamma}. H295R cells treated with rosiglitazone undergo an autophagic process, leading to morphological changes detectable by electron microscopy and an increased expression of specific proteins such as AMPK{alpha} and beclin-1. The autophagy seems to be independent of PPAR-{gamma} activation and could be related to an increase in oxidative stress mediated by reactive oxygen species production with the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, triggered by rosiglitazone. In SW13 cells, flow cytometry analysis showed an arrest in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle with a decrease of cyclin E and cdk2 activity, following the administration of rosiglitazone. Our data show the potential role of rosiglitazone in the therapeutic approach to adrenocortical carcinoma and indicate the molecular mechanisms at the base of its antiproliferative effects, which appear to be manifold and cell-specific in adrenocortical cancer lines.

  2. Binding of YY1 to a site overlapping a weak TATA box is essential for transcription from the uteroglobin promoter in endometrial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Klug, J; Beato, M

    1996-01-01

    The gene for rabbit uteroglobin codes for a small calcium-, steroid-, and biphenyl metabolite-binding homodimeric protein which is expressed in a variety of epithelial cell types such as Clara cells (lung) and the glandular and luminal cells of the endometrium. One important region mediating its efficient transcription in a human endometrium-derived cell line, Ishikawa, is centered around a noncanonical TATA box. Two factors, TATA core factor (TCF), expressed in cell lines derived from uteroglobin-expressing tissues, and the ubiquitously expressed TATA palindrome factor, bind to the DNA major groove at two adjacent sites within this region. Here, we report the identification of the TATA palindrome factor as the transcription/initiation factor YY1 by microsequencing of the biochemically purified factor from HeLa cells. The binding site for YY1 within the uteroglobin gene is unique in its sequence and its location overlapping a weak TATA box (TACA). Binding of YY1 was required for efficient transcription in TCF-positive Ishikawa cells, which responded only weakly to a change of TACA to TATA, although in vitro binding affinity for the TATA-box-binding protein increased by 1 order of magnitude. In contrast, in CV-1 cells, lacking TCF, binding of YY1 was not required for transcription in the context of a wild-type TACA box, whereas a change from TACA to TATA led to significantly increased reporter gene expression. DNA binding data exclude a role of YY1 in stabilizing the interaction of the TATA-box-binding protein with the uteroglobin promoter. We conclude that cell lines derived from uteroglobin-expressing tissues overcome the weak TATA box with the help of auxiliary factors, one of them being YY1. PMID:8887668

  3. Combination of CD34-positive cell subsets with infarcted myocardium-like matrix stiffness: a potential solution to cell-based cardiac repair

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuning; Ma, Xin; Yao, Kang; Zhu, Hong; Huang, Zheyong; Shen, Li; Qian, Juying; Zou, Yunzeng; Sun, Aijun; Ge, Junbo

    2014-01-01

    Detection of the optimal cell transplantation strategy for myocardial infarction (MI) has attracted a great deal of attention. Commitment of engrafted cells to angiogenesis within damaged myocardium is regarded as one of the major targets in cell-based cardiac repair. Bone marrow–derived CD34-positive cells, a well-characterized population of stem cells, might represent highly functional endothelial progenitor cells and result in the formation of new blood vessels. Recently, physical microenvironment (extracellular matrix stiffness) around the engrafted cells was found to exert an essential impact on their fate. Stem cells are able to feel and respond to the tissue-like matrix stiffness to commit to a relevant lineage. Notably, the infarct area after MI experiences a time-dependent stiffness change from flexible to rigid. Our previous observations demonstrated myocardial stiffness-dependent differentiation of the unselected bone marrow–derived mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) along endothelial lineage cells. Myocardial stiffness (∽42 kPa) within the optimal time domain of cell engraftment (at week 1 to 2) after MI provided a more favourable physical microenvironment for cell specification and cell-based cardiac repair. However, the difference in tissue stiffness-dependent cell differentiation between the specific cell subsets expressing and no expressing CD34 phenotype remains uncertain. We presumed that CD34-positive cell subsets facilitated angiogenesis and subsequently resulted in cardiac repair under induction of infarcted myocardium-like matrix stiffness compared with CD34-negative cells. If the hypothesis were true, it would contribute greatly to detect the optimal cell subsets for cell therapy and to establish an optimized therapy strategy for cell-based cardiac repair. PMID:24945435

  4. Combination of CD34-positive cell subsets with infarcted myocardium-like matrix stiffness: a potential solution to cell-based cardiac repair.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuning; Ma, Xin; Yao, Kang; Zhu, Hong; Huang, Zheyong; Shen, Li; Qian, Juying; Zou, Yunzeng; Sun, Aijun; Ge, Junbo

    2014-06-01

    Detection of the optimal cell transplantation strategy for myocardial infarction (MI) has attracted a great deal of attention. Commitment of engrafted cells to angiogenesis within damaged myocardium is regarded as one of the major targets in cell-based cardiac repair. Bone marrow-derived CD34-positive cells, a well-characterized population of stem cells, might represent highly functional endothelial progenitor cells and result in the formation of new blood vessels. Recently, physical microenvironment (extracellular matrix stiffness) around the engrafted cells was found to exert an essential impact on their fate. Stem cells are able to feel and respond to the tissue-like matrix stiffness to commit to a relevant lineage. Notably, the infarct area after MI experiences a time-dependent stiffness change from flexible to rigid. Our previous observations demonstrated myocardial stiffness-dependent differentiation of the unselected bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) along endothelial lineage cells. Myocardial stiffness (~42 kPa) within the optimal time domain of cell engraftment (at week 1 to 2) after MI provided a more favourable physical microenvironment for cell specification and cell-based cardiac repair. However, the difference in tissue stiffness-dependent cell differentiation between the specific cell subsets expressing and no expressing CD34 phenotype remains uncertain. We presumed that CD34-positive cell subsets facilitated angiogenesis and subsequently resulted in cardiac repair under induction of infarcted myocardium-like matrix stiffness compared with CD34-negative cells. If the hypothesis were true, it would contribute greatly to detect the optimal cell subsets for cell therapy and to establish an optimized therapy strategy for cell-based cardiac repair.

  5. Simulated coal-gas fueled carbonate fuel cell power plant system verification. Final report, September 1990--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes work performed under U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) Contract DE-AC-90MC27168 for September 1990 through March 1995. Energy Research Corporation (ERC), with support from DOE, EPRI, and utilities, has been developing a carbonate fuel cell technology. ERC`s design is a unique direct fuel cell (DFC) which does not need an external fuel reformer. An alliance was formed with a representative group of utilities and, with their input, a commercial entry product was chosen. The first 2 MW demonstration unit was planned and construction begun at Santa Clara, CA. A conceptual design of a 10OMW-Class dual fuel power plant was developed; economics of natural gas versus coal gas use were analyzed. A facility was set up to manufacture 2 MW/yr of carbonate fuel cell stacks. A 100kW-Class subscale power plant was built and several stacks were tested. This power plant has achieved an efficiency of {approximately}50% (LHV) from pipeline natural gas to direct current electricity conversion. Over 6,000 hours of operation including 5,000 cumulative hours of stack operation were demonstrated. One stack was operated on natural gas at 130 kW, which is the highest carbonate fuel cell power produced to date, at 74% fuel utilization, with excellent performance distribution across the stack. In parallel, carbonate fuel cell performance has been improved, component materials have been proven stable with lifetimes projected to 40,000 hours. Matrix strength, electrolyte distribution, and cell decay rate have been improved. Major progress has been achieved in lowering stack cost.

  6. Rapid Cell Population Identification in Flow Cytometry Data*

    PubMed Central

    Aghaeepour, Nima; Nikolic, Radina; Hoos, Holger H.; Brinkman, Ryan R.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed flowMeans, a time-efficient and accurate method for automated identification of cell populations in flow cytometry (FCM) data based on K-means clustering. Unlike traditional K-means, flowMeans can identify concave cell populations by modelling a single population with multiple clusters. flowMeans uses a change point detection algorithm to determine the number of sub-populations, enabling the method to be used in high throughput FCM data analysis pipelines. Our approach compares favourably to manual analysis by human experts and current state-of-the-art automated gating algorithms. flowMeans is freely available as an open source R package through Bioconductor. PMID:21182178

  7. The use of stem cells in regenerative medicine for Parkinson's and Huntington's Diseases.

    PubMed

    Lescaudron, L; Naveilhan, P; Neveu, I

    2012-01-01

    Cell transplantation has been proposed as a means of replacing specific cell populations lost through neurodegenerative processes such as that seen in Parkinson's or Huntington's diseases. Improvement of the clinical symptoms has been observed in a number of Parkinson and Huntington's patients transplanted with freshly isolated fetal brain tissue but such restorative approach is greatly hampered by logistic and ethical concerns relative to the use of fetal tissue, in addition to potential side effects that remain to be controlled. In this context, stem cells that are capable of self-renewal and can differentiate into neurons, have received a great deal of interest, as demonstrated by the numerous studies based on the transplantation of neural stem/progenitor cells, embryonic stem cells or mesenchymal stem cells into animal models of Parkinson's or Huntington's diseases. More recently, the induction of pluripotent stem cells from somatic adult cells has raised a new hope for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present article, we review the main experimental approaches to assess the efficiency of cell-based therapy for Parkinson's or Huntington's diseases, and discuss the recent advances in using stem cells to replace lost dopaminergic mesencephalic or striatal neurons. Characteristics of the different stem cells are extensively examined with a special attention to their ability of producing neurotrophic or immunosuppressive factors, as these may provide a favourable environment for brain tissue repair and long-term survival of transplanted cells in the central nervous system. Thus, stem cell therapy can be a valuable tool in regenerative medicine.

  8. Cell counting.

    PubMed

    Phelan, M C; Lawler, G

    2001-05-01

    This unit presents protocols for counting cells using either a hemacytometer or electronically using a Coulter counter. Cell counting with a hemacytometer permits effective discrimination of live from dead cells using trypan blue exclusion. In addition, the procedure is less subject to errors arising from cell clumping or size heterogeneity. Counting cells is more quickly and easily performed using an electronic counter, but live-dead discrimination is unreliable. Cell populations containing large numbers of dead cells and/or cell clumps are difficult to count accurately. In addition, electronic counting requires resetting of the instrument for cell populations of different sizes; heterogeneous populations can give rise to inaccurate counts, and resting and activated cells may require counting at separate settings. In general, electronic cell counting is best performed on fresh peripheral blood cells. PMID:18770655

  9. Comparative expression profiling in primary and immortalized endothelial cells: changes in gene expression in response to hydroxy methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Boerma, Marjan; Burton, Gregory R; Wang, Junru; Fink, Louis M; McGehee, Robert E; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2006-04-01

    Immortalized cell lines offer significant logistical advantages over primary cells when used for in-vitro studies. Immortalized cells may, however, exhibit important differences relative to their primary cell counterparts. In this study, microarrays were used to make a genome-wide comparison between primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and EA.hy926, an immortalized HUVEC cell line, in their baseline properties and in their response to inhibition of the mevalonate pathway with an inhibitor of hydroxy methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (statin). HUVECs and EA.hy926 were incubated with control medium, atorvastatin, mevalonate, or a combination of atorvastatin and mevalonate for 24 h. Gene expression profiles were obtained in duplicates using Affymetrix Human Genome U133A 2.0 arrays (Santa Clara, California, USA). Probe-sets were selected according to the following criteria: a twofold or greater increase/decrease in atorvastatin-treated cells compared with untreated cells; a twofold or greater reversal of the effect of atorvastatin by combined treatment with atorvastatin and mevalonate; no significant change in gene expression in cells treated with mevalonate alone compared with untreated cells. Most genes that were expressed by untreated HUVECs, were also expressed by untreated EA.hy926 cells. EA.hy926 cells, however, constitutively expressed a large number of additional genes, many of which were related to cell cycle control and apoptosis. Atorvastatin induced differential expression (> or = twofold) of 103 genes in HUVECs (10 up, 93 down) and 466 genes in EA.hy926 cells (198 up, 268 down). Applying the above selection criteria, thrombomodulin and tissue plasminogen activator were up-regulated in both cell types, whereas, connective tissue growth factor, thrombospondin-1, and cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 were down-regulated. In conclusion, EA.hy926 cells retain most of the characteristics of endothelial cells under baseline conditions as

  10. Effect of Monocular Deprivation on Rabbit Neural Retinal Cell Densities

    PubMed Central

    Mwachaka, Philip Maseghe; Saidi, Hassan; Odula, Paul Ochieng; Mandela, Pamela Idenya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the effect of monocular deprivation on densities of neural retinal cells in rabbits. Methods: Thirty rabbits, comprised of 18 subject and 12 control animals, were included and monocular deprivation was achieved through unilateral lid suturing in all subject animals. The rabbits were observed for three weeks. At the end of each week, 6 experimental and 3 control animals were euthanized, their retinas was harvested and processed for light microscopy. Photomicrographs of the retina were taken and imported into FIJI software for analysis. Results: Neural retinal cell densities of deprived eyes were reduced along with increasing period of deprivation. The percentage of reductions were 60.9% (P < 0.001), 41.6% (P = 0.003), and 18.9% (P = 0.326) for ganglion, inner nuclear, and outer nuclear cells, respectively. In non-deprived eyes, cell densities in contrast were increased by 116% (P < 0.001), 52% (P < 0.001) and 59.6% (P < 0.001) in ganglion, inner nuclear, and outer nuclear cells, respectively. Conclusion: In this rabbit model, monocular deprivation resulted in activity-dependent changes in cell densities of the neural retina in favour of the non-deprived eye along with reduced cell densities in the deprived eye. PMID:26425316

  11. Combined biomass valorization and hydrogen production in a photoelectrochemical cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Hyun Gil; Choi, Kyoung-Shin

    2015-04-01

    In a typical hydrogen-producing photoelectrochemical cell (PEC), water reduction at the cathode (producing hydrogen) is accompanied by water oxidation at the anode (producing oxygen). This anode reaction is, however, not kinetically favourable. Here we investigate the possibility of utilizing solar energy for biomass conversion by performing the oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) into 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) at the anode of a PEC. HMF is a key intermediate in biomass conversion, and FDCA is an important monomer for the production of numerous polymers. Using 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl as a mediator, we obtained a near-quantitative yield and 100% Faradaic efficiency at ambient conditions without the use of precious-metal catalysts. This reaction is also thermodynamically and kinetically more favourable than water oxidation. Our results suggest that solar-driven biomass conversion can be a viable anode reaction that has the potential to increase both the efficiency and the utility of PECs constructed for solar-fuel production.

  12. Plet1 is an epigenetically regulated cell surface protein that provides essential cues to direct trophoblast stem cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Alexander; Sienerth, Arnold R.; Hemberger, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Gene loci that are hypermethylated and repressed in embryonic (ESCs) but hypomethylated and expressed in trophoblast (TSCs) stem cells are very rare and may have particularly important roles in early developmental cell fate decisions, as previously shown for Elf5. Here, we assessed another member of this small group of genes, Placenta Expressed Transcript 1 (Plet1), for its function in establishing trophoblast lineage identity and modulating trophoblast differentiation. We find that Plet1 is tightly repressed by DNA methylation in ESCs but expressed on the cell surface of TSCs and trophoblast giant cells. In hypomethylated ESCs that are prone to acquire some trophoblast characteristics, Plet1 is required to confer a trophoblast-specific gene expression pattern, including up-regulation of Elf5. Plet1 displays an unusual biphasic expression profile during TSC differentiation and thus may be pivotal in balancing trophoblast self-renewal and differentiation. Furthermore, overexpression and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout in TSCs showed that high Plet1 levels favour differentiation towards the trophoblast giant cell lineage, whereas lack of Plet1 preferentially induces syncytiotrophoblast formation. Thus, the endogenous dynamics of Plet1 expression establish important patterning cues within the trophoblast compartment by promoting differentiation towards the syncytiotrophoblast or giant cell pathway in Plet1-low and Plet1-high cells, respectively. PMID:27121762

  13. The possible origin of the first cell biosystem in the thermal subsurface environment of the earth.

    PubMed

    Trevors, Jack T

    2004-01-01

    Bacteria are the simplest living biosystems or organisms that exhibit all the characteristics of life. As such, they are excellent models to examine the cell as the basic unit of life and the cell theory which states that all organisms are composed of one or more similar cells. In this article I examine the hypothesis that the primordial soup so often referred to in science was possibly an oil/water interface and/or emulsion in the Earth's, warm, anaerobic subsurface. This warm subsurface location, protected from surface radiation, could have been a favourable location for the assembly of the first bacterial cells on the Earth capable of growth and controlled division or the first biosystem.

  14. Gravitaional/Mechanical Factors Affect Gene Expression Profile and Phenotypic Specification of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monici, Monica; Romano, Giovanni; Cialdai, Francesca; Fusi, Fanco; Marziliano, Nicola; Benvenuti, Susana; Cellai, Ilaria; Egli, Marcel; Cogoli, Augusto

    2008-06-01

    Stem cell implantation is a promising approach for tissue repair. Unfortunately this possibility is strictly limited because these cells early withdraw from the cell cycler and seem to form passive, rather than active grafts. Therefore, the development of strategies capable of increasing the yield of phenotypic specification would be a primary aim in biomedical research. It is known that both biochemical and physical factors are needed for tissue homeostasis and their combination in a dose- and time-dependent manner is probably the key to in vitro and in vivo tissue regeneration. In this study, the effects of gravitational factors on human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation were investigated and compared with the ones caused by mechanical stress. The results showed that gene expression profile and phenotypic specification change according with the gravitational/ mechanical stress to which the hMSCs were exposed. Loading by hyperfuge and photomechanical stress by pulsed Nd:YAG laser induced osteoblastogenesis and chondrogenesis while microgravity favoured adipogenesis.

  15. [Cell-based therapies - an innovative therapeutic option in ophthalmology: Treating corneal diseases with stem cells].

    PubMed

    Bakker, Ann-Christin; Langer, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Pathological changes and disorders of the cornea are a major cause of severe visual impairment and blindness. Replacement of a pathologically altered cornea with healthy corneal tissue from the eye of a suitable donor is among the most common and successful transplantation procedures in medicine. In Germany, approximately 5000-6000 corneal transplantations are performed each year, but the total demand per year is estimated to be twice as high. With a success rate of 90%, the outcome of cornea transplantation is very favourable. However, long-term maintenance and regeneration of a healthy new cornea requires tissue-specific corneal stem cells residing at the basal layer of the limbus, which is the annular transition zone between the cornea and sclera. When this important limbal stem cell population is destroyed or dysfunctional, a pathological condition known as limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) manifests. Limbal stem cell deficiency describes conditions associated with impaired corneal wound healing and regeneration. In this situation, transplantation of healthy limbal stem cells is the only curative treatment approach for restoration of an intact and functional ocular surface. To date, treatment of LSCD presents a great challenge for ophthalmologists. However, innovative, cell-therapeutic approaches may open new, promising treatment perspectives. In February 2015, the European Commission granted marketing authorization to the first stem cell-based treatment in the European Union. The product named Holoclar® is an advanced therapy medicinal product (ATMP) for the treatment of moderate to severe LSCD due to physical and chemical burns in adults. Further cell-based treatment approaches are in clinical development.

  16. [Cell-based therapies - an innovative therapeutic option in ophthalmology: Treating corneal diseases with stem cells].

    PubMed

    Bakker, Ann-Christin; Langer, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Pathological changes and disorders of the cornea are a major cause of severe visual impairment and blindness. Replacement of a pathologically altered cornea with healthy corneal tissue from the eye of a suitable donor is among the most common and successful transplantation procedures in medicine. In Germany, approximately 5000-6000 corneal transplantations are performed each year, but the total demand per year is estimated to be twice as high. With a success rate of 90%, the outcome of cornea transplantation is very favourable. However, long-term maintenance and regeneration of a healthy new cornea requires tissue-specific corneal stem cells residing at the basal layer of the limbus, which is the annular transition zone between the cornea and sclera. When this important limbal stem cell population is destroyed or dysfunctional, a pathological condition known as limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) manifests. Limbal stem cell deficiency describes conditions associated with impaired corneal wound healing and regeneration. In this situation, transplantation of healthy limbal stem cells is the only curative treatment approach for restoration of an intact and functional ocular surface. To date, treatment of LSCD presents a great challenge for ophthalmologists. However, innovative, cell-therapeutic approaches may open new, promising treatment perspectives. In February 2015, the European Commission granted marketing authorization to the first stem cell-based treatment in the European Union. The product named Holoclar® is an advanced therapy medicinal product (ATMP) for the treatment of moderate to severe LSCD due to physical and chemical burns in adults. Further cell-based treatment approaches are in clinical development. PMID:26459569

  17. A continuous lineage of rat adenohypophysis stromal cells: characterisation and effects on GH(3)B(6) prolactin-secreting cell behaviour.

    PubMed

    Alves, Leandro M; Werneck, Cláudio C; Martins Rd, Rita de Cássia L; Silva, Luiz Cláudio F; Taffarel, Marília; Borojevic, Radovan; Nasciutti, Luiz E

    2002-11-01

    Although some studies have shown a possible modulation of the stroma on the hormonal secretion, it is not clear as to what are the requirements for these cellular interactions. In the present work, a homogeneous and continuous lineage of rat adenohypophysis stromal cells (APS9 cells) obtained from rat adenohypophysis primary culture was established. Using immunocytochemical methods and electron microscopy, we have characterised APS9 cells as elongated fibroblastoid-like cells with intercellular contacts, expressing alpha-smooth muscle actin, type IV collagen and laminin. By biochemical procedures, higher amounts of chondroitin sulphate and heparan sulphate were found in the pericellular and extracellular compartments of APS9 cell culture. In order to evaluate the possible effects of APS9 cell on GH(3)B(6) prolactin-secreting cell survival and/or proliferation, we established co-culture and proliferation assays. When GH(3)B(6) cells were cultivated on APS9 cell substrate, they displayed an organisation of many cellular cords strongly attached and covering all the stromal cell area, establishing punctual interactions or extensive surface associations between adjacent cells. Prolactin immunoreactivity appeared to be more scattered throughout the cytoplasm and accumulated in its periphery. When plated on glass coverslips, on newborn rat skin fibroblasts, on murine haematopoietic bone marrow stroma cell line or on murine foetal liver stroma cell line, GH(3)B(6) cells changed their organisation and presented a decrease in cell number and adherence to the substrate. Our results showed that the APS9 cell/GH(3)B(6) cell interactions favour cell growth and probably PRL secretion, and raises questions about the specificity of different organs and/or animal species stromas on the hormone secretion.

  18. Galvanic Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, I. G.

    1973-01-01

    Many standard physical chemistry textbooks contain ambiguities which lead to confusion about standard electrode potentials, calculating cell voltages, and writing reactions for galvanic cells. This article shows how standard electrode potentials can be used to calculate cell voltages and deduce cell reactions. (Author/RH)

  19. Cell Biochips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pioufle, B. Le; Picollet-D'Hahan, N.

    A cell biochip is a microsystem, equipped with electronic and microfluidic functions, designed to manipulate or analyse living cells. The first publications in this emerging area of research appeared toward the end of the 1980s. In 1989 Washizu described a biochip designed to fuse two cells by electropermeabilisation of the cytoplasmic membrane [1]. Research centers have devised a whole range of cell chip structures, for simultaneous or sequential analysis of single cells, cell groups, or cell tissues reconstituted on the chip. The cells are arranged in a square array on a parallel cell chip for parallel analysis, while they are examined and processed one by one in a microchannel in the case of a series cell chip. In contrast to these biochips for high-throughput analysis of a large number of cells, single-cell chips focus on the analysis of a single isolated cell. As in DNA microarrays, where a large number of oligonucleotides are ordered in a matrix array, parallel cell chips order living cells in a similar way. At each point of the array, the cells can be isolated, provided that the cell type allows this, e.g., blood cells, or cultivated in groups (most adhesion cells can only survive in groups). The aim is to allow massively parallel analysis or processing. Le Pioufle et al. describe a microdevice for the culture of single cells or small groups of cells in a micropit array [2]. Each pit is equipped to stimulate the cell or group of cells either electrically or fluidically. Among the applications envisaged are gene transfer, cell sorting, and screening in pharmacology. A complementary approach, combining the DNA microarray and cell biochip ideas, has been put forward by Bailey et al. [3]. Genes previously arrayed on the chip transfect the cultured cells on the substrate depending on their position in the array (see Fig. 19.1). This way of achieving differential lipofection on a chip was then taken up again by Yoshikawa et al. [4] with primary cells, more

  20. Material- and feature-dependent effects on cell adhesion to micro injection moulded medical polymers.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seong Ying; Habimana, Olivier; Flood, Peter; Reynaud, Emmanuel G; Rodriguez, Brian J; Zhang, Nan; Casey, Eoin; Gilchrist, Michael D

    2016-09-01

    Two polymers, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and cyclic olefin copolymer (COC), containing a range of nano- to micron- roughness surfaces (Ra 0.01, 0.1, 0.4, 1.0, 2.0, 3.2 and 5.0μm) were fabricated using electrical discharge machining (EDM) and replicated using micro injection moulding (μIM). Polymer samples were characterized using optical profilometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and water surface contact angle. Cell adhesion tests were carried out using bacterial Pseudomonas fluorescens and mammalian Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells to determine the effect of surface hydrophobicity, surface roughness and stiffness. It is found that there are features which gave insignificant differences (feature-dependent effect) in cell adhesion, albeit a significant difference in the physicochemical properties (material-dependent effect) of substrata. In bacterial cell adhesion, the strongest feature-dependence is found at Ra 0.4μm surfaces, with material-dependent effects strongest at Ra 0.01μm. Ra 0.1μm surfaces exhibited strongest feature-dependent effects and Ra 5.0μm has strongest material-dependent effects on mammalian cell adhesion. Bacterial cell adhesion is found to be favourable to hydrophobic surfaces (COC), with the lowest adhesion at Ra 0.4μm for both materials. Mammalian cell adhesion is lowest in Ra 0.1μm and highest in Ra 1.0μm, and generally favours hydrophilic surfaces (PMMA). These findings can be used as a basis for developing medical implants or microfluidic devices using micro injection moulding for diagnostic purposes, by tuning the cell adhesion on different areas containing different surface roughnesses on the diagnostic microfluidic devices or medical implants. PMID:27137802

  1. Material- and feature-dependent effects on cell adhesion to micro injection moulded medical polymers.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seong Ying; Habimana, Olivier; Flood, Peter; Reynaud, Emmanuel G; Rodriguez, Brian J; Zhang, Nan; Casey, Eoin; Gilchrist, Michael D

    2016-09-01

    Two polymers, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and cyclic olefin copolymer (COC), containing a range of nano- to micron- roughness surfaces (Ra 0.01, 0.1, 0.4, 1.0, 2.0, 3.2 and 5.0μm) were fabricated using electrical discharge machining (EDM) and replicated using micro injection moulding (μIM). Polymer samples were characterized using optical profilometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and water surface contact angle. Cell adhesion tests were carried out using bacterial Pseudomonas fluorescens and mammalian Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells to determine the effect of surface hydrophobicity, surface roughness and stiffness. It is found that there are features which gave insignificant differences (feature-dependent effect) in cell adhesion, albeit a significant difference in the physicochemical properties (material-dependent effect) of substrata. In bacterial cell adhesion, the strongest feature-dependence is found at Ra 0.4μm surfaces, with material-dependent effects strongest at Ra 0.01μm. Ra 0.1μm surfaces exhibited strongest feature-dependent effects and Ra 5.0μm has strongest material-dependent effects on mammalian cell adhesion. Bacterial cell adhesion is found to be favourable to hydrophobic surfaces (COC), with the lowest adhesion at Ra 0.4μm for both materials. Mammalian cell adhesion is lowest in Ra 0.1μm and highest in Ra 1.0μm, and generally favours hydrophilic surfaces (PMMA). These findings can be used as a basis for developing medical implants or microfluidic devices using micro injection moulding for diagnostic purposes, by tuning the cell adhesion on different areas containing different surface roughnesses on the diagnostic microfluidic devices or medical implants.

  2. Evidence that the B lymphocyte proliferating in B-CLL and in other B-cell malignancies is frequently committed to production of natural autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Dighiero, G; Borche, L

    1990-01-01

    Autoreactive B-cells constitute a substantial part of B-cell repertoire. They frequently secrete polyspecific natural autoantibodies which are the expression of germinal genes. During recent years, considerable evidence has accumulated indicating that autoreactive B-cells frequently undergo malignant transformation. This evidence arose from the study of monoclonal immunoglobulins (MIgs) and from recent studies of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and non Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) B lymphocytes. The present review, includes two sections. The first one reviews evidence supporting the idea that autoreactive B-cells constitute a substantial part of autoreactive B-cell repertoire. The second one is devoted to review evidence favouring the view that this autoreactive B-cell repertoire is frequently involved in B-cell malignancies.

  3. Expression of genes involved in mouse lung cell differentiation/regulation after acute exposure to photons and protons with or without low-dose preirradiation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jian; Zhao, WeiLing; Tian, Sisi; Slater, James M; Deng, Zhiyong; Gridley, Daila S

    2011-11-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the effects of acute 2 Gy irradiation with photons (0.8 Gy/min) or protons (0.9 Gy/min), both with and without pre-exposure to low-dose/low-dose-rate γ rays (0.01 Gy at 0.03 cGy/h), on 84 genes involved in stem cell differentiation or regulation in mouse lungs on days 21 and 56. Genes with a ≥1.5-fold difference in expression and P < 0.05 compared to 0 Gy controls are emphasized. Two proteins specific for lung stem cells/progenitors responsible for local tissue repair were also compared. Overall, striking differences were present between protons and photons in modulating the genes. More genes were affected by protons than by photons (22 compared to 2 and 6 compared to 2 on day 21 and day 56, respectively) compared to 0 Gy. Preirradiation with low-dose-rate γ rays enhanced the acute photon-induced gene modulation on day 21 (11 compared to 2), and all 11 genes were significantly downregulated on day 56. On day 21, seven genes (aldh2, bmp2, cdc2a, col1a1, dll1, foxa2 and notch1) were upregulated in response to most of the radiation regimens. Immunoreactivity of Clara cell secretory protein was enhanced by all radiation regimens. The number of alveolar type 2 cells positive for prosurfactant protein C in irradiated groups was higher on day 56 (12.4-14.6 cells/100) than on day 21 (8.5-11.2 cells/100) (P < 0.05). Taken together, these results showed that acute photons and protons induced different gene expression profiles in the lungs and that pre-exposure to low-dose-rate γ rays sometimes had modulatory effects. In addition, proteins associated with lung-specific stem cells/progenitors were highly sensitive to radiation.

  4. Interrelated influence of iron, light and cell size on marine phytoplankton growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunda, William G.; Huntsman, Susan A.

    1997-11-01

    The sub-optimal growth of phytoplankton and the resulting persistence of unutilized plant nutrients (nitrate and phosphate) in the surface waters of certain ocean regions has been a long-standing puzzle,. Of these regions, the Southern Ocean seems to play the greatest role in the global carbon cycle,, but controversy exists as to the dominant controls on net algal production. Limitation by iron deficiency,, light availability,, and grazing by zooplankton have been proposed. Here we present the results from culture experiments showing that the amount of cellular iron needed to support growth is higher under lower light intensities, owing to a greater requirement for photosynthetic iron-based redox proteins by low-light acclimatized algae. Moreover, algal iron uptake varies with cell surface area, such that the growth of small cells is favoured under iron limitation, as predicted theoretically. Phytoplankton growth can therefore be simultaneously limited by the availability of both iron and light. Such a co-limitation may be experienced by phytoplankton in iron-poor regions in which the surface mixed layer extends below the euphotic zone-as often occurs in the Southern Ocean,-or near the bottom of the euphotic zone in more stratified waters. By favouring the growth of smaller cells, iron/light co-limitation should increase grazing by microzooplankton, and thus minimize the loss of fixed carbon and nitrogen from surface waters in settling particles,.

  5. A role for Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Beta in T cell development

    PubMed Central

    Mothe-Satney, Isabelle; Murdaca, Joseph; Sibille, Brigitte; Rousseau, Anne-Sophie; Squillace, Raphaëlle; Le Menn, Gwenaëlle; Rekima, Akila; Larbret, Frederic; Pelé, Juline; Verhasselt, Valérie; Grimaldi, Paul A.; Neels, Jaap G.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolism plays an important role in T cell biology and changes in metabolism drive T cell differentiation and fate. Most research on the role of metabolism in T lymphocytes focuses on mature T cells while only few studies have investigated the role of metabolism in T cell development. In this study, we report that activation or overexpression of the transcription factor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor β (PPARβ) increases fatty acid oxidation in T cells. Furthermore, using both in vivo and in vitro models, we demonstrate that PPARβ activation/overexpression inhibits thymic T cell development by decreasing proliferation of CD4−CD8− double-negative stage 4 (DN4) thymocytes. These results support a model where PPARβ activation/overexpression favours fatty acid- instead of glucose-oxidation in developing T cells, thereby hampering the proliferative burst normally occurring at the DN4 stage of T cell development. As a consequence, the αβ T cells that are derived from DN4 thymocytes are dramatically decreased in peripheral lymphoid tissues, while the γδ T cell population remains untouched. This is the first report of a direct role for a member of the PPAR family of nuclear receptors in the development of T cells. PMID:27680392

  6. Evaluating alternative stem cell hypotheses for adult corneal epithelial maintenance

    PubMed Central

    West, John D; Dorà, Natalie J; Collinson, J Martin

    2015-01-01

    In this review we evaluate evidence for three different hypotheses that explain how the corneal epithelium is maintained. The limbal epithelial stem cell (LESC) hypothesis is most widely accepted. This proposes that stem cells in the basal layer of the limbal epithelium, at the periphery of the cornea, maintain themselves and also produce transient (or transit) amplifying cells (TACs). TACs then move centripetally to the centre of the cornea in the basal layer of the corneal epithelium and also replenish cells in the overlying suprabasal layers. The LESCs maintain the corneal epithelium during normal homeostasis and become more active to repair significant wounds. Second, the corneal epithelial stem cell (CESC) hypothesis postulates that, during normal homeostasis, stem cells distributed throughout the basal corneal epithelium, maintain the tissue. According to this hypothesis, LESCs are present in the limbus but are only active during wound healing. We also consider a third possibility, that the corneal epithelium is maintained during normal homeostasis by proliferation of basal corneal epithelial cells without any input from stem cells. After reviewing the published evidence, we conclude that the LESC and CESC hypotheses are consistent with more of the evidence than the third hypothesis, so we do not consider this further. The LESC and CESC hypotheses each have difficulty accounting for one main type of evidence so we evaluate the two key lines of evidence that discriminate between them. Finally, we discuss how lineage-tracing experiments have begun to resolve the debate in favour of the LESC hypothesis. Nevertheless, it also seems likely that some basal corneal epithelial cells can act as long-term progenitors if limbal stem cell function is compromised. Thus, this aspect of the CESC hypothesis may have a lasting impact on our understanding of corneal epithelial maintenance, even if it is eventually shown that stem cells are restricted to the limbus as proposed

  7. miRNA-146a Expression Positively Regulates Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-Induced Interleukin-8 Production in Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Differentiated Lung Epithelial-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, De-ming; Hsiao, Yi-han; Lo, Ting; Lee, Oscar Kuang-sheng; Wu, Mo-tzu; Wu, Yu-chung; Lee, Yu-chin

    2012-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) can be differentiated into lung epithelial-like cells (MSC-EC) in vitro. The response of BM-MSC and MSC-EC to stimuli may vary because of their character and differentiation. We aimed to investigate the factors that may influence in vitro differentiation of BM-MSC to MSC-EC. We determined the response of BM-MSC, MSC-EC, bronchial epithelial cells, and alveolar epithelial cells to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α stimulation. We also investigated the changes in micro(mi)RNA-146a, miRNA-155, and TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) expression after stimulation. Our results demonstrate that the addition of transforming growth factor-β1 and extracellular matrix collagen are required to facilitate such differentiation. After 3 weeks of culture, the morphological appearance and expression of airway epithelial markers, cytokeratin and Clara cell secretory protein, in MSC-EC were characteristics of lung epithelial cells. In response to TNF-α stimulation, the maximal interleukin (IL)-8 production by BM-MSC at the 24-h time point was 4.8 times greater compared with MSC-EC. TNF-α induced a significant increase in the expression of miRNA-146a in BM-MSC as compared with MSC-EC. miRNA-155 expression remained unchanged after stimulation. TNFR1 mRNA also significantly increased in BM-MSC after TNF-α stimulation. This was not observed in MSC-EC. Transfection with miRNA-146a mimics resulted in a significant increase of miRNA-146a expression and IL-8 production in both types of cells. In contrast, miRNA-146a inhibitors reduced miRNA-146a expression and IL-8 production. Overexpression of miRNA-146a, which positively regulates TNF-α-induced IL-8 release, may enhance the inflammatory response in both BM-MSC and MSC-EC. The expression of miRNA-146a and the response to stimuli may be modulated through mature differentiation of BM-MSC. PMID:22876745

  8. Engineering cell-cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Blagovic, Katarina; Gong, Emily S; Milano, Daniel F; Natividad, Robert J; Asthagiri, Anand R

    2013-10-01

    Juxtacrine cell-cell signaling mediated by the direct interaction of adjoining mammalian cells is arguably the mode of cell communication that is most recalcitrant to engineering. Overcoming this challenge is crucial for progress in biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, immune system engineering and therapeutic design. Here, we describe the significant advances that have been made in developing synthetic platforms (materials and devices) and synthetic cells (cell surface engineering and synthetic gene circuits) to modulate juxtacrine cell-cell signaling. In addition, significant progress has been made in elucidating design rules and strategies to modulate juxtacrine signaling on the basis of quantitative, engineering analysis of the mechanical and regulatory role of juxtacrine signals in the context of other cues and physical constraints in the microenvironment. These advances in engineering juxtacrine signaling lay a strong foundation for an integrative approach to utilize synthetic cells, advanced 'chassis' and predictive modeling to engineer the form and function of living tissues.

  9. Fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, has supported and managed a fuel cell research and development (R and D) program since 1976. Responsibility for implementing DOE's fuel cell program, which includes activities related to both fuel cells and fuel cell systems, has been assigned to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. The total United States effort of the private and public sectors in developing fuel cell technology is referred to as the National Fuel Cell Program (NFCP). The goal of the NFCP is to develop fuel cell power plants for base-load and dispersed electric utility systems, industrial cogeneration, and on-site applications. To achieve this goal, the fuel cell developers, electric and gas utilities, research institutes, and Government agencies are working together. Four organized groups are coordinating the diversified activities of the NFCP. The status of the overall program is reviewed in detail.

  10. CuO cathode in lithium cells. I. Influence of the decomposition conditions of Cu(OH) 2 on the properties of CuO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novák, P.; Klápště, B.; Podhájecký, P.

    1985-07-01

    The electrochemical properties of CuO in galvanic cells with a lithium anode show a correlation with the conditions of its preparation from Cu(OH) 2. To attain the highest cell discharge capacity and a favourable discharge voltage, the Cu(OH) 2 must be decomposed at 300 °C for 2 h. Differences in the properties of CuO prepared under different conditions are attributed to a variable content of chemically bound water in the form of residual OH groups. No other phases were detected in the CuO structure by X-ray analysis.

  11. Geologic Maps and Structure Sections of the southwestern Santa Clara Valley and southern Santa Cruz Mountains, Santa Clara and Santa Cruz Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, R.J.; Clark, J.C.; Brabb, E.E.; Helley, E.J.; Colon, C.J.

    2001-01-01

    This digital map database, compiled from previously published and unpublished data, and new mapping by the authors, represents the general distribution of bedrock and surficial deposits in the mapped area. Together with the accompanying text file (scvmf.ps, scvmf.pdf, scvmf.txt), it provides current information on the geologic structure and stratigraphy of the area covered. The database delineates map units that are identified by general age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The scale of the source maps limits the spatial resolution (scale) of the database to 1:24,000 or smaller.

  12. The Water Discovery Center: A Cooperative Effort of the Youth Science Institute, Santa Clara Valley Water District, and Santa Clara County Parks and Recreation Department.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tzitz, Carolyn J.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a water discovery center which focuses on water ecology and conservation. Also describes nine instructional panels used with visiting school groups (or casual visitors) taking part in the four-hour program and related instructional materials containing pre- and post-visit activities. (BC)

  13. [The toxic aggregation of proteins: a kind of "molecular delinquency" actively fought in the cell by molecular chaperones and proteases].

    PubMed

    Hinault, M P; Goloubinoff, P

    2006-04-01

    Under various stresses, mutation-sensitised proteins may spontaneously convert into inactive, aggregation-prone structures, which may be cytotoxic and infectious. In the cell, this new kind of "molecular criminality" is actively fought against by a network of molecular chaperones that can specifically identify, isolate and unfold damaged (delinquent) proteins and favour their subsequent native refolding. Irreversibly damaged molecules unable to natively refold are preferentially "executed" and recycled by proteases. Failing that, they are "imprisoned" within compact amyloids, or "evicted" from the cell. Thus, striking parallels, although of questionable ethical value, exist between protein and human criminality, and between the cellular and social responses to these different types of criminality. Fundamental differences also exist. Whereas programmed death (apoptosis) is the preferred solution chosen by aged and aggregation-stressed cells, collective suicide is seldom an option chosen by lawless human societies. More significantly, there is no clear cellular equivalent for the role of the family and the education system, which are so essential to the proper shaping of functional individuals in the society, and give rise to humanism, that favours crime prevention, reeducation and reinsertion programs over capital punishment. To the cardiologist and transplantation surgeon, the interest of molecular chaperones, in particular of Hsp70, Hsp90 and Hsp27, lays in their ability to inhibit the signalling pathway of programmed cell death. Their induction before and during ischemia, by various treatments and drugs could significantly reduce damages from the post ischemic reperfusion of organs.

  14. Peptide Dose and/or Structure in Vaccines as a Determinant of T Cell Responses.

    PubMed

    Leggatt, Graham R

    2014-07-02

    While T cells recognise the complex of peptide and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) at the cell surface, changes in the dose and/or structure of the peptide component can have profound effects on T cell activation and function. In addition, the repertoire of T cells capable of responding to any given peptide is variable, but broader than a single clone. Consequently, peptide parameters that affect the interaction between T cells and peptide/MHC have been shown to select particular T cell clones for expansion and this impacts on clearance of disease. T cells with high functional avidity are selected on low doses of peptide, while low avidity T cells are favoured in high peptide concentrations. Altering the structure of the peptide ligand can also influence the selection and function of peptide-specific T cell clones. In this review, we will explore the evidence that the choice of peptide dose or the structure of the peptide are critical parameters in an effective vaccine designed to activate T cells.

  15. Cell-Based Therapies Used to Treat Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease: A Systematic Review of Animal Studies and Human Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Oehme, David; Goldschlager, Tony; Ghosh, Peter; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Jenkin, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Low back pain and degenerative disc disease are a significant cause of pain and disability worldwide. Advances in regenerative medicine and cell-based therapies, particularly the transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells and intervertebral disc chondrocytes, have led to the publication of numerous studies and clinical trials utilising these biological therapies to treat degenerative spinal conditions, often reporting favourable outcomes. Stem cell mediated disc regeneration may bridge the gap between the two current alternatives for patients with low back pain, often inadequate pain management at one end and invasive surgery at the other. Through cartilage formation and disc regeneration or via modification of pain pathways stem cells are well suited to enhance spinal surgery practice. This paper will systematically review the current status of basic science studies, preclinical and clinical trials utilising cell-based therapies to repair the degenerate intervertebral disc. The mechanism of action of transplanted cells, as well as the limitations of published studies, will be discussed. PMID:26074979

  16. Cell-Based Therapies Used to Treat Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease: A Systematic Review of Animal Studies and Human Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Oehme, David; Goldschlager, Tony; Ghosh, Peter; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V.; Jenkin, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Low back pain and degenerative disc disease are a significant cause of pain and disability worldwide. Advances in regenerative medicine and cell-based therapies, particularly the transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells and intervertebral disc chondrocytes, have led to the publication of numerous studies and clinical trials utilising these biological therapies to treat degenerative spinal conditions, often reporting favourable outcomes. Stem cell mediated disc regeneration may bridge the gap between the two current alternatives for patients with low back pain, often inadequate pain management at one end and invasive surgery at the other. Through cartilage formation and disc regeneration or via modification of pain pathways stem cells are well suited to enhance spinal surgery practice. This paper will systematically review the current status of basic science studies, preclinical and clinical trials utilising cell-based therapies to repair the degenerate intervertebral disc. The mechanism of action of transplanted cells, as well as the limitations of published studies, will be discussed. PMID:26074979

  17. Trial operation of a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PC25) for CHP applications in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrig, M.; Droste, W.; Wolf, D.

    1996-12-31

    In Europe, ten 200 kW phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) produced by ONSI (PC25) are currently in operation. Their operators collaborate closely in the European Fuel Cell Users Group (EFCUG). The experience gained from trial operation by the four German operators - HEAG, HGW/HEW, Thyssengas and Ruhrgas - coincides with that of the other European operators. This experience can generally be regarded as favourable. With a view to using fuel cells in combined heat and power generation (CHP), the project described in this report, which was carried out in cooperation with the municipal utility of Bochum and Gasunie of the Netherlands, aimed at gaining experience with the PC 25 in field operation under the specific operating conditions prevailing in Europe. The work packages included heat-controlled operation, examination of plant behavior with varying gas properties and measurement of emissions under dynamic load conditions. The project received EU funding under the JOULE programme.

  18. Ultrastructural characteristics of nurse cell-larva complex of four species of Trichinella in several hosts.

    PubMed

    Sacchi, L; Corona, S; Gajadhar, A A; Pozio, E

    2001-06-01

    The nurse cell-larva complex of nematodes of the genus Trichinella plays an important role in the survival of the larva in decaying muscles, frequently favouring the transmission of the parasite in extreme environmental conditions. The ultrastructure of the nurse cell-larva complex in muscles from different hosts infected with T. nativa (a walrus and a polar bear), T. spiralis (horses and humans), T. pseudospiralis (a laboratory mouse) and T. papuae (a laboratory mouse) were examined. Analysis with transmission electron microscope showed that the typical nurse cell structure was present in all examined samples, irrespective of the species of larva, of the presence of a collagen capsule, of the age of infection and of the host species, suggesting that there exists a molecular mechanism that in the first stage of larva invasion is similar for encapsulated and non-encapsulated species.

  19. AT1 receptor is present in glioma cells; its blockage reduces the growth of rat glioma

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, E; Arrieta, O; Guevara, P; Duarte-Rojo, A; Sotelo, J

    2001-01-01

    Malignancy of neoplasms is partly dependent on angiogenesis. Angiotensin II mediates angiogenesis and transcription of growth-related factors through stimulation of the AT1 receptor (AT1R). Losartan, a drug used mostly for treatment of hypertension, binds strongly to this receptor. We found the presence of AT1 receptor on C6 glioma cells and studied the effect of Losartan on the growth and angiogenesis of C6 rat glioma; Losartan in dose of 80 mg/kg induced 79% reduction of tumoural volume with a significant decrease of vascular density, mitotic index and cell proliferation. Our results demonstrate the conspicuous presence of AT1R in malignant glial cells and a favourable therapeutic response in experimental glioma by selective blockage of the AT1 receptor. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign  http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11720480

  20. Solvent polarity and nanoscale morphology in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Ajith; Elsa Tom, Anju; Ison, V. V. E-mail: praveen@materials.iisc.ernet.in; Rao, Arun D.; Varman, K. Arul; Ranjith, K.; Ramamurthy, Praveen C. E-mail: praveen@materials.iisc.ernet.in; Vinayakan, R.

    2014-03-14

    Organic bulk heterojunction solar cells were fabricated under identical experimental conditions, except by varying the solvent polarity used for spin coating the active layer components and their performance was evaluated systematically. Results showed that presence of nitrobenzene-chlorobenzene composition governs the morphology of active layer formed, which is due to the tuning of solvent polarity as well as the resulting solubility of the P3HT:PCBM blend. Trace amount of nitrobenzene favoured the formation of better organised P3HT domains, as evident from conductive AFM, tapping mode AFM and surface, and cross-sectional SEM analysis. The higher interfacial surface area thus generated produced cells with high efficiency. But, an increase in the nitrobenzene composition leads to a decrease in cell performance, which is due to the formation of an active layer with larger size polymer domain networks with poor charge separation possibility.

  1. Opportunities and barriers to establishing a cell therapy programme in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of a cell therapy programme in South Africa has the potential to contribute to the alleviation of the country’s high disease burden and also to contribute to economic growth. South Africa has various positive attributes that favour the establishment of such a high-profile venture; however, there are also significant obstacles which need to be overcome. We discuss the positive and negative features of the current health biotechnology sector. The positive factors include a strong market pull and a highly innovative scientific and medical community, while the most problematic features include the lack of human resources and education and limited funding. The South African Government has undertaken to strengthen the biotechnology sector in general, but a focus on cell therapy is lacking. The next important step would be to provide financial, legal/ethical and other support for groups that are active and productive in this field through the development of a local cell therapy programme. PMID:23719318

  2. Asymptotic diffusion limit of cell temperature discretisation schemes for thermal radiation transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedley-Stevenson, Richard P.; McClarren, Ryan G.

    2015-04-01

    This paper attempts to unify the asymptotic diffusion limit analysis of thermal radiation transport schemes, for a linear-discontinuous representation of the material temperature reconstructed from cell centred temperature unknowns, in a process known as 'source tilting'. The asymptotic limits of both Monte Carlo (continuous in space) and deterministic approaches (based on linear-discontinuous finite elements) for solving the transport equation are investigated in slab geometry. The resulting discrete diffusion equations are found to have nonphysical terms that are proportional to any cell-edge discontinuity in the temperature representation. Based on this analysis it is possible to design accurate schemes for representing the material temperature, for coupling thermal radiation transport codes to a cell centred representation of internal energy favoured by ALE (arbitrary Lagrange-Eulerian) hydrodynamics schemes.

  3. Asymptotic diffusion limit of cell temperature discretisation schemes for thermal radiation transport

    SciTech Connect

    Smedley-Stevenson, Richard P.; McClarren, Ryan G.

    2015-04-01

    This paper attempts to unify the asymptotic diffusion limit analysis of thermal radiation transport schemes, for a linear-discontinuous representation of the material temperature reconstructed from cell centred temperature unknowns, in a process known as ‘source tilting’. The asymptotic limits of both Monte Carlo (continuous in space) and deterministic approaches (based on linear-discontinuous finite elements) for solving the transport equation are investigated in slab geometry. The resulting discrete diffusion equations are found to have nonphysical terms that are proportional to any cell-edge discontinuity in the temperature representation. Based on this analysis it is possible to design accurate schemes for representing the material temperature, for coupling thermal radiation transport codes to a cell centred representation of internal energy favoured by ALE (arbitrary Lagrange–Eulerian) hydrodynamics schemes.

  4. The in vivo activation of persistent nanophosphors for optical imaging of vascularization, tumours and grafted cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldiney, Thomas; Bessière, Aurélie; Seguin, Johanne; Teston, Eliott; Sharma, Suchinder K.; Viana, Bruno; Bos, Adrie J. J.; Dorenbos, Pieter; Bessodes, Michel; Gourier, Didier; Scherman, Daniel; Richard, Cyrille

    2014-04-01

    Optical imaging for biological applications requires more sensitive tools. Near-infrared persistent luminescence nanoparticles enable highly sensitive in vivo optical detection and complete avoidance of tissue autofluorescence. However, the actual generation of persistent luminescence nanoparticles necessitates ex vivo activation before systemic administration, which prevents long-term imaging in living animals. Here, we introduce a new generation of optical nanoprobes, based on chromium-doped zinc gallate, whose persistent luminescence can be activated in vivo through living tissues using highly penetrating low-energy red photons. Surface functionalization of this photonic probe can be adjusted to favour multiple biomedical applications such as tumour targeting. Notably, we show that cells can endocytose these nanoparticles in vitro and that, after intravenous injection, we can track labelled cells in vivo and follow their biodistribution by a simple whole animal optical detection, opening new perspectives for cell therapy research and for a variety of diagnosis applications.

  5. Adjuvant immunotherapy with BCG in squamous cell bronchial carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, H M; The, T H; Orie, N G

    1980-01-01

    Fifty-four patients with evidence of locally advanced primary squamous cell bronchial carcinoma (SCC), and three patients with adenocarcinoma (AC) had lung resection to remove all the visible tumour. After operation an randomly chosen group of 20 SCC patients received adjuvant BCG immunostimulation by scarifications (BCG-A). An additional group of 14 SCC patients, and three AC patients received initially intrapleural BCG treatment and subsequently scarifications (BCG-B). A control group of 20 SCC patients received no adjuvant treatment. Follow-up studies were done from three to 51 months. Immune reactivity was monitored in vivo with PPD skin tests in 33 treated and in 18 untreated patients. In both the BCG-treated SCC groups recurrence rates decreased statistically significant during follow-up (BCG-A; six to 51 months, p less than 0.001; BCG: 6-9 months, p less than 0.01 and nine to 24 months, p less than 0.001). However, no difference could be demonstrated between systemic and combined systemic and intrapleural treatment. The three BCG-treated AC patients all relapsed within nine months of follow-up. A pronounced increase in skin reactivity to PPD was seen six months after surgery in the BCG-treated patients (BCG-A, p less than 0.001; BCG-B, p less than 0.01), whereas the control patients remained anergic after surgery. This improved immune reactivity went in parallel with a more favourable outcome of the individual patients (BCG-A, p less than 0.02; BCG-B, p less than 0.05). It is concluded that adjuvant BCG immunotherapy used in strongly selected patients with minimal residual squamous cell bronchial carcinoma improves the prognosis. Intrapleural treatment did not improve the prognosis further. A favourable clinical outcome was mirrored by an increase in cellular immune reactivity. PMID:7466726

  6. Gut environment-induced intraepithelial autoreactive CD4+ T cells suppress central nervous system autoimmunity via LAG-3

    PubMed Central

    Kadowaki, Atsushi; Miyake, Sachiko; Saga, Ryoko; Chiba, Asako; Mochizuki, Hideki; Yamamura, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    The gut environment has been found to significantly influence autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis; however, immune cell mechanisms are unclear. Here we show that the gut epithelium of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein(35-55)-specific T-cell receptor transgenic mice contains environmental stimuli-induced intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) that inhibit experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis on transfer. These cells express surface markers phenotypical of ‘induced' IELs, have a TH17-like profile and infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS). They constitutively express Ctla4 and Tgfb1 and markedly upregulate Lag3 expression in the CNS, thereby inhibiting inflammation. We also demonstrate the suppressive capability of CD4+ IELs with alternative antigen specificities, their proliferation in response to gut-derived antigens and contribution of the microbiota and dietary aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands to their induction. Thus, the gut environment favours the generation of autoreactive CD4+ T cells with unique regulatory functions, potentially important for preventing CNS autoimmunity. PMID:27198196

  7. The role of macrophages in the cytotoxic killing of tumour cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zembala, M.; Ptak, W.; Hanczakowska, Maria

    1973-01-01

    Lymph node and spleen cells from normal mice were cultured for 3 days with polyoma virus-induced tumour, Ehrlich's ascites tumour or leukaemia L 1210 cells. This resulted in in vitro immunization of the lymphocytes, which were then transferred to irradiated target cells labelled with 51Cr. Normal, i.e. non-immune thioglycollate-stimulated peritoneal macrophages were also added to some tubes. Non-immune macrophages mixed with immunized lymphocytes showed a significantly increased ability to destroy tumour cells as compared with macrophages in the absence of immunized lymphocytes. The immunized lymphocytes were almost entirely inactive alone. When the number of macrophages was kept constant the cytotoxicity was dependent on the number of viable immunized lymphocytes placed on the target cells. Immunized lymphocytes, in the presence of macrophages, only exhibited strong killing of the target cells against which they had been immunized; some lysis of `bystander' cells was, however, seen provided specific target cells were present. Macrophage monolayers exposed to immunized lymphocytes upon contact with specific antigen became `armed' and showed a significant cytotoxicity for specific target cells. When immunized lymphocytes and normal macrophages were treated with actinomycin D and puromycin, cytotoxicity was inhibited in the immunized lymphocytes but not in the macrophages. The possible mechanism of normal macrophage cooperation with immunized lymphocytes in the cytotoxic killing reaction is discussed. Results presented in this paper favour the view that immunologically specific cytophilic factor (presumptive cytophilic antibody) is involved in the macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity in the system studied. PMID:4356674

  8. Human mesenchymal stem cells towards non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in an immunodeficient mouse model.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Sandra; Borkham-Kamphorst, Erawan; Stock, Peggy; Brückner, Sandra; Dollinger, Matthias; Weiskirchen, Ralf; Christ, Bruno

    2014-08-15

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a frequent clinical picture characterised by hepatic inflammation, lipid accumulation and fibrosis. When untreated, NASH bears a high risk of developing liver cirrhosis and consecutive hepatocellular carcinoma requiring liver transplantation in its end-stage. However, donor organ scarcity has prompted the search for alternatives, of which hepatocyte or stem cell-derived hepatocyte transplantation are regarded auspicious options of treatment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are able to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells and thus may represent an alternative cell source to primary hepatocytes. In addition these cells feature anti-inflammatory and pro-regenerative characteristics, which might favour liver recovery from NASH. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential benefit of hepatocyte-like cells derived from human bone marrow MSC in a mouse model of diet-induced NASH. Seven days post-transplant, human hepatocyte-like cells were found in the mouse liver parenchyma. Triglyceride depositions were lowered in the liver but restored to normal in the blood. Hepatic inflammation was attenuated as verified by decreased expression of the acute phase protein serum amyloid A, inflammation-associated markers (e.g. lipocalin 2), as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα. Moreover, the proliferation of host hepatocytes that indicate the regenerative capacity in livers receiving cell transplants was enhanced. Transplantation of MSC-derived human hepatocyte-like cells corrects NASH in mice by restoring triglyceride depositions, reducing inflammation and augmenting the regenerative capacity of the liver.

  9. Tetra methyl substituted Cu(II) phthalocyanine as alternative hole transporting material for organometal halide perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sfyri, Georgia; Kumar, Challuri Vijay; Wang, Yu-Long; Xu, Zong-Xiang; Krontiras, C. A.; Lianos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Copper phthalocyanine is a promising hole transporting material, which can be employed with solid state perovskite solar cells. Tetra methyl substituted copper phthalocyanine was presently studied as a hole transporting material and demonstrated improved performance with respect to unsubstituted copper phthalocyanine. This material shows a strong absorption in the Visible and Near IR part of the electromagnetic spectrum contributing to the absorption of photons. Its LUMO and HOMO level are favourably positioned for injecting electrons and scavenging holes. Methyl substitution facilitates closer molecular packing leading to a stronger extinction coefficient, stronger π-π interaction and higher charge carrier mobility.

  10. Night temperature and source–sink effects on overall growth, cell number and cell size in bell pepper ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Darnell, Rebecca L.; Cruz-Huerta, Nicacio; Williamson, Jeffrey G.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Ovary swelling, and resultant fruit malformation, in bell pepper flowers is favoured by low night temperature or a high source–sink ratio. However, the interaction between night temperature and source–sink ratio on ovary swelling and the contribution of cell size and cell number to ovary swelling are unknown. The present research examined the interactive effects of night temperature and source–sink ratio on ovary size, cell number and cell size at anthesis in bell pepper flowers. Methods Bell pepper plants were grown in growth chambers at night temperatures of either 20 °C (HNT) or 12 °C (LNT). Within each temperature treatment, plants bore either 0 (non-fruiting) or two developing fruits per plant. Ovary fresh weight, cell size and cell number were measured. Key Results Ovary fresh weights in non-fruiting plants grown at LNT were the largest, while fresh weights were smallest in plants grown at HNT with fruits. In general, mesocarp cell size in ovaries was largest in non-fruiting plants grown at either LNT or HNT and smallest in fruiting plants at HNT. Mesocarp cell number was greater in non-fruiting plants under LNT than in the rest of the night temperature/fruiting treatments. These responses were more marked in ovaries sampled after 18 d of treatment compared with those sampled after 40 d of treatment. Conclusions Ovary fresh weight of flowers at anthesis increased 65 % in non-fruiting plants grown under LNT compared with fruiting plants grown under HNT. This increase was due primarily to increases in mesocarp cell number and size. These results indicate that the combined effects of LNT and high source–sink ratio on ovary swelling are additive. Furthermore, the combined effects of LNT and low source–sink ratio or HNT and high source–sink ratio can partially overcome the detrimental effects of LNT and high source–sink ratio. PMID:22933415

  11. Types of Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF) Download an introduction to stem cells and stem cell research. Stem Cell Glossary Stem cell terms to know. ... stem cells blog from the International Society for Stem Cell Research. Learn About Stem Cells From Lab to You ...

  12. Electrolytic cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, J. S.; Hale, B. D.

    1984-09-01

    An apparatus is described for the separation of the anolyte and the catholyte during electrolysis. The electrolyte flows through an electrolytic cell between the oppositely charged electrodes. The cell is equipped with a wedge-shaped device, the tapered end is located between the electrodes on the effluent side of the cell. The wedge diverts the flow of the electrolyte to either side of the wedge, substantially separating the anolyte and the catholyte.

  13. Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Trepat, Xavier; Chen, Zaozao; Jacobson, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Cell migration is fundamental to establishing and maintaining the proper organization of multicellular organisms. Morphogenesis can be viewed as a consequence, in part, of cell locomotion, from large-scale migrations of epithelial sheets during gastrulation, to the movement of individual cells during development of the nervous system. In an adult organism, cell migration is essential for proper immune response, wound repair, and tissue homeostasis, while aberrant cell migration is found in various pathologies. Indeed, as our knowledge of migration increases, we can look forward to, for example, abating the spread of highly malignant cancer cells, retarding the invasion of white cells in the inflammatory process, or enhancing the healing of wounds. This article is organized in two main sections. The first section is devoted to the single-cell migrating in isolation such as occurs when leukocytes migrate during the immune response or when fibroblasts squeeze through connective tissue. The second section is devoted to cells collectively migrating as part of multicellular clusters or sheets. This second type of migration is prevalent in development, wound healing, and in some forms of cancer metastasis. PMID:23720251

  14. Cell Chauvinism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Dolores Elaine

    1972-01-01

    Indicates that biological terminology, such as mother cell'' and labels of sex factors in bacteria, reflect discrimination against females by reinforcing perpetuation of stereotyped gender roles. (AL)

  15. Cell Trivision of Hyperploid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Gabor; Kiraly, Gabor; Turani, Melinda

    2013-01-01

    Malignant transformation is likely to render cells hyperploid, primarily tetraploid. We have measured the frequency of division into three rather than two daughter cells as a function of ploidy. Such trivisions were followed in near-tetraploid uveal melanoma (UM), hypotetraploid HaCaT (<4 N), hypertriploid HeLa (>3 N), and in near-diploid (∼2 N) lung epithelial cell lines by time-lapse image analyses. A stepwise analysis of cytokinesis revealed higher frequency of cell trivisions relative to divisions in hyperploid HeLa (1:24, 4%), HaCaT (1:126, 8%), and UM (1:186, 0.5%) cells. The occurrence of trivision was significantly lower in near-diploid endothelial cells (1:1400, 0.07%). We have previously observed the phenomenon of trivision in HaCaT cells treated with heavy metal lead, and here we describe that trivision is a spontaneous process taking place without genotoxic treatment. Beside re-diploidization by trivision, the hyperploid state decreases the cell size of the daughter cells and is likely to increase the time of cytokinesis. On the basis of the results, it is hypothesized that among other cancer-related causes, hyperploidy could be related to cell trivision, could cause random aneuploidy, and could generate new cancer-specific karyotypes. PMID:24093497

  16. Murine viral hepatitis involves NK cell depletion associated with virus-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    LEHOUX, M; JACQUES, A; LUSIGNAN, S; LAMONTAGNE, L

    2004-01-01

    Mouse hepatitis virus type 3 (MHV3), a coronavirus, is an excellent animal model for the study of immunological disorders related to acute and chronic hepatitis. In this study, we have verified if the fulminant hepatitis induced by MHV3 could be related to an impairment of innate immunity. Groups of three C57BL/6 mice were infected with the pathogenic L2-MHV3 or attenuated YAC-MHV3 viruses, and the natural killer (NK) cell populations from liver, spleen and bone marrow were analysed. The percentage of intrahepatic NK1·1+T cell receptor (TCR)− cells did not increase while NK1·1+TCRinter cells decreased in both L2-MHV3- and YAC-MHV3-infected mice. Concurrently, splenic and myeloid NK1·1+ cells decreased in L2-MHV3-infected mice. However, the cytotoxic activity of NK cells increased in liver and decreased in bone marrow from pathogenic L2-MHV3-infected mice while no modification was detected in YAC-MHV3-infected mice. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that both normal and larger splenic or myeloid NK cells decreased more in pathogenic L2-MHV3-infected mice than in attenuated YAC-MHV3-infected mice. In vitro viral infections of interleukin (IL)-15-stimulated lymphoid cells from liver and bone marrow revealed that L2-MHV3 induced higher decreases in cell viability of NK1·1+ cells than the YAC-MHV3 variant. The NK cell decreases were due to the viral permissivity leading to cytopathic effects characterized by cell rounding, syncytia formation and apoptosis. Larger NK+ syncytia were observed in L2-MHV3-infected cells than in YAC-MHV3-infected cells. These results suggest that NK cell production is impaired by viral infection favouring fulminant hepatitis. PMID:15196242

  17. Methylphenidate Increases Glutamate Uptake in Bergmann Glial Cells.

    PubMed

    Guillem, Alain M; Martínez-Lozada, Zila; Hernández-Kelly, Luisa C; López-Bayghen, Esther; López-Bayghen, Bruno; Calleros, Oscar A; Campuzano, Marco R; Ortega, Arturo

    2015-11-01

    Glutamate, the main excitatory transmitter in the vertebrate brain, exerts its actions through the activation of specific membrane receptors present in neurons and glial cells. Over-stimulation of glutamate receptors results in neuronal death, phenomena known as excitotoxicity. A family of glutamate uptake systems, mainly expressed in glial cells, removes the amino acid from the synaptic cleft preventing an excessive glutamatergic stimulation and thus neuronal damage. Autism spectrum disorders comprise a group of syndromes characterized by impaired social interactions and anxiety. One or the most common drugs prescribed to treat these disorders is Methylphenidate, known to increase dopamine extracellular levels, although it is not clear if its sedative effects are related to a plausible regulation of the glutamatergic tone via the regulation of the glial glutamate uptake systems. To gain insight into this possibility, we used the well-established model system of cultured chick cerebellum Bergmann glia cells. A time and dose-dependent increase in the activity and protein levels of glutamate transporters was detected upon Methylphenidate exposure. Interestingly, this increase is the result of an augmentation of both the synthesis as well as the insertion of these protein complexes in the plasma membrane. These results favour the notion that glial cells are Methylphenidate targets, and that by these means could regulate dopamine turnover.

  18. Semicircular Canals Circumvent Brownian Motion Overload of Mechanoreceptor Hair Cells.

    PubMed

    Muller, Mees; Heeck, Kier; Elemans, Coen P H

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate semicircular canals (SCC) first appeared in the vertebrates (i.e. ancestral fish) over 600 million years ago. In SCC the principal mechanoreceptors are hair cells, which as compared to cochlear hair cells are distinctly longer (70 vs. 7 μm), 10 times more compliant to bending (44 vs. 500 nN/m), and have a 100-fold higher tip displacement threshold (< 10 μm vs. <400 nm). We have developed biomechanical models of vertebrate hair cells where the bundle is approximated as a stiff, cylindrical elastic rod subject to friction and thermal agitation. Our models suggest that the above differences aid SCC hair cells in circumventing the masking effects of Brownian motion noise of about 70 nm, and thereby permit transduction of very low frequency (<10 Hz) signals. We observe that very low frequency mechanoreception requires increased stimulus amplitude, and argue that this is adaptive to circumvent Brownian motion overload at the hair bundles. We suggest that the selective advantage of detecting such low frequency stimuli may have favoured the evolution of large guiding structures such as semicircular canals and otoliths to overcome Brownian Motion noise at the level of the mechanoreceptors of the SCC. PMID:27448330

  19. Semicircular Canals Circumvent Brownian Motion Overload of Mechanoreceptor Hair Cells

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Mees; Heeck, Kier

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate semicircular canals (SCC) first appeared in the vertebrates (i.e. ancestral fish) over 600 million years ago. In SCC the principal mechanoreceptors are hair cells, which as compared to cochlear hair cells are distinctly longer (70 vs. 7 μm), 10 times more compliant to bending (44 vs. 500 nN/m), and have a 100-fold higher tip displacement threshold (< 10 μm vs. <400 nm). We have developed biomechanical models of vertebrate hair cells where the bundle is approximated as a stiff, cylindrical elastic rod subject to friction and thermal agitation. Our models suggest that the above differences aid SCC hair cells in circumventing the masking effects of Brownian motion noise of about 70 nm, and thereby permit transduction of very low frequency (<10 Hz) signals. We observe that very low frequency mechanoreception requires increased stimulus amplitude, and argue that this is adaptive to circumvent Brownian motion overload at the hair bundles. We suggest that the selective advantage of detecting such low frequency stimuli may have favoured the evolution of large guiding structures such as semicircular canals and otoliths to overcome Brownian Motion noise at the level of the mechanoreceptors of the SCC. PMID:27448330

  20. In vitro differentiation of human amniotic fluid-derived cells: augmentation towards a neuronal dopaminergic phenotype.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Shona; McLaughlin, David

    2010-09-01

    Amniotic fluid is known to yield a number of cell types which are multipotent, ethically derived, genetically stable, easily grown, expanded and possess favourable immunogenicity, which has resulted in an increasing interest for use in various neuronal disorders such as Parkinson's disease. The neuronal potential of cells derived from the adherent fraction of amniotic fluid, routinely taken by amniocentesis, are least explored. The aim of the present study was to investigate the capacity of these cells for neuronal and dopaminergic differentiation using in vitro differentiation protocols with canonical inductive factors not previously tested. To do this, samples derived from multiple donors were grown under four conditions: standard serum-containing media, NB (neurobasal) media designed specifically for propagation and maintenance of neuronal cells, NB media with addition of retinoic acid and BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) for NI (neuronal induction), and NB media with addition of FGF8 (fibroblast growth factor-8) and Shh (sonic hedgehog) after NI. Our results showed the presence of multiple neuronal markers after growth in serum-containing medium [TUJ1, MAP2, NF-M, TH (tyrosine hydroxylase)], which was significantly up-regulated after serum withdrawal in NB medium alone with induction of NeuN (neuronal nuclei) and NSE (neuron-specific enolase). NI and DA.I (dopaminergic induction) was accompanied by further increases in expression and a distinct transition to a sustained neuronal morphology. Western blot analysis confirmed increasing TH expression and NURR1, expressed in base serum-containing media, found to be down-regulated after induction. In conclusion, these cells possess a highly favourable base neuronal and dopaminergic prepotential, which may easily be accentuated by standard induction protocols. PMID:20388119

  1. Outcome after autologous stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma in patients with preceding plasma cell disorders.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shaji K; Dingli, David; Lacy, Martha Q; Dispenzieri, Angela; Hayman, Suzanne R; Buadi, Francis K; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Litzow, Mark R; Gertz, Morie A

    2008-04-01

    A third of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) have a preceding diagnosis of plasma cell proliferative disorder (PCPD), mostly monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smoldering MM (SMM) or plasmacytoma. While autologous stem cell transplantation (SCT) improves survival in MM, it is not clear if patients with preceding PCPD have a different outcome. We identified 151 patients with preceding PCPD from among 804 patients undergoing SCT, and their outcomes were compared. The response rates, including complete responses, were similar between the groups. Patients with a preceding diagnosis of MGUS had longer time to progression (TTP; 27.5 months vs. 17.2 months, P = 0.01), and longer overall survival (OS) from transplant (80.2 months vs. 48.3 months, P = 0.03) compared to those with de novo myeloma. However no differences were seen among those with a preceding diagnosis of SMM or plasmacytoma in terms of TTP or OS from transplant when compared to those with de novo myeloma. Multivariate analysis indicated that the presence of MGUS prior to myeloma was prognostic for post-transplant relapse independent of other known risk factors. Patients with pre-existing MGUS prior to myeloma diagnosis have a better outcome following HDT, reflecting more indolent disease and a favourable biology than those presenting with de novo myeloma. PMID:18318761

  2. Metastatic colonization potential of primary tumour cells in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Tarin, D.; Price, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    A model has been developed for studying the capability of cells from primary murine mammary tumours to establish colonies in distant organs. The model involves the i.v. inoculation of disaggregated tumour cells into autologous and syngeneic recipients. The results show that the metastatic colonization potential of cells from a given tumour is consistent within the animals of an inoculated batch. Also, the findings are uniform in the autologous host and the syngeneic recipients. Tumours vary in their colonization potential and can be classified in 2 main groups designated high and low. These findings indicate that: (i) cells from 37% of mammary tumours can heavily colonize the lungs when inoculated i.v., even though the incidence of metastatic spread of these tumours in the undisturbed animal is almost zero. Thus, the relative infrequency of spontaneous metastasis from murine mammary tumours is not due to inability of the tumour cells to survive and colonize once free in the blood stream; and (ii) the colonization potential of the tumours is an intrinsic property of the tumour cells rather than of the host, whose prior acquaintance with the cells does not seem to confer resistance to colonization. The model presents opportunities for identification of possible differences between tumours of high and low colonization potential, and is being used to study cellular properties which favour colonization of distant organs by comparison of observations in vitro with the behaviour of cells from the same tumour in vivo. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:444412

  3. Aldehyde dehydrogenase activity selects for the holoclone phenotype in prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, R.E.; Haywood-Small, S.L.; Sisley, K.; Cross, N.A.

    2011-11-04

    defined medium favouring stem cell characteristics. Although ALDH{sup Hi} status enriches for holoclone formation, this activity may be mediated by a minority of ALDH{sup Hi} cells.

  4. A reliable indirect cell-labelling protocol for optical imaging allows ex vivo visualisation of mesenchymal stem cells after transplantation.

    PubMed

    Diana, Valentina; Libani, Ilaria Vittoria; Armentero, Marie-Therese; Blandini, Fabio; Lucignani, Giovanni; Silani, Vincenzo; Cova, Lidia; Ottobrini, Luisa

    2013-09-01

    We set out to assess the feasibility of exploiting expression of the mCherry gene, after lentiviral infection, in order visualise bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) by optical imaging, and to provide proof of principle of this approach as a method for cell tracking and quantification in pre-clinical models. Commercial hMSCs were infected with a lentiviral vector carrying the mCherry gene under the control of the phosphoglycerate kinase promoter. After extensive in vitro culture, infected hMSCs were analysed for viability, morphology, differentiation capability, and maintenance of fluorescence. Thereafter, mCherry-positive cells were transplanted into unilaterally 6-hydroxy-dopamine lesioned rats (an experimental model of Parkinson's disease). Our analysis showed that hMSCs can be efficiently transduced with the lentiviral vector, retaining their biological features even in the long term. Intrastriatally transplanted mCherry-positive hMSCs can be detected ex vivo by a sensitive cooled CCD camera, both in the whole brain and in serial slices, and relatively quantified. Our protocol was found to be a reliable means of studying the viability of implanted hMSCs. mCherry labelling appears to be readily applicable in the post-transplantation tracking of stem cells and could favour the rapid development of new therapeutic targets for clinical treatments.

  5. Unit Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Robert C.; Tobiason, Fred L.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the construction of unit cells using clear plastic cubes which can be disassembled, and one inch cork balls of various colors, which can be cut in halves, quarters, or eighths, and glued on the inside face of the cube, thus simulating a unit cell. (MLH)

  6. Photovoltaic cell

    SciTech Connect

    Bronstein-Bonte, I.Y.; Fischer, A.B.

    1986-12-16

    This patent describes a product comprising a photovoltaic cell including a luminescent dye which will absorb radiation at a wavelength to which the cell is not significantly responsive and emit radiation at a higher wavelength at which it is responsive. The improvement described here is wherein the dye comprises a lepidopterene.

  7. Fuel Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, M. D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the theories, construction, operation, types, and advantages of fuel cells developed by the American space programs. Indicates that the cell is an ideal small-scale power source characterized by its compactness, high efficiency, reliability, and freedom from polluting fumes. (CC)

  8. Bystander cells and prognosis in Hodgkin lymphoma. Review based on a doctoral thesis.

    PubMed

    Molin, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is characterised histologically by a minority of malignant Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells surrounded by benign cells, and clinically by a relatively good prognosis. The treatment, however, leads to a risk of serious side effects. Knowledge about the biology of the disease, particularly the interaction between the HRS cells and the surrounding cells, is essential in order to improve diagnosis and treatment. HL patients with abundant eosinophils in the tumours have a poor prognosis, therefore the eosinophil derived protein eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) was studied. Serum-ECP (S-ECP) was elevated in most HL patients. It correlated to number of tumour eosinophils, nodular sclerosis (NS) histology, and the negative prognostic factors high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and blood leukocyte count (WBC). A polymorphism in the ECP gene (434(G>C)) was identified and the 434GG genotype correlated to NS histology and high ESR. The poor prognosis in patients with abundant eosinophils in the tumours has been proposed to depend on HRS cell stimulation by the eosinophils via a CD30 ligand (CD30L)-CD30 interaction. However, CD30L mRNA and protein were detected in mast cells and the predominant CD30L expressing cell in HL is the mast cell. Mast cells were shown to stimulate HRS cell lines via CD30L-CD30 interaction. The number of mast cells in HL tumours correlated to worse relapse-free survival, NS histology, high WBC, and low blood haemoglobin. Survival in patients with early and intermediate stage HL, diagnosed between 1985 and 1992, was generally favourable and comparatively limited treatment was sufficient to produce acceptable results for most stages. The majority of relapses could be salvaged. Patients treated with a short course of chemotherapy and radiotherapy had an excellent outcome. In conclusion prognosis is favourable in early and intermediate stages and there are possibilities for further improvements based on the fact that mast

  9. The pre-B-cell receptor checkpoint in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Eswaran, J; Sinclair, P; Heidenreich, O; Irving, J; Russell, L J; Hall, A; Calado, D P; Harrison, C J; Vormoor, J

    2015-08-01

    The B-cell receptor (BCR) and its immature form, the precursor-BCR (pre-BCR), have a central role in the control of B-cell development, which is dependent on a sequence of cell-fate decisions at specific antigen-independent checkpoints. Pre-BCR expression provides the first checkpoint, which controls differentiation of pre-B to immature B-cells in normal haemopoiesis. Pre-BCR signalling regulates and co-ordinates diverse processes within the pre-B cell, including clonal selection, proliferation and subsequent maturation. In B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (BCP-ALL), B-cell development is arrested at this checkpoint. Moreover, malignant blasts avoid clonal extinction by hijacking pre-BCR signalling in favour of the development of BCP-ALL. Here, we discuss three mechanisms that occur in different subtypes of BCP-ALL: (i) blocking pre-BCR expression; (ii) activating pre-BCR-mediated pro-survival and pro-proliferative signalling, while inhibiting cell cycle arrest and maturation; and (iii) bypassing the pre-BCR checkpoint and activating pro-survival signalling through pre-BCR independent alternative mechanisms. A complete understanding of the BCP-ALL-specific signalling networks will highlight their application in BCP-ALL therapy.

  10. Poly-L-lysine Prevents Senescence and Augments Growth in Culturing Mesenchymal Stem Cells Ex Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Heo, June Seok; Kim, Hyun Ok; Song, Seung Yong; Lew, Dae Hyun; Choi, Youjeong

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess great therapeutic potential. Efficient in vitro expansion of MSCs is however necessary for their clinical application. The extracellular matrix (ECM) provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells, and it has been used as a coating substrate for cell culture. In this study, we have aimed to improve the functionality and stemness of MSCs during culture using poly-L-lysine (PLL). Functionality of MSCs was analysed by cell cycle analysis, differentiation assay, β-galactosidase staining, and RT-PCR. Furthermore, we assessed the global gene expression profile of MSCs on uncoated and PLL-coated plates. MSCs on PLL-coated plates exhibited a faster growth rate with increased S-phase and upregulated expression of the stemness markers. In addition, their osteogenic differentiation potential was increased, and genes involved in cell adhesion, FGF-2 signalling, cell cycle, stemness, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation were upregulated, compared to that of the MSCs cultured on uncoated plates. We also confirmed that MSCs on uncoated plates expressed higher β-galactosidase than the MSCs on PLL-coated plates. We demonstrate that PLL provides favourable microenvironment for MSC culture by reversing the replicative senescence. This method will significantly contribute to effective preparation of MSCs for cellular therapy. PMID:27403437

  11. A thermoresponsive and chemically defined hydrogel for long-term culture of human embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rong; Mjoseng, Heidi K.; Hoeve, Marieke A.; Bauer, Nina G.; Pells, Steve; Besseling, Rut; Velugotla, Srinivas; Tourniaire, Guilhem; Kishen, Ria E. B.; Tsenkina, Yanina; Armit, Chris; Duffy, Cairnan R. E.; Helfen, Martina; Edenhofer, Frank; de Sousa, Paul A.; Bradley, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Cultures of human embryonic stem cell typically rely on protein matrices or feeder cells to support attachment and growth, while mechanical, enzymatic or chemical cell dissociation methods are used for cellular passaging. However, these methods are ill defined, thus introducing variability into the system, and may damage cells. They also exert selective pressures favouring cell aneuploidy and loss of differentiation potential. Here we report the identification of a family of chemically defined thermoresponsive synthetic hydrogels based on 2-(diethylamino)ethyl acrylate, which support long-term human embryonic stem cell growth and pluripotency over a period of 2–6 months. The hydrogels permitted gentle, reagent-free cell passaging by virtue of transient modulation of the ambient temperature from 37 to 15 °C for 30 min. These chemically defined alternatives to currently used, undefined biological substrates represent a flexible and scalable approach for improving the definition, efficacy and safety of human embryonic stem cell culture systems for research, industrial and clinical applications. PMID:23299885

  12. Involvement of multiple myeloma cell-derived exosomes in osteoclast differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Raimondi, Lavinia; De Luca, Angela; Amodio, Nicola; Manno, Mauro; Raccosta, Samuele; Taverna, Simona; Bellavia, Daniele; Naselli, Flores; Fontana, Simona; Schillaci, Odessa; Giardino, Roberto; Fini, Milena; Tassone, Pierfrancesco; Santoro, Alessandra; De Leo, Giacomo; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Alessandro, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Bone disease is the most frequent complication in multiple myeloma (MM) resulting in osteolytic lesions, bone pain, hypercalcemia and renal failure. In MM bone disease the perfect balance between bone-resorbing osteoclasts (OCs) and bone-forming osteoblasts (OBs) activity is lost in favour of OCs, thus resulting in skeletal disorders. Since exosomes have been described for their functional role in cancer progression, we here investigate whether MM cell-derived exosomes may be involved in OCs differentiation. We show that MM cells produce exosomes which are actively internalized by Raw264.7 cell line, a cellular model of osteoclast formation. MM cell-derived exosomes positively modulate pre-osteoclast migration, through the increasing of CXCR4 expression and trigger a survival pathway. MM cell-derived exosomes play a significant pro-differentiative role in murine Raw264.7 cells and human primary osteoclasts, inducing the expression of osteoclast markers such as Cathepsin K (CTSK), Matrix Metalloproteinases 9 (MMP9) and Tartrate-resistant Acid Phosphatase (TRAP). Pre-osteoclast treated with MM cell-derived exosomes differentiate in multinuclear OCs able to excavate authentic resorption lacunae. Similar results were obtained with exosomes derived from MM patient's sera. Our data indicate that MM-exosomes modulate OCs function and differentiation. Further studies are needed to identify the OCs activating factors transported by MM cell-derived exosomes. PMID:25944696

  13. Comparative sensitivity of four different cell lines for the isolation of Coxiella burnetii.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, Michelle G; Islam, Aminul; Fenwick, Stan G; Graves, Stephen R; Stenos, John

    2012-09-01

    Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes the disease Q-fever. This is usually diagnosed by serology (immunofluorescence assay) and/or PCR detection of C. burnetii DNA. However, neither of these methods can determine the viability of the bacterium. Four different cell lines were compared for their ability to amplify very low numbers of viable C. burnetii. Two different isolates of C. burnetii were used. For the Henzerling isolate, DH82 (dog macrophage) cells were the most sensitive with an ID (50) (dose required to infect 50% of cell cultures) of 14.6 bacterial copies. For the Arandale isolate, Vero (monkey epithelial) cells were the most sensitive with an ID (50) of less than one bacterium in a 100-μL inoculum. The Vero cell line appeared highly useful as vacuoles could be seen microscopically in unstained infected cells. The findings of this study favour the use of Vero and DH82 tissue culture cell lines for isolation and growth of C. burnetii in vitro. The other cell lines, XTC-2 and L929, were less suitable.

  14. Epstein-Barr virus infection and replication in a human epithelial cell system.

    PubMed

    Li, Q X; Young, L S; Niedobitek, G; Dawson, C W; Birkenbach, M; Wang, F; Rickinson, A B

    1992-03-26

    Epstein-Barr virus, a human herpesvirus with oncogenic potential, infects two target tissues in vivo: B lymphocytes, where the infection is largely non-productive, and stratified squamous epithelium in which virus replication occurs. The interaction with B cells, initiated through virus binding to the B-cell surface molecule CR2 (ref. 4), has been studied in vitro and the virus 'latent' genes associated with B-cell growth transformation defined. By comparison, viral infection of epithelium remains poorly understood, reflecting the lack of an appropriate cell-culture model. Here we describe the development of such a model using as targets CR2-expressing transfected cells of two independent human epithelial lines. A high proportion of these cells bind virus and become actively infected, expressing the small EBER RNAs (small non-polyadenylated virus-coded RNAs) and the Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 but not other latent proteins; thereafter, under conditions favouring epithelial differentiation, up to 30% of the cells can be induced to enter virus productive cycle with some progressing to full virus replication. We find significant differences between laboratory virus strains in their ability to infect epithelium that do not correlate with their B-cell growth-transforming activity. PMID:1312681

  15. Involvement of multiple myeloma cell-derived exosomes in osteoclast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Raimondi, Lavinia; De Luca, Angela; Amodio, Nicola; Manno, Mauro; Raccosta, Samuele; Taverna, Simona; Bellavia, Daniele; Naselli, Flores; Fontana, Simona; Schillaci, Odessa; Giardino, Roberto; Fini, Milena; Tassone, Pierfrancesco; Santoro, Alessandra; De Leo, Giacomo; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Alessandro, Riccardo

    2015-05-30

    Bone disease is the most frequent complication in multiple myeloma (MM) resulting in osteolytic lesions, bone pain, hypercalcemia and renal failure. In MM bone disease the perfect balance between bone-resorbing osteoclasts (OCs) and bone-forming osteoblasts (OBs) activity is lost in favour of OCs, thus resulting in skeletal disorders. Since exosomes have been described for their functional role in cancer progression, we here investigate whether MM cell-derived exosomes may be involved in OCs differentiation. We show that MM cells produce exosomes which are actively internalized by Raw264.7 cell line, a cellular model of osteoclast formation. MM cell-derived exosomes positively modulate pre-osteoclast migration, through the increasing of CXCR4 expression and trigger a survival pathway. MM cell-derived exosomes play a significant pro-differentiative role in murine Raw264.7 cells and human primary osteoclasts, inducing the expression of osteoclast markers such as Cathepsin K (CTSK), Matrix Metalloproteinases 9 (MMP9) and Tartrate-resistant Acid Phosphatase (TRAP). Pre-osteoclast treated with MM cell-derived exosomes differentiate in multinuclear OCs able to excavate authentic resorption lacunae. Similar results were obtained with exosomes derived from MM patient's sera. Our data indicate that MM-exosomes modulate OCs function and differentiation. Further studies are needed to identify the OCs activating factors transported by MM cell-derived exosomes.

  16. One tissue, two fates: different roles of megagametophyte cells during Scots pine embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Vuosku, Jaana; Sarjala, Tytti; Jokela, Anne; Sutela, Suvi; Sääskilahti, Mira; Suorsa, Marja; Läärä, Esa; Häggman, Hely

    2009-01-01

    In the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seed, embryos grow and develop within the corrosion cavity of the megagametophyte, a maternally derived haploid tissue, which houses the majority of the storage reserves of the seed. In the present study, histochemical methods and quantification of the expression levels of the programmed cell death (PCD) and DNA repair processes related genes (MCA, TAT-D, RAD51, KU80, and LIG) were used to investigate the physiological events occurring in the megagametophyte tissue during embryo development. It was found that the megagametophyte was viable from the early phases of embryo development until the early germination of mature seeds. However, the megagametophyte cells in the narrow embryo surrounding region (ESR) were destroyed by cell death with morphologically necrotic features. Their cell wall, plasma membrane, and nuclear envelope broke down with the release of cell debris and nucleic acids into the corrosion cavity. The occurrence of necrotic-like cell death in gymnosperm embryogenesis provides a favourable model for the study of developmental cell death with necrotic-like morphology and suggests that the mechanism underlying necrotic cell death is evolutionary conserved. PMID:19246593

  17. Cell polarity

    PubMed Central

    Romereim, Sarah M

    2011-01-01

    Despite extensive genetic analysis of the dynamic multi-phase process that transforms a small population of lateral plate mesoderm into the mature limb skeleton, the mechanisms by which signaling pathways regulate cellular behaviors to generate morphogenetic forces are not known. Recently, a series of papers have offered the intriguing possibility that regulated cell polarity fine-tunes the morphogenetic process via orienting cell axes, division planes and cell movements. Wnt5a-mediated non-canonical signaling, which may include planar cell polarity, has emerged as a common thread in the otherwise distinct signaling networks that regulate morphogenesis in each phase of limb development. These findings position the limb as a key model to elucidate how global tissue patterning pathways direct local differences in cell behavior that, in turn, generate growth and form. PMID:22064549

  18. Fuel cells 101

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschenhofer, J.H.

    1999-07-01

    This paper discusses the various types of fuel cells, the importance of cell voltage, fuel processing for natural gas, cell stacking, fuel cell plant description, advantages and disadvantages of the types of fuel cells, and applications. The types covered include: polymer electrolyte fuel cell, alkaline fuel cell, phosphoric acid fuel cell; molten carbonate fuel cell, and solid oxide fuel cell.

  19. Hoxb4 Overexpression in CD4 Memory Phenotype T Cells Increases the Central Memory Population upon Homeostatic Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Marilaine; Labrecque, Nathalie; Bijl, Janet J.

    2013-01-01

    Memory T cell populations allow a rapid immune response to pathogens that have been previously encountered and thus form the basis of success in vaccinations. However, the molecular pathways underlying the development and maintenance of these cells are only starting to be unveiled. Memory T cells have the capacity to self renew as do hematopoietic stem cells, and overlapping gene expression profiles suggested that these cells might use the same self-renewal pathways. The transcription factor Hoxb4 has been shown to promote self-renewal divisions of hematopoietic stem cells resulting in an expansion of these cells. In this study we investigated whether overexpression of Hoxb4 could provide an advantage to CD4 memory phenotype T cells in engrafting the niche of T cell deficient mice following adoptive transfer. Competitive transplantation experiments demonstrated that CD4 memory phenotype T cells derived from mice transgenic for Hoxb4 contributed overall less to the repopulation of the lymphoid organs than wild type CD4 memory phenotype T cells after two months. These proportions were relatively maintained following serial transplantation in secondary and tertiary mice. Interestingly, a significantly higher percentage of the Hoxb4 CD4 memory phenotype T cell population expressed the CD62L and Ly6C surface markers, characteristic for central memory T cells, after homeostatic proliferation. Thus Hoxb4 favours the maintenance and increase of the CD4 central memory phenotype T cell population. These cells are more stem cell like and might eventually lead to an advantage of Hoxb4 T cells after subjecting the cells to additional rounds of proliferation. PMID:24324706

  20. The Touch and Zap Method for In Vivo Whole-Cell Patch Recording of Intrinsic and Visual Responses of Cortical Neurons and Glial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schramm, Adrien E.; Marinazzo, Daniele; Gener, Thomas; Graham, Lyle J.

    2014-01-01

    Whole-cell patch recording is an essential tool for quantitatively establishing the biophysics of brain function, particularly in vivo. This method is of particular interest for studying the functional roles of cortical glial cells in the intact brain, which cannot be assessed with extracellular recordings. Nevertheless, a reasonable success rate remains a challenge because of stability, recording duration and electrical quality constraints, particularly for voltage clamp, dynamic clamp or conductance measurements. To address this, we describe “Touch and Zap”, an alternative method for whole-cell patch clamp recordings, with the goal of being simpler, quicker and more gentle to brain tissue than previous approaches. Under current clamp mode with a continuous train of hyperpolarizing current pulses, seal formation is initiated immediately upon cell contact, thus the “Touch”. By maintaining the current injection, whole-cell access is spontaneously achieved within seconds from the cell-attached configuration by a self-limited membrane electroporation, or “Zap”, as seal resistance increases. We present examples of intrinsic and visual responses of neurons and putative glial cells obtained with the revised method from cat and rat cortices in vivo. Recording parameters and biophysical properties obtained with the Touch and Zap method compare favourably with those obtained with the traditional blind patch approach, demonstrating that the revised approach does not compromise the recorded cell. We find that the method is particularly well-suited for whole-cell patch recordings of cortical glial cells in vivo, targeting a wider population of this cell type than the standard method, with better access resistance. Overall, the gentler Touch and Zap method is promising for studying quantitative functional properties in the intact brain with minimal perturbation of the cell's intrinsic properties and local network. Because the Touch and Zap method is performed semi

  1. P-glycoprotein expression in canine mammary gland tumours related with myoepithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, N-H; Hwang, Y-H; Im, K-S; Kim, J-H; Chon, S-K; Kim, H-Y; Sur, J-H

    2012-12-01

    P-glycoprotein is influential in chemotherapy-resistance in numerous cancers and has been widely studied in human breast cancer research, but is less studied in canine mammary gland tumour (MGT). The study was to evaluate P-glycoprotein expression and its localisations related with prognostic factors with monoclonal antibody C219, by immunohistochemistry (IHC) of 68 cases of canine malignant (n=54) and benign (n=14) MGT. Additional immunofluorescence (IF) and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were also performed. There was a novel finding that P-glycoprotein expression with C219 localised at two different cell types: epithelial and myoepithelial cells. Myoepithelial localised tumours were 5 benign (35.5%) and 21 malignant (63.6%), while epithelial localised tumours were 12 cases, all malignant (36.5%). Unlike conventional belief, semi-quantitative evaluation of IHC intensity scores of C219 expression in malignant MGT was related with favourable histopathological parameters. PMID:22554937

  2. Degradable Organically-Derivatized Polyoxometalate with Enhanced Activity against Glioblastoma Cell Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Shan; Bian, Shengtai; Huo, Ruichao; Chen, Kun; Huang, Zehuan; Zhang, Jiangwei; Hao, Jian; Wei, Yongge

    2016-09-01

    High efficacy and low toxicity are critical for cancer treatment. Polyoxometalates (POMs) have been reported as potential candidates for cancer therapy. On accounts of the slow clearance of POMs, leading to long-term toxicity, the clinical application of POMs in cancer treatment is restricted. To address this problem, a degradable organoimido derivative of hexamolybdate is developed by modifying it with a cleavable organic group, leading to its degradation. Of note, this derivative exhibits favourable pharmacodynamics towards human malignant glioma cell (U251), the ability to penetrate across blood brain barrier and low toxicity towards rat pheochromocytoma cell (PC12). This line of research develops an effective POM-based agent for glioblastoma inhibition and will pave a new way to construct degradable anticancer agents for clinical cancer therapy.

  3. Degradable Organically-Derivatized Polyoxometalate with Enhanced Activity against Glioblastoma Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    She, Shan; Bian, Shengtai; Huo, Ruichao; Chen, Kun; Huang, Zehuan; Zhang, Jiangwei; Hao, Jian; Wei, Yongge

    2016-01-01

    High efficacy and low toxicity are critical for cancer treatment. Polyoxometalates (POMs) have been reported as potential candidates for cancer therapy. On accounts of the slow clearance of POMs, leading to long-term toxicity, the clinical application of POMs in cancer treatment is restricted. To address this problem, a degradable organoimido derivative of hexamolybdate is developed by modifying it with a cleavable organic group, leading to its degradation. Of note, this derivative exhibits favourable pharmacodynamics towards human malignant glioma cell (U251), the ability to penetrate across blood brain barrier and low toxicity towards rat pheochromocytoma cell (PC12). This line of research develops an effective POM-based agent for glioblastoma inhibition and will pave a new way to construct degradable anticancer agents for clinical cancer therapy. PMID:27658479

  4. 9. ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING INTERIOR. CELL ACCESS ELEVATOR, CELLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING INTERIOR. CELL ACCESS ELEVATOR, CELLS 2 AND 4, BASEMENT LEVEL. LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Fairchild Air Force Base, Engine Test Cell Building, Near intersection of Arnold Street & George Avenue, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  5. Autologous red blood cells potentiate antibody synthesis by unfractionated human mononuclear cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Rugeles, M T; La Via, M; Goust, J M; Kilpatrick, J M; Hyman, B; Virella, G

    1987-08-01

    We have tried to determine the most favourable conditions for the in vitro induction of specific antibody (Ab) responses to tetanus toxoid (TT) and keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH). Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) were obtained from normal volunteers and stimulated with PWM, TT, KLH, and mixtures of PWM and antigens in the presence or absence of autologous red blood cells (RBC) (1:50 ratio of PBMNC/RBC). The cultures were harvested on day 11; immunoglobulins were determined immunonephelometrically and Ab levels by ELISA with human antibodies used for calibration. While anti-TT responses were easy to induce with PBMNC from recently boosted individuals, the production of anti-TT from PBMNC obtained from non-recently boosted individuals was only possible when PBMNC were stimulated with TT and PWM in the presence of autologous RBC. Similarly, anti-KLH responses were easier to induce with PBMNC from an immune donor; maximal response was observed after stimulation with PWM + KLH in the presence of autologous RBC. Stimulation of primary anti-KLH responses with PBMNC from non-immune donors was only successful when the cells were stimulated with KLH + PWM in the presence of autologous RBC. The potentiation of human B-cell responses with autologous RBC can be abrogated by pretreatment of PBMNC with anti-CD2 antibodies and is associated with increased expression of IL-2 receptors and increased production of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma). However, addition of IFN-gamma in different doses and at different times to PWM-stimulated PBMNC cultures was not as effective as addition of RBC in enhancing the production of immunoglobulin and antibody. PMID:3114872

  6. Cell injury, retrodifferentiation and the cancer treatment paradox.

    PubMed

    Uriel, José

    2015-09-01

    This "opinion article" is an attempt to take an overview of some significant changes that have happened in our understanding of cancer status during the last half century and its evolution under the progressive influence of molecular biology. As an active worker in cancer research and developmental biology during most of this period, I would like to comment briefly on these changes and to give my critical appreciation of their outcome as it affects our knowledge of cancer development as well as the current treatment of the disease. A recall of my own contribution to the subject is also included. Two subjects are particularly developed: cell injury and cell-killing therapies. Cell injury, whatever its origin, has acquired the status of a pivotal event for the initiation of cancer emergence. It is postulated that cell injury, a potential case of cellular death, may also be the origin of a process of stepwise cell reversion (retrodifferentiation or retroprogrammation) leading, by division, mature or stem cells to progressive immaturity. The genetic instability and mutational changes that accompanies this process of cell injury and rejuvenation put normal cells in a status favourable to neoplastic transformation or may evolve cancer cells toward clones with higher malignant potentiality. Thus, cell injury suggests lifestyle as the major upstream initiator of cancer development although this not exclude randomness as an unavoidable contributor to the disease. Cell-killing agents (mainly cytotoxic drugs and radiotherapy) are currently used to treat cancer. At the same time, it is agreed that agents with high cell injury potential (ultraviolet light, ionising radiations, tobacco, environmental pollutants, etc.) contribute to the emergence of malignant tumours. This represents a real paradox. In spite of the progress accomplished in cancer survival, one is tempted to suggest that we have very few chances of really cure cancer as long as we continue to treat malignancies

  7. Are increased frequency of macrophage-like and natural killer (NK) cells, together with high levels of NKT and CD4+CD25high T cells balancing activated CD8+ T cells, the key to control Chagas’ disease morbidity?

    PubMed Central

    Vitelli-Avelar, D M; Sathler-Avelar, R; Massara, R L; Borges, J D; Lage, P S; Lana, M; Teixeira-Carvalho, A; Dias, J C P; Elói-Santos, S M; Martins-Filho, O A

    2006-01-01

    The immunological response during early human Trypanosoma cruzi infection is not completely understood, despite its role in driving the development of distinct clinical manifestations of chronic infection. Herein we report the results of a descriptive flow cytometric immunophenotyping investigation of major and minor peripheral blood leucocyte subpopulations in T. cruzi-infected children, characterizing the early stages of the indeterminate clinical form of Chagas’ disease. Our results indicated significant alterations by comparison with uninfected children, includin